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Sample records for vaginal bulge symptoms

  1. Newly developed vaginal atrophy symptoms II and vaginal pH: a better correlation in vaginal atrophy?

    PubMed

    Tuntiviriyapun, P; Panyakhamlerd, K; Triratanachat, S; Chatsuwan, T; Chaikittisilpa, S; Jaisamrarn, U; Taechakraichana, N

    2015-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation among symptoms, signs, and the number of lactobacilli in postmenopausal vaginal atrophy. The secondary objective was to develop a new parameter to improve the correlation. A cross-sectional descriptive study. Naturally postmenopausal women aged 45-70 years with at least one clinical symptom of vaginal atrophy of moderate to severe intensity were included in this study. All of the objective parameters (vaginal atrophy score, vaginal pH, the number of lactobacilli, vaginal maturation index, and vaginal maturation value) were evaluated and correlated with vaginal atrophy symptoms. A new parameter of vaginal atrophy, vaginal atrophy symptoms II, was developed and consists of the two most bothersome symptoms (vaginal dryness and dyspareunia). Vaginal atrophy symptoms II was analyzed for correlation with the objective parameters. A total of 132 naturally postmenopausal women were recruited for analysis. Vaginal pH was the only objective parameter found to have a weak correlation with vaginal atrophy symptoms (r = 0.273, p = 0.002). The newly developed vaginal atrophy symptoms II parameter showed moderate correlation with vaginal pH (r = 0.356, p < 0.001) and a weak correlation with the vaginal atrophy score (r = 0.230, p < 0.001). History of sexual intercourse within 3 months was associated with a better correlation between vaginal atrophy symptoms and the objective parameters. Vaginal pH was significantly correlated with vaginal atrophy symptoms. The newly developed vaginal atrophy symptoms II was associated with a better correlation. The vaginal atrophy symptoms II and vaginal pH may be better tools for clinical evaluation and future study of the vaginal ecosystem.

  2. Are vaginal symptoms ever normal? a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Matthew; Karasz, Alison; Friedland, Sarah

    2004-11-22

    Vaginal symptoms such as discharge, odor, and itch are among the most common presenting complaints in primary care. We undertook to determine if the symptoms associated with vaginitis (discharge, odor, irritation) occur in normal women. To answer this question, we performed a literature review. We conducted a Medline search using the following terms: "vagina," "vaginal discharge," "secretion," "odors," discharge," "pruritus," "normal," "irritation," "itch," "physical examination," "healthy," "asymptomatic," "quantity," and "physiology." To find additional references we reviewed textbooks in gynecology, primary care, and physical diagnosis and contacted authors. There are few primary studies, and most are not of high quality. Existing data show that the quantity and quality of vaginal discharge in healthy women vary considerably both across individuals and in the same individual during the menstrual cycle. Most studies indicate that discharge is greatest at midcycle. Vaginal fluid contains malodorants, and one study of intact vaginal fluid found it to be malodorous. Two studies found that normal women reported irritative symptoms in the course of their menstrual cycle. The primary literature indicates that there is a wide variation in the normal vagina and that some of the symptoms associated with vaginal abnormality are found in well women. Both clinicians and their patients would benefit from a better understanding of the range of normal as well as what constitutes a meaningful departure from that range.

  3. Vaginal cytokines do not correlate with postmenopausal vulvovaginal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kollmann, Zahraa; Bersinger, Nick; von Wolff, Michael; Thurman, Andrea R; Archer, David F; Stute, Petra

    2015-04-01

    Exploratory pilot study to determine the correlation between postmenopausal vulvovaginal symptoms and vaginal cytokine levels. Postmenopausal women (n = 34) not using menopausal hormone therapy and presenting with or without symptoms of vulvovaginal irritation were screened. Each participant underwent a vaginal examination and screening for vaginitis. A cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) with sterile saline and a peripheral blood sample were obtained. Main outcome measures were assessed by Luminex® X-map method on the Bio-Plex® platform. Main outcome measures were cervicovaginal and serum interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, TNF-α, GM-CSF, MIP-1-alpha and RANTES level. Cervicovaginal cytokines were adjusted to total protein concentration [pg/mcg protein]. Twenty-six postmenopausal women were enrolled (symptomatic: n = 15; asymptomatic: n = 11). There were no significant differences between groups: age, age at menopause, vaginal pH and all CVL and serum cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, TNF-α, GM-CSF, MIP-1-alpha and RANTES). GM-CSF was the most abundant vaginal cytokine (symptomatic: 146.5 ± 165.6 pg/mcg protein; asymptomatic: 146.0 ± 173.5 pg/mcg protein; p = 0.99). Postmenopausal vulvovaginal symptoms did not correlate with vaginal inflammatory marker. There was no difference in serum or CVL cytokines between symptomatic and asymptomatic postmenopasual women. Vaginal symptoms after menopause are not related to the vaginal cytokine changes associated with loss of estrogen.

  4. The Comparison of vaginal cream of mixing yogurt, honey and clotrimazole on symptoms of vaginal candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Darvishi, Maryam; Jahdi, Fereshteh; Hamzegardeshi, Zeinab; Goodarzi, Saied; Vahedi, Mohsen

    2015-04-03

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is known as one of the most common fungal infection among women of reproductive age and considered as an important public health problem. In recent years, due to resistance to common antifungal medication, the use of traditional medicine of anti-fungal and herbal treatment increased. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine the effects of vaginal cream, mixture of yogurt and honey and comparing it with clotrimazole vaginal cream on symptoms of Vulvovaginal candidiasis in patients. In this randomized, triple blind clinical trial of 70 non-pregnant women infected with Candidal vulvovaginitis were placed in two groups of Vaginal cream mixed of yogurt and honey recipients (N=35) and clotrimazole vaginal cream (N=35). Both groups were treated for 7 days. At the beginning of study, Clinical and laboratory signs and symptoms were registered 7 and 14 days after treatment by questionnaire, observation form and secretions culture results. Data by chi-square test, t test, McNemar tests were analyzed by SPSS version 21. Significance level of 0.05 was considered. The result of present study reveals the significant differences in symptom improvement of ' yogurt and honey, than clotrimazole group (P<0.05) and also Positive results of the first cultures (one week after treatment) in "yogurt and honey" and clotrimazole (20% versus 8.6%) and second time cultivation (14 days after treatment) (17/1% versus 8.6%) were similar and there was no significant differences between the two groups. (P>0.05) CONCLUSION: This study indicated that he therapeutic effects of vaginal cream, yogurt and honey is not only similar with clotrimazole vaginal cream but more effective in relieving some symptoms of vaginal candidiasis. Therefore, the use of this product can be suggested as an herbal remedy for candida infection treatment.

  5. The Comparison of Vaginal Cream of Mixing Yogurt, Honey and Clotrimazole on Symptoms of Vaginal Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Darvishi, Maryam; Jahdi, Fereshteh; Hamzegardeshi, Zeinab; Goodarzi, Saied; Vahedi, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis is known as one of the most common fungal infection among women of reproductive age and considered as an important public health problem. In recent years, due to resistance to common antifungal medication, the use of traditional medicine of anti-fungal and herbal treatmentis increased. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine the effects of vaginal cream, mixture of yogurt and honey and comparing it with clotrimazole vaginal cream on symptoms of Vulvovaginal candidiasis in patients. Methods: In this randomized, triple blind clinical trial of 70 non-pregnant women infected with Candidalvulvovaginitis were placed in two groups of Vaginal cream mixed of yogurt and honey recipients (N = 35) and clotrimazole vaginal cream (N = 35). Both groups were treated for 7 days.At the beginning of study, Clinical and laboratory signs and symptoms were registered 7 and 14 days after treatment by questionnaire, observation formand secretions medium culture results. Data were analyzed by chi-square test, t test, McNemar tests through SPSS version 21. Significance level of 0.05 was considered. Results: The result of present study reveals the significant differences in symptom improvement of yogurt and honey, toward clotrimazole group (P < 0.05) and also Positive results of the first cultures (one week after treatment) in “yogurt and honey” and clotrimazole (20% versus 8.6%) and second time cultivation (14 days after treatment) (17.1% versus 8.6%) were similar and there was no significant differences between the two groups. (P > 0.05). Conclusion: This study indicated that the therapeutic effects of vaginal cream, yogurt and honey is not only similar with clotrimazole vaginal cream but is more effective in relieving some symptoms of vaginal candidiasis. Therefore, the use of this product can be suggested as an herbal remedy for candida infection treatment. PMID:26153168

  6. The aetiology of vaginal symptoms in rural Haiti.

    PubMed

    Bristow, Claire C; Desgrottes, Tania; Cutler, Lauren; Cutler, David; Devarajan, Karthika; Ocheretina, Oksana; Pape, Jean William; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2014-08-01

    Vaginal symptoms are a common chief complaint amongst women visiting outpatient clinics in rural Haiti. A systematic sample of 206 consecutive women over age 18 with gynaecological symptoms underwent gynaecologic examination and laboratory testing for chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis, HIV infection, trichomoniasis, candidiasis, and bacterial vaginosis. Among 206 women, 174 (84%) presented with vaginal discharge, 165 (80%) with vaginal itching, 123 (60%) with vaginal pain or dysuria, and 18 (9%) with non-traumatic vaginal sores or boils. Laboratory results were positive forChlamydia trachomatisin 5.4% (11/203), syphilis in 3.5% (7/202), HIV in 1.0% (2/200), andNeisseria gonorrhoeaein 1.0% (2/203). Among those that had microscopy, hyphae suggestive of candidiasis were visualized in 2.2% (1/45) and no cases of trichomoniasis were diagnosed 0% (0/45). Bacterial vaginosis was diagnosed in 28.3% (13/46). The prevalence of chlamydia was 4.9 (95% CI: 1.3-17.7) times greater among those 25 years of age and under (10.8%) than those older (2.3%). Chlamydia and bacterial vaginosis were the most common sexually transmitted infection and vaginal condition, respectively, in this study of rural Haitian adult women. The higher risk of chlamydia in younger women suggests education and screening programmes in young women should be considered. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  7. Vaginal cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... essential to determine what type of cyst or mass you may have. A mass or bulge of the vaginal wall may be ... to rule out vaginal cancer, especially if the mass appears to be solid. If the cyst is ...

  8. Vaginal flora alterations and clinical symptoms in low-risk pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Gondo, Fausto; da Silva, Márcia G; Polettini, Jossimara; Tristao, Andréa da R; Peracoli, José C; Witkin, Steven S; Rudge, Marilza V C

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate associations between alterations in vaginal flora and clinical symptoms in low-risk pregnant women. Vaginal specimens from 245 pregnant women were analyzed by microscopy for vaginal flora. Signs and symptoms of vaginal infection were determined by patient interviews and gynecologic examinations. Abnormal vaginal flora was identified in 45.7% of the subjects. The final clinical diagnoses were bacterial vaginosis (21.6%), vaginal candidosis (10.2%), intermediate vaginal flora (5.2%), aerobic vaginitis (2.9%), mixed flora (2.9%) and other abnormal findings (2.9%). The percentage of women with or without clinical signs or symptoms was not significantly different between these categories. The presence of vaginal odor or vaginal discharge characteristics was not diagnostic of any specific flora alteration; pruritus was highly associated with candidosis (p < 0.0001). Compared to women with normal flora, pruritus was more prevalent in women with candidosis (p < 0.0001), while vaginal odor was associated with bacterial vaginosis (p = 0.0026). The prevalence of atypical vaginal flora is common in our low-risk pregnant population and is not always associated with pathology. The occurrence of specific signs or symptoms does not always discriminate between women with different types of atypical vaginal flora or between those with abnormal and normal vaginal flora. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. The VI-SENSE-vaginal discharge self-test to facilitate management of vaginal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Geva, Adam; Bornstein, Jacob; Dan, Michael; Shoham, Hadar Kessary; Sobel, Jack D

    2006-11-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate a diagnostic panty liner (VI-SENSE) (Common Sense, Caesarea, Israel) developed to facilitate diagnosis of vaginal infections by detecting disordered acidity level. Five hundred sixteen women with vulvovaginal symptoms were enrolled. Final clinical diagnosis included Amsel criteria, Gram stain analysis, pH determination, and Trichomonas vaginalis and Candida culture. VI-SENSE strip color status estimated by patients was compared with clinical diagnosis and pH measurement by using nitrazine paper. Statistical analysis included sensitivity and specificity calculations. The VI-SENSE test was positive in 226 of 249 patients (90.8%) with bacterial vaginosis or trichomoniasis. Nitrazine pH paper revealed elevated pH in 165 (66.5%) and the amine test was positive in 160 (64.3%) patients. The VI-SENSE test was negative in 217 of 267 patients (81.3%) without trichomoniasis or bacterial vaginosis. The VI-SENSE was positive in 85 of 92 women (92%), with mixed vaginal infection including Candida and bacterial vaginosis or trichomoniasis. Amine test, nitrazine pH paper and physician diagnosis relying only on speculum examination were inferior and positive in only 65 (70%), 59 (64%), and 66 (72%) patients, respectively. The VI-SENSE test was found to be superior to traditional individual tests in facilitating preliminary diagnosis of vaginal infections.

  10. Multidisciplinary Overview of Vaginal Atrophy and Associated Genitourinary Symptoms in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Irwin; Dicks, Brian; Kim, Noel N; Hartzell, Rose

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Vaginal atrophy, which may affect up to 45% of postmenopausal women, is often associated with one or more urinary symptoms, including urgency, increased frequency, nocturia, dysuria, incontinence, and recurrent urinary tract infection. Aims To provide an overview of the current literature regarding cellular and clinical aspects of vaginal atrophy and response to treatment with local vaginal estrogen therapy. Methods PubMed searches through February 2012 were conducted using the terms “vaginal atrophy,” “atrophic vaginitis,” and “vulvovaginal atrophy.” Expert opinion was based on review of the relevant scientific and medical literature. Main Outcome Measure Genitourinary symptoms and treatment of vaginal atrophy from peer-reviewed published literature. Results Typically, a diagnosis of vaginal atrophy is made based on patient-reported symptoms, including genitourinary symptoms, and an examination that reveals signs of the disorder; however, many women are hesitant to report vaginal-related symptoms, primarily because of embarrassment. Conclusions Physicians in various disciplines are encouraged to initiate open discussions about vulvovaginal health with postmenopausal women, including recommended treatment options. Goldstein I, Dicks B, Kim NN, and Hartzell R. Multidisciplinary overview of vaginal atrophy and associated genitourinary symptoms in postmenopausal women. Sex Med 2013;1:44–53. PMID:25356287

  11. [Microecological investigation of vaginal microflora in women with varying degree gynecologic symptoms in clinics].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Bing-bing; Liu, Zhao-hui; Liao, Qin-ping

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the microecological status of vaginal microflora in the women with different vaginal symptoms. From March 2006 to October 2007, 6982 cases with varying degree vaginal symptoms including pruritus, increaseed leucorrhea, the leucorrhea having unusual smell, in the gynecology outpatient department were studied. The vagina secretions were examined in terms of the pH value, the hydrogen peroxide test, and Gram dyeing inspection of vaginal bacteria and microecology appraisal for colony's density, the multiplicity, the superiority fungus, and the inflammatory response. Among 6982 patients, normal vaginal microecology was identified in 750 (10.74%, 750/6982); abnormal microecology was found in 6232 (89.26%, 6232/6982); bacterial vaginosis (BV) was detected in 729 (10.44%, 729/6982); vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) was in 1527 (21.87%, 1527/6982). Ninety five patients (1.36%, 95/6982) were with both BV and VVC. Abnormal bacteria colonies were found in 1229 (17.60%, 1229/6982), and others were found in 2652 (37.98%, 2652/6982). The vaginal microecology in the women with different vaginal symptoms can be either normal or abnormal. Microecology clinical evaluation system can assess the vaginal microecosystem.

