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Sample records for vacuum pump suction

  1. Water vacuum suction curettage (WVSC): one year's experience.

    PubMed

    Woods, J R; Herrick, C N; White, R M

    1973-05-01

    At Tripler Army Medical Center in Honolulu abortion patients underwent suction curettage using either an electric pump unit (21, group A) or a simple water vacuum pump (WVSC) (28, group B). In both groups the use of the flexible 6 mm uterine curette and method of curettage were the same. For groups A and B the average blood losses were 40 ml and 39 ml. Average tissue volumes removed were 26 ml and 39 ml (greater yield reflects more patients at gestation of 9-10 weeks). From September 1971 to August 1972 400 patients of gestation of 10 weeks or less were curettaged using WVSC. Most of the operations were performed by first-year residents. Complications requiring readmission were not skewed towards largest gestations but distributed throughout the groups suggesting importance of individual technique in equipment use. The complications included retained products of conception (6), endometritis (2), endometritis with retained products of conception (3), and hermorrhage (1). Advantages of the WVSC unit are 1) quiet sound of running water rather than harsh sound of electric pump, 2) requirement of only a standard waterhead making method available to impoverished areas where electricity may be precious, 3) failsafe, unidirectional suction, 4) easy storage, transport, and assemblage, and 5) lack of need for safety pop-off valve because of intrinsic lag time from close of system to development of maximum suction. With its simplicity, safety, and flexibility WVSC is best suited for outpatients.

  2. 21 CFR 878.4780 - Powered suction pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Powered suction pump. 878.4780 Section 878.4780...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4780 Powered suction pump. (a) Identification. A powered suction pump is a portable, AC-powered or compressed air-powered device intended to be...

  3. Pump tank divider plate for sump suction sodium pumps

    DOEpatents

    George, John A.; Nixon, Donald R.

    1977-01-01

    A circular plate extends across the diameter of "sump suction" pump, with a close clearance between the edge of the plate and the wall of the pump tank. The plate is located above the pump impeller, inlet and outlet flow nozzles but below the sodium free surface and effectively divides the pump tank into two separate chambers. On change of pump speed, the close fitting flow restriction plate limits the rate of flow into or out of the upper chamber, thereby minimizing the rate of level change in the tank and permitting time for the pump cover gas pressure to be varied to maintain an essentially constant level.

  4. MOLECULAR VACUUM PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Eckberg, E.E.

    1960-09-27

    A multiple molecular vacuum pump capable of producing a vacuum of the order of 10/sup -9/ mm Hg is described. The pump comprises a casing of an aggregate of paired and matched cylindrical plates, a recessed portion on one face of each plate concentrically positioned formed by a radially extending wall and matching the similarly recessed portion of its twin plate of that pair of plates and for all paired and matched plates; a plurality of grooves formed in the radially extending walls of each and all recesses progressing in a spiral manner from their respective starting points out at the periphery of the recess inwardly to the central area; a plurality of rotors rotatably mounted to closely occupy the spaces as presented by the paired and matched recesses between all paired plates; a hollowed drive-shaft perforated at points adjacent to the termini of all spiral grooves; inlet ports at the starting points of all grooves and through all plates at common points to each respectively; and a common outlet passage presented by the hollow portion of the perforated hollowed drive-shaft of the molecular pump. (AEC)

  5. 21 CFR 880.6740 - Vacuum-powered body fluid suction apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vacuum-powered body fluid suction apparatus. 880... Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6740 Vacuum-powered body fluid suction apparatus. (a) Identification. A vacuum-powered body fluid suction apparatus is a device used to aspirate, remove, or sample...

  6. 21 CFR 880.6740 - Vacuum-powered body fluid suction apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vacuum-powered body fluid suction apparatus. 880... Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6740 Vacuum-powered body fluid suction apparatus. (a) Identification. A vacuum-powered body fluid suction apparatus is a device used to aspirate, remove, or sample...

  7. SHINE Vacuum Pump Test Verification

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Gregg A; Peters, Brent

    2013-09-30

    Normetex pumps used world-wide for tritium service are no longer available. DOE and other researchers worldwide have spent significant funds characterizing this pump. Identification of alternate pumps is required for performance and compatibility with tritium gas. Many of the pumps that could be used to meet the functional performance requirements (e.g. pressure and flow conditions) of the Normetex pump have features that include the use of polymers or oils and greases that are not directly compatible with tritium service. This study assembles a test system to determine the flow characteristics for candidate alternate pumps. These tests are critical to themore » movement of tritium through the SHINE Tritium Purification System (TPS). The purpose of the pump testing is two-fold: (1) obtain baseline vacuum pump characteristics for an alternate (i.e. ''Normetex replacement'') pump intended for use in tritium service; and (2) verify that low pressure hydrogen gas can be transported over distances up to 300 feet by the candidate pumps. Flow rates and nominal system pressures have been identified for the SHINE Mo-99 production process Tritium Purification System (TPS). To minimize the line sizes for the transfer of low pressure tritium from the Neutron Driver Accelerator System (NDAS) to the primary processing systems in the TPS, a ''booster'' pump has been located near the accelerator in the design. A series of pump tests were performed at various configurations using hydrogen gas (no tritium) to ensure that this concept is practical and maintains adequate flow rates and required pressures. This report summarizes the results of the tests that have been performed using various pump configurations. The current design of the Tritium Purification System requires the ''booster'' pump to discharge to or to be backed by another vacuum pump. Since Normetex pumps are no longer manufactured, a commercially available Edwards scroll pump will be used to back the booster pump. In

  8. Demonstrations with a Vacuum: Old Demonstrations for New Vacuum Pumps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Explains mechanisms of 19th-century vacuum pumps. Describes demonstrations using the pump including guinea and feather tube, aurora tube, electric egg, Gassiots cascade, air mill, bell in vacuum, density and buoyancy of air, fountain in vacuum, mercury shower, palm and bladder glasses, Bacchus demonstration, pneumatic man-lifter, and Magdeburg…

  9. A Report on Deliverable Five: Evaluate Current Commercially Available Suction Pump Devices for Use in Prehospital Combat Care

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Develop a consumer-style report for currently available suction pump devices on the market . List parameters such as suction flow rate, pressure...evaluate whether suction devices that are currently on the market meet these requirements.

  10. Effects of vacuum suctioning and strategic drape tenting on oxygen concentration in a simulated surgical field.

    PubMed

    Kung, Theodore A; Kong, Sarah W; Aliu, Oluseyi; Azizi, Jahan; Kai, Salim; Cederna, Paul S

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the isolated and combined effects of vacuum suctioning and strategic drape tenting on oxygen concentration in an experimental setting. Experimental. Clinical simulation center of a university-affiliated hospital. Mannequin simulation of a patient undergoing facial surgery under sedation anesthesia. Supplemental oxygen was delivered via nasal cannula. Vacuum suctioning and strategic drape tenting. The experimental trials entailed measuring oxygen concentration around the nasal cannula continuously either in the presence or absence of a standard operating room vacuum suction system and strategic tenting of surgical drapes. The primary outcome was the time required for oxygen concentration to reach 21%. In the control group (without suction or strategic tenting), a mean time of 180 seconds elapsed until the measured oxygen concentration reached 21% after cessation of oxygen delivery. Use of a vacuum suction device alone (110 seconds; P < .01) or in combination with strategic tenting (110 seconds; P < .01) significantly reduced this time. No significant benefit was seen when tenting was used alone (160 seconds; P < .30). Use of a vacuum suction device during surgery will lower local oxygen concentration, and this in turn may decrease the risk of operating room fires. Although strategic tenting of surgical drapes has a theoretical benefit to decreasing the pooling of oxygen around the surgical site, further investigation is necessary before its routine use is recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of Dry, Rough Vacuum Pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Brian

    2006-01-01

    This document provides information on the testing and evaluation of thirteen dry rough vacuum pumps of various designs and from various manufacturers. Several types of rough vacuum pumps were evaluated, including scroll, roots, and diaphragm pumps. Tests included long term testing, speed curve generation, voltage variance, vibrations emissions and susceptibility, electromagnetic interference emissions and susceptibility, static leak rate, exhaust restriction, response/recovery time tests, and a contamination analysis for scroll pumps. Parameters were found for operation with helium, which often is not provided from the manufacturer

  12. Mass spectrometer vacuum housing and pumping system

    DOEpatents

    Coutts, G.W.; Bushman, J.F.; Alger, T.W.

    1996-07-23

    A vacuum housing and pumping system is described for a portable gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The vacuum housing section of the system has minimum weight for portability while designed and constructed to utilize metal gasket sealed stainless steel to be compatible with high vacuum operation. The vacuum pumping section of the system consists of a sorption (getter) pump to remove atmospheric leakage and outgassing contaminants as well as the gas chromatograph carrier gas (hydrogen) and an ion pump to remove the argon from atmospheric leaks. The overall GC/MS system has broad application to contaminants, hazardous materials, illegal drugs, pollution monitoring, etc., as well as for use by chemical weapon treaty verification teams, due to the light weight and portability thereof. 7 figs.

  13. Mass spectrometer vacuum housing and pumping system

    DOEpatents

    Coutts, Gerald W.; Bushman, John F.; Alger, Terry W.

    1996-01-01

    A vacuum housing and pumping system for a portable gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The vacuum housing section of the system has minimum weight for portability while designed and constructed to utilize metal gasket sealed stainless steel to be compatible with high vacuum operation. The vacuum pumping section of the system consists of a sorption (getter) pump to remove atmospheric leakage and outgassing contaminants as well as the gas chromatograph carrier gas (hydrogen) and an ion pump to remove the argon from atmospheric leaks. The overall GC/MS system has broad application to contaminants, hazardous materials, illegal drugs, pollution monitoring, etc., as well as for use by chemical weapon treaty verification teams, due to the light weight and portability thereof.

  14. [Dual chamber safety vacuum--initial experiences with a new suction cup].

    PubMed

    Korell, M; King, S; Hepp, H

    1994-06-01

    The main problem with vacuum extraction methods, alongside the cephalhaematoma produced, is the premature separation of the suction cup under traction, since the resulting sudden change in pressure can lead to severe intra-cerebral damage to the child. To reduce the risk of vaginal operative delivery, a new double-chamber safety vacuum extractor has been developed by Hepp/King. The basic feature of this instrument is an additional chamber with a thin overlapping area, which surrounds the actual suction cup and serves as a safety vacuum. If the suction cup starts to slip, the external vacuum is released and sounds an alarm. In addition, the inner vacuum has been designed to be convex and to reduce the volume of scalp, which is sucked into the vacuum, thus reducing the size of the cephalhaematoma produced. First experiences in clinical use demonstrated the reliability of the early warning signal, if the direction of traction is false or the applied traction is too strong. The inner vacuum remains constant at 0.8 atu, so that with care, the extraction can continue without interruption. We have used the new instrument in 18 deliveries. In 15 cases, the indication was failure to progress into the second stage of labour; in one case history of retinal detachment and in two cases signs of foetal asphyxia. In all cases, the child was delivered following one or two contractions with traction, without losing the vacuum. The average weight of the newborn was 3566 g. As expected, the cephalohaematoma produced was very much smaller than usual. Further clinical trials are necessary before the value of this new instrument can be assessed.

  15. Pneumatically Actuated Miniature Peristaltic Vacuum Pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Sabrina; Feldman, Jason; Svehla, Danielle

    2003-01-01

    Pneumatically actuated miniature peristaltic vacuum pumps have been proposed for incorporation into advanced miniature versions of scientific instruments that depend on vacuum for proper operation. These pumps are expected to be capable of reaching vacuum-side pressures in the torr to millitorr range (from .133 down to .0.13 Pa). Vacuum pumps that operate in this range are often denoted roughing pumps. In comparison with previously available roughing pumps, these pumps are expected to be an order of magnitude less massive and less power-hungry. In addition, they would be extremely robust, and would operate with little or no maintenance and without need for oil or other lubricants. Portable mass spectrometers are typical examples of instruments that could incorporate the proposed pumps. In addition, the proposed pumps could be used as roughing pumps in general laboratory applications in which low pumping rates could be tolerated. The proposed pumps could be designed and fabricated in conventionally machined and micromachined versions. A typical micromachined version (see figure) would include a rigid glass, metal, or plastic substrate and two layers of silicone rubber. The bottom silicone layer would contain shallow pump channels covered by silicone arches that could be pushed down pneumatically to block the channels. The bottom silicone layer would be covered with a thin layer of material with very low gas permeability, and would be bonded to the substrate everywhere except in the channel areas. The top silicone layer would be attached to the bottom silicone layer and would contain pneumatic- actuation channels that would lie crosswise to the pump channels. This version is said to be micromachined because the two silicone layers containing the channels would be fabricated by casting silicone rubber on micromachined silicon molds. The pneumatic-actuation channels would be alternately connected to a compressed gas and (depending on pump design) either to atmospheric

  16. Finger-triggered portable PDMS suction cup for equipment-free microfluidic pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sanghyun; Kim, Hojin; Lee, Wonhyung; Kim, Joonwon

    2018-12-01

    This study presents a finger-triggered portable polydimethylsiloxane suction cup that enables equipment-free microfluidic pumping. The key feature of this method is that its operation only involves a "pressing-and-releasing" action for the cup placed at the outlet of a microfluidic device, which transports the fluid at the inlet toward the outlet through a microchannel. This method is simple, but effective and powerful. The cup is portable and can easily be fabricated from a three-dimensional printed mold, used without any pre-treatment, reversibly bonded to microfluidic devices without leakage, and applied to various material-based microfluidic devices. The effect of the suction cup geometry and fabrication conditions on the pumping performance was investigated. Furthermore, we demonstrated the practical applications of the suction cup by conducting an equipment-free pumping of thermoplastic-based microfluidic devices and water-in-oil droplet generation.

  17. Suction prevention and physiologic control of continuous flow left ventricular assist devices using intrinsic pump parameters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Koenig, Steven C; Slaughter, Mark S; Giridharan, Guruprasad A

    2015-01-01

    The risk for left ventricular (LV) suction during left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) support has been a clinical concern. Current development efforts suggest LVAD suction prevention and physiologic control algorithms may require chronic implantation of pressure or flow sensors, which can be unreliable because of baseline drift and short lifespan. To overcome this limitation, we designed a sensorless suction prevention and physiologic control (eSPPC) algorithm that only requires LVAD intrinsic parameters (pump speed and power). Two gain-scheduled, proportional-integral controllers maintain a differential pump speed (ΔRPM) above a user-defined threshold to prevent LV suction while maintaining an average reference differential pressure (ΔP) between the LV and aorta. ΔRPM is calculated from noisy pump speed measurements that are low-pass filtered, and ΔP is estimated using an extended Kalman filter. Efficacy and robustness of the eSPPC algorithm were evaluated in silico during simulated rest and exercise test conditions for 1) excessive ΔP setpoint (ES); 2) rapid eightfold increase in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR); and 3) ES and PVR. Simulated hemodynamic waveforms (LV pressure and volume; aortic pressure and flow) using only intrinsic pump parameters showed the feasibility of our proposed eSPPC algorithm in preventing LV suction for all test conditions.

  18. A High Vacuum High Speed Ion Pump

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Foster, J. S. Jr.; Lawrence, E. O.; Lofgren, E. J.

    1952-08-27

    A vacuum pump based on the properties of a magnetically collimated electric discharge is described. It has a speed in the range 3000 to 7000 liters a second and a base pressure in the order of 10{sup -6} mm. (auth)

  19. Development of a MEMS-Scale Turbomachinery Based Vacuum Pump

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    MEMS -SCALE TURBOMACHINERY BASED VACUUM PUMP by Michael J. Shea June 2012 Thesis Advisor: Anthony J. Gannon Second Reader...June 2012 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Development of a MEMS -Scale Turbomachinery Based Vacuum Pump 5...to develop a MEMS scale turbomachinery based vacuum pump. This would allow very high vacuum to be drawn for handheld mass spectroscopy. This

  20. Numerical simulation of compressible fluid flow in an ultrasonic suction pump.

    PubMed

    Wada, Yuji; Koyama, Daisuke; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2016-08-01

    Characteristics of an ultrasonic suction pump that uses a vibrating piston surface and a pipe are numerically simulated and compared with experimental results. Fluid analysis based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) routine is performed, where the nonlinear term and the moving fluid-surface boundary condition are considered. As a result, the suction mechanism of the pump is found to be similar to that of a check valve, where the gap is open during the inflow phase, and it is nearly closed during the outflow phase. The effects of Reynolds number, vibration amplitude and gap thickness on the pump performance are analyzed. The calculated result is in good agreement with the previously measured results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Maple sugaring with vacuum pumping during the fall season

    Treesearch

    H. Clay Smith; Alan G., Jr. Snow

    1971-01-01

    Vacuum pumping of sugar maple trees during the late fall and early winter months is not advisable in northern Vermont. However, fall pumping may be profitable in other areas of the sugar maple range. It is recommended that the weather pattern in a given locale be observed; and if conditions are favorable, vacuum pumping should be tried on a small scale before...

  2. Vacuum pumps and systems: A review of current practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, Stuart

    1986-01-01

    A review of the fundamental characteristics of the many types of vacuum pumps and vacuum pumping systems is given. The optimum pumping range, relative cost, performance limitations, maintenance problems, system operating costs and similar subjects are discussed. Experiences from the thin film deposition, chemical processing, material handling, food processing and other industries, as well as space simulation are used to support conclusions and recommendations.

  3. Edwards nXDS15iC Vacuum Scroll Pump Pressure Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Sessions, H.; Morgan, G. A.

    2013-07-17

    The SRNL High Pressure Laboratory performed testing on an Edwards Model nXDS15iC Vacuum Scroll Pump on July 10th and 11th of 2013 at 723-A. This testing was done in an attempt to obtain initial compression ratio information for the nXDS15iC pump, with compression ratio defined as discharge pressure of the pump divided by suction pressure. Pressure burst testing was also done on the pump to determine its design pressure for pressure safety reasons. The Edwards nXDS15iC pump is being evaluated by SRNL for use part of the SHINE project being executed by SRNL.

  4. Observation of the spiral flow and vortex induced by a suction pump in superfluid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, H.; Ohyama, K.; Obara, K.; Ishikawa, O.

    2018-03-01

    A suction flow generates a whirlpool, namely a bathtub vortex, in a classical fluid; in contrast, rotating containers, which are usually used for studies of superfluid helium, can produce only simple solid rotation. In the present work, the superfluid flow and concentrated quantized vortices induced by a cryogenic motor immersed in superfluid 4He were investigated. Using a motor with six blades in a cylinder caused the free surface of the superfluid 4He to take on a parabolic shape, indicating that the motor produces a rotating superfluid flow. To drive a suction flow in superfluid helium, the motor was mounted in a cylindrical container with a small hole at the center of the top and a slit at the side, acting as a superfluid pump. This pump was successfully used to generate a spiral flow and a vortex with a funnel-shaped core in superfluid 4He, suggesting that the resulting suction flow transports and centralizes quantized vortices to the suction hole, increasing the vortex circulation and sucking the free surface of the superfluid down.

  5. High specific surface area aerogel cryoadsorber for vacuum pumping applications

    DOEpatents

    Hill, Randal M.; Fought, Eric R.; Biltoft, Peter J.

    2000-01-01

    A cryogenic pumping system is provided, comprising a vacuum environment, an aerogel sorbent formed from a carbon aerogel disposed within the vacuum environment, and cooling means for cooling the aerogel sorbent sufficiently to adsorb molecules from the vacuum environment onto the aerogel sorbent. Embodiments of the invention include a liquid refrigerant cryosorption pump, a compressed helium cryogenic pump, a cryopanel and a Meissner coil, each of which uses carbon aerogel as a sorbent material.

  6. Randomized, controlled pilot study comparing large-volume paracentesis using wall suction and traditional glass vacuum bottle methods.

    PubMed

    Konerman, Monica A; Price, Jennifer; Torres, Dawn; Li, Zhiping

    2014-09-01

    Large-volume paracentesis (LVP) can be time and labor intensive depending on the amount of ascites removed and the method of drainage. Wall suction has been adopted as the preferred method of drainage at many centers, though the safety and benefits of this technique have not been formally evaluated. The primary objective of this study was to define the cost and time savings of wall suction over the traditional glass vacuum bottle method for ascites drainage. The secondary objective was to compare the safety profile and patient satisfaction using these two techniques. We conducted a randomized, controlled pilot study of the wall suction versus vacuum bottle methods for LVP in hospitalized patients. All LVPs were performed under ultrasound guidance by a single proceduralist. Patients with at least 4 liters removed received 25% intravenous albumin, 8 g/liter fluid removed. Demographic, clinical characteristics, and procedure details were recorded. Laboratory and hemodynamic data were recorded for 24 h prior to and 24-48 h post LVP. An electronic chart review was conducted to evaluate procedure-related complications. Data were compared using Fisher's exact test, t test, or Mann-Whitney U test. Thirty-four patients were randomized to wall suction at 200 mmHg (n = 17) or glass vacuum bottle drainage (n = 17). Wall suction was significantly faster and less costly than vacuum bottle drainage (7 versus 15 min, p = 0.002; $4.59 versus $12.73, p < 0.001). There were no differences in outcomes at 24 and 48 h post LVP, or at 60-day follow up. Performing LVP using wall suction resulted in significantly shorter procedure time and supply cost savings. There were no differences in outcomes between the groups, suggesting equivalent safety, though larger studies powered to detect small differences are needed. Given its efficiency, convenience, and cost effectiveness, wall suction may be a superior method of ascites drainage for LVP.

  7. Capillary filtration in venous hypertension. Comparison between the vacuum suction chamber (VSC) device and straingauge phlethysmography.

    PubMed

    Belcaro, G; Rulo, A; Renton, S

    1992-01-01

    To evaluate capillary filtration a group of normal subjects and two groups of subjects with venous incompetence (50 with deep and 50 with superficial incompetence) were studied with the vacuum suction chamber (VSC) device applied onto the internal perimalleolar region. This method was compared with straingauge plethysmography rate of ankle swelling (RAS). By the VSC the time taken for the weal to disappear (VSC time) was considered indicative of capillary filtration. The values obtained with the two methods were well related (r < 0.742) and there was a good separation between patients and normals. The separation between the two groups of patients was significantly better (p < 0.05) with the VSC time. In conclusion VSC time is a good indication of capillary filtration in comparison with straingauge plethysmography RAS. It may be used to assess variations in capillary filtration in venous hypertension and possibly to follow up the effects of treatments.

  8. Vacuum Pump System Optimization Saves Energy at a Dairy Farm

    SciTech Connect

    None

    In 1998, S&S Dairy optimized the vacuum pumping system at their dairy farm in Modesto, California. In an effort to reduce energy costs, S&S Dairy evaluated their vacuum pumping system to determine if efficiency gains and energy savings were possible.

  9. Cooperative suction by vertical capillary array pump for controlling flow profiles of microfluidic sensor chips.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, Tsutomu; Hayashi, Katsuyoshi; Seyama, Michiko; Inoue, Suzuyo; Tamechika, Emi

    2012-10-18

    A passive pump consisting of integrated vertical capillaries has been developed for a microfluidic chip as an useful component with an excellent flow volume and flow rate. A fluidic chip built into a passive pump was used by connecting the bottoms of all the capillaries to a top surface consisting of a thin layer channel in the microfluidic chip where the thin layer channel depth was smaller than the capillary radius. As a result the vertical capillaries drew fluid cooperatively rather than independently, thus exerting the maximum suction efficiency at every instance. This meant that a flow rate was realized that exhibited little variation and without any external power or operation. A microfluidic chip built into this passive pump had the ability to achieve a quasi-steady rather than a rapidly decreasing flow rate, which is a universal flow characteristic in an ordinary capillary.

  10. Magnesium sulfate micro air pump suction for bronchiolitis treatment in infants under two years old.

    PubMed

    Kan, R-X; Zhang, C-L; Zhen, Q; Chen, J

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the efficiency, clinical effects and nursing methods related to the use of magnesium sulfate micro air pump suction for treating infants under two years old suffering from bronchiolitis. From January 2014 to September 2014, ninety-six infants with capillary bronchitis were enrolled. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: experimental group (n=49) and control group (n=47). All patients went through conventional anti-inflammatory therapy. Based on this, infants in the control group were additionally treated with intravenous drip of magnesium sulfate while patients in the experimental group were treated with magnesium sulfate micro air pump suction. We recorded all changes in blood gas and clinical scores, the residence time of symptoms and signs of bronchiolitis, and hospitalization time. Results obtained on clinical effects and adverse reactions were compared and analyzed. The Variations of PaO2, PaCO2, SaO2 before treatment in both groups did not show any statistically significant differences (p>0.05); while after treatment analyses demonstrated that in both groups we had an increase in PaO2 and SaO2 and a decrease in PaCO2. The increase in PaO2 and SaO2 values were more pronounced while the decrease observed in PaCO2 was more significant in our experimental group. The total effective rate was significantly higher while the total adverse reaction rate, the resolution time of clinical symptoms and hospitalization time were significantly lower in our experimental group. Magnesium sulfate micro air pump suction was safe and effective in treating with bronchiolitis of infants below 2 years old, and its adverse reaction rate was low, nursing procedure was simple, and nursing difficulty level was low.

  11. Can Vacuum Assisted Venous Drainage be Achieved using a Roller Pump in an Emergency? A Pilot Study using Neonatal Circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Hill, S. L.; Holt, D. W.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: There has been much advancement in perfusion technology over its 50 years of progression. One of these techniques is vacuum-assisted venous drainage (VAVD). Many perfusionists augment venous drainage using VAVD, typically from a wall vacuum source. This study explores alternates to providing VAVD if the wall vacuum fails. In two porcine laboratories, ∼36 in. of 3/16-in. tubing was connected to a sucker return port and placed into the roller head next to the arterial pump. The vacuum was monitored with a DLP pressure monitoring system (Medtronic). This system was connected to small-bore tubing and attached to a stopcock on top of the reservoir. The vacuum was regulated using another stopcock connected to a non-filtered luer lock port on top of the reservoir or by a segment of 3 × 0.25-in.-diameter tubing attached to the vent port with a c-clamp. Vacuum drainage was achieved, ranging from −18 mmHg to −71 mmHg by manipulating the stopcock or c-clamp. Changes in venous drainage were seen by volume fluctuations in the venous reservoir. The vacuum was adjusted to account for dramatic changes. Augmented venous drainage using a roller pump can be achieved successfully during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). This method of active drainage can be used in lieu of wall suction or during times of emergency if wall suction fails. PMID:18293812

  12. VACUUM PUMP (CONDENSATE RETURN). Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VACUUM PUMP (CONDENSATE RETURN). - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Hale Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  13. Half versus full vacuum suction drainage after modified radical mastectomy for breast cancer- a prospective randomized clinical trial[ISRCTN24484328

    PubMed Central

    Chintamani; Singhal, Vinay; Singh, JP; Bansal, Anju; Saxena, Sunita

    2005-01-01

    Background Suction drains are routinely used after modified radical mastectomy and are an important factor contributing to increased hospital stay as the patients are often discharged only after their removal. Amongst various factors that influence the amount of postoperative drainage, the negative suction pressure applied to the drain has been reported to be of great significance. While a high negative suction pressure is expected to drain the collection and reduce the dead space promptly, it may also prevent the leaking lymphatics from closing and lead to increased drainage from the wound. Against this background a prospective randomized clinical study was conducted to compare the amount and duration of drainage between a half negative suction and full vacuum suction drainage in patients following modified radical mastectomy. The associated postoperative morbidity was also compared between the two groups. Methods 85 FNAC (fine needle aspiration cytology) proven cases of locally advanced breast cancer were randomized. (Using randomly ordered sealed envelops, which were opened immediately before the closure of the wound) in to 50 patients with full vacuum suction (pressure = 700 g/m2) and 35 cases in to half vacuum suction drainage (pressure = 350 g/m2) groups. The two groups were comparable in respect of age, weight, and technique of operation and extent of axillary dissection. Surgery was performed by the same surgical team comprising of five surgeons (two senior and three resident surgeons) using a standardized technique with electrocautery. External compression dressing was provided over the axilla for first 48 hrs and following that patients were encouraged to do active and passive shoulder exercises. The outcomes measured were postoperative morbidity and the length of hospital stay. Statistical methods used: Descriptive studies were performed with SPSS version 10 and group characteristics were compared using student t-test. Results Half vacuum suction drains

  14. Highly sensitive vacuum ion pump current measurement system

    DOEpatents

    Hansknecht, John Christopher [Williamsburg, VA

    2006-02-21

    A vacuum system comprising: 1) an ion pump; 2) power supply; 3) a high voltage DC--DC converter drawing power from the power supply and powering the vacuum pump; 4) a feedback network comprising an ammeter circuit including an operational amplifier and a series of relay controlled scaling resistors of different resistance for detecting circuit feedback; 5) an optional power block section intermediate the power supply and the high voltage DC--DC converter; and 6) a microprocessor receiving feedback information from the feedback network, controlling which of the scaling resistors should be in the circuit and manipulating data from the feedback network to provide accurate vacuum measurement to an operator.

  15. Decoupled CFD-based optimization of efficiency and cavitation performance of a double-suction pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Škerlavaj, A.; Morgut, M.; Jošt, D.; Nobile, E.

    2017-04-01

    In this study the impeller geometry of a double-suction pump ensuring the best performances in terms of hydraulic efficiency and reluctance of cavitation is determined using an optimization strategy, which was driven by means of the modeFRONTIER optimization platform. The different impeller shapes (designs) are modified according to the optimization parameters and tested with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, namely ANSYS CFX. The simulations are performed using a decoupled approach, where only the impeller domain region is numerically investigated for computational convenience. The flow losses in the volute are estimated on the base of the velocity distribution at the impeller outlet. The best designs are then validated considering the computationally more expensive full geometry CFD model. The overall results show that the proposed approach is suitable for quick impeller shape optimization.

  16. Randomized Trial of Clitoral Vacuum Suction Versus Vibratory Stimulation in Neurogenic Female Orgasmic Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Marcalee; Bashir, Khurram; Alexander, Craig; Marson, Lesley; Rosen, Raymond

    2018-02-01

    To examine the safety and efficacy of using a clitoral vacuum suction device (CVSD) versus vibratory stimulation (V) to treat orgasmic dysfunction in women with multiple sclerosis (MS) or spinal cord injury (SCI). Randomized clinical trial. Two academic medical centers. Women (N=31) including 20 with MS and 11 with SCI. A 12-week trial of the use of a CVSD versus V. Female Sexual Function Inventory (FSFI) and Female Sexual Distress Scale (FSDS). Twenty-three women (18 MS, 5 SCI) completed the study including 13 of 16 randomized to CVSD and 10 of 15 randomized to V. There was a statistically significant increase in total FSFI score (P=.011), desire (P=.009), arousal (P=.009), lubrication (P=.008), orgasm (P=.012), and satisfaction (P=.049), and a significant decrease in distress as measured by FSDS (P=.020) in subjects using the CVSD. In subjects who used V, there was a statistically significant increase in the orgasm subscale of the FSFI (P=.028). Subjects using the CVSD maintained improvements 4 weeks after treatment. CVSD is safe and overall efficacious to treat female neurogenic sexual dysfunction related to MS and SCI. V is also safe and efficacious for female neurogenic orgasmic dysfunction; however, results were limited to the active treatment period. Because of ease of access and cost, clinicians can consider use of V for women with MS or SCI with orgasmic dysfunction. CVSD is recommended for women with multiple sexual dysfunctions or for whom V is ineffective. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Better vacuum by removal of diffusion-pump-oil contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buggele, A. E.

    1975-01-01

    The complex problem of why large space simulation chambers do not realize true ultimate vacuum was investigated. Some contaminating factors affecting diffusion pump performance were identified, and some advances in vacuum distillation-fractionation technology were achieved which resulted in a two-decade-or-more lower ultimate pressure. Data are presented to show the overall or individual contaminating effects of commonly used phthalate ester plasticizers of 390 to 530 molecular weight on diffusion pump performance. Methods for removing contaminants from diffusion pump silicone oil during operation and for reclaiming contaminated oil by high-vacuum molecular distillation are described. Conceptual self-cleansing designs and operating procedures are proposed for modifying large diffusion pumps into high-efficiency distillation devices. The potential exists for application of these technological advancements to other disciplines, such as medicine, biomedical materials, metallurgy, refining, and chemical (diffusion-enrichment) processing.

  18. An artificial neural network-based noninvasive detector for suction and left atrium pressure in the control of rotary blood pumps: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Stöcklmayer, C; Dorffner, G; Schmidt, C; Schima, H

    1995-07-01

    Rotary blood pumps are used in clinical applications to assist circulation via pumping blood from the left atrium to the aorta. Negative inflow pressures at high flow rates can cause suction of the cannula in the left atrium with deleterious effects on the atrial wall, the blood, and the lung. Therefore, stable and reliable detection of suction and the prediction of the left atrium pressure (LAP) would be of major interest for the control of these pumps. This work reports about an in vitro study of such a detector based on artificial neural networks (ANN). In the first project phase, an ANN was used to estimate the LAP based on pump speed, pump flow, and aortic pressure, obtained from a mock circulation. The inputs for the ANN were 11 characteristic values computed from these three parameters. In the second phase, another ANN was trained to classify various system states, such as suction, danger of suction (a state close to actual suction), and no suction. The first ANN was able to estimate the LAP with an accuracy of +/- 1.8 mm Hg. The discrimination of suction versus the other two states could be performed with a sensitivity and specificity of about 95% while the more interesting task of distinguishing danger of suction from no suction reached a sensitivity and specificity of about 65% (leaving 25% of each class unclassified and 10% of each class incorrectly classified).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. METHOD FOR PUMPING GASES AT LOW VACUUM PRESSURES

    DOEpatents

    Milleron, N.

    1962-06-01

    A method is given for pumping overpressure "pulses" or "bursts" of gases without a significant rise in base pressure within a "gettering-type" vacuum pump having surfaces within the pumping cavity coated with or comprising clean gettering metal, e.g., Mo or Ta. The cavity is first pumped down by any convenient means to an equilibrium base pressure in the range desired, generally below 10/sup -6/ mm Hg. At this pressure, the metal immediately adsorbs overpressures or "bursts" of gases striking same with thermal motion without raising the base pressure significantiy. Desorption takes place at an equilibrium rate which, of course, is dependent upon the equilibrium pressure, and such desorbed gases are continuously removed by diffuaion pump or other pumping, whereby said overpressures or "bursts" of gases are removed without a rise in the equilibrium pressure and/or back diffusion of the gaseous pulse from the pumping cavity. (AEC)

  20. Ultra-high speed vacuum pump system with first stage turbofan and second stage turbomolecular pump

    DOEpatents

    Jostlein, Hans

    2006-04-04

    An ultra-high speed vacuum pump evacuation system includes a first stage ultra-high speed turbofan and a second stage conventional turbomolecular pump. The turbofan is either connected in series to a chamber to be evacuated, or is optionally disposed entirely within the chamber. The turbofan employs large diameter rotor blades operating at high linear blade velocity to impart an ultra-high pumping speed to a fluid. The second stage turbomolecular pump is fluidly connected downstream from the first stage turbofan. In operation, the first stage turbofan operates in a pre-existing vacuum, with the fluid asserting only small axial forces upon the rotor blades. The turbofan imparts a velocity to fluid particles towards an outlet at a high volume rate, but moderate compression ratio. The second stage conventional turbomolecular pump then compresses the fluid to pressures for evacuation by a roughing pump.

  1. Effects of radial diffuser hydraulic design on a double-suction centrifugal pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, H. C.; Zhang, Y. X.; Xu, C.; Zhang, J. Y.; Li, Z. L.

    2016-05-01

    In order to study effects of radial diffuser on hydraulic performance of crude oil pump, the steady CFD numerical method is applied and one large double-suction oil pump running in long-distance pipeline is considered. The research focuses on analysing the influence of its diffuser vane profile on hydraulic performance of oil pump. The four different types of cylindrical vane have been designed by in-house codes mainly including double arcs (DA), triple arcs (TA), equiangular spiral line (ES) and linear variable angle spiral line (LVS). During design process diffuser vane angles at inlet and outlet are tentatively given within a certain range and then the wrapping angle of the four types of diffuser vanes can be calculated automatically. Under the given inlet and outlet angles, the linear variable angle spiral line profile has the biggest wrapping angle and profile length which is good to delay channel diffusion but bring more friction hydraulic loss. Finally the vane camber line is thickened at the certain uniform thickness distribution and the 3D diffuser models are generated. The whole flow passage of oil pump with different types of diffusers under various flow rate conditions are numerically simulated based on RNG k-ɛ turbulent model and SIMPLEC algorithm. The numerical results show that different types of diffusers can bring about great difference on the hydraulic performance of oil pump, of which the ES profile diffuser with its proper setting angle shows the best hydraulic performance and its inner flow field is improved obviously. Compared with the head data from model sample, all designed diffusers can make a certain improvement on head characteristic. At the large flow rate conditions the hydraulic efficiency increases obviously and the best efficiency point shift to the large flow rate range. The ES profile diffuser embodies the better advantages on pump performance which can be explained theoretically that the diffuser actually acts as a diffusion

  2. Advanced performance of small diaphragm vacuum pumps through the use of mechatronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachenmann, R.; Dirscherl, J.

    Oil-free diaphragm vacuum pumps have proven to be the best way in vacuum generation for the chemical laboratory and they also find increasing use as backing pumps for modern wide-range turbo molecular pumps. The majority of vacuum pumps in practical use pump only a rather small percentage of their lifetime at full gas load. A pump backing a turbo molecular pump does not have to pump a significant gas load when the high-vacuum pump is running at ultimate vacuum pressure. Also, for a vacuum distillation the vacuum pump has to operate at full speed only at the beginning to lower the pressure inside the system to a vacuum level where evaporation starts. In a rather leak-tight system the distillation process continues by evaporating from the hot liquid and condensing at the cold condenser without the need of a mechanical vacuum pump. Rotational speed controlled diaphragm pumps are now available through progress in mechatronics and offer high pumping speed capability for fast pump-down cycles and precise pressure control for distillations. At low gas load the rotational speed can be reduced, improving maintenance intervals, power consumption, noise, vibration and - surprisingly - also ultimate pressure. The different behaviour in pumping speed and ultimate pressure of rotational speed controlled diaphragm pumps in comparison to constant-speed pumps is related to the mechanical properties of the valves and gas dynamics .

  3. Thermodynamic performance of multi-stage gradational lead screw vacuum pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Fan; Zhang, Shiwei; Sun, Kun; Zhang, Zhijun

    2018-02-01

    As a kind of dry mechanical vacuum pump, the twin-screw vacuum pump has an outstanding pumping performance during operation, widely used in the semiconductor industry. Compared with the constant lead screw (CLS) vacuum pump, the gradational lead screw (GLS) vacuum pump is more popularly applied in recent years. Nevertheless, not many comparative studies on the thermodynamic performance of GLS vacuum pump can be found in the literature. Our study focuses on one type of GLS vacuum pump, the multi-stage gradational lead screw (MGLS) vacuum pump, gives a detailed description of its construction and illustrates it with the drawing. Based on the structural analysis, the thermodynamic procedure is divided into four distinctive processes, including sucking process, transferring (compressing) process, backlashing process and exhausting process. The internal mechanism of each process is qualitatively illustrated and the mathematical expressions of seven thermodynamic parameters are given under the ideal situation. The performance curves of MGLS vacuum pump are plotted by MATLAB software and compared with those of the CLS vacuum pump in the same case. The results can well explain why the MGLS vacuum pump has more favorable pumping performance than the CLS vacuum pump in saving energy, reducing noise and heat dissipation.

  4. Evaluation of a Prototype Hybrid Vacuum Pump to Provide Vacuum-Assisted Suspension for Above-Knee Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Major, Matthew J.; Caldwell, Ryan; Fatone, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Vacuum-assisted suspension (VAS) of prosthetic sockets utilizes a pump to evacuate air from between the prosthetic liner and socket, and are available as mechanical or electric systems. This technical note describes a hybrid pump that benefits from the advantages of mechanical and electric systems, and evaluates a prototype as proof-of-concept. Cyclical bench testing of the hybrid pump mechanical system was performed using a materials testing system to assess the relationship between compression cycles and vacuum pressure. Phase 1 in vivo testing of the hybrid pump was performed by an able-bodied individual using prosthesis simulator boots walking on a treadmill, and phase 2 involved an above-knee prosthesis user walking with the hybrid pump and a commercial electric pump for comparison. Bench testing of 300 compression cycles produced a maximum vacuum of 24 in-Hg. In vivo testing demonstrated that the hybrid pump continued to pull vacuum during walking, and as opposed to the commercial electric pump, did not require reactivation of the electric system during phase 2 testing. The novelty of the hybrid pump is that while the electric system provides rapid, initial vacuum suspension, the mechanical system provides continuous air evacuation while walking to maintain suspension without reactivation of the electric system, thereby allowing battery power to be reserved for monitoring vacuum levels. PMID:27462383

  5. Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet light source

    DOEpatents

    Sze, Robert C.; Quigley, Gerard P.

    1996-01-01

    Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light source. A contamination-free VUV light source having a 225 cm.sup.2 emission area in the 240-340 nm region of the electromagnetic spectrum with an average output power in this band of about 2 J/cm.sup.2 at a wall-plug efficiency of approximately 5% is described. Only ceramics and metal parts are employed in this surface discharge source. Because of the contamination-free, high photon energy and flux, and short pulse characteristics of the source, it is suitable for semiconductor and flat panel display material processing.

  6. Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet light source

    DOEpatents

    Sze, R.C.; Quigley, G.P.

    1996-12-17

    Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light source is disclosed. A contamination-free VUV light source having a 225 cm{sup 2} emission area in the 240-340 nm region of the electromagnetic spectrum with an average output power in this band of about 2 J/cm{sup 2} at a wall-plug efficiency of approximately 5% is described. Only ceramics and metal parts are employed in this surface discharge source. Because of the contamination-free, high photon energy and flux, and short pulse characteristics of the source, it is suitable for semiconductor and flat panel display material processing. 3 figs.

  7. [Application research of presacral space drainage tube combined with subcutaneous vacuum pressure suction in the laparoscopic-assisted abdominoperineal resection].

    PubMed

    Chen, Liqi; Zeng, Changqing; Chi, Liangjie; Huang, Liangxiang; Li, Jiandang

    2017-08-25

    To study the management for the perineal incision after laparoscopic-assisted abdominoperineal resection for rectal cancer. Clinical data of 87 patients undergoing laparoscopic Miles operation for lower rectal cancer from June 2009 to February 2014 were collected and studied. Presacral space drainage group: presacral space drainage tube was applied in 42 patients. Combined drainage group: presacral space drainage tube combined with subcutaneous vacuum pressure suction was applied in 45 cases. In combined drainage group, except the presacral drainage tube, another drainage tube was placed subcutaneously and connected to a negative pressure ball, which was fixed on the lateral anterior of perineal wound by the further incision and drainage. After subcutaneous tube was placed for 2 weeks, as drainage fluid was limpid and <15 ml/d for 3 days, meanwhile no obvious pelvic fluid was detected by ultrasound, and the wound healed quite well without redness and edema, then the subcutaneous tube with the negative pressure ball could be removed. There were 51 males and 36 females with the mean age of 26-78(56.9±10.8) years old. The laparoscopic Miles operation was successfully completed in all the cases without death and complications. The drainage tube was placed for 4-13(8.0±2.5) days in presacral space drainage group, and for 4-14(6.7±2.4) days in combined drainage group. The subcutaneous tube was placed for 14-24(15.8±3.0) days. The primary healing rate of perineal wound in presacral space drainage group and combined drainage group was 66.7%(28/42) and 91.1%(41/45) respectively, while the perineal wound infection rate was 21.4%(9/42) and 4.4%(2/45) respectively, whose differences between two groups were both significant (χ 2 =7.911, P=0.005 and χ 2 =5.674, P=0.017). Presacral space drainage tube combined with subcutaneous vacuum pressure suction in laparoscopic-assisted abdominoperineal resection for rectal cancer has better efficacy and lower infection rate for

  8. A large high vacuum, high pumping speed space simulation chamber for electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grisnik, Stanley P.; Parkes, James E.

    1994-01-01

    Testing high power electric propulsion devices poses unique requirements on space simulation facilities. Very high pumping speeds are required to maintain high vacuum levels while handling large volumes of exhaust products. These pumping speeds are significantly higher than those available in most existing vacuum facilities. There is also a requirement for relatively large vacuum chamber dimensions to minimize facility wall/thruster plume interactions and to accommodate far field plume diagnostic measurements. A 4.57 m (15 ft) diameter by 19.2 m (63 ft) long vacuum chamber at NASA Lewis Research Center is described. The chamber utilizes oil diffusion pumps in combination with cryopanels to achieve high vacuum pumping speeds at high vacuum levels. The facility is computer controlled for all phases of operation from start-up, through testing, to shutdown. The computer control system increases the utilization of the facility and reduces the manpower requirements needed for facility operations.

  9. A new Wankel-type compressor and vacuum pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garside, D. W.

    2017-08-01

    When the Wankel principles were first published in the early 1950s most of the initial work was aimed at developing a compressor . At that time many of the characteristics appeared to promise a superior machine than hitherto known. However, all the early designs resulted in a high value for the minimum clearance volume (CV) and this problem was never overcome. Knowledge now gained from the development and manufacture of the Wankel engine has enabled the evolution of a new compressor concept where the rotor flank, radially very close-fitting over its central area, provides gas sealing with the housing bore. The rotor has an increased radial clearance towards the apices which makes the machine practical to manufacture. The ‘nesting’ of the rotor flank with the housing bore at the end of the exhaust stroke results in an extremely small CV. This machine promises to possess an exceptional combination of all the attributes which are important in achieving high energy efficiency in positive-displacement compressors and vacuum pumps: - near-zero CV - low mechanical friction losses - low internal gas leakage (assisted via oil flooding) - high volumetric efficiency. In addition it is compact, lightweight, vibration-free, consists of few components, and can be built in any chamber size. The Paper discusses the features and characteristics of the design.

  10. Long-term clinical evaluation of a 800-nm long-pulsed diode laser with a large spot size and vacuum-assisted suction for hair removal.

    PubMed

    Ibrahimi, Omar A; Kilmer, Suzanne L

    2012-06-01

    The long-pulsed diode (800-810-nm) laser is one of the most commonly used and effective lasers for hair removal. Limitations of currently available devices include a small treatment spot size, treatment-associated pain, and the need for skin cooling. To evaluate the long-term hair reduction capabilities of a long-pulsed diode laser with a large spot size and vacuum assisted suction. Thirty-five subjects were enrolled in a prospective, self-controlled, single-center study of axillary hair removal. The study consisted of three treatments using a long-pulsed diode laser with a large spot size and vacuum-assisted suction at 4- to 6-week intervals with follow-up visits 6 and 15 months after the last treatment. Hair clearance was quantified using macro hair-count photographs taken at baseline and at 6- and 15-month follow-up visits. Changes in hair thickness and color, levels of treatment-associated pain, and adverse events were additional study endpoints. There was statistically significant hair clearance at the 6 (54%) and 15-month (42%) follow-up visits. Remaining hairs were thinner and lighter at the 15-month follow-up visit, and the majority of subjects reported feeling up to mild to moderate pain during treatment without the use of pretreatment anesthesia or skin cooling. A long-pulsed diode laser with a large spot size and vacuum-assisted suction is safe and effective for long-term hair removal. This is the largest prospective study to evaluate long-term hair removal and the first to quantify decreases in hair thickness and darkness with treatment. © 2012 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Paraformaldehyde pellet not necessary in vacuum-pumped maple sap system

    Treesearch

    H. Clay Smith; Carter B. Gibbs

    1970-01-01

    In a study of sugar maple sap collection through a vacuum-pumped plastic tubing system, yields were compared between tapholes in which paraformaldehyde pellets were used and tapholes without pellets, Use of the pellets did not increase yield.

  12. Under Pressure: Activities with a Vacuum Pump (and Some Marshmallows) Help Students Learn about Pressure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galus, Pamela

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a science demonstration that illustrates the effects of pressure and gravity on humans using a marshmallow man and a vacuum pump. Demonstrates the same concept with shaving cream, balloons, and boiling water without raising temperature. (YDS)

  13. D0 Solenoid Upgrade Project: Vacuum Pumping Calculations for the D0 Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

    1993-08-02

    This engineering note documents the calculations done to determine the vacuum pumping speed for the D-Zero solenoid. The raw calculations are attached. A summary of the results are listed. The vacuum pumping speed of the solenoid is determined by the conductance of the pumping path. At higher pressure ranges during initial pumpdown, the conductances will be rather high. Calculations were not done for the transient pumpdown period, only the steady state type pumping situation. The pressure is assumed to be on the order of 10E-7 torr. This is the free molecular flow regime based on Knudsen number. This pressure regimemore » is also where the pumping speed would be least. The conductances were calculated based on pumping helium gas at a temperature of 300 Kelvin. The total conductance of the pumping path from the solenoid to the inlet of the turbomolecular pump is 11.8 L/s. The effective pumping speed of a 1000 L/s turbo pump attached to this pumping path is 11.7 L/s. The minimum required pumping speed for design purposes was set at 4.3 L/s. This value was arrived at by assuming a warm leak size (10E-8 atm-cc/sec) was not detected during fabrication of the solenoid. It is then assumed that the leak leaks cold liquid helium into the vacuum space. With this leak rate, a 4.3 L/s pumping speed would be able to maintain a 2 x 10E-7 torr pressure in the solenoid vacuum jacket. The solenoid would be able to be operated with this small leak with continuous pumping.« less

  14. Determination of minimum suction level necessary for field dental units.

    PubMed

    Charlton, David G

    2010-04-01

    A significant problem with most field dental units is that their suction is too weak to effectively remove debris from the mouth. The purpose of this study was to determine the minimum clinically acceptable suction level for routine dentistry. A vacuum pump was connected to a high-volume dental evacuation line in a simulated clinical setting and different suction airflow rates were evaluated by nine evaluator dentists for their capability to effectively remove amalgam debris and water. Airflow levels were rated as "clinically acceptable" or "clinically unacceptable" by each evaluator. Data were analyzed using a chi2 test for trend. Analysis indicated a significant linear trend between airflow and ratings (p < 0.0001). The first airflow level considered by all evaluators as producing clinically acceptable suction was 4.5 standard cubic feet per minute (0.127 standard cubic meters per minute). This value should be the minimum level required for all military field dental units.

  15. The MEMS Knudsen Compressor as a Vacuum Pump for Space Exploration Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargo, S. E.; Muntz, E. P.; Tang, W. C.

    2000-01-01

    Several lander, probe and rover missions currently under study at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and especially in the Microdevices Laboratory (MDL) Center for Space Microelectronics Technology, focus on utilizing microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based instruments for science data gathering. These small instruments and NASA's commitment to "faster, better, cheaper" type missions has brought about the need for novel approaches to satisfying mission requirements. Existing in-situ instrument systems clearly lack novel and integrated methods for satisfying their vacuum needs. One attractive candidate for a MEMS vacuum pump is the Knudsen Compressor, which operates based on thermal transpiration. Thermal transpiration describes gas flows induced by temperature differences maintained across orifices, porous membranes or capillary tubes under rarefied conditions. This device has two overwhelmingly attractive features as a MEMS vacuum pump - no moving parts and no fluids. An initial estimate of a Knudsen Compressor's pumping power requirements for a surface atmospheric sampling task on Mars is less than 80 mW, significantly below than alternative pumps. Due to the relatively low energy use for this task and the applicability of the Knudsen Compressor to other applications, the development of a Knudsen Compressor utilizing MEMS fabrication techniques has been initiated. This paper discusses the initial fabrication of a single-stage MEMS Knudsen Compressor vacuum pump, provides performance criteria such as pumping speed, size, energy use and ultimate pressure and details vacuum pump applications in several MDL related in-situ instruments.

  16. Suction curettage.

    PubMed

    English, E C

    1983-12-01

    In the decade after the legalization of elective abortion by a Supreme Court decision in January 1973, suction curettage has been widely used and accepted as a safe outpatient procedure for first-trimester abortion. Evaluation of the patient for feasibility of the procedure requires careful assessment of gestational age and the determination of the absence of an ectopic pregnancy and conditions that might contraindicate local anesthesia. Counseling clarifies the patient's options and ensures her understanding of the implications of abortion so that she can give an informed consent. Suction curettage is performed under local anesthesia using a sterile plastic cannula or curette inserted through a progressively dilated cervix with aspiration of the uterine contents by an electric pump. The procedure is completed by the physician's examination of the aspirate for the presence of placental villi. Postoperative instructions include contraception and monitoring for hemorrhage and infection prior to a return visit in 10 to 14 days. Complications can be reduced by careful selection of patients with appropriate duration of pregnancy, the use of gentle operative technique, antibiotics for prophylaxis of infection, and a continued maintenance of experience and procedural skill by the physician.

  17. Pressure distribution along the AGS vacuum chambers with new types of pump out conduits

    SciTech Connect

    Nayak, S.; Mapes, M.; Smart, L.

    2015-10-28

    The AGS HEBT and ring vacuum system is monitored by the discharge current of the magnet ion pumps, which is proportional to the pressure at the inlet port of these ion pumps. The discharge current is measured and suitably calibrated to indicate the ion pump pressure. In order to calculate the vacuum chamber pressure from the ion pump pressure, a detailed analysis is essential to compute their difference in different scenarios. Such analysis has been carried out numerically in the past for the system with the older type of pump out conduits, and similar analysis using FEM in ANSYS ismore » presented in this paper with the newer type of pump out conduit.« less

  18. Application of a compressible flow solver and barotropic cavitation model for the evaluation of the suction head in a low specific speed centrifugal pump impeller channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limbach, P.; Müller, T.; Skoda, R.

