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Sample records for vagina cervix toxic

  1. Obstructed uteri with a cervix and vagina.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kelly Nicole; Okpala, Ogochukwu; Laufer, Marc R

    2011-01-01

    To describe a rare anomaly of the female reproductive tract and review the embryology associated with the defect. Case report and review of the literature. Major academic medical center. A 14-year-old girl with two hemiuteri lacking any communication with a single normal midline cervix and vagina. Diagnostic laparoscopy with chromopertubation to identify the anomaly and subsequent bilateral supracervical hemihysterectomies. Incidence, pathogenesis, fertility implications, and treatment options for patients with congenital defects in the upper vagina, cervix, and uterus. Based on classic embryology, the lower vagina forms from the urogenital sinus while the upper vagina, cervix, and uterus form from the müllerian ducts. If a cervix is present, then the upper vagina and uterus are also usually present and should communicate. This anomaly cannot be fully explained by traditional embryologic developmental theory. It is likely that an insult occurred between 9 weeks, when the uterovaginal canal is formed, and 12 weeks, when the müllerian ducts fuse. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Vagina

    MedlinePlus

    The vagina is the female body part that connects the womb (uterus) and cervix to the outside of the ... The vagina is a muscular tube lined with mucous membranes. Its opening is between the urethra (where urine leaves ...

  3. Distinct functions and regulation of epithelial progesterone receptor in the mouse cervix, vagina, and uterus

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Fabiola F.; Son, Jieun; Hewitt, Sylvia C.; Jang, Eunjung; Lydon, John P.; Korach, Kenneth S.; Chung, Sang-Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    While the function of progesterone receptor (PR) has been studied in the mouse vagina and uterus, its regulation and function in the cervix has not been described. We selectively deleted epithelial PR in the female reproductive tracts using the Cre/LoxP recombination system. We found that epithelial PR was required for induction of apoptosis and suppression of cell proliferation by progesterone (P4) in the cervical and vaginal epithelium. We also found that epithelial PR was dispensable for P4 to suppress apoptosis and proliferation in the uterine epithelium. PR is encoded by the Pgr gene, which is regulated by estrogen receptor α (ERα) in the female reproductive tracts. Using knock−in mouse models expressing ERα mutants, we determined that the DNA−binding domain (DBD) and AF2 domain of ERα were required for upregulation of Pgr in the cervix and vagina as well as the uterine stroma. The ERα AF1 domain was required for upregulation of Pgr in the vaginal stroma and epithelium and cervical epithelium, but not in the uterine and cervical stroma. ERα DBD, AF1, and AF2 were required for suppression of Pgr in the uterine epithelium, which was mediated by stromal ERα. Epithelial ERα was responsible for upregulation of epithelial Pgr in the cervix and vagina. Our results indicate that regulation and functions of epithelial PR are different in the cervix, vagina, and uterus. PMID:27007157

  4. Distinct functions and regulation of epithelial progesterone receptor in the mouse cervix, vagina, and uterus.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Fabiola F; Son, Jieun; Hewitt, Sylvia C; Jang, Eunjung; Lydon, John P; Korach, Kenneth S; Chung, Sang-Hyuk

    2016-04-05

    While the function of progesterone receptor (PR) has been studied in the mouse vagina and uterus, its regulation and function in the cervix has not been described. We selectively deleted epithelial PR in the female reproductive tracts using the Cre/LoxP recombination system. We found that epithelial PR was required for induction of apoptosis and suppression of cell proliferation by progesterone (P4) in the cervical and vaginal epithelium. We also found that epithelial PR was dispensable for P4 to suppress apoptosis and proliferation in the uterine epithelium. PR is encoded by the Pgr gene, which is regulated by estrogen receptor α (ERα) in the female reproductive tracts. Using knock-in mouse models expressing ERα mutants, we determined that the DNA-binding domain (DBD) and AF2 domain of ERα were required for upregulation of Pgr in the cervix and vagina as well as the uterine stroma. The ERα AF1 domain was required for upregulation of Pgr in the vaginal stroma and epithelium and cervical epithelium, but not in the uterine and cervical stroma. ERα DBD, AF1, and AF2 were required for suppression of Pgr in the uterine epithelium, which was mediated by stromal ERα. Epithelial ERα was responsible for upregulation of epithelial Pgr in the cervix and vagina. Our results indicate that regulation and functions of epithelial PR are different in the cervix, vagina, and uterus.

  5. A huge malignant perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) of the uterine cervix and vagina.

    PubMed

    Natella, Valentina; Merolla, Francesco; Giampaolino, Pierluigi; Bifulco, Giuseppe; Mainenti, Pier Paolo; Insabato, Luigi

    2014-03-01

    Perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas) are a family of rare mesenchymal neoplasms, including angiomyolipoma, clear-cell "sugar" tumor of the lung and extrapulmonary sites, lymphangioleiomyomatosis, clear-cell myomelanocytic tumor of the falciform ligament/ligamentum teres, and clear-cell tumors at various other anatomic sites. These tumors are characterized by a proliferation of epithelioid cells with clear to eosinophilic cytoplasm, perivascular distribution, and coexpression of myogenic and melanocytic markers. PEComas show a female predominance, occur with some frequency in the gynecological tract, and have an unpredictable biological behavior. We report a case of a huge malignant PEComa arising from the uterine cervix and vagina. To the best of our knowledge, only 6 cases of PEComa in the cervix and 2 cases in the vagina have been reported in the literature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. A comparison of yield from cervix versus vagina for culturing Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed Central

    Boeke, A J; Dekker, J H; Peerbooms, P G

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the agreement of culture results of Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis from the cervix versus posterior fornix in women with vaginal symptoms. DESIGN--Same patient comparison of culture results from two sample sites. SETTING--Twenty one general practices in Amsterdam and the east of the Netherlands. SUBJECTS--Six hundred and eighty two women aged 15 to 55 years with vaginal symptoms, seen between 1 October 1987 and 31 May 1990. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--For each site (cervix and posterior fornix) the proportion of detected C albicans and T vaginalis. The sensitivity of the cervical swab related to the vaginal one. The percentage of concordance for both microorganisms. RESULTS--In 248 (34%) women C albicans was diagnosed and in 38 (6%) T vaginalis. In 99% of the proven C albicans cases, the yeast was found in the vagina. In 94% C albicans was isolated from the cervix. Sensitivity of the cervical swab was 94%. In 98% of the patients a concordant observation was made regarding detection of yeast. In 97% of the proven T vaginalis cases the protozoon was found in the vagina. In 91% T vaginalis was detected from the cervical swab. Sensitivity of the cervical swab was 92%. The culture results were concordant in 99%. CONCLUSION--The yield from the vaginal source was slightly better than that from the cervix for culture of both microorganisms. For screening purposes, specimen-collection for culture of N gonorrhoeae, C albicans and T vaginalis can be combined in one swab taken from the cervix. PMID:8444481

  7. Laparoscopically assisted biomaterial graft for reconstruction in congenital atresia of vagina and cervix.

    PubMed

    Li, MengHui; Zhang, ZhenYu

    2013-12-01

    To report successful treatment by laparoscopically assisted biomaterial graft for reconstruction in patients with congenital atresia of the uterine cervix and vagina. Technique and instrumentations. University-based tertiary care hospital. An 18-year-old woman with vaginal agenesis and cervical dysgenesis and a 13-year-old woman with vaginal agenesis and cervical agenesis, both patients with a functional uterus. Creation of a neovagina by vaginal procedure and laparoscopically assisted biomaterial graft for uterovaginal anastomosis was performed in all patients. All surgical findings were carefully reviewed to determine the anatomic characteristics of the malformed cervix. Subsequent follow-up was done by referring physicians. Uterovaginal continuity was established successfully in both patients, and all of the women were menstruating normally. Granulomatous polyps occurred in one patient, and this condition was successfully managed. At 6-month follow-up, mean vaginal length was 12 cm and ≥ 80% of neovaginal epithelium was iodine positive in both patients. Unimpeded menstrual flow continued after 4 years of follow-up in one patient and 5 years of follow-up in the other patient. A combined laparoscopic and vaginal procedure with biomaterial graft could be an effective alternative in selected women with atresia of cervix and vagina. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Women's clitoris, vagina and cervix mapped on the sensory cortex: fMRI evidence

    PubMed Central

    Komisaruk, Barry R.; Wise, Nan; Frangos, Eleni; Liu, Wen-Ching; Allen, Kachina; Brody, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The projection of vagina, uterine cervix, and nipple to the sensory cortex in humans has not been reported. Aims To map the sensory cortical fields of the clitoris, vagina, cervix and nipple, toward an elucidation of the neural systems underlying sexual response. Methods Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) we mapped sensory cortical responses to clitoral, vaginal, cervical, and nipple self-stimulation. For points of reference on the homunculus, we also mapped responses to the thumb and great toe (hallux) stimulation. Main Outcome Measures fMRI of brain regions activated by the various sensory stimuli. Results Clitoral, vaginal, and cervical self-stimulation activate differentiable sensory cortical regions, all clustered in the medial cortex (medial paracentral lobule). Nipple self-stimulation activated the genital sensory cortex (as well as the thoracic) region of the homuncular map. Conclusion The genital sensory cortex, identified in the classical Penfield homunculus based on electrical stimulation of the brain only in men, was confirmed for the first time in the literature by the present study in women, applying clitoral, vaginal, and cervical self-stimulation, and observing their regional brain responses using fMRI. Vaginal, clitoral, and cervical regions of activation were differentiable, consistent with innervation by different afferent nerves and different behavioral correlates. Activation of the genital sensory cortex by nipple self-stimulation was unexpected, but suggests a neurological basis for women’s reports of its erotogenic quality. PMID:21797981

  9. Laparoscopic hemi-hysterectomy in treatment of a didelphic uterus with a hypoplastic cervix and obstructed hemi-vagina.

    PubMed

    Boudhraa, K; Barbarino, A; Gara, Mohamed Faouzi

    2008-11-01

    Maldevelopment of the Müllerian duct system may result in various urogenital anomalies including didelphic uterus with a hypoplastic cervix and obstructed hemi-vagina. We report a patient with this anomaly who was treated by laparoscopic hemi-hysterectomy and hysteroscopic resection of hemi-vagina. A 16-year-old patient who had complained of vaginal pus-like discharge on and off for 1 year was diagnosed by MRI to have a double uterus with obstructed right hemi-vagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis. After hysteroscopic identification of hypoplasia of the right uterine cervix, laparoscopic resection of the right uterus and right fallopian tube and hysteroscopic assisted resection of the vaginal septa were performed successfully. We think that combined laparoscopy and hysteroscopy may be an effective alternative in the management and diagnosis of Mullerian anomalies.

  10. Three-dimensional ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging assessment of cervix and vagina in women with uterine malformations.

    PubMed

    Bermejo, C; Martínez-Ten, P; Recio, M; Ruiz-López, L; Díaz, D; Illescas, T

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the accuracy of three-dimensional ultrasound (3D-US) with respect to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and compared to clinical examination, in the assessment of cervix and vagina in women with uterine malformations. In this prospective study, 16 patients diagnosed with uterine malformation with cervical involvement underwent 3D-US examination. The acquisition of cervical volumes was transvaginal, with four cases repeated in the peri-ovulation period, while vaginal volumes were acquired by transperineal imaging following filling of the vagina with gel. MRI was performed in 13 patients using endovaginal gel. All cases underwent clinical examination, comprising bimanual gynecological examination and speculoscopy. Diagnostic concordance of each of the methods with the gold standard was calculated. 3D-US cervical examinations revealed 12 cases of duplicate cervix, two of complete septate cervix and two of incomplete septate cervix. Images of the cervical canal in the peri-ovulation period were judged subjectively to be better in quality, but did not lead us to change any diagnosis. 3D-US vaginal examinations revealed four cases with a vaginal dividing wall and two with a blind hemivagina. None of the 3D-US findings contradicted the clinical findings of the cervix; however, clinically we observed two cases with vaginal dividing wall that had not been diagnosed with 3D-US. MRI diagnosed nine cases of duplicate cervix, three of complete septate cervix, one of incomplete septate cervix, five of vaginal dividing wall and two of blind hemivagina. One case diagnosed as complete septate cervix was in fact a duplicate cervix on 3D-US and on clinical examination. Compared with the gold standard, both 3D-US and MRI were highly efficient in the diagnosis of anomalies of the cervix and vagina. The overall diagnostic concordance of 3D-US with clinical examination (kappa, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.62-1) was slightly inferior to that of MRI with clinical examination (kappa, 0

  11. Inverted papilloma of the cervix and vagina: report of 2 cases of a rare lesion associated with human papillomavirus 42.

    PubMed

    Hennell, Claire; Jamison, Jackie; Wells, Michael; McCluggage, W Glenn

    2012-03-01

    We report 2 cases of a lesion that we term inverted papilloma of the lower female genital tract, occurring in the cervix and upper vagina of 60- and 50-year-old women, respectively. Microscopically, the features were similar to those of inverted transitional papilloma of the urinary bladder with interconnecting islands, trabeculae, and solid sheets of bland transitional epithelium with an inverted growth pattern. There were small foci of squamous and glandular differentiation in the cervical case. Linear array human papillomavirus genotyping revealed human papillomavirus type 42 in both cases. Inverted papilloma in the lower female genital tract is extremely rare with, as far as we are aware, only 3 previously reported similar cases in the cervix and none in the vagina. Our results suggest that these neoplasms when occurring in the lower female genital tract may be associated with low-risk human papillomavirus, perhaps specifically human papillomavirus 42. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. In vivo Raman spectroscopy of human uterine cervix: exploring the utility of vagina as an internal control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaikh, Rubina; Dora, Tapas Kumar; Chopra, Supriya; Maheshwari, Amita; Kedar K., Deodhar; Bharat, Rekhi; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-08-01

    In vivo Raman spectroscopy is being projected as a new, noninvasive method for cervical cancer diagnosis. In most of the reported studies, normal areas in the cancerous cervix were used as control. However, in the Indian subcontinent, the majority of cervical cancers are detected at advanced stages, leaving no normal sites for acquiring control spectra. Moreover, vagina and ectocervix are reported to have similar biochemical composition. Thus, in the present study, we have evaluated the feasibility of classifying normal and cancerous conditions in the Indian population and we have also explored the utility of the vagina as an internal control. A total of 228 normal and 181 tumor in vivo Raman spectra were acquired from 93 subjects under clinical supervision. The spectral features in normal conditions suggest the presence of collagen, while DNA and noncollagenous proteins were abundant in tumors. Principal-component linear discriminant analysis (PC-LDA) yielded 97% classification efficiency between normal and tumor groups. An analysis of a normal cervix and vaginal controls of cancerous and noncancerous subjects suggests similar spectral features between these groups. PC-LDA of tumor, normal cervix, and vaginal controls further support the utility of the vagina as an internal control. Overall, findings of the study corroborate with earlier studies and facilitate objective, noninvasive, and rapid Raman spectroscopic-based screening/diagnosis of cervical cancers.

  13. In vivo Raman spectroscopy of human uterine cervix: exploring the utility of vagina as an internal control.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Rubina; Dora, Tapas Kumar; Chopra, Supriya; Maheshwari, Amita; Kedar K, Deodhar; Bharat, Rekhi; Krishna, C Murali

    2014-08-01

    In vivo Raman spectroscopy is being projected as a new, noninvasive method for cervical cancer diagnosis. In most of the reported studies, normal areas in the cancerous cervix were used as control. However, in the Indian subcontinent, the majority of cervical cancers are detected at advanced stages, leaving no normal sites for acquiring control spectra. Moreover, vagina and ectocervix are reported to have similar biochemical composition. Thus, in the present study, we have evaluated the feasibility of classifying normal and cancerous conditions in the Indian population and we have also explored the utility of the vagina as an internal control. A total of 228 normal and 181 tumor in vivo Raman spectra were acquired from 93 subjects under clinical supervision. The spectral features in normal conditions suggest the presence of collagen, while DNA and noncollagenous proteins were abundant in tumors. Principal-component linear discriminant analysis (PC-LDA) yielded 97% classification efficiency between normal and tumor groups. An analysis of a normal cervix and vaginal controls of cancerous and noncancerous subjects suggests similar spectral features between these groups. PC-LDA of tumor, normal cervix, and vaginal controls further support the utility of the vagina as an internal control. Overall, findings of the study corroborate with earlier studies and facilitate objective, noninvasive, and rapid Raman spectroscopic-based screening/diagnosis of cervical cancers.

  14. Robotic-assisted Reconstruction of the Cervix and Vagina by Small Intestinal Submucosa Graft and Fusion of the Hemiuterus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Chen, Yisong; Hua, Keqin

    To describe our technique of robotic-assisted reconstruction of the cervix and vagina using a small intestinal submucosa (SIS) graft and fusion of the hemiuterus. A step-by-step explanation of the procedure using video. Congenital complete vaginal and cervical atresia is rare. Some patients have urinary system abnormality. No standardized surgical treatment guideline was available, and the performance varies for each patient. We performed a robotic-assisted reconstruction of the cervix and vagina using an SIS graft (Cook Medical, Bloomington, IN) and fusion of the hemiuterus for a 12-year-old girl from China diagnosed with congenital vaginal and cervical atresia (U4C4V4). She complained of severe abdominal periodic pain for 2 months. Mammary development and her serum sex hormone were within normal range. The patient has a single kidney. The diagnosis was made according to clinical characteristics, physical examination, and magnetic resonance imaging and classified using the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology /European Society for Gynaecological Endoscopy (ESHRE/ESGE) system. There was a hematometra of 7-cm diameter in her pelvis. We constructed a novel vagina by sharp and blunt separation and connected it to the uterine cavity. With the SIS graft, we reconstructed her cervix and vagina, and we fused the hemiuterus to make the uterine cavity spacious. The operating time was 260 minutes, and blood loss was 300 mL. She recovered well after the operation without any complications. After surgery, the patient has had normal menstruation without pain. She insists on wearing the vaginal mold 24 hours per day. The follow-up was 10 months. The length of the vagina was 9 cm and the width was 3 cm. Robotic-assisted reconstruction of the cervix and vagina using an SIS graft and fusion of the hemiuterus is feasible and safety. However, additional studies are required. Copyright © 2016 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Estrogen treatment of acetic acid burns to the vagina, cervix, and perineum: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ching, Jessica A; Kuykendall, Lauren V; Troy, Jared S; Smith, David J

    2014-01-01

    In colposcopic evaluation of the cervix, acetic acid of 3 to 5% is commonly used for identification of preneoplastic and neoplastic cells. Acetic acid is a known caustic substance and has the potential to cause irritation and chemical burns when there is sufficient concentration or duration of contact. The authors present a unique case of a woman who inadvertently received undiluted acetic acid during a routine colposcopy, resulting in significant chemical burns of the vagina, cervix, and perineum. Her burns were treated with topical estrogen cream of 1 g twice daily applied directly to the wounds. The burn wounds were fully healed within 8 weeks without complication or additional treatment. At 6 months after the injury, the patient was allowed to engage in sexual activity, and vaginal dilation and pelvic floor therapy were initiated. At 12 months postinjury, her only symptomatic scarring at the left vaginal wall continues to improve. Thus, topical estrogen treatment of 1 g applied twice daily should be continued until burn scar maturation is complete and treatment improvement plateaus in cases of burns to the vagina, cervix, and perineum. This case is further clinical evidence of estrogen's positive effect on wound healing and its potential role in burn treatment.

  16. The oophorectomy effect on Walker 256 tumor inoculated into the vagina and uterine cervix of female rats.

    PubMed

    Brito, Nara Macedo Botelho; Carvalho, Rita de Kássia Vidigal; Matos, Lia Tavares de Moura Brasil; Lobato, Rodolfo Costa; Brito, Rosângela Baía

    2009-01-01

    Verify the effect of oophorectomy on the evolution of the Walker 256 tumor inoculated into the vagina and cervix of female rats. Ten Wistar, female rats were used, distributed into two groups with 05 animals each: Tumor group (TG): Rats inoculated with Walker 256 tumor; Oophorectomy group (OG): oophorectomized rats inoculated with Walker 256 tumor. The day before the tumor vaginal inoculation, acetic acid was inoculated into the vaginas of both groups of rats; the following day, the vaginal walls were scarified with an endocervix brush, and then Walker 256 tumor was inoculated. After 12 days, the tumor was removed together with the vagina and uterine horns for macro and microscopic analyses. The data were submitted to statistical analyses. There was no statistical difference between the two groups; however it was observed that the behavior of tumor growth on the OG group presented greater invasion, compromising the uterine horns. The results of the study on the GO group presented a macroscopic behavior different from the TG group, however, both of them presented similar development in terms of tumor mass.

  17. Localization of estrogen receptor α and progesterone receptor B in bovine cervix and vagina during the follicular and luteal phases of the sexual cycle.

    PubMed

    Sağsöz, H; Akbalik, M E; Saruhan, B G; Ketani, M A

    2011-08-01

    The localization and distribution of estrogen receptors (ERα) and progesterone receptors (PR-B) in the cervix and vagina of sexually mature bovines during the follicular and luteal phases of the sexual cycle were studied using immunohistochemistry. The estrous cycle stage of 23 Holstein bovines was assessed by gross and histological appearance of ovaries and blood steroid hormone values. Tissue samples from cervix and vagina were fixed in 10% formaldehyde for routine histological processing. Nuclear staining for ERα and PR-B was observed in the epithelial cells of the surface epithelium, stromal cells and smooth muscle cells. Generally, in the cervix, ERα immunoreactivity was more intense in the epithelial and smooth muscle cells during the follicular phase and in the epithelial cells during the luteal phase (p < 0.05). PR-B immunoreactivity was more intense in the epithelial and smooth muscle cells than in the superficial and deep stromal cells during the follicular and luteal phases (p < 0.05). In the vagina, ERα and PR-B immunoreactivities were more intense in the epithelial cells than in the connective tissue cells and smooth muscle cells during the follicular and luteal phases (p < 0.05). These results indicated that the frequency and intensity of ERα and PR-B immunoreactivity in the cervix and vagina of bovines varied according to the cervical and vaginal cell types and the phases of the sexual cycle.

  18. Phasic Contractions of the Mouse Vagina and Cervix at Different Phases of the Estrus Cycle and during Late Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Gravina, Fernanda S.; van Helden, Dirk F.; Kerr, Karen P.; de Oliveira, Ramatis B.; Jobling, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims The pacemaker mechanisms activating phasic contractions of vaginal and cervical smooth muscle remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate properties of pacemaking in vaginal and cervical tissues by determining whether: 1) functional pacemaking is dependent on the phase of the estrus cycle or pregnancy; 2) pacemaking involves Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) -dependent intracellular Ca2+ stores; and 3) c-Kit and/or vimentin immunoreactive ICs have a role in pacemaking. Methodology/Principal Findings Vaginal and cervical contractions were measured in vitro, as was the distribution of c-Kit and vimentin positive interstitial cells (ICs). Cervical smooth muscle was spontaneously active in estrus and metestrus but quiescent during proestrus and diestrus. Vaginal smooth muscle was normally quiescent but exhibited phasic contractions in the presence of oxytocin or the K+ channel blocker tetraethylammonium (TEA) chloride. Spontaneous contractions in the cervix and TEA-induced phasic contractions in the vagina persisted in the presence of cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), a blocker of the SERCA that refills intracellular SR Ca2+ stores, but were inhibited in low Ca2+ solution or in the presence of nifedipine, an inhibitor of L-type Ca2+channels. ICs were found in small numbers in the mouse cervix but not in the vagina. Conclusions/Significance Cervical smooth muscle strips taken from mice in estrus, metestrus or late pregnancy were generally spontaneously active. Vaginal smooth muscle strips were normally quiescent but could be induced to exhibit phasic contractions independent on phase of the estrus cycle or late pregnancy. Spontaneous cervical or TEA-induced vaginal phasic contractions were not mediated by ICs or intracellular Ca2+ stores. Given that vaginal smooth muscle is normally quiescent then it is likely that increases in hormones such as oxytocin, as might occur through sexual stimulation, enhance the

  19. Phasic contractions of the mouse vagina and cervix at different phases of the estrus cycle and during late pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gravina, Fernanda S; van Helden, Dirk F; Kerr, Karen P; de Oliveira, Ramatis B; Jobling, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    The pacemaker mechanisms activating phasic contractions of vaginal and cervical smooth muscle remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate properties of pacemaking in vaginal and cervical tissues by determining whether: 1) functional pacemaking is dependent on the phase of the estrus cycle or pregnancy; 2) pacemaking involves Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) -dependent intracellular Ca2+ stores; and 3) c-Kit and/or vimentin immunoreactive ICs have a role in pacemaking. Vaginal and cervical contractions were measured in vitro, as was the distribution of c-Kit and vimentin positive interstitial cells (ICs). Cervical smooth muscle was spontaneously active in estrus and metestrus but quiescent during proestrus and diestrus. Vaginal smooth muscle was normally quiescent but exhibited phasic contractions in the presence of oxytocin or the K+ channel blocker tetraethylammonium (TEA) chloride. Spontaneous contractions in the cervix and TEA-induced phasic contractions in the vagina persisted in the presence of cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), a blocker of the SERCA that refills intracellular SR Ca2+ stores, but were inhibited in low Ca2+ solution or in the presence of nifedipine, an inhibitor of L-type Ca2+channels. ICs were found in small numbers in the mouse cervix but not in the vagina. Cervical smooth muscle strips taken from mice in estrus, metestrus or late pregnancy were generally spontaneously active. Vaginal smooth muscle strips were normally quiescent but could be induced to exhibit phasic contractions independent on phase of the estrus cycle or late pregnancy. Spontaneous cervical or TEA-induced vaginal phasic contractions were not mediated by ICs or intracellular Ca2+ stores. Given that vaginal smooth muscle is normally quiescent then it is likely that increases in hormones such as oxytocin, as might occur through sexual stimulation, enhance the effectiveness of such pacemaking until phasic contractile activity emerges.

  20. [Use of the CO2 laser in the treatment of pathologic changes in the vulva, vagina and uterine cervix].

    PubMed

    Stanimirović, B; Zivanović, Z; Popović-Lazić, J

    1990-01-01

    In the period from April 1987 to April 1990, 230 patients with pathological changes of the vulva, vagina and cervix uteri were treated with the CO2-laser. The diagnosis and pretreatment stages of the diseases were confirmed by the cytodiagnostic, colposcopic and histopathological results of the biophysics. In most cases, DNA-hybridization of human papilloma viruses confirmed their virus etiology. Twenty patients had peak condyloma of the vulva and vagina, 34 had benign cervical diseases, 65 were at the premalignant and 111 in the first stages of malignant cervical disease. Vaporizations, conical or cylindrical excisions were performed depending on the nature of disease and its localisation. The average age of operated patients was 30.6 years and the average parity 0.69. Operations were performed using analgesia and in rare cases total anesthesia. After the excision treatment, the tissue was checked histo-pathologically according to the principle of series. The complications were very rare. After operation, postoperative control was performed after 3.9 and 15 months, and later once a year. The results have shown that one treatment was sufficient in 80% of patients for curing vulvar and vaginal disease and 20% patients needed repeat because of the condyloma that relapsed. After the first treatment, benign and premalignant cervical diseases were cured in 100% of cases. In 95.4% operated patients at the first stages of cervical malignant diseases, the excisional treatment was final and in 4.6% needed an additional radical therapy because of a higher stage of lesion found by the conular histo-pathological analysis. There were no relapses relating to the cervix.

  1. Insufficient cervix

    MedlinePlus

    ... vagina. In a normal pregnancy, the cervix stays firm, long, and closed until late in the 3rd ... and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Cervix Disorders Health Problems in ...

  2. Seborrheic Keratosis-like Lesions of the Cervix and Vagina: Report of a New Entity Possibly Related to Low-risk Human Papillomavirus Infection.

    PubMed

    Talia, Karen L; McCluggage, W Glenn

    2017-04-01

    We report a series of 7 unusual and morphologically distinct cervical or upper vaginal lesions in women aged 41 to 70 years. The lesions involved the cervix in 3 cases, the upper vagina in 2, the cervix and vagina in 1, and in 1 case the site of origin could not be determined. The lesions had a consistent morphologic appearance with a surface "plaque-like" or "stuck-on" configuration apparent in those cases where surrounding normal tissues were present. Broad coalescing solid sheets and interconnecting trabeculae of cytologically bland cells with a rather "basaloid" appearance emanated from the surface and there were scattered squamous eddies. Other features included peripheral palisading and a stroma containing hyalinized basement membrane-like material. Immunohistochemically, the lesions were diffusely positive with p63, CK5/6, and 34βE12 and focally positive with CK7, but largely negative with CK20, EMA, CEA, and BerEP4. p16 was negative or exhibited nonblock-type immunoreactivity and GATA3 was negative or weakly positive. Molecular testing detected human papillomavirus type 42 in 3 of 7 cases, with no virus detected in the remaining 4 cases. Rarely, similar cases have been reported previously as inverted transitional papilloma of the cervix or vagina, but based on the morphology and immunophenotype we do not feel these represent transitional lesions. We suggest the term seborrheic keratosis-like lesions to designate this new and rare entity, which may be associated with low-risk human papillomavirus infection. Limited follow-up in a small number of cases suggests that these lesions follow a benign clinical course.

  3. Bcl-2 protein expression associated with resistance to apoptosis in clear cell adenocarcinomas of the vagina and cervix expressing wild-type p53.

    PubMed

    Waggoner, S E; Baunoch, D A; Anderson, S A; Leigh, F; Zagaja, V G

    1998-09-01

    Clear cell adenocarcinomas (CCAs) of the vagina and cervix are rare tumors that often overexpress wild-type p53. In vitro, expression of protooncogene bcl-2 can block p53-mediated apoptosis. The objective of this study was to determine if bcl-2 is expressed in CCAs and whether this expression is associated with inhibition of apoptosis. Twenty-one paraffin-embedded clear cell adenocarcinomas were immunohistochemically stained for bcl-2 (antibody M 887, Dako, Carpinteria, CA) and DNA fragmentation (ApopTag, Oncor, Gaithersburg, MD), a marker for apoptosis. Fifteen tumors were associated with in utero exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES). Prior p53 gene analysis had indicated the presence of wild-type p53 in each tumor. Human lymphoid tissue containing bcl-2-expressing lymphocytes and DNase I-exposed CCA tissue sections were used as positive controls for the bcl-2 and apoptosis assays, respectively. Expression of bcl-2 and DNA fragmentation was classified (0 to 3+) according to percentage of positive cells and intensity of staining. Expression of bcl-2 was identified in each CCA examined, and was strongly positive (2+ to 3+) in 18 of 21 samples. Despite the presence of wild-type p53, only 4 of 21 tumors showed evidence of apoptosis as assessed through DNA fragmentation. DNA damage leads to increased intracellular p53 levels. Overexpression of p53 induces apoptosis as a means of protecting organisms from the development of malignancy. CCAs of the vagina and cervix, which contain wild-type p53 genes and often overexpress p53 protein, presumably have evolved mechanisms to avoid p53-induced apoptosis. Our observations are consistent with the hypothesis that overexpression of bcl-2 can inhibit p53-mediated apoptosis and suggest a mechanism by which these rare tumors can arise without mutation of the p53 gene.

  4. Histopathologic Changes in the Uterus, Cervix and Vagina of Immature CD-1 Mice Exposed to Low Doses of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) in a Uterotrophic Assay

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Darlene; Reed, Casey E.; Moore, Alicia B.; Gibbs-Flournoy, Eugene A.; Hines, Erin P.; Wallace, Elizabeth A.; Stanko, Jason P.; Lu, Yi; Jefferson, Wendy N.; Newbold, Retha R.; Fenton, Suzanne E.

    2011-01-01

    The estrogenic and antiestrogenic potential of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was assessed using an immature mouse uterotrophic assay and by histologic evaluation of the uterus, cervix and vagina following treatment. Female offspring of CD-1 dams were weaned at 18 days old and assigned to groups of equal weight, and received 0, 0.01, 0.1, or 1 mg PFOA/kg BW/d by gavage with or without 17-β estradiol (E2, 500 μg/kg/d) from PND18-20 (n=8/treatment/block). At 24 hr after the third dose (PND 21), uteri were removed and weighed. Absolute and relative uterine weights were significantly increased in the 0.01 mg/kg PFOA only group. Characteristic estrogenic changes were present in all E2-treated mice; however, they were minimally visible in the 0.01 PFOA only mice. These data suggest that at a low dose PFOA produces minimal histopathologic changes in the reproductive tract of immature female mice, and does not antagonize the cellular effects of E2. PMID:22146484

  5. (Laterally) extended endopelvic resection: surgical treatment of locally advanced and recurrent cancer of the uterine cervix and vagina based on ontogenetic anatomy.

    PubMed

    Höckel, Michael; Horn, Lars-Christian; Einenkel, Jens

    2012-11-01

    Pelvic exenteration is mainly applied as a salvage operation for a subset of patients with persistent and recurrent cervicovaginal cancer. The procedure can also cure locally advanced primary disease not suitable for radiotherapy. However, high operative abortion and intralesional tumor resection rates significantly limit its clinical benefit. To improve locoregional tumor control we have proposed to establish cancer surgery on ontogenetic anatomy and, consequently, we have developed the (Laterally) Extended Endopelvic Resection ((L)EER). (L)EER is clinically and histopathologically evaluated with a monocentric prospective observational study. Patients with advanced and recurrent cervicovaginal cancer are treatment candidates if distant metastases and tumor fixation at the region of the sciatic foramen can be excluded. 91 patients with locally advanced primary (n=30) and recurrent or persistent (n=61) carcinoma of the cervix and vagina were treated with (L)EER. 74% of the tumors were fixed to the pelvic wall. No (L)EER treatment was aborted, R0 resection was histopathologically confirmed in all cases. (L)EER definitively controlled the locoregional cancer in 92% (95% CI: 85-99) of the patients. Five year overall survival probability was 61% (95% CI: 49-72). The results of (L)EER treatment confirm the concept of cancer surgery based on ontogenetic anatomy. In patients with locally advanced and recurrent cervicovaginal cancer (L)EER achieves locoregional tumor control both with central disease and with tumors fixed to the pelvic side wall except at the region of the sciatic foramen. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Benzo[a]pyrene exposure increases toxic biomarkers and morphological disorders in mouse cervix.

    PubMed

    Gao, Meili; Li, Yongfei; Sun, Ying; Shah, Walayat; Yang, Shuiyun; Wang, Yili; Long, Jiangang

    2011-11-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a representative compound of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exerting cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in the human liver, lung, stomach and skin. However, the toxic effect of BaP on cervical tissue remains unclear. This study was carried out to investigate the toxic effects of BaP on the cervix of ICR mice. Female mice were treated with BaP by intraperitoneal injection and oral gavage at a dose of 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg body-weight, twice a week for 14 weeks. BaP treatment caused a significant increase in the levels of MDA and IL-6 with significantly increased activity of CYP1A1, creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and decreased activity of glutathione-S-transferase in the cervix and liver. The relative cervix weight was markedly reduced in the intraperitoneal BaP injection groups, whereas only a slight reduction was observed in the oral gavage groups. The increase in weight decreased with increasing BaP dose. Moreover, BaP treatment induced significant pathomorphological changes in the cervical tissue and increased the mortality of the mice. Taken together, these results suggest that BaP causes a certain toxic effect on cervical tissue. © 2011 The Authors. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2011 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  7. Suspected toxic shock-like syndrome in a dog with closed-cervix pyometra.

    PubMed

    Declercq, Jan

    2007-02-01

    Several cases of toxic shock-like syndrome (TSLS) have been reported in dogs but no inciting cause has been identified. TSLS associated with a closed-cervix pyometra was suspected in the reported bitch. The dog was evaluated for the complaint of generalized dermatopathy (erythema and oedema) and systemic signs with multiorganic involvement (depression, fever, immature neutrophilia, hypoalbuminaemia, renal disease, vomiting and diarrhoea). Histological features consistent with TSLS included superficial dermatitis with epidermal neutrophilic exocytosis and necrotic keratinocytes. The tentative diagnosis of TSLS was based on case history, clinical presentation, laboratory and histopathological findings, and the resolution of all clinical signs following surgical removal of the localized bacterial infection.

  8. Chemoradiation related acute morbidity in carcinoma cervix and correlation with hematologic toxicity: a South Indian prospective study.

    PubMed

    Kumaran, Aswathy; Guruvare, Shyamala; Sharan, Krishna; Rai, Lavanya; Hebbar, Shripad

    2014-01-01

    To assess chemoradiation related acute morbidity in women with carcinoma cervix and to find and correlation between hematologic toxicity and organ system specific damage. A prospective study was carried out between August 2012 and July 2013 enrolling 79 women with cancer cervix receiving chemo-radiotherapy. Weekly assessment of acute morbidity was done using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (NCI CTCAE) version 4 and the toxicities were graded. Anemia [77 (97.5%)], vomiting [75 (94.8%)] and diarrhea [72 (91.1%)], leukopenia [11 (13.9%)], cystitis [28 (35.4%], dermatitis [19 (24.1%)] and fatigue [29 (36.71%)] were the acute toxicities noted. The toxicities were most severe in 3rd and 5th week. All women could complete radiotherapy except two due to causes unrelated to radiation morbidity; seven (8.86%) had to discontinue chemotherapy due to leukopenia and intractable diarrhea. Though there was no correlation between anemia and other toxicities, it was found that all with leukopenia had diarrhea. Chemoradiation for cancer cervix is on the whole well tolerated. Leukopenia and severe diarrhea were the acute toxicities that compelled discontinuation of chemotherapy in two women. Though anemia had no correlation with gastrointestinal toxicity, all of those with leukopenia had diarrhea.

  9. Carcinoma of vagina 10 or more years following pelvic irradiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Pride, G.L.; Buchler, D.A.

    1977-03-01

    Gynecologic cancer records of 4,238 patients treated between 1956 and 1974 were reviewed. Sixteen patients developed neoplasia in the cervix or vagina 10 or more years following pelvic irradiation. Three patients had squamous carcinoma in situ; the other 13 patients had invasive squamous cancer involving the upper vagina. Only 1.26 percent of invasive carcinoma of the cervix treated by radiation therapy from 1956 to 1966 presented with a late or recurrent or new primary tumor involving the vagina or cervix 10 or more years after primary treatment. The authors conclude that the risk of developing radiation-induced carcinoma in the uppermore » vagina or cervix following pelvic irradiation is low. Follow-up Pap smears are indicated for all patients treated for cervical or vaginal malignancies by radiation therapy in order to detect vaginal neoplasia as well as recurrent carcinoma of the cervix.« less

  10. Endoscopic OCT for imaging of uterine body and cervix pathologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakhova, Natalia M.; Kuznetzova, Irina N.; Gladkova, Natalia D.; Snopova, Ludmila; Gelikonov, Valentin M.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Feldchtein, Felix I.; Kuranov, Roman V.; Sergeev, Alexander M.

    1998-04-01

    First results of endoscopic applications of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in gynecology are presented. We have studied mucosa of uterus, uterine cervix and vagina in vivo. Images of healthy endometrium in different stages of menstrual cycle have been recorded. For uterine cervix not only OCT data of normal state but some kids of pathology have been analyzed. Capability of OCT to identify alterations of mucosa makes this method promising for early diagnosis of tumors and precise guiding of excisional biopsy.

  11. Outcome of cervix uteri cancer patients: Clinical treatment results and toxicity profile in a retrospective study from Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    El Sayed, Mohamed E; Bahadur, Yasir A; Hassouna, Ashraf H; Fawzy, Ehab E; Nasr, Azza M; Sadiq, Bakr B; Dada, Reyad; Sait, Khalid H; Anfinan, Nisrin M

    2017-10-01

    This study evaluated the survival outcome, pattern of failure and prognostic factors in cervix uteri cancer patients. We reviewed the data of 60 patients with stages IB-IVA cancer who were treated between January 2004 and December 2010. Most patients (n = 50; 83%) had squamous cell carcinoma. Stage IIB was the most common presentation (n = 41; 68%). Forty-seven patients (78%) received Cisplatin concurrent with radiotherapy (CRT). The 2- and 4-year overall survival (OS) was 82% and 79%, respectively. Prolongation of the overall treatment time (OAT) for greater than 56 days, advanced stage and pretreatment hemoglobin (Hb) levels (<10 g/dL) negatively predicted OS (P = 0.039, P = 0.044 and P = 0.008, respectively). The 2- and 4-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 80% and 69%, respectively. Vaginal infiltration and brachytherapy (orthogonal versus CT-based planning) were significant factors for the prediction of relapse (P = 0.048 and P = 0.049, respectively). The 2- and 4-year loco-regional control (LRC) rates were 78% and 70%, respectively, and the distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) rates were 82% and 79%, respectively. Vaginal infiltration was the only negative predictive factor for LRC (P = 0.045), and pathological tumor grade was the only factor indicative of distant metastases (P = 0.037). Grade 3 or 4 late rectal reactions were reported in two patients (3%), and no patients developed grade 3 or 4 urinary reactions. The treatment results in our cervix uteri cancer patients and the prognostic factors are comparable to those of previous reports. Orthogonal brachytherapy planning and vaginal infiltration negatively predicted relapse. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Dangers of the vagina.

    PubMed

    Beit-Hallahmi, B

    1985-12-01

    Beliefs, myths, and literary expressions of men's fear of female genitals are reviewed. Both clinical evidence and folklore provide evidence that men imagine female genitals not only as a source of pleasure and attraction, but also as a source of danger in a very physical sense. The vagina dentata myth has many versions, including some modern ones, and its message is always the same: an awesome danger emanating from a woman's body. The prevalence of such feelings in folklore and in literature is noted.

  13. Ontogenetic anatomy of the distal vagina: relevance for local tumor spread and implications for cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Höckel, Michael; Horn, Lars-Christian; Illig, Romana; Dornhöfer, Nadja; Fritsch, Helga

    2011-08-01

    We have suggested to base cancer surgery on ontogenetic anatomy and the compartment theory of tumor permeation in order to improve local tumor control and to lower treatment-related morbidity. Following the validation of this concept for the uterine cervix, proximal vagina and vulva, this study explores its applicability for the distal vagina. Serial transverse sections of female embryos and fetuses aged 8-17 weeks were assessed for the morphological changes in the region defined by the deep urogenital sinus-vaginal plate complex. Histopathological pattern analysis of local tumor spread was performed with carcinomas of the lower genital tract involving the distal vagina to test the compartment theory. Ontogenetically, the female urethra, urethrovaginal septum, distal vagina and rectovaginal septum represent a morphogenetic unit derived from the deep urogenital sinus-vaginal plate complex. Herein, the posterior urethra, the urethrovaginal septum and the distal vagina form a distinct subcompartment differentiated from the dorsal wall of the urogenital sinus. From 150 consecutive patients with distal vaginectomy as part of their surgical treatment 26 carcinomas of the lower genital tract had infiltrated the distal vagina. All 22 tumors involving the ventral wall invaded the urethra/periurethral tissue. Of the five carcinomas involving the dorsal wall none invaded the rectum/mesorectum. The pattern of local tumor permeation of lower genital tract cancer in the distal vagina can be consistently explained with ontogenetic anatomy and the compartment theory. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Vagina: What's Normal, What's Not

    MedlinePlus

    ... some antibiotics increases the risk of a vaginal yeast infection. Birth control and feminine-hygiene products. Barrier ... or change in the normal balance of vaginal yeast and bacteria can cause inflammation of the vagina ( ...

  15. [Cervix cancer].

    PubMed

    Pointreau, Y; Ruffier Loubière, A; Denis, F; Barillot, I

    2010-11-01

    Cervix cancers declined in most developed countries in recent years, but remain, the third worldwide leading cause of cancer death in women. A precise staging, based on clinical exam, an abdominal and pelvic MRI, a possible PET-CT and a possible lymph node sampling is necessary to adapt the best therapeutic strategy. In France, the treatments of tumors of less than 4 cm without nodal involvement are often based on radiotherapy followed by surgery and, whereas tumors larger than 4 cm and involved nodes are treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Based on an illustrated clinical case, indications, delineation, dosimetry and complications expected with radiotherapy are demonstrated. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. [Primary malignant melanoma of the vagina and treatment options: a case report].

    PubMed

    Tsvetkov, Ch; Gorchev, G; Tomov, S; Hinkova, N; Nikolova, M; Veselinova, T

    2014-01-01

    To present and analyze the clinical characteristics, treatment, and treatment options for a patient with primary malignant melanoma of the vagina and review of literature. A 71-year-old patient with a history of vaginal bleeding caused by four tumor growths located in the vagina is presented. The size of each formation was about 2 cm. Three of them were located in the proximal two-thirds of the anterior wall of the vagina and one in the distal third. Excisional biopsy was performed of the lesion located near the entrance of the vagina. Histopathological examination revealed that it was a malignant melanoma of the vagina, which was confirmed immunohistochemically. After ruling out a tumor of an unknown primary site, the patient underwent radical hysterectomy type IV total vaginectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection. Hystological examination proved a clinically asymptomatic melanoma lesion of the uterine cervix. After surgery, the patient was given chemotherapy with Dacarbasine and monthly immunotherapy with BCG vaccine. The patient survived 21 months after surgery without developing a local relapse and died of distant metastases in the spine. Radical surgery for primary melanoma of the vagina is a secure way of achieving locoregional control of multifocal disease. The wide local excision can be used in unifocal lesions with security in achieving clean surgical margins.

  17. Overlooked diseases of the vagina: a directed anatomic-pathologic approach for imaging assessment.

    PubMed

    Walker, Daphne K; Salibian, Raffi A; Salibian, Allison D; Belen, Kristin M; Palmer, Suzanne L

    2011-10-01

    The vagina can easily be overlooked at ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging performed for nongynecologic indications. Even when gynecologic disease is suspected, the vagina may be underevaluated at routine pelvic US due to probe positioning and at CT due to poor vaginal tissue characterization. Although MR imaging offers excellent tissue characterization, radiologists must focus on the vaginal area to recognize any incidental findings. A directed anatomic-pathologic approach to assessing the vagina at US, CT, and MR imaging is recommended so that pertinent findings are not missed. This approach requires a knowledge of the anatomy and embryologic development of the vagina, as well as an understanding of congenital, developmental, and postoperative vaginal disease entities. In addition, it is important to understand the strengths and limitations of each imaging modality with respect to vaginal assessment. By remembering to "look beyond" the uterus and cervix to the vagina, radiologists can improve their perception and interpretation of vaginal anatomy and disease. © RSNA, 2011.

  18. Rescue cerclage when foetal membranes prolapse into the vagina.

    PubMed

    Bayrak, Mehmet; Gul, Ahmet; Goynumer, Gokhan

    2017-05-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of rescue cerclage in patients with a dilated cervix and prolapsed foetal membranes. Thirty-five patients presenting with cervical dilatation and prolapsed foetal membranes were included in the study. A McDonald cerclage was placed in 27 patients. The duration of pregnancy prolongation and the number of deliveries after 28 weeks were evaluated. The median prolongation of pregnancy after cerclage placement differed significantly between the cerclage and bed-rest groups (64 days versus 13.5 days). Of the 27 patients who had cerclage, 17 (63%) delivered after 28 weeks of gestation, whereas all patients in the bed-rest group delivered before 28 weeks of gestation. The take-home baby rate was 63% in the cerclage group. When pregnancies were complicated by cervical dilatation with membrane prolapse into the vagina, placement of a McDonald cerclage in appropriately selected patients can be a beneficial therapeutic option. Impact statement Although the effectiveness and safety of rescue cerclage is controversial, our study provides strong support for the notion that cervical cerclage accompanied by long-term broad-spectrum antibiotics improves the perinatal outcomes in singleton gestations with membrane prolapsed into the vagina. Further prospective randomised trial is required to prove these findings.

  19. Toxic shock syndrome: clinical and laboratory features in 15 patients.

    PubMed

    Tofte, R W; Williams, D N

    1981-02-01

    Toxic shock syndrome is a recently recognized illness with serious morbidity and mortality that occurs primarily in healthy menstruating women who use tampons. Thirteen women and two men were evaluated; two of the women died in spite of seemingly appropriate therapy. All patients had a temperature of 38.9 degrees C or greater, hypotension of syncope, a skin rash with subsequent desquamation, mucous membrane inflammation, and laboratory evidence of multiple organ dysfunction. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from the cervix or vagina in eight women and from soft-tissue infections in both men. Two patients were bacteremic. The significant heterogeneity in the clinical manifestations, laboratory abnormalities, and therapeutic requirements among patients may result in diagnostic confusion and inappropriate therapy. Although toxic shock syndrome appears to be associated with tampon usage and S. aureus, the pathogenesis remains unknown.

  20. Nanoparticle Transport from Mouse Vagina to Adjacent Lymph Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Ballou, Byron; Andreko, Susan K.; Osuna-Highley, Elvira; McRaven, Michael; Catalone, Tina; Bruchez, Marcel P.; Hope, Thomas J.; Labib, Mohamed E.

    2012-01-01

    To test the feasibility of localized intravaginal therapy directed to neighboring lymph nodes, the transport of quantum dots across the vaginal wall was investigated. Quantum dots instilled into the mouse vagina were transported across the vaginal mucosa into draining lymph nodes, but not into distant nodes. Most of the particles were transported to the lumbar nodes; far fewer were transported to the inguinal nodes. A low level of transport was evident at 4 hr after intravaginal instillation, and transport peaked at about 36 hr after instillation. Transport was greatly enhanced by prior vaginal instillation of Nonoxynol-9. Hundreds of micrograms of nanoparticles/kg tissue (ppb) were found in the lumbar lymph nodes at 36 hr post-instillation. Our results imply that targeted transport of microbicides or immunogens from the vagina to local lymph organs is feasible. They also offer an in vivo model for assessing the toxicity of compounds intended for intravaginal use. PMID:23284844

  1. Rhabdomyosarcoma of Cervix: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Maryam Sadat; Ashrafganjoei, Tahereh; Sourati, Ainaz; Tabatabeifar, Morteza; Mohamadianamiri, Mahdiss

    2016-06-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma has known as a highly malignant soft tissue sarcoma. It has been the most common soft tissue sarcoma in childhood, accounting for about 3 to 4 % of all cases of childhood cancer. Rhabdomyosarcoma was rare in adults, accounting for 3% of all soft-tissue sarcomas. embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of female genital tract including uterine cervix in an adult was rare. This study has reported a 33-year-old woman presented with abnormal vaginal discharge. Gynecologic examination revealed a cervical mass with grape- like feature protruding into vagina with posterior- superior vaginal wall involvement. Biopsy has performed and pathologic examination was consistent with embryonal botryoid type rhabdomyosarcoma. She has undergone the staging work up measurements including thoracic computed tomography (CT) scan, abdominopelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), bone scan and bone marrow examination. In exception of abdominopelvic MRI, with 2 suspicious pelvic lymph nodes in addition of cervical mass, all others were normal. Radical hysterectomy with lymph node debulking and ovarian preservation has performed. Final results have shown embryonal botryoid type rhabdomyosarcoma of cervix. ovaries, endometrium, parametrium, and follopian tubes were unremarkable. Pelvic lymph nodes pathology and intraabdominal fluid cytology were negative for malignancy. Lymphovascular invasion was identified. She has advised for adjuvant chemotherapy. This case has reminded that embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma could occur in uncommon site and older female. Longer follow up of these cases has required due to lack of survival data for embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of this site and age group.

  2. Urothelial cells in smears from cervix uteri

    PubMed Central

    Palaoro, Luis Alberto; Guerra, Fernando; Angeleri, Anabela; Palamas, Marta; Melba, Sardi-Segovia; Rocher, Adriana Esther

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To establish the cytological criteria to identify the urothelial cells in cervical smears in order to avoid mistakes in the cytological diagnosis. Materials and Methods: Cervical smears from 34 post menopausal women with vesicovaginal fistulas, advanced bladder prolapse and genital erosive lichen planes (vulvar kraurosis) (Group 1) and transitional cell metaplasia of the cervix (TCM, Group 2) were stained with Papanicolaou technique. The cervical samples were taken during the routine annual examination for prevention of the uterine cancer. Results: The smears of cervix from Group 1 showed urothelial cells from the three layers of the transitional epithelium. The umbrella cells are the bigger ones with relatively large nuclei. Frequently, they are multinucleated with single or multiple nucleoli and a typical “frothy” cytoplasm (cytoplasmic vacuoles). The cells of the Group 2 showed nuclei with oval to spindled shapes, some tapered ends, less cytoplasm than squamous metaplastic cells, powdery chromatin, small nucleoli and nuclear grooves. Conclusions: The umbrella cells may be mistaken for dysplastic cells originating in low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions lesions (LSILs) due to their nuclear and cytoplasm sizes. Therefore, it is important to know the possibility of their appearance in the cervical smears, especially in post menopausal patients in order to avoid a false diagnosis of an intraepithelial lesion. It is unlikely that deeper cells of urothelium would be confused with high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) cells. However, their presence might be a reason of mistake in the diagnosis. TCM is an under-recognized metaplastic phenomenon of the cervix and vagina, which is a mimicker of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. The differential characteristic between umbrella cells, cells from TCM and the deeper urothelial cells, and LSIL and HSIL are detailed in the present paper. PMID:22438615

  3. [Fungi isolated from the vagina and their susceptibility to antifungals].

    PubMed

    Macura, Anna B; Skóra, Magdalena

    2012-06-01

    Because of the presence of various fungi and changes in their spectrum in the mycosis of vagina it is necessary to perform periodic overviews including testing their susceptibility to antifungal agents. The objective of the study was to evaluate susceptibility of the fungi isolated from vaginas to antifungal drugs and to analyse the fungi responsible for vaginal mycosis in patients referred during a 7-year study The study was carried out in a group of patients suspected of vaginal mycosis between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2011. An analysis of the fungi isolated from their vaginas was performed. The susceptibility of the fungi to six antifungals (5-fluorocytosine, amphotericin B, miconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole and fluconazole) was evaluated using a semiquantitative Fungitest. A total of 4775 mycological test results were evaluated. Fungi were present in 30.6% of the material. C. albicans was the most frequently isolated fungal species (80.2%), followed by C. glabrata (5.8%), and S. cerevisiae (5.5%). Itraconazole turned out to be the least effective drug. C. krusei. was the species most resistant to antifungals, including fluconazole. 1. C. albicans is the species most frequently isolated from a vagina. It is highly susceptible to azoles, the antimycotics generally used in the treatment of vaginal mycosis. 2. Out of the azoles under study ketoconazole was the most active against fungi in vitro while itraconazole was the least active. 3. The Candida non-albicans species, and particularly C. krusei, are less susceptible to antimycotics. 4. Amphotericin B and 5-fluorocytosine are most effective against Candida strains and S. cerevisiae, however they are not used in the treatment of vaginal mycosis because of their high toxicity

  4. Cervix treatment - cryosurgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... will help you to decide if cryosurgery is right for your condition. Risks Risks for any surgery are: Bleeding Infection Cryosurgery may cause scarring of the cervix, but most of the time, it is very minor. More severe scarring may make it more difficult ...

  5. Regional variation in tissue composition and biomechanical properties of postmenopausal ovine and human vagina.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Daniela; Edwards, Sharon L; Letouzey, Vincent; Su, Kai; White, Jacinta F; Rosamilia, Anna; Gargett, Caroline E; Werkmeister, Jerome A

    2014-01-01

    There are increasing numbers of reports describing human vaginal tissue composition in women with and without pelvic organ prolapse with conflicting results. The aim of this study was to compare ovine and human posterior vaginal tissue in terms of histological and biochemical tissue composition and to assess passive biomechanical properties of ovine vagina to further characterise this animal model for pelvic organ prolapse research. Vaginal tissue was collected from ovariectomised sheep (n = 6) and from postmenopausal women (n = 7) from the proximal, middle and distal thirds. Tissue histology was analyzed using Masson's Trichrome staining; total collagen was quantified by hydroxyproline assays, collagen III/I+III ratios by delayed reduction SDS PAGE, glycosaminoglycans by dimethylmethylene blue assay, and elastic tissue associated proteins (ETAP) by amino acid analysis. Young's modulus, maximum stress/strain, and permanent strain following cyclic loading were determined in ovine vagina. Both sheep and human vaginal tissue showed comparable tissue composition. Ovine vaginal tissue showed significantly higher total collagen and glycosaminoglycan values (p<0.05) nearest the cervix. No significant differences were found along the length of the human vagina for collagen, GAG or ETAP content. The proximal region was the stiffest (Young's modulus, p<0.05), strongest (maximum stress, p<0.05) compared to distal region, and most elastic (permanent strain). Sheep tissue composition and mechanical properties showed regional differences along the postmenopausal vaginal wall not apparent in human vagina, although the absolute content of proteins were similar. Knowledge of this baseline variation in the composition and mechanical properties of the vaginal wall will assist future studies using sheep as a model for vaginal surgery.

  6. Foreign bodies retained in the vagina: a case report.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Smiti; Singhal, Savita Rani; Marya, Ashima

    2006-04-01

    Foreign bodies have been found in the vagina in a variety of forms. A 3-year-old girl had a variety of foreign bodies in her vagina. One should always think of foreign bodies in the vagina in cases of vaginal discharge in childhood.

  7. Malignant mixed Mullerian tumour of the prolapsed cervix: A case report.

    PubMed

    Massinde, Anthony N; Rumanyika, Richard R; Kihunrwa, Albert; Rambau, Peter; Magoma, Moke

    2012-04-01

    Malignant mixed Mullerian tumour is a rare gynaecological tumour commonly presenting with vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain or mass in the uterine cavity, cervix or vagina. The neoplasms are commonly seen in postmenopausal women although it has been observed in younger women. Ovaries and the corpus of the uterus are commonly involved, whereas involvement of the cervix and vagina is rare. A 37 year-old Tanzania lady para 7 with a previous history of two genital polypectomies presented with history of recurrent vaginal mass which was associated with abnormal vaginal bleeding and foul smelling discharge. Vaginal examination revealed a prolapsed uterus with giant fungating cervical mass which was ulcerated, friable, and bled easily on touch. Impression was grade three uterine prolapse with infected cervical polyp/cervical sarcoma. Excision of the tumour through trans-vaginal hysterectomy was performed, no lymphadenopathy was found, no adnexa abnormalities, and no involvement of the vaginal wall. Histological diagnosis of Malignant mixed Mullerian tumour of the cervix was made. Patient recovery was unremarkable; however she was lost to follow up. The patient's mass was initially suspected to be prolapsed uterus with decubitus ulcer but the histological results were of a malignant condition. Lack of clear management guidelines for some rare mixed tumours remains a challenge for clinicians in low resource settings.

  8. Uterus didelphys associated with unilateral imperforate vagina.

    PubMed

    Gilliland, B; Dyck, F

    1976-07-01

    Two cases of uterus didelphys associated with unilateral imperforate vagina are reported with a review of the literature. In all cases investigated, ipsilateral renal agenesis was found on the affected side. A summary of the embryologic development of the female reproductive tract is included, as well as a possible explanation for this rare anomaly. The authors describe their proposed method of management to achieve freedom from symptoms and maintenance of a relatively intact reproductive tract.

  9. HPV16 variants distribution in invasive cancers of the cervix, vulva, vagina, penis, and anus.

    PubMed

    Nicolás-Párraga, Sara; Gandini, Carolina; Pimenoff, Ville N; Alemany, Laia; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Xavier Bosch, F; Bravo, Ignacio G

    2016-10-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)16 is the most oncogenic human papillomavirus, responsible for most papillomavirus-induced anogenital cancers. We have explored by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis the viral variant lineages present in 692 HPV16-monoinfected invasive anogenital cancers from Europe, Asia, and Central/South America. We have assessed the contribution of geography and anatomy to the differential prevalence of HPV16 variants and to the nonsynonymous E6 T350G polymorphism. Most (68%) of the variance in the distribution of HPV16 variants was accounted for by the differential abundance of the different viral lineages. The most prevalent variant (above 70% prevalence) in all regions and in all locations was HPV16_A1-3, except in Asia, where HPV16_A4 predominated in anal cancers. The differential prevalence of variants as a function of geographical origin explained 9% of the variance, and the differential prevalence of variants as a function of anatomical location accounted for less than 3% of the variance. Despite containing similar repertoires of HPV16 variants, we confirm the worldwide trend of cervical cancers being diagnosed significantly earlier than other anogenital cancers (early fifties vs. early sixties). Frequencies for alleles in the HPV16 E6 T350G polymorphism were similar across anogenital cancers from the same geographical origin. Interestingly, anogenital cancers from Central/South America displayed higher 350G allele frequencies also within HPV16_A1-3 lineage compared with Europe. Our results demonstrate ample variation in HPV16 variants prevalence in anogenital cancers, which is partly explained by the geographical origin of the sample and only marginally explained by the anatomical location of the lesion, suggesting that tissue specialization is not essential evolutionary forces shaping HPV16 diversity in anogenital cancers. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Update on current care guideline: Cytological changes in the cervix, vagina and vulva.

    PubMed

    Annually approximately 160 new cervical cancers are diagnosed in Finland. Screening has decreased both incidence and mortality by 80%. Both primary HPV-testing and Pap smear can be used in screening. In the future HPV vaccination will decrease the number of cervical cancers. Abnormal findings in Pap smears indicate management. LSIL lesions are followed up especially among young women and HSIL lesions treated. Follow-up after treatment should be reliably arranged, because increased risk of cancer remains ever after treatment.

  11. Rapidly growing ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma involving the vagina: a case report.

    PubMed

    Na, Sunghun; Hwang, Jongyun; Lee, Hyangah; Lee, Jiyeon; Lee, Dongheon

    2011-12-01

    We present a rare case of a very rapidly growing stage IV ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma involving the uterine cervix and vagina without lymph node involvement. A 43-year-old woman visited the hospital with complaints of lower abdominal discomfort and vaginal bleeding over the previous 3 months. Serum levels of tumor marker CA 125 and SCC antigen (TA-4) were normal. On magnetic resonance imaging, a 7.9×9.7cm heterogeneous mass with intermediate signal intensity was observed in the posterior low body of the uterus. Two months ago, a computed tomography scan revealed an approximate 4.5×3.0cm heterogeneously enhanced subserosal mass with internal ill-defined hypodensities. A laparotomy, including a total abdominal hysterectomy with resection of the upper vagina, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, pelvic and para-aortic lymph node dissection, appendectomy, total omentectomy, and biopsy of rectal serosa was performed. A histological examination revealed poorly differentiated endometrioid ovarian adenocarcinoma with vaginal involvement. The patient had an uncomplicated post-operative course. After discharge, she completed six cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel (175mg/m(2)) and carboplatin (300mg/m(2)) and has remained clinically disease-free until June 2010. Epithelial ovarian cancer may grow very rapidly. The frequent measurement of tumor size by ultrasonography may provide important information on detection in a subset of ovarian carcinomas that develop from preexisting, detectable lesions. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Revisiting old vaginal topics: conversion of the Müllerian vagina and origin of the "sinus" vagina.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Vaginal development has been a longstanding controversy, which hampers studies on vaginal diseases as well as cervical and uterine diseases. Most concerns center on: why is the vaginal epithelium different from the uterine epithelium; and where does the vagina originate from? It is commonly held that the rodent vagina has a dual origin: the cranial part is derived from the Mullerian duct (Mullerian vagina) and the caudal part derived from the urogenital sinus (sinus vagina). This concept was deduced from morphological observations. However, it cannot explain the difference between the Mullerian vagina and the uterus. Moreover, accumulating new data from genetic and molecular studies contradicts the urogenital sinus origin of the sinus vagina. The present review summarizes previous morphological observations and new findings from genetic and molecular studies, and addresses molecular mechanisms underlying the origin and organogenesis of the vagina in rodents. It provides evidence to show that the whole vagina is derived the Mullerian duct. BMP4 reshapes the intermediate mesoderm-derived Mullerian duct into the vaginal primordium. The latter thus exhibits different features from the uterus, including the stratified squamous epithelium and insensitivity to anti-Mullerian hormone. The sinus vagina is formed by extrinsic BMP4-mediated caudal extension of the Mullerian duct. The present review thus shows how a century of controversy over the origin and organogenesis of the vagina has been resolved. This new understanding will provide additional insight into genetic diseases and tumors of the female reproductive tract.

  13. A new material for tissue engineered vagina reconstruction: Acellular porcine vagina matrix.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing-Kun; Du, Run-Xuan; Zhang, Lin; Li, Ya-Nan; Zhang, Ming-Le; Zhao, Shuo; Huang, Xiang-Hua; Xu, Yan-Fang

    2017-07-01

    Acellular matrix materials have been widely used to repair various tissues and organs. According to the plastic principle, when a part of the body is lost, it should be replaced with a similar material. Therefore, the use of a homologous organ-specific acellular vaginal tissue in vagina reconstruction repair surgery may show good results. However, the acellular vagina matrix (AVM) form large vertebrates is difficult to isolate. In this study, we described a multistep method to prepare porcine AVM and evaluated the efficacy of acellularization. We also investigated the biomechanical properties, biological activity elements, and biocompatibility of the porcine AVM. We then used this material to reconstruct a rat vagina and performed further morphologic and functional analyses. Small intestinal submucosa (SIS), which is a commonly used acellular matrix material, was used in a control group. Histological examination, DNA content analysis, and agarose gel electrophoresis revealed that the decellularization procedure was effective. The AVM had acceptable biomechanical properties and sufficient growth factor production (VEGF, FGF, TGF-β1, and PDGF-BB) compared with that of the SIS. Subcutaneous transplantation in rats showed that the AVM had good biocompatibility. The tissue-engineered vagina using the AVM more resembled normal-appearing tissue than did that using SIS following morphologic and functional analyses. The AVM has great potential for application in vaginal reconstructive surgery. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1949-1959, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Vaginal reconstruction with sigmoid colon in patients with congenital absence of vagina and menses retention: a report of treatment experience in 22 young women.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Shulan; Wang, Mingqian

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the surgical feasibility, sexual satisfaction and complications of vaginal reconstruction with sigmoid colon in patients with congenital absence of vagina and menses retention. Retrospective analysis of surgical techniques and long-term postoperative follow-up was performed for 22 patients who underwent vaginal reconstruction with sigmoid colon at a single hospital between 1977 and 2011 to treat congenital absence of vagina with menses retention. All patients achieved satisfactory sexual function after marriage. No patients experienced enterospastic abdominal pain during sexual intercourse. The neovaginas accommodated two or more fingers and had depths >10 cm. The mucous membranes were soft and flexible, and secretions of the sigmoid mucosa provided adequate and acceptable lubrication. No patient required vaginal stents, and none developed vaginal stenosis or reported pain with vaginal expansion. Fifteen of the 22 patients underwent hysterectomies due to cervical agenesis; seven retained their uterus and had onset of normal menses postoperatively. Two patients became pregnant 1 year after marriage; one achieved 38-week gestation, underwent cesarean section due to premature rupture of membranes, and delivered a healthy boy. The other experienced natural incomplete abortion and underwent curettage at her local hospital. This study confirms that sigmoid colon vaginal reconstruction is a good choice for treating congenital absence of vagina and menses retention and results in the closest approximation to the physical function of a normal female vagina. Reproductive ability can be retained in many cases for patients with a well-developed uterus and cervix.

  15. Benign cystic lesions of the vagina: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Eilber, Karyn Schlunt; Raz, Shlomo

    2003-09-01

    Knowledge of the etiology, evaluation and treatment of cystic lesions of the vagina is essential as these lesions are often encountered in urological and gynecological practices. We searched MEDLINE and MeSH for literature from the last 50 years referring to cysts of the vagina. Review of the literature regarding etiology, clinical and pathological diagnosis, prognosis and treatment identified 18 journal articles and 6 books. Benign cystic lesions of the vagina present a spectrum, from small asymptomatic lesions to cysts large enough to cause urinary obstruction. History, physical examination and radiological imaging, including voiding cystourethrogram and magnetic resonance imaging, are useful in diagnosis. Treatment is determined by the severity of symptoms. Cystic lesions of the vagina are relatively common and usually represent benign conditions. A vaginal cyst may be an embryological derivative, ectopic tissue or urological abnormality. Awareness of the various diagnoses of benign cystic lesions of the vagina and associated abnormalities will aid in evaluation and treatment.

  16. Antimicrobial topical agents used in the vagina.

    PubMed

    Frey Tirri, Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    Vaginally applied antimicrobial agents are widely used in the vagina in women with lower genital tract infections. An 'antimicrobial' is a general term that refers to a group of drugs that are effective against bacteria, fungi, viruses and protozoa. Topical treatments can be prescribed for a wide variety of vaginal infections. Many bacterial infections, such as bacterial vaginosis, desquamative inflammatory vaginitis or, as some European authors call it, aerobic vaginitis as well as infection with Staphylococcus aureus or group A streptococci, may be treated in this way. Candida vulvovaginitis is a fungal infection that is very amenable to topical treatment. The most common viral infections which can be treated with topical medications are condylomata acuminata and herpes simplex. The most often encountered protozoal vaginitis, which is caused by Trichomonas vaginalis, may be susceptible to topical medications, although this infection is treated systemically. This chapter covers the wide variety of commonly used topical antimicrobial agents for these diseases and focuses on the individual therapeutic agents and their clinical efficacy. In addition, potential difficulties that can occur in practice, as well as the usage of these medications in the special setting of pregnancy, are described in this chapter. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Localized delivery of chemotherapy to the cervix for radiosensitization.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Lucy S; Downs, Levi S; Chura, Justin C; Thomas, Sajeena G; Callery, Patrick S; Soisson, A Patrick; Kramer, Paul; Wolfe, Stephen S; Tracy, Timothy S

    2012-10-01

    Chemoradiation is the mainstay of therapy for advanced cervical cancer, with the most effective treatment regimens involving combinations of radiosensitizing agents. However, administration of radiosensitizing chemotherapeutics concurrently with pelvic radiation is not without side effects. The aim of this study was to examine the utility of localized drug delivery as a means of improving drug targeting of radiosensitizing chemotherapeutics to the cervix while limiting systemic toxicities. An initial proof-of-concept study was performed in 14 healthy women following local administration of diazepam utilizing a novel cervical delivery device (CerviPrep™). Uterine vein and peripheral blood samples were collected and diazepam was measured using a GC-MS method. In the follow-up study, gemcitabine was applied to the cervix in 17 women undergoing hysterectomy for various gynecological malignancies. Cervical tissue, uterine vein blood samples, and peripheral plasma were collected, and gemcitabine and its deaminated metabolite 2',2'-difluorodeoxyuridine (dFdU) were measured using HPLC-UV and LC/MS methods. Targeted delivery of diazepam to the cervix was consistent with parent drug detectable in the uterine vein of 13 of 14 women. In the second study, pharmacologically relevant concentrations of gemcitabine (0.01-6.6 nmol/g tissue) were detected in the cervical tissue of 11 of 16 available specimens with dFdU measureable in 15 samples (0.04-8.8 nmol/g tissue). Neither gemcitabine nor its metabolites were detected in the peripheral plasma of any subject. Localized drug delivery to the cervix is possible and may be useful in limiting toxicity associated with intravenous administration of chemotherapeutics for radiosensitization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Lymphatic drainage pathways from the cervix uteri: implications for radical hysterectomy?

    PubMed

    Kraima, A C; Derks, M; Smit, N N; Van Munsteren, J C; Van der Velden, J; Kenter, G G; DeRuiter, M C

    2014-01-01

    Radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy is the treatment of choice for early-stage cervical cancer. Wertheim's original technique has been often modified, mainly in the extent of parametrectomy. Okabayashi's technique is considered as the most radical variant regarding removal of the ventral parametrium and paracolpal tissues. Surgical outcome concerning recurrence and survival is good, but morbidity is high due to autonomic nerve damage. While the autonomic network has been studied extensively, the lymphatic system is less understood. This study describes the lymphatic drainage pathways of the cervix uteri and specifically the presence of lymphatics in the vesico-uterine ligament (VUL). A developmental series of 10 human female fetal pelves was studied. Paraffin embedded blocks were sliced in transverse sections of 8 or 10 μm. Analysis was performed by staining with antibodies against LYVE-1 (lymphatic endothelium), S100 (Schwann cells), alpha-Smooth Muscle Actin (smooth muscle cells) and CD68 (macrophages). The results were three-dimensionally represented. Two major pathways drained the cervix uteri: a supra-ureteral pathway, running in the cardinal ligament superior to the ureter, and a dorsal pathway, running in the utero-sacral ligament towards the rectal pillars. No lymph vessels draining the cervix uteri were detected in the VUL. In the paracolpal parametrium lymph vessels draining the upper vagina fused with those from the bladder. The VUL does not contain lymphatics from the cervix uteri. Hence, the favorable survival outcomes of the Okabayashi technique cannot be explained by radical removal of lymphatic pathways in the ventrocaudal parametrium. © 2013.

  19. Cervix

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2016:chap 44. Ellenson LH, Pirog EC. The female genital tract. In: Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster JC, eds. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease . 9th ed. Philadelphia, ... of the female pelvis. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Partin AW, ...

  20. In utero exposure to low doses of bisphenol A lead to long-term deleterious effects in the vagina.

    PubMed

    Schönfelder, G; Flick, B; Mayr, E; Talsness, C; Paul, M; Chahoud, I

    2002-01-01

    The origins of the "endocrine disrupter hypothesis" may be traced to reports on adolescent daughters born to women who had taken the highly potent synthetic estrogen, diethylstilbestrol, while pregnant, and who developed a rare form of vaginal cancer and adenocarcinoma. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogenic chemical that is highly employed in the manufacture of a wide range of consumer products. Some observational studies have suggested that the amounts of BPA to which we are exposed could alter the reproductive organs of developing rodents. We examined the influence of BPA at low doses to address the questions of (a) whether in utero exposure affects the vagina of the offspring and (b) which mechanisms cause the toxic effects. Gravid Sprague-Dawley dams were administered either 0.1 (low dose) or 50 mg/kg per day BPA, the no observed effect level, or 0.2 mg/kg per day 17 alpha-ethinyl estradiol by gavage. Striking morphological changes were observed in the vagina of postpubertal offspring leading us to examine vaginal estrogen receptor (ER) expression because BPA binds to the ER alpha, which is important for growth of the vaginal epithelium. We show that the full-length ER alpha is not expressed during estrus in the vagina of female offspring exposed to either dose of BPA when compared to the control group, whereas ER alpha expression does not differ from the control group during the diestrus stage. ER alpha downregulation seems to be responsible for the observed altered vaginal morphology.

  1. In Utero Exposure to Low Doses of Bisphenol A Lead to Long-term Deleterious Effects in the Vagina1

    PubMed Central

    Schönfelder, G; Flick, B; Mayr, E; Talsness, C; Paul, M; Chahoud, I

    2002-01-01

    Abstract The origins of the “endocrine disrupter hypothesis” may be traced to reports on adolescent daughters born to women who had taken the highly potent synthetic estrogen, diethylstilbestrol, while pregnant, and who developed a rare form of vaginal cancer and adenocarcinoma. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogenic chemical that is highly employed in the manufacture of a wide range of consumer products. Some observational studies have suggested that the amounts of BPA to which we are exposed could alter the reproductive organs of developing rodents. We examined the influence of BPA at low doses to address the questions of (a) whether in utero exposure affects the vagina of the offspring and (b) which mechanisms cause the toxic effects. Gravid Sprague-Dawley dams were administered either 0.1 (low dose) or 50 mg/kg per day BPA, the no observed effect level, or 0.2 mg/kg per day 17α-ethinyl estradiol by gavage. Striking morphological changes were observed in the vagina of postpubertal offspring leading us to examine vaginal estrogen receptor (ER) expression because BPA binds to the ERα, which is important for growth of the vaginal epithelium. We show that the full -length ERα is not expressed during estrus in the vagina of female offspring exposed to either dose of BPA when compared to the control group, whereas ERα expression does not differ from the control group during the diestrus stage. ERα downregulation seems to be responsible for the observed altered vaginal morphology. PMID:11896564

  2. Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma to the Uterine Cervix: A Case Report of a Rare Entity and Review of the Diagnostic Differential.