  12. Comparing Serum Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Level with Vaginal PH in Women with Menopausal Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Vahidroodsari, Fatemeh; Ayati, Seddigheh; Yousefi, Zohreh; Saeed, Shohreh

    2010-01-01

    Despite the important implication for women's health and reproduction, very few studies have focused on vaginal PH for menopausal diagnosis. Recent studies have suggested vaginal PH as a simple, noninvasive and inexpensive method for this purpose. The aim of this study is to compare serum FSH level with vaginal PH in menopause. This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study, conducted on 103 women (aged 31-95 yrs) with menopausal symptoms who were referred to the Menopausal Clinic at Ghaem Hospital during 2006. Vaginal pH was measured using pH meter strips and serum FSH levels were measured using immunoassay methods. The data was analyzed using SPSS software (version 11.5) and results were evaluated statistically by the Chi-square and Kappa tests. p≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. According to this study, in the absence of vaginal infection, the average vaginal pH in these 103 menopausal women was 5.33±0.53. If the menopausal hallmark was considered as vaginal pH>4.5, and serum FSH as ≥20 mIU/ml, then the sensitivity of vaginal pH for menopausal diagnosis was 97%. The mean of FSH levels in this population was 80.79 mIU/ml. Vaginal pH is a simple, accurate, and cost effective tool that can be suggested as a suitable alternative to serum FSH measurement for the diagnosis of menopause.

  13. Vaginitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... discharge usually is thin and dark or dull gray, but may have a greenish color. Itching is ... trichomoniasis? Signs of trichomoniasis may include a yellow-gray or green vaginal discharge. The discharge may have ...

  14. Vaginal douching practice: Frequency, associated factors and relationship with vulvovaginal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Yanikkerem, Emre; Yasayan, Aysegul

    2016-04-01

    To determine the frequency, associated factors and relationship with vulvovaginal symptoms and vaginal douching among Turkish women. The cross-sectional, analytical study was conducted at Merkez Efendi Hospital, Manisa, Turkey, from January to June 2014 using a questionnaire. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 17. Of the total 343 women in the study, 91(26.5%) had reported vaginal douching in the preceding year. Statistically significant relationship was determined between the vaginal douching behaviour and couples who had low educationand low income levels, having unplanned pregnancy and had someone in their neighbourhood who douched (p< 0.05 each). The most common reason for using vaginal douching was reported to be cleanliness by 85(93.4%) women, prevention of genital infections 75(82.4%), cleaning after/before sexual intercourse 72(79%), during menstruation 49(54%), prevention of vaginal discharge 69(76%), decreasing of unpleasant odours 65(71.4%) and religious beliefs 46(50.5%). Self-reported history of vaginal infection was significantly more common for women who douched compared those who did not (p< 0.05). Healthcare providers should determine the reason and risky groups of women and educate the women to stop the vaginal douching behaviour and harmful effects of vaginal douching.

  15. Vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, E G

    1985-06-01

    Vaginitis is one of the most common complaints of women in the United States today. About 90% of patients with this problem suffer from infection of the vagina caused by Candida, Gardnerella, or Trichomonas. The diagnosis and effective treatment of these common infections depend on accurate identification of the entity, effective specific therapy, and restoration of the normal ecosystem of the vagina. At the same time women should be made aware that not all discharge means infection and that any attempts at self-treatment may only worsen their condition. Proper hygiene habits, dietary control, and management of stress are all helpful factors in the control of recurrent vaginal infections.

  16. Accuracy of vaginal symptom self-diagnosis algorithms for deployed military women.

    PubMed

    Ryan-Wenger, Nancy A; Neal, Jeremy L; Jones, Ashley S; Lowe, Nancy K

    2010-01-01

    Deployed military women have an increased risk for development of vaginitis due to extreme temperatures, primitive sanitation, hygiene and laundry facilities, and unavailable or unacceptable healthcare resources. The Women in the Military Self-Diagnosis (WMSD) and treatment kit was developed as a field-expedient solution to this problem. The primary study aims were to evaluate the accuracy of women's self-diagnosis of vaginal symptoms and eight diagnostic algorithms and to predict potential self-medication omission and commission error rates. Participants included 546 active duty, deployable Army (43.3%) and Navy (53.6%) women with vaginal symptoms who sought healthcare at troop medical clinics on base.In the clinic lavatory, women conducted a self-diagnosis using a sterile cotton swab to obtain vaginal fluid, a FemExam card to measure positive or negative pH and amines, and the investigator-developed WMSD Decision-Making Guide. Potential self-diagnoses were "bacterial infection" (bacterial vaginosis [BV] and/or trichomonas vaginitis [TV]), "yeast infection" (candida vaginitis [CV]), "no infection/normal," or "unclear." The Affirm VPIII laboratory reference standard was used to detect clinically significant amounts of vaginal fluid DNA for organisms associated with BV, TV, and CV. Women's self-diagnostic accuracy was 56% for BV/TV and 69.2% for CV. False-positives would have led to a self-medication commission error rate of 20.3% for BV/TV and 8% for CV. Potential self-medication omission error rates due to false-negatives were 23.7% for BV/TV and 24.8% for CV. The positive predictive value of diagnostic algorithms ranged from 0% to 78.1% for BV/TV and 41.7% for CV. The algorithms were based on clinical diagnostic standards. The nonspecific nature of vaginal symptoms, mixed infections, and a faulty device intended to measure vaginal pH and amines explain why none of the algorithms reached the goal of 95% accuracy. The next prototype of the WMSD kit will not include

  17. Vulvar and vaginal atrophy as viewed by the Spanish REVIVE participants: symptoms, management and treatment perceptions.

    PubMed

    Palacios, S; Cancelo, M J; Castelo Branco, C; Llaneza, P; Molero, F; Borrego, R Sanchez

    2017-02-01

    To gain a deeper comprehension of current vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) knowledge among Spanish postmenopausal women. An online survey (REVIVE) was conducted in four European countries with an overall sample of 768 participants included in Spain. Perceptions, experiences and needs of Spanish postmenopausal women in terms of sexual and vaginal health were reported. Vaginal dryness was the most common VVA symptom in Spain (81%). The severity of symptoms reported by postmenopausal women tended to be similar or worse than at onset, especially in the most troublesome symptom, dyspareunia (80%). VVA symptoms significantly impact on Spanish participants' ability to achieve sexual enjoyment (75%), relationship with partner (67%) and sexual spontaneity (66%). Although 71% of participants with partners (83%) were sexually active, their sex drive was reduced by one-third as a consequence of VVA. Despite the fact that women expected doctors to start asking them about menopausal symptoms, this rarely occurred. Treatments were administered mainly vaginally without prescription (62% were using over-the-counter products at the time). Postmenopausal women who had discussed their symptoms with physicians were twice as likely to be treated (66% vs. 33%) than those who had not. Low compliance with treatment was justified by Spanish participants with not bothersome enough symptoms (22%), relief (21%), inability to reverse vaginal changes (15%) and treatment price (13%). Almost half of the participants with a current local estrogen prescription showed satisfaction. The acknowledged main limitation for all treatments was the inability to restore the natural conditions of the vagina. The price of over-the-counter products was also reported as an important concern in Spanish postmenopausal women. VVA remains underdiagnosed and undertreated in Spain, despite its high frequency and significant impact on quality of life. Since patient satisfaction with available treatments remains compromised

  18. Visual improvements in vaginal mucosa correlate with symptoms of VVA: data from a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Simon, James A; Archer, David F; Kagan, Risa; Bernick, Brian; Graham, Shelli; Constantine, Ginger D; Mirkin, Sebastian

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the response of the vaginal mucosa with TX-004HR and its correlation with vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA) symptoms, and whether visual examination is a useful measure for assessing VVA. REJOICE was a 12-week, phase 3, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of a vaginal, muco-adhesive, 17β-estradiol softgel capsule (TX-004HR 4, 10, and 25 μg) in postmenopausal women with VVA and moderate-to-severe dyspareunia. Treatments were self-administered vaginally once per day for 2 weeks, then twice per week for 10 weeks. The vagina was visually examined at baseline and at weeks 2, 6, 8, and 12; changes were evaluated using a 4-item scale for vaginal color, vaginal epithelial integrity, vaginal epithelial surface thickness, and vaginal secretions. Significant improvements were observed with all three TX-004HR doses versus placebo in vaginal color (least square mean score changes of -0.96 to -1.06 for TX-004HR doses vs -0.60 for placebo at week 12), epithelial integrity (-0.97 to -1.07 vs -0.60), epithelial surface thickness (-0.94 to -1.03 vs -0.61), and secretions (-1.01 to -1.06 vs -0.64) (P < 0.001 for all comparisons at all time points). Both Pearson's correlations and logistic regression receiver-operating characteristic curve analyses significantly correlated the sum of the individual visual assessment scores with dyspareunia (P < 0.0001) and vaginal dryness (P < 0.0001) at 12 weeks. Greater improvements in the vaginal mucosa of postmenopausal women with VVA and moderate-to-severe dyspareunia were observed with TX-004HR versus placebo, and vaginal mucosa assessment scores correlated with vaginal symptoms of dyspareunia and dryness. Visual vaginal assessment by healthcare professionals is a useful measure for diagnosing VVA and assessing response to treatment.

  19. The most bothersome symptom of vaginal atrophy: Evidence from the observational AGATA study.

    PubMed

    Palma, Federica; Xholli, Anjeza; Cagnacci, Angelo

    2018-02-01

    Vaginal atrophy (VA) is a chronic medical condition. It is managed unsatisfactorily, despite its high prevalence and negative impact on female quality of life. In order to meet their needs, it would be useful to know what women perceive to be the most bothersome symptom (MBS) of VA. Cross-sectional, multicenter study of 913 postmenopausal women consulting 22 gynecological outpatient services. Prevalence of the MBS perceived by postmenopausal women of different age and vaginal condition. Vaginal dryness was the most prevalent MBS (54.4%), followed by dyspareunia (17.6%), itching (7.8%), dysuria (5.9%) and burning (2.0%). The prevalence of vaginal dryness as the MBS increased with years since menopause, while that of itching, dysuria and burning remained approximately constant over time. The prevalence of dyspareunia as the MBS was 26.2% in the first 6 years after menopause and declined thereafter, to 8.8%. Among all postmenopausal women vaginal dryness per se, independent of dyspareunia, is the most commonly reported MBS. In each woman, the identification of the MBS may help to define more appropriate VA management. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. [Bacterial flora and mycosis of the vagina in women with symptoms of vaginal inflammation].

    PubMed

    Dybaś, Irena; Sidor-Wójtowicz, Anna; Kozioł-Montewka, Maria

    2005-05-01

    To estimate the microbiological profile of vaginal flora in 30 women with gynecologic problems and 20 pregnant women complaining about pathological symptoms {pruritus, burning, vaginal discharge}. The discharge from posterior vaginal vault was examined microbiologically on the Columbia Agar with sheep blood, MacConkey and Sabourand cultures incubated of 48 hours in the temperature of 37 degrees C. Bacterial infections were detected in 33 cases (66%), 12 of these women (24%) lived in urban, 21 (42%) in rural environment. From bacteria isolated from the vagina, most often because at 14 women stepped out Streptococcus agalactiae, at 11 Enterococcus faecalis at 8 Escherichia coli. In 5 cases bacterial inflammation was caused by two kinds of bacterium. At two women stepped out both Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli. In single cases it was Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus agalactiae. In all cases of inflammation mycosis was called out by from Candida albicans. One ascertained it at 14 among all given an examination women. Mixed inflammations called out both by mycosis and bacterial stepped out in 3 cases in age of 21-30. At two women it was Candida albicans and Streptococcus agalactiae, at one inflammation mycosis accompanied Enterococcus faecalis. The common reason of vaginitis are bacterial infections caused by Streptococcus agalactiae, Enterococcus faecalis, E coli. Both, place of living and women' s age influence the type of etiological factor.

  1. Association of pregnancy and Candida vaginal colonization in women with or without symptoms of vulvovaginitis.

    PubMed

    Leli, C; Mencacci, A; Meucci, M; Bietolini, C; Vitali, M; Farinelli, S; D' Alò, F; Bombaci, J C; Perito, S; Bistoni, F

    2013-06-01

    Candida infection is one of the main causes of vulvovaginitis. The experience of symptoms of vulvovaginitis during pregnancy changes in relation to clinical, behavioral, and demographic factors. Candidiasis is associated with an increased risk of delivery complications. In some studies pregnant women are found more symptomatic than non-pregnant women, but in others a higher prevalence of asymptomatic infections is described during pregnancy. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of Candida vaginal colonization in pregnant women, and investigate if the occurrence of symptoms is influenced by pregnancy, in a population of Italian native and immigrant women. A total of 344 outpatients, who visited the laboratory for routine genital examination, independently of pregnancy or presence or absence of symptoms of vulvovaginitis, were evaluated. Colonization by Candida spp. was significantly higher in pregnant than non-pregnant patients (31.4% vs. 19.9%; χ2=5.59; P=0.018), nevertheless pregnant women were significantly more often asymptomatic compared to non-pregnant (46.5% vs. 16%; χ2=42.31; P<0.0001). In the sub-group of women colonized by Candida spp., pregnancy resulted significantly associated to asymptomatic infection (58.1% vs. 30.8%; χ2 =6.18; P=0.013). A binary logistic regression analysis showed pregnancy or lactobacilli colonization independently associated to a lower probability of experiencing symptoms of vulvovaginitis (respectively: P<0.0001 and P=0.008). Pregnancy seems to be independently associated to Candida spp. asymptomatic vaginal infection. Given that candidiasis has been associated with possible delivery complications, these results suggest to screen for Candida spp. vaginal colonization asymptomatic women during pregnancy.

  2. Multimodal vaginal toning for bladder symptoms and quality of life in stress urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    de la Torre, Sarah; Miller, Larry E

    2017-08-01

    Treatment options for women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) have limitations. We hypothesized that multimodal vaginal toning therapy would improve bladder symptoms and quality of life in women with postpartum SUI and sexual function complaints. Patients self-administered 24 sessions of multimodal vaginal toning therapy lasting 10 min each over 50 days. Outcomes included 1-h pad weight test, Urogenital Distress Inventory Short Form (UDI-6), Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-Short Form (IIQ-7), Female Sexual Distress Scale-Revised 2005 (FSDS-R), Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), pelvic floor muscle strength, patient satisfaction, and adverse events. Of the 55 patients enrolled (safety population), 48 completed the study per-protocol (PP population). A total of 38 (79%) patients had a positive 1-h pad weight test at baseline. In this group, urine leakage was moderate or severe in 82% of patients at baseline, but in only 18% after treatment. Treatment success was 84%, defined as >50% improvement in pad weight relative to baseline. In the PP population, mean UDI-6 score improved by 50% (p < 0.001) and IIQ-7 score improved by 69% (p < 0.001). Sexual function quality of life improved by 54% for FSDS-R and 15% for FSFI (both p < 0.001). Pelvic floor muscle strength significantly improved (p < 0.001). Patient satisfaction with therapy was reported in 83% of patients. In the safety population, 2 (3.6%) adverse events were reported-1 urinary tract infection and 1 report of discomfort due to excessive warmth. Multimodal vaginal toning therapy yields clinically meaningful improvements in bladder symptoms, pelvic floor muscle strength, and quality of life in women with SUI.

  3. Yeast Infection (Vaginal)

    MedlinePlus

    Yeast infection (vaginal) Overview A vaginal yeast infection is a fungal infection that causes irritation, discharge and intense itchiness ... symptoms Causes The fungus candida causes a vaginal yeast infection. Your vagina naturally contains a balanced mix of yeast, including ...

  4. Effect of postpartum pelvic floor muscle training on vaginal symptoms and sexual dysfunction-secondary analysis of a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Kolberg Tennfjord, M; Hilde, G; Staer-Jensen, J; Siafarikas, F; Engh, M Ellström; Bø, K

    2016-03-01

    Evaluate effect of pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) on vaginal symptoms and sexual matters, dyspareunia and coital incontinence in primiparous women stratified by major or no defects of the levator ani muscle. Randomised controlled trial (RCT). Akershus University Hospital, Norway. About 175 primiparous women with a singleton vaginal delivery. Two-armed assessor blinded parallel group RCT from 6 weeks to 6 months postpartum comparing effect of PFMT versus control. International Consultation on Incontinence Modular Questionnaire-vaginal symptoms questionnaire (ICIQ-VS) and ICIQ sexual matters module (ICIQ-FLUTSsex). Overall, analysis (n = 175) showed no difference between training and control groups in women having vaginal symptoms or symptoms related to sexual dysfunction 6 months postpartum. The majority of women (88%) had intercourse and there was no difference between groups. Unadjusted subgroup analysis of women with a major defect of the levator ani muscle (n = 55) showed that women in the training group had 45% less risk of having the symptom 'vagina feels loose or lax' compared with the control group (relative risk 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.31, 0.95; P = 0.03). Unadjusted analysis showed that in women with major defect of the levator ani muscle, significantly fewer in the training group had the symptom 'vagina feels loose or lax' compared with the control group. No difference was found between groups for symptoms related to sexual dysfunction. More studies are needed to explore effect of PFMT on vaginal symptoms and sexual dysfunction. Unadjusted analysis shows that PFMT might prevent symptoms of 'vagina feels loose or lax'. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  5. Should asymptomatic anterior pelvic organ prolapse be corrected to treat irritative urinary symptoms?