    2015-12-01

    Commonly, for the simulation of cavitation in centrifugal pumps incompressible flow solvers with VOF kind cavitation models are applied. Since the source/sink terms of the void fraction transport equation are based on simplified bubble dynamics, empirical parameters may need to be adjusted to the particular pump operating point. In the present study a barotropic cavitation model, which is based solely on thermodynamic fluid properties and does not include any empirical parameters, is applied on a single flow channel of a pump impeller in combination with a time-explicit viscous compressible flow solver. The suction head curves (head drop) are compared to the results of an incompressible implicit standard industrial CFD tool and are predicted qualitatively correct by the barotropic model.

  19. Ejector/liquid ring pump provides <0. 30 mm Hg vacuum for polymerization vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Lockwood, A.; Gaines, A.

    1982-03-01

    Firestone Fibers and Textiles Company, a division of Firestone Tire and Rubber Company, manufactures tire and industrial yarns of polyester and nylon-6. Nylon-6 molding and extrusion resins are also produced at the plant in Hopewell, Virginia. The process for making polyester requires an extremely low vacuum on the polymerization reactor. A consistent polymerization vessel vacuum of 0.3 mm Hg is needed, but the existing vacuum source, a five-stage steam jet ejector, could only provide a 0.5 mm Hg level. Two options were considered when the company decided to replace the original system with a system designed for 0.15 mm Hgmore » with a non-condensible gas load of 10.8 lb/hr. A new five-stage jet ejector system to meet these requirements would use 1395 lb/hr of 100 psig steam. The other option was a hybrid vacuum source composed of a three-stage steam ejector system and a liquid ring vacuum pump that is more energy efficient than ejectors for low vacuum applications. The hybrid system was selected because the three-stage jet ejector would use only 1240 lb/hr of 100 psig steam. The liquid ring vacuum pump would increase the material and installation cost of the system by about $4000, but the savings in steam consumption would pay back the added cost in less than two years. The jet ejector/liquid ring vacuum pump system has provided both the capacity and the extremely low vacuum needed for the polyester polymerization vessel, after making a small modification. The hybrid vacuum source is reliable, requires only routine maintenance, and will contiue to save substantial amounts of steam each year compared to the five-stage steam jet ejector.« less

  20. SNS Cryogenic Test Facility Kinney Vacuum Pump Commissioning and Operation at 2 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGraff, B.; Howell, M.; Kim, S.; Neustadt, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has built and commissioned an independent Cryogenic Test Facility (CTF) in support of testing in the Radio-frequency Test Facility (RFTF). Superconducting Radio-frequency Cavity (SRF) testing was initially conducted with the CTF cold box at 4.5 K. A Kinney vacuum pump skid consisting of a roots blower with a liquid ring backing pump was recently added to the CTF system to provide testing capabilities at 2 K. System design, pump refurbishment and installation of the Kinney pump will be presented. During the commissioning and initial testing period with the Kinney pump, several barriers to achieve reliable operation were experienced. Details of these lessons learned and improvements to skid operations will be presented. Pump capacity data will also be presented.

  1. SNS Cryogenic Test Facility Kinney Vacuum Pump Commissioning and Operation at 2 K

    SciTech Connect

    Degraff, Brian D.; Howell, Matthew P.; Kim, Sang-Ho

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has built and commissioned an independent Cryogenic Test Facility (CTF) in support of testing in the Radio-frequency Test Facility (RFTF). Superconducting Radio-frequency Cavity (SRF) testing was initially conducted with the CTF cold box at 4.5 K. A Kinney vacuum pump skid consisting of a roots blower with a liquid ring backing pump was recently added to the CTF system to provide testing capabilities at 2 K. System design, pump refurbishment and installation of the Kinney pump will be presented. During the commissioning and initial testing period with the Kinneymore » pump, several barriers to achieve reliable operation were experienced. Details of these lessons learned and improvements to skid operations will be presented. Pump capacity data will also be presented.« less

  2. PNEUMATIC PUMP TEST FOR DESIGN OF SOIL VACUUM EXTRACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In-situ pneumatic pumping tests were performed to estimate the pneumatic permeability at a site containing soils contaminated with aviation gasoline. Determination of pneumatic permeability was necessary to evaluate soil-air discharge or pore volume exchange rates. Pressure propa...

  3. In situ control of cardiotomy suction reduces blood trauma.

    PubMed

    Tevaearai, H T; Mueller, X M; Horisberger, J; Augstburger, M; Bock, H; Knorr, A; von Segesser, L K

    1998-01-01

    Cardiotomy suction is known for its deleterious effects on formed and unformed blood elements. The authors investigated an "intelligent" remote controlled automatic suction system. A suction cannula with an optic sensor at its tip was connected to a special closed cardiotomy reservoir. Contact with blood immediately generated a reservoir vacuum from 0 to -100 mmHg, permitting aspiration until the blood was no longer detected (automatic shut off). Blood trauma was evaluated in a bovine model, comparing the automatic suction system vs standard continuous aspiration (control) adjusted to -100 mmHg. After full systemic heparinization, five calves (weight, 62.5 +/- 4.4 kg) for the automatic suction system group, and four (weight, 62.8 +/- 5.1 kg) for the control group, were equipped with a jugular cannula connected via a roller pump to the cardiotomy reservoir. Through a small thoracotomy, a standardized hole was created in the right atrium, allowing for a blood loss of approximately 400 ml/min. The suction cannula was placed into the chest cavity in a fixed position. Blood samples were drawn at regular intervals for cell count and chemistry. Lactate dehydrogenase values, for the automatic suction system and the control groups, respectively, expressed as percent of baseline value, were 88 +/- 14 vs 116 +/- 22 after 1 hr; 94 +/- 16 vs 123 +/- 23 after 2 hr; and 97 +/- 19 vs 140 +/- 48 after 3 hr (p < 0.05). Values for free hemoglobin in plasma (percent of baseline value), for the automatic suction system and the control groups, respectively, were 102 +/- 18 vs 200 +/- 69 after 1 hr; 98 +/- 29 vs 163 +/- 37 after 2 hr; and 94 +/- 37 vs 179 +/- 42 after 3 hr (p < 0.05). Compared with a standard continuous aspiration system, in situ regulation of suction significantly reduces blood trauma.

  4. Triggering vacuum capillaries for pneumatic pumping and metering liquids in point-of-care immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Weng, Kuo-Yao; Chou, Nien-Jen; Cheng, Jya-Wei

    2008-07-01

    An innovative vacuum capillary pneumatic actuation concept that can be used for point-of-care testing has been investigated. The vacuum glass capillaries are encapsulated within a laminated pouch and incorporated into the fluidic card. Vacuum glass capillaries broken by external force such as finger pressure, generate the pneumatic forces to induce liquid flow in the fluidic system. The sizes of vacuum capillary play a vital role in the pumping and metering functions of the system. The luteinizing hormone (LH) chromatographic immunoassay performances in the fluidic cards show consistency comparable to that obtained by manual micropipetting. The vacuum capillary pneumatic actuation will be applied in other complex handling step bioassays and lab-on-a-chip devices.

  5. Investigation of a quadrupole ultra-high vacuum ion pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, H. J.

    1974-01-01

    The new nonmagnetic ion pump resembles the quadrupole ionization gage. The dimensions are larger, and hyperbolically shaped electrodes replace the four rods. Their surfaces follow y sq. = 36 + x sq. (x, y in centimeters). The electrodes, 55 cm long, are positioned lengthwise in a tube. At one end a cathode emits electrons; at the other end a narrowly wound flat spiral of tungsten clad with titanium on cathode potential can be heated for titanium evaporation. Electrons accelerated by a dc potential of the surface electrodes oscillate between the ends on rotational trajectories, if a high frequency potential superimposed on the dc potential is properly adjusted. Pumping speeds (4-100 liter/sec) for different gases at different peak voltages (1000-3000V) at corresponding frequencies (57-100 MHz), and at different pressures 0.00001 to the minus 9 power Torr were observed. The lowest pressure reached was below 10 to the minus 10 power Torr.

  6. Investigation of vacuum pumping on the dose response of the MAGAS normoxic polymer gel dosimeter.

    PubMed

    Venning, A J; Mather, M L; Baldock, C

    2005-06-01

    The effect of vacuum pumping on the dose response of the MAGAS polymer gel dosimeter has been investigated. A delay of several days post-manufacture before irradiation was previously necessary due to the slow oxygen scavenging of ascorbic acid. The MAGAS polymer gel dosimeter was vacuum pumped before gelation to remove dissolved oxygen. The MAGAS polymer gel dosimeter was poured into glass screw-top vials, which were irradiated at various times, post-manufacture to a range of doses. Magnetic resonance imaging techniques were used to determine the R2-dose response and R2-dose sensitivity of the MAGAS polymer gel. The results were compared with a control batch of MAGAS polymer gel that was not vacuum pumped. It was shown that vacuum pumping on the MAGAS polymer gel solution immediately prior to sealing in glass screw-top vials initially increases the R2-dose response and R2-dose sensitivity of the dosimeter. An increase in the R2-dose response and R2-dose sensitivity was observed with increasing time between manufacture and irradiation. Over the range of post-manufacture irradiation times investigated, the greatest R2-dose response and R2-dose sensitivity occurred at 96 hours.

  7. Fluid Dynamics of Small, Rugged Vacuum Pumps of Viscous-Drag Type

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, John M.

    2002-01-01

    The need to identify spikes in the concentration of hazardous gases during countdowns to space shuttle launches has led Kennedy Space Center to acquire considerable expertise in the design, construction, and operation of special-purpose gas analyzers of mass-spectrometer type. If such devices could be miniaturized so as to fit in a small airborne package or backpack them their potential applications would include integrated vehicle health monitoring in later-generation space shuttles and in hazardous material detection in airports, to name two examples. The bulkiest components of such devices are vacuum pumps, particularly those that function in the low vacuum range. Now some pumps that operate in the high vacuum range (e.g. molecular-drag and turbomolecular pumps) are already small and rugged. The present work aims to determine whether, on physical grounds, one may or may not adopt the molecular-drag principle to the low-vacuum range (in which case viscous-drag principle is the appropriate term). The deliverable of the present effort is the derivation and justification of some key formulas and calculation methods for the preliminary design of a single-spool, spiral-channel viscous-drag pump.

  8. Steam ejector-condenser: stage I of a differential vacuum pumping station

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, C.L.; Alger, T.W.

    1981-04-01

    A steam ejector-condenser unit was built and tested to produce a 10 Torr (13.3 x 10/sup 2/Pa) vacuum with a 2 cm aperture to the atmosphere. This unit is the first stage of a differential vacuum pumping station that will be used with the Experimental Test Accelerator. The accelerator's electron beam will pass through a series of openings from a high vacuum (5 x 10/sup -6/ Torr) to the atmosphere. The differential system consists of four vacuum pumping units separated by 2 cm-diam apertures. Superheated steam is injected near the final beamline orifice to reduce the quantity of atmospheric airmore » flowing into the steam ejector--condenser unit. The steam ejector in the condenser vessel is open at its center to permit passage of the accelerator beam. Five nozzles mounted in a conical array produce the ejector vacuum of 10 Torr. The ejector exhausts into the condenser and forms a barrier to air flow into the lower pressure region. This feature permits high volume cold trapping and cryopumping of water vapor in the remaining lower-pressure stages. Tests have proven that the steam ejector--condenser is a reliable operating unit and suitable for long-term, steady-state accelerator operation.« less

  9. Numerical Simulation of the Working Process in the Twin Screw Vacuum Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yang; Fu, Yu; Guo, Bei; Fu, Lijuan; Zhang, Qingqing; Chen, Xiaole

    2017-08-01

    Twin screw vacuum pumps inherit the advantages of screw machinery, such as high reliability, stable medium conveying, small vibration, simple and compact structures, convenient operation, etc, which have been widely used in petrochemical and air industry. On the basis of previous studies, this study analyzed the geometric features of variable pitch of the twin screw vacuum pump such as the sealing line, the meshing line and the volume between teeth. The mathematical model of numerical simulation of the twin screw vacuum pump was established. The leakage paths of the working volume including the sealing line and the addendum arc were comprehensively considered. The corresponding simplified geometric model of leakage flow was built up for different leak paths and the flow coefficients were calculated. The flow coefficient value range of different leak paths was given. The results showed that the flow coefficient of different leak paths can be taken as constant value for the studied geometry. The analysis of recorded indicator diagrams showed that the increasing rotational speed can dramatically decrease the exhaust pressure and the lower rotational speed can lead to over-compression. The pressure of the isentropic process which was affected by leakage was higher than the theoretical process.

  10. Evaluation of capillary permeability and microcirculation in patients with chronic venous hypertension treated with venoruton by the vacuum suction chamber (VSC) device and laser-Doppler flowmetry.

    PubMed

    Belcaro, G; D'Aulerio, A; Rulo, A; Candiani, C

    1988-01-01

    A new system to study capillary permeability, the VSC (vacuum suction chamber) device has been developed to evaluate the variations of capillary permeability in postphlebitic limbs. The VSC device produces by negative pressure [obtained in a plastic chamber applied to the skin at the perimalleolar region] a wheal which disappears in normals in less than one hour. In twelve patients with moderate [superficial] venous hypertension and in twelve patients with postphlebitic limbs the time of disappearance of the wheals was significantly longer in comparison with ten normal limbs. There was also a significantly increased time of disappearance of the wheals in postphlebitic legs in comparison with those with superficial incompetence. The validation of the VSC technique with venous occlusion plethysmography (VOP) showed that the increase of time of disappearance of the wheals is well correlated with the increase of capillary permeability demonstrated by VOP. After 2 weeks treatment with Venoruton (at the dosage of 1000 mg t.i.d.) the time of disappearance of the wheal was significantly reduced in both groups of patients (while it was unchanged in normals). Laser-Doppler parameters used together with the VSC device to evaluate the microcirculatory changes associated with an altered capillary permeability also showed a significant improvement of the laser-Doppler parameters after treatment. In conclusion there is evidence by the VSC device that capillary permeability [which is abnormally increased] in chronic venous hypertension is improved [decreased] after treatment for two weeks with Venoruton. This study demonstrated also the efficacy of the VSC device to study capillary permeability and the effects of drugs active on capillary permeability.

  11. [A non-invasive portable blood-glucose monitoring system: sampling of suction effusion fluid].

    PubMed

    Arai, T; Kayashima, S; Kikuchi, M; Kaneyoshi, A; Itoh, N

    1995-04-01

    We developed a new portable transcutaneous blood glucose monitoring system using non-invasive collection of suction effusion fluid (SEF) from human skin. A ion sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET) sensor was employed to measure glucose concentration in a very small quantity of the SEF. The system was composed of a couple of portions. One structure was a suction cell, and the other was a main frame. The suction cell included the ISFET glucose sensor, a dilution mechanism, and a sucking interface to human skin. The main frame contained a dilution solution reservoir, a liquid waste reservoir, a fluid pump, a vacuum pump, a micro processor, batteries, and a user interface. The system is self-contained for portable usage during up to 6 hrs monitoring. This system may be the first blood glucose monitoring equipment which does not use blood sampling.

  12. Knudsen pump produced via silicon deep RIE, thermal oxidation, and anodic bonding processes for on-chip vacuum pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Toan, Nguyen; Inomata, Naoki; Trung, Nguyen Huu; Ono, Takahito

    2018-05-01

    This work describes the fabrication and evaluation of the Knudsen pump for on-chip vacuum pumping that works based on the principle of a thermal transpiration. Three AFM (atomic force microscope) cantilevers are integrated into small chambers with a size of 5 mm  ×  3 mm  ×  0.4 mm for the pump’s evaluation. Knudsen pump is fabricated using deep RIE (reactive ion etching), wet thermal oxidation and anodic bonding processes. The fabricated device is evaluated by monitoring the quality (Q) factor of the integrated cantilevers. The Q factor of the cantilever is increased from 300 -1150 in cases without and with a temperature difference approximately 25 °C between the top (the hot side at 40 °C) and bottom (the cold side at 15 °C) sides of the fabricated device, respectively. The evacuated chamber pressure of around 10 kPa is estimated from the Q factor of the integrated cantilevers.

  13. Generation of a medium vacuum pressure by using two different pumping methods in the KRISS dynamic flow-control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, S. S.; Lim, J. Y.; Khan, W.

    2014-02-01

    Pumping systems with large vacuum chambers have numerous applications in the process industry: for example, mixing of various types of gases as in the semiconductor industry, the calibration of vacuum gauges, the measurement of outgassing rates of various materials in the field of space technology, etc. Most often, these systems are used in the medium vacuum range (10-1 Pa-102 Pa) and in the dynamically-generated pressure mode. We have designed and developed a new dynamic flow system at the KRISS (Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science) that can be used for such applications with reliability in the range from 0.1 Pa - 133 Pa. In this report, the design philosophy, operational procedure and experimental data for the generated stable pressure points in the chamber of the system are discussed. The data consist the pressure points generated in the medium vacuum range while pumping the chamber of the system by using two different methods: first by using a dry scroll pump and then by using a combination of a turbomolecular pump backed by the same scroll pump. The relative standard deviations in the pressure points were calculated and were found to be greater than 1.5% for the scroll pump and less than 0.5% for the turbomolecular pump.

  14. Tube Suction Test for Evaluating

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-06-01

    In a comprehensive laboratory study, different tests namely, unconfined compressive strength (UCS) at the end of freeze-thaw/wet-dry (F-T/W-D) cycles, resilient modulus (Mr) at the end of F-T/W-D cycles, vacuum saturation, tube suction, and moisture ...

  15. CFD simulation of a dry scroll vacuum pump with clearances, solid heating and thermal deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spille-Kohoff, A.; Hesse, J.; Andres, R.; Hetze, F.

    2017-08-01

    Although dry scroll vacuum pumps (DSPV) are essential devices in many different industrial processes, the CFD simulation of such pumps is not widely used and often restricted to simplified cases due to its complexity: The working principle with a fixed and an orbiting scroll leads to working chambers that are changing in time and are connected through moving small radial and axial clearances in the range of 10 to 100 μm. Due to the low densities and low mass flow rates in vacuum pumps, it is important to include heat transfer towards and inside the solid components. Solid heating is very slow compared to the scroll revolution speed and the gas behaviour, thus a special workflow is necessary to reach the working conditions in reasonable simulation times. The resulting solid temperature is then used to compute the thermal deformation, which usually results in gap size changes that influence leakage flows. In this paper, setup steps and results for the simulation of a DSVP are shown and compared to theoretical and experimental results. The time-varying working chambers are meshed with TwinMesh, a hexahedral meshing programme for positive displacement machines. The CFD simulation with ANSYS CFX accounts for gas flow with compressibility and turbulence effects, conjugate heat transfer between gas and solids, and leakage flows through the clearances. Time-resolved results for torques, chamber pressure, mass flow, and heat flow between gas and solids are shown, as well as time- and space-resolved results for pressure, velocity, and temperature for different operating conditions of the DSVP.

  16. Venturi Air-Jet Vacuum Ejector For Sampling Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Gerald F.; Sachse, Glen W.; Burney, L. Garland; Wade, Larry O.

    1990-01-01

    Venturi air-jet vacuum ejector pump light in weight, requires no electrical power, does not contribute heat to aircraft, and provides high pumping speeds at moderate suctions. High-pressure motive gas required for this type of pump bled from compressor of aircraft engine with negligible effect on performance of engine. Used as source of vacuum for differential-absorption CO-measurement (DACOM), modified to achieve in situ measurements of CO at frequency response of 10 Hz. Provides improvement in spatial resolution and potentially leads to capability to measure turbulent flux of CO by use of eddy-correlation technique.

  17. The Influence of Swirl Brakes and a Tip Discharge Orifice on the Rotordynamic Forces Generated by Discharge-to-Suction Leakage Flows in Shrouded Centrifugal Pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivo, Joseph M.; Acosta, A. J.; Brennen, C. E.; Caughey, T. K.

    1993-01-01

    Recent experiments conducted in the Rotor Force Test Facility at the California Institute of Technology have examined the effects of a tip leakage restriction and swirl brakes on the rotordynamic forces due to leakage flows on an impeller undergoing a prescribed circular whirl. The experiments simulate the leakage flow conditions and geometry of the Alternate Turbopump Design (ATD) of the Space Shuttle High Pressure Oxygen Turbopump and are critical to evaluating the pump's rotordynamic instability problems. Previous experimental and analytical results have shown that discharge-to-suction leakage flows in the annulus of a shrouded centrifugal pump contribute substantially to the fluid induced rotordynamic forces. Also, previous experiments have shown that leakage inlet (pump discharge) swirl can increase the cross-coupled stiffness coefficient and hence increase the range of positive whirl for which the tangential force is destabilizing. In recent experimental work, the present authors demonstrated that when the swirl velocity within the leakage path is reduced by the introduction of ribs or swirl brakes, then a substantial decrease in both the destabilizing normal and tangential forces could be achieved. Motivation for the present research is that previous experiments have shown that restrictions such as wear rings or orifices at pump inlets affect the leakage forces. Recent pump designs such as the Space Shuttle Alternate Turbopump Design (ATD) utilize tip orifices at discharge for the purpose of establishing axial thrust balance. The ATD has experienced rotordynamic instability problems and one may surmise that these tip discharge orifices may also have an important effect on the normal and tangential forces in the plane of impeller rotation. The present study determines if such tip leakage restrictions contribute to undesirable rotordynamic forces. Additional motivation for the present study is that the widening of the leakage path annular clearance and the

  18. Theoretical investigation of isotope exchange reaction in tritium-contaminated mineral oil in vacuum pump.

    PubMed

    Dong, Liang; Xie, Yun; Du, Liang; Li, Weiyi; Tan, Zhaoyi

    2015-04-28

    The mechanism of the isotope exchange reaction between molecular tritium and several typical organic molecules in vacuum pump mineral oil has been investigated by density functional theory (DFT), and the reaction rates are determined by conventional transition state theory (TST). The tritium-hydrogen isotope exchange reaction can proceed with two different mechanisms, the direct T-H exchange mechanism and the hyrogenation-dehydrogenation exchange mechanism. In the direct exchange mechanism, the titrated product is obtained through one-step via a four-membered ring hydrogen migration transition state. In the hyrogenation-dehydrogenation exchange mechanism, the T-H exchange could be accomplished by the hydrogenation of the unsaturated bond with tritium followed by the dehydrogenation of HT. Isotope exchange between hydrogen and tritium is selective, and oil containing molecules with OH and COOH groups can more easily exchange hydrogen for tritium. For aldehydes and ketones, the ability of T-H isotope exchange can be determined by the hydrogenation of T2 or the dehydrogenation of HT. The molecules containing one type of hydrogen provide a single product, while the molecules containing different types of hydrogens provide competitive products. The rate constants are presented to quantitatively estimate the selectivity of the products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ultra high vacuum pumping system and high sensitivity helium leak detector

    DOEpatents

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    1997-01-01

    An improved helium leak detection method and apparatus are disclosed which increase the leak detection sensitivity to 10.sup.-13 atm cc s.sup.-1. The leak detection sensitivity is improved over conventional leak detectors by completely eliminating the use of o-rings, equipping the system with oil-free pumping systems, and by introducing measured flows of nitrogen at the entrances of both the turbo pump and backing pump to keep the system free of helium background. The addition of dry nitrogen flows to the system reduces backstreaming of atmospheric helium through the pumping system as a result of the limited compression ratios of the pumps for helium.

  20. Ultra high vacuum pumping system and high sensitivity helium leak detector

    DOEpatents

    Myneni, G.R.

    1997-12-30

    An improved helium leak detection method and apparatus are disclosed which increase the leak detection sensitivity to 10{sup {minus}13} atm cc/s. The leak detection sensitivity is improved over conventional leak detectors by completely eliminating the use of o-rings, equipping the system with oil-free pumping systems, and by introducing measured flows of nitrogen at the entrances of both the turbo pump and backing pump to keep the system free of helium background. The addition of dry nitrogen flows to the system reduces back streaming of atmospheric helium through the pumping system as a result of the limited compression ratios of the pumps for helium. 2 figs.

  1. Remotely operated submersible underwater suction apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kristan, Louis L.

    1990-01-01

    A completely submersible, remotely operated underwater suction device for collection of irradiated materials in a nuclear pool is disclosed. The device includes a pump means for pumping water through the device, a filter means for capturing irradiated debris, remotely operated releasable connector means, a collection means and a means for remotely maneuvering the collection means. The components of the suction device may be changed and replaced underwater to take advantage of the excellent radiation shielding ability of water to thereby minimize exposure of personnel to radiation.

  2. 21 CFR 884.1175 - Endometrial suction curette and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... uterus by scraping and vacuum suction. This device is used to obtain tissue for biopsy or for menstrual extraction. This generic type of device may include catheters, syringes, and tissue filters or traps. (b...

  3. 21 CFR 884.1175 - Endometrial suction curette and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... uterus by scraping and vacuum suction. This device is used to obtain tissue for biopsy or for menstrual extraction. This generic type of device may include catheters, syringes, and tissue filters or traps. (b...

  4. Mass spectrometer with magnetic pole pieces providing the magnetic fields for both the magnetic sector and an ion-type vacuum pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sieradski, L. M.; Giffin, C. E.; Nier, A. O. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A mass spectrometer (MS) with unique magnetic pole pieces which provide a homogenous magnetic field across the gap of the MS magnetic sector as well as the magnetic field across an ion-type vacuum pump is disclosed. The pole pieces form the top and bottom sides of a housing. The housing is positioned so that portions of the pole pieces form part of the magnetic sector with the space between them defining the gap region of the magnetic sector, through which an ion beam passes. The pole pieces extend beyond the magnetic sector with the space between them being large enough to accommodate the electrical parts of an ion-type vacuum pump. The pole pieces which provide the magnetic field for the pump, together with the housing form the vacuum pump enclosure or housing.

  5. Design and Analysis of a Getter-Based Vacuum Pumping System for a Rocket-Borne Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, E. A.; Syrstad, E. A.; Dyer, J. S.

    2010-12-01

    The mesosphere / lower thermosphere (MLT) is a transition region where the turbulent mixing of earth’s lower atmosphere gives way to the molecular diffusion of space. This region hosts a rich array of chemical processes and atmospheric phenomena, and serves to collect and distribute particles of all sizes in thin layers. Spatially resolved in situ characterization of these layers is very difficult, due to the elevated pressure of the MLT, limited access via high-speed sounding rockets, and the enormous variety of charged and neutral species that range in size from atoms to smoke and dust particles. In terrestrial applications, time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) is the technique of choice for performing fast, sensitive composition measurements with extremely large mass range. However, because of its reliance on high voltages and microchannel plate (MCP) detectors prone to discharge at elevated pressures, TOF-MS has rarely been employed for measurements of the MLT, where ambient pressures approach 10 mTorr. We present a novel, compact mass spectrometer design appropriate for deployment aboard sounding rockets. This Hadamard transform time-of-flight mass spectrometer (HT-TOF-MS) applies a multiplexing technique through pseudorandom beam modulation and spectral deconvolution to achieve very high measurement duty cycles (50%), with a theoretically unlimited mass range. The HT-TOF-MS employs a simple, getter-based vacuum pumping system and pressure-tolerant MCP to allow operation in the MLT. The HT-TOF-MS must provide sufficient vacuum pumping to 1) maintain a minimum mean free path inside the instrument, to avoid spectral resolution loss, and 2) to avoid MCP failure through electrostatic discharge. The design incorporates inexpensive, room temperature tube getters loaded with nano-structured barium to meet these pumping speed requirements, without the use of cryogenics or mechanical pumping systems. We present experimental results for gettering rates and

  6. Hydroponic Feed With Suction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, William M.; Brown, Christopher S.; Dreschel, Thomas W.

    1994-01-01

    Placing nutrient solution under suction increases growth. Foam plug seals growing stem of plant, making it possible to maintain suction in nutrient liquid around roots. Jar wrapped in black tape to keep out light. Potential use in terrestrial applications in arid climates or in labor-intensive agricultural situations.

  7. Wide Range Vacuum Pumps for the SAM Instrument on the MSL Curiosity Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, Paul; Kline-Schoder, Robert; Farley, Rodger

    2014-01-01

    Creare Incorporated and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center developed and space qualified two wide range pumps (WRPs) that were included in the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument. This instrument was subsequently integrated into the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) "Curiosity Rover," launched aboard an Atlas V rocket in 2011, and landed on August 6, 2012, in the Gale Crater on Mars. The pumps have now operated for more than 18 months in the Gale Crater and have been evacuating the key components of the SAM instrument: a quadrupole mass spectrometer, a tunable laser spectrometer, and six gas chromatograph columns. In this paper, we describe the main design challenges and the ways in which they were solved. This includes the custom design of a miniaturized, high-speed motor to drive the turbo drag pump rotor, analysis of rotor dynamics for super critical operation, and bearing/lubricant design/selection.

  8. Vacuum-actuated percutaneous insertion/implantation tool for flexible neural probes and interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Sheth, Heeral; Bennett, William J.; Pannu, Satinderpall S.

    A flexible device insertion tool including an elongated stiffener with one or more suction ports, and a vacuum connector for interfacing the stiffener to a vacuum source, for attaching the flexible device such as a flexible neural probe to the stiffener during insertion by a suction force exerted through the suction ports to, and to release the flexible device by removing the suction force.

  9. 21 CFR 884.4340 - Fetal vacuum extractor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... means of a suction cup attached to the scalp and is powered by an external vacuum source. This generic type of device may include the cup, hosing, vacuum source, and vacuum control. (b) Classification...

  10. 21 CFR 884.4340 - Fetal vacuum extractor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... means of a suction cup attached to the scalp and is powered by an external vacuum source. This generic type of device may include the cup, hosing, vacuum source, and vacuum control. (b) Classification...

  11. DISK PUMP FEASIBILITY INVESTIGATION,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    system as an inducer and/or mainstage pump for liquid rocket applications. This investigation consisted of the analysis, design, and test of a disk...pumping action is a function of the viscous properties of the pumped fluid. (2) The pump does not require the conventional pump lifting forces. ( 3 ...with no apparent head deterioration. The representative maximum suction specific speed at a 3 % head drop was never reached. The pump demonstrated

  12. How reduced vacuum pumping capability in a coating chamber affects the laser damage resistance of HfO 2/SiO 2 antireflection and high reflection coatings.

    DOE PAGES

    Field, Ella Suzanne; Bellum, John Curtis; Kletecka, Damon E.

    2016-06-01

    Optical coatings with the highest laser damage thresholds rely on clean conditions in the vacuum chamber during the coating deposition process. A low base pressure in the coating chamber, as well as the ability of the vacuum system to maintain the required pressure during deposition, are important aspects of limiting the amount of defects in an optical coating that could induce laser damage. Our large optics coating chamber at Sandia National Laboratories normally relies on three cryo pumps to maintain low pressures for e-beam coating processes. However, on occasion, one or more of the cryo pumps have been out ofmore » commission. In light of this circumstance, we explored how deposition under compromised vacuum conditions resulting from the use of only one or two cryo pumps affects the laser-induced damage thresholds of optical coatings. Finally, the coatings of this study consist of HfO 2 and SiO 2 layer materials and include antireflection coatings for 527 nm at normal incidence, and high reflection coatings for 527 nm, 45⁰ angle of incidence (AOI), in P-polarization (P-pol).« less

  13. PUMPS

    DOEpatents

    Thornton, J.D.

    1959-03-24

    A pump is described for conveving liquids, particure it is not advisable he apparatus. The to be submerged in the liquid to be pumped, a conduit extending from the high-velocity nozzle of the injector,and means for applying a pulsating prcesure to the surface of the liquid in the conduit, whereby the surface oscillates between positions in the conduit. During the positive half- cycle of an applied pulse liquid is forced through the high velocity nozzle or jet of the injector and operates in the manner of the well known water injector and pumps liquid from the main intake to the outlet of the injector. During the negative half-cycle of the pulse liquid flows in reverse through the jet but no reverse pumping action takes place.

  14. 108. DETAIL OF DENVER DISC FILTER IN CO91107, SUCTION END. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    108. DETAIL OF DENVER DISC FILTER IN CO-91-107, SUCTION END. NOTE BEARING HOUSING WITH CAST LOGO, SUCTION PIPE GOING OFF TO THE RIGHT, AND FILTER DISC IN BACKGROUND. VACUUM INSIDE DISCS FURTHER DEWATERED CONCENTRATE. AS DISC SLOWLY ROTATED A BAR SCRAPED DRIED CONCENTRATE FROM OUTSIDE OF FILTER CLOTH. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  15. Theoretical and Experimental Aspects of Acoustic Modelling of Engine Exhaust Systems with Applications to a Vacuum Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridhara, Basavapatna Sitaramaiah

    In an internal combustion engine, the engine is the noise source and the exhaust pipe is the main transmitter of noise. Mufflers are often used to reduce engine noise level in the exhaust pipe. To optimize a muffler design, a series of experiments could be conducted using various mufflers installed in the exhaust pipe. For each configuration, the radiated sound pressure could be measured. However, this is not a very efficient method. A second approach would be to develop a scheme involving only a few measurements which can predict the radiated sound pressure at a specified distance from the open end of the exhaust pipe. In this work, the engine exhaust system was modelled as a lumped source-muffler-termination system. An expression for the predicted sound pressure level was derived in terms of the source and termination impedances, and the muffler geometry. The pressure source and monopole radiation models were used for the source and the open end of the exhaust pipe. The four pole parameters were used to relate the acoustic properties at two different cross sections of the muffler and the pipe. The developed formulation was verified through a series of experiments. Two loudspeakers and a reciprocating type vacuum pump were used as sound sources during the tests. The source impedance was measured using the direct, two-load and four-load methods. A simple expansion chamber and a side-branch resonator were used as mufflers. Sound pressure level measurements for the prediction scheme were made for several source-muffler and source-straight pipe combinations. The predicted and measured sound pressure levels were compared for all cases considered. In all cases, correlation of the experimental results and those predicted by the developed expressions was good. Predicted and measured values of the insertion loss of the mufflers were compared. The agreement between the two was good. Also, an error analysis of the four-load method was done.

  16. Intermittent patient suction system, self-contained control

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Jay L.

    1992-01-01

    An intermittent patient suction system, a self-contained control device therefor and methods of making the same are provided, the self-contained control device having a housing that contains two restrictor units therein for respectively controlling the "on" time and "off" time that the control device applies a vacuum and does not apply a vacuum through the output of the control device to the patient.

  17. Tube suction test for evaluating durability of cementitiously stabilized soils.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-06-01

    In a comprehensive laboratory study, different tests namely, unconfined compressive strength (UCS) at the end of freeze-thaw/wet-dry (FT/ : W-D) cycles, resilient modulus (Mr) at the end of F-T/W-D cycles, vacuum saturation, tube suction, and moistur...

  18. Tube suction test for evaluating durability of cementitiously stabilized soils.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-06-01

    In a comprehensive laboratory study, different tests namely, unconfined compressive strength (UCS) at the end of freeze-thaw/wet-dry (F-T/W-D) cycles, resilient modulus (Mr) at the end of F-T/W-D cycles, vacuum saturation, tube suction, and moisture ...

  19. Axial bone-socket displacement for persons with a traumatic transtibial amputation: The effect of elevated vacuum suspension at progressive body-weight loads.

    PubMed

    Darter, Benjamin J; Sinitski, Kirill; Wilken, Jason M

    2016-10-01

    Elevated vacuum suspension systems use a pump to draw air from the socket with the intent of reducing bone-socket motion as compared to passive suction systems. However, it remains unknown if elevated vacuum suspension systems decrease limb displacement uniformly during transitions from unloaded to full-body-weight support. To compare limb-socket motion between elevated vacuum and passive suction suspension sockets using a controlled loading paradigm. Comparative analysis. Persons with transtibial amputation were assessed while wearing either an elevated vacuum or passive suction suspension socket. Digital video fluoroscopy was used to measure axial bone-socket motion while the limb was loaded in 20% body-weight increments. An analysis of variance model was used to compare between suspension types. Total axial displacement (0%-100% body weight) was significantly lower using the elevated vacuum (vacuum: 1.3 cm, passive suction: 1.8 cm; p < 0.0001). Total displacement decreased primarily due to decreased motion during initial loading (0%-20%; p < 0.0001). Other body-weight intervals were not significantly different between systems. Elevated vacuum suspension reduced axial limb-socket motion by maintaining position of the limb within the socket during unloaded conditions. Elevated vacuum provided no meaningful improvement in limb-socket motion past initial loading. Excessive bone-socket motion contributes to poor residual limb health. Our results suggest elevated vacuum suspensions can reduce this axial displacement. Visual assessment of the images suggests that this occurs through the reduction or elimination of the air pocket between the liner and socket wall while the limb is unloaded. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2015.

  20. Vacuum pump apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Batzer, Thomas H.; Call, Wayne R.

    1985-01-01

    An improved cryopumping apparatus which comprises a cryopumping space which may be alternately opened and closed from the surrounding area by moveable panels, trubular cryopanels within said cryopumping space through which a coolant such as liquid helium may be passed, and an apparatus for spraying liquid argon onto said cylindrical cryopanels in order to enhance the cryogenic entrapment of such low-z ions, atoms, and molecules as hydrogen and helium.

  1. Types of Breast Pumps

    MedlinePlus

    ... nipple (the areola). b. Pump: creates the gentle vacuum that expresses milk. The pump may be attached to the breast-shield or ... out of a larger tube to create a vacuum that expresses milk and collects it in an attached container. Another type of manual pump, called a bicycle horn pump, consists of a ...

  2. 21 CFR 878.5040 - Suction lipoplasty system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... The device consists of a powered suction pump (containing a microbial filter on the exhaust and a microbial in-line filter in the connecting tubing between the collection bottle and the safety trap), collection bottle, cannula, and connecting tube. The microbial filters, tubing, collection bottle, and...

  3. 21 CFR 878.5040 - Suction lipoplasty system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... The device consists of a powered suction pump (containing a microbial filter on the exhaust and a microbial in-line filter in the connecting tubing between the collection bottle and the safety trap), collection bottle, cannula, and connecting tube. The microbial filters, tubing, collection bottle, and...

  4. Description of a dust particle detection system and measurements of particulate contamination from shock, gate valve, and ion pump under ultrahigh vacuum conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorier, J.-L.; Hilleret, N.

    1998-11-01

    Dust particle contamination is known to be responsible for reduced quality and yield in microelectronic processing. However it may also limit the operation of particle accelerators as a result of beam lifetime reduction or enhanced field emission in radio-frequency accelerating cavities. Intrinsic dust contamination from sources such as valves or ion pumps has not yet been studied due to the inability of commercial particle counters to be able to detect across large cross sections under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions. This motivated the development of the dust particle detector described here which is able to quantify, in situ, the level of contamination on a representative part of a vacuum vessel. This system operates under UHV conditions and measures flashes of scattered light from free falling dust particles as they cross a thin laser light sheet across a 100 mm diam vacuum vessel. A calibration using microspheres of known diameter has allowed estimation of the particle size from the scattered signal amplitude. Measurements of particulate contamination generated by shocks onto the vessel walls are presented and determination of the height of origin of dust particles from their transit time across the irradiation sheet is discussed. Measurements of dust particle release right to operation of an all-metal gate valve are also presented in the form of time resolved measurements of dust occurrence during the open/close cycles of the valve, as well as histograms of the particle size distribution. A partial self-cleaning effect is witnessed during the first 10 operation cycles following valve installation. The operation of an ion pump has also been investigated and revealed that, in our conditions, particles were released only at pump startup.

  5. 46 CFR 105.20-10 - Pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... discharge side of pump if the pressure under shutoff conditions exceeds 60 pounds. When a relief valve is installed, it shall discharge back to the suction of the pump. (c) Where electric motors are installed with...

  6. Initial design of a novel suction enteroscope for endoscopic locomotion in the small bowel (with video).

    PubMed

    Wagh, Mihir S; Montane, Roberto

    2012-02-01

    The upper GI tract and the colon are readily accessible endoscopically, but the small intestine is relatively difficult to evaluate. To demonstrate the feasibility of using suction as a means of locomotion and to assess the initial design of a suction enteroscope. Feasibility study. Animal laboratory. Various prototype suction devices designed in our laboratory were tested in swine small intestine in a force test station. For in vivo experiments in live anesthetized animals, two suction devices (1 fixed tip and 1 movable tip) were attached to the outside of the endoscope. By creating suction in the fixed tip, the endoscope was anchored while the movable tip was advanced. Suction was then applied to the extended tip to attach it to the distal bowel. Suction on the fixed tip was then released and the movable tip with suction pulled back, resulting in advancement of the endoscope. These steps were sequentially repeated. Intestinal segments were sent for pathologic assessment after testing. Force generated ranged from 0.278 to 4.74 N with 64.3 to 88 kPa vacuum pressure. A linear relationship was seen between the pull force and vacuum pressures and tip surface area. During in vivo experiments, the endoscope was advanced in 25-cm segmental increments with sequential suction-and-release maneuvers. No significant bowel trauma was seen on pathology and necropsy. The enteroscopy system requires further refinement. A novel suction enteroscope was designed and tested. Suction tip characteristics played a critical role impacting the functionality of this enteroscopy system. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Biorobotic adhesion in water using suction cups.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R; Hrubes, J Dana; Leinhos, Henry A

    2008-03-01

    Echeneid fish, limpets and octopi use suction cups for underwater adhesion. When echeneid fish use suckers to 'hitch a ride' on sharks (which have riblet-patterned skins), the apparent absence of any pump or plumbing may be an advantage over biorobotic suction cups. An intriguing question is: How do they achieve seemingly persistent leak-free contact at low energy cost over rough surfaces? The design features of their suckers are explored in a biorobotic context of adhesion in water over rough surfaces. We have carried out experiments to compare the release force and tenacity of man-made suction cups with those reported for limpets and echeneid fish. Applied tensile and shear release forces were monotonically increased until release. The effects of cup size and type, host surface roughness, curvature and liquid surface tension have been examined. The flow of water in the sharkskin-like host surface roughness has been characterized. The average tenacity is 5.28 N cm(-2) (sigma = 0.53 N cm(-2), N = 37) in the sub-ambient pressure range of 14.6-49.0 kPa, in man-made cups for monotonically increasing applied release force. The tenacity is lower for harmonically oscillating release forces. The dynamic structural interactions between the suction cup and the oscillating applied forcing are discussed. Inspired by the matching of sharkskin riblet topology in echeneid fish suckers, it was found that biorobotic sealed contact over rough surfaces is also feasible when the suction cup makes a negative copy of the rough host surface. However, for protracted, persistent contact, the negative topology would have to be maintained by active means. Energy has to be spent to maintain the negative host roughness topology to minute detail, and protracted hitch-riding on sharks for feeding may not be free for echeneid fish. Further work is needed on the mechanism and efficiency of the densely populated tiny actuators in the fish suckers that maintain leak-proof contact with minimal

  8. Suction muffler for refrigeration compressor

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, R.T.; Middleton, M.G.

    1983-01-25

    A hermetic refrigeration compressor includes a suction muffler formed from two pieces of plastic material mounted on the cylinder housing. One piece is cylindrical in shape with an end wall having an aperture for receiving a suction tube connected to the cylinder head. The other piece fits over and covers the other end of the cylindrical piece, and includes a flaring entrance horn which extends toward the return line on the sidewall of the compressor shell. 5 figs.

  9. Suction muffler for refrigeration compressor

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Richard T.; Middleton, Marc G.

    1983-01-01

    A hermetic refrigeration compressor includes a suction muffler formed from two pieces of plastic material mounted on the cylinder housing. One piece is cylindrical in shape with an end wall having an aperture for receiving a suction tube connected to the cylinder head. The other piece fits over and covers the other end of the cylindrical piece, and includes a flaring entrance horn which extends toward the return line on the sidewall of the compressor shell.

  10. Stabilization of He2(A(sup 3)Sigma(sub u)(+)) molecules in liquid helium by optical pumping for vacuum UV laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zmuidzinas, J. S. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A technique is disclosed for achieving large populations of metastable spin-aligned He2(a 3 Sigma u +) molecules in superfluid helium to obtain lasing in the vacuum ultraviolet wavelength regime around 0.0800 micron m by electronically exciting liquid (superfluid) helium with a comparatively low-current electron beam and spin aligning the metastable molecules by means of optical pumping with a modestly-powered (100mW) circularly-polarized continuous wave laser operating at, for example, 0.9096 or 0.4650 micron m. Once a high concentration of spin-aligned He2 (a 3 Sigma u +) is achieved with lifetimes of a few milliseconds, a strong microwave signal destroys the spin alignment and induces a quick collisional transition of He2 (a 3 Sigma u +) molecules to the a 1 Sigma u + state and thereby a lasing transition to the X 1 Sigma g + state.

  11. Simulation model for assessing the efficiency of a combined power installation based on a geothermal heat pump and a vacuum solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaysman, Ya I.; Surkov, AA; Surkova, Yu I.; Kychkin, AV

    2017-06-01

    The article is devoted to the use of renewable energy sources and the assessment of the feasibility of their use in the climatic conditions of the Western Urals. A simulation model that calculates the efficiency of a combined power installations (CPI) was (RES) developed. The CPI consists of the geothermal heat pump (GHP) and the vacuum solar collector (VCS) and is based on the research model. This model allows solving a wide range of problems in the field of energy and resource efficiency, and can be applied to other objects using RES. Based on the research recommendations for optimizing the management and the application of CPI were given. The optimization system will give a positive effect in the energy and resource consumption of low-rise residential buildings projects.

  12. Twin-spool turbopumps for ''low'' net positive suction pressure operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bair, E. K.; Campbell, W. E.; Ford, O. I.

    1970-01-01

    Modified single-shaft turbopump incorporates inducer and main pump, each separately driven at different speeds through coaxial-shaft arrangement. Inducer operates at low speed for low net positive suction pressure, main pump operates at high speed to generate high pressure. This arrangement requires no external control for the inducer.

  13. Why Cannot Suction Drains Prevent Postoperative Spinal Epidural Hematoma?

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Dong Ki; Kim, Jin Woo; Yi, Seong Min

    2016-01-01

    Background Postoperative spinal epidural hematoma (POSEH) is different from spontaneous or post-spinal procedure hematoma because of the application of suction drains. However, it appeared that suction drains were not effective for prevention of POSEH in previous studies. The purpose of this study was to test our hypothesis that POSEH can be caused by hypercoagulability. Methods This was an experimental study. One hundred fifty milliliters of blood was donated from each of the 12 consecutive patients who underwent spine surgery and infused into 3 saline bags of 50 mL each. One of the 3 bags in each set contained 5,000 units of thrombin. All of them were connected to 120 ± 30 mmHg vacuum suctions: drainage was started 8 minutes after connection to the vacuum system for 12 normal blood bags (BV8) and 12 thrombin-containing blood bags (TBV8) and 15 minutes after connection for the remaining 12 normal blood bags (BV15). The amount of initial and remaining hematoma at 20 minutes, 120 minutes, and 24 hours after vacuum application were measured by their weight (g). The primary endpoint was the difference between BV8 and TBV8. The secondary end point was the difference between BV8 and BV15. Results The remaining hematoma in TBV8 was significantly greater than that in BV8 at all measurement points: 46.3 ± 12.4 vs. 17.0 ± 1.3 (p = 0.000) at 20 minutes; 33.0 ± 8.2 vs. 16.3 ± 1.2 (p = 0.000) at 120 minutes; and 26.1 ± 4.0 vs. 15.8 ± 1.6 (p = 0.000) at 24 hours after vacuum application. The remaining hematoma of BV15 was significantly greater than that of BV8 at all measurement points: 30.0 ± 12.0 vs. 17.0 ± 1.3 (p = 0.002) at 20 minutes; 24.2 ± 7.6 vs. 16.3 ± 1.2 at 120 minutes (p = 0.002); and 22.2 ± 6.6 vs. 15.8 ± 1.6 (p = 0.004) at 24 hours after vacuum application. Conclusions With a suction drain in place, the amount of remaining hematoma could be affected by coagulability. Thrombin-containing local hemostatics and the length of time elapsed before the

  14. Jet pump assisted artery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A procedure for priming an arterial heat pump is reported; the procedure also has a means for maintaining the pump in a primed state. This concept utilizes a capillary driven jet pump to create the necessary suction to fill the artery. Basically, the jet pump consists of a venturi or nozzle-diffuser type constriction in the vapor passage. The throat of this venturi is connected to the artery. Thus vapor, gas, liquid, or a combination of the above is pumped continuously out of the artery. As a result, the artery is always filled with liquid and an adequate supply of working fluid is provided to the evaporator of the heat pipe.

  15. Magnetohydrodynamic peristaltic motion of a Newtonian fluid through porous walls through suction and injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaiah, R.; Hemadri Reddy, R.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate the peristaltic transport of a conducting Newtonian fluid bounded by permeable walls with suction and injection moving with constant velocity of the wave in the wave frame of reference under the consideration of long wavelength and low Reynolds number. The analytical solution for the velocity field, pressure gradient and the frictional force are obtained. The effect of suction/injection parameter, amplitude ratio and the permeability parameter including slip on the flow quantities are discussed graphically. It is found that the greater the suction/injection parameter, the smaller the pressure rise against the pump works. Further, the pressure rise increases with increasing Magnetic parameter.

  16. TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.; Persons, R.

    1981-01-01

    The TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller (DVC) provides in conjunction with the Central Instrumentation Control and Data Acquisition System (CICADA), control and monitoring for the pumps, valves and gauges associated with each individual diagnostic vacuum system. There will be approximately 50 systems on TFTR. Two standard versions of the controller (A and B) wil be provided in order to meet the requirements of two diagnostic manifold arrangements. All pump and valve sequencing, as well as protection features, will be implemented by the controller.

  17. Time management and nectar flow: flower handling and suction feeding in long-proboscid flies (Nemestrinidae: Prosoeca).

    PubMed

    Karolyi, Florian; Morawetz, Linde; Colville, Jonathan F; Handschuh, Stephan; Metscher, Brian D; Krenn, Harald W

    2013-11-01

    A well-developed suction pump in the head represents an important adaptation for nectar-feeding insects, such as Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera. This pumping organ creates a pressure gradient along the proboscis, which is responsible for nectar uptake. The extremely elongated proboscis of the genus Prosoeca (Nemestrinidae) evolved as an adaptation to feeding from long, tubular flowers. According to the functional constraint hypothesis, nectar uptake through a disproportionately elongated, straw-like proboscis increases flower handling time and consequently lowers the energy intake rate. Due to the conspicuous length variation of the proboscis of Prosoeca, individuals with longer proboscides are hypothesised to have longer handling times. To test this hypothesis, we used field video analyses of flower-visiting behaviour, detailed examinations of the suction pump morphology and correlations of proboscis length with body length and suction pump dimensions. Using a biomechanical framework described for nectar-feeding Lepidoptera in relation to proboscis length and suction pump musculature, we describe and contrast the system in long-proboscid flies. Flies with longer proboscides spent significantly more time drinking from flowers. In addition, proboscis length and body length showed a positive allometric relationship. Furthermore, adaptations of the suction pump included an allometric relationship between proboscis length and suction pump muscle volume and a combination of two pumping organs. Overall, the study gives detailed insight into the adaptations required for long-proboscid nectar feeding, and comparisons with other nectar-sucking insects allow further considerations of the evolution of the suction pump in insects with sucking mouthparts.

  18. Time management and nectar flow: flower handling and suction feeding in long-proboscid flies (Nemestrinidae: Prosoeca)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karolyi, Florian; Morawetz, Linde; Colville, Jonathan F.; Handschuh, Stephan; Metscher, Brian D.; Krenn, Harald W.

    2013-11-01

    A well-developed suction pump in the head represents an important adaptation for nectar-feeding insects, such as Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera. This pumping organ creates a pressure gradient along the proboscis, which is responsible for nectar uptake. The extremely elongated proboscis of the genus Prosoeca (Nemestrinidae) evolved as an adaptation to feeding from long, tubular flowers. According to the functional constraint hypothesis, nectar uptake through a disproportionately elongated, straw-like proboscis increases flower handling time and consequently lowers the energy intake rate. Due to the conspicuous length variation of the proboscis of Prosoeca, individuals with longer proboscides are hypothesised to have longer handling times. To test this hypothesis, we used field video analyses of flower-visiting behaviour, detailed examinations of the suction pump morphology and correlations of proboscis length with body length and suction pump dimensions. Using a biomechanical framework described for nectar-feeding Lepidoptera in relation to proboscis length and suction pump musculature, we describe and contrast the system in long-proboscid flies. Flies with longer proboscides spent significantly more time drinking from flowers. In addition, proboscis length and body length showed a positive allometric relationship. Furthermore, adaptations of the suction pump included an allometric relationship between proboscis length and suction pump muscle volume and a combination of two pumping organs. Overall, the study gives detailed insight into the adaptations required for long-proboscid nectar feeding, and comparisons with other nectar-sucking insects allow further considerations of the evolution of the suction pump in insects with sucking mouthparts.

  19. 46 CFR 56.50-45 - Circulating pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... circulating pump and emergency means for circulating water through the main condenser shall be provided. The... circulating pump and the condenser. (b) Independent sea suctions shall be provided for the main circulating...