    PubMed

    Sams, Sharon B; Rosser, Julie A

    2017-09-01

    Urothelial carcinoma (UC) rarely metastasizes to the gynecologic tract, occurring in descending order of frequency, within the vagina, uterus, ovaries, and cervix. Significant morphologic overlap exists between primary gynecologic squamous lesions (both benign and malignant) and metastatic UC, thus potentially hindering a timely and accurate diagnosis. We present a case of UC metastatic to the uterine cervix in a 69-year-old female initially found to have noninvasive high-grade papillary UC of the bladder. Complaints of vaginal spotting lead to identification and biopsy of a mass in the uterine cervix. Histologic evaluation of the cervical mass showed a neoplastic proliferation of atypical epithelioid cells arranged in a papillary architecture. The differential in this case included primary uterine cervical tumors such as condyloma acuminatum, immature condyloma, verrucous carcinoma, warty/condylomatous carcinoma, and papillary squamotransitional cell carcinoma, as well as metastatic UC. A careful evaluation of histologic variances and a selective immunohistochemical panel allows differentiation of these tumors. We herein review the subtle, albeit significant, histologic and immunohistochemical differences of the aforementioned lesions.

  3. ["Vestigial cells" of the transitional area of the uterine-cervix. Comparative morphological study with the subcylindrical-reserve-cells (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Minh, H N; Smadja, A; Lecomte, D; Orcel, L; Coupez, F

    1982-01-01

    The squamo-cylindrical junction represents a transitional area of unstable epithelium. It consists of slightly differentiated cells which disclosed resemblance in morphological pattern with germinal cells of the basal layer in the exocervical squamous epithelium. These unstable cells, according to the authors, may be derived from the cranial, most cephalic extend of the sinusal vaginal plate which had formed the epithelium of the entire vagina and the vaginal portion of the cervix up to the squamo-columnar junction. Ultrastructural analysis disclosed no similarities between cells of the squamo-columnar junction and subcylindrical reserve cells which exhibited sometimes resemblance to the "mesenchymal cells" found within the surrounding stroma.

  4. Management of radionecrosis of the vulva and distal vagina

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, W.S.; Hoffman, M.S.; LaPolla, J.P.

    1991-05-01

    Twelve patients were seen between January 1983 and June 1989 with the clinical diagnosis of radionecrosis of the vulva or distal vagina. Seven patients received radiation for vulvar cancer, three for distal vaginal cancer, and two for recurrent endometrial cancer. No patient healed spontaneously and the mean delay in surgical therapy was 8.5 months. The radionecrotic site was treated with local therapy, radical local excision (with or without colostomy), or exenteration. The operative defect was closed primarily in three patients and covered with local flaps or myocutaneous flaps in seven patients. The two patients with local care still have radionecroticmore » ulcers. One of three patients who were closed primarily continues to have an ulcer. All other patients have healed satisfactorily except one who died after two attempts to correct the problem. Radionecrosis of the vulva and distal vagina should generally be treated surgically.« less

  5. Nanoparticle-based drug delivery to the vagina: a review

    PubMed Central

    Ensign, Laura M.; Cone, Richard; Hanes, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Vaginal drug administration can improve prophylaxis and treatment of many conditions affecting the female reproductive tract, including sexually transmitted diseases, fungal and bacterial infections, and cancer. However, achieving sustained local drug concentrations in the vagina can be challenging, due to the high permeability of the vaginal epithelium and expulsion of conventional soluble drug dosage forms. Nanoparticle-based drug delivery platforms have received considerable attention for vaginal drug delivery, as nanoparticles can provide sustained release, cellular targeting, and even intrinsic antimicrobial or adjuvant properties that can improve the potency and/or efficacy of prophylactic and therapeutic modalities. Here, we review the use of polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, dendrimers, and inorganic nanoparticles for vaginal drug delivery. Although most of the work toward nanoparticle-based drug delivery in the vagina has been focused on HIV prevention, strategies for treatment and prevention of other sexually transmitted infections, treatment for reproductive tract cancer, and treatment of fungal and bacterial infections are also highlighted. PMID:24830303

  6. Rhabdomyosarcoma of the Vagina in an Adolescent Girl.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Geetha; Rajan, Varun; Soman, Lali V

    2017-12-01

    Gynecologic neoplasms are rare in children and represent only less than 5% of all childhood tumors. Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) of the female genital tract of children accounts for only 3.5% of the cases. A 16-year-old adolescent presented with a proliferating growth and foul smelling discharge from her vagina, which, on biopsy was diagnosed as RMS. She received chemotherapy and radiation to the primary site. She is alive in remission at 8 years, and with normal menstrual function. RMS of the vagina is a rare, but highly curable tumor in adolescent girls. Any abnormal vaginal bleeding in girls should be promptly investigated using pelvic examination and appropriate imaging. An organ-preserving approach should be considered in these patients. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Management of Locally Advanced Cancer Cervix an Indian Perspective.

    PubMed

    Singh, J K; Chauhan, Richa

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer has a major impact on the lives of Indian women with an estimated 122, 844 new cases of cervical cancer in the year 2012. About 80% of these cases present in a locally advanced stage leading to high morbidity and mortality. Because of lack of public awareness and infrastructure for screening and early detection in developing countries, this late presentation is likely to continue in the coming years. Radiation therapy has been the treatment of choice for patients with locally advanced cancer cervix. Many clinical trials and meta-analyses have shown a significant improvement in overall and progression-free survival with decreased local and distant recurrences with the use of concurrent chemotherapy with radiation. Most of these trials have been done in women from developed countries where the patient and disease profile are entirely different from ours. Recently, few trials from India have also shown promising results in locally advanced cancer cervix with concurrent chemoradiotherapy but toxicities remain a major concern. Further exploration is required for the use of concurrent chemo radiation prior to incorporating it into routine clinical practice.

  8. Injuries to the cervix in sexual trauma.

    PubMed

    Keller, Patricia; Nelson, Jenenne P

    2008-01-01

    Research on genital injury in sexual assault is limited and few articles have documented injuries to the cervix in sexual assault victims. This review focuses on reviewing and critically evaluating available literature on injuries of the cervix associated with rape, sexual trauma, and some other circumstances. Based on this evaluation, topics for future research are suggested. Nursing and medical studies were examined for this review. The collective studies date from 1991 to 2004. Although multiple articles were identified pertaining to sexual assault and genital injury, only six articles that specifically referred to injuries associated with genital and cervical tissue were included.

  9. Antibiotics for ureaplasma in the vagina in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Raynes-Greenow, C H; Roberts, C L; Bell, J C; Peat, B; Gilbert, G L

    2004-01-01

    Preterm birth is a significant obstetric problem in high-income countries. Genital infection including ureaplasmas are suspected of playing a role in preterm birth and preterm rupture of the membranes. Antibiotics are used to treat women with preterm prelabour rupture of the membranes and results in prolongation of pregnancy and lowers the risks of maternal and neonatal infection. However, antibiotics may be beneficial earlier in pregnancy to eradicate potentially causative agents. The objective of this review is to assess whether antibiotic treatment of pregnant women with ureaplasma in the vagina reduces the incidence of preterm birth and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register (April 2003). All randomised controlled trials that compared any antibiotic regimen with placebo or no treatment in pregnant women with ureaplasma detected in the vagina. Three reviewers independently assessed eligibility and trial quality and extracted data. One trial involving 1071 women was included. Of these, 644 randomly received antibiotic treatment (174 erythromycin estolate, 224 erythromycin sterate, and 246 clindamycin hydrochloride) and 427 received placebo. This trial did not report data on preterm birth. Incidence of low birthweight less than 2500 grams was only evaluated for erythromycin (combined) (n = 398 ) compared to placebo (n = 427) and there was no statistically significant difference between those treated and those not treated (relative risk (RR) 0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46 to 1.07). In regards to side-effects sufficient to stop treatment, data were available for all women, and there were no statistically significant differences between any antibiotic (combined) and the placebo group (RR 1.25, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.85). There is insufficient evidence to show whether giving antibiotics to women with ureaplasma in the vagina will prevent preterm birth.

  10. Histologic Anatomy of the Anterior Vagina and Urethra.

    PubMed

    Mazloomdoost, Donna; Westermann, Lauren B; Mutema, George; Crisp, Catrina C; Kleeman, Steven D; Pauls, Rachel N

    Vaginal and urethral histology is important to understanding the pathophysiology of the pelvic floor. En bloc removal of 4 female cadaveric pelvises was performed, with 18 to 25 serial sections obtained from each. The vaginal and urethral lengths were divided into distal and proximal sections; urethra was divided into anterior and posterior segments as well. Innervation and vasculature were qualified as small and large and quantified per high-power field. The mean vaginal length was 7.45 cm, and the mean urethral length was 3.38 cm. A distinct vaginal fibromuscular layer was noted, without evidence of a dense sheet of continuous collagen. An epithelial, lamina propria, and muscular layer surrounded the urethral lumen. Adipose and loose fibroconnective tissue separated the urethra from the anterior vagina in 41% of slides. Nerves and vasculature were concentrated in the lamina propria. More small nerves and vessels were grossly seen compared with larger counterparts in both the vagina and urethra. No significant differences in layer thickness, innervation, or vasculature were observed along the vaginal length. The posterior urethra had greater innervation than did the anterior (P = 0.012). The distal posterior urethra had more large vessels than did the proximal posterior urethra (P = 0.03). No other differences were noted in urethral sections. A vaginal fibromuscular layer was confirmed, refuting a true fascia. Innervation and vasculature were quantitatively the same along the anterior vagina. However, the posterior urethra had greater innervation than did anterior and is most innervated proximally. Nerve and vascular histology may relate to pelvic floor disorder etiology.

  11. [The accuracy of the causes of death and the estimated trend: the case of cervix uteri].

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Pamela; Sacchettini, Claudio; Vicentini, Massimo; Caroli, Stefania; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    reduction in cervical cancer mortality is the ultimate goal of the screening. Quality of death certificate reports has been improved over time, but they are still inaccurate, making it difficult to assess time trends in mortality. to evaluate the accuracy of the topographic coding of causes of death and to estimate the mortality time trend for cervical cancer through the method of incidence-based mortality (IBM) using cancer registry (CR) data. from the mortality registry (MR), we extracted data on deaths for cervix uteri cancer, corpus uteri cancer, and uterus cancer not otherwise specified (NOS) referred to residents in Reggio Emilia (Emilia-Romagna Region, Northern Italy) from 1997 to 2013. Deaths were checked with the CR to verify the topographical site of the primary tumour. Furthermore, by using CR data, we constructed a cohort of incident cervical cancer cases diagnosed between 1997 and 2009 with a 5-year follow-up. We calculated cause-specific IBM (excluding ovary) and IBM for all cause, crude and standardized, and annual percentage change (APC). out of 369 deaths for uterine cancer, 269 were reported in the RT: 32 for cervix uteri cancer, 76 for corpus uteri cancer, 161 for uterus cancer NOS. 28 of the 32 persons who died for cervical cancer were incidents for cervix uteri cancer. 63 of the 76 who died for corpus uteri cancer were incidents for corpus uteri cancer. Of the 161 who died of uterus cancer NOS, 80 were incidents for corpus uteri cancer, 45 for cervix uteri cancer, 28 for uterus cancer NOS, 5 for vagina cancer, and 3 for cancer of other non-specified organs. Applying these proportions of misclassification, we can estimate that the real number of cervical cancer deaths is 2.4 folds the number of cases reported in the MR as cervical cancer. IBM for all causes decreased significantly over the years (APC: -9.5; 95%CI -17.1;-1.1); cause-specific IBM decreases, but not significantly (APC: -5.1; 95%IC -16.1;+7.3). There is no improvement in survival (r

  12. Pelvic Myxoid Leiomyoma Mass between Vagina and Rectum.

    PubMed

    AlShalabi, Omar; Alahmar, Fadi Obaied; Aljasem, Hazem; Alsaid, Bayan; AlShalabi, Abdulghani

    2016-01-01

    Leiomyomas are the most common pelvic tumors in women. About 20-30% of women older than 35 are affected. Rare conditions of leiomyomas have extrauterine locations. Myxoid degeneration is a rare type of leiomyoma degeneration. We report a case of solid-cystic myxoid leiomyoma in a 53-year-old woman complained of constipation, urinary hesitation, and malodorous vaginal discharge with palpable 17 × 12 cm mass between vagina and rectum. Regarding the inferior location of the mass, a perineal approach was used to enucleate it. This rare location has not been mentioned before. The woman was finally diagnosed by pathologists which was myxoid leiomyoma.

  13. Preoperative ripening of the cervix before operative hysteroscopy.

    PubMed

    Al-Fozan, Haya; Firwana, Belal; Al Kadri, Hanan; Hassan, Samar; Tulandi, Togas

    2015-04-23

    Hysteroscopy is an operation in which the gynaecologist examines the uterine cavity using a small telescopic instrument (hysteroscope) inserted via the vagina and the cervix. Almost 50% of hysteroscopic complications are related to difficulty with cervical entry. Potential complications include cervical tears, creation of a false passage, perforation, bleeding, or simply difficulty in entering the internal os (between the cervix and the uterus) with the hysteroscope. These complications may possibly be reduced with adequate preparation of the cervix (cervical ripening) prior to hysteroscopy. Cervical ripening agents include oral or vaginal prostaglandin, which can be synthetic (e.g misoprostol) or natural (e.g. dinoprostone) and vaginal osmotic dilators, which can be naturally occurring (e.g. laminaria) or synthetic. To determine whether preoperative cervical preparation facilitates cervical dilatation and reduces the complications of operative hysteroscopy in women undergoing the procedure for any condition. In August 2014 we searched sources including the Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group (MDSG) Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ClinicalTrials.gov and reference lists of relevant articles. We searched for published and unpublished studies in any language. Two review authors independently selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of cervical ripening agents used before operative hysteroscopy in pre- and postmenopausal women. Cervical ripening agents could be compared to each other, placebo or no treatment. Data extraction and quality assessment were conducted independently by two review authors. The primary review outcomes were effectiveness of cervical dilatation (defined as the proportion of women requiring mechanical cervical dilatation) and intraoperative complications. Secondary outcomes were mean time required to dilate the cervix, preoperative pain, cervical width

  14. Vaginal Dose Is Associated With Toxicity in Image Guided Tandem Ring or Ovoid-Based Brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Susko, Matthew; Craciunescu, Oana; Meltsner, Sheridan; Yang, Yun; Steffey, Beverly; Cai, Jing; Chino, Junzo

    2016-04-01

    To calculate vaginal doses during image guided brachytherapy with volume-based metrics and correlate with long-term vaginal toxicity. In this institutional review board-approved study, institutional databases were searched to identify women undergoing computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance-guided brachytherapy at the Duke Cancer Center from 2009 to 2015. All insertions were contoured to include the vagina as a 3-dimensional structure. All contouring was performed on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging and used a 0.4-cm fixed brush to outline the applicator and/or packing, expanded to include any grossly visible vagina. The surface of the cervix was specifically excluded from the contour. High-dose-rate (HDR) and low-dose-rate (LDR) doses were converted to the equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions using an α/β of 3 for late effects. The parameters D0.1cc, D1cc, and D2cc were calculated for all insertions and summed with prior external beam therapy. Late and subacute toxicity to the vagina were determined by the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 and compared by the median and 4th quartile doses, via the log-rank test. Univariate and multivariate hazard ratios were calculated via Cox regression. A total of 258 insertions in 62 women who underwent definitive radiation therapy including brachytherapy for cervical (n=48) and uterine cancer (n=14) were identified. Twenty HDR tandem and ovoid, 32 HDR tandem and ring, and 10 LDR tandem and ovoid insertions were contoured. The median values (interquartile ranges) for vaginal D0.1cc, D1cc, and D2cc were 157.9 (134.4-196.53) Gy, 112.6 (96.7-124.6) Gy, and 100.5 (86.8-108.4) Gy, respectively. At the 4th quartile cutoff of 108 Gy for D2cc, the rate of late grade 1 toxicity at 2 years was 61.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 43.0%-79.4%) below 108 Gy and 83.9% (63.9%-100%) above (P=.018); grade 2 or greater toxicity was 36.2% (95% CI 15.8%-56.6%) below 108 Gy and 70.7% (95% CI 45

  15. Estrogen Modulates Expression of Tight Junction Proteins in Rat Vagina

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Kyung-Jin; Ahn, Kyuyoun

    2016-01-01

    Background. The objectives of this study were to investigate the localization of tight junctions and the modulation of zonula occludens- (ZO-) 1, occludin and claudin-1 expression by estrogen in castrated female rat vagina. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (230–240 g, n = 45) were divided into three groups and subjected to a sham operation (control group, n = 15), bilateral ovariectomy (Ovx group, n = 15), or bilateral ovariectomy followed by daily subcutaneous injection of 17β-estradiol (50 μg/kg/day, Ovx + Est group, n = 15). The cellular localization and expression of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-1 were determined in each group by immunohistochemistry and western blot. Results. Expression of ZO-1 was diffuse in all groups, with the highest intensity in the superficial epithelium in the control group. Occludin was localized in the intermediate and basal epithelium. Claudin-1 was most intense in the superficial layer of the vaginal epithelium in the control group. Expression of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-1 was significantly decreased after ovariectomy and was restored to the level of the control after estrogen replacement. Conclusions. Tight junctions are distinctly localized in rat vagina, and estrogen modulates the expression of tight junctions. Further researches are needed to clarify the functional role of tight junctions in vaginal lubrication. PMID:27127786

  16. Estrogen Modulates Expression of Tight Junction Proteins in Rat Vagina.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kyung-Jin; Lee, Hyun-Suk; Ahn, Kyuyoun; Park, Kwangsung

    2016-01-01

    Background. The objectives of this study were to investigate the localization of tight junctions and the modulation of zonula occludens- (ZO-) 1, occludin and claudin-1 expression by estrogen in castrated female rat vagina. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (230-240 g, n = 45) were divided into three groups and subjected to a sham operation (control group, n = 15), bilateral ovariectomy (Ovx group, n = 15), or bilateral ovariectomy followed by daily subcutaneous injection of 17β-estradiol (50 μg/kg/day, Ovx + Est group, n = 15). The cellular localization and expression of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-1 were determined in each group by immunohistochemistry and western blot. Results. Expression of ZO-1 was diffuse in all groups, with the highest intensity in the superficial epithelium in the control group. Occludin was localized in the intermediate and basal epithelium. Claudin-1 was most intense in the superficial layer of the vaginal epithelium in the control group. Expression of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-1 was significantly decreased after ovariectomy and was restored to the level of the control after estrogen replacement. Conclusions. Tight junctions are distinctly localized in rat vagina, and estrogen modulates the expression of tight junctions. Further researches are needed to clarify the functional role of tight junctions in vaginal lubrication.

  17. Hedgehog signaling plays roles in epithelial cell proliferation in neonatal mouse uterus and vagina.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Tadaaki; Iguchi, Taisen; Sato, Tomomi

    2012-04-01

    Both the uterus and vagina develop from the Müllerian duct but are quite distinct in morphology and function. To investigate factors controlling epithelial differentiation and cell proliferation in neonatal uterus and vagina, we focused on Hedgehog (HH) signaling. In neonatal mice, Sonic hh (Shh) was localized in the vaginal epithelium and Indian hh (Ihh) was slightly expressed in the uterus and vagina, whereas all Glioma-associated oncogene homolog (Gli) genes were mainly expressed in the stroma. The expression of target genes of HH signaling was high in the neonatal vagina and in the uterus, it increased with growth. Thus, in neonatal mice, Shh in the vaginal epithelium and Ihh in the uterus and vagina activated HH signaling in the stroma. Tissue recombinants showed that vaginal Shh expression was inhibited by the vaginal stroma and uterine Ihh expression was stimulated by the uterine stroma. Addition of a HH signaling inhibitor decreased epithelial cell proliferation in organ-cultured uterus and vagina and increased stromal cell proliferation in organ-cultured uterus. However, it did not affect epithelial differentiation or the expression of growth factors in organ-cultured uterus and vagina. Thus, activated HH signaling stimulates epithelial cell proliferation in neonatal uterus and vagina but inhibits stromal cell proliferation in neonatal uterus.

  18. Definitive radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, Steven J.; Jhingran, Anuja; Levenback, Charles

    2005-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate outcome and describe clinical treatment guidelines for patients with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina treated with definitive radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1970 and 2000, a total of 193 patients were treated with definitive radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. The patients' medical records were reviewed to obtain information about patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics, as well as outcome and patterns of recurrence. Surviving patients were followed for a median of 137 months. Survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method,more » with differences assessed using log-rank tests. Results: Disease-specific survival (DSS) and pelvic disease control rates correlated with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage and tumor size. At 5 years, DSS rates were 85% for the 50 patients with Stage I, 78% for the 97 patients with Stage II, and 58% for the 46 patients with Stage III-IVA disease (p = 0.0013). Five-year DSS rates were 82% and 60% for patients with tumors {<=}4 cm or >4 cm, respectively (p = 0.0001). At 5 years, pelvic disease control rates were 86% for Stage I, 84% for Stage II, and 71% for Stage III-IVA (p = 0.027). The predominant mode of relapse after definitive radiation therapy was local-regional (68% and 83%, respectively, for patients with stages I-II or III-IVA disease). The incidence of major complications was correlated with FIGO stage; at 5 years, the rates of major complications were 4% for Stage I, 9% for Stage II, and 21% for Stage III-IVA (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Excellent outcomes can be achieved with definitive radiation therapy for invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina. However, to achieve these results, treatment must be individualized according to the site and size of the tumor at presentation and the response to initial external-beam radiation therapy

  19. Sequential acquisition of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection of the anus and cervix: the Hawaii HPV Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Marc T; Shvetsov, Yurii B; McDuffie, Katharine; Wilkens, Lynne R; Zhu, Xuemei; Thompson, Pamela J; Ning, Lily; Killeen, Jeffrey; Kamemoto, Lori; Hernandez, Brenda Y

    2010-05-01

    Relatively little is known about the epidemiology of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in healthy women and its association with cervical HPV infection. he association of an incident cervical (or anal) HPV infection with the subsequent risk of a genotype-concordant incident anal (or cervical) HPV infection was examined in a longitudinal cohort study of 751 sexually active women. Age-adjusted hazard ratios, obtained using Cox regression, served as measurements of relative risk (RR). Among women, the RR of acquiring an anal HPV infection after a cervical infection with HPV of the same genotype was 20.5 (95% confidence interval, 16.3-25.7), and the RR of acquiring a cervical HPV infection after an anal infection with HPV of the same genotype was 8.8 (95% confidence interval, 6.4-12.2), compared with women without a previous anal/cervical infection with HPV of a concordant genotype. RRs varied by phylogenetic species, with HPV alpha3/alpha15 and alpha1/alpha8/alpha10 types having a greater likelihood than other types of HPV infecting the anus among women with a previous infection at the cervix with HPV of the same genotype. It appears common for anal and cervical HPV infections to occur consecutively. The high degree of genotype-specific concordance suggests that the cervix (vagina) and anus may serve as reservoirs for HPV infection at the other anatomical site.

  20. [Fungal diseases of vulva and vagina caused by Candida species].

    PubMed

    Stock, Ingo

    2010-09-01

    Fungal diseases of vulva and vagina attributed to Candida species (vulvovaginal candidosis) are the most frequent mycoses of women. They show acute or chronic courses and different disease patterns which can strongly affect the quality of life of the women who are concerned. In general, the most common cause of acute vulvovaginal candidosis is Candida albicans, followed by C. glabrata. In chronic recurrent vulvovaginal candidosis, C. albicans and C. glabrata are often equally distributed. In several cases, treatment requires an antimycotic therapy which refers to the severity and main form of disease as well as to the aetiological agent. Most vulvovaginal candidoses are accessible to the treatment with local and systemic antimycotic agents. Generally, in Germany azoles such as clotrimazole, fluconazole and itraconazole, the polyens nystatin and Amphotericin B and the hydroxypyridone derivative ciclopirox are available for antimycotic therapy of vulvovaginal candidoses. Significance of non-conventional and adjuvant therapeutic approaches is considered to be generally low.

  1. Radiation therapy in primary carcinoma of the vagina

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, S.; Lee, M.S.; Graham, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of 32 patients with carcinoma of the vagina treated with curative radiotherapy between 1965 and 1981 is presented. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common histologic type, found in 78% of the patients. Patients were staged according to the FIGO system. Stage I and II disease was found in 8 and 18 patients, respectively. Six patients had either Stage III or IV disease. The absolute survival rate was 100% for Stage I and 72% for Stage II patients. The pattern of failure was analyzed. All patients who failed had done so within 14 months of completion ofmore » treatment. Treatment failure in the pelvis occurred only in 16% of the patients with early disease (Stages I and II) while 81% of the patients with late stage had failed in the pelvis.« less

  2. Surgical Management of the Constricted or Obliterated Vagina.

    PubMed

    Gebhart, John B; Schmitt, Jennifer J

    2016-08-01

    Management of the constricted or obliterated vagina demands an understanding and recognition of the potential etiologies leading to this presentation. A thorough and comprehensive medical and surgical review is required to arrive at an accurate diagnosis, which then will guide medical or surgical intervention. It is paramount to recognize when underlying medical conditions are contributing to these conditions and to begin medical therapy; failure to do so will often yield suboptimal results. When these conditions arise after surgical interventions, compensatory surgical techniques that correct upper and lower vaginal strictures or obliteration include incision through the stricture, vaginal advancement, Z-plasty, skin grafts, perineal flaps, and abdominal flaps and grafts. Postoperative surveillance and dilation are critical to optimize long-term success.

  3. Metastatic Breast Cancer in Uterine Cervix: A Rare Presentation.

    PubMed

    Proença, Sara; Reis, Maria Inês; Cominho, Joana; Conde, Pedro Casado; Santos E Pereira, Helena; Ribeiro, Filipa Castro

    2016-01-01

    Uterine cervix involvement by a distant primary tumor is a rare event. We report the following 2 cases of breast tumor metastasis to the uterine cervix with different presentations: case 1 is an isolated cervix metastasis and case 2 is a disseminated metastatic disease with cervix involvement. In both, clinical examination raised the suspicion of cervical tumor, which was confirmed to be a metastatic adenocarcinoma.The poor outcome and lack of symptoms suggest that although its rareness, all patients with breast cancer should undergo a careful routine gynecologic examination.

  4. Hybrid adaptive radiotherapy with on-line MRI in cervix cancer IMRT.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seungjong; Stewart, James; Moseley, Joanne; Kelly, Valerie; Lim, Karen; Xie, Jason; Fyles, Anthony; Brock, Kristy K; Lundin, Anna; Rehbinder, Henrik; Milosevic, Michael; Jaffray, David; Cho, Young-Bin

    2014-02-01

    Substantial organ motion and tumor shrinkage occur during radiotherapy for cervix cancer. IMRT planning studies have shown that the quality of radiation delivery is influenced by these anatomical changes, therefore the adaptation of treatment plans may be warranted. Image guidance with off-line replanning, i.e. hybrid-adaptation, is recognized as one of the most practical adaptation strategies. In this study, we investigated the effects of soft tissue image guidance using on-line MR while varying the frequency of off-line replanning on the adaptation of cervix IMRT. 33 cervical cancer patients underwent planning and weekly pelvic MRI scans during radiotherapy. 5 patients of 33 were identified in a previous retrospective adaptive planning study, in which the coverage of gross tumor volume/clinical target volume (GTV/CTV) was not acceptable given single off-line IMRT replan using a 3mm PTV margin with bone matching. These 5 patients and a randomly selected 10 patients from the remaining 28 patients, a total of 15 patients of 33, were considered in this study. Two matching methods for image guidance (bone to bone and soft tissue to dose matrix) and three frequencies of off-line replanning (none, single, and weekly) were simulated and compared with respect to target coverage (cervix, GTV, lower uterus, parametrium, upper vagina, tumor related CTV and elective lymph node CTV) and OAR sparing (bladder, bowel, rectum, and sigmoid). Cost (total process time) and benefit (target coverage) were analyzed for comparison. Hybrid adaptation (image guidance with off-line replanning) significantly enhanced target coverage for both 5 difficult and 10 standard cases. Concerning image guidance, bone matching was short of delivering enough doses for 5 difficult cases even with a weekly off-line replan. Soft tissue image guidance proved successful for all cases except one when single or more frequent replans were utilized in the difficult cases. Cost and benefit analysis preferred

  5. The influence of bone density on the radiotherapy of cervix cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, M. R.; Souza, D. N.

    2011-10-01

    Until the 1970s the irradiated region of a patient undergoing external beam radiotherapy was considered a homogeneous volume and a regular surface, with physical characteristics similar to water. With the improvement of medical imaging equipment, it has become possible to conduct planning in radiotherapy treatment that considers the heterogeneities and irregularities of a patient's anatomy. Consequently, such technological resources have brought greater accuracy to radiotherapy. In this study, we determined the variation in the average amount of absorbed dose on the target volume and at the point of prescription treatment by comparing the doses which were calculated in a planning system considering the patient both as a homogeneous, and as a heterogeneous medium. The results showed that when we take into account the volume of the upper vagina and cervix, and consider the pelvis as a heterogeneous medium, the calculated dose was under-estimated at some points in the studied volume with respect to the dose when this region was considered homogeneous.

  6. Late effects of radiation therapy for cancer of the uterine cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Zippin, C.; Lum, D.; Kohn, H.I.

    1981-01-01

    This report presents follow-up information on 497 women diagnosed with cancer of the uterine cervix in Connecticut and California between 1932 and 1951 who received only radiation as their initial course of therapy. Patients entered into the study were all treated before age 55 and all were five-year-survivors following treatment in order to eliminate early deaths due to the cervical cancer. Three radiologic dosage groups (high, medium, and low) were formed with 93, 244, and 160 patients, respectively. For all dosage groups combined 108 subsequent cancers were observed more than 5 yr after cancer treatment compared with 64 expected (Pmore » less than 0.01). Sites for which subsequent cancers were significantly (P less than 0.05) in excess of expectation were rectum, ovary, lung, vulva and vagina, small intestine, oropharynx, and central nervous system excluding brain. The ratio of observed to expected cases of subsequent cancers rose only slightly with increasing radiologic dose. No significant differences in overall survival patterns for the three dosage groups were found. For all dosage groups survival was poorer than in the corresponding segment of the general population.« less

  7. Lesson learned and dispelled myths: three-dimensional imaging of the human vagina.

    PubMed

    Barnhart, Kurt T; Pretorius, E Scott; Malamud, Daniel

    2004-05-01

    Three-dimensional imaging of the human vagina demonstrates that the cross section can be a "W," rather than an "H," and that intravaginal gel can ascend into the endocervix and presumably into the endometrium.

  8. Sudden death of a middle-aged man with an artificial vagina in situ.

    PubMed

    Vidanapathirana, Muditha; Ruwanpura, Rohan P; Amararatne, Sriyantha Rrg

    2016-01-01

    Artificial vaginas are designed to imitate the female sex organ. This is the first reported case in the forensic literature of a man being pronounced dead with an artificial vagina in situ . A middle-aged man was found unconscious in a bathroom when the door was forced open and was pronounced dead on admission. Autopsy revealed that the penis was inside an artificial vagina. There were no injuries, but there were left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis, and narrow coronaries. The cause of death was ascertained as ischemic heart disease due to coronary atherosclerosis and the comments included were no evidence of violence, and ischemic heart disease could have been precipitated due to abnormal sexual activity. If removal of artificial vagina was done before the admission, this circumstance could not have ascertained. Removal of such devices before admission to hospitals could be the reason why such incidents do not come to light.

  9. Shape priors for segmentation of the cervix region within uterine cervix images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotenberg, Shelly; Gordon, Shiri; Greenspan, Hayit

    2008-03-01

    The work focuses on a unique medical repository of digital Uterine Cervix images ("Cervigrams") collected by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institute of Health, in longitudinal multi-year studies. NCI together with the National Library of Medicine is developing a unique web-based database of the digitized cervix images to study the evolution of lesions related to cervical cancer. Tools are needed for the automated analysis of the cervigram content to support the cancer research. In recent works, a multi-stage automated system for segmenting and labeling regions of medical and anatomical interest within the cervigrams was developed. The current paper concentrates on incorporating prior-shape information in the cervix region segmentation task. In accordance with the fact that human experts mark the cervix region as circular or elliptical, two shape models (and corresponding methods) are suggested. The shape models are embedded within an active contour framework that relies on image features. Experiments indicate that incorporation of the prior shape information augments previous results.

  10. Normal bacterial flora from vaginas of Criollo Limonero cows.

    PubMed

    Zambrano-Nava, Sunny; Boscán-Ocando, Julio; Nava, Jexenia

    2011-02-01

    In order to describe the normal bacterial flora in vaginas of Criollo Limonero cows, 51 healthy multiparous cows, at least 90-day postpartum, were selected. Duplicated swabs (N = 102) were taken from the vaginal fornix of cows to perform aerobic and anaerobic cultures as well as conventional biochemical tests. Out of 102 swabs, bacterial growth was obtained in 55 (53.9%) while the remaining 47 (46.1%) did not exhibited any bacterial growth. Of the 55 bacterial growths, 23 (41.8%) were aerobic whereas 32 (58.1%) were anaerobic. Likewise, 29 (52.72%) of bacterial growths were pure and 26 (47.27%) were mixed. Under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, Gram positive bacteria were predominant (81.82% and 73.08%, respectively) over Gram negative bacteria (18.18% and 26.92%, respectively). Isolated bacteria were Arcanobacterium pyogenes (22.92%), Staphylococcus aureus (15.63%), Staphylococcus coagulase negative (17.71%), Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (6.25%), Bacteroides spp. (13.54%), and Peptostreptococcus spp. (7.29%). In conclusion, normal vaginal bacterial flora of Criollo Limonero cows was predominantly Gram positive and included A. pyogenes, S. aureus, coagulase negative Staphylococcus, E. rhusiopathiae, Bacteroides spp., and Peptostreptococcus spp. In Criollo Limonero cattle, adaptive aspects such as development of humoral and physical mechanisms for defense, and bacterial adaptation to host deserve research attention.

  11. Vaginal DNA vaccination against infectious diseases transmitted through the vagina.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Takanori; Takashima, Yuuki; Okada, Hiroaki

    2012-06-01

    There is an urgent need for the development of vaccines against genital virus infections that are transmitted through heterosexual intercourse, including the HIV and HPV. In general, the surface of female genital mucosa, including vaginal mucosa, is the most common site of initiation of these infections. Thus, it is becoming clear that successful vaccines must induce both cellular and humoral immune responses in both the local genital tract and systemically. We believe that a strong vaginal immune response could be obtained by inducing strong gene expression of antigen-coding DNA in the local targeted tissue. In order to improve transfection efficiency in the vagina, it is important that methods allowing breakthrough of the various barriers, such as the epithelial layer, cellular and nuclear membrane, are developed. Therefore, systems providing less invasive and more effective delivery into the subepithelial layer are required. In this review, we will introduce our studies into efficient vaginal DNA vaccination methods, focusing on the effects of the menstrual cycle, utilization of the combination of functional peptides, and use of a needle-free injector.

  12. Autologous buccal mucosa graft augmentation for foreshortened vagina.

    PubMed

    Grimsby, Gwen M; Bradshaw, Karen; Baker, Linda A

    2014-05-01

    Vaginal foreshortening after pelvic surgery or radiotherapy may lead to dyspareunia and decreased quality of life. Unfortunately, little literature exists regarding treatment options for this debilitating problem. Autologous buccal mucosal grafting has been previously reported for creation of a total neovagina and the repair of postvaginoplasty vaginal stenosis. Autologous buccal mucosa offers several advantages as a replacement material for vaginal reconstruction. Vaginal and oral buccal mucosa are both hairless, moist, nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelia. Buccal mucosa has a dense layer of elastic fibers, imparting both elasticity and strength, and acquires a robust neovascularity with excellent graft take. The graft material is readily available and donor site scars are hidden in the mouth. A 60-year-old woman had vaginal foreshortening to 4.5 cm 15 years after radical hysterectomy and brachytherapy for endometrial cancer. She was unable to have intercourse despite attempted vaginal dilation. Her foreshortened vagina was successfully augmented with autologous buccal mucosa grafting at the apex, increasing her vaginal length to 8 cm and permitting pain-free intercourse. Even in the face of an altered surgical field after radical hysterectomy and radiation, autologous buccal mucosa is an option for vaginal reconstruction for vaginal foreshortening.

  13. Morphological and neurochemical differences in peptidergic nerve fibers of the mouse vagina.

    PubMed

    Barry, Christine M; Ji, Esther; Sharma, Harman; Beukes, Lara; Vilimas, Patricia I; DeGraaf, Yvette C; Matusica, Dusan; Haberberger, Rainer V

    2017-07-01

    The vagina is innervated by a complex arrangement of sensory, sympathetic, and parasympathetic nerve fibers that contain classical transmitters plus an array of neuropeptides and enzymes known to regulate diverse processes including blood flow and nociception. The neurochemical characteristics and distributions of peptide-containing nerves in the mouse vagina are unknown. This study used multiple labeling immunohistochemistry, confocal maging and analysis to investigate the presence and colocalization of the peptides vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP), neuropeptide tyrosine (NPY), and the nitric oxide synthesizing enzyme neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in nerve fibers of the murine vaginal wall. We compared cervical and vulvar areas of the vagina in young nullipara and older multipara C57Bl/6 mice, and identified differences including that small ganglia were restricted to cervical segments, epithelial fibers were mainly present in vulvar segments and most nerve fibers were found in the lamina propria of the cervical region of the vagina, where a higher number of fibers containing immunoreactivity for VIP, CGRP, SP, or nNOS were found. Two populations of VIP-containing fibers were identified: fibers containing CGRP and fibers containing VIP but not CGRP. Differences between young and older mice were present in multiple layers of the vaginal wall, with older mice showing overall loss of innervation of epithelium of the proximal vagina and reduced proportions of VIP, CGRP, and SP containing nerve fibers in the distal epithelium. The distal vagina also showed increased vascularization and perivascular fibers containing NPY. Immunolabeling of ganglia associated with the vagina indicated the likely origin of some peptidergic fibers. Our results reveal regional differences and age- or parity-related changes in innervation of the mouse vagina, effecting the distribution of neuropeptides with diverse roles

  14. First delivery and ovariectomy affect biomechanical and structural properties of the vagina in the ovine model.

    PubMed

    Urbankova, Iva; Callewaert, Geertje; Blacher, Silvia; Deprest, Dries; Hympanova, Lucie; Feola, Andrew; De Landsheere, Laurent; Deprest, Jan

    2018-01-08

    Animal models are useful for investigating the genesis of pelvic floor dysfunction and for developing novel therapies for its treatment. There is a need for an alternative large-animal model to the nonhuman primate. Therefore we studied the effects of the first vaginal delivery, ovariectomy and systemic hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) on the biomechanical and structural properties of the ovine vagina. We examined the gross anatomical properties of nulliparous, primiparous, ovariectomized multiparous, and ovariectomized hormone-replaced multiparous sheep (six animals per group). We also harvested mid-vaginal and distal vaginal tissue to determine smooth muscle contractility and passive biomechanical properties, for morphometric assessment of the vaginal wall layers, to determine collagen and elastin content, and for immunostaining for α-smooth muscle actin and estrogen receptor-α. There were no regional differences in the nulliparous vagina. One year after the first vaginal delivery, stiffness and contractility of the distal vagina were decreased, whereas the elastin content increased. The mid-vagina of ovariectomized sheep was stiff, and its epithelium was thin and lacked glycogen. HRT decreased the stiffness of the mid-vagina by 45% but had no measurable effect on contractility or elastin content, and increased epithelial thickness and glycogen content. HRT also increased the epithelial thickness and glycogen content of the distal vagina. At this location, there were no changes in morphology or stiffness. In sheep, life events including delivery and ovariectomy affect the biomechanical properties of the vagina in a region-specific way. Vaginal delivery mainly affects the distal region by decreasing stiffness and contractility. HRT can reverse the increase in stiffness of the mid-vagina observed after surgical induction of menopause. These observations are in line with scanty biomechanical measurements in comparable clinical specimens.

  15. In vivo Raman spectroscopy of cervix cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubina, S.; Sathe, Priyanka; Dora, Tapas Kumar; Chopra, Supriya; Maheshwari, Amita; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-03-01

    Cervix-cancer is the third most common female cancer worldwide. It is the leading cancer among Indian females with more than million new diagnosed cases and 50% mortality, annually. The high mortality rates can be attributed to late diagnosis. Efficacy of Raman spectroscopy in classification of normal and pathological conditions in cervix cancers on diverse populations has already been demonstrated. Our earlier ex vivo studies have shown the feasibility of classifying normal and cancer cervix tissues as well as responders/non-responders to Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). The present study was carried out to explore feasibility of in vivo Raman spectroscopic methods in classifying normal and cancerous conditions in Indian population. A total of 182 normal and 132 tumor in vivo Raman spectra, from 63 subjects, were recorded using a fiberoptic probe coupled HE-785 spectrometer, under clinical supervision. Spectra were acquired for 5 s and averaged over 3 times at 80 mW laser power. Spectra of normal conditions suggest strong collagenous features and abundance of non-collagenous proteins and DNA in case of tumors. Preprocessed spectra were subjected to Principal Component-Linear Discrimination Analysis (PCLDA) followed by leave-one-out-cross-validation. Classification efficiency of ~96.7% and 100% for normal and cancerous conditions respectively, were observed. Findings of the study corroborates earlier studies and suggest applicability of Raman spectroscopic methods in combination with appropriate multivariate tool for objective, noninvasive and rapid diagnosis of cervical cancers in Indian population. In view of encouraging results, extensive validation studies will be undertaken to confirm the findings.

  16. Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the cervix

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bo; Ouyang, Ling; Han, Xue; Zhou, Yang; Tong, Xin; Zhang, Shulang; Zhang, Qingfu

    2013-01-01

    Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are rare and high-grade malignant tumors that mostly occur in children and young adults. The most common sites are the trunk, limbs, and retroperitoneum. Herein, we present a case of a PNET involving the cervix uteri in a 27-year-old woman. The lesion showed characteristic histologic features of a PNET and was positive for the immunohistochemical markers cluster of differentiation (CD) 99, vimentin, neuron-specific enolase, neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (CD56), and CD117 (c-kit), further defining the tumor while helping to confirm PNET. The clinical Stage IIIB tumor was treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. PMID:23836982

  17. Carcinoma of the cervix and sexual function.

    PubMed

    Seibel, M M; Freeman, M G; Graves, W L

    1980-04-01

    Forty-six patients were interviewed more than a year after treatment for carcinoma of the cervix to establish the effects of radiation therapy and of surgical therapy on sexual feelings and performance. Group 1 consisted of 22 patients who had undergone radiation therapy for stage I, II, or III cancer of the cervix. Group 2 consisted of 20 patients who had undergone hysterectomy with or without partial vaginectomy for carcinoma in situ. The irradiated patients experienced statistically significant decreases in sexual enjoyment, ability to attain orgasm, libido, frequency of intercourse, opportunity, and sexual dreams. The surgically treated group had no significant change in sexual function after treatment. Both groups experienced a change in self-image but did not feel that their partners or family viewed them differently. Myths about cancer and the actual effects of pelvic irradiation were found to have disrupted the sexual-marital relationships of many women. Therapeutic programs are discussed through which women can be helped through this difficult time in their lives.

  18. [Diversity of Lactobacillus in vagina of vulvovaginal candidiasis].

    PubMed

    2015-04-07

    To investigate the Lactobacillus species in the vaginas of vulvovaginal candidiasis and to assess the prevalence of each Lactobacillus species in vulvovaginal candidiasis. 154 vaginal samples were analyzed, 92 of which were from fertile healthy women, and 62 of which were from women with vulvovaginal candidiasis; and species-specific PCR showed the prevalence of each Lactobacillus species Species-specific PCR was used to investigate the prevalence of each Lactobacillus species in healthy Chinese women and the women with vulvovaginal candidiasis. In women with vulvovaginal candidiasis: L. iners (6.5%), L. cripatus (79.0%), L. gasseri (37.1%), L. jensenii (74.2%), L. acidophilus (16.1%), L. brevis (19.4%), L. plantarum (1.6%), L. johnsonii (51.6%), L. fermentum (8.1%), L. salivarius (9.7%), L. reuter (1.6%), L. paracasei (8.1%), L. delbrueckii (3. 2% ) ; More than two different Lactobacillus species coexisted in 98% of women with vulvovaginal candidiasis, and no anyone species existed in 2% of them; In fertile women: L. iners (82.6%), L. cripatus (70.7%), L. gasseri (67.4%), L. jensenii (40.2%), L. acidophilus (39.1%), L. brevis (23.9%), L. plantarum (5.4%), L. rhamnosus (1.1%), L. paracasei (1.1%), L. reuter (1.1%) i, L. johnsonii (3.3%), L. fermentum (2.2%), L. salivarius (2.2%); More than two different Lactobacillus species coexisted in 97% of fertile women, and only one species existed in 3% of fertile women. Species of lactobacillus in women with vulvovaginal candidiasis did not significantly reduced compared with healthy women. Lactobacillus inert may be a marker of the change of vaginal microenvironment; Lactobacillus crispatus is a dominant lactobacillus in the vaginal of fertile healthy women, pregnant women and women with vulvovaginal candidiasis.

  19. Biomechanics of the rat vagina during pregnancy and postpartum: a 3-dimensional ultrasound approach.

    PubMed

    Feola, Andrew; Endo, Masayuki; Deprest, Jan

    2014-07-01

    The vagina and surrounding structures have been shown to remodel during pregnancy. Our objective was to characterize the biomechanical properties of the vagina in the rodent model in vivo utilizing three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound. The vagina was visualized by ultrasound after distention by increasing pressures throughout pregnancy (15 and 18 days) and after vaginal delivery (7 and 30 days postpartum) of six longitudinally followed rodents. The pelvic floor compliance and vaginal cross-sectional area of the proximal, middle, and distal vagina were compared with those of nulliparous control animals (n = 8). The compliance of the pelvic floor increased 3.5- and 5.4-fold at days 15 and 18 of pregnancy respectively (p < 0.05). The compliance of the pelvic floor decreased 7 days postpartum, and it continued to decrease after vaginal delivery through the 30 day time point. Using 3D ultrasound, we could characterize the remodeling of the vagina throughout pregnancy and after vaginal delivery. We could reconstruct the vaginal wall cross-sectional area and found the distal vaginal wall throughout pregnancy to be distended more than the proximal and middle regions. The observed changes in vaginal area may improve our understanding of which areas are at risk of injury during delivery. Further, 3D ultrasound allowed the determination of the in vivo biomechanical properties of the vagina. This image modality is beneficial for characterizing the in vivo properties of the vagina and surrounding pelvic support longitudinally within an animal.

  20. Precancerous lesions of the cervix uteri in infertile women.

    PubMed Central

    Holst, N; Abyholm, T

    1983-01-01

    A study of 318 patients with tubal infertility and a control group of 200 unselected infertile women yielded 14 (4.4%) and 1 (0.5%), respectively, with precancerous lesions of the cervix uteri. The one patient in the control group with severe dysplasia was later shown to have tubal infertility. The overall incidence of premalignant lesions of the cervix uteri as reported to the National Cancer Registry of Norway was 0.1% for the age group and period studied. Women with tubal infertility represent a small but comparatively high risk group for the development of precancerous lesions of the cervix uteri. PMID:6412931

  1. Antibiotics for ureaplasma in the vagina in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Raynes Greenow, Camille H; Roberts, Christine L; Bell, Jane C; Peat, Brian; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L; Parker, Sharon

    2011-09-07

    Preterm birth is a significant perinatal problem contributing to perinatal morbidity and mortality. Heavy vaginal ureaplasma colonisation is suspected of playing a role in preterm birth and preterm rupture of the membranes. Antibiotics are used to treat infections and have been used to treat pregnant women with preterm prelabour rupture of the membranes, resulting in some short-term improvements. However, the benefit of using antibiotics in early pregnancy to treat heavy vaginal colonisation is unclear. To assess whether antibiotic treatment of pregnant women with heavy vaginal ureaplasma colonisation reduces the incidence of preterm birth and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 May 2011). Randomised controlled trials comparing any antibiotic regimen with placebo or no treatment in pregnant women with ureaplasma detected in the vagina. Three review authors independently assessed eligibility and trial quality and extracted data. We included one trial, involving 1071 women. Of these, 644 women between 22 weeks and 32 weeks' gestation were randomly assigned to one of three groups of antibiotic treatment (n = 174 erythromycin estolate, n = 224 erythromycin stearate, and n = 246 clindamycin hydrochloride) or a placebo (n = 427). Preterm birth data was not reported in this trial. Incidence of low birthweight less than 2500 grams was only evaluated for erythromycin (combined, n = 398) compared to placebo (n = 427) and there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (risk ratio (RR) 0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46 to 1.07). There were no statistically significant differences in side effects sufficient to stop treatment between either group (RR 1.25, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.85). There is insufficient evidence to assess whether pregnant women who have vaginal colonisation with ureaplasma should be treated with antibiotics to prevent preterm birth.Preterm birth is a

  2. Phase I-II study of carboplatin vincristine methotrexate and bleomycin (COMB) in carcinoma of the cervix.

    PubMed Central

    Rustin, G. J.; Newlands, E. S.

    1988-01-01

    Platinum based combination chemotherapy has been associated with a high response rate in patients with cervical carcinoma. To determine whether the toxicity could be reduced but the efficacy maintained carboplatin 200 mg m-2 was substituted for cisplatin in a regimen that was repeated two weekly and also contained vincristine, methotrexate and bleomycin. Twenty-four patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix of whom 17 had relapsed following radiotherapy were studied. Only 5 of the 19 evaluable patients had a partial response (26%, 95 confidence limits 45.7-6.3%) compared to 30 of 43 (70%, 84-56%) who received a cisplatin combination in a previous study (P less than 0.01) (Rustin et al., 1987). Carboplatin as given in the COMB regimen appears less effective than cisplatin containing combinations for squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. PMID:2465019

  3. Primary follicular lymphoma of the cervix uteri: a review.

    PubMed

    Korcum, Aylin Fidan; Karadogan, Ihsan; Aksu, Gamze; Aralasmak, Ayse; Erdogan, Gulgun

    2007-09-01

    Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the cervix is a rare disease, of which a subgroup of follicular lymphoma constitutes only 8.5%. There is not an established treatment protocol neither for primary cervical lymphoma nor for its follicular subgroup. We presented a case with Ann Arbor stage IEA (Extra-nodal involvement and absence of weight loss, fever, night sweat) primary follicular lymphoma of the cervix. She was treated with chemotherapy followed by pelvic radiotherapy. Upon relapse with a nodal neck mass, she was treated with rituximab alone. She remained well for 23 months after rituximab. In the 39 months of follow-up, there was no evidence of disease. In the light of our case, we reviewed the reported cases of primary follicular lymphoma of the cervix while discussing their treatment protocols and the cases of primary cervix lymphoma treated with rituximab.

  4. Retroperitoneal duplication cyst with a fistulous tract to the vagina: a case report.

    PubMed

    Filmar, Gilad A; Lotze, Peter M; Fisher, Hilaire W

    2012-01-01

    To describe a rare case of a retroperitoneal duplication cyst that fistulized to the vagina. Case description and discussion of a patient found to have an intestinal duplication cyst. A patient presented for a laparoscopic hysterectomy because of menorrhagia and a fibroid uterus. She also complained of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) and a vaginal discharge. A retroperitoneal intestinal duplication cyst that fistulized to the vagina and caused her recurrent UTIs was identified. Surgical resection of the cyst resolved her complaint of recurrent UTIs. Retroperitoneal intestinal duplication cysts are rare congenital anomalies with vague clinical manifestations. The finding of a fistulous communication to the vagina originating from such a structure can be associated with recurrent UTIs.

  5. Functional significance of muscarinic receptor expression within the proximal and distal rat vagina.

    PubMed

    Basha, Maureen; Labelle, Edward F; Northington, Gina M; Wang, Tanchun; Wein, Alan J; Chacko, Samuel

    2009-11-01

    Information regarding the role of cholinergic nerves in mediating vaginal smooth muscle contraction is sparse, and in vitro studies of the effects of muscarinic agonists on vaginal smooth muscle are discrepant. The goal of this study was to determine the expression of muscarinic receptors in the vaginal wall of the rat. In addition, we sought to determine the effect of the muscarinic receptor agonist carbachol on contractility and inositol phosphate production of the proximal and distal rat vaginal muscularis. RT-PCR analysis indicated that both M(2) and M(3) receptor transcripts were expressed within the proximal and distal rat vagina. Carbachol dose-dependently (10(-7)-10(-4) M) contracted the rat vaginal muscularis with a greater maximal contractile response in the proximal vagina (P < 0.01) compared with the distal vagina. The contractile responses of the rat vaginal muscularis to carbachol were dose dependently inhibited by the M(3) antagonist para-fluoro-hexahydrosiladefenidol, and a pK(B) of 7.78 and 7.95 was calculated for the proximal and distal vagina, respectively. Inositol phosphate production was significantly increased in both regions of the vagina following 20-min exposure to 50 muM carbachol with higher levels detected in the proximal vagina compared with the distal (P < 0.05). Preliminary experiments indicated the presence of M(2) and M(3) receptors in the human vaginal muscularis as well as contraction of human vaginal muscularis to carbachol, indicating that our animal studies are relevant to human tissue. Our results provide strong evidence for the functional significance of M(3) receptor expression in the vaginal muscularis.

  6. Functional significance of muscarinic receptor expression within the proximal and distal rat vagina

    PubMed Central

    Basha, Maureen; LaBelle, Edward F.; Northington, Gina M.; Wang, Tanchun; Wein, Alan J.

    2009-01-01

    Information regarding the role of cholinergic nerves in mediating vaginal smooth muscle contraction is sparse, and in vitro studies of the effects of muscarinic agonists on vaginal smooth muscle are discrepant. The goal of this study was to determine the expression of muscarinic receptors in the vaginal wall of the rat. In addition, we sought to determine the effect of the muscarinic receptor agonist carbachol on contractility and inositol phosphate production of the proximal and distal rat vaginal muscularis. RT-PCR analysis indicated that both M2 and M3 receptor transcripts were expressed within the proximal and distal rat vagina. Carbachol dose-dependently (10−7–10−4 M) contracted the rat vaginal muscularis with a greater maximal contractile response in the proximal vagina (P < 0.01) compared with the distal vagina. The contractile responses of the rat vaginal muscularis to carbachol were dose dependently inhibited by the M3 antagonist para-fluoro-hexahydrosiladefenidol, and a pKB of 7.78 and 7.95 was calculated for the proximal and distal vagina, respectively. Inositol phosphate production was significantly increased in both regions of the vagina following 20-min exposure to 50 μM carbachol with higher levels detected in the proximal vagina compared with the distal (P < 0.05). Preliminary experiments indicated the presence of M2 and M3 receptors in the human vaginal muscularis as well as contraction of human vaginal muscularis to carbachol, indicating that our animal studies are relevant to human tissue. Our results provide strong evidence for the functional significance of M3 receptor expression in the vaginal muscularis. PMID:19741053

  7. Prevention of carcinoma of cervix with human papillomavirus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Gavarasana, S; Kalasapudi, R S; Rao, T D; Thirumala, S

    2000-01-01

    Carcinoma of cervix is the most common cancer found among the women of India. Though cervical cytology screening was effective in preventing carcinoma of cervix in developed nations, it is considered unsuitable in developing countries. Recent research has established an etiological link between human papillomavirus infection and carcinoma of cervix. In this review, an attempt is made to answer the question, 'whether carcinoma of cervix can be prevented with human papillomavirus vaccine?' Literature search using Pubmed and Medline was carried out and relevant articles were reviewed. There is ample experimental evidence to show that DNA of human papillomavirus integrates with cervical cell genome. Viral genes E6 and E7 of HPV type 16 and 18 inactivate p53 function and Rb gene, thus immortalize the cervical epithelial cells. Recombinant vaccines blocked the function of E6 and E7 genes preventing development of papillomas in animals. Vaccination with HPV-VLPs encoding for genes of E6 and E7 neutralizes HPV integrated genome of malignant cells of uterine cervix. Based on experimental evidence, it is possible to prevent carcinoma of cervix with human papillomavirus vaccine, Further research is necessary to identify a effective and safe HPV vaccine, routes of administration and characteristics of potential beneficiaries.

  8. Two bladders and two vaginas in two planes: one urogenital sinus.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Matthew B K; Cain, Mark P; Rink, Richard C

    2003-07-01

    We report 2 cases of persistent urogenital sinus (UGS) with duplication of the bladder and vagina in different planes. Cystoscopy and vaginoscopy were used to diagnose persistent UGS with bladder and vaginal duplication in 2 infants with recurrent urinary tract infection. Surgical repair was done by way of a midline abdominal and perineal approach using tubularized UGS to reconstruct the urethra. Persistent UGS represents a major anomaly; these patients had the added complexity of duplication of the bladder and vagina. In these complex patients, the true anatomy may only become apparent during the surgical reconstruction, necessitating a flexible, individual approach.

  9. [Experimental study on vagina reconstruction with tissue-engineering biological material.].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hui-Mei; Lang, Jing-He; Zhu, Lan

    2009-11-01

    To investigate the effect of vagina reconstruction using tissue-engineering biological material (acellular dermal matrix) in an animal model. Vagina excision and vagina reconstruction with tissue-engineering biological material were performed in 12 Chinese experimental miniature pigs. The control group was matched with two of normal vagina specimens resected. At week 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 after surgery, the animals were sacrificed, respectively, and the neovaginas were prepared for immunohistochemical and Van Gieson (VG) staining to evaluate the status of various layer growth of vagina. Epithelial broad spectrum of monoclonal antibodies of AE1/AE3 and alpha-actin were used to test the existence of epithelial and smooth muscle tissue by immunohistochemical staining. The ultrastructure of neovagina was studied by transmission electron microscope at week 1 and 12 after surgery. Contractile function of isolated smooth muscle of neovagina was evaluated by chemical and electronic stimulation after 12 weeks' reconstruction. (1) Epithelization of 2/3 neovaginal mucosa was observed within 1 week. Only 1 - 2 layer epitheliums were observed under the light microscopy and epithelial cells with characteristics of loose and disarrangement were shown with the electron microscopy. Within 4 - 6 weeks, epithelization in mucosa of neovaginal canal was intensified to 4 - 5 layers. After 12 weeks, the differences between the neovagina and the native vagina were harldy noted either in the gross or microscopically. (2) After 4 weeks, a few smooth muscle cells were observed with VG and immunohistochemical staining, and homogeneous muscle bundle was formed. (3) After 12 weeks, similar contractile responses between neovagina and native vagina were observed when KCl and electrical stimulation with different frequency and voltage were given [(2.96 +/- 0.29) g vs. (3.14 +/- 0.30) g, (3.43 +/- 0.34) g vs. (4.65 +/- 0.73) g, (4.92 +/- 0.38) g vs. (4.89 +/- 0.44) g]. The tissue-engineering biological

  10. Primary malignant mixed Müllerian tumour (MMMT) of the vagina and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Visvalingam, Geetha; Lee, Wai Kheong Ryan; Wong, Chin Fong; Lim, Yong Kuei

    2016-04-25

    Primary malignant mixed Müllerian tumour (MMMT) of the vagina is a rare entity. We report a case of a 62-year-old woman who presented with a fixed and hard anterior vaginal wall mass with contact bleeding. She proceeded to have an anterior infralevator pelvic exenteration with urethrectomy and anterior vaginectomy, creation of an ileal conduit and bilateral lymph node dissection. Histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of primary MMMT of the vagina. The patient was stage IVA at diagnosis. Despite chemotherapy and radiotherapy, she had progressive disease and eventually passed away at the age of 65 years. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  11. IMAGING DIAGNOSIS-URETHROVAGINAL FISTULA CAUSED BY A MIGRATING GRASS AWN IN THE VAGINA.

    PubMed

    Agut, Amalia; Carrillo, Juana D; Anson, Agustina; Belda, Eliseo; Soler, Marta

    2016-05-01

    A young intact female dog was presented with urinary incontinence. Abdominal ultrasound revealed the presence of hyperechoic linear structures within the cranial vagina suggestive of foreign material. A computed tomography (CT) retrograde vaginourethrogram demonstrated the presence of a fistulous tract between the urethra and vagina. A presumptive diagnosis of urethrovaginal fistula due to migration of foreign material was made. The grass awn was removed with vaginoscopic-guided retrieval. Fourteen days later, surgical repair of the fistula and an ovariohysterectomy were done. This case report emphasizes the usefulness of CT for diagnosis and precise anatomical localization of genitourinary tract fistulas. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Developmental Anomalies of the Uterus and the Vagina in Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Gould, Sharon W; Epelman, Monica

    2015-08-01

    Developmental anomalies of the uterus and the vagina are associated with infertility and miscarriage and are most commonly detected in the postpubertal age-group. These conditions may also present in younger patients as a mass or pain owing to obstruction of the uterus or the vagina. Associated urinary tract anomalies are common, as well. Accurate diagnosis and thorough description of these anomalies is essential for appropriate management; however, evaluation may be difficult in an immature reproductive tract. Magnetic resonance imaging technique pertinent to imaging of the pediatric female reproductive tract is presented and illustrated along with the findings associated with various anomalies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Primary malignant mixed Müllerian tumour (MMMT) of the vagina and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Visvalingam, Geetha; Lee, Wai Kheong Ryan; Wong, Chin Fong; Lim, Yong Kuei

    2016-01-01

    Primary malignant mixed Müllerian tumour (MMMT) of the vagina is a rare entity. We report a case of a 62-year-old woman who presented with a fixed and hard anterior vaginal wall mass with contact bleeding. She proceeded to have an anterior infralevator pelvic exenteration with urethrectomy and anterior vaginectomy, creation of an ileal conduit and bilateral lymph node dissection. Histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of primary MMMT of the vagina. The patient was stage IVA at diagnosis. Despite chemotherapy and radiotherapy, she had progressive disease and eventually passed away at the age of 65 years. PMID:27113789

  14. Incidence rates and risks of diethylstilbestrol-related clear-cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina and cervix: Update after 40-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Huo, Dezheng; Anderson, Diane; Palmer, Julie R; Herbst, Arthur L

    2017-09-01

    Women exposed to diethylstilbestrol (DES) in utero are at increased risk for the development of vaginal and cervical clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCA) at younger age. It is unknown if a second peak will occur in later life, the ages when CCA developed spontaneously in the pre-DES era. The complete epidemiologic curve of CCA has not been reported, yet. We reviewed 720 cases of CCA from the CCA registry at the University of Chicago through 2014. Incidence rates and cumulative risks for CCA were calculated based on white women born in the U.S. from 1948 through 1971. In 420 CCA cases there was documented evidence of prenatal DES exposure. 80% were among those between ages 15 and 31 but some occurred as late as age 55. A small second peak occurred around age 42. The risk of DES-related CCA was highest in the 1951-1956 birth cohort and this birth cohort effect closely correlated with DES prescriptions over time in the U.S. (r=0.98, P=0.005). By age 50, the cumulative risk of CCA was 1 per 750 exposed women. CCA cases without evidence of DES exposure had similar ages, year of diagnosis, and birth cohort patterns as the documented DES-exposed cases, suggesting that some negative cases were exposed. Their inclusion raises the cumulative risk of CCA to 1 per 520. With the largest data available, our results confirmed the association between prenatal DES exposure and clear cell adenocarcinoma. The study also refines the risks of DES-related CCA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. New findings and concepts about the G-spot in normal and absent vagina: precautions possibly needed for preservation of the G-spot and sexuality during surgery.

    PubMed

    Thabet, Saeed Mohamad Ahmad

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to extend the clinicohistological study to involve the whole normal and absent vagina for confirming the presence of the G-spot and its relation to the surrounding organs and sexuality and to identify certain precautions for its preservation during surgery. This study was a descriptive randomized prospective study conducted at Kasr El Aini School of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt. The G-spot was examined in 1500 women, 500 of them having vaginal and vulval surgery done for gynecological reasons. The G-spot was examined for its clinical and histological features and for determining the effect of surgery on its state and function. The G-spot was found to be present in all women. It was a localized spot in 58% and diffuse in 42% of cases. Associated ejaculation was reported in all cases of the localized type and in 24.5% of the diffuse types. Clinical examination was found to be associated with certain local response in 52.7% of the local types. The G-spot was also found to be connected to the hymen in 100%, the urethra in 52.7%, the vulva in 82.2% and the cervix in 10.8% of cases. The mean of the sex scores and sexuality were significantly decreased in surgery involving the G-spot area. Recorded figures were 93.6 ± 3.4 and 88.2 ± 3.3 before and after surgery, respectively. The corresponding figures in the cases having a general spot were 86.4 ± 4.4 and 84.5 ± 2.4, respectively. The G-spot was found in cases of absent vagina to be localized in 59%, generalized in 28.2% and absent in 12.8% of cases. The G-spot is actually present in all women. It is originally related to the lower urinary tract and it is connected to different parts of the genital tract. It may be localized or generalized. Its integrity is essential for obtaining normal physiological sexuality. Surgery may affect the integrity of the G-spot, so surgical precautions must be carried out to maintain the integrity of this spot and the patient's sexuality.

  16. Functional anatomy of vagina muscles in the blood-feeding insect, Rhodnius prolixus.

    PubMed

    Chiang, R G; O'Donnell, M J

    2009-11-01

    The physiology of the muscles associated with the vagina in the blood-feeding insect, Rhodnius prolixus Stal, was investigated with the use of Methylene Blue staining to visualize the anatomy, and a micro force transducer to record spontaneous and neurally-evoked contractions. The vagina is associated with a dorsal muscle and a set of paired lateral muscles. The dorsal muscle extends from the base of the common oviduct to apodemes located laterally on sternite VIII, the first genital segment. The lateral muscles extend from a medially-located apodeme on the posterior edge of sternite VI around each side of the common oviduct to travel posteriorly along the side of the vagina before inserting laterally on apodemes on sternite VIII. The vagina muscles display spontaneous and neurally-evoked contractions that are prolonged but transient. The response to evoked contractions shows that the muscles are innervated by both excitatory and inhibitory motor axons. The degree of tension generated by evoked contractions is dependent on the frequency of stimulation with maximal tension being generated at 20-30Hz. This tension, which often exceeds 400mg, is transient and returns to a baseline within 1 to 2min during continuous stimulation. These results, which are the first to describe this chamber in this well-studied insect, are discussed with respect to the act of egg laying.

  17. Congenital abnormality of the vagina complicated by haemato-pyocolpos in a 1-year labrador retriever.

    PubMed

    Alonge, S; Romussi, S; Grieco, V; Luvoni, G C

    2015-06-01

    A 1-year-old female Labrador retriever was referred with a few days history of haematic-like vulvar discharge. Physical examination, vaginal inspection and palpation did not reveal any remarkable finding. Transabdominal ultrasound showed echogenic fluid accumulation in the vagina suggesting haemato-pyocolpos. An exploratory laparotomy was performed: a well-delimited ectasic vagina was identified. Ovariohysterectomy and partial vaginectomy and vaginoplasty were performed to spay the bitch and to remove the ectasic vagina. Post-operative recovery and 12-month follow-up were uneventful. Clinical, morphological and histological findings were consistent with a congenital abnormality of the muscular layer of the vagina complicated by haemato-pyocolpos. The disorganization of the vaginal tunica muscularis may have acted as locus minoris resistentiae in the vaginal wall. The organ was dilated and atonic due to the gradual accumulation of physiological fluids complicated by an overgrowth of genital bacteria. This congenital disorder has to be taken into account as differential diagnosis of haemato-pyocolpos with vaginal discharge in young bitches. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. [Leiomyosarcoma of the vagina: a case report and review from the literature].

    PubMed

    Jordanov, A; Hinkova, N; Ivanov, I; Popovska, S

    2015-01-01

    Leiomiosarcoma of the vagina is a very rare condition and that is why there is no standard treatment of this disease. We describe a 35 year old woman with vaginal leiomyosarcoma to whom was accomplished a complete surgical treatment and no postoperative radiation or chimiotherapy. Tumor recurrence was not detected for the last 6 months.

  19. Safety, Efficiency, and Outcomes of Perineoplasty: Treatment of the Sensation of a Wide Vagina

    PubMed Central

    Keskin, Ugur; Fidan, Ulas; Ozturk, Mustafa; Bodur, Serkan; Yılmaz, Ali; Kinci, Mehmet Ferdi; Yenen, Mufit Cemal

    2016-01-01

    Background. The sensation of a wide vagina is a common problem for women after childbirth. As its etiology is unknown, there is no uniform management strategy. We hypothesized that, rather than vaginal laxity, the cause was level 3 pelvic support deficiency. Methods. This retrospective study compared preoperative and postoperative genital hiatus length, perineal length, and total vaginal length in patients treated with perineoplasty for the sensation of a wide vagina. A telephone survey was used to determine postoperative patient and male partner satisfaction rates. Results. Mean age of patients was 48 (26–68) years; mean body mass index (BMI) was 25.3 (17.6–33.2); and mean parity was 2.5 (2–5). Preoperative and postoperative genital hiatus, perineal length, and total vaginal length were 4.62 and 3.18 (p < 0.01), 3.06 and 4.04 (p < 0.01), and 9.43 and 9.43 (p = 0.882), respectively. At the 6-month follow-up, the success rate of the perineoplasty procedure was 87.9%; according to a visual analog scale, partner satisfaction rate was 92.6%. Ten percent (n = 4) of patients said they experienced dyspareunia during sexual intercourse at the introitus of the vagina. Conclusion. With low dyspareunia rates, low complication rates, high patient satisfaction, and satisfactory anatomical success, perineoplasty can be considered successful for treatment of the sensation of a wide vagina. PMID:27610368

  20. Safety, Efficiency, and Outcomes of Perineoplasty: Treatment of the Sensation of a Wide Vagina.

    PubMed

    Ulubay, Mustafa; Keskin, Ugur; Fidan, Ulas; Ozturk, Mustafa; Bodur, Serkan; Yılmaz, Ali; Kinci, Mehmet Ferdi; Yenen, Mufit Cemal

    2016-01-01

    Background. The sensation of a wide vagina is a common problem for women after childbirth. As its etiology is unknown, there is no uniform management strategy. We hypothesized that, rather than vaginal laxity, the cause was level 3 pelvic support deficiency. Methods. This retrospective study compared preoperative and postoperative genital hiatus length, perineal length, and total vaginal length in patients treated with perineoplasty for the sensation of a wide vagina. A telephone survey was used to determine postoperative patient and male partner satisfaction rates. Results. Mean age of patients was 48 (26-68) years; mean body mass index (BMI) was 25.3 (17.6-33.2); and mean parity was 2.5 (2-5). Preoperative and postoperative genital hiatus, perineal length, and total vaginal length were 4.62 and 3.18 (p < 0.01), 3.06 and 4.04 (p < 0.01), and 9.43 and 9.43 (p = 0.882), respectively. At the 6-month follow-up, the success rate of the perineoplasty procedure was 87.9%; according to a visual analog scale, partner satisfaction rate was 92.6%. Ten percent (n = 4) of patients said they experienced dyspareunia during sexual intercourse at the introitus of the vagina. Conclusion. With low dyspareunia rates, low complication rates, high patient satisfaction, and satisfactory anatomical success, perineoplasty can be considered successful for treatment of the sensation of a wide vagina.

  1. Atypical epithelial changes in the uterine cervix

    PubMed Central

    Kirkland, James A.

    1963-01-01

    Atypical epithelium, i.e., epithelium showing changes just insufficient to warrant a diagnosis of carcinoma in situ, was re-studied in surgical material from 66 patients. Most of these specimens had originally been reported as suspicious or potentially malignant. Of the 66 patients, 62 were alive and 46 of these were `untreated' having had no treatment to the cervix since the original operation. Thirty-seven of the 66 were examined personally, 28 of these being `untreated'; nineteen were found to have gynaecological abnormalities. Cytological examination was performed on 36, with only one suspicious smear; none of these patients was found to have invasive carcinoma or carcinoma in situ. Of the remaining 25 patients not seen personally, all were considered by their doctors to be free of any significant cervical lesion. The incidence of progression from atypical epithelium to carcinoma in situ is so different in the published reports that the definitions must surely be different. Sections from 15 cases of carcinoma in situ were therefore submitted to seven skilled pathologists, and as only 70 out of 105 diagnoses came into this category, the need for agreed definition is obvious. The present study shows a depressing persistence of the original or similar complaint. The follow-up (average 7·4 years) suggests that atypical epithelial change is unlikely to progress to carcinoma. Images PMID:14033012

  2. Revised terminology for cervical histopathology and its implications for management of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions of the cervix.

    PubMed

    Waxman, Alan G; Chelmow, David; Darragh, Teresa M; Lawson, Herschel; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara

    2012-12-01

    In March 2012, the College of American Pathologists and American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, in collaboration with 35 stakeholder organizations, convened a consensus conference called the Lower Anogenital Squamous Terminology (LAST) Project. The recommendations of this project include using a uniform, two-tiered terminology to describe the histology of human papillomavirus-associated squamous disease across all anogenital tract tissues: vulva, vagina, cervix, penis, perianus, and anus. The recommended terminology is "low-grade" or "high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL)." This terminology is familiar to clinicians, because it parallels the terminology of the Bethesda System cytologic reports. Biopsy results using SIL terminology may be further qualified using "intraepithelial neoplasia" (IN) terminology in parentheses. Laboratory p16 tissue immunostaining is recommended to better classify histopathology lesions that morphologically would earlier have been diagnosed as IN 2. p16 is also recommended for differentiating between high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and benign mimics. The LAST Project recommendations potentially affect the application of current guidelines for managing cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions. The authors offer interim guidance for managing cervical lesions diagnosed using this new terminology with special attention paid to managing young women with cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions on biopsy. Clinicians should be aware of the LAST Project recommendations, which include important changes from prior terminology.

  3. Revised Terminology for Cervical Histopathology and Its Implications for Management of High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions of the Cervix

    PubMed Central

    Waxman, Alan G.; Chelmow, David; Darragh, Teresa M.; Lawson, Herschel; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara

    2014-01-01

    In March 2012, the College of American Pathologists and American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, in collaboration with 35 stakeholder organizations, convened a consensus conference called the Lower Anogenital Squamous Terminology (LAST) Project. The recommendations of this project include using a uniform, two-tiered terminology to describe the histology of human papillomavirus-associated squamous disease across all anogenital tract tissues: vulva, vagina, cervix, penis, perianus, and anus. The recommended terminology is “low-grade” or “high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL).” This terminology is familiar to clinicians, because it parallels the terminology of the Bethesda System cytologic reports. Biopsy results using SIL terminology may be further qualified using “intraepithelial neoplasia” (IN) terminology in parentheses. Laboratory p16 tissue immunostaining is recommended to better classify histopathology lesions that morphologically would earlier have been diagnosed as IN 2. p16 is also recommended for differentiating between high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and benign mimics. The LAST Project recommendations potentially affect the application of current guidelines for managing cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions. The authors offer interim guidance for managing cervical lesions diagnosed using this new terminology with special attention paid to managing young women with cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions on biopsy. Clinicians should be aware of the LAST Project recommendations, which include important changes from prior terminology. PMID:23168774

  4. Androgenic action of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on nerve density in the ovariectomized rat vagina.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Georges; Ouellet, Johanne; Martel, Céline; Labrie, Fernand

    2013-08-01

    We have recently reported that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) increases the density of nerve fibers in the ovariectomized (OVX) rat vagina. To better define the mechanism of action of DHEA, we have examined the effect of DHEA, conjugated estrogens (premarin) and the potent blocker of estrogen action acolbifene on the innervation in the lamina propria in the OVX rat vagina. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (10-12 weeks old) were used. Innervation of the vagina was examined 9 months after OVX and was compared to that of OVX animals treated daily with DHEA (80 mg/kg) by topical application on the skin, premarin (0.5 mg/kg) orally as well as acolbifene (2.5 mg/kg) orally administrated alone or in combination with DHEA or premarin. Four histological sections from each vagina (5 animals/group) were immunostained using antibodies to the panneuronal marker protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5). The areas were measured by stereological analysis. OVX reduced the area of the lamina propria to 44% of the intact value, an effect which was reversed to 69% and 84% of the intact value by DHEA and premarin, respectively, at the doses used. When acolbifene was used, no inhibition of the stimulatory effect of DHEA was observed, while the action of premarin was completely blocked. Evaluation of the PGP 9.5 fiber density revealed that DHEA treatment increased the density of fibers by 60% compared to OVX animals, while a further 27% increase was observed when acolbifene was combined with DHEA. Premarin, on the other hand, had no effect on the density of PGP 9.5 fibers. Considering that the antiestrogen acolbifene had no inhibitory effect on the effect of DHEA in rat vagina while blocking the stimulatory effect of premarin, the present data indicate that DHEA exerts its stimulatory effect on the fiber density through an androgenic action. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  5. Sensitization of cervix cancer cells to Adriamycin by Pentoxifylline induces an increase in apoptosis and decrease senescence.