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Suzette E

    2010-09-01

    In clinical practice, women seen with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) often present with a variety of pelvic floor symptoms: urinary incontinence, irritative or overactive bladder symptoms, fecal urgency or incontinence, obstructive voiding, sexual disorders, pelvic and perineal pain, and vaginal bulging. Among these, the only symptom reliably associated with clinically relevant POP that will resolve following vaginal reconstructive surgery is the visualization and/or sensation of a vaginal bulge. Most other symptoms often attributed to POP at best have only weak correlations with worsening pelvic anatomical support. Specifically, with respect to the anterior and/or apical vaginal compartment, there does not appear to be a correlation between irritative overactive bladder symptoms and the presence or degree of anterior vaginal wall prolapse. Furthermore, no other symptoms, urinary or otherwise, are reliably influenced by correction of anatomical defects of pelvic support, especially in the otherwise asymptomatic patient with POP without vaginal bulge. A review of the recent literature underscores the realization that the relationship between pelvic floor symptoms and anatomy is incompletely and poorly understood. With this in mind, there does not seem to be any absolute justification for the surgical correction of otherwise asymptomatic pelvic support defects.

  6. Effect of Uterosacral Ligament Suspension vs Sacrospinous Ligament Fixation With or Without Perioperative Behavioral Therapy for Pelvic Organ Vaginal Prolapse on Surgical Outcomes and Prolapse Symptoms at 5 Years in the OPTIMAL Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Jelovsek, J Eric; Barber, Matthew D; Brubaker, Linda; Norton, Peggy; Gantz, Marie; Richter, Holly E; Weidner, Alison; Menefee, Shawn; Schaffer, Joseph; Pugh, Norma; Meikle, Susan

    2018-04-17

    Uterosacral ligament suspension (ULS) and sacrospinous ligament fixation (SSLF) are commonly performed pelvic organ prolapse procedures despite a lack of long-term efficacy data. To compare outcomes in women randomized to (1) ULS or SSLF and (2) usual care or perioperative behavioral therapy and pelvic floor muscle training (BPMT) for vaginal apical prolapse. This 2 × 2 factorial randomized clinical trial was conducted at 9 US medical centers. Eligible participants who completed the Operations and Pelvic Muscle Training in the Management of Apical Support Loss Trial enrolled between January 2008 and March 2011 and were followed up 5 years after their index surgery from April 2011 through June 2016. Two randomizations: (1) BPMT (n = 186) or usual care (n = 188) and (2) surgical intervention (ULS: n = 188 or SSLF: n = 186). The primary surgical outcome was time to surgical failure. Surgical failure was defined as (1) apical descent greater than one-third of total vaginal length or anterior or posterior vaginal wall beyond the hymen or retreatment for prolapse (anatomic failure), or (2) bothersome bulge symptoms. The primary behavioral outcomes were time to anatomic failure and Pelvic Organ Prolapse Distress Inventory scores (range, 0-300). The original study randomized 374 patients, of whom 309 were eligible for this extended trial. For this study, 285 enrolled (mean age, 57.2 years), of whom 244 (86%) completed the extended trial. By year 5, the estimated surgical failure rate was 61.5% in the ULS group and 70.3% in the SSLF group (adjusted difference, -8.8% [95% CI, -24.2 to 6.6]). The estimated anatomic failure rate was 45.6% in the BPMT group and 47.2% in the usual care group (adjusted difference, -1.6% [95% CI, -21.2 to 17.9]). Improvements in Pelvic Organ Prolapse Distress Inventory scores were -59.4 in the BPMT group and -61.8 in the usual care group (adjusted mean difference, 2.4 [95% CI, -13.7 to 18.4]). Among women who had undergone

  7. Vaginal Discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... also be on the lookout for symptoms of yeast infections, bacterial vaginosis and trichomoniasis, 3 infections that ... cause changes in your vaginal discharge. Signs of yeast infections White, cottage cheese-like discharge Swelling and ...

  8. Coital incontinence and vaginal symptoms and the relationship to pelvic floor muscle function in primiparous women at 12 months postpartum: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tennfjord, Merete Kolberg; Hilde, Gunvor; Stær-Jensen, Jette; Siafarikas, Franziska; Engh, Marie Ellström; Bø, Kari

    2015-04-01

    Symptoms related to sexual dysfunction postpartum are scarcely addressed in the literature, and the relationship to pelvic floor muscle (PFM) function is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate primiparous women 12 months postpartum and study: (i) prevalence and bother of coital incontinence, vaginal symptoms, and sexual matters; and (ii) whether coital incontinence and vaginal symptoms were associated with vaginal resting pressure (VRP), PFM strength, and endurance. International Consultation on Incontinence Modular Questionnaire (ICIQ) sexual matters module and ICIQ-Vaginal Symptoms Questionnaire were used for questions on coital incontinence, vaginal symptoms, and sexual matters, respectively. PFM function was assessed by manometer (Camtech AS, Sandvika, Norway). Coital incontinence, vaginal symptoms, and PFM function were the main outcome measures. One hundred seventy-seven primiparous women, mean age 28.7 (standard deviation [SD] 4.3) participated. Of the 94% of women having sexual intercourse, coital incontinence was found for 1.2% whereas 34.5% reported at least one vaginal symptom interfering with the sexual life of primiparous women. Of the symptoms investigated, "vagina feels dry," "vagina feels sore," and "vagina feels loose or lax" were most prevalent, but the overall impact on the woman's sexual life was minimally bothersome, mean 1.4 out of 10 (SD 2.5). Women reporting "vagina feels loose or lax" had lower VRP, PFM strength, and endurance when compared with women without the symptom. Twelve-month postpartum coital incontinence was rare, whereas the prevalence of vaginal symptoms interfering with sexual life was more common. The large majority of primiparous women in our study had sexual intercourse at 12 months postpartum and the reported overall bother on sexual life was low. Women reporting "vagina feels loose or lax" had lower VRP, PFM strength, and endurance when compared with women without the symptom. © 2015 International

  9. The Formation of Galactic Bulges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carollo, C. Marcella; Ferguson, Henry C.; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    2000-03-01

    Part I. Introduction: What are galactic bulges?; Part II. The Epoch of Bulge Formation: Origin of bulges; Deep sub-mm surveys: High-z ULIRGs and the formation of spheroids; Ages and metallicities for stars in the galactic bulge; Integrated stellar populations of bulges: First results; HST-NICMOS observations of galactic bulges: Ages and dust; Inside-out bulge formation and the origin of the Hubble sequence; Part III. The Timescales of Bulge Formation: Constraints on the bulge formation timescale from stellar populations; Bulge building with mergers and winds; Role of winds, starbursts, and activity in bulge formation; Dynamical timescales of bulge formation; Part IV. Physical Processes in Bulge Formation: the role of bars for secular bulge formation; Bars and boxy/peanut-shaped bulges: an observational point of view; Boxy- and peanut-shaped bulges; A new class of bulges; The role of secondary bars in bulge formation; Radial transport of molecular gas to the nuclei of spiral galaxies; Dynamical evolution of bulge shapes; Two-component stellar systems: Phase-space constraints; Central NGC 2146 - a firehose-type bending instability?; Bulge formation: the role of the multi-phase ISM; Global evolution of a self-gravitating multi-phase ISM in the central kpc region of galaxies; Part V. Bulge Phenomenology: Bulge-disk decomposition of spiral galaxies in the near-infrared; The triaxial bulge of NGC 1371; The bulge-disk orthogonal decoupling in galaxies: NGC 4698 and NGC 4672; The kinematics and the origin of the ionized gas in NGC 4036; Optically thin thermal plasma in the galactic bulge; X-ray properties of bulges; The host galaxies of radio-loud AGN; The centers of radio-loud early-type galaxies with HST; Central UV spikes in two galactic spheroids; Conference summary: where do we stand?

  10. Emphysematous vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Lima-Silva, Joana; Vieira-Baptista, Pedro; Cavaco-Gomes, João; Maia, Tiago; Beires, Jorge

    2015-04-01

    Emphysematous vaginitis is a rare condition, characterized by the presence of multiple gas-filled cysts in the vaginal and/or exocervical mucosa. Although its etiology is not completely understood, it is self-limited, with a benign clinical course. Vaginal discharge, sometimes bloody, and pruritus are the most common symptoms. Chronic and acute inflammation can be found, and diseases that impair the immune system and pregnancy have been associated with this condition. A 48-year-old postmenopausal woman, with a history of hysterectomy with several comorbidities, presented with a 4-month history of bloody discharge and vulvar pruritus. Examination showed multiple cystic lesions, 1 to 5 mm, occupying the posterior and right lateral vaginal walls. Speculum examination produced crepitus. Vaginal wet mount was normal, except for diminished lactobacilli; results of Trichomonas vaginalis DNA test and vaginal cultures were negative. Lugol's iodine applied to the vagina was taken up by the intact lesions. Biopsy result showed typical features of emphysematous vaginitis. This is an unusual entity, presenting with common gynecological complaints, and both physicians and pathologists should be aware to prevent misdiagnosis and overtreatment.

  11. Vaginal cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Vaginal cancer; Cancer - vagina; Tumor - vaginal ... Most vaginal cancers occur when another cancer, such as cervical or endometrial cancer , spreads. This is called secondary vaginal cancer. Cancer ...

  12. Validation of the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Vaginal Symptoms (ICIQ-VS) in two south- Asian languages.

    PubMed

    Ekanayake, Chanil D; Pathmeswaran, Arunasalam; Herath, Rasika P; Perera, H Suharshi S; Patabendige, Malitha; Wijesinghe, Prasantha S

    2017-12-01

    The multifaceted nature of pelvic floor disorders means that a systematic evaluation is required for optimal treatment outcome. It is also generally acknowledged that a valid tool is necessary to objectively assess symptoms reported by affected women. The International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Vaginal Symptoms (ICIQ-VS) questionnaire was translated to Sinhala and Tamil and a validation study carried out among women attending gynecology clinics at North Colombo Teaching Hospital, Ragama, and the district general hospitals Mannar and Vavuniya. Content validity was assessed by the level of missing answers, which was < 4% and 2% for each item in Sinhala and Tamil, respectively. Construct validity was assessed by the ability of the questionnaire to differentiate between patients and controls. Both differentiated patients from controls on vaginal symptoms score (VSS) (p < 0.001), sexual symptoms score (SSS) (p < 0.01), and quality of life (QoL) (p < 0.001). There was a strong positive correlation between Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) scores and VSS (Sinhala r s  = 0.64, p < 0.001, Tamil r s  = 0.65, p < 0.001), and QoL (Sinhala r s  = 0.49, p < 0.001, Tamil r s  = 0.60, p < 0.001). Internal consistency as assessed using Cronbach's coefficient alpha: 0.78 (0.76-0.78) and 0.83 (0.80-0.84) in Sinhala and Tamil, respectively. Test-retest reliability was assessed by weighted kappa scores (Sinhala 0.58-0.88 and Tamil 0.76-0.90). Both questionnaires were sensitive to change and showed that VSS and QoL improved following surgery (Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test p < 0.001). The validated Sinhala and Tamil translations of ICIQ-VS will be useful for assessing vaginal and sexual symptoms among women speaking Sinhala and Tamil.

  13. Long term subjective cure rate, urinary tract symptoms and dyspareunia following mesh augmented anterior vaginal wall prolapse repair.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, A Y; Friedman, T; Baumfeld, Y; Neuman, M; Krissi, H

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess patient-centered long term outcomes following anterior vaginal repair with mesh. In January 2015, we identified 124 women who underwent anterior pelvic floor repair with mesh between January 2006 and February 2009. Patient records were reviewed and demographic, clinical, intra-operative and post-operative follow-up data retrieved. Telephone interviews were conducted to access information on clinical outcomes. Associations between baseline characteristics and long term symptoms were assessed by multivariable logistic regression models. Seventy-nine women were reached and consented to participate. Patients were interviewed 79-104 months after surgery. Their mean age at the time of surgery was 62.48 ± 9.53 years; all had stage III cystocele with a mean POP Q point Ba of 5.32 ± 1.47. Twenty-four (30%) had a previous hysterectomy and 26 (33%) had a previous pelvic organ prolapse or stress urinary incontinence operation. At telephone interviews, recurrence of prolapse symptoms was reported by 11 (13.9%) patients, mostly in the posterior compartment. Only 6 needed a corrective procedure. One patient had her mesh removed due to dyspareunia. Eleven (13.9%) reported lower urinary tract symptoms other than prolapse, as follows: stress urinary incontinence (1), overactive bladder (8) and dyspareunia (2). Long term rates of recurrent prolapse, dyspareunia and lower urinary tract symptoms were low for patients who underwent anterior vaginal wall mesh augmentation surgery for symptomatic cystoceles. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Anterior vaginal wall tenderness (AVWT) as a physical symptom in chronic pelvic pain.

    PubMed

    Paulson, John D; Paulson, Joseph N

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pelvic pain is often difficult to diagnose and treat properly. Physicians called on to treat this problem may not be able to give a specific diagnosis. The aim of this study was to see whether the physical presence of anterior vaginal wall tenderness could help narrow down and elucidate diagnoses in a practice focusing on diagnosis and treatment of chronic pelvic pain. The study cohort comprised 284 patients with chronic pelvic pain limited to gynecologic and lower urinary problems. Histories, physical examinations, and endoscopic procedures were performed on each patient. An analysis of this information was conducted. Of the chronic pelvic pain patients, 78% had endometriosis, 81% had interstitial cystitis, and 61% had both concurrently. The sensitivity of anterior vaginal wall tenderness (AVWT) in patients with interstitial cystitis was 95%, and in those with only endometriosis and no interstitial cystitis, the sensitivity was 17%. The positive predictive value for interstitial cystitis was 85%, and for endometriosis it was 67%. Examination of the anterior vaginal wall with an empty bladder at the initial examination can lead one to suspect interstitial cystitis and possibly either concomitant or singular endometriosis and allow the physician to approach the workup accordingly.

  15. Ablative dual-phase Erbium:YAG laser treatment of atrophy-related vaginal symptoms in post-menopausal breast cancer survivors omitting hormonal treatment.

    PubMed

    Mothes, A R; Runnebaum, M; Runnebaum, I B

    2018-05-01

    First evaluation of dual-phase vaginal Er:YAG laser to omit hormonal treatment for atrophy-related symptoms in post-menopausal breast cancer survivors following prolapse surgery. Patients with a history of breast cancer at the time of surgery for pelvic organ prolapse were offered non-hormonal vaginal Er:YAG laser treatment when complaining of atrophy-related genitourinary syndrome of menopause. A single 10-min course of dual-phase protocol of pulsed Er:YAG laser (2940 nm, fractional ablative and thermal mode, fluence according to tissue thickness). Follow-up included subjective satisfaction, vaginal pH, vaginal health index (VHI), and complications after 6 weeks. A total of 16 breast cancer survivors (age 71 years, SD 7) had been seeking treatment for pelvic floor symptoms related to vaginal atrophy at follow-up visits after prolapse surgery. All ablative vaginal Er:YAG laser outpatient procedures were successfully completed, all patients returned to daily activities without a need for analgetic medication. Evaluation was performed after 8.3 (SD 2.5) weeks. Pre-laser VHI scored 16 (SD 4.6) and post-laser VHI 20 (SD 3) with p = 0.01. Patients were satisfied in 94% (n = 15) regarding symptom relief. Breast cancer survivors with atrophy-related complaints after pelvic floor surgery may benefit from vaginal application of this innovative dual protocol of Er:YAG laser technology as a non-hormonal treatment approach.