  20. Channel electron multiplier operated on a sounding rocket without a cryogenic vacuum pump from 120 - 75 km altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson, S.; Gausa, M. A.; Robertson, S. H.; Sternovsky, Z.

    2012-12-01

    We demonstrate that a channel electron multiplier (CEM) can be operated on a sounding rocket in the pulse-counting mode from 120 km to 75 km altitude without the cryogenic evacuation used in the past. Evacuation of the CEM is provided only by aerodynamic flow around the rocket. This demonstration is motivated by the need for additional flights of mass spectrometers to clarify the fate of metallic compounds and ions ablated from micrometeorites and their possible role in the nucleation of noctilucent clouds. The CEMs were flown as guest instruments on the two sounding rockets of the CHAMPS (CHarge And mass of Meteoritic smoke ParticleS) rocket campaign which were launched into the mesosphere in October 2011 from Andøya Rocket Range, Norway. Modeling of the aerodynamic flow around the payload with Direct Simulation Monte-Carlo (DSMC) code showed that the pressure is reduced below ambient in the void beneath an aft-facing surface. An enclosure containing the CEM was placed above an aft-facing deck and a valve was opened on the downleg to expose the CEM to the aerodynamically evacuated region below. The CEM operated successfully from apogee down to ~75 km. A Pirani gauge confirmed pressures reduced to as low as 20% of ambient with the extent of reduction dependent upon altitude and velocity. Additional DSMC simulations indicate that there are alternate payload designs with improved aerodynamic pumping for forward mounted instruments such as mass spectrometers.

  1. Control of Postpartum Hemorrhage Using Vacuum-Induced Uterine Tamponade.

    PubMed

    Purwosunu, Yuditiya; Sarkoen, Widyastuti; Arulkumaran, Sabaratnam; Segnitz, Jan

    2016-07-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal mortality worldwide. Vacuum-induced uterine tamponade is a possible alternative approach to balloon tamponade systems for the treatment of postpartum hemorrhage resulting from atony. In a prospective proof-of-concept investigation of 10 women with vaginal deliveries in a hospital setting who failed first-line therapies for postpartum hemorrhage, tamponade was used. Vacuum-induced uterine tamponade was created through a device inserted transvaginally into the uterine cavity. An occlusion balloon built into the device shaft was inflated at the level of the external cervical os to create a uterine seal. Negative pressure was created by attaching a self-contained, mobile, electrically powered, pressure-regulated vacuum pump with a sterile graduated canister. In all 10 cases, the suction created an immediate seal at the cervical os, 50-250 mL of residual blood was evacuated from the uterine cavity, the uterus collapsed and regained tone within minutes, and hemorrhaging was controlled. The device remained in place for a minimum of 1 hour and up to 6.5 hours in one case while vaginal and perineal lacerations were easily repaired. This preliminary investigation suggests that a device designed to create vacuum-induced uterine tamponade may be a reasonable alternative to other devices used to treat atonic postpartum hemorrhage.

  2. Edison's vacuum technology patents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waits, Robert K.

    2003-07-01

    During 1879 Thomas Edison's Menlo Park, New Jersey laboratory developed the means to evacuate glass lamp globes to less than a mTorr in 20 min and in mid-1880 began production of carbon-filament incandescent lamps. Among Edison's nearly 1100 U.S. patents are five for vacuum pump improvements, and at least eight others that are vacuum-related; all applied for between 1880 and 1886. Inspired by an 1878 article by De La Rue and Müller [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 169, 155 (1878)] on studies of glow discharges, Edison devised a combination pump using the Geissler pump as a rough pump and the Sprengel pump for continuous exhaustion. Edison's patents described means to control the mercury flow and automate the delivery of the mercury to banks of up to a hundred pumps. Other patents described various means to remove residual gases during lamp processing.

  3. Suction is kid's play: extremely fast suction in newborn seahorses.

    PubMed

    Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Roos, Gert; Genbrugge, Annelies; Leysen, Heleen; Aerts, Peter; Adriaens, Dominique; Herrel, Anthony

    2009-04-23

    Ongoing anatomical development typically results in a gradual maturation of the feeding movements from larval to adult fishes. Adult seahorses are known to capture prey by rotating their long-snouted head extremely quickly towards prey, followed by powerful suction. This type of suction is powered by elastic recoil and requires very precise coordination of the movements of the associated feeding structures, making it an all-or-none phenomenon. Here, we show that newborn Hippocampus reidi are able to successfully feed using an extremely rapid and powerful snout rotation combined with a high-volume suction, surpassing that observed in adult seahorses. An inverse dynamic analysis shows that an elastic recoil mechanism is also used to power head rotation in newborn H. reidi. This illustrates how extreme levels of performance in highly complex musculoskeletal systems can be present at birth given a delayed birth and rapid development of functionally important structures. The fact that the head skeleton of newborn seahorses is still largely cartilaginous may not be problematic because the hydrodynamic stress on the rotating snout appeared considerably lower than in adult syngnathids.

  4. Suction is kid's play: extremely fast suction in newborn seahorses

    PubMed Central

    Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Roos, Gert; Genbrugge, Annelies; Leysen, Heleen; Aerts, Peter; Adriaens, Dominique; Herrel, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Ongoing anatomical development typically results in a gradual maturation of the feeding movements from larval to adult fishes. Adult seahorses are known to capture prey by rotating their long-snouted head extremely quickly towards prey, followed by powerful suction. This type of suction is powered by elastic recoil and requires very precise coordination of the movements of the associated feeding structures, making it an all-or-none phenomenon. Here, we show that newborn Hippocampus reidi are able to successfully feed using an extremely rapid and powerful snout rotation combined with a high-volume suction, surpassing that observed in adult seahorses. An inverse dynamic analysis shows that an elastic recoil mechanism is also used to power head rotation in newborn H. reidi. This illustrates how extreme levels of performance in highly complex musculoskeletal systems can be present at birth given a delayed birth and rapid development of functionally important structures. The fact that the head skeleton of newborn seahorses is still largely cartilaginous may not be problematic because the hydrodynamic stress on the rotating snout appeared considerably lower than in adult syngnathids. PMID:19324657

  5. 14 CFR 29.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 29.1433 Vacuum systems. (a... the discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the delivery temperature of the air becomes unsafe. (b) Each vacuum air system line and fitting on the discharge side of the pump that might contain...

  6. How reduced vacuum pumping capability in a coating chamber affects the laser damage resistance of HfO 2/SiO 2 antireflection and high-reflection coatings

    DOE PAGES

    Field, Ella S.; Bellum, John C.; Kletecka, Damon E.

    2016-07-15

    Here, optical coatings with the highest laser damage thresholds rely on clean conditions in the vacuum chamber during the coating deposition process. A low-base pressure in the coating chamber, as well as the ability of the vacuum system to maintain the required pressure during deposition, are important aspects of limiting the amount of defects in an optical coating that could induce laser damage. Our large optics coating chamber at Sandia National Laboratories normally relies on three cryo pumps to maintain low pressures for e-beam coating processes. However, on occasion, one or more of the cryo pumps have been out ofmore » commission. In light of this circumstance, we explored how deposition under compromised vacuum conditions resulting from the use of only one or two cryo pumps affects the laser-induced damage thresholds of optical coatings. The coatings of this study consist of HfO 2 and SiO 2 layer materials and include antireflection coatings for 527 nm at normal incidence and high-reflection coatings for 527 nm at 45-deg angle of incidence in P-polarization.« less

  7. Proximal suction tracheotomy tube reduces aspiration volume.

    PubMed

    Coffman, Heather M S; Rees, Catherine J; Sievers, Ann E F; Belafsky, Peter C

    2008-04-01

    Conventional cuffed tracheotomy tubes do not prevent aspiration of secretions. Aspiration of saliva may be decreased with the use of a subglottic suction port. Prospective. Shiley Disposable Cuffed Tracheotomy (DCT) tubes sizes 4, 6, and 8 (Tyco Healthcare, Pleasanton, CA) were compared to Portex Blue Line Ultra Suctionaid (BLUS) tracheotomy tubes sizes 6, 7, and 8 (Fig 1; Smiths Medical, Watford, UK). All tubes were tested in a simulated tracheal model using 10 cc of human saliva with no suction, intermittent suction, and constant suction (15 minutes). There was a significant decrease in aspirate between the larger Shiley and BLUS tubes with intermittent suction (mean 8.38 mL Shiley 6 vs 1.60 mL BLUS 7; 8.50 mL Shiley 8 vs 2.80 mL BLUS 8). There was a significant decrease in aspirate between all sizes of Shiley and BLUS tubes with continuous suction. For BLUS 7 and 8, there was a significant difference between intermittent suction (mean, 1.60 mL, 2.80 mL, respectively) and continuous suction (mean, 0.20 mL, 0.60 mL respectively). Shiley and BLUS without suction were equivalent. Subglottic suction tracheotomy tubes reduce the risk of aspiration beyond the cuff in a bench-top model.

  8. Method for maintaining precise suction strip porosities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallimore, Frank H. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    This invention relates to a masking method generally and, more particularly to a method of masking perforated titanium sheets having laminar control suction strips. As illustrated in the drawings, a nonaerodynamic surface of a perforated sheet has alternating suction strip areas and bonding land areas. Suction strip tapes overlie the bonding land areas during application of a masking material to an upper surface of the suction strip tapes. Prior to bonding the perforated sheet to a composite structure, the bonding land tapes are removed. The entire opposite aerodynamic surface is masked with tape before bonding. This invention provides a precise control of suction strip porosities by ensuring that no chemicals penetrate the suction strip areas during bonding.

  9. Optimum Suction Distribution for Transition Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakumar, P.; Hall, P.

    1996-01-01

    The optimum suction distribution which gives the longest laminar region for a given total suction is computed. The goal here is to provide the designer with a method to find the best suction distribution subject to some overall constraint applied to the suction. We formulate the problem using the Lagrangian multiplier method with constraints. The resulting non-linear system of equations is solved using the Newton-Raphson technique. The computations are performed for a Blasius boundary layer on a flat-plate and crossflow cases. For the Blasius boundary layer, the optimum suction distribution peaks upstream of the maximum growth rate region and remains flat in the middle before it decreases to zero at the end of the transition point. For the stationary and travelling crossflow instability, the optimum suction peaks upstream of the maximum growth rate region and decreases gradually to zero.

  10. 14 CFR 25.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1433 Vacuum systems. There... discharge lines from the vacuum air pump when the delivery temperature of the air becomes unsafe. [Doc. No...

  11. Optimal hydraulic design of new-type shaft tubular pumping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, H. G.; Zhang, R. T.; Zhou, J. R.

    2012-11-01

    Based on the characteristics of large flow rate, low-head, short annual operation time and high reliability of city flood-control pumping stations, a new-type shaft tubular pumping system featuring shaft suction box, siphon-type discharge passage with vacuum breaker as cutoff device was put forward, which possesses such advantages as simpler structure, reliable cutoff and higher energy performance. According to the design parameters of a city flood control pumping station, a numerical computation model was set up including shaft-type suction box, siphon-type discharge passage, pump impeller and guide vanes. By using commercial CFD software Fluent, RNG κ-epsilon turbulence model was adopted to close the three-dimensional time-averaged incompressible N-S equations. After completing optimal hydraulic design of shaft-type suction box, and keeping the parameters of total length, maximum width and outlet section unchanged, siphon-type discharge passages of three hump locations and three hump heights were designed and numerical analysis on the 9 hydraulic design schemes of pumping system were proceeded. The computational results show that the changing of hump locations and hump heights directly affects the internal flow patterns of discharge passages and hydraulic performances of the system, and when hump is located 3.66D from the inlet section and hump height is about 0.65D (D is the diameter of pump impeller), the new-type shaft tubular pumping system achieves better energy performances. A pumping system model test of the optimal designed scheme was carried out. The result shows that the highest pumping system efficiency reaches 75.96%, and when at design head of 1.15m the flow rate and system efficiency were 0.304m3/s and 63.10%, respectively. Thus, the validity of optimal design method was verified by the model test, and a solid foundation was laid for the application and extension of the new-type shaft tubular pumping system.

  12. ION PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Milleron, N.

    1961-01-01

    An ion pump and pumping method are given for low vacuum pressures in which gases introduced into a pumping cavity are ionized and thereafter directed and accelerated into a quantity of liquid gettering metal where they are absorbed. In the preferred embodiment the metal is disposed as a liquid pool upon one electrode of a Phillips ion gauge type pump. Means are provided for continuously and remotely withdrawing and degassing the gettering metal. The liquid gettering metal may be heated if desired, although various combinations of gallium, indium, tin, bismuth, and lead, the preferred metals, have very low melting points. A background pressure of evaporated gettering metal may be provided by means of a resistance heated refractory metal wick protruding from the surface of the pcol of gettering metal.

  13. Physics and function of operating room suction.

    PubMed

    Meagher, A P; Hugh, T B; Li, B; Montano, S R

    1991-09-01

    A study was done to evaluate the performance of suction apparatus in the operating room. The investigation was prompted by perceived poor suction performance in a suite of new operating rooms built in accordance with Standards Australia (SA) specifications. SA performance tests were conducted on each of four suction outlets in nine operating rooms. All 36 outlets complied with SA standards for flow-rate (minimum 40 L/min) and occluded negative pressure (ONP; minimum -60 kPa). However, 24 collection units failed to comply with standards (ONP) of -40 kPa achieved in less than 4 s when a 4 L disposable suction apparatus was connected (mean time to ONP: 6.1 s, 95% confidence interval: 4.9, 7.3). When smaller capacity suction jars were substituted, more units met SA standards. The standards therefore need revision to include specification of the capacity of the collecting apparatus. Other factors that were found to degrade suction performance significantly were air leakage and defective shut-off valves. The physical principles involved in operating room suction are described. Surgeons and anaesthetists should understand these principles, and it is recommended that a simple pre-operative check of the suction apparatus should be carried out, as follows: (1) Turn the wall control knob fully on, and disconnect the suction apparatus. The gauge should register zero. (2) Connect the suction jars. If the indicated gauge pressure is in excess of -15 kPa, investigate the equipment for excessive resistance, particularly in the shut-off valve, which should be replaced with a new unit if necessary.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. DIFFUSION PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Levenson, L.

    1963-09-01

    A high-vacuum diffusion pump is described, featuring a novel housing geometry for enhancing pumping speed. An upright, cylindrical lower housing portion is surmounted by a concentric, upright, cylindrical upper housing portion of substantially larger diameter; an uppermost nozzle, disposed concentrically within the upper portion, is adapted to eject downwardly a conical sheet of liquid outwardly to impinge upon the uppermost extremity of the interior wall of the lower portion. Preferably this nozzle is mounted upon a pedestal rising coaxially from within the lower portion and projecting up into said upper portion. (AEC)

  15. Air bearing vacuum seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Booth, Rex

    1978-01-01

    An air bearing vacuum seal assembly capable of rotating at the speed of several thousand revolutions per minute using an air cushion to prevent the rotating and stationary parts from touching, and a two stage differential pumping arrangement to maintain the pressure gradient between the air cushion and the vacuum so that the leak rate into the vacuum is, for example, less than 1 .times. 10.sup.-4 Pa m.sup.3 /s. The air bearing vacuum seal has particular application for mounting rotating targets to an evacuated accelerator beam tube for bombardment of the targets with high-power charged particle beams in vacuum.

  16. Sugar maple sap volume increases as vacuum level is increased

    Treesearch

    Russell S. Walters; H. Clay Smith

    1975-01-01

    Maple sap yields collected by using plastic tubing with a vacuum pump increased as the vacuum level was increased. Sap volumes collected at the 10- and 15-inch mercury vacuum levels were statistically significantly higher than volumes collected at the 5-inch level. Although the 15-inch vacuum yielded more sap than the 10-inch vacuum, the difference was not...

  17. Sorption vacuum trap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrington, A. E.; Caruso, A. J.

    1970-01-01

    Modified sorption trap for use in high vacuum systems contains provisions for online regeneration of sorbent material. Trap is so constructed that it has a number of encapsulated resistance heaters and a valving and pumping device for removing gases from heated sorbing material. Excessive downtime is eliminated with this trap.

  18. Reduction of the suction losses through reed valves in hermetic reciprocating compressors using a magnet coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopfgartner, J.; Posch, S.; Zuber, B.; Almbauer, R.; Krischan, K.; Stangl, S.

    2017-08-01

    Reed valves are widely used in hermetic reciprocating compressors and are responsible for a large part of the thermodynamic losses. Especially, the suction valve, which is opened nearly during the whole suction stroke, has a big potential for improvement. Usually, suction valves are opened only by vacuum created by the moving piston and should be closed before the compression stroke starts to avoid a reversed mass-flow through the valve. Therefore, the valves are prestressed, which results on the other hand in a higher flow resistance. In this work, a suction valve is investigated, which is not closed by the preload of the valve but by an electromagnetic coil located in the suction muffler neck. Shortly before the piston reaches its bottom dead centre, voltage is applied to the coil and a magnetic force is generated which pulls the valve shut. Thereby, the flow resistance through the valve can be reduced by changing the preload on the reed valve because it is no longer needed to close the valve. The investigation of this adapted valve and the electromagnetic coil is firstly done by numerical simulations including fluid structure interactions of the reed valves of a reciprocating compressor and secondly by experiments made on a calorimeter test bench.

  19. The effect of closed system suction on airway pressures when using the Servo 300 ventilator.

    PubMed

    Frengley, R W; Closey, D N; Sleigh, J W; Torrance, J M

    2001-12-01

    To measure airway pressures during closed system suctioning with the ventilator set to three differing modes of ventilation. Closed system suctioning was conducted in 16 patients following cardiac surgery. Suctioning was performed using a 14 French catheter with a vacuum level of -500 cmH2O through an 8.0 mm internal diameter endotracheal tube. The lungs were mechanically ventilated with a Servo 300 ventilator set to one of three ventilation modes: volume-control, pressure-control or CPAP/pressure support. Airway pressures were measured via a 4 French electronic pressure transducer in both proximal and distal airways. Following insertion of the suction catheter, end-expiratory pressure increased significantly (p < 0.001) in both pressure-control and volume-control ventilation. This increase was greatest (p = 0.018) in volume-control mode (2.7 +/- 1.7 cmH2O). On performing a five second suction, airway pressure decreased in all modes, however the lowest airway pressure in volume-control mode (-4.9 +/- 4.0 cmH2O) was significantly (p = 0.001) less than the lowest airway pressure recorded in either pressure-control (0.8 +/- 1.9 cmH2O) or CPAP/pressure support (0.4 +/- 2.8 cmH2O) modes. In CPAP/pressure support mode, 13 of the 16 patients experienced a positive pressure 'breath' at the end of suctioning with airway pressures rising to 21 +/- 1.6 cmH2O. Closed system suctioning in volume control ventilation may result in elevations of end-expiratory pressure following catheter insertion and subatmospheric airway pressures during suctioning. Pressure control ventilation produces less elevation of end-expiratory pressure following catheter insertion and is less likely to be associated with subatmospheric airway pressures during suctioning. CPAP/pressure support has no effect on end-expiratory pressure following catheter insertion and subatmospheric airway pressures are largely avoided during suctioning.

  20. Are Prolactin Levels Linked to Suction Pressure?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Xia, Haiou; Shen, Meiyun; Li, Xia; Qin, Ling; Gu, Hongmei; Xu, Xujuan

    2016-11-01

    Suction pressure has been reported to be a key driving force of lactation. An infant's sucking at its mother's breasts is the major stimulus to post-natal prolactin (PRL) secretion, and PRL is the essential hormone for lactation and milk production. It is unknown what role suction pressure has in PRL secretion and milk supply postnatally. To explore the relationship between the suction pressure, PRL level, lactation, and milk supply in breastfeeding mother-infant dyads. Healthy women with normal full-term infants were enrolled (n = 122). Data collection included suction pressure, PRL level, and the mother's perception of both the onset of her lactation and her milk supply at 1 month. Suction pressure was measured with a pressure sensor connected to a tube placed alongside the nipple. The chemiluminescence method was used to quantify maternal serum PRL level both before and after a breastfeed to explore the effect of suckling on PRL increment. The mother's perception of the onset of her lactation was evaluated by the mother's sense of fullness in her breast. The mother's perception of milk supply was evaluated by using the H&H Lactation Scale. Data from 117 participants were included in this analysis. Low suction pressure, a shorter gestational age, a high pre-gestational body mass index (BMI), and high infant birth weight were associated with a smaller than average PRL increment. High suction pressure, longer sucking duration, and a low gestational weight gain were related to a mother's perception of an earlier onset of her lactation. However, low suction pressure, a high frequency of giving formula, a small PRL increment, and the mother's perception of a later onset of her lactation were correlated with her perception of an insufficient milk supply. Suction pressure varied directly with the post-natal PRL increment. Suction pressure was associated with the timing of the mother's perception of her lactation. Strong suction pressure by the infant is likely to

  1. 21 CFR 878.4780 - Powered suction pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... used to remove infectious materials from wounds or fluids from a patient's airway or respiratory support system. The device may be used during surgery in the operating room or at the patient's bedside...

  2. 21 CFR 878.4780 - Powered suction pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... used to remove infectious materials from wounds or fluids from a patient's airway or respiratory support system. The device may be used during surgery in the operating room or at the patient's bedside...

  3. 21 CFR 878.4780 - Powered suction pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... used to remove infectious materials from wounds or fluids from a patient's airway or respiratory support system. The device may be used during surgery in the operating room or at the patient's bedside...

  4. 21 CFR 878.4780 - Powered suction pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... used to remove infectious materials from wounds or fluids from a patient's airway or respiratory support system. The device may be used during surgery in the operating room or at the patient's bedside...

  5. 21 CFR 884.5160 - Powered breast pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... § 884.5160 Powered breast pump. (a) Identification. A powered breast pump in an electrically powered suction device used to express milk from the breast. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Powered breast pump. 884.5160 Section 884.5160...

  6. 21 CFR 884.5160 - Powered breast pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... § 884.5160 Powered breast pump. (a) Identification. A powered breast pump in an electrically powered suction device used to express milk from the breast. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Powered breast pump. 884.5160 Section 884.5160...

  7. 21 CFR 884.5160 - Powered breast pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... § 884.5160 Powered breast pump. (a) Identification. A powered breast pump in an electrically powered suction device used to express milk from the breast. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Powered breast pump. 884.5160 Section 884.5160...

  8. 21 CFR 884.5160 - Powered breast pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... § 884.5160 Powered breast pump. (a) Identification. A powered breast pump in an electrically powered suction device used to express milk from the breast. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Powered breast pump. 884.5160 Section 884.5160...

  9. 21 CFR 884.5160 - Powered breast pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... § 884.5160 Powered breast pump. (a) Identification. A powered breast pump in an electrically powered suction device used to express milk from the breast. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Powered breast pump. 884.5160 Section 884.5160...

  10. 46 CFR 56.50-45 - Circulating pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-45 Circulating pumps. (a) A main circulating pump and emergency means for circulating water through the main condenser shall be provided. The... circulating pump and the condenser. (b) Independent sea suctions shall be provided for the main circulating...

  11. Alternative backing up pump for turbomolecular pumps

    DOEpatents

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    2003-04-22

    As an alternative to the use of a mechanical backing pump in the application of wide range turbomolecular pumps in ultra-high and extra high vacuum applications, palladium oxide is used to convert hydrogen present in the evacuation stream and related volumes to water with the water then being cryo-pumped to a low pressure of below about 1.e.sup.-3 Torr at 150.degree. K. Cryo-pumping is achieved using a low cost Kleemenco cycle cryocooler, a somewhat more expensive thermoelectric cooler, a Venturi cooler or a similar device to achieve the required minimization of hydrogen partial pressure.

  12. NSLS II Vacuum System

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, M.; Doom, L.; Hseuh, H.

    2009-09-13

    National Synchrotron Light Source II, being constructed at Brookhaven, is a 3-GeV, 500 mA, 3rd generation synchrotron radiation facility with ultra low emittance electron beams. The storage ring vacuum system has a circumference of 792 m and consists of over 250 vacuum chambers with a simulated average operating pressure of less than 1 x 10{sup -9} mbar. A summary of the update design of the vacuum system including girder supports of the chambers, gauges, vacuum pumps, bellows, beam position monitors and simulation of the average pressure will be shown. A brief description of the techniques and procedures for cleaning andmore » mounting the chambers are given.« less

  13. 14 CFR 29.1433 - Vacuum systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Vacuum systems. 29.1433 Section 29.1433... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 29.1433 Vacuum systems. (a.... (b) Each vacuum air system line and fitting on the discharge side of the pump that might contain...

  14. Vacuum force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yongquan

    2015-03-01

    To study on vacuum force, we must clear what is vacuum, vacuum is a space do not have any air and also ray. There is not exist an absolute the vacuum of space. The vacuum of space is relative, so that the vacuum force is relative. There is a certain that vacuum vacuum space exists. In fact, the vacuum space is relative, if the two spaces compared to the existence of relative vacuum, there must exist a vacuum force, and the direction of the vacuum force point to the vacuum region. Any object rotates and radiates. Rotate bend radiate- centripetal, gravity produced, relative gravity; non gravity is the vacuum force. Gravity is centripetal, is a trend that the objects who attracted wants to Centripetal, or have been do Centripetal movement. Any object moves, so gravity makes the object curve movement, that is to say, the radiation range curve movement must be in the gravitational objects, gravity must be existed in non vacuum region, and make the object who is in the region of do curve movement (for example: The earth moves around the sun), or final attracted in the form gravitational objects, and keep relatively static with attract object. (for example: objects on the earth moves but can't reach the first cosmic speed).

  15. Vacuum transfer system increases sugar maple sap yield

    Treesearch

    Russell S. Walters

    1978-01-01

    Yields of sugar maple sap collected from three plastic pipeline systems by gravity, vacuum pump, and a vacuum pump with a transfer tank were compared during 2 years in northern Vermont. The transfer system yielded 27 percent more sap one year and 17 percent more the next year. Higher vacuum levels at the tapholes were observed in the transfer system.

  16. Reduction of acoustic disturbances in the test section of supersonic wind tunnels by laminarizing their nozzle and test section wall boundary layers by means of suction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfenninger, W.; Syberg, J.

    1974-01-01

    The feasibility of quiet, suction laminarized, high Reynolds number (Re) supersonic wind tunnel nozzles was studied. According to nozzle wall boundary layer development and stability studies, relatively weak area suction can prevent amplified nozzle wall TS (Tollmien-Schlichting) boundary layer oscillations. Stronger suction is needed in and shortly upstream of the supersonic concave curvature nozzle area to avoid transition due to amplified TG (Taylor-Goertler) vortices. To control TG instability, moderately rapid and slow expansion nozzles require smaller total suction rates than rapid expansion nozzles, at the cost of larger nozzle length Re and increased TS disturbances. Test section mean flow irregularities can be minimized with suction through longitudinal or highly swept slots (swept behind local Mach cone) as well as finely perforated surfaces. Longitudinal slot suction is optimized when the suction-induced crossflow velocity increases linearly with surface distance from the slot attachment line toward the slot (through suitable slot geometry). Suction in supersonic blowdown tunnels may be operated by one or several individual vacuum spheres.

  17. LOX/LH2 vane pump for auxiliary propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemminger, J. A.; Ulbricht, T. E.

    1985-01-01

    Positive displacement pumps offer potential efficiency advantages over centrifugal pumps for future low thrust space missions. Low flow rate applications, such as space station auxiliary propulsion or dedicated low thrust orbiter transfer vehicles, are typical of missions where low flow and high head rise challenge centrifugal pumps. The positive displacement vane pump for pumping of LOX and LH2 is investigated. This effort has included: (1) a testing program in which pump performance was investigated for differing pump clearances and for differing pump materials while pumping LN2, LOX, and LH2; and (2) an analysis effort, in which a comprehensive pump performance analysis computer code was developed and exercised. An overview of the theoretical framework of the performance analysis computer code is presented, along with a summary of analysis results. Experimental results are presented for pump operating in liquid nitrogen. Included are data on the effects on pump performance of pump clearance, speed, and pressure rise. Pump suction performance is also presented.

  18. Suction evacuation of hemothorax: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Savage, Stephanie A; Cibulas, George A; Ward, Tyler A; Davis, Corinne A; Croce, Martin A; Zarzaur, Ben L

    2016-07-01

    Although tube thoracostomy is a common procedure after thoracic trauma, incomplete evacuation of fluid places the patient at risk for retained hemothorax. As little as 300 to 500 cm of blood may result in the need for an additional thoracostomy tube or, in more severe cases, lung entrapment and empyema. We hypothesized that suction evacuation of the thoracic cavity before tube placement would decrease the incidence of late complications. Patients requiring tube thoracostomy within 96 hours of admission were prospectively identified and underwent suction evacuation of the pleural space (SEPS) before tube placement. These patients were compared to historical controls without suction evacuation. Demographics, admission vital signs, laboratory values, details of chest tube placement, and outcomes were collected on all patients. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare outcomes between groups. A total of 199 patients were identified, consisting of 100 retrospective controls and 99 SEPS patients. There were no differences in age, sex, admission injury severity score or chest abbreviated injury score, admission laboratory values or vital signs, or hospital length of stay. Mean (SD) volume of hemothorax in SEPS patients was 220 (297) cm; with only 48% having a volume greater than 100 cm at the time of tube placement. Three patients developed empyema, and 19 demonstrated retained blood; there was no difference between SEPS and control patients. Suction evacuation of the pleural space was significantly protective against recurrent pneumothorax after chest tube removal (odds ratio, 0.332; 95% confidence interval, 0.148-0.745). Preemptive suction evacuation of the thoracic cavity did not have a significant impact on subsequent development of retained hemothorax or empyema. Suction evacuation of the pleural space significantly decreased incidence of recurrent pneumothorax after thoracostomy removal. Although the mechanism is unclear, such a benefit may make this

  19. Transport suction apparatus and absorption materials evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krupa, Debra T.; Gosbee, John

    1991-01-01

    The specific objectives were as follows. The effectiveness and function was evaluated of the hand held, manually powered v-vac for suction during microgravity. The function was evaluated of the battery powered laerdal suction unit in microgravity. The two units in control of various types of simulated bodily fluids were compared. Various types of tubing and attachments were evaluated which are required to control the collection of bodily fluids during transport. Various materials were evaluated for absorption of simulated bodily fluids. And potential problems were identified for waste management and containment of secretions and fluids during transport. Test procedures, results, and conclusions are briefly discussed.

  20. Gravity separation of pericardial fat in cardiotomy suction blood: an in vitro model.

    PubMed

    Kinard, M Rhett; Shackelford, Anthony G; Sistino, Joseph J

    2009-06-01

    Fat emboli generated during cardiac surgery have been shown to cause neurologic complications in patients postoperatively. Cardiotomy suction has been known to be a large generator of emboli. This study will examine the efficacy of a separation technique in which the cardiotomy suction blood is stored in a cardiotomy reservoir for various time intervals to allow spontaneous separation of fat from blood by density. Soybean oil was added to heparinized porcine blood to simulate the blood of a patient with hypertriglyceridemia (> 150 mg/dL). Roller pump suction was used to transfer the room temperature blood into the cardiotomy reservoir. Blood was removed from the reservoir in 200-mL aliquots at 0, 15, 30 45, and 60 minutes. Samples were taken at each interval and centrifuged to facilitate further separation of liquid fat. Fat content in each sample was determined by a point-of-care triglyceride analyzer. Three trials were conducted for a total of 30 samples. The 0-minute group was considered a baseline and was compared to the other four times. Fat concentration was reduced significantly in the 45- and 60-minute groups compared to the 0-, 15-, and 30-minute groups (p < .05). Gravity separation of cardiotomy suction blood is effective; however, it may require retention of blood for more time than is clinically acceptable during a routing coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

  1. Experimental study of flow due to an isolated suction hole and a partially plugged suction slot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goglia, G. L.; Wilkinson, S. P.

    1980-01-01

    Details for construction of a model of a partially plugged, laminar flow control, suction slot and an isolated hole are presented. The experimental wind tunnel facility and instrumentation is described. Preliminary boundary layer velocity profiles (without suction model) are presented and shown to be in good agreement with the Blasius laminar profile. Recommendations for the completion of the study are made. An experimental program for study of transition on a rotating disk is described along with preliminary disturbance amplification rate data.

  2. 21 CFR 880.5740 - Suction snakebite kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Suction snakebite kit. 880.5740 Section 880.5740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Devices § 880.5740 Suction snakebite kit. (a) Identification. A suction snakebite kit is a device...

  3. 21 CFR 880.5740 - Suction snakebite kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Suction snakebite kit. 880.5740 Section 880.5740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Devices § 880.5740 Suction snakebite kit. (a) Identification. A suction snakebite kit is a device...

  4. 21 CFR 880.5740 - Suction snakebite kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Suction snakebite kit. 880.5740 Section 880.5740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Devices § 880.5740 Suction snakebite kit. (a) Identification. A suction snakebite kit is a device...

  5. 21 CFR 880.5740 - Suction snakebite kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Suction snakebite kit. 880.5740 Section 880.5740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Devices § 880.5740 Suction snakebite kit. (a) Identification. A suction snakebite kit is a device...

  6. 21 CFR 880.5740 - Suction snakebite kit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suction snakebite kit. 880.5740 Section 880.5740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Devices § 880.5740 Suction snakebite kit. (a) Identification. A suction snakebite kit is a device...

  7. 21 CFR 870.5050 - Patient care suction apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Patient care suction apparatus. 870.5050 Section 870.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... suction apparatus. (a) Identification. A patient care suction apparatus is a device used with an...

  8. 21 CFR 870.5050 - Patient care suction apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Patient care suction apparatus. 870.5050 Section 870.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... suction apparatus. (a) Identification. A patient care suction apparatus is a device used with an...

  9. THERMOCOUPLE VACUUM GAUGE

    DOEpatents

    Price, G.W.

    1954-08-01

    A protector device is described for use in controlling the pressure within a cyclotron. In particular, an electrical circuit functions to actuate a vacuum pump when a predetermined low pressure is reached and disconnect the pump when the pressure increases abcve a certain value. The principal feature of the control circuit lies in the use of a voltage divider network at the input to a relay control tube comprising two parallel, adjustable resistances wherein one resistor is switched into the circuit when the relay connects the pump to a power source. With this arrangement the relay is energized at one input level received from a sensing element within the cyclotron chamber and is de-energized when a second input level, representing the higher pressure limit, is reached.

  10. Pump for molten metal or other fluid

    DOEpatents

    Horton, James A.; Brown, Donald L.

    1994-01-01

    A pump having no moving parts which can be used to pump high temperature molten metal or other fluids in a vacuum or low pressure environment, and a method for pumping such fluids. The pump combines elements of a bubble pump with a trap which isolates the vacuum or low pressure region from the gas used to create the bubbles. When used in a vacuum the trap prevents the pumping gas from escaping into the isolated region and thereby reducing the quality of the vacuum. The pump includes a channel in which a pumping gas is forced under pressure into a cavity where bubbles are formed. The cavity is in contact with a reservoir which contains the molten metal or other fluid which is to be pumped. The bubbles rise up into a column (or pump tube) carrying the fluid with them. At the top of the column is located a deflector which causes the bubbles to burst and the drops of pumped fluid to fall into a trap. The fluid accumulates in the trap, eventually forcing its way to an outlet. A roughing pump can be used to withdraw the pumping gas from the top of the column and assist with maintaining the vacuum or low pressure environment.

  11. VACUUM TRAP

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, H.S.

    1959-09-15

    An improved adsorption vacuum trap for use in vacuum systems was designed. The distinguishing feature is the placement of a plurality of torsionally deformed metallic fins within a vacuum jacket extending from the walls to the central axis so that substantially all gas molecules pass through the jacket will impinge upon the fin surfaces. T fins are heated by direct metallic conduction, thereby ol taining a uniform temperature at the adeorbing surfaces so that essentially all of the condensible impurities from the evacuating gas are removed from the vacuum system.

  12. Evaluating operational vacuum for landfill biogas extraction.

    PubMed

    Fabbricino, Massimiliano

    2007-01-01

    This manuscript proposes a practical methodology for estimating the operational vacuum for landfill biogas extraction from municipal landfills. The procedure is based on two sub-models which simulate landfill gas production from organic waste decomposition and distribution of gas pressure and gas movement induced by suction at a blower station. The two models are coupled in a single mass balance equation, obtaining a relationship between the operational vacuum and the amount of landfill gas that can be extracted from an assigned system of vertical wells. To better illustrate the procedure, it is applied to a case study, where a good agreement between simulated and measured data, within +/- 30%, is obtained.

  13. Vapor-barrier Vacuum Isolation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor); Taminger, Karen M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A system includes a collimated beam source within a vacuum chamber, a condensable barrier gas, cooling material, a pump, and isolation chambers cooled by the cooling material to condense the barrier gas. Pressure levels of each isolation chamber are substantially greater than in the vacuum chamber. Coaxially-aligned orifices connect a working chamber, the isolation chambers, and the vacuum chamber. The pump evacuates uncondensed barrier gas. The barrier gas blocks entry of atmospheric vapor from the working chamber into the isolation chambers, and undergoes supersonic flow expansion upon entering each isolation chamber. A method includes connecting the isolation chambers to the vacuum chamber, directing vapor to a boundary with the working chamber, and supersonically expanding the vapor as it enters the isolation chambers via the orifices. The vapor condenses in each isolation chamber using the cooling material, and uncondensed vapor is pumped out of the isolation chambers via the pump.

  14. Simulations of turbulent asymptotic suction boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobke, Alexandra; Örlü, Ramis; Schlatter, Philipp

    2016-02-01

    A series of large-eddy simulations of a turbulent asymptotic suction boundary layer (TASBL) was performed in a periodic domain, on which uniform suction was applied over a flat plate. Three Reynolds numbers (defined as ratio of free-stream and suction velocity) of Re = 333, 400 and 500 and a variety of domain sizes were considered in temporal simulations in order to investigate the turbulence statistics, the importance of the computational domain size, the arising flow structures as well as temporal development length required to achieve the asymptotic state. The effect of these two important parameters was assessed in terms of their influence on integral quantities, mean velocity, Reynolds stresses, higher order statistics, amplitude modulation and spectral maps. While the near-wall region up to the buffer region appears to scale irrespective of Re and domain size, the parameters of the logarithmic law (i.e. von Kármán and additive coefficient) decrease with increasing Re, while the wake strength decreases with increasing spanwise domain size and vanishes entirely once the spanwise domain size exceeds approximately two boundary-layer thicknesses irrespective of Re. The wake strength also reduces with increasing simulation time. The asymptotic state of the TASBL is characterised by surprisingly large friction Reynolds numbers and inherits features of wall turbulence at numerically high Re. Compared to a turbulent boundary layer (TBL) or a channel flow without suction, the components of the Reynolds-stress tensor are overall reduced, but exhibit a logarithmic increase with decreasing suction rates, i.e. increasing Re. At the same time, the anisotropy is increased compared to canonical wall-bounded flows without suction. The reduced amplitudes in turbulence quantities are discussed in light of the amplitude modulation due to the weakened larger outer structures. The inner peak in the spectral maps is shifted to higher wavelength and the strength of the outer peak

  15. Jet pump assisted arterial heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bienert, W. B.; Ducao, A. S.; Trimmer, D. S.

    1978-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of an arterial heat pipe with a capillary driven jet pump. The jet pump generates a suction which pumps vapor and noncondensible gas from the artery. The suction also forces liquid into the artery and maintains it in a primed condition. A theoretical model was developed which predicts the existence of two stable ranges. Up to a certain tilt the artery will prime by itself once a heat load is applied to the heat pipe. At higher tilts, the jet pump can maintain the artery in a primed condition but self-priming is not possible. A prototype heat pipe was tested which self-primed up to a tilt of 1.9 cm, with a heat load of 500 watts. The heat pipe continued to prime reliably when operated as a VCHP, i.e., after a large amount of noncondensible gas was introduced.

  16. Vacuum Virtues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathey, Allen

    2007-01-01

    Upright vacuums, like cars, vary in quality, features and performance. Like automobiles, some uprights are reliable, others may be problematic, and some become a problem as a result of neglect or improper use. So, how do education institutions make an informed choice and, having done so, ensure that an upright vacuum goes the distance? In this…

  17. Vacuum mechatronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackwood, Susan; Belinski, Steven E.; Beni, Gerardo

    1989-01-01

    The discipline of vacuum mechatronics is defined as the design and development of vacuum-compatible computer-controlled mechanisms for manipulating, sensing and testing in a vacuum environment. The importance of vacuum mechatronics is growing with an increased application of vacuum in space studies and in manufacturing for material processing, medicine, microelectronics, emission studies, lyophylisation, freeze drying and packaging. The quickly developing field of vacuum mechatronics will also be the driving force for the realization of an advanced era of totally enclosed clean manufacturing cells. High technology manufacturing has increasingly demanding requirements for precision manipulation, in situ process monitoring and contamination-free environments. To remove the contamination problems associated with human workers, the tendency in many manufacturing processes is to move towards total automation. This will become a requirement in the near future for e.g., microelectronics manufacturing. Automation in ultra-clean manufacturing environments is evolving into the concept of self-contained and fully enclosed manufacturing. A Self Contained Automated Robotic Factory (SCARF) is being developed as a flexible research facility for totally enclosed manufacturing. The construction and successful operation of a SCARF will provide a novel, flexible, self-contained, clean, vacuum manufacturing environment. SCARF also requires very high reliability and intelligent control. The trends in vacuum mechatronics and some of the key research issues are reviewed.

  18. Bernoulli Suction Effect on Soap Bubble Blowing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, John; Ryu, Sangjin

    2015-11-01

    As a model system for thin-film bubble with two gas-liquid interfaces, we experimentally investigated the pinch-off of soap bubble blowing. Using the lab-built bubble blower and high-speed videography, we have found that the scaling law exponent of soap bubble pinch-off is 2/3, which is similar to that of soap film bridge. Because air flowed through the decreasing neck of soap film tube, we studied possible Bernoulli suction effect on soap bubble pinch-off by evaluating the Reynolds number of airflow. Image processing was utilized to calculate approximate volume of growing soap film tube and the volume flow rate of the airflow, and the Reynolds number was estimated to be 800-3200. This result suggests that soap bubbling may involve the Bernoulli suction effect.

  19. Venturi vacuum systems for hypobaric chamber operations.

    PubMed

    Robinson, R; Swaby, G; Sutton, T; Fife, C; Powell, M; Butler, B D

    1997-11-01

    Physiological studies of the effects of high altitude on man often require the use of a hypobaric chamber to simulate the reduced ambient pressures. Typical "altitude" chambers in use today require complex mechanical vacuum systems to evacuate the chamber air, either directly or via reservoir system. Use of these pumps adds to the cost of both chamber procurement and maintenance, and service of these pumps requires trained support personnel and regular upkeep. In this report we describe use of venturi vacuum pumps to perform the function of mechanical vacuum pumps for human and experimental altitude chamber operations. Advantages of the venturi pumps include their relatively low procurement cost, small size and light weight, ease of installation and plumbing, lack of moving parts, and independence from electrical power sources, fossil fuels and lubricants. Conversion of three hyperbaric chambers to combined hyper/hypobaric use is described.

  20. Ultra-fast underwater suction traps.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Olivier; Weisskopf, Carmen; Poppinga, Simon; Masselter, Tom; Speck, Thomas; Joyeux, Marc; Quilliet, Catherine; Marmottant, Philippe

    2011-10-07

    Carnivorous aquatic Utricularia species catch small prey animals using millimetre-sized underwater suction traps, which have fascinated scientists since Darwin's early work on carnivorous plants. Suction takes place after mechanical triggering and is owing to a release of stored elastic energy in the trap body accompanied by a very fast opening and closing of a trapdoor, which otherwise closes the trap entrance watertight. The exceptional trapping speed--far above human visual perception--impeded profound investigations until now. Using high-speed video imaging and special microscopy techniques, we obtained fully time-resolved recordings of the door movement. We found that this unique trapping mechanism conducts suction in less than a millisecond and therefore ranks among the fastest plant movements known. Fluid acceleration reaches very high values, leaving little chance for prey animals to escape. We discovered that the door deformation is morphologically predetermined, and actually performs a buckling/unbuckling process, including a complete trapdoor curvature inversion. This process, which we predict using dynamical simulations and simple theoretical models, is highly reproducible: the traps are autonomously repetitive as they fire spontaneously after 5-20 h and reset actively to their ready-to-catch condition.

  1. Catheter drainage of spontaneous pneumothorax: suction or no suction, early or late removal?

    PubMed Central

    So, S Y; Yu, D Y

    1982-01-01

    Twenty-three patients with primary spontaneous pneumothorax and 30 patients with secondary spontaneous pneumothorax treated by intercostal catheter drainage with underwater seal were divided randomly into two groups, one receiving suction drainage (up to 20 cm H2O pressure) and the other no suction. The success rate was 57% for the former and 50% for the latter. The suction group spent an average of five days in hospital, whereas the non-suction group averaged four days. Suction drainage therefore did not have any advantage. To determine how soon the catheter could be removed without complication, patients were also divided randomly into two subgroups--one had the catheter removed, without previous clamping, as soon as the lung was expanded; the other had the catheters left in situ for a further three days. The success rate was 52% for the former, and 53% for the latter. But most of the failure in the early removal group was caused by re-collapse of the lung rather than persistent air leakage; hence removal of the catheter too early was not recommended. PMID:7071793

  2. VACUUM TRAP AND VALVE COMBINATION

    DOEpatents

    Milleron, N.; Levenson, L.

    1963-02-19

    This patent relates to a vacuum trap and valve combination suitable for use in large ultra-high vacuum systems. The vacuum trap is a chamber having an inlet and outlet opening which may be made to communicate with a chamber to be evacuated and a diffusion pump, respectively. A valve is designed to hermeticaliy seal with inlet opening and, when opened, block the line-of- sight'' between the inlet and outlet openings, while allowing a large flow path between the opened vaive and the side walls of the trap. The interior of the trap and the side of the valve facing the inlet opening are covered with an impurity absorbent, such as Zeolite or activated aluminum. Besides the advantage of combining two components of a vacuum system into one, the present invention removes the need for a baffle between the pump and the chamber to be evacuated. In one use of a specific embodiment of this invention, the transmission probability was 45 and the partial pressure of the pump fluid vapor in the vacuum chamber was at least 100 times lower than its vapor pressure. (AEC)

  3. 18 CFR 1304.403 - Marina sewage pump-out stations and holding tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Marina sewage pump-out... OTHER ALTERATIONS Miscellaneous § 1304.403 Marina sewage pump-out stations and holding tanks. All pump... operating requirements: (a) Spill-proof connection with shipboard holding tanks; (b) Suction controls or...

  4. 18 CFR 1304.403 - Marina sewage pump-out stations and holding tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Marina sewage pump-out... OTHER ALTERATIONS Miscellaneous § 1304.403 Marina sewage pump-out stations and holding tanks. All pump... operating requirements: (a) Spill-proof connection with shipboard holding tanks; (b) Suction controls or...

  5. 18 CFR 1304.403 - Marina sewage pump-out stations and holding tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Marina sewage pump-out... OTHER ALTERATIONS Miscellaneous § 1304.403 Marina sewage pump-out stations and holding tanks. All pump... operating requirements: (a) Spill-proof connection with shipboard holding tanks; (b) Suction controls or...

  6. 18 CFR 1304.403 - Marina sewage pump-out stations and holding tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Marina sewage pump-out... OTHER ALTERATIONS Miscellaneous § 1304.403 Marina sewage pump-out stations and holding tanks. All pump... operating requirements: (a) Spill-proof connection with shipboard holding tanks; (b) Suction controls or...

  7. RENEWABLE LIQUID GETTERING PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Batzer, T.H.

    1962-08-21

    A method and structure were developed for pumping gases by simple absorption into a liquid gettering material. The invention comprises means ror continuously pumping a liquid getterrng material from a reservoir to the top of a generally vertical surface disposed in a vacuum pumping chamber to receive gaseous and other particles in the liquid gettering material which continuously flows downward over the vertical suiface. Means are provided for continuous removal, degassing, and return of a portion of the liquid gettering material from the reservoir connected with collectrng means at the base of the generally vertical plate. (AEC)

  8. Evaluation of hypopharyngeal suction to eliminate aspiration: the Retro-Esophageal Suction (REScue) catheter.

    PubMed

    Belafsky, Peter C; Mehdizadeh, O B; Ledgerwood, L; Kuhn, M

    2015-02-01

    Profound oropharyngeal dysphagia (OPD) is common and costly. Treatment options are limited. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the utility of hypopharyngeal suction at the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) to eliminate aspiration. Five different catheters were passed retrograde up the esophagus and positioned at the UES in a cadaver model of profound OPD. Suction was affixed to each catheter. 10 cc of barium was administered into the pyriform sinus, and videofluoroscopy was utilized to evaluate the presence of aspiration. 6 trials were administered per catheter and for a no catheter control. The outcome measures were the incidence of aspiration, the NIH Swallow Safety Scale (NIH-SSS), and UES opening. Control trials with no suction resulted in an aspiration rate of 100 % (6/6 trials). Negative pressure through 16, 18, 24, and 30 Fr catheter resulted in an aspiration rate of 0 % (0/24 trials; p < 0.001), and suction through a 12-Fr catheter resulted in an aspiration rate of 33 % (2/6 trials; p > 0.05). The mean NIH-SSS improved from 7.0 (±0.0) in the control to 0 (±0.0) with hypopharyngeal suction (18 Fr nasogastric catheter; p < 0.001). Mean UES opening improved from 0.0 (±0.0) mm in the control condition to 8.6 (±0.2) mm with a hypopharyngeal catheter (16 Fr Foley catheter; p < 0.001). Negative pressure applied through retro-esophageal suction catheters (>12 Fr) at the level of the UES reduced aspiration by 100 % and significantly increased UES opening in a cadaveric model of profound oropharyngeal dysphagia.

  9. Vacuum coupling of rotating superconducting rotor

    DOEpatents

    Shoykhet, Boris A.; Zhang, Burt Xudong; Driscoll, David Infante

    2003-12-02

    A rotating coupling allows a vacuum chamber in the rotor of a superconducting electric motor to be continually pumped out. The coupling consists of at least two concentric portions, one of which is allowed to rotate and the other of which is stationary. The coupling is located on the non-drive end of the rotor and is connected to a coolant supply and a vacuum pump. The coupling is smaller in diameter than the shaft of the rotor so that the shaft can be increased in diameter without having to increase the size of the vacuum seal.

  10. Ridge suction drives plume-ridge interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Y.; Hékinian, R.

    2003-04-01

    Deep-sourced mantle plumes, if existing, are genetically independent of plate tectonics. When the ascending plumes approach lithospheric plates, interactions between the two occur. Such interactions are most prominent near ocean ridges where the lithosphere is thin and the effect of plumes is best revealed. While ocean ridges are mostly passive features in terms of plate tectonics, they play an active role in the context of plume-ridge interactions. This active role is a ridge suction force that drives asthenospheric mantle flow towards ridges because of material needs to form the ocean crust at ridges and lithospheric mantle in the vicinity of ridges. This ridge suction force increases with increasing plate separation rate because of increased material demand per unit time. As the seismic low-velocity zone atop the asthenosphere has the lowest viscosity that increases rapidly with depth, the ridge-ward asthenospheric flow is largely horizontal beneath the lithosphere. Recognizing that plume materials have two components with easily-melted dikes/veins enriched in volatiles and incompatible elements dispersed in the more refractory and depleted peridotitic matrix, geochemistry of some seafloor volcanics well illustrates that plume-ridge interactions are consequences of ridge-suction-driven flow of plume materials, which melt by decompression because of lithospheric thinning towards ridges. There are excellent examples: 1. The decreasing La/Sm and increasing MgO and CaO/Al_2O_3 in Easter Seamount lavas from Salas-y-Gomez Islands to the Easter Microplate East rift zone result from progressive decompression melting of ridge-ward flowing plume materials. 2. The similar geochemical observations in lavas along the Foundation hotline towards the Pacific-Antarctic Ridge result from the same process. 3. The increasing ridge suction force with increasing spreading rate explains why the Iceland plume has asymmetric effects on its neighboring ridges: both topographic and

  11. MEANS AND METHOD FOR PRODUCING A VACUUM

    DOEpatents

    Otavka, M.A.

    1960-08-01

    A new method is given for starting the operation of evapor-ion vacuum pumps. Ordinarily this type of pump is started by inducing an electric field with the vacuum chamber; however, by placing such an electric field in the chamber at the outset, a glow discharge may be initiated which is harmful to the pump. The procedure consists of using a negative electric field during which time only gettering action takes place; subsequently when the field reverses after a sufficient reduction of the number of gaseous particles in the chamber both gettering and ionizing takes place.

  12. Electric Propulsion Laboratory Vacuum Chamber

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1964-06-21

    Engineer Paul Reader and his colleagues take environmental measurements during testing of a 20-inch diameter ion engine in a vacuum tank at the Electric Propulsion Laboratory (EPL). Researchers at the Lewis Research Center were investigating the use of a permanent-magnet circuit to create the magnetic field required power electron bombardment ion engines. Typical ion engines use a solenoid coil to create this magnetic field. It was thought that the substitution of a permanent magnet would create a comparable magnetic field with a lower weight. Testing of the magnet system in the EPL vacuum tanks revealed no significant operational problems. Reader found the weight of the two systems was similar, but that the thruster’s efficiency increased with the magnet. The EPL contained a series of large vacuum tanks that could be used to simulate conditions in space. Large vacuum pumps reduced the internal air pressure, and a refrigeration system created the cryogenic temperatures found in space.