    PubMed

    Bravo-Cuellar, Alejandro; Ortiz-Lazareno, Pablo C; Lerma-Diaz, Jose M; Dominguez-Rodriguez, Jorge R; Jave-Suarez, Luis F; Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana; del Toro-Arreola, Susana; de Celis-Carrillo, Ruth; Sahagun-Flores, Jose E; de Alba-Garcia, Javier E Garcia; Hernandez-Flores, Georgina

    2010-05-19

    Chemotherapeutic drugs like Adriamycin (ADR) induces apoptosis or senescence in cancer cells but these cells often develop resistance and generate responses of short duration or complete failure. The methylxantine drug Pentoxifylline (PTX) used routinely in the clinics setting for circulatory diseases has been recently described to have antitumor properties. We evaluated whether pretreatment with PTX modifies apoptosis and senescence induced by ADR in cervix cancer cells. HeLa (HPV 18+), SiHa (HPV 16+) cervix cancer cells and non-tumorigenic immortalized HaCaT cells (control) were treated with PTX, ADR or PTX + ADR. The cellular toxicity of PTX and survival fraction were determinated by WST-1 and clonogenic assay respectively. Apoptosis, caspase activation and ADR efflux rate were measured by flow cytometry, senescence by microscopy. IkappaBalpha and DNA fragmentation were determinated by ELISA. Proapoptotic, antiapoptotic and senescence genes, as well as HPV-E6/E7 mRNA expression, were detected by time real RT-PCR. p53 protein levels were assayed by Western blot. PTX is toxic (WST-1), affects survival (clonogenic assay) and induces apoptosis in cervix cancer cells. Additionally, the combination of this drug with ADR diminished the survival fraction and significantly increased apoptosis of HeLa and SiHa cervix cancer cells. Treatments were less effective in HaCaT cells. We found caspase participation in the induction of apoptosis by PTX, ADR or its combination. Surprisingly, in spite of the antitumor activity displayed by PTX, our results indicate that methylxantine, per se does not induce senescence; however it inhibits senescence induced by ADR and at the same time increases apoptosis. PTX elevates IkappaBalpha levels. Such sensitization is achieved through the up-regulation of proapoptotic factors such as caspase and bcl family gene expression. PTX and PTX + ADR also decrease E6 and E7 expression in SiHa cells, but not in HeLa cells. p53 was detected only in Si

  6. Sensitization of cervix cancer cells to Adriamycin by Pentoxifylline induces an increase in apoptosis and decrease senescence

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Chemotherapeutic drugs like Adriamycin (ADR) induces apoptosis or senescence in cancer cells but these cells often develop resistance and generate responses of short duration or complete failure. The methylxantine drug Pentoxifylline (PTX) used routinely in the clinics setting for circulatory diseases has been recently described to have antitumor properties. We evaluated whether pretreatment with PTX modifies apoptosis and senescence induced by ADR in cervix cancer cells. Methods HeLa (HPV 18+), SiHa (HPV 16+) cervix cancer cells and non-tumorigenic immortalized HaCaT cells (control) were treated with PTX, ADR or PTX + ADR. The cellular toxicity of PTX and survival fraction were determinated by WST-1 and clonogenic assay respectively. Apoptosis, caspase activation and ADR efflux rate were measured by flow cytometry, senescence by microscopy. IκBα and DNA fragmentation were determinated by ELISA. Proapoptotic, antiapoptotic and senescence genes, as well as HPV-E6/E7 mRNA expression, were detected by time real RT-PCR. p53 protein levels were assayed by Western blot. Results PTX is toxic (WST-1), affects survival (clonogenic assay) and induces apoptosis in cervix cancer cells. Additionally, the combination of this drug with ADR diminished the survival fraction and significantly increased apoptosis of HeLa and SiHa cervix cancer cells. Treatments were less effective in HaCaT cells. We found caspase participation in the induction of apoptosis by PTX, ADR or its combination. Surprisingly, in spite of the antitumor activity displayed by PTX, our results indicate that methylxantine, per se does not induce senescence; however it inhibits senescence induced by ADR and at the same time increases apoptosis. PTX elevates IκBα levels. Such sensitization is achieved through the up-regulation of proapoptotic factors such as caspase and bcl family gene expression. PTX and PTX + ADR also decrease E6 and E7 expression in SiHa cells, but not in HeLa cells. p53 was

  7. Effects of horizontal vs vertical vaginal cuff closure techniques on vagina length after vaginal hysterectomy: a prospective randomized study.

    PubMed

    Cavkaytar, Sabri; Kokanali, Mahmut Kuntay; Topcu, Hasan Onur; Aksakal, Orhan Seyfi; Doganay, Melike

    2014-01-01

    To compare the effects of horizontal and vertical vaginal cuff closure techniques on vagina length after vaginal hysterectomy. Prospective randomized study (Canadian Task Force classification I). Teaching and research hospital, a tertiary center. Fifty-two women with POP-Q stage 0 or 1 uterine prolapse were randomized into 2 groups using vertical (n = 26) or horizontal (n = 26) vaginal cuff closure. All patients underwent vaginal hysterectomy. Vagina length in the 2 groups was compared preoperatively, immediately after surgery, and at 6 weeks postoperatively. Mean (SD) preoperative vagina length in the horizontal and vertical groups was similar (7.87 [0.92] cm vs 7.99 [0.78] cm; p = .41). Immediately postoperatively, the vagina was significantly shorter in the horizontal group than in the vertical group (6.61 [0.89] cm vs 7.51 [0.74] cm; p < .001). At 6 weeks postoperatively, the vagina was still significantly shorter in the horizontal group (6.55 [0.89] cm vs 7.42 (0.73) cm; p < .001). The mean difference in vagina length before and after surgery was also significantly higher in the horizontal group than in the vertical group (-1.26 [0.12] cm vs 0.49 [0.11] cm; p < .001). Vertical cuff closure during vaginal hysterectomy seems to preserve vagina length better than does horizontal cuff closure. Copyright © 2014 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparative performance analysis of cervix ROI extraction and specular reflection removal algorithms for uterine cervix image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Zhiyun; Antani, Sameer; Long, L. Rodney; Jeronimo, Jose; Thoma, George R.

    2007-03-01

    Cervicography is a technique for visual screening of uterine cervix images for cervical cancer. One of our research goals is the automated detection in these images of acetowhite (AW) lesions, which are sometimes correlated with cervical cancer. These lesions are characterized by the whitening of regions along the squamocolumnar junction on the cervix when treated with 5% acetic acid. Image preprocessing is required prior to invoking AW detection algorithms on cervicographic images for two reasons: (1) to remove Specular Reflections (SR) caused by camera flash, and (2) to isolate the cervix region-of-interest (ROI) from image regions that are irrelevant to the analysis. These image regions may contain medical instruments, film markup, or other non-cervix anatomy or regions, such as vaginal walls. We have qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated the performance of alternative preprocessing algorithms on a test set of 120 images. For cervix ROI detection, all approaches use a common feature set, but with varying combinations of feature weights, normalization, and clustering methods. For SR detection, while one approach uses a Gaussian Mixture Model on an intensity/saturation feature set, a second approach uses Otsu thresholding on a top-hat transformed input image. Empirical results are analyzed to derive conclusions on the performance of each approach.

  9. Effects of sexual maturation and Salmonella infection on the expression of Toll-like receptors in the chicken vagina.

    PubMed

    Michailidis, G; Theodoridis, A; Avdi, M

    2011-02-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a critical component of the innate immune response in many vertebrates, including avian species. The recent findings of chicken TLRs (cTLRs) expression in ovarian follicles and in the chicken ovary in vivo, as well as the changes in their expression in response to lipopolysaccharide or Salmonella enteritidis (SE) infection, have broad implications for reproductive physiology and for the prevention of transmission of zoonotic diseases to humans through the consumption of contaminated poultry eggs. Because the main route of egg contamination is from infection of the oviduct and mainly from the vagina, the aim of this study was to investigate the expression of the ten cTLRs identified to date in the chicken oviduct in vivo, to determine whether sexual maturation affects their mRNA abundance and to investigate whether SE infection alters the expression of TLRs in the chicken vagina. RNA was extracted from the vagina of healthy prepubertal, sexually mature and aged birds, and from sexually mature and aged SE infected birds. RT-PCR analysis revealed that all types of cTLRs apart from TLR1-1 were expressed in the vagina of sexually mature birds. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the mRNA abundance of TLR2-1, 2-2 and 4 differ with respect to sexual maturation in the chicken vagina. SE infection resulted in a significant induction of TLR5 and 15 in the vagina of sexually mature birds, and in a significant induction of TLR2-1, 4 and 15 in the vagina of aged birds, while a significant down-regulation was observed for TLR7 in the vagina of sexually mature birds. These findings suggest that a TLR mediated immune response mechanism exists in the chicken vagina, playing a crucial role in preventing microbial pathogens from being incorporated into newly forming eggs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Foreign body in the vagina of a four-year-old-girl: a childish prank or sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Sakhavar, Nahid; Teimoori, Batool; Ghasemi, Marzie

    2014-06-01

    Foreign body in the vagina is a common cause of vaginal discharge, which may be either purulent or hemorrhagic. This problem may produce symptoms or be asymptomatic for long periods of time and may result from ignorance, accident, malice, psychotic tendencies, attempts at sexual stimulation or sexual abuse. The current report presents the case of a girl that had inserted a foreign body in her vagina probably due to childish prank. The clinicians should always think of foreign bodies in the vagina in cases of chronic, antibiotic resistant vaginal discharge and lower abdominal pain especially in young girls.

  11. Foreign Body in the Vagina of A Four-Year-Old-Girl: A Childish Prank or Sexual Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Sakhavar, Nahid; Teimoori, Batool; Ghasemi, Marzie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Foreign body in the vagina is a common cause of vaginal discharge, which may be either purulent or hemorrhagic. Case Presentation: This problem may produce symptoms or be asymptomatic for long periods of time and may result from ignorance, accident, malice, psychotic tendencies, attempts at sexual stimulation or sexual abuse. The current report presents the case of a girl that had inserted a foreign body in her vagina probably due to childish prank. Conclusions: The clinicians should always think of foreign bodies in the vagina in cases of chronic, antibiotic resistant vaginal discharge and lower abdominal pain especially in young girls. PMID:25032156

  12. Lactobacillus and Pediococcus species richness and relative abundance in the vagina of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Gravett, Michael G.; Jin, Ling; Pavlova, Sylvia I.; Tao, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Background The rhesus monkey is an important animal model to study human vaginal health to which lactic acid bacteria play a significant role. However, the vaginal lactic acid bacterial species richness and relative abundance in rhesus monkeys is largely unknown. Methods Vaginal swab samples were aseptically obtained from 200 reproductive aged female rhesus monkeys. Following Rogosa agar plating, single bacterial colonies representing different morphotypes were isolated and analyzed for whole-cell protein profile, species-specifc PCR, and 16S rRNA gene sequence. Results A total of 510 Lactobacillus strains of 17 species and one Pediococcus acidilactici were identified. The most abundant species was L. reuteri, which colonized the vaginas of 86% monkeys. L. johnsonii was the second most abundant species, which colonized 36% of monkeys. The majority of monkeys were colonized by multiple Lactobacillus species. Conclusions The vaginas of rhesus monkeys are frequently colonized by multiple Lactobacillus species, dominated by L. reuteri. PMID:22429090

  13. Survival of gram positive anaerobic cocci on swabs and their isolation from the mouth and vagina.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, G L; Cumming, C G; Ross, P W

    1986-01-01

    The survival of Gram positive anaerobic cocci on plain cotton wool and albumin coated swabs held in various transport media was investigated. Results suggested that in most cases Amies', Stuart's and VMGII media do not offer any more protection to the bacteria than storing swabs dry in their containers. A technique was developed for the isolation and identification of Gram positive anaerobic cocci from the mouth and vagina, incorporating bicozamycin in the medium as a selective agent. Few strains were recovered from the oral cavity, but larger numbers were isolated from the vagina. Using a minimum number of antibiotic sensitivity and biochemical tests, including analysis of end products by gas-liquid chromatography, most isolates were identified to species level. PMID:3950035

  14. Type I female genital mutilation: a cause of completely closed vagina.

    PubMed

    Rouzi, Abdulrahim A; Sahly, Nora; Alhachim, Estabraq; Abduljabbar, Hassan

    2014-09-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) ranges in severity from a nick of the clitoris to partial or total removal of the external genitalia. Sexual complications after FGM include sexual dysfunction, difficult intercourse, and dyspareunia. We report a case of Type I FGM presenting as complete vaginal closure and urinary retention. A 16-year-old adolescent was referred for obliterated vagina and urinary retention. She had recurrent urinary tract infections, difficulty in voiding, and cyclic hematuria. At the age of 1 year she had been taken by her mother to a pediatric surgeon to have a Type I FGM procedure. On examination, the urethral meatus and vaginal orifices were completely closed by the FGM scar. She underwent uneventful surgical opening of the vagina. A normal vaginal orifice was created and normal flow of urine and menses occurred. Type I FGM can present as complete vaginal closure and urinary retention. Proper diagnosis and treatment are of paramount importance. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  15. Sex chromatin in the epithelium of the mucosa and the vagina in antitumor therapy (in Russian)

    SciTech Connect

    Mikhina, Z.P.

    1973-08-01

    Mean indicators of sex chromatin in cells of the mucosa and vagina do not differ before and after radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and ovary excision. All forms of antitumor therapy cause large individual variation of the concentration of sex chromatin in parts of the sick both with decrease and increase of the indicators. With the introduction of sinestro1 and prednisolone a significant decrease of the sex chromatin concentration occurs in the epithelium of the mucosa. In all forms of hormona1 treatment the concentration of sex chromatin in the vaginal epithelium alters in dependence on the changes of the types of vaginalmore » greasing. The dependences between the reactions of the peripheral b1ood and the tumor on treatment on the one hand and the osciltations of the sex chromatin indicators in the epithelium of the mucosa and vagina on the other were not established. (tr-auth)« less

  16. Intrinsic and extrinsic carbohydrates in the vagina: A short review on vaginal glycogen.

    PubMed

    Tester, Richard; Al-Ghazzewi, Farage H

    2018-06-01

    The reasons for (i) the presence and (ii) mechanisms of utilisation of glycogen by the lactic acid bacteria in the human vaginal tract are not well understood. It is probable that the vaginal epithelia produce both glycogen and α-amylase where the enzyme depolymerises the polysaccharide within the vagina itself. Only these depolymerised residues are then utilised for growth by the lactic acid bacteria. The lactic acid bacteria cannot metabolise the glycogen directly due to their incapacity to produce the α-amylase enzyme. These bacteria may, however, metabolise exogenous carbohydrates (such as prebiotics) selectively for growth effectively. These carbohydrate utilisation issues within the vagina are considered in this short review. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix.

    PubMed

    Schoolland, Meike; Segal, Amanda; Allpress, Stephen; Miranda, Alina; Frost, Felicity A; Sterrett, Gregory F

    2002-12-25

    The current study examines 1) the sensitivity of detection and 2) sampling and screening/diagnostic error in the cytologic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) of the cervix. The data were taken from public and private sector screening laboratories reporting 25,000 and 80,000 smears, respectively, each year. The study group was comprised of women with a biopsy diagnosis of AIS or AIS combined with a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) who were accessioned by the Western Australian Cervical Cytology Registry (WACCR) between 1993-1998. Cervical smears reported by the Western Australia Centre for Pathology and Medical Research (PathCentre) or Western Diagnostic Pathology (WDP) in the 36 months before the index biopsy was obtained were retrieved. A true measure of the sensitivity of detection could not be determined because to the authors' knowledge the exact prevalence of disease is unknown at present. For the current study, sensitivity was defined as the percentage of smears reported as demonstrating a possible or definite high-grade epithelial abnormality (HGEA), either glandular or squamous. Sampling error was defined as the percentage of smears found to have no HGEA on review. Screening/diagnostic error was defined as the percentage of smears in which HGEA was not diagnosed initially but review demonstrated possible or definite HGEA. Sensitivity also was calculated for a randomly selected control group of biopsy proven cases of Grade 3 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 3) accessioned at the WACCR in 1999. For biopsy findings of AIS alone, the diagnostic "sensitivity" of a single smear was 47.6% for the PathCentre and 54.3% for WDP. Nearly all the abnormalities were reported as glandular. The sampling and screening/diagnostic errors were 47.6% and 4.8%, respectively, for the PathCentre and 33.3% and 12.3%, respectively, for WDP. The results from the PathCentre were better for AIS plus HSIL than for AIS alone, but the results from WDP were

  18. Biomechanical and morphological properties of the multiparous ovine vagina and effect of subsequent pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Rynkevic, Rita; Martins, Pedro; Hympanova, Lucie; Almeida, Henrique; Fernandes, Antonio A; Deprest, Jan

    2017-05-24

    Pelvic floor soft tissues undergo changes during the pregnancy. However, the degree and nature of this process is not completely characterized. This study investigates the effect of subsequent pregnancy on biomechanical and structural properties of ovine vagina. Vaginal wall from virgin, pregnant (in their third pregnancy) and parous (one year after third vaginal delivery) Swifter sheep (n=5 each) was harvested. Samples for biomechanics and histology, were cut in longitudinal axis (proximal and distal regions). Outcome measurements describing Young's modulus, ultimate stress and elongation were obtained from stress-strain curves. For histology samples were stained with Miller's Elastica staining. Collagen, elastin and muscle cells and myofibroblasts contents were estimated, using image processing techniques. Statistical analyses were performed in order to determine significant differences among experimental groups. Significant regional differences were identified. The proximal vagina was stiffer than distal, irrespective the reproductive status. During the pregnancy proximal vagina become more compliant than in parous (+47.45%) or virgin sheep (+64.35%). This coincided with lower collagen (-15 to -21%), higher elastin (+30 to +60%), and more smooth muscle cells (+17 to +37%). Vaginal tissue from parous ewes was weaker than of virgins, coinciding with lower collagen (-10%), higher elastin (+50%), more smooth muscle cells (+20%). It could be proposed that after pregnancy biomechanical properties of vagina do not recover to those of virgins. Since elastin has a significant influence on the compliance of soft tissues and collagen is the main "actor" regarding strength, histological analysis performed in this study justifies the mechanical behavior observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. In vitro adherence of Lactobacillus strains isolated from the vaginas of healthy Iranian women.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Elham; Makvandi, Manoochehr; Teimoori, Ali; Ataei, Angila; Ghafari, Shokouh; Najafian, Mahin; Ourang, Ziba; Samarbaf-Zadeh, Alireza

    2016-12-01

    The lactobacilli are a part of the bacterial flora of the human vagina. Detection of normal Lactobacillus species in the vaginas of healthy women in different geographical locations, and evaluation of their specific properties, can aid in the selection of the best species for preventing sexually transmitted diseases in the future. This study was performed to isolate and identify the Lactobacillus species in the vaginas of healthy women and to evaluate the adherence of these lactobacilli to Vero and HeLa cell lines. The study included 100 women. Bacteria were isolated from healthy women and purified. Phenotypic and biochemical tests were performed to identify the lactobacilli. The Lactobacillus species were detected by molecular methods using polymerase chain reaction amplification of the full length of the 16S rDNA of the isolated bacteria. Several isolates of each species were then selected to study their adherence to Vero and HeLa cell lines. Among the 50 samples taken from healthy women meeting the inclusion criteria, Lactobacillus species were identified in 33 (66%) samples. Of these lactobacilli, 14 isolates were Lactobacillus crispatus, six (18.2%) were Lactobacillus gasseri, nine (27%) were Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and the rest were either Lactobacillus salivarius (6%) or Lactobacillus plantarum (6%). L. rhamnosus showed the greatest adhesion to the cells when compared to the other tested species. All the lactobacilli isolated in this study showed a smaller capacity for cell adherence when compared with control species. L. crispatus, L. rhamnosus, and L. gasseri were the dominant Lactobacillus species in the vaginas of healthy women in Iran. L. rhamnosus attached more readily to the cells than did the other species; therefore, this isolate is a good candidate for further studies on the potential health benefits and application of lactobacilli as probiotics. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  20. Effect of prolonged use of high dose of tibolone on the vagina of ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Henriques, Helene Nara; de Carvalho, Ana Carolina Bergmann; Soares Filho, Porphirio José; Pantaleão, José Augusto Soares; Guzmán-Silva, Maria Angélica

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was evaluate the effect of prolonged use of high dose of tibolone on the vagina of ovariectomized rats. Bilateral ovariectomy was performed on 14 rats weighing 250 g. Thirty days later, vaginal smears were collected verifying the menopause status by anoestrus cytology. Rats were divided randomly into groups: experimental rats (n = 9) received 1 mg tibolone/day orally and control rats (n = 6) received placebo (carboxymethylcellulose). After 150 days, all rats were sedated and euthanized by cervical displacement. The vagina was removed, fixed in 10% buffered formalin, sampled and processed for paraffin embedding. Histological sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin, picrosirius red, periodic acid Schiff (PAS) and PAS-diastase, and Weigert's resorcin-fuchsin. Cell proliferation was analysed by immunohistochemistry to detect Ki67. Histomorphometric analyses were performed for epithelial thickness, per cent area of collagen fibres and blood vessels, mast cells and Ki67-positive nuclei per mm of basal membrane. Means and standard error of means were calculated, and data were compared using the Mann-Whitney test, with significance level at P < 0.05. In the vagina, epithelial thickness, number of Ki67-positive nuclei per mm of basal membrane, number of vessels and number of mast cells were significantly higher in the tibolone group when compared with the control group. Furthermore, the content of glycogen and glycoproteins in the vaginal epithelium was modified by tibolone. Tibolone administered in high dose and for a long period has a trophic effect, reversing vaginal atrophy, and has no dysplastic or neoplastic effect in the vagina of ovariectomized rats. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2011 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  1. Measuring the space between vagina and rectum as it relates to rectocele

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jin; Zhai, Li-Dong; Li, Yun-Sheng; Liu, Wan-Xiang; Wang, Rui-Hua

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To measure the normal space between the posterior wall of the vagina and the anterior wall of the respectively rectum using computed tomography (CT) and reveal its were relationship to rectocele. METHODS: A total of twenty female volunteers without rectocele were examined by CT scan. We performed a middle level continuous horizontal pelvic scan from the upper part to the lower part and collected the measurement data to analyze the results using t-test. RESULTS: Twenty volunteers were enrolled in the study. The space between the posterior wall of the vagina and the anterior wall of the rectum was measured at three levels (upper 1/3, middle, lower 1/3 level of vagina). The results showed that the space from the posterior wall of the vagina to the anterior wall of the rectum at the upper 1/3 level and the middle level was 3.896 ± 0.3617 mm and 4.6575 ± 0.3052 mm, respectively. When the two groups of data were compared, we found the space at the upper 1/3 level was shorter than at the middle level (P < 0.01). Moreover, at the lower 1/3 level the space measured was 10.058 ± 0.4534 mm. The results revealed that the space at the lower 1/3 level was longer than that at the middle level (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: These measurement data may be helpful in assessing rectocele clinical diagnosis and functional outcomes of rectocele repair. PMID:19554660

  2. Expression of aquaporin water channels in rat vagina: potential role in vaginal lubrication.

    PubMed

    Park, Kwangsung; Han, Ho Jae; Kim, Soo Wan; Jung, Seung Il; Kim, Sun-Ouck; Lee, Hyun-Suk; Lee, Mi Na; Ahn, Kyuyoun

    2008-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are membrane proteins that facilitate water movement across biological membranes. There has been little research on the role of AQPs in the female sexual arousal response. The purposes of this study were to investigate the localization and functional roles of AQP1, AQP2, and AQP3 in rat vagina. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (230-240 g, N = 20) were anesthetized. The vaginal branch of the pelvic nerve was stimulated for 60 seconds (10 V, 16 Hz, 0.8 ms), and the animals were sacrificed either immediately or 5 minutes later. The expression and cellular localization of AQP1, 2, and 3 were determined by Western blot and immunohistochemistry of the vagina. The intracellular membrane and plasma membrane fractions of the proteins in vaginal tissue were studied by immunoblot analysis with the differential centrifugation. The expression and cellular localization of AQPs, and pelvic nerve stimulation induced translocation of AQPs in rat vaginal tissue. Immunolabeling showed that AQP1 was mainly expressed in the capillaries and venules of the vagina. AQP2 was expressed in the cytoplasm of the epithelium, and AQP3 was mainly associated with the plasma membrane of the vaginal epithelium. AQPs were found to be present primarily in the cytosolic fraction of untreated tissues. The translocation of AQP1 and 2 isoforms from the cytosolic compartment to the membrane compartment was observed immediately after nerve stimulation and had declined at 5 minutes after nerve stimulation, while the subcellular localization of AQP3 was not changed by nerve stimulation. These results showed a distinct localization of AQPs in the rat vagina. Pelvic nerve stimulation modulated short-term translocation of AQP1 and 2. These results imply that AQPs may play an important role in vaginal lubrication.

  3. Vitamin D Proliferates Vaginal Epithelium through RhoA Expression in Postmenopausal Atrophic Vagina tissue

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Arum; Lee, Man Ryul; Lee, Hae-Hyeog; Kim, Yeon-Suk; Kim, Jun-Mo; Enkhbold, Temuulee; Kim, Tae-Hee

    2017-01-01

    Postmenopausal atrophic vagina (PAV) is the thinning of the walls of the vagina and decreased lugae of the vagina. PAV is caused by decreased estrogen levels in postmenopausal women. However, the harmful effects of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) have resulted in considerable caution in its use. Various estrogen agonist treatment options are available. Vitamin D is influences the regulation of differentiation and proliferation of various cells, especially tissues lining stratified squamous epithelium, such as the vaginal epithelium. In this study, we hypothesized that vitamin D could provide an alternative and a safe treatment option for PAV by promoting the proliferation and differentiation of the vaginal epithelium. Thirty six patients were enrolled in this case-control study. Vitamin D associated proteins in a vitamin D and sex hormone treated vaginal epithelial cell line as well as normal and PAV tissues were measured. To confirm of cell-to-cell junction protein expression, cell line and tissue studies included RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry staining, and immunoblot analyses. The expression of cell-to-cell junction proteins was higher in women with symptoms of atrophic vagina tissue compared to women without the symptoms. Vitamin D stimulated the proliferation of the vaginal epithelium by activating p-RhoA and Erzin through the vitamin D receptor (VDR). The results suggest that vitamin D positively regulates cell-to-cell junction by increasing the VDR/p-RhoA/p-Ezrin pathway. This is the first study to verify the relationship of the expression of RhoA and Ezrin proteins in vaginal tissue of PAV. PMID:28843271

  4. Expression of the estrogen receptors and steroidogenic enzymes involved in estradiol formation in the monkey vagina.

    PubMed

    Bertin, Jonathan; Ouellet, Johanne; Dury, Alain Yves; Pelletier, Georges; Labrie, Fernand

    2014-11-01

    Estrogens are well recognized to have beneficial effects on vulvovaginal atrophy because of menopause. The distribution of estrogen receptors and enzymes responsible for estradiol (E2) formation within the vagina may provide insight into how dehydroepiandrosterone, a precursor of both estrogens and androgens, improves vulvovaginal atrophy. The purpose of the study was to determine where the steroidogenic enzymes responsible for E2 formation as well as estrogen receptors are localized in vaginal specimens collected from cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), the closest model to the human. HSD3B1, HSD17B1, HSD17B5, HSD17B12, aromatase (CYP19A1), estrogen receptor (ER)-α, and ER-β were measured or localized by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence. Estrogens were quantified by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. All steroidogenic enzymes and estrogen receptors are localized mainly in the superficial layer of the stratified squamous epithelium, blood vessel walls, and muscle fibers of the vagina. Immunolabeling of HSD17B5 and HSD17B12 shows that these enzymes are uniformly distributed from the basal membrane to the superficial keratinized cells, whereas HSD3B1 and aromatase are particularly localized in the outer (external) portion of the epithelial layer. ER-α and ER-β are also distributed within the vaginal epithelium, with expression especially elevated at the basal membrane level. The enzymes responsible for E2 formation as well as ERs are expressed mainly in the superficial layer of the stratified epithelium as well as the muscle layer of the vagina. The present data provide morphologic and biochemical support for the role of local dehydroepiandrosterone transformation into estrogens in regulating epithelial cell maturation, pH, fluid secretion, smooth muscle activity, and blood flow regulation in the primate vagina. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Vitamin D Proliferates Vaginal Epithelium through RhoA Expression in Postmenopausal Atrophic Vagina tissue.

    PubMed

    Lee, Arum; Lee, Man Ryul; Lee, Hae-Hyeog; Kim, Yeon-Suk; Kim, Jun-Mo; Enkhbold, Temuulee; Kim, Tae-Hee

    2017-09-30

    Postmenopausal atrophic vagina (PAV) is the thinning of the walls of the vagina and decreased lugae of the vagina. PAV is caused by decreased estrogen levels in postmenopausal women. However, the harmful effects of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) have resulted in considerable caution in its use. Various estrogen agonist treatment options are available. Vitamin D is influences the regulation of differentiation and proliferation of various cells, especially tissues lining stratified squamous epithelium, such as the vaginal epithelium. In this study, we hypothesized that vitamin D could provide an alternative and a safe treatment option for PAV by promoting the proliferation and differentiation of the vaginal epithelium. Thirty six patients were enrolled in this case-control study. Vitamin D associated proteins in a vitamin D and sex hormone treated vaginal epithelial cell line as well as normal and PAV tissues were measured. To confirm of cell-to-cell junction protein expression, cell line and tissue studies included RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry staining, and immunoblot analyses. The expression of cell-to-cell junction proteins was higher in women with symptoms of atrophic vagina tissue compared to women without the symptoms. Vitamin D stimulated the proliferation of the vaginal epithelium by activating p-RhoA and Erzin through the vitamin D receptor (VDR). The results suggest that vitamin D positively regulates cell-to-cell junction by increasing the VDR/p-RhoA/p-Ezrin pathway. This is the first study to verify the relationship of the expression of RhoA and Ezrin proteins in vaginal tissue of PAV.

  6. Neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    Reig Castillejo, Anna; Membrive Conejo, Ismael; Foro Arnalot, Palmira; Rodríguez de Dios, Nuria; Algara López, Manuel

    2010-07-01

    Neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix (SCC) is a rare disease that mixes clinical and biological characteristics of both cervical neoplasms and neuroendocrine small cell cancer. The prognosis is poor and the optimal treatment has not yet been clarified. Multimodality treatment, with surgery and concurrent chemoradiation has recently been shown to improve local control and survival rates.

  7. Malignant lymphoma of the cervix uteri: histology and ultrastructure.

    PubMed Central

    Carr, I; Hill, A S; Hancock, B; Neal, F F

    1976-01-01

    Two cases of primary lymphoma of the cervix uteri are described. Both responded to radiotherapy; both were composed at the ultrastructural level of mature macrophages and immature, apparently neoplastic lymphoreticular cells and are classified as reticulum cell lymphoma. Images PMID:783205

  8. The mechanical role of the cervix in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Kristin M.; Feltovich, Helen; Mazza, Edoardo; Vink, Joy; Bajka, Michael; Wapner, Ronald J.; Hall, Timothy J.; House, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate mechanical function of the uterine cervix is critical for maintaining a pregnancy to term so that the fetus can develop fully. At the end of pregnancy, however, the cervix must allow delivery, which requires it to markedly soften, shorten and dilate. There are multiple pathways to spontaneous preterm birth, the leading global cause of death in children less than 5 years old, but all culminate in premature cervical change, because that is the last step in the final common pathway to delivery. The mechanisms underlying premature cervical change in pregnancy are poorly understood, and therefore current clinical protocols to assess preterm birth risk are limited to surrogate markers of mechanical function, such as sonographically measured cervical length. This is what motivates us to study the cervix, for which we propose investigating clinical cervical function in parallel with a quantitative engineering evaluation of its structural function. We aspire to develop a common translational language, as well as generate a rigorous integrated clinical-engineering framework for assessing cervical mechanical function at the cellular to organ level. In this review, we embark on that challenge by describing the current landscape of clinical, biochemical, and engineering concepts associated with the mechanical function of the cervix during pregnancy. Our goal is to use this common platform to inspire novel approaches to delineation of normal and abnormal cervical function in pregnancy. PMID:25841293

  9. The mechanical role of the cervix in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Myers, Kristin M; Feltovich, Helen; Mazza, Edoardo; Vink, Joy; Bajka, Michael; Wapner, Ronald J; Hall, Timothy J; House, Michael

    2015-06-25

    Appropriate mechanical function of the uterine cervix is critical for maintaining a pregnancy to term so that the fetus can develop fully. At the end of pregnancy, however, the cervix must allow delivery, which requires it to markedly soften, shorten and dilate. There are multiple pathways to spontaneous preterm birth, the leading global cause of death in children less than 5 years old, but all culminate in premature cervical change, because that is the last step in the final common pathway to delivery. The mechanisms underlying premature cervical change in pregnancy are poorly understood, and therefore current clinical protocols to assess preterm birth risk are limited to surrogate markers of mechanical function, such as sonographically measured cervical length. This is what motivates us to study the cervix, for which we propose investigating clinical cervical function in parallel with a quantitative engineering evaluation of its structural function. We aspire to develop a common translational language, as well as generate a rigorous integrated clinical-engineering framework for assessing cervical mechanical function at the cellular to organ level. In this review, we embark on that challenge by describing the current landscape of clinical, biochemical, and engineering concepts associated with the mechanical function of the cervix during pregnancy. Our goal is to use this common platform to inspire novel approaches to delineate normal and abnormal cervical function in pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A case of primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the vagina.

    PubMed

    Yoshinaga, Kousuke; Akahira, Jun-Ichi; Niikura, Hitoshi; Ito, Kiyoshi; Moriya, Takuya; Murakami, Takashi; Kameoka, Jun-Ichi; Ichinohasama, Ryo; Okamura, Kunihiro; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2004-09-01

    We report the first case of primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the vagina, the diagnosis of which is supported by genetic and immunophenotypic studies. A 65-year-old, para 2 woman presented to our hospital in July 1997 with a history of prolonged vaginal discharge. Although cytologic examination suggested possible malignancy, a biopsy of the vaginal wall was diagnosed as chronic inflammation. In June 2000, she underwent gynecologic examination because of anuria. Excisional biopsy revealed subepithelial infiltration of atypical lymphoid cells that stained for CD20, CD79a, and BCL-2; stained weakly for IgM; and did not stain for CD3, CD5, CD7, CD10, CD56, CD23, and IgD, suggesting marginal zone B-cell lineage. Monoclonality was detected by Southern blot analysis, and this patient was finally diagnosed as having primary MALT lymphoma of the vagina. She received 3 cycles of chemotherapy (THP-COP) and concurrent radiation to the whole pelvis. The patient is alive and well 40 months after treatment. Because the vagina is one of the mucosa-associated tissues, MALT lymphoma, though rare, must be included in the differential diagnosis of the vaginal neoplasms.

  11. Role of progenitor cell producing normal vagina by metaplasia in laparoscopic peritoneal vaginoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Mhatre, Pravin N.; Narkhede, Hemraj R.; Pawar, P. Amol; Mhatre, P. Jyoti; Kumar, Das Dhanjit

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Host of vaginoplasty techniques have been described. None has been successful in developing normal vagina. Laparoscopic peritoneal vaginoplasty (LPV) is performed in Mayer–Rokitansky–Küster–Hauser syndrome (MRKHS) culminating in normal vagina. AIMS: This study aims to confirm normal development of neovagina by anatomical and functional parameters of histology, cytology, and ultrasonography (USG) in LPV. To identify peritoneal progenitor cell by OCT4/SOX2 markers. To demonstrate the metaplastic conversion of peritoneum to neovagina and the progenitor cell concentration, distribution pattern. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This is prospective experimental study, conducted at teaching hospital and private hospital. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Fifteen women of MRKHS underwent LPV followed by histology, cytology, two-/three-dimensional USG of neovagina. Four women underwent peritoneal biopsy for identification of progenitor cells with OCT4/SOX2 markers. One patient underwent serial biopsies for 4 weeks for histology and progenitor cell immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Normal vaginal histology and cytology were apparent. USG of neovagina showed normal appearance and blood flow. Two peritoneal samples confirmed the presence of progenitor cells. Serial biopsies demonstrated the epithelial change from single to multilayer with stromal compaction and neoangiogenesis. The progenitor cells concentration and different distribution patterns were described using SOX2/OCT4 markers. CONCLUSIONS: We have shown successful peritoneal metaplastic conversion to normal vagina in LPV. The progenitor cell was identified in normal peritoneum using SOX2/OCT4 markers. The progenitor cell concentration and pattern were demonstrated at various stages of neovaginal development. PMID:28216908

  12. [Microbiota of urine and vagina of healthy postmenopausal women (a pilot study)].

    PubMed

    Naboka, Yu L; Rymashevsky, A N; Kogan, M I; Gudima, I A; Borovleva, O A; Jalagonia, K T; Zarutskiy, S A

    2016-02-01

    Studying microbiota of different urogenital tract habitats in healthy postmenopausal women is of practical importance in deciding on the appropriateness of correction of dysbiotic disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the vaginal and urine microbiota of healthy postmenopausal women. The study included 20 healthy postmenopausal women (mean age 59,0+/-2,1 years). Duration of menopause in all subjects was more than 8 years. Bacteriological testing of urine and vaginal specimen was carried out on the extended media (15) for cultivating facultative anaerobic bacteria (FAB) and nonclostridial anaerobic bacteria (NAB) and included PCR of midstream morning urine. Among FAB in the urine and vagina dominated coagulase-negative staphylococci and NAB. Bacterial patterns of studied habitats turned out to be similar in many respects. In the urine Megasphaera spp., Veillonella spp., Prevotella spp., Mobiluncus spp., Fusobacterium spp. were found, whereas in the vagina these microorganisms were not present. Cluster analysis revealed no significant differences in the concentration of the same microorganisms isolated from the urine and vagina. When comparing the frequency of microorganism detection in urine by bacteriological method and by PCR, bacterial patterns were identical in 56% of cases.

  13. Potential proton beam therapy for recurrent endometrial cancer in the vagina.

    PubMed

    Yanazume, Shintaro; Arimura, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Douchi, Tsutomu

    2015-05-01

    Proton beam radiotherapy mainly has been used in the gynecological field in patients with cervical cancer. The efficacy of proton beam therapy in patients with recurrent endometrial cancer has not yet been determined. A 77-year-old endometrial cancer patient presented with recurrence in the vagina without distant metastasis following hysterectomy. A hard mass measuring 6 cm originated from the apex of the vagina, surrounded the vaginal cavity, and infiltrated the proximal and distal vagina. The patient received proton beam radiotherapy using a less invasive particle treatment system while minimizing the dose to the surrounding normal tissues. The dose to the planning target volume was 74 Gy (relative biological effectiveness) with 37 fractions. The patient was treated with 150-210-MeV proton beams for 53 days. Proton beam therapy led to the disappearance of tumors without any complications except for grade 1 cystitis although evidence of further complications is not available past our 6-month follow-up period. Proton beam therapy may become a useful treatment modality for recurrent endometrial cancer as well as cervical uterine cancer. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Spatiotemporal dynamics of androgen signaling underlie sexual differentiation and congenital malformations of the urethra and vagina

    PubMed Central

    Larkins, Christine E.; Enriquez, Ana B.; Cohn, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    Disorders of sex development (DSDs) are congenital anomalies that affect sexual differentiation of genitourinary organs and secondary sex characters. A common cause of female genital virilization is congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), in which excess androgen production during development of 46XX females can result in vaginal atresia, masculinization of the urethra, a single urogenital sinus, and clitoral hypertrophy or ambiguous external genitalia. Development of the vagina depends on sexual differentiation of the urogenital sinus ridge, an epithelial thickening that forms where the sex ducts attach to the anterior urethra. In females, the sinus ridge descends posteriorly to allow the vaginal opening to form in the vulva, whereas in males and in females with CAH, androgens inhibit descent of the sinus ridge. The mechanisms that regulate development of the female urethra and vagina are largely unknown. Here we show that the timing and duration of, and the cell population targeted by, androgen signaling determine the position of vaginal attachment to the urethra. Manipulations of androgen signaling in utero reveal a temporal window of development when sinus ridge fate is determined. Cell type-specific genetic deletions of androgen receptor (Ar) identify a subpopulation of mesenchymal cells that regulate sinus ridge morphogenesis. These results reveal a common mechanism that coordinates development of the vagina and feminization of the urethra, which may account for development of a single urogenital sinus in females exposed to excessive androgen during a critical period of prenatal development. PMID:27821748

  15. Placement of temperature probe in bovine vagina for continuous measurement of core-body temperature.

    PubMed

    Lee, C N; Gebremedhin, K G; Parkhurst, A; Hillman, P E

    2015-09-01

    There has been increasing interest to measure core-body temperature in cattle using internal probes. This study examined the placement of HOBO water temperature probe with an anchor, referred to as the "sensor pack" (Hillman et al. Appl Eng Agric ASAE 25(2):291-296, 2009) in the vagina of multiparous Holstein cows under grazing conditions. Two types of anchors were used: (a) long "fingers" (4.5-6 cm), and (b) short "fingers" (3.5 cm). The long-finger anchors stayed in one position while the short-finger anchors were not stable in one position (rotate) within the vagina canal and in some cases came out. Vaginal temperatures were recorded every minute and the data collected were then analyzed using exponential mixed model regression for non-linear data. The results showed that the core-body temperatures for the short-finger anchors were lower than the long-finger anchors. This implied that the placement of the temperature sensor within the vagina cavity may affect the data collected.

  16. Obstetric balloon for treatment of foreshortened vagina using the McIndoe technique.

    PubMed

    Rauktys, Aubrey; Parikh, Pranay; Harmanli, Oz

    2015-01-01

    When conservative options such as the use of vaginal dilators fail, the McIndoe technique may be used in the surgical treatment of a foreshortened vagina. The McIndoe procedure, an approach commonly used for the treatment of vaginal agenesis, requires a mold over which a skin graft is sutured and placed inside the vagina. In most surgical descriptions, this mold is made from non-sterile foam, condoms, or gloves. Because makeshift molds can no longer be used in operating rooms owing to strict regulations, alternative methods must be employed. The obstetric balloon is a good choice for use as a soft and adjustable vaginal mold for a modified McIndoe procedure because it is readily available as an approved device in hospitals that provide obstetric services. This technique was successfully employed in a 54-year-old woman to treat foreshortened vagina. An obstetric balloon can be used effectively as a mold for vaginal reconstruction with the McIndoe technique.

  17. Placement of temperature probe in bovine vagina for continuous measurement of core-body temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C. N.; Gebremedhin, K. G.; Parkhurst, A.; Hillman, P. E.

    2015-09-01

    There has been increasing interest to measure core-body temperature in cattle using internal probes. This study examined the placement of HOBO water temperature probe with an anchor, referred to as the "sensor pack" (Hillman et al. Appl Eng Agric ASAE 25(2):291-296, 2009) in the vagina of multiparous Holstein cows under grazing conditions. Two types of anchors were used: (a) long "fingers" (4.5-6 cm), and (b) short "fingers" (3.5 cm). The long-finger anchors stayed in one position while the short-finger anchors were not stable in one position (rotate) within the vagina canal and in some cases came out. Vaginal temperatures were recorded every minute and the data collected were then analyzed using exponential mixed model regression for non-linear data. The results showed that the core-body temperatures for the short-finger anchors were lower than the long-finger anchors. This implied that the placement of the temperature sensor within the vagina cavity may affect the data collected.

  18. Benign intestinal glandular lesions in the vagina: a possible correlation with implantation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Weiwei; Zhang, Xiaofei; Lu, Bingjian

    2016-06-17

    Enteric-type glandular lesions are extremely rare in the vagina. Their histological origin remains a matter of speculation at present. We review two rectal mucosal prolapse-like polyps and one intestinal-type adenosis in the vagina. Case 1, a 64-year-old woman, presented with a vaginal polypoid lesion with a size of 4 × 3 × 3 cm. Case 2, an 8-year-old girl, had a 1.5 × 1.5 × 0.8-cm pedunculated polyp in the vaginal navicular fossa and a clinically suspected rectovaginal fistula. Case 1 and 3 had an obsolete severe perineal laceration. On histopathological examination, cases 1 and 2 resembled rectal mucosal prolapse or inflammatory cloacogenic polyp (rectal mucosal prolapse-like polyp). Case 3 had an incidental intestinal-type adenosis in the removed vaginal wall. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the intestinal differentiation in all 3 lesions by showing diffuse CDX2-positive, CK20-positive, and scattered chromogranin A-positive neuroendocrinal cells in the lower compartment of the crypt. In summary, we report herein three unusual cases of benign intestinal-type glandular lesions in the vagina including two rectal mucosal prolapse-like polyps and one case of intestinal-type adenosis, and discuss possibilities for their histogenetic basis.

  19. Spatiotemporal dynamics of androgen signaling underlie sexual differentiation and congenital malformations of the urethra and vagina.

    PubMed

    Larkins, Christine E; Enriquez, Ana B; Cohn, Martin J

    2016-11-22

    Disorders of sex development (DSDs) are congenital anomalies that affect sexual differentiation of genitourinary organs and secondary sex characters. A common cause of female genital virilization is congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), in which excess androgen production during development of 46XX females can result in vaginal atresia, masculinization of the urethra, a single urogenital sinus, and clitoral hypertrophy or ambiguous external genitalia. Development of the vagina depends on sexual differentiation of the urogenital sinus ridge, an epithelial thickening that forms where the sex ducts attach to the anterior urethra. In females, the sinus ridge descends posteriorly to allow the vaginal opening to form in the vulva, whereas in males and in females with CAH, androgens inhibit descent of the sinus ridge. The mechanisms that regulate development of the female urethra and vagina are largely unknown. Here we show that the timing and duration of, and the cell population targeted by, androgen signaling determine the position of vaginal attachment to the urethra. Manipulations of androgen signaling in utero reveal a temporal window of development when sinus ridge fate is determined. Cell type-specific genetic deletions of androgen receptor (Ar) identify a subpopulation of mesenchymal cells that regulate sinus ridge morphogenesis. These results reveal a common mechanism that coordinates development of the vagina and feminization of the urethra, which may account for development of a single urogenital sinus in females exposed to excessive androgen during a critical period of prenatal development.

  20. Temporal changes in the expression of avian β-defensins in the chicken vagina during sexual maturation and Salmonella infection.

    PubMed

    Anastasiadou, Maria; Avdi, Melpomeni; Theodoridis, Alexandros; Michailidis, Georgios

    2013-06-01

    Avian β-defensins (AvβDs) constitute a family of antimicrobial peptides that are critical to innate immunity in chickens, providing protection against microbial pathogens including Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). As apart from the digestive tract another main route of SE colonization in birds is via infection of the oviduct and specifically of the vagina, the aim of this study was to investigate the expression of the complete family of AvβDs, in the chicken vagina in vivo, to determine whether sexual maturation affects their mRNA abundance and to investigate whether SE infection alters the vaginal AvβDs expression. Expression analysis revealed that 11 members of the AvβD family were expressed in the chicken vagina. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the mRNA abundance of five AvβDs was up regulated and of one AvβD was down regulated with respect to sexual maturation. In addition SE infection resulted in a significant induction of AvβD5, 7, 10, 11, 12 and 14 in the vagina of sexually mature birds, and in a significant induction of AvβD5 and 11 in the vagina of aged birds. These findings provide strong evidence to suggest that an AvβD-mediated immune response mechanism exists in the chicken vagina providing protection against bacterial pathogens including Salmonella species.

  1. Cytokine activation during embryonic development and in hen ovary and vagina during reproductive age and Salmonella infection.

    PubMed

    Anastasiadou, M; Michailidis, G

    2016-12-01

    Salmonellosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases and is usually associated with consumption of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) contaminated poultry meat or eggs. Contamination with SE is usually the result of infection of the digestive tract, or reproductive organs, especially the ovary and vagina. Thus, knowledge of endogenous innate immune mechanisms operating in the ovary and vagina of hen is an emerging aspect of reproductive physiology. Cytokines are key factors for triggering the immune response and inflammation in chicken to Salmonella infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression profile of 11 proinflammatory cytokines in the chicken embryos during embryonic development, as well as in the hen ovary and vagina in vivo, to investigate whether sexual maturation affects their ovarian and vaginal mRNA abundance and to determine whether cytokine expression was constitutive or induced in the ovary and vagina as a response to SE infection. RT-PCR analysis revealed that several cytokines were expressed in the chicken embryos, and in the ovary and vagina of healthy birds. Expression of various cytokines during sexual maturation appeared to be developmentally regulated. In addition, a significant up-regulation of several cytokines in the ovary and vagina of sexually mature SE infected birds compared to healthy birds of the same age was observed. These results suggest a cytokine-mediated immune response mechanism against Salmonella infection in the hen reproductive organs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Adenocarcinoma metastatic to the uterine cervix: a case series.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Montiel, Delia; Serrano-Olvera, Alberto; Salazar, Luz Calderón; Cetina-Pérez, Lucely; Candelaria, Myrna; Coronel, Jaime; Montalvo, Luis Alonso Herrera; de León, David Cantú

    2012-03-01

    The objectives of this report are, first, to describe the clinical behavior of cases of carcinoma metastatic to the uterine cervix treated at our institution in order to carry out a systematic review to establish the behavioral patterns of the most frequent metastases to the cervix and, second, to generate guidelines for their diagnosis and treatment. At the National Institute of Cancer of Mexico (INCan), we performed a review of the clinical files with a diagnosis of malignant neoplasm metastatic to the uterine cervix between 1990 and 2009. For a systematic review, we conducted a PubMed search between the years 1970 and 2009 of case reports and series of cases of patients with metastatic gastric, breast, ovarian and colorectal cancer. We analyzed each report individually and extracted the patients' clinical data from our cases and reports, including the primary tumor, cervical metastases and survival rates. There were 10 cases of tumors metastatic to the uterine cervix. Metastasis was documented in one-half of the patients during follow up, with two of these cases having the cervix as the only site. We included the following reports in the systematic review: 13 reports of gastric-associated cancer, 30 related to breast cancer, nine with ovarian-associated cancer and 10 related to colorectal cancer. Metastatic cervical activity is an infrequent event. The prognosis of survival is poor in the presence of gastric or ovarian cancer and cervical metastases. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. Association of Atopobium vaginae, a recently described metronidazole resistant anaerobe, with bacterial vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Michael J; Masztal, Alicia; Aldridge, Kenneth E; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Fidel, Paul L; Martin, David H

    2004-01-01

    Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a polymicrobial syndrome characterized by a change in vaginal flora away from predominantly Lactobacillus species. The cause of BV is unknown, but the condition has been implicated in diverse medical outcomes. The bacterium Atopobium vaginae has been recognized only recently. It is not readily identified by commercial diagnostic kits. Its clinical significance is unknown but it has recently been isolated from a tuboovarian abcess. Methods Nucleotide sequencing of PCR amplified 16S rRNA gene segments, that were separated into bands within lanes on polyacrylamide gels by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), was used to examine bacterial vaginal flora in 46 patients clinically described as having normal (Lactobacillus spp. predominant; Nugent score ≤ 3) and abnormal flora (Nugent score ≥ 4). These women ranged in age from 14 to 48 and 82% were African American. Results The DGGE banding patterns of normal and BV-positive patients were recognizably distinct. Those of normal patients contained 1 to 4 bands that were focused in the centre region of the gel lane, while those of BV positive patients contained bands that were not all focused in the center region of the gel lane. More detailed analysis of patterns revealed that bands identified as Atopobium vaginae were present in a majority (12/22) of BV positive patients, while corresponding bands were rare (2/24) in normal patients. (P < 0.001) Two A. vaginae isolates were cultivated from two patients whose DGGE analyses indicated the presence of this organism. Two A. vaginae 16S rRNA gene sequences were identified among the clinical isolates. The same two sequences were obtained from DGGE bands of the corresponding vaginal flora. The sequences differed by one nucleotide over the short (~300 bp) segment used for DGGE analysis and migrated to slightly different points in denaturing gradient gels. Both isolates were strict anaerobes and highly metronidazole resistant

  4. Longitudinal qPCR Study of the Dynamics of L. crispatus, L. iners, A. vaginae, (Sialidase Positive) G. vaginalis, and P. bivia in the Vagina

    PubMed Central

    Lopes dos Santos Santiago, Guido; Tency, Inge; Verstraelen, Hans; Verhelst, Rita; Trog, Marijke; Temmerman, Marleen; Vancoillie, Leen; Decat, Ellen; Cools, Piet; Vaneechoutte, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Background To obtain more detailed understanding of the causes of disturbance of the vaginal microflora (VMF), a longitudinal study was carried out for 17 women during two menstrual cycles. Methods Vaginal swabs were obtained daily from 17 non-pregnant, menarchal volunteers. For each woman, Gram stains were scored, the quantitative changes of 5 key vaginal species, i.e. Atopobium vaginae, Lactobacillus crispatus, L. iners, (sialidase positive) Gardnerella vaginalis and Prevotella bivia were quantified with qPCR and hydrogen-peroxide production was assessed on TMB+ agar. Results Women could be divided in 9 subjects with predominantly normal VMF (grades Ia, Ib and Iab, group N) and 8 with predominantly disturbed VMF (grades I-like, II, III and IV, group D). VMF was variable between women, but overall stable for most of the women. Menses were the strongest disturbing factor of the VMF. L. crispatus was present at log7–9 cells/ml in grade Ia, Iab and II VMF, but concentrations declined 100-fold during menses. L. crispatus below log7 cells/ml corresponded with poor H2O2-production. L. iners was present at log 10 cells/ml in grade Ib, II and III VMF. Sialidase negative G. vaginalis strains (average log5 cells/ml) were detected in grade I, I-like and IV VMF. In grade II VMF, predominantly a mixture of both sialidase negative and positive G. vaginalis strains (average log9 cells/ml) were present, and predominantly sialidase positive strains in grade III VMF. The presence of A. vaginae (average log9 cells/ml) coincided with grade II and III VMF. P. bivia (log4–8 cells/ml) was mostly present in grade III vaginal microflora. L. iners, G. vaginalis, A. vaginae and P. bivia all increased around menses for group N women, and as such L. iners was considered a member of disturbed VMF. Conclusions This qPCR-based study confirms largely the results of previous culture-based, microscopy-based and pyrosequencing-based studies. PMID:23028904

  5. Systematic gene microarray analysis of the lncRNA expression profiles in human uterine cervix carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Fu, Ziyi; Ji, Chenbo; Gu, Pingqing; Xu, Pengfei; Yu, Ningzhu; Kan, Yansheng; Wu, Xiaowei; Shen, Rong; Shen, Yan

    2015-05-01

    The human uterine cervix carcinoma is one of the most well-known malignancy reproductive system cancers, which threatens women health globally. However, the mechanisms of the oncogenesis and development process of cervix carcinoma are not yet fully understood. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been proved to play key roles in various biological processes, especially development of cancer. The function and mechanism of lncRNAs on cervix carcinoma is still rarely reported. We selected 3 cervix cancer and normal cervix tissues separately, then performed lncRNA microarray to detect the differentially expressed lncRNAs. Subsequently, we explored the potential function of these dysregulated lncRNAs through online bioinformatics databases. Finally, quantity real-time PCR was carried out to confirm the expression levels of these dysregulated lncRNAs in cervix cancer and normal tissues. We uncovered the profiles of differentially expressed lncRNAs between normal and cervix carcinoma tissues by using the microarray techniques, and found 1622 upregulated and 3026 downregulated lncRNAs (fold-change>2.0) in cervix carcinoma compared to the normal cervical tissue. Furthermore, we found HOXA11-AS might participate in cervix carcinogenesis by regulating HOXA11, which is involved in regulating biological processes of cervix cancer. This study afforded expression profiles of lncRNAs between cervix carcinoma tissue and normal cervical tissue, which could provide database for further research about the function and mechanism of key-lncRNAs in cervix carcinoma, and might be helpful to explore potential diagnosis factors and therapeutic targets for cervix carcinoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Primary signet ring cell adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix - A rare neoplasm that raises the question of metastasis to the cervix.

    PubMed

    Cracchiolo, Bernadette; Kuhn, Theresa; Heller, Debra

    2016-04-01

    Primary signet ring cell adenocarcinoma is extremely rare. Signet ring cell carcinoma is more commonly primary in the stomach or breast, and the more likely metastatic disease to the cervix needs to be ruled out. We present a case of primary signet ring cell carcinoma of the cervix and review the literature.

  7. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the cervix: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the cervix uteri is extremely rare. Between 1987 and 2010, there were only nine cases reported in the English literature, with considerably different management policies. Case presentation A 45-year-old Iranian woman presented to our facility with a primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the cervix uteri. Her clinical stage IB2 tumor was treated successfully with chemotherapy. Our patient underwent radical hysterectomy. There was no trace of the tumor after four years of follow-up. Conclusions According to current knowledge, primitive neuroectodermal tumors belong to the Ewing's sarcoma family, and the improvement of treatment outcome in our patient was due to dose-intensive neoadjuvant chemotherapy, surgery and consolidation chemotherapy in accordance with the protocol for bony Ewing's sarcoma. PMID:21962148

  8. A Dynamic Compliance Cervix Phantom Robot for Latent Labor Simulation.

    PubMed

    Luk, Michelle Jennifer; Lobb, Derek; Smith, James Andrew

    2018-06-01

    Physical simulation systems are commonly used in training of midwifery and obstetrics students, but none of these systems offers a dynamic compliance aspect that would make them more truly representative of cervix ripening. In this study, we introduce a unique soft robot phantom that simulates the cervix softening during the latent labor phase of birth. This proof-of-concept robotic phantom can be dilated by 1 cm and effaced by 35% through the application of a Foley catheter-like loading mechanism. Furthermore, psychophysics trials demonstrate how untrained subjects can identify hard and soft states of the phantom with specificities of 91% and 87%, respectively. Both results indicated the appropriateness for application of this soft robot technology to birth training simulators.

  9. Differential effects of selective estrogen receptor modulators on the vagina and its supportive tissues.

    PubMed

    Liang, Rui; Knight, Katrina; Nolfi, Alexis; Abramowitch, Steven; Moalli, Pamela A

    2016-02-01

    Some selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) have been associated with increased incidence of urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse. This study explored the effects of five SERMs on the function and matrix components of the vagina and its supportive tissues. Fifty-six rats were administered SERMs by oral gavage for 8 weeks (n = 8 for each SERM): raloxifene, tamoxifen, idoxifene, bazedoxifene at three different doses, and bazedoxifene with conjugated estrogens. Thirty-two rats were used as controls (n = 8 per group): sham operation (no ovariectomy), ovariectomy only, ovariectomy with vehicle gavage, and 17β-estradiol (subcutaneous). Vaginal supportive tissue complex was tested by uniaxial tensile testing. Total collagen content (hydroxyproline) and glycosaminoglycan content (Blyscan) were measured. Ovariectomy significantly decreased the mechanical integrity of the vagina and its supportive tissue complex, with a decrease in ultimate load and stiffness (all P < 0.05). Although 17β-estradiol supplementation maintained these properties similarly to sham operation, none of the SERMs was as effective--particularly idoxifene, bazedoxifene at higher doses, and bazedoxifene with conjugated estrogens (all P < 0.05). In addition, idoxifene and bazedoxifene induced increased total collagen content compared with sham or 17β-estradiol treatment (all P < 0.05). Glycosaminoglycan content did not change significantly. Unlike 17β-estradiol, SERM supplementation does not fully prevent ovariectomy-induced deterioration in the biomechanical properties of the vagina and its supportive tissues, with the effects of idoxifene and bazedoxifene being the least. The paradoxically increased collagen content in these two groups may be related to increased formation of nonfunctional collagen.

  10. Deterioration in biomechanical properties of the vagina following implantation of a high-stiffness prolapse mesh.

    PubMed

    Feola, A; Abramowitch, S; Jallah, Z; Stein, S; Barone, W; Palcsey, S; Moalli, P

    2013-01-01

    To define the impact of prolapse mesh on the biomechanical properties of the vagina by comparing the prototype Gynemesh PS (Ethicon) to two new-generation lower stiffness meshes, SmartMesh (Coloplast) and UltraPro (Ethicon). A study employing a nonhuman primate model. University of Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Forty-five parous rhesus macaques. Meshes were implanted via sacrocolpopexy after hysterectomy and compared with sham. Because its stiffness is highly directional, UltraPro was implanted in two directions: UltraPro Perpendicular (less stiff) and UltraPro Parallel (more stiff), with the indicated direction referring to the position of the blue orientation lines relative to the longitudinal axis of the vagina. The mesh-vaginal complex (MVC) was excised in toto after 3 months. Active mechanical properties were quantified as the contractile force generated in the presence of 120 mmol/l KCl. Passive mechanical properties (a tissue's ability to resist an applied force) were measured using a multiaxial protocol. Vaginal contractility decreased by 80% following implantation with the Gynemesh PS (P = 0.001), 48% after SmartMesh (P = 0.001), 68% after UltraPro Parallel (P = 0.001) and was highly variable after UltraPro Perpendicular (P = 0.16). The tissue contribution to the passive mechanical behaviour of the MVC was drastically reduced for Gynemesh PS (P = 0.003), but not for SmartMesh (P = 0.9) or UltraPro independent of the direction of implantation (P = 0.68 and P = 0.66, respectively). Deterioration of the mechanical properties of the vagina was highest following implantation with the stiffest mesh, Gynemesh PS. Such a decrease associated with implantation of a device of increased stiffness is consistent with findings from other systems employing prostheses for support. © 2013 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2013 RCOG.

  11. Androgen receptor expression in the human vagina under different physiological and treatment conditions.

    PubMed

    Baldassarre, M; Perrone, A M; Giannone, F A; Armillotta, F; Battaglia, C; Costantino, A; Venturoli, S; Meriggiola, M C

    2013-01-01

    Recent data report an important role of testosterone (T) in modulating female sexual responses, but little is known about the expression and distribution of androgen receptor (AR) in the human vagina. Therefore, the aims of our study were to evaluate the expression of AR in the human vagina in premenopausal (PrM) and menopausal (M) women and in T-treated women. Vaginal biopsies were obtained from PrM and postmenopausal women and from women with gender identity disorder (female to male (FtM)) receiving exogenous T. AR gene and protein expression levels in vaginal tissues were determined by real-time PCR and western blot analysis, respectively, whereas the localization of AR in vaginal mucosa and stroma was performed by immunohistochemistry. ARs were detected by immunostaining both in the mucosa and stroma. In vaginal mucosa, AR density score decreases with age but does not change with T administration. In stromal tissue, AR density score does not change with age but significantly increases with T administration (P<0.01). AR protein expression was significantly increased in FtM subjects (P<0.001). The expression of AR messenger RNA (mRNA) evaluated by Real-time PCR showed a significantly higher mRNA expression in FtM versus M patients (P<0.01) and in PrM versus M subjects (P<0.05). In conclusion, we found AR protein and mRNA expression both in the epithelium and stroma of the human vagina in all groups of women. A negative correlation exists between age and AR expression in the vaginal mucosa. T administration increases AR expression in both the mucosa and stroma.

  12. The effects of PPARδ agonist and zinc on ovariectomized rats' vagina.

    PubMed

    Takacs, Peter; Jaramillo, Sindy; Zhang, Yanping; Datar, Ram; Williams, Anthony; Olczyk, Joseph; Candiotti, Keith; Medina, Carlos A

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to measure the effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ (PPARδ) agonist GW501516 (GW) and zinc sulfate (ZS) on ovariectomized rats' vaginal histomorphology and collagen expression. Two weeks after ovariectomy, rats received daily treatment with vaginal suppositories containing placebo, ZS, GW, ZS with GW, or estradiol for 2 weeks. Macroscopic measurements were taken and the midsection of the vagina was used for histology. Immunofluorescence was performed with antibodies against collagen I, III, and anti-actin or collagen I and V and anti-actin. Gene expression analysis of 3 collagen genes was performed by qRT-PCR. Macroscopic measurements revealed that the genital hiatus was narrower in the ZS and ZS with GW groups, and the vagina was significantly longer in the animals treated with GW, ZS with GW, and estradiol compared to the placebo group. Microscopic measurements of the vaginal layers showed that the lamina propria and the vaginal muscularis were significantly thicker in the ZS and ZS with GW group compared to the placebo.The ratio of vaginal Col1a1/Col3a1 mRNA expression was significantly up-regulated by ZS with GW compared to placebo, whereas the ratio of vaginal Col1a1/Col5a1 expression was significantly up-regulated by ZS, GW, and ZS with GW. The ratio of vaginal collagen I/III protein expression was significantly up-regulated by ZS and ZS with GW, whereas the ratio of vaginal collagen I/V expression was significantly up-regulated by estradiol, ZS, and ZS with GW compared to control. Vaginal suppositories containing zinc and PPARδ agonist significantly altered the vagina of ovariectomized rats.

  13. Effects of Chronic Genistein Treatment in Mammary Gland, Uterus, and Vagina

    PubMed Central

    Rimoldi, Guillermo; Christoffel, Julie; Seidlova-Wuttke, Dana; Jarry, Hubertus; Wuttke, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Background The isoflavone genistein (GEN) is found in soy (Glycine max) and red clover (Trifolium pratense). The estrogenic activity of GEN is known, and it is widely advertised as a phytoestrogen useful in alleviating climacteric complaints and other postmenopausal disorders. Knowledge of effects of long-term administration of GEN in laboratory animals is scarce, and effects in the uterus and mammary gland after long-term administration have not been studied. The uterus and mammary gland are known to be negatively influenced by estrogens used in hormone therapy. Objectives We administered two doses of GEN [mean daily uptake 5.4 (low) or 54 mg/kg (high) body weight (bw)] orally over a period of 3 months to ovariectomized (ovx) rats and compared the effects with a treatment with two doses of 17β-estradiol [E2; 0.17 (low) or 0.7 mg/kg bw (high)]. Mammary glands, vaginae, and uteri were investigated morphologically and immunohistochemically. We quantified the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and progesterone receptor (PR) in the mammary gland. Results In rats treated with either of the E2 doses or the high GEN dose, we found increased uterine weight, and histologic analysis showed estrogen-induced features in the uteri. In vaginae, either E2 dose or GEN high induced hyperplastic epithelium compared with the atrophic controls. In the mammary gland, E2 (either dose) or GEN increased proliferation and PR expression. Serum levels of luteinizing hormone were decreased by E2 (both doses) but not by GEN. Conclusions In summary, E2 and GEN share many effects in the studied organs, particularly in the vagina, uterus, and mammary gland but not in the hypothalamo/pituitary unit. PMID:18174952

  14. [A lymphoepithelioma-like type of spinous-cell carcinoma of the cervix uteri].

    PubMed

    Pires, M A; Andrade, M J; Guerra, C; Silva, T S; de Oliveira, C; Beja, M

    1999-01-01

    Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinomas of the cervix uteri are very rare. They are poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinomas with intense stromal lymphocytic infiltration. These histologic features are similar to nasopharyngeal lymphoepithelioma and may have a better prognosis than other tumors of the cervix. A lymphoepithelioma-like lesion of the cervix uteri is described in a 33-year-old Caucasian woman who had an episode of vaginal bleeding. A review of the literature about these types of tumor is also presented.

  15. Applicator modeling for electromagnetic thermotherapy of cervix cancer.

    PubMed

    Rezaeealam, Behrooz

    2015-03-01

    This report proposes an induction heating coil design that can be used for producing strong magnetic fields around ferromagnetic implants located in the cervix of uterus. The effect of coil design on the uniformity and extent of heat generation ability is inspected. Also, a numerical model of the applicator is developed that includes the ferromagnetic implants, and is coupled to the bioheat transfer model of the body tissue. Then, the ability of the proposed applicator for electromagnetic thermotherapy is investigated.

  16. Raman spectroscopic studies on exfoliated cells of oral and cervix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hole, Arti; Sahu, Aditi; Shaikh, Rubina; Tyagi, Gunjan; Murali Krishna, C.

    2018-01-01

    Visual inspection followed by biopsy is the standard procedure for cancer diagnosis. Due to invasive nature of the current diagnostic methods, patients are often non-compliant. Hence, it is necessary to explore less invasive and rapid methods for early detection. Exfoliative cytology is a simple, rapid, and less invasive technique. It is thus well accepted by patients and is suitable for routine applications in population screening programs. Raman spectroscopy (RS) has been increasingly explored for disease diagnosis in the recent past. In vivo RS has previously shown promise in management of both oral and cervix cancers. In vivo applications require on-site instrumentation and stringent experimental conditions. Hence, RS of less invasive samples like exfoliated cells has been explored, as this facilitates collection at multiple screening centers followed by analysis at a centralized facility. In the present study, efficacy of Raman spectroscopy in classification of 15 normal and 29 abnormal oral exfoliated cells specimens and 28 normal and 38 abnormal cervix specimens were explored. Spectra were acquired by Raman microprobe (HE 785, Horiba-Jobin-Yvon, France) from several areas to span the pellet. Spectral acquisition parameters were: microscopic objective: 40X, power: 40 mW, acquisition time: 15 s and average: 3. PCA and PC-LDA of pre-processed spectra was carried out on a 4-model system of normal and tumor of both cervix and oral specimens. Leave-one-out-cross-validation findings indicate 73 % correct classification. Findings suggest RS of exfoliated cells may serve as a patient-friendly, non-invasive, rapid and objective method for management of cervix and oral cancers.

  17. Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma thyroid from functionally cured cancer cervix

    PubMed Central

    Vamsy, Mohana; Dattatreya, Palanki Satya; Sarma, Lella Yugandhar; Dayal, Monal; Janardhan, Nandigam; Rao, Vatturi Venkata Satya Prabhakar

    2013-01-01

    The authors report a very unusual occurrence of a metastatic squamous carcinoma to thyroid gland from a treated squamous cell carcinoma cervix 12 years before with no recurrence at the primary site. The case also has an additional complexity of rapid progression of the metastatic thyroid carcinoma to wide spread dissemination to lungs and bones while on concurrent chemo radio therapy confirming the aggressiveness of the entity. PMID:24163519

  18. Short and inflamed cervix predicts spontaneous preterm birth (COLIBRI study).

    PubMed

    Raiche, Evelyne; Ouellet, Annie; Berthiaume, Maryse; Rousseau, Éric; Pasquier, Jean-Charles

    2014-07-01

    To develop a new strategy of predicting spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB) by combination of transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) assessment and inflammatory proteins detection in vaginal secretions. Prospective study of 87 women referred for cervical length assessment with a standardized TVUS combined to vaginal secretions sampling. Samples were analyzed for presence of 10 cytokines. Main outcome was sPTB (<37 weeks of gestation). Associations were assessed with the chi-square, Fisher's exact test (p < 0.05) and Wald's logistic regression. sPTB occurred in 25.3% of women at a median gestational age of 35.6 weeks of gestation. Short cervix (<25 mm) (n = 24) was associated with sPTB (p < 0.01) as interleukine (IL)-1β, IL-8 and IL-10 in vaginal secretions (p < 0.05). In multivariate analysis, short cervix and IL-8 in vaginal secretions were independently associated with sPTB (OR 3.58 (95%CI 1.02; 12.61) and 14.55 (95%CI 1.64; 128.83), respectively) as their combination (OR 4.33 (95%CI 1.25; 14.95)). By categorizing cervical length by presence of IL-8, sPTB occurred in 55.6% of women with a short inflamed cervix. COLIBRI study used a novel, single-step method of vaginal secretions sampling during TVUS and demonstrated that combination of short cervix and IL-8 in vaginal secretions is a promising sPTB predictive test.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of the vagina: an overview for radiologists with emphasis on clinical decision making*

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Daian Miranda; Bezerra, Régis Otaviano França; Ortega, Cinthia Denise; Blasbalg, Roberto; Viana, Públio César Cavalcante; de Menezes, Marcos Roberto; Rocha, Manoel de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is a method with high contrast resolution widely used in the assessment of pelvic gynecological diseases. However, the potential of such method to diagnose vaginal lesions is still underestimated, probably due to the scarce literature approaching the theme, the poor familiarity of radiologists with vaginal diseases, some of them relatively rare, and to the many peculiarities involved in the assessment of the vagina. Thus, the authors illustrate the role of magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of vaginal diseases and the main relevant findings to be considered in the clinical decision making process. PMID:26379324

  20. Transformation zone location and intraepithelial neoplasia of the cervix uteri.

    PubMed Central

    Autier, P.; Coibion, M.; Huet, F.; Grivegnee, A. R.

    1996-01-01

    We examined the relationship between the frequency of premalignant lesions of the cervix and location of the transformation zone on the cervix among 8758 women as assessed using cervicography. An endo- and exocervical smear test was performed at the same time. Women with smear test classified CIN I or more were recalled and any abnormal area was biopsied under colposcopy. The transformation zone was located on the exocervix in 94% of women younger than 25 years old; as age increased, the proportion of women with a transformation zone located on the exocervix steadily decreased to reach less than 2% after 64 years old. As compared with women having a transformation zone in the endocervical canal, the age-adjusted likelihood of discovering a histologically proven dysplastic lesion was 1.8 times more frequent among women with a transformation zone located on the exocervix (95% confidence interval 1.1-2.9). This higher frequency seemed not attributable to a lower sensitivity of the smear test when the transformation zone was hidden. The results also showed that deliveries tended significantly to maintain the transformation zone on the exocervix. Parity is a known risk factor for cervix cancer, but the mechanism by which it favours malignant lesions remain unknown. Our results suggest that with increasing numbers of livebirths, the transformation zone is directly exposed for longer periods to external agents involved in dysplastic lesions. PMID:8695371

  1. A Systematic Evaluation of Collagen Crosslinks in the Human Cervix

    PubMed Central

    Zork, Noelia M; Myers, Kristin Marie; Yoshida, Ms. Kyoko; Cremers, Serge; Jiang, Hongfeng; Ananth, Cande V; Wapner, Ronald; Kitajewski, Jan; Vink, Joy

    2014-01-01

    Objective The mechanical strength of the cervix relies on crosslinking of the tissue’s collagen network. Clinically, the internal os is functionally distinct from the external os. We sought to detect specific collagen crosslinks in human cervical tissue and determine if crosslink profiles were similar at the internal and external os. Study Design Transverse slices of cervical tissue were obtained at the internal and external os from 13 non-pregnant, premenopausal women undergoing a benign hysterectomy. To understand how crosslinks were distributed throughout the entire cervix and at the internal and external os, biopsies were obtained from three circumferential zones in four quadrants from each slice. Biopsies were pulverized, lyophilized, reduced with sodium borohydride, hydrolyzed with hydrochloric acid and reconstituted in heptafluorobutyric acid buffer. Hydroxyproline was measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS), converted to total collagen, and normalized by dry weight. Collagen crosslinks pyridinoline (PYD), deoxypyridinoline (DPD), dihydroxylysinonorleucine (DHLNL), and the nonenzymatic advanced glycation end product pentosidine [PEN] were measured by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS and reported as crosslink density ratio (crosslink:total collagen). Generalized estimated equation analysis was used to compare results between the internal and external os and to compare quadrants and zones within slices from the internal and external os to determine if crosslink profiles were similar. Results 592 samples from 13 patients were analyzed. Collagen crosslinks are detectable in the human cervix by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. When comparing all samples from the internal and external os, similar levels of collagen content, PYD, DHLNL and DPD were found but PEN density was higher at the external os (0.005 vs 0.004, P=0.001). When comparing all internal os samples, significant heterogeneity was found in collagen content

  2. Postirradiation squamous cell carcinoma in situ of the vagina: treatment by topical 20 percent 5-fluorouracil cream

    SciTech Connect

    Piver, M.S.; Barlow, J.J.; Tsukada, Y.