  16. A prospective study of genital infections in a family-planning clinic. 1. Microbiological findings and their association with vaginal symptoms.

    PubMed Central

    Riordan, T.; Macaulay, M. E.; James, J. M.; Leventhall, P. A.; Morris, E. M.; Neal, B. R.; Rowland, J.; Evans, B. M.

    1990-01-01

    A prospective study of genital infection was conducted in four inner-city family-planning clinics. Fifteen per cent of routine attenders had symptoms and signs of vaginal infection and many more women attended primarily because of symptoms. Among the women with both signs and symptoms, 70% had positive laboratory findings, Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida albicans and bacterial vaginosis being equally prevalent. Measurement of vaginal pH in the clinic was the single most useful clinical finding for directing empirical therapy. Among patients with a discharge confirmed on examination and an abnormally high pH, 72% had either T. vaginalis or bacterial vaginosis. Neisseria gonorrhoeae was isolated from 4% of women with, and 1% of those without, symptoms. We believe that it is worthwhile to investigate patients presenting to family-planning clinics with vaginal symptoms. No single specimen was found ideal for all pathogens, a cervical swab is better for gonococci and also for T. vaginalis but a vaginal swab is needed for candida and bacterial vaginosis. PMID:2307184

  17. Vaginal symptoms and bacterial vaginosis (BV): how useful is self-report? Development of a screening tool for predicting BV status.

    PubMed

    Nelson, D B; Bellamy, S; Odibo, A; Nachamkin, I; Ness, R B; Allen-Taylor, L

    2007-11-01

    Vaginal complaints compel an evaluation of bacterial vaginosis (BV), however, many cases of BV are asymptomatic. We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of vaginal symptoms in the diagnosis of BV and examined the utility of creating a BV screening tool using clinical, behavioural and demographic characteristics. A total of 1916 pregnant women were included in this analysis. In total, 757 women screened positive for BV and over one third of BV-positive women presented without any lower genital tract symptoms (39.4%). African American race, abnormal vaginal odour, and smoking were independently related to BV positivity. A BV screening tool including these three factors was fairly predictive of BV status with the area under the ROC curve equal to 0.669. This three-item prediction rule may be useful in identifying high- risk pregnant women in need of BV screening and, given the high specificity, accurately identify the group of BV-negative pregnant women.

  18. Solving the Mystery of Galaxy Bulges and Bulge Substructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erwin, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Understanding galaxy bulges is crucial for understanding galaxy evolution and the growth of supermassive black holes (SMBHs). Recent studies have shown that at least some - perhaps most - disk-galaxy bulges are actually composite structures, with both classical-bulge (spheroid) and pseudobulge (disky) components; this calls into question the standard practice of using simple, low-resolution bulge/disk decompositions to determine spheroid and SMBH mass functions. We propose WFC3 optical and near-IR imaging of a volume- and mass-limited sample of local disk galaxies to determine the full range of pure-classical, pure-pseudobulge, and composite-bulge frequencies and parameters, including stellar masses for classical bulges, disky pseudobulges, and boxy/peanut-shaped bulges. We will combine this with ground-based spectroscopy to determine the stellar-kinematic and population characteristics of the different substructures revealed by our WFC3 imaging. This will help resolve growing uncertainties about the status and nature of bulges and their relation to SMBH masses, and will provide an essential local-universe reference for understanding bulge (and SMBH) formation and evolution.

  19. Clothing factors and vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Heidrich, F E; Berg, A O; Bergman, J J

    1984-10-01

    Associations of clothing factors and vulvovaginal symptoms, signs, and microbiology were sought in 203 women seeking care at a university family medicine clinic. Clothing factors studied were use of panty hose, underwear for sleep, cotton lining panels, and pants vs skirts. Women wearing and not wearing panty hose had similar rates of vaginitis symptoms and signs, but yeast vaginitis was about three times more common among wearers. Relationships of other clothing factors to vaginitis were not found. Nonspecific vaginitis was not found to be related to clothing.

  20. Velocity Dispersions Across Bulge Types

    SciTech Connect

    Fabricius, Maximilian; Bender, Ralf; Hopp, Ulrich

    2010-06-08

    We present first results from a long-slit spectroscopic survey of bulge kinematics in local spiral galaxies. Our optical spectra were obtained at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope with the LRS spectrograph and have a velocity resolution of 45 km/s (sigma*), which allows us to resolve the velocity dispersions in the bulge regions of most objects in our sample. We find that the velocity dispersion profiles in morphological classical bulge galaxies are always centrally peaked while the velocity dispersion of morphologically disk-like bulges stays relatively flat towards the center--once strongly barred galaxies are discarded.

  1. Vaginal Atrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... an Endocrinologist Search Featured Resource Menopause Map™ View Vaginal Atrophy October 2017 Download PDFs English Editors Christine ... during this time, including vaginal dryness. What is vaginal atrophy? Vaginal atrophy (also referred to as vulvovaginal ...

  2. Vaginal foreign bodies.

    PubMed

    Stricker, T; Navratil, F; Sennhauser, F H

    2004-04-01

    To evaluate the clinical features and outcome in girls with a vaginal foreign body. Retrospective review of medical records of 35 girls with a vaginal foreign body seen in an outpatient clinic for paediatric and adolescent gynaecology between 1980 and 2000. The ages ranged from 2.6 to 9.2 years. The most common symptom was blood-stained vaginal discharge/vaginal bleeding (49%). Duration of symptoms varied from 1 day to 2 years. Fifty-four percent of the patients recalled insertion of the foreign object, usually by the girl herself. All but three patients (91%) either recalled insertion of the foreign object and/or had vaginal bleeding or blood-stained or foul-smelling vaginal discharge, and/or visualization or palpation of the foreign body in physical examination. Symptoms resolved after removal of the foreign body followed by a single irrigation with Providon-Iod (Betadine). In the majority of patients a carefully obtained history and physical examination suggest the diagnosis of a vaginal foreign object. The leading symptoms are vaginal bleeding and blood-stained or foul smelling vaginal discharge. Removal of the foreign object followed by a single irrigation with Providon-Iod is the definitive treatment and does not require additional measures.

  3. Physical and cultural determinants of postpartum pelvic floor support and symptoms following vaginal delivery: a protocol for a mixed-methods prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Nygaard, Ingrid E; Clark, Erin; Clark, Lauren; Egger, Marlene J; Hitchcock, Robert; Hsu, Yvonne; Norton, Peggy; Sanchez-Birkhead, Ana; Shaw, Janet; Sheng, Xiaoming; Varner, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Pelvic floor disorders (PFDs), including pelvic organ prolapse (POP), stress and urgency urinary incontinence, and faecal incontinence, are common and arise from loss of pelvic support. Although severe disease often does not occur until women become older, pregnancy and childbirth are major risk factors for PFDs, especially POP. We understand little about modifiable factors that impact pelvic floor function recovery after vaginal birth. This National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded Program Project, ‘Bridging physical and cultural determinants of postpartum pelvic floor support and symptoms following vaginal delivery’, uses mixed-methods research to study the influences of intra-abdominal pressure, physical activity, body habitus and muscle fitness on pelvic floor support and symptoms as well as the cultural context in which women experience those changes. Methods and analysis Using quantitative methods, we will evaluate whether pelvic floor support and symptoms 1 year after the first vaginal delivery are affected by biologically plausible factors that may impact muscle, nerve and connective tissue healing during recovery (first 8 weeks postpartum) and strengthening (remainder of the first postpartum year). Using qualitative methods, we will examine cultural aspects of perceptions, explanations of changes in pelvic floor support, and actions taken by Mexican-American and Euro-American primipara, emphasising early changes after childbirth. We will summarise project results in a resource toolkit that will enhance opportunities for dialogue between women, their families and providers, and across lay and medical discourses. We anticipate enrolling up to 1530 nulliparous women into the prospective cohort study during the third trimester, following those who deliver vaginally 1 year postpartum. Participants will be drawn from this cohort to meet the project's aims. Ethics and dissemination The University of Utah and Intermountain Healthcare

  4. Stages of Vaginal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... stage of the cancer being treated. External and internal radiation therapy are used to treat vaginal cancer, and may also be used as palliative therapy to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life . Chemotherapy Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment ...

  5. Vaginal Atrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome of menopause (GSM) increases your risk of: Vaginal infections. Changes in the acid balance of your vagina makes vaginal infections (vaginitis) more likely. Urinary problems. Urinary changes associated ...

  6. Vaginitis: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Faro, S

    1996-01-01

    The various conditions that give rise to vaginitis include specific and nonspecific entities, such as candidiasis, trichomoniasis, bacterial vaginosis, group B streptococcal vaginitis, purulent vaginitis, volvodynia, and vestibulitis. The patient with chronic vaginitis usually develops this condition because of a misdiagnosis. It is critical that patients who have chronic vaginitis be thoroughly evaluated to determine if there is a specific etiology and whether their condition is recurrent or persistent, or is a reinfection. This also must include obtaining a detailed history, beginning with the patient's best recollection of when she felt perfectly normal. The physician must have an understanding of a healthy vaginal ecosystem and what mechanisms are in place to maintain the equilibrium. The vaginal ecosystem is a complex system of micro-organisms interacting with host factors to maintain its equilibrium. The endogenous microflora consists of a variety of bacteria, which include aerobic, facultative and obligate anaerobic bacteria. These organisms exist in a commensal, synergistic or antagonistic relationship. Therefore, it is important to understand what factors control the delicate equilibrium of the vaginal ecosystem, and which factors, both endogenous and exogenous, can disrupt this system. It is also important for the physician to understand that when a patient has symptoms of vaginitis it is not always due to an infectious etiology. There are situations in which an inflammatory reaction occurs but the specific etiology may not be determined. Thus, it is important that the physician not rush through the history or the examination.

  7. Resolution of subchorionic hematoma and symptoms of threatened miscarriage using vaginal alpha lipoic acid or progesterone: clinical evidences.

    PubMed

    Costantino, M; Guaraldi, C; Costantino, D

    2016-04-01

    Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA) is a safe natural molecule that exerts a selective immunomodulating activity with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT) tested the effect of the vaginal administration with ALA or Progesterone, in subchorionic hematoma resorption in women with threatened miscarriage. 400 mg of vaginal Progesterone or 10 mg of vaginal ALA were administered to sixty-two pregnant women, in the first trimester of gestation with threatened miscarriage and subchorionic hematoma. Controls were patients who chose not to receive any treatment. In the ALA group the subchorionic hematoma was reabsorbed more quickly in comparison with the progression detected in Progesterone group (p ≤ 0.05). The other parameters checked (pelvic pain and vaginal bleeding) did not show any significant difference and a smaller number of miscarriages was recorded in the ALA group, compared to Progesterone group. Our data provides the first evidence of the efficacy of ALA, administered by vaginal route, in the healing process of patients with threatened miscarriage, thus supporting the normal course of pregnancy. NCT02601898 (ClinicalTrials.gov registry).

  8. Pelvic floor symptoms and severity of pelvic organ prolapse in women seeking care for pelvic floor problems.

    PubMed

    Espuña-Pons, Montserrat; Fillol, Manuel; Pascual, María A; Rebollo, Pablo; Mora, Ana M

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate whether POP severity is related to lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and symptoms of sexual difficulties, when evaluated with validated questionnaires. Multicentric cross-sectional study of 521 women seeking care for PFD in 35 specialized urogynecological clinics. Patients answered the EPIQ to detect symptoms of PFD. The severity of urinary incontinence and the OAB symptoms were measured by ICIQ-UI SF and BSAQ. POP anatomic severity was measured by the anatomic stage of each compartment, determined in pelvic examination in accordance with the IUGA-ICS terminology. A maximum POP stage (M-POP-S) was assigned to each patient: Group A, patients with no POP (stage 0-I); group B, M-POP-S stage II; and group C, M-POP-S stage III-IV. Pelvic examination demonstrated anatomic POP in 224 patients (stage from II to IV). 288 women (56.25%) were classified in group A (no prolapse); 102 (19.92%) group B (stage II); and 122 (28.83%) group C (stage III-IV). Several associations were found between studied variables and M-POP-S (age<55 years, menopause, number of vaginal deliveries, symptom of vaginal bulge, feeling of a bulge makes it difficult to have sexual relations, symptoms of stress urinary incontinence, nocturia and voiding difficulties), but the only variables independently associated were age, symptom of vaginal bulge and difficulty in having sexual relations due to feeling of a bulge. In patients seeking care for PFD, LUTS are not independently associated to the prolapse stage. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Effect of tension-free vaginal tape and TVT-obturator on lower urinary tract symptoms other than stress urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Ballert, Katie N; Kanofsky, Jamie A; Nitti, Victor W

    2008-03-01

    Variable effects on lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) other than stress urinary incontinence (SUI) have been reported after tension-free vaginal tape (TVT). We measured the effect of TVT on LUTS using the American Urological Association Symptom Index (AUASI). Patients undergoing TVT completed the AUASI pre- and post-operatively. Total scores (TS), storage scores (SS), and voiding scores (VS) were compared overall and among patients with SUI vs mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) and those who underwent TVT vs TVT-obturator (TVT-O). The mean change in TS and SS was -3.6 and -3.0. Mean reductions in TS and SS were significant in all patient subsets with no change in VS. There was no significant difference in the mean changes in TS between patients with SUI vs MUI or those undergoing TVT vs TVT-O. LUTS are improved after TVT in most patients. In general, voiding symptoms were not adversely affected.

  10. Vaginal disorders.

    PubMed

    Soderberg, S F

    1986-05-01

    Chronic vaginitis is the most common vaginal disorder. Dogs with vaginitis show no signs of systemic illness but often lick at the vulva and have purulent or hemorrhagic vaginal discharges. Vaginitis is most commonly secondary to a noninfectious inciting factor such as congenital vaginal anomalies, clitoral hypertrophy, foreign bodies, trauma to the vaginal mucosa, or vaginal tumors. Inspection of the caudal vagina and vestibule both visually and digitally will often reveal the source of vaginal irritation. Vaginal cytology is used to establish the stage of the estrous cycle as well as distinguish uterine from vaginal sources of discharge. Vaginal cultures are used to establish the predominant offending organism associated with vaginal discharges and may be used as a guide for selection of a therapeutic agent. Vaginitis is best managed by removing the inciting cause and treating the area locally with antiseptic douches. Congenital malformations at the vestibulovaginal or vestibulovulvar junction may prevent normal intromission. Affected bitches may be reluctant to breed naturally because of pain. Such defects are detected best by digital examination. Congenital vaginal defects may be corrected by digital or surgical means. Prolapse of tissue through the lips of the vulva may be caused by clitoral hypertrophy, vaginal hyperplasia, or vaginal tumors. Enlargement of clitoral tissue is the result of endogenous or exogenous sources of androgens. Treatment of this condition includes removal of the androgen source and/or surgical removal of clitoral tissue. Vaginal hyperplasia is detected during proestrus or estrus of young bitches. Hyperplastic tissue will regress during diestrus. Tissue that is excessively traumatized and/or prolapse of the entire vaginal circumference may be removed surgically. Ovariohysterectomy may be used to prevent recurrence. Vaginal tumors are detected most often in older intact bitches. Such tumors are generally of smooth muscle or fibrous

  11. Menopause and the vaginal microbiome.

    PubMed

    Muhleisen, Alicia L; Herbst-Kralovetz, Melissa M

    2016-09-01

    For over a century it has been well documented that bacteria in the vagina maintain vaginal homeostasis, and that an imbalance or dysbiosis may be associated with poor reproductive and gynecologic health outcomes. Vaginal microbiota are of particular significance to postmenopausal women and may have a profound effect on vulvovaginal atrophy, vaginal dryness, sexual health and overall quality of life. As molecular-based techniques have evolved, our understanding of the diversity and complexity of this bacterial community has expanded. The objective of this review is to compare the changes that have been identified in the vaginal microbiota of menopausal women, outline alterations in the microbiome associated with specific menopausal symptoms, and define how hormone replacement therapy impacts the vaginal microbiome and menopausal symptoms; it concludes by considering the potential of probiotics to reinstate vaginal homeostasis following menopause. This review details the studies that support the role of Lactobacillus species in maintaining vaginal homeostasis and how the vaginal microbiome structure in postmenopausal women changes with decreasing levels of circulating estrogen. In addition, the associated transformations in the microanatomical features of the vaginal epithelium that can lead to vaginal symptoms associated with menopause are described. Furthermore, hormone replacement therapy directly influences the dominance of Lactobacillus in the microbiota and can resolve vaginal symptoms. Oral and vaginal probiotics hold great promise and initial studies complement the findings of previous research efforts concerning menopause and the vaginal microbiome; however, additional trials are required to determine the efficacy of bacterial therapeutics to modulate or restore vaginal homeostasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Efficacy of intravaginal dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on moderate to severe dyspareunia and vaginal dryness, symptoms of vulvovaginal atrophy, and of the genitourinary syndrome of menopause.