  13. Suction power output and the inertial cost of rotating the neurocranium to generate suction in fish.

    PubMed

    Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Day, Steven W; Hernández, L Patricia; Higham, Timothy E; Skorczewski, Tyler

    2015-05-07

    To expand the buccal cavity, many suction-feeding fishes rely on a considerable contribution from dorsal rotation of the dorsal part of the head including the brains, eyes, and several bones forming the braincase and skull roof (jointly referred to as the neurocranium). As the neurocranium takes up a large part of the total mass of the head, this rotation may incur a considerable inertial cost. If so, this would suggest a significant selective pressure on the kinematics and mass distribution of the neurocranium of suction feeders. Here, an inverse dynamic model is formulated to calculate the instantaneous power required to rotate the neurocranium, approximated by a quarter ellipsoid volume of homogeneous density, as well as to calculate the instantaneous suction power based on intra-oral pressure and head volume quantifications. We applied this model to largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and found that the power required to rotate the neurocranium accounts for only about 4% of the power required to suck water into the mouth. Furthermore, recovery of kinetic energy from the rotating neurocranium converted into suction work may be possible during the phase of neurocranial deceleration. Thus, we suggest that only a negligible proportion of the power output of the feeding muscles is lost as inertial costs in the largemouth bass. Consequently, the feeding performance of piscivorous suction feeders with generalised morphology, comparable to our model species, is not limited by neurocranial motion during head expansion. This suggests that it is thus not likely to be a factor of importance in the evolution of cranial shape and size. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Necessity of suction drains in gynecomastia surgery.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Mustafa; Sutcu, Mustafa; Cigsar, Bulent; Karacaoglan, Naci

    2014-05-01

    The aim of gynecomastia surgery is to restore a normal chest contour with minimal signs of breast surgery. The authors examine the rate of complications in gynecomastia surgery when no closed-suction drains are placed. One hundred thirty-eight consecutive male patients who underwent gynecomastia surgery without drains were retrospectively analyzed to determine whether the absence of drains adversely affected patient outcomes. Patients were managed by ultrasonic-assisted liposuction both with and without the pull-through technique. The mean age of the patients was 29 years, and the mean volume of breast tissue aspirated was 350 mL per beast. Pull-through was needed in 23 cases. There was only 1 postoperative hematoma. These results are comparable with previously published data for gynecomastia surgery in which drains were placed, suggesting that the absence of drains does not adversely affect postoperative recovery. Routine closed-suction drainage after gynecomastia surgery is unnecessary, and it may be appropriate to omit drains after gynecomastia surgery.

  15. Vacuum Technology Considerations For Mass Metrology

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Patrick J.; Jabour, Zeina J.

    2011-01-01

    Vacuum weighing of mass artifacts eliminates the necessity of air buoyancy correction and its contribution to the measurement uncertainty. Vacuum weighing is also an important process in the experiments currently underway for the redefinition of the SI mass unit, the kilogram. Creating the optimum vacuum environment for mass metrology requires careful design and selection of construction materials, plumbing components, pumping, and pressure gauging technologies. We review the vacuum technology1 required for mass metrology and suggest procedures and hardware for successful and reproducible operation. PMID:26989593

  16. 21 CFR 870.4430 - Cardiopulmonary bypass intracardiac suction control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass intracardiac suction control. 870.4430 Section 870.4430 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND....4430 Cardiopulmonary bypass intracardiac suction control. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass...

  17. 21 CFR 870.4430 - Cardiopulmonary bypass intracardiac suction control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass intracardiac suction control. 870.4430 Section 870.4430 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND....4430 Cardiopulmonary bypass intracardiac suction control. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass...

  18. 21 CFR 874.5350 - Suction antichoke device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Suction antichoke device. 874.5350 Section 874.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5350 Suction antichoke device. (a...

  19. 21 CFR 874.5350 - Suction antichoke device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suction antichoke device. 874.5350 Section 874.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5350 Suction antichoke device. (a...

  20. 21 CFR 874.5350 - Suction antichoke device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Suction antichoke device. 874.5350 Section 874.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5350 Suction antichoke device. (a...

  1. 21 CFR 874.5350 - Suction antichoke device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Suction antichoke device. 874.5350 Section 874.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5350 Suction antichoke device. (a...

  2. 21 CFR 874.5350 - Suction antichoke device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Suction antichoke device. 874.5350 Section 874.5350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 874.5350 Suction antichoke device. (a...

  3. 21 CFR 878.5040 - Suction lipoplasty system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Suction lipoplasty system. 878.5040 Section 878.5040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.5040 Suction lipoplasty system...

  4. 21 CFR 878.5040 - Suction lipoplasty system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Suction lipoplasty system. 878.5040 Section 878.5040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.5040 Suction lipoplasty system...

  5. 21 CFR 878.5040 - Suction lipoplasty system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Suction lipoplasty system. 878.5040 Section 878.5040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.5040 Suction lipoplasty system...

  6. Flow Visualization Proposed for Vacuum Cleaner Nozzle Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    In 1995, the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Kirby Company (a major vacuum cleaner company) began negotiations for a Space Act Agreement to conduct research, technology development, and testing involving the flow behavior of airborne particulate flow behavior. Through these research efforts, we hope to identify ways to improve suction, flow rate, and surface agitation characteristics of nozzles used in vacuum cleaner nozzles. We plan to apply an advanced visualization technology, known as Stereoscopic Imaging Velocimetry (SIV), to a Kirby G-4 vacuum cleaner. Resultant data will be analyzed with a high-speed digital motion analysis system. We also plan to evaluate alternative vacuum cleaner nozzle designs. The overall goal of this project is to quantify both velocity fields and particle trajectories throughout the vacuum cleaner nozzle to optimize its "cleanability"--its ability to disturb and remove embedded dirt and other particulates from carpeting or hard surfaces. Reference

  7. Three stage vacuum system for ultralow temperature installation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, N. K.; Pradhan, J.; Naser, Md Z. A.; Mandal, B. Ch; Roy, A.; Kumar, P.; Mallik, C.; Bhandari, R. K.

    2012-11-01

    We use a three stage vacuum system for developing a dilution fridge at VECC, Kolkata. We aim at achieving a cooling power of 20μW at 100mK for various experiments especially in the field of condensed matter and nuclear physics. The system is essentially composed of four segments-bath cryostat, vacuum system, dilution insert and 3He circulation circuit. Requirement of vacuum system at different stages are different. The vacuum system for cryostat and for internal vacuum chamber located within the helium bath is a common turbo molecular pump backed by scroll pump as to maintain a vacuum ~10-6mbar. For bringing down the temperature of the helium evaporator, we use a high throughput Roots pump backed by a dry pump. The pumping system for 3He distillation chamber (still) requires a high pumping speed, so a turbo drag pump backed by a scroll pump has been installed. As the fridge use precious 3He gas for operation, the entire system has been made to be absolutely leak proof with respect to the 3He gas.

  8. The impact analysis of the connecting pipe length and diameter on the operation of a piston hybrid power machine of positive displacement with gas suction capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherba, V. E.; Grigoriev, A. V.; Averyanov, G. S.; Surikov, V. I.; Vedruchenko, V. P.; Galdin, N. S.; Trukhanova, D. A.

    2017-08-01

    The article analyzes the impact of the connecting liquid pipe length and diameter on consumables and power characteristics of the piston hybrid power machine with gas suction capacity. The following operating characteristics of the machine were constructed and analyzed: the average height of the liquid column in the jacket space; instantaneous velocity and height of the liquid column in the jacket space; the relative height of the liquid column in the jacket space; volumetric efficiency; indicator isothermal efficiency; flowrate in the pump section; relative pressure losses during suction; relative flowrate. The dependence of the instantaneous pressure in the work space and the suction space of the compressor section on the rotation angle of the crankshaft is determined for different values of the length and diameter of the connecting pipeline.

  9. Acoustic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, Joseph S.

    1993-01-01

    Pump uses acoustic-radiation forces. Momentum transferred from sound waves to sound-propagating material in way resulting in net pumping action on material. Acoustic pump is solid-state pump. Requires no moving parts, entirely miniaturized, and does not invade pumped environment. Silent, with no conventional vibration. Used as pump for liquid, suspension, gas, or any other medium interacting with radiation pressure. Also used where solid-state pump needed for reliability and controllability. In microgravity environment, device offers unusual control for low flow rates. For medical or other applications in which contamination cannot be allowed, offers noninvasive pumping force.

  10. Place Atrium to Water Seal (PAWS): Assessing Wall Suction Versus No Suction for Chest Tubes After Open Heart Surgery.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Tamara; Wahl, Sharon; Guthrie, Patricia Finch; Sendelbach, Sue

    2017-08-01

    Traditionally chest tubes are set to -20 cm H 2 O wall suctioning until removal to facilitate drainage of blood, fluid, and air from the pleural or mediastinal space in patients after open heart surgery. However, no clear evidence supports using wall suction in these patients. Some studies in patients after pulmonary surgery indicate that using chest tubes with a water seal is safer, because this practice decreases duration of chest tube placement and eliminates air leaks. To show that changing chest tubes to a water seal after 12 hours of wall suction (intervention) is a safe alternative to using chest tubes with wall suction until removal of the tubes (usual care) in patients after open heart surgery. A before-and-after quality improvement design was used to evaluate the differences between the 2 chest tube management approaches in chest tube complications, output, and duration of placement. A total of 48 patients received the intervention; 52 received usual care. The 2 groups (intervention vs usual care) did not differ significantly in complications (0 vs 2 events; P = .23), chest tube output (H 1 = 0.001, P = .97), or duration of placement (median, 47 hours for both groups). Changing chest tubes from wall suction to water seal after 12 hours of wall suction is a safe alternative to using wall suctioning until removal of the tubes. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  11. Microscale Thermal-Transpiration Gas Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargo, Stephen; Muntz, Phillip; Shiflett, Geoff

    2003-01-01

    A recent addition to the growing class of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is a single stage of a Knudsen compressor. This device was fabricated and tested to demonstrate the feasibility of Knudsen compressors as miniature vacuum pumps for future portable scientific instruments. The attributes of Knudsen compressors that make them attractive as miniature vacuum pumps are that they contain no moving parts and operate without need for lubricants or working fluids.

  12. Very-Low-Cost, Rugged Vacuum System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kline-Schoder, Robert; Sorensen, Paul; Passow, Christian; Bilski, Steve

    2013-01-01

    NASA, DoD, DHS, and commercial industry have a need for miniaturized, rugged, low-cost vacuum systems. Recent advances in sensor technology have led to the development of very small mass spectrometer detectors as well as other miniature analytical instruments. However, the vacuum systems to support these sensors remain large, heavy, and power-hungry. To meet this need, a miniaturized vacuum system was created based on a very small, rugged, and inexpensive- to-manufacture molecular drag pump (MDP). The MDP is enabled by the development of a miniature, veryhigh- speed, rugged, low-power, brushless DC motor optimized for wide temperature operation and long life. Such a pump represents an order-of-magnitude reduction in mass, volume, and cost over current, commercially available, state-ofthe- art vacuum pumps. The vacuum system consists of the MDP coupled to a ruggedized rough pump (for terrestrial applications or for planets with substantial atmospheres). The rotor in the MDP consists of a simple smooth cylinder of aluminum spinning at approximately 200,000 RPM inside an outer stator housing. The pump stator comprises a cylindrical aluminum housing with one or more specially designed grooves that serve as flow channels. To minimize the length of the pump, the gas is forced down the flow channels of the outer stator to the base of the pump. The gas is then turned and pulled toward the top through a second set of channels cut into an inner stator housing that surrounds the motor. The compressed gas then flows down channels in the motor housing to the exhaust port of the pump. The exhaust port of the pump is connected to a diaphragm or scroll pump. This pump delivers very high performance in a very small envelope. The design was simplified so that a smaller compression ratio, easier manufacturing process, and enhanced ruggedness can be achieved at the lowest possible cost. The machining of the rotor and stators is very simple compared to that necessary to fabricate TMP

  13. 18 CFR 1304.403 - Marina sewage pump-out stations and holding tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... stations and holding tanks. 1304.403 Section 1304.403 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE... OTHER ALTERATIONS Miscellaneous § 1304.403 Marina sewage pump-out stations and holding tanks. All pump... operating requirements: (a) Spill-proof connection with shipboard holding tanks; (b) Suction controls or...

  14. Magnetic shielding and vacuum test for passive hydrogen masers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubser, D. U.; Wolf, S. A.; Jacoby, A. B.; Jones, L. D.

    1982-01-01

    Vibration tests on high permeability magnetic shields used in the SAO-NRL Advanced Development Model (ADM) hydrogen maser were made. Magnetic shielding factors were measured before and after vibration. Preliminary results indicate considerable (25%) degradation. Test results on the NRL designed vacuum pumping station for the ADM hydrogen maser are also discussed. This system employs sintered zirconium carbon getter pumps to pump hydrogen plus small ion pumps to pump the inert gases. In situ activation tests and pumping characteristics indicate that the system can meet design specifications.

  15. The generation of side force by distributed suction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Leonard; Hong, John

    1993-01-01

    This report provides an approximate analysis of the generation of side force on a cylinder placed horizontal to the flow direction by the application of distributed suction on the rearward side of the cylinder. Relationships are derived between the side force coefficients and the required suction coefficients necessary to maintain attached flow on one side of the cylinder, thereby inducing circulation around the cylinder and a corresponding side force.

  16. Use of Suction Piles for Mooring of Mobile Offshore Bases.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-11

    This procedure did not, however, take into account the passive suction developed by the pile. Investigation of soil interaction with suction piles...resulting o’^ distribution, which accounts for friction, is also shown in Fig. 5. The effective vertical stress profile within the clay just before the... accounting for active/passive soil pressures and skirt friction components. The principles used by Bye and his colleagues in the stability calculation

  17. 21 CFR 884.5150 - Nonpowered breast pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... device used to express milk from the breast. (b) Classification. Class I. The device is exempt from the... 250 mm Hg suction, and the device materials that contact breast or breast milk do not produce... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nonpowered breast pump. 884.5150 Section 884.5150...

  18. 21 CFR 884.5150 - Nonpowered breast pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... device used to express milk from the breast. (b) Classification. Class I. The device is exempt from the... 250 mm Hg suction, and the device materials that contact breast or breast milk do not produce... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonpowered breast pump. 884.5150 Section 884.5150...

  19. 21 CFR 884.5150 - Nonpowered breast pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... device used to express milk from the breast. (b) Classification. Class I. The device is exempt from the... 250 mm Hg suction, and the device materials that contact breast or breast milk do not produce... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nonpowered breast pump. 884.5150 Section 884.5150...

  20. 21 CFR 884.5150 - Nonpowered breast pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... device used to express milk from the breast. (b) Classification. Class I. The device is exempt from the... 250 mm Hg suction, and the device materials that contact breast or breast milk do not produce... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nonpowered breast pump. 884.5150 Section 884.5150...

  1. 21 CFR 884.5150 - Nonpowered breast pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... device used to express milk from the breast. (b) Classification. Class I. The device is exempt from the... 250 mm Hg suction, and the device materials that contact breast or breast milk do not produce... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nonpowered breast pump. 884.5150 Section 884.5150...

  2. 46 CFR 56.50-35 - Condensate pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-35 Condensate pumps. Two means shall be provided for discharging the condensate from the main condenser, one of which shall be mechanically... suction from the condenser and a discharge to the feed tank, it may be accepted as an independent...

  3. Endotracheal suctioning in intubated newborns: an integrative literature review

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Roberta Lins; Tsuzuki, Lucila Midori; Carvalho, Marcos Giovanni Santos

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based practices search for the best available scientific evidence to support problem solving and decision making. Because of the complexity and amount of information related to health care, the results of methodologically sound scientific papers must be integrated by performing literature reviews. Although endotracheal suctioning is the most frequently performed invasive procedure in intubated newborns in neonatal intensive care units, few Brazilian studies of good methodological quality have examined this practice, and a national consensus or standardization of this technique is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to review secondary studies on the subject to establish recommendations for endotracheal suctioning in intubated newborns and promote the adoption of best-practice concepts when conducting this procedure. An integrative literature review was performed, and the recommendations of this study are to only perform endotracheal suctioning in newborns when there are signs of tracheal secretions and to avoid routinely performing the procedure. In addition, endotracheal suctioning should be conducted by at least two people, the suctioning time should be less than 15 seconds, the negative suction pressure should be below 100 mmHg, and hyperoxygenation should not be used on a routine basis. If indicated, oxygenation is recommended with an inspired oxygen fraction value that is 10 to 20% greater than the value of the previous fraction, and it should be performed 30 to 60 seconds before, during and 1 minute after the procedure. Saline instillation should not be performed routinely, and the standards for invasive procedures must be respected. PMID:26465249

  4. Differing ERP patterns caused by suction and puff stimuli.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi-Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Sik; Baek, Ji-Hye; Lee, Jung-Chul; Park, Sung-Jun; Jeong, Ul-Ho; Gim, Seon-Young; You, Ji Hye; Kim, Sung-Pil; Lim, Dae-Woon; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Chung, Soon-Cheol

    2015-05-06

    The present study compared event-related potential (ERP) patterns for two stimuli types, puff and suction, by applying these stimuli to the fingers; ERP patterns for the two stimuli were compared at C3, an area related to somatosensory perception, and at FC5, an area related to motor function. Participants were 12 healthy males in their 20s (mean age=23.1±2.0 years). One session consisted of a Control Phase (3s), a Stimulation Phase (3s), and a Rest Phase (9s). During the Stimulation Phase, a 4-psi suction or puff stimulus was applied to the first joint of the right index finger. After completion of the session, a subjective magnitude test was presented. In all phases, electroencephalography signals were recorded. We extracted maximum positive amplitude and minimum negative amplitude as well as relevant latency values for C3 and FC5 signals. Suction and puff stimuli had similar subjective magnitude scores. For both C3 and FC5, the maximum and minimum amplitude latency was reached earlier for the suction stimulus than for the puff stimulus. In conclusion, when suction and puff stimuli of the same intensity were applied to the fingers, the suction stimulus caused a more sensitive response in the somatosensory area (C3) and motor area (FC5) than did the puff stimulus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hydrodynamic comparison of the Penumbra system and commonly available syringes in forced-suction thrombectomy.

    PubMed

    Simon, Scott Douglas; Grey, Casey Paul

    2014-04-01

    The Penumbra system uses a coaxial separator and continuous extracorporeal suction to remove a clot from a cerebral artery. Forced-suction thrombectomy (FST) involves aspirating clots through the same reperfusion catheter using only a syringe, decreasing the procedure time and supplies needed. To evaluate multiple combinations of catheters and syringes to determine the optimal pairing for use in FST. Tests were performed using both the Penumbra system and syringes to aspirate water through Penumbra 0.041 inch (041), 4Max, 0.054 inch (054) and 5Max reperfusion catheters and a shuttle sheath. Dynamic pressure and flow at the catheter tip were calculated from the fill times for each system. Static pressure and force for each aspiration source were determined with a vacuum gauge. All syringes provided significantly higher dynamic pressure at the catheter tip than the Penumbra system (p<0.001). Increasing syringe volume significantly increased static pressure (p<0.001). Both flow and aspiration force significantly increased with catheter size (p<0.001). Cases are presented to demonstrate the clinical value of the laboratory principles. Maximizing static and dynamic pressure when performing FST is achieved by aspirating with a syringe possessing both the largest volume and the largest inlet diameter available. Maximizing aspiration force and flow rate is achieved by using the largest catheter possible.

  6. PUMP CONSTRUCTION

    DOEpatents

    Strickland, G.; Horn, F.L.; White, H.T.

    1960-09-27

    A pump which utilizes the fluid being pumped through it as its lubricating fluid is described. This is achieved by means of an improved bearing construction in a pump of the enclosed or canned rotor type. At the outlet end of the pump, adjacent to an impeller mechanism, there is a bypass which conveys some of the pumped fluid to a chamber at the inlet end of the pump. After this chamber becomes full, the pumped fluid passes through fixed orifices in the top of the chamber and exerts a thrust on the inlet end of the pump rotor. Lubrication of the rotor shaft is accomplished by passing the pumped fluid through a bypass at the outlet end of the rotor shaft. This bypass conveys Pumped fluid to a cooling means and then to grooves on the surface of the rotor shait, thus lubricating the shaft.

  7. STEAM CARRYUNDER MEASUREMENT BY MEANS OF TWO-PHASE PUMP PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Niemi, R.O.; Steamer, A.G.

    1960-10-01

    Pump tests were conducted at the Moss Landing Steam Separation Facility at operating pressures of 600 and 1000 psig to provide a method for determining the rate of steam carryunder. Pump power input and head were measured as functions of water flow and steam flow to the pump suction. The pump tested had a rated flow of 1700 gpm and a rated head of 148 feet. It was found that in this facility, steam carryander can be measured to 0.1% by measuring the recirculating water pump input power and Pump head. (auth)

  8. Experimental analysis of the flow pattern of a pump turbine model in pump mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guggenberger, Mark; Senn, Florian; Jaberg, Helmut; Gehrer, Arno; Sallaberger, Manfred; Widmer, Christian

    2016-11-01

    Reversible pump turbines are the only means to store primary energy in an highly efficient way. Within a short time their operation can be switched between the different operational regimes thus enhancing the stabilization of the electric grid. These qualities in combination with the operation even at off-design conditions offer a high flexibility to the energy market. However, pump turbines pass through operational regimes where their behaviour becomes unstable. One of these effects occurs when the flowrate is decreased continuously down to a minimum. This point is the physical limitation of the pump operation and is very difficult to predict properly by numerical design without a model test. The purpose of the present study is to identify the fluid mechanical phenomena leading to the occurrence of instabilities of pump turbines in pump mode. A reduced scale model of a ANDRITZ pump turbine was installed on a 4-quadrant test rig for the experimental investigation of unstable conditions in pump mode. The performed measurements are based on the IEC60193-standard. Characteristic measurements at a single guide vane opening were carried out to get a detailed insight into the instabilities in pump mode. The interaction between runner and guide vane was analysed by Particle Image Velocimetry. Furthermore, high-speed visualizations of the suction side part load flow and the suction recirculation were performed. Like never before the flow pattern in the draft tube cone became visible with the help of a high-speed camera by intentionally caused cavitation effects which allow a qualitative view on the flow pattern in the draft tube cone. Suction recirculation is observed in form of single vortices separating from each runner blade and stretching into the draft tube against the main flow direction. To find an explanation for the flow phenomena responsible for the appearance of the unstable head curve also characteristic velocity distributions on the pressure side were combined

  9. Numerical Simulation of Tubular Pumping Systems with Different Regulation Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Honggeng; Zhang, Rentian; Deng, Dongsheng; Feng, Xusong; Yao, Linbi

    2010-06-01

    Since the flow in tubular pumping systems is basically along axial direction and passes symmetrically through the impeller, most satisfying the basic hypotheses in the design of impeller and having higher pumping system efficiency in comparison with vertical pumping system, they are being widely applied to low-head pumping engineering. In a pumping station, the fluctuation of water levels in the sump and discharge pool is most common and at most time the pumping system runs under off-design conditions. Hence, the operation of pump has to be flexibly regulated to meet the needs of flow rates, and the selection of regulation method is as important as that of pump to reduce operation cost and achieve economic operation. In this paper, the three dimensional time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are closed by RNG κ-ɛ turbulent model, and two tubular pumping systems with different regulation methods, equipped with the same pump model but with different designed system structures, are numerically simulated respectively to predict the pumping system performances and analyze the influence of regulation device and help designers make final decision in the selection of design schemes. The computed results indicate that the pumping system with blade-adjusting device needs longer suction box, and the increased hydraulic loss will lower the pumping system efficiency in the order of 1.5%. The pumping system with permanent magnet motor, by means of variable speed regulation, obtains higher system efficiency partly for shorter suction box and partly for different structure design. Nowadays, the varied speed regulation is realized by varied frequency device, the energy consumption of which is about 3˜4% of output power of the motor. Hence, when the efficiency of variable frequency device is considered, the total pumping system efficiency will probably be lower.

  10. Suction generation in white-spotted bamboo sharks Chiloscyllium plagiosum.

    PubMed

    Wilga, Cheryl D; Sanford, Christopher P

    2008-10-01

    After the divergence of chondrichthyans and teleostomes, the structure of the feeding apparatus also diverged leading to alterations in the suction mechanism. In this study we investigated the mechanism for suction generation during feeding in white-spotted bamboo sharks, Chiloscyllium plagiosum and compared it with that in teleosts. The internal movement of cranial elements and pressure in the buccal, hyoid and pharyngeal cavities that are directly responsible for suction generation was quantified using sonomicrometry and pressure transducers. Backward stepwise multiple linear regressions were used to explore the relationship between expansion and pressure, accounting for 60-96% of the variation in pressure among capture events. The progression of anterior to posterior expansion in the buccal, hyoid and pharyngeal cavities is accompanied by the sequential onset of subambient pressure in these cavities as prey is drawn into the mouth. Gape opening triggers the onset of subambient pressure in the oropharyngeal cavities. Peak gape area coincides with peak subambient buccal pressure. Increased velocity of hyoid area expansion is primarily responsible for generating peak subambient pressure in the buccal and hyoid regions. Pharyngeal expansion appears to function as a sink to receive water influx from the mouth, much like that of compensatory suction in bidirectional aquatic feeders. Interestingly, C. plagiosum generates large suction pressures while paradoxically compressing the buccal cavity laterally, delaying the time to peak pressure. This represents a fundamental difference from the mechanism used to generate suction in teleost fishes. Interestingly, pressure in the three cavities peaks in the posterior to anterior direction. The complex shape changes that the buccal cavity undergoes indicate that, as in teleosts, unsteady flow predominates during suction feeding. Several kinematic variables function together, with great variation over long gape cycles to

  11. Empirical evaluation of pump inlet compliance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghahremani, F. G.; Rubin, S.

    1972-01-01

    Cavitation compliance was determined experimentally from pulsing tests on a number of rocket turbopumps. The primary test data used for this study are those for the Rocketdyne H-1, F-1, and J-2 oxidizer and fuel pumps employed on Saturn vehicles. The study shows that these data can be correlated by a particular form of nondimensionalization, the key feature of which is to divide the operating cavitation number or suction specific speed by its value at head breakdown. An expression is obtained for a best-fit curve for these data. Another set of test data for the Aerojet LR87 and 91 pumps can be correlated by a somewhat different nondimensional pump performance parameter, specifically by relating the cavitation number to its position between the head breakdown point and the point of zero slope of the head coefficient versus cavitation number. Recommendations are given for the estimation of the cavitation compliance for new designs in the Rocketdyne family of pumps.

  12. Overcoming the problem of residual microbial contamination in dental suction units left by conventional disinfection using novel single component suction handpieces in combination with automated flood disinfection.

    PubMed

    Boyle, M A; O'Donnell, M J; Russell, R J; Galvin, N; Swan, J; Coleman, D C

    2015-10-01

    Decontaminating dental chair unit (DCU) suction systems in a convenient, safe and effective manner is problematic. This study aimed to identify and quantify the extent of the problems using 25 DCUs, methodically eliminate these problems and develop an efficient approach for reliable, effective, automated disinfection. DCU suction system residual contamination by environmental and human-derived bacteria was evaluated by microbiological culture following standard aspiration disinfection with a quaternary ammonium disinfectant or alternatively, a novel flooding approach to disinfection. Disinfection of multicomponent suction handpieces, assembled and disassembled, was also studied. A prototype manual and a novel automated Suction Tube Cleaning System (STCS) were developed and tested, as were novel single component suction handpieces. Standard aspiration disinfection consistently failed to decontaminate DCU suction systems effectively. Semi-confluent bacterial growth (101-500 colony forming units (CFU) per culture plate) was recovered from up to 60% of suction filter housings and from up to 19% of high and 37% of low volume suction hoses. Manual and automated flood disinfection of DCU suction systems reduced this dramatically (ranges for filter cage and high and low volume hoses of 0-22, 0-16 and 0-14CFU/plate, respectively) (P<0.0001). Multicomponent suction handpieces could not be adequately disinfected without prior removal and disassembly. Novel single component handpieces, allowed their effective disinfection in situ using the STCS, which virtually eliminated contamination from the entire suction system. Flood disinfection of DCU suction systems and single component handpieces radically improves disinfection efficacy and considerably reduces potential cross-infection and cross-contamination risks. DCU suction systems become heavily contaminated during use. Conventional disinfection does not adequately control this. Furthermore, multicomponent suction handpieces

  13. Miniature Lightweight Ion Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, Mahadeva P.

    2010-01-01

    This design offers a larger surface area for pumping of active gases and reduces the mass of the pump by eliminating the additional vacuum enclosure. There are three main components to this ion pump: the cathode and anode pumping elements assembly, the vacuum enclosure (made completely of titanium and used as the cathode and maintained at ground potential) containing the assembly, and the external magnet. These components are generally put in a noble diode (or differential) configuration of the ion pump technology. In the present state of the art, there are two cathodes, one made of titanium and the other of tantalum. The anodes are made up of an array of stainless steel cylinders positioned between the two cathodes. All the elements of the pump are in a vacuum enclosure. After the reduction of pressure in this enclosure to a few microns, a voltage is applied between the cathode and the anode elements. Electrons generated by the ionization are accelerated toward the anodes that are confined in the anode space by the axial magnetic field. For the generation of the axial field along the anode elements, the magnet is designed in a C-configuration and is fabricated from rare earth magnetic materials (Nd-B-Fe or Sm-Co) possessing high energy product values, and the yoke is fabricated from the high permeability material (Hiperco-50A composed of Fe-Co-V). The electrons in this region collide with the gas molecules and generate their positive ions. These ions are accelerated into the cathode and eject cathode material (Ti). The neutral atoms deposit on the anode surfaces. Because of the chemical activity of Ti, the atoms combine with chemically active gas molecules (e.g. N2, O2, etc.) and remove them. New layers of Ti are continually deposited, and the pumping of active gases is thus accomplished. Pumping of the inert gases is accomplished by their burial several atomic layers deep into the cathode. However, they tend to re-emit if the entrapping lattice atoms are

  14. Dielectric elastomer actuators for octopus inspired suction cups.

    PubMed

    Follador, M; Tramacere, F; Mazzolai, B

    2014-09-25

    Suction cups are often found in nature as attachment strategy in water. Nevertheless, the application of the artificial counterpart is limited by the dimension of the actuators and their usability in wet conditions. A novel design for the development of a suction cup inspired by octopus suckers is presented. The main focus of this research was on the modelling and characterization of the actuation unit, and a first prototype of the suction cup was realized as a proof of concept. The actuation of the suction cup is based on dielectric elastomer actuators. The presented device works in a wet environment, has an integrated actuation system, and is soft. The dimensions of the artificial suction cups are comparable to proximal octopus suckers, and the attachment mechanism is similar to the biological counterpart. The design approach proposed for the actuator allows the definition of the parameters for its development and for obtaining a desired pressure in water. The fabricated actuator is able to produce up to 6 kPa of pressure in water, reaching the maximum pressure in less than 300 ms.

  15. Octopus-like suction cups: from natural to artificial solutions.

    PubMed

    Tramacere, F; Follador, M; Pugno, N M; Mazzolai, B

    2015-05-13

    Octopus suckers are able to attach to all nonporous surfaces and generate a very strong attachment force. The well-known attachment features of this animal result from the softness of the sucker tissues and the surface morphology of the portion of the sucker that is in contact with objects or substrates. Unlike artificial suction cups, octopus suckers are characterized by a series of radial grooves that increase the area subjected to pressure reduction during attachment. In this study, we constructed artificial suction cups with different surface geometries and tested their attachment performances using a pull-off setup. First, smooth suction cups were obtained for casting; then, sucker surfaces were engraved with a laser cutter. As expected, for all the tested cases, the engraving treatment enhanced the attachment performance of the elastomeric suction cups compared with that of the smooth versions. Moreover, the results indicated that the surface geometry with the best attachment performance was the geometry most similar to octopus sucker morphology. The results obtained in this work can be utilized to design artificial suction cups with higher wet attachment performance.

  16. Large-capacity pump vaporizer for liquid hydrogen and nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauser, J. A.

    1970-01-01

    Pump vaporizer system delivers 500 standard cubic feet per minute of hydrogen or nitrogen, one system delivers both gases. Vacuum-jacketed pump discharges liquid hydrogen or liquid nitrogen into vaporizing system heated by ambient air. Principal characteristics of the flow and discharge system, pump, and vaporizer are given.

  17. Development of Subischial Prosthetic Sockets with Vacuum-Assisted Suspension for Highly Active Persons with Transfemoral Amputations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    materials to facilitate dissemination of this technique. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Transfemoral amputation, sub-ischial socket, prosthesis , vacuum-assisted...an appropriate mechanical pump to create suitable vacuum for suspension of the prosthesis ...sockets of highly active prosthesis users

  18. ELECTROMAGNETIC PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Pulley, O.O.

    1954-08-17

    This patent reiates to electromagnetic pumps for electricity-conducting fluids and, in particular, describes several modifications for a linear conduction type electromagnetic interaction pump. The invention resides in passing the return conductor for the current traversing the fiuid in the duct back through the gap in the iron circuit of the pump. Both the maximum allowable pressure and the efficiency of a linear conduction electromagnetic pump are increased by incorporation of the present invention.

  19. Safety System for Controlling Fluid Flow into a Suction Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, John Dwight (Inventor); Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Cronise, Raymond J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A safety system includes a sleeve fitted within a pool's suction line at the inlet thereof. An open end of the sleeve is approximately aligned with the suction line's inlet. The sleeve terminates with a plate that resides within the suction line. The plate has holes formed therethrough. A housing defining a plurality of distinct channels is fitted in the sleeve so that the distinct channels lie within the sleeve. Each of the distinct channels has a first opening on one end thereof and a second opening on another end thereof. The second openings reside in the sleeve. Each of the distinct channels is at least approximately three feet in length. The first openings are in fluid communication with the water in the pool, and are distributed around a periphery of an area of the housing that prevents coverage of all the first openings when a human interacts therewith.

  20. Spinal cord electrophysiology II: extracellular suction electrode fabrication.

    PubMed

    Garudadri, Suresh; Gallarda, Benjamin; Pfaff, Samuel; Alaynick, William

    2011-02-20

    Development of neural circuitries and locomotion can be studied using neonatal rodent spinal cord central pattern generator (CPG) behavior. We demonstrate a method to fabricate suction electrodes that are used to examine CPG activity, or fictive locomotion, in dissected rodent spinal cords. The rodent spinal cords are placed in artificial cerebrospinal fluid and the ventral roots are drawn into the suction electrode. The electrode is constructed by modifying a commercially available suction electrode. A heavier silver wire is used instead of the standard wire given by the commercially available electrode. The glass tip on the commercial electrode is replaced with a plastic tip for increased durability. We prepare hand drawn electrodes and electrodes made from specific sizes of tubing, allowing consistency and reproducibility. Data is collected using an amplifier and neurogram acquisition software. Recordings are performed on an air table within a Faraday cage to prevent mechanical and electrical interference, respectively.

  1. Spinal Cord Electrophysiology II: Extracellular Suction Electrode Fabrication

    PubMed Central

    Garudadri, Suresh; Gallarda, Benjamin; Pfaff, Samuel; Alaynick, William

    2011-01-01

    Development of neural circuitries and locomotion can be studied using neonatal rodent spinal cord central pattern generator (CPG) behavior. We demonstrate a method to fabricate suction electrodes that are used to examine CPG activity, or fictive locomotion, in dissected rodent spinal cords. The rodent spinal cords are placed in artificial cerebrospinal fluid and the ventral roots are drawn into the suction electrode. The electrode is constructed by modifying a commercially available suction electrode. A heavier silver wire is used instead of the standard wire given by the commercially available electrode. The glass tip on the commercial electrode is replaced with a plastic tip for increased durability. We prepare hand drawn electrodes and electrodes made from specific sizes of tubing, allowing consistency and reproducibility. Data is collected using an amplifier and neurogram acquisition software. Recordings are performed on an air table within a Faraday cage to prevent mechanical and electrical interference, respectively. PMID:21372792

  2. OSCILLATORY PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Underwood, N.

    1958-09-23

    This patent relates to a pump suitable fur pumping highly corrosive gases wherein no lubricant is needed in the pumping chamber thus eliminating possible contamination sources. The chamber contains a gas inlet and outlet in each side, with a paddle like piston suspended by a sylphon seal between these pcrts. An external arrangement causes the paddle to oscillate rapidly between the ports, alternately compressing and exhausting the gas trapped on each side of the paddle. Since the paddle does nnt touch the chamber sides at any point, no lubricant is required. This pump is useful for pumping large quantities of uranium hexafluorine.

  3. Vacuum system of the cyclotrons in VECC, Kolkata

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Anindya; Bhole, R.B.; Akhtar, J.

    2011-07-01

    The vacuum system of the K=130 Room Temperature Cyclotron (RTC) (operational since 1978) has been recently modernized and the same of the K{sub bend}=520 Superconducting Cyclotron (SCC), currently under commissioning, is being deployed for remote monitoring and control. The vacuum system of RTC is designed to achieve and maintain vacuum level of 2 X 10{sup -6} mbar inside 23 m{sup 3} volume of Resonator tank and DEE tank. This has been upgraded by replacing several valves, Freon units, gauges and pumps. The relay based manual control system has been replaced by PLC based automated system. The SCC vacuum system alsomore » has an elaborate arrangement comprising of turbo molecular pumping modules with associated isolation valves and characteristic gauges. This paper describes essential elements, typically used to obtain high (1X10{sup -7} mbar) vacuum using rotary pumps, diffusion pumps and cold traps/turbo-molecular pumps and other system components such as valves, gauges and baffles. The supervisory control methodology/scheme of both the vacuum systems, developed in-house using EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System), a standard open-source software tool for designing distributed control system, is also elaborated here. (author)« less

  4. Optimal Operation of a Josephson Parametric Amplifier for Vacuum Squeezing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malnou, M.; Palken, D. A.; Vale, Leila R.; Hilton, Gene C.; Lehnert, K. W.

    2018-04-01

    A Josephson parametric amplifier (JPA) can create squeezed states of microwave light, lowering the noise associated with certain quantum measurements. We experimentally study how the JPA's pump influences the phase-sensitive amplification and deamplification of a coherent tone's amplitude when that amplitude is commensurate with vacuum fluctuations. We predict and demonstrate that, by operating the JPA with a single current pump whose power is greater than the value that maximizes gain, the amplifier distortion is reduced and, consequently, squeezing is improved. Optimizing the singly pumped JPA's operation in this fashion, we directly observe 3.87 ±0.03 dB of vacuum squeezing over a bandwidth of 30 MHz.

  5. Comparison of vacuum and gravity sap flows from paired sugar maple trees

    Treesearch

    H. Clay Smith; Carter B. Gibbs

    1970-01-01

    Paired sugar maple trees with single tapholes were used to compare sap yields from vacuum-pumping with sap yields from gravity flow. Results indicated that vacuum yields were approximately twice as great as gravity flows. These results support previous findings from studies in which vacuum and gravity were compared with two tapholes on the same tree.

  6. Vacuum status-display and sector-conditioning programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skelly, J.; Yen, S.

    1990-08-01

    Two programs have been developed for observation and control of the AGS vacuum system, which include the following notable features: (1) they incorporate a graphical user interface and (2) they are driven by a relational database which describes the vacuum system. The vacuum system comprises some 440 devices organized into 28 vacuum sectors. The status-display program invites menu selection of a sector, interrogates the relational database for relevant vacuum devices, acquires live readbacks and posts a graphical display of their status. The sector-conditioning program likewise invites sector selection, produces the same status display and also implements process control logic on the sector devices to pump the sector down from atmospheric pressure to high vacuum over a period extending several hours. As additional devices are installed in the vacuum system, the devices are added to the relational database; these programs then automatically include the new devices.

  7. Germanium detector vacuum encapsulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madden, N. W.; Malone, D. F.; Pehl, R. H.; Cork, C. P.; Luke, P. N.; Landis, D. A.; Pollard, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes an encapsulation technology that should significantly improve the viability of germanium gamma-ray detectors for a number of important applications. A specialized vacuum chamber has been constructed in which the detector and the encapsulating module are processed in high vacuum. Very high vacuum conductance is achieved within the valveless encapsulating module. The detector module is then sealed without breaking the chamber vacuum. The details of the vacuum chamber, valveless module, processing, and sealing method are presented.

  8. Natural vacuum electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leggett, Nickolaus

    1990-01-01

    The ambient natural vacuum of space is proposed as a basis for electron valves. Each valve is an electron controlling structure similiar to a vacuum tube that is operated without a vacuum sustaining envelope. The natural vacuum electron valves discussed offer a viable substitute for solid state devices. The natural vacuum valve is highly resistant to ionizing radiation, system generated electromagnetic pulse, current transients, and direct exposure to space conditions.

  9. Vacuum system transient simulator and its application to TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Sredniawski, J.

    The vacuum system transient simulator (VSTS) models transient gas transport throughout complex networks of ducts, valves, traps, vacuum pumps, and other related vacuum system components. VSTS is capable of treating gas models of up to 10 species, for all flow regimes from pure molecular to continuum. Viscous interactions between species are considered as well as non-uniform temperature of a system. Although this program was specifically developed for use on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) project at Princeton, it is a generalized tool capable of handling a broad range of vacuum system problems. During the TFTR engineering design phase, VSTSmore » has been used in many applications. Two applications selected for presentation are: torus vacuum pumping system performance between 400 Ci tritium pulses and tritium backstreaming to neutral beams during pulses.« less

  10. Vacuum chamber-free centrifuge with magnetic bearings.

    PubMed

    Park, Cheol Hoon; Kim, Soohyun; Kim, Kyung-Soo

    2013-09-01

    Centrifuges are devices that separate particles of different densities and sizes through the application of a centrifugal force. If a centrifuge could be operated under atmospheric conditions, all vacuum-related components such as the vacuum chamber, vacuum pump, diffusion pump, and sealing could be removed from a conventional centrifuge system. The design and manufacturing procedure for centrifuges could then be greatly simplified to facilitate the production of lightweight centrifuge systems of smaller volume. Furthermore, the maintenance costs incurred owing to wear and tear due to conventional ball bearings would be eliminated. In this study, we describe a novel vacuum chamber-free centrifuge supported by magnetic bearings. We demonstrate the feasibility of the vacuum chamber-free centrifuge by presenting experimental results that verify its high-speed support capability and motoring power capacity.

  11. 75 FR 70112 - Medical Devices; General and Plastic Surgery Devices; Classification of Non-Powered Suction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... Suction Apparatus Device Intended for Negative Pressure Wound Therapy AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...- powered suction apparatus device intended for negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) into class II... ``Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Non-Powered Suction Apparatus Device Intended for Negative...

  12. Frostless heat pump having thermal expansion valves

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Fang C [Knoxville, TN; Mei, Viung C [Oak Ridge, TN

    2002-10-22

    A heat pump system having an operable relationship for transferring heat between an exterior atmosphere and an interior atmosphere via a fluid refrigerant and further having a compressor, an interior heat exchanger, an exterior heat exchanger, a heat pump reversing valve, an accumulator, a thermal expansion valve having a remote sensing bulb disposed in heat transferable contact with the refrigerant piping section between said accumulator and said reversing valve, an outdoor temperature sensor, and a first means for heating said remote sensing bulb in response to said outdoor temperature sensor thereby opening said thermal expansion valve to raise suction pressure in order to mitigate defrosting of said exterior heat exchanger wherein said heat pump continues to operate in a heating mode.

  13. Improved Aerogel Vacuum Thermal Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruemmele, Warren P.; Bue, Grant C.

    2009-01-01

    An improved design concept for aerogel vacuum thermal-insulation panels calls for multiple layers of aerogel sandwiched between layers of aluminized Mylar (or equivalent) poly(ethylene terephthalate), as depicted in the figure. This concept is applicable to both the rigid (brick) form and the flexible (blanket) form of aerogel vacuum thermal-insulation panels. Heretofore, the fabrication of a typical aerogel vacuum insulating panel has involved encapsulation of a single layer of aerogel in poly(ethylene terephthalate) and pumping of gases out of the aerogel-filled volume. A multilayer panel according to the improved design concept is fabricated in basically the same way: Multiple alternating layers of aerogel and aluminized poly(ethylene terephthalate) are assembled, then encapsulated in an outer layer of poly(ethylene terephthalate), and then the volume containing the multilayer structure is evacuated as in the single-layer case. The multilayer concept makes it possible to reduce effective thermal conductivity of a panel below that of a comparable single-layer panel, without adding weight or incurring other performance penalties. Implementation of the multilayer concept is simple and relatively inexpensive, involving only a few additional fabrication steps to assemble the multiple layers prior to evacuation. For a panel of the blanket type, the multilayer concept, affords the additional advantage of reduced stiffness.

  14. Miniature Scroll Pumps Fabricated by LIGA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiberg, Dean; Shcheglov, Kirill; White, Victor; Bae, Sam

    2009-01-01

    Miniature scroll pumps have been proposed as roughing pumps (low - vacuum pumps) for miniature scientific instruments (e.g., portable mass spectrometers and gas analyzers) that depend on vacuum. The larger scroll pumps used as roughing pumps in some older vacuum systems are fabricated by conventional machining. Typically, such an older scroll pump includes (1) an electric motor with an eccentric shaft to generate orbital motion of a scroll and (2) conventional bearings to restrict the orbital motion to a circle. The proposed miniature scroll pumps would differ from the prior, larger ones in both design and fabrication. A miniature scroll pump would include two scrolls: one mounted on a stationary baseplate and one on a flexure stage (see figure). An electromagnetic actuator in the form of two pairs of voice coils in a push-pull configuration would make the flexure stage move in the desired circular orbit. The capacitance between the scrolls would be monitored to provide position (gap) feedback to a control system that would adjust the drive signals applied to the voice coils to maintain the circular orbit as needed for precise sealing of the scrolls. To minimize power consumption and maximize precision of control, the flexure stage would be driven at the frequency of its mechanical resonance. The miniaturization of these pumps would entail both operational and manufacturing tolerances of <1 m. Such tight tolerances cannot be achieved easily by conventional machining of high-aspect-ratio structures like those of scroll-pump components. In addition, the vibrations of conventional motors and ball bearings exceed these tight tolerances by an order of magnitude. Therefore, the proposed pumps would be fabricated by the microfabrication method known by the German acronym LIGA ( lithographie, galvanoformung, abformung, which means lithography, electroforming, molding) because LIGA has been shown to be capable of providing the required tolerances at large aspect ratios.

  15. Tracheal Suctioning Improves Gas Exchange but not Hemodynamics in Asphyxiated Lambs with Meconium Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Lakshminrusimha, Satyan; Mathew, Bobby; Nair, Jayasree; Gugino, Sylvia F.; Koenigsknecht, Carmon; Rawat, Munmun; Nielsen, Lori; Swartz, Daniel D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Current neonatal resuscitation guidelines recommend tracheal suctioning of non-vigorous neonates born through meconium stained amniotic fluid. Methods We evaluated the effect of tracheal suctioning at birth in 29 lambs with asphyxia induced by cord occlusion and meconium aspiration during gasping. Results Tracheal suctioning at birth (n=15) decreased amount of meconium in distal airways (53±29 particles/mm2 lung area) compared to no-suction (499±109 particles/mm2, n=14, p<0.001). Three lambs in the suction group had cardiac arrest during suctioning requiring chest compressions and epinephrine. Onset of ventilation was delayed in the suction group (146±11 vs. 47±3 sec in no-suction group, p=0.005). There was no difference in pulmonary blood flow, carotid blood flow, pulmonary or systemic blood pressure between the two groups. Left atrial pressure was significantly higher in the suction group. Tracheal suctioning resulted in higher PaO2/FiO2 levels (122±21 vs. 78±10 mmHg) and ventilator efficiency index (0.3±0.05 vs.0.16±0.03). Two lambs in the no-suction group required inhaled NO. Lung 3-nitrotyrosine levels were higher in the suction group (0.65±0.03 ng/μg protein) compared to the no-suction group (0.47 ± 0.06). Conclusion Tracheal suctioning improves oxygenation and ventilation. Suctioning does not improve pulmonary/systemic hemodynamics or oxidative stress in an ovine model of acute meconium aspiration with asphyxia. PMID:25406897

  16. Impulse Pump

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-17

    APPLICATIONS [0002] None. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION (1) Field of the Invention [0003] The present invention relates to an impulse pump for generating...impulse pump 15. The sleeve bearings 98 are affixed to the head block 90 to ease axial motion while the plunger 72 is under torsional loads. [0041

  17. Axial Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor); Akkerman, James W. (Inventor); Aber, Gregory S. (Inventor); VanDamm, George Arthur (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Svejkovsky, Paul A. (Inventor); Benkowski, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A rotary blood pump includes a pump housing for receiving a flow straightener, a rotor mounted on rotor bearings and having an inducer portion and an impeller portion, and a diffuser. The entrance angle, outlet angle, axial and radial clearances of blades associated with the flow straightener, inducer portion, impeller portion and diffuser are optimized to minimize hemolysis while maintaining pump efficiency. The rotor bearing includes a bearing chamber that is filled with cross-linked blood or other bio-compatible material. A back emf integrated circuit regulates rotor operation and a microcomputer may be used to control one or more back emf integrated circuits. A plurality of magnets are disposed in each of a plurality of impeller blades with a small air gap. A stator may be axially adjusted on the pump housing to absorb bearing load and maximize pump efficiency.

  18. Radiation hard vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, Gordon E.

    1990-01-01

    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction.

  19. Radiation hard vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, Gordon E.

    1990-03-06

    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction.

  20. Suction-based grasping tool for removal of regular- and irregular-shaped intraocular foreign bodies.

    PubMed

    Erlanger, Michael S; Velez-Montoya, Raul; Mackenzie, Douglas; Olson, Jeffrey L

    2013-01-01

    To describe a suction-based grasping tool for the surgical removal of irregular-shaped and nonferromagnetic intraocular foreign bodies. A surgical tool with suction capabilities, consisting of a stainless steel shaft with a plastic handle and a customizable and interchangeable suction tip, was designed in order to better engage and manipulate irregular-shaped in-traocular foreign bodies of various sizes and physical properties. The maximal suction force and surgical capabilities were assessed in the laboratory and on a cadaveric eye vitrectomy model. The suction force of the water-tight seal between the intraocular foreign body and the suction tip was estimated to be approximately 40 MN. During an open-sky vitrectomy in a porcine model, the device was successful in engaging and firmly securing foreign bodies of different sizes and shapes. The suction-based grasping tool enables removal of irregular-shaped and nonferromagnetic foreign bodies. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Improved Vacuum Bazooka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockman, John

    2003-04-01

    This apparatus is a modification to the well-known "vacuum bazooka" (PIRA 2B30.70). My vacuum bazooka is easy to construct and demonstrate, requires no precise fittings, foil, or vacuum grease, and propels ping-pong balls at a tremendous velocity!

  2. The Classical Vacuum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Timothy H.

    1985-01-01

    The classical vacuum of physics is not empty, but contains a distinctive pattern of electromagnetic fields. Discovery of the vacuum, thermal spectrum, classical electron theory, zero-point spectrum, and effects of acceleration are discussed. Connection between thermal radiation and the classical vacuum reveals unexpected unity in the laws of…

  3. Submersible canned motor transfer pump

    DOEpatents

    Guardiani, Richard F.; Pollick, Richard D.; Nyilas, Charles P.; Denmeade, Timothy J.

    1997-01-01

    A transfer pump used in a waste tank for transferring high-level radioactive liquid waste from a waste tank and having a column assembly, a canned electric motor means, and an impeller assembly with an upper impeller and a lower impeller connected to a shaft of a rotor assembly. The column assembly locates a motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller assembly which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste, into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to cool and/or lubricate the radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the upper impeller and electric motor means grind large particles in the liquid waste flow. Slots in the static bearing member of the radial bearing assemblies further grind down the solid waste particles so that only particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass therethrough, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the transfer pump. The column assembly is modular so that sections can be easily assembled, disassembled and/or removed. A second embodiment employs a stator jacket which provides an alternate means for cooling the electric motor means and lubricating and/or cooling the bearing assemblies, and a third embodiment employs a variable level suction device which allows liquid waste to be drawn into the transfer pump from varying and discrete levels in the waste tank.

  4. Self-pumping impurity control

    DOEpatents

    Brooks, J.N.; Mattas, R.F.

    1983-12-21

    It is an object of the present invention to provide an apparatus for removing impurities from the plasma in a fusion reactor without an external vacuum pumping system. It is also an object of the present invention to provide an apparatus for removing the helium ash from a fusion reactor. It is another object of the present invention to provide an apparatus which removes helium ash and minimizes tritium recycling and inventory.

  5. Abdominal drainage following cholecystectomy: high, low, or no suction?

    PubMed Central

    McCormack, T. T.; Abel, P. D.; Collins, C. D.