    1979-10-01

    Eight patients with squamous cell carcinoma in situ of the vagina were treated with monthly 5 day courses of 20% 5-fluorouracil cream applied to the vagina. Seven (87.5%) of the women had an initial complete response; however, three subsequently developed recurrence after the treatment was stopped. They were retreated, and two of these three patients achieved a subsequent complete response. The overall response to therapy was 75% (6/8) with the six women off therapy from 1.1 to 6.9 years. Total follow-up of all patients was 3.1 to 6.9 years with no patients having developed invasive carcinoma. Because of the highmore » success rate with no associated serious sequelae, this is believed to be a satisfactory method of therapy for women with squamous cell carcinoma in situ of the vagina occurring after pelvic irradiation.« less

  3. Anterior vaginal introitoplasty for an acquired sensation of wide vagina: a case report and new surgical intervention.

    PubMed

    Ostrzenski, Adam

    2014-01-01

    A vaginal introital defect case and its symptomatology have never been published before. The objective of this presentation was to describe symptoms associated with an acquired sensation of wide vagina and to present a new surgical treatment for anterior vaginal introital defects. A 42-year-old, Caucasian woman, G4P4013, presented with a sensation of wide vagina at the vaginal opening and a history of colpoperineoplasty, without mesh, for the same condition 4 years prior. Clinical evaluation documented anterior vaginal introital defects and the absence of vaginal site-specific defects. Reconstruction of a vaginal introital defect was completed without complications. Surgical resolution of symptoms and signs of this condition were noted. Anterior vaginal introitoplasty can assist in the management of an acquired sensation of wide vagina.

  4. Foreign Body in Vagina: An Uncommon Cause of Vaginitis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Chinawa, JM; Obu, HA; Uwaezuoke, SN

    2013-01-01

    Vaginal discharge in children may result from a variety of causes. A long-standing intra-vaginal foreign body can pose both diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in children. Treatment failure may occur because of alteration of the normal vaginal flora. A 6-year-old girl, who lived with her parents, presented with a foul-smelling, blood-stained vaginal discharge as well as dysuria for 2 years. There was no history of sexual abuse. Initial evaluation that excluded gynecologic examination revealed lower abdominal tenderness. Vaginal swab and urine cultures yielded Staphylococcus aureus sensitive to ceftriaxone only. She was commenced on this antibiotic for 2 weeks, but the discharge persisted, necessitating referral to the gynecologist. Examination under anesthesia by the gynecologist revealed shreds of toilet tissue paper extracted from the vagina and slight excoriations on the wall of the vagina. Vaginal foreign body can present with diverse symptoms. It should be considered in any young female patient presenting with recurrent or persistent vaginal discharge. PMID:23634340

  5. Malignant lymphoma of the vagina successfully treated with rituximab, adryamicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine sulfate, and prednisolone.

    PubMed

    Nasu, K; Okamoto, M; Nishida, M; Takai, N; Narahara, H

    2012-01-01

    Primary malignant lymphoma of the vagina is extremely rare. The most common histologic subtype is diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We report a case of vaginal DLBCL successfully treated with chemotherapy consisting of rituximab, adryamicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine sulfate, and prednisolone (R-CHOP), followed by pelvic irradiation. A 44-year-old Japanese woman was admitted complaining of atypical genital bleeding and puruloid vaginal discharge. Gynecological examination showed an ulceration of the vaginal wall and a hard mass the size of a goose egg beneath the left vaginal wall, which had infiltrated to the left pelvic wall. The pathological diagnosis based on a punch biopsy taken from the vaginal tumor was non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Based on immunohistochemical study, the tumor was subclassified as activated B-cell type DLBCL. The patient was diagnosed with Ann Arbor Stage IEA DLBCL and Stage III vaginal cancer, according to the International Federation of Gynecologists and Obstetricians (FIGO) classification system. She was successfully treated by six courses of R-CHOP, followed by radiation therapy. The patient is well without evidence of disease 13 months following the initial treatment. Little attention has been paid to the use of rituximab in addition to conventional chemotherapy and the importance of clinical and morphological subgrouping of DLBCL arising in the vagina. The present case indicates that the effects of rituximab on the prognosis of vaginal DLBCL must be evaluated, and that clinical use of immunophenotypic subgrouping should be considered for vaginal DLBCL.

  6. Sex Hormones Coordinate Neutrophil Immunity in the Vagina by Controlling Chemokine Gradients.

    PubMed

    Lasarte, Sandra; Samaniego, Rafael; Salinas-Muñoz, Laura; Guia-Gonzalez, Mauriel A; Weiss, Linnea A; Mercader, Enrique; Ceballos-García, Elena; Navarro-González, Teresa; Moreno-Ochoa, Laura; Perez-Millan, Federico; Pion, Marjorie; Sanchez-Mateos, Paloma; Hidalgo, Andres; Muñoz-Fernandez, Maria A; Relloso, Miguel

    2016-02-01

    Estradiol-based contraceptives and hormonal replacement therapy predispose women to Candida albicans infections. Moreover, during the ovulatory phase (high estradiol), neutrophil numbers decrease in the vaginal lumen and increase during the luteal phase (high progesterone). Vaginal secretions contain chemokines that drive neutrophil migration into the lumen. However, their expression during the ovarian cycle or in response to hormonal treatments are controversial and their role in vaginal defense remains unknown.To investigate the transepithelial migration of neutrophils, we used adoptive transfer of Cxcr2(-/-) neutrophils and chemokine immunofluorescence quantitative analysis in response to C. albicans vaginal infection in the presence of hormones.Our data show that the Cxcl1/Cxcr2 axis drives neutrophil transepithelial migration into the vagina. Progesterone promotes the Cxcl1 gradient to favor neutrophil migration. Estradiol disrupts the Cxcl1 gradient and favors neutrophil arrest in the vaginal stroma; as a result, the vagina becomes more vulnerable to pathogens. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Epithelial estrogen receptor 1 intrinsically mediates squamous differentiation in the mouse vagina.

    PubMed

    Miyagawa, Shinichi; Iguchi, Taisen

    2015-10-20

    Estrogen-mediated actions in female reproductive organs are tightly regulated, mainly through estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1). The mouse vaginal epithelium cyclically exhibits cell proliferation and differentiation in response to estrogen and provides a unique model for analyzing the homeostasis of stratified squamous epithelia. To address the role of ESR1-mediated tissue events during homeostasis, we analyzed mice with a vaginal epithelium-specific knockout of Esr1 driven by keratin 5-Cre (K5-Esr1KO). We show here that loss of epithelial ESR1 in the vagina resulted in aberrant epithelial cell proliferation in the suprabasal cell layers and led to failure of keratinized differentiation. Gene expression analysis showed that several known estrogen target genes, including erbB growth factor ligands, were not induced by estrogen in the K5-Esr1KO mouse vagina. Organ culture experiments revealed that the addition of erbB growth factor ligands, such as amphiregulin, could activate keratinized differentiation in the absence of epithelial ESR1. Thus, epithelial ESR1 integrates estrogen and growth factor signaling to mediate regulation of cell proliferation in squamous differentiation, and our results provide new insights into estrogen-mediated homeostasis in female reproductive organs.

  8. [Ultrastructural characteristics of the vitellaria, uterus and vagina of Amphilina foliacea Rudolphi, 1819 (Cestoda: Amphilinidea)].

    PubMed

    Poddubnaia, L G

    2013-01-01

    The ultrastructural features of the vitelline follicles, uterus and vagina of the amphilinid cestode Amphilina foliacea from the body cavity of Acipenser ruthenus of the Volga basin are described. Some new distinguishing characters are revealed, including the presence of a single type of the cellular component in the vitelline follicles with sarcoplasmic processes filling the space around and within vitellocytes. The,uterus of this species is recognized by the presence of the syncytial epithelial lining with underlying secretory perikaria and different kinds of luminal projections. The most distal part of the uterus, situated closely to the uterine pore, is characterized by nuclei occupying the syncytial uterine epithelium. Slightly further proximally, they are located basally and then transformed into sunken perikaria. The vaginal epithelium is characterized by the syncytial structure with underlying epithelial perikaria in its distal region, with intraepithelial location of the nuclei slightly further proximally and the absence of the nuclei in its proximal region (the seminal receptacle). The syncytial cytoplasm of the vagina contains numerous vesicles and possesses microvilli-like surface structures. The morphological aspects of the female reproductive system of A. foliacea are compared with those of other Cestoda and Neodermata.

  9. Hormones Restore Biomechanical Properties of the Vagina and Supportive Tissues After Surgical Menopause in Young Rats

    PubMed Central

    Moalli, Pamela A; Debes, Kristen M.; Meyn, Leslie A.; Howden, Nancy; Abramowitch, Steven D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the impact of hormones on the biomechanical properties of the vagina and its supportive tissues following surgical menopause in young vs middle aged rats. Methods Long-Evans rats [4-month virgin (N = 34), 4-month parous (N = 36), and 9-month parous (N = 34)], underwent ovariectomy (OVX) or sham surgery. OVX'd animals received hormones [estrogen (E2) or estrogen plus progesterone (E2 + P4)], placebo, or the Matrix Metalloproteinase inhibitor (CMT-8). Animals were sacrificed after 8 weeks and the biomechanical properties of the vagina and supportive tissues determined. Data was analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance and post-hoc tests. Results OVX induced a rapid decline in the biomechanical properties of pelvic tissues in young but not middle aged rats. Supplementation with E2, E2 + P4, or CMT-8 restored tissues of young rats to control levels with no effect on middle aged tissues. Parity did not impact tissue behavior. Conclusions OVX has a differential effect on the tissues of young vs middle aged rats. PMID:18395691

  10. ON THE TREATMENT OF CHANGES IN THE VAGINA FOLLOWING RADIOTHERAPY FOR GYNECOLOGIC CANCER (in German)

    SciTech Connect

    Picha, E.

    1962-02-01

    The clinical management of 152 women showing vaginal changes as a result of radiotherapy is reported. These changes occurred in addition to the general radiation syndrome, leucopenia, and injury to the bladder and rectum in some cases. Of prime importance are changes in the bacterial flora of the vagina following irradiation and leukorrhea was a common symptom, which in some cases appeared months after radiotherapy. Leukorrhea developed in response partly to increased bacterial proliferation in vagina and partly to radionecrosis of normal and tumor tissue. However, necrosis and ulceration of vaginal mucosa was usually self-correcting, and healing followed without furthermore » treatment. On the other hand, necrosis immediately around the tumor, which may have resulted from excessive radiation dosage, does require treatment. The vaginal changes frequently resemble senile colpitis, and may respond to estrogen therapy for a 8- 10 day period. Leukorrhea and necrosis responded best to local applications of salve or ointment containing 50% sulfonamides, 5% lactic acid, and 12.5% salicylic acid. Sulfonamides reduce infection, lactic acid lowers vaginal pH and promotes development of the normal flora (especially Doederlein' s bacillus), and salicylic acid inhibits scar formation. Successful results with this treatment, applied for weeks or months, are described. (BBB)« less

  11. Pregnancy- and delivery-induced biomechanical changes in rat vagina persist postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Alperin, Marianna; Feola, Andrew; Duerr, Robert; Moalli, Pamela; Abramowitch, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis We sought to define changes in vaginal distensibility (VD) induced by pregnancy and vaginal delivery using a novel in vivo biomechanical testing protocol. Methods Under sedation, a balloon was inserted into the vagina of 27 virgin, pregnant and 4-week postpartum Long–Evans rats and incrementally distended. Pressure–volume curves were generated with slopes characterizing VD (higher slope = less distensible). One-way ANOVA with a Bonferroni post-hoc test were used for statistical analyses. Results Mean pressures at an infusion volume of 1 cc were lower in pregnant and postpartum rats than in virgins (P<0.001). VD was increased in pregnant vs. virgin rats (P<0.001) and did not recover to virgin levels post partum (P<0.001). Conclusions We have developed a test that measures VD in vivo under clinically relevant loading conditions. The increased VD in the late postpartum period defines a persistent change in biomechanical behavior of the vagina related to pregnancy and vaginal delivery. PMID:20424824

  12. Epithelial estrogen receptor 1 intrinsically mediates squamous differentiation in the mouse vagina

    PubMed Central

    Miyagawa, Shinichi; Iguchi, Taisen

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen-mediated actions in female reproductive organs are tightly regulated, mainly through estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1). The mouse vaginal epithelium cyclically exhibits cell proliferation and differentiation in response to estrogen and provides a unique model for analyzing the homeostasis of stratified squamous epithelia. To address the role of ESR1-mediated tissue events during homeostasis, we analyzed mice with a vaginal epithelium-specific knockout of Esr1 driven by keratin 5-Cre (K5-Esr1KO). We show here that loss of epithelial ESR1 in the vagina resulted in aberrant epithelial cell proliferation in the suprabasal cell layers and led to failure of keratinized differentiation. Gene expression analysis showed that several known estrogen target genes, including erbB growth factor ligands, were not induced by estrogen in the K5-Esr1KO mouse vagina. Organ culture experiments revealed that the addition of erbB growth factor ligands, such as amphiregulin, could activate keratinized differentiation in the absence of epithelial ESR1. Thus, epithelial ESR1 integrates estrogen and growth factor signaling to mediate regulation of cell proliferation in squamous differentiation, and our results provide new insights into estrogen-mediated homeostasis in female reproductive organs. PMID:26438838

  13. [Acquired caustic vagina stenosis: Surgical outcomes of 21 cases].

    PubMed

    Séni, K; Horo, A G; Koffi, A; Aka, K E; Fomba, M; Koné, M

    2016-03-01

    To document epidemiology, causes, anatomical varieties and surgical management outcomes of caustic acquired vagina stenosis. Retrospective study of 21 patients involved from 1996 to 2012 at the department of obstetrics and gynecology of Yopougon's teaching hospital in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. Vaginal stenosis due to genital malformation, vaginal irradiation of pelvic tumours, repair of bladder and vaginal fistulae or intersexual disorders were excluded. The prevalence was 0.14/1000 admissions, mean age was 32.1 years, mean gravidity was 1.76 and mean parity was 1.1. Vaginal stenosis seat and extent were variable and 100 % had a caustic origin by use of traditional medicine vaginal pessaire. Of the patients, 95.2 % underwent surgical treatment followed by several dilations sessions with glass dilators. Successful surgical outcome allowing coitus was achieved in 47.6 % of cases with 52.4 % failure. Acquired caustic vagina stenosis are frequently occurring and are a public health problem related to ignorance. Health education and establishment of expert centers with exchange of experiences in West Africa should be able to improve surgical outcomes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  14. Early urinary diversion with ileal conduit and vesicovaginostomy in the treatment of radiation cystitis due to carcinoma cervix: a study from a tertiary care hospital in South India.

    PubMed

    Banerji, John Samuel; Devasia, Antony; Kekre, Nitin Sudhakar; Chacko, Ninan

    2015-10-01

    To study the magnitude of radiation cystitis following radiation therapy for carcinoma cervix, and propose an algorithm to decide on early diversion, with or without vesicovaginostomy. Women who developed radiation cystitis following radiotherapy for carcinoma cervix from January 1998 to December 2011 were included in this retrospective study. Electronic hospital records were analysed to document the presence of radiation cystitis. All women who developed evidence of radiation-induced cystitis, according to the common toxicity and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria, were included in the study. We looked at transfusion requirements, number of hospital admissions, quality of life and cost involved. Chi-square tests were done where applicable. SPSS version 16 was used for analysis. Of the 902 patients who received radiation for carcinoma cervix in the 13-year period, 62 (6.87%) developed grade 3/4 cystitis. Twenty-eight of them underwent ileal conduit diversion, with 18 undergoing concomitant vesicovaginostomy. When compared with the patients who did not have diversion, the transfusion requirements, number of hospital admissions and quality of life had a statistically significant difference. Cost analysis of early diversion too showed a marginal benefit with early diversion. The limitation of the study was that it was retrospective in nature. In radiation cystitis, multiple hospital admissions and consequential increase in cost is the norm. In severe disease, early diversion is a prudent, cost-effective approach with good quality of life and early return to normal activity. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  15. Primary invasive carcinoma of the vagina after Le Fort partial colpocleisis for stage IV pelvic organ prolapse: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cho, Moon Kyoung; Kim, Chul Hong; Kim, Yoon Ha

    2011-11-01

    We present here the case report of a postmenopausal woman who complained of recurrent pus-like vaginal discharge and perianal pain 1 year after Le Fort colpocleisis, which was subsequently identified as a primary invasive carcinoma of the vagina. Biopsy confirmed a squamous cell carcinoma in the vagina, and the disease was classified as stage III according to FIGO staging. The patient received pelvic radiotherapy. This case emphasizes that differential diagnosis of recurrent vaginal discharge that presents remote from obliterative procedure for pelvic organ prolapse should consider not only pyometra, but also other causes.

  16. Using of electrical impedance tomography for diagnostics of the cervix uteri diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trokhanova, O. V.; Chijova, Y. A.; Okhapkin, M. B.; Korjenevsky, A. V.; Tuykin, T. S.

    2010-04-01

    The report presents results of investigation of the neck of the womb (cervix) of 64 women aged from 19 to 70, that formed 4 clinical groups (1st group: 15 women without any pathology of the cervix, 2nd group: 27 women with the erosion, 3rd group: 11 women with dysplasia, 4th group: 11 women with cancer of the cervix). The aim of this research is to assess the capabilities of electrical impedance tomography in the diagnostics of the cervix diseases. The methods of the research were: visual examination with the speculum, colposcopy, and biopsy of the cervix. Also the new method of visualization of the cervix was used - electrical impedance tomography with the help of gynecological impedance tomograph (GIT). The following results were obtained. The electrical conductivity of the cervix in norm and in different pathology has different indices, which allow differential diagnostics of benign and malignant diseases. Summary: the method of electrical impedance tomography allows not only visually estimate portio vaginalis, but receive indices of electrical conductivity of the cervix on the depth up to 0.8 cm and thereby reveal pathological changes in epithelium without invasive and operative intervention.

  17. Adenomyosis with severe inflammation in the uterine cervix in a dog

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract A dog with purulent vulval discharge was found to have many cysts containing purulent mucus in the uterine cervix. The uterine horns did not contain any pus. Histological examination revealed a cervical adenomyosis infiltrated by many neutrophils. After an ovariohysterectomy including the whole cervix, the dog recovered well. PMID:15943119

  18. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix: A Report of 2 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Kharmoum, Jinane; Ech-Charif, Soumaya; El Khannoussi, Basma

    2017-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma is malignant tumor that exceptionally occurs in the uterine cervix. It is mostly seen in postmenopausal women and has an aggressive clinical course. We report two cases of an adenoid cystic carcinoma associated with a high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix and discuss briefly its clinical and pathological characteristics. PMID:28348909

  19. Closed cervix is associated with more severe illness in dogs with pyometra.

    PubMed

    Jitpean, Supranee; Ambrosen, Aime; Emanuelson, Ulf; Hagman, Ragnvi

    2017-01-05

    Pyometra, a life-threatening bacterial infection of the uterus, is classified as open or closed depending on the functional patency of the cervix i.e. presence or absence of vaginal discharge. In closed cervix pyometra, pus and bacterial products accumulate in the uterus, which is thought to induce a more severe illness. The aim of this study was to investigate whether disease severity or outcome differed in dogs with open or closed cervix pyometra. Prospectively collected data from 111 female dogs diagnosed with pyometra at the University Animal Hospital, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, intermittently during 2005-2012 was analyzed. Seventy-two dogs (65%) had open cervix, whereas 39 dogs (35%) had closed cervix. Differences between the two groups were explored by Wilcoxon Two Sample Test for continuous variables and Chi-square or Fisher's exact test for categorical variables. P < 0.05 was considered significant. In dogs with open cervix the median age was 9.0 years and the median weight 26.0 kg. In dogs with closed cervix the median age was 9.6 years and the median weight 25.0 kg, with no significant differences between the groups (p = 0.69 and 0.24, respectively). Five dogs (4.5%) died, all with open cervix, and 16 dogs (14%) had complications. The general physical condition was moderately or severely depressed in 30% (21/71) of dogs with open cervix (severely depressed in 4 dogs, moderately depressed in 17 dogs) and in 56% (22/39) of dogs with closed cervix (severely depressed in 3 dogs, moderately depressed in 19 dogs). The general physical condition was mildly depressed in 41 dogs with open cervix and 16 dogs with closed cervix, whereas it was normal in nine dogs with open cervix and one dog with closed cervix. None of the included dogs had very severely depressed general physical condition or were non-responsive. Leukocytosis, neutrophilia, monocytosis and moderately to severely depressed general condition was more commonly

  20. [Cervix uteri cancer: a critical approach to its prevention].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Michele Mandagara; da Silva, Emilia Nalva Ferreira; Pinto, Ione Carvalho; Coimbra, Valéria Cristina Christello

    2004-08-01

    This article is a pilot study of one of the authors master dissertation about problems related to the preventive measures of cervix cancer. Four women with cancer that were hospitalized at the gynecological ward or under chemotherapy treatment at a hospital in the city of Pelotas, RS, Brazil, were interviewed. Data were collected from April to June 2001, and of the women interviewed only one was examined preventively according to the guidelines of the Ministry of Health. Therefore, health professionals should be urged to promote care as well as health education.

  1. [Morphological index for prediction of cervix uteri cancer].

    PubMed

    Gatenadze, Ts Z; Ungiadze, D Iu; Chakhoian, O P; Nakashidze, M G; Sulaberidze, I M

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the research is evaluation of morphological parameters which would allow predicting cervix uteri cancer. The case histories of 505 patients (from 20 to 70 years old) with I-III clinical stages of primary cervical uteri cancer (PUC), which got surgical and combined treatment in oncological center in Batumi from 1970-2005 were evaluated. The factors that influence on the prognosis of PUC are revealed: cancer cell emboli in vessels of tumour stroma, sharpness of the tumour edges, the tumor tissue types, and the depth of invasion. The imaging characteristics of the tumours are described. Planocellular cancer has more favourable prognosis in comparison with glandular cancer.

  2. Is Sonographic Assessment of the Cervix Necessary and Helpful?

    PubMed Central

    Larma, Joel D.; Iams, Jay D.

    2012-01-01

    Transvaginal sonography of the cervix has emerged as a useful window onto preterm parturition. Cervical sonography allows measurements of cervical length which can aid clinicians in identifying women at risk for preterm birth. The use of transvaginal assessments of cervical length can assist in the triage of patients with possible preterm labor. Recent studies also support the use of cervical length measurements as a means of determining appropriate candidates for cerclage placement and progesterone supplementation to reduce the risk of premature birth, further highlighting the importance of this modality in modern obstetric management. PMID:22343248

  3. Obstructive ureteropathy following radiation therapy for carcinoma of the cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Parliament, M.; Genest, P.; Girard, A.

    1989-05-01

    Between January 1959 and December 1986, 10 of 328 patients (3%) treated with curative intent using primary radiation therapy for carcinoma of the cervix developed obstructive ureteropathy due to fibrosis. The mean age of the patients with obstructive ureteropathy was 45 years and the median time to obstruction was 26 months. The obstruction was unilateral in 8 cases and involved the parametrial portion of the ureter in at least 5 cases. No predisposing risk factor was found to be associated with the development of obstructive ureteropathy. After corrective surgery, renal function remained normal in 8 patients, and resolution of themore » hydronephrosis occurred in 4 patients.« less

  4. Is there a subset of patients with recurrent cancer in the vagina who are not candidates for interstitial brachytherapy that can be treated with multichannel vaginal brachytherapy using graphic optimization?

    PubMed

    Singh, Deepinder P; Bylund, Kevin C; Matloubieh, Ahmad; Mazloom, Ali; Gray, Alexander; Sidhu, Ravinder; Barrette, Lucille; Chen, Yuhchyau

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate recurrent vaginal cancer treated with vaginal brachytherapy (VBT) using graphic optimization in patients not amenable to surgery and interstitial brachytherapy (ISBT). We retrospectively reviewed the records of 5 patients with recurrent cancer in the vagina that were deemed not to be good candidates for ISBT implant because of medical reasons. All patients received computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (CT/MRI) based evaluation in addition to a detailed clinical examination, and were noted to have recurrent nodules in the vagina with size ranging from 10-25 mm. Four of the 5 patients had recurrent disease in the vaginal apex, whereas one patient had recurrence in the lateral vaginal wall. Subsequently, all patients were treated with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) followed by multichannel vaginal cylinder (MVC)-based VBT using graphic optimization for shaping the isodose to improve the clinical target volume (CTV) coverage, as well as to spare the organs at risk (OAR). The dose to the bladder and rectum with regard to 0.1 cc, 1 cc, and 2 cc were recorded. Median age of the patients was 78 years (range 58-86 years). Thickness of the lesions before VBT ranged from 6-15 mm. All patients were followed up with MRI at 3 months. All patients but one demonstrated complete clinical/ radiological response of the tumor. No patient had any grade III/IV toxicity at 24 months. MVC-based VBT using graphic optimization is safe and yields favorable results if used judiciously.

  5. Sensate Vagina Pedicled-Spot for Male-to-Female Transsexuals: The Experience in the First 50 Patients.

    PubMed

    Kanhai, Robert C J

    2016-04-01

    The cosmetic and functional results of vaginoplasty by inversion of penile and scrotal skin in male-to-female transsexuals are, in general, satisfactory. The sexual arousal function of the neo-female genitalia depends mainly on the clitoris. Due to the lack of a sexual arousal organ within the neo-vagina, patients are denied sexual arousal during penetration of the neo-vagina. This necessitated improvement of sexual innervation within the neo-vagina. A new technique to create a sexual arousal organ in the anterior wall of the neo-vagina by creation of a sensate pedicled-spot, in combination with the neo-clitoroplasty. In this paper, this new technique and part of the long-term results in the first 50 patients with a sensate pedicled-spot plasty are presented and discussed. Sensate pedicled-spot plasty has proven to be a safe innovative technique which lead to adequate sexual functionality in all patients. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

  6. Reconstruction of the anus, rectovaginal septum, and distal part of the vagina after postirradiation necrosis. Report of a unique case

    SciTech Connect

    Nowacki, M.P.; Towpik, E.

    1988-08-01

    Successful repair of postirradiation total loss of the anal sphincters, rectovaginal septum, and distal part of the vagina is reported. Gracilis muscle flap was used as a substitute sphincter. Part of the muscle was wrapped-up in a split skin graft. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on new application of gracilis muscle and split skin graft in perineal reconstruction.

  7. Endometrial stromal sarcoma mimicking submucosal myoma protruding to the vagina: MRI findings.

    PubMed

    Chien, J C W; Hsieh, S C; Lee, R C; Chen, C Y; Cheng, C J; Chan, W P

    2005-01-01

    A 46-year-old woman complained of persistent abnormal vaginal bleeding over ten days. Her intrauterine device had been removed two years before. Soon after, she suffered from menorrhagia and metrorrhagia. An incidental finding of severe anemia was also noted. In this admission, our initial T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a well-demarcated mass predominantly in the uterine cavity. The mass was depicted by an isointense signal relative to the myometrium on T1-weighted images, high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, and slightly heterogeneous enhancement on post-contrast images. The patient refused surgery. After two years, follow-up MRI showed a pedunculated mass protruding into the upper third of the vagina with a stalk connecting to the posterior wall of the uterine cavity, simulating submucosal myoma. Histological diagnosis was compatible with low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma.

  8. Paraganglioma of the vagina: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Tao; Li, Yucong; Jiang, Qingming; Wang, Dong; Huang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Vaginal paraganglioma is a rare and unusual tumor occurring in the vaginal wall. It is a solitary primary paraganglioma, especially in atypical sites. Herein, we report an unusual case of a 17-year-old woman who had not experienced vomiting, or hypertension. She was found to have an immobile solid mass in the right side of her vaginal wall. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography scans revealed a well-defined solid ovoid mass adjacent to the bladder and pelvic floor. Tumor markers were within the normal range. A transient blood pressure increase occurred during the biopsy. After oral administration of antihypertensive drugs, surgery was performed to completely remove the mass. Histopathological examination indicated that it was a paraganglioma of the vagina. Repeat computed tomography examination did not reveal any local recurrence or distant metastasis during the 12-month follow-up period. PMID:24959083

  9. Integrated external and interstitial radiation therapy for primary carcinoma of the vagina

    SciTech Connect

    Puthawala, A.; Syed, A.M.; Nalick, R.

    1983-09-01

    Twenty-seven patients with the diagnosis of primary carcinoma of the vagina were treated by definitive radiotherapy. Twenty-three patients received a combination of external and interstitial iridium-192 implant irradiation and four patients received only interstitial irradiation. Twenty-one patients had squamous cell carcinoma and six had adenocarcinoma. All patients were staged according to the FIGO classification. More than 70% of patients had relatively advanced local disease and conventional intracavitary irradiation was unsuitable. Local tumor control was observed in 85% (23 of 27 patients), and 56% of the patients remain alive and free of disease for a median follow-up period of 50 monthsmore » to a maximum follow-up period of 84 months. Fifteen percent of the patients suffered from treatment-related complications.« less

  10. Radiation therapy for primary squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina: Stanford University experience

    SciTech Connect

    Spirtos, N.M.; Doshi, B.P.; Kapp, D.S.

    1989-10-01

    A retrospective analysis of 38 patients with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina seen at Stanford University Medical Center from 1958 to 1984 was undertaken. Patients were analyzed with regard to symptoms, stage, treatment techniques, survival, patterns of failure, and complications. Eighteen patients were classified as FIGO Stage I, 5 as Stage II, 10 as Stage III, and 5 as Stage IV. The 5-year disease-free survival was 94% in Stage I, 80% in Stage II, 50% in Stage III, and 0% in Stage IV. Five patients (13%) had eight major complications secondary to treatment. Only 2 of 23 patientsmore » with Stage I or Stage II disease developed a recurrence. There was a significant correlation between dose and response in patients treated with radiotherapy.« less

  11. The Effect of Radiation on the Normal and Oestrone-treated Mouse Vagina Grown in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Lasnitzki, Ilse

    1961-06-01

    The effect of radiation on the differentiation of normal and oestrone- treated organ cultures of the mouse vagina was studied during growth in natural and in chemically defined medium. After explanation into either type of medium without addition of the hormone the vaginal epithelium spontaneously forms new squamous keratinising epithelium which displaces the original secretory epithelium. Addition of oestrone to the medium stimulates the growth of the new cells and hastens and increases keratin synthesis. Exposure to 200 r of x rays given one day after explanation inhibits the squamous development, suppresses keratin formation and preserves the original epithelium inmore » both normal and oestrone-treated explants grown in natural medium. Radiation of cultures kept in defined medium fails to influence the normal squamous differentiation and keratinisation. The mechanism of radiation action is discussed in the light of the differnet results obtained under the two conditions. (auth)« less

  12. Ileal J-pouch vaginoplasty: reconstruction of a physiologic vagina with an ileal J-pouch.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Wolfgang; Nguyen-Thanh, Phuong; Dralle, Henning; Mirastschijski, Ursula

    2009-06-01

    Vaginal reconstruction has been performed for more than a century. Main complications are vaginal stenosis requiring dilatation, dyspareunia, excessive mucus secretion, and poor aesthetic and functional outcome. Here we report a new operation method modified after Baldwin for intestinal vaginoplasty in a patient with pelvic exenteration after spinal cell carcinoma of the vagina. Because of balanced liquid resorption and mucus secretion with sufficient vessel length in the terminal ileum, this intestinal segment was chosen. A J-pouch of distal ileum was constructed pedicled on the ileocolic artery and accompanying nervous plexus, transferred into the lower pelvis and sutured to the vaginal stump. One year follow-up showed a highly satisfied, sexually active patient, with adequate vaginal size, optimal lubrication and no molesting fecal odor. Terminal ileum J-pouch vaginoplasty is an optimal method for vaginal reconstruction providing a sufficient vaginal lumen and lubrication and thereby restoring patients' sexual life and increasing life quality.

  13. Trichobezoar in Vagina: Assessment for Child Sexual Abuse and Diagnostic Result of Forensic Science.

    PubMed

    Bağ, Özlem; Acar, Buğra Han; Öztürk, Şenol; Alşen, Sevay; Ecevit, Çiğdem

    2017-03-01

    Vaginal discharge and bleeding in children require a through and thoughtful evaluation to diagnose the underlying problem including infections, sexual abuse, and vaginal foreign bodies. We report a 6-year-old girl presenting with bloody vaginal discharge, carefully evaluated for sexual abuse, and finally diagnosed as a vaginal foreign body after vaginoscopy. A rolling hair ball was extracted from the vagina and was diagnosed as trichobezoar pathologically without any endo-ecto-mesodermal residual tissue. The hair ball was genetically detected and diagnosed to belong herself by containing no foreign structure. Child sexual abuse was ruled out by forensic interview at CAC and report of forensic science that reported genetic structure belonging to the child. Medicolegal assessment helped in final diagnosis to exclude child sexual abuse. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Post-translational regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) by estrogens in the rat vagina.

    PubMed

    Musicki, Biljana; Liu, Tongyun; Strong, Travis D; Lagoda, Gwen A; Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Burnett, Arthur L

    2010-05-01

    Estrogens control vaginal blood flow during female sexual arousal mostly through nitric oxide (NO). Although vascular effects of estrogens are attributed to an increase in endothelial NO production, the mechanisms of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) regulation by estrogens in the vagina are largely unknown. Our hypothesis was that estrogens regulate eNOS post-translationally in the vagina, providing a mechanism to affect NO bioavailability without changes in eNOS protein expression. We measured eNOS phosphorylation and eNOS interaction with caveolin-1 and heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) in the distal and proximal vagina of female rats at diestrus, 7 days after ovariectomy and 2 days after replacement of ovariectomized rats with estradiol-17beta (15 microg). Molecular mechanisms of eNOS regulation by estrogen in the rat vagina. We localized phospho-eNOS (Ser-1177) immunohistochemically to the endothelium lining blood vessels and vaginal sinusoids. Estrogen withdrawal decreased phosphorylation of eNOS on its positive regulatory site (Ser-1177) and increased eNOS binding to its negative regulator caveolin-1 (without affecting eNOS/HSP90 interaction), and they were both normalized by estradiol replacement. Protein expressions of phosphorylated Akt (protein kinase B) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) were not affected by estrogen status, suggesting that the effect of estrogens on eNOS (Ser-1177) phosphorylation was not mediated by activated AKT or ERK1/2. eNOS phosphorylation on its negative regulatory site (Ser-114) was increased in the vagina by estrogen withdrawal and normalized by estradiol replacement, implying that the maintenance of low phosphorylation of eNOS on this site by estradiol may limit eNOS interaction with caveolin-1 and preserve the enzyme's activity. Total eNOS, inducible NOS, caveolin-1, and HSP90 protein expressions were not affected by ovariectomy or estradiol replacement in the distal or proximal vagina. These results

  15. Post-translational Regulation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS) by Estrogens in the Rat Vagina

    PubMed Central

    Musicki, Biljana; Liu, Tongyun; Strong, Travis D.; Lagoda, Gwen A.; Bivalacqua, Trinity J.; Burnett, Arthur L.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Estrogens control vaginal blood flow during female sexual arousal mostly through nitric oxide (NO). Although vascular effects of estrogens are attributed to an increase in endothelial NO production, the mechanisms of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) regulation by estrogens in the vagina are largely unknown. Aims Our hypothesis was that estrogens regulate eNOS post-translationally in the vagina, providing a mechanism to affect NO bioavailability without changes in eNOS protein expression. Methods We measured eNOS phosphorylation and eNOS interaction with caveolin-1 and heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) in the distal and proximal vagina of female rats at diestrus, 7 days after ovariectomy and 2 days after replacement of ovariectomized rats with estradiol-17β (15 μg). Main Outcome Measures Molecular mechanisms of eNOS regulation by estrogen in the rat vagina. Results We localized phospho-eNOS (Ser-1177) immunohistochemically to the endothelium lining blood vessels and vaginal sinusoids. Estrogen withdrawal decreased phosphorylation of eNOS on its positive regulatory site (Ser-1177) and increased eNOS binding to its negative regulator caveolin-1 (without affecting eNOS/HSP90 interaction), and they were both normalized by estradiol replacement. Protein expressions of phosphorylated Akt (protein kinase B) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) were not affected by estrogen status, suggesting that the effect of estrogens on eNOS (Ser-1177) phosphorylation was not mediated by activated AKT or ERK1/2. eNOS phosphorylation on its negative regulatory site (Ser-114) was increased in the vagina by estrogen withdrawal and normalized by estradiol replacement, implying that the maintenance of low phosphorylation of eNOS on this site by estradiol may limit eNOS interaction with caveolin-1 and preserve the enzyme's activity. Total eNOS, inducible NOS, caveolin-1, and HSP90 protein expressions were not affected by ovariectomy or estradiol replacement

  16. DETERIORATION IN BIOMECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THE VAGINA FOLLOWING IMPLANTATION OF A HIGH STIFFNESS PROLAPSE MESH

    PubMed Central

    Feola, Andrew; Abramowitch, Steven; Jallah, Zegbeh; Stein, Suzan; Barone, William; Palcsey, Stacy; Moalli, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Objective Define the impact of prolapse mesh on the biomechanical properties of the vagina by comparing the prototype Gynemesh PS (Ethicon, Somerville, NJ) to 2 new generation lower stiffness meshes, SmartMesh (Coloplast, Minneapolis, MN) and UltraPro (Ethicon). Design A study employing a non-human primate model Setting University of Pittsburgh Population 45 parous rhesus macaques Methods Meshes were implanted via sacrocolpexy after hysterectomy and compared to Sham. Because its stiffness is highly directional UltraPro was implanted in two directions: UltraPro Perpendicular (less stiff) and UltraPro Parallel (more stiff), with the indicated direction referring to the blue orientation lines. The mesh-vaginal complex (MVC) was excised en toto after 3 months. Main Outcome Measures Active mechanical properties were quantified as contractile force generated in the presence of 120 mM KCl. Passive mechanical properties (a tissues ability to resist an applied force) were measured using a multi-axial protocol. Results Vaginal contractility decreased 80% following implantation with the Gynemesh PS (p=0.001), 48% after SmartMesh (p=0.001), 68% after UltraPro parallel (p=0.001) and was highly variable after UltraPro perpendicular (p =0.16). The tissue contribution to the passive mechanical behavior of the MVC was drastically reduced for Gynemesh PS (p=0.003) but not SmartMesh (p=0.9) or UltraPro independent of the direction of implantation (p=0.68 and p=0.66, respectively). Conclusions Deterioration of the mechanical properties of the vagina was highest following implantation with the stiffest mesh, Gynemesh PS. Such a decrease associated with implantation of a device of increased stiffness is consistent with findings from other systems employing prostheses for support. PMID:23240801

  17. Dosimetric comparison between conventional and conformal radiotherapy for carcinoma cervix: Are we treating the right volumes?

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Jyotirup; Patra, Niladri B.; Sarkar, Biplab; Basu, Ayan; Pal, Santanu

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Conventional portals, based on bony anatomy, for external beam radiotherapy for cervical cancer have been repeatedly demonstrated as inadequate. Conversely, with image-based conformal radiotherapy, better target coverage may be offset by the greater toxicities and poorer compliance associated with treating larger volumes. This study was meant to dosimetrically compare conformal and conventional radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Five patients of carcinoma cervix underwent planning CT scan with IV contrast and targets, and organs at risk (OAR) were contoured. Two sets of plans-conventional and conformal were generated for each patient. Field sizes were recorded, and dose volume histograms of both sets of plans were generated and compared on the basis of target coverage and OAR sparing. Results: Target coverage was significantly improved with conformal plans though field sizes required were significantly larger. On the other hand, dose homogeneity was not significantly improved. Doses to the OARs (rectum, urinary bladder, and small bowel) were not significantly different across the 2 arms. Conclusion: Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy gives significantly better target coverage, which may translate into better local control and survival. On the other hand, it also requires significantly larger field sizes though doses to the OARs are not significantly increased. PMID:24455584

  18. Genomic Comparisons of Lactobacillus crispatus and Lactobacillus iners Reveal Potential Ecological Drivers of Community Composition in the Vagina.

    PubMed

    France, Michael T; Mendes-Soares, Helena; Forney, Larry J

    2016-12-15

    Lactobacillus crispatus and Lactobacillus iners are common inhabitants of the healthy human vagina. These two species are closely related and are thought to perform similar ecological functions in the vaginal environment. Temporal data on the vaginal microbiome have shown that nontransient instances of cooccurrence are uncommon, while transitions from an L. iners-dominated community to one dominated by L. crispatus, and vice versa, occur often. This suggests that there is substantial overlap in the fundamental niches of these species. Given this apparent niche overlap, it is unclear how they have been maintained as common inhabitants of the human vagina. In this study, we characterized and compared the genomes of L. iners and L. crispatus to gain insight into possible mechanisms driving the maintenance of this species diversity. Our results highlight differences in the genomes of these two species that may facilitate the partitioning of their shared niche space. Many of the identified differences may impact the protective benefits provided to the host by these two species. The microbial communities that inhabit the human vagina play a critical role in the maintenance of vaginal health through the production of lactic acid and lowering the environmental pH. This precludes the growth of nonindigenous organisms and protects against infectious disease. The two most common types of vaginal communities are dominated by either Lactobacillus iners or Lactobacillus crispatus, while some communities alternate between the two over time. We combined ecological theory with state-of-the-art genome analyses to characterize how these two species might partition their shared niche space in the vagina. We show that the genomes of L. iners and L. crispatus differ in many respects, several of which may drive differences in their competitive abilities in the vagina. Our results provide insight into factors that drive the complicated temporal dynamics of the vaginal microbiome and

  19. Genomic Comparisons of Lactobacillus crispatus and Lactobacillus iners Reveal Potential Ecological Drivers of Community Composition in the Vagina

    PubMed Central

    France, Michael T.; Mendes-Soares, Helena

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lactobacillus crispatus and Lactobacillus iners are common inhabitants of the healthy human vagina. These two species are closely related and are thought to perform similar ecological functions in the vaginal environment. Temporal data on the vaginal microbiome have shown that nontransient instances of cooccurrence are uncommon, while transitions from an L. iners-dominated community to one dominated by L. crispatus, and vice versa, occur often. This suggests that there is substantial overlap in the fundamental niches of these species. Given this apparent niche overlap, it is unclear how they have been maintained as common inhabitants of the human vagina. In this study, we characterized and compared the genomes of L. iners and L. crispatus to gain insight into possible mechanisms driving the maintenance of this species diversity. Our results highlight differences in the genomes of these two species that may facilitate the partitioning of their shared niche space. Many of the identified differences may impact the protective benefits provided to the host by these two species. IMPORTANCE The microbial communities that inhabit the human vagina play a critical role in the maintenance of vaginal health through the production of lactic acid and lowering the environmental pH. This precludes the growth of nonindigenous organisms and protects against infectious disease. The two most common types of vaginal communities are dominated by either Lactobacillus iners or Lactobacillus crispatus, while some communities alternate between the two over time. We combined ecological theory with state-of-the-art genome analyses to characterize how these two species might partition their shared niche space in the vagina. We show that the genomes of L. iners and L. crispatus differ in many respects, several of which may drive differences in their competitive abilities in the vagina. Our results provide insight into factors that drive the complicated temporal dynamics of the vaginal

  20. Laparoscopic radical hysterectomy with vaginectomy and reconstruction of vagina in patients with stage I of primary vaginal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ling, Bin; Gao, Zongxia; Sun, Minwen; Sun, Fanglin; Zhang, Aijun; Zhao, Weidong; Hu, Weiping

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the technique, feasibility and oncological safety of laparoscopic radical hysterectomy with vaginectomy and reconstruction of vagina in patients with stage I primary vaginal carcinomas. Between February 2003 and July 2004, four patients, that had needs of sexual life, aging from 41 to 61 years with stage I primary vaginal carcinoma located at the upper third or 2/3 of the vagina, were submitted to laparoscopic radical hysterectomy with vaginectomy and reconstruction of the vagina using the sigmoid colon. The average operative time was 305 min (range 260-350 min). The average estimated blood loss was 325 ml (range 250-400 ml), and the medial number of the lymph nodes removed was 16 (range 13-20). All surgical margins and nodes removed were negative histopathologically. There were no intra-operative and postoperative complications. The mean stay day after surgery was 7 days (range 6-8 days). The mean length of a neo-vagina was 13 cm (range 12-15 cm) and the introitus admitted two fingers in breadth. The mean follow-up was 46 months (range 40-54 months). All patients are clinically free of disease and have satisfactory sexual life. None require dilation of the introitus. During the first 6 months, all the patients had little complaints of excessive leucorrhoea. To our knowledge, this is the first reported laparoscopical radical surgery combined with reconstruction of the vagina in patients with early-stage primary vaginal cancer. Our results have demonstrated the oncological safety and feasibility of the laparoscopical procedure. Intermediate-term follow-up validates the adequacy of this procedure.

  1. Polarimetric imaging of uterine cervix: a case study.

    PubMed

    Pierangelo, Angelo; Nazac, André; Benali, Abdelali; Validire, Pierre; Cohen, Henri; Novikova, Tatiana; Ibrahim, Bicher Haj; Manhas, Sandeep; Fallet, Clément; Antonelli, Maria-Rosaria; Martino, Antonello-De

    2013-06-17

    We present a preliminary investigation of macroscopic polarimetric imaging of uterine cervix. Orthogonal state contrast (OSC) images of healthy and anomalous cervices have been taken in vivo at 550 nm. Four ex vivo cervix samples have been studied in full Muller polarimetry, at 550 nm and 700 nm, and characterized in detail by standard pathology. One sample was totally healthy, another one carried CIN lesions at very early stage (CIN1) in its visible exocervical region, while for the other two samples more advanced (CIN3) lesions were present, together with visible glandular epithelium (ectropion). Significant birefringence has been observed in the healthy regions of all six samples, both in vivo and ex vivo. Standard treatments of the Mueller images of the ex vivo samples allowed to quantify both retardation and depolarization. Retardation reached 60° in healthy regions, and disappeared in the anomalous regions of the other three ex vivo samples. The depolarization power was largest in healthy regions, and lower in CINs and ectropion. Possible origins of the observed effects are briefly discussed.

  2. CCDB: a curated database of genes involved in cervix cancer.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Subhash M; Raghav, Dhwani; Singh, Harinder; Raghava, G P S

    2011-01-01

    The Cervical Cancer gene DataBase (CCDB, http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/ccdb) is a manually curated catalog of experimentally validated genes that are thought, or are known to be involved in the different stages of cervical carcinogenesis. In spite of the large women population that is presently affected from this malignancy still at present, no database exists that catalogs information on genes associated with cervical cancer. Therefore, we have compiled 537 genes in CCDB that are linked with cervical cancer causation processes such as methylation, gene amplification, mutation, polymorphism and change in expression level, as evident from published literature. Each record contains details related to gene like architecture (exon-intron structure), location, function, sequences (mRNA/CDS/protein), ontology, interacting partners, homology to other eukaryotic genomes, structure and links to other public databases, thus augmenting CCDB with external data. Also, manually curated literature references have been provided to support the inclusion of the gene in the database and establish its association with cervix cancer. In addition, CCDB provides information on microRNA altered in cervical cancer as well as search facility for querying, several browse options and an online tool for sequence similarity search, thereby providing researchers with easy access to the latest information on genes involved in cervix cancer.

  3. [Treatment of human papilloma virus of the cervix using cryosurgery].

    PubMed

    González Sánchez, J L; Celis, C; Rodríguez de Santiago, J D; Peña Sandoval, M; Menéndez Velásquez, J

    1991-05-01

    The causal lesions by VPH in the cervix, are associated to cancer. Currently 56 different subtypes have been isolated, from which, the 16, 18, 31, 33, 35 and 39 are more frequently related with the cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; from here derives the importance of opportune treatment. The objective of this paper is to evaluate VPH of the cervix opportune treatment with cryosurgery. Seventy five patients were analyzed, from April 1988 to May 1990 with diagnosis of cervical VPH, by cytology, colposcopy and histopathology; in whom cryosurgery with double freezing technique, was practiced; and were evaluated ever six months, during two years with cytology and colposcopy. Whenever there was persistence or recurrence, cryosurgery was used again; doing this even three times, previously discarding intraepithelial cancer. Seventy seven per cent of the patients received only one session; 16% two, and 7% three. At the six months review, it was found that 92% of the cases were negative, and 8% with persistence; at 12 months, 89% negative and 11% with recurrences; at 18 months, 93% negative, 3% with persistence and 4% with recurrence; at 24 months, 96% negative and 4% with recurrence. It is concluded that cryosurgery is efficacious in the treatment of these lesions, easy to use, well tolerated, with minimal side effects, it does not require anesthesia and is of a low cost.

  4. US of the Nongravid Cervix with Multimodality Imaging Correlation: Normal Appearance, Pathologic Conditions, and Diagnostic Pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Wildenberg, Joseph C; Yam, Benjamin L; Langer, Jill E; Jones, Lisa P

    2016-01-01

    The adult uterine cervix may exhibit a wide variety of pathologic conditions that include benign entities (eg, cervicitis, hyperplasia, nabothian cysts, cervical polyps, leiomyomas, endometriosis, and congenital abnormalities) as well as malignant lesions, particularly cervical carcinoma. In addition, lesions that arise in the uterine body may secondarily involve the cervix, such as endometrial carcinoma and prolapsed intracavitary masses. Many of these conditions can be identified and characterized at ultrasonography (US), which is considered the first-line imaging examination for the female pelvis. However, examination of the cervix is often cursory during pelvic US, such that cervical disease may be overlooked or misdiagnosed. Transabdominal US of the cervix may not afford sufficient spatial resolution to depict cervical disease in many patients; therefore, endovaginal US is considered the optimal technique. Use of supplemental imaging techniques, particularly the application of transducer pressure on the cervix, may be helpful. This review describes the normal appearance of the cervix at US, the appearance of cervical lesions and conditions that mimic abnormalities at US, and optimal US techniques for evaluation of the cervix. This information will help radiologists detect and diagnose cervical abnormalities more confidently at pelvic US. Online supplemental material is available for this article. (©)RSNA, 2016.

  5. Immunoglobulin G, Plasma Cells, and Lymphocytes in the Murine Vagina after Vaginal or Parenteral Immunization with Attenuated Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2

    PubMed Central

    Parr, Earl L.; Parr, Margaret B.

    1998-01-01

    This investigation evaluated immunity to vaginal herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection after local or parenteral immunization with attenuated HSV-2. Vaginal immunization induced sterilizing immunity against challenge with a high dose of wild-type virus, whereas parenteral immunizations protected against neurologic disease but did not entirely prevent infection of the vagina. Vaginal immunization caused 86- and 31-fold increases in the numbers of immunoglobulin G (IgG) plasma cells in the vagina at 6 weeks and 10 months after immunization, whereas parenteral immunizations did not increase plasma cell numbers in the vagina. Vaginal secretion/serum titer ratios and specific antibody activities in vaginal secretions and serum indicated that IgG viral antibody was produced in the vagina and released into vaginal secretions at 6 weeks and 10 months after vaginal immunization but not after parenteral immunizations. In contrast to the case for plasma cells, the numbers of T and B lymphocytes in the vagina were similar in vaginally and parenterally immunized mice. Also, lymphocyte numbers in the vagina were markedly but similarly increased by vaginal challenge with HSV-2 in both vaginally and parenterally immunized mice. Lymphocyte recruitment to the vagina after virus challenge appeared to involve memory lymphocytes, because it was not observed in nonimmunized mice. Thus, local vaginal immunization with attenuated HSV-2 increased the number of IgG plasma cells in the vagina and increased vaginal secretion/serum titer ratios to 3.0- to 4.7-fold higher than in parenterally immunized groups but caused little if any selective homing of T and B lymphocytes to the vagina. PMID:9573285

  6. Cervix regression and motion during the course of external beam chemoradiation for cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Beadle, Beth M; Jhingran, Anuja; Salehpour, Mohammad; Sam, Marianne; Iyer, Revathy B; Eifel, Patricia J

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the magnitude of cervix regression and motion during external beam chemoradiation for cervical cancer. Sixteen patients with cervical cancer underwent computed tomography scanning before, weekly during, and after conventional chemoradiation. Cervix volumes were calculated to determine the extent of cervix regression. Changes in the center of mass and perimeter of the cervix between scans were used to determine the magnitude of cervix motion. Maximum cervix position changes were calculated for each patient, and mean maximum changes were calculated for the group. Mean cervical volumes before and after 45 Gy of external beam irradiation were 97.0 and 31.9 cc, respectively; mean volume reduction was 62.3%. Mean maximum changes in the center of mass of the cervix were 2.1, 1.6, and 0.82 cm in the superior-inferior, anterior-posterior, and right-left lateral dimensions, respectively. Mean maximum changes in the perimeter of the cervix were 2.3 and 1.3 cm in the superior and inferior, 1.7 and 1.8 cm in the anterior and posterior, and 0.76 and 0.94 cm in the right and left lateral directions, respectively. Cervix regression and internal organ motion contribute to marked interfraction variations in the intrapelvic position of the cervical target in patients receiving chemoradiation for cervical cancer. Failure to take these variations into account during the application of highly conformal external beam radiation techniques poses a theoretical risk of underdosing the target or overdosing adjacent critical structures.

  7. Successful pregnancy after radiation therapy for carcinoma of the cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Whelton, James A.; McSweeney, Daniel J.

    Radiosensitivity of the ovary is considered, and the possibility of recovery of ovarian function following pelvic radiotherapy is evaluated with reference to previously reported cases and a new case. In the standard radiation program of combined Ra and x-ray therapy currently employed for the control of carcinoma of the cervix, thc amount of radiation delivered to the gonads makes preservation of ovarian function nearly impossible. Even after Ra therapy alone for cervical cancer, continued ovarian activity as evidenced by regular menstruation is infrequent, and successful pregnancy after Ra treatment for a malignant growth on the cervix is an extremely raremore » occurrence. Data are tabulated for nine previous cases in which pregnancy occurred after radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma. In the present case, a 21-yr-old women was treated with 5000 mg-hr and became pregnant twice, four and six yrs later. No external x-ray therapy was given. The patient experienced vaginal bleeding consistent with a menstrual period in each of the first two months after Ra insertion but had total amenorrhea for the next year. Rectal bleeding and diarrhea six months later because of radiation proctitis. A cervical biopsy performed three yr later showed a severe radiation reaction. Regular menses commenced four months after this procedure. Both pregnancies terminated prematurely but in both instances an apparently normal infant was born, and no subsequent abnormalities in their growth, development, or behaviour were noted. In the reviewed group of cases, preservation of ovarian function was attributed in great measure to the increased distance of the ovaries from the Ra source because of an intrauterine gestation (five cases), recent parturition (one case), recent miscarriage (one case), and a large exophytic tumor (one case). The existence of an amenorrheic state for nine months in one earlier case and for 12 months in the present case indicates that the radiosensitive gonads were

  8. Developmental Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter provides an overview the developmental toxicity resulting from exposure to perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs). The majority of studies of PFAA-induced developmental toxicity have examined effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) a...

  9. Molecular characteristics and alterations during early development of the human vagina

    PubMed Central

    Fritsch, Helga; Richter, Elisabeth; Adam, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    Unresolved questions remain concerning the derivation of the vagina with respect to the relative contributions from the Müllerian ducts, the urogenital sinus, and the Wolffian ducts. Recent molecular and cellular studies in rodents have opened up a large gap between the level of understanding of vaginal development in mice and understanding of human vaginal development, which is based on histology. To compare the findings in mice with human vaginal development and to address this gap, we analysed molecular characteristics of the urogenital sinus, Wolffian ducts, and Müllerian ducts in 8–14-week-old human specimens using immunohistochemical methods. The monoclonal antibodies used were directed against cytokeratin (CK) 14, CK19, vimentin, laminin, p63, E-cadherin, caspase-3, Ki67, HOX A13, and BMP-4. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed that, during weeks 8–9, the epithelium of the Müllerian ducts became positive for p63 as p63-positive cells that originated from the sinus epithelium reached the caudal tip of the fused Müllerian ducts via the Wolffian ducts. The lumen of the fused Müllerian ducts was closed by an epithelial plug that contained both vimentin-positive and vimentin-negative cells. Subsequently, the resulting epithelial tube enlarged by proliferation of basal p63-positive cells. The first signs of squamous differentiation were detected during week 14, with the appearance of CK14-positive cells. According to our results, all three components, namely, the urogenital sinus, Wolffian ducts, and Müllerian ducts, interacted during the formation of the human vagina. The sinus epithelium provided p63-positive cells, the Wollfian ducts acted as a ‘transporter’, and the Müllerian ducts contributed the guiding structure for the vaginal anlagen. Epithelial differentiation began at the end of the period studied and extended in a caudo-cranial direction. The present study is one of the first to provide up-to-date molecular correlates for human

  10. The vagina of women infected with Trichomonas vaginalis has numerous proteinases and antibody to trichomonad proteinases.

    PubMed

    Alderete, J F; Newton, E; Dennis, C; Neale, K A

    1991-12-01

    Patients with trichomoniasis have serum antibody to numerous T. vaginalis cysteine proteinases, indicating that the proteinases are expressed in vivo. It was important, therefore, to examine for the presence of soluble trichomonad proteinases and/or antibody to the proteinases in the vagina of infected women. Vaginal washes (VWs) from 20 women were examined for the presence of proteinases by electrophoresis using acrylamide co-polymerised with gelatin as the indicator system. Antibody to proteinases in VWs was detected by an immunoprecipitation assay involving protein A-bearing Staphylococcus aureus first coated with anti-human immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody, which was then added to VWs. For VWs having soluble proteinases, the bacteria were used to determine whether immune complexes between antibody and proteinases were present. VWs without soluble proteinases were incubated with the anti-human IgG treated bacteria before adding to detergent extracts of T. vaginalis. Individual isolates from the patients examined in this study were also analysed by one- and two-dimensional electrophoresis for their proteinase content. Finally, VWs were from patients without any history of other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) as well as from individuals having numerous other STDs, including yeast, group B streptococcus, chlamydia, and syphilis. Approximately one-third of patients had soluble proteinases in the VWs; the remaining two-thirds (70%) of patients and normal women had no detectable proteinases in VWs. Half of the patients without soluble proteinases had IgG which, when bound to S. aureus, immunoprecipitated many proteinases from a detergent extract of T. vaginalis. All soluble proteinases and those precipitated from trichomonal extracts were inhibited by inhibitors of cysteine proteinases. Finally, patients having trichomoniasis in addition to numerous other STD agents, including yeast, group B streptococcus, chlamydia, and syphilis did not have soluble proteinases

  11. Perivascular epithelioid cell tumors of the uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    Kudela, E; Biringer, K; Kasajova, P; Nachajova, M; Adamkov, M

    2016-08-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) defines PEComas as mesenchymal tumors composed of histologically and immunohistochemically distinctive perivascular cells. Uterus is the most common site of a subgroup of PEComas not otherwise specified(NOS). PEComas of the uterine cervix are extremely rare, and only thirteen cases have been described in the English literature to date. In this review, we summarize the available data concerning diagnostics, immunohistochemical analysis, genetics and treatment of cervical PEComas. Radical hysterectomy with bilateral salpingooophorectomy is the best surgical approach available. Adjuvant therapy in its present form is not efficient. Therefore, further studies are needed to evaluate the newest treatment strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Density of Stromal Cells and Macrophages Associated With Collagen Remodeling in the Human Cervix in Preterm and Term Birth

    PubMed Central

    Dubicke, Aurelija; Ekman-Ordeberg, Gunvor; Mazurek, Patricia; Miller, Lindsay; Yellon, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Remodeling of the cervix occurs in advance of labor both at term and at preterm birth. Morphological characteristics associated with remodeling in rodents were assessed in cervix biopsies from women at term (39 weeks’ gestation) and preterm (<33 weeks’ gestation). Collagen I and III messenger RNA and hydroxyproline concentrations declined in cervix biopsies from women in labor at term and preterm compared to that in the cervix from nonlaboring women. Extracellular collagen was more degraded in sections of cervix from women at term, based on optical density of picrosirius red stain, versus that in biopsies from nonpregnant women. However, collagen structure was unchanged in the cervix from women at preterm labor versus the nonpregnant group. As an indication of inflammation, cell nuclei density was decreased in cervix biopsies from pregnant women irrespective of labor compared to the nonpregnant group. Moreover, CD68-stained macrophages increased to an equivalent extent in cervix subepithelium and stroma from groups in labor, both at term and preterm, as well as in women not in labor at term. Evidence for a similar inflammatory process in the remodeled cervix of women at term and preterm birth parallels results in rodent models. Thus, a conserved final common mechanism involving macrophages and inflammation may characterize the transition to a ripe cervix before birth at term and in advance of premature birth. PMID:26608218

  13. Activity restriction among women with a short cervix.

    PubMed

    Grobman, William A; Gilbert, Sharon A; Iams, Jay D; Spong, Catherine Y; Saade, George; Mercer, Brian M; Tita, Alan T N; Rouse, Dwight J; Sorokin, Yoram; Leveno, Kenneth J; Tolosa, Jorge E; Thorp, John M; Caritis, Steve N; Van Dorsten, J Peter

    2013-06-01

    To estimate determinants of and outcomes associated with activity restriction among women with a short cervix. This was a secondary analysis of a randomized trial of 17-α hydroxyprogesterone caproate for prevention of preterm birth among nulliparous women with singleton gestations and cervices less than 30 mm by midtrimester ultrasonography. Women were asked weekly whether they had been placed on pelvic, work, or nonwork rest. "Any activity restriction" was defined as being placed on any type of rest. Factors associated with any activity restriction were determined and the association between preterm birth and activity restriction was estimated with multivariable logistic regression. Of the 657 women in the trial, 646 (98%) responded to questions regarding activity restriction. Two hundred fifty-two (39.0%) were placed on any activity restriction at a median of 23.9 weeks (interquartile range 22.6-27.9 weeks). Women on activity restriction were older, more likely to have private insurance, less likely to be Hispanic, had a shorter cervical length, and were more likely to have funneling and intra-amniotic debris. Preterm birth at less than 37 weeks of gestation was more common among women placed on activity restriction (37% compared with 17%, P<.001). After controlling for potential confounding factors, preterm birth remained more common among those placed on activity restriction (adjusted odds ratio 2.37, 95% confidence interval 1.60-3.53). Results were similar for preterm birth at less than 34 weeks of gestation. Activity restriction did not reduce the rate of preterm birth in asymptomatic nulliparous women with a short cervix.

  14. Activity Restriction Among Women With a Short Cervix

    PubMed Central

    Grobman, William A.; Gilbert, Sharon A.; Iams, Jay D.; Spong, Catherine Y.; Saade, George; Mercer, Brian M.; Tita, Alan T. N.; Rouse, Dwight J.; Sorokin, Yoram; Leveno, Kenneth J.; Tolosa, Jorge E.; Thorp, John M.; Caritis, Steve N.; Van Dorsten, J. Peter

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate determinants of and outcomes associated with activity restriction among women with a short cervix. METHODS This was a secondary analysis of a randomized trial of 17-α hydroxyprogesterone caproate for prevention of preterm birth among nulliparous women with singleton gestations and cervices less than 30 mm by midtrimester ultrasonography. Women were asked weekly whether they had been placed on pelvic, work, or nonwork rest. “Any activity restriction” was defined as being placed on any type of rest. Factors associated with any activity restriction were determined and the association between preterm birth and activity restriction was estimated with multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS Of the 657 women in the trial, 646 (98%) responded to questions regarding activity restriction. Two hundred fifty-two (39.0%) were placed on any activity restriction at a median of 23.9 weeks (interquartile range 22.6–27.9 weeks).Women on activity restriction were older, more likely to have private insurance, less likely to be Hispanic, had a shorter cervical length, and were more likely to have funneling and intra-amniotic debris. Preterm birth at less than 37 weeks of gestation was more common among women placed on activity restriction (37% compared with 17%, P<.001). After controlling for potential confounding factors, preterm birth remained more common among those placed on activity restriction (adjusted odds ratio 2.37, 95% confidence interval 1.60–3.53). Results were similar for preterm birth at less than 34 weeks of gestation. CONCLUSION Activity restriction did not reduce the rate of preterm birth in asymptomatic nulliparous women with a short cervix. PMID:23812450

  15. Severe Vaginal Burns in a 5-Year-Old Girl Due to an Alkaline Battery in the Vagina.

    PubMed

    Semaan, Alexander; Klein, Tobias; Vahdad, Mohammad Reza; Boemers, Thomas M; Pohle, Rebecca

    2015-10-01

    The ingestion or insertion of alkaline batteries in the body can cause severe damage to hollow organs. We report here a case of severe vaginal burns in a young patient caused by an alkaline battery. A 5-year-old girl presented to our outpatient department with pelvic pain and vaginal discharge. Further workup suggested the presence of a vaginal foreign body. Under general anesthesia, an alkaline battery was removed from her vagina, which showed severe burns with partial-thickness necrosis. Complete healing was confirmed at 3 months after initial presentation. In this rare case of an alkaline battery present in the vagina of a prepubescent girl, we discuss the available treatment and management options in comparison to similar previously reported cases. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. UV-fluorescence spectroscopic technique in the diagnosis of breast, ovarian, uterus, and cervix cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Bidyut B.; Glassman, Wenling S.; Alfano, Robert R.; Cleary, Joseph; Prudente, R.; Celmer, Edward J.; Lubicz, Stephanie

    1991-06-01

    Malignant breast tumors can be separated from benign and normal tissues using uv-fluorescence spectroscopic technique. Using the same method one can also distinguish cancerous tissues from noncancerous ones in case of cervix, uterus and ovary.

  17. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of cervix: two cases report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Benhayoune, Khadija; El Fatemi, Hinde; Bannani, Abdelaziz; Melhouf, Abdelilah; Harmouch, Toufik

    2015-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the cervix is a rare and aggressive tumor with fatal outcome. In this paper we report two cases of primary adenoid cystic carcinoma and a review of literature. A 80 years old woman, admitted to our hospital with postmenopausal bleeding and hydrorrhea. Gynealogical examination showed a cervical stenotic with the presence of a tumor processus. Biopsy of cervical growth was done. 80-year-old woman presented with vaginal bleeding with pelvic pain. Physical examination revealed a friable mass in the cervix. Incisional biopsy was performed. In the both cases the diagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the cercix was confirmed. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the cervix is clinically and radiologically similar to other tumors of the cervix but the diagnosis can only be made by histological examination.

  18. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of cervix: two cases report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Benhayoune, Khadija; El Fatemi, Hinde; Bannani, Abdelaziz; Melhouf, Abdelilah; Harmouch, Toufik

    2015-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the cervix is a rare and aggressive tumor with fatal outcome. In this paper we report two cases of primary adenoid cystic carcinoma and a review of literature. A 80 years old woman, admitted to our hospital with postmenopausal bleeding and hydrorrhea. Gynealogical examination showed a cervical stenotic with the presence of a tumor processus. Biopsy of cervical growth was done. 80-year-old woman presented with vaginal bleeding with pelvic pain. Physical examination revealed a friable mass in the cervix. Incisional biopsy was performed. In the both cases the diagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the cercix was confirmed. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the cervix is clinically and radiologically similar to other tumors of the cervix but the diagnosis can only be made by histological examination. PMID:26090035

  19. [Case report of live threatening complications due to self insertion of foreign body into the vagina for masturbation purpose].

    PubMed

    Kuzaka, Bolesław; Kobryń, Andrzej; Niemierko, Maciej; Czaplicki, Maciej

    2009-01-01

    Authors have reported a case report of life threatening complications due to insertion of foreign bodies into the vagina, because of masturbation purpose. In this case subsequently came to perforation of the urinary bladder by the huge calculus that developed over the foreign body, and next to the peritoneum with development peritonitis and acute renal insufficiency with the need of dialysotherapy. After a number of surgical operations, the patient with a definitive percutaneous nephrostomy was discharged.

  20. Merkel-like cell distribution in the epithelium of the human vagina. An immunohistochemical and TEM study.

    PubMed

    Polakovičová, Simona; Csöbönyeiová, Mária; Filova, Barbora; Borovský, Miroslav; Maršík, Ladislav; Kvasilová, Alena; Polák, Štefan

    2018-02-16

    Human Merkel cells (MCs) were first described by Friedrich S. Merkel in 1875 and named "Tastzellen" (touch cells). Merkel cells are primarily localized in the basal layer of the epidermis and concentrated in touch-sensitive areas. In our previous work, we reported on the distribution of MCs in the human esophagus, so therefore we chose other parts of the human body to study them. We selected the human vagina, because it has a similar epithelium as the esophagus and plays very important roles in reproduction and sexual pleasure. Due to the fact that there are very few research studies focusing on the innervation of this region, we decided to investigate the occurrence of MCs in the anterior wall of the vagina. The aim of our research was to identify MCs in the stratified squamous non-keratinized epithelium of the human vagina in 20 patients. For the identification of Merkel cells by light microscopy, we used antibodies against simple-epithelial cytokeratins (especially anti-cytokeratin 20). We also tried to identify them using transmission electron microscopy. Our investigation confirmed that 10 (50 %) of 20 patients had increased number of predominantly intraepithelial CK20 positive "Merkel-like" cells (MLCs) in the human vaginal epithelium. Subepithelial CK20 positive MLCs were observed in only one patient (5%). We tried to identify them also using transmission electron microscopy. Our investigation detected some unique cells that may be MCs. The purpose of vaginal innervation is still unclear. There are no data available concerning the distribution of MCs in the human vagina, so it would be interesting to study the role of MCs in the vaginal epithelium, in the context of innervation and epithelial biology.

  1. Estimation of Shear Wave Speed in the Rhesus Macaques Uterine Cervix

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bin; Drehfal, Lindsey C.; Rosado-Mendez, Ivan M.; Guerrero, Quinton W.; Palmeri, Mark L.; Simmons, Heather A.; Feltovich, Helen; Hall, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Cervical softness is a critical parameter in pregnancy. Clinically, preterm birth is associated with premature cervical softening and post-dates birth is associated with delayed cervical softening. In practice, the assessment of softness is subjective, based on digital examination. Fortunately, objective, quantitative techniques to assess softness and other parameters associated with microstructural cervical change are emerging. One of these is shear wave speed (SWS) estimation. In principle, this allows objective characterization of stiffness because waves travel more slowly in softer tissue. We are studying SWS in humans and rhesus macaques, the latter in order to accelerate translation from bench to bedside. For the current study, we estimated SWS in ex vivo cervices of rhesus macaques, n=24 nulliparous (never given birth) and n=9 multiparous (delivered at least 1 baby). Misoprostol (a prostaglandin used to soften human cervices prior to gynecological procedures) was administered to 13 macaques prior to necropsy (nulliparous: 7, multiparous: 6). SWS measurements were made at predetermined locations from the distal to proximal end of the cervix on both the anterior and posterior cervix, with 5 repeat measures at each location. The intent was to explore macaque cervical microstructure, including biological and spatial variability, to elucidate the similarities and differences between the macaque and the human cervix in order to facilitate future in vivo studies. We found that SWS is dependent on location in the normal nonpregnant macaque cervix, as in the human cervix. Unlike the human cervix, we detected no difference between ripened and unripened rhesus macaque cervix samples, nor nulliparous versus multiparous samples, although we observed a trend toward stiffer tissue in nulliparous samples. We found rhesus macaque cervix to be much stiffer than human, which is important for technique refinement. These findings are useful for guiding study of cervical

  2. Aerobic bacteria occurring in the vagina of bitches with reproductive disorders.

    PubMed

    Bjurström, L

    1993-01-01

    A retrospective survey was performed of aerobic bacterial species found in the vagina of 203 bitches with genital disorders, e.g. infertility, vaginitis, pyometra and puppy death. Escherichia coli, beta-hemolytic streptococci, Staphylococcus intermedius and Pasteurella multocida were the species most often isolated. From bitches with pyometra E. coli in pure culture was the most frequent isolate. In contrast, the majority of infertile bitches gave rise to mixed cultures, and no specific bacterial species was consistently associated with infertility. Thus, bacterial sampling from infertile bitches was concluded to be of low diagnostic value. Bacterial species isolated from the bitches having vaginitis were present in pure culture in 26.9% of the samples while nonspecific mixed cultures were obtained from 34.6% of the samples from these bitches. E. coli was the most frequently isolated bacterial species from bitches with dead puppies. However, in such cases it is important to relate the vaginal bacterial findings to autopsy findings and the results of bacteriological cultures of the pups.

  3. Nevoid melanoma of the vagina: report of one case diagnosed on thin layer cytological preparations.

    PubMed

    Fulciniti, Franco; Ascierto, Paolo Antonio; Simeone, Ester; Bove, Patrizia; Losito, Simona; Russo, Serena; Gallo, Maria Stella; Greggi, Stefano

    2007-07-03

    Primary melanoma of the vagina is an extremely rare neoplasm with approximately 250 reported cases in the world literature 1234. In its amelanotic variant this lesion may raise several differential diagnostic problems in cytological specimens 5. In this setting, the usage of thin layer cytopathological techniques (Liquid Based Preparations = LBP) may enhance the diagnostic sensitivity by permitting immunocytochemical study without having to repeat the sampling procedure. The aim of this paper is to describe the cytomorphological presentation of primary vaginal melanoma on LBP since it has not previously been reported up to now, to our knowledge. a 79-y-o female complaining of vulvar itching and yellowish vaginal discharge underwent a complete gynaecological evaluation during which a LBP cytological sample was taken from a suspicious whitish mass protruding into the vaginal lumen. A cytopathological diagnosis of amelanotic melanoma was rendered. The mass was radically excised and the patient was treated with alpha-Interferon. amelanotic melanoma may be successfully diagnosed on LBP cytological preparations. Thin layer preparations may enhance the diagnostic cytomorphological clues to its diagnosis and may permit an adequate immunocytochemical characterization of the neoplasm.

  4. [Abnormal bacterial colonisation of the vagina and implantation during assisted reproduction].

    PubMed

    Wittemer, C; Bettahar-Lebugle, K; Ohl, J; Rongières, C; Viville, S; Nisand, I

    2004-02-01

    To evaluate the efficiency of our treatment of vaginal infection for couples included in an IVF program. Microbiologic screening of vaginal flora and semen has been performed one month prior to in vitro fertilization for 951 couples in 2000. Antibiotic treatment was prescribed in case of positive culture. Positive microbial growths were observed from endocervical and vaginal cultures in 218 women (22.9%). The clinical pregnancy rate was 30.29% in the group of patients without growth and 30.27% in the group with positive microbial growth. The implantation rate was significantly diminished in case of bacterial growth: 14.6 compared to 19.3% (P <0.02) for sterile endocervical culture. Five main bacterial species were found at the cervical level: Candida albicans (69 cases), Ureaplasma urealyticum (49 cases), Gardnerella vaginalis (43 cases), Streptococcus B or D (24 cases) and Escherichia coli (22 cases). Positive cultures from both vagina and semen were observed for 77 couples whose clinical pregnancy rate was 19.5 vs 36.2% in case of vaginal infection alone (P <0.01) with a spontaneous miscarriage rate of 46.7 compared to 17.6% (P <0.01). Endocervical microorganisms, even treated with adapted antibiotics, may affect embryonic implantation. Positive culture from both female and male partner may enhance this negative effect. In this case, the best strategy would be to cancel the IVF treatment.

  5. Recurrent paediatric pinworm infection of the vagina as a potential reservoir for Enterobius vermicularis.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, B; Samantray, J C; Kumar, S; Jhamb, R; Singh, A K; Kaur, I R

    2014-09-01

    Enterobius vermicularis infection remains one of the most common parasitic infections, particularly prevalent in children. Enterobiasis, although not usually dangerous, may cause significant morbidity. Elimination of the parasite from a family or an institution often poses problems, either because of an incomplete cure or re-infection. While there have been limited reports of ectopic enterobiasis throughout the world, ours is probably one of the rarest reports of recurrent vaginal E. vermicularis infection in the absence of any gastrointestinal symptoms despite complete treatment. A 4-year-old girl presented with recurrent episodes of vulval itching on 3-4 occasions over 2 years. There was no pruritis ani nor urinary/gastrointestinal complaints. The vulva was inflamed with 4-5 living worms, 6-7 mm in length, emerging from the anterior vaginal fornix, but with no vaginal discharge. Direct microscopic examination of vaginal swabs revealed adult worms of Enterobius but no eggs. Repeated stool samples from the patient, parents and a sibling were negative. The patient was treated orally with 100 mg of mebendazole for 3 days followed by two more courses at 3-week intervals over a period of 3 months. Recurrent vaginal enterobiasis despite complete treatment and in the absence of any gastrointestinal involvement suggests that the vagina is a potential reservoir for E. vermicularis, which supports the theory of rare ectopic enterobiasis through the ascending pathway of the female genital tract.