    PubMed

    Labrie, Fernand; Archer, David F; Koltun, William; Vachon, Andrée; Young, Douglas; Frenette, Louise; Portman, David; Montesino, Marlene; Côté, Isabelle; Parent, Julie; Lavoie, Lyne; Beauregard, Adam; Martel, Céline; Vaillancourt, Mario; Balser, John; Moyneur, Érick

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to confirm the local beneficial effects of intravaginal dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, Prasterone) on moderate to severe dyspareunia or pain at sexual activity, the most frequent symptom of vulvovaginal atrophy due to menopause or genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM). In a prospective, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled phase III clinical trial, the effect of daily intravaginal 0.50% DHEA (6.5 mg) (Prasterone, EndoCeutics) was examined on four coprimary objectives, namely percentage of parabasal cells, percentage or superficial cells, vaginal pH, and moderate to severe pain at sexual activity (dyspareunia) identified by the women as their most bothersome vulvovaginal atrophy symptom. The intent-to-treat population included 157 and 325 women in the placebo and DHEA-treated groups, respectively. After daily intravaginal administration of 0.50% DHEA for 12 weeks, when compared to baseline by the analysis of covariance test, the percentage of parabasal cells decreased by 27.7% over placebo (P < 0.0001), whereas the percentage of superficial cells increased by 8.44% over placebo (P < 0.0001), vaginal pH decreased by 0.66 pH unit over placebo (P < 0.0001), and pain at sexual activity decreased by 1.42 severity score unit from baseline or 0.36 unit over placebo (P = 0.0002). On the other hand, moderate to severe vaginal dryness present in 84.0% of women improved at 12 weeks by 1.44 severity score unit compared to baseline, or 0.27 unit over placebo (P = 0.004). At gynecological evaluation, vaginal secretions, epithelial integrity, epithelial surface thickness, and color all improved by 86% to 121% over the placebo effect (P < 0.0001 for all comparisons with placebo). Serum steroid levels remained well within the normal postmenopausal values according to the involved mechanisms of intracrinology. The only side effect reasonably related to treatment is vaginal discharge due to melting of the vehicle at

  13. Evaluation of vaginal complaints.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Matthew R; Klink, Kathleen; Cohrssen, Andreas

    2004-03-17

    Vaginal symptoms are one of the most common reasons for gynecological consultation. Clinicians have traditionally diagnosed vaginal candidiasis, bacterial vaginosis, and vaginal trichomoniasis using some combination of physical examination, pH, the wet mount, and the whiff test. To evaluate the role of the clinical examination and determine the positive and negative likelihood ratios (LRs) for the diagnosis of vaginal candidiasis, bacterial vaginosis, and vaginal trichomoniasis. Using a structured literature review, we abstracted information on sensitivity and specificity for symptoms, signs, and office laboratory procedures. We chose published (1966 to April 2003) articles that appeared in the MEDLINE database and were indexed under the combined search terms of diagnosis with vaginitis, vaginal discharge, candidiasis, bacterial vaginosis, and trichomoniasis. Included studies of symptomatic premenopausal women seen in primary care settings. Tests were evaluated only if they would provide diagnostic information during the office visit and were compared with an acceptable criterion standard. All 3 authors extracted the data and computed sensitivity and specificity from each article independently. The absence of standard definitions for symptoms and signs made it impossible to combine results across studies. Symptoms alone do not allow clinicians to distinguish confidently between the causes of vaginitis. However, a patient's lack of itching makes candidiasis less likely (range of LRs, 0.18 [95% confidence interval [CI], 0.05-0.70] to 0.79 [95% CI, 0.72-0.87]) and lack of perceived odor makes bacterial vaginosis unlikely (LR, 0.07 [95% CI, 0.01-0.51]). Similarly, physical examination signs are limited in their diagnostic power. The presence of inflammatory signs is associated with candidiasis (range of LRs, 2.1 [95% CI, 1.5-2.8] to 8.4 [95% CI, 2.3-31]). Presence of a "high cheese" odor on examination is predictive of bacterial vaginosis (LR, 3.2 [95% CI, 2

  14. Physical and cultural determinants of postpartum pelvic floor support and symptoms following vaginal delivery: a protocol for a mixed-methods prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Nygaard, Ingrid E; Clark, Erin; Clark, Lauren; Egger, Marlene J; Hitchcock, Robert; Hsu, Yvonne; Norton, Peggy; Sanchez-Birkhead, Ana; Shaw, Janet; Sheng, Xiaoming; Varner, Michael

    2017-01-10

    Pelvic floor disorders (PFDs), including pelvic organ prolapse (POP), stress and urgency urinary incontinence, and faecal incontinence, are common and arise from loss of pelvic support. Although severe disease often does not occur until women become older, pregnancy and childbirth are major risk factors for PFDs, especially POP. We understand little about modifiable factors that impact pelvic floor function recovery after vaginal birth. This National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded Program Project, 'Bridging physical and cultural determinants of postpartum pelvic floor support and symptoms following vaginal delivery', uses mixed-methods research to study the influences of intra-abdominal pressure, physical activity, body habitus and muscle fitness on pelvic floor support and symptoms as well as the cultural context in which women experience those changes. Using quantitative methods, we will evaluate whether pelvic floor support and symptoms 1 year after the first vaginal delivery are affected by biologically plausible factors that may impact muscle, nerve and connective tissue healing during recovery (first 8 weeks postpartum) and strengthening (remainder of the first postpartum year). Using qualitative methods, we will examine cultural aspects of perceptions, explanations of changes in pelvic floor support, and actions taken by Mexican-American and Euro-American primipara, emphasising early changes after childbirth. We will summarise project results in a resource toolkit that will enhance opportunities for dialogue between women, their families and providers, and across lay and medical discourses. We anticipate enrolling up to 1530 nulliparous women into the prospective cohort study during the third trimester, following those who deliver vaginally 1 year postpartum. Participants will be drawn from this cohort to meet the project's aims. The University of Utah and Intermountain Healthcare Institutional Review Boards approved this study. Data are stored in a

  15. Vaginal Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... bleeding is any vaginal bleeding unrelated to normal menstruation. This type of bleeding may include spotting of ... two or more hours. Normal vaginal bleeding, or menstruation, occurs every 21 to 35 days when the ...

  16. Vaginal Odor

    MedlinePlus

    ... usually don't cause vaginal odors. Neither do yeast infections. Generally, if you have vaginal odor without ... Avoid douching. All healthy vaginas contain bacteria and yeast. The normal acidity of your vagina keeps bacteria ...

  17. Clindamycin Vaginal

    MedlinePlus

    ... an infection caused by an overgrowth of harmful bacteria in the vagina). Clindamycin is in a class ... works by slowing or stopping the growth of bacteria. Vaginal clindamycin cannot be used to treat vaginal ...

  18. Vaginal Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Vaginal problems are some of the most common reasons women go to the doctor. They may have ... common problem is vaginitis, an inflammation of the vagina. Other problems that affect the vagina include sexually ...

  19. Qualitative cross-cultural exploration of vaginal bleeding/spotting symptoms and impacts associated with hormone therapy in post-menopausal women to inform the development of new patient-reported measurement tools.

    PubMed

    Arbuckle, Rob; Humphrey, Louise; Abraham, Lucy; Dennerstein, Lorraine; Simon, James A; Mirkin, Sebastian; Bonner, Nicola; Walmsley, Steven; Tatlock, Sophi; Symonds, Tara

    2014-07-01

    To understand the vaginal bleeding/spotting experiences of postmenopausal (PM) women taking estrogen plus progestin therapies (EPT) and develop measures to assess these symptoms and their impact on women's daily lives in four countries. (1) Concept elicitation interviews were conducted with PM women in the US (n=14), Italy (n=15), Mexico (n=15) and China (n=15) to explore vaginal bleeding/spotting symptoms associated with EPT. The Post-Menopausal Bleeding Questionnaire (PMBQ) was also debriefed to evaluate understanding and comprehensiveness. (2) Based on concept elicitation, a single item electronic daily diary was developed and the PMBQ modified to form a 12-item impact measure. (3) The measures were pilot-tested and then cognitively debriefed with US women receiving EPT. All qualitative data was subject to thematic analysis. The Vaginal Bleeding/Spotting Daily Diary, (VBS-DD) and Post-Menopausal Bleeding Impact Questionnaire (PMBIQ) were developed in this study. Concept elicitation identified vaginal bleeding and spotting as important symptoms for women taking EPT, impacting their emotional wellbeing, social life, ability to move freely, clothing and sexual activity. Based on pilot testing and cognitive debriefing, women demonstrated good understanding of the VBS-DD and the PMBQ was reduced to 10 items due to conceptual redundancy. Women taking EPT in the US, China, Mexico and Italy reported vaginal bleeding/spotting symptoms that have a detrimental impact on their quality of life. Two new measures were developed to assess the severity and impact of vaginal bleeding/spotting specific to EPT. This work highlights the need for EPT-related symptoms to be a part of treatment decision-making. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Treatment Option Overview (Vaginal Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... stage of the cancer being treated. External and internal radiation therapy are used to treat vaginal cancer, and may also be used as palliative therapy to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life . Chemotherapy Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment ...

  1. The Relaxation Exercise and Social Support Trial (RESST): a community-based randomized controlled trial to alleviate medically unexplained vaginal discharge symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kobeissi, Loulou; Mahfoud, Ziyad; Khoury, Brigitte; El Kak, Fayssal; Ghantous, Zeina; Khawaja, Marwan; Nakkash, Rima; Ramia, Sami; Zurayk, Huda; Araya, Ricardo; Peters, Tim J

    2012-11-09

    Symptoms such as medically unexplained vaginal discharge (MUVD) are common and bothersome, leading to potentially unnecessary use of resources. A community-based individually randomized controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of a relatively simple, culturally appropriate multi-component intervention on reducing reported MUVD, among women suffering from low-moderate levels of common mental distress. The setting was a socio-economically deprived, informal settlement in the southern suburbs of Beirut, Lebanon. The intervention comprised up to 12 group sessions implemented over a six-week period, each divided into a psychosocial and a relaxation exercise component. The primary outcome was self-reported MUVD, which was defined as a complaint of vaginal discharge upon ruling out reproductive tract infections (RTIs), through lab analysis. Anxiety and/or depression symptoms were the secondary outcomes for this trial. These were assessed using an Arabic validated version of the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist-25 (HSCL-25). Assessments were done at baseline and six months using face-to face interviews, pelvic examinations and laboratory tests. Women were randomized into either intervention or control group. Blinding on the intervention status was not possible for both logistic and ethical reasons, especially as knowledge of involvement in the intervention was integral to its delivery. Intent to treat analysis was used. Of 75 women randomized to the intervention, 48% reported MUVD at 6 months compared with 63% of 73 in the control group (difference of -15%, 95% confidence interval (CI) -31%, 0%, p=0.067). Adjustments for baseline imbalances and any factors relating to consent had no appreciable effect on these results. The risk of MUVD was reduced in absolute terms by 2.4% for each intervention session attended (95% CI -4.9%, 0.0%, p=0.049). While there was also marginal evidence of a beneficial effect on anxiety, there was no evidence of mediation of the effect on MUVD

  2. Vaginal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Vaginal cancer is a rare type of cancer. It is more common in women 60 and older. You are also more likely to get it if you have had a human ... test can find abnormal cells that may be cancer. Vaginal cancer can often be cured in its ...

  3. Vaginal Fistula

    MedlinePlus

    Vaginal fistula Overview A vaginal fistula is an abnormal opening that connects your vagina to another organ, such as your bladder, colon or rectum. Your ... describe the condition as a hole in your vagina that allows stool or urine to pass through ...

  4. Bright Compact Bulges (BCBs) at intermediate redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachdeva, Sonali; Saha, Kanak

    2018-04-01

    Studying bright (MB < -20), intermediate-redshift (0.4 < z < 1.0), disc dominated (nB < 2.5) galaxies from HST/ACS and WFC3 in Chandra Deep Field South, in rest-frame B and I-band, we found a new class of bulges which is brighter and more compact than ellipticals. We refer to them as "Bright, Compact Bulges" (BCBs) - they resemble neither classical nor pseudo-bulges and constitute ˜12% of the total bulge population at these redshifts. Examining free-bulge + disc decomposition sample and elliptical galaxy sample from Simard et al. (2011), we find that only ˜0.2% of the bulges can be classified as BCBs in the local Universe. Bulge to total ratio (B/T) of disc galaxies with BCBs is (at ˜0.4) a factor of ˜2 and ˜4 larger than for those with classical and pseudo bulges. BCBs are ˜2.5 and ˜6 times more massive than classical and pseudo bulges. Although disc galaxies with BCBs host the most massive and dominant bulge type, their specific star formation rate is 1.5-2 times higher than other disc galaxies. This is contrary to the expectations that a massive compact bulge would lead to lower star formation rates. We speculate that our BCB host disc galaxies are descendant of massive, compact and passive elliptical galaxies observed at higher redshifts. Those high redshift ellipticals lack local counterparts and possibly evolved by acquiring a compact disc around them. The overall properties of BCBs supports a picture of galaxy assembly in which younger discs are being accreted around massive pre-existing spheroids.

  5. Bright compact bulges at intermediate redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachdeva, Sonali; Saha, Kanak

    2018-07-01

    Studying bright (MB < -20), intermediate-redshift (0.4 < z< 1.0), disc-dominated (nB < 2.5) galaxies from Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys and Wide Field Camera 3 in Chandra Deep Field-South, in rest-frame B and I band, we found a new class of bulges that is brighter and more compact than ellipticals. We refer to them as `bright, compact bulges' (BCBs) - they resemble neither classical nor pseudo-bulges and constitute ˜12 per cent of the total bulge population at these redshifts. Examining free-bulge + disc decomposition sample and elliptical galaxy sample from Simard et al., we find that only ˜0.2 per cent of the bulges can be classified as BCBs in the local Universe. Bulge to total light ratio of disc galaxies with BCBs is (at ˜0.4) a factor of ˜2 and ˜4 larger than for those with classical and pseudo-bulges. BCBs are ˜2.5 and ˜6 times more massive than classical and pseudo-bulges. Although disc galaxies with BCBs host the most massive and dominant bulge type, their specific star formation rate is 1.5-2 times higher than other disc galaxies. This is contrary to the expectations that a massive compact bulge would lead to lower star formation rates. We speculate that our BCB host disc galaxies are descendant of massive, compact, and passive elliptical galaxies observed at higher redshifts. Those high-redshift ellipticals lack local counterparts and possibly evolved by acquiring a compact disc around them. The overall properties of BCBs support a picture of galaxy assembly in which younger discs are being accreted around massive pre-existing spheroids.