    1983-01-01

    A prospective trial to assess the effect of suction in an abdominal drain following cholecystectomy was carried out. Three types of closed drainage system were compared: a simple tube drain, a low negative pressure drain, and a high negative pressure drain: 120 consecutive patients undergoing cholecystectomy were randomly allocated to one of the three drainage groups. There was no significant difference in postoperative pyrexia, wound infection, chest infection, or hospital stay. This study failed to demonstrate any clinically useful difference between high negative pressure, low negative pressure, and static drainage system were compared: a simple tube drain, a low negative used, suction is not necessary and a simple tube drain (greater than 6 mm internal diameter) is the most effective form of drainage. PMID:6614773

  6. Safety System for Controlling Fluid Flow into a Suction Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, John Dwight (Inventor); Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Cronise, Raymond J. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    A safety system includes a sleeve fitted within a pool's suction line at its inlet. The sleeve terminates with a plate that resides within the suction line. The plate has holes formed therethrough. A housing defining distinct channels is fitted in the sleeve so that the distinct channels lie within the sleeve. Each of the distinct channels has a first opening on one end thereof and a second opening on another end thereof. The second openings reside in the sleeve. The first openings are in fluid communication with the water in the pool, and are distributed around a periphery of an area of the housing that prevents coverage of all the first openings when a human interacts therewith. A first sensor is coupled to the sleeve to sense pressure therein, and a second pressure sensor is coupled to the plate to sense pressure in one of the plates' holes.

  7. Pumping Performance or RBCC Engine under Sea Level Static Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouchi, Toshinori; Tomioka, Sadatake; Kanda, Takeshi

    Numerical simulations were conducted to predict the ejector pumping performance of a rocket-ramjet combined-cycle engine under a take-off condition. The numerical simulations revealed that the suction airflow was chocked at the exit of the engine throat when the ejector rocket was driven by cold N2 gas at the chamber pressure of 3MPa. When the ejector-driving gas was changed from cold N2 gas to hot combustion gas, the suction performance decreased remarkably. Mach contours in the engine revealed that the rocket plume constricted when the driving gas was the hot combustion gas. The change of the area of the stream tube area seemed to induce the pressure rise in the duct and decreasing in the pumping performance.

  8. Suction and cohesion demise in desaturating granular medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueckel, T.; Mielniczuk, B.; El-Youssoufi, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    Continuum mechanics for unsaturated soils is based on the assumption of a one-to-one relationship betwee saturation degree and suction represented by the characteristic curve. Such curve commonly shows exceedingly high values of suction at saturation decreasing below 10%. We have performed a series of experiments on physical micro-structural models of 8-, 5, 4, 3, and 2-grain assemblies filled with water forming capillary, funicular and pendular bridges. Dynamic variables characterizing the evolution include: Laplace pressure, surface tension force, total intergralular force, contact angle and contact perimeter length. The Laplace pressure was calculated from the directly measured curvatures of interface surface for 2-grain bridges, and estimated from tomography stills for 3 grain bridges. The initial negative Laplace pressure (suction) as well as total intergranular force increase modestly at the begining of evaporation, but undergo an unstable decrease at the advanced stage, often with a jump in the force known as a Haines jumps since 1925. Laplace pressure turns into positive values prior to rupture for 2-grain bodies. For 3-grain bridges there is never an exceedingly high intergranular force of suction, reported in macro-scale experiments. For multiple-grain bodies there are two types of instabilities, depending on densitiy of the assembly and the Gaussian curvature (GC): at positive GC points it is thin-sheet instability, while at negative GC points instability is linked with air entry fingers, all associated with the split of assemblies into smaller isolated funicular, and eventually pendular bodies. The multi-grain bridges instabilities are linked to material drying cracking, the instabilities in 2 grain systems mean eventual loss of cohesion.

  9. Effect of Vacuum on Venous Drainage: an Experimental Evaluation on Pediatric Venous Cannulas and Tubing Systems.

    PubMed

    Vida, V L; Bhattarai, A; Speggiorin, S; Zanella, F; Stellin, G

    2014-01-01

    To observe how vacuum assisted venous drainage (VAVD) may influence the flow in a cardiopulmonary bypass circuit with different size of venous lines and cannulas. The experimental circuit was assembled to represent the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit routinely used during cardiac surgery. Wall suction was applied directly, modulated and measured into the venous reservoir. The blood flow was measured with a flow-meter positioned on the venous line. The circuit prime volume was replaced with group O date expired re-suspended red cells and Plasmalyte 148 to a hematocrit of 28% to 30%. In an open circuit with gravity siphon venous drain, angled cannulae drain more than straight ones regardless the amount of suction applied to the venous line (16 Fr straight cannula (S) drains 90 ml/min less than a 16 Fr angled (A) with a siphon gravity). The same flow can be obtained with lower cannula size and higher suction (i.e. 12 A with and -30 mmHg). Tables have been created to list how the flow varies according to the size of the cannulas, the size of the venous tubes, and the amount of suction applied to the system. Vacuum assisted venous drainage allows the use of smaller cannulae and venous lines to maintain a good venous return, which is very useful during minimally invasive approaches. The present study should be considered as a preliminary attempt to create a scientific-based starting point for a uniform the use of VAVD.

  10. Primary Total Knee Replacement: Is Suction a Portal of Infection?

    PubMed Central

    Budnar, Vijaya M; Amirfeyz, Rouin; Ng, Michael; Bannister, Gordon C; Blom, Ashley W

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Pulsed lavage during a total knee replacement usually leaves a pool of fluid on the surgical drapes. It is common practice to suck away this fluid using the same suction device used intra-operatively. This could be a cause of direct wound contamination. We hypothesised that bacteria contaminate fluid that collects around the foot in total knee replacement surgery and that suction equipment could be a portal of contamination. We also hypothesised that bacterial count in the fluid is lower if chlorhexidine, rather than saline, is used in the pulsed lavage. PATIENTS AND METHODS Forty patients undergoing primary total knee replacement were divided into two groups. The first group had pulsed lavage with normal saline and the second with 0.05% chlorhexidine. RESULTS At the end of the operation, 20 ml of fluid, pooled on the surgical drapes was aspirated and cultured for bacterial growth. None of the fluid samples showed bacterial growth. CONCLUSIONS Suction device used peri-operatively during knee replacement is unlikely to be a cause of wound contamination. Pulsed lavage with normal saline is as effective as lavage with chlorhexidine. PMID:19335972

  11. Low-Cost, Rugged High-Vacuum System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, Paul; Kline-Schoder, Robert

    2012-01-01

    A need exists for miniaturized, rugged, low-cost high-vacuum systems. Recent advances in sensor technology have led to the development of very small mass spectrometer detectors as well as other analytical instruments such as scanning electron microscopes. However, the vacuum systems to support these sensors remain large, heavy, and power-hungry. To meet this need, a miniaturized vacuum system was developed based on a very small, rugged, and inexpensive-to-manufacture molecular drag pump (MDP). The MDP is enabled by a miniature, very-high-speed (200,000 rpm), rugged, low-power, brushless DC motor optimized for wide temperature operation and long life. The key advantages of the pump are reduced cost and improved ruggedness compared to other mechanical hig-hvacuum pumps. The machining of the rotor and stators is very simple compared to that necessary to fabricate rotor and stator blades for other pump designs. Also, the symmetry of the rotor is such that dynamic balancing of the rotor will likely not be necessary. Finally, the number of parts in the unit is cut by nearly a factor of three over competing designs. The new pump forms the heart of a complete vacuum system optimized to support analytical instruments in terrestrial applications and on spacecraft and planetary landers. The MDP achieves high vacuum coupled to a ruggedized diaphragm rough pump. Instead of the relatively complicated rotor and stator blades used in turbomolecular pumps, the rotor in the MDP consists of a simple, smooth cylinder of aluminum. This will turn at approximately 200,000 rpm inside an outer stator housing. The pump stator comprises a cylindrical aluminum housing with one or more specially designed grooves that serve as flow channels. To minimize the length of the pump, the gas is forced down the flow channels of the outer stator to the base of the pump. The gas is then turned and pulled toward the top through a second set of channels cut into an inner stator housing that surrounds the

  12. Electrokinetic pump

    DOEpatents

    Patel, Kamlesh D.

    2007-11-20

    A method for altering the surface properties of a particle bed. In application, the method pertains particularly to an electrokinetic pump configuration where nanoparticles are bonded to the surface of the stationary phase to alter the surface properties of the stationary phase including the surface area and/or the zeta potential and thus improve the efficiency and operating range of these pumps. By functionalizing the nanoparticles to change the zeta potential the electrokinetic pump is rendered capable of operating with working fluids having pH values that can range from 2-10 generally and acidic working fluids in particular. For applications in which the pump is intended to handle highly acidic solutions latex nanoparticles that are quaternary amine functionalized can be used.

  13. Indian Vacuum Society: The Indian Vacuum Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, T. K.

    2008-03-01

    The Indian Vacuum Society (IVS) was established in 1970. It has over 800 members including many from Industry and R & D Institutions spread throughout India. The society has an active chapter at Kolkata. The society was formed with the main aim to promote, encourage and develop the growth of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications in India. In order to achieve this aim it has conducted a number of short term courses at graduate and technician levels on vacuum science and technology on topics ranging from low vacuum to ultrahigh vacuum So far it has conducted 39 such courses at different parts of the country and imparted training to more than 1200 persons in the field. Some of these courses were in-plant training courses conducted on the premises of the establishment and designed to take care of the special needs of the establishment. IVS also regularly conducts national and international seminars and symposia on vacuum science and technology with special emphasis on some theme related to applications of vacuum. A large number of delegates from all over India take part in the deliberations of such seminars and symposia and present their work. IVS also arranges technical visits to different industries and research institutes. The society also helped in the UNESCO sponsored post-graduate level courses in vacuum science, technology and applications conducted by Mumbai University. The society has also designed a certificate and diploma course for graduate level students studying vacuum science and technology and has submitted a syllabus to the academic council of the University of Mumbai for their approval, we hope that some colleges affiliated to the university will start this course from the coming academic year. IVS extended its support in standardizing many of the vacuum instruments and played a vital role in helping to set up a Regional Testing Centre along with BARC. As part of the development of vacuum education, the society arranges the participation of

  14. Water Pump Development for the EVA PLSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuller, Michael; Kurwitz, Cable; Goldman, Jeff; Morris, Kim; Trevino, Luis

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the effort by the Texas Engineering Experiment Station (TEES) and Honeywell for NASA to design, fabricate, and test a preflight prototype pump for use in the Extravehicular activity (EVA) portable life support subsystem (PLSS). Major design decisions were driven by the need to reduce the pump s mass, power, and volume compared to the existing PLSS pump. In addition, the pump will accommodate a much wider range of abnormal conditions than the existing pump, including vapor/gas bubbles and increased pressure drop when employed to cool two suits simultaneously. A positive displacement, external gear type pump was selected because it offers the most compact and highest efficiency solution over the required range of flow rates and pressure drops. An additional benefit of selecting a gear pump design is that it is self priming and capable of ingesting noncondensable gas without becoming "air locked." The chosen pump design consists of a 28 V DC, brushless, sealless, permanent magnet motor driven, external gear pump that utilizes a Honeywell development that eliminates the need for magnetic coupling. Although the planned flight unit will use a sensorless motor with custom designed controller, the preflight prototype to be provided for this project incorporates Hall effect sensors, allowing an interface with a readily available commercial motor controller. This design approach reduced the cost of this project and gives NASA more flexibility in future PLSS laboratory testing. The pump design was based on existing Honeywell designs, but incorporated features specifically for the PLSS application, including all of the key features of the flight pump. Testing at TEES will simulate the vacuum environment in which the flight pump will operate. Testing will verify that the pump meets design requirements for range of flow rates, pressure rise, power consumption, working fluid temperature, operating time, and restart capability. Pump testing is currently

  15. Comparison the effects of shallow and deep endotracheal tube suctioning on respiratory rate, arterial blood oxygen saturation and number of suctioning in patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Abbasinia, Mohammad; Irajpour, Alireza; Babaii, Atye; Shamali, Mehdi; Vahdatnezhad, Jahanbakhsh

    2014-09-01

    Endotracheal tube suctioning is essential for improve oxygenation in the patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. There are two types of shallow and deep endotracheal tube suctioning. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of shallow and deep suctioning methods on respiratory rate (RR), arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) and number of suctioning in patients hospitalized in the intensive care units of Al-Zahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. In this randomized controlled trial, 74 patients who hospitalized in the intensive care units of Isfahan Al-Zahra Hospital were randomly allocated to the shallow and deep suctioning groups. RR and SpO2 were measured immediately before, immediately after, 1 and 3 minute after each suctioning. Number of suctioning was also noted in each groups. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA), chi-square and independent t-tests. RR was significantly increased and SpO2 was significantly decreased after each suctioning in the both groups. However, these changes were not significant between the two groups. The numbers of suctioning was significantly higher in the shallow suctioning group than in the deep suctioning group. Conclusion : Shallow and deep suctioning had a similar effect on RR and SpO2. However, shallow suctioning caused further manipulation of patient's trachea than deep suctioning method. Therefore, it seems that deep endotracheal tube suctioning method can be used to clean the airway with lesser manipulation of the trachea.

  16. Comparison the Effects of Shallow and Deep Endotracheal Tube Suctioning on Respiratory Rate, Arterial Blood Oxygen Saturation and Number of Suctioning in Patients Hospitalized in the Intensive Care Unit: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Abbasinia, Mohammad; Irajpour, Alireza; Babaii, Atye; Shamali, Mehdi; Vahdatnezhad, Jahanbakhsh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Endotracheal tube suctioning is essential for improve oxygenation in the patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. There are two types of shallow and deep endotracheal tube suctioning. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of shallow and deep suctioning methods on respiratory rate (RR), arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) and number of suctioning in patients hospitalized in the intensive care units of Al-Zahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 74 patients who hospitalized in the intensive care units of Isfahan Al-Zahra Hospital were randomly allocated to the shallow and deep suctioning groups. RR and SpO2 were measured immediately before, immediately after, 1 and 3 minute after each suctioning. Number of suctioning was also noted in each groups. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA), chi-square and independent t-tests. Results: RR was significantly increased and SpO2 was significantly decreased after each suctioning in the both groups. However, these changes were not significant between the two groups. The numbers of suctioning was significantly higher in the shallow suctioning group than in the deep suctioning group. Conclusion: Shallow and deep suctioning had a similar effect on RR and SpO2. However, shallow suctioning caused further manipulation of patient's trachea than deep suctioning method. Therefore, it seems that deep endotracheal tube suctioning method can be used to clean the airway with lesser manipulation of the trachea. PMID:25276759

  17. [Extendable Cords to Prevent Tumbling of a Suction Device during Craniotomy].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Satoru; Mochizuki, Takahiro; Osawa, Shigeyuki; Sekiguchi, Tomoko; Koizumi, Hiroyuki; Kumabe, Toshihiro

    2016-02-01

    Suction is necessary during craniotomy, and intraoperative tumbling of the suction device interrupts operative procedures. To avoid this, we developed a technique that would fasten the device to an extendable cord as is used to secure cell phones. We used this technique in more than 300 craniotomies at the specific point of time when the suction device tends to tumble, i. e., during the opening and closure of a wound, which requires frequent instrument exchanges. Extendable cords fastened to the tip of the suction hose using a gift tie were attached to the drapes to secure the suction device next to the operative field. During the operation, the extendable cord followed the suction device manipulations. Consequently, although there was some tension in the cord during its extension, the maneuverability of the suction device was maintained. As the hanging suction device was closer to the operative field than devices stored in conventional pockets, its manipulation was easier and quicker. Upon release, the suction device automatically returned to its original position without distracting the surgeon. Tumbling of the device was prevented, and there were no procedure-related complications. Our simple modification using extendable cords prevented tumbling, avoided unnecessary replacements, and eased the manipulation of a suction device.

  18. Determination of Kicker Vacuum Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, Martin E.

    This note examines the effect of elevated vacuum pressures in the kicker region of the DARHT 2nd Axis which can lead to changes in the beam tune due to the long pulse length. The kicker uses Rexolite as an insulator supporting the electrodes. Rexolite is hygroscopic resulting is a large outgassing rate and prolonged pump down times after exposure to atmospheric conditions. LAMDA [1] is used to simulate the effect of ionization of the residual gas resulting in partial space charge neutralization and changes to the tune between the beginning and end of the pulse. The effect of the ion-hosemore » instability is also examined. The purpose of this note is to establish/validate the required pressure in the downstream transport.« less

  19. Evaluation of Ti-Zr-V (NEG) Thin Films for their pumping speed and pumping Capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansod, Tripti; Sindal, B. K.; Kumar, K. V. A. N. P. S.; Shukla, S. K.

    2012-11-01

    Deposition of NEG thin films onto the interior walls of the vacuum chambers is an advanced technique to convert a vacuum chamber from a gas source to an effective pump. These films offer considerably large pumping speed for reactive gases like CO, H2 etc. A UHV compatible pumping speed measurement system was developed in-house to measure the pumping speed of NEG coated chambers. To inject the fixed quantity of CO and H2 gas in pumping speed measurement set-up a calibrated leak was also developed. Stainless steel chambers were sputter coated with thin film of Ti-Zr-V getter material using varied parameters for different compositions and thickness. Pumping capacity which is a function of sorbed gas quantities was also studied at various activation temperatures. In order to optimize the activation temperature for maximum pumping speed for CO and H2, pumping speeds were measured at room temperature after activation at different temperatures. The experimental system detail, pumping performance of the NEG film at various activation temperatures and RGA analysis are presented.

  20. Overall behaviour of PFC integrated SST-1 vacuum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Ziauddin; Raval, Dilip C.; Paravasu, Yuvakiran; Semwal, Pratibha; Dhanani, Kalpeshkumar R.; George, Siju; Shoaib, Mohammad; Prakash, Arun; Babu, Gattu R.; Thankey, Prashant; Pathan, Firozkhan S.; Pradhan, Subrata

    2017-04-01

    As a part of phase-I up-gradation of Steady-state Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1), Graphite Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) have been integrated inside SST-1 vacuum vessel as a first wall (FW) during Nov 14 and May 2015. The SST-1 FW has a total surface area of the installed PFCs exposed to plasma is ∼ 40 m2 which is nearly 50% of the total surface area of stainless steel vacuum chamber (∼75 m2). The volume of the vessel within the PFCs is ∼ 16 m3. After the integration of PFCs, the entire vessel as well as the PFC cooling/baking circuits has been qualified with an integrated helium leak tightness of < 1.0 x 10-8 mbar 1/s. The pumping system of the SST-1 vacuum vessel comprises of one number of Roots’ pump, four numbers of turbomolecular pumps and a cryopump. After the initial pump down, the PFCs were baked at 250 °C for nearly 20 hours employing hot nitrogen gas to remove the absorbed water vapours. Thereafter, Helium glow discharges cleaning were carried out towards the removal of surface impurities. The pump down characteristics of SST-1 vacuum chamber and the changes in the residual gaseous impurities after the installation of the PFCs will be discussed in this paper.

  1. Cleaning of a thermal vacuum chamber with shrouds in place

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, William R.

    1992-01-01

    In February, 1991, a failure of a rotary booster pump caused the diffusion pumps to backstream into a 10 ft x 15 ft thermal vacuum chamber. Concerns existed about the difficulty of removing and reinstalling the shrouds without causing leaks. The time required for the shroud removal was also of concern. These concerns prompted us to attempt to clean the chamber without removing the shrouds.

  2. Differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, Benjamin C.; Kenttamaa, Hilkka I.

    The present disclosure provides a new tandem mass spectrometer and methods of using the same for analyzing charged particles. The differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer of the present disclose includes a combination of two linear quadrupole (LQIT) mass spectrometers with differentially pumped vacuum chambers.

  3. Femtosecond Laser in situ Keratomileusis Flap Creation in Narrow Palpebral Fissure Eyes without Suction.

    PubMed

    Chang, John S M; Law, Antony K P; Ng, Jack C M; Cheng, May S Y

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate a surgical technique used in eyes with narrow palpebral fissure undergoing femtosecond laser flap creation without suction during laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). All data of 2 patient groups were collected through chart review. Group 1 consisted of 6 eyes with narrow palpebral fissure in which the suction ring was manually fixated and femtosecond laser was applied accordingly. Thirty comparison cases were randomly drawn from among eyes that underwent a standard LASIK procedure matched for age and preoperative refraction (group 2). Only 1 eye of each patient was selected to compare the refractive and visual outcomes between groups. In all group 1 eyes, the flaps were created successfully with manual fixation of the suction ring without suction. No eyes lost 2 or more lines of vision. No significant difference was found in the safety and refractive outcomes between groups. Manual fixation of the suction ring in eyes with narrow palpebral fissure without suction was feasible for flap creation during LASIK.

  4. Vacuum probe surface sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahlava, B. A. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A vacuum probe surface sampler is described for rapidly sampling relatively large surface areas which possess relatively light loading densities of micro-organism, drug particles or the like. A vacuum head with a hollow handle connected to a suitable vacuum source is frictionally attached to a cone assembly terminating in a flared tip adapted to be passed over the surface to be sampled. A fine mesh screen carried by the vacuum head provides support for a membrane filter which collects the microorganisms or other particles. The head assembly is easily removed from the cone assembly without contacting the cone assembly with human hands.

  5. An application of the suction analog for the analysis of asymmetric flow situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckring, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    A recent extension of the suction analogy for estimation of vortex loads on asymmetric configurations is reviewed. This extension includes asymmetric augmented vortex lift and the forward sweep effect on side edge suction. Application of this extension to a series of skewed wings has resulted in an improved estimating capability for a wide range of asymmetric flow situations. Hence, the suction analogy concept now has more general applicability for subsonic lifting surface analysis.

  6. Massive aspiration past the tracheal tube cuff caused by closed tracheal suction system.

    PubMed

    Dave, Mital H; Frotzler, Angela; Madjdpour, Caveh; Koepfer, Nelly; Weiss, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Aspiration past the tracheal tube cuff has been recognized to be a risk factor for the development of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). This study investigated the effect of closed tracheal suctioning on aspiration of fluid past the tracheal tube cuff in an in vitro benchtop model. High-volume low pressure tube cuffs of 7.5 mm internal diameter (ID) were placed in a 22 mm ID artificial trachea connected to a test lung. Positive pressure ventilation (PPV) with 15 cm H₂O peak inspiratory pressure and 5 cm H₂O positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) was used. A closed tracheal suction system (CTSS) catheter (size 14Fr) was attached to the tracheal tube and suction was performed for 5, 10, 15, or 20 seconds under 200 or 300 cm H₂O suction pressures. Amount of fluid (mL) aspirated along the tube cuff and the airway pressure changes were recorded for each suction procedure. Fluid aspiration during different suction conditions was compared using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney test (Bonferroni correction [α = .01]). During 10, 15, and 20 seconds suction, airway pressure consistently dropped down to -8 to -13 cm H₂O (P < .001) from the preset level. Fluid aspiration was never observed under PPV + PEEP but occurred always during suctioning. Aspiration along the tube cuff was higher with -300 cm H₂O than with -200 cm H₂O suction pressure (P < .001) and was much more during 15 and 20 seconds suction time as compared to 5 seconds (P < .001). Massive aspiration of fluid occurs along the tracheal tube cuff during suction with the closed tracheal suction system. © SAGE Publications 2011.

  7. Necessity of Surgical Site Closed Suction Drain for Pterional Craniotomy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Su Yong; Yoon, Sung Min; Yoo, Chan Jong; Kim, Young Bo; Kim, Woo Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess the benefit of using a prophylactic surgical site closed suction drain in pterional craniotomy. Materials and Methods A retrospective review was conducted on 607 consecutive patients who underwent a pterional craniotomy for treatment of intracranial anterior circulation aneurysms over a 5-year period. Between January 2000 and December 2004, 607 patients were divided into two groups, those who had a prophylactic suction drain during closure of the surgical site (drain group, DG) and those who did not (non-drain group, NDG). Head computed tomography (CT) was taken routinely on postoperative day (POD) 1, 7, and 14. Patients' demographics, incidence of surgical site complications, and courses of surgical site healing which were evaluated radiologically by the thickness of the surgical site myocutaneous layer, were analyzed between DG and NDG. Results Patients' demographics and characteristics did not differ significantly between the two groups. The head CT showed that the degree of changes in the postoperative surgical site thickness was 148% at POD 1, 209% at POD 7, and 198% at POD 14 in DG, and 118% at POD 1, 152% at POD 7, and 158% at POD 14 in NDG compared to the preoperative value. Postoperative surgical site hematoma was 7.9% (22/274) in DG and 2.4% (8/333) in NDG. Conclusion Prophylactic use of an epidural and/or subgaleal closed suction drain does not appear to be necessary for prevention of postoperative surgical site hematoma as well as for promotion of surgical site healing in pterional craniotomy. PMID:26523255

  8. High efficiency pump for space helium transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasenbein, Robert; Izenson, Michael G.; Swift, Walter L.; Sixsmith, Herbert

    1991-01-01

    A centrifugal pump was developed for the efficient and reliable transfer of liquid helium in space. The pump can be used to refill cryostats on orbiting satellites which use liquid helium for refrigeration at extremely low temperatures. The pump meets the head and flow requirements of on-orbit helium transfer: a flow rate of 800 L/hr at a head of 128 J/kg. The overall pump efficiency at the design point is 0.45. The design head and flow requirements are met with zero net positive suction head, which is the condition in an orbiting helium supply Dewar. The mass transfer efficiency calculated for a space transfer operation is 0.99. Steel ball bearings are used with gas fiber-reinforced teflon retainers to provide solid lubrication. These bearings have demonstrated the longest life in liquid helium endurance tests under simulated pumping conditions. Technology developed in the project also has application for liquid helium circulation in terrestrial facilities and for transfer of cryogenic rocket propellants in space.

  9. Laminar free convection from a sphere with blowing and suction

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Mingjer; Chen, Gahokuang

    1987-05-01

    The effect of mass transfer on free convection from a vertical plate has been studied by Eichhorn (1960), Sparrow and Cess (1961), Merkin (1972), and Parikh (1974). Recently, Merkin (1975) gave an asymptotic series solution for two-dimensional bodies. Minkowycz and Sparrow (1979) studied a vertical cylinder in a natural convective flow. According to their conclusions, the heat transfer rate increases with suction and decreases with blowing. The present note is concerned with the study of the influence of Prandtl number and surface mass transfer on a steady, laminar, free convective flow over a sphere with nonuniform surface temperature or heatmore » flux.« less

  10. Motion compensation using a suctioning stabilizer for intravital microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Vinegoni, Claudio; Lee, Sungon; Gorbatov, Rostic; Weissleder, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Motion artifacts continue to present a major challenge to single cell imaging in cardiothoracic organs such as the beating heart, blood vessels, or lung. In this study, we present a new water-immersion suctioning stabilizer that enables minimally invasive intravital fluorescence microscopy using water-based stick objectives. The stabilizer works by reducing major motion excursions and can be used in conjunction with both prospective or retrospective gating approaches. We show that the new approach offers cellular resolution in the beating murine heart without perturbing normal physiology. In addition, because this technique allows multiple areas to be easily probed, it offers the opportunity for wide area coverage at high resolution. PMID:24086796

  11. An evaluation of a hubless inducer and a full flow hydraulic turbine driven inducer boost pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindley, B. K.; Martinson, A. R.

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the performance of several configurations of hubless inducers with a hydrodynamically similar conventional inducer and to demonstrate the performance of a full flow hydraulic turbine driven inducer boost pump using these inducers. A boost pump of this type consists of an inducer connected to a hydraulic turbine with a high speed rotor located in between. All the flow passes through the inducer, rotor, and hydraulic turbine, then into the main pump. The rotor, which is attached to the main pump shaft, provides the input power to drive the hydraulic turbine which, in turn, drives the inducer. The inducer, rotating at a lower speed, develops the necessary head to prevent rotor cavitation. The rotor speed is consistent with present main engine liquid hydrogen pump designs and the overall boost pump head rise is sufficient to provide adequate main pump suction head. This system would have the potential for operating at lower liquid hydrogen tank pressures.

  12. Electrokinetic pump

    DOEpatents

    Hencken, Kenneth R.; Sartor, George B.

    2004-08-03

    An electrokinetic pump in which the porous dielectric medium of conventional electrokinetic pumps is replaced by a patterned microstructure. The patterned microstructure is fabricated by lithographic patterning and etching of a substrate and is formed by features arranged so as to create an array of microchannels. The microchannels have dimensions on the order of the pore spacing in a conventional porous dielectric medium. Embedded unitary electrodes are vapor deposited on either end of the channel structure to provide the electric field necessary for electroosmotic flow.

  13. Heat pump system with selective space cooling

    DOEpatents

    Pendergrass, Joseph C.

    1997-01-01

    A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve.

  14. Heat pump system with selective space cooling

    DOEpatents

    Pendergrass, J.C.

    1997-05-13

    A reversible heat pump provides multiple heating and cooling modes and includes a compressor, an evaporator and heat exchanger all interconnected and charged with refrigerant fluid. The heat exchanger includes tanks connected in series to the water supply and a condenser feed line with heat transfer sections connected in counterflow relationship. The heat pump has an accumulator and suction line for the refrigerant fluid upstream of the compressor. Sub-cool transfer tubes associated with the accumulator/suction line reclaim a portion of the heat from the heat exchanger. A reversing valve switches between heating/cooling modes. A first bypass is operative to direct the refrigerant fluid around the sub-cool transfer tubes in the space cooling only mode and during which an expansion valve is utilized upstream of the evaporator/indoor coil. A second bypass is provided around the expansion valve. A programmable microprocessor activates the first bypass in the cooling only mode and deactivates the second bypass, and vice-versa in the multiple heating modes for said heat exchanger. In the heating modes, the evaporator may include an auxiliary outdoor coil for direct supplemental heat dissipation into ambient air. In the multiple heating modes, the condensed refrigerant fluid is regulated by a flow control valve. 4 figs.

  15. High negative pressure subcutaneous suction drain for managing debilitating subcutaneous emphysema secondary to tube thoracostomy for an iatrogenic post computed tomography guided transthoracic needle biopsy pneumothorax: Case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Zeeshan; Patel, Pinakin; Singh, Suresh; Sharma, Raj Govind; Somani, Pankaj; Gouri, Abdul Rauf; Singh, Shiv

    2016-01-01

    Subcutaneous emphysema is a common complication of tube thoracostomy. Though self-limiting, it should be treated when it causes palpebral closure, dyspnea, dysphagia or undue disfigurement resulting in anxiety and distress to the patient. A 72year old man who was a known case of COPD on bronchodilators developed a large pneumothorax and respiratory distress after a CT guided transthoracic lung biopsy done for a lung opacity (approx. 3×3cm) at the right hilar region on Chest X-ray. Within 24h of an urgent tube thoracostomy, patient developed intractable subcutaneous emphysema with closure of palpebral fissure and dyspnea unresponsive to increasing suction on chest tube. A subcutaneous fenestrated drain was placed mid-way between the nipple and clavicle in the mid-clavicular line bilaterally. Continuous negative suction (-150mmHg) resulted in immediate, sustained relief and complete resolution within 5days. Extensive and debilitating SE (subcutaneous emphysema) has to be treated promptly to relieve patient discomfort, dysphagia or imminent respiratory compromise. A variety of treatment have been tried including infraclavicular blow-hole incisions, subcutaneous drains +/- negative pressure suction, fenestrated angiocatheters, Vacuum assisted dressings and increasing suction on a pre-existing chest tube. We describe a high negative pressure subcutaneous suction drain which provides immediate and sustained relief in debilitating SE. Debilitating subcutaneous emphysema which causes distress, anxiety, palpebral closure, dyspnoea or dysphagia requires intervention. High negative pressure subcutaneous suction drain provides immediate and sustained relief in extensive and debilitating SE. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. The NASA Langley laminar-flow-control experiment on a swept, supercritical airfoil: Suction coefficient analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Cuyler W., Jr.; Harris, Charles D.; Harvey, William D.

    1991-01-01

    A swept supercritical wing incorporating laminar flow control at transonic flow conditions was designed and tested. The definition of an experimental suction coefficient and a derivation of the compressible and incompressible formulas for the computation of the coefficient from measurable quantities is presented. The suction flow coefficient in the highest velocity nozzles is shown to be overpredicted by as much as 12 percent through the use of an incompressible formula. However, the overprediction on the computed value of suction drag when some of the suction nozzles were operating in the compressible flow regime is evaluated and found to be at most 6 percent at design conditions.

  17. Main Vacuum Technical Issues of Evacuated Tube Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. P.; Li, S. S.; Wang, M. X.

    In the future, Evacuated Tube Transportation (ETT) would be built and faster than jets. ETT tube with diameter 2∼4m and length over 1000 km will be the largest scale vacuum equipment on earth. This paper listed some main vacuum technical issues to be solved in ETT as follow. How to build ultra-large-scale vacuum chamber like ETT tube with low cost and high reliability? How to pump gas out off the ETT tube in short time? How to release heat or reduce temperature in the vacuum tube? Hot to avoid vacuum electricity discharge? How to manufacture vehicles with airproof shells and equip the life support system? How to detect leakage and find leakage position efficiently and fast as possible? Some relative solutions and suggestions are put up.

  18. Pump room level, looking west in the service bay area. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pump room level, looking west in the service bay area. Cable trays and two ventilation fans (part of the evaporative-cooling system) are visible at right. The vacuum pump is in the center in front of a concrete partition, and a water discharge pipe is visible beyond the partition at left - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  19. Fastest predators in the plant kingdom: functional morphology and biomechanics of suction traps found in the largest genus of carnivorous plants

    PubMed Central

    Poppinga, Simon; Weisskopf, Carmen; Westermeier, Anna Sophia; Masselter, Tom; Speck, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the physics of plant movements, which describe the interplay between plant architecture, movement speed and actuation principles, is essential for the comprehension of important processes like plant morphogenesis. Recent investigations especially on rapid plant movements at the interface of biology, physics and engineering sciences highlight how such fast motions can be achieved without the presence of muscles, nerves and technical hinge analogies. The suction traps (bladders) of carnivorous bladderworts (Utricularia spp., Lentibulariaceae, Lamiales) are considered as some of the most elaborate moving structures in the plant kingdom. A complex interplay of morphological and physiological adaptations allows the traps to pump water out of their body and to store elastic energy in the deformed bladder walls. Mechanical stimulation by prey entails opening of the otherwise watertight trapdoor, followed by trap wall relaxation, sucking in of water and prey, and consecutive trapdoor closure. Suction can also occur spontaneously in non-stimulated traps. We review the current state of knowledge about the suction trap mechanism with a focus on architectonically homogeneous traps of aquatic bladderwort species from section Utricularia (the so-called ‘Utricularia vulgaris trap type’). The functional morphology and biomechanics of the traps are described in detail. We discuss open questions and propose promising aspects for future studies on these sophisticated ultra-fast trapping devices. PMID:26602984

  20. Fastest predators in the plant kingdom: functional morphology and biomechanics of suction traps found in the largest genus of carnivorous plants.

    PubMed

    Poppinga, Simon; Weisskopf, Carmen; Westermeier, Anna Sophia; Masselter, Tom; Speck, Thomas

    2015-11-24

    Understanding the physics of plant movements, which describe the interplay between plant architecture, movement speed and actuation principles, is essential for the comprehension of important processes like plant morphogenesis. Recent investigations especially on rapid plant movements at the interface of biology, physics and engineering sciences highlight how such fast motions can be achieved without the presence of muscles, nerves and technical hinge analogies. The suction traps (bladders) of carnivorous bladderworts (Utricularia spp., Lentibulariaceae, Lamiales) are considered as some of the most elaborate moving structures in the plant kingdom. A complex interplay of morphological and physiological adaptations allows the traps to pump water out of their body and to store elastic energy in the deformed bladder walls. Mechanical stimulation by prey entails opening of the otherwise watertight trapdoor, followed by trap wall relaxation, sucking in of water and prey, and consecutive trapdoor closure. Suction can also occur spontaneously in non-stimulated traps. We review the current state of knowledge about the suction trap mechanism with a focus on architectonically homogeneous traps of aquatic bladderwort species from section Utricularia (the so-called 'Utricularia vulgaris trap type'). The functional morphology and biomechanics of the traps are described in detail. We discuss open questions and propose promising aspects for future studies on these sophisticated ultra-fast trapping devices. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  1. Working in a Vacuum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathey, Allen

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses several myths about vacuum cleaners and offers tips on evaluating and purchasing this essential maintenance tool. These myths are: (1) Amps mean performance; (2) Everyone needs high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA): (3) Picking up a "bowling ball" shows cleaning power; (4) All vacuum bags are the same; (5)…

  2. Microfabricated triggered vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Roesler, Alexander W [Tijeras, NM; Schare, Joshua M [Albuquerque, NM; Bunch, Kyle [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-05-11

    A microfabricated vacuum switch is disclosed which includes a substrate upon which an anode, cathode and trigger electrode are located. A cover is sealed over the substrate under vacuum to complete the vacuum switch. In some embodiments of the present invention, a metal cover can be used in place of the trigger electrode on the substrate. Materials used for the vacuum switch are compatible with high vacuum, relatively high temperature processing. These materials include molybdenum, niobium, copper, tungsten, aluminum and alloys thereof for the anode and cathode. Carbon in the form of graphitic carbon, a diamond-like material, or carbon nanotubes can be used in the trigger electrode. Channels can be optionally formed in the substrate to mitigate against surface breakdown.

  3. Assessment of capillary suction time (CST) test methodologies.

    PubMed

    Sawalha, O; Scholz, M

    2007-12-01

    The capillary suction time (CST) test is a commonly used method to measure the filterability and the easiness of removing moisture from slurry and sludge in numerous environmental and industrial applications. This study assessed several novel alterations of both the test methodology and the current standard capillary suction time (CST) apparatus. Twelve different papers including the standard Whatman No. 17 chromatographic paper were tested. The tests were run using four different types of sludge including a synthetic sludge, which was specifically developed for benchmarking purposes. The standard apparatus was altered by the introduction of a novel rectangular funnel instead of a standard circular one. A stirrer was also introduced to solve the problem of test inconsistency (e.g. high CST variability) particularly for heavy types of sludge. Results showed that several alternative papers, which are cheaper than the standard paper, can be used to estimate CST values accurately, and that the test repeatability can be improved in many cases and for different types of sludge. The introduction of the rectangular funnel demonstrated an obvious enhancement of test repeatability. The use of a stirrer to avoid sedimentation of heavy sludge did not have statistically significant impact on the CST values or the corresponding data variability. The application of synthetic sludge can support the testing of experimental methodologies and should be used for subsequent benchmarking purposes.

  4. Adaptive Suction and Blowing for Twin-Tail Buffet Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandil, Osama A.; Yang, Zhi

    1999-01-01

    Adaptive active flow control for twin-tail buffet alleviation is investigated. The concept behind this technique is to place control ports on the tail outer and inner surfaces with flow suction or blowing applied through these ports in order to minimize the pressure difference across the tail. The suction or blowing volume flow rate from each port is proportional to the pressure difference across the tail at this location. A parametric study of the effects of the number and location of these ports on the buffet response is carried out. The computational model consists of a sharp-edged delta wing of aspect ratio one and swept-back flexible twin tail with taper ratio of 0.23. This complex multidisciplinary problem is solved sequentially using three sets of equations for the fluid flow, aeroelastic response and grid deformation, using a dynamic multi-block grid structure. The computational model is pitched at 30 deg angle of attack. The freestream Mach number and Reynolds number are 0.3 and 1.25 million, respectively. The model is investigated for the inboard position of the twin tails, which corresponds to a separation distance between the twin tails of 33% of the wing span. Comparison of the time history and power spectral density responses of the tails for various distributions of the control ports are presented and discussed.

  5. Kinematics of suction feeding in the seahorse Hippocampus reidi.

    PubMed

    Roos, Gert; Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Herrel, Anthony; Aerts, Peter

    2009-11-01

    Fish typically use a rostro-caudal wave of head expansion to generate suction, which is assumed to cause a uni-directional, anterior-to-posterior flow of water in the expanding head. However, compared with typical fish, syngnathid fishes have a remarkably different morphology (elongated snout, small hyoid, immobile pectoral girdle) and feeding strategy (pivot feeding: bringing the small mouth rapidly close to the prey by neurocranial dorsorotation). As a result, it is unclear how suction is generated in Syngnathidae. In this study, lateral and ventral expansions of the head were quantified in Hippocampus reidi and linked to the kinematics of the mouth, hyoid and neurocranium. In addition, the flow velocities inside the bucco-pharyngeal cavity and in front of the mouth were calculated. Our data suggest that the volume changes caused by lateral expansion are dominant over ventral expansion. Maximum gape, neurocranium rotation and hyoid depression are all reached before actual volume increase and before visible prey movement. This implies that, unlike previously studied teleosts, hyoid rotation does not contribute to ventral expansion by lowering the floor of the mouth during prey capture in H. reidi. The lateral volume changes show a rostro-caudal expansion, but the maximal flow velocity is not near the mouth aperture (as has been demonstrated for example in catfish) but at the narrow region of the buccal cavity, dorsal to the hyoid.

  6. Temperature Measurement in WTE Boilers Using Suction Pyrometers

    PubMed Central

    Rinaldi, Fabio; Najafi, Behzad

    2013-01-01

    The temperature of the flue-gas in the post combustion zone of a waste to energy (WTE) plant has to be maintained within a fairly narrow range of values, the minimum of which is prescribed by the European Waste Directive 2000/76/CE, whereas the maximum value must be such as to ensure the preservation of the materials and the energy efficiency of the plant. A high degree of accuracy in measuring and controlling the aforementioned temperature is therefore required. In almost the totality of WTE plants this measurement process is carried out by using practical industrial thermometers, such as bare thermocouples and infrared radiation (IR) pyrometers, even if affected by different physical contributions which can make the gas temperature measurements incorrect. The objective of this paper is to analyze errors and uncertainties that can arise when using a bare thermocouple or an IR pyrometer in a WTE plant and to provide a method for the in situ calibration of these industrial sensors through the use of suction pyrometers. The paper describes principle of operation, design, and uncertainty contributions of suction pyrometers, it also provides the best estimation of the flue-gas temperature in the post combustion zone of a WTE plant and the estimation of its expanded uncertainty. PMID:24248279

  7. Operative Treatment of Lymphedema Using Suction-Assisted Lipectomy.

    PubMed

    Greene, Arin K; Maclellan, Reid A

    2016-09-01

    Surgical management of lymphedema includes removal of affected tissues (excisional procedures), or operations that create new lymphatic connections (physiologic procedures). The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of one type of excisional procedure, suction-assisted lipectomy, for extremity lymphedema. Patients treated in our Lymphedema Program between 2007 and 2015 with liposuction that had postoperative follow-up were reviewed. The diagnosis of lymphedema was made by history/physical examination and confirmed with lymphoscintigraphy. Patient sex, age, type of lymphedema (primary or secondary), location of disease, infection history, volume of lipoaspirate, and reduction of extremity volume were recorded. Fifteen patients were included, mean age was 45 years (range, 17-71). Six patients had secondary upper extremity lymphedema, and 9 patients had lower limb disease. Eight patients had a history of repeated cellulitis involving the lymphedematous extremity. Mean lipoaspirate volume was 1612 mL (range, 1200-2800) for the upper extremity and 2902 mL (range, 2000-4800) for the lower limb. Postoperative follow-up averaged 3.1 years. The mean reduction in excess extremity volume was 73% (range, 48% to 94%), and patients reported improvement in their quality of life. Suction-assisted lipectomy is an effective technique to reduce extremity volume for patients with lymphedema.

  8. Flexible endoscopes: structure and function. The suction and biopsy channel.

    PubMed

    Holland, P

    2001-01-01

    Flexible endoscopes are complex medical instruments that are easily damaged. To maintain the flexible endoscope in optimum working condition, the user must have a thorough understanding of the structure and function of the instrument. This is the second in a series of articles presenting an in-depth look at the care and handling of the flexible endoscope. The first article discussed the air and water system. This article will focus specifically on the suction and biopsy channel system. The flexible endoscope is constructed of several systems that operate simultaneously to produce a highly technical, yet effective diagnostic and therapeutic medical device. These systems include the air and water system, the suction or operating channel system, the mechanical system, the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) elevator system, the optical system, and the electrical system. A review of the internal and external structure of the flexible endoscope and the functions of the channel system, including infection control issues, potential problems and evaluation, and prevention of minor problems to avoid expensive repairs, will be addressed.

  9. Design and performance of vacuum system for high heat flux test facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swamy Kidambi, Rajamannar; Mokaria, Prakash; Khirwadkar, Samir; Belsare, Sunil; Khan, M. S.; Patel, Tushar; Krishnan, Deepu S.

    2017-04-01

    High heat flux test facility (HHFTF) at IPR is used for testing thermal performance of plasma facing materials or components. It consists of various subsystems like vacuum system, high power electron beam system, diagnostic and calibration system, data acquisition and control system and high pressure high temperature water circulation system. Vacuum system consists of large D-shaped chamber, target handling system, pumping systems and support structure. The net volume of vacuum chamber is 5 m3 was maintained at the base pressure of the order of 10-6 mbar for operation of electron gun with minimum beam diameter which is achieved with turbo-molecular pump (TMP) and cryo pump. A variable conductance gate valve is used for maintaining required vacuum in the chamber. Initial pumping of the chamber was carried out by using suitable rotary and root pumps. PXI and PLC based faster real time data acquisition and control system is implemented for performing the various operations like remote operation, online vacuum data measurements, display and status indication of all vacuum equipments. This paper describes in detail the design and implementation of various vacuum system for HHFTF.

  10. Custom Unit Pump Development for the EVA PLSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuller, Michael; Kurwitz, Cable; Little, Frank; Oinuma, Ryoji; Larsen, Ben; Goldman, Jeff; Reinis, Filip; Trevino, Luis

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the effort by the Texas Engineering Experiment Station (TEES) and Honeywell for NASA to design and test a pre-flight prototype pump for use in the Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) portable life support subsystem (PLSS). Major design decisions were driven by the need to reduce the pump s mass, power, and volume compared to the existing PLSS pump. In addition, the pump must accommodate a much wider range of abnormal conditions than the existing pump, including vapor/gas bubbles and increased pressure drop when employed to cool two suits simultaneously. A positive displacement, external gear type pump was selected because it offers the most compact and highest efficiency solution over the required range of flow rates and pressure drops. An additional benefit of selecting a gear pump design is that it is self priming and capable of ingesting non-condensable gas without becoming air locked. The chosen pump design consists of a 28 V DC, brushless, seal-less, permanent magnet motor driven, external gear pump that utilizes a Honeywell development that eliminates the need for magnetic coupling. The pump design was based on existing Honeywell designs, but incorporated features specifically for the PLSS application, including all of the key features of the flight pump. Testing at TEES verified that the pump meets the design requirements for range of flow rates, pressure drop, power consumption, working fluid temperature, operating time, gas ingestion, and restart capability under both ambient and vacuum conditions. The pump operated at 40 to 240 lbm/hr flow rate, 35 to 100 oF pump temperature, and 5 to 10 psid pressure rise. Power consumption of the pump controller at the nominal operating point in both ambient and vacuum conditions was 9.5 W, which was less than the 12 W predicted. Gas ingestion capabilities were tested by injecting 100 cc of air into the fluid line; the pump operated normally throughout this test.

  11. 18. Electrically driven pumps in Armory Street Pump House. Pumps ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Electrically driven pumps in Armory Street Pump House. Pumps in background formerly drew water from the clear well. They went out of service when use of the beds was discontinued. Pumps in the foreground provide high pressure water to Hamden. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Armory Street Pumphouse, North side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  12. Vacuum and the electron tube industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redhead, P. A.

    2005-07-01

    The electron tube industry started with the patenting of the thermionic diode by John Ambrose Fleming in 1904. The vacuum technology used by the infant tube industry was copied from the existing incandescent lamp industry. The growing demands for electron tubes for the military in the first world war led to major improvements in pumps and processing methods. By the 1920s, mass production methods were developing to satisfy the demands for receiving tubes by the burgeoning radio industry. Further expansion in the 1930s and 1940s resulted in improvements in automatic equipment for pumping vacuum tubes leading to the massive production rates of electron tubes in the second world war and the following two decades. The demand for radar during the war resulted in the development of techniques for large-scale production of microwave tubes and CRTs, the latter technology being put to good use later in TV picture tube production. The commercial introduction of the transistor ended the massive demand for receiving tubes. This review concentrates on the vacuum technology developed for receiving tube production.

  13. APPARATUS FOR VACUUM DEPOSITION OF METALS

    DOEpatents

    Milleron, N.

    1962-03-13

    An apparatus and a method are described for continuous vacuum deposition of metals for metallic coatings, for ultra-high vacuum work, for purification of metals, for maintaining high-density electron currents, and for other uses. The apparatus comprises an externally cooled feeder tube extending into a container and adapted to feed metal wire or strip so that it emerges in a generally vertical position therein. The tube also provides shielding from the heat produced by an electron beam therein focused to impinge from a vertical direction upon the tip of the emerging wire. By proper control of the wire feed, coolant feed, and electron beam intensity, a molten ball of metal forms upon the emerging tip and remains self-supported thereon by the interaction of various forces. The metal is vaporized and travels in a line of sight direction, while additional wire is fed from the tube, so that the size of the molten ball remains constant. In the preferred embodiments, the wire is selected from a number of gettering metals and is degassed by electrical resistance in an adjacent chamber which is also partially evacuated. The wire is then fed through the feed tube into the electron beam and vaporizes and adsorbs gases to provide pumping action while being continuously deposited upon surfaces within the chamber. Ion pump electrodes may also be provided within line of sight of the vaporizing metal source to enhance the pumping action. (AEC)

  14. The vacuum system reform and test of the super-critical 600mw unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Tao; Wan, Zhonghai; Lu, Jin; Chen, Wen; Cai, Wen

    2017-11-01

    The deficiencies of the designed vacuum system of the super-critical unit is pointed out in this paper, and then it is reformed by the steam ejector. The experimental results show that the vacuum of the condenser can be improved, the coal consumption can be reduced and the plant electricity consumption can be lowered dramatically at a small cost of the steam energy consumption. Meanwhile, the water-ring vacuum pumps cavitation problems can be solved.

  15. Pre-compression volume on flow ripple reduction of a piston pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bing; Song, Yuechao; Yang, Huayong

    2013-11-01

    Axial piston pump with pre-compression volume(PCV) has lower flow ripple in large scale of operating condition than the traditional one. However, there is lack of precise simulation model of the axial piston pump with PCV, so the parameters of PCV are difficult to be determined. A finite element simulation model for piston pump with PCV is built by considering the piston movement, the fluid characteristic(including fluid compressibility and viscosity) and the leakage flow rate. Then a test of the pump flow ripple called the secondary source method is implemented to validate the simulation model. Thirdly, by comparing results among the simulation results, test results and results from other publications at the same operating condition, the simulation model is validated and used in optimizing the axial piston pump with PCV. According to the pump flow ripples obtained by the simulation model with different PCV parameters, the flow ripple is the smallest when the PCV angle is 13°, the PCV volume is 1.3×10-4 m3 at such operating condition that the pump suction pressure is 2 MPa, the pump delivery pressure 15 MPa, the pump speed 1 000 r/min, the swash plate angle 13°. At the same time, the flow ripple can be reduced when the pump suction pressure is 2 MPa, the pump delivery pressure is 5 MPa,15 MPa, 22 MPa, pump speed is 400 r/min, 1 000 r/min, 1 500 r/min, the swash plate angle is 11°, 13°, 15° and 17°, respectively. The finite element simulation model proposed provides a method for optimizing the PCV structure and guiding for designing a quieter axial piston pump.

  16. Submersible canned motor transfer pump

    DOEpatents

    Guardiani, R.F.; Pollick, R.D.; Nyilas, C.P.; Denmeade, T.J.

    1997-08-19

    A transfer pump is described which is used in a waste tank for transferring high-level radioactive liquid waste from a waste tank and having a column assembly, a canned electric motor means, and an impeller assembly with an upper impeller and a lower impeller connected to a shaft of a rotor assembly. The column assembly locates a motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller assembly which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste, into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to cool and/or lubricate the radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the upper impeller and electric motor means grind large particles in the liquid waste flow. Slots in the static bearing member of the radial bearing assemblies further grind down the solid waste particles so that only particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass there through, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the transfer pump. The column assembly is modular so that sections can be easily assembled, disassembled and/or removed. A second embodiment employs a stator jacket which provides an alternate means for cooling the electric motor means and lubricating and/or cooling the bearing assemblies, and a third embodiment employs a variable level suction device which allows liquid waste to be drawn into the transfer pump from varying and discrete levels in the waste tank. 17 figs.

  17. Experimental observation of intraocular pressure changes during microkeratome suctioning in laser in situ keratomileusis.

    PubMed

    Bissen-Miyajima, Hiroko; Suzuki, Shintaro; Ohashi, Yoshie; Minami, Keiichiro

    2005-03-01

    To observe changes in intraocular pressure (IOP), the manner in which the eye is suctioned, and the effect of the number of suction ports. Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Dental College, Suidobashi Hospital, Tokyo, Japan. Suction rings with single or dual ports were made of transparent acrylic acid resin to facilitate observation with a digital video camera. The IOP and the duration of the IOP increase (time to reach 90% of the maximum IOP) were measured in 6 porcine eyes with an intra-vein pressure-sensor catheter in the vitreous cavity. The IOP changes were recorded using a personal computer. Suctioning with single- and dual-port suction rings was similar. The IOP increases with single- and dual-port suction rings were similar (99.1 mm Hg +/- 6.1 [SD] and 99.0 +/- 6.5 mm Hg, respectively) (P=.987). The duration of the IOP increase was also similar (4.21 +/- 0.24 seconds and 4.12 +/- 0.33 seconds, respectively) (P=.190). The number of ports did not affect suctioning and changes in IOP. This technique is useful in developing the ideal shape and setting of the suction ring.