  6. [Bacterial flora and mycosis of the vagina in women with symptoms of vaginal inflammation].

    PubMed

    Dybaś, Irena; Sidor-Wójtowicz, Anna; Kozioł-Montewka, Maria

    2005-05-01

    To estimate the microbiological profile of vaginal flora in 30 women with gynecologic problems and 20 pregnant women complaining about pathological symptoms {pruritus, burning, vaginal discharge}. The discharge from posterior vaginal vault was examined microbiologically on the Columbia Agar with sheep blood, MacConkey and Sabourand cultures incubated of 48 hours in the temperature of 37 degrees C. Bacterial infections were detected in 33 cases (66%), 12 of these women (24%) lived in urban, 21 (42%) in rural environment. From bacteria isolated from the vagina, most often because at 14 women stepped out Streptococcus agalactiae, at 11 Enterococcus faecalis at 8 Escherichia coli. In 5 cases bacterial inflammation was caused by two kinds of bacterium. At two women stepped out both Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli. In single cases it was Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus agalactiae. In all cases of inflammation mycosis was called out by from Candida albicans. One ascertained it at 14 among all given an examination women. Mixed inflammations called out both by mycosis and bacterial stepped out in 3 cases in age of 21-30. At two women it was Candida albicans and Streptococcus agalactiae, at one inflammation mycosis accompanied Enterococcus faecalis. The common reason of vaginitis are bacterial infections caused by Streptococcus agalactiae, Enterococcus faecalis, E coli. Both, place of living and women' s age influence the type of etiological factor.

  7. Assessment of the effects of naringenin-type flavanones in uterus and vagina.

    PubMed

    Keiler, Annekathrin Martina; Dörfelt, Peggy; Chatterjee, Namita; Helle, Janina; Bader, Manuela I; Vollmer, Günter; Kretzschmar, Georg; Kuhlee, Franziska; Thieme, Detlef; Zierau, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The potential utilization of plant secondary metabolites possessing estrogenic properties as alternatives to the classical hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for the relief of postmenopausal complaints asks for an evaluation regarding the safety in reproductive organs. In order to contribute to the estimation of the safety profile of the flavanones naringenin (Nar), 8‑prenylnaringenin (8PN) and 6‑(1,1‑dimethylally) naringenin (6DMAN), we investigated uterus and vagina derived from a three‑day uterotrophic assay in rats. Also, we investigated the metabolite profile resulting from the incubation of the three substances with liver microsomes. While no metabolites were detectable for naringenin, hydroxylation products were observed for 8PN and 6DMAN after incubation with human as well as rat liver microsomes. The parent compound naringenin did not evoke any estrogenic responses in the investigated parameters. A significant increase of the uterine wet weight, uterine epithelial thickness and proliferating vaginal cells was observed in response to 8PN, questioning the safety of 8PN if applied in the human situation. In contrast, no estrogenic effects on the reproductive organs were observed for 6DMAN in the conducted study, rendering it the compound with a more promising safety profile, therefore justifying further investigations into its efficacy to alleviate postmenopausal discomforts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Squamous carcinoma of the vagina: treatment, complications, and long-term follow-up

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, S.C.; Young, J.; Mikuta, J.J.

    1985-03-01

    Seventy-five cases of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina treated at the University of Pennsylvania are reviewed with long-term follow-up presented. These comprised 2.5% of all female genital malignancies treated during 1958 to 1980 inclusive. Patients treated during that time with non-squamous cell cancers have been excluded. Patients are analyzed with regard to stage, therapy, complications, and survival. Sixty-five percent of patients were stage I or II. Five-year survival for the entire group was 45%. Patients treated with radical surgery other than exenteration did well, with 7 of 8 surviving 5 years. Serious treatment complications were mostly related tomore » radiation therapy and primarily involved the bowel and bladder. Three patients died of complications. Recurrence carried a grave prognosis as 30 of 33 patients with recurrence died of disease. Most recurrences were diagnosed within the first year following treatment. Patients with advanced disease were more likely to have distant recurrences. Although radiation therapy is generally the treatment of choice, radical surgery can yield excellent results when used in carefully selected patients. With meticulous attention to radiation dosage and technique it is hoped that treatment morbidity can be reduced. Optimal treatment of advanced disease may require some form of adjuvant systemic therapy.« less

  9. Impact of pregnancy and vaginal delivery on the passive and active mechanics of the rat vagina.

    PubMed

    Feola, Andrew; Moalli, Pamela; Alperin, Marianna; Duerr, Robbie; Gandley, Robin E; Abramowitch, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Remodeling of vaginal extracellular matrix and smooth muscle likely plays a critical role in reducing the risk of maternal injury during vaginal delivery by altering the mechanical properties to increase distension and reduce stress. Long-Evans rats were divided into five groups to examine the passive mechanical and active contractile properties throughout pregnancy and postpartum: virgin (n=17), mid-pregnant (Day 14-16, n=12), late-pregnant (Day 20-22, n=14), immediate postpartum (0-2 h after delivery, n=14), and 4 week postpartum (n=15). Longitudinal sections of vaginal tissue were loaded to failure uniaxially for passive mechanical or active contractile properties were examined. For passive mechanics, the tangent modulus decreased 45% by mid-pregnancy and immediately postpartum (p<0.001). The ultimate strain continuously increased up to 43% higher than virgin animals (p=0.007) in the immediate postpartum group. For active mechanics, the maximal contractile force was 36-56% lower through immediate postpartum animals, and was significantly more sensitive to K+ throughout pregnancy and postpartum (p=0.003). The changes observed in the passive and active properties of the rat vagina are consistent with what would be expected from a tissue that is remodeling to maximize its ability to distend at the time of vaginal delivery to facilitate passage of the fetus with minimal injury.

  10. Pagetoid spread of bladder urothelial carcinoma to the vagina and vulva.

    PubMed

    Lu, Bingjian; Liang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    To study the clinicopathologic features of a rare disease of pagetoid urothelial intraepithelial neoplasia (PUIN) in the vulva. We reviewed a case of PUIN in a Chinese woman with a long history of bladder urothelial carcinoma. The patient presented with vulvar pruritus for more than 1 month. Gynecologic examination showed a red, thickened, eczematoid lesion in the bilateral labia minora and a palpable 4-cm mass between the middle part of the vagina and the urethral meatus. Microscopically, the neoplastic cells with clear or pale eosinophilic cytoplasm were distributed throughout the squamous epithelium, with a predilection for the middle and basal portion in the vulva. Acantholysis-related papillary formation and pagetoid spread pattern to the normal squamous epithelium were also present. Invasive carcinoma was found underneath the unremarkable squamous epithelium in the vaginal biopsy. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that these cells were negative for mucin stain, carcinoembryonic antigen, and 34βE12 and were strongly positive for cytokeratins 5/6, 7, 18, 19, and 20. This rare entity of PUIN was associated with metastatic urothelial carcinoma and should be discriminated from vulvar Paget disease and pagetoid squamous cell carcinoma in situ.

  11. Phase II trial of cisplatin in advanced or recurrent cancer of the vagina: a Gynecologic Oncology Group Study.

    PubMed

    Thigpen, J T; Blessing, J A; Homesley, H D; Berek, J S; Creasman, W T

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-six patients with advanced or recurrent cancer of the vagina no longer amenable to control with surgery and/or radiotherapy were entered into a phase II study of cisplatin 50 mg/m2 intravenously every 3 weeks. Two were deemed ineligible because of a primary site of origin other than vagina. Two were deemed inevaluable, one because of the lack of measurable disease and the other because she never received drug. The remaining 22 included a variety of histologies (16 squamous cell carcinomas, 2 adenosquamous carcinomas, 1 clear cell carcinoma, 1 leiomyosarcoma, and 2 carcinomas not otherwise specified). One complete responder was observed among the 16 patients with squamous cell carcinoma. Adverse effects were tolerable and were essentially those reported in other series. These results suggest that cisplatin has insignificant activity in advanced or recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina at least at the dose and schedule tested. No comment can be made regarding the activity of cisplatin in other histologies.

  12. [Co-occurence of indol-producing bacterial strains in the vagina of women infected with Chlamydia trachomatis].

    PubMed

    Romanik, Małgorzata; Martirosian, Gayane; Wojciechowska-Wieja, Anna; Cieślik, Katarzyna; Kaźmierczak, Wojciech

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if cervicitis, caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis), has an influence on the frequency of occurrence of selected aerobic and anaerobic bacterial strains, connected with etiology of aerobic vaginitis (AV) and bacterial vaginosis (BV). Indole-producing bacteria have received particular attention due to their possibly inductive role in chronic cervicitis caused by C. trachomatis. The swabs from vagina and cervical canal have been obtained from 122 women (aged 18-40). The presence of C. trachomatis antigen had been detected and diagnosed with the help of direct immunofluorescence, BV with Amesl and Nugent criteria, whereas the AV with Donders criteria. The identification of the bacterial strains isolated from vagina has been performed according to classical microbiological diagnostics. Disruption of vaginal microflora (4-10 in Nugent score) was determined in 11,5% of observed women. AV was diagnosed in 4.5% women with chlamydial cervicitis, BV was diagnosed in 10.9% and 5.45% of these women, on the basis of Amsel and Nugent criteria respectively. Indole-producing bacterial strains connected with BV and AV (Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, Propionibacterium acnes, Escherichia coli) have been isolated significantly more often from vagina of women infected with C trachomatis (p = 0.0405, chi2 = 4.20) and these findings confirm co-importance of indole-producing bacterial strains in cervicitis caused by C trachomatis .

  13. Meningococcal Neonatal Purulent Conjunctivitis/Sepsis and Asymptomatic Carriage of N. meningitidis in Mother's Vagina and Both Parents' Nasopharynx.

    PubMed

    Chacon-Cruz, Enrique; Alvelais-Palacios, Jorge Arturo; Rodriguez-Valencia, Jaime Alfonso; Lopatynsky-Reyes, Erika Zoe; Volker-Soberanes, Maria Luisa; Rivas-Landeros, Rosa Maria

    2017-01-01

    Neonatal conjunctivitis is usually associated with vagina's infection by Chlamydia sp., N. gonorrhoeae , and/or other bacteria during delivery. Meningococcal neonatal conjunctivitis is an extremely rare disease. We report a case of neonatal meningococcal sepsis/conjunctivitis and asymptomatic carriage of N. meningitidis from both parents (vagina and nasopharynx). As part of our active surveillance for meningococcal disease at the Tijuana General Hospital (TGH), Mexico, we identified a 3-day-old newborn with meningococcal conjunctivitis and sepsis. The patient had a one-day history of conjunctivitis and poor feeding. Clinical examination confirmed profuse purulent conjunctival discharge, as well as clinical signs and laboratory findings suggestive of bacteraemia. Gram stain from conjunctival exudate revealed intracellular Gram negative diplococci; we presumed the baby had gonorrheal conjunctivitis; however, serogroup Y, N. meningitidis was isolated both from conjunctival exudate and blood. Additionally, isolation of serogroup Y, N. meningitidis was obtained from mother's vagina and both parents' nasopharynx. The baby was treated with 7 days of IV ceftriaxone and discharged with no sequelae.

  14. Antagonistic potential against pathogenic microorganisms and hydrogen peroxide production of indigenous lactobacilli isolated from vagina of Chinese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Xu, Heng-Yi; Tian, Wan-Hong; Wan, Cui-Xiang; Jia, Li-Jun; Wang, Lan-Yin; Yuan, Jing; Liu, Chun-Mei; Zeng, Ming; Wei, Hua

    2008-10-01

    To investigate the indigenous lactobacilli from the vagina of pregnant women and to screen the isolates with antagonistic potential against pathogenic microorganisms. The strains were isolated from pregnant women's vagina and identified using the API50CH system. The ability of the isolates to produce hydrogen peroxide was analyzed semi-quantitatively using the TMB-HRP-MRS agar. The antagonistic effects of the isolates on pathogenic microorganisms were determined with a double layer agar plate. One hundred and three lactobacilli strains were isolated from 60 samples of vaginal secretion from healthy pregnant women. Among them, 78 strains could produce hydrogen peroxide, in which 68%, 80%, 80%, and 88% had antagonistic effects against Candida albicans CMCC98001, Staphylococcus aureus CMCC26003, Escherichia coli CMCC44113, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa CMCC10110, respectively. The recovery of hydrogen peroxide-producing lactobacilli decreases with the increasing pregnant age and time. The most commonly isolated species from vagina of Chinese pregnant women are Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus crispatus. Most of L. acidophilus and L. crispatus produce a high H2O2 level.

  15. Estetrol, a Fetal Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator, Acts on the Vagina of Mice through Nuclear Estrogen Receptor α Activation.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Thibaut; Valera, Marie-Cecile; Fontaine, Coralie; Buscato, Melissa; Lenfant, Francoise; Raymond-Letron, Isabelle; Tremollieres, Florence; Soulie, Michel; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Game, Xavier; Arnal, Jean-Francois

    2017-11-01

    The genitourinary syndrome of menopause has a negative impact on quality of life of postmenopausal women. The treatment of vulvovaginal atrophy includes administration of estrogens. However, oral estrogen treatment is controversial because of its potential risks on venous thrombosis and breast cancer. Estetrol (E4) is a natural estrogen synthesized exclusively during pregnancy by the human fetal liver and initially considered as a weak estrogen. However, E4 was recently evaluated in phase 1 to 2 clinical studies and found to act as an oral contraceptive in combination with a progestin, without increasing the level of coagulation factors. We recently showed that E4 stimulates uterine epithelial proliferation through nuclear estrogen receptor (ER) α, but failed to elicit endothelial responses. Herein, we first evaluated the morphological and functional impacts of E4 on the vagina of ovariectomized mice, and we determined the molecular mechanism mediating these effects. Vaginal epithelial proliferation and lubrication after stimulation were found to increase after E4 chronic treatment. Using a combination of pharmacological and genetic approaches, we demonstrated that these E4 effects on the vagina are mediated by nuclear ERα activation. Altogether, we demonstrate that the selective activation of nuclear ERα is both necessary and sufficient to elicit functional and structural effects on the vagina, and therefore E4 appears promising as a therapeutic option to improve vulvovaginal atrophy. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The cervical mucus plug inhibits, but does not block, the passage of ascending bacteria from the vagina during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Lea K; Becher, Naja; Bastholm, Sara; Glavind, Julie; Ramsing, Mette; Kim, Chong J; Romero, Roberto; Jensen, Jørgen S; Uldbjerg, Niels

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the microbial load and the inflammatory response in the distal and proximal parts of the cervical mucus plug. Experimental research. Twenty women with a normal, singleton pregnancy. Vaginal swabs and specimens from the distal and proximal parts of the cervical mucus plug. Immunohistochemistry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and histology. The total bacterial load (16S rDNA) was significantly lower in the cervical mucus plug compared with the vagina (p = 0.001). Among women harboring Ureaplasma parvum, the median genome equivalents/g were 1574 (interquartile range 2526) in the proximal part, 657 (interquartile range 1620) in the distal part and 60,240 (interquartile range 96,386) in the vagina. Histological examinations and quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed considerable amounts of lactobacilli and inflammatory cells in both parts of the cervical mucus plug. The matrix metalloproteinase-8 concentration was decreased in the proximal part of the plug compared with the distal part (p = 0.08). The cervical mucus plug inhibits, but does not block, the passage of Ureaplasma parvum during its ascending route from the vagina through the cervical canal. © 2013 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  17. Comparison of measurements of the uterus and cervix obtained by magnetic resonance and transabdominal ultrasound imaging to identify the brachytherapy target in patients with cervix cancer.

    PubMed

    van Dyk, Sylvia; Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, Srinivas; Schneider, Michal; Bernshaw, David; Narayan, Kailash

    2014-03-15

    To compare measurements of the uterus and cervix obtained with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and transabdominal ultrasound to determine whether ultrasound can identify the brachytherapy target and be used to guide conformal brachytherapy planning and treatment for cervix cancer. Consecutive patients undergoing curative treatment with radiation therapy between January 2007 and March 2012 were included in the study. Intrauterine applicators were inserted into the uterine canal while patients were anesthetized. Images were obtained by MRI and transabdominal ultrasound in the longitudinal axis of the uterus with the applicator in treatment position. Measurements were taken at the anterior and posterior surface of the uterus at 2.0-cm intervals along the applicator, from the external os to the tip of the applicator. Data were analyzed using Bland Altman plots examining bias and 95% limits of agreement. A total of 192 patients contributed 1668 measurements of the cervix and uterus. Mean (± SD) differences of measurements between imaging modalities at the anterior and posterior uterine surface ranged from 1.5 (± 3.353) mm to 3.7 (± 3.856) mm, and -1.46 (± 3.308) mm to 0.47 (± 3.502) mm, respectively. The mean differences were less than 3 mm in the cervix. The mean differences were less than 1.5 mm at all measurement points on the posterior surface. Differences in the measurements of the cervix and uterus obtained by MRI and ultrasound were within clinically acceptable limits. Transabdominal ultrasound can be substituted for MRI in defining the target volume for conformal brachytherapy treatment of cervix cancer. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Early indicators of cervical insufficiency assessed using magnetic resonance imaging of the cervix during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Habib, Viviane Vieira Francisco; Araujo Júnior, Edward; Sun, Sue Yasaki; Júnior, Dirceu Faggion; Mattar, Rosiane; Szejnfeld, Jacob; Ajzen, Sergio Aron

    2015-04-01

    To establish the main characteristics of the cervix in pregnant women with cervical insufficiency, by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A prospective observational case-control study was conducted among 59 pregnant women with cervical insufficiency and 10 normal pregnant women, between their 10th and 28th weeks. The parameters analyzed in the MRI examinations were: precise identification of the cervix; presence of hyposignal at the internal orifice of the cervix; loss of definition of the periendocervical stromal zone (PESZ); presence of hyposignal content inside the amniotic sac (sludge sign) and anatomical and functional biometry of the cervix. Peripheral hyposignal was found in 41 (85.4%) and loss of definition of the PESZ was observed in 36 pregnant women (73.5%) with cervical insufficiency. Sludge was observed in 46 pregnant women with cervical insufficiency, and this was seen on MRI in 27 cases (58.7%). The mean anatomical and functional lengths of the cervix on MRI in the pregnant women with cervical insufficiency were 3.5 ± 0.8 cm (0.8-4.9 cm) and 28.7 ± 6.3 mm (9-41 mm). None of the normal pregnant women presented hyposignal loss of the PESZ and the sludge sign. MRI may be useful for evaluating the cervix and for early identification of signs of cervical insufficiency during pregnancy.

  19. Combined treatment of inoperable carcinomas of the uterine cervix with radiotherapy and regional hyperthermia. Results of a phase II trial.

    PubMed

    Dinges, S; Harder, C; Wurm, R; Buchali, A; Blohmer, J; Gellermann, J; Wust, P; Randow, H; Budach, V

    1998-10-01

    The disappointing results for inoperable, advanced tumors of the uterine cervix after conventional radiotherapy alone necessitates improving of radiation therapy. Simultaneous chemotherapy or altered radiation fractionation, such as accelerated regimen, increase acute toxicity and treatment is often difficult to deliver in the planned manner. The purpose of this phase II study was to investigate the toxicity and effectiveness of a combined approach with radiotherapy and regional hyperthermia. From January 1994 to October 1995 18 patients with advanced carcinomas of the uterine cervix were treated in combination with radiotherapy and hyperthermia. The patients were treated with 6 to 20 MV photons delivered by a linear accelerator in a 4-field-box technique to a total dose of 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions. In the first and fourth week 2 regional hyperthermia treatments were each applied with the Sigma-60 applicator from a BSD-2000 unit. After this a boost to the primary tumor was given with high-dose-rate iridium-192 brachytherapy by an afterloading technique with 4 x 5 Gy at point A to a total of 20 Gy and for the involved parametrium anterioposterior-posterioanterior to 9 Gy in 5 fractions. The acute toxicity was low and similar to an external radiotherapy alone treatment. No Grade III/IV acute toxicity was found. The median age was 47 years (range 34 to 67 years). In 16 of 18 patients a rapid tumor regression was observed during combined thermo-radiotherapy, which allowed the use of intracavitary high-dose-rate brachytherapy in these cases. Complete and partial remission were observed in 13 and 4 cases, respectively. One patient did not respond to the treatment. The median follow-up was 24 months (range 17 to 36 months). The local tumor control rate was 48% at 2 years. Median T20, T50 and T90 values were 41.7 degrees C (range 40.3 to 43.2 degrees C), 41.1 degrees C (range 39.2 to 42.5 degrees C) and 39.9 degrees C (range 37.7 to 41.9 degrees C), respectively. Cumulative

  20. Clinical Tumor Dimensions May Be Useful to Prevent Geographic Miss in Conventional Radiotherapy of Uterine Cervix Cancer-A Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based Study

    SciTech Connect

    Justino, Pitagoras Baskara; Baroni, Ronaldo; Blasbalg, Roberto

    2009-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the risk of geographic miss associated with the classic four-field 'box' irradiation technique and to define the variables that predict this risk. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 80 patients with uterine cervix cancer seen between 2001 and 2006. Median age was 55 years (23-82 years), and 72 (90%) presented with squamous cell carcinoma. Most patients (68.7%) presented with locally advanced disease (IIb or more). Magnetic resonance imaging findings from before treatment were compared with findings from simulation of the conventional four-field 'box' technique done with rectal contrast. Study variables included tumor volume; involvement ofmore » vagina, parametrium, bladder, or rectum; posterior displacement of the anterior rectal wall; and tumor anteroposterior diameter (APD). Margins were considered adequate when the target volume (primary tumor extension, whole uterine body, and parametrium) was included within the field limits and were at least 1 cm in width. Results: Field limits were inadequate in 45 (56%) patients: 29 (36%) patients at the anterior and 28 (35%) at the posterior border of the lateral fields. Of these, 12 patients had both anterior and posterior miss, and this risk was observed in all stages of the disease (p = 0.076). Posterior displacement of the anterior rectal wall beyond S2-S3 was significantly correlated with the risk of geographic miss (p = 0.043). Larger tumors (APD 6 cm or above and volume above 50 cm{sup 3}) were also significantly correlated with this risk (p = 0.004 and p = 0.046, respectively). Conclusions: Posterior displacement of the anterior rectal wall, tumor APD, and volume can be used as guidance in evaluating the risk of geographic miss.« less

  1. Neoadjuvant radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy followed by extrafascial hysterectomy for locally advanced endometrial cancer clinically extending to the cervix or parametria.

    PubMed

    Vargo, John A; Boisen, Michelle M; Comerci, John T; Kim, Hayeon; Houser, Christopher J; Sukumvanich, Paniti; Olawaiye, Alexander B; Kelley, Joseph L; Edwards, Robert P; Huang, Marilyn; Courtney-Brooks, Madeleine; Beriwal, Sushil

    2014-11-01

    For locally-advanced uterine cancer clinically extending to the cervix, two treatment paradigms exist: surgical staging radical hysterectomy with tailored adjuvant therapy or neoadjuvant therapy followed by a less extensive simple hysterectomy. Currently, insufficient data exists to guide consensus guidelines and practical application of preoperative radiotherapy. Retrospective IRB approved cohort study from 1999 to 2014 of 36 endometrial cancer patients with clinical involvement of cervix±parametria treated with neoadjuvant external beam radiotherapy (45-50.4Gy in 25-28 fractions) and image-based HDR brachytherapy (5-5.5Gy times 3-4 fractions)±chemotherapy followed by extrafascial hysterectomy performed at a median of 6weeks after radiotherapy. All patients had clinical cervical extension, 50% also had parametria extension, and 31% had nodal involvement. At the time of surgery 91% had no clinical cervical involvement, 58% had no pathologic cervical involvement, and all had margin negative resection. The pathologic complete response rate was 24%. Median follow-up from the time of surgery was 20months (range: 0-153). The 3-year local control, regional control, distant control, disease free survival and overall survival rates were 96%, 89%, 84%, 73%, and 100%. The 3-year rate of grade 3 complications was 11%, with no grade 4+ toxicity. Neoadjuvant radiation therapy±chemotherapy followed by extrafascial hysterectomy appears to be a viable option for patients with endometrial cancer clinically extending to the cervix and parametria. The HDR brachytherapy schema of 5-5.5Gy times 3-4 fractions, for a cumulative EQD2 of 60-70Gy, is well tolerated with high rates of clinical and pathological response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Patho-epidemiology of Cancer Cervix in Karachi South.

    PubMed

    Bhurgri, Yasmin; Nazir, Kauser; Shaheen, Yasmeen; Usman, Ahmed; Faridi, Naveen; Bhurgri, Hadi; Malik, Jawaid; Bashir, Imtiaz; Bhurgri, Asif; Kayani, Naila; Pervez, Shahid; Hasan, Sheema H; Setna, Faridoon; Zaidi, S M H

    2007-01-01

    The present study was conducted with the objective of examining descriptive epidemiological and pathological characteristics of cancer cervix in Karachi South, an all urban district population of Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 74 cases of cancer cervix, ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision) category C53 were registered at the Karachi Cancer Registry, for Karachi South, during a 3 year period, 1st January, 1995 to 31st December 1997. The age standardized incidence rate (ASR) world and crude incidence rate (CIR) per 100,000 were 6.81 (5.2, 8.43) and 3.22 (2.49 to 3.96). Cancer cervix accounted for approximately 3.6% of all cancers in females and was the sixth malignancy in hierarchy. The mean age of the cancer cases was 53.27 years [standard deviation (SD) 11.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 50.58, 55.96; range (R) 32-85 years)]. The distribution by religion was Muslims (90.5%), Christians (8.1%) and Hindus (1.4%). There were no cases reported in Parsees. The frequency distribution by ethnicity was Urdu speaking Mohajirs (20.3%), Punjabis (17.6%), Gujrati speaking Mohajirs (4.1%), memon Mohajirs (8.1%), Sindhis (10.8%), Baluchs (8.1%), Pathans (5.4%) and Afghan migrants (2.7%). The ethnicity was not known in approximately a fourth (23.0%) of the cases. The socio-economic distribution was 27.0% financially deprived class, 24.4% lower middle class and 48.7% upper middle and affluent classes. The majority of the women were married (86.5%); a smaller number were unmarried (2.7%) or widows (10.8%). The age-specific curves showed a gradual increase in risk from the fourth up till the seventh decade, followed by an actual apparent decrease in risk after 64 years of age. The peak incidence was observed in the 60-64 year age group. The morphological categorization was squamous cell carcinoma (86.5%), adenocarcinoma (10.9%) and adenosquamous carcinoma (2.6%). The majority of cases presented with moderately differentiated or grade 2 lesions (45

  3. Comparison of the CO2 laser and Leep-Loop method in treatment of changes in uterine cervix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wozniak, Jakub; Wilczak, Maciej; Sajdak, Stefan; Opala, Tomasz; Rabiega, Dorota

    2000-11-01

    Electric leep-loop and lasersurgery are modern methods in treatment of diseases of uterine cervix that we can use often exchangeable. Differences first of all relates indications. Lasersurgery we can apply in diseases of uterine cervix channel. Application of electric leep in dysplasia of small grade of uterus cervix channel is possible. Before lasersurgery we should exclude cervical carcinoma, because we don't have histopathological material. Leep-loop conisation we shouldn't apply at young women, who plan pregnancy (risk of cicatristaion and dystokia of uterine cervix.)

  4. Toxic Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-02-01

    Prepared for the United States Air Force Approved for public release; distribution unlimited Theodore Karasik Project AIR FORCE R TOXIC WARFARE...Report Documentation Page Report Date 000002002 Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) - Title and Subtitle Toxic Warfare Contract Number Grant...310) 451-6915; Email: order@rand.org Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Karasik, Theodore William. Toxic warfare / Theodore Karasik

  5. Clinical Holistic Medicine: Holistic Sexology and Acupressure Through the Vagina (Hippocratic Pelvic Massage)

    PubMed Central

    Ventegodt, Søren; Clausen, Birgitte; Omar, Hatim A.; Merrick, Joav

    2006-01-01

    Many gynecological and sexological problems (like urine incontinence, chronic pelvic pains, vulvodynia, and lack of lust, excitement, and orgasm) are resistant to standard medical treatment. In our work at the Research Clinic for Holistic Medicine in Copenhagen, we have found that vaginal acupressure, or Hippocratic pelvic massage, can help some of these problems. Technically, it is a very simple procedure as it corresponds to the explorative phase of the standard pelvic examination, supplemented with the patient's report on the feelings it provokes and the processing and integration of these feelings. Sometimes it can be very difficult to control the emotions released by the technique, i.e., regression to earlier traumas from childhood sexual abuse. This review discusses the theory behind vaginal acupressure, ethical aspects, and presentation of a case story. This procedure helped the patient to become present in her pelvis and to integrate old traumas with painful emotions. Holistic gynecology and sexology can help the patient to identify and let go of negative feelings, beliefs, and attitudes related to sex, gender, sexual organs, body, and soul at large. Shame, guilt, helplessness, fear, disgust, anxiety, anger, hatred, and other strong feelings are almost always an important part of a sexual or functional problem as these feelings are “held” by the tissue of the pelvis and sexual organs. Acupressure through the vagina/pelvic massage must be done with great care by an experienced physician, with a third person present, after obtaining consent and the necessary trust of the patient. It must be followed by conversational therapy and further holistic existential processing. PMID:17370003

  6. Internal artificial vagina (IAV) to assess breeding behavior of young Bos taurus and Bos indicus bulls.

    PubMed

    Cruz, F B; Lohn, L; Marinho, L S R; Mezzalira, J C; Neto, S Gaudencio; Martins, L T; Vieira, A D; Barth, A; Mezzalira, A

    2011-07-01

    Bull breeding soundness evaluation (BBSE) usually neglects the libido and mating ability evaluation. The internal artificial vagina (IAV) permits semen sampling, as well as mating ability evaluation. Few studies have been performed using IAV with young bulls and there are none with Bos indicus bulls. The present study evaluated sexual behavior, mating ability and semen quality in young Bos taurus (Devon) and B. indicus (Nellore) bulls using the IAV device. In the first experiment, 52 Devon bulls, 18-25 months old were observed, and the behavior and mating ability recorded over a 10-min period within a restrained mount-cow with an IAV inserted. In the second experiment, 20 Nellore bulls, 20-30 months old were evaluated over a 20 min period. Of the 52 Devon bulls, 45 (86.5%) had semen recovered with the IAV, 31 (69.0%) were considered satisfactory. Nellore bulls exhibited a different sexual behavior, with 10 bulls not showing any interest in the females. Four bulls demonstrated sexual interest only once, e.g., sniffing, two showed interest on more than one occasion, and four had more than two mounts or mounting attempts. None out of the Nellore bulls was collected with IAV. The IAV was an effective and welfare-promoting animal technology for the evaluation of semen quality and mating ability of B. taurus bulls. However, the IAV was not adequate for young Nellore bulls, probably due to their quiescent sexual behavior and delayed sexual maturity. Further studies are needed to evaluate the performance of the IAV for older Nellore bulls. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of platelet-rich plasma on polypropylene meshes implanted in the rabbit vagina: histological analysis.

    PubMed

    Parizzi, Natália Gomes; Rubini, Oscar Ávila; Almeida, Silvio Henrique Maia de; Ireno, Lais Caetano; Tashiro, Roger Mitio; Carvalho, Victor Hugo Tolotto de

    2017-01-01

    The polypropylene mesh (PPM) is used in many surgical interventions because of its good incorporation and accessibility. However, potential mesh-related complications are common. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) improves the healing of wounds and is inexpensive. Thus, the purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of the PRP-gel coating of a PPM on inflammation, production of collagen, and smooth muscle in the rabbit vagina. The intervention consisted of a 1.5cm incision and divulsion of the vaginal mucosa for the implantation of a PRP-coated PPM. The PRP-coated mesh was implanted in 15 rabbits, and in the second group, the same implant was used without the PRP coating. In the sham group, the intervention consisted of the incision, divulsion, and suture. The rabbits were euthanized at 7, 30 and 90 days, and full-thickness sagittal sections of the posterior vaginal wall and rectum were scored. The inflammatory infiltrate was evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin staining. The Sirius Red stain was used to examine deposition of collagen I and III, and Masson's trichrome staining was used to visualize the smooth muscle. The group with PRP-coated meshes had a lower inflammatory infiltrate count at 30 days. Deposition of collagen III increased with the use of PRP-coating at 90 days. The area of inflammatory infiltrate was significantly increased in the group without the PRP-coated mesh at 30 days but not in the group with the PRPcoated mesh, indicating a less intense inflammatory response. In addition, a significant increase in collagen III occurred at 90 days. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  8. The Lactobacillus flora in vagina and rectum of fertile and postmenopausal healthy Swedish women

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lactobacillus species are the most often found inhabitants of vaginal ecosystem of fertile women. In postmenopausal women with low oestrogen levels, Lactobacillus flora is diminishing or absent. However, no studies have been performed to investigate the correlation between oestrogen levels and the lactobacilli in the gut. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation in healthy women between vaginal and rectal microbial flora as well as possible variations with hormone levels. Methods Vaginal and rectal smears were taken from 20 healthy fertile women, average 40 years (range 28-49 years), in two different phases of the menstrual cycle, and from 20 postmenopausal women, average 60 years (range 52-85 years). Serum sex hormone levels were analyzed. Bacteria from the smears isolated on Rogosa Agar were grouped by Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA and identified by multiplex PCR and partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results Lactobacillus crispatus was more often found in the vaginal flora of fertile women than in that of postmenopausal (p = 0.036). Fifteen of 20 fertile women had lactobacilli in their rectal smears compared to 10 postmenopausal women (p = 0.071). There was no correlation between the number of bacteria in vagina and rectum, or between the number of bacteria and hormonal levels. Neither could any association between the presence of rectal lactobacilli and hormonal levels be found. Conclusion Lactobacillus crispatus was more prevalent in the vaginal flora of fertile women, whereas the Lactobacillus flora of rectum did not correlate to the vaginal flora nor to hormonal levels. PMID:21609500

  9. Self-assessment of anatomy, sexual sensitivity, and function of the labia and vagina.

    PubMed

    Schober, Justine M; Alguacil, Nieves Martin; Cooper, R Scott; Pfaff, Donald W; Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F L

    2015-04-01

    Patient perceptions of genital esthetics are motivating requests for plastic surgeries that could change sexual sensitivity. There is little information about the sensitivities of labial and introital sites. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between sexual sensitivity and self-reported sizes of labial and introital sites. Sixty-two healthy, sexually active, adult women (mean age 37.9, range 21-60) with no history of genital or vaginal surgery gave written consent to participate in this study. A modified version of Self-Assessment of Genital Anatomy and Sexual Function (L-SAGASF-F) was used to assess labial and introital size. Site-specific sensation was rated on Likert scales of 1-5. Anatomical locations were compared for ratings. Of 62 responders, 84% (52) described their labia as "average-sized," 11% (7) described their labia minora and 13% (8) their labia majora as "large", and 3% (2) and 5% (3) as "small". Sexual pleasure ratings were "moderate" (median value: 3.0 for external genitalia and vaginal lumen) or "strong" (median value: 4.0 for the interior vagina). Significantly higher rankings related to the vaginal opening (P=0.007). Orgasm intensity for stimulation of the external genitalia progressively increased toward the vaginal opening, from 1.0 to 3.0 (P=0.001); vaginal ratings showed a similar progression, from 2.0 at the external luminal margin to 3.0 in the deep interior (P<0.0001). Orgasm effort scores were intermediate (median: 3.0), uniform throughout the external and internal areas (P=0.626). Ratings for labial and introital sensitivity, regardless of self-reported size, were very similar to those at other genital sites for sexual pleasure. Surgical excision of labial and introital structures could modify sexual sensation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Distribution of lymphatic tissues and autonomic nerves in supporting ligaments around the cervix uteri.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianping; Feng, Lanlan; Lu, Yi; Guo, Dongxia; Xi, Tengteng; Wang, Xiaochun

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the distribution of lymphatic tissues and nerves in the supporting ligaments around the cervix uteri for their tomographical relationship, 9 adult female cadavers were used in this study. Following the incision of all supporting ligaments around the cervix, hematoxylin and esosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical staining of various sections of these ligaments was performed to enable the distribution of lymph tissues and autonomic nerves to be observed. Four lymph nodes were identified in three cadaver specimens. Three lymph nodes were present at a distance of 2.0 cm from the cervix in the cranial side of the cardinal ligaments (CLs), and one lymph node was located at a distance of 4.0 cm from the cervix in the cranial side of the uterosacral ligament (USL). The lymphatic vessels were dispersed in the CLs, scattered in the cervical side of the USLs, and occasionally distributed in the vesicouterine ligaments (VULs). In the CLs, parasympathetic nerves were located at the pelvic lateral wall and went downwards and medially into the cervix, while sympathetic fibers were located in the middle and lower parts of the ligaments. In the USLs, the autonomic nerves, which consisted primarily of sympathetic fibers, went downwards and laterally from the pelvic wall to the cervix. In the VULs, parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves were located in the inner sides of the vesical veins in the deep layers of the ligaments. It is concluded that there are few lymphatic tissues in the supporting ligaments around the cervix uteri, and that nerve‑sparing radical hysterectomy (NSRH) may be a safe method for the treatment of early‑stage cervical cancer.

  11. Macrophage Gene Expression Associated with Remodeling of the Prepartum Rat Cervix: Microarray and Pathway Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Dobyns, Abigail E.; Goyal, Ravi; Carpenter, Lauren Grisham; Freeman, Tom C.; Longo, Lawrence D.; Yellon, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    As the critical gatekeeper for birth, prepartum remodeling of the cervix is associated with increased resident macrophages (Mφ), proinflammatory processes, and extracellular matrix degradation. This study tested the hypothesis that expression of genes unique to Mφs characterizes the prepartum from unremodeled nonpregnant cervix. Perfused cervix from prepartum day 21 postbreeding (D21) or nonpregnant (NP) rats, with or without Mφs, had RNA extracted and whole genome microarray analysis performed. By subtractive analyses, expression of 194 and 120 genes related to Mφs in the cervix from D21 rats were increased and decreased, respectively. In both D21 and NP groups, 158 and 57 Mφ genes were also more or less up- or down-regulated, respectively. Mφ gene expression patterns were most strongly correlated within groups and in 5 major clustering patterns. In the cervix from D21 rats, functional categories and canonical pathways of increased expression by Mφ gene related to extracellular matrix, cell proliferation, differentiation, as well as cell signaling. Pathways were characteristic of inflammation and wound healing, e.g., CD163, CD206, and CCR2. Signatures of only inflammation pathways, e.g., CSF1R, EMR1, and MMP12 were common to both D21 and NP groups. Thus, a novel and complex balance of Mφ genes and clusters differentiated the degraded extracellular matrix and cellular genomic activities in the cervix before birth from the unremodeled state. Predicted Mφ activities, pathways, and networks raise the possibility that expression patterns of specific genes characterize and promote prepartum remodeling of the cervix for parturition at term and with preterm labor. PMID:25811906

  12. Functional anatomy of the vagina muscles in the adult western conifer seed bug, Leptoglossus occidentalis (Heteroptera: Coreidae), and its implication for the egg laying behaviour in insects.

    PubMed

    Chiang, R G

    2010-07-01

    The anatomy of the female reproductive tract and the nerve-evoked contractions of the vagina muscles and their association with the ovipositor in the western conifer seed bug, Leptoglossus occidentalis (Heidemann) are investigated for the first time. The reproductive tract consists of a set of paired telotrophic ovaries, each containing seven ovarioles, located in the anterior lateral regions of the abdomen. Each ovary is attached to a lateral oviduct which spans most of the abdomen to attach to a relatively short common oviduct that joins the vagina near the rear of the animal. The vagina is associated with a pair of bilaterally symmetrical muscles attached at their posterior ends to lateral extensions of sternite VIII, the valvifer of the Type II ovipositor. From this attachment site, the muscles fan out medially and anteriorly to converge along the dorsal midline of the vagina up to the base of the common oviduct. Vagina muscles respond to a single stimulation of their motor nerves by producing a smooth contraction lasting approximately 1 s. With increasing frequencies of stimulation, the muscle contractions summate to create a tetanic response. The muscles are fatigue resistant being able to maintain the same degree of tension for up to 10 min at 10 Hz stimulation. Visual observation shows that other muscles associated with the valves of the ovipositor behave in a similar fashion to that of the vagina muscles from which the tension recordings were obtained. Fatigue-resistant vagina muscles are discussed in relation to copulation, sperm transport and this insect's ability to deposit a series of eggs directly onto the surface of a conifer needle in a manner by which eight or more blunt-ended eggs are packed end-to-end in a single row. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Toxic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Woo

    2012-01-01

    This article schematically reviews the clinical features, diagnostic approaches to, and toxicological implications of toxic encephalopathy. The review will focus on the most significant occupational causes of toxic encephalopathy. Chronic toxic encephalopathy, cerebellar syndrome, parkinsonism, and vascular encephalopathy are commonly encountered clinical syndromes of toxic encephalopathy. Few neurotoxins cause patients to present with pathognomonic neurological syndromes. The symptoms and signs of toxic encephalopathy may be mimicked by many psychiatric, metabolic, inflammatory, neoplastic, and degenerative diseases of the nervous system. Thus, the importance of good history-taking that considers exposure and a comprehensive neurological examination cannot be overemphasized in the diagnosis of toxic encephalopathy. Neuropsychological testing and neuroimaging typically play ancillary roles. The recognition of toxic encephalopathy is important because the correct diagnosis of occupational disease can prevent others (e.g., workers at the same worksite) from further harm by reducing their exposure to the toxin, and also often provides some indication of prognosis. Physicians must therefore be aware of the typical signs and symptoms of toxic encephalopathy, and close collaborations between neurologists and occupational physicians are needed to determine whether neurological disorders are related to occupational neurotoxin exposure. PMID:23251840

  14. The expression of ribonucleotide reductase M2 in the carcinogenesis of uterine cervix and its relationship with clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Su, Ying-Fang; Wu, Tzu-Fan; Ko, Jiunn-Liang; Tsai, Hsiu-Ting; Tee, Yi-Torng; Chien, Ming-Hsien; Chou, Chi-Hung; Lin, Wea-Lung; Low, Hui-Ying; Chou, Ming-Yung; Yang, Shun-Fa; Wang, Po-Hui

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the implication of ribonucleotide reductase M2 (RRM2) in the carcinogenesis of uterine cervix and its relationship with clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of cancer patients. The impact of RRM2 on cell viability was investigated in SiHa cervical cancer cells after RRM2 knockdown and the addition of cisplatin, which induces inter- and intra-strand DNA crosslinks. RRM2 immunoreactivity was evaluated by semi-quantitative H score among 29 normal, 30 low-grade dysplasia, 30 high-grade dysplasia and 103 invasive cancer tissue specimens of the uterine cervix, using tissue microarrays. RRM2 was then correlated with the clinicopathological variables of cervical cancer and patient survival. A greater toxic effect on cell viability using cisplatin was reflected by the greater reduction in RRM2 protein expression in SiHa cells. The RRM2 expression in cancer tissues was higher than that in high-grade dysplasia, low-grade dysplasia or normal cervical tissues. RRM2 upregulation was correlated with deep stromal invasion, large tumors and parametrial invasion and predicted poor survival. RRM2 is a new molecular marker for the diagnosis and clinical outcomes of cervical cancer. It is involved in cervical carcinogenesis and predicts poor survival, and may be a potential therapeutic target including in cisplatin treatment.

  15. High-dose rate brachytherapy in the treatment of carcinoma of uterine cervix: twenty-year experience with cobalt after-loading system.

    PubMed

    Mosalaei, A; Mohammadianpanah, M; Omidvari, S; Ahmadloo, N

    2006-01-01

    This retrospective analysis aims to report results of patients with cancer of uterine cervix treated with external-beam radiotherapy (EBR) and high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy, using manual treatment planning. From 1975 to 1995, 237 patients with FIGO stages IIB-IVA and mean age of 54.31 years were treated. EBR dose to the whole pelvis was 50 Gy in 25 fractions. Brachytherapy with HDR after-loading cobalt source (Cathetron) was performed following EBR completion with a dose of 30 Gy in three weekly fractions of 10 Gy to point A. Survival, local control, and genitourinary and gastrointestinal complications were assessed. In a median follow-up of 60.2 months, the 10-year overall and disease-free survival rate was 62.4%. Local recurrence was seen in 12.2% of patients. Distant metastases to the lymph nodes, peritoneum, lung, liver, and bone occurred in 25.3% of patients. Less than 6% of patients experienced severe genitourinary and/or gastrointestinal toxicity that were relieved by surgical intervention. No treatment-related mortality was seen. This series suggests that 50 Gy to the whole pelvis together with three fractions of 10 Gy to point A with HDR brachytherapy is an effective fractionation schedule in the treatment of locally advanced cancer of cervix. To decrease the complications, newer devices and treatment planning may be beneficial.

  16. [Adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix: particularities in diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Vandenbroucke, L; Robert, A-L; Lavoué, V; Foucher, F; Henno, S; Levêque, J

    2013-05-01

    The adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix accounts for 10 to 20% of the premalignant and malignant lesions and is different from the cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Recent literature review (from 1985 to 2012) based on the literature available. Adenocarcinoma in situ is an induced HPV lesion (role of HPV 18) of the glandular epithelium: its preferential endocervical situation explains the difficulties in the diagnosis and follow-up after conservative treatment. If the hysterectomy remains the gold standard for treatment, the conservative treatments (resection in sano of the lesions with margins of more than 1cm, meticulous study of the operative specimen, compliance with the follow-up) are possible in the young patients who desire to preserve their fertility. The invasive adenocarcinoma is characterized by a more difficult diagnosis because of its endocervical development, and a prognosis less favorable when compared to squamous cell carcinoma with a greater frequency of the lymphatic node involvement and metastatic diffusion. Its treatment must take into account the particular gravity of the factors of worse prognosis (FIGO stage, tumor size, lymphatic node spreading, adenosquamous histological subtype) in particular in the advanced stages and includes beside the surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. HPV epigenetic mechanisms related to Oropharyngeal and Cervix cancers.

    PubMed

    Di Domenico, Marina; Giovane, Giancarlo; Kouidhi, Soumaya; Iorio, Rosamaria; Romano, Maurizio; De Francesco, Francesco; Feola, Antonia; Siciliano, Camilla; Califano, Luigi; Giordano, Antonio

    2017-03-31

    Human Papilloma Virus infection is very frequent in humans and is mainly transmitted sexually. The majority of infections are transient and asymptomatic, however, if the infection persists, it can occur with a variety of injuries to skin and mucous membranes, depending on the type of HPV involved. Some types of HPV are classified as high oncogenic risk as associated with the onset of cancer. The tumors most commonly associated with HPV are cervical and oropharyngeal cancer, epigenetic mechanisms related to HPV infection include methylation changes to host and viral DNA and chromatin modification in host species. This review is focused about epigenethic mechanism, such as MiRNAs expression, related to cervix and oral cancer. Specifically it discuss about molecular markers associated to a more aggressive phenotype. In this way we will analyze genes involved in meiotic sinaptonemal complex, transcriptional factors, of orthokeratins, sinaptogirin, they are all expressed in cancer in a way not more dependent on cell differentiation but HPV-dependent.

  18. Cancer of the cervix uteri and vitamin A.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, R. W.; Forman, D.; Doll, R.; Vessey, M. P.; Wald, N. J.

    1986-01-01

    The concentrations of retinol and beta carotene were measured in serum samples taken from 113 women with cervical cancer, 32 with invasive and 81 with pre-invasive disease, and compared with those from 226 age-matched control women. There was little difference in serum retinol levels between women with cancer of the cervix, at any stage, and the control women, after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Serum beta carotene concentrations were likewise similar in women with invasive disease and the controls. However mean beta carotene levels were significantly reduced in women with pre-invasive disease compared to the controls (221.3 cf. 291.6 micrograms l-1, P less than 0.05). This reduction was more evident amongst women with a diagnosis of carcinoma-in-situ (mean 213.1 micrograms l-1 than amongst those with severe dysplasia (mean 228.7 micrograms l-1. There is a negative trend between beta carotene and risk of pre-invasive disease which is of borderline significance. These data have also been used to investigate the effects of smoking and oral contraceptive usage on the serum levels of retinol and beta carotene. Both habits tend to increase retinol and decrease beta carotene concentrations. PMID:3718822

  19. Carcinoma of the cervix, stage III. Results of radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Montana, G S; Fowler, W C; Varia, M A; Walton, L A; Mack, Y; Shemanski, L

    1986-01-01

    From April 1969 through December 1980, 203 patients with Stage III epidermoid carcinoma of the cervix were treated with radiation therapy with curative intent. The disease-free survival at 2, 5, and 10 years was 50%, 33%, and 27%, respectively. The survival was better for patients with Stage IIIB disease than for those with Stage IIIA disease. Eighty-eight patients were treated with external beam therapy only, and 115 received external beam and brachytherapy. The disease-free survival was better for the combination therapy group initially, but this difference was not sustained beyond 5 years. One hundred eight patients experienced recurrence within the irradiated field, for a locoregional recurrence rate of 53%. Twenty-seven patients had complications (13%). The complications were mild in 13 patients, moderate in 4 patients, and severe in 10 patients. A study was made of the relationship of the dose to Point A and the occurrence of complications. Similar analyses were made of the bladder and rectal doses and the subsequent occurrence of urinary and intestinal complications. In these analyses, the mean dose to Point A and the critical organs was higher for the groups of patients with complications than for those patients without complications. This relationship was also observed when the patients were stratified for treatment with either external beam plus brachytherapy or external beam therapy alone.

  20. Human cervix: an alternative substrate for detecting circulating pemphigus antibodies.

    PubMed

    Chularojanamontri, Leena; Tuchinda, Papapit; Pinkaew, Sumruay; Chanyachailert, Pattriya; Petyim, Somsin; Sangkarat, Suthi; Kulthanan, Kanokvalai; Suthipinittharm, Puan

    2016-08-01

    Monkey esophagus (ME) is a well-accepted substrate for diagnosing pemphigus vulgaris (PV) by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF). However, its availability is sometimes limited due to ethical concerns. This study aimed to investigate the usefulness of human cervix (HC) as a substrate in the diagnosis of PV by IIF. Initially, serum from 1 PV patient was incubated with tissues from 48 HCs. Median IIF titers on HCs that had different demographic and clinical characteristics were compared. Sera from 5 PV patients were then incubated with ME and 21 HCs. For each serum, the titer of IIF on HC that was not different from ME by more than two-fold dilutions was acceptable. Last, sera from 42 PV, 14 pemphigus foliaceous, and 62 non-pemphigus patients were used to evaluate sensitivity and specificity. The results demonstrate that differences in demographic data among HCs did not affect IIF titers. Titers obtained from ME and HC were comparable (81-100 % acceptable values). Sensitivity of HC for diagnosis of PV was better than for diagnosis of pemphigus foliaceus (90.5 and 71.4 %, respectively). Specificity for PV and PF was 96.2 %. We proposed that HC substrate can be used as an alternative substrate for diagnosis of PV by IIF.

  1. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the cervix uteri. A case report.

    PubMed

    Horn, L C; Fischer, U; Bilek, K

    1997-02-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) of the female genital tract are rare and more common in the ovary, but uncommon in the cervix uteri. A 26-year-old woman presented with suspect cervical smears. The conization specimen showed a small cell non-keratinised squamous cell carcinoma with involved margins. The patient underwent radical abdominal hysterectomy and pelvic lymphonodectomy. The microscopic examination showed a densely cellular tumor of small neuroendocrine cells with scanty cytoplasm and rosettes. Immunohistochemically, the cells were slightly positive for NSE and negative for S 100, GFAP, neurofilaments, squamous cell cytokeratin 1, vimentin, desmin and leukocyte common antigen. The diagnosis of PNET, stage pT1b1,N0, M0 was made. The patient underwent adjuvant pelvic radiation. Three years later, pulmonary metastases occured. Radiation therapy of the thorax and six courses of combination chemotherapy (5-FU and cis-platinium) could not prevent tumor progression. The patient died 4.2 years after diagnosis. The autopsy showed widespread lymphatic metastases and hepatic, pulmonal and skeletal metastases and a peritoneal carcinosis. The tumors are resistent to radio- and chemotherapy, and the prognosis is generally poor. Up to 15% foci of squamous or glandular differentiation occur in or adjacent to these tumors. So the authors favor the histogenesis from a pluripotent endocervical stem cell. The neuroendocrine component of mixed tumors improve the prognosis. Therefore, it is necessary to recognize this component.

  2. MR imaging of the uterus and cervix in healthy women: determination of normal values.

    PubMed

    Hauth, Elke A M; Jaeger, Horst J; Libera, Hanna; Lange, Silke; Forsting, Michael

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish normal values for the volume of the uterus and cervix in MRI based on age and the menstrual cycle phase. We performed MRI of the pelvis in 100 healthy women. For the uterus, they were further divided into two groups: one with myomas and/or adenomyosis and one without either. The volume of the uterus and cervix and thickness of the uterine wall layers were analysed by age and the menstrual cycle phase. The mean volume of the uterus in both groups and the cervix significantly increased with age to reach its peak at 41-50 years, and then dropped. Likewise, the thickness of the endometrium and the junctional zone, but not the myometrium, significantly increased until 41-50 years, and then decreased. When we compared the volume of the uterus and cervix and the thickness of the uterine wall layers between the two phases of the menstrual cycle, we found no significant differences. The volume of the uterus and cervix and the thickness of the endometrium and junctional zone differ significantly with age, but not between the two phases of the menstrual cycle. Knowledge of MRI-related normal values can be expected to aid the early identification of uterine pathologies.

  3. Uterine fibroids at routine second-trimester ultrasound survey and risk of sonographic short cervix.

    PubMed

    Blitz, Matthew J; Rochelson, Burton; Augustine, Stephanie; Greenberg, Meir; Sison, Cristina P; Vohra, Nidhi

    2016-11-01

    To determine whether women with sonographically identified uterine fibroids are at higher risk for a short cervix. This retrospective cohort study evaluated all women with singleton gestations who had a routine second-trimester ultrasound at 17-23 weeks gestational age from 2010 to 2013. When fibroids were noted, their presence, number, location and size were recorded. Exclusion criteria included a history of cervical conization or loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP), uterine anomalies, maternal age greater than 40 years, and a previously placed cerclage. The primary variable of interest was short cervix (<25 mm). Secondary variables of interest included gestational age at delivery, mode of delivery, indication for cesarean, malpresentation, birth weight, and Apgar scores. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed. Fibroids were identified in 522/10 314 patients (5.1%). In the final multivariable logistic regression model, short cervix was increased in women with fibroids (OR 2.29, 95% CI: 1.40, 3.74). The number of fibroids did not affect the frequency of short cervix. Fibroids were significantly associated with preterm delivery (<37 weeks), primary cesarean, breech presentation, lower birth weight infants, and lower Apgar scores. Women with uterine fibroids may be at higher risk for a short cervix. Fibroids are also associated with several adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes.

  4. Glycosaminoglycan Distribution in the Rat Uterine Cervix During the Estrous Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Cubas, Jairo Jose Matozinho; Simões, Ricardo Santos; Oliveira-Filho, Ricardo Martins; Simões, Manuel Jesus; Baracat, Edmund C; Soares, José Maria

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the amount of glycosaminoglycans in the uterine cervix during each phase of the rat estrous cycle. DESIGN: Based on vaginal smears, forty female, regularly cycling rats were divided into four groups (n = 10 for each group): GI – proestrous, GII – estrous, GIII – metaestrous and GIV – diestrous. Animals were sacrificed at each phase of the cycle, and the cervix was immediately removed and submitted to biochemical extraction and determination of sulfated glycosaminoglycans and hyaluronic acid. The results were analyzed by ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni post-hoc test. RESULTS: The uterine cervix had the highest amount of total sulfated glycosaminoglycans and dermatan sulfate during the estrous phase (8.90 ± 0.55 mg/g of cetonic extract, p<0.001; and 8.86 ± 0.57 mg/g of cetonic extract, p<0.001). In addition, there was more heparan sulfate at the cervix during the proestrous phase (0.185 ± 0.03 mg/g of cetonic extract) than during any other phase (p<0.001). There were no significant changes in the concentration of hyaluronic acid in the uterine cervix during the estrous cycle. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that the amount of total sulfated glycosaminoglycans may be influenced by hormonal fluctuations related to the estrous cycle, with dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate being the glycosaminoglycans most sensitive to hormonal change. PMID:20668628

  5. Genital sanguineous discharge in prepuberty: a case of mullerian papilloma of vagina in a nine-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Tumini, Stefano; Carinci, Silvia; Anzellotti, Maria Teresa; Chiesa, Pier Luigi Lelli; Rossi, Carlo; Stuppia, Liborio; Bertelloni, Silvano; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2010-08-01

    Vaginal bleeding in prepuberty is an alarming symptom that must be carefully investigated. Among quite common causes of genital sanguineous discharge, there are rarer conditions responsible for bleeding at this age like Mullerian papilloma of the genital tract. In this report, we describe a case of Mullerian papilloma of the vagina in a 9-year-old girl. We believe in the importance of a correct clinical setting and histological definition to avoid wrong diagnosis and consequent inadequate treatments. Mullerian papilloma, a benign tumor, can in fact be treated only with local excision.

  6. [In vitro assessment of the sensitivity of Candida albicans strains isolated from the vagina on basis antimycotics].

    PubMed

    Lisiak, M; Kłyszejko, C; Marcinkowski, Z; Gwieździński, Z

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyses the sensitivity of 73 randomly selected Candida albicans strains isolated from the vagina of pregnant and delivering women against seven basic antimycotics. The microtest FUNGITEST (Sanofi Diagnostics Pasteur) was applied in assessing the sensitivity of 5-fluorocytosin, amphotericin B, ketoconazol, fluconazol, itraconazol and miconazol and the disk-diffusion method with the use of a Casitone base for nystatin. Variations in the sensitivity against drugs have been noted between individual strains of Candida albicans species. The largest number of strains was resistant against ketoconazol--56.16%, and only 10.96% was resistant against nystatin.

  7. Consistent Condom Use Increases the Colonization of Lactobacillus crispatus in the Vagina

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Liyan; Lv, Zhi; Su, Jianrong; Wang, Jianjie; Yan, Donghui; Wei, Jingjuan; Pei, Shuang

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-hormonal contraception methods have been widely used, but their effects on colonization by vaginal lactobacilli remain unclear. Objective To determine the association between non-hormonal contraception methods and vaginal lactobacilli on women’s reproductive health. Methods The cross-sectional study included 164 healthy women between 18–45 years of age. The subjects were divided into different groups on the basis of the different non-hormonal contraception methods used by them. At the postmenstrual visit (day 21 or 22 of the menstrual cycle), vaginal swabs were collected for determination of Nugent score, quantitative culture and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of vaginal lactobacilli. The prevalence, colony counts and 16S rRNA gene expression of the Lactobacillus strains were compared between the different groups by Chi-square and ANOVA statistical analysis methods. Results A Nugent score of 0–3 was more common in the condom group (93.1%) than in the group that used an interuterine device(IUD) (75.4%), (p = 0.005). The prevalence of H2O2-producing Lactobacillus was significantly higher in the condom group (82.3%) than in the IUD group (68.2%), (p = 0.016). There was a significant difference in colony count (mean ± standard error (SE), log10colony forming unit (CFU)/ml) of H2O2-producing Lactobacillus between condom users (7.81±0.14) and IUD users (6.54±0.14), (p = 0.000). The 16S rRNA gene expression (mean ± SE, log10copies/ml) of Lactobacillus crispatus was significantly higher in the condom group (8.09±0.16) than in the IUD group (6.03±0.18), (p = 0.000). Conclusion Consistent condom use increases the colonization of Lactobacillus crispatus in the vagina and may protect against both bacterial vaginosis (BV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). PMID:23894682

  8. Estrogen receptor expression and vessel density in the vagina wall in postmenopausal women with prolapse.

    PubMed

    Lara, Lúcia Alves da Silva; Ribeiro da Silva, Alfredo; Rosa-e-Silva, Julio Cesar; Silva-de-Sá, Marcos Felipe; Rosa-e-Silva, Ana Carolina Japur de Sá

    2014-04-01

    After menopause, critically estrogen low levels result in modifications in vaginal wall. This cross-sectional study aims to determine whether there is a change in the number of vessels in the lamina propria of the vagina after menopause in parallel to the ER-alpha expression on the vaginal wall. Twelve women who underwent a genital surgery for genital prolapse up to grade II were selected. They were divided into two groups: a premenopausal group (PG) consisting of six women who were 18-40 years old with FSH levels =12 mIU/ml and regular cycles, and a menopausal group (MG) consisting of six women at least one year after menopause who were <65 years old with FSH levels =40 mIU/ml. Slides were stained for ER-alpha immunohistochemistry, and an endothelial cell marker CD3 was used to label vessels which were identified by using a system for morphometry. The number of vessels was significantly higher in the PG than in the MG both on the anterior wall (PG: 1.055 ± 145.8 vessels/mm(2), MG: 346.6 ± 209.9 vessels/mm(2), p<0.0001) and on the posterior wall (PG: 1064 ± 303.3 vessels/mm(2), MG: 348.6 ± 167.3 vessels/mm(2), p=0.0005). The ER-alpha score was significantly higher in the PG than the score for the MG on both the anterior and posterior walls (PG: 6.0 ± 0.52, MG: 2.5 ± 0.89, p=0.007; PG: 5.8 ± 0.79, MG: 2.7 ± 0.95, p=0.03, respectively). There was a positive correlation between the ER-alpha score and the vessel concentration on the anterior (r=0.6656, p=0.018) and posterior (r=0.6738, p=0.016) vaginal walls. Age was strongly negatively correlated with vessel concentration on the vaginal walls (respectively r=-0.9033, p<0.0001, r=-0.7440, p=0.0055). Therefore, postmenopausal women with genital prolapse have a smaller number of vessels on the vaginal wall compared to normoestrogenic controls with the same pathological condition. Hypoestrogenism and advancing age are factors that are associated to these changes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Specific features of cytological and colposcopical pattern in pregnant women with benign cervix uteri pathology in anamnesis.

    PubMed

    Bysaha, Nataliya Yu

    2016-01-01

    a tendency of increasing incidence of the cervix uteri precancer and cancer in women of reproductive age is noticed recently being related to the growth of number of the sexually-transmitted infections. The cervix uteri pathology incidence in women of fertile age is 20-25%. to study the specific features of the cytological and colposcopical pattern in pregnant patients with benign cervix uteri pathology in the anamnesis and the character of its change post partum. we have examined 195 women during their pregnancy and 3-5 months post partum. All pregnant women, alongside with generally accepted clinical and laboratory examinations, were subjected to the simple and extended colposcopy, cytology of the targeted smears and, according to indications, the histological studies of bioptate. according to the results of the colcoscopical studies and the signs of the cervix uteri pathology found, the patients were divided into several groups. A control group included 49 pregnant women. The clinical and instrumental examination of 146 women with cervix uteri pathology has been carried out both during pregnancy and post partum. the structure of the clinical forms of benign and premalignant changes in the cervix uteri epithelium in pregnant patients has been found. Specific features of the cytological and colposcopical pattern in pregnant patients with benign cervix uteri pathology in anamnesis have been studied. The relationship between the parity of pregnancy, delivery, route of delivery and regress of both benign and premalignant changes in the cervix uteri epithelium 3-5 months post partum has been determined.

  10. Beryllium Toxicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Favorites Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Yahoo MyWeb Beryllium Toxicity Patient Education Care Instruction Sheet ... Favorites Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Yahoo MyWeb Page last reviewed: May 23, 2008 Page ...

  11. Coexistence of metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma of the uterine cervix with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Balega, J; Ulbright, T M; Look, K Y

    2001-01-01

    Women now constitute 28% of new cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Cervical cancer in HIV-infected women has a high recurrence and death rate, as well as decreased intervals to recurrence and death. Neuroendocrine carcinomas of the cervix are characterized by a high frequency of early nodal and distant metastases. We present the first report of a neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix in an HIV-positive patient. A 28 year old with a 9-year history of HIV succumbed to metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix 5 months after diagnosis. Given the aggressive nature of the cell type, an extended metastatic workup should be considered prior to surgery. The immune suppression present in HIV-positive patients with neuroendocrine cervical carcinoma may make such a workup particularly crucial, such that surgery is offered only to those who can be expected to benefit.

  12. Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma Arising from Endometriosis of the Uterine Cervix: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Park, Han Moie; Lee, Sang Soo; Eom, Dae Woon; Kang, Gil Hyun; Yi, Sang Wook

    2009-01-01

    Endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis of the uterine cervix is rare in premenopausal woman. We describe here a patient with this condition and review the clinical and pathological features of these tumors. A 48-yr-old woman complaining of severe dysmenorrhea was referred for investigation of a pelvic mass. Total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed. Histological examination revealed an endometrioid adenocarcinoma directly adjacent to the endometriosis at the uterine cervix, with a transition observed between endometriosis and endometrioid adenocarcinoma. The patient was diagnosed as having endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis of the uterine cervix and underwent postoperative chemotherapy. Gynecologists and pathologists should be aware of the difficulties associated with a delay in diagnosis of endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis when the tumor presents as a benign looking endometrioma. PMID:19654969

  13. Evaluation of human papillomavirus elimination from cervix uteri by infrared laser exposure.

    PubMed

    Dymkovets, V P; Ezhov, V V; Manykin, A A; Belov, S V; Danileiko, Yu K; Osiko, V V; Salyuk, V A

    2011-12-01

    Elimination of types 16 and 18 human papilloma virus from the surface of cervix uteri for secondary prevention of cervical cancer was evaluated. The method is protected by patent of invention of the Russian Federation. Infrared laser therapy of cervix uteri was carried out in patients with precancer diseases of cervix uteri at Department of Gynecology of Municipal Clinical Hospital No. 52 (Moscow). Papillomavirus infection was eliminated using a Russian diode laser (lambda=1.06 μ, radiation power 10 W) with a collimating headpiece using carbon die at a distance of 10-12 cm from the exposed surface. The treatment resulted in a high percentage of elimination of types 16 and 18 oncogenic virus 4-6 weeks and during delayed periods after exposure.

  14. Trends in cancer incidence in female breast, cervix uteri, corpus uteri, and ovary in India.

    PubMed

    Yeole, Balkrishna B

    2008-01-01

    Trends in breast, cervix uteri, corpus uteri and ovarian cancers in six population based cancer registries (Mumbai, Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi, Bhopal, and Barshi) were evaluated over a period of the last two decades. For studying trends we used a model that fits this data is the logarithm of Y=ABx which represents a Linear Regression model. This approach showed a decreasing trend for cancer of the cervix and increasing trends for cancers of breast, ovary and corpus uteri throughout the entire period of observation in most of the registries. The four cancers, breast, cervix, corpus uteri and ovary, constitute more than 50% of total cancers in women. As all these cancers are increasing, to understand their etiology in depth, analytic epidemiology studies should be planned in a near future on a priority basis.

  15. [Precancerous lesions of the uterine cervix: morphology and molecular pathology].

    PubMed

    Horn, L-C; Klostermann, K

    2011-11-01

    HPV-induced alterations of the uterine cervix are frequently biopsied because of suspicious findings on a Pap smear and/or colposcopy. Precancerous lesions occur at the so called transformation zone. For those representing squamous differentiation, the traditional three-tier grading system in CIN 1 to 3 is used. CIN 1 and CIN 2 represent (spontaneous) regression in 60-90% and 50%, respectively. In CIN 3 lesions progression is seen in 20-50%. For appropriate grading, improvement of inter- and intraobserver correlation as well as the exclusion of non-precancerous lesions, p16 immunohistochemistry might be helpful. The terms endocervical glandular dysplasia and low-grade glandular intraepithelial neoplasia have been suggested for glandular lesions less than adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS). Until now reproducible histological criteria have not been established. Additional studies using HPV analysis, p16 and Ki-67 immunohistochemistry have not been proved for these lesions. In accordance with international consensus meetings, these diagnostic terms are not recommended for use in practice. AIS, characterised by the replacement of glandular epithelium by cytologically malignant cells, has been established as the precancerous lesion of the endocervix. AIS is much less common than CIN 3 with a reported range of 1:50-100. But, AIS is found in association with CIN 3 with 25-75%. The differential diagnosis between AIS and non-neoplastic glandular lesion may be aided by immunohistochemistry (e.g. p16, Ki-67, bcl-2, vimentin). All specimens obtained after the clinical diagnosis of cervical precancerous lesions should be examined using step sectioning to rule out microinvasive growth. Important information for clinicians includes the quality of the specimen (cautery artefacts, transformation zone enclosed within the probe), exact grading of CIN lesions, identification of other lesions responsible for suspicious findings of a Pap smear or at colposcopy, and in the case of conisation

  16. [Computerized evaluation of reparative processes of the cervix uteri].

    PubMed

    Pasquinucci, C; Contini, V

    1990-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN), as reported in relevant literature, on cervical epithelia dynamics. Particularly, the interactions taking place between columnar epithelium and the squamous one have been examined. For the purposes of the study, the following computerized techniques, already widely known, have been used: The colposcope is joined to a videocamera connected with a computer (AT compatible). The computer is equipped with a graphic card capable to record and to digit the image, i.e. to make it recognizable by the computer itself. Thereafter, many operations can be performed on the colposcopic images: reductions, enlargements, retouches, record, recall, analysis, etc. Moreover, irregular epithelial areas can be easily determined to a good approximation and, using pre-established enlargement ratios, their evolution can be evaluated. By means of this technique 12 out-patients with uterine cervix ectopias, with or without normal transformation zone (NTZ), have been examined. The monthly therapy was 12 pessaries, each containing 5 mg polydeoxyribonucleotide (POLIDES 5--Farmigea), from the 7th to the 18th day of the cycle, repeated for 3 months. Since the first month of treatment a reduction of the ectopic columnar epithelium has been noted in most patients (9 on 12), with a squamous epithelium increase (peripheral reparative process). This process has kept on increasing during the following months in the 9 patients responding to the treatment, whose ectopic areas were covered by squamous epithelium (average 55% of the area; range 33%-78%). No response to the treatment has been shown in 3 cases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Head-to-cervix force: an important physiological variable in labour. 1. The temporal relation between head-to-cervix force and intrauterine pressure during labour.

    PubMed

    Allman, A C; Genevier, E S; Johnson, M R; Steer, P J

    1996-08-01

    To investigate the relation between the rise in intrauterine pressure and rise in fetal head to cervix force in normal, slow and induced labour. Prospective observational study. The labour ward of a London teaching hospital. Forty patients were recruited from the antenatal clinic and labour ward of a West London Hospital. Five had normal onset and progression of labour, 14 had slow progression of labour and 21 had induced onset of labour. Intrauterine pressure and head-to-cervix force was measured simultaneously using an intrauterine pressure catheter and a specially designed four sensor head-to-cervix force probe. For each contraction of each labour, scattergrams of force by pressure were plotted. Three patterns were observed. When the rise in pressure preceded the rise in force, a positive 'loop' was generated. When the rise in pressure and force occurred simultaneously a linear pattern was generated (a neutral 'loop'). When the rise in pressure lags the rise in force, a negative 'loop' was generated. In normally progressive labour the distribution of loops was 29.1%, 22.6% and 48.3%, respectively, in slow labour the distribution was 26.1%, 14.1% and 59.8% and in induced labour the distribution was 33.8%, 14.4% and 51.8%. These distributions were not statistically different. However, a higher proportion of negative loops was observed in labours augmented with oxytocin compared to those receiving no oxytocin (MW-U = 87, P = 0.036). No differences were observed comparing parity, use of PGE2, epidural analgesia, or mode of delivery. Contraction frequency (number/10 minutes) was inversely correlated to the percentage of negative loops (rs = -0.34, P = 0.033) and positively correlated with percentage of positive loops (rs = 0.36, P = 0.027). This is the first report of the temporal relation between intrauterine pressure and head-to-cervix force in labour. The most common pattern is that the rise in pressure lags the rise in force, suggesting that a seal has to be

  18. [Cervix uteri cancer in Poland--epidemiological opening balance and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Didkowska, Joanna; Wojciechowska, Urszula; Zatoński, Witold

    2006-09-01

    Cancer is one of the main causes of death among young and middle-aged females. In case of some cancer sites there is a possibility of undertaking an intervention, which would diminish the risk of death--to this group belongs first of all malignant neoplasm of cervix uteri. The date of beginning first cervix uteri cancer screening in Poland is approaching, therefore presenting epidemiological opening balance and possible scenarios of changes it worthwhile. This work uses data on morbidity and mortality due to malignant neoplasm of cervix uteri cancer in Polish population. Time trends analysis was based on so-called "breakpoint" (joinpoint analysis). Cervix uteri cancer mortality trend is characterized by two breakpoints (1971 and 1993). In the period of 1963-1970 there was an increase of mortality and then after the trend reversed: percentage decline was estimated at the level of 0.8% yearly in 1971-1992 and 2.4% yearly in 1993-2002. Hypothetical scenarios of changes in cervix uteri cancer mortality show, that lack of intervention will cause mortality among Polish females at the level recorded in Finland 25 years ago. Optimistic variant would allow on diminishing mortality in Poland down to the level observed currently in Finland, in around 30 years. Implementing preventive cervix uteri cancer screening is currently the most urgent challenge of public health. If the preventive screening program will still be in the phase of plans and projects, then in 30 years time Poland will be in the point which Finland reached in the end of 1970s, and our civilizing underdevelopment will reach half a century.

  19. Gastric metastasis of cervix uteri carcinoma, rare cause of lower gastric stenosis.

    PubMed

    Moldovan, B; Banu, E; Pocreaţă, D; Buiga, R; Rogoz, S; Pripisi, L; Cimpeanu, L; Moldovan, A; Jeder, O; Badea, A; Biris, P

    2012-01-01

    the paper presents a rare case of metachronous gastric metastasis of uterine cervix cancer, clinically manifested through severe pyloric stenosis. 49-year-old patient, operated on in January 2009, with uterine cervix cancer (Squamous cell carcinoma T2bN1M0), is hospitalized in August 2011 with pyloric stenosis: epigastric pains, abundant, stasis, late postprandial emesis, significant weight loss, stomach form visible upon abdomen inspection. Endoscopy: antral stenosis with intact gastric mucosa, and CT-scan: circumferential intramural gastric tumor, stomach dilated in the upper part, lack of cleavage between the tumor and the liver bed of the gall bladder. CEA increased to 13,78 (below 5), CA 19-9 slightly increased 29.9 (below 27). The case is considered as a second neoplasia and a D2 subtotal gastrectomy was performed, with 1 positive ganglion out of 27 on block with atypical hepatectomy of segments 4-5 for liver invasion, the final mounting being Y Roux. The histopathological examination shows a gastric metastasis of squamous carcinoma, of uterine cervix origin, the invaded perigastric ganglion having the same aspect of uterine cervix carcinoma. The post-surgery evolution was favorable, under chemo radiotherapy the patient being alive without relapse at 9 months post-surgery. In the literature there are 2 more cases of gastric metastasis of uterine cervix carcinoma, and 4 of uterine carcinoma without topographic indication, but without the histological documentation of the tumor filiation, without data related to resecability or follow-up, the case at hand being, from this perspective, the first documented resectable metachronous gastric metastasis from a cervix uteri carcinoma. Celsius.