  6. BULGES OF NEARBY GALAXIES WITH SPITZER: SCALING RELATIONS IN PSEUDOBULGES AND CLASSICAL BULGES

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, David B.; Drory, Niv, E-mail: dbfisher@astro.as.utexas.ed

    2010-06-20

    We investigate scaling relations of bulges using bulge-disk decompositions at 3.6 {mu}m and present bulge classifications for 173 E-Sd galaxies within 20 Mpc. Pseudobulges and classical bulges are identified using Sersic index, Hubble Space Telescope morphology, and star formation activity (traced by 8 {mu}m emission). In the near-IR pseudobulges have n{sub b} < 2 and classical bulges have n{sub b} >2, as found in the optical. Sersic index and morphology are essentially equivalent properties for bulge classification purposes. We confirm, using a much more robust sample, that the Sersic index of pseudobulges is uncorrelated with other bulge structural properties, unlikemore » for classical bulges and elliptical galaxies. Also, the half-light radius of pseudobulges is not correlated with any other bulge property. We also find a new correlation between surface brightness and pseudobulge luminosity; pseudobulges become more luminous as they become more dense. Classical bulges follow the well-known scaling relations between surface brightness, luminosity, and half-light radius that are established by elliptical galaxies. We show that those pseudobulges (as indicated by Sersic index and nuclear morphology) that have low specific star formation rates are very similar to models of galaxies in which both a pseudobulge and classical bulge exist. Therefore, pseudobulge identification that relies only on structural indicators is incomplete. Our results, especially those on scaling relations, imply that pseudobulges are very different types of objects than elliptical galaxies.« less

  7. Resolution of Rectal Prolapse by Vaginal Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Devakumar, Hemikaa; Chandrasekaran, Neeraja; Alas, Alexandriah; Martin, Laura; Davila, G Willy; Hurtado, Eric

    Rectal prolapse is a disorder of the pelvic floor in which the layers of the rectal mucosa protrude outward through the anus. Surgical repair is the mainstay of treatment. Options include intra-abdominal procedures such as rectopexy and perineal procedures such as the Delorme and Altemeier perineal rectosigmoidectomy. Rectal and vaginal prolapse can often coexist. However, to our knowledge, there are no reported cases of rectal prolapse resolved by the repair of a compressive enterocele abutting the anterior rectal wall through a vaginal approach alone. We present a novel case of rectal prolapse that resolved by correction of the vaginal defect. A 53-year-old female with prior history of abdominal hysterectomy, presented to the urogynecology clinic with complaints of vaginal bulge, urge urinary incontinence, and rectal bulge on straining with no fecal incontinence for several years. On physical examination, she was found to have stage 2 anterior, posterior, and apical vaginal prolapse and reducible rectal prolapse. Colorectal surgery (CRS) evaluation was requested, which revealed minimal anterior mucosal prolapse on Valsalva with no full-thickness prolapse. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) defecogram was performed, which demonstrated a large rectocele, enterocele, and small bowel prolapsing between the rectum and vagina during the evacuation phase, with no rectal prolapse. The decision to proceed with vaginal prolapse surgery without concomitant rectal prolapse repair was made, as the patient had no fecal incontinence, and the degree of rectal prolapse was minimal. On the day of surgery, which was 2 months later, she presented with a 2-cm anterior rectal prolapse with no incontinence. Colorectal surgery was consulted again, but unavailable. After counseling, the patient wished to proceed with her planned surgery. It was felt that correcting the anterior rectocele and enterocele, thereby eliminating the descent of the bowel on the anterior rectal wall, might cause

  8. Metronidazole Vaginal

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat vaginal infections such as bacterial vaginosis (an infection caused from too much of certain bacteria in the vagina). Metronidazole is in a class of medications called nitroimidazole antimicrobials. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria.

  9. Vaginal bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... who are approaching menopause. Women who take oral contraceptives may experience episodes of abnormal vaginal bleeding. Often ... Practice Bulletin No. 110: noncontraceptive uses of hormonal contraceptives. Obstet Gynecol . 2010;115(1):206-218. PMID: ...

  10. Estrogen Vaginal

    MedlinePlus

    ... estradiol vaginal ring is also used to treat hot flushes ('hot flashes'; sudden strong feelings of heat and sweating) ... leave the ring in place when you have sex. If you choose to remove it or if ...

  11. Vaginal Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Mendling, Werner

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge about the normal and abnormal vaginal microbiome has changed over the last years. Culturing techniques are not suitable any more for determination of a normal or abnormal vaginal microbiota. Non culture-based modern technologies revealed a complex and dynamic system mainly dominated by lactobacilli.The normal and the abnormal vaginal microbiota are complex ecosystems of more than 200 bacterial species influenced by genes, ethnic background and environmental and behavioral factors. Several species of lactobacilli per individuum dominate the healthy vagina. They support a defense system together with antibacterial substances, cytokines, defensins and others against dysbiosis, infections and care for an normal pregnancy without preterm birth.The numbers of Lactobacillus (L.) iners increase in the case of dysbiosis.Bacterial vaginosis (BV) - associated bacteria (BVAB), Atopobium vaginae and Clostridiales and one or two of four Gardnerella vaginalis - strains develop in different mixtures and numbers polymicrobial biofilms on the vaginal epithelium, which are not dissolved by antibiotic therapies according to guidelines and, thus, provoke recurrences.Aerobic vaginitis seems to be an immunological disorder of the vagina with influence on the microbiota, which is here dominated by aerobic bacteria (Streptococcus agalactiae, Escherichia coli). Their role in AV is unknown.Vaginal or oral application of lactobacilli is obviously able to improve therapeutic results of BV and dysbiosis.

  12. Hysterectomy - vaginal - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; Laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; LAVH - discharge ... you were in the hospital, you had a vaginal hysterectomy. Your surgeon made a cut in your ...

  13. Correlation Between Echodefecography and 3-Dimensional Vaginal Ultrasonography in the Detection of Perineal Descent in Women With Constipation Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Murad-Regadas, Sthela M; Pinheiro Regadas, Francisco Sergio; Rodrigues, Lusmar V; da Silva Vilarinho, Adjra; Buchen, Guilherme; Borges, Livia Olinda; Veras, Lara B; da Cruz, Mariana Murad

    2016-12-01

    Defecography is an established method of evaluating dynamic anorectal dysfunction, but conventional defecography does not allow for visualization of anatomic structures. The purpose of this study was to describe the use of dynamic 3-dimensional endovaginal ultrasonography for evaluating perineal descent in comparison with echodefecography (3-dimensional anorectal ultrasonography) and to study the relationship between perineal descent and symptoms and anatomic/functional abnormalities of the pelvic floor. This was a prospective study. The study was conducted at a large university tertiary care hospital. Consecutive female patients were eligible if they had pelvic floor dysfunction, obstructed defecation symptoms, and a score >6 on the Cleveland Clinic Florida Constipation Scale. Each patient underwent both echodefecography and dynamic 3-dimensional endovaginal ultrasonography to evaluate posterior pelvic floor dysfunction. Normal perineal descent was defined on echodefecography as puborectalis muscle displacement ≤2.5 cm; excessive perineal descent was defined as displacement >2.5 cm. Of 61 women, 29 (48%) had normal perineal descent; 32 (52%) had excessive perineal descent. Endovaginal ultrasonography identified 27 of the 29 patients in the normal group as having anorectal junction displacement ≤1 cm (mean = 0.6 cm; range, 0.1-1.0 cm) and a mean anorectal junction position of 0.6 cm (range, 0-2.3 cm) above the symphysis pubis during the Valsalva maneuver and correctly identified 30 of the 32 patients in the excessive perineal descent group. The κ statistic showed almost perfect agreement (κ = 0.86) between the 2 methods for categorization into the normal and excessive perineal descent groups. Perineal descent was not related to fecal or urinary incontinence or anatomic and functional factors (sphincter defects, pubovisceral muscle defects, levator hiatus area, grade II or III rectocele, intussusception, or anismus). The study did not include a

  14. Treatment of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy with 10-μg estradiol vaginal tablets.

    PubMed

    Panay, Nick; Maamari, Ricardo

    2012-03-01

    Postmenopausal estrogen deficiency can lead to symptoms of urogenital atrophy. Individuals with urogenital atrophy have symptoms that include vaginal dryness, vaginal and vulval irritation, vaginal soreness, pain and burning during urination (dysuria), increased vaginal discharge, vaginal odour, vaginal infections, recurrent urinary tract infections, pain associated with sexual activity (dyspareunia) and vaginal bleeding associated with sexual activity. Despite the frequency and effects of vaginal atrophy symptoms, they are often under-reported and, consequently, under-treated. Therefore, care of a menopausal woman should include a physical assessment of vaginal atrophy and a dialogue between the physician and the patient that explores existing symptoms and their effect on vulvovaginal health, sexuality and quality-of-life issues. The development of the ultra-low-dose 10-µg estradiol vaginal tablets is in line with the requirements of regulatory agencies and women's health societies regarding the use of the lowest effective hormonal dose. Because of its effectiveness and safety profiles, in addition to its minimal systemic absorption, the 10-µg estradiol vaginal tablet can offer greater reassurance to health-care providers and postmenopausal women with an annual estradiol administration of only 1.14 mg.

  15. Jupiter's hydrogen bulge: A Cassini perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melin, Henrik; Stallard, T. S.

    2016-11-01

    We present observations of H Ly-α and H2 emissions on the body of Jupiter obtained during the Cassini flyby in late 2000 and early 2001. The H Ly-α emission is highly organised by System III longitude and latitude, peaking at a brightness of 22 kR between 90 and 120° longitude. This is known as the H Ly-α 'bulge'. These observations add to a number of previous studies, showing that the feature is very long-lived, present over several decades. We show that there is a strong correlation between the prevailing solar H Ly-α flux (measured at Earth) and the peak brightness of the H Ly-α bulge at Jupiter, which supports the notion that it is primarily driven by solar resonance scatter. The H Ly-α brightness distribution is not aligned with the jovigraphic equator, but is approximately aligned with the particle drift equator of some, but not all, major Jupiter magnetic field models. On the time scale of days, the bulge region appears twice as variable as the non-bulge region. We propose that the electron recombination of H3+ is an important reaction for the generation of the H Ly-α bulge, which requires an enhancement of soft electrons at the location of the bulge. We derive an equatorial H3+ lifetime of 1.6 ± 0.4 h and a corresponding column averaged electron density of 1.7 × 109 m-3.

  16. Iliococcygeus fixation for the treatment of apical vaginal prolapse: efficacy and safety at 5 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Serati, Maurizio; Braga, Andrea; Bogani, Giorgio; Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Sorice, Paola; Ghezzi, Fabio; Salvatore, Stefano

    2015-07-01

    Sacrocolpopexy is considered the gold standard treatment for vaginal vault prolapse. However, the vaginal approach is very common, with 80-90 % of procedures being performed via this route. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of iliococcygeus (ICG) fixation in the treatment of vaginal vault prolapse, with a minimum follow-up of 5 years. We prospectively enrolled women with symptomatic vaginal vault prolapse (Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification [POP-Q] stage ≥2) who were treated with ICG fixation. Subjective success was defined in the case of Patient Global Impression of Improvement ≤ 2 and an absence of bulging symptoms. Objective success was defined as stage of prolapse < 2 in all compartments. Overall success rate was defined as women without prolapse symptoms, PGI-I ≤ 2, stage of prolapse < 2, and no need for other surgery. All women filled in the Prolapse Quality of Life (P-QOL) questionnaire both at the preoperative visit and at every follow-up visit. Multiple logistic regression was performed to identify factors involved in the risk of recurrent POP. After a median (range) follow-up of 68.8 (60-92) months the subjective, objective, and overall cure rates were 88.6 % (39 out of 44), 84.1 % (37 out of 44), and 84.1 % (37 out of 44) respectively. Only preoperative stage IV vault descensus independently predicted POP recurrence after iliococcygeus fixation (OR: 8.78 [95 % CI: 1.31-9.42]; p < 0.001). Iliococcygeus fixation is a safe and effective surgical technique for the treatment of vaginal vault prolapse with long-lasting effectiveness.

  17. [Clinical characteristics of aerobic vaginitis and its mixed infections].

    PubMed

    Fan, Ai-Ping; Xue, Feng-Xia

    2010-12-01

    To investigate clinical characteristics of aerobic vaginitis (AV) and its mixed infections for diagnosis efficiently. From April 2008 to December 2008, 516 patients with vaginitis treated in Tianjin Medical University General Hospital were enrolled in this study. AV, bacterial vaginosis (BV), vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), trichomonal vaginitis (TV), and cytolytic vaginosis (CV) were diagnosed based on symptoms, sign and vaginal discharge examination. Among 516 cases, AV cases were found in 14.7% (76/516), and AV was common vaginal infection. AV mixed infections was diagnosed in 58% (44/76), including mixed with BV (45%, 20/44), mixed with VVC (30%, 13/44), and mixed with TV (25%, 11/44). Those common symptom of AV were yellow vaginal discharge (63%, 20/32), more vaginal discharge (44%, 14/32). Vaginal pH value was usually more than 4.5 (84%, 27/32). Vaginal cleanliness mainly was grade III - IV (88%, 28/32). Six cases with enterococcus faecium and 4 cases with streptococci were frequently isolated. The symptom and sign of mixed AV infection was atypical. Aerobic vaginitis is a common lower vaginal infection and easily mixed with other pathogens, especially with BV, VVC or TV. When patients were diagnosed with AV or other vaginal infection, it should be mentioned whether those patients have mixed vaginal infection or AV.

  18. Does the Galactic Bulge Have Fewer Planets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-12-01

    The Milky Ways dense central bulge is a very different environment than the surrounding galactic disk in which we live. Do the differences affect the ability of planets to form in the bulge?Exploring Galactic PlanetsSchematic illustrating how gravitational microlensing by an extrasolar planet works. [NASA]Planet formation is a complex process with many aspects that we dont yet understand. Do environmental properties like host star metallicity, the density of nearby stars, or the intensity of the ambient radiation field affect the ability of planets to form? To answer these questions, we will ultimately need to search for planets around stars in a large variety of different environments in our galaxy.One way to detect recently formed, distant planets is by gravitational microlensing. In this process, light from a distant source star is bent by a lens star that is briefly located between us and the source. As the Earth moves, this momentary alignment causes a blip in the sources light curve that we can detect and planets hosted by the lens star can cause an additional observable bump.Artists impression of the Milky Way galaxy. The central bulge is much denserthan the surroundingdisk. [ESO/NASA/JPL-Caltech/M. Kornmesser/R. Hurt]Relative AbundancesMost source stars reside in the galactic bulge, so microlensing events can probe planetary systems at any distance between the Earth and the galactic bulge. This means that planet detections from microlensing could potentially be used to measure the relative abundances of exoplanets in different parts of our galaxy.A team of scientists led by Matthew Penny, a Sagan postdoctoral fellow at Ohio State University, set out to do just that. The group considered a sample of 31 exoplanetary systems detected by microlensing and asked the following question: are the planet abundances in the galactic bulge and the galactic disk the same?A Paucity of PlanetsTo answer this question, Penny and collaborators derived the expected

  19. KINEMATIC SIGNATURES OF BULGES CORRELATE WITH BULGE MORPHOLOGIES AND SERSIC INDEX

    SciTech Connect

    Fabricius, Maximilian H.; Saglia, Roberto P.; Bender, Ralf

    2012-07-20

    We use the Marcario Low Resolution Spectrograph at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope to study the kinematics of pseudobulges and classical bulges in the nearby universe. We present major axis rotational velocities, velocity dispersions, and h{sub 3} and h{sub 4} moments derived from high-resolution ({sigma}{sub inst} Almost-Equal-To 39 km s{sup -1}) spectra for 45 S0 to Sc galaxies; for 27 of the galaxies we also present minor axis data. We combine our kinematics with bulge-to-disk decompositions. We demonstrate for the first time that purely kinematic diagnostics of the bulge dichotomy agree systematically with those based on Sersic index. Low Sersic index bulgesmore » have both increased rotational support (higher v/{sigma} values) and on average lower central velocity dispersions. Furthermore, we confirm that the same correlation also holds when visual morphologies are used to diagnose bulge type. The previously noted trend of photometrically flattened bulges to have shallower velocity dispersion profiles turns out to be significant and systematic if the Sersic index is used to distinguish between pseudobulges and classical bulges. The anti-correlation between h{sub 3} and v/{sigma} observed in elliptical galaxies is also observed in intermediate-type galaxies, irrespective of bulge type. Finally, we present evidence for formerly undetected counter-rotation in the two systems NGC 3945 and NGC 4736.« less

  20. Atrophic Vaginitis in Breast Cancer Survivors: A Difficult Survivorship Issue

    PubMed Central

    Lester, Joanne; Pahouja, Gaurav; Andersen, Barbara; Lustberg, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Management of breast cancer includes systematic therapies including chemotherapy and endocrine therapy can lead to a variety of symptoms that can impair the quality of life of many breast cancer survivors. Atrophic vaginitis, caused by decreased levels of circulating estrogen to urinary and vaginal receptors, is commonly experienced by this group. Chemotherapy induced ovarian failure and endocrine therapies including aromatase inhibitors and selective estrogen receptor modulators can trigger the onset of atrophic vaginitis or exacerbate existing symptoms. Symptoms of atrophic vaginitis include vaginal dryness, dyspareunia, and irritation of genital skin, pruritus, burning, vaginal discharge, and soreness. The diagnosis of atrophic vaginitis is confirmed through patient-reported symptoms and gynecological examination of external structures, introitus, and vaginal mucosa. Lifestyle modifications can be helpful but are usually insufficient to significantly improve symptoms. Non-hormonal vaginal therapies may provide additional relief by increasing vaginal moisture and fluid. Systemic estrogen therapy is contraindicated in breast cancer survivors. Continued investigations of various treatments for atrophic vaginitis are necessary. Local estrogen-based therapies, DHEA, testosterone, and pH-balanced gels continue to be evaluated in ongoing studies. Definitive results are needed pertaining to the safety of topical estrogens in breast cancer survivors. PMID:25815692

  1. Atrophic vaginitis in breast cancer survivors: a difficult survivorship issue.

    PubMed

    Lester, Joanne; Pahouja, Gaurav; Andersen, Barbara; Lustberg, Maryam

    2015-03-25

    Management of breast cancer includes systematic therapies including chemotherapy and endocrine therapy can lead to a variety of symptoms that can impair the quality of life of many breast cancer survivors. Atrophic vaginitis, caused by decreased levels of circulating estrogen to urinary and vaginal receptors, is commonly experienced by this group. Chemotherapy induced ovarian failure and endocrine therapies including aromatase inhibitors and selective estrogen receptor modulators can trigger the onset of atrophic vaginitis or exacerbate existing symptoms. Symptoms of atrophic vaginitis include vaginal dryness, dyspareunia, and irritation of genital skin, pruritus, burning, vaginal discharge, and soreness. The diagnosis of atrophic vaginitis is confirmed through patient-reported symptoms and gynecological examination of external structures, introitus, and vaginal mucosa. Lifestyle modifications can be helpful but are usually insufficient to significantly improve symptoms. Non-hormonal vaginal therapies may provide additional relief by increasing vaginal moisture and fluid. Systemic estrogen therapy is contraindicated in breast cancer survivors. Continued investigations of various treatments for atrophic vaginitis are necessary. Local estrogen-based therapies, DHEA, testosterone, and pH-balanced gels continue to be evaluated in ongoing studies. Definitive results are needed pertaining to the safety of topical estrogens in breast cancer survivors.