  18. Effects of suction dredging on streams: a review and an evaluation strategy

    Treesearch

    Bret C. Harvey; Thomas E. Lisle

    1998-01-01

    Abstract - Suction dredging for gold in river channels is a small-scale mining practice whereby streambed material is sucked up a pipe, passed over a sluice box to sort out the gold, and discarded as tailings over another area of bed. Natural resource managers should be concerned about suction dredging because it is common in streams in western North America that...

  19. Development of advanced stability theory suction prediction techniques for laminar flow control. [on swept wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srokowski, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    The problem of obtaining accurate estimates of suction requirements on swept laminar flow control wings was discussed. A fast accurate computer code developed to predict suction requirements by integrating disturbance amplification rates was described. Assumptions and approximations used in the present computer code are examined in light of flow conditions on the swept wing which may limit their validity.

  20. A Report on Deliverable Three: Determine a Standard Performance Test for Military Suction Device Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-09-20

    prehospital combat casualty care have unique performance requirements and should be tested in a manner that effectively simulates the anticipated...artificial airway or assisted ventilation . Loss of patient airway in tactical and combat environments commonly occurs. The proximate cause can be...points related to avoidance of adverse effects in the performance of suction:  There are no contraindications to suctioning, however prolonged

  1. 21 CFR 870.4270 - Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... blood filter. 870.4270 Section 870.4270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Devices § 870.4270 Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter is a device used as part of a gas exchange (oxygenator...

  2. 21 CFR 870.4270 - Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... blood filter. 870.4270 Section 870.4270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Devices § 870.4270 Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter is a device used as part of a gas exchange (oxygenator...

  3. 21 CFR 870.4270 - Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... blood filter. 870.4270 Section 870.4270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Devices § 870.4270 Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter is a device used as part of a gas exchange (oxygenator...

  4. 21 CFR 870.4270 - Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... blood filter. 870.4270 Section 870.4270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Devices § 870.4270 Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter is a device used as part of a gas exchange (oxygenator...

  5. 21 CFR 870.4270 - Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... blood filter. 870.4270 Section 870.4270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Devices § 870.4270 Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter is a device used as part of a gas exchange (oxygenator...

  6. 21 CFR 878.4680 - Nonpowered, single patient, portable suction apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... apparatus. 878.4680 Section 878.4680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND....4680 Nonpowered, single patient, portable suction apparatus. (a) Identification. A nonpowered, single patient, portable suction apparatus is a device that consists of a manually operated plastic, disposable...

  7. 21 CFR 878.4680 - Nonpowered, single patient, portable suction apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... apparatus. 878.4680 Section 878.4680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND....4680 Nonpowered, single patient, portable suction apparatus. (a) Identification. A nonpowered, single patient, portable suction apparatus is a device that consists of a manually operated plastic, disposable...

  8. Pump impeller

    SciTech Connect

    Wickoren, D.R.

    1990-02-27

    This patent describes an impeller for pumping highly viscous liquids. It comprises: a substantially circular drive plate having first and second sides, a geometric center, and a marginal edge. The drive plate being adapted for rotation within a pump housing; a plurality of symmetrical, evenly spaced blades extending radially outwardly to present a tip. Each of the blades being connected only to the drive plate and extending substantially normal thereto to present a sharpened top edge opposite the drive plate. Each of the blades including a leading face corresponding to the direction of rotation of the impeller during operation andmore » a trailing face oriented away from a direction of rotation of the impeller during operation thereof. Each of the blades including winglet means secured to the leading face thereof and located intermediate aid top edge and the drive plate and positioned more proximate to the top edge than to the drive plate.« less

  9. The effect of balance holes to centrifugal pump performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babayigit, O.; Ozgoren, M.; Aksoy, M. H.; Kocaaslan, O.

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze of a centrifugal pump with and without balance holes by using ANSYS-Fluent software. The pump used in the study is a commercial centrifugal pump consisting of two stages that is a model of Sempa Pump Company. Firstly, models of impeller, diffuser, suction and discharge sections of the centrifugal pump were separately drawn using Ansys and Solidworks software. Later, grid structures were generated on the flow volume of the pump. Turbulent flow volume was numerically solved by realizable k-є turbulence model. The flow analyses were focused on the centrifugal pump performance and the flow characteristics under different operational conditions with/without balance holes. Distributions of flow characteristics such as velocity and pressure distributions in the flow volume were also determined, numerically. The results of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) with/without balance holes for the pump head and hydraulic efficiency on the design flow rate of 80 m3/h were found to be 81.5/91.3 m and 51.9/65.3%, respectively.

  10. Systems and methods for analyzing liquids under vacuum

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Xiao-Ying; Yang, Li; Cowin, James P.; Iedema, Martin J.; Zhu, Zihua

    2013-10-15

    Systems and methods for supporting a liquid against a vacuum pressure in a chamber can enable analysis of the liquid surface using vacuum-based chemical analysis instruments. No electrical or fluid connections are required to pass through the chamber walls. The systems can include a reservoir, a pump, and a liquid flow path. The reservoir contains a liquid-phase sample. The pump drives flow of the sample from the reservoir, through the liquid flow path, and back to the reservoir. The flow of the sample is not substantially driven by a differential between pressures inside and outside of the liquid flow path. An aperture in the liquid flow path exposes a stable portion of the liquid-phase sample to the vacuum pressure within the chamber. The radius, or size, of the aperture is less than or equal to a critical value required to support a meniscus of the liquid-phase sample by surface tension.

  11. Redesigning the continuous vacuum sealer packaging machine to improve the processing speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belo, J. B.; Widyanto, S. A.; Jamari, J.

    2017-01-01

    Vacuum sealer as a product packaging tool of food products to be able to vacuum air inside the plastic which is filled with food products and it causes the pressure lower. In this condition, the optimal heating temperature is reached in a shorter time, so that damage on plastic sealer of vacuumed food products could be prevented to be more effective and efficient. The purpose of this redesigning is to design a vacuum sealer packaging machine continuously through a conveyor mechanism on the packaging quality, time of processing speed of vacuuming food product in the plastic package. This designing process is conducted through several steps of designing and constructing tools until the products are ready to operate. Data analysis is done through quality test of vacuum and sealer to the plastic thickness of 75 µm, 80 µm, and 100 µm with temperature of 170°C, 180°C, 190°C and vacuum duration of 5 seconds, 8 seconds, and 60 seconds. Results of this designing process indicate that vacuum sealer works practically and more optimally with the time of vacuum processing speed of 0 to 1 minute/s; whereas, the pressure of vacuuming suction is until 1e-5 MPa. The results of tensile strength test are at a maximum of 32,796 (N/mm2) and a minimum of 20,155 (N/mm2) and the analysis of plastic composite with EDX. This result shows that the vacuum pressure and the quality of vacuum sealer are better and more efficient.

  12. Audit of Endotracheal Tube Suction in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Davies, Kylie; Bulsara, Max K; Ramelet, Anne-Sylvie; Monterosso, Leanne

    2017-02-01

    We report outcomes of a clinical audit examining criteria used in clinical practice to rationalize endotracheal tube (ETT) suction, and the extent these matched criteria in the Endotracheal Suction Assessment Tool(ESAT)©. A retrospective audit of patient notes ( N = 292) and analyses of criteria documented by pediatric intensive care nurses to rationalize ETT suction were undertaken. The median number of documented respiratory and ventilation status criteria per ETT suction event that matched the ESAT© criteria was 2 [Interquartile Range (IQR) 1-6]. All criteria listed within the ESAT© were documented within the reviewed notes. A direct link was established between criteria used for current clinical practice of ETT suction and the ESAT©. The ESAT©, therefore, reflects documented clinical decision making and could be used as both a clinical and educational guide for inexperienced pediatric critical care nurses. Modification to the ESAT © requires "preparation for extubation" to be added.

  13. Effect of suction on the mechanical characteristics of uniformly compacted rammed earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Hajjar, A.; Chauhan, P.; Prime, N.; Plé, O.

    2018-04-01

    Rammed earth, in the current environmental situation, is an alternative construction technique which can help in reducing energy and raw material consumption owing to its “sustainable” characteristics. To fully understand its behavior and properties, recent scientific investigations consider it as a compacted unsaturated material with suction as its one of the main sources of strength. Eathern constructions face, over their lifetime, variations in the suction state which have a significant impact on their mechanical characteristics. In the present contribution, unconfined compression tests are performed, with and without unload-reload cycles, on homogeneously compacted samples subjected to various suction conditions. This study shows that both the unconfined compressive strength and Young modulus reduce with the reduction of suction states. Suction also seems to influence the amount of plastic strains and damage phenomenon. Indeed, the soils analyzed are slightly active and shows both plasticity behavior and damage phenomenon.

  14. Diffraction-limited storage-ring vacuum technology

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dmour, Eshraq; Ahlback, Jonny; Einfeld, Dieter; Tavares, Pedro Fernandes; Grabski, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Some of the characteristics of recent ultralow-emittance storage-ring designs and possibly future diffraction-limited storage rings are a compact lattice combined with small magnet apertures. Such requirements present a challenge for the design and performance of the vacuum system. The vacuum system should provide the required vacuum pressure for machine operation and be able to handle the heat load from synchrotron radiation. Small magnet apertures result in the conductance of the chamber being low, and lumped pumps are ineffective. One way to provide the required vacuum level is by distributed pumping, which can be realised by the use of a non-evaporable getter (NEG) coating of the chamber walls. It may not be possible to use crotch absorbers to absorb the heat from the synchrotron radiation because an antechamber is difficult to realise with such a compact lattice. To solve this, the chamber walls can work as distributed absorbers if they are made of a material with good thermal conductivity, and distributed cooling is used at the location where the synchrotron radiation hits the wall. The vacuum system of the 3 GeV storage ring of MAX IV is used as an example of possible solutions for vacuum technologies for diffraction-limited storage rings. PMID:25177979

  15. Construction of vacuum system for Tristan accumulation ring

    SciTech Connect

    Ishimaru, H.; Horikoshi, G.; Kobayashi, M.

    1983-08-01

    An all aluminum-alloy vacuum system for the TRISTAN accumulation ring is now under construction. Aluminum and aluminum alloys are preferred materials for ultrahigh vacuum systems of large electron storage rings because of their good thermal conductivity, extremely low outgassing rate, and low residual radioactivity. Vacuum beam chambers for the dipole and quadrupole magnets are extruded using porthole dies. The aluminum alloy 6063-T6 provides superior performance in extrusion. For ultrahigh vacuum performance, a special extrusion technique is applied which, along with the outgassing procedure used, is described in detail. Aluminum alloy 3004 seamless elliptical bellows are inserted between the dipole andmore » quadrupole magnet chambers. These bellows are produced by the hydraulic forming of a seamless tube. The seamless bellows and the beam chambers are joined by fully automatic welding. The ceramic chambers for the kicker magnets, the fast bump magnets, and the slow beam intensity monitor are inserted in the aluminum alloy beam chambers. The ceramic chamber (98% alumina) and elliptical bellows are brazed with brazing sheets (4003-3003-4003) in a vacuum furnace. The brazing technique is described. The inner surface of the ceramic chamber is coated with a TiMo alloy by vacuum evaporation to permit a smooth flow of the RF wall current. Other suitable aluminum alloy components, including fittings, feedthroughs, gauges, optical windows, sputter ion pumps, turbomolecular pumps, and valves have been developed; their fabrication is described.« less

  16. Beam vacuum system of Brookhaven`s muon storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Hseuth, H.C.; Snydstrup, L.; Mapes, M.

    1995-11-01

    A storage ring with a circumference of 45 m is being built at Brookhaven to measure the g-2 value of the muons to an accuracy of 0.35 ppm.. The beam vacuum system of the storage ring will operate at 10{sup -7} Torr and has to be completely non-magnetic. It consists of twelve sector chambers. The chambers are constructed of aluminum and are approximately 3.5 m in length with a rectangular cross-section of 16.5 cm high by 45 cm at the widest point. The design features, fabrication techniques and cleaning methods for these chambers are described. The beam vacuum system willmore » be pumped by forty eight non-magnetic distributed ion pumps with a total pumping speed of over 2000 {ell}/sec. Monte Carlo simulations of the pressure distribution in the muon storage region are presented.« less

  17. MMS Observatory Thermal Vacuum Results Contamination Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosecrans, Glenn P.; Errigo, Therese; Brieda, Lubos

    2014-01-01

    The MMS mission is a constellation of 4 observatories designed to investigate the fundamental plasma physics of reconnection in the Earths magnetosphere. Each spacecraft has undergone extensive environmental testing to prepare it for its minimum 2 year mission. The various instrument suites measure electric and magnetic fields, energetic particles, and plasma composition. Thermal vacuum testing was conducted at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in their Big Blue vacuum chamber. The individual spacecraft were tested and enclosed in a cryopanel enclosure called a Hamster cage. Specific contamination control validations were actively monitored by several QCMs, a facility RGA, and at times, with 16 Ion Gauges. Each spacecraft underwent a bakeout phase, followed by 4 thermal cycles. Unique aspects of the TV environment included slow pump downs with represses, thruster firings, Helium identification, and monitoring pressure spikes with Ion gauges. Various data from these TV tests will be shown along with lessons learned.

  18. Case study involving suctioning of an electromyographic endotracheal tube.

    PubMed

    Evanina, Eileen Youshock; Hanisak, Jill L

    2005-04-01

    The electromyographic endotracheal tube (EMG-ETT) is a relatively new tool used to measure integrity of the vocal cord structures during surgery. We describe a case in which an EMG-ETT was inserted for the operative period but not replaced with an ETT during the immediate postoperative period. Intensive care unit nurses had difficulty suctioning the EMG-ETT. The patient was not provided the pulmonary toilet necessary until the EMG-ETT was removed and replaced with a regular ETT. The purpose of this article is to make anesthesia providers aware that when mechanical ventilation is required during the postoperative period, the EMG-ETT should be removed and replaced with a regular ETT to facilitate pulmonary toilet.

  19. Cupping - is it reproducible? Experiments about factors determining the vacuum.

    PubMed

    Huber, R; Emerich, M; Braeunig, M

    2011-04-01

    Cupping is a traditional method for treating pain which is investigated nowadays in clinical studies. Because the methods for producing the vacuum vary considerably we tested their reproducibility. In a first set of experiments (study 1) four methods for producing the vacuum (lighter flame 2 cm (LF1), lighter flame 4 cm (LF2), alcohol flame (AF) and mechanical suction with a balloon (BA)) have been compared in 50 trials each. The cupping glass was prepared with an outlet and stop-cock, the vacuum was measured with a pressure-gauge after the cup was set to a soft rubber pad. In a second series of experiments (study 2) we investigated the stability of pressures in 20 consecutive trials in two experienced cupping practitioners and ten beginners using method AF. In study 1 all four methods yielded consistent pressures. Large differences in magnitude were, however, observed between methods (mean pressures -200±30 hPa with LF1, -310±30 hPa with LF2, -560±30 hPa with AF, and -270±16 hPa with BA). With method BA the standard deviation was reduced by a factor 2 compared to the flame methods. In study 2 beginners had considerably more difficulty obtaining a stable pressure yield than advanced cupping practitioners, showing a distinct learning curve before reaching expertise levels after about 10-20 trials. Cupping is reproducible if the exact method is described in detail. Mechanical suction with a balloon has the best reproducibility. Beginners need at least 10-20 trials to produce stable pressures. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fiber optic suctioning of urinary stone phantoms during laser lithotripsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackmon, Richard L.; Case, Jason R.; Trammell, Susan R.; Irby, Pierce B.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2013-03-01

    Fiber optic attraction of urinary stones during laser lithotripsy has been previously observed, and this phenomenon may potentially be exploited to pull stones inside the urinary tract without mechanical grasping tools, thus saving the urologist valuable time and space in the ureteroscope's single working channel. In this study, Thulium fiber laser (TFL) high-pulse-rate/low-pulse-energy operation and Holmium:YAG low-pulse-rate/high-pulse-energy operation are compared for fiber optic "suctioning" of Plaster-of-Paris stone phantoms. A TFL with wavelength of 1908 nm, pulse energy of 35 mJ, pulse duration of 500 μs, and pulse rate of 10-350 Hz, and Holmium laser with wavelength of 2120 nm, pulse energy of 35-360 mJ, pulse duration of 300 μs, and pulse rate of 20 Hz were tested using 270-μm-core fibers. A peak "pull" speed of 2.5 mm/s was measured for both TFL (35 mJ and 150-250 Hz) and Holmium laser (210 mJ and 20 Hz). Particle image velocimetry and thermal imaging were used to track water flow for all parameters. Fiber optic suctioning of urinary stone phantoms is feasible for both lasers. However, TFL operation at high-pulse-rates/low-pulse-energies provides faster, smoother stone pulling than Holmium operation at low-pulserates/ high-pulse-energies. After further study, this method may be used to manipulate urinary stones in the clinic.

  1. Effects of shallow and deep endotracheal tube suctioning on cardiovascular indices in patients in intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Irajpour, Alireza; Abbasinia, Mohammad; Hoseini, Abbas; Kashefi, Parviz

    2014-07-01

    Clearing the endotracheal tube through suctioning should be done to promote oxygenation. Depth of suctioning is one of the variables in this regard. In shallow suctioning method, the catheter passes to the tip of the endotracheal tube, and in deep suctioning method, it passes beyond the tip into the trachea or brunches. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of shallow and deep suctioning methods on cardiovascular indices in patients hospitalized in the intensive care units (ICUs). In this clinical trial, 74 patients were selected among those who had undergone mechanical ventilation in the ICU of Al-Zahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran using convenience sampling method. The subjects were randomly allocated to shallow and deep suctioning groups. Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were measured immediately before and 1, 2, and 3 min after each suctioning. Number of times of suctioning was also noted in both the groups. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), Chi-square and independent t-tests. HR and BP were significantly increased after suctioning in both the groups (P < 0.05). But these changes were not significant between the two groups (P > 0.05). The suctioning count was significantly higher in the shallow suctioning group than in the deep suctioning group. Shallow and deep suctioning were similar in their effects on HR and BP, but shallow suctioning caused further manipulation of patient's trachea than deep suctioning method. Therefore, in order to prevent complications, nurses are recommended to perform the endotracheal tube suctioning by the deep method.

  2. Infrared detector Dewars - Increased LN2 hold time and vacuum jacket life spans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, D. E.; Boyd, W. J.; Blass, W. E.

    1976-01-01

    IR detector Dewars commonly suffer from shorter than desired LN2 hold times and insulation jacket vacuum corruption over relatively short time periods. In an attempt to solve this problem for a 9144 detector Dewar, small 1 liter/s appendage ion pumps were selected for continuous pumping of the vacuum jackets. This procedure extended LN2 hold times from 20 to 60 h and virtually eliminated vacuum jacket corruption. Thus the detector systems are usable continuously over periods of 6 months or more.

  3. Vacuum-assisted closure therapy in the management of lung abscess.

    PubMed

    Sziklavari, Zsolt; Ried, Michael; Hofmann, Hans-Stefan

    2014-09-06

    Despite significant advances in the treatment of thoracic infections, complex lung abscess remains a problem in modern thoracic surgery. We describe the novel application of vacuum-assisted closure for the treatment of a lung abscess. The technical details and preliminary results are reported. After the initial failed conservative treatment of an abscess, minimally invasive surgical intervention was performed with vacuum-assisted closure. The vacuum sponges were inserted in the abscess cavity at the most proximal point to the pleural surface. The intercostal space of the chest wall above the entering place was secured by a soft tissue retractor. The level of suction was initially set to 100 mm Hg, with a maximum suction of 125 mm Hg. The sponge was changed once on the 3rd postoperative day. The abscess cavity was rapidly cleaned and decreased in size. The mini-thoracotomy could be closed on the 9th postoperative day. Closure of the cavity was simple, without any short- or long-term treatment failure. This technique reduced the trauma associated with the procedure. The patient was discharged on the 11th postoperative day. Vacuum-assisted closure systems should be considered for widespread use as an alternative option for the treatment of complicated pulmonary abscess in elderly, debilitated, immunocompromised patients after failed conservative treatment.

  4. Ultra-high vacuum photoelectron linear accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Yu, David U.L.; Luo, Yan

    2013-07-16

    An rf linear accelerator for producing an electron beam. The outer wall of the rf cavity of said linear accelerator being perforated to allow gas inside said rf cavity to flow to a pressure chamber surrounding said rf cavity and having means of ultra high vacuum pumping of the cathode of said rf linear accelerator. Said rf linear accelerator is used to accelerate polarized or unpolarized electrons produced by a photocathode, or to accelerate thermally heated electrons produced by a thermionic cathode, or to accelerate rf heated field emission electrons produced by a field emission cathode.

  5. Space simulation ultimate pressure lowered two decades by removal of diffusion pump oil contaminants during operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buggele, A. E.

    1973-01-01

    The complex problem why large space simulation chambers do not realize the true ultimate vacuum was investigated. Some contaminating factors affecting diffusion pump performance have been identified and some advances in vacuum/distillation/fractionation technology have been achieved which resulted in a two decade or more lower ultimate pressure. Data are presented to show the overall or individual contaminating effect of commonly used phthalate ester plasticizers of 390 to 530 molecular weight on diffusion pump performance. Methods for removing contaminants from diffusion pump silicone oil during operation and reclaiming contaminated oil by high vacuum molecular distillation are described.

  6. 21 CFR 878.4683 - Non-Powered suction apparatus device intended for negative pressure wound therapy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Non-Powered suction apparatus device intended for... Surgical Devices § 878.4683 Non-Powered suction apparatus device intended for negative pressure wound therapy. (a) Identification. A non-powered suction apparatus device intended for negative pressure wound...

  7. Electric field divertor plasma pump

    DOEpatents

    Schaffer, Michael J.

    1994-01-01

    An electric field plasma pump includes a toroidal ring bias electrode (56) positioned near the divertor strike point of a poloidal divertor of a tokamak (20), or similar plasma-confining apparatus. For optimum plasma pumping, the separatrix (40) of the poloidal divertor contacts the ring electrode (56), which then also acts as a divertor plate. A plenum (54) or other duct near the electrode (56) includes an entrance aperture open to receive electrically-driven plasma. The electrode (56) is insulated laterally with insulators (63,64), one of which (64) is positioned opposite the electrode at the entrance aperture. An electric field E is established between the ring electrode (56) and a vacuum vessel wall (22), with the polarity of the bias applied to the electrode being relative to the vessel wall selected such that the resultant electric field E interacts with the magnetic field B already existing in the tokamak to create an E.times.B/B.sup.2 drift velocity that drives plasma into the entrance aperture. The pumped plasma flow into the entrance aperture is insensitive to variations, intentional or otherwise, of the pump and divertor geometry. Pressure buildups in the plenum or duct connected to the entrance aperture in excess of 10 mtorr are achievable.

  8. Electric field divertor plasma pump

    DOEpatents

    Schaffer, M.J.

    1994-10-04

    An electric field plasma pump includes a toroidal ring bias electrode positioned near the divertor strike point of a poloidal divertor of a tokamak, or similar plasma-confining apparatus. For optimum plasma pumping, the separatrix of the poloidal divertor contacts the ring electrode, which then also acts as a divertor plate. A plenum or other duct near the electrode includes an entrance aperture open to receive electrically-driven plasma. The electrode is insulated laterally with insulators, one of which is positioned opposite the electrode at the entrance aperture. An electric field E is established between the ring electrode and a vacuum vessel wall, with the polarity of the bias applied to the electrode being relative to the vessel wall selected such that the resultant electric field E interacts with the magnetic field B already existing in the tokamak to create an E [times] B/B[sup 2] drift velocity that drives plasma into the entrance aperture. The pumped plasma flow into the entrance aperture is insensitive to variations, intentional or otherwise, of the pump and divertor geometry. Pressure buildups in the plenum or duct connected to the entrance aperture in excess of 10 mtorr are achievable. 11 figs.

  9. Effect of pumping pressure on onset of lactation after caesarean section: A randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Yang, Yahui; Bai, Ting; Sun, Lele; Sun, Mingzhu; Shi, Xueling; Zhu, Meng; Ge, Meijuan; Xia, Haiou

    2018-01-01

    Caesarean section is associated with weaker newborn suction pressure. This nonblinded, randomized trial explored the effect of suction pressures generating by a breast pump on mothers' onset of lactation and milk supply after caesarean section. A high pressure group (-150 mmHg), a low pressure group (-100 mmHg), and a control group (none) were generated under computer random assignment with concealed allocation in 2 tertiary hospitals. The breast pumping began within 2 hr after caesarean operation (6 times a day and 30 min per time) until onset of lactation. The primary outcomes were the timing of onset of lactation, milk supply, and mother's satisfaction in lactation, using both intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses. The secondary endpoints were the pumping-related pain, nipple injury, and maternal fatigue. All 164 women randomized were included in analysis. The breast pumping at -150 mmHg optimally advanced the timing of the onset of lactation and increased daytime milk supply. The pumping also appeared to boost mothers' confidence in lactation. The results in the per-protocol population (n = 148) were consistent with those of intention-to-treat population (n = 164). However, the pumping aggravated maternal nipple pain and fatigue, though there was no statistical significance. The findings suggest that a higher pumping pressure within the range of normal vaginally born infant suction could promote onset of lactation and milk supply among mothers giving birth by caesarean section. The pumping could also enhance mothers' confidence in breastfeeding. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Well pump

    DOEpatents

    Ames, Kenneth R.; Doesburg, James M.

    1987-01-01

    A well pump includes a piston and an inlet and/or outlet valve assembly of special structure. Each is formed of a body of organic polymer, preferably PTFE. Each includes a cavity in its upper portion and at least one passage leading from the cavity to the bottom of the block. A screen covers each cavity and a valve disk covers each screen. Flexible sealing flanges extend upwardly and downwardly from the periphery of the piston block. The outlet valve block has a sliding block and sealing fit with the piston rod.

  11. Characterization of the CEBAF 100 kV DC GaAs Photoelectron Gun Vacuum System

    SciTech Connect

    Stutzman, M L; Adderley, P; Brittian, J

    A vacuum system with pressure in the low ultra-high vacuum (UHV) range is essential for long photocathode lifetimes in DC high voltage GaAs photoguns. A discrepancy between predicted and measured base pressure in the CEBAF photoguns motivated this study of outgassing rates of three 304 stainless steel chambers with different pretreatments and pump speed measurements of non-evaporable getter (NEG) pumps. Outgassing rates were measured using two independent techniques. Lower outgassing rates were achieved by electropolishing and vacuum firing the chamber. The second part of the paper describes NEG pump speed measurements as a function of pressure through the lower partmore » of the UHV range. Measured NEG pump speed is high at pressures above 5×10 -11 Torr, but may decrease at lower pressures depending on the interpretation of the data. The final section investigates the pump speed of a locally produced NEG coating applied to the vacuum chamber walls. These studies represent the first detailed vacuum measurements of CEBAF photogun vacuum chambers.« less

  12. Reliability and criterion-related validity testing (construct) of the Endotracheal Suction Assessment Tool (ESAT©).

    PubMed

    Davies, Kylie; Bulsara, Max K; Ramelet, Anne-Sylvie; Monterosso, Leanne

    2018-05-01

    To establish criterion-related construct validity and test-retest reliability for the Endotracheal Suction Assessment Tool© (ESAT©). Endotracheal tube suction performed in children can significantly affect clinical stability. Previously identified clinical indicators for endotracheal tube suction were used as criteria when designing the ESAT©. Content validity was reported previously. The final stages of psychometric testing are presented. Observational testing was used to measure construct validity and determine whether the ESAT© could guide "inexperienced" paediatric intensive care nurses' decision-making regarding endotracheal tube suction. Test-retest reliability of the ESAT© was performed at two time points. The researchers and paediatric intensive care nurse "experts" developed 10 hypothetical clinical scenarios with predetermined endotracheal tube suction outcomes. "Experienced" (n = 12) and "inexperienced" (n = 14) paediatric intensive care nurses were presented with the scenarios and the ESAT© guiding decision-making about whether to perform endotracheal tube suction for each scenario. Outcomes were compared with those predetermined by the "experts" (n = 9). Test-retest reliability of the ESAT© was measured at two consecutive time points (4 weeks apart) with "experienced" and "inexperienced" paediatric intensive care nurses using the same scenarios and tool to guide decision-making. No differences were observed between endotracheal tube suction decisions made by "experts" (n = 9), "inexperienced" (n = 14) and "experienced" (n = 12) nurses confirming the tool's construct validity. No differences were observed between groups for endotracheal tube suction decisions at T1 and T2. Criterion-related construct validity and test-retest reliability of the ESAT© were demonstrated. Further testing is recommended to confirm reliability in the clinical setting with the "inexperienced" nurse to guide decision-making related to endotracheal tube

  13. Miniature thermo-electric cooled cryogenic pump

    DOEpatents

    Keville, R.F.

    1997-11-18

    A miniature thermo-electric cooled cryogenic pump is described for removing residual water molecules from an inlet sample prior to sample analysis in a mass spectroscopy system, such as ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) mass spectroscopy. The cryogenic pump is a battery operated, low power (<1.6 watts) pump with a {Delta}T=100 C characteristic. The pump operates under vacuum pressures of 5{times}10{sup {minus}4} Torr to ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions in the range of 1{times}10{sup {minus}7} to 3{times}10{sup {minus}9} Torr and will typically remove partial pressure, 2{times}10{sup {minus}7} Torr, residual water vapor. The cryogenic pump basically consists of an inlet flange piece, a copper heat sink with a square internal bore, four two tier Peltier (TEC) chips, a copper low temperature square cross sectional tubulation, an electronic receptacle, and an exit flange piece, with the low temperature tubulation being retained in the heat sink at a bias angle of 5{degree}, and with the TECs being positioned in parallel to each other with a positive potential being applied to the top tier thereof. 2 figs.

  14. Miniature thermo-electric cooled cryogenic pump

    DOEpatents

    Keville, Robert F.

    1997-01-01

    A miniature thermo-electric cooled cryogenic pump for removing residual water molecules from an inlet sample prior to sample analysis in a mass spectroscopy system, such as ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) mass spectroscopy. The cryogenic pump is a battery operated, low power (<1.6 watts) pump with a .DELTA.T=100.degree. C. characteristic. The pump operates under vacuum pressures of 5.times.10.sup.-4 Torr to ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions in the range of 1.times.10.sup.-7 to 3.times.10.sup.-9 Torr and will typically remove partial pressure, 2.times.10.sup.-7 Torr, residual water vapor. The cryogenic pump basically consists of an inlet flange piece, a copper heat sink with a square internal bore, four two tier Peltier (TEC) chips, a copper low temperature square cross sectional tubulation, an electronic receptacle, and an exit flange piece, with the low temperature tubulation being retained in the heat sink at a bias angle of 5.degree., and with the TECs being positioned in parallel to each other with a positive potential being applied to the top tier thereof.

  15. Suction on chest drains following lung resection: evidence and practice are not aligned.

    PubMed

    Lang, Peter; Manickavasagar, Menaka; Burdett, Clare; Treasure, Tom; Fiorentino, Francesca

    2016-02-01

    A best evidence topic in Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery (2006) looked at application of suction to chest drains following pulmonary lobectomy. After screening 391 papers, the authors analysed six studies (five randomized controlled trials [RCTs]) and found no evidence in favour of postoperative suction in terms of air leak duration, time to chest drain removal or length of stay. Indeed, suction was found to be detrimental in four studies. We sought to determine whether clinical practice is consistent with published evidence by surveying thoracic units nationally and performing a meta-analysis of current best evidence. We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL for RCTs, comparing outcomes with and without application of suction to chest drains after lung surgery. A meta-analysis was performed using RevMan(©) software. A questionnaire concerning chest drain management and suction use was emailed to a clinical representative in every thoracic unit. Eight RCTs, published 2001-13, with 31-500 participants, were suitable for meta-analysis. Suction prolonged length of stay (weighted mean difference [WMD] 1.74 days; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-2.30), chest tube duration (WMD 1.77 days; 95% CI 1.47-2.07) and air leak duration (WMD 1.47 days; 95% CI 1.45-2.03). There was no difference in occurrence of prolonged air leak. Suction was associated with fewer instances of postoperative pneumothorax. Twenty-five of 39 thoracic units responded to the national survey. Suction is routinely used by all surgeons in 11 units, not by any surgeon in 5 and by some surgeons in 9. Of the 91 surgeons represented, 62 (68%) routinely used suction. Electronic drains are used in 15 units, 10 of which use them routinely. Application of suction to chest drains following non-pneumonectomy lung resection is common practice. Suction has an effect in hastening the removal of air and fluid in clinical experience but a policy of suction after lung resection has not

  16. Early surgical suction and washout for treatment of cytotoxic drug extravasations.

    PubMed

    Vandeweyer, E; Deraemaecker, R

    2000-02-01

    This case report is presented to assess safety and efficiency of early suction and saline washout of extravasated cytotoxic drugs. Through multiple small skin incisions, the area of extravasation is first suctioned and subsequently extensively washed out with saline. Incisions are left open and the arm is elevated for 24 hours. A complete healing was obtained in five days without any skin or soft tissue loss. No additional treatment was needed. Early referral and surgical treatment by suction and washout is a safe and reliable treatment protocol for major cytotoxic drug extravasation injuries.

  17. Theoretical investigation of maintaining the boundary layer of revolution laminar using suction slits in incompressible flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thiede, P.

    1978-01-01

    The transition of the laminar boundary layer into the turbulent state, which results in an increased drag, can be avoided by sucking of the boundary layer particles near the wall. The technically-interesting case of sucking the particles using individual slits is investigated for bodies of revolution in incompressible flow. The results of the variational calculations show that there is an optimum suction height, where the slot separations are maximum. Combined with favorable shaping of the body, it is possible to keep the boundary layer over bodies of revolution laminar at high Reynolds numbers using relatively few suction slits and small amounts of suction flow.

  18. A law of the wall for turbulent boundary layers with suction: Stevenson's formula revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigdorovich, Igor

    2016-08-01

    The turbulent velocity field in the viscous sublayer of the boundary layer with suction to a first approximation is homogeneous in any direction parallel to the wall and is determined by only three constant quantities — the wall shear stress, the suction velocity, and the fluid viscosity. This means that there exists a finite algebraic relation between the turbulent shear stress and the longitudinal mean-velocity gradient, using which as a closure condition for the equations of motion, we establish an exact asymptotic behavior of the velocity profile at the outer edge of the viscous sublayer. The obtained relationship provides a generalization of the logarithmic law to the case of wall suction.

  19. Interchangeability of gas detection tubes and hand pumps.

    PubMed

    Haag, W R

    2001-01-01

    Users of gas detection tubes occasionally seek the convenience of using a single hand pump with different brands of tubes, to avoid the need to carry more than one pump. Several professional organizations recommend against such interchange. However, these recommendations appear to be based on a single study of pump designs that mostly are no longer in use. The present study was undertaken to determine if current hand pumps are interchangeable. Both piston-type and bellows-type hand pumps were evaluated by comparing pump flow profiles and test gas measurements with a variety of tubes. The results demonstrate that three piston hand pumps in common use (Sensidyne/Gastec GV/100, RAE Systems LP-1200, and Matheson-Kitagawa 8104-400A) are fully interchangeable. Two bellows pumps (Draeger Accuro and MSA Kwik-Draw) also are interchangeable with each other. Mixing of bellows and piston systems is often possible, but there are enough exceptions to conclude that such practice should be discouraged because it can give inaccurate readings. It is recommended that technical standards be adopted, such as total volume and an initial pump vacuum or a pump flow curve, to assess hand pump interchangeability. When two manufacturers' pumps meet the same standard and routine leak tests are conducted, interchangeability is scientifically valid and poses no risk to the end user while offering greater convenience.

  20. Improving Vacuum Cleaners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Under a Space Act Agreement between the Kirby company and Lewis Research Center, NASA technology was applied to a commercial vacuum cleaner product line. Kirby engineers were interested in advanced operational concepts, such as particle flow behavior and vibration, critical factors to improve vacuum cleaner performance. An evaluation of the company 1994 home care system, the Kirby G4, led to the refinement of the new G5 and future models. Under the cooperative agreement, Kirby had access to Lewis' holography equipment, which added insight into how long a vacuum cleaner fan would perform, as well as advanced computer software that can simulate the flow of air through fans. The collaboration resulted in several successes including fan blade redesign and continuing dialogue on how to improve air-flow traits in various nozzle designs.

  1. Jet Engines as High-Capacity Vacuum Pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojciechowski, C. J.

    1983-01-01

    Large diffuser operations envelope and long run times possible. Jet engine driven ejector/diffuser system combines two turbojet engines and variable-area-ratio ejector in two stages. Applications in such industrial proesses as handling corrosive fumes, evaporation of milk and fruit juices, petroleum distillation, and dehydration of blood plasma and penicillin.

  2. Vacuum phonon tunneling.

    PubMed

    Altfeder, Igor; Voevodin, Andrey A; Roy, Ajit K

    2010-10-15

    Field-induced phonon tunneling, a previously unknown mechanism of interfacial thermal transport, has been revealed by ultrahigh vacuum inelastic scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Using thermally broadened Fermi-Dirac distribution in the STM tip as in situ atomic-scale thermometer we found that thermal vibrations of the last tip atom are effectively transmitted to sample surface despite few angstroms wide vacuum gap. We show that phonon tunneling is driven by interfacial electric field and thermally vibrating image charges, and its rate is enhanced by surface electron-phonon interaction.

  3. Baryogenesis in false vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Yuta; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2017-09-01

    The null result in the LHC may indicate that the standard model is not drastically modified up to very high scales, such as the GUT/string scale. Having this in the mind, we suggest a novel leptogenesis scenario realized in the false vacuum of the Higgs field. If the Higgs field develops a large vacuum expectation value in the early universe, a lepton number violating process is enhanced, which we use for baryogenesis. To demonstrate the scenario, several models are discussed. For example, we show that the observed baryon asymmetry is successfully generated in the standard model with higher-dimensional operators.

  4. Switchable Adhesion in Vacuum Using Bio-Inspired Dry Adhesives.

    PubMed

    Purtov, Julia; Frensemeier, Mareike; Kroner, Elmar

    2015-11-04

    Suction based attachment systems for pick and place handling of fragile objects like glass plates or optical lenses are energy-consuming and noisy and fail at reduced air pressure, which is essential, e.g., in chemical and physical vapor deposition processes. Recently, an alternative approach toward reversible adhesion of sensitive objects based on bioinspired dry adhesive structures has emerged. There, the switching in adhesion is achieved by a reversible buckling of adhesive pillar structures. In this study, we demonstrate that these adhesives are capable of switching adhesion not only in ambient air conditions but also in vacuum. Our bioinspired patterned adhesive with an area of 1 cm(2) provided an adhesion force of 2.6 N ± 0.2 N in air, which was reduced to 1.9 N ± 0.2 N if measured in vacuum. Detachment was induced by buckling of the structures due to a high compressive preload and occurred, independent of air pressure, at approximately 0.9 N ± 0.1 N. The switch in adhesion was observed at a compressive preload between 5.6 and 6.0 N and was independent of air pressure. The difference between maximum adhesion force and adhesion force after buckling gives a reasonable window of operation for pick and place processes. High reversibility of the switching behavior is shown over 50 cycles in air and in vacuum, making the bioinspired switchable adhesive applicable for handling operations of fragile objects.

  5. Switchable Adhesion in Vacuum Using Bio-Inspired Dry Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Suction based attachment systems for pick and place handling of fragile objects like glass plates or optical lenses are energy-consuming and noisy and fail at reduced air pressure, which is essential, e.g., in chemical and physical vapor deposition processes. Recently, an alternative approach toward reversible adhesion of sensitive objects based on bioinspired dry adhesive structures has emerged. There, the switching in adhesion is achieved by a reversible buckling of adhesive pillar structures. In this study, we demonstrate that these adhesives are capable of switching adhesion not only in ambient air conditions but also in vacuum. Our bioinspired patterned adhesive with an area of 1 cm2 provided an adhesion force of 2.6 N ± 0.2 N in air, which was reduced to 1.9 N ± 0.2 N if measured in vacuum. Detachment was induced by buckling of the structures due to a high compressive preload and occurred, independent of air pressure, at approximately 0.9 N ± 0.1 N. The switch in adhesion was observed at a compressive preload between 5.6 and 6.0 N and was independent of air pressure. The difference between maximum adhesion force and adhesion force after buckling gives a reasonable window of operation for pick and place processes. High reversibility of the switching behavior is shown over 50 cycles in air and in vacuum, making the bioinspired switchable adhesive applicable for handling operations of fragile objects. PMID:26457864

  6. Remora fish suction pad attachment is enhanced by spinule friction.

    PubMed

    Beckert, Michael; Flammang, Brooke E; Nadler, Jason H

    2015-11-01

    The remora fishes are capable of adhering to a wide variety of natural and artificial marine substrates using a dorsal suction pad. The pad is made of serial parallel pectinated lamellae, which are homologous to the dorsal fin elements of other fishes. Small tooth-like projections of mineralized tissue from the dorsal pad lamella, known as spinules, are thought to increase the remora's resistance to slippage and thereby enhance friction to maintain attachment to a moving host. In this work, the geometry of the spinules and host topology as determined by micro-computed tomography and confocal microscope data, respectively, are combined in a friction model to estimate the spinule contribution to shear resistance. Model results are validated with natural and artificially created spinules and compared with previous remora pull-off experiments. It was found that spinule geometry plays an essential role in friction enhancement, especially at short spatial wavelengths in the host surface, and that spinule tip geometry is not correlated with lamellar position. Furthermore, comparisons with pull-off experiments suggest that spinules are primarily responsible for friction enhancement on rough host topologies such as shark skin. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Suction-assisted liposuction with a y-connector.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Cagri A; Coskun, Erhan; Ozkan, Burak; Cologlu, Harun; Borman, Huseyin

    2012-12-01

    Liposuction appears to be one of the simplest aesthetic techniques to date, and its popularity has spread worldwide. The authors have been using a Y-connector that enables two plastic surgeons to work at the same with the same suction-assisted liposuction (SAL) machine. For 12 patients whose liposuction procedures were performed using one-cannula SAL, the mean surgical time was 114 ± 10.8 min, whereas for 11 patients whose liposuction procedures were performed with Y-connector SAL, the mean surgical time was 62 ± 7.8 min. This difference between the two groups is statistically significant (p < 0.05). The authors believe the Y-connector may be a less tiring alternative for plastic surgeons who still think SAL is the gold standard for liposuction. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  8. VACUUM SEALING MEANS FOR LOW VACUUM PRESSURES

    DOEpatents

    Milleron, N.

    1962-06-12

    S>A vacuum seal is designed in which the surface tension of a thin layer of liquid metal of low vapor pressure cooperates with adjacent surfaces to preclude passages of gases across pressure differentials as low as 10/sup -8/ mm Hg. Mating contiguous surfaces composed of copper, brass, stainless steel, nickel, molybdenum, tungsten, tantalum, glass, quartz, and/or synthetic mica are disposed to provide a maximum tolerance, D, expressed by 2 gamma /P/sub 1/, where gamma is the coefflcient of the surface tension of the metal sealant selected in dynes/cm/sub 2/. Means for heating the surfaces remotely is provided where temperatures drop below about 250 deg C. A sealant consisting of an alloy of gallium, indium, and tin, among other combinations tabulated, is disposed therebetween after treating the surfaces to improve wettability, as by ultrasonic vibrations, the surfaces and sealants being selected according to the anticipated experimental conditions of use. (AEC)

  9. LMFBR with booster pump in pumping loop

    DOEpatents

    Rubinstein, H.J.

    1975-10-14

    A loop coolant circulation system is described for a liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) utilizing a low head, high specific speed booster pump in the hot leg of the coolant loop with the main pump located in the cold leg of the loop, thereby providing the advantages of operating the main pump in the hot leg with the reliability of cold leg pump operation.

  10. Experimental and simulation studies on the effect of suction opening orientation on solar vertical chimney

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, L. Madan Ananda; Sivaramakrishnan, V.; Premalatha, M.; Vivekanandan, M.

    2017-07-01

    The zero energy building considered is a single storey building in Tiruchirappalli city retrofitted with various green features. This study investigated the effect of a suction opening orientation on a vertical solar chimney (VSC), integrated into a one-storey building. It was designed, manufactured and tested through selection of different suction openings for the entry of air, including right, left, front, back, both right and left and both front and back sides. Genetic algorithm (GA) calculates maximum air flow rate for a building with VSC for better suction opening, in Tiruchirappalli's dry, environmental conditions. GA is a useful technique for finding an improved suction opening specifically in the presence of a host of independent parameters which are large. The obtained results are related to fluid flow temperature distribution along the chimney, mass flow rate and air change per hour. The findings between the GA and the experimental results show sound agreement.

  11. Effect of suction hysteresis on resilient modulus of fine-grained cohesionless soil.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-07-30

    The mechanical behavior of subgrade soil is influenced by the seasonal variations in moisture content. To better understand this behavior, it is crucial to study the relationship between soil moisture content and matric suction known as the Soil Wate...

  12. Shock wave boundary layer interaction on suction side of compressor profile in single passage test section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaszynski, Pawel; Doerffer, Piotr; Szwaba, Ryszard; Kaczynski, Piotr; Piotrowicz, Michal

    2015-11-01

    The shock wave boundary layer interaction on the suction side of transonic compressor blade is one of the main objectives of TFAST project (Transition Location Effect on Shock Wave Boundary Layer Interaction). In order to investigate the flow structure on the suction side of a profile, a design of a generic test section in linear transonic wind tunnel was proposed. The experimental and numerical results for the flow structure investigations are shown for the flow conditions as the existing ones on the suction side of the compressor profile. Near the sidewalls the suction slots are applied for the corner flow structure control. It allows to control the Axial Velocity Density Ratio (AVDR), important parameter for compressor cascade investigations. Numerical results for Explicit Algebraic Reynolds Stress Model with transition modeling are compared with oil flow visualization, schlieren and Pressure Sensitive Paint. Boundary layer transition location is detected by Temperature Sensitive Paint.

  13. Calculation of vortex lift effect for cambered wings by the suction analogy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lan, C. E.; Chang, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    An improved version of Woodward's chord plane aerodynamic panel method for subsonic and supersonic flow is developed for cambered wings exhibiting edge separated vortex flow, including those with leading edge vortex flaps. The exact relation between leading edge thrust and suction force in potential flow is derived. Instead of assuming the rotated suction force to be normal to wing surface at the leading edge, new orientation for the rotated suction force is determined through consideration of the momentum principle. The supersonic suction analogy method is improved by using an effective angle of attack defined through a semi-empirical method. Comparisons of predicted results with available data in subsonic and supersonic flow are presented.

  14. Similarity transformation for equilibrium boundary layers, including effects of blowing and suction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; Hussain, Fazle

    2017-03-01

    We present a similarity transformation for the mean velocity profiles in sink flow turbulent boundary layers, including effects of blowing and suction. It is based on symmetry analysis which transforms the governing partial differential equations (for mean mass and momentum) into an ordinary differential equation and yields a new result including an exact, linear relation between the mean normal (V ) and streamwise (U ) velocities. A characteristic length function is further introduced which, under a first order expansion (whose coefficient is η ) in wall blowing and suction velocity, leads to the similarity transformation for U with the value of η ≈-1 /9 . This transformation is shown to be a group invariant and maps different U profiles under different blowing and suction conditions into a (universal) profile for no blowing or suction. Its inverse transformation enables predictions of all mean quantities in the mean mass and momentum equations, in good agreement with DNS data.

  15. Liquid metal pump

    DOEpatents

    Pennell, William E.

    1982-01-01

    The liquid metal pump comprises floating seal rings and attachment of the pump diffuser to the pump bowl for isolating structural deflections from the pump shaft bearings. The seal rings also eliminate precision machining on large assemblies by eliminating the need for a close tolerance fit between the mounting surfaces of the pump and the seals. The liquid metal pump also comprises a shaft support structure that is isolated from the pump housing for better preservation of alignment of shaft bearings. The shaft support structure also allows for complete removal of pump internals for inspection and repair.

  16. Winding for linear pump

    DOEpatents

    Kliman, G.B.; Brynsvold, G.V.; Jahns, T.M.

    1989-08-22

    A winding and method of winding for a submersible linear pump for pumping liquid sodium are disclosed. The pump includes a stator having a central cylindrical duct preferably vertically aligned. The central vertical duct is surrounded by a system of coils in slots. These slots are interleaved with magnetic flux conducting elements, these magnetic flux conducting elements forming a continuous magnetic field conduction path along the stator. The central duct has placed therein a cylindrical magnetic conducting core, this core having a cylindrical diameter less than the diameter of the cylindrical duct. The core once placed to the duct defines a cylindrical interstitial pumping volume of the pump. This cylindrical interstitial pumping volume preferably defines an inlet at the bottom of the pump, and an outlet at the top of the pump. Pump operation occurs by static windings in the outer stator sequentially conveying toroidal fields from the pump inlet at the bottom of the pump to the pump outlet at the top of the pump. The winding apparatus and method of winding disclosed uses multiple slots per pole per phase with parallel winding legs on each phase equal to or less than the number of slots per pole per phase. The slot sequence per pole per phase is chosen to equalize the variations in flux density of the pump sodium as it passes into the pump at the pump inlet with little or no flux and acquires magnetic flux in passage through the pump to the pump outlet. 4 figs.

  17. Winding for linear pump

    DOEpatents

    Kliman, Gerald B.; Brynsvold, Glen V.; Jahns, Thomas M.

    1989-01-01

    A winding and method of winding for a submersible linear pump for pumping liquid sodium is disclosed. The pump includes a stator having a central cylindrical duct preferably vertically aligned. The central vertical duct is surrounded by a system of coils in slots. These slots are interleaved with magnetic flux conducting elements, these magnetic flux conducting elements forming a continuous magnetic field conduction path along the stator. The central duct has placed therein a cylindrical magnetic conducting core, this core having a cylindrical diameter less than the diameter of the cylindrical duct. The core once placed to the duct defines a cylindrical interstitial pumping volume of the pump. This cylindrical interstitial pumping volume preferably defines an inlet at the bottom of the pump, and an outlet at the top of the pump. Pump operation occurs by static windings in the outer stator sequentially conveying toroidal fields from the pump inlet at the bottom of the pump to the pump outlet at the top of the pump. The winding apparatus and method of winding disclosed uses multiple slots per pole per phase with parallel winding legs on each phase equal to or less than the number of slots per pole per phase. The slot sequence per pole per phase is chosen to equalize the variations in flux density of the pump sodium as it passes into the pump at the pump inlet with little or no flux and acquires magnetic flux in passage through the pump to the pump outlet.

  18. Heat pump processes induced by laser radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garbuny, M.; Henningsen, T.

    1980-01-01

    A carbon dioxide laser system was constructed for the demonstration of heat pump processes induced by laser radiation. The system consisted of a frequency doubling stage, a gas reaction cell with its vacuum and high purity gas supply system, and provisions to measure the temperature changes by pressure, or alternatively, by density changes. The theoretical considerations for the choice of designs and components are dicussed.

  19. Feeding Kinematics, Suction, and Hydraulic Jetting Performance of Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina)

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Christopher D.; Wieskotten, Sven; Hanke, Wolf; Hanke, Frederike D.; Marsh, Alyssa; Kot, Brian; Dehnhardt, Guido

    2014-01-01

    The feeding kinematics, suction and hydraulic jetting capabilities of captive harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) were characterized during controlled feeding trials. Feeding trials were conducted using a feeding apparatus that allowed a choice between biting and suction, but also presented food that could be ingested only by suction. Subambient pressure exerted during suction feeding behaviors was directly measured using pressure transducers. The mean feeding cycle duration for suction-feeding events was significantly shorter (0.15±0.09 s; P<0.01) than biting feeding events (0.18±0.08 s). Subjects feeding in-water used both a suction and a biting feeding mode. Suction was the favored feeding mode (84% of all feeding events) compared to biting, but biting comprised 16% of feeding events. In addition, seals occasionally alternated suction with hydraulic jetting, or used hydraulic jetting independently, to remove fish from the apparatus. Suction and biting feeding modes were kinematically distinct regardless of feeding location (in-water vs. on-land). Suction was characterized by a significantly smaller gape (1.3±0.23 cm; P<0.001) and gape angle (12.9±2.02°), pursing of the rostral lips to form a circular aperture, and pursing of the lateral lips to occlude lateral gape. Biting was characterized by a large gape (3.63±0.21 cm) and gape angle (28.8±1.80°; P<0.001) and lip curling to expose teeth. The maximum subambient pressure recorded was 48.8 kPa. In addition, harbor seals were able to jet water at food items using suprambient pressure, also known as hydraulic jetting. The maximum hydraulic jetting force recorded was 53.9 kPa. Suction and hydraulic jetting where employed 90.5% and 9.5%, respectively, during underwater feeding events. Harbor seals displayed a wide repertoire of behaviorally flexible feeding strategies to ingest fish from the feeding apparatus. Such flexibility of feeding strategies and biomechanics likely forms the basis of their opportunistic

  20. Feeding kinematics, suction, and hydraulic jetting performance of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina).