  20. Collagen and matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 in the ewe cervix during the estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Piñón, M; Tasende, C; Casuriaga, D; Bielli, A; Genovese, P; Garófalo, E G

    2015-09-15

    The cervical collagen remodeling during the estrous cycle of the ewe was examined. The collagen concentration determined by a hydroxyproline assay and the area occupied by collagen fibers (%C), determined by van Gieson staining, were assessed in the cranial and caudal cervix of Corriedale ewes on Days 1 (n = 6), 6 (n = 5), or 13 (n = 6) after estrous detection (defined as Day 0). In addition, the gelatinase activity by in situ and SDS-PAGE gelatin zymographies and matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9, respectively) expression by immunohistochemistry were determined. The collagen concentration and %C were lowest on Day 1 of the estrous cycle (P < 0.04), when MMP-2 activity was highest (P < 0.006) and the ratio of activated to latent MMP-2 trend to be highest (P = 0.0819). The MMP-2 activity was detected in 73% of the homogenized cervical samples, and its expression was mainly detected in active fibroblasts. By contrast, the MMP-9 activity was detected in 9% of the samples, and its scarce expression was associated with plasmocytes, macrophages, and lymphocytes. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression was maximal on Day 1 in the cranial cervix and on Day 13 in the caudal cervix and was lower in the cranial than in the caudal cervix (P < 0.0001). This time-dependent increase in MMP-2 expression that differed between the cranial and caudal cervix may reflect their different physiological roles. The decrease in the collagen content and increase in fibroblast MMP-2 activity in sheep cervix on Day 1 of the estrous cycle suggests that cervical dilation at estrus is due to the occurrence of collagen fiber degradation modulated by changes in periovulatory hormone levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. EFFECTS OF X IRRADIATION ON THE LEVEL OF NUCLEIC ACIDS AND PROTEINS OF THE UTERUS AND VAGINA OF PREPUBERTAL MICE SUBMITTED TO INDUCED HYPERPLASIA (in French)

    SciTech Connect

    Ledoux, L.; Charles, P.

    1961-12-01

    In 20-day-old mice injected subcutaneously with a single 10 ug. dose of estradiol benzoate the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) content rose 100% in uterus and 50% in vagina 72 hr later. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) content rose 250 and 100%, respectively, and protein content rose in parallel with DNA. Similarly treated mice were exposed to x rays (150 to 850 r) 24 hr before, simultaneously with, or 24 to 48 hr after injection of estradiol. Irradiation with 750 r before or with the injection inhibited the rise of DNA and RNA 50 to 80% but did not affect the increase in proteins.more » Irradiation of uninjected control mice diminished DNA and RNA. Irradiation 24 to 38 hr after the injection immediately suppressed the increases of DNA and RNA in uterus and vagina and of protein in uterus. Protein content of vagina was not influenced. (H.H.D.)« less

  2. Immunity in the Vagina (Part II): Anti-HIV Activity and Antiviral Content of Human Vaginal Secretions

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mickey V.; Ghosh, Mimi; Fahey, John V.; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Rossoll, Richard M.; Wira, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Problem Whether the concentrations of antiviral proteins, and anti-HIV activity, within human vaginal secretions changes across the menstrual cycle is unknown. Method of Study Using a menstrual cup, vaginal secretions from premenopausal women were recovered at the proliferative (d6–8), mid-cycle (d13–15) and secretory (d21–23) stages of the menstrual cycle. Antiviral protein concentration was determined by ELISA, and anti-HIV activity assessed using the TZM-bl reporter cell line. Results CCL20, RANTES, elafin, HBD2, SDF-1α and IL-8 levels were detectable in the secretions. Vaginal secretions had anti-HIV activity against specific clade B strains of HIV, with significant inhibition of IIIB and increased infectivity of transmitted/founder CH077.t. No significant differences in either antiviral protein concentration or anti-HIV activity with respect to menstrual cycle stage were measured, but marked differences were observed in both parameters over the course of the cycle between different women, and in consecutive cycles from the same woman. Conclusion The vagina contains a complement of antiviral proteins. The variation in anti-HIV activity demonstrates that immune protection in the vagina is not constant. Intra- and inter-individual variations suggest that factors in addition to sex hormones influence antiviral protection. Lastly, the menstrual cup is a new model for recovering undiluted vaginal secretions from women throughout their reproductive life. PMID:24806967

  3. Innate immunity in the vagina (Part II): Anti-HIV activity and antiviral content of human vaginal secretions.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mickey V; Ghosh, Mimi; Fahey, John V; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Rossoll, Richard M; Wira, Charles R

    2014-07-01

    Whether the concentrations of antiviral proteins, and anti-HIV activity, within human vaginal secretions change across the menstrual cycle is unknown. Using a menstrual cup, vaginal secretions from pre-menopausal women were recovered at the proliferative (d6-8), mid-cycle (d13-15), and secretory (d21-23) stages of the menstrual cycle. Antiviral protein concentration was determined by ELISA, and anti-HIV activity assessed using the TZM-bl reporter cell line. CCL20, RANTES, elafin, HBD2, SDF-1α, and IL-8 levels were detectable in the secretions. Vaginal secretions had anti-HIV activity against specific clade B strains of HIV, with significant inhibition of IIIB and increased infectivity of transmitted/founder CH077.t. No significant differences in either antiviral protein concentration or anti-HIV activity with respect to menstrual cycle stage were measured, but marked differences were observed in both parameters over the course of the cycle between different women and in consecutive cycles from the same woman. The vagina contains a complement of antiviral proteins. The variation in anti-HIV activity demonstrates that immune protection in the vagina is not constant. Intra- and interindividual variations suggest that factors in addition to sex hormones influence antiviral protection. Lastly, the menstrual cup is a new model for recovering undiluted vaginal secretions from women throughout their reproductive life. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Extracellular matrix regenerative graft attenuates the negative impact of polypropylene prolapse mesh on vagina in rhesus macaque.

    PubMed

    Liang, Rui; Knight, Katrina; Barone, William; Powers, Robert W; Nolfi, Alexis; Palcsey, Stacy; Abramowitch, Steven; Moalli, Pamela A

    2017-02-01

    The use of wide pore lightweight polypropylene mesh to improve anatomical outcomes in the surgical repair of prolapse has been hampered by mesh complications. One of the prototype prolapse meshes has been found to negatively impact the vagina by inducing a decrease in smooth muscle volume and contractility and the degradation of key structural proteins (collagen and elastin), resulting in vaginal degeneration. Recently, bioscaffolds derived from extracellular matrix have been used to mediate tissue regeneration and have been widely adopted in tissue engineering applications. Here we aimed to: (1) define whether augmentation of a polypropylene prolapse mesh with an extracellular matrix regenerative graft in a primate sacrocolpopexy model could mitigate the degenerative changes; and (2) determine the impact of the extracellular matrix graft on vagina when implanted alone. A polypropylene-extracellular matrix composite graft (n = 9) and a 6-layered extracellular matrix graft alone (n = 8) were implanted in 17 middle-aged parous rhesus macaques via sacrocolpopexy and compared to historical data obtained from sham (n = 12) and the polypropylene mesh (n = 12) implanted by the same method. Vaginal function was measured in passive (ball-burst test) and active (smooth muscle contractility) mechanical tests. Vaginal histomorphologic/biochemical assessments included hematoxylin-eosin and trichrome staining, immunofluorescent labeling of α-smooth muscle actin and apoptotic cells, measurement of total collagen, collagen subtypes (ratio III/I), mature elastin, and sulfated glycosaminoglycans. Statistical analyses included 1-way analysis of variance, Kruskal-Wallis, and appropriate post-hoc tests. The host inflammatory response in the composite mesh-implanted vagina was reduced compared to that following implantation with the polypropylene mesh alone. The increase in apoptotic cells observed with the polypropylene mesh was blunted in the composite (overall P < .001). Passive

  5. Extracellular matrix regenerative graft attenuates the negative impact of polypropylene prolapse mesh on vagina in rhesus macaque

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Rui; Knight, Katrina; Barone, William; Powers, Robert W.; Nolfi, Alexis; Palcsey, Stacy; Abramowitch, Steven; Moalli, Pamela A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The use of wide pore lightweight polypropylene mesh to improve anatomical outcomes in the surgical repair of prolapse has been hampered by mesh complications. One of the prototype prolapse meshes has been found to negatively impact the vagina by inducing a decrease in smooth muscle volume and contractility and the degradation of key structural proteins (collagen and elastin), resulting in vaginal degeneration. Recently, bioscaffolds derived from extracellular matrix have been used to mediate tissue regeneration and have been widely adopted in tissue engineering applications. OBJECTIVE Here we aimed to: (1) define whether augmentation of a polypropylene prolapse mesh with an extracellular matrix regenerative graft in a primate sacrocolpopexy model could mitigate the degenerative changes; and (2) determine the impact of the extracellular matrix graft on vagina when implanted alone. STUDY DESIGN A polypropylene-extracellular matrix composite graft (n = 9) and a 6-layered extracellular matrix graft alone (n = 8) were implanted in 17 middle-aged parous rhesus macaques via sacrocolpopexy and compared to historical data obtained from sham (n = 12) and the polypropylene mesh (n = 12) implanted by the same method. Vaginal function was measured in passive (ball-burst test) and active (smooth muscle contractility) mechanical tests. Vaginal histomorphologic/ biochemical assessments included hematoxylin-eosin and trichrome staining, immunofluorescent labeling of α-smooth muscle actin and apoptotic cells, measurement of total collagen, collagen subtypes (ratio III/ I), mature elastin, and sulfated glycosaminoglycans. Statistical analyses included 1-way analysis of variance, Kruskal-Wallis, and appropriate posthoc tests. RESULTS The host inflammatory response in the composite mesh-implanted vagina was reduced compared to that following implantation with the polypropylene mesh alone. The increase in apoptotic cells observed with the polypropylene mesh was blunted in

  6. A common carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene causes p53 overexpression in mouse cervix via DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Gao, Meili; Li, Yongfei; Sun, Ying; Long, Jiangang; Kong, Yu; Yang, Shuiyun; Wang, Yili

    2011-09-18

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is cytotoxic and/or genotoxic to lung, stomach and skin tissue in the body. However, the effect of BaP on cervical tissue remains unclear. The present study detected DNA damage and the expression of the p53 gene in BaP-induced cervical tissue in female mice. Animals were intraperitoneally injected and orally gavaged with BaP at the doses of 2.5, 5, and 10mg/kg twice a week for 14 weeks. The single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay was used to detect the DNA damage. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridization (ISH) were used to detect the expression of p53 protein and p53 mRNA, respectively. The results showed that BaP induced a significant and dose-dependent increase of the number of cells with DNA damaged and the tail length as well as Comet tail moment in cervical tissue. The expression level of p53 protein and mRNA was increased. The results demonstrate that BaP may show toxic effect on the cervix by increasing DNA damage and the expression of the p53 gene. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. High frequency of human papillomavirus detection in the vagina before first vaginal intercourse among females enrolled in a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Shew, Marcia L; Weaver, Bree; Tu, Wanzhu; Tong, Yan; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Brown, Darron R

    2013-03-15

    Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is believed to be primarily sexually transmitted. Few studies have documented the detection of HPV in the vagina before first vaginal intercourse. We used a longitudinally followed cohort of adolescent females without prior vaginal intercourse to examine the frequency of detection of vaginal HPV and the association between first reported HPV detection and noncoital sexual behaviors. HPV was detected in 45.5% of subjects (10 of 22) before first vaginal sex. Seven of these 10 subjects reported noncoital behaviors that, in part, might have explained genital transmission. HPV can be detected in the vagina before first sexual intercourse, highlighting the need for early vaccination.

  8. Oxygen toxicity.

    PubMed

    Stogner, S W; Payne, D K

    1992-12-01

    The objective of this article is to provide an overview of the biochemistry of oxygen metabolism, including the formation of free radicals and the role of endogenous antioxidants. Pathophysiologic correlates underlying the clinical manifestations of oxygen toxicity are reviewed and management strategies are outlined. References from basic science and clinical journals were selected from the authors' files and from a search of a computerized database of the biomedical literature. Articles selected for review included both historical and current literature concerning the biochemistry and pathophysiology of oxygen toxicity in animals and humans. The benefits of oxygen therapy have been known for many years; however, its potential toxicity has not been recognized until the last two decades. The lungs, the eyes, and, under certain conditions, the central nervous system are the organs most affected by prolonged exposure to hyperoxic environments. Free radical formation during cellular metabolism under hyperoxic conditions is recognized as the biochemical basis of oxygen injury to cells and organs. Endogenous antioxidants are a primary means of detoxifying reactive oxygen species and preventing hyperoxia-induced cellular damage. When this defense fails or is overwhelmed by the excessive production of hyperoxia-induced free-radical species, distinctive morphologic changes occur at the cellular level. The amount of hyperoxia required to cause cellular damage and the time course of these changes vary from species to species and from individual to individual within the same species. Age, nutritional status, presence of underlying diseases, and certain drugs may influence the development of oxygen toxicity. There is currently no reliably effective drug for preventing or delaying the development of oxygen toxicity in humans. Use of the lowest effective oxygen concentration, the avoidance of certain drugs, and attention to nutritional and metabolic factors remain the best means

  9. Effect of reproductive ageing on pregnant mouse uterus and cervix

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rima; Moffatt, James D.; Mourmoura, Evangelia; Demaison, Luc; Seed, Paul T.; Poston, Lucilla

    2017-01-01

    Key points Older pregnant women have a greater risk of operative delivery, still birth and post‐term induction.This suggests that maternal age can influence the timing of birth and processes of parturition.We have found that increasing maternal age in C57BL/6J mice is associated with prolongation of gestation and length of labour.Older pregnant mice also had delayed progesterone withdrawal and impaired myometrial function.Uterine ageing and labour dysfunction should be investigated further in older primigravid women. Abstract Advanced maternal age (≥35 years) is associated with increased rates of operative delivery, stillbirth and post‐term labour induction. The physiological causes remain uncertain, although impaired myometrial function has been implicated. To investigate the hypothesis that maternal age directly influences successful parturition, we assessed the timing of birth and fetal outcome in pregnant C57BL/6J mice at 3 months (young) and 5 months (intermediate) vs. 8 months (older) of age using infrared video recording. Serum progesterone profiles, myometrium and cervix function, and mitochondrial electron transport chain complex enzymatic activities were also examined. Older pregnant mice had a longer mean gestation and labour duration (P < 0.001), as well as reduced litter size (P < 0.01) vs. 3‐month‐old mice. Older mice did not exhibit the same decline in serum progesterone concentrations as younger mice. Cervical tissues from older mice were more distensible than younger mice (P < 0.05). Oxytocin receptor and connexin‐43 mRNA expression were reduced in the myometrium from 8‐month‐old vs. 3‐month‐old mice (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 respectively) in tandem with more frequent but shorter duration spontaneous myometrial contractions (P < 0.05) and an attenuated contractile response to oxytocin. Myometrial mitochondrial copy number was reduced in older mice, although there were no age‐induced changes to the enzymatic

  10. Significance of blood group and social factors in carcinoma cervix in a semi-urban population in India.

    PubMed

    Kai, Lee Jun; Raju, Kalyani; Malligere Lingaiah, Harendra Kumar; Mariyappa, Narayanaswamy

    2013-01-01

    To assess the significance of social factors as risk factors for carcinoma cervix and to determine the significance of blood group to prevalence of carcinoma cervix in a semi-urban population of Kolar, Karnataka, India. One hundred cases of carcinoma cervix were included in the study, along with 200 females of the same ages considered as controls. Case details were collected from the hospital record section regarding social factors and blood groups and the data were analyzed by descriptive statistical methods. Blood group B showed the highest number of cases (55 cases) followed by blood group O (29 cases) in carcinoma cervix which was statistically significant (p<0.001). Age of marriage between 11 to 20 years showed highest number of carcinoma cervix cases (77 cases) and this also was statistically significant (p<0.001). Patients with rural background were 75 (p=0.112, odds ratio: 1.54), parity of more than or equal to two constituted 96 cases (p=0.006, odds ratio: 4.07) and Hindu patients were 95 in number (p=0.220, odds ratio: 1.89). Blood group B and age of marriage between 11 and 20 years were significantly associated with carcinoma cervix in our population. Region of residence, parity and religion presented with a altered risk for carcinoma cervix.

  11. [An objective measurement of physical property of the human uterine cervix and its clinical significance].

    PubMed

    Amano, K

    1983-02-01

    A new mechanical instrument, "Cervical Texturometer", has been developed for the objective measurement of cervical consistency by the use of TENSIPRESSER which was originally developed to evaluate the texture of food. The values obtained thereby have been found highly reproducible. 1. The anterior lip of the cervix was kept pressed between the disks to maintain the strain. Initial height, H(0), of the recorded stress-relaxation curve was defined as "Hardness" (100g load = 20 consistency units: C.U.) and the ratio H(0)/H(10)(H(10) = hardness after strain of 10 sec.) as "Viscoelastic Index (V.E.I.)" 2. The values of C.U. and V.E.I. were significantly correlated with the uronic acid/hydroxyproline ratio of the cervix. They gradually decreased with the progress of pregnancy under the possible influence of the changes of hormonal milieu irrespective of the presence or absence of uterine contraction. They did not change significantly, however, after 37 weeks of gestation or 2-3 weeks before the onset of labor. 3. Administration of DHAS improved the cervical consistency effectively in terms of the values of C.U. and V.E.I.. When the cervix is noted to have C.U. greater than or equal to 30, V.E.I. greater than or equal to 0.65 at the 37 weeks of gestation, administration of DHAS (200mg weekly X 2) is recommended to ripen the cervix.

  12. Primary diffuse large B cell lymphoma of the uterine cervix successfully treated by combined chemotherapy alone

    PubMed Central

    Cubo, Ana María; Soto, Zandra Mileny; Cruz, Miguel Ángel; Doyague, María José; Sancho, Verónica; Fraino, Aurymar; Blanco, Óscar; Puig, Noemi; Alcoceba, Miguel; González, Marcos; Sayagués, José María

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Primary lymphomas of the uterine cervix are a rare disease. They are often misdiagnosed because of their rarity and because they can be easily confused with a squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, as they are usually presented as exophytic mass with vaginal bleeding as their most common symptoms. Nevertheless, considering that both the prognosis and the treatment are completely different between them, differential diagnosis should be taken into account. Patient concerns: A case of a 51-year-old woman with a primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the cervix is presented. Diagnoses: Diagnosis of this tumor was a challenge for pathologists and clinicians, as four biopsies were needed to achieve a final diagnosis. Interventions: Patient was successfully treated with combined Rituximab and chemotherapy (R-CHOP) alone. Outcomes: Complete remission, confirmed through biopsy, was reached after six courses of chemotherapy. At 2-years follow up, patient is alive and free of disease. Lessons: Considering that the prognosis and treatment of primary malignant lymphoma of the cervix are completely different than that of the squamous cell carcinoma, awareness of this disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis. PMID:28489772

  13. [Primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the uterine cervix--a case report].

    PubMed

    Okudaira, Taeko; Nagasaki, Akitoshi; Miyagi, Takashi; Nakazato, Tetsuro; Taira, Naoya; Kudaka, Wataru; Maehama, Toshiyuki; Takasu, Nobuyuki

    2008-08-01

    Primary malignant lymphoma of the female genital tract is an extremely rare clinical entity. We report a case of primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the uterine cervix. A 68-year-old woman presented with abnormal genital bleeding in May 2002. A coloposcopic examination revealed a mass in the uterine cervix. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a bulky cervical tumor(7.5 x 8 cm)invading the right parametrium and adjacent levator ani muscle. Involvement of pelvic lymph nodes was also observed. The uterine lesion exhibited homogenous hypointensity on T1 weight image and isointense to hyperintense on T2-weight image. No other lesions were detected by the whole-body computed tomography, gallium scintigraphy, and bone marrow examination. Although cytology of the smear from the uterine cervix was nondiagnostic, the histologic examination of the punch biopsy material showed a diffuse proliferation of atypical lymphoid cells. Immunophenotypic studies revealed tumor cells were positive for CD19, CD20, CD30, and k-chain. A diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the uterine cervix, clinical stage IIE was made. The patient was treated with 6 cycles of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone(CHOP)chemotherapy followed by the involved field irradiation. She remains alive and free of disease more than 5 years after the diagnosis.

  14. [The morphological features of the nervous and vascular components of communication systems in the cervix uteri].

    PubMed

    Dorosevich, A E; Bekhtereva, I A; Sudilovskaia, V V

    2009-01-01

    The investigation has indicated the presence of adrenergic and cholinergic autonomic nerve terminals (ANT) in the tissues of squamous cell carcinomas of the cervix uteri in a tumor growth area and contralaterally. Heterogeneity of the local neuromediator background in the tumor growth area and contralaterally may be explained, by studying the specific features of the cell microenvironment of ANT.

  15. Multiple primary cancers of breast and cervix uteri: An epidemiological approach to analysis

    PubMed Central

    Prior, P.; Waterhouse, J. A. H.

    1981-01-01

    Index sites of breast and cervix uteri were selected from populationbased data held at the West Midlands and Birmingham Regional Cancer Registry, and the expected numbers of second primary cancers in cervix and breast were computed (sequence analyses). In the breast series (17,756 patients) a small deficit of cervical tumours was observed (O = 16, E = 2·119, O/E = 0·76, P > 0·05), while in the cervix series (4817 patients) a small excess of breast tumours was found (O = 29, E = 23·38, O/E = 1·24, P > 0·05) over a period of 15 years. A theoretical statement of the combined risk of the 2 tumours occurring in the same individual of a general population was developed and was compared with the practical approach of summing the sequence analyses (complementary analysis). Complementary analysis indicated that there was no excess of women with the 2 primary tumours (O = 45, E = 44·57, O/E = 1·01) and that cancers of the breast and cervix uteri are not aetiologically related. PMID:7248147

  16. The role of the cervix in fertility: is it time for a reappraisal?

    PubMed

    Martyn, F; McAuliffe, F M; Wingfield, M

    2014-10-10

    Knowledge regarding the role of the cervix in fertility has expanded considerably over the past 20 years and in this article, we propose that it is now time for its function to be reappraised. First, we review the anatomy of the cervix and the vaginal ecosystem that it inhabits. Then, we examine the physiology and the role of the cervical mucus. The ongoing mystery of the exact mechanism of the sperm-cervical mucus interaction is reviewed and the key players that may unlock this mystery in the future are discussed. The soluble and cellular biomarkers of the lower female genital tract which are slowly being defined by contemporary research are reviewed. Attempts to standardize these markers, in this milieu, are hindered by the changes that may be attributed to endogenous or exogenous factors such as: age, hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle, ectropion, infection, smoking and exposure to semen during sexual intercourse. We review what is known about the immunology of the cervix. With the widespread use of large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ) for treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, the anatomy of the cervix is changing for many women. While LLETZ surgery has had very positive effects in the fight against cervical cancer, we debate the impact it could have on a woman's fertility. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Toxic remediation

    DOEpatents

    Matthews, Stephen M.; Schonberg, Russell G.; Fadness, David R.

    1994-01-01

    What is disclosed is a novel toxic waste remediation system designed to provide on-site destruction of a wide variety of hazardous organic volatile hydrocarbons, including but not limited to halogenated and aromatic hydrocarbons in the vapor phase. This invention utilizes a detoxification plenum and radiation treatment which transforms hazardous organic compounds into non-hazardous substances.

  18. Factors Associated with Delayed Reporting of Invasive Carcinoma Cervix in a Rural Tertiary Care Center.

    PubMed

    Radha, K R; Reena, R P

    2016-10-01

    The delay in detection of premalignant and malignant lesions can have an adverse impact on the outcome of carcinoma cervix. In spite of relatively good healthcare facilities, women in Kerala continue to report in advanced stages of cervical malignancy. To analyze factors associated with delayed reporting and to evaluate awareness about screening and vaccination programs for prevention of carcinoma cervix. A cross-sectional study design was used to evaluate the subjects diagnosed to have carcinoma cervix in the outpatient Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Government Medical College, Thrissur, Kerala for a period of two years. One-hundred and fifteen women diagnosed to have invasive carcinoma during the study were evaluated. Data analysis was done and expressed as means and percentages. One-hundred and fifteen women participated in the study. Only 26 (21.7 %) of the subjects were diagnosed in a relatively early stage, i.e., up to stage 2a. Most of them were from families living below poverty line (63.9 %) and were either widowed or divorced (57.3 %). Illiteracy was common (48.9 %) among them, and many (71.3 %) worked as manual laborers. None of the subjects was aware about the availability of screening and vaccination programs for prevention of carcinoma cervix. There is a wide gap between the awareness of availability of healthcare and its proper utilization by the poor. Scaling up of public awareness of preventive programs and the availability of healthcare facilities are essential to enable the timely utilization of such services to facilitate early detection of invasive carcinoma cervix.

  19. The association between cervical dysplasia, a short cervix, and preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Miller, Emily S; Sakowicz, Allie; Grobman, William A

    2015-10-01

    We sought to determine whether cervical dysplasia in the absence of an excisional procedure is associated with an increased risk of preterm birth (PTB) and whether that risk is independent of the presence of a short cervix. This is a cohort study including women with a singleton pregnancy who underwent routine cervical length assessment between 18-23 6/7 weeks of gestation, stratified by cervical dysplasia (ie, no prior dysplasia, prior dysplasia but no excisional procedure, or prior excisional procedure). The frequency of a short cervix (≤2.5 cm) and PTB were compared between groups and multivariable analyses were performed to identify whether: (1) dysplasia alone or a prior excisional procedure was associated with PTB; and (2) whether these factors remained independently associated with PTB after adjusting for the presence of a short cervix. Of the 18,528 women who met inclusion criteria, 3023 (16.3%) had prior dysplasia alone and 1356 (7.3%) had a prior excisional procedure. The frequency of a short cervix for women without dysplasia, with prior dysplasia alone, or with a prior excisional procedure was 0.8%, 1.0%, and 2.2%, respectively (P < .001). The frequency of PTB, respectively, was 6.4%, 6.5%, and 8.4% (P < .001). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, prior excisional procedure but not prior dysplasia alone was associated with PTB. Having a prior cervical excisional procedure but not dysplasia alone is associated with an increased risk of PTB. This association is independent of the presence of a short cervix. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Automatic detection of multi-level acetowhite regions in RGB color images of the uterine cervix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Holger

    2005-04-01

    Uterine cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. Colposcopy is a diagnostic method used to detect cancer precursors and cancer of the uterine cervix, whereby a physician (colposcopist) visually inspects the metaplastic epithelium on the cervix for certain distinctly abnormal morphologic features. A contrast agent, a 3-5% acetic acid solution, is used, causing abnormal and metaplastic epithelia to turn white. The colposcopist considers diagnostic features such as the acetowhite, blood vessel structure, and lesion margin to derive a clinical diagnosis. STI Medical Systems is developing a Computer-Aided-Diagnosis (CAD) system for colposcopy -- ColpoCAD, a complex image analysis system that at its core assesses the same visual features as used by colposcopists. The acetowhite feature has been identified as one of the most important individual predictors of lesion severity. Here, we present the details and preliminary results of a multi-level acetowhite region detection algorithm for RGB color images of the cervix, including the detection of the anatomic features: cervix, os and columnar region, which are used for the acetowhite region detection. The RGB images are assumed to be glare free, either obtained by cross-polarized image acquisition or glare removal pre-processing. The basic approach of the algorithm is to extract a feature image from the RGB image that provides a good acetowhite to cervix background ratio, to segment the feature image using novel pixel grouping and multi-stage region-growing algorithms that provide region segmentations with different levels of detail, to extract the acetowhite regions from the region segmentations using a novel region selection algorithm, and then finally to extract the multi-levels from the acetowhite regions using multiple thresholds. The performance of the algorithm is demonstrated using human subject data.

  1. [Estrogen and progesterone receptors in normal cervix and primary cervical carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Shen, K; Yueng, W; Ngan, H

    1994-05-01

    Estrogen and progesterone receptor levels (ER and PR) were measured in 21 specimens of cervical carcinoma and in 17 normal cervix by monoclonal enzyme immunoassay (ER-EIA and PR-EIA). In normal cervix, 88.2% of specimens were ER-positive (more than 15 fmol/mg protein), 74.5% were PR-positive (more than 15 fmol/mg protein) and 74.5% were both ER and PR-positive. In cervical cancer, 66.7% of malignancies were ER-positive, 42.9% were PR-positive and 38.1% were both ER and PR-positive. There was no significant difference in ER status between the normal cervix and cervical cancer (P > 0.05), but PR status and levels in normal cervix were significantly higher than those in cervical carcinoma (P < 0.05). ER levels in squamous cell carcinoma was not correlated to the tumor stage, histologic grade and menopausal status. PR levels in premenopausal patients with squamous cell carcinoma were significantly higher than those in postmenopausal patients (P < 0.01). Adenocarcinoma of the cervix contained significantly more ER and PR than squamous cell carcinoma (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). In addition, serum E2 level was also assayed in 21 patients with cervical cancer. There was significant difference in E2 levels between the premenopausal and postmenopausal patients (P < 0.01). Patients were stratified according to E2 levels, a significant difference in PR level and in ratio of PR/ER was noted (P < 0.05, P < 0.01).

  2. Estrogen and progesterone receptors in normal cervix and primary cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shen, K; Yueng, W; Ngan, H

    1994-09-01

    Estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER, PR) were measured in 21 specimens of cervical cancer and in 17 specimens of normal cervix by monoclonal enzyme immunoassay (EIA). In normal cervix, 88.2% of specimens were ER-positive ( > 15 fmol/mg protein), 74.5% were PR-positive ( > 15 fmol/mg protein) and 74.5% were both ER- and PR-positive. In cervical cancer, 66.7% were ER-positive, 42.9% were PR-positive and 38.1% were both ER- and PR- positive. There was no significant difference in ER status between the normal cervix and cervical cancer (P > 0.05), but PR status and levels in normal cervix were significantly higher than those in cervical carcinoma (P < 0.05). ER levels in squamous cell carcinoma was not correlated to the tumor stage, histologic grade and menopausal status. PR levels in premenopausal patients with squamous cell carcinoma were significantly higher than those in postmenopausal patients (P < 0.01). Adenocarcinoma of the cervix contained significantly more ER and PR than squamous cell carcinoma (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). In addition, serum E2 level was also assayed in 21 patients with cervical cancer. There was significant difference in E2 levels between the premenopausal and postmenopausal patients (P < 0.01). Patients were stratified according to E2 levels, a significant difference in PR levels and in the ratio of PR/ER was noted (P < 0.05, P < 0.01).

  3. [Effects of prevention education on Human Papillomavirus linked to cervix cancer for unmarried female university students].

    PubMed

    Kim, Hae Won

    2009-08-01

    This study was done to identify the effects of a Human Papillomavirus (HPV) linked to cervix cancer prevention education program for unmarried university female students. A new model in the cervix cancer prevention is provided. The research design was a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design. Participants were 63 female students in one of two university in an experimental group (29 students) and control group (34 students). After 4 weeks education, the differences between the two groups in the measurement variables were compared. Twelve weeks later, a follow-up test was done for experimental group only. After the education, experimental group showed significantly higher scores in all variables, the intention for Pap test (Z=-3.73, p<.001), intention for HPV vaccination (Z=-3.14, p=.002), general cancer prevention behavior (Z=-2.20, p=.028), attitudes to Pap (Z=-3.23, p=.001), benefits of cancer prevention behavior (Z=-3.97, p<.001), and HPV linked to cervix cancer knowledge (Z=-5.40, p<.001). In the follow-up study, the experimental group showed intermediate effects in intention for Pap test, intention of HPV vaccination and HPV linked to cervix cancer knowledge as well as short term effects in general cancer prevention behavior, attitudes to Pap and benefits of cancer prevention behavior. The program developed for this study on prevention education of HPV linked to cervix cancer was effective for unmarried university students in the short term and intermediate duration. Other educational approaches should be developed and short term effects and longitudinal changes of the education should be assessed. This education program should also be replicated for other female groups including unmarried working women or female adolescents.

  4. Persistence of Lactobacillus fermentum RC-14 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 but Not L. rhamnosus GG in the Human Vagina as Demonstrated by Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Gillian E.; Heinemann, Christine; Bruce, Andrew W.; Beuerman, Dee; Reid, Gregor

    2002-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and L. fermentum RC-14 are well-characterized probiotic strains with efficacy in the prevention and treatment of urogenital infections in women. The aim of the present study was to apply a molecular biology-based methodology for the detection of these strains and L. rhamnosus GG (a commercially available intestinal probiotic) in the human vagina in order to assess probiotic persistence at this site. Ten healthy women inserted vaginally a capsule containing either a combination of strains GR-1 and RC-14 or the GG strain for 3 consecutive nights. Vaginal swabs taken before and at various time points after probiotic insertion were analyzed, and the Lactobacillus flora was assessed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. This method generated discrete DNA fingerprints for GR-1, RC-14, and GG and enabled successful detection of these strains in the vagina. Strain GR-1 and/or strain RC-14 was found to persist in the vaginal tract for up to 19 days after vaginal instillation, while L. rhamnosus GG was detectable for up to 5 days postadministration. In conclusion, the fates of probiotic L. rhamnosus and L. fermentum strains were successfully monitored in the human vagina by RAPD analysis. This technique provides molecular biology-based evidence that RC-14 and GR-1, strains selected as urogenital probiotics, persist in the human vagina and may be more suited to vaginal colonization than L. rhamnosus GG. This highlights the importance of proper selection of strains for urogenital probiotic applications. PMID:11777835

  5. MHC class II+ (HLA-DP-like) cells in the cow reproductive tract: II. Immunolocalization of MHC class II+ cells in oviduct and vagina.

    PubMed

    Eren, U; Kum, S; Sandikçi, M; Eren, V; Ilhan, F

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine and examine the distribution of major frequency MHC II+ cells in the oviduct and vagina of cows during the oestrous and dioestrus phases. Right oviduct (ampulla, isthmus) and vaginal samples taken from a total of twenty seven multiparous cows were used. Tissue samples were processed to obtain both cryostat and paraffin sections. Sections were stained immunocytochemically using StreptABC method using a specific monoclonal antibody to MHC II+ cell population. Intra-epithelial and subepithelial areas along with lamina propria, muscularis mucosae and serosa of both ampulla and isthmus and intra-epithelial/subepithelial areas and mucosae of vagina were examined for the presence of MHC II+ cells. The density of immune positive cells was determined using a subjective scoring system. MHC II+ cells were demonstrated in all areas examined in both oestrus and dioestrus. In oestrus, the density of MHC II+ cells decreased in subepithelial areas (in between the epithelial cells and the basal membrane) of isthmus, whereas the density of immune positive cells was increased in muscularis mucosae of isthmus (P < 0.05), lamina propria and muscularis mucosae of ampulla (P < 0.05) as well as in the mucosae of vagina (P vagina increases in the majority of areas examined due to the effect of oestrogen.

  6. Sequential changes in the expression of Wnt- and Notch-related genes in the vagina and uterus of ovariectomized mice after estrogen exposure.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Takeshi; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Katsu, Yoshinao; Sato, Tomomi; Iguchi, Taisen; Ohta, Yasuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Estrogen regulates morphological changes in reproductive organs, such as the vagina and uterus, during the estrous cycles in mice. Estrogen depletion by ovariectomy in adults results in atrophy accompanied by apoptosis in vaginal and uterine cells, while estrogen treatment following ovariectomy elicits cell proliferation in both organs. Sequential changes in mRNA expression of wingless-related MMTV integration site (Wnt) and Notch signaling genes were analyzed in the vagina and uterus of ovariectomized adult mice after a single injection of 17β-estradiol to provide understanding over the molecular basis of differences in response to estrogen in these organs. We found estrogen-dependent up-regulation of Wnt4, Wnt5a and p21 and down-regulation of Wnt11, hairy/enhancer-of-split related with YRPW motif-1 (Hey1) and delta-like 4 (Dll4) in the vagina, and up-regulation of Wnt4, Wnt5a, Hey1, Heyl, Dll1, p21 and p53 and down-regulation of Wnt11, Hey2 and Dll4 in the uterus. The expression of Wnt4, Hey1, Hey2, Heyl, Dll1 and p53 showed different patterns after the estrogen injection. Expression patterns for Wnt5a, Wnt11, Dll4 and p21 in the vagina and uterus were similar, suggesting that these genes are involved in the proliferation of cells in both those organs in mice.

  7. Adhesion of Lactobacillus iners AB-1 to human fibronectin: a key mediator for persistence in the vagina?

    PubMed

    McMillan, Amy; Macklaim, Jean M; Burton, Jeremy P; Reid, Gregor

    2013-07-01

    Lactobacillus iners is prominent in the human vagina and is able to persist despite development of bacterial vaginosis and treatment with antibiotics. A probable factor in its persistent survival is its ability to be retained in the vaginal epithelia. Genome sequencing of the strain showed an organism deplete of many metabolic pathways, yet equipped with fibronectin (Fn)-binding adhesins. The objective of the present study was to assess the ability of L iners AB-1 to bind immobilized Fn. Results showed that the organism superiorly bound the protein compared to other species of Lactobacillus and known binders such as Staphylococcus aureus. Treatment of L iners cells by protease rendered its binding abilities to Fn nonfunctional. The findings indicate a mechanism of vaginal persistence for a Lactobacillus species, with implications for reproductive health.

  8. Robotic partial nephrectomy for duplex kidney with ectopic ureter draining in the vagina in an adult patient with urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Humza; Hadjipavlou, Marios; Das, Raj; Anderson, Chris

    2017-02-06

    A duplex kidney system with an ectopic ureter draining into the vagina is a congenital malformation that typically presents as refractory urinary incontinence. Diagnosis is often difficult to establish and delayed due to a low incidence. We present the case of a patient aged 26 years with a life-long history of persistent urinary incontinence. Initial presentation was at childhood; however, the diagnosis went undetermined for 22 years. CT urography revealed a duplex kidney with an atrophic upper pole associated with an ectopic ureter that drained into the vaginal vault. This is the first description of such a case being managed successfully via a robot-assisted partial nephrectomy approach. Ectopic ureteral duplication should be considered in the differential diagnosis for young women with refractory urinary incontinence. Robotic partial nephrectomy is a safe and effective technique to manage such cases. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  9. Novel ex vivo protocol using porcine vagina to assess drug permeation from mucoadhesive and colloidal pharmaceutical systems.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Maíra N; Reis, Thaiene A; Matos, Breno N; Cunha-Filho, Marcílio; Gratieri, Taís; Gelfuso, Guilherme M

    2017-10-01

    Local treatment of vaginal diseases presents advantages over systemic treatments and the interaction of the drug delivery systems with the biological tissue is a key factor for a successful vaginal topical therapy. Conventional protocols for permeation studies have high variability and fail in distinguishing drug penetration from mucoadhesive or colloidal drug delivery systems from conventional formulations, as tissue interaction is normally under estimated. The protocol presented in this paper is a simplified ex vivo vertical model, in which formulations are placed in hung porcine vaginas with the objective of mimicking a condition closer to the biological circumstance, specifically considering the possible leak from the vaginal canal in the vertical position. The results indicate the proposed method was capable of differentiating formulations performances and histological evaluation showed mucosa structures are preserved during this new assay. Therefore, the ex vivo method can be considered reliable for approaching the physiological situation in comparative studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Genital panics: constructing the vagina in women's qualitative narratives about pubic hair, menstrual sex, and vaginal self-image.

    PubMed

    Fahs, Breanne

    2014-06-01

    An emerging body of research targets women's relationship to their genitals, particularly as pubic hair removal and the promotion of female genital surgeries increase in popularity and visibility. This study asked women to discuss their subjective feelings about three related but distinct genital attitudes: pubic hair grooming, sex during menstruation, and genital/vaginal self-image. Specifically, this study applied thematic analysis to qualitative interviews with a community sample of 20 women (mean age=34, SD=13.35) from diverse ages, races, and sexual identity backgrounds to illuminate seven themes in women's narratives about their vaginas: (1) "dirty" or "gross"; (2) needing maintenance; (3) unknown or frustrating; (4) unnatural; (5) comparative; (6) ambivalent; (7) affirmative. Overwhelmingly, women used strong emotional language when discussing their genitals, often evoking descriptions of anxiety, excess, and need for control. Fusions between sexuality and body image, and connections between "genital panics" and internalized racism, sexism, and homophobia, also appeared. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Ultrastructural features of vagina at different phases of the oestrous cycle in the female African giant rat (Cricetomys gambianus Waterhouse).

    PubMed

    Akinloye, Adebayo K; Oke, Bankole O

    2014-06-01

    The ultrastructures of the vagina at various stages of the oestrous cycle in female African giant rats (Cricetomys gambianus Waterhouse) were described in the present study. At mid-proestrus, late proestrus (LP)/early estrus (EE) and mid-estrus (ME) as well as late metestrus (LM)/early diestrus (ED) and mid-diestrus (MD), complex interface of epithelium and lamina propria were observed. Cells of the stratum basale formed finger-like extensions into the underlying lamina propria and tips of the extensions displayed hemidesmosome while basal lamina followed the contour of the extensions. At mid-metestrus (MM) and late diestrus/early proestrus, well developed, relatively straight basal lamina interfaced between the stratum basale and the lamina propria without finger-like projections. Polygonal cells with indented nuclei and, cytoplasm containing ribosomes, polysomes, intermediate filaments, and mitochondria were observed in stratum spinosum at all the phases of the oestrus cycle. At MM, LM/ED, and MD, the stratum spinosum had numerous desmosomes with tonofilaments, large microvilli that intermingled at the intercellular spaces and evidence of trapped/migrating neutrophils and lymphocytes. The superficial layer displayed short microvilli at mid-proestrus, cornification at LP/EE and desquamation at ME while it showed condensation of intermediate filaments; projections of large microvilli into the luminal surface at MM, and embeddement of neutrophils at LM/ED as well as MD. This study looked into the reproductive biology of female African giant rats to produce baseline information on its reproductive organs and represented the first comprehensive description of the vagina at the ultrastructural level during oestrous cycle. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Activated vitamin D3 and pro-activated vitamin D3 attenuate induction of permanent changes caused by neonatal estrogen exposure in the mouse vagina.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Manabu; Kurosaki, Keiko; Okamura, Naomichi

    2014-01-01

    Exposure of mice to a high dose of estrogens including diethylstilbestrol (DES) during the neonatal period modifies the developmental plan of the genital tract, which leads to various permanent changes in physiology, morphology and gene expression. These changes include development of an abnormal vaginal epithelium lined with hyperplastic mucinous cells accompanied by Tff1 gene expression in mice. Here, the influence of vitamin D on the direct effect of estrogen on the developing mouse vagina was examined. The mid-vagina of neonatal mice was cultured in a serum-free medium containing estradiol-17β (E2) and various concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D) ex vivo and then was transplanted under the renal capsule of ovariectomized host mice for 35 days. Exposure to E2 alone caused the vaginal tissue to develop estrogen-independent epithelial hyperplasia and to express TFF1 mRNA, while addition of a low nanomolar amount of 1,25(OH)2D added at the same time as E2 to the culture medium attenuated the effects of estrogen. Expression of vitamin D receptor was also evident in the neonatal mouse vagina. Interestingly, addition of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, a pro-activated form of vitamin D, at the micromolar level was found to be potent in disrupting the developmental effects of E2, while cholecalciferol was not at least at the dose examined. Correspondingly, expression of Cyp27B1, a kidney-specific 25-hydroxyvitamin D hydroxylase, was evident in the neonatal mouse vagina when examined by RT-PCR. In addition, simultaneous administration of 1,25(OH)2D successfully attenuated DES-induced ovary-independent hyperplasia in the vagina in neonatal mice in vivo. Thus, manipulation of vitamin D influenced the harmful effects of estrogens on mouse vaginal development.

  13. Neuroanatomical evidence for a role of central melanocortin-4 receptors and oxytocin in the efferent control of the rodent clitoris and vagina.

    PubMed

    Gelez, Helene; Poirier, Sarah; Facchinetti, Patricia; Allers, Kelly A; Wayman, Chris; Alexandre, Laurent; Giuliano, François

    2010-06-01

    The clitoris and the vagina are the main peripheral anatomical structures involved in physiological changes related to sexual arousal and orgasm. Their efferent control and, more particularly, the neurochemical phenotype of these descending neuronal pathways remain largely uncharacterized. To examine if brain neurons involved in the efferent control of the clitoris and the vagina possess melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4-R) and/or contain oxytocin (OT). Neurons involved in the efferent control of the vagina and clitoris were identified following visualization of pseudorabies virus (PRV) retrograde tracing. PRV was injected into the vagina and clitoris in adult rats in estrous. On the fifth day postinjection, animals were humanely sacrificed, and brains were removed and sectioned, and processed for PRV visualization. The neurochemical phenotype of PRV-positive neurons was identified using double or triple immunocytochemical labeling against PRV, MC4-R, and OT. Double and triple labeling were quantified using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Neuroanatomical brain distribution, number and percentage of double-labeled PRV/MC4-R and PRV-/OT-positive neurons, and triple PRV-/MC4-R-/OT-labeled neurons. The majority of PRV immunopositive neurons which also expressed immunoreactivity for MC4-R were located in the paraventricular and arcuate nuclei of the hypothalamus. The majority of PRV positive neurons which were immunoreactive (IR) for OT were located in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), medial preoptic area (MPOA), and lateral hypothalamus. PRV positive neurons were more likely to be IR for MC4-R than for OT. Scattered triple-labeled PRV/MC4-R/OT neurons were detected in the MPOA and the PVN. These data strongly suggest that MC4-R and, to a less extent, OT are involved in the efferent neuronal control of the clitoris and vagina, and consequently facilitate our understanding of how the melanocortinergic pathway regulates female sexual function.

  14. Activated Vitamin D3 and Pro-activated Vitamin D3 Attenuate Induction of Permanent Changes Caused by Neonatal Estrogen Exposure in the Mouse Vagina

    PubMed Central

    MATSUDA, Manabu; KUROSAKI, Keiko; OKAMURA, Naomichi

    2014-01-01

    Exposure of mice to a high dose of estrogens including diethylstilbestrol (DES) during the neonatal period modifies the developmental plan of the genital tract, which leads to various permanent changes in physiology, morphology and gene expression. These changes include development of an abnormal vaginal epithelium lined with hyperplastic mucinous cells accompanied by Tff1 gene expression in mice. Here, the influence of vitamin D on the direct effect of estrogen on the developing mouse vagina was examined. The mid-vagina of neonatal mice was cultured in a serum-free medium containing estradiol-17β (E2) and various concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D) ex vivo and then was transplanted under the renal capsule of ovariectomized host mice for 35 days. Exposure to E2 alone caused the vaginal tissue to develop estrogen-independent epithelial hyperplasia and to express TFF1 mRNA, while addition of a low nanomolar amount of 1,25(OH)2D added at the same time as E2 to the culture medium attenuated the effects of estrogen. Expression of vitamin D receptor was also evident in the neonatal mouse vagina. Interestingly, addition of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, a pro-activated form of vitamin D, at the micromolar level was found to be potent in disrupting the developmental effects of E2, while cholecalciferol was not at least at the dose examined. Correspondingly, expression of Cyp27B1, a kidney-specific 25-hydroxyvitamin D hydroxylase, was evident in the neonatal mouse vagina when examined by RT-PCR. In addition, simultaneous administration of 1,25(OH)2D successfully attenuated DES-induced ovary-independent hyperplasia in the vagina in neonatal mice in vivo. Thus, manipulation of vitamin D influenced the harmful effects of estrogens on mouse vaginal development. PMID:24769840

  15. Toxic fungi.

    PubMed

    Lampe, K F

    1979-01-01

    Much progress in the areas of identification of active components and elucidation of the toxic mechanisms for the principal poisonous mushrooms has been made in the past decade. This affords a more rational approach to therapeutic management which has consequently resulted in a decrease in the morbidity and mortality associated with these species. However, the effectiveness of a large number of adjuvants for Amanita phalloides poisoning still needs critical laboratory evaluation. The current status of knowledge concerning the toxic potential and contituents of many mushroom species, including the gastroenteric irritants, is inadequate. The problem of geographic variation or genetic strain in the concentration of toxins of many species also requires further investigation. The recent awareness and interest in the pharmacology and toxicology of uncultivated mushrooms in North America and Great Britain should encourage continued active research.

  16. Toxic gases.

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, G.

    1989-01-01

    An overview of the widespread use of gases and some volatile solvents in modern society is given. The usual circumstances in which undue exposure may occur are described. The most prominent symptoms and general principles of diagnosis and treatment are given and are followed by more specific information on the commoner, more toxic materials. While acute poisonings constitute the greater part of the paper, some indication of chronic disorders arising from repeated or prolonged exposure is also given. PMID:2687827

  17. Studying toxicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elkus, A.; LeBlanc, L.; Kim, C.; Van Beneden, R.; Mayer, G.

    2006-01-01

    With funding from the George Mitchell Center for the Environment at the University of Maine, a team of scientists used a simple laboratory-based sediment resuspension design, and two well-established aquatic toxicology models, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and zebrafish (Danio rerio), to evaluate if resuspension of Penobscot river sediment significantly elevates the toxicity of river water and to provide preliminary information on the types of chemicals likely to desorb during resuspension. The group collected sediments from two sites with known chemical contamination downstream of the Great Works and Veazie dams. The sediments were examined to determine the dynamics of PAH desorption and degradation under different resuspension frequencies. The scientists used clarified water from resuspension experiments for toxicity tests with the water-flea Ceriodaphnia dubia, and other aquatic test organisms to infer toxicity from sediments from northern California rivers. Data from the study will help ascertain whether metals and/or xenoestrogens are present in the desorption water and give insight into possible avenues of sediment remediation.

  18. Risk factors for cancer cervix among rural women of a hilly state: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Anita; Gupta, Bhupender; Gupta, Anmol; Chauhan, Raman

    2015-01-01

    In Himachal Pradesh, cancer cervix is a major public health problem since it ranks as the number one female cancer. A case-control study of 226 newly diagnosed, histopathologically confirmed cases of cancer cervix and equal number of matched controls was conducted at Regional Cancer Center, Himachal Pradesh during the period from July 2008 to October 2009 with the objective to study the common factors associated with cancer cervix. Univariate analysis identified 10 risk factors associated significantly with the disease. On multiple logistic regression, however, only seven risk factors were found to be associated significantly with the disease. These were: Age at birth of first child, spacing between two children, age at marriage, literacy, socioeconomic status, multiparity, and poor genital hygiene. Risk factors such as poor genital hygiene, age at birth of first child <19 years, early marriage, illiteracy, multiparity, and low socioeconomic status were highly prevalent in the study subjects and were found to be significantly associated with cancer cervix.

  19. Cancer of the cervix - from bleak past to bright future; a review, with an emphasis on cancer of the cervix in malaysia.

    PubMed

    Nor Hayati, Othman

    2003-01-01

    Cancer of the cervix has the potential to be eradicated since the initiating cause is known. There was not much known about this cancer until the time of the Renaissance. In Malaysia, it is the second most common cancer among females after breast cancer. The strategies on prevention in this country are still not optimal. This article highlights the problems and also discusses the pathogenesis of this disease. The key to prevention is screening and the future is the era of molecular pap smear.

  20. Detection of human papillomavirus in intraepithelial lesions and carcinoma of the cervix uteri in southern Thai women.

    PubMed

    Tungsinmunkong, Kobkul; Suwiwat, Supaporn; Sriplung, Hutcha

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of high-risk type human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) in preneoplastic lesions and invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the cervix uteri in southern Thai women. A total of 148 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks of cervix tissue were retrieved from the files of the Department of Pathology, Prince of Songkla University Hospital. They were classified as negative for intraepithelial lesion (NIL) in 37 cases, low grade lesion (LGL) in 58 cases, high grade lesion (HGL) in 39 cases and SCC in 14 cases. HR-HPV DNA was tested with an Amplicor HPV (Roche Diagnostics) detection kit. Of the 111 cases, 42 of 58 LGLs (72.4%), 34 of 39 HGLs (87.2%) and 13 of 14 SCCs (92.9%) were positive for HR-HPV DNA. In 37 cases of histologically normal cervix, there were 15 cases that showed the presence of HR-HPV DNA. Applying the HR-HPV results for NILs to the general population, the age standardized incidence rate of HR-HPV infection in the normal Thai population was 12.8%. HR-HPV DNA can be found in all grades of intraepithelial lesions and carcinoma of the cervix uteri, even in the histologically "normal" looking cervix. These results provide strong evidence for a role in carcinogenesis of the cervix uteri and the existence of a non-productive or latent period of HPV infection.

  1. Toxic shock syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome; Toxic shock-like syndrome; TSLS ... Toxic shock syndrome is caused by a toxin produced by some types of staphylococcus bacteria. A similar problem, called toxic shock- ...

  2. Thermal Stress and Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elevating ambient temperature above thermoneutrality exacerbates toxicity of most air pollutants, insecticides, and other toxic chemicals. On the other hand, safety and toxicity testing of toxicants and drugs is usually performed in mice and rats maintained at subthermoneutral te...

  3. Gram Positive Bacterial Superantigen Outside-In Signaling Causes Toxic Shock Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Brosnahan, Amanda J.; Schlievert, Patrick M.

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci) are gram-positive pathogens capable of producing a variety of bacterial exotoxins known as superantigens. Superantigens interact with antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and T cells to induce T cell proliferation and massive cytokine production, which leads to fever, rash, capillary leak, and subsequent hypotension, the major symptoms of toxic shock syndrome. Both S. aureus and group A streptococci colonize mucosal surfaces, including the anterior nares and vagina for S. aureus, and the oropharynx and less commonly the vagina for group A streptococci. However, due to their abilities to secrete a variety of virulence factors, the organisms can also cause illnesses from the mucosa. This review provides an updated discussion of the biochemical and structural features of one group of secreted virulence factors, the staphylococcal and group A streptococcal superantigens, and their abilities to cause toxic shock syndrome from a mucosal surface. The main focus of this review, however, is the abilities of superantigens to induce cytokines and chemokines from epithelial cells, which has been linked to a dodecapeptide region that is relatively conserved among all superantigens and is distinct from the binding sites required for interactions with APCs and T cells. This phenomenon, termed outside-in signaling, acts to recruit adaptive immune cells to the submucosa, where the superantigens can then interact with those cells to initiate the final cytokine cascades that lead to toxic shock syndrome. PMID:21535475

  4. Gram-positive bacterial superantigen outside-in signaling causes toxic shock syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brosnahan, Amanda J; Schlievert, Patrick M

    2011-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci) are Gram-positive pathogens capable of producing a variety of bacterial exotoxins known as superantigens. Superantigens interact with antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and T cells to induce T cell proliferation and massive cytokine production, which leads to fever, rash, capillary leak and subsequent hypotension, the major symptoms of toxic shock syndrome. Both S. aureus and group A streptococci colonize mucosal surfaces, including the anterior nares and vagina for S. aureus, and the oropharynx and less commonly the vagina for group A streptococci. However, due to their abilities to secrete a variety of virulence factors, the organisms can also cause illnesses from the mucosa. This review provides an updated discussion of the biochemical and structural features of one group of secreted virulence factors, the staphylococcal and group A streptococcal superantigens, and their abilities to cause toxic shock syndrome from a mucosal surface. The main focus of this review, however, is the abilities of superantigens to induce cytokines and chemokines from epithelial cells, which has been linked to a dodecapeptide region that is relatively conserved among all superantigens and is distinct from the binding sites required for interactions with APCs and T cells. This phenomenon, termed outside-in signaling, acts to recruit adaptive immune cells to the submucosa, where the superantigens can then interact with those cells to initiate the final cytokine cascades that lead to toxic shock syndrome. © 2011 The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 FEBS.

  5. Lead toxicity.

    PubMed

    Gidlow, D A

    2015-07-01

    Since the last In-Depth Review of lead toxicity in 2004 there have been further developments with regard to safe exposure levels for lead workers. To advise occupational health professionals of the latest research on the multi-system toxic effects of lead and the implications of this research for setting new safe and appropriate occupational suspension limits. An extensive review of the current literature and an investigation of the database used by lead users to produce their submission under the REACH Regulations. Much of the published research on lead toxicity is on the effects of lead on the general population where blood lead levels are considerably lower than those seen in lead-exposed workers. It is always difficult to compare such studies with those undertaken on exposed workers as they may not be directly comparable and may not have taken into account all confounding variables and the well-acknowledged 'healthy worker' concept. However, it is clear that there is substantial evidence that potential health effects on lead workers may be seen at levels which were previously accepted as 'safe'. There is undoubtedly a narrow margin of safety between current occupational blood lead suspension limits and subclinical effect. As a result, the lead users have produced a voluntary Code of Practice with suspension limits significantly below those seen in some national legislation, particularly the Control of Lead at Work Act 2002. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Differentially expressed proteins among normal cervix, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Q; He, Y; Wang, X-L; Zhang, Y-X; Wu, Y-M

    2015-08-01

    To explore the differentially expressed proteins in normal cervix, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) tissues by differential proteomics technique. Cervical tissues (including normal cervix, CIN and CSCC) were collected in Department of Gynecologic Oncology of Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital. Two-dimensional fluorescence difference in gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) and DeCyder software were used to detect the differentially expressed proteins. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) was used to identify the differentially expressed proteins. Western blot (WB) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were performed to validate the expressions of selected proteins among normal cervix, CIN and CSCC. 2-D DIGE images with high resolution and good repeatability were obtained. Forty-six differentially expressed proteins (27 up-regulated and 19 down-regulated) were differentially expressed among the normal cervix, CIN and CSCC. 26 proteins were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. S100A9 (S100 calcium-binding protein A9) was the most significantly up-regulated protein. Eukaryotic elongation factor 1-alpha-1 (eEF1A1) was the most significantly down-regulated protein. Pyruvate kinase isozymes M2 (PKM2) was both up-regulated and down-regulated. The results of WB showed that with the increase in the severity of cervical lesions, the expression of S100A9 protein was significantly increased among the three groups (P = 0.010). The expression of eEF1A1 was reduced but without significant difference (P = 0.861). The expression of PKM2 was significantly reduced (P = 0.000). IHC showed that protein S100A9 was mainly expressed in the cytoplasm, and its positive expression rate was 20.0 % in normal cervix, 70.0 % in CIN and 100.0 % in CSCC, with a significant difference among them (P = 0.006). eEF1A1 was mainly expressed in the cell plasma, and its

  7. Application of Fourier transform-second-harmonic generation imaging to the rat cervix.

    PubMed

    Lau, T Y; Sangha, H K; Chien, E K; McFarlin, B L; Wagoner Johnson, A J; Toussaint, K C

    2013-07-01

    We present the application of Fourier transform-second-harmonic generation (FT-SHG) imaging to evaluate the arrangement of collagen fibers in five nonpregnant rat cervices. Tissue slices from the mid-cervix and near the external orifice of the cervix were analyzed in both two-dimensions (2D) and three-dimensions (3D). We validate that the cervical microstructure can be quantitatively assessed in three dimensions using FT-SHG imaging and observe collagen fibers oriented both in and out-of-plane in the outermost and the innermost layers, which cannot be observed using 2D FT-SHG analysis alone. This approach has the potential to be a clinically applicable method for measuring progressive changes in collagen organization during cervical remodeling in humans. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2013 Royal Microscopical Society.

  8. Laser vaporization in treatment of superficial endometriosis of the uterine cervix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wozniak, Jakub; Wilczak, Maciej; Opala, Tomasz; Pisarska-Krawczyk, Magdalena; Cwojdzinski, Marek; Pisarski, Tadeusz

    1996-03-01

    The study shows the treatment of superficial endometriosis of the uterine cervix in 79 patients. After first vaporization 74 patients were cured successfully. In two cases the laser procedure should be repeated and in 3 women the operation should be performed for the third time. All patients are still under control in our department and there is no recurrence observed. Carbon- dioxide laser vaporization under colposcopic control is an efficient method of treatment of superficial endometriosis of the uterine cervix that requires no anaesthesia. The healing process after laser procedures is fast and without complications. The number of recurrences is low. Use of carbon-dioxide laser under colposcopic control because of precise destruction of lesions, fast healing and a low number of recurrences seems to be the method of choice.

  9. Ewing's sarcoma of the cervix, a diagnostic dilemma: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mashriqi, Nazia; Gujjarlapudi, Jaya Kranthi; Sidhu, Jagmohan; Zur, Michael; Yalamanchili, Madhuri

    2015-11-09

    Ewing's sarcoma belongs to a spectrum of neoplastic diseases known as Ewing's family of tumors. This family of tumors is usually seen in osseous sites. Ewing's sarcoma of the cervix is extremely rare, with only 18 cases reported in the English literature. The immunohistochemical profile of Ewing's sarcoma overlaps with other malignancies like small cell carcinoma. The rarity and complex pathologic picture of Ewing's sarcoma of the cervix creates the potential for misdiagnosis. Hence, we believe this case needs to be reported to add to the available literature. A 49-year-old white Caucasian woman presented with vaginal bleeding. A pelvic examination revealed a cystic lesion arising from her cervix. Examination of a biopsy specimen revealed a poorly differentiated neoplasm, with sheets of small hyperchromatic cells, staining weakly for neuroendocrine markers. She was diagnosed with small cell carcinoma and started on concurrent chemotherapy and radiation. However, additional positive immunostaining for CD99 was strongly suggestive of Ewing's sarcoma. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed ESWR1 gene rearrangement, confirming Ewing's sarcoma. Our patient underwent surgery, which confirmed stage IIB Ewing's sarcoma. She received adjuvant chemotherapy but died from progressive metastatic disease after four cycles. With early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, Ewing's sarcoma of the cervix can be a potentially curable disease. However, owing to overlapping clinical and histopathological features, the diagnosis poses a challenge to oncologists and pathologists. This article guides pathologists to consider Ewing's sarcoma in the differential diagnosis of small cell carcinoma with weak staining for neuroendocrine markers. This literature review will benefit oncologists encountering this rare entity.

  10. Cytological and histopathological abnormalities of the cervix in genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections.

    PubMed

    Cevenini, R; Costa, S; Rumpianesi, F; Donati, M; Guerra, B; Diana, R; Antonini, M P

    1981-10-01

    Since genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis may be associated with cervical abnormalities 160 patients with grandular ectopia attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic were examined for antibodies against C trachomatis, the presence of C trachomatis infection, and cytological and histopathological abnormalities of the cervix.A significantly higher incidence of histological dysplasia was found in women with glandular ectopia who had antichlamydial antibodies than in those without.

  11. Cytological and histopathological abnormalities of the cervix in genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections

    PubMed Central

    Cevenini, R; Costa, S; Rumpianesi, F; Donati, M; Guerra, B; Diana, R; Antonini, M P

    1981-01-01

    Since genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis may be associated with cervical abnormalities 160 patients with grandular ectopia attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic were examined for antibodies against C trachomatis, the presence of C trachomatis infection, and cytological and histopathological abnormalities of the cervix. A significantly higher incidence of histological dysplasia was found in women with glandular ectopia who had antichlamydial antibodies than in those without. PMID:7296254

  12. Radiation changes in vaginal and cervical cytology in carcinoma of the cervix uteri

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, S.; Gupta, Y.N.; Sanyal, B.

    1982-02-01

    Radiation changes are observed in all postirradiated smears of squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix from 56 females, although to a variable degree. After 1 year the changes subside gradually. A high cornification index is a good guide for recurrence. The significance of dysplastic cells as premonition for recurrence is debatable. The presence of malignant cells at any stage was considered of grave significance, and indicates poor radiation response or recurrence.

  13. Split thickness skin graft for cervicovaginal reconstruction in congenital atresia of cervix.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuyin; Han, Tiantian; Ding, Jingxin; Hua, Keqin

    2015-10-01

    To introduce a new technique that combines laparoscopic and vaginal cervicovaginal reconstruction using split thickness skin graft in patients with congenital atresia of the cervix. Video article introducing a new surgical technique. University hospital. A 16-year-old patient with congenital cervical atresia, vaginal dysgenesis, and ovarian endometrial cyst. An original technique of combined laparoscopic and vaginal cervicovaginal reconstruction using split thickness skin graft for cervicovaginal reconstruction. A midline incision at the vaginal introitus was made, and a 9-cm canal was made between the bladder and the rectum using sharp and blunt dissection along the anatomic vaginal route, with the aid of laparoscopy to ensure correct orientation. A 14 × 12 cm split thickness skin graft was harvested from the right lateral thigh. By laparoscopy, the level of the lowest pole of the uterine cavity was exposed and the cervix was incised by shape dissection. The proximal segment of the harvested skin to the lower uterine segment was secured, and the distal segment was sutured with the upper margin of vulva vaginally. Surgical technique reports in anonymous patients are exempted from ethical approval by the Institutional Review Board. The patient gave consent to use the video in the article. The procedure was successfully completed. Since February 2013, our experiences of combined laparoscopic and vaginal cervicovaginal reconstruction using split thickness skin graft in 10 patients with congenital atresia of cervix were positive, with successful results and without complications or cervical, or vaginal stenosis. Our technique is feasible and safe for congenital atresia of cervix, with successful results and without complications or cervical or vaginal stenosis. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor with perineural differentiation (malignant perineurinoma) of the cervix uteri].

    PubMed

    Dolzhikov, A A; Mukhina, T S

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes a case of a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor with perineural differentiation and at the rare site of the cervix uteri in a 57-year-old patient. The diagnosis was established on the basis of extensive immunohistochemical examination, by excluding the similar neoplasms and detecting an immunophenotype characteristic of perineural differentiation. There are data available in the literature on the morphological and immunophenotypical characteristics of this tumor.

  15. Lymphoma of the Cervix: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Hilal, Ziad; Hartmann, Franziska; Dogan, Askin; Cetin, Cem; Krentel, Harald; Schiermeier, Sven; Schultheis, Beate; Tempfer, Clemens B

    2016-09-01

    Lymphoma of the uterine cervix (LUCX) is rare and may occur as a primary or secondary manifestation of this disease. Clinical and cytological presentations of LUCX vary and establishing diagnosis is often difficult. Surgery followed by radiation or chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment. We present the case of a 73-year-old woman with recurrent pathological PAP smears of the cervix and a history of chronic lymphatic leukemia 15 years ago. Colposcopy of the cervix showed no acetowhite lesion and a conization was performed. Histology revealed endocervical lymphoid cells, specified as low-malignant B-Non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the cervix based on the expression of CD5, CD20, and CD23, whilst CD10 and cyclin D1 were negative. The diagnosis was confirmed by flow cytometry of peripheral blood. Staging revealed enlarged iliacal, para-aortic, mediastinal, cervical, subclavicular, and inguinal lymph nodes and hepatosplenomegaly. Bone marrow analysis confirmed lymphoid infiltration consistent with B-cell lymphoma. The patient was scheduled for a combined immuno-chemotherapy with obinutuzumab and chlorambucil. In a MEDLINE literature search, 246 cases of LUCX were identified. One hundred and eighty-five cases were primary and 61 cases were secondary manifestations of LUCX. With a mean follow-up time of 38 months, overall survival was 81%. Data in the literature including clinical and histological characteristics of LUCX as well as the clinical management and prognosis are discussed herein. LUCX is rare and has distinct clinical and histological features. LUCX is usually treated with local surgical excision followed by radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  16. Vulvar lymphangioma circumscriptum: a rare complication of therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix

    SciTech Connect

    LaPolla, J.; Foucar, E.; Leshin, B.

    1985-11-01

    The clinical and pathological features of a case of multifocal lymphangioma circumscriptum of the vulva are reported in a patient with chronic lymphedema of a lower extremity. Ten years previously the patient had been treated for squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Although lymphangioma circumscriptum is an extremely rare complication of altered lymphatic drainage, the presence of multiple noninflammatory vesicular appearing lesions in this setting should suggest the correct diagnosis.

  17. Malignant perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) of cervix with TFE3 gene rearrangement: a case report.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feifei; Zhang, Renya; Wang, Zi-Yu; Xia, Qiuyuan; Shen, Qin; Shi, Shanshan; Tu, Pin; Shi, Qunli; Zhou, Xiaojun; Rao, Qiu

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we reported the first PEComa arising within the cervix with TFE3 gene rearrangement and aggressive biological behavior. Morphologically, the tumor showed infiltrative growth into the surrounding parenchyma. The majority of tumor cells were arrayed in sheets, alveolar structures, or nests separated by delicate fibrovascular septa. There was marked intratumoral hemorrhage, necrosis, and stromal calcifications. The tumor cells had abundant clear cytoplasm, focally containing finely granular dark brown pigment, morphologically considered to be melanin. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells demonstrated moderately (2+) or strongly (3+) positive staining for TFE3, HMB45, and Melan A but negative for CKpan, SMA, S100, PAX8, and PAX2. The presence of Ki-67 protein demonstrated a moderate proliferation rate, with a few Ki-67-positive nuclei. Using a recently developed TFE3 split FISH assay, the presence of TFE3 rearrangement was demonstrated. All these clinicopathologic features are suggestive of TFE3-rearranged PEComas of the cervix. Our results both expand the known characteristics of primary cervix PEComas and add to the data regarding TFE3 rearrangement-associated PEComas.

  18. Unusual case of cavitary lung metastasis from squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix

    PubMed Central

    Raissouni, Soundouss; Ghizlane, Rais; Mouzount, Houda; Saoussane, Kharmoum; Khadija, Setti; Zouaidia, Fouad; Latib, Rachida; Mrabti, Hind; Errihani, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous excavation of primary lung cancer is common; however cavitation of metastatic lung lesions is rare and usually confused with benign lesions. In Moroccan context tuberculosis is the first suspected diagnosis of lung excavations. We report a rare case of cavitary lung metastasis of a uterine cervix cancer, treated initially as tuberculosis. A 40-year old non-smoking woman with a known history of squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix since August 2005; presented on September 2008 with right chest pain without fever, hemoptysis or weight loss. CT scan showed a thin walled cavity. Empirical Antibiotic therapy was conducted 15 days with poor outcome. Then antibacillary treatment was started with no proof of mycobacterial infection. A month later, the patient presented with gynecological bleeding and a pneumothorax. Bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsy of the cavitary mass was performed. Pathology demonstrated a metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. Pelvic examination and MRI showed a subsequent local cervix recurrence. Patient underwent 3 courses of systemic chemotherapy. She died on June 2009 due to progressive disease. Even cavitary lung metastases are rare and benign differential diagnosis are more common, clinician should be careful in neoplastic context and investigation should be done to eliminate a recurrence. PMID:23560120

  19. Cytologic characteristics of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the cervix uteri--case report.

    PubMed

    Barisić, Ana; Mahovlić, Vesna; Ovanin-Rakić, Ana; Skopljanac-Macina, Lada; Rajhvajn, Sanda; Juric, Danijela; Babić, Damir

    2010-03-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a rare malignancy, usually found in the salivary glands, although this unusual tumor can be found at other sites of the body. In particular, regarding adenoid cystic carcinoma of the cervix (ACCC) most frequently reports are given for postmenopausal women. In this respect, our work is one among very few in the literature that considers a cytologic picture of this uncommon cervix carcinoma. The case of 74 year old patient with postmenopausal bleeding is described. Both Pap smear and air dried smear of the uterine cervix were analyzed. The cytologic findings revealed very few small clusters of abnormal glandular cells, as well as some amorphous eosinophilic globule-like material, with granulomatous and necrotic background. The latter includes a lot of histiocytes, multinucleated giant cells, large aggregates of epitheloid cells and lymphocytes. Histology revealed the diagnosis of ACCC. We emphasize the importance of careful screening of Pap smear that might be crucial in the case of suspicious clinical findings in postmenopausal women, when the possibility of ACCC has to be considered.

  20. Radiation dose delivery verification in the treatment of carcinoma-cervix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrotriya, D.; Kumar, S.; Srivastava, R. N. L.

    2015-06-01

    The accurate dose delivery to the clinical target volume in radiotherapy can be affected by various pelvic tissues heterogeneities. An in-house heterogeneous woman pelvic phantom was designed and used to verify the consistency and computational capability of treatment planning system of radiation dose delivery in the treatment of cancer cervix. Oncentra 3D-TPS with collapsed cone convolution (CCC) dose calculation algorithm was used to generate AP/PA and box field technique plan. the radiation dose was delivered by Primus Linac (Siemens make) employing high energy 15 MV photon beam by isocenter technique. A PTW make, 0.125cc ionization chamber was used for direct measurements at various reference points in cervix, bladder and rectum. The study revealed that maximum variation between computed and measured dose at cervix reference point was 1% in both the techniques and 3% and 4% variation in AP/PA field and 5% and 4.5% in box technique at bladder and rectum points respectively.

  1. A Case of Lymphoepithelioma-like Carcinoma in the Uterine Cervix.

    PubMed

    Takebayashi, Kanetoshi; Nishida, Masakazu; Matsumoto, Harunobu; Nasu, Kaei; Narahara, Hisashi

    2015-02-11

    Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma occurring in the reproductive organs is a rare variant of squamous cell carcinoma, and this tumor of the uterine cervix accounts for 0.7% of all primary cervical uterine neoplasms. Associations with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human papilloma virus (HPV) have been demonstrated in some studies. Some investigators suggested that EBV has an important role in the initiation of lymphoepitheliomalike carcinoma in Asian women. Here we report the case of a 45-year-old Japanese woman, gravida 2 and parity 2. She was admitted due to severe atypical genital bleeding caused by uterine cervical cancer. A >60-mm tumor was detected at the uterine cervix, and no distal metastasis or swallowing of lymph nodes was revealed by magnetic resonance imaging and a computed tomography scan. The cervical cancer stage FIGO Ib2 was diagnosed, and a radical hysterectomy was performed for this malignant tumor. The in situ hybridization for EBV was negative. HVP infection was strongly suspected because the squamous cell carcinoma was observed macroscopically in the uterine cervix. The prognosis of uterine lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma is thought to be better than those of other cervical cancer types, but careful follow-up at fixed intervals is recommended. The patient has been followed up for 4 months since her surgery, and no evidence of recurrence has been detected.

  2. Intraoperative cervix location and apical support stiffness in women with and without pelvic organ prolapse.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Carolyn W; Smith, Tovia M; Luo, Jiajia; Kolenic, Giselle E; Ashton-Miller, James A; DeLancey, John O

    2017-02-01

    It is unknown how initial cervix location and cervical support resistance to traction, which we term "apical support stiffness," compare in women with different patterns of pelvic organ support. Defining a normal range of apical support stiffness is important to better understand the pathophysiology of apical support loss. The aims of our study were to determine whether: (1) women with normal apical support on clinic Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification, but with vaginal wall prolapse (cystocele and/or rectocele), have the same intraoperative cervix location and apical support stiffness as women with normal pelvic support; and (2) all women with apical prolapse have abnormal intraoperative cervix location and apical support stiffness. A third objective was to identify clinical and biomechanical factors independently associated with clinic Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification point C. We conducted an observational study of women with a full spectrum of pelvic organ support scheduled to undergo gynecologic surgery. All women underwent a preoperative clinic examination, including Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification. Cervix starting location and the resistance (stiffness) of its supports to being moved steadily in the direction of a traction force that increased from 0-18 N was measured intraoperatively using a computer-controlled servoactuator device. Women were divided into 3 groups for analysis according to their pelvic support as classified using the clinic Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification: (1) "normal/normal" was women with normal apical (C < -5 cm) and vaginal (Ba and Bp < 0 cm) support; (2) normal/prolapse had normal apical support (C < -5 cm) but prolapse of the anterior or posterior vaginal walls (Ba and/or Bp ≥ 0 cm); and (3) prolapse/prolapse had both apical and vaginal wall prolapse (C > -5 cm and Ba and/or Bp ≥ 0 cm). Demographics, intraoperative cervix locations, and apical support stiffness values were then compared. Normal range of cervix

  3. Remodeling of the Cervix and Parturition in Mice Lacking the Progesterone Receptor B Isoform1

    PubMed Central

    Yellon, Steven M.; Oshiro, Bryan T.; Chhaya, Tejas Y.; Lechuga, Thomas J.; Dias, Rejane M.; Burns, Alexandra E.; Force, Lindsey; Apostolakis, Ede M.

    2011-01-01

    Withdrawal of progestational support for pregnancy is part of the final common pathways for parturition, but the role of nuclear progesterone receptor (PGR) isoforms in this process is not known. To determine if the PGR-B isoform participates in cervical remodeling at term, cervices were obtained from mice lacking PGR-B (PGR-BKO) and from wild-type (WT) controls before or after birth. PGR-BKO mice gave birth to viable pups at the same time as WT controls during the early morning of Day 19 postbreeding. Morphological analyses indicated that by the day before birth, cervices from PGR-BKO and WT mice had increased in size, with fewer cell nuclei/area as well as diminished collagen content and structure, as evidenced by optical density of picrosirius red-stained sections, compared to cervices from nonpregnant mice. Moreover, increased numbers of resident macrophages, but not neutrophils, were found in the prepartum cervix of PGR-BKO compared to nonpregnant mice, parallel to findings in WT mice. These results suggest that PGR-B does not contribute to the growth or degradation of the extracellular matrix or proinflammatory processes associated with recruitment of macrophages in the cervix leading up to birth. Rather, other receptors may contribute to the progesterone-dependent mechanism that promotes remodeling of the cervix during pregnancy and in the proinflammatory process associated with ripening before parturition. PMID:21613631

  4. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of cervix in younger women: report of two new cases.