  2. Treatment Options by Stage (Vaginal Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... stage of the cancer being treated. External and internal radiation therapy are used to treat vaginal cancer, and may also be used as palliative therapy to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life . Chemotherapy Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment ...

  3. How Do Health Care Providers Diagnose Vaginitis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print How do health care providers diagnose vaginitis? To find out the cause of a woman's symptoms, her health care provider will Examine the vagina, the vulva, and ...

  4. Recurrent vaginal discharge in children.

    PubMed

    McGreal, Sharon; Wood, Paul

    2013-08-01

    Childhood vaginal discharge remains a frequent reason for referral from primary to secondary care. The Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology (PAG) service at Kettering General Hospital was established in 1993 and provides a specialized service that meets the needs of children with gynaecological conditions. To investigate recurrent vaginal discharge noting symptomatology, defining pathogens, common and rarer causes, exploring management regimes, and any changes in practice over time. Retrospective review spanning 15 years identifying prepubertal children attending the outpatient PAG clinic with recurrent vaginal discharge. We reviewed the medical notes individually. 110 patients were identified; 85% were referred from primary care. The age distribution was bimodal at four and eight years. Thirty-five percent of our patients were discharged after the initial consultation. The commonest cause of discharge was vulvovaginitis (82%). Other important causes included suspected sexual abuse (5%), foreign body (3%), labial adhesions (3%), vaginal agenesis (2%). 35% of patients were admitted for vaginoscopy. Vaginal discharge is the most common gynecological symptom in prepubertal girls and can cause repeated clinical episodes. Vulvovaginitis is the most common cause and often responds to simple hygiene measures. Awareness of the less common causes of vaginal discharge is essential. Copyright © 2013 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Vaginal yeast infection

    MedlinePlus

    Yeast infection - vagina; Vaginal candidiasis; Monilial vaginitis ... Most women have a vaginal yeast infection at some time. Candida albicans is a common type of fungus. It is often found in small amounts in the ...

  6. Vaginal bleeding in pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Pregnancy - vaginal bleeding; Maternal blood loss - vaginal ... Up to 1 in 4 women have vaginal bleeding at some time during their pregnancy. Bleeding is more common in the first 3 months (first trimester), especially with twins.

  7. Amine content of vaginal fluid from untreated and treated patients with nonspecific vaginitis.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, K C; Forsyth, P S; Buchanan, T M; Holmes, K K

    1979-01-01

    We examined the vaginal washings from patients with nonspecific vaginitis (NSV) to seek biochemical markers and possible explanations for the signs and symptoms of this syndrome. Seven amines were identified including methylamine, isobutylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, and phenethylamine. These amines may contribute to the symptoms of NSV and may contribute to the elevated pH of the vaginal discharge. They may also be partly responsible for the "fishy" odor that is characteristic of vaginal discharges from these patients. Among the seven amines, putrescine and cadaverine were the most abundant and were present in all vaginal discharges from each of ten patients before treatment. These amines are produced in vitro during growth of mixed vaginal bacteria in chemically defined medium, presumably by decarboxylation of the corresponding amino acids. We hypothesize the anaerobic vaginal organisms, previously shown to be quantitatively increased in NSV, are responsible for the amine production, because metronidazole inhibited the production of amines by vaginal bacteria in vitro, and Haemophilus vaginalis did not produce amines. H. vaginalis did release high concentrations of pyruvic acid and of amino acids during growth in peptone-starch-dextrose medium, whereas, other vaginal flora consumed both pyruvic acid and amino acids in the same medium during growth. These findings suggest that a symbiotic relationship may exist between H. vaginalis and other vaginal flora in patients with NSV. Images PMID:447831

  8. Vaginal foreign body presenting as bleeding with defecation in a child.

    PubMed

    Abdessamad, Hasan M; Greenfield, Marjorie

    2009-04-01

    Symptoms secondary to a vaginal foreign body are responsible for approximately 4% of pediatric gynecologic outpatient visits.(1) The classic symptom is vaginal bleeding, but vaginal discharge, foul odor, irritation, abdominal pain, and hematuria have been described. We are reporting a case of a microscopic vaginal foreign body presenting as hematochezia in a preadolescent girl. This case is unique in that the patient presented with bleeding with defecation, without vaginal bleeding. Vaginal foreign bodies can present with diverse symptomatology. Physicians should consider the diagnosis of vaginal foreign body when presented with a young female patient with unexplained hematochezia.

  9. The effect of vaginal cream containing ginger in users of clotrimazole vaginal cream on vaginal candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Shabanian, Sheida; Khalili, Sima; Lorigooini, Zahra; Malekpour, Afsaneh; Heidari-Soureshjani, Saeid

    2017-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is one of the most common infections of the genital tract in women that causes many complications. Therefore, we examined the clinical effect of ginger cream along with clotrimazole compared to vaginal clotrimazole alone in this study. This double-blind clinical trial was conducted on 67 women admitted to the Gynecology Clinic of Hajar Hospital with vaginal candidiasis. The patients were divided randomly into two groups of 33 and 34 people. The diagnosis was made according to clinical symptoms, wet smear, and culture. Ginger-clotrimazole vaginal cream 1% and clotrimazole vaginal cream 1% were administered to groups 1 and 2, respectively, once a day for 7 days and therapeutic effects and symptoms were evaluated in readmission. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 22, t -test and Chi-square. The mean value of variables itching ( P > 0.05), burning ( P > 0.05), and cheesy secretion ( P < 0.05) in users of ginger-clotrimazole was less than the other group after the treatment. Recurrence in clotrimazole group was 48.5% and in ginger-clotrimazole group 51.2% during the 1-month follow-up with no significant difference. Study results showed that cream containing ginger and clotrimazole 1% was more effective and may be more useful than the clotrimazole to treat vaginal candidiasis.

  10. Management of vaginal extrusion after tension-free vaginal tape procedure for urodynamic stress incontinence.

    PubMed

    Giri, Subhasis K; Sil, Debasri; Narasimhulu, Girish; Flood, Hugh D; Skehan, Mark; Drumm, John

    2007-06-01

    To report our experience in the management of vaginal extrusion after the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure for urodynamic stress incontinence. Five patients diagnosed with vaginal extrusion after a TVT procedure performed at our institution were identified. We reviewed the patients' records retrospectively. The interval from TVT placement to diagnosis, presenting symptoms and signs, duration of symptoms, diagnostic test findings, treatment, and postoperative results were recorded. Patients were followed up for at least 12 months. From January 2001 to June 2004, a total of 166 patients underwent the TVT procedure. Of these, 5 patients (3%) were diagnosed with isolated vaginal extrusion 4 to 40 months postoperatively. No cases of urethral or bladder erosion occurred in this series. The symptoms included vaginal discharge, pain, bleeding, and dyspareunia. The eroded margin of the vaginal mucosa was trimmed, mobilized, and closed over the tape with interrupted vertical mattress sutures in a single layer using 2-0 polyglactin 910 to avoid mucosal inversion. All patients remained symptom free without any evidence of defective healing or additional extrusion at a minimal follow-up of 12 months. Primary reclosure of the vaginal mucosa over the TVT tape is an effective first-line treatment option for vaginal extrusion without compromising continence. Patients undergoing the TVT procedure should be adequately counseled about the possibility of this complication and the available treatment options.

  11. The intrinsic shape of bulges in the CALIFA survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costantin, L.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Corsini, E. M.; Eliche-Moral, M. C.; Tapia, T.; Morelli, L.; Dalla Bontà, E.; Pizzella, A.

    2018-02-01

    Context. The intrinsic shape of galactic bulges in nearby galaxies provides crucial information to separate bulge types. Aims: We aim to derive accurate constraints to the intrinsic shape of bulges to provide new clues on their formation mechanisms and set new limitations for future simulations. Methods: We retrieved the intrinsic shape of a sample of CALIFA bulges using a statistical approach. Taking advantage of GalMer numerical simulations of binary mergers we estimated the reliability of the procedure. Analyzing the i-band mock images of resulting lenticular remnants, we studied the intrinsic shape of their bulges at different galaxy inclinations. Finally, we introduced a new (B/A, C/A) diagram to analyze possible correlations between the intrinsic shape and the properties of bulges. Results: We tested the method on simulated lenticular remnants, finding that for galaxies with inclinations of 25° ≤ θ ≤ 65° we can safely derive the intrinsic shape of their bulges. We found that our CALIFA bulges tend to be nearly oblate systems (66%), with a smaller fraction of prolate spheroids (19%), and triaxial ellipsoids (15%). The majority of triaxial bulges are in barred galaxies (75%). Moreover, we found that bulges with low Sérsic indices or in galaxies with low bulge-to-total luminosity ratios form a heterogeneous class of objects; additionally, bulges in late-type galaxies or in less massive galaxies have no preference for being oblate, prolate, or triaxial. On the contrary, bulges with high Sérsic index, in early-type galaxies, or in more massive galaxies are mostly oblate systems. Conclusions: We concluded that various evolutionary pathways may coexist in galaxies, with merging events and dissipative collapse being the main mechanisms driving the formation of the most massive oblate bulges and bar evolution reshaping the less massive triaxial bulges.

  12. Vaginal Cancer Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Vaginal Cancer Vaginal Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Vaginal Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Vaginal Cancer Introduction Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors and ...

  13. Streptococcus agalactiae: a vaginal pathogen?

    PubMed

    Maniatis, A N; Palermos, J; Kantzanou, M; Maniatis, N A; Christodoulou, C; Legakis, N J

    1996-03-01

    The significance of Streptococcus agalactiae as an aetiological agent in vaginitis was evaluated. A total of 6226 samples from women who presented with vaginal symptoms was examined. The presence of >10 leucocytes/high-power field (h.p.f.) was taken to be the criterion of active infection. S. agalactiae was isolated from 10.1% of these samples. The isolation rates of other common pathogens such as Candida spp., Gardnerella vaginalis and Trichomonas spp. were 54.1%, 27.2% and 4.2%, respectively, in the same group of patients. In contrast, the isolation rates of these micro-organisms in the group of patients who had no infection (<10 leucocytes/h.p.f.) were 4.2%, 38.3%, 33% and 0.5%, respectively. In the majority of samples from which S. agalactiae was isolated, it was the sole pathogen isolated (83%) and its presence was associated with an inflammatory response in 80% of patients. Furthermore, the relative risk of vaginal infection with S. agalactiae (2.38) in patients with purulent vaginal discharge was greater than that of Candida spp. infection (1.41) and lower than that of Trichomonas spp. infection (8.32). These data suggest that S. agalactiae in symptomatic women with microscopic evidence of inflammation should be considered a causative agent of vaginitis.

  14. Vaginal rings for delivery of HIV microbicides

    PubMed Central

    Malcolm, R Karl; Fetherston, Susan M; McCoy, Clare F; Boyd, Peter; Major, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Following the successful development of long-acting steroid-releasing vaginal ring devices for the treatment of menopausal symptoms and contraception, there is now considerable interest in applying similar devices to the controlled release of microbicides against HIV. In this review article, the vaginal ring concept is first considered within the wider context of the early advances in controlled-release technology, before describing the various types of ring device available today. The remainder of the article highlights the key developments in HIV microbicide-releasing vaginal rings, with a particular focus on the dapivirine ring that is presently in late-stage clinical testing. PMID:23204872

  15. Vaginal rings for delivery of HIV microbicides.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, R Karl; Fetherston, Susan M; McCoy, Clare F; Boyd, Peter; Major, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Following the successful development of long-acting steroid-releasing vaginal ring devices for the treatment of menopausal symptoms and contraception, there is now considerable interest in applying similar devices to the controlled release of microbicides against HIV. In this review article, the vaginal ring concept is first considered within the wider context of the early advances in controlled-release technology, before describing the various types of ring device available today. The remainder of the article highlights the key developments in HIV microbicide-releasing vaginal rings, with a particular focus on the dapivirine ring that is presently in late-stage clinical testing.

  16. Nuclear starburst activity induced by elongated bulges in spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eunbin; Kim, Sungsoo S.; Choi, Yun-Young; Lee, Gwang-Ho; de Grijs, Richard; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Hwang, Ho Seong

    2018-06-01

    We study the effects of bulge elongation on the star formation activity in the centres of spiral galaxies using the data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. We construct a volume-limited sample of face-on spiral galaxies with Mr < -19.5 mag at 0.02 ≤z< 0.055 by excluding barred galaxies, where the aperture of the SDSS spectroscopic fibre covers the bulges of the galaxies. We adopt the ellipticity of bulges measured by Simard et al. (2011) who performed two-dimensional bulge+disc decompositions using the SDSS images of galaxies, and identify nuclear starbursts using the fibre specific star formation rates derived from the SDSS spectra. We find a statistically significant correlation between bulge elongation and nuclear starbursts in the sense that the fraction of nuclear starbursts increases with bulge elongation. This correlation is more prominent for fainter and redder galaxies, which exhibit higher ratios of elongated bulges. We find no significant environmental dependence of the correlation between bulge elongation and nuclear starbursts. These results suggest that non-axisymmetric bulges can efficiently feed the gas into the centre of galaxies to trigger nuclear starburst activity.

  17. Trajectories of Cepheid variable stars in the Galactic nuclear bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, Noriyuki

    2012-06-01

    The central region of our Galaxy provides us with a good opportunity to study the evolution of galactic nuclei and bulges because we can observe various phenomena in detail at the proximity of 8 kpc. There is a hierarchical alignment of stellar systems with different sizes; from the extended bulge, the nuclear bulge, down to the compact cluster around the central supermassive blackhole. The nuclear bulge contains stars as young as a few Myr, and even hosts the ongoing star formation. These are in contrast to the more extended bulge which are dominated by old stars, 10Gyr. It is considered that the star formation in the nuclear bulge is caused by fresh gas provided from the inner disk. In this picture, the nuclear bulge plays an important role as the interface between the gas supplier, the inner disk, and the galactic nucleus. Kinematics of young stars in the nuclear bulge is important to discuss the star forming process and the gas circulation in the Galactic Center. We here propose spectroscopic observations of Cepheid variable stars, 25 Myr, which we recently discovered in the nuclear bulge. The spectra taken in this proposal will allow timely estimates of the systemic velocities of the variable stars.