    PubMed

    Marshall, Christopher D; Wieskotten, Sven; Hanke, Wolf; Hanke, Frederike D; Marsh, Alyssa; Kot, Brian; Dehnhardt, Guido

    2014-01-01

    The feeding kinematics, suction and hydraulic jetting capabilities of captive harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) were characterized during controlled feeding trials. Feeding trials were conducted using a feeding apparatus that allowed a choice between biting and suction, but also presented food that could be ingested only by suction. Subambient pressure exerted during suction feeding behaviors was directly measured using pressure transducers. The mean feeding cycle duration for suction-feeding events was significantly shorter (0.15±0.09 s; P<0.01) than biting feeding events (0.18±0.08 s). Subjects feeding in-water used both a suction and a biting feeding mode. Suction was the favored feeding mode (84% of all feeding events) compared to biting, but biting comprised 16% of feeding events. In addition, seals occasionally alternated suction with hydraulic jetting, or used hydraulic jetting independently, to remove fish from the apparatus. Suction and biting feeding modes were kinematically distinct regardless of feeding location (in-water vs. on-land). Suction was characterized by a significantly smaller gape (1.3±0.23 cm; P<0.001) and gape angle (12.9±2.02°), pursing of the rostral lips to form a circular aperture, and pursing of the lateral lips to occlude lateral gape. Biting was characterized by a large gape (3.63±0.21 cm) and gape angle (28.8±1.80°; P<0.001) and lip curling to expose teeth. The maximum subambient pressure recorded was 48.8 kPa. In addition, harbor seals were able to jet water at food items using suprambient pressure, also known as hydraulic jetting. The maximum hydraulic jetting force recorded was 53.9 kPa. Suction and hydraulic jetting where employed 90.5% and 9.5%, respectively, during underwater feeding events. Harbor seals displayed a wide repertoire of behaviorally flexible feeding strategies to ingest fish from the feeding apparatus. Such flexibility of feeding strategies and biomechanics likely forms the basis of their opportunistic

  1. Inexpensive high vacuum feedthroughs.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerber, S.; Post, D.

    1973-01-01

    Description of the use of rigid coaxial cable in the construction of high vacuum coaxial and coaxial push-pull rotary motion feedthroughs. This type of feedthroughs is shown to be extremely cheap and simple to make and modify. It can be used for moderately high voltages and provides a continuous, well shielded, low-noise feedthrough cable in any desired configuration.

  2. Langmuir vacuum and superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Veklenko, B. A.

    It is shown that, in the 'jelly' model of cold electron-ion plasma, the interaction between electrons and the quantum electromagnetic vacuum of Langmuir waves involves plasma superconductivity with an energy gap proportional to the energy of the Langmuir quantum.

  3. Gas injected vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Hardin, K. Dan

    1977-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a gas injected vacuum switch comprising a housing having an interior chamber, a conduit for evacuating the interior chamber, within the chamber an anode and a cathode spaced from the anode, and a detonator for injecting electrically conductive gas into the chamber between the anode and the cathode to provide a current path therebetween.

  4. Blood loss associated with Ring uncemented total knee replacement: comparison between continuous and intermittent suction drainage.

    PubMed Central

    Wittmann, F W; Ring, P A

    1984-01-01

    In a retrospective comparison of blood loss following uncemented total knee replacement, in which either continuous or intermittent suction drainage was used, measured blood loss was significantly greater with continuous drainage. However, a method of calculating actual blood loss demonstrated no significant difference. With intermittent drainage, more blood remains undetected around the knee joint; this technique should therefore be abandoned in favour of continuous suction drainage. PMID:6747978

  5. Design and Control of a Mechatronic Tracheostomy Tube for Automated Tracheal Suctioning.

    PubMed

    Do, Thanh Nho; Seah, Tian En Timothy; Phee, Soo Jay

    2016-06-01

    Mechanical ventilation is required to aid patients with breathing difficulty to breathe more comfortably. A tracheostomy tube inserted through an opening in the patient neck into the trachea is connected to a ventilator for suctioning. Currently, nurses spend millions of person-hours yearly to perform this task. To save significant person-hours, an automated mechatronic tracheostomy system is needed. This system allows for relieving nurses and other carers from the millions of person-hours spent yearly on tracheal suctioning. In addition, it will result in huge healthcare cost savings. We introduce a novel mechatronic tracheostomy system including the development of a long suction catheter, automatic suctioning mechanisms, and relevant control approaches to perform tracheal suctioning automatically. To stop the catheter at a desired position, two approaches are introduced: 1) Based on the known travel length of the catheter tip; 2) Based on a new sensing device integrated at the catheter tip. It is known that backlash nonlinearity between the suction catheter and its conduit as well as in the gear system of the actuator are unavoidable. They cause difficulties to control the exact position of the catheter tip. For the former case, we develop an approximate model of backlash and a direct inverse scheme to enhance the system performances. The scheme does not require any complex inversions of the backlash model and allows easy implementations. For the latter case, a new sensing device integrated into the suction catheter tip is developed and backlash compensation controls are avoided. Automated suctioning validations are successfully carried out on the proposed experimental system. Comparisons and discussions are also introduced. The results demonstrate a significant contribution and potential benefits to the mechanical ventilation areas.

  6. Secondary subharmonic instability of boundary layers with pressure gradient and suction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Hady, Nabil M.

    1988-01-01

    Three-dimensional linear secondary instability is investigated for boundary layers with pressure gradient and suction in the presence of a finite amplitude TS wave. The focus is on principal parametric resonance responsible for a strong growth of subharmonics in a low disturbance environment. Calculations are presented for the effect of pressure gradients and suction on controlling the onset and amplification of the secondary instability.

  7. VORCAM: A computer program for calculating vortex lift effect of cambered wings by the suction analogy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lan, C. E.; Chang, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    A user's guide to an improved version of Woodward's chord plane aerodynamic panel computer code is presumed. The guide can be applied to cambered wings exhibiting edge separated flow, including those with leading edge vortex flow at subsonic and supersonic speeds. New orientations for the rotated suction force are employed based on the momentum principal. The supersonic suction analogy method is improved by using an effective angle of attack defined through a semiempirical method.

  8. Effects of snout dimensions on the hydrodynamics of suction feeding in juvenile and adult seahorses.

    PubMed

    Roos, Gert; Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Aerts, Peter; Herrel, Anthony; Adriaens, Dominique

    2011-01-21

    Seahorses give birth to juveniles having a fully functional feeding apparatus, and juvenile feeding behaviour shows striking similarities to that of adults. However, a significant allometric growth of the snout is observed during which the snout shape changes from relatively short and broad in juveniles to relatively long and slender in adults. Since the shape of the buccal cavity is a critical determinant of the suction performance, this snout allometry will inevitably affect the suction feeding ability. To test whether the snout is optimised for suction feeding throughout an ontogeny, we simulated the expansion of different snout shapes varying from extremely long and slender to short and broad for juvenile and adult snout sizes, using computational fluid dynamic models. Our results showed that the snout diameter at the start of the simulations is involved in a trade-off between the realizable suction volume and expansion time on the one hand (improving with larger initial diameters), and maximal flow velocity on the other hand (improving with smaller initial diameters). Moreover suction performance (suction volume as well as maximal attainable flow velocity) increased with decreasing snout length. However, an increase in snout length decreases the time to reach the prey by the cranial rotation, which may explain the prevalence of long snouts among syngnathid fishes despite the reduced suction performance. Thus, the design of the seahorse snout revolves around a trade-off between the ability to generate high-volume suction versus minimisation of the time needed to reach the prey by the cranial rotation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Absence of Suction Feeding Ichthyosaurs and Its Implications for Triassic Mesopelagic Paleoecology

    PubMed Central

    Motani, Ryosuke; Ji, Cheng; Tomita, Taketeru; Kelley, Neil; Maxwell, Erin; Jiang, Da-yong; Sander, Paul Martin

    2013-01-01

    Mesozoic marine reptiles and modern marine mammals are often considered ecological analogs, but the extent of their similarity is largely unknown. Particularly important is the presence/absence of deep-diving suction feeders among Mesozoic marine reptiles because this would indicate the establishment of mesopelagic cephalopod and fish communities in the Mesozoic. A recent study suggested that diverse suction feeders, resembling the extant beaked whales, evolved among ichthyosaurs in the Triassic. However, this hypothesis has not been tested quantitatively. We examined four osteological features of jawed vertebrates that are closely linked to the mechanism of suction feeding, namely hyoid corpus ossification/calcification, hyobranchial apparatus robustness, mandibular bluntness, and mandibular pressure concentration index. Measurements were taken from 18 species of Triassic and Early Jurassic ichthyosaurs, including the presumed suction feeders. Statistical comparisons with extant sharks and marine mammals of known diets suggest that ichthyosaurian hyobranchial bones are significantly more slender than in suction-feeding sharks or cetaceans but similar to those of ram-feeding sharks. Most importantly, an ossified hyoid corpus to which hyoid retractor muscles attach is unknown in all but one ichthyosaur, whereas a strong integration of the ossified corpus and cornua of the hyobranchial apparatus has been identified in the literature as an important feature of suction feeders. Also, ichthyosaurian mandibles do not narrow rapidly to allow high suction pressure concentration within the oral cavity, unlike in beaked whales or sperm whales. In conclusion, it is most likely that Triassic and Early Jurassic ichthyosaurs were ‘ram-feeders’, without any beaked-whale-like suction feeder among them. When combined with the inferred inability for dim-light vision in relevant Triassic ichthyosaurs, the fossil record of ichthyosaurs does not suggest the establishment of modern

  10. Partial-Vacuum-Gasketed Electrochemical Corrosion Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonifas, Andrew P.; Calle, Luz M.; Hintze, Paul E.

    2006-01-01

    An electrochemical cell for making corrosion measurements has been designed to prevent or reduce crevice corrosion, which is a common source of error in prior such cells. The present cell (see figure) includes an electrolyte reservoir with O-ring-edged opening at the bottom. In preparation for a test, the reservoir, while empty, is pressed down against a horizontal specimen surface to form an O-ring seal. A purge of air or other suitable gas is begun in the reservoir, and the pressure in the reservoir is regulated to maintain a partial vacuum. While maintaining the purge and partial vacuum, and without opening the interior of the reservoir to the atmosphere, the electrolyte is pumped into the reservoir. The reservoir is then slowly lifted a short distance off the specimen. The level of the partial vacuum is chosen such that the differential pressure is just sufficient to keep the electrolyte from flowing out of the reservoir through the small O-ring/specimen gap. Electrochemical measurements are then made. Because there is no gasket (and, hence, no crevice between the specimen and the gasket), crevice corrosion is unlikely to occur.

  11. An Experimental Study of Cavitation Detection in a Centrifugal Pump Using Envelope Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Chek Zin; Leong, M. Salman

    Cavitation represents one of the most common faults in pumps and could potentially lead to a series of failure in mechanical seal, impeller, bearing, shaft, motor, etc. In this work, an experimental rig was setup to investigate cavitation detection using vibration envelope analysis method, and measured parameters included sound, pressure and flow rate for feasibility of cavitation detection. The experiment testing included 3 operating points of the centrifugal pump (B.E.P, 90% of B.E.P and 80% of B.E.P). Suction pressure of the centrifugal pump was decreased gradually until the inception point of cavitation. Vibration measurements were undertaken at various locations including casing, bearing, suction and discharge flange of the centrifugal pump. Comparisons of envelope spectrums under cavitating and non-cavitating conditions were presented. Envelope analysis was proven useful in detecting cavitation over the 3 testing conditions. During the normal operating condition, vibration peak synchronous to rotational speed was more pronounced. It was however during cavitation condition, the half order sub-harmonic vibration component was clearly evident in the envelope spectrums undertaken at all measurement locations except at the pump bearing. The possible explanation of the strong sub-harmonic (½ of BPF) during cavitation existence in the centrifugal pump was due to insufficient time for the bubbles to collapse completely before the end of the single cycle.

  12. Characterization of zebrafish larvae suction feeding flow using μPIV and optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekkan, Kerem; Chang, Brian; Uslu, Fazil; Mani, Karthick; Chen, Chia-Yuan; Holzman, Roi

    2016-07-01

    The hydrodynamics of suction feeding is critical for the survival of fish larvae; failure to capture food during the onset of autonomous feeding can rapidly lead to starvation and mortality. Fluid mechanics experiments that investigate the suction feeding of suspended particles are limited to adult fishes, which operate at large Reynolds numbers. This manuscript presents the first literature results in which the external velocity fields generated during suction feeding of early zebrafish larvae (2500-20,000 μm total length) are reported using time-resolved microscopic particle image velocimetry. For the larval stages studied, the maximum peak suction velocity of the inflow bolus is measured at a finite distance from the mouth tip and ranges from 1 to 8 mm/s. The average pressure gradient and the velocity profile proximal to the buccal (mouth) cavity are calculated, and two distinct trends are identified. External recirculation regions and reverse flow feeding cycles are also observed and quantified. One of the unresolved questions in fish suction feeding is the shape and dynamics of the buccal cavity during suction feeding; optical coherence tomography imaging is found to be useful for reconstructing the mouth kinematics. The projected area of the mouth cavity during the feeding cycle varies up to 160 and 22 % for the transverse and mid-sagittal planes, respectively. These findings can inspire novel hydrodynamically efficient biomedical and microfluidic devices.

  13. Numerical Studies on a Rotor with Distributed Suction for Noise Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Thorsten; Arnold, Benjamin; Wolf, Alexander; Krämer, Ewald

    2014-06-01

    Minimizing the flow-induced noise is an important issue in the design of modern onshore wind turbines. There is a number of proven passive means to reduce the aeroacoustic noise, such as the implementation of serrations, porous trailing edges or the aeroacoustic airfoil design. The noise emission can be further reduced by active flow control techniques. In the present study the impact of distributed boundary layer suction on the noise emission of an airfoil and a complete rotor is investigated. Aerodynamic and aeroacoustic wind tunnel tests were performed for the NACA 64-418 airfoil and supplemented by numerical calculations. The aeroacoustic analyses have been conducted by means of the institute's Rnoise prediction scheme. The 2D studies have shown that noise reductions of 5 dB can be achieved by suction at moderate mass flow rates. To study the impact of three-dimensional effects numerical investigations have been conducted on the example of the generic NREL 5MW rotor with suction applied in the outer part of the blade. The predictions for the complete rotor provided smaller benefits compared to those for the isolated airfoil, mainly because the examined suction configurations were not optimized with respect to the extent of the suction patch and suction distribution.

  14. Femtosecond Laser in situ Keratomileusis Flap Creation in Narrow Palpebral Fissure Eyes without Suction

    PubMed Central

    Chang, John S.M.; Law, Antony K.P.; Ng, Jack C.M.; Cheng, May S.Y.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate a surgical technique used in eyes with narrow palpebral fissure undergoing femtosecond laser flap creation without suction during laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Methods All data of 2 patient groups were collected through chart review. Group 1 consisted of 6 eyes with narrow palpebral fissure in which the suction ring was manually fixated and femtosecond laser was applied accordingly. Thirty comparison cases were randomly drawn from among eyes that underwent a standard LASIK procedure matched for age and preoperative refraction (group 2). Only 1 eye of each patient was selected to compare the refractive and visual outcomes between groups. Results In all group 1 eyes, the flaps were created successfully with manual fixation of the suction ring without suction. No eyes lost 2 or more lines of vision. No significant difference was found in the safety and refractive outcomes between groups. Conclusion Manual fixation of the suction ring in eyes with narrow palpebral fissure without suction was feasible for flap creation during LASIK. PMID:28690535

  15. Hydrodynamic modelling of aquatic suction performance and intra-oral pressures: limitations for comparative studies

    PubMed Central

    Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Aerts, Peter; Herrel, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    The magnitude of sub-ambient pressure inside the bucco-pharyngeal cavity of aquatic animals is generally considered a valuable metric of suction feeding performance. However, these pressures do not provide a direct indication of the effect of the suction act on the movement of the prey item. Especially when comparing suction performance of animals with differences in the shape of the expanding bucco-pharyngeal cavity, the link between speed of expansion, water velocity, force exerted on the prey and intra-oral pressure remains obscure. By using mathematical models of the heads of catfishes, a morphologically diverse group of aquatic suction feeders, these relationships were tested. The kinematics of these models were fine-tuned to transport a given prey towards the mouth in the same way. Next, the calculated pressures inside these models were compared. The results show that no simple relationship exists between the amount of generated sub-ambient pressure and the force exerted on the prey during suction feeding, unless animals of the same species are compared. Therefore, for evaluating suction performance in aquatic animals in future studies, the focus should be on the flow velocities in front of the mouth, for which a direct relationship exists with the hydrodynamic force exerted on prey. PMID:16849247

  16. An experimental investigation of (UF-235)6 fission nuclear-pumped lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miley, G. H.

    1979-01-01

    A UF6 handling system was designed for use in conjunction with the existing nuclear-pumped laser vacuum system at a nuclear reactor laboratory to perform the experiments described above. A modification to separate the gas fill system from the vacuum system and thus greatly reduce its volume is described as well as operating procedures for the first controlled nuclear pumping experiments with UF6 vapor contained in the laser cell.

  17. Development of a compact, sealless, tripod supported, magnetically driven centrifugal blood pump.

    PubMed

    Yuhki, A; Nogawa, M; Takatani, S

    2000-06-01

    In this study, a tripod supported sealless centrifugal blood pump was designed and fabricated for implantable application using a specially designed DC brushless motor. The tripod structure consists of 3 ceramic balls mounted at the bottom surface of the impeller moving in a polyethylene groove incorporated at the bottom pump casing. The follower magnet inside the impeller is coupled to the driver magnet of the motor outside the bottom pump casing, thus allowing the impeller to slide-rotate in the polyethylene groove as the motor turns. The pump driver has a weight of 230 g and a diameter of 60 mm. The acrylic pump housing has a weight of 220 g with the priming volume of 25 ml. At the pump rpm of 1,000 to 2,200, the generated head pressure ranged from 30 to 150 mm Hg with the maximum system efficiency being 12%. When the prototype pump was used in the pulsatile mock loop to assist the ventricle from its apex to the aorta, a strong correlation was obtained between the motor current and bypass flow waveforms. The waveform deformation index (WDI), defined as the ratio of the fundamental to the higher order harmonics of the motor current power spectral density, was computed to possibly detect the suction occurring inside the ventricle due to the prototype centrifugal pump. When the WDI was kept under the value of 0.20 by adjusting the motor rpm, it was successful in suppressing the suction due to the centrifugal pump in the ventricle. The prototype sealless, centrifugal pump together with the control method based on the motor current waveform analysis may offer an intermediate support of the failing left or right ventricle bridging to heart transplantation.

  18. The numerical simulation based on CFD of hydraulic turbine pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, X. H.; Kong, F. Y.; Liu, Y. Y.; Zhao, R. J.; Hu, Q. L.

    2016-05-01

    As the functions of hydraulic turbine pump including self-adjusting and compensation with each other, it is far-reaching to analyze its internal flow by the numerical simulation based on CFD, mainly including the pressure field and the velocity field in hydraulic turbine and pump.The three-dimensional models of hydraulic turbine pump are made by Pro/Engineer software;the internal flow fields in hydraulic turbine and pump are simulated numerically by CFX ANSYS software. According to the results of the numerical simulation in design condition, the pressure field and the velocity field in hydraulic turbine and pump are analyzed respectively .The findings show that the static pressure decreases systematically and the pressure gradient is obvious in flow area of hydraulic turbine; the static pressure increases gradually in pump. The flow trace is regular in suction chamber and flume without spiral trace. However, there are irregular traces in the turbine runner channels which contrary to that in flow area of impeller. Most of traces in the flow area of draft tube are spiral.

  19. A radiation hard vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1988-07-19

    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction. 3 figs.

  20. A fundamental study of suction for Laminar Flow Control (LFC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watmuff, Jonathan H.

    1992-01-01

    This report covers the period forming the first year of the project. The aim is to experimentally investigate the effects of suction as a technique for Laminar Flow Control. Experiments are to be performed which require substantial modifications to be made to the experimental facility. Considerable effort has been spent developing new high performance constant temperature hot-wire anemometers for general purpose use in the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory. Twenty instruments have been delivered. An important feature of the facility is that it is totally automated under computer control. Unprecedently large quantities of data can be acquired and the results examined using the visualization tools developed specifically for studying the results of numerical simulations on graphics works stations. The experiment must be run for periods of up to a month at a time since the data is collected on a point-by-point basis. Several techniques were implemented to reduce the experimental run-time by a significant factor. Extra probes have been constructed and modifications have been made to the traverse hardware and to the real-time experimental code to enable multiple probes to be used. This will reduce the experimental run-time by the appropriate factor. Hot-wire calibration drift has been a frustrating problem owing to the large range of ambient temperatures experienced in the laboratory. The solution has been to repeat the calibrations at frequent intervals. However the calibration process has consumed up to 40 percent of the run-time. A new method of correcting the drift is very nearly finalized and when implemented it will also lead to a significant reduction in the experimental run-time.

  1. A fundamental study of suction for Laminar Flow Control (LFC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watmuff, Jonathan H.

    1992-10-01

    This report covers the period forming the first year of the project. The aim is to experimentally investigate the effects of suction as a technique for Laminar Flow Control. Experiments are to be performed which require substantial modifications to be made to the experimental facility. Considerable effort has been spent developing new high performance constant temperature hot-wire anemometers for general purpose use in the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory. Twenty instruments have been delivered. An important feature of the facility is that it is totally automated under computer control. Unprecedently large quantities of data can be acquired and the results examined using the visualization tools developed specifically for studying the results of numerical simulations on graphics works stations. The experiment must be run for periods of up to a month at a time since the data is collected on a point-by-point basis. Several techniques were implemented to reduce the experimental run-time by a significant factor. Extra probes have been constructed and modifications have been made to the traverse hardware and to the real-time experimental code to enable multiple probes to be used. This will reduce the experimental run-time by the appropriate factor. Hot-wire calibration drift has been a frustrating problem owing to the large range of ambient temperatures experienced in the laboratory. The solution has been to repeat the calibrations at frequent intervals. However the calibration process has consumed up to 40 percent of the run-time. A new method of correcting the drift is very nearly finalized and when implemented it will also lead to a significant reduction in the experimental run-time.

  2. Bakeout Chamber Within Vacuum Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Daniel M.; Soules, David M.; Barengoltz, Jack B.

    1995-01-01

    Vacuum-bakeout apparatus for decontaminating and measuring outgassing from pieces of equipment constructed by mounting bakeout chamber within conventional vacuum chamber. Upgrade cost effective: fabrication and installation of bakeout chamber simple, installation performed quickly and without major changes in older vacuum chamber, and provides quantitative data on outgassing from pieces of equipment placed in bakeout chamber.

  3. Nonevaporable getter coating chambers for extreme high vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Stutzman, Marcy L.; Adderley, Philip A.; Mamun, Md Abdullah Al

    Techniques for NEG coating a large diameter chamber are presented along with vacuum measurements in the chamber using several pumping configurations, with base pressure as low as 1.56x10^-12 Torr (N2 equivalent) with only a NEG coating and small ion pump. We then describe modifications to the NEG coating process to coat complex geometry chambers for ultra-cold atom trap experiments. Surface analysis of NEG coated samples are used to measure composition and morphology of the thin films. Finally, pressure measurements are compared for two NEG coated polarized electron source chambers: the 130 kV polarized electron source at Jefferson Lab and themore » upgraded 350 kV polarized 2 electron source, both of which are approaching or within the extreme high vacuum (XHV) range, defined as P<7.5x10^-13 Torr.« less

  4. Nonevaporable getter coating chambers for extreme high vacuum

    DOE PAGES

    Stutzman, Marcy L.; Adderley, Philip A.; Mamun, Md Abdullah Al; ...

    2018-03-01

    Techniques for NEG coating a large diameter chamber are presented along with vacuum measurements in the chamber using several pumping configurations, with base pressure as low as 1.56x10^-12 Torr (N2 equivalent) with only a NEG coating and small ion pump. We then describe modifications to the NEG coating process to coat complex geometry chambers for ultra-cold atom trap experiments. Surface analysis of NEG coated samples are used to measure composition and morphology of the thin films. Finally, pressure measurements are compared for two NEG coated polarized electron source chambers: the 130 kV polarized electron source at Jefferson Lab and themore » upgraded 350 kV polarized 2 electron source, both of which are approaching or within the extreme high vacuum (XHV) range, defined as P<7.5x10^-13 Torr.« less

  5. Multiple pump housing

    DOEpatents

    Donoho, II, Michael R.; Elliott; Christopher M.

    2010-03-23

    A fluid delivery system includes a first pump having a first drive assembly, a second pump having a second drive assembly, and a pump housing. At least a portion of each of the first and second pumps are located in the housing.

  6. Chemical pump study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergquist, L. E.

    1973-01-01

    Sorption pumps applicable to the Pioneer Venus Mass Spectrometer Experiment were investigated. The pump requirements are discussed, and a survey of the existing pumps presented. Zirconium and zirconium graphite products were found to be the most promising among the getter materials surveyed. A preliminary pump design for the noble gas experiment is discussed.

  7. Phacoemulsification tip vacuum pressure: Comparison of 4 devices.

    PubMed

    Payne, Marielle; Georgescu, Dan; Waite, Aaron N; Olson, Randall J

    2006-08-01

    To determine the vacuum pressure generated by 4 phacoemulsification devices measured at the phacoemulsification tip. University ophthalmology department. The effective vacuum pressures generated by the Sovereign (AMO), Millennium (Bausch & Lomb), Legacy AdvanTec (Alcon Laboratories), and Infiniti (Alcon Laboratories) phacoemulsification machines were measured with a device that isolated the phacoemulsification tip in a chamber connected to a pressure gauge. The 4 machines were tested at multiple vacuum limit settings, and the values were recorded after the foot pedal was fully depressed and the pressure had stabilized. The AdvanTec and Infiniti machines were tested with and without occlusion of the Aspiration Bypass System (ABS) side port (Alcon Laboratories). The Millennium machine was tested using venturi and peristaltic pumps. The machines generated pressures close to the expected at maximum vacuum settings between 100 mm Hg and 500 mm Hg with few intermachine variations. There was no significant difference between pressures generated using 19- or 20-gauge tips (Millennium and Sovereign). The addition of an ABS side port decreased vacuum by a mean of 12.1% (P < .0001). Although there were some variations in vacuum pressures among phacoemulsification machines, particularly when an aspiration bypass tip was used, these discrepancies are probably not clinically significant.

  8. Vacuum tool manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1993-11-23

    Apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprises a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing to an extended position where the arm extends through the two openings in a generally horizontal position. The arm preferably has a two-fingered gripping device for gripping the vacuum hose but may carry a different end effector such as a grinding wheel. The fingers are opened and closed by one air cylinder. A second air cylinder extends the device. A third air cylinder within the housing pivotally pulls the opposing end of the arm into the housing via a pivoting member pivotally connected between the third air cylinder shaft and the arm. 6 figures.

  9. Compact vacuum insulation embodiments

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1992-04-28

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point' or line' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included. 26 figs.

  10. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.; Potter, Thomas F.

    1993-01-01

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially "point" or "line" contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form "line" contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively "point" contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  11. Compact vacuum insulation embodiments

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.; Potter, Thomas F.

    1992-01-01

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially "point" or "line" contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form "line" contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively "point" contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  12. Vacuum tool manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, William T.

    1993-01-01

    Apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprises a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing to an extended position where the arm extends through the two openings in a generally horizontal position. The arm preferably has a two-fingered gripping device for gripping the vacuum hose but may carry a different end effector such as a grinding wheel. The fingers are opened and closed by one air cylinder. A second air cylinder extends the device. A third air cylinder within the housing pivotally pulls the opposing end of the arm into the housing via a pivoting member pivotally connected between the third air cylinder shaft and the arm.

  13. Compact vacuum insulation

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1993-01-05

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point'' or line'' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line'' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point'' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  14. Integrated structure vacuum tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimeff, J.; Kerwin, W. J. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    High efficiency, multi-dimensional thin film vacuum tubes suitable for use in high temperature, high radiation environments are described. The tubes are fabricated by placing thin film electrode members in selected arrays on facing interior wall surfaces of an alumina substrate envelope. Cathode members are formed using thin films of triple carbonate. The photoresist used in photolithography aids in activation of the cathodes by carbonizing and reacting with the reduced carbonates when heated in vacuum during forming. The finely powdered triple carbonate is mixed with the photoresist used to delineate the cathode locations in the conventional solid state photolithographic manner. Anode and grid members are formed using thin films of refractory metal. Electron flow in the tubes is between grid elements from cathode to anode as in a conventional three-dimensional tube.

  15. Some physiological responses of wheat and bean to soil salinity at low matric suctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatar, Mahnaz; Mohammadi, Mohammad Hossein; Shekari, Farid

    2017-01-01

    The effect of soil matric suction (2-33 kPa) and salinity (soil solution electrical conductivity 0.7-8 dS m-1 for bean and 2-20 dS m-1 for wheat) on some physiological characteristics of bean and wheat in a clay loam soil under greenhouse condition was investigated. The results showed that the leaf chlorophyll content index and potassium concentration decrease under salinity stress and increase with matric suction from 2 to 33 kPa suction for both plants. The wheat chlorophyll content index declines during the stress spell but bean chlorophyll content index remains nearly constant. The lowest values of the content of soluble sugars and the highest values of leaf proline content are observed at2 kPa matric suction (highest aeration stress) for bean and wheat. As matric suction increases from 2 to 6 kPa, the soluble sugars increases and proline content decreases significantly and then soluble sugars decreases and proline content increases until 10 kPa suction, and the soluble sugars remains nearly constant at the higher matric suctions for both plants. While the electrical conductivity effect on the soluble sugars is not significant, the values of proline content for both crop increase significantly with electrical conductivity. It was shown that the aeration stress can result in more considerable and rapid physiological responses, in comparison with salinity stress. There is a strong correlation between wheat and bean chlorophyll content index and potassium concentration under salinity and aeration stresses.

  16. Endotracheal Suctioning in Preterm Infants Using Four-Handed versus Routine Care

    PubMed Central

    Cone, Sharon; Pickler, Rita H.; Grap, Mary Jo; McGrath, Jacqueline; Wiley, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of four-handed care on preterm infants’ physiologic and behavioral responses to and recovery from endotracheal suctioning versus routine endotracheal (ETT) suctioning. Design Randomized crossover design with infants as their own controls. Setting Single-family-room newborn intensive care unit in an academic health center. Participants Ten intubated infants on conventional ventilation with inline suctioning who were fewer than 37 weeks gestation at birth, and less than one week of age. Methods Each infant was observed twice on a single day. One observation involved routine ETT suctioning and one involved four-handed care. Physiologic and behavioral response data were collected. Results No differences were noted when comparing baseline heart rate (HR) or oxygen saturation (SpO2) data to those obtained during and after suctioning while in the routine care condition. In the four-handed care condition, mean SpO2 increased from preobservation 95.49 to during observation saturation 97.75 (p = .001). Salivary cortisol levels did not differ between groups at baseline or postsuctioning. No significant difference in behavior state was observed between the two conditions. More stress and defense behaviors occurred postsuctioning when infants received routine care as opposed to four-handed care (p = .001) and more self-regulatory behaviors were exhibited by infants during (p = .019) and after suctioning (p = .016) when receiving four-handed care. No statistical difference was found in the number of monitor call-backs postsuctioning. Conclusions Four-handed care during suctioning was associated with a decrease in stress and defense behaviors and an increase in self-regulatory behaviors. PMID:23316894

  17. Thermal Vacuum Control Systems Options for Test Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchetti, John

    2008-01-01

    This presentation suggests several Thermal Vacuum System (TVAC) control design approach methods for TVAC facilities. Over the past several years many aerospace companies have or are currently upgrading their TVAC testing facilities whether it be by upgrading old equipment or purchasing new. In doing so they are updating vacuum pumping and thermal capabilities of their chambers as well as their control systems. Although control systems are sometimes are considered second to the vacuum or thermal system upgrade process, they should not be taken lightly and must be planned and implemented with the equipment it is to control. Also, emphasis should be placed on how the operators will use the system as well as the requirements of "their" customers. Presented will be various successful methods of TVAC control systems from Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) based to personal computer (PC) based control.

  18. Method of retrieving a liquid sample, a suction lysimeter, a portable suction lysimeter, a lysimeter system, and a deep lysimeter

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.

    2003-08-26

    A method of retrieving a liquid sample comprises providing a portable lysimeter including a semi-permeable membrane and a chamber in fluid communication with the semi-permeable membrane; making a hole at a site from which a liquid sample is desired; evacuating the chamber by applying a vacuum to the chamber; lowering the portable lysimeter into the hole; obtaining a sample in the chamber; and retrieving the lysimeter from the bore; wherein it is not necessary to backfill the bore. A portable lysimeter includes a semi-permeable member and a chamber in fluid communication with the semi-permeable membrane.

  19. Pilot Study Comparing Closed Versus Open Tracheal Suctioning in Postoperative Neonates and Infants With Complex Congenital Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Tume, Lyvonne N; Baines, Paul B; Guerrero, Rafael; Hurley, Margaret A; Johnson, Robert; Kalantre, Atul; Ramaraj, Ram; Ritson, Paul C; Walsh, Laura; Arnold, Philip D

    2017-07-01

    To determine the hemodynamic effect of tracheal suction method in the first 36 hours after high-risk infant heart surgery on the PICU and to compare open and closed suctioning techniques. Pilot randomized crossover study. Single PICU in United Kingdom. Infants undergoing surgical palliation with Norwood Sano, modified Blalock-Taussig shunt, or pulmonary artery banding in the first 36 hours postoperatively. Infants were randomized to receive open or closed (in-line) tracheal suctioning either for their first or second study tracheal suction in the first 36 hours postoperatively. Twenty-four infants were enrolled over 18 months, 11 after modified Blalock-Taussig shunt, seven after Norwood Sano, and six after pulmonary artery banding. Thirteen patients received the open suction method first followed by the closed suction method second, and 11 patients received the closed suction method first followed by the open suction method second in the first 36 hours after their surgery. There were statistically significant larger changes in heart rate (p = 0.002), systolic blood pressure (p = 0.022), diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.009), mean blood pressure (p = 0.007), and arterial saturation (p = 0.040) using the open suction method, compared with closed suctioning, although none were clinically significant (defined as requiring any intervention). There were no clinically significant differences between closed and open tracheal suction methods; however, there were statistically significant greater changes in some hemodynamic variables with open tracheal suctioning, suggesting that closed technique may be safer in children with more precarious physiology.

  20. Continuously pumping and reactivating gas pump

    DOEpatents

    Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    Apparatus for continuous pumping using cycling cryopumping panels. A plurality of liquid helium cooled panels are surrounded by movable nitrogen cooled panels that alternatively expose or shield the helium cooled panels from the space being pumped. Gases condense on exposed helium cooled panels until the nitrogen cooled panels are positioned to isolate the helium cooled panels. The helium cooled panels are incrementally warmed, causing captured gases to accumulate at the base of the panels, where an independant pump removes the gases. After the helium cooled panels are substantially cleaned of condensate, the nitrogen cooled panels are positioned to expose the helium cooled panels to the space being pumped.

  1. Continuously pumping and reactivating gas pump

    DOEpatents

    Batzer, Thomas H.; Call, Wayne R.

    1984-01-01

    Apparatus for continuous pumping using cycling cyropumping panels. A plurality of liquid helium cooled panels are surrounded by movable nitrogen cooled panels the alternatively expose or shield the helium cooled panels from the space being pumped. Gases condense on exposed helium cooled panels until the nitrogen cooled panels are positioned to isolate the helium cooled panels. The helium cooled panels are incrementally warmed, causing captured gases to accumulate at the base of the panels, where an independent pump removes the gases. After the helium cooled panels are substantially cleaned of condensate, the nitrogen cooled panels are positioned to expose the helium cooled panels to the space being pumped.

  2. Photosynthesis and Transpiration of Monterey Pine Seedlings as a Function of Soil Water Suction and Soil Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Babalola, O.; Boersma, L.; Youngberg, C. T.

    1968-01-01

    Rates of photosynthesis, respiration, and transpiration of Monterey pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) were measured under controlled conditions of soil water suction and soil temperature. Air temperature, relative humidity, light intensity, and air movement were maintained constant. Rates of net photosynthesis, respiration, and transpiration decreased with increasing soil water suction. The decrease in the rates of net photosynthesis and transpiration as a function of the soil temperature at low soil water suctions may be attributed to changes in the viscosity of water. At soil water suctions larger than 0.70 bars rates of transpiration and net photosynthesis may be affected in the same proportion by changes in stomatal apertures. Images PMID:16656800

  3. Performance of high-area-ratio annular dump diffuser using suction-stabilized-vortex flow control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, A. J.; Smith, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    A short annular dump diffuser having a geometry conductive to formation of suction stabilized toroidal vortices in the region of abrupt area change was tested. The overall diffuser area ratio was 4.0 and the length to inlet height ratio was 2.0. Performance data were obtained at near ambient temperature and pressure for inlet Mach numbers of 0.18 and 0.30 with suction rates ranging from 0 to 18 percent of total inlet mass flowrate. Results show that the exit velocity profile could be readily biased toward either wall by adjustment of inner and outer wall suction rates. Symmetric exit velocity profiles were inherently unstable with a tendency to revert to a hub or tip bias. Diffuser effectiveness was increased from about 38 percent without suction to over 85 percent at a total suction rate of 10 to 12 percent. At the same time diffuser total pressure loss was reduced from 3.1 percent to 1.1 percent at an inlet Mach number of 0.3.

  4. Experiments on tandem diffusers with boundary-layer suction applied in between

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barna, P. S.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments were performed on conical diffusers of various configurations with the same, but rather unusually large, 16:1 area ratio. Because available performance data on diffusers fall short of very large area ratio configurations, an unconventional design, consisting of two diffusers following each other in tandem, was proposed. Both diffusers had the same area ratio of 4:1, but had different taper angles. While for the first diffuser (called leading) the angle remained constant, for the second (called follower), the taper angle was stepped up to higher values. Boundary layer control, by way of suction, was applied between the diffusers, and a single slot suction ring was inserted between them. The leading diffuser had an enclosed nominal divergence angle 2 theta = 5 degrees, while the follower diffusers had either 10, 20, 30, or 40 degrees, respectively, giving 4 combinations. The experiments were performed at four different Reynolds numbers with various suction rates. The rates indicate a general improvement in the performance of all diffusers with boundary layer suction. It appears that the improvement of the pressure recovery depends on both the Reynolds number and the suction rate, and the largest increase, 0.075, was found at the lowest R sub e when the follower divergence was 2 theta = 40 degrees.

  5. Morphology, Kinematics, and Dynamics: The Mechanics of Suction Feeding in Fishes.

    PubMed

    Day, Steven W; Higham, Timothy E; Holzman, Roi; Van Wassenbergh, Sam

    2015-07-01

    Suction feeding is pervasive among aquatic vertebrates, and our understanding of the functional morphology and biomechanics of suction feeding has recently been advanced by combining experimental and modeling approaches. Key advances include the visualization of the patterns of flow in front of the mouth of a feeding fish, the measurement of pressure inside their mouth cavity, and the employment of analytical and computational models. Here, we review the key components of the morphology and kinematics of the suction-feeding system of anatomically generalized, adult ray-finned fishes, followed by an overview of the hydrodynamics involved. In the suction-feeding apparatus, a strong mechanistic link among morphology, kinematics, and the capture of prey is manifested through the hydrodynamic interactions between the suction flows and solid surfaces (the mouth cavity and the prey). It is therefore a powerful experimental system in which the ecology and evolution of the capture of prey can be studied based on first principals. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Continuous irrigation with suction started at early days after pancreatic surgery prevents severe complications.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Shigeaki; Yamagishi, Fuminori; Suzuki, Syuuichiro; Matsuoha, Jiro; Arai, Hideki; Tsukada, Kazuhiro

    2008-01-01

    The management of pancreatic leakage is important after pancreatic resection because such leakagge can be associated with additional complications. In this paper, we present a new therapy "irrigation with suction" after pancreatic surgery. The addition of suction permits the start of irrigation early after surgery and prevents severe post-operative complications. Between January 1995 and June 2003, 29 consecutive patients underwent surgical treatment of the pancreas for a variety of indications. Among them, 18 patients were treated with continuous irrigation with suction prophylactically. In these 29 patients, we did not encounter any additional complications such as intraabdominal hemorrhage or abscess formation. A representative case report demonstrates the application of this treatment. The irrigation with suction therapy was started on the first post-operative day after the pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy with left lobectomy of the liver. CT with irrigation of contrast reagent showed that the reagent did not spread to the uninvolved abdominal area, and the patient did not develop hemorrhage or abscess. It seems that continuous irrigation with suction therapy was effective in preventing additional serious complications after pancreatic resection.

  7. Exact Calculation of Laminar Boundary Layer in Longitudinal Flow over a Flat Plate with Homogeneous Suction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iglisch, Rudolf

    1949-01-01

    Lately it has been proposed to reduce the friction drag of a body in a flow for the technically important large Reynolds numbers by the following expedient: the boundary layer, normally turbulent, is artificially kept laminar up to high Reynolds numbers by suction. The reduction in friction drag thus obtained is of the order of magnitude of 60 to 80 percent of the turbulent friction drag, since the latter, for large Reynolds numbers, is several times the laminar friction drag. In considering the idea mentioned one has first to consider whether suction is a possible means of keeping the boundary layer laminar. This question can be answered by a theoretical investigation of the stability of the laminar boundary layer with suction. A knowledge, as accurate as possible, of the velocity distribution in the laminar boundary layer with suction forms the starting point for the stability investigation. E. Schlichting recently gave a survey of the present state of calculation of the laminar boundary layer with suction.

  8. Water Flow Performance of a Superscale Model of the Fastrac Liquid Oxygen Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skelley, Stephen; Zoladz, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    As part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's ongoing effort to lower the cost of access to space, the Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a rocket engine with 60,000 pounds of thrust for use on the Reusable Launch Vehicle technology demonstrator slated for launch in 2000. This gas generator cycle engine, known as the Fastrac engine, uses liquid oxygen and RP-1 for propellants and includes single stage liquid oxygen and RP-1 pumps and a single stage supersonic turbine on a common shaft. The turbopump design effort included the first use and application of new suction capability prediction codes and three-dimensional blade generation codes in an attempt to reduce the turbomachinery design and certification costs typically associated with rocket engine development. To verify the pump's predicted cavitation performance, a water flow test of a superscale model of the Fastrac liquid oxygen pump was conducted to experimentally evaluate the liquid oxygen pump's performance at and around the design point. The water flow test article replicated the flow path of the Fastrac liquid oxygen pump in a 1.582x scale model, including scaled seal clearances for correct leakage flow at a model operating speed of 5000 revolutions per minute. Flow entered the 3-blade axial-flow inducer, transitioned to a shrouded, 6-blade radial impeller, and discharged into a vaneless radial diffuser and collection volute. The test article included approximately 50 total and static pressure measurement locations as well as flush-mounted, high frequency pressure transducers for complete mapping of the pressure environment. The primary objectives of the water flow test were to measure the steady-state and dynamic pressure environment of the liquid oxygen pump versus flow coefficient, suction specific speed, and back face leakage flow rate. Results showed excellent correlation between the predicted and experimentally measured pump head rise at low suction specific speeds. Likewise

  9. Water Flow Performance of a Superscale Model of the Fastrac Liquid Oxygen Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skelley, Stephen; Zoladz, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    As part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's ongoing effort to lower the cost of access to space, the Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a rocket engine with 60,000 pounds of thrust for use on the Reusable Launch Vehicle technology demonstrator slated for launch in 2000. This gas generator cycle engine, known as the Fastrac engine, uses liquid oxygen and RP-1 for propellants and includes single stage liquid oxygen and RP-1 pumps and a single stage supersonic turbine on a common shaft. The turbopump design effort included the first use and application of new suction capability prediction codes and three-dimensional blade generation codes in an attempt to reduce the turbomachinery design and certification costs typically associated with rocket engine development. To verify the pump's predicted cavitation performance, a water flow test of a superscale model of the Fastrac liquid oxygen pump was conducted to experimentally evaluate the liquid oxygen pump's performance at and around the design point. The water flow test article replicated the flow path of the Fastrac liquid oxygen pump in a 1.582x scale model, including scaled seal clearances for correct leakage flow at a model operating speed of 5000 revolutions per minute. Flow entered the 3-blade axial-flow inducer, transitioned to a shrouded, 6- blade radial impeller, and discharged into a vaneless radial diffuser and collection volute. The test article included approximately 50 total and static pressure measurement locations as well as flush-mounted, high frequency pressure transducers for complete mapping of the pressure environment. The primary objectives of the water flow test were to measure the steady-state and dynamic pressure environment of the liquid oxygen pump versus flow coefficient, suction specific speed, and back face leakage flow rate. Initial results showed acceptable correlation between the predicted and experimentally measured pump head rise at low suction specific speeds

  10. Hazardous Chemical Pump Tests.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    hydraulic flow rate is the product of the pump speed and the pump displacement. The pump displacement for each respective pump was constant throughout...speed - rpm T - torque - ft lbs 7= 3.1416 By substituting the product of pump speed and pump displacement for the hydraulic flow rate (Q=NO) in the above...FF:iipr’: iL 40 H FLUID F-’UMPED; FPl H FVIi T’E1l ’HJO I...S Lu FL: H KFITE C F~~:ri FIGURE 2 CC E MT 2, Fi C F . c ;E’C F11 *:;_cl PF fog O ~ \\ 4 1

  11. The vacuum platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNab, A.

    2017-10-01

    This paper describes GridPP’s Vacuum Platform for managing virtual machines (VMs), which has been used to run production workloads for WLCG and other HEP experiments. The platform provides a uniform interface between VMs and the sites they run at, whether the site is organised as an Infrastructure-as-a-Service cloud system such as OpenStack, or an Infrastructure-as-a-Client system such as Vac. The paper describes our experience in using this platform, in developing and operating VM lifecycle managers Vac and Vcycle, and in interacting with VMs provided by LHCb, ATLAS, ALICE, CMS, and the GridPP DIRAC service to run production workloads.

  12. Influence of the positive prewhirl on the performance of centrifugal pumps with different airfoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, C. M.; Wang, H. M.; Huang, X.; Lin, H.

    2012-11-01

    According to the basic theory of turbomachinery design and inlet guide vanes prewhirl regulation, two different airfoils inlet guide vanes of prewhirl regulation device were designed, the influence of the positive prewhirl to the performance of centrifugal pump were studied based on different airfoils. The results show that, for a single-suction centrifugal pump: Gottingen bowed blade-type inlet guide vane adjustment effect is better than straight blade-type inlet guide; appropriate design of positive prewhirl can elevate the efficiency of centrifugal pumps. Compared with no vane conditions, the efficiency of centrifugal pump with prewhirl vanes has been greatly improved and the power consumption has been reduced significantly, while has little influence on the head.

  13. Cavitation characteristics of a small centrifugal pump in He I and He II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludtke, P. R.; Daney, D. E.

    1988-01-01

    The cavitation characteristics of a small preinduced centrifugal pump operating in He I and He II over the temperature range 1.8-4.2 K are presented. The pump and close-coupled induction motor operate immersed in liquid helium. A six-blade propeller inducer and a three-blade screw inducer were both tested. With this pump configuration using either inducer, there is a tremendous difference between the cavitation characteristics of He I and He II. The net positive suction head requirements for this pump with the screw inducer could not be determined for He I, but it is less than -100 mm and, depending on flow rate, ranges between 35 and 165 mm for He II.

  14. Reciprocating down-hole sand pump

    SciTech Connect

    Ruhle, J.L.

    1987-04-28

    This patent describes the invention of a continuously-operated reciprocating down-hole sand pump comprising: a steel polished plunger pipe that strokes back and forth within a steel honed pump barrel, and is equipped with a self-lubricating fluorocarbon V-ring system that is pressure-actuated during compression strokes; the self-lubricating fluorocarbon V-ring system also is self-actuated by means of coil springs to provide wiping action to the polished plunger pipe during suction strokes; the self-lubricating fluorocarbons V-ring system also self-adjusts by means of coil springs located adjacent the fluorocarbon V-ring so as to automatically compensate for V-ring wear; and the self-lubricating fluorocarbon V-ring systemmore » also is designed in such a manner so as to eliminate voids and discourage the extrusion of V-rings in high temperature and high-pressure applications.« less

  15. Enhancing the performance of the domestic refrigerator with hot gas injection to suction line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, E. T.; Hasan, S.; Mutaufiq

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the increase in performance of a domestic refrigerator that uses hot gas injection (IHG) to the suction line. The experiment was conducted by flowing refrigerant from the discharge line to the suction line. To get performance data, measurements performed on the liquid brine as cooling load with various temperatures (range from 3°C to - 3°C). The working fluid is used as a cooling medium is R-134a. The experimental results showed that the injection of hot gas to the suction line generates an increase in the coefficient of performance systems (COPs) of 7% and is able to lower the discharge temperature, causing the compressor to work lighter/easier, saving electric power needed by the refrigerator.

  16. Effects of wall suction/blowing on two-dimensional flow past a confined square cylinder.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Yanqun; Li, Lang; Chen, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    A numerical simulation is conducted to study the laminar flow past a square cylinder confined in a channel (the ratio of side length of the square to channel width is fixed at 1/4) subjected to a locally uniform blowing/suction speed placed at the top and bottom channel walls. Governing equations with boundary conditions are resolved using a finite volume method in pressure-velocity formulation. The flow patterns relevant to the critical spacing values are investigated. Numerical results show that wall blowing has a stabilizing effect on the flow, and the corresponding critical Reynolds number increases monotonically with increasing blowing velocity. Remarkably, steady asymmetric solutions and hysteretic mode transitions exist in a certain range of parameters (Reynolds number and suction speed) in the case of suction.

  17. Gas pump with movable gas pumping panels

    DOEpatents

    Osher, J.L.

    Apparatus for pumping gas continuously a plurality of articulated panels of getter material, each of which absorbs gases on one side while another of its sides is simultaneously reactivated in a zone isolated by the panels themselves from a working space being pumped.

  18. Gas pump with movable gas pumping panels

    DOEpatents

    Osher, John E.

    1984-01-01

    Apparatus for pumping gas continuously a plurality of articulated panels of getter material, each of which absorbs gases on one side while another of its sides is simultaneously reactivated in a zone isolated by the panels themselves from a working space being pumped.

  19. Accelerator Vacuum Protection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barua, Pradip; Kothari, Ashok; Archunan, M.; Joshi, Rajan

    2012-11-01

    A new and elaborate automatic vacuum protection system using fast acting valve has been installed to avoid accidental venting of accelerator from experimental chamber side. To cover all the beam lines and to reduce the system cost, it has been installed at a common point from where all the seven beam lines originate. The signals are obtained by placing fast response pressure sensing gauges (HV SENSOR) near all the experimental stations. The closing time of the fast valve is 10 milli-second. The fast closing system protects only one vacuum line at a time. At IUAC, we have seven beam lines so one sensor was placed in each of the beam lines near experimental chamber and a multiplexer was incorporated into the fast closing system. At the time of experiment, the sensor of the active beam line is selected through the multiplexer and the Fast closing valve is interlocked with the selected sensor. As soon as the pressure sensor senses the pressure rise beyond a selected pressure, the signal is transferred and the fast valve closes within 10 to 12 millisecond.

  20. Vacuum vapor deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poorman, Richard M. (Inventor); Weeks, Jack L. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for vapor deposition of a thin metallic film utilizing an ionized gas arc directed onto a source material spaced from a substrate to be coated in a substantial vacuum while providing a pressure differential between the source and the substrate so that, as a portion of the source is vaporized, the vapors are carried to the substrate. The apparatus includes a modified tungsten arc welding torch having a hollow electrode through which a gas, preferably inert, flows and an arc is struck between the electrode and the source. The torch, source, and substrate are confined within a chamber within which a vacuum is drawn. When the arc is struck, a portion of the source is vaporized and the vapors flow rapidly toward the substrate. A reflecting shield is positioned about the torch above the electrode and the source to ensure that the arc is struck between the electrode and the source at startup. The electrode and the source may be confined within a vapor guide housing having a duct opening toward the substrate for directing the vapors onto the substrate.