    PubMed

    Sinaa, Mohamed; Oukabli, Mohamed; Albouzidi, Abderahmane

    2014-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a malignant epithelial neoplasm derived from the salivary glands. Primary adenoid cystic carcinoma of the cervix is extremely rare, accounting for less than 1% of all cervical carcinomas. Its origin is debatable. It generally presents in elderly age group, however only twenty three cases have been reported in women less than age 45 years old. In this paper we report two new cases of primary adenoid cystic carcinoma in younger women and include the cytopathology and histopathology findings. A 36, 41 year-old women were admitted with signs and symptoms suggestive of a cervical cancer. Speculum examination showed a firm mass in the uterine cervix. The diagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma was confirmed by the histopathology examination of the biopsy specimen in the two patients, which characteristically revealed the presence of a cribriform pattern and cylindromatous structures of the tumor cells, adhered around hyaline stoma. They were managed successfully by concurrent radiotherapy. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the cervix is a rare disease. It usually occurs in an elderly age group. We report these two cases because of its rarity in young patients, with description of illustrative pathology and discussion on the histological diagnosis.

  5. Modeling of behavioral responses for successful selection of easy-to-train rams for semen collection with an artificial vagina.

    PubMed

    Ambrosi, Claudia Pamela; Rubio, Natalia; Giménez, Gustavo; Venturino, Andrés; Aisen, Eduardo Gabriel; López Armengol, María Fernanda

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the reproductive behavioral responses in Australian Merino rams, to identify those related to a faster training for semen collection with an artificial vagina. Eight Australian Merino rams, aged 1.5 years and with no prior sexual experience, were randomly selected from an extensively grazed flock. One immobilized ewe with no hormone stimulation was used for rams to sexually interact and mount. The frequencies of approaching, sniffing, flehmen, pushing, pawing with chin resting, and tongue flicking were recorded during eight training and three post-training assessments periods. In addition, the duration of sniffing and flehmen responses, as well as the time from when the ram started to approach the ewe until the mount with ejaculation (completed mount) were recorded. Descriptive, correlation, and modeling analyses were performed. Amongst the rams, four mounted the ewe and ejaculated for the first time during the training phase, and three mounted and ejaculated for the first time after the training phase. The remaining ram mounted the ewe and ejaculated for the first time during the post-training evaluation in the following year. A great variability in the behavior repertoire was observed among rams. The correlation analysis indicated that the completed mount was associated with the behaviors during the approaching response. The expression of the sniffing response decreased between the training phase and post-training evaluation, while the responses of pushing the ewe and tongue flicking ceased to occur. Pawing the side of the ewe with the chin resting on the back of the ewe and flehmen responses, however, continued between the training and post-training phases. This led to a decrease in the time from when the ram started to approach the ewe until the completed mount. It is concluded that the responses of approaching the ewe, pawing the side of the ewe with chin resting on the ewe, and sniffing of the ewe (the latter occurring

  6. [Association of the pH change of vaginal environment in bacterial vaginosis with presence of Enterococcus faecalis in vagina].

    PubMed

    Jahić, Mahira; Nurkić, Mahmud; Fatusić, Zlatan

    2006-01-01

    Normal pH value of vagina from 3.8 to 4.2 has regulatory and protectors mechanisms of vaginal environment. The change in the pH value indicates to presence of disbalance in the ecosystem of vaginal environment. The value of pH above 4.0 is indicator of the decreased number of lactobacillus bacteria and the increased number of other microorganisms in the vaginal environment. This situation is present in the case of developing of bacterial vaginosis. One of the bacteria which is often isolated from vaginal swabs is Enterococcus faecalis. Aims of this study are to examine presence o f Enterococcus faecalis in vagina in healthy women and womenwith signs of bacterial vaginosis, the most often present signs in patients with bacterial vaginosis and isolated Enterococcus faecalis from vaginal swabs, and to determine whether the change of the pH value of vaginal environment could be indicator for bacterial vaginosis associated with Enterococcus faecalis. In this study there were included 90 patients. To all patients there were done: gynecological survey, determined pH of vaginal environment and color of vaginal secret, amino odor test, and taken vaginal swabs for microbiological examination. Enterococcus faecalis was found in the patients with pH 4.0 in 24.05 % cases, but in the patients with signs of bacterial vaginosis it was found in 52.78 %. Positive findings of Enterococcus faecalis was the most often associated with presence of all tree signs of bacterial vaginosis (pH>4.0, changed color of vaginal secret and positive amino odor test) it is in 60.78 6% cases. With two signs of bacterial vaginosis (pH>4.0, changed color of vaginal secret) Enterococcus faecalis was present in 60 % cases. The only presence of change in the pH>4.0 was associated with Enterococcus faecalis in 52.78 %. This study showed that pH change of vaginal environment was associated with Enterococcus faecalis in bacterial vaginosis in high percentage but it can not be used as the sure sign of presence

  7. Effects of soy isoflavones on the concentration of hyaluronic acid in the vagina of type 1 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    F Carbonel, A A; Azevedo Lima, P D; Lim, J J; Teixeira Borges, F; Rodrigues da Silva Sasso, G; Portugal Fuchs, L F; S Simões, R; Chada Baracat, E; Soares, J M; J Simões, M

    2017-12-01

    To assess the effects of isoflavones and 17β-estradiol on the vaginal epithelium extracellular matrix and hyaluronic acid (HA) in the diabetic rat model. Sixty adult, virgin, female rats underwent ovariectomy, then randomization into six groups of ten animals each: GI, sham ovariectomized control animals; GII, sham ovariectomized control diabetic animals; GIII, control ovariectomized rats receiving propylene glycol vehicle; GIV, control ovariectomized diabetic animals receiving propylene glycol vehicle; GV, diabetic ovariectomized animals treated with soy isoflavones (150 mg/kg by gavage); GVI, ovariectomized diabetic rats treated with estrogen (17β-estradiol, 10 mg/kg, subcutaneously). Treatment took place over 30 consecutive days. After euthanasia, a portion of the vagina was immersed in liquid nitrogen for RT-qPCR and Western blotting. Another portion was processed for paraffin embedding. Sections were stained with hematoxylin & eosin for histomorphometry and Picro Sirius Red for collagen quantification. Vaginal epithelium histomorphometry in GIII (15.3 ± 1.1 µm) and GIV (14.5 ± 1.8 µm) was thinner than in GV (41.3 ± 1.5 µm) and GVI (74.3 ± 1.6 µm). There was an increase in collagen content in GV (84.1 ± 1.2 µm) and GVI (88.2 ± 1.7 µm). HA quantification was higher in GV (0.38 ± 1.1 μg/mg) and GVI (0.49 ± 1.4 μg/mg) when compared with GIII (0.12 ± 1.1 μg/mg) and GIV (0.10 ± 1.2 μg/mg), p < 0.05. Soy isoflavones increase hyaluronic acid concentration in the vagina of diabetic ovariectomized rats. Such findings might help to attenuate the effects of vulvovaginal atrophy in women.

  8. Toxic terror

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, E.M.

    A review of toxic materials in the environment explores the evolution of public awareness of the problem, public and governmental reaction, the effort to establish standards of safe levels and danger thresholds, and the struggle to implement and enforce environmental policy. Separate chapters deal with environmental premises and scientific realities, the DDT debate and birth of environmentalism, the disaster of Love Canal, pesticides, PCBs, PBBs, formaldehyde, dioxin, air pollution, water pollution, nuclear energy and radioactive materials, acid rain, and the status of American health. The book concludes with a chapter on the need for scientific research and hard evidence tomore » either prove or disprove the pessimism of those who warn of a threat to human health and survival.« less

  9. [Precancerous lesions of the uterine cervix in Pointe-Noire, Congo].

    PubMed

    Moukassa, D; N'Golet, A; Lingouala, L G; Eouani, M L; Samba, J B; Mambou, J V; Ompaligoli, S; Moukengue, L F; Taty-Pambou, E

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the cytological profile and risk factors for intraepithelial precancerous lesions of the uterine cervix in an urban community of Pointe-Noire, an industrialized seaport located in the southeast region of Congo-Brazzaville. A transverse study was carried out over a period of 18 months (January 2003 to July 2004) in the Center for the Study of Human and Animal Diseases (CSHAD) at the General Adolphe Sie Hospital in Pointe-Noire. A total of 1347 files of women benefiting from cervico-vaginal smears were included in the study. Testing was undertaken either at the request of the patient (voluntary screening) or at the request of a health care provider (physician, midwife or nurse) in relation with various gynecological problems. The relative frequency of intraepithelial lesions was estimated to be 15.36% including 9.17% of low-grade intraepithelial lesions (Ig IEL) and 6.19% of high-grade intraepithelial lesions (hg IEL). The mean age of patients with hg IEL was 42.25 years (range, 12 to 17). Study of the interval between actual age at the time of sample collection and age of first sexual relations showed that women presenting IEL had an interval of at least 20 years. This interval probably corresponds to the time necessary for the interaction between human papillomavirus (HPV) and epithelial cells of the uterine cervix to induce intraepithelial lesions that lead to development of cancer of the uterine cervix. Comparative analysis of the number of sexual partners between the group of women with normal smears and the group with smears showing hg IEL indicated a clear predominance of the mean number of partners in the latter group, i.e., 2 +/- 1,2 versus 5 +/- 1,8 (p < 0.05). Most IEL were observed in multigestational women who accounted for 75.39% with a mean of 6.21 for hg IEL. This preliminary study provides a sound factual basis in terms of epidemiological data on these precancerous lesions of the uterine cervix in the

  10. Cervical collagen is reduced in non-pregnant women with a history of cervical insufficiency and a short cervix.

    PubMed

    Sundtoft, Iben; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Sandager, Puk; Sommer, Steffen; Uldbjerg, Niels

    2017-08-01

    Preterm cervical shortening and cervical insufficiency may be caused by a constitutional weakness of the cervix. The aim of this study was to assess the cervical collagen concentration in non-pregnant women with a history of cervical insufficiency or of a short cervix in the second trimester of pregnancy. In this case-control study we included non-pregnant women one year or more after pregnancy: 55 controls with a history of normal delivery; 27 women with a history of cervical insufficiency; and 10 women with a history of a short cervix (<5th percentile) and 10 women with a history of a long cervix (>95th percentile) at gestational weeks 18-20. We obtained biopsies (3 × 3-4 mm) from the ectocervix and determined the collagen concentration by measuring the hydroxyproline concentration. Women with cervical insufficiency had lower collagen concentrations (63.5 ± 5.1%; mean ± SD) compared with controls (68.2 ± 5.4%; p = 0.0004); area under the ROC curve 0.73 (95% CI 0.62-0.84). A cut-off value at 67.6% collagen resulted in a positive likelihood ratio of 3.2, a sensitivity of 60%, and a specificity of 81%. Also, women with a short cervix in the second trimester had lower collagen concentrations in a non-pregnant state (62.1% ± 4.9%) compared with women with a long cervix (67.8% ± 5.0%; p = 0.02). Both cervical insufficiency and a short cervix in the second trimester of pregnancy are associated with low cervical collagen concentrations in a non-pregnant state more than one year after pregnancy. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. Innate immunity in the vagina (part I): estradiol inhibits HBD2 and elafin secretion by human vaginal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mickey V; Fahey, John V; Rossoll, Richard M; Wira, Charles R

    2013-05-01

    Vaginal epithelial cells (VEC) are the first line of defense against incoming pathogens in the female reproductive tract. Their ability to produce the anti-HIV molecules elafin and HBD2 under hormonal stimulation is unknown. Vaginal epithelial cells were recovered using a menstrual cup and cultured overnight prior to treatment with estradiol (E₂), progesterone (P₄) or a panel of selective estrogen response modulators (SERMs). Conditioned media were recovered and analyzed for protein concentration and anti-HIV activity. E₂ significantly decreased the secretion of HBD2 and elafin by VEC over 48 hrs, while P4 and the SERMs (tamoxifen, PHTTP, ICI or Y134) had no effect. VEC conditioned media from E₂ -treated cells had no anti-HIV activity, while that from E₂ /P₄ -treated cells significantly inhibited HIV-BaL infection. The menstrual cup allows for effective recovery of primary VEC. Their production of HBD2 and elafin is sensitive to E₂, suggesting that innate immune protection varies in the vagina across the menstrual cycle. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Innate Immunity in the Vagina (Part I): Estradiol Inhibits HBD2 and Elafin Secretion by Human Vaginal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mickey V.; Fahey, John V.; Rossoll, Richard M.; Wira, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    Problem Vaginal epithelial cells (VEC) are the first line of defense against incoming pathogens in the female reproductive tract. Their ability to produce the anti-HIV molecules elafin and HBD2 under hormonal stimulation is unknown. Method of study Vaginal epithelial cells were recovered using a menstrual cup and cultured overnight prior to treatment with estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4) or a panel of selective estrogen response modulators (SERMs). Conditioned media were recovered and analyzed for protein concentration and anti-HIV activity. Results E2 significantly decreased the secretion of HBD2 and elafin by VEC over 48 hrs, while P4 and the SERMs (tamoxifen, PHTTP, ICI or Y134) had no effect. VEC conditioned media from E2-treated cells had no anti-HIV activity, while that from E2/P4-treated cells significantly inhibited HIV-BaL infection. Conclusion The menstrual cup allows for effective recovery of primary VEC. Their production of HBD2 and elafin is sensitive to E2, suggesting that innate immune protection varies in the vagina across the menstrual cycle. PMID:23398087

  13. Removal of Group B Streptococci Colonizing the Vagina and Oropharynx of Mice with a Bacteriophage Lytic Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Qi; Nelson, Daniel; Zhu, Shiwei; Fischetti, Vincent A.

    2005-01-01

    Group B streptococci (GBS) are the leading cause of neonatal meningitis and sepsis worldwide. The current treatment strategy is limited to intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis in pregnant women to prevent early-onset neonatal diseases, but considering the potential for antibiotic resistance, the risk of losing control over the disease is high. To approach this problem, we have developed a bacteriophage (phage) lytic enzyme to remove colonizing GBS. Bacteriophage muralytic enzymes, termed lysins, are highly evolved molecules designed to degrade the cell wall of host bacteria to release phage particles from the bacterial cytoplasm. Several different lysins have been developed to specifically kill bacterial pathogens both on mucosal surfaces and in blood and represent a novel approach to control infection. A lysin cloned from a phage infecting GBS was found to contain two putative catalytic domains and one putative binding domain, which is similar to the domain organization of some staphylococcal phage lysins. The lysin (named PlyGBS) was recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified PlyGBS efficiently killed all tested GBS serotypes in vitro. In a mouse model, a single dose of PlyGBS significantly reduced bacterial colonization in both the vagina and oropharynx. As an alternative strategy for intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis, this approach may be used to reduce vaginal GBS colonization in pregnant women before delivery or to decontaminate newborns, thus reducing the incidence of GBS-associated neonatal meningitis and sepsis. PMID:15616283

  14. In vitro antimicrobial activities of metabolites from vaginal Lactobacillus strains against Clostridium perfringens isolated from a woman's vagina.

    PubMed

    Amin, Mansour; Moradi Choghakabodi, Parastoo; Alhassan Hamidi, Mohammad; Najafian, Mahin; Farajzadeh Sheikh, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    More than 50 different species of bacteria may live in a woman's vagina, with lactobacilli being the predominant microorganism found in healthy adult females. Lactobacilli are relevant as a barrier to infection and are important in the impairment of colonization by pathogens, owing to competitive adherence to adhesion sites in the vaginal epithelium and their capacity to produce antimicrobial compounds. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the inhibitory capability of Lactobacillus metabolites against Clostridium perfringens, an anaerobic Gram-positive bacterium. These bacteria were isolated from vaginal swabs by using culture-dependent approaches, and the bacteriostatic effect of Lactobacillus metabolites, extracted from different isolates, was assessed using a modified E test. Among the 100 vaginal swabs, 59 (59%) samples showed the presence of Lactobacillus strains and only one sample contained C. perfringens. Lactobacillus metabolites demonstrated the significant potency of in vitro activity against C. perfringens, with minimal inhibitory concentration values ranging from 15.6 μg/mL to 31.2 μg/mL. This study suggests that women without vaginal Lactobacillus strains may be susceptible to nonindigenous and potentially harmful microorganisms. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  15. Rapidly disintegrating vagina retentive cream suppositories of progesterone: development, patient satisfaction and in vitro/in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Bendas, Ehab Rasmy; Basalious, Emad B

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to develop novel vagina retentive cream suppositories (VRCS) of progesterone having rapid disintegration and good vaginal retention. VRCS of progesterone were prepared using oil in water (o/w) emulsion of mineral oil or theobroma oil in hard fat and compared with conventional vaginal suppositories (CVS) prepared by hard fat. VRCS formulations were tested for content uniformity, disintegration, melting range, in vitro release and stability studies. The most stable formulation (VRCS I) was subjected to scaling-up manufacturing and patients' satisfaction test. The rapid disintegration, good retentive properties are applicable through the inclusion of emulsified theobroma oil rather than hydrophilic surfactant into the hard fat bases. The release profile of progesterone from VRCS I showed a biphasic pattern due to the formation of progesterone reservoir in the emulsified theobroma oil. All volunteers involved in patients' satisfaction test showed high satisfactory response to the tested formulation (VRCS). The in vivo pharmacokinetic study suggests that VRCS of progesterone provided higher rate and extent of absorption compared to hard fat based suppositories. Our results proposed that emulsified theobroma oil could be promising to solve the problems of poor patients' satisfaction and variability of drug absorption associated with hard fat suppositories.

  16. High Prevalence of Leptotrichia amnionii, Atopobium vaginae, Sneathia sanguinegens, and Factor 1 Microbes and Association of Spontaneous Abortion among Korean Women.

    PubMed

    Seo, Sang Soo; Arokiyaraj, Selvaraj; Kim, Mi Kyung; Oh, Hea Young; Kwon, Minji; Kong, Ji Sook; Shin, Moon Kyung; Yu, Ye Lee; Lee, Jae Kwan

    2017-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to (i) determine the cervical microbial composition in different abortion samples and to (ii) investigate the correlation between spontaneous abortion and cervical microbes in Korean women. Methods. We collected cervical swabs from women who had never undergone abortion ( N = 36), had spontaneous abortion ( N = 23), and had undergone induced abortion ( N = 88) and subjected those samples to 16S rRNA pyrosequencing. Further, factor analysis and correlation between cervical microbiota and spontaneous abortion were evaluated by logistic regression analysis. Results. In spontaneous abortion women, 16 S rRNA gene sequences showed significant increases in Atopobium vaginae , Megasphaera spp., Gardnerella vaginalis , Leptotrichia amnionii , and Sneathia sanguinegens compared to women in nonabortion group. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, A. vaginae (OD = 11.27; 95% = 1.57-81) , L. amnionii (OD = 11.47; 95% = 1.22-107.94), S. sanguinegens (OD = 6.89; 95% = 1.07-44.33), and factor 1 microbes (OD = 16.4; 95% = 1.88-42.5) were strongly associated with spontaneous abortion. Conclusions. This study showed a high prevalence of L. amnionii, A. vaginae, S. sanguinegens , and factor 1 microbes in spontaneous abortion and association with spontaneous abortion in Korean women.

  17. High Prevalence of Leptotrichia amnionii, Atopobium vaginae, Sneathia sanguinegens, and Factor 1 Microbes and Association of Spontaneous Abortion among Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Sang Soo; Arokiyaraj, Selvaraj; Oh, Hea Young; Kwon, Minji; Kong, Ji Sook; Shin, Moon Kyung; Yu, Ye Lee; Lee, Jae Kwan

    2017-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to (i) determine the cervical microbial composition in different abortion samples and to (ii) investigate the correlation between spontaneous abortion and cervical microbes in Korean women. Methods. We collected cervical swabs from women who had never undergone abortion (N = 36), had spontaneous abortion (N = 23), and had undergone induced abortion (N = 88) and subjected those samples to 16S rRNA pyrosequencing. Further, factor analysis and correlation between cervical microbiota and spontaneous abortion were evaluated by logistic regression analysis. Results. In spontaneous abortion women, 16 S rRNA gene sequences showed significant increases in Atopobium vaginae, Megasphaera spp., Gardnerella vaginalis, Leptotrichia amnionii, and Sneathia sanguinegens compared to women in nonabortion group. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, A. vaginae (OD = 11.27; 95% = 1.57–81), L. amnionii (OD = 11.47; 95% = 1.22–107.94), S. sanguinegens (OD = 6.89; 95% = 1.07–44.33), and factor 1 microbes (OD = 16.4; 95% = 1.88–42.5) were strongly associated with spontaneous abortion. Conclusions. This study showed a high prevalence of L. amnionii, A. vaginae, S. sanguinegens, and factor 1 microbes in spontaneous abortion and association with spontaneous abortion in Korean women. PMID:29479540

  18. 'You have all those emotions inside that you cannot show because of what they will cause': Disclosing the absence of one's uterus and vagina.

    PubMed

    Guntram, Lisa; Zeiler, Kristin

    2016-10-01

    This article examines young women's experiences of telling others that they have no uterus and no, or a so-called small, vagina - a condition labelled 'congenital absence of uterus and vagina', which falls within the larger category of 'atypical' sex development. Our aim is to investigate how affective dissonances such as fear and frustration are expressed in young women's narratives about letting others know about their 'atypical' sex development, and how these women narrate desired steps to recognition. By drawing on feminist writings on the performativity of affects or emotions, we examine what affective dissonances accomplish within three identified narratives: how affective dissonances may contribute to the women's positioning of themselves vis-à-vis other individuals and how affective dissonances can imply a strengthening and/or questioning of norms about female embodiment and heterosexuality. This allows us to tease out how routes for questioning of these norms become available through the three narratives that together form a storyline of coming out about a congenital absence of a uterus and vagina in the Swedish context. Furthermore, by demonstrating how others' responses shape the women - their understandings of their own bodies, their envisaged future disclosures and their relations - our analysis highlights the multifaceted intersubjective and in other ways relational, affective and temporal dimensions of coming out about one's 'atypical' sex development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Differential expression of oestrogen receptor isoforms and androgen receptor in the normal vulva and vagina compared with vulval lichen sclerosus and chronic vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Taylor, A H; Guzail, M; Al-Azzawi, F

    2008-02-01

    Although the expression of the oestrogen receptor (ER) alpha isoform and androgen receptor (AR) has been examined in vulval lichen sclerosus (VLS), the distribution pattern of ERalpha, ERbeta and AR has not been described in chronic atrophic vaginitis nor correlated with markers of proliferation (Ki-67) in either of these diseased tissues. To measure the levels and distribution of ERalpha, ERbeta and AR immunoreactivity in relation to Ki-67 in normal and diseased vulva and vagina. The expression of ERalpha, ERbeta and AR in relation to the proliferation marker Ki-67 in VLS, squamous hyperplasia of the vulva and chronic atrophic vaginitis was determined by immunohistomorphometric analysis and compared with that in normal vulva and vagina. VLS showed similar ERalpha and ERbeta expression in the 'epidermal' and 'dermal' tissue layers to that of normal vulvae, whereas AR expression appeared to be absent in most cases. ERbeta and Ki-67 expression was correlated with ERalpha expression but only in the 'fibrovascular' layer of the vulva. ERalpha expression was absent from the 'fibromuscular' layer of diseased vulvae, while ERbeta expression was absent in normal tissues but was highly expressed in diseased vulvae. ERalpha expression was significantly correlated with AR expression in the fibrovascular layer of the vagina and inversely correlated with Ki-67 staining in the parabasal cells of the epidermis in patients with chronic atrophic vaginitis. These data suggest that ER expression and levels may be implicated in the aetiopathology of VLS and chronic atrophic vaginitis.

  20. A 12-week intramuscular toxicity study of risperidone-loaded microspheres in Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Tian, J; Wang, W; Ye, L; Cen, X; Guan, X; Zhang, J; Yu, P; Du, G; Liu, W; Li, Y

    2014-05-01

    Long-acting formulations of antipsychotics are important treatment options to increase the compliance of schizophrenic patients. Risperidone, a 5-HT2 and dopaminergic D2 receptor antagonist, was developed as long-acting sustained-release microspheres with poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) as a drug carrier for the treatment of schizophrenia. In the present study, the main objective is to determine the nonclinical safety profile of risperidone-loaded microspheres (RM) in Beagle dogs after intramuscular administration for 3 months, once in 2 weeks, followed by 8-week recovery phase. No animal death was found and no special toxicological findings were observed. The findings, such as hypoactivity, ptosis, increased heart rate, and elevated serum and pituitary prolactin levels, were observed and related to the pharmacological effects of risperidone. The changes in the reproductive system (uterus, ovary, vagina, cervix, and mammary gland) were considered secondary to the prolactin elevation, and the congestion of spleen was related to risperidone. The foreign body granulomas at injection sites might be caused by PLGA. At the end of recovery phase, the above changes mostly recovered to normal, and on administering 3 mg/kg dose level once in 2 weeks on Beagle dogs showed no observed adverse effect. Taken together, RM had exhibited the acceptable safety.

  1. [Fluoride toxicity].

    PubMed

    Giachini, M; Pierleoni, F

    2004-04-01

    Many years have passed since domestic water fluoridation was adopted to reduce the incidence of caries in developed countries; however, since there is an additional dose of fluorides ingested with foods and drinks prepared with such waters, the problem has emerged of possible adverse effects on health associated to them, so that in some countries fluorine integrator selling is allowed only with preventive medical prescription. Owing to the affinity for calcifited tissues, fluorine has a powerful effect on bone cellular order (mediated by growth factors' upregulation system IGF-2, TGF-beta, PDGF, bFGF, EGF, BMP-2 and PTH), on function and length, since it can provoke chronic joints-pain, ligaments-calcification, osteosclerosis. Moreover, sodium-fluoride may cause adverse effects on testicular activity (connected to oxidative-stress depending on increased activity of peroxidases and catalases) due to inhibition of 2 androgenesis-regulator enzymes DELTA(5)b-HSD and 17beta-HSD. Furthermore, insoluble gut formed calcium-fluoride may be responsible for hypocalcemia inducing a secondary hyperparathyroidism with bone matrix resorption, osteoporosis, osteomalacia and, perhaps, lowered level of phosphorus. At encephalic level, then, high doses of fluorine cause the onset of neurological symptoms and of a decreased spontaneous motor activity due to a reduction in the number of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Nevertheless, epidemiological studies about fluoride toxicity have established that such oligoelement may be safely used at odontoiatric dosages.

  2. The Dosimetric Consequences of Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy for Cervix Cancer: The Impact of Organ Motion, Deformation and Tumour Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Karen Siah Huey

    Hypothesis: In intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for cervix cancer, the dose received by the tumour target and surrounding normal tissues is significantly different to that indicated by a single static plan. Rationale: The optimal use of IMRT in cervix cancer requires a greater attention to clinical target volume (CTV) definition and tumour & normal organ motion to assure maximum tumour control with the fewest side effects. Research Aims: 1) Generate consensus CTV contouring guidelines for cervix cancer; 2) Evaluate intra-pelvic tumour and organ dynamics during radiotherapy; 3) Analyze the dose consequences of intra-pelvic organ dynamics on different radiotherapy strategies. Results: Consensus CTV definitions were generated using experts-in-the-field. Substantial changes in tumour volume and organ motion, resulted in significant reductions in accumulated dose to tumour targets and variability in accumulated dose to surrounding normal tissues. Significance: Formalized CTV definitions for cervix cancer is important in ensuring consistent standards of practice. Complex and unpredictable tumour and organ dynamics mandates daily soft-tissue image guidance if IMRT is used. To maximize the benefits of IMRT for cervix cancer, a strategy of adaptation is necessary.

  3. Sediment Toxicity Identification Evaluation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Approach combining chemical manipulations and aquatic toxicity testing, generally with whole organisms, to systematically characterize, identify and confirm toxic substances causing toxicity in whole sediments and sediment interstitial waters. The approach is divided into thre...

  4. [Occurrence of radiation-induced injury in vagina after radical radiotherapy of cervical cancer and its affecting factors].

    PubMed

    Zhang, K S; Liu, Z; Wang, T; Wang, J; Su, J; Shi, F; Wang, R H; Yuan, W; Li, Y

    2018-04-25

    Objective: To investigate the occurrence and degree of radiation-induced injury in vagina after radical radiotherapy of cervical cancer. Methods: A total of 282 cases of patients with cervical cancer were collected from November 2016 to September 2017. All of the above patients underwent radical radiotherapy from 2008 to 2017 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi ' an Jiaotong University. The patients' International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging (2009) , brachytherapy dose, whether receive synchronous chemotherapy or not, age and body mass index (BMI) for the occurrence and severity of vaginal radiation injury at different time periods were analyzed by cross-sectional survey method. The single factor would be analyzed by the method of Chi-square test and the multiple factors would be analyzed by logistic regression method to checkout. Results: Of the 282 patients, the incidence of radiation-injury in vaginal was 84.4% (238/282) , with the incidence rate of degree Ⅰ,Ⅱ and Ⅲ radiation injury were respectively 50.7% (143/282), 29.8% (84/282) and 3.9% (11/282; χ(2)=153.375, P< 0.05) , and there was no degree Ⅳ. Until the end of the follow-up time, the incidence of radiation-induced injury in vaginal after completing the treatment within 1 year, 1-2 years,>2-<5 years and ≥5 years were respectively 80.0% (24/30) , 87.2% (102/117) , 88.2% (60/68) and 77.6% (52/67; χ(2)=4.231, P= 0.238) . There were 30 cases be followed within 1 year after treatment, the incidence rate of degreeⅠ,Ⅱ and Ⅲ of radiation injury in vagina was 60.0% (18/30) , 20.0% (6/30) and 0, respectively (χ(2)=28.636, P< 0.05). There were 117 cases be followed between 1-2 years after treatment, the incidence rate of degreeⅠ,Ⅱ and Ⅲ vaginal radiation-induced injury were 54.7% (64/117) , 29.9% (35/117) and 2.6% (3/117) , respectively (χ(2)=77.198, P< 0.05) . There were 68 cases be followed between >2-<5 years after treatment, the incidence rate of degree

  5. Cervix-to-rectum measuring device in a radiation applicator for use in the treatment of cervical cancer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischell, D. R.; Mazique, J. C. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A cervix-to-rectum measuring device to be used in the treatment of cervical cancer is described. It includes a handle and a probe pivotably connected to the handle for insertion in the rectum. The measuring device further includes means for coupling the handle to an intrauterine radiation applicator when the latter is positioned in the uterine cervix and the probe is inserted in the rectum to pivot the handle about the probe. A gear is provided which is adapted to pivot with the probe. A pinion pivotably connected to the handle meshes with the gear. A pointer fixed to the pinion is displaced in response to the pivoting of the handle about the probe, and this displacement can be read from a scale on the handle, providing an indication of the cervix-to-rectum distance.

  6. Florid reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (lymphoma-like lesion) of cervix: A diagnostically challenging case and a brief review of literature.

    PubMed

    Pai, Trupti; Menon, Santosh; Deodhar, Kedar; Shet, Tanuja

    2015-01-01

    Large lymphoid proliferations are usually regarded as synonymous with lymphomas. However, lymphoma-like lesions. (LLLs) of the cervix are amongst the exception. We report a 46-year-old woman who complained of irregular menses and was found to have superficial erosion in cervix, which on biopsy showed clusters of large atypical appearing lymphoid cells admixed with smaller reactive lymphoid cells. On immunohistochemistry, these large cells were strongly positive for CD20 and CD30 and the background cells were reactive to CD3. Based on the superficial nature of infiltrate and absence of a mass-forming lesion, a diagnosis of LLL of cervix was made. Despite a benign diagnosis, a hysterectomy was done on patient's insistence and only a focus of lymphoid cells similar to biopsy was seen on the operated specimen. Patient is free of disease on follow-up.

  7. High prevalence of Streptococcus agalactiae from vaginas of women in Taiwan and its mechanisms of macrolide and quinolone resistance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wen-Tsung; Lai, Mei-Chin

    2015-10-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS), is the most common pathogen causing infections among perinatal women and neonatal babies. Nonetheless, there are few studies on the occurrence of GBS among the pregnant women and the mechanisms of GBS resistance to quinolones and macrolides in Taiwan. GBS were isolated from vaginas of the pregnant and non-pregnant symptomatic women in Taiwan. The prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility, and mechanisms of resistance against erythromycin and quinolone of total 188 isolates were studied. The isolation rate of GBS from pregnant women was significantly higher at 21.8% compare with the non-pregnant women of 13.2%. Antibiotic susceptibility test of the 188 GBS isolates revealed a high non-susceptible rate for erythromycin (50.0%) while the rate for levofloxacin was only 4.8%. Among 94 erythromycin non-susceptible GBS isolates, ermB gene was detected 83.1% (59/71) for those GBS that were non-susceptible to both clindamycin and tetracycline, which was significantly higher than GBS that are susceptible to clindamycin but resistant to tetracycline at 43.8% (7/16). No ermA or mef gene was detected in any isolate. Mutations were detected in the parC and gyrA genes in 14 out of 18 levofloxacin non-susceptible isolates. The predominant mutation type was the combination of Ser79Tyr in parC and Ser81Leu mutations in gyrA. GBS is the most common isolated pathogens in vaginal infections in Taiwan, resistance to tetracycline and erythromycin is higher than the rate observed for other regions of the world, while the resistance rate for levofloxacin was relatively lower in Taiwan. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Reconstruction of the pelvic floor and the vagina after total pelvic exenteration using the transverse musculocutaneous gracilis flap.

    PubMed

    Kaartinen, Ilkka S; Vuento, Maarit H; Hyöty, Marja K; Kallio, Jukka; Kuokkanen, Hannu O

    2015-01-01

    Total pelvic exenteration (TPE) is a rare operation in which the pelvic contents are removed entirely. Several options for pelvic floor and vaginal reconstruction have been described including transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) or deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flaps. The transverse musculocutaneous gracilis (TMG) flap has been introduced for breast reconstruction as a free flap. We adopted the pedicled TMG flap for reconstructions after TPE. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of this method in the literature. Between November 2011 and February 2014, 12 patients underwent TPE and reconstruction with unilateral (six patients) or bilateral (six patients) pedicled TMG flaps. Five patients underwent vaginal reconstruction with bilateral TMG flaps. We describe the operative procedure and the outcome of the operation in these patients. The total mean operative times for TPE with or without vaginal reconstruction were 467 ± 12 and 386 ± 59 min, respectively. The TMG flaps had enough vascular tissue and mobility for reconstructing the TPE defects. There was distal edge necrosis in one out of 18 flaps, while the rest survived completely. During the follow-up, complete wound healing with no signs of weakening of the pelvic floor was observed in all cases. Soft-tissue reconstructions are needed to reduce complications associated with TPE, to secure the pelvic floor and to reconstruct the vagina in select patients. The TMG flap is a logical flap choice that does not lead to functional deficits, complicate the abdominal ostomies or weaken the abdominal wall. It reduces the length of operation compared to that of abdominal flaps. IV, therapeutic. Copyright © 2014 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cytology of the neovagina in transgender women and individuals with congenital or acquired absence of a natural vagina.

    PubMed

    Grosse, A; Grosse, C; Lenggenhager, D; Bode, B; Camenisch, U; Bode, P

    2017-06-01

    The primary objective of this study was to describe the cytological findings of bowel and (penile) skin-lined neovaginas in patients with gender dysphoria (GD) and individuals with a congenital or acquired absence of a natural vagina. The secondary objective was to correlate the cytological findings with clinical characteristics such as oestrogen replacement therapy (ERT). A retrospective review of an institutional pathology archive over a 15-year-period was performed to identify cytological samples of neovaginal vaults. The medical and surgical records of the patients identified (n=20) were evaluated. Well-preserved nucleated squamous cells were found in 70% (14/20) of patients. Neovaginal samples showing superficial, intermediate and parabasal cells plus Döderlein flora similar to normal cervical cytology were present in only 10% (2/20). Three samples (15%, 3/20) showed atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) that were all negative for high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) types, whereas one case was positive for low-risk (LR) HPV. One patient (5%, 1/20) was diagnosed with an HR-HPV-positive high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), and one patient (5%, 1/20) had an HR- and LR-HPV-positive low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). The correlation between the presence of nucleated squamous cells and ERT was significant (P=.032). Cytological findings of the neovagina resemble normal cervical cytology with superficial, intermediate and parabasal cells as well as Döderlein bacilli in a minority of cases. Because precancerous lesions and invasive carcinoma may develop in the neovagina, patients with neovaginas should be subject to cancer screening programmes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Expression and distribution of the transient receptor potential cationic channel ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) in the human vagina.

    PubMed

    Ückert, S; Sonnenberg, J E; Albrecht, K; Kuczyk, M A; Hedlund, P

    2015-01-01

    The transient receptor potential cationic channel type A1 (TRPA1), belonging to a superfamily of cationic membrane channels, has been suggested to act as mechano- and pain sensor and, thus, to play a role in neurotransmission in the human body, including the urogenital tract. While the expression of TRPA1 has been investigated in a variety of tissues, up until today, no study has addressed the expression and distribution in the female genital tract. The present study aimed to investigate the expression and distribution of TRPA1 protein in human vaginal tissue. Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) was applied in order to identify messenger ribonuleic acid specifically encoding for TRPA/A1. The distribution of TRPA1 in relation to the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and the signaling peptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) was examined by means of immunohistochemical methods (double-antibody technique, laser fluorescence microscopy). RT-PCR analysis revealed the expression of mRNA encoding sequences specific for TRPA in the vaginal wall and epithelium. Immunostaining related to TRPA1 was observed in the basal epithelium and in slender varicose nerve fibers transversing the subepithelial and stromal space of the vaginal sections. In addition, these fibers presented immunoreactivity specific for nNOS or CGRP. The smooth musculature of the vaginal wall and small vessels interspersing the tissue did not present signals related to TRPA1. The findings indicate that TRPA1 might be involved in afferent neurotransmission in the vagina and work synergistically together with the nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway.

  11. Increased diversity of fungal flora in the vagina of patients with recurrent vaginal candidiasis and allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Renyong; Zheng, Nengneng; Lu, Haifeng; Yin, Hongfang; Yao, Jinmei; Chen, Yu

    2012-11-01

    Recurrent vaginal candidiasis (RVC) is considered to be a hypersensitivity disorder that is associated with allergic rhinitis (AR) in immune deficiencies; however, whether or not the composition of the vaginal fungal flora in patients with AR and RVC is altered and if such alterations in patients with AR are associated with the development of RVC remain unclear. In the present study, a cultivation-independent method with the 18S rRNA gene clone library was used to analyze the diversity and composition of the vaginal fungal flora in patients with AR and RVC and to explore the association. Three fungal phyla (Ascomycotae, 22 out of 28; Basidiomycetes, 5 out of 28; and Oomycetes, 1 out of 28) were identified from groups of healthy volunteers, patients with AR, patients with RVC, and patients with RVC complicated by AR, including 28 phylotypes of fungal flora (10, 15, 17, and 21 phylotypes for each group, respectively). The predominant genera of fungi identified in the vagina included Candida, uncultured fungi, and Dothideomycetes. An increased proportion of Candida albicans accompanied with decreased proportions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and uncultured fungi was observed in patients with AR or RVC (P < 0.05). Candida glabrata, Eladia saccula, Trichosporon jirovecii, and Phytophthora spp. occurred simultaneously in the three patient groups. The composition of the fungal communities in the four groups was statistically different (P < 0.001). The vaginal fungal diversity in patients with AR or RVC was significantly higher compared with healthy volunteers (P < 0.05). The data revealed an increased diversity and varied composition of the vaginal fungal flora in patients with AR and RVC and indicated that disturbed vaginal fungal flora in patients with AR might be correlated with disease progression in patients with RVC.

  12. Randomized clinical trial comparing cold knife conization of the cervix with and without lateral hemostatic sutures.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Letícia Rossi; Binda, Marcia; Monego, Heleusa; Scherer, Roberta Luísa; Rolim, Karen Machado; Bottini, Alessandra Leal; Fregnani, José H T G; dos Reis, Ricardo

    2015-06-01

    Compare blood loss during cold knife conization of the cervix with and without lateral hemostatic sutures in the cervical branches of the uterine arteries. Randomized clinical trial. Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA). 102 patients that underwent cold knife conization. Women that underwent cold knife conization of the cervix were randomized to undergo the procedure with or without lateral hemostatic sutures. blood loss measured in grams. operative time and postoperative intervention. Only the participants were blinded to group assignment. From March 2009 to August 2012, patients were randomly assigned to one of the study groups. There were no differences in amount of blood loss between patients that underwent the procedure with and without sutures (p = 0.39). Operative time was shorter in the group without suture (p = 0.020). There were no differences in intervention due to bleeding (p = 0.20). Blood loss was greater among menstruating women than for menopausal women (p = 0.011). There were no differences in amount of blood lost between smoking and nonsmoking patients (p = 0.082). Lateral hemostatic sutures do not affect the amount of intraoperative bleeding or the number of postoperative interventions. Their use is not necessary because they result in longer operative time, have a higher cost due to the use of suture material and pose the risk of ureter lesion in case the sutures are not placed at a lower position in the cervix. ClinicalTrials. gov identifier: NCT02184975. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Collagen Fiber Orientation and Dispersion in the Upper Cervix of Non-Pregnant and Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Kristin M.; Vink, Joy Y.; Wapner, Ronald J.; Hendon, Christine P.

    2016-01-01

    The structural integrity of the cervix in pregnancy is necessary for carrying a pregnancy until term, and the organization of human cervical tissue collagen likely plays an important role in the tissue’s structural function. Collagen fibers in the cervical extracellular matrix exhibit preferential directionality, and this collagen network ultrastructure is hypothesized to reorient and remodel during cervical softening and dilation at time of parturition. Within the cervix, the upper half is substantially loaded during pregnancy and is where the premature funneling starts to happen. To characterize the cervical collagen ultrastructure for the upper half of the human cervix, we imaged whole axial tissue slices from non-pregnant and pregnant women undergoing hysterectomy or cesarean hysterectomy respectively using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and implemented a pixel-wise fiber orientation tracking method to measure the distribution of fiber orientation. The collagen fiber orientation maps show that there are two radial zones and the preferential fiber direction is circumferential in a dominant outer radial zone. The OCT data also reveal that there are two anatomic regions with distinct fiber orientation and dispersion properties. These regions are labeled: Region 1—the posterior and anterior quadrants in the outer radial zone and Region 2—the left and right quadrants in the outer radial zone and all quadrants in the inner radial zone. When comparing samples from nulliparous vs multiparous women, no differences in these fiber properties were noted. Pregnant tissue samples exhibit an overall higher fiber dispersion and more heterogeneous fiber properties within the sample than non-pregnant tissue. Collectively, these OCT data suggest that collagen fiber dispersion and directionality may play a role in cervical remodeling during pregnancy, where distinct remodeling properties exist according to anatomical quadrant. PMID:27898677

  14. Temporal Changes in Myeloid Cells in the Cervix during Pregnancy and Parturition

    PubMed Central

    Timmons, Brenda C; Fairhurst, Anna–Marie; Mahendroo, Mala S

    2009-01-01

    Preterm birth occurs at a rate of 12.7% in the United States and is the primary cause of fetal morbidity in the first year of life as well as the cause of later health problems. Elucidation of mechanisms controlling cervical remodeling is critical for development of therapies to reduce the incidence of prematurity. The cervical extracellular matrix must be disorganized during labor to allow birth followed by a rapid repair postpartum. Leukocytes infiltrate the cervix prior to and after birth and are proposed to regulate matrix remodeling during cervical ripening via release of proteolytic enzymes. In the current study, flow cytometry and cell sorting were utilized to determine the role of immune cells in cervical matrix remodeling before, during, and after parturition. Markers of myeloid cell differentiation and activation were assessed to define phenotype and function. Tissue monocytes and eosinophils increased in the cervix prior to birth in a progesterone regulated fashion while macrophage numbers were unchanged. Neutrophils increased in the postpartum period. Increased mRNA expression of Csfr1 and markers of alternatively activated M2 macrophages during labor or shortly postpartum suggest a function of M2 macrophages in postpartum tissue repair. Changes in cervical myeloid cell numbers are not reflected in the peripheral blood. These data along with our previous studies suggest that myeloid derived cells do not orchestrate processes required for initiation of cervical ripening prior to birth. Additionally, macrophages with diverse phenotypes (M1 and M2) are present in the cervix and likely involved in the postpartum repair of tissue. PMID:19234164

  15. Tumor Heterogeneity of FIGO Stage III Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yong Bae; Lee, Ik Jae; Kim, Song Yih

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze tumor heterogeneity based on tumor extent and suggest reappraisal of the system of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) for Stage III carcinoma of the uterine cervix from a radiotherapeutic viewpoint. Methods and Materials: Between 1986 and 2004, 407 patients with FIGO Stage III (FIGO Stage IIIa in 19 and IIIb in 388) were treated with external beam radiotherapy (RT) and high-dose rate brachytherapy. All patients were reviewed with respect to tumor extent. Patterns of failure and survival parameters were analyzed by use of the chi{sup 2} test andmore » Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The complete response rate was 79.6%, and the 5-year overall survival rates for Stage IIIa and Stage IIIb carcinoma of the cervix were 82.1% and 54.8%, respectively. To determine which parameters of tumor extent had an influence on prognosis for Stage IIIb patients, pelvic wall (PW) extension and hydronephrosis (HD) retained significance on multivariate analysis. Stage IIIb patients were divided into three subgroups according to PW extension and HD: low risk (unilateral PW extension without HD), intermediate risk (HD without PW extension or bilateral PW extension without HD), and high risk (unilateral or bilateral PW extension with HD). The high-risk group had a remarkably low complete response rate, high locoregional failure rate, and low 5-year survival rate compared with the intermediate- and low-risk groups. Conclusions: FIGO Stage III carcinoma of the cervix covers considerably heterogeneous subgroups according to tumor extent. Before initiation of treatment, we suggest that physicians determine a tailored treatment policy based on tumor heterogeneity for each Stage III patient.« less

  16. 21 CFR 884.4530 - Obstetric-gynecologic specialized manual instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... cervix or vagina. (14) A gynecological biopsy forceps is an instrument with two blades and handles used... and hold the cervix or fundus. (16) An internal pelvimeter is an instrument used within the vagina to... used to expose the interior of the vagina. (18) A fiberoptic nonmetal vaginal speculum is a nonmetal...

  17. 21 CFR 884.4530 - Obstetric-gynecologic specialized manual instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... cervix or vagina. (14) A gynecological biopsy forceps is an instrument with two blades and handles used... and hold the cervix or fundus. (16) An internal pelvimeter is an instrument used within the vagina to... used to expose the interior of the vagina. (18) A fiberoptic nonmetal vaginal speculum is a nonmetal...

  18. 21 CFR 884.4530 - Obstetric-gynecologic specialized manual instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... cervix or vagina. (14) A gynecological biopsy forceps is an instrument with two blades and handles used... and hold the cervix or fundus. (16) An internal pelvimeter is an instrument used within the vagina to... used to expose the interior of the vagina. (18) A fiberoptic nonmetal vaginal speculum is a nonmetal...

  19. Three-dimensional volumetric gray-scale uterine cervix histogram prediction of days to delivery in full term pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Youn; Kim, Hai-Joong; Hahn, Meong Hi; Jeon, Hye Jin; Cho, Geum Joon; Hong, Sun Chul; Oh, Min Jeong

    2013-09-01

    Our aim was to figure out whether volumetric gray-scale histogram difference between anterior and posterior cervix can indicate the extent of cervical consistency. We collected data of 95 patients who were appropriate for vaginal delivery with 36th to 37th weeks of gestational age from September 2010 to October 2011 in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Korea University Ansan Hospital. Patients were excluded who had one of the followings: Cesarean section, labor induction, premature rupture of membrane. Thirty-four patients were finally enrolled. The patients underwent evaluation of the cervix through Bishop score, cervical length, cervical volume, three-dimensional (3D) cervical volumetric gray-scale histogram. The interval days from the cervix evaluation to the delivery day were counted. We compared to 3D cervical volumetric gray-scale histogram, Bishop score, cervical length, cervical volume with interval days from the evaluation of the cervix to the delivery. Gray-scale histogram difference between anterior and posterior cervix was significantly correlated to days to delivery. Its correlation coefficient (R) was 0.500 (P = 0.003). The cervical length was significantly related to the days to delivery. The correlation coefficient (R) and P-value between them were 0.421 and 0.013. However, anterior lip histogram, posterior lip histogram, total cervical volume, Bishop score were not associated with days to delivery (P >0.05). By using gray-scale histogram difference between anterior and posterior cervix and cervical length correlated with the days to delivery. These methods can be utilized to better help predict a cervical consistency.

  20. Treatment Results of Extracranial Malignant Germ Cell Tumor with Regimens of Cisplatin, Vinblastine, Bleomycin or Carboplatin, Etoposide, and Bleomycin with Special Emphasis on the Sites of Vagina and Testis.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jen-Yin; Liu, Hsi-Che; Yeh, Ting-Chi; Sheu, Jin-Cherng; Chen, Kuan-Hao; Chang, Ching-Yi; Liang, Der-Cherng

    2015-10-01

    The survival of children with malignant germ cell tumor (GCT) increased over the past 2 decades with platinum-based chemotherapy. This report has three objectives: (1) comparison of PVB (cisplatin, vinblastine, and bleomycin) with JEB (carboplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin) regimens; (2) treatment modality of vaginal GCT; and (3) management of stage I testicular yolk sac tumor (YST) in boys under 2 years old. From January 1, 1987 to December 31, 2010, 81 patients with malignant extracranial GCT were treated. Two consecutive protocols, PVB followed by JEB, were used. Girls with vaginal YST received minimal surgery and chemotherapy. Boys under 2 years old with Stage I testicular YST received surgery with or without chemotherapy. As of June 30, 2012, the 10-year overall survival (OS) was 95 ± 3% (standard error) and the event-free survival (EFS) was 88 ± 4%. With PVB, 35 patients had 10-year OS of 91 ± 5% and EFS of 89 ± 5%. With JEB, 25 patients had 7-year OS of 96 ± 5% and EFS of 96 ± 5%. All five girls with vaginal YST were cured with vagina-preserved strategy. In 32 boys age under 2 years old with stage I YST, 16 with light chemotherapy were all in EFS, whereas two of 16 patients without chemotherapy relapsed. After PVB, six patients developed nephrotoxicity and one had pulmonary fibrosis. Girls with vaginal YST who received minimal surgery and chemotherapy had excellent prognosis and sexual organs were preservable. Light chemotherapy after surgery is a treatment option for boys under 2 years old with stage I YST to decrease relapse rate. Both JEB and PVB are effective. JEB resulted in more myelosuppression but otherwise less serious long-term toxicity than PVB. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Radiobiological compensation: A case study of uterine cervix cancer with concurrent chemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Higmar; Yañez, Elvia; López, Jesús

    2012-10-01

    The case of a patient diagnosed with uterine cervix cancer is presented as an example of the clinical application of the radiobiological compensation method implemented at Centro Estatal de Cancerología de Durango. Radiotherapy treatment was initially modified to compensate for the chemotherapy component and, as medical complications arose during treatment delivery resulting in an 18 days gap, new compensation followed. All physical and radiobiological assumptions to calculate the Biologically Effective Dose in the external beam and brachytherapy parts of the treatment are presented. Good local control of the tumor was achieved, the theoretical tolerance limits for the organs at risk were not surpassed and the patient manifested no extensive morbidity.

  2. [Complications of surgical stage of treatment in patients with cancer of cervix uteri stage IIB].

    PubMed

    Kryzhanivs'ka, A Ie

    2013-11-01

    The results of treatment of 127 patients, suffering cervix uteri cancer stage IIB in period of 1998 - 2012 yrs, were analyzed. Complications of surgical stage of the combined treatment have had occurred in 40.9% patients, including 40.5% patients, to whom neoadjuvant chemotherapy was conducted and in 41.5%--radiation therapy (RTH). The main postoperative complications--retroperitoneal lymphatic cysts--were revealed in 35.4% patients. The factors, raising the risk of postoperative complications occurrence, are following: the primary tumor spreading, metastatic affection of lymphatic nodes of pelvic cavity, preoperative conduction of RTH or chemotherapy.

  3. A rare case of primary mesenteric gastrointestinal stromal tumor with metastasis to the cervix uteri

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nupur; Mittal, Suneeta; Lal, Neena; Misra, Renu; Kumar, Lalit; Bhalla, Sunita

    2007-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are CD117 (C Kit) positive mesenchymal neoplasms, that may arise anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract. Their current therapy is imatinib mesylate before or after surgery. Case presentation We describe a case of 17-year-old female with metastasis to the cervix uteri of a primary mesenteric gastrointestinal tumor. Conclusion Surgery remains the mainstay of known curative treatment. The manifestations of GIST are not restricted to the typical locations within the bowel; may have very unusual metastatic sites or infiltrations per continuitatem. PMID:18045506

  4. Fluorescence confocal endomicroscopy of the cervix: pilot study on the potential and limitations for clinical implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlosser, Colin; Bodenschatz, Nico; Lam, Sylvia; Lee, Marette; McAlpine, Jessica N.; Miller, Dianne M.; Van Niekerk, Dirk J. T.; Follen, Michele; Guillaud, Martial; MacAulay, Calum E.; Lane, Pierre M.

    2016-12-01

    Current diagnostic capabilities and limitations of fluorescence endomicroscopy in the cervix are assessed by qualitative and quantitative image analysis. Four cervical tissue types are investigated: normal columnar epithelium, normal and precancerous squamous epithelium, and stromal tissue. This study focuses on the perceived variability within and the subtle differences between the four tissue groups in the context of endomicroscopic in vivo pathology. Conclusions are drawn on the general ability to distinguish and diagnose tissue types, on the need for imaging depth control to enhance differentiation, and on the possible risks for diagnostic misinterpretations.

  5. Bulky mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radical surgery: report of the first case.

    PubMed

    Ditto, Antonino; Martinelli, Fabio; Bogani, Giorgio; Gasparri, Maria L; Donato, Violante Di; Paolini, Biagio; Carcangiu, Maria L; Lorusso, Domenica; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2016-11-11

    Malignant mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix is a rare occurrence with few cases described in the literature. Although surgery seems to be effective in the treatment of early-stage tumor, no cases describing outcomes of locally advanced stage are available. We report the first case of a patient with International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecologists stage IIB mesonephric adenocarcinoma undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radical surgery. Despite the inherent limitation of a single description of a case, our experience supports the utilization of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with malignant mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. Further prospective multi-institutional studies are needed.

  6. Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome: Life Saving Role of Peritoneal Lavage and Drainage.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Minako; Oyama, Fumie; Ito, Asami; Yokota, Megumi; Matsukura, Daisuke; Tsutsumi, Shinji; Kasai, Tomonori; Nitobe, Yohshiro; Morikawa, Akiko; Ozaki, Takashi; Yokoyama, Yoshihito

    2016-01-01

    We encountered a case where an infection with group A streptococcus (GAS; ie, Streptococcus pyogenes) initially caused primary peritonitis and then subsequently caused streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. The patient's life was likely saved by an emergency laparotomy followed by extensive peritoneal lavage and drainage. A 40-year-old woman was admitted to the Emergency Department for lower abdominal pain and numbness in the extremities. She presented with systemic inflammatory response syndrome. An emergency laparotomy was performed, and ascites that resembled pus and general peritonitis were noted. Peritoneal lavage and drainage were performed, and GAS was isolated from peritoneal fluid. Gram staining of cervical polyp specimens revealed Gram-positive bacteria. The patient was diagnosed with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome due to an ascending GAS infection originating from vagina.

  7. Clinical outcomes from an innovative protocol using serial ultrasound imaging and a single MR image to guide brachytherapy for locally advanced cervix cancer.

    PubMed

    van Dyk, Sylvia; Narayan, Kailash; Bernshaw, David; Kondalsamy-Chennakesavan, Srinivas; Khaw, Pearly; Lin, Ming Yin; Schneider, Michal

    The aim of this study was to report clinical outcomes in a series of patients who underwent serial ultrasound and a single MRI to plan and verify intracavitary brachytherapy. Data for patients who were referred for curative intent radiotherapy for International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Stage 1-1V cervix cancer between January 2007 and March 2012 were analyzed. All patients received external beam radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy and sequential high-dose rate brachytherapy. Brachytherapy was planned and verified using serial ultrasound imaging and a single MRI. Data from 191 patients were available for analyses. The median (range) followup time was 5.08 (0.25-8.25) years. Five-year local control, failure-free survival, cancer-specific survival, and overall survival were 86%, 57.3%, 70% and 63%, respectively. Mean (standard deviation) combined external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy target doses, equivalent to doses in 2 Gy fractions were 80.4 Gy10 (3.89), median (range) 80 (49-96) Gy10. Grade 3 or greater gastrointestinal, genitourinary, or vaginal late toxicity occurred in 3%, 1.6%, and 2% of patients, respectively. Survival, patterns of failure, and late complication rates were similar to published series of MRI/CT-based brachytherapy practices. This large study demonstrates that favorable treatment outcomes can be obtained using a pragmatic and innovative combination of ultrasound and MR imaging. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of dosimetric and clinical parameters on clinical side effects in cervix cancer patients treated with 3D pulse-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Levitchi, Mihai; Charra-Brunaud, Claire; Quetin, Philippe; Haie-Meder, Christine; Kerr, Christine; Castelain, Bernard; Delannes, Martine; Thomas, Laurence; Desandes, Emmanuel; Peiffert, Didier

    2012-06-01

    To assess the association between dosimetric/clinical parameters and gastrointestinal/urinary grade 2-4 side effects in cervix cancer patients treated with 3D pulse dose rate brachytherapy. Three hundred and fifty-two patients received brachytherapy associated with external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for 266 of them; 236 patients underwent surgery. The doses for the most exposed 2, and 0.1 cm(3) (D(2cc) and D(0.1cc)) volumes of the rectum and bladder as well as bladder ICRU point dose (D(ICRU)) were converted into isoeffective doses in 2-Gy fractions. The clinical parameters analyzed were: age, smoking habits, arteritis, diabetes, previous pelvic surgery, FIGO stage, nodal status, pathology, pelvic surgery, EBRT and chemotherapy. Side effects were prospectively assessed using the CTCAEv3.0. Cutoff dose levels were defined separately for patients treated with EBRT and brachytherapy (Group 1) and with preoperative brachytherapy (Group 2). The median follow-up was 23.4months. In Group 1 a significant predictive value of rectum D(0.1cc) and D(2cc), bladder D(0.1cc) and D(ICRU) for gastrointestinal and urinary toxicity was found using as cutoff 83, 68, 109 and 68Gy(α)(/)(β)(3). In Group 2 a significant predictive value of bladder D(0.1cc), D(2cc) and D(ICRU) for urinary toxicity was found using as cutoff 141, 91 and 67Gy(α)(/)(β)(3), but not for the rectum D(0.1cc) and D(2cc); smoking had a significant predictive value on urinary toxicity. For patients treated with brachytherapy and EBRT, rectum D(0.1cc) and D(2cc) and bladder D(0.1cc) and D(ICRU) had a predictive value for toxicity. For patients treated with preoperative brachytherapy, bladder D(0.1cc), D(2cc) and D(ICRU) and smoking had a predictive value for urinary toxicity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Localization of the androgen-synthesizing enzymes, androgen receptor, and sex steroids in the vagina: possible implications for the treatment of postmenopausal sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Bertin, Jonathan; Dury, Alain Y; Ouellet, Johanne; Pelletier, Georges; Labrie, Fernand

    2014-08-01

    To better understand the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of the intravaginal administration of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) observed in postmenopausal women on sexual dysfunction. To identify the distribution of the androgen-synthesizing enzymes as well as androgen receptor (AR) and measure steroid levels in the monkey vagina. The cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis), the closest model to the human, has been used to measure the expression levels of steroidogenic enzymes and androgen receptor by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (n=4), confirmed by immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence (n=3). DHEA and its androgenic metabolites were quantified by LC-MS/MS (n=4). The presence of SRD5A1, SRD5A2, HSD17B3, AR as well as nerve fibers (PGP 9.5) was investigated, and steroid levels were measured. AR is widely distributed within the vaginal epithelium and also in the lamina propria with a lower expression in the muscularis layer and blood vessel walls. Androgen-forming enzymes, on the other hand, are expressed in the vaginal stratified squamous epithelium at a relatively high level where they are uniformly distributed from the basal membrane up to the superficial keratinized cells. The enzymes are at a lower level in blood vessel walls and zona muscularis where nerve fibers are localized. DHEA and its androgen metabolites are present at biologically significant concentrations in the monkey vagina. The enzymes responsible for androgen formation as well as AR are at the highest level in the superficial layer of the stratified epithelium and muscularis layers of the vagina. These data provide a potential explanation for the described role of androgens in regulating vaginal lubrication, smooth muscle activity, blood flow, and the neuronal activity potentially involved in the correction of sexual dysfunction. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  10. Comparison of polypropylene mesh and porcine-derived, cross-linked urinary bladder matrix materials implanted in the rabbit vagina and abdomen.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xuemei; Wang, Yanzhou; Wang, Yu; Xu, Huicheng

    2014-05-01

    Our aim was to compare histological and biomechanical effects of polypropylene (PP) mesh and porcine-derived, cross-linked urinary bladder matrix (cUBM) graft materials using a rabbit vaginal and abdominal model. Forty rabbits were implanted with PP mesh (n = 20) or cUBM (n = 20) in the vagina and abdomen. Two grafts (PP or cUBM) of the same type were placed into each site, so each rabbit had four grafts. Grafts were harvested 12 weeks later and processed for histologic analysis and biomechanical testing. There were high rates of two types of grafts missing in the vagina. Vaginal PP was associated with erosion reaction (67%), whereas abdominal PP and cUBM showed no sign of erosion. All patches adhered to rectus abdominis or vaginal mucosa and shrank to varying degrees, especially for PP grafts. Compared with vaginal PP, vaginal cUBM induced milder chronic inflammation response, had lower scores (P = 0.000) for inflammation response, and showed higher scores for neovascularization (P = 0.000) and fibroblastic proliferation (P = 0.002). In the abdomen, both histopathological parameters were insignificantly different (P > 0.05) between cUBM and PP. The mechanical properties of UBM did not deteriorate following implantation, whereas the ultimate tensile strength and elastic modulus of vaginal PP increased. PP had higher scores for tensile and break strength than did cUBM (P < 0.05). The cUBM has good biocompatibility, high ability to integrate with the vagina, and maintains mechanical properties in vivo. It may be a promising material for pelvic floor reconstruction.

  11. Treatment of patients with a congenital transversal vaginal septum or a partial aplasia of the vagina. The vaginal pull-through versus the push-through technique.

    PubMed

    van Bijsterveldt, Chantal; Willemsen, Wim

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the different modalities of congenital obstructing vaginal malformations and the evaluation of techniques to solve the problem. A retrospective study. The University Hospital Nijmegen, the Netherlands. The medical records of 18 patients with congenital obstructive malformations of the vagina operated on by one gynecologist were retrospectively reviewed. The conditions were classified in three groups: group I with one uterus and vagina and with a transverse vaginal septum, group II with a partial vaginal agenesis and group III with a double genital system and a septum with occlusion of one vagina. Operating technique used, mold treatment after surgery, menstruation outflow, the possibility of having intercourse and the need for additional surgery. 18 patients were evaluated. Of 10 patients in group I, 8 patients were treated with the pull-through technique and 2 patients with the push-through technique. Four of the patients with a pull-through operation did not get mold treatment; of these patients, 3 needed repeat surgery because of the tendency for constriction. Of 4 patients in group II, 1 patient was treated with the pull-through technique and 3 with the push-through technique. The patient with the pull-through technique needed repeat surgery because of constriction. There was no mold treatment after the first procedure. Group III were 4 patients all treated with the pull-through technique. None of them received mold treatment, and none of these patients needed repeat surgery. The push-through method is a good surgical technique for the patients in whom problems of constriction after surgery are expected and for patients with difficulties during surgery. Mold treatment is recommended after surgery in patients with a thick transversal vaginal septum or a partial vaginal aplasia.

  12. Fluorescence spectroscopy for diagnostic differentiation in uteri's cervix biopsies with cervical/vaginal atypical cytology.

    PubMed

    Rodero, Ademir Barianni; Silveira, Landulfo; Rodero, David Augusto; Racanicchi, Roberto; Pacheco, Marcos Tadeu T

    2008-09-01

    This work aims the diagnostic differentiation of chronic inflammation (CC), low-grade Intraepithelial squamous lesions (LGSIL) and high-grade intraepithelial squamous lesions (HGSIL) in biopsies of cervix of uterus from patients with atypias (ASC-US and ASC-H) and lesions (LGSIL and HGSIL), traced in the cervical/vaginal cytology by using Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (LIFS), with 488 nm excitation wavelength. Ninety seven biopsies from 32 patients with atypical cervical/vaginal cytology were collected. The biopsies were guided by colposcopy and taken at the squamous-columnar junction. Fluorescence emission spectra of each biopsy were collected by means of an optical fiber cable coupled to an argon laser at 488 nm as excitation source and addressed to a spectrograph and CCD camera/controller. Spectra were separated into three groups, CC, LGSIL and HGSIL, based on the cytopathology. It was detected similar mean spectra profiles for CC and LGSIL, and differences for HGSIL. An algorithm was developed for tissue classification based on the intensity of the multiplication of each spectrum by the mean spectrum of each group, searching for a discriminator that would address this spectral difference. The sensitivity and specificity of HGSIL identification, compared to CC and LGSIL was 89% and 100%, respectively. The LIFS using excitation wavelength of 488 nm could be used to differentiate HGSIL lesions from LGSIL and CC inflammation, and could help a precocious and less invasive diagnosis of cervix lesions.

  13. [Extraoseus Ewings Sarcoma, Primary Affection of Uterine Cervix--Case Report].

    PubMed

    Bílek, O; Holánek, M; Zvaríková, M; Fabian, P; Robešová, B; Procházková, M; Adámková Krákorová, D

    2015-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is usually diagnosed in adolescents and young adults, peak of incidence is around 15 years of age. Primary localization is mostly in the skeleton of long bones and chest wall. Primary extraosseous involvement rarely occurs, incidence increases with age. We present a case report of a 57-year-old patient with locally advanced tumors of the cervix, clinical stage IIB. Due to histological and molecular genetic examination revealing EWS -ERG fusion gene, Ewing's sarcoma was diagnosed. CT revealed pathological pelvic lymphadenopathy and multiple pulmonary bilateral methastases, scintigraphy did not prove any affection of skeleton. The patient underwent a two-stage intensive chemotherapy regimens VIDE (vincristine, ifosfamide, doxorubicin, etoposide) and VAI (vincristine, actinomycin D, ifosfamide). During the second phase, concomitant radiotherapy of pelvis was aplied. According to PET/CT, complete remission was achieved. Whole-lung irradiation was applied in consolidation of the result. Primary Ewing's sarcoma of the cervix is an extremely rare disease. To our knowledge, only 12 cases was presented until this time. The average age at time of dia-gnosis was 35 years. Unlike the previous reports, we initially diagnosed distant metastases. The treatment was led according to the protocol Ewing 2008 designed for primary skeletal Ewing's sarcoma. Currently, 18 months after the therapy, the patient is without signs of disease. However, long-term follow-up is necessary.

  14. Adenocarcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Baalbergen, Astrid; Helmerhorst, Theo J M

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to review literature if therapeutic strategies in adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix could lead to a more conservative approach. A review of the literature was conducted using a Medline search for articles published between 1966 and 2013. Thirty-five studies showed that after a radical cone, 16.5% residual disease in the re-cone or uterus was found. After cone with positive margins, residual abnormalities were found in 49.3%. Thirty-seven studies showed 5% recurrence rate after conservative therapy (large loop excision transformation zone-cold knife conization. After conization with negative margins, the risk of recurrence was 3%. Adenocarcinoma in situ is a relatively rare premalignant but increasingly frequent lesion of the cervix. Although there is a risk of relapse (3%) with a chance of malignancy (<1%), this risk is so small that conservative treatment with negative margins by large loop excision transformation zone or cold knife conization is justified and justifiable not only for women to have children.

  15. Examination of the cervix with the naked eye using acetic acid test.

    PubMed

    Ottaviano, M; La Torre, P

    1982-05-15

    Examination of the cervix was carried out on 2,400 patients, by use of acetic acid test with the naked eye and the colposcope. The physiologic transformation zone was clearly identified both with the naked eye and the colposcope in 1,568 of 1,594 (99%) cases. Colposcopic examination was unsatisfactory in 108 of the 264 (41%) patients in whom the cervix was completely covered by normal squamous epithelium. An atypical transformation zone (ATZ) was identified with the naked eye as white epithelium in 98.4% and as "suspicious" in 1.6% of 312 colposcopically controlled cases. An unsatisfactory colposcopic examination occurred in 39 of the 312 (12.5%) patients with an ATZ. Final histologic diagnosis for 312 ATZs was benign lesion in 169 of 312 (54.2%), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grades 1 and 2 in 81 of 312 (26%), grade 3 CIN in 56 of 312 (17.9%), and preclinical invasive carcinoma in 6 of 312 (1.9%). The detection of intraepithelial or preclinical invasive cervical neoplasias should not depend on the possession of a colposcope. On the other hand, the use of a colposcope is essential for the selection of CIN that can be treated with ultraconservative therapy or with colposcopically directed conization.

  16. [Microsatellite instability and human papilloma virus genotypes in preneoplastic and neoplastic uterine cervix lesions].

    PubMed

    Roa S, Juan Carlos; Martínez S, Ricardo; Montenegro, Sonia; Roa E, Iván; Capurro V, Italo; Ibacache S, Gilda; Melo A, Angélica

    2007-01-01

    The association between some specific human papilloma virus (HPV) types and cervix cancer is well known. However, the genetic conditions that favor the development of cervical cancer are less well known. To determine the presence of satellite instability (MSI) in preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions of the cervix and correlate these findings with HPV genotypes. Biopsy samples of cervical lesions were studied. Sixteen had low grade lesions, 22 had high grade lesions and 28 had an epidermoid cancer. Viral types were identified with polymerase chain reaction, dot-blot hybridization and restriction fragment length polymorphism. MSI was determined using a panel of eight highly informative microsatellites. Microsatellite instability in at least one locus was observed in 91, 56 and 69% of low grade lesions, high grade lesions and epidermoid carcinomas, respectively. MSI-High grade, MSI-Low grade instability and microsatellite stability were observed in 5, 60 and 46% of samples, respectively. Two of three samples with high grade instability had HPV 52 genotype. Other viral subtypes had frequencies that ranged from 78% to 100%, with the exception of HPV16 that was present in only 53% of samples with low grade instability. Two thirds of biopsy samples from cervical lesions had MSI, mechanism that can be involved in the first stages of cervical carcinogenesis. The low frequency of high grade instability, its association with HPV52 and the low frequency of HPV16 in samples with low grade instability, suggest different coadjutant mechanisms in cervical carcinogenesis.

  17. Cervical digital photography for screening of uterine cervix cancer and its precursor lesions in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Hillmann, Elise de Castro; Dos Reis, Ricardo; Monego, Heleusa; Appel, Márcia; Hammes, Luciano Serpa; Rivoire, Waldemar Augusto; Capp, Edison

    2013-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate and to compare the performance of cervical digital photography (CDP) to the visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and visual inspection with Lugol's iodine (VILI) methods for screening the uterine cervix cancer and its precursor lesions in developing countries. A cross-sectional study was performed in Brazil. 176 women were evaluated by VIA, VILI, CDP with acetic acid and CDP with Lugol's iodine. Kappa statistic was used to estimate the interobserver and intermethod agreement. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of the four methods (VIA, VILI, CDP with acetic acid, CDP with Lugol's iodine) was calculated. Interobserver agreement for CDP with acetic acid was K = 0.441 and for CDP with Lugol's iodine was K = 0.533; intermethod agreement of VIA and CDP with acetic acid, K = 0.559; and of VILI and CDP with Lugol's iodine, K = 0.507. Sensitivity and specificity of CDP with acetic acid were 84.00 and 95.83 %, and of CDP with Lugol's iodine were 88.00 and 97.26 %, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of CDP with acetic acid and CDP with Lugol's iodine was 92.78 and 94.90 %, respectively. This was the first study to assess the CDP with Lugol's iodine performance, which had similar performance to the CDP with acetic acid. CDP is considered a promising method for screening the uterine cervix cancer and its precursor lesions in developing countries.

  18. Lacking hypoxia-mediated downregulation of E-cadherin in cancers of the uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    Mayer, A; Höckel, M; Schlischewsky, N; Schmidberger, H; Horn, L-C; Vaupel, P

    2013-02-05

    Experimental studies have established a causal connection between tumour hypoxia, hypoxia-associated proteome changes and downregulation of E-cadherin, the final common pathway of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Our study aimed at elucidating the interrelationship of these processes in cancers of the uterine cervix in vivo. Tumour oxygenation was assessed in 48 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the uterine cervix using polarographic needle electrodes. The expression pattern of E-cadherin was investigated by immunohistochemistry and western blotting, and was compared with that of the hypoxia-inducible proteins glucose transporter (GLUT)-1 and carbonic anhydrase (CA) IX in biopsy specimens of the oxygenation measurement tracks. The majority of cervical cancers (52%) were E-cadherin positive, with a complete absence of the antigen in only 10% of the tumours. No correlation was found between the level of E-cadherin expression and the oxygenation status (mean pO(2), median pO(2) and hypoxic fractions). In patients showing partial expression of E-cadherin (38%), staining was not preferentially diminished in GLUT-1- or CA IX-positive areas, and loss of E-cadherin occurred independently of tumour cell scattering. Our data provide no evidence in favour of a hypoxia-induced EMT as a mechanistic basis of cervical cancer invasiveness.

  19. Lacking hypoxia-mediated downregulation of E-cadherin in cancers of the uterine cervix

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, A; Höckel, M; Schlischewsky, N; Schmidberger, H; Horn, L-C; Vaupel, P

    2013-01-01

    Background: Experimental studies have established a causal connection between tumour hypoxia, hypoxia-associated proteome changes and downregulation of E-cadherin, the final common pathway of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Our study aimed at elucidating the interrelationship of these processes in cancers of the uterine cervix in vivo. Methods: Tumour oxygenation was assessed in 48 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the uterine cervix using polarographic needle electrodes. The expression pattern of E-cadherin was investigated by immunohistochemistry and western blotting, and was compared with that of the hypoxia-inducible proteins glucose transporter (GLUT)-1 and carbonic anhydrase (CA) IX in biopsy specimens of the oxygenation measurement tracks. Results: The majority of cervical cancers (52%) were E-cadherin positive, with a complete absence of the antigen in only 10% of the tumours. No correlation was found between the level of E-cadherin expression and the oxygenation status (mean pO2, median pO2 and hypoxic fractions). In patients showing partial expression of E-cadherin (38%), staining was not preferentially diminished in GLUT-1- or CA IX-positive areas, and loss of E-cadherin occurred independently of tumour cell scattering. Conclusion: Our data provide no evidence in favour of a hypoxia-induced EMT as a mechanistic basis of cervical cancer invasiveness. PMID:23322209

  20. Changing rates of adenocarcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma of the cervix in England.

    PubMed

    Sasieni, P; Adams, J

    2001-05-12

    A recent analysis showed little or no effect of screening on the incidence of adenocarcinoma of the cervix between 1971 and 1992. We have used additional data on cancers diagnosed in 1993-94 in England and up to 1997 in five English cancer registries to investigate more recent trends. After inputing the number of adenocarcinomas in women with unknown histology, we fitted an age-cohort model to 8062 adenocarcinomas of the cervix diagnosed in England between 1971 and 1987. Predictions from this model were applied to the more recent data on 5854 cases. Residual effects were plotted against year of diagnosis in each of four age-groups. We estimated the underlying risk of cervical adenocarcinoma to be 14 times (95% CI 11-19) greater in women born in the early 1960s than in cohorts born before 1935. An age-cohort model fitted the data for England well up to 1987, but substantially overestimated the numbers of adenocarcinomas in young women from 1990 onwards. In 1996-97 the incidence rate in women aged 25-54 years was less than 40% of that predicted from the age-cohort model. The substantial increase in cervical adenocarcinoma in recent years is largely a birth-cohort effect presumably associated with greater exposure to human papillomavirus after the sexual revolution in the 1960s. The relative decline in younger women observed in more recent years suggests an effect of cervical screening.

  1. [Algorithm for the differential diagnosis of precancerous and regenerative changes in the cervix uteri].

    PubMed

    Sazonova, V Iu; Fedorova, V E; Danilova, N V

    2013-01-01

    Pretumoral changes in the epithelium of the cervix uteri include cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). CIN III should be differentiated with regenerative changes during epidermization of endocervicoses. Epidermization is proliferation of undifferentiated reserve cells that differentiate towards the squamous epithelium, by superseding the ectopic endocervical glandular epithelium. This process was called immature squamous metaplasia (ISM). The objective of the investigation was to define the significance of different morphological signs in the differential diagnosis of CIN III and ISM. One hundred and twelve cervical, CIN III, and immature squamous metaplasia biopsies were selected for examination. The selected cervical specimens were divided into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of p16 and CK17 expression. The p16+, CK17- cases were taken as true CIN III and the pl 6-, CK17+ as a regenerative process. The basis for this investigation is the signs included by O.K. Khmelnitsky into an algorithm for the differential diagnosis of epidermizing pseudoerosion and intraepithelial cancer of the cervix uteri. The algorithm was reconsidered to objectify. The investigation established great differences in the number of significant mitoses in the study groups. A clear trend was found for differences in the number of acanthotic strands. A new differential diagnostic algorithm for CIN III and ISM, which included the number of significant mitoses and acanthotic strands and p16 and CK17 expression, was proposed.

  2. [Ultrasonographic evaluation of the uterine cervix length remaining after LOOP-excision].

    PubMed

    Robert, A-L; Nicolas, F; Lavoué, V; Henno, S; Mesbah, H; Porée, P; Levêque, J

    2014-04-01

    To assess whether there is a correlation between the length of a conization specimen and the length of the cervix measured by vaginal ultrasonography after the operation Prospective observational study including patients less than 45 years with measurement of cervical length before and the day of the conization, and measuring the histological length of the specimen. Among the 40 patients enrolled, the average ultrasound measurements before conization was 26.9 mm (± 4.9 mm) against 18.1mm (± 4.4mm) after conization with a mean difference of 8.8mm (± 2.4mm) (difference statistically significant P<.0001). The extent of histological specimen was 9 mm (± 2.2mm) on average. A correlation between ultrasound and histological measurements with a correlation coefficient R=0.85 was found statistically significant (P<0.0001). Moreover, the rate of cervix length remove by loop-excision in our series is 33% (± 8.5%). A good correlation between the measurements of the specimen and the cervical ultrasound length before and after conization was found, as a significant reduction in cervical length after conization. The precise length of the specimen should be known in case of pregnancy and the prevention of prematurity due to conization rests on selected indications and efficient surgical technique. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Proximal-Type Epithelioid Sarcoma: Report of an Unusual Case in the Uterine Cervix.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Zamora, David Alfonso; Barrera-Herrera, Luis Eduardo; Rodríguez-Urrego, Paula Andrea; Palau-Lázaro, Mauricio Alfonso

    2017-08-01

    Epithelioid sarcoma is a rare malignant mesenchymal neoplasm (less than 1% of all sarcomas) with epithelioid morphology. Among the 2 subtypes, proximal represents only one-third of cases and commonly involves deep tissues of pelvic region, including the perineum, genital area, and groin, and occurs more frequently in older patients who present a more aggressive course. In the female genital tract, proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma (PES) mainly affects the vulva and is extremely uncommon in the uterus. To our knowledge, only a few cases of PES involving the cervix and uterine body have been previously reported in the literature. We report a 23-year-old woman who presented with abnormal vaginal bleeding. She was found to have a cervical mass, which was resected and diagnosed as a hemangioendothelioma. However, 2 months later, the mass recurred and the histopathological analysis at our institution demonstrated a PES confined to the uterine cervix. It is important to include this neoplasm in the differential diagnosis of epithelioid tumors that can involve the female genital tract because it has a significant impact on prognosis and treatment.

  4. [Breast metastasis of a squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. A case report].

    PubMed

    Yordanov, Y; Dimitrova, P

    2015-01-01

    The breast is an extremely rare target organ for metastasis of extramammary neoplasms. The occurence varies between 1.7% to 6.6% in autopsies; between 1.2% and 2% in clinical cases; and around 2.7% in sputum series. In accordance with the primary tumor localization, it is more common to find metastases of lymphoma, melanoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, tumors of the lung and ovarian tumors. Breast metastasis of the uterine cervix is a very seldomly found. According to the published literature so far there have been around 30 documented cases with such pathology. This study presents the case of a 48-year-old female with a squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix, which was histologically verified in 2010. Three years after the initial tumor diagnosis, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the patient was found to have a cystic tumor formation in one of her breasts. The formation was painful to pressure. Quadrantectomy with an open bisopsy was performed to the patient. Histological and immunohistochemical diagnosis rejected primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast. The differential diagnosis of metastatic lesions in the breast is problematic and requires careful clinical history, immunohistochemical study and multidisciplinary approach in the management. Mammary metastases are a bad predictor and they serve as an indicator of generalized dissemination of the primary tumor process.

  5. MR imaging features and staging of neuroendocrine carcinomas of the uterine cervix with pathological correlations.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiaohui; Ban, Xiaohua; Zhang, Xiang; Hu, Huijun; Li, Guozhao; Wang, Dongye; Wang, Charles Qian; Zhang, Fang; Shen, Jun

    2016-12-01

    To determine MR imaging features and staging accuracy of neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) of the uterine cervix with pathological correlations. Twenty-six patients with histologically proven NECs, 60 patients with squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), and 30 patients with adenocarcinomas of the uterine cervix were included. The clinical data, pathological findings, and MRI findings were reviewed retrospectively. MRI features of cervical NECs, SCCs, and adenocarcinomas were compared, and MRI staging of cervical NECs was compared with the pathological staging. Cervical NECs showed a higher tendency toward a homogeneous signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging and a homogeneous enhancement pattern, as well as a lower ADC value of tumour and a higher incidence of lymphadenopathy, compared with SCCs and adenocarcinomas (P < 0.05). An ADC value cutoff of 0.90 × 10 -3  mm 2 /s was robust for differentiation between cervical NECs and other cervical cancers, with a sensitivity of 63.3 % and a specificity of 95 %. In 21 patients who underwent radical hysterectomy and lymphadenectomy, the overall accuracy of tumour staging by MR imaging was 85.7 % with reference to pathology staging. Homogeneous lesion texture and low ADC value are likely suggestive features of cervical NECs and MR imaging is reliable for the staging of cervical NECs. • Cervical NECs show a tendency of lesion homogeneity and lymphadenopathy • Low ADC values are found in cervical NECs • MRI is an accurate imaging modality for the cervical NEC staging.

  6. Bivariate spatiotemporal disease mapping of cancer of the breast and cervix uteri among Iranian women.

    PubMed

    Raei, Mehdi; Schmid, Volker Johann; Mahaki, Behzad

    2018-05-08

    Cervical cancer in women is one of the most common cancers and breast cancer has grown dramatically in recent years. The purpose of this study was to map the incidence of breast and cervix uteri cancer among Iranian women over a 6-year period (2004-2009) searching for trend changes and risk factors. Cancer incidence data were extracted from the annual reports of the National Cancer Registry in Iran. Hierarchical Bayesian models, including random spatial and temporal effects was utilized together with bivariate, spatio-temporal shared component modelling. The provinces Tehran, Isfahan, Mazandaran and Gilan were found to have the highest relative risk (RR) of breast cancer, while the highest RR of cervix uteri cancer was observed in Tehran, Golestan, Khuzestan and Khorasan Razavi. Shared risk factors (smoking component) between the two cancers were seen to have the highest influence in Tehran, Khorasan Razavi, Yazd, Isfahan, Golestan, Khuzestan, Fars and Mazandaran, while the least were observed in Kohgiluyeh Boyerahmad. Apparent differences and distinctions between high-risk and low-risk provinces reveal a pattern of obvious dispersion for these cancers in Iran that should be considered when allocating healthcare resources and services in different areas.

  7. Serological responses to papillomavirus group-specific antigens in women with neoplasia of the cervix uteri.

    PubMed Central

    Dillner, L; Moreno-Lopez, J; Dillner, J

    1990-01-01

    Certain types of human papillomaviruses have been linked to the development of carcinoma of the cervix uteri. We have analyzed 114 serum specimens from women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or carcinoma of the cervix uteri for the presence of serum antibodies against purified, disrupted bovine papillomavirus (BPV). The titers of immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies against BPV were slightly elevated (P less than 0.025) in the sera from CIN or cervical carcinoma patients compared with the titers of 139 serum specimens from sex- and age-matched healthy controls. In contrast, both the IgG and IgM serum antibody titers against BPV were significantly decreased for CIN and cervical carcinoma patients compared with those of healthy controls (P less than 0.001 and P less than 0.005, respectively). These results suggest that the difference between IgA and IgG or IgM antibodies to papillomavirus group-specific antigens may represent interesting serological parameters that could possibly be used in the epidemiologic study of women at risk for CIN. PMID:2157738

  8. Women cannot discriminate between different paracervical block techniques applied to opposite sides of the cervix.

    PubMed

    Grossman, R A

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether women can discriminate better from less effective paracervical block techniques applied to opposite sides of the cervix. If this discrimination could be made, it would be possible to compare different techniques and thus improve the quality of paracervical anesthesia. Two milliliters of local anesthetic was applied to one side and 6 ml to the other side of volunteers' cervices before cervical dilation. Statistical examination was by sequential analysis. The study was stopped after 47 subjects had entered, when sequential analysis found that there was no significant difference in women's perception of pain. Nine women reported more pain on the side with more anesthesia and eight reported more pain on the side with less anesthesia. Because the amount of anesthesia did not make a difference, the null hypothesis (that women cannot discriminate between different anesthetic techniques) was accepted. Women are not able to discriminate different doses of local anesthetic when applied to opposite sides of the cervix.

  9. Thermosetting gel for the delivery of 5-aminolevulinic acid esters to the cervix.

    PubMed

    Collaud, Sabine; Peng, Qian; Gurny, Robert; Lange, Norbert

    2008-07-01

    5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA)-mediated photodynamic therapy has been proposed as an alternative, cervix-sparing treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). In this context, topical application of 5-ALA to the cervix is beneficial due to the small necessary dose and its minimal side effects. Therefore, lipophilic 5-ALA esters, such as hexylaminolevulinate (HAL), have led to improved local bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy. Hydrogels have shown to be more appropriate for the local delivery of these derivatives, but due to the limited long-term stability of such formulations at 25 degrees C, the development of an extemporaneously prepared hydrogel targeting CIN can be advantageous. Therefore, a poloxamer 407 thermosetting gel, which is liquid at room temperature and becomes a semi-solid when in contact with the female genital tract, has been evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Rheological evaluation has shown that a 17.0% poloxamer 407 hydrogel with a sol-gel transition at 24.8 +/- 0.6 degrees C was the best formulation for easy application and optimal residence time. Furthermore, similarly to other hydrogels previously tested, such a formulation shows a more complete HAL release in vitro than conventional cream vehicles, and tends to increase porphyrin accumulation in nude mice skin. Finally, in vitro release profiles were correlated to the in vivo results.

  10. The regulation of inflammatory pathways and infectious disease of the cervix by seminal fluid.

    PubMed

    Adefuye, Anthonio; Katz, Arieh Anthony; Sales, Kurt Jason

    2014-01-01

    The connection between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the consequent sequelae which establishes cervical neoplastic transformation and invasive cervical cancer has redefined many aspects of cervical cancer research. However there is still much that we do not know. In particular, the impact of external factors, like seminal fluid in sexually active women, on pathways that regulate cervical inflammation and tumorigenesis, have yet to be fully understood. HPV infection is regarded as the initiating noninflammatory cause of the disease; however emerging evidence points to resident HPV infections as drivers of inflammatory pathways that play important roles in tumorigenesis as well as in the susceptibility to other infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Moreover there is emerging evidence to support a role for seminal fluid, in particular, the inflammatory bioactive lipids, and prostaglandins which are present in vast quantities in seminal fluid in regulating pathways that can exacerbate inflammation of the cervix, speed up tumorigenesis, and enhance susceptibility to HIV infection. This review will highlight some of our current knowledge of the role of seminal fluid as a potent driver of inflammatory and tumorigenic pathways in the cervix and will provide some evidence to propose a role for seminal plasma prostaglandins in HIV infection and AIDS-related cancer.

  11. The Regulation of Inflammatory Pathways and Infectious Disease of the Cervix by Seminal Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Arieh Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The connection between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the consequent sequelae which establishes cervical neoplastic transformation and invasive cervical cancer has redefined many aspects of cervical cancer research. However there is still much that we do not know. In particular, the impact of external factors, like seminal fluid in sexually active women, on pathways that regulate cervical inflammation and tumorigenesis, have yet to be fully understood. HPV infection is regarded as the initiating noninflammatory cause of the disease; however emerging evidence points to resident HPV infections as drivers of inflammatory pathways that play important roles in tumorigenesis as well as in the susceptibility to other infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Moreover there is emerging evidence to support a role for seminal fluid, in particular, the inflammatory bioactive lipids, and prostaglandins which are present in vast quantities in seminal fluid in regulating pathways that can exacerbate inflammation of the cervix, speed up tumorigenesis, and enhance susceptibility to HIV infection. This review will highlight some of our current knowledge of the role of seminal fluid as a potent driver of inflammatory and tumorigenic pathways in the cervix and will provide some evidence to propose a role for seminal plasma prostaglandins in HIV infection and AIDS-related cancer. PMID:25180120

  12. (GTG)(5)-PCR fingerprinting of lactobacilli isolated from cervix of healthy women.

    PubMed

    Svec, P; Sedláček, I; Chrápavá, M; Vandamme, P

    2011-01-01

    A group of lactobacilli isolated from the cervix of 31 healthy women was characterized by (GTG)(5)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fingerprinting in order to evaluate this method for identification of vaginal lactobacilli. Obtained fingerprints were compared with profiles available in an in-house database of the CCM bacteria collection covering type and reference strains of multiple lactic acid bacteria including lactobacilli. Selected strains representing individual clusters were further identified by pheS gene sequencing. In total, six lactobacillus species were found among lactobacilli isolated from the cervix of healthy women. The (GTG)(5)-PCR method identified Lactobacillus gasseri (11 strains), Lactobacillus fermentum (one), and some of the Lactobacillus jensenii strains (eight out of 11), but failed to identify the remaining strains, including the Lactobacillus crispatus (18), Lactobacillus mucosae (one), and Lactobacillus vaginalis (one) species. L. jensenii strains were distributed over two fingerprint clusters. The majority of samples was dominated by one (GTG)(5)-PCR type. The rep-PCR fingerprinting using the (GTG)(5) primer allowed straightforward identification of many, but not all, isolates. This method has been shown to be a useful tool for fast screening and grouping of vaginal lactobacilli, but its combination with another identification method is needed to obtain reliable identification results. In addition, Lactobacillus acidophilus was not shown to be the most common inhabitant of the female genital tract as generally assumed.

  13. Diagnosis of uterine cervix cancer using Müller polarimetry: a comparison with histopathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehbinder, Jean; Deby, Stanislas; Haddad, Huda; Teig, Benjamin; Nazac, André; Pierangelo, Angelo; Moreau, François

    2015-07-01

    Today around 275000 women a year in the world keep dying from the cancer of uterine cervix due to the difficulty to meet the logistic requirements of an organized screening in the developing world. Polarimetric imaging is a new promising technique with a tremendous potential for applications in biomedical diagnostics: it is sensitive to slight morphological changes in tissues, can provide wide field images for the screening and requires light sources such as a LED for example. This work intends to characterize the polarimetric response of the uterine cervix in its healthy and pathological states. An extensive series of ex-vivo measurements is in progress the Kremlin Bicêtre hospital near Paris using an imaging multispectral Mueller polarimeter in backscattering configuration. The goal of this study is to evaluate the performances of polarimetric imaging technique in terms of sensitivity and specificity for the detection of healthy epithelia (Healthy Squamous epithelium and Malpighian Metaplasia) with respect to the diagnosis provided by pathologists from histology slides as the "gold standard". We show that, at λ=550nm, performances as high as 62% sensitivity and 64% specificity are achieved by optimizing a simple threshold on the scalar retardance values.

  14. Impact of Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) of Lactobacillus gasseri strains isolated from human vagina on cervical tumor cells (HeLa).

    PubMed

    Sungur, Tolga; Aslim, Belma; Karaaslan, Cagtay; Aktas, Busra

    2017-10-01

    Lactobacilli, commonly used as probiotics, have been shown to maintain vaginal health and contribute to host microbiota interaction. Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) produced by lactobacillus have been found to have an important role in probiotic activity; however, there is limited knowledge concerning their impact on cervical cancer and urogenital health. The objective of this study is to investigate and compare EPSs of L. gasseri strains (G10 and H15), isolated from a healthy human vagina, for their capability to inhibit cervical cancer cell (HeLa) growth and modulate immune response. HeLa cells were treated with live culture at ∼10 8  CFU/ml or increasing concentration of lyophilized EPS (L-EPS) (100, 200, or 400 μg/ml) of L. gasseri strains and their ability to adhere to host cells, inhibit proliferation, and modulate immune response were evaluated. Additionally, monosaccharide composition of the L-EPSs produced by L. gasseri strains was determined by HPLC. The sugar component was the same; however, relative proportions of the individual monosaccharides except mannose were different. Although they both produce similar amount of EPS, the most adhesive strain was G10. Both live and L-EPS of L. gasseri strains were capable of inhibiting the cell proliferation of HeLa cells with the impact of L-EPS being strain specific. L-EPSs of L. gasseri strains induced apoptosis in HeLa cells in a strain dependent manner. The ability to induce apoptosis by G10 associated with an upregulation of Bax and Caspase 3. L. gasseri strains showed an anti-inflammatory impact on HeLa cells by decreasing the production of TNF-α and increasing the IL-10 production. In conclusion, diversity in sugar composition of EPS might contribute to adhesion and proliferation properties. Although our results suggest a relationship between the ability of a strain to induce apoptosis and its sugar composition of EPS, further research is required to determine the probiotic mechanisms of action by

  15. [Potentialities of low-field magnetic resonance tomography in the diagnosis and treatment of invasive cancer of cervix uteri].

    PubMed

    Shatov, A V

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficiency of low-field (0.14 T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer of the cervix uteri. Low-field MRI was performed in 39 patients with cancer of the cervix uteri to define the stage of the tumor and to follow up the outcomes of their treatment. Particular emphasis was laid on the determination of the size of the tumor and the presence of parametral invasion and on metastatic lesions of lymph nodes. MRI data were compared with clinical, morphological, and surgical staging results. In detecting the stage of cancer of the cervix uteri, the accuracy of MRI was 72% whereas that of clinical study was 51%. In determining parametral invasion, the accuracy of clinical study and low-field MRI was 71 and 90%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI were 83 and 92%, respectively. The anterioposterior tumor size was an important prognostic factor in following up the outcomes of treatment as there was its close association and the incidence of tumor recurrences. The present study has indicated that the high efficiency of low-field MRI in detecting the stage of invasive cancer of cervix uteri makes it the method of choice in planning treatment and monitoring the outcomes of combined radiation therapy.

  16. Primary diffuse large B cell lymphoma of the uterine cervix successfully treated by combined chemotherapy alone: A case report.

    PubMed

    Cubo, Ana María; Soto, Zandra Mileny; Cruz, Miguel Ángel; Doyague, María José; Sancho, Verónica; Fraino, Aurymar; Blanco, Óscar; Puig, Noemi; Alcoceba, Miguel; González, Marcos; Sayagués, José María

    2017-05-01

    Primary lymphomas of the uterine cervix are a rare disease. They are often misdiagnosed because of their rarity and because they can be easily confused with a squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, as they are usually presented as exophytic mass with vaginal bleeding as their most common symptoms. Nevertheless, considering that both the prognosis and the treatment are completely different between them, differential diagnosis should be taken into account. A case of a 51-year-old woman with a primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the cervix is presented. Diagnosis of this tumor was a challenge for pathologists and clinicians, as four biopsies were needed to achieve a final diagnosis. Patient was successfully treated with combined Rituximab and chemotherapy (R-CHOP) alone. Complete remission, confirmed through biopsy, was reached after six courses of chemotherapy. At 2-years follow up, patient is alive and free of disease. Considering that the prognosis and treatment of primary malignant lymphoma of the cervix are completely different than that of the squamous cell carcinoma, awareness of this disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis.

  17. Adenocarcinoma of the Cervix Uteri and Endometrium Combined With the Kartagener Syndrome on FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yin; Chen, Yue; Huang, Zhanwen; Zhou, Fan

    2015-11-01

    A 45-year-old woman with pathologically confirmed adenocarcinoma of the cervix uteri and endometrium underwent FDG PET/CT for staging. No metastasis was found. However, the images revealed bronchiectasis, sinusitis, and situs inversus totalis, which are the triad of Kartagener syndrome.

  18. STAT3:FOXM1 and MCT1 drive uterine cervix carcinoma fitness to a lactate-rich microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Silva, Lidia Santos; Goncalves, Luis Gafeira; Silva, Fernanda; Domingues, Germana; Maximo, Valdemar; Ferreira, Joana; Lam, Eric W-F; Dias, Sergio; Felix, Ana; Serpa, Jacinta

    2016-04-01

    Uterine cervix cancer is the second most common malignancy in women worldwide with human papillomavirus (HPV) as the etiologic factor. The two main histological variants, squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and adenocarcinomas (AC), resemble the cell morphology of exocervix and endocervix, respectively. Cancer metabolism is a cancer hallmark conditioned by the microenvironment. As uterine cervix homeostasis is dependent on lactate, we hypothesized lactate plays a role in uterine cervix cancer progression. Using in vitro (SiHa-SCC and HeLa-AC) and BALB-c/SCID models, we demonstrated that lactate metabolism is linked to histological types, with SCC predominantly consuming and AC producing lactate. MCT1 is a key factor, allowing lactate consumption and being regulated in vitro by lactate through the FOXM1:STAT3 pathway. In vivo models showed that SCC (SiHa) expresses MCT1 and is dependent on lactate to grow, whereas AC (HeLa) expresses MCT1 and MCT4, with higher growth capacities. Immunohistochemical analysis of tissue microarrays (TMA) from human cervical tumors showed that MCT1 expression associates with the SCC type and metastatic behavior of AC, whereas MCT4 expression concomitantly increases from in situ SCC to invasive SCC and is significantly associated with the AC type. Consistently, FOXM1 expression is statistically associated with MCT1 positivity in SCC, whereas the expression of FOXO3a, a FOXM1 functional antagonist, is linked to MCT1 negativity in AC. Our study reinforces the role of the microenvironment in the metabolic adaptation of cancer cells, showing that cells that retain metabolic features of their normal counterparts are positively selected by the organ's microenvironment and will survive. In particular, MCT1 was shown to be a key element in uterine cervix cancer development; however, further studies are needed to validate MCT1 as a suitable therapeutic target in uterine cervix cancer.

  19. Reverse breech extraction versus the standard approach of pushing the impacted fetal head up through the vagina in caesarean section for obstructed labour: A randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nooh, Ahmed Mohamed; Abdeldayem, Hussein Mohammed; Ben-Affan, Othman

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess effectiveness and safety of the reverse breech extraction approach in Caesarean section for obstructed labour, and compare it with the standard approach of pushing the fetal head up through the vagina. This randomised controlled trial included 192 women. In 96, the baby was delivered by the 'reverse breech extraction approach', and in the remaining 96, by the 'standard approach'. Extension of uterine incision occurred in 18 participants (18.8%) in the reverse breech extraction approach group, and 46 (47.9%) in the standard approach group (p = .0003). Two women (2.1%) in the reverse breech extraction approach group needed blood transfusion and 11 (11.5%) in the standard approach group (p = .012). Pyrexia developed in 3 participants (3.1%) in the reverse breech extraction approach group, and 19 (19.8%) in the standard approach group (p = .0006). Wound infection occurred in 2 women (2.1%) in the reverse breech extraction approach group, and 12 (12.5%) in the standard approach group (p = .007). Apgar score <7 at 5 minutes was noted in 8 babies (8.3%) in the reverse breech extraction approach group, and 21 (21.9%) in the standard approach group (p = .015). In conclusion, reverse breech extraction in Caesarean section for obstructed labour is an effective and safe alternative to the standard approach of pushing the fetal head up through the vagina.

  20. Melanoma of the vulva and vagina: principles of staging and their relevance to management based on a clinicopathologic analysis of 85 cases.

    PubMed

    Seifried, Susan; Haydu, Lauren E; Quinn, Michael J; Scolyer, Richard A; Stretch, Jonathan R; Thompson, John F

    2015-01-01

    Primary melanomas of the vulva and vagina are rare. As a result, it has been difficult to develop evidence-based guidelines for their management. By analyzing a large series of patients with vulval and vaginal melanomas, this study sought to document the most common presenting features, identify clinical and pathologic predictors of outcome, and provide management guidelines. A clinicopathologic analysis of 85 patients with primary melanomas of the vulva or vagina diagnosed and treated at Melanoma Institute Australia and associated units in Sydney, Australia, between 1960 and 2011 was performed. Predictors of disease-free and melanoma-specific survival (MSS) were determined. Patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage 0-II had a significantly better MSS (5Y MSS = 63.6 %, n = 59) compared with those with stage III disease (5Y MSS = 0 %, n = 12, p < 0.001). Tumor thickness, ulceration status, and pathologic clearance margin were significant predictors of MSS. Disease-free survival was predicted by these factors and additionally by tumor mitotic rate. The results of this study provide evidence to support the appropriateness of utilizing the AJCC (7th edition) cutaneous melanoma staging system for vulval and vaginal melanomas. Detection and removal of these melanomas at an early stage with pathologically confirmed clear margins confers the best chance of cure.

  1. Highly efficient treatment of aerobic vaginitis with simple acidic buffered gels: The importance of pH and buffers on the microenvironment of vaginas.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaodong; Qiu, Haiying; Jin, Yiguang

    2017-06-15

    Aerobic vaginitis (AV) leads to uterus deep infection or preterm birth. Antibacterial agents are not optimal therapeutics of AV. Here, we report a series of temperature-sensitive in situ forming acidic buffered gels for topical treatment of AV, involving lactate, acetate, and citrate gels at pH 3.5, 5.0, and 6.5. AV rat models were prepared following vaginal infection with Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. In vitro/in vivo studies of the buffered gels were performed compared with ofloxacin gels and blank gels. All the buffered gels showed the lower in vitro antibacterial activities than ofloxacin gels but the better in vivo anti-S. aureus effects and similar anti-E. coli effects. The buffered gels improved Lactobacillus growth in the vaginas. Both the healthy rat vaginal pH and the pH of rat vaginas treated with the buffered gels were about 6.5 though the AV rat models or ones treated with ofloxacin gels still remained at the high pH more than 7.0. After treatments with the buffered gels, the vaginal smears changed to a clean state nearly without aerobic bacteria, the vaginal tissues were refreshed, and the immunoreactions were downregulated. The acidic buffered gels bring rapid decrease of local vaginal pH, high antibacterial activities, improvement of probiotics, and alleviation of inflammation. They are simple, highly efficient, and safe anti-AV formulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Toxic substances handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junod, T. L.

    1979-01-01

    Handbook, published in conjunction with Toxic Substances Alert Program at NASA Lewis Research Center, profiles 187 toxic chemicals in their relatively pure states and include 27 known or suspected carcinogens.

  3. Sediment Toxicity Testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment toxicity testing has become a fundamental component of regulatory frameworks for assessing the risks posed by contaminated sediments and for development of chemical sediment quality guidelines. Over the past two decades, sediment toxicity testing methods have advanced co...

  4. Whole Effluent Toxicity (WET)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Whole Effluent Toxicity (WET) describes the aggregate toxic effect of an aqueous sample (e.g., whole effluent wastewater discharge) as measured by an organism's response upon exposure to the sample (e.g., lethality, impaired growth, or reproduction).

  5. Toxic Shock Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... toxic shock syndrome results from toxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus (staph) bacteria, but the condition may also be ... a skin or wound infection. Causes Most commonly, Staphylococcus aureus (staph) bacteria cause toxic shock syndrome. The syndrome ...

  6. Analysis of complications of cervix carcinoma treated by radiotherapy using the Franco-Italian glossary.

    PubMed

    Sinistrero, G; Sismondi, P; Rumore, A; Zola, P

    1993-03-01

    We analysed the complications of 215 patients with uterine cervix cancer, treated by radiotherapy (RT) alone. It was done according to the rules of the Franco-Italian glossary, presented at the 7th ESTRO meeting, held in The Hague on September 1988. They were ranked by organ sites and by degrees of gravity. The analysis was done on the total number of complications and they were scored at the highest reached grade of gravity. Seventy one complications were found in 55 patients; they were studied by patient, degree of severity, time of onset, organ system and grade, time of onset and grade, time of onset and organ sites, stage and RT doses and brachytherapy volumes. The importance of the study of complications is stressed, particularly when treatment combines external RT and brachytherapy; some guidelines are given to avoid severe complications.

  7. Primary mucosal malignant melanoma of the cervix: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cetinkaya, Kadir; Benzer, Emine; Dervisoglu, Haluk

    2015-09-09

    The incidence of primary mucosal malignant melanoma (PMMM) is 1.3% among all malignant melanomas (MM). Cervical involvement is very rare; the number of cases of cervical PMMM reported so far is around 80. In our patient, a dark color, 2-cm diameter, nonulcerated tumor formation was observed upon examination of the cervix. Tumoral tissue consisted of atypical melanocytic cells containing numerous mitotic figures. In immunochemical studies, S-100, Melan-A, and HMB-45 positivity were observed. The tumor was 20 mm in invasion depth, Breslow IV, and FIGO stage IB1. Radical surgery was followed by adjuvant radiotherapy, and subsequently interferon treatment was applied. Examination and scans 20 months after surgery were free from tumor.

  8. Discordance between cytology and biopsy histology of the cervix: what to consider and what to do.

    PubMed

    Anschau, Fernando; Guimarães Gonçalves, Manoel Afonso

    2011-01-01

    Since cytology is the examination utilized for the screening of cervical cancer, it is important to determine its correlation with histologic examination, the gold standard in the diagnosis of cervical disease. A retrospective evaluation was made of 431 patients who presented with colposcopic indication for cervical biopsy between 2003 and 2007. In 90.8% (289/318) of the patients, cytology showing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) was confirmed as CIN in the histology of the cervix, while 62.8% (71/113) of patients with normal cytology had a confirmation of a normal histology (κ = 0.558). Cytology demonstrated a sensitivity and specificity of 87.3 and 71.0%, respectively. The agreement between cervical cytology and histology, considering the presence of CIN, was moderate. Correlations between accuracy and errors of cytology are discussed with therapeutic emphasis. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Exuberant mucometra associated with atresia of the cervix in a queen.

    PubMed

    Batista-Arteaga, M; Santana, M; Espinosa-de-los-Monteros, A; Déniz, S; Alamo, D; Herráez, P

    2012-10-01

    This short communication reports the clinical, ultrasonographic and histopathological findings in a cat with atresia of the uterine cervix and mucometra. After 6 months of continuous oestrous behaviour, a remarkable abdominal enlargement was observed in a 14-year-old queen. A presumptive diagnosis of mucometra was concluded after the ultrasound evaluation and based on clinical signs and blood analyses. Ovariohysterectomy revealed a notable symmetrical distension (4-5 cm in diameter) of both uterine horns that were filled with fluid (690 ml); microbiological analyses confirmed the aseptic nature of the uterine fluid. Ovarian follicular cysts and cystic subsurface epithelial structures, >1.5 cm in diameter, were present in both ovaries and no corpora lutea were observed. Gross and microscopic evaluation of the uterus confirmed the development of cystic endometrial hyperplasia and the absence of an internal cervical os. The endometrial hyperplasia and mucometra could have developed as a consequence of repeated oestrogenic stimulation. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Immunohistochemistry of the uterine cervix of rats bearing the Walker 256 tumor treated with copaiba balsam.

    PubMed

    Botelho, Nara Macedo; Corrêa, Suelen Costa; Lobato, Rodolfo Costa; Teixeira, Renan Kleber Costa; Quaresma, Juarez Antônio Simões

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the immunohistochemistry of the uterine cervix of 20 Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) bearing the Walker 256 tumor, treated with copaiba oil (Copaifera officinalis). The animals were grouped into four subgroups, with five rats each: the GCT and GCopT received distilled water and topically copaiba, respectively, while the GCG and GCopG received distilled water and copaiba by gavage, respectively. The substances were administered for nine days. On the 12th day, after euthanasia, the tumor pieces were sent to the identification of T CD4+, T CD8+ and Natural Killer cells. It was found that the pattern of expression for specific markers of phenotypes of cells involved in tumor immune response was similar in all groups, regardless the administration way of copaiba oil (topical or gavage). Copaiba balsam, administered either topically or by gavage, did not alter the pattern of tumor immune response in rats bearing Walker 256 Tumor.

  11. [Possibilities of the TruScreen for screening of precancer and cancer of the uterine cervix].

    PubMed

    Zlatkov, V

    2009-01-01

    The classic approach of detection of pre-cancer and cancer of uterine cervix includes cytological examination, followed by colposcopy assessment of the detected cytological abnormalities. Real-time devices use in-vivo techniques for the measurement, computerized analysis and classifying of different types of cervical tissues. The aim of the present review is to present the technical characteristics and to discus the diagnostic possibilities of TruScreen-automated optical-electron system for cervical screening. The analysis of the presented in the literature diagnostic value of the method at different grades intraepithelial lesions shows that it has higher sensitivity (67-70%) and lower specificity (81%) in comparison to the Pap test with the following results (45-69% sensitivity and 95% specificity). This makes the method suitable for independent primary screening, as well as for adding the diagnostic assurance of the cytological method.

  12. Spectropolarimetry biopsies of the cervix at an early cancer and dysplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yermolenko, S. B.; Peresunko, O. P.; Babechko, N. J.

    2015-11-01

    The analysis of the spectral anisotropic properties of layers of oncologic modified biological tissues with precancerous condition (CIN) and with cancer formation (G) of cervix according to linear dichroism determined in the wavelength range 300-800 nm was conducted. Comparison of results of animal testing of samples of biological samples oncologic modified human tissue was conducted, introduction of differentiation criterion spectropolarimetric precancerous condition and the stage cancer formation in the spectral band of 390-410 nm was proposed. Appropriate diagnostically important changes in the value ranges of linear dichroism at each stage of cancer formation (high- and low-grade dysplasia, high and low-grade adenocarcinoma) was determined. A differential method for diagnosis of epithelial cells in the above diseases was suggested.

  13. [Multiparameter magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of cancer of the cervix uteri].

    PubMed

    Tarachkova, E V; Strel'tsova, O N; Panov, V O; Bazaeva, I Ya; Tyurin, I E

    2015-01-01

    Cancer of the cervix uteri (CCU) ranks third in the incidence of malignancies in women. The choice of CCU treatment mainly depends on the extent of the tumor process, i.e., the stage of the disease. Determining the stage of CCU is based on the clinical classification of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) (2009) and has a number of substantial limitations in evaluating parametrial invasion, tumor spread to the pelvic wall, and involvement of regional lymph nodes and in determining the true tumor sizes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is now the method of choice in staging invasive CCU. Multiparameter MRI will be able to enhance the efficiency of diagnosing microinvasive CCU as well (FIGO 2009), to plan surgical and/or chemoradiation treatment, to evaluate its efficiency, and to diagnose locally recurrent CCU.

  14. [Radionuclide diagnosis of upper urinary tract patency in patients with cancer of the cervix uteri ].

    PubMed

    Ashrafian, L A; Fomin, D K; Trushin, V I; Trepin, A V

    2011-01-01

    The experience with dynamic renal scintigraphy has shown its high informative value and safety in evaluating the degree of intrarenal urine outflow disorders. However, failure to make an objective assessment of ureteral patency considerably limits its study. The set of studies, which is given in this paper, is devoted to precisely this, highly urgent, problem. The authors have developed an original procedure for diagnosing impaired urine outflow along the ureters during dynamic renal scintigraphy. The visual and digital characteristics of normal and impaired urine outflow in the supravesical segment are defined. The criteria characterizing severe impairments of renal urine derivation along the ureters are denoted. Risk factors for urine outflow disorders are identified in patients with cancer of the cervix uteri, who receive various treatment modalities.

  15. Gastric type mucinous endocervical adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix: very rare and interesting case.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul Min; Koh, Hyun Min; Park, Soyun; Kang, Hye Sim; Shim, Soon Sup; Kim, Sung Yob

    2018-01-01

    Gastric type mucinous endocervical adenocarcinomas of the uterine cervix (GAC) are a newly classified mucinous subtype with morphologically in 2014, WHO. They have a much more aggressiveness and show unusual metastatic patterns compared to usual type endocervical adenocarcinoma. They tend to present at higher stage and even in stage I, they have worse survival. Therefore, differential diagnosis of GAC from the usual type of endocervical adenocarcinoma is very important because they are related to a significant risk of recurrence and decreased 5-year disease-specific survival. Besides, GACs are mostly not associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and p16 immunohistochemistry is also typically negative in GAC that is HPV-unassociated tumor. We report a very rare and interesting case of stage IB1 GAC with negative HPV DNA and p16.

  16. Thyroid Gland Metastasis from Cancer of the Uterine Cervix: An Extremely Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Celik, Suleyman Utku; Besli, Dilara; Sak, Serpil Dizbay; Genc, Volkan

    The thyroid gland is a relatively uncommon site for a metastatic disease, although it is richly supplied with blood. The metastases may originate from various primary sites, mainly kidney, lung, head and neck, and breast. Thyroid metastasis from cervical carcinomas is extremely rare; and only a few cases have been previously reported in the literature. In patient with thyroid nodules and an oncological history, the possibility of thyroid metastasis should be seriously considered. Despite the rarity of the metastasis of cervical carcinoma to the thyroid, it is difficult to say appropriate treatment approach for these lesions. When managing such patients, decision-making should balance the possibility of gaining long-term survival against estimation of the aggressiveness of the disease and its possible complications. Here, a case of thyroid metastasis from a squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix presenting with cervical mass and difficulty in swallowing and its treatment is reported.

  17. Radiobiological compensation: A case study of uterine cervix cancer with concurrent chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, Higmar; Yanez, Elvia; Lopez, Jesus

    2012-10-23

    The case of a patient diagnosed with uterine cervix cancer is presented as an example of the clinical application of the radiobiological compensation method implemented at Centro Estatal de Cancerologia de Durango. Radiotherapy treatment was initially modified to compensate for the chemotherapy component and, as medical complications arose during treatment delivery resulting in an 18 days gap, new compensation followed. All physical and radiobiological assumptions to calculate the Biologically Effective Dose in the external beam and brachytherapy parts of the treatment are presented. Good local control of the tumor was achieved, the theoretical tolerance limits for the organs at riskmore » were not surpassed and the patient manifested no extensive morbidity.« less

  18. Lynch Syndrome-Related Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Cervix: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kohei; Nakayama, Kentaro; Minamoto, Toshiko; Ishibashi, Tomoka; Ohnishi, Kaori; Yamashita, Hitomi; Ono, Ruriko; Sasamori, Hiroki; Razia, Sultana; Hossain, Mohammad Mahmud; Kamrunnahar, Shanta; Ishikawa, Masako; Ishikawa, Noriyoshi; Kyo, Satoru

    2018-03-25

    Lynch syndrome, a hereditary cancer syndrome, occurs because of germline mutations in at least one of four DNA mismatch repair genes (MutL Homolog 1 ( MLH1 ), MutS Homolog 2 ( MSH2 ), MutS Homolog 6 ( MSH6 ), and PMS1 Homolog 2 ( PMS2 )). The disorder is associated with colorectal, endometrial, and other epithelial malignancies, but not cervical cancer. We report a woman with Lynch syndrome with synchronous cervical cancer. This is the first report of Lynch syndrome-related clear cell carcinoma of the cervix, which indicates the possibility of an association between cervical cancer and Lynch syndrome. Suitable genetic tests are required to determine whether common genetics can account for synchronous or subsequent malignancies in Lynch syndrome patients and their families. Such knowledge will also enhance our understanding of the genetic mechanisms governing the development of apparently unrelated cancers.

  19. Lynch Syndrome-Related Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Cervix: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Kohei; Nakayama, Kentaro; Minamoto, Toshiko; Ishibashi, Tomoka; Ohnishi, Kaori; Yamashita, Hitomi; Ono, Ruriko; Sasamori, Hiroki; Razia, Sultana; Hossain, Mohammad Mahmud; Kamrunnahar, Shanta; Ishikawa, Masako; Ishikawa, Noriyoshi; Kyo, Satoru

    2018-01-01

    Lynch syndrome, a hereditary cancer syndrome, occurs because of germline mutations in at least one of four DNA mismatch repair genes (MutL Homolog 1 (MLH1), MutS Homolog 2 (MSH2), MutS Homolog 6 (MSH6), and PMS1 Homolog 2 (PMS2)). The disorder is associated with colorectal, endometrial, and other epithelial malignancies, but not cervical cancer. We report a woman with Lynch syndrome with synchronous cervical cancer. This is the first report of Lynch syndrome-related clear cell carcinoma of the cervix, which indicates the possibility of an association between cervical cancer and Lynch syndrome. Suitable genetic tests are required to determine whether common genetics can account for synchronous or subsequent malignancies in Lynch syndrome patients and their families. Such knowledge will also enhance our understanding of the genetic mechanisms governing the development of apparently unrelated cancers. PMID:29587389

  20. Breast and splenic metastases of squamous cell carcinoma from the uterine cervix: a case report.

    PubMed

    Aitelhaj, Meryem; Khoyaali, Siham L; Boukir, Anouar; Elkabous, Mustapha; Abahssain, Halima; Mrabti, Hind; El Khannoussi, Basma; Errihani, Hassan

    2014-11-04

    Metastases to the breast from extramammary malignancies are infrequent, the most common primary sites are malignant melanoma, leukemia, lymphoma, and cancer of the lung, stomach, prostate and ovary. The cervical origin is exceptional. Splenic metastasis from squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix is also rare. To the best of our knowledge, only three cases of isolated splenic metastasis have been reported in the literature. We describe the case of a 55-year-old North African woman who presented with a nodule in her left breast eight months after treatment for stage IIB squamous cell uterine cervical carcinoma. The excisional biopsy with histological study demonstrated a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. A computed tomography scan revealed a splenic secondary location. We report here a case of two unusual metastatic sites of uterine cervical carcinoma, the breast and spleen. It is the first case of this association without widespread disease.

  1. Breast and splenic metastases of squamous cell carcinoma from the uterine cervix: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Metastases to the breast from extramammary malignancies are infrequent, the most common primary sites are malignant melanoma, leukemia, lymphoma, and cancer of the lung, stomach, prostate and ovary. The cervical origin is exceptional. Splenic metastasis from squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix is also rare. To the best of our knowledge, only three cases of isolated splenic metastasis have been reported in the literature. Case presentation We describe the case of a 55-year-old North African woman who presented with a nodule in her left breast eight months after treatment for stage IIB squamous cell uterine cervical carcinoma. The excisional biopsy with histological study demonstrated a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. A computed tomography scan revealed a splenic secondary location. Conclusions We report here a case of two unusual metastatic sites of uterine cervical carcinoma, the breast and spleen. It is the first case of this association without widespread disease. PMID:25366471

  2. [Changes in the vitamin A status in dysplastic epithelium of the cervix].

    PubMed

    Volz, J; van Rissenbeck, A; Blanke, M; Melchert, F; Schneider, A; Biesalski, H K

    1995-01-01

    In 34 patients with HVP-infection of the cervix and in 40 patients with CIN III standardised biopsies were taken from the involved area and normal cervical epithelium for determination of the local concentration of retinylester. In all cases diagnosis was confirmed colposcopically, cytologically and by histology. HPV infection was confirmed by in situ hybridisation. Determination of retinylester was performed by HPLC. No significant difference of local retinyl-plamitate concentration was detectable in HPV infected versus normal tissue. Retinyl-palmitate concentration was extremely lower in CIN III compared with normal cervical epithelium and HPV-infected tissue. The determination of plasma level of retinol showed no significant difference between the two groups. So it can be presumed that the reduction of retinyl-palmitat in CIN III is a local process and a local supplementation of Vitamin A might contribute to the prevention of cervical neoplasia.

  3. Digoxin use and the risk of cancers of the corpus uteri, ovary and cervix.

    PubMed

    Biggar, Robert J; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads

    2012-08-01

    Digoxin is a phyto-estrogen capable of inducing hormonal effects. Use has been associated with increased risk of breast cancer, an estrogen-sensitive malignancy. The incidence of corpus uteri (uterus) cancer is also strongly increased with exposure to estrogens. Therefore, we evaluated whether digoxin use might also increase its incidence. In all women in Denmark, we identified digoxin users from 1995 through 2008 using a nationwide pharmacy registry system. Cancer occurrence was obtained from Danish Cancer Registry. Relative risk was determined using incidence risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) relative to non-users after adjustment for age- and calendar-time. For ovarian and cervical cancers, RRs in users and non-users were similarly evaluated, these cancers representing gynecological cancers with weak or no associations to estrogen exposure. Of 2.1 million women, 104,648 (4.9%) had digoxin exposure and 137,493 6.5% had exposure to angina drugs but not digoxin during the study period. For uterus cancer, the RR was increased in current digoxin users (1.48, 95% CI: 1.32-1.65; N = 350). Incidence was marginally increased in former users. For ovary and cervix cancers, RRs in current digoxin users were 1.06 (95% CI: 0.92-1.22; N = 207) and 1.00 (95% CI: 0.79-1.25; N = 81), respectively. We examined risks in women using angina drugs but not digoxin to determine whether being under cardiac care affected risk. Among women using angina drugs only, RRs for uterus, ovary or cervix cancers were not statistically significant. We conclude that women currently using digoxin, a phyto-estrogen, have an increased risk of developing uterus cancers. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  4. Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence microscopy accurately classifies precancerous and cancerous human cervix free of labeling

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xianxu; Zhang, Xiaoan; Li, Canyu; Wang, Xiaofang; Jerwick, Jason; Xu, Tao; Ning, Yuan; Wang, Yihong; Zhang, Linlin; Zhang, Zhan; Ma, Yutao; Zhou, Chao

    2018-01-01

    Cervical cancer remains the fourth most common cause of cancer worldwide and the third leading cause of cancer deaths for women in developing countries. Traditional screening tools, such as human papillomavirus and Pap tests, cannot provide results in real-time and cannot localize suspicious regions. Colposcopy-directed biopsies are invasive in nature and only a few sites of the cervix may be chosen for investigation. A non-invasive, label-free and real-time imaging method with a resolution approaching that of histopathology is desirable for early detection of the disease. Methods: Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence microscopy (OCM) is an emerging imaging technique used to obtain 3-dimensional (3-D) “optical biopsies” of biological samples with cellular resolution. In this study, 497 3-D OCM datasets from 159 specimens were collected from 92 patients. Results: Distinctive patterns for normal cervix, squamocolumnar junction, ectropion, low-grade and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL and HSIL) and invasive cervical lesions were clearly observed from OCM images, which matched well with corresponding histological slides. OCM images demonstrated a sensitivity of 80% (95% confidence interval, CI, 72%-86%) and a specificity of 89% (95% CI, 84%-93%) for detecting high-risk lesions (HSIL and invasive lesions) when blindly tested by three investigators. A substantial inter-observer agreement was observed (κ=0.627), which showed high diagnostic consistency among three investigators. Conclusion: These results laid the foundation for future non-invasive optical evaluation of cervical tissue in vivo, which could lead to a less invasive and more effective screening and “see-and-treat” strategy for the management of cervical cancer. PMID:29896305

  5. Distortion correction of echo-planar diffusion-weighted images of uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    deSouza, Nandita M; Orton, Matthew; Downey, Kate; Morgan, Veronica A; Collins, David J; Giles, Sharon L; Payne, Geoffrey S

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the clinical utility of the reverse gradient algorithm in correcting distortions in diffusion-weighted images of the cervix and for increasing diagnostic performance. Forty-one patients ages 25-72 years (mean 40 ± 11 years) with suspected or early stage cervical cancer were imaged at 3T using an endovaginal coil. T2 -weighted (W) and diffusion-weighted images with right and left phase-encode gradient directions were obtained coronal to the cervix (b = 0, 100, 300, 500, 800 s mm(-2) ). Differences in angle of the endocervical canal to the x-axis between T2 W and right-gradient, left-gradient, and corrected images were measured. Uncorrected and corrected images were assessed for diagnostic performance when viewed together with T2 W images by two independent observers against subsequent histology. The angles of the endocervical canal relative to the x-axis were significantly different between the T2 W images and the right-gradient images (P = 0.007), approached significance for left-gradient images (P = 0.055), and were not significantly different after correction (P = 0.95). Corrected images enabled a definitive diagnosis in 34% (n = 14) of patients classified as equivocal on uncorrected images. Tumor volume in this subset was 0.18 ± 0.44 cm(3) (mean ± SD; sensitivity of detection 100% [8/8], specificity 50% [3/6] for an experienced observer). Correction did not improve diagnostic performance for the less-experienced observer. Distortion-corrected diffusion-weighted images improved correspondence with T2 W images and diagnostic performance in a third of cases. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  6. Trends in single women with malignancy of the uterine cervix in United States.

    PubMed

    Machida, Hiroko; Blake, Erin A; Eckhardt, Sarah E; Takiuchi, Tsuyoshi; Grubbs, Brendan H; Mikami, Mikio; Roman, Lynda D; Matsuo, Koji

    2018-03-01

    To examine trends and characteristics of single women with malignancy of the uterine cervix. This is a retrospective observational study examining the United States population-based tumor registry (the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program). Time-specific trends in single marital status were examined in 3,294,208 women among 12 common female malignancies including 87,151 women with uterine cervical malignancy between 1973 and 2013. While the proportion of single women in the majority of malignancies increased during the study time, the proportion of single women with cervical malignancy significantly increased more than in other malignancies (29.3% in 2013 from 6.3% in 1973). There was a surge in the proportion of single women with cervical malignancy starting in the early 1990s, exhibiting the largest annual percentage rate change (APC) among all examined malignancies (1.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.6, 2.0; p<0.001). There was a significant decrease in the proportion of women aged <40 years with cervical malignancy between 1989 and 2013 (APC, -1.2%; 95% CI=-1.4, -1.0; p<0.001). However, when stratified by age, the proportion of single women aged ≥40 years increased significantly during the time (APC, 2.7%; 95% CI=2.3, 3.2; p<0.001) but did not in those who were <40 years (APC, 0.1%; 95% CI=-0.7, 0.6; p=0.850). The proportion of single women with malignancy of the uterine cervix has significantly increased in the past 4 decades. This increase was most dramatic in single women aged ≥40 years. Improving screening strategies in single women aged ≥40 years may help reduce the incidence of this malignancy. Copyright © 2018. Asian Society of Gynecologic Oncology, Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology

  7. Laser therapy as the method of choice in treating young women with CIN lesions of the uterine cervix and VIN lesions of the vulva

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, Piotr A.

    1996-03-01

    The aim of the studies was to attempt to investigate the results of treating young women with CIN I - III of the cervix and epithelial VIN I - III lesions of the vulva by means of the laser technique (vaporization).

  8. Toxic Hazards Research Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macewen, J. D.; Vernot, E. H.

    1971-01-01

    The activities of the Toxic Hazards Research Unit (THRU) for the period of June 1970 through May 1971 reviewed. Modification of the animal exposure facilities primarily for improved human safety but also for experimental integrity and continuity are discussed. Acute toxicity experiments were conducted on hydrogen fluoride (HF), hydrogen chloride (HCl), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) both singly and in combination with carbon dioxide (CO). Additional acute toxicity experiments were conducted on oxygen difluoride (OF2) and chlorine pentafluoride (ClF5). Subacute toxicity studies were conducted on methylisobutylketone and dichloromethane (methylene dichloride). The interim results of further chronic toxicity experiments on monomethylhydrazine (MMH) are also described.

  9. Concurrent chemotherapy and pelvic radiation therapy compared with pelvic radiation therapy alone as adjuvant therapy after radical surgery in high-risk early-stage cancer of the cervix.

    PubMed

    Peters, W A; Liu, P Y; Barrett, R J; Stock, R J; Monk, B J; Berek, J S; Souhami, L; Grigsby, P; Gordon, W; Alberts, D S

    2000-04-01

    To determine whether the addition of cisplatin-based chemotherapy (CT) to pelvic radiation therapy (RT) will improve the survival of early-stage, high-risk patients with cervical carcinoma. Patients with clinical stage IA(2), IB, and IIA carcinoma of the cervix, initially treated with radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy, and who had positive pelvic lymph nodes and/or positive margins and/or microscopic involvement of the parametrium were eligible for this study. Patients were randomized to receive RT or RT + CT. Patients in each group received 49.3 GY RT in 29 fractions to a standard pelvic field. Chemotherapy consisted of bolus cisplatin 70 mg/m(2) and a 96-hour infusion of fluorouracil 1,000 mg/m(2)/d every 3 weeks for four cycles, with the first and second cycles given concurrent to RT. Between 1991 and 1996, 268 patients were entered onto the study. Two hundred forty-three patients were assessable (127 RT + CT patients and 116 RT patients). Progression-free and overall survival are significantly improved in the patients receiving CT. The hazard ratios for progression-free survival and overall survival in the RT only arm versus the RT + CT arm are 2.01 (P =.003) and 1.96 (P =. 007), respectively. The projected progression-free survivals at 4 years is 63% with RT and 80% with RT + CT. The projected overall survival rate at 4 years is 71% with RT and 81% with RT + CT. Grades 3 and 4 hematologic and gastrointestinal toxicity were more frequent in the RT + CT group. The addition of concurrent cisplatin-based CT to RT significantly improves progression-free and overall survival for high-risk, early-stage patients who undergo radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy for carcinoma of the cervix.

  10. Reliability of recording uterine cancer in death certification in France and age-specific proportions of deaths from cervix and corpus uteri.

    PubMed

    Rogel, Agnès; Belot, Aurélien; Suzan, Florence; Bossard, Nadine; Boussac, Marjorie; Arveux, Patrick; Buémi, Antoine; Colonna, Marc; Danzon, Arlette; Ganry, Olivier; Guizard, Anne-Valérie; Grosclaude, Pascale; Velten, Michel; Jougla, Eric; Iwaz, Jean; Estève, Jacques; Chérié-Challine, Laurence; Remontet, Laurent

    2011-06-01

    French uterine cancer recordings in death certificates include 60% of "uterine cancer, Not Otherwise Specified (NOS)"; this hampers the estimation of mortalities from cervix and corpus uteri cancers. The aims of this work were to study the reliability of uterine cancer recordings in death certificates using a case matching with cancer registries and estimate age-specific proportions of deaths from cervix and corpus uteri cancers among all uterine cancer deaths by a statistical approach that uses incidence and survival data. Deaths from uterine cancer between 1989 and 2001 were extracted from the French National database of causes of death and case-to-case matched to women diagnosed with uterine cancer between 1989 and 1997 in 8 cancer registries. Registry data were considered as "gold-standard". Among the 1825 matched deaths, cancer registries recorded 830 cervix and 995 corpus uteri cancers. In death certificates, 5% and 40% of "true" cervix cancers were respectively coded "corpus" and "uterus, NOS" and 5% and 59% of "true" corpus cancers respectively coded "cervix" and "uterus, NOS". Miscoding cervix cancers was more frequent at advanced ages at death and in deaths at home or in small urban areas. Miscoding corpus cancers was more frequent in deaths at home or in small urban areas. From the statistical method, the estimated proportion of deaths from cervix cancer among all uterine cancer deaths was higher than 95% in women aged 30-40 years old but declined to 35% in women older than 70 years. The study clarifies the reason for poor encoding of uterus cancer mortality and refines the estimation of mortalities from cervix and corpus uteri cancers allowing future studies on the efficacy of cervical cancer screening. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Accuracy of transvaginal ultrasound for diagnosis of deep endometriosis in uterosacral ligaments, rectovaginal septum, vagina and bladder: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Guerriero, S; Ajossa, S; Minguez, J A; Jurado, M; Mais, V; Melis, G B; Alcazar, J L

    2015-11-01

    To review the diagnostic accuracy of transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) in the preoperative detection of endometriosis in the uterosacral ligaments (USL), rectovaginal septum (RVS), vagina and bladder in patients with clinical suspicion of deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). An extensive search was performed in MEDLINE (PubMed) and EMBASE for studies published between January 1989 and December 2014. Studies were considered eligible if they reported on the use of TVS for the preoperative detection of endometriosis in the USL, RVS, vagina and bladder in women with clinical suspicion of DIE using the surgical data as a reference standard. Study quality was assessed using the PRISMA guidelines and QUADAS-2 tool. Of the 801 citations identified, 11 studies (n = 1583) were considered eligible and were included in the meta-analysis. For detection of endometriosis in the USL, the overall pooled sensitivity and specificity of TVS were 53% (95%CI, 35-70%) and 93% (95%CI, 83-97%), respectively. The pretest probability of USL endometriosis was 54%, which increased to 90% when suspicion of endometriosis was present after TVS examination. For detection of endometriosis in the RVS, the overall pooled sensitivity and specificity were 49% (95%CI, 36-62%) and 98% (95%CI, 95-99%), respectively. The pretest probability of RVS endometriosis was 24%, which increased to 89% when suspicion of endometriosis was present after TVS examination. For detection of vaginal endometriosis, the overall pooled sensitivity and specificity were 58% (95%CI, 40-74%) and 96% (95%CI, 87-99%), respectively. The pretest probability of vaginal endometriosis was 17%, which increased to 76% when suspicion of endometriosis was present after TVS assessment. Substantial heterogeneity was found for sensitivity and specificity for all these locations. For detection of bladder endometriosis, the overall pooled sensitivity and specificity were 62% (95%CI, 40-80%) and 100% (95%CI, 97-100%), respectively. Moderate

  12. Purification and genetic characterization of gassericin E, a novel co-culture inducible bacteriocin from Lactobacillus gasseri EV1461 isolated from the vagina of a healthy woman.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-Barragán, Antonio; Caballero-Guerrero, Belén; Martín, Virginia; Ruiz-Barba, José Luis; Rodríguez, Juan Miguel

    2016-03-12

    Lactobacillus gasseri is one of the dominant Lactobacillus species in the vaginal ecosystem. Some strains of this species have a high potential for being used as probiotics in order to maintain vaginal homeostasis, since they may confer colonization resistance against pathogens in the vagina by direct inhibition through production of antimicrobial compounds, as bacteriocins. In this work we have studied bacteriocin production of gassericin E (GasE), a novel bacteriocin produced by L. gasseri EV1461, a strain isolated from the vagina of a healthy woman, and whose production was shown to be promoted by the presence of certain specific bacteria in co-culture. Biochemical and genetic characterization of this novel bacteriocin are addressed. We found that the inhibitory spectrum of L. gasseri EV1461 was broad, being directed to species both related and non-related to the producing strain. Interestingly, L. gasseri EV1461 inhibited the grown of pathogens usually associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV). The antimicrobial activity was due to the production of a novel bacteriocin, gassericin E (GasE). Production of this bacteriocin in broth medium only was achieved at high cell densities. At low cell densities, bacteriocin production ceased and only was restored after the addition of a supernatant from a previous bacteriocin-producing EV1461 culture (autoinduction), or through co-cultivation with several other Gram-positive strains (inducing bacteria). DNA sequence of the GasE locus revealed the presence of two putative operons which could be involved in biosynthesis and immunity of this bacteriocin (gaeAXI), and in regulation, transport and processing (gaePKRTC). The gaePKR encodes a putative three-component regulatory system, involving an autoinducer peptide (GaeP), a histidine protein kinase (GaeK) and a response regulator (GaeR), while the gaeTC encodes for an ABC transporter (GaeT) and their accessory protein (GaeC), involved in transport and processing of the

  13. Visual inspection of cervix with acetic acid: a good alternative to pap smear for cervical cancer screening in resource-limited setting.

    PubMed

    Khan, Momna; Sultana, Syeda Seema; Jabeen, Nigar; Arain, Uzma; Khans, Salma

    2015-02-01

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of visual inspection of cervix using 3% acetic acid as a screening test for early detection of cervical cancer taking histopathology as the gold standard. The cross-sectional study was conducted at Civil Hospital Karachi from July 1 to December 31, 2012 and comprised all sexually active women aged 19-60 years. During speculum examination 3% acetic acid was applied over the cervix with the help of cotton swab. The observations were noted as positive or negative on visual inspection of the cervix after acetic acid application according to acetowhite changes. Colposcopy-guided cervical biopsy was done in patients with positive or abnormal looking cervix. Colposcopic-directed biopsy was taken as the gold standard to assess visual inspection readings. SPSS 17 was used for statistical analysis. There were 500 subjects with a mean age of 35.74 ± 9.64 years. Sensitivity, specifically, positive predicted value, negative predicted value of visual inspection of the cervix after acetic acid application was 93.5%, 95.8%, 76.3%, 99%, and the diagnostic accuracy was 95.6%. Visual inspection of the cervix after acetic acid application is an effective method of detecting pre-invasive phase of cervical cancer and a good alternative to cytological screening for cervical cancer in resource-poor setting like Pakistan and can reduce maternal morbidity and mortality.

  14. Relationships among type of parturition, type of discharge from genital tract, involution of cervix, and subsequent reproductive performance in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Oltenacu, P A; Britt, J H; Braun, R K; Mellenberger, R W

    1983-03-01

    Data were from 492 Holstein cows calved between October, 1976, and May, 1977, in eight herds in Michigan. Diameter of the cervix of each cow was estimated by palpation at 8 to 21 days postpartum and again 2 wk later. Parturition and postpartum discharge from the genital tract were classified as normal or abnormal. Size of the cervix between 12 and 26 days postpartum was classified as small, medium, or large within two parity groups. Incidence of abnormal parturition and incidence of abnormal postpartum discharge were 14.1 and 38.0%. Involution of the cervix was affected by parity and type of postpartum discharge. Involution of the cervix occurred sooner postpartum in primiparous than in multiparous cows and sooner postpartum in cows with normal discharge than in cows with abnormal discharge. The greatest difference in cervix diameter between cows with normal or abnormal discharges was 10 mm at 3 wk postpartum. Days from parturition to first detected estrus and first service were extended by abnormal postpartum discharge but not by abnormal parturition. First-service conception rate was lower and days from parturition to conception were higher in cows with medium or large cervices compared to cows with small cervices. Type of postpartum discharge and size of cervix early postpartum may be useful for predicting subsequent reproductive performance in dairy cows.

  15. Evaluation of tamoxifen in persistent or recurrent nonsquamous cell carcinoma of the cervix: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study.

    PubMed

    Bigler, L R; Tate Thigpen, J; Blessing, J A; Fiorica, J; Monk, B J

    2004-01-01

    This study was undertaken to estimate the antitumor activity of tamoxifen in patients with persistent or recurrent nonsquamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Furthermore, the nature and degree of adverse effects from tamoxifen in this cohort of individuals was examined. Tamoxifen citrate was to be administered at a dose of 10 mg per orally twice a day until disease progression or unacceptable side effects prevented further therapy. A total of 34 patients (median age: 49 years) were registered to this trial; two were declared ineligible. Thirty-two patients were evaluable for adverse effects and 27 were evaluable for response. There were only six grades 3 and 4 adverse effects reported: leukopenia (in one patient), anemia (in two), emesis (in one), gastrointestinal distress (in one), and neuropathy (in one). The objective response rate was 11.1%, with one complete and two partial responses. In conclusion, tamoxifen appears to have minimal activity in nonsquamous cell carcinoma of the cervix.

  16. Cancer cervix: Establishing an evidence-based strategy, an experience of a tertiary care centre in India.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Shyam Kishore; Lewis, Shirley; Sastri, Supriya Chopra; Lavanya, G; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Engineer, Reena

    2018-01-12

    Carcinoma cervix is a common cancer among Indian women. Evidence based management is essential for best practice in treatment of carcinoma cervix for its effective control. The current imaging system like CT, MRI and PET CT scans have contributed in identifying the patients for optimal treatment and delivering treatment accurately. For stages IB2 to IV, concurrent chemoradiation is advocated with improvement in overall survival proven with randomized trials. Brachytherapy is an integral part in the radiation treatment. Imaged-guided brachytherapy using MRI is desirable, however less expensive imaging modalities such as CT and ultrasonography has been evaluated. In special situation such as for HIV positive patients and patients with neuroendocrine tumors have role of radiotherapy. For further improvement in control of cancer, it is required to integrate basic research to answer clinically relevant questions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Abnormal excessive per vagina (PV) bleeding on Esmya–selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRM) in a symptomatic patient with uterine fibroid

    PubMed Central

    Matytsina-Quinlan, Lyubov; Matytsina, Laura

    2015-01-01

    A woman in her late 40s presented with excessive per vagina (PV) bleeding and uterine fibroid. She reported excessive PV bleeding after starting Esmya; she was brought in by ambulance to the emergency department with profuse bleeding. Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) developed after selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRM) administration in this symptomatic patient with uterine fibroid. The drug was withheld and surgical treatment considered. Progressive deterioration of PV bleeding after receiving SPRM led to an urgent laparoscopic total hysterectomy, which had to be postponed due to severe anaemia. Surgery took place regardless because the excessive bleeding continued. Histology revealed a 6 cm submucosal uterine fibroid (SMUF) and adenomyosis. Physicians prescribing SPRMs to stop PV bleeding should be aware of potential AUB, which could lead to urgent hysterectomy. The mechanism of action of SPRMs is not clearly understood. Awareness of the side effects of Esmya, such as AUB, must be kept in mind when administering SPRMs. PMID:25976198

  18. Abnormal excessive per vagina (PV) bleeding on Esmya-selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRM) in a symptomatic patient with uterine fibroid.

    PubMed

    Matytsina-Quinlan, Lyubov; Matytsina, Laura

    2015-05-14

    A woman in her late 40s presented with excessive per vagina (PV) bleeding and uterine fibroid. She reported excessive PV bleeding after starting Esmya; she was brought in by ambulance to the emergency department with profuse bleeding. Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) developed after selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRM) administration in this symptomatic patient with uterine fibroid. The drug was withheld and surgical treatment considered. Progressive deterioration of PV bleeding after receiving SPRM led to an urgent laparoscopic total hysterectomy, which had to be postponed due to severe anaemia. Surgery took place regardless because the excessive bleeding continued. Histology revealed a 6 cm submucosal uterine fibroid (SMUF) and adenomyosis. Physicians prescribing SPRMs to stop PV bleeding should be aware of potential AUB, which could lead to urgent hysterectomy. The mechanism of action of SPRMs is not clearly understood. Awareness of the side effects of Esmya, such as AUB, must be kept in mind when administering SPRMs. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  19. [A case of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer, which had a invasion into the vagina followed by curative resection].

    PubMed

    Kimura, Kei; Kagawa, Yoshinori; Kato, Takeshi; Ishida, Tomo; Morimoto, Yoshihiro; Matusita, Katsunori; Kusama, Hiroki; Hashimoto, Tadayoshi; Katura, Yoshiteru; Nitta, Kanae; Takeno, Atushi; Nakahira, Shin; Okishiro, Masatsugu; Sakisaka, Hideki; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Egawa, Chiyomi; Takeda, Yutaka; Tamura, Shigeyuki

    2014-11-01

    A-64-years-old woman with locally advanced rectal cancer, which had invaded the vagina, was referred to our hospital. She was administered neoadjuvant chemotherapy to reduce the tumor size. After 4 courses of chemotherapy consisting of folinic acid, fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin (mFOLFOX6), an enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indicated marked tumor shrinkage. We performed a laparoscopically assisted low anterior resection, which included total mesorectal resection, resection of the vaginal posterior wall, and right lateral lymph node resection. The chemotherapy prevented us from having to create a permanent colostomy. The efficacy of the neoadjuvant chemotherapy was Grade 1b. We experienced a case of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by curative resection.

  20. Measurement of refractive indices of tunicates' tunics: light reflection of the transparent integuments in an ascidian Rhopalaea sp. and a salp Thetys vagina.

    PubMed

    Kakiuchida, Hiroshi; Sakai, Daisuke; Nishikawa, Jun; Hirose, Euichi

    2017-01-01

    Tunic is a cellulosic, integumentary matrix found in tunicates (Subphylum Tunicata or Urochordata). The tunics of some ascidian species and pelagic tunicates, such as salps, are nearly transparent, which is useful in predator avoidance. Transparent materials can be detected visually using light reflected from their surfaces, with the different refractive indices between two media, i.e., tunic and seawater, being the measure of reflectance. A larger difference in refractive indices thus provides a larger measure of reflectance. We measured the refractive indices of the transparent tunic of Thetys vagina (salp: Thaliacea) and Rhopalae a sp. (ascidian: Ascidiacea) using an Abbe refractometer and an ellipsometer to estimate the light reflection at the tunic surface and evaluate the anti-reflection effect of the nipple array structure on the tunic surface of T. vagina . At D-line light (λ = 589 nm), the refractive indices of the tunics were 0.002-0.004 greater than seawater in the measurements by Abbe refractometer, and 0.02-0.03 greater than seawater in the measurements by ellipsometer. The refractive indices of tunics were slightly higher than that of seawater. According to the simulation of light reflection based on rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA), light at a large angle of incidence will be completely reflected from a surface when its refractive indices are smaller than seawater. Therefore, the refractive index of integument is important for enabling transparent organisms to remain invisible in the water column. In order to minimize reflectance, the refractive index should be similar to, but never smaller than, that of the surrounding seawater. The simulation also indicated that the presence or absence of a nipple array does not cause significant difference in reflectance on the surface. The nipple array on the tunic of the diurnal salp may have another function, such as bubble repellence, other than anti-reflection.

  1. Phase II trial of Cetuximab in the Treatment of Persistent or Recurrent Squamous or Non-Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Cervix: A Gynecologic Oncology Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Santin, Alessandro D.; Sill, Michael W.; McMeekin, D. Scott; Leitao, Mario M.; Brown, Jubilee; Sutton, Gregory P.; Van Le, Linda; Griffin, Patricia; Boardman, Cecelia H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) conducted a phase II trial to assess the efficacy and tolerability of the anti-EGFR antibody cetuximab, in persistent or recurrent carcinoma of the cervix. Patients and Methods Eligible patients had cervical cancer, measurable disease, and GOG performance status ≤2. Treatment consisted of cetuximab 400 mg/m2 initial dose followed by 250 mg/m2 weekly until disease progression or prohibitive toxicity. The primary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) at 6 months and response. The study used a 2-stage group sequential design. Results Thirty-eight patients were entered with 3 exclusions, leaving 35 evaluable for analysis. Thirty-one patients (88.6%) received prior radiation as well as either 1 (n = 25, 71.4%) or 2 (n = 10) prior cytotoxic regimens. Twenty-four patients (68.6%) had a squamous cell carcinoma. Grade 3 adverse events possibly related to cetuximab included dermatologic (n = 5), GI (n = 4), anemia (n = 2), constitutional (n = 3), infection (n = 2), vascular (n = 2), pain (n = 2), and pulmonary, neurological, vomiting and metabolic (n = 1 each). No clinical responses were detected. Five patients (14.3%; two-sided 90% CI, 5.8% to 30%) survived without progression for at least 6 months. The median PFS and overall survival (OS) times were 1.97 and 6.7 months, respectively. In this study, all patients with PFS at 6 months harbored tumors with squamous cell histology. Conclusion Cetuximab is well tolerated but has limited activity in this population. Cetuximab activity may be limited to patients with squamous cell histology. PMID:21684583

  2. Combined laparoscopic and vaginal cervicovaginal reconstruction using split thickness skin graft in patients with congenital atresia of cervix.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuyin; Han, Tiantian; Ding, Jingxin; Hua, Keqin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to introduce a new technique which is combined laparoscopic and vaginal cervicovaginal reconstruction using split thickness skin graft in patients with congenital atresia of cervix and to evaluate the feasibility and the safety of it. This is a prospective observational study of 10 patients with congenital atresia of cervix who underwent combined laparoscopic and vaginal cervicovaginal reconstruction using split thickness skin graft for cervicovaginal reconstruction from February 2013 to August 2014 in our hospital. All of the surgical procedures were carried out by the same operation team. Patient data were collected including operating time, estimated blood loss, hospital stay post-surgery, complications, total cost, and median vaginal length at 3 month, resumption of menstruation, vaginal stenosis and stricture of the cervix postoperatively. The operative procedure lasted 237±46 (175-380) min. The estimated blood loss was 160±76 (50-300) ml. The hospital stay post-surgery was 12±2 (9-18) days. None of the patients had complications or required a blood transfusion. The mean total cost was $3352±1025. The average vaginal length at 3 month was 8.3±1.1 (8-10) cm. All patients had resumption of menstruation. The patients were followed for a mean of 5±2 (1-10) months. Cervical or vaginal stenosis did not occur in any of the patients. Our experiences of combined laparoscopic and vaginal cervicovaginal reconstruction using split thickness skin graft in10 patients with congenital atresia of cervix were positive, with successful results and without complications, and cervical or vaginal stenosis.

  3. Combined laparoscopic and vaginal cervicovaginal reconstruction using split thickness skin graft in patients with congenital atresia of cervix

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuyin; Han, Tiantian; Ding, Jingxin; Hua, Keqin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to introduce a new technique which is combined laparoscopic and vaginal cervicovaginal reconstruction using split thickness skin graft in patients with congenital atresia of cervix and to evaluate the feasibility and the safety of it. Methods: This is a prospective observational study of 10 patients with congenital atresia of cervix who underwent combined laparoscopic and vaginal cervicovaginal reconstruction using split thickness skin graft for cervicovaginal reconstruction from February 2013 to August 2014 in our hospital. All of the surgical procedures were carried out by the same operation team. Patient data were collected including operating time, estimated blood loss, hospital stay post-surgery, complications, total cost, and median vaginal length at 3 month, resumption of menstruation, vaginal stenosis and stricture of the cervix postoperatively. Results: The operative procedure lasted 237±46 (175-380) min. The estimated blood loss was 160±76 (50-300) ml. The hospital stay post-surgery was 12±2 (9-18) days. None of the patients had complications or required a blood transfusion. The mean total cost was $3352±1025. The average vaginal length at 3 month was 8.3±1.1 (8-10) cm. All patients had resumption of menstruation. The patients were followed for a mean of 5±2 (1-10) months. Cervical or vaginal stenosis did not occur in any of the patients. Conclusions: Our experiences of combined laparoscopic and vaginal cervicovaginal reconstruction using split thickness skin graft in10 patients with congenital atresia of cervix were positive, with successful results and without complications, and cervical or vaginal stenosis. PMID:26309703

  4. Toxic substances alert program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junod, T. L.

    1978-01-01

    A toxicity profile is provided, of 187 toxic substances procured by NASA Lewis Research Center during a 3 1/2 year period, including 27 known or suspected carcinogens. The goal of the program is to assure that the center's health and safety personnel are aware of the procurement and use of toxic substances and to alert and inform the users of these materials as to the toxic characteristics and the control measures needed to ensure their safe use. The program also provides a continuing record of the toxic substances procured, who procured them, what other toxic substances the user has obtained in the past, and where similar materials have been used elsewhere at the center.

  5. [Endocrine-metabolic peculiarities in women of reproductive age with hyperplastic processes of cervix and mammary glands].

    PubMed

    Kadzhaia, N R; Virsaladze, D K; Tkeshelashvili, B D; Dzhavashvili, L V; Dzhugeli, M K

    2006-05-01

    The aim of our investigation was the detection of endocrine-metabolic disorders in patients with hyperplastic processes of endomyometrium, uterine cervix and mammary glands. 88 patients of reproductive age with several gynaecological complaints have been investi