  1. The effect of open and closed endotracheal tube suctioning system on respiratory parameters of infants undergoing mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, Parvin; Asgari, Narges; Mohammadizadeh, Majid; Golchin, Mehri

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Mechanical ventilation is used for some infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) due to many physiological and clinical causes. Since these patients have endotracheal tubes, cleaning and keeping the airways open through suctioning should be done to increase oxygenation. This study aimed to evaluate effect of open and closed suctioning methods on respiratory parameters of infants undergoing mechanical ventilation. Materials and Methods: In this crossover clinical trial, 44 infants were selected among those undergone mechanical ventilation in NICU of Isfahan's Al-Zahra Hospital using convenience sampling method. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups. In the first group, open suctioning was carried out and after three hours of cleaning, closed suctioning was done. In the second group, closed suctioning was firstly done and following three hours of cleaning, open suctioning was implemented. Respiratory rate (RR) and percentage of arterial blood oxygen saturation was measured before, during and after each type of suctioning. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and independent student's t-test. Findings: There was a significant difference between mean respiratory rate and arterial blood oxygen saturation in infants before, during and after the closed and open suctioning. The percentage of arterial blood oxygen saturation had a significant reduction in open method compared to closed method during suctioning and immediately after it. RR three minutes after suctioning showed a significant reduction in both steps in open method compared to closed method. Conclusions: Close method caused fewer changes in hemodynamic status of infants. Therefore, in order to prevent respiratory complications in infants, nurses are recommended to perform the endotracheal tube suctioning by closed method. PMID:23493041

  2. Increased resistance of hygroscopic condenser humidifiers when using a closed circuit suction system.

    PubMed

    Martinez, F J; Pietchel, S; Wise, C; Walek, J; Beamis, J F

    1994-10-01

    To examine a hygroscopic condenser after clinical use and to describe the interaction of a hygroscopic condenser and a closed circuit suction system used simultaneously. Prospective evaluation of hygroscopic condensers used clinically, and laboratory investigation of a hygroscopic condenser used with a closed circuit suction system. Tertiary referral centers. The hygroscopic condenser used during mechanical ventilation was removed and peak inflation pressure was measured by delivering a standard tidal volume and inspiratory flow across the isolated hygroscopic condenser while recording the peak inflation pressure. In the laboratory, four 10-mL aliquots of saline were instilled via closed circuit suction system into a test lung with fresh hygroscopic condensers (n = 15) inline. At baseline and after each instillation, the hygroscopic condenser was weighed and the peak inflation pressure was measured while in five condensers, peak expiratory flow rate was also measured. In these five devices, hygroscopic condenser resistance was measured with 100 L/min of constant gas flow while measuring the pressure drop across the hygroscopic condenser. In 11 hygroscopic condensers used for 27.5 +/- 11.9 hrs with no closed circuit suction system, the peak inflation pressure was 3.74 +/- 0.58 cm H2O. In the laboratory, instillation of saline via closed circuit suction system was associated with an increase in hygroscopic condenser weight. Peak inflation pressure increased in a quadratic fashion with the increase in hygroscopic condenser weight, while peak expiratory flow rate decreased in a linear fashion. After four saline instillations, hygroscopic condenser resistance increased from 5.66 +/- 0.31 to 13.9 +/- 2.42 cm H2O/L/sec. Clinical use of a hygroscopic condenser alone is not associated with a significant increase in peak inflation pressure. We caution the use of a hygroscopic condenser and a closed circuit suction system simultaneously, as an increase in hygroscopic

  3. Liquid metal enabled pump

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shi-Yang; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Sivan, Vijay; Petersen, Phred; O’Mullane, Anthony P.; Abbott, Derek; Mitchell, Arnan; Kalantar-zadeh, Kourosh

    2014-01-01

    Small-scale pumps will be the heartbeat of many future micro/nanoscale platforms. However, the integration of small-scale pumps is presently hampered by limited flow rate with respect to the input power, and their rather complicated fabrication processes. These issues arise as many conventional pumping effects require intricate moving elements. Here, we demonstrate a system that we call the liquid metal enabled pump, for driving a range of liquids without mechanical moving parts, upon the application of modest electric field. This pump incorporates a droplet of liquid metal, which induces liquid flow at high flow rates, yet with exceptionally low power consumption by electrowetting/deelectrowetting at the metal surface. We present theory explaining this pumping mechanism and show that the operation is fundamentally different from other existing pumps. The presented liquid metal enabled pump is both efficient and simple, and thus has the potential to fundamentally advance the field of microfluidics. PMID:24550485

  4. STAYLAM: A FORTRAN program for the suction transition analysis of a yawed wing laminar boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    A computer program called STAYLAM is presented for the computation of the compressible laminar boundary-layer flow over a yawed infinite wing including distributed suction. This program is restricted to the transonic speed range or less due to the approximate treatment of the compressibility effects. The prescribed suction distribution is permitted to change discontinuously along the chord measured perpendicular to the wing leading edge. Estimates of transition are made by considering leading edge contamination, cross flow instability, and instability of the Tollmien-Schlichting type. A program listing is given in addition to user instructions and a sample case.

  5. The influence of total suction on the brittle failure characteristics of clay shales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amann, F.; Linda, W.; Zimmer, S.; Thoeny, R.

    2013-12-01

    Clay shale testing is challenging and the results obtained from standard laboratory tests may not always reflect the strength of the clay shale in-situ. This is to a certain extend associated with the sensitivity of these rock types to desaturation processes during drilling, sample storage, and sample preparation. In this study the relationship between total suction, uniaxial compressive strength and Brazilian tensile (BTS) strength of cylindrical samples of Opalinus Clay was established in a systematic manner. Unconfined uniaxial compression and BTS tests were performed utilizing a servo-controlled testing procedure. Total suctions in the specimens was generated in air tight desiccators using supersaturated saline solutions which establish a relative humidity ranging from 20% to 99%. For unconfined compressive strength tests loading of the specimens occurred parallel to bedding. For BTS tests loading was either oriented normal or perpendicular to bedding. Both, the crack initiation and volumetric strain reversal threshold values were determined using volumetric and radial stress-strain methods. The results of BTS tests show that the tensile strength normal and perpendicular to bedding increases by a factor of approximately 3 when total suction is increased from 0 to 90 MPa (i.e. saturation decreases from 1.0 to 0.7) . Beyond 90 MPa total suction no further increase in tensile strength was observed, most probably due to shrinkage cracks which alter the tensile strength of the clay shale. Results obtained from UCS tests suggest that higher total suctions result in higher UCS values. Between total suctions of 0 to 90 MPa, the strength increase is almost linear (i.e. the UCS increases by a factor of 1.5 MPa). Beyond 90 MPa total suction no further strength increase was observed. A similar trend can be observed for crack initiation and crack damage values. In the same range of total suction the crack initiation stress increases by a factor of 5 (from 2 MPa to 10 MPa

  6. Surgical treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis by suction-curettage of sweat glands*

    PubMed Central

    de Rezende, Rebeca Maffra; Luz, Flávio Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Suction curettage is a dermatologic surgery technique for the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis, which is becoming more popular. Objective: The purpose of this study is to describe the current technique of removal of axillary sweat glands, and evaluate its efficacy and safety. Conclusion: Suction-curettage of sweat glands is a minimally invasive surgical technique that is easy to perform, safe, has high rates of success and relatively few side-effects. It is generally well tolerated by patients and requires shorter time away from daily activities, when compared with other surgical modalities. PMID:25387499

  7. Rotating flow of a nanofluid due to an exponentially stretching surface with suction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salleh, Siti Nur Alwani; Bachok, Norfifah; Arifin, Norihan Md

    2017-08-01

    An analysis of the rotating nanofluid flow past an exponentially stretched surface with the presence of suction is studied in this work. Three different types of nanoparticles, namely, copper, titania and alumina are considered. The system of ordinary differential equations is computed numerically using a shooting method in Maple software after being transformed from the partial differential equations. This transformation has considered the similarity transformations in exponential form. The physical effect of the rotation, suction and nanoparticle volume fraction parameters on the rotating flow and heat transfer phenomena is investigated and has been described in detail through graphs. The dual solutions are found to appear when the governing parameters reach a certain range.

  8. [Metabolic and cardiovascular consequences of suction-assisted lipectomy: Systematic review].

    PubMed

    Crahay, F-X; Nizet, J L

    2016-08-01

    Suction-assisted lipectomy is one of the most frequent procedures in plastic surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate whether suction-assisted lipectomy causes changes in the carbohydrates and lipid metabolism and the potential effects on cardiovascular risk factors. We interrogated five databases: Medline, American College of Physicians Journal Club Database, Cochrane central register of controlled trials, Cochrane database of systematic reviews, Database of abstracts of reviews of effects. A systematic review of the literature was performed in order to compare results of randomized controlled trials and observational studies concerning changes in weight, metabolism, endocrinology, inflammatory markers and cardiovascular risk factors after suction-assisted lipectomy. All articles were assessed by criteria from Oxford Center For Evidence Based Medicine (OCEBM). The search resulted in 40 articles: 12 experimental animal studies and 28 human studies. Different metabolic parameters are affected by suction-assited lipectomy. First, all articles point out a decrease of body weight after suction-assisted lipectomy. Weight lost only affects fat mass without any change of lean mass. The potential compensatory growth of visceral fat seems to be counteracted by physical activity. Then, resting energy expenditure seems to be stable or decrease after the surgery. This reduction is significantly related to the decrease of leptin levels and also seems to be counteracted by physical activity. About adipocytokines, leptin level decreases after suction-assisted lipectomy while results are contradictory about adiponectin and resistin levels. However adiponectin seems to tend to increase after surgery. Inflammatory markers seem to increase within first hours after surgery. Then they seem to decrease or remain at the preoperative levels. Fasting insulin level decreases and is linked to the aspirated volume. So insulin sensitivity seems to be improved. Concerning lipid

  9. Vacuum leak detector and method

    DOEpatents

    Edwards, Jr., David

    1983-01-01

    Apparatus and method for detecting leakage in a vacuum system involves a moisture trap chamber connected to the vacuum system and to a pressure gauge. Moisture in the trap chamber is captured by freezing or by a moisture adsorbent to reduce the residual water vapor pressure therein to a negligible amount. The pressure gauge is then read to determine whether the vacuum system is leaky. By directing a stream of carbon dioxide or helium at potentially leaky parts of the vacuum system, the apparatus can be used with supplemental means to locate leaks.

  10. Photovoltaic pump systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klockgether, J.; Kiessling, K. P.

    1983-09-01

    Solar pump systems for the irrigation of fields and for water supply in regions with much sunshine are discussed. For surface water and sources with a hoisting depth of 12 m, a system with immersion pumps is used. For deep sources with larger hoisting depths, an underwater motor pump was developed. Both types of pump system meet the requirements of simple installation and manipulation, safe operation, maintenance free, and high efficiency reducing the number of solar cells needed.

  11. Note: Hollow cathode lamp with integral, high optical efficiency isolation valve: A modular vacuum ultraviolet source

    SciTech Connect

    Sloan Roberts, F.; Anderson, Scott L.

    2013-12-15

    The design and operating conditions of a hollow cathode discharge lamp for the generation of vacuum ultraviolet radiation, suitable for ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) application, are described in detail. The design is easily constructed, and modular, allowing it to be adapted to different experimental requirements. A thin isolation valve is built into one of the differential pumping stages, isolating the discharge section from the UHV section, both for vacuum safety and to allow lamp maintenance without venting the UHV chamber. The lamp has been used both for ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of surfaces and as a “soft” photoionization source for gas-phase massmore » spectrometry.« less

  12. Note: Hollow cathode lamp with integral, high optical efficiency isolation valve: a modular vacuum ultraviolet source.

    PubMed

    Roberts, F Sloan; Anderson, Scott L

    2013-12-01

    The design and operating conditions of a hollow cathode discharge lamp for the generation of vacuum ultraviolet radiation, suitable for ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) application, are described in detail. The design is easily constructed, and modular, allowing it to be adapted to different experimental requirements. A thin isolation valve is built into one of the differential pumping stages, isolating the discharge section from the UHV section, both for vacuum safety and to allow lamp maintenance without venting the UHV chamber. The lamp has been used both for ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of surfaces and as a "soft" photoionization source for gas-phase mass spectrometry.

  13. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Kirol, Lance D.

    1988-01-01

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation.

  14. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Kirol, L.D.

    1987-02-11

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation. 5 figs.

  15. Fabrication and test of a space power boiler feed electromagnetic pump. Part 2: Test facility and performance test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, A. H.; Amos, J. C.; Ehde, C. L.; Gahan, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    A three-phase helical induction electromagnetic pump, designed for the boiler-feed pump of a potassium Rankine-cycle space power system, was built and tested. The pump was tested over a range of potassium temperatures from 900 to 1400 F, flow rates from 0.75 to 4.85 lb/sec, developed pressures up to 340 psi, net positive suction heads (NPSH) from 1 to 22 psi, and NaK coolant temperatures from 800 to 950 F. The maximum efficiency at the pump design point of 3.25 lb/sec flow rate, 240 psi developed pressure, 1000 F potassium inlet temperature, and 800 F NaK coolant temperature was 16.3 percent. The tests also showed successful operation of the pump at an NPSH as low as 1.5 psi without cavitating.

  16. Instabilities orginating from suction holes used for Laminar Flow Control (LFC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watmuff, Jonathan H.

    1994-01-01

    A small-scale wind tunnel previously used for turbulent boundary layer studies has been modified for experiments in laminar flow control. The facility incorporates suction through interchangeable porous test surfaces which are used to stabilize the boundary layer and delay transition to turbulent flow. The thin porous test surfaces are supported by a baffled plenum chamber box which also acts to gather the flow through the surface into tubes which are routed to a high pressure fan. An elliptic leading edge is attached to the assembly to establish a new layer on the test plate. A slot is used to remove the test section flow below the leading edge. The test section was lengthened and fitted with a new ceiling. Substantial modifications were also made to the 3D probe traverse. Detailed studies have been made using isolated holes to explore the underlying instability mechanisms. The suction is perturbed harmonically and data are averaged on the basis of the phase of the disturbance. Conditions corresponding to strong suction and without suction have been studied. In both cases, 3D contour surfaces in the vicinity of the hole show highly three-dimensional T-S waves that fan out away from the hole with streamwise distance. With suction, the perturbations on the centerline are much stronger and decay less rapidly, while the far field is similar to the case without suction. Downstream the contour surfaces of the bow-shaped TS waves develop spanwise irregularities which eventually form into clumps. The contours remain smooth when suction is not applied. Even without suction, the harmonic point source is challenging for CFD; e.g. DNS has been used for streamwise growth. With suction, grid resources are consumed by the hole and this makes DNS even more expensive. Limited DNS results so far indicate that the vortices which emanate from suction holes appear to be stable. The spanwise clumping observed in the experiment is evidence of a secondary instability that could be

  17. Vacuum Powder Injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Working, Dennis C.

    1991-01-01

    Method developed to provide uniform impregnation of bundles of carbon-fiber tow with low-solubility, high-melt-flow polymer powder materials to produce composite prepregs. Vacuum powder injector expands bundle of fiber tow, applies polymer to it, then compresses bundle to hold powder. System provides for control of amount of polymer on bundle. Crystallinity of polymer maintained by controlled melt on takeup system. All powder entrapped, and most collected for reuse. Process provides inexpensive and efficient method for making composite materials. Allows for coating of any bundle of fine fibers with powders. Shows high potential for making prepregs of improved materials and for preparation of high-temperature, high-modulus, reinforced thermoplastics.

  18. ULTRA HIGH VACUUM VALVE

    DOEpatents

    Fry, W.A.

    1962-05-29

    A valve for high vacuum applications such as the CStellarator where chamber pressures as low as 2 x 10/sup -10/ mm Hg are necessary is designed with a line-of-sight path through the valve for visual inspection of the contents of reactants in such chambers. The valve comprises a turnable resilient metal ball having an aperture therethrough, means for selectively turning the ball to rotate the axis of its line-of-sight path, and soft, deformable opposing orifices that are movable relatively toward said ball to seal with opposite ball surfaces upon said movement of said axis of said line-of-sight path. The valve also includes a bellows seal connected between said orifices and internal actuating means that eliminates the requirement for gasketed turnable valve closing stems. (AEC)

  19. Liquid metal electric pump

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, J.P.; Andraka, C.E.; Lukens, L.L.; Moreno, J.B.

    1992-01-14

    An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other. 3 figs.

  20. Liquid metal electric pump

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, Joseph P.; Andraka, Charles E.; Lukens, Laurance L.; Moreno, James B.

    1992-01-01

    An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other.

  1. High Reynolds Number Hybrid Laminar Flow Control (HLFC) Flight Experiment. Report 4; Suction System Design and Manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the design of the leading edge suction system for flight demonstration of hybrid laminar flow control on the Boeing 757 airplane. The exterior pressures on the wing surface and the required suction quantity and distribution were determined in previous work. A system consisting of porous skin, sub-surface spanwise passages ("flutes"), pressure regulating screens and valves, collection fittings, ducts and a turbocompressor was defined to provide the required suction flow. Provisions were also made for flexible control of suction distribution and quantity for HLFC research purposes. Analysis methods for determining pressure drops and flow for transpiration heating for thermal anti-icing are defined. The control scheme used to observe and modulate suction distribution in flight is described.

  2. Characterization of Underwater Sounds Produced by Trailing Suction Hopper Dredges During Sand Mining and Pump-out Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    origin and potential impacts on aquatic organisms including marine mammals (e.g., whales and seals), sea turtles , and fishes. Until recently these...species of whales and sea turtles , as well as many species of fish. Exposure to underwater sound may potentially affect communication, foraging...the audible range of several species of marine mammals such as whales and dolphins as well as sea turtles . Right (Eubalaena glacialis), humpback

  3. Viability of Cladosporium herbarum spores under 157 nm laser and vacuum ultraviolet irradiation, low temperature (10 K) and vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Sarantopoulou, E., E-mail: esarant@eie.gr; Stefi, A.; Kollia, Z.

    Ultraviolet photons can damage microorganisms, which rarely survive prolonged irradiation. In addition to the need for intact DNA, cell viability is directly linked to the functionality of the cell wall and membrane. In this work, Cladosporium herbarum spore monolayers exhibit high viability (7%) when exposed to 157 nm laser irradiation (412 kJm⁻²) or vacuum-ultraviolet irradiation (110–180 nm) under standard pressure and temperature in a nitrogen atmosphere. Spore viability can be determined by atomic-force microscopy, nano-indentation, mass, μ-Raman and attenuated reflectance Fourier-transform far-infrared spectroscopies and DNA electrophoresis. Vacuum ultraviolet photons cause molecular damage to the cell wall, but radiation resistance inmore » spores arises from the activation of a photon-triggered signaling reaction, expressed via the exudation of intracellular substances, which, in combination with the low penetration depth of vacuum-ultraviolet photons, shields DNA from radiation. Resistance to phototoxicity under standard conditions was assessed, as was resistance to additional environmental stresses, including exposure in a vacuum, under different rates of change of pressure during pumping time and low (10 K) temperatures. Vacuum conditions were far more destructive to spores than vacuum-ultraviolet irradiation, and UV-B photons were two orders of magnitude more damaging than vacuum-ultraviolet photons. The viability of irradiated spores was also enhanced at 10 K. This work, in addition to contributing to the photonic control of the viability of microorganisms exposed under extreme conditions, including decontamination of biological warfare agents, outlines the basis for identifying bio-signaling in vivo using physical methodologies.« less

  4. Breather cloth for vacuum curing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, M. W.

    1979-01-01

    Finely-woven nylon cloth that has been treated with Teflon improves vacuum adhesive bonding of coatings to substrates. Cloth is placed over coating; entire assembly, including substrate, coating, and cloth, is placed in plastic vacuum bag for curing. Cloth allows coating to "breathe" when bag is evacuated. Applications include bonding film coatings to solar concentrators and collectors.

  5. Vacuum Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeks, J. L.; Todd, D. T.; Wooten, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    A two-year program investigated vacuum gas tungsten arc welding (VGTAW) as a method to modify or improve the weldability of normally difficult-to-weld materials. After a vacuum chamber and GTAW power supply were modified, several difficult-to-weld materials were studied and key parameters developed. Finally, Incoloy 903 weld overlays were produced without microfissures.

  6. Multipurpose Vacuum Induction Processing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindaraju, M.; Kulkarni, Deepak; Balasubramanian, K.

    2012-11-01

    Multipurpose vacuum processing systems are cost effective; occupy less space, multiple functional under one roof and user friendly. A multipurpose vacuum induction system was designed, fabricated and installed in a record time of 6 months time at NFTDC Hyderabad. It was designed to function as a) vacuum induction melting/refining of oxygen free electronic copper/pure metals, b) vacuum induction melting furnace for ferrous materials c) vacuum induction melting for non ferrous materials d) large vacuum heat treatment chamber by resistance heating (by detachable coil and hot zone) e) bottom discharge vacuum induction melting system for non ferrous materials f) Induction heat treatment system and g) directional solidification /investment casting. It contains provision for future capacity addition. The attachments require to manufacture multiple shaped castings and continuous rod casting can be added whenever need arises. Present capacity is decided on the requirement for 10years of development path; presently it has 1.2 ton liquid copper handling capacity. It is equipped with provision for capacity addition up to 2 ton liquid copper handling capacity in future. Provision is made to carry out the capacity addition in easy steps quickly. For easy operational maintenance and troubleshooting, design was made in easily detachable sections. High vacuum system is also is detachable, independent and easily movable which is first of its kind in the country. Detailed design parameters, advantages and development history are presented in this paper.

  7. Vacuum enhanced cutaneous biopsy instrument

    DOEpatents

    Collins, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    A syringe-like disposable cutaneous biopsy instrument equipped with a tubular blade at its lower end, and designed so that a vacuum is created during use, said vacuum serving to retain undeformed a plug of tissue cut from a patient's skin.

  8. Purifying Aluminum by Vacuum Distillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    Proposed method for purifying aluminum employs one-step vacuum distillation. Raw material for process impure aluminum produced in electrolysis of aluminum ore. Impure metal melted in vacuum. Since aluminum has much higher vapor pressure than other constituents, boils off and condenses on nearby cold surfaces in proportions much greater than those of other constituents.

  9. Functional morphology of the feeding apparatus, feeding constraints, and suction performance in the nurse shark Ginglymostoma cirratum.

    PubMed

    Motta, Philip J; Hueter, Robert E; Tricas, Timothy C; Summers, Adam P; Huber, Daniel R; Lowry, Dayv; Mara, Kyle R; Matott, Michael P; Whitenack, Lisa B; Wintzer, Alpa P

    2008-09-01

    The nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum, is an obligate suction feeder that preys on benthic invertebrates and fish. Its cranial morphology exhibits a suite of structural and functional modifications that facilitate this mode of prey capture. During suction-feeding, subambient pressure is generated by the ventral expansion of the hyoid apparatus and the floor of its buccopharyngeal cavity. As in suction-feeding bony fishes, the nurse shark exhibits expansive, compressive, and recovery kinematic phases that produce posterior-directed water flow through the buccopharyngeal cavity. However, there is generally neither a preparatory phase nor cranial elevation. Suction is generated by the rapid depression of the buccopharyngeal floor by the coracoarcualis, coracohyoideus, and coracobranchiales muscles. Because the hyoid arch of G. cirratum is loosely connected to the mandible, contraction of the rectus cervicis muscle group can greatly depress the floor of the buccopharyngeal cavity below the depressed mandible, resulting in large volumetric expansion. Suction pressures in the nurse shark vary greatly, but include the greatest subambient pressures reported for an aquatic-feeding vertebrate. Maximum suction pressure does not appear to be related to shark size, but is correlated with the rate of buccopharyngeal expansion. As in suction-feeding bony fishes, suction in the nurse shark is only effective within approximately 3 cm in front of the mouth. The foraging behavior of this shark is most likely constrained to ambushing or stalking due to the exponential decay of effective suction in front of the mouth. Prey capture may be facilitated by foraging within reef confines and close to the substrate, which can enhance the effective suction distance, or by foraging at night when it can more closely approach prey.

  10. An Ultrathin Endoscope with a 2.4-mm Working Channel Shortens the Esophagogastroduodenoscopy Time by Shortening the Suction Time

    PubMed Central

    Shinozaki, Satoshi; Miura, Yoshimasa; Ino, Yuji; Shinozaki, Kenjiro; Lefor, Alan Kawarai; Yamamoto, Hironori

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: Poor suction ability through a narrow working channel prolongs esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). The aim of this study was to evaluate suction with a new ultrathin endoscope (EG-580NW2; Fujifilm Corp.) having a 2.4-mm working channel in clinical practice. Methods: To evaluate in vitro suction, 200 mL water was suctioned and the suction time was measured. The clinical data of 117 patients who underwent EGD were retrospectively reviewed on the basis of recorded video, and the suction time was measured by using a stopwatch. Results: In vitro, the suction time with the EG-580NW2 endoscope was significantly shorter than that with the use of an ultrathin endoscope with a 2.0-mm working channel (EG-580NW; mean ± standard deviation, 22.7±1.1 seconds vs. 34.7±2.2 seconds; p<0.001). We analyzed the total time and the suction time for routine EGD in 117 patients (50 in the EG-580NW2 group and 67 in the EG-580NW group). In the EG-580NW2 group, the total time for EGD was significantly shorter than that in the EG-580NW group (275.3±42.0 seconds vs. 300.6±46.5 seconds, p=0.003). In the EG-580NW2 group, the suction time was significantly shorter than that in the EG-580NW group (19.2±7.6 seconds vs. 38.0±15.9 seconds, p<0.001). Conclusions: An ultrathin endoscope with a 2.4-mm working channel considerably shortens the routine EGD time by shortening the suction time, in comparison with an endoscope with a 2.0-mm working channel. PMID:26668798

  11. 46 CFR 154.804 - Vacuum protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... suction of cargo liquid or vapor from the cargo tank and secures any refrigeration of that tank at or... return to the cargo tanks; (ii) By operation of the cargo refrigeration system; or (iii) By drawing off...

  12. 46 CFR 154.804 - Vacuum protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... suction of cargo liquid or vapor from the cargo tank and secures any refrigeration of that tank at or... return to the cargo tanks; (ii) By operation of the cargo refrigeration system; or (iii) By drawing off...

  13. Effect of suction-dependent soil deformability on landslide susceptibility maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizarraga, Jose J.; Buscarnera, Giuseppe; Frattini, Paolo; Crosta, Giovanni B.

    2016-04-01

    This contribution presents a physically-based, spatially-distributed model for shallow landslides promoted by rainfall infiltration. The model features a set of Factor of Safety values aimed to capture different failure mechanisms, namely frictional slips with limited mobility and flowslide events associated with the liquefaction of the considered soils. Indices of failure associated with these two modes of instability have been derived from unsaturated soil stability principles. In particular, the propensity to wetting-induced collapse of unsaturated soils is quantified through the introduction of a rigid-plastic model with suction-dependent yielding and strength properties. The model is combined with an analytical approach (TRIGRS) to track the spatio-temporal evolution of soil suction in slopes subjected to transient infiltration. The model has been tested to reply the triggering of shallow landslides in pyroclastic deposits in Sarno (1998, Campania Region, Southern Italy). It is shown that suction-dependent mechanical properties, such as soil deformability, have important effects on the predicted landslide susceptibility scenarios, resulting on computed unstable zones that may encompass a wide range of slope inclinations, saturation levels, and depths. Such preliminary results suggest that the proposed methodology offers an alternative mechanistic interpretation to the variability in behavior of rainfall-induced landslides. Differently to standard methods the explanation to this variability is based on suction-dependent soil behavior characteristics.

  14. Endoscopic en bloc resection of an exophytic gastrointestinal stromal tumor with suction excavation technique

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyuk Soon; Chun, Hoon Jai; Kim, Kyoung-Oh; Kim, Eun Sun; Keum, Bora; Jeen, Yoon-Tae; Lee, Hong Sik; Kim, Chang Duck

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the first successful endoscopic resection of an exophytic gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) using a novel perforation-free suction excavation technique. A 49-year-old woman presented for further management of a gastric subepithelial tumor on the lesser curvature of the lower body, originally detected via routine upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Abdominal computed tomography and endoscopic ultrasound showed a 4-cm extraluminally protruding mass originating from the muscularis propria layer. The patient firmly refused surgical resection owing to potential cardiac problems, and informed consent was obtained for endoscopic removal. Careful dissection and suction of the tumor was repeated until successful extraction was achieved without serosal injury. We named this procedure the suction excavation technique. The tumor’s dimensions were 3.5 cm × 2.8 cm × 2.5 cm. The tumor was positive for C-KIT and CD34 by immunohistochemical staining. The mitotic count was 6/50 high-power fields. The patient was followed for 5 years without tumor recurrence. This case demonstrated the use of endoscopic resection of an exophytic GIST using the suction excavation technique as a potential therapy without surgical resection. PMID:27340363

  15. Temperature stratification and insect pest populations in stored wheat with suction versus pressure aeration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A three-year study was conducted to compare temperature profiles in the headspace and in the bulk mass of wheat aerated through pressure aeration and suction aeration. Insect pitfall traps were used to measure naturally-occurring populations of stored product insects. Results show uniform distributi...

  16. Three scales of motions associated with tornadoes. [Cyclones, tornadoes, and suction vortexs

    SciTech Connect

    Forbes, G.S.

    1978-03-01

    This dissertation explores three scales of motion commonly associated with tornadoes, and the interaction of these scales: the tornado cyclone, the tornado, and the suction vortex. The goal of the research is to specify in detail the character and interaction of these scales of motion to explain tornadic phenomena.

  17. A novel suction/coagulation integrated probe for achieving better hemostasis: development and clinical use.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hidekazu; Haraguchi, Naotsugu; Nishimura, Junichi; Hata, Taishi; Matsuda, Chu; Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Mizushima, Tsunekazu; Mori, Masaki; Doki, Yuichiro; Nakajima, Kiyokazu

    2018-06-01

    Modern electrosurgical tools have a specific coagulation mode called "soft coagulation". However, soft coagulation has not been widely accepted for surgical operations. To optimize the soft coagulation environment, we developed a novel suction device integrated with an electrosurgical probe, called the "Suction ball coagulator" (SBC). In this study, we aimed to optimize the SBC design with a prototyping process involving a bench test and preclinical study; then, we aimed to demonstrate the feasibility, safety, and potential effectiveness of the SBC for laparoscopic surgery in clinical settings. SBC prototyping was performed with a bench test. Device optimization was performed in a preclinical study with a domestic swine bleeding model. Then, SBC was tested in a clinical setting during 17 clinical laparoscopic colorectal surgeries. In the bench tests, two tip hole sizes and patterns showed a good suction capacity. The preclinical study indicated the best tip shape for accuracy. In clinical use, no device-related adverse event was observed. Moreover, the SBC was feasible for prompt hemostasis and blunt dissections. In addition, SBC could evacuate vapors generated by tissue ablation using electroprobe during laparoscopic surgery. We successfully developed a novel, integrated suction/coagulation probe for hemostasis and commercialized it.

  18. Microsatellite marker analysis of peach-potato aphids (Myzus persicae, Homoptera: Aphididae) from Scottish suction traps.

    PubMed

    Malloch, G; Highet, F; Kasprowicz, L; Pickup, J; Neilson, R; Fenton, B

    2006-12-01

    The peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) is an important vector of plant viruses. A network of suction traps collects aerial samples of this aphid in order to monitor and help predict its spatial distribution and likely impact on virus transmission in crops. A suction trap catch is thought to be a good representation of the total aphid pool. Sensitive molecular markers have been developed that determine the genetic composition of the M. persicae population. In Scotland, UK, these were applied to field collections revealing a limited number of clones. Molecular markers are less successful when applied to specimens that have been preserved in an ethanol-based trap fluid designed to preserve morphology. An assessment of different DNA extraction and PCR techniques is presented and the most efficient are used to analyse M. persicae specimens caught in the Dundee suction trap in 2001, a year when exceptionally high numbers were caught. The results reveal that the majority of the M. persicae caught belonged to two highly insecticide resistant clones. In addition, it was possible to compare the relative frequencies of genotypes caught in the trap with those collected at insecticide treated and untreated field sites in the vicinity. These results indicate that, in addition to suction trap data, the ability to sample field sites provides valuable early warning data which have implications for pest control and virus management strategies.

  19. Instruction Workbook for Tracheostomy Suctioning and Misting in a School Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Karen McKinney; Roach, Antionette Andolfatto

    The handbook presents California guidelines for training school personnel to provide skilled nursing procedures such as tracheostomy suctioning and misting for students with special health needs. The workbook begins with an overview of the anatomy and function of the respiratory system, specifically breathing mechanics. Part 2 considers the…

  20. Capillary Suction Time. Operational Control Tests for Wastewater Treatment Facilities. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooley, John F.

    Capillary suction time is time required for the liquid phase of a treated sludge to travel through 1 centimeter of media (blotter or filter paper). Designed for individuals who have completed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) level 1 laboratory training skills, this module provides waste water treatment plant operators with…

  1. Semidirect computation of three-dimensional viscous flows over suction holes in laminar flow control surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roache, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    A summary is given of the attempts made to apply semidirect methods to the calculation of three-dimensional viscous flows over suction holes in laminar flow control surfaces. The attempts were all unsuccessful, due to either (1) lack of resolution capability, (2) lack of computer efficiency, or (3) instability.

  2. 21 CFR 878.4680 - Nonpowered, single patient, portable suction apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nonpowered, single patient, portable suction apparatus. 878.4680 Section 878.4680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878...

  3. 21 CFR 878.4680 - Nonpowered, single patient, portable suction apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nonpowered, single patient, portable suction apparatus. 878.4680 Section 878.4680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878...

  4. 21 CFR 878.4680 - Nonpowered, single patient, portable suction apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nonpowered, single patient, portable suction apparatus. 878.4680 Section 878.4680 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878...

  5. A Report on Deliverable Four: Develop a specifications list for a portable, lightweight prehospital suction device

    DTIC Science & Technology

    reflect it. There are commercially available manual and powered suction devices on the market , and several are specifically advertised for use in...combine to suggest that no device on the market meets even the most basic requirements of being small, lightweight, rugged, and demonstrating adequate

  6. Development and Testing of an ISRU Soil Mechanics Vacuum Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinhenz, Julie E.; Wilkinson, R. Allen

    2014-01-01

    For extraterrestrial missions, earth based testing in relevant environments is key to successful hardware development. This is true for both early component level development and system level integration. For In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) on the moon, hardware must interface with the surface material, or regolith, in a vacuum environment. A relevant test environment will therefore involve a vacuum chamber with a controlled, properly conditioned bed of lunar regolith simulant. However, in earth-based granular media, such as lunar regolith simulant, gases trapped within the material pore structures and water adsorbed to all particle surfaces will release when exposed to vacuum. Early vacuum testing has shown that this gas release can occur violently, which loosens and weakens the simulant, altering the consolidation state. A mid-size chamber (3.66 m tall, 1.5 m inner diameter) at the NASA Glenn Research Center has been modified to create a soil mechanics test facility. A 0.64 m deep by 0.914 m square metric ton bed of lunar simulant was placed under vacuum using a variety of pumping techniques. Both GRC-3 and LHT-3M simulant types were used. Data obtained from an electric cone penetrometer can be used to determine strength properties at vacuum including: cohesion, friction angle, bulk density and shear modulus. Simulant disruptions, caused by off-gassing, affected the strength properties, but could be mitigated by reducing pump rate. No disruptions were observed at pressures below 2.5 Torr, regardless of the pump rate. The slow off-gassing of the soil at low pressure lead to long test times; a full week to reach 10(exp -5) Torr. Robotic soil manipulation would enable multiple ISRU hardware test within the same vacuum cycle. The feasibility of a robotically controlled auger and tamper was explored at vacuum conditions.

  7. ISRU Soil Mechanics Vacuum Facility: Soil Bin Preparation and Simulant Strength Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinhenz, Julie; Wilkinson, Allen

    2012-01-01

    Testing in relevant environments is key to exploration mission hardware development. This is true on both the component level (in early development) and system level (in late development stages). During ISRU missions the hardware will interface with the soil (digging, roving, etc) in a vacuum environment. A relevant test environment will therefore involve a vacuum chamber with a controlled, conditioned simulant bed. However, in earth-based granular media, such as lunar soil simulant, gases trapped within the material pore structures and water adsorbed to all particle surfaces will release when exposed to vacuum. Early vacuum testing has shown that this gas release can occur violently, which loosens and weakens the simulant, altering the consolidation state. The Vacuum Facility #13, a mid-size chamber (3.66m tall, 1.5m inner diameter) at the NASA Glenn Research Center has been modified to create a soil mechanics test facility. A 0.64m deep by 0.914m square metric ton bed of lunar simulant was placed under vacuum using a variety of pumping techniques. Both GRC-3 and LHT-3M simulant types have been used. An electric cone penetrometer was used to measure simulant strength properties at vacuum including: cohesion, friction angle, bulk density and shear modulus. Simulant disruptions, caused by off gassing, affected the strength properties, but could be mitigated by reducing pump rate. No disruptions were observed at pressures below 2.5Torr, regardless of the pump rate. However, slow off gassing of the soil lead to long test times, a full week, to reach 10-5Torr. This work highlights the need for robotic machine-simulant hardware and operations in vacuum to expeditiously perform (sub-)systems tests.

  8. From diffusion pumps to cryopumps: The conversion of GSFC's space environment simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cary, Ron

    1992-01-01

    The SES (Space Environmental Simulator), largest of the Thermal Vacuum Facilities at The Goddard Space Flight Center, recently was converted from an oil diffusion pumped chamber to a Cryopumped chamber. This modification was driven by requirements of flight projects. The basic requirement was to retain or enhance the operational parameters of the chamber such as pumping speed, ultimate vacuum, pump down time, and thermal system performance. To accomplish this task, seventeen diffusion pumps were removed and replaced with eight 1.2 meter (48 inch) diameter cryopumps and one 0.5 meter (20 inch) turbomolecular pump. The conversion was accomplished with a combination of subcontracting and in-house efforts to maximize the efficiency of implementation.

  9. Ultra high vacuum test setup for electron gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandiyar, M. L.; Prasad, M.; Jain, S. K.; Kumar, R.; Hannurkar, P. R.

    2008-05-01

    Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) test setup for electron gun testing has been developed. The development of next generation light sources and accelerators require development of klystron as a radio frequency power source, and in turn electron gun. This UHV electron gun test setup can be used to test the electron guns ranging from high average current, quasi-continuous wave to high peak current, single pulse etc. An electron gun has been designed, fabricated, assembled and tested for insulation up to 80 kV under the programme to develop high power klystron for future accelerators. Further testing includes the electron emission parameters characterization of the cathode, as it determines the development of a reliable and efficient electron gun with high electron emission current and high life time as well. This needs a clean ultra high vacuum to study these parameters particularly at high emission current. The cathode emission current, work function and vapour pressure of cathode surface material at high temperature studies will further help in design and development of high power electron gun The UHV electron gun test setup consists of Turbo Molecular Pump (TMP), Sputter Ion Pump (SIP), pressure gauge, high voltage and cathode power supplies, current measurement device, solenoid magnet and its power supply, residual gas analyser etc. The ultimate vacuum less than 2×10-9 mbar was achieved. This paper describes the UHV test setup for electron gun testing.

  10. Commissioning of the vacuum system of the KATRIN Main Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Arenz, M.; Babutzka, M.; Bahr, M.

    The KATRIN experiment will probe the neutrino mass by measuring the β-electron energy spectrum near the endpoint of tritium β-decay. We performed an integral energy analysis by an electro-static spectrometer (``Main Spectrometer''), an ultra-high vacuum vessel with a length of 23.2 m, a volume of 1240 m 3, and a complex inner electrode system with about 120 000 individual parts. The strong magnetic field that guides the β-electrons is provided by super-conducting solenoids at both ends of the spectrometer. Its influence on turbo-molecular pumps and vacuum gauges had to be considered. Furthermore, a system consisting of 6 turbo-molecular pumps andmore » 3 km of non-evaporable getter strips has been deployed and was tested during the commissioning of the spectrometer. In this paper the configuration, the commissioning with bake-out at 300 °C, and the performance of this system are presented in detail. The vacuum system has to maintain a pressure in the 10 -11 mbar range. We demonstrated that the performance of the system is already close to these stringent functional requirements for the KATRIN experiment, which will start at the end of 2016.« less

  11. Commissioning of the vacuum system of the KATRIN Main Spectrometer

    DOE PAGES

    Arenz, M.; Babutzka, M.; Bahr, M.; ...

    2016-04-07

    The KATRIN experiment will probe the neutrino mass by measuring the β-electron energy spectrum near the endpoint of tritium β-decay. We performed an integral energy analysis by an electro-static spectrometer (``Main Spectrometer''), an ultra-high vacuum vessel with a length of 23.2 m, a volume of 1240 m 3, and a complex inner electrode system with about 120 000 individual parts. The strong magnetic field that guides the β-electrons is provided by super-conducting solenoids at both ends of the spectrometer. Its influence on turbo-molecular pumps and vacuum gauges had to be considered. Furthermore, a system consisting of 6 turbo-molecular pumps andmore » 3 km of non-evaporable getter strips has been deployed and was tested during the commissioning of the spectrometer. In this paper the configuration, the commissioning with bake-out at 300 °C, and the performance of this system are presented in detail. The vacuum system has to maintain a pressure in the 10 -11 mbar range. We demonstrated that the performance of the system is already close to these stringent functional requirements for the KATRIN experiment, which will start at the end of 2016.« less

  12. Testing of Performance of a Scroll Pump in Support of Improved Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal (VPCAR) Mass Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, Henry K.; Kraft, Thomas G.; Yee, Glenda F.; Jankovsky, Amy L.; Flynn, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the results of ground testing of a scroll pump with a potential of being a substitute for the current vacuum pump of the Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Reduction (VPCAR). Assessments of the pressure-time, pump-down time, pump power and the pump noise were made for three configurations of the pump the first of which was without the gas ballast, the second with the gas ballast installed but not operating and the third with the gas ballast operating. The tested scroll pump exhibited optimum characteristics given its mass and power requirements. The pump down time required to reach a pressure of 50 Torr ranged from 60 minutes without the ballast to about 120 minutes with the gas ballast operational. The noise emission and the pump power were assessed in this paper as well.

  13. A new suction mask to reduce leak during neonatal resuscitation: a manikin study.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Laila; Maxfield, Dominic A; Dawson, Jennifer A; Kamlin, C Omar F; McGrory, Lorraine; Thio, Marta; Donath, Susan M; Davis, Peter G

    2016-09-01

    Leak around the face mask is a common problem during neonatal resuscitation. A newly designed face mask using a suction system to enhance contact between the mask and the infant's face might reduce leak and improve neonatal resuscitation. The aim of the study is to determine whether leak is reduced using the suction mask (Resusi-sure mask) compared with a conventional mask (Laerdal Silicone mask) in a manikin model. Sixty participants from different professional categories (neonatal consultants, fellows, registrars, nurses, midwives and students) used each face mask in a random order to deliver 2 min of positive pressure ventilation to a manikin. Delivered airway pressures were measured using a pressure line. Inspiratory and expiratory flows were measured using a flow sensor, and expiratory tidal volumes and mask leaks were derived from these values. A median (IQR) leak of 12.1 (0.6-39.0)% was found with the conventional mask compared with 0.7 (0.2-4.6)% using the suction mask (p=0.002). 50% of the participants preferred to use the suction mask and 38% preferred to use the conventional mask. There was no correlation between leak and operator experience. A new neonatal face mask based on the suction system reduced leak in a manikin model. Clinical studies to test the safety and effectiveness of this mask are needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Temporal pattern of soil matric suction in the unsaturated soil slope under different forest cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayati, Elyas; Abdi, Ehsan; Mohseni Saravi, Mohsen; Nieber, John; Majnounian, Baris; Chirico, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    In the vadose zone, usually, soils experience high matric suction during dry periods which results in a significant additional soil strength component (i.e., apparent cohesion) and thus plays a crucial role in the stability of unsaturated soil slopes. But, in the wet periods, when rain-water infiltrates into the soil, the matric suction of the soil dissipates partially or completely. It is a well-understood concept that vegetation can modify the hillslope hydrology and subsequent stability conditions by increasing soil matric suction through both interception of rainfall and depletion of soil water content via transpiration. Anthropogenic pressures, particularly clear-cutting and deforestation, affect many hydro-geomorphological processes including catchment and hillslope hydrology and stability. However, quantifying the changes in soil hydrologic conditions and the resulted stability of slopes due to these degrading activities remained an unresolved problem. To address this gap, a continuous measurement of soil water dynamics has been conducted at two adjacent hillslopes (one forested hillslope and one degraded hillslope) using PR2/6 profile probe for a 9-month period of time to demonstrate the forest cover-specific influence on the hillslope hydrology and stability during different seasons. The results have been then presented in terms of estimated soil matric suction to facilitate analyzing the resulted stability states due to the changes in soil water balance with time in the two studied hillslopes. The data were tested to check whether there are any differences between the forested and degraded hillslopes in terms of soil matric suction and augmented soil cohesion during different seasons. Finally, the response of soil hydrologic condition and the resulted slope stability for the 9-month period were analyzed and discussed for the different hillslopes.

  15. Comparison of Suction Versus Nonsuction Drainage After Lung Resections: A Prospective Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Gocyk, Wojciech; Kużdżał, Jarosław; Włodarczyk, Janusz; Grochowski, Zbigniew; Gil, Tomasz; Warmus, Janusz; Kocoń, Piotr; Talar, Piotr; Obarski, Piotr; Trybalski, Łukasz

    2016-10-01

    Sufficiently large, prospective randomized trials comparing suction drainage and nonsuction drainage are lacking. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of suction drainage and nonsuction drainage on the postoperative course in patients who have undergone lung resection. This prospective, randomized trial included patients undergoing different types of lung resections. On the day of surgery, suction drainage at -20 cm H2O was used. On the morning of the first postoperative day, patients, in whom the pulmonary parenchyma was fully reexpanded, were randomized in the ratio of 1:1. Patients assigned to group A continued with suction drainage, while those assigned to group B underwent nonsuction drainage. The study included 254 patients, with 127 patients in each group. The drainage volumes were 1098.8 mL and 814.4 mL in groups A and B, respectively (p = 0.0014). The times to chest tube removal were 5.61 days and 4.49 days in groups A and B, respectively (p = 0.0014). Prolonged air leakage occurred in 5.55% of patients in group A and in 0.7% of patients in group B (p = 0.032), and asymptomatic residual air spaces were noted in 0.8% of patients in group A and 9.4% of patients in group B (p = 0.0018). Nonsuction drainage is more effective than suction drainage with regard to drainage volume, drainage duration, and incidence of persistent air leakage. However, it is associated with a higher incidence of asymptomatic residual air spaces. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Closed-Suction Drainage and Cerebrospinal Fluid Leakage Following Microvascular Decompression : A Retrospective Comparison Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Chae-Yong; Oh, Chang Wan

    2013-01-01

    Objective We performed this study to investigate whether the use of closed-suction drainage following microvascular decompression (MVD) causes cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage. Methods Between 2004 and 2011, a total of 157 patients with neurovascular compression were treated with MVD. MVD was performed for hemifacial spasm in 150 (95.5%) cases and for trigeminal neuralgia in 7 (4.5%) cases. The mean age of the patients was 49.8±9.6 years (range, 20-69). Dural substitutes were used in 44 (28.0%) patients. Ninety-two patients (58.6%) were underwent a 4-5 cm craniotomy using drainage (drainage group), and 65 (41.4%) did a small 2-2.5 cm retromastoid craniectomy without closed-suction drainage (no-drainage group). Results Eleven (7.0%) patients experienced CSF leakage following MVD based on the criteria of this study; all of these patients were in the drainage group. In the unadjusted analyses, the incidence of CSF leakage was significantly related with the use of closed-suction drainage following MVD (12.0% in the drainage group vs. 0% in the no-drainage group, respectively; p=0.003; Fisher's exact test). Those who received dural substitutes and the elderly (cut-off value=60 years) exhibited a tendency to develop CSF leakage (p=0.075 and p=0.090, respectively; Fisher's exact test). In the multivariate analysis, only the use of closed-suction drainage was significantly and independently associated with the development of CSF leakage following MVD (odds ratio=9.900; 95% confidence interval, 1.418 to infinity; p=0.017). Conclusion The use of closed-suction drainage following MVD appears to be related to the development of CSF leakage. PMID:24175025

  17. Prospective randomized trial compares suction versus water seal for air leaks.

    PubMed

    Cerfolio, R J; Bass, C; Katholi, C R

    2001-05-01

    Surgeons treat air leaks differently. Our goal was to evaluate whether it is better to place chest tubes on suction or water seal for stopping air leaks after pulmonary surgery. A second goal was to evaluate a new classification system for air leaks that we developed. Patients were prospectively randomized before surgery to receive suction or water seal to their chest tubes on postoperative day (POD) #2. Air leaks were described and quantified daily by a classification system and a leak meter. The air-leak meter scored leaks from 1 (least) to 7 (greatest). The group randomized to water seal stayed on water seal unless a pneumothorax developed. On POD #2, 33 of 140 patients had an air leak. Eighteen patients had been preoperatively randomized to water seal and 15 to suction. Air leaks resolved in 12 (67%) of the water seal patients by the morning of POD #3. All 6 patients whose air leak did not stop had a leak that was 4/7 or greater (p < 0.0001) on the leak meter. Of the 15 patients randomized to suction, only 1 patient's air leak (7%) resolved by the morning of POD #3. The randomization aspect of the trial was ended and statistical analysis showed water seal was superior (p = 0.001). The remaining 14 patients were then placed to water seal and by the morning of POD #4, 13 patients' leaks had stopped. Of the 32 total patients placed to seal, 7 (22%) developed a pneumothorax and 6 of these 7 patients had leaks that were 4/7 or greater (p = 0.001). Placing chest tubes on water seal seems superior to wall suction for stopping air leaks after pulmonary resection. However, water seal does not stop expiratory leaks that are 4/7 or greater. Pneumothorax may occur when chest tubes are placed on seal with leaks this large.

  18. Role of axial muscles in powering mouth expansion during suction feeding in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides).

    PubMed

    Camp, Ariel L; Brainerd, Elizabeth L

    2014-04-15

    Suction-feeding fishes capture food by fast and forceful expansion of the mouth cavity, and axial muscles probably provide substantial power for this feeding behavior. Dorsal expansion of the mouth cavity can only be powered by the epaxial muscles, but both the sternohyoid, shortening against an immobile pectoral girdle to retract the hyoid, and the hypaxial muscles, shortening to retract both the pectoral girdle and hyoid, could contribute ventral expansion power. To determine whether hypaxial muscles generate power for ventral expansion, and the rostrocaudal extent of axial muscle shortening during suction feeding, we measured skeletal kinematics and muscle shortening in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). The three-dimensional motions of the cleithrum and hyoid were measured with X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology (XROMM), and muscle shortening was measured with fluoromicrometry, wherein changes in the distance between radio-opaque intramuscular markers are measured using biplanar X-ray video recording. We found that the hypaxials generated power for ventral suction expansion, shortening (mean of 6.2 mm) to rotate the pectoral girdle caudoventrally (mean of 9.3 deg) and retract the hyoid (mean of 8.5 mm). In contrast, the sternohyoid shortened minimally (mean of 0.48 mm), functioning like a ligament to transmit hypaxial shortening to the hyoid. Hypaxial and epaxial shortening were not confined to the rostral muscle regions, but extended more than halfway down the body during suction expansion. We conclude that hypaxial and epaxial muscles are both crucial for powering mouth expansion in largemouth bass, supporting the integration of axial and cranial musculoskeletal systems for suction feeding.

  19. Right atrium positioning for exposure of right pulmonary veins during off-pump atrial fibrillation ablation.

    PubMed

    Suwalski, Grzegorz; Emery, Robert; Mróz, Jakub; Kaczejko, Kamil; Gryszko, Leszek; Cwetsch, Andrzej; Skrobowski, Andrzej

    2017-06-01

    Concomitant surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) is recommended for patients undergoing off-pump coronary revascularization in the presence of this arrhythmia. Achievement of optimal visualization of pulmonary veins while maintaining stable haemodynamic conditions is crucial for proper completion of the ablation procedure. This study evaluates the safety and feasibility of right atrial positioning using a suction-based cardiac positioner as opposed to compressive manoeuvres for exposure during off-pump surgical ablation for AF. Thirty-four consecutive patients underwent pulmonary vein isolation, ganglionated plexi ablation and left atrial appendage occlusion during off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. Right atrial suction positioning was used to visualize right pulmonary veins. Safety and feasibility end points were analysed intraoperatively and in the early postoperative course. In all patients, right atrial positioning created optimal conditions to complete transverse and oblique sinus blunt dissection, correct placement of a bipolar ablation probe, detection and ablation of ganglionated plexi and conduction block assessment. In all patients, this entire right-sided ablation procedure was completed with a single exposure manoeuvre. Feasibility end points were achieved in all study patients. This report documents the safety and feasibility of right atrial exposure using a suction-based cardiac positioner to complete ablation for AF concomitant with off-pump coronary revascularization. This technique may be widely adopted to create stable haemodynamic conditions and optimal visualization of the right pulmonary veins. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  20. [Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy system for elements analysis in high-temperature and vacuum environment].

    PubMed

    Pan, Cong-Yuan; Du, Xue-Wei; An, Ning; Han, Zhen-Yu; Wang, Sheng-Bo; Wei, Wei; Wang, Qiu-Ping

    2013-12-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is one of the most promising technologies to be applied to metallurgical composition online monitoring in these days. In order to study the spectral characters of LIBS spectrum and to investigate the quantitative analysis method of material composition under vacuum and high temperature environment, a LIBS measurement system was designed and set up which can be used for conducting experiments with high-temperature or molten samples in different vacuum environment. The system consists of a Q-switched Nd : YAG laser used as the light source, lens with different focus lengths used for laser focusing and spectrum signal collecting, a spectrometer used for detecting the signal of LIBS spectrums, and a vacuum system for holding and heating the samples while supplying a vacuum environment. The vacuum was achieved and maintained by a vacuum pump and an electric induction furnace was used for heating the system. The induction coil was integrated to the vacuum system by attaching to a ceramic sealing flange. The system was installed and testified, and the results indicate that the vacuum of the system can reach 1X 10(-4) Pa without heating, while the heating temperature could be about 1 600 degreeC, the system can be used for melting metal samples such as steel and aluminum and get the LIBS spectrum of the samples at the same time. Utilizing this system, LIBS experiments were conducted using standard steel samples under different vacuum or high-temperature conditions. Results of comparison between LIBS spectrums of solid steel samples under different vacuum were achieved, and so are the spectrums of molten and solid steel samples under vacuum environment. Through data processing and theoretical analyzing of these spectrums, the initial results of those experiments are in good agreement with the results that are presently reported, which indicates that the whole system functions well and is available for molten metal LIBS experiment