  18. Management of aerobic vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Tempera, Gianna; Furneri, Pio Maria

    2010-01-01

    Aerobic vaginitis is a new nonclassifiable pathology that is neither specific vaginitis nor bacterial vaginosis. The diversity of this microbiological peculiarity could also explain several therapeutic failures when patients were treated for infections identified as bacterial vaginosis. The diagnosis 'aerobic vaginitis' is essentially based on microscopic examinations using a phase-contrast microscope (at ×400 magnification). The therapeutic choice for 'aerobic vaginitis' should take into consideration an antibiotic characterized by an intrinsic activity against the majority of bacteria of fecal origin, bactericidal effect and poor/absent interference with the vaginal microbiota. Regarding the therapy for aerobic vaginitis when antimicrobial agents are prescribed, not only the antimicrobial spectrum but also the presumed ecological disturbance on the anaerobic and aerobic vaginal and rectal microbiota should be taken into a consideration. Because of their very low impact on the vaginal microbiota, kanamycin or quinolones are to be considered a good choice for therapy. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Vaginal sponge and spermicides

    MedlinePlus

    Birth control - over the counter; Contraceptives - over the counter; Family planning - vaginal sponge; Contraception - vaginal sponge ... preventing pregnancy as some other forms of birth control. However, using a spermicide or sponge is much ...

  20. Assisted Vaginal Delivery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Education FAQs Assisted Vaginal Delivery Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Assisted Vaginal Delivery FAQ192, February 2016 PDF ... on Patient Safety For Patients Patient FAQs Spanish Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & Governance ...

  1. Vaginitis test - wet mount

    MedlinePlus

    ... prep - vaginitis; Vaginosis - wet mount; Trichomoniasis - wet mount; Vaginal candida - wet mount ... provider gently inserts an instrument (speculum) into the vagina to hold it open and view inside. A ...

  2. Synthetic vaginal mesh for pelvic organ prolapse.

    PubMed

    Iglesia, Cheryl B

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize recently published comparative trials on synthetic vaginal mesh versus traditional native tissue repairs for pelvic organ prolapse. Although studies suggest benefit from the use of synthetic vaginal mesh for anterior compartment prolapse, data are limited on the use of mesh for posterior and apical prolapse when compared with native tissue repair. The benefits of a more durable repair must be weighed against risks such as the development of de-novo stress incontinence, visceral injury, dyspareunia, pelvic pain and mesh contraction, exposure and extrusion requiring reoperation. Furthermore, the success rates of native tissue repairs are higher than previously considered using updated validated composite outcomes that incorporate both subjective relief of bulge and objective cure defined as prolapse above the hymenal ring. Surgeons placing synthetic mesh for pelvic organ prolapse should counsel patients regarding the potential benefits, risks, and alternatives including native tissue repairs. Level 1 evidence suggests anterior synthetic mesh may be superior to anterior repair. Expert opinion suggests potential benefit of vaginal mesh for recurrences, hysteropexy, and advanced prolapse in patients with medical co-morbidities precluding invasive open and endoscopic sacrocolpopexies; however, comparative clinical trials with long-term data are needed. (C) 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

  3. The Heavy Ion Afternoon Bulge: Structure and Formation Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, P. A.; Larsen, B.; Skoug, R. M.; Reeves, G. D.; Denton, M.; Engel, M.; Ferradas, C.; Funsten, H. O.; Henderson, M. G.; Jahn, J. M.; Morley, S.; Thomsen, M. F.

    2017-12-01

    Recent observations of near-equatorial inner magnetosphere plasma composition indicate the presence of an "afternoon bulge" plasma population at low L-shell. A detailed statistical survey using HOPE data characterized this afternoon bulge as an enhancement in 10 keV O+ and He+ ions extending from 1100-2200 MLT and 2 ≤ L ≤ 4 during quiet/moderate geomagnetic activity (Kp < 5). This statistical HOPE study postulated that formation of the bulge is caused by variations in Kp: 10 keV particles have access to low L-shells during geomagnetically active times and become trapped during the transition to quiet times. In this study, we expand on previous observations of the afternoon bulge by examining individual transits of this feature by the Van Allen Probes. We analyze periods with optimal spacecraft transits of the afternoon bulge region, including: May - Oct. 2013, Feb. - June 2014, and Apr. - Aug. 2015. We determine the presence and duration of the bulge during case studies representing three categories of geomagnetic activity: 1) extended quiet geomagnetic conditions; 2) sharp transitions of Kp from active to quiet conditions; and 3) rises and falls in Kp on the time scales of spacecraft orbits to days. We thoroughly characterize the energy structure of the bulge as a function of Kp. We also analyze these transits of the bulge in the context of plasma access using both drift path modeling and UBK-derived energy access maps.

  4. Mira variables in the Galactic Bulge .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Blommaert, J. A. D. L.

    The 222 000 I-band light curves of variable stars detected by the OGLE-II survey in the direction of the Galactic Bulge have been fitted and have been correlated with the DENIS and 2MASS databases. Results are presented for 2691 objects with I-band semi-amplitude larger than 0.45 magnitude, corresponding to classical Mira variables. The Mira period distribution of 5 fields at similar longitude but spanning latitudes from -1.2 to -5.8 are statistically indistinguisable indicating similar populations with initial masses of 1.5-2 M⊙ (corresponding to ages of 1-3 Gyr). A field at similar longitude at b = -0.05 from Glass et al. (2001) does show a significantly different period distribution, indicating the presence of a younger population of 2.5-3 M⊙ and ages below 1 Gyr. The K-band period-luminosity relation is presented for the whole sample, and for sub-fields. Simulations are carried out to show that the observations are naturally explained using the model of disk and bulge stars of Binney et al. (1997), for a viewing angle (major-axis Bar - axis perpendicular to the line-of-sight to the Galactic Centre) of 43 ± 17 degrees. A comparison is made with similar objects in the Magellanic Clouds, studied in a previous paper. The slope of the PL-relation in the Bulge and the MCs agree within the errorbars. Assuming the zero point does not depend on metallicity, a distance modulus difference of 3.72 between Bulge and LMC is derived. This implies a LMC DM of 18.21 for an assumed distance to the Galactic Centre (GC) of 7.9 kpc, or, assuming a LMC DM of 18.50, a distance to the GC of 9.0 kpc. From the results in Groenewegen (2004) it is found for carbon-rich Miras that the PL-relation implies a relative SMC-LMC DM of 0.38, assuming no metallicity dependence. This is somewhat smaller than the often quoted value near 0.50. Following theoretical work by Wood (1990) a metallicity term of the form M_K ˜ beta log Z is introduced. If a relative SMC-LMC DM of 0.50 is imposed

  5. Tube Bulge Process : Theoretical Analysis and Finite Element Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, Raphael; Boudeau, Nathalie

    2007-05-01

    This paper is focused on the determination of mechanics characteristics for tubular materials, using tube bulge process. A comparative study is made between two different models: theoretical model and finite element analysis. The theoretical model is completely developed, based first on a geometrical analysis of the tube profile during bulging, which is assumed to strain in arc of circles. Strain and stress analysis complete the theoretical model, which allows to evaluate tube thickness and state of stress, at any point of the free bulge region. Free bulging of a 304L stainless steel is simulated using Ls-Dyna 970. To validate FE simulations approach, a comparison between theoretical and finite elements models is led on several parameters such as: thickness variation at the free bulge region pole with bulge height, tube thickness variation with z axial coordinate, and von Mises stress variation with plastic strain. Finally, the influence of geometrical parameters deviations on flow stress curve is observed using analytical model: deviations of the tube outer diameter, its initial thickness and the bulge height measurement are taken into account to obtain a resulting error on plastic strain and von Mises stress.

  6. The Galactic Bulge Radial Velocity/Abundance Assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rich, R. M.

    2012-08-01

    The Bulge Radial Velocity Assay (BRAVA) measured radial velocities for ˜ 9500 late-type giants in the Galactic bulge, predominantly from -10° < l < +10° and -2° < b < -10°. The project has discovered that the bulge exhibits cylindrical rotation characteristic of bars, and two studies of dynamics (Shen et al. 2010; Wang et al. 2012 MNRAS sub.) find that bar models- either N-body formed from an instability in a preexisting disk, or a self-consistent model- can account for the observed kinematics. Studies of the Plaut field at (l,b) = 0°, -8° show that alpha enhancement is found in bulge giants even 1 kpc from the nucleus. New infrared studies extending to within 0.25° = 35 pc of the Galactic Center find no iron or alpha gradient from Baade's Window (l,b) = 0.9°, -3.9° to our innermost field, in contrast to the marked gradient observed in the outer bulge. We consider the case of the remarkable globular cluster Terzan 5, which has a strongly bimodal iron and rm [α/Fe] within its members, and we consider evidence pro and con that the bulge was assembled from dissolved clusters. The Subaru telescope has the potential to contribute to study of the Galactic bulge, especially using the Hyper Superime-Cam and planned spectroscopic modes, as well as the high resolution spectrograph. The planned Jasmine satellite series may deliver a comprehensive survey of distances and proper motions of bulge stars, and insight into the origin and importance of the X-shaped bulge.

  7. Vaginal para-urethral myxoid leiomyoma: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Costantini, Elisabetta; Cochetti, Giovanni; Porena, Massimo

    2008-08-01

    Vaginal leiomyoma is a rare solid tumour of unknown aetiology, which usually develops in women between the ages of 35 and 50. As it presents with a wide range of symptoms, diagnosis is based on histological findings. Here we present the case of a 27-year-old white woman with a painless vaginal mass associated with dyspareunia, dysmenorrhea and foul-smelling vaginal discharge. She underwent surgery by vaginal route, and the histological findings confirmed a myxoid leiomyoma. After 17 months, the patient was disease-free, and symptoms disappeared. Vaginal leiomyomas are rare, local recurrence and transformation into sarcoma are rare, and complete surgical excision as soon as possible is recommended.

  8. Comparison between vaginal royal jelly and vaginal estrogen effects on quality of life and vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women: a clinical trial study.

    PubMed

    Seyyedi, Fatemeh; Kopaei, Mahmoud Rafiean; Miraj, Sepideh

    2016-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the therapeutic effects of vaginal royal jelly and vaginal estrogen on quality of life and vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women. This double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial was carried out at gynecology and obstetrics clinics of Hajar Hospital of Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences (Iran) from January 2013 to January 2014. The study was conducted on married postmenopausal women between 50 and 65 years old. Of 120 patients, 30 individuals were excluded based on the exclusion criteria, and 90 women were randomly distributed into three groups of 30 royal jelly vaginal cream 15%, vaginal Premarin, and placebo (lubricant), for three months. At the beginning and the end of the study, quality of life and vaginal cytology assay were evaluated. Data were analyzed by SPSS Version 11. Vaginal cream of royal jelly is significantly more effective than vaginal cream of Premarin and lubricant in improvement of quality of life in postmenopausal women (p<0.05). Moreover, Pap smear results showed that vaginal atrophy in vaginal Premarin group was lower than the other groups (p<0.001), and there was no significant difference between lubricant and royal jelly groups (p=0.89). Administration of vaginal royal jelly was effective in quality-of-life improvement of postmenopausal women. Given to the various properties of royal jelly and its effectiveness on quality of life and vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women, further studies are recommended for using =royal jelly in improving menopausal symptoms. The trial was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (http://www.irct.ir) with the IRCT code: 2014112220043n1. Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences supported this research (project no. 1440).

  9. Comparison between vaginal royal jelly and vaginal estrogen effects on quality of life and vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women: a clinical trial study

    PubMed Central

    Seyyedi, Fatemeh; Kopaei, Mahmoud Rafiean; Miraj, Sepideh

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to evaluate the therapeutic effects of vaginal royal jelly and vaginal estrogen on quality of life and vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women. Methods This double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial was carried out at gynecology and obstetrics clinics of Hajar Hospital of Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences (Iran) from January 2013 to January 2014. The study was conducted on married postmenopausal women between 50 and 65 years old. Of 120 patients, 30 individuals were excluded based on the exclusion criteria, and 90 women were randomly distributed into three groups of 30 royal jelly vaginal cream 15%, vaginal Premarin, and placebo (lubricant), for three months. At the beginning and the end of the study, quality of life and vaginal cytology assay were evaluated. Data were analyzed by SPSS Version 11. Results Vaginal cream of royal jelly is significantly more effective than vaginal cream of Premarin and lubricant in improvement of quality of life in postmenopausal women (p<0.05). Moreover, Pap smear results showed that vaginal atrophy in vaginal Premarin group was lower than the other groups (p<0.001), and there was no significant difference between lubricant and royal jelly groups (p=0.89). Conclusion Administration of vaginal royal jelly was effective in quality-of-life improvement of postmenopausal women. Given to the various properties of royal jelly and its effectiveness on quality of life and vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women, further studies are recommended for using =royal jelly in improving menopausal symptoms. Clinical trial registration The trial was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (http://www.irct.ir) with the IRCT code: 2014112220043n1. Funding Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences supported this research (project no. 1440). PMID:28070251

  10. Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Informed Cancer Home What Are the Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer? Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Be Brave (:60) Ovarian cancer may cause the following signs and symptoms— Vaginal ...

  11. [Sulphurous vaginal douching and vulvovaginal atrophy].

    PubMed

    Costantino, M; Conti, V; Marongiu, M B; Napolano, G; Filippelli, A

    2017-01-01

    During climacteric the reduction or interruption of estrogenic stimulus determines a gradual atrophy of the tissues of the urogenital tract.Vulvovaginal atrophy can be cause of dryness, itch, burning, and dyspareunia. Vulvovaginal atrophy is associated also with depression. Hence the importance of an appropriate treatment of the vulvovaginal atrophy. Between therapeutic options we can add, particularly for women who suffer only from vaginal symptoms, the spa therapy that uses mineral waters with benefic effects on vaginal tissue wellness and health. On the basis of considerations described above and on the insufficient literature data, the objective of our single-arm pilot study has been to evaluate, in women suffering from vulvovaginal atrophy, the effects and safety of a vaginal douching cycle with sulphurous mineral water and impact on depression disorder frequently observed. The study was conducted on 24 women affected by vulvovaginal atrophy; mean age:57±11 years; age range:42-81 years. The subjects were treated, for 2 weeks, with sulphurous vaginal douching from Terme of Telese S.p.A. (Benevento-Italy). At the beginning and at the end of the SPA treatment the following symptoms were evaluated: dryness, burning, itch, dyspareunia and leucorrhoea (using VAS scale); the impact on psychological distress (using S.D.S. Zung-test). At the end of the spa treatment, the mean values±SD, compared to baseline, have showed a significant (p<0.05) reduction in leucorrhoea (-88%), in vulvar itch (-79%), in vaginal burning (-71%), in vaginal dryness (-65%) with an improvement of psichological distress as demonstrated by S.D.S. Zung-test. The data of this single-arm pilot clinical trial show that the sulphurous vaginal douching cycle can be considered very useful in women suffering from vulvovaginal atrophy with improving of the quality of life and social relationship.

  12. Mapping a stellar disk into a boxy bulge: The outside-in part of the Milky Way bulge formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Matteo, P.; Haywood, M.; Gómez, A.; van Damme, L.; Combes, F.; Hallé, A.; Semelin, B.; Lehnert, M. D.; Katz, D.

    2014-07-01

    By means of idealized, dissipationless N-body simulations that follow the formation and subsequent buckling of a stellar bar, we study the characteristics of boxy/peanut-shaped bulges and compare them with the properties of the stellar populations in the Milky Way (MW) bulge. The main results of our modeling, valid for the general family of boxy/peanut shaped bulges, are the following: (i) Because of the spatial redistribution in the disk initiated at the epoch of bar formation, stars from the innermost regions to the outer Lindblad resonance (OLR) of the stellar bar are mapped into a boxy bulge. (ii) The contribution of stars to the local bulge density depends on their birth radius: stars born in the innermost disk tend to dominate the innermost regions of the boxy bulge, while stars originating closer to the OLR are preferably found in the outer regions of the boxy/peanut structure. (iii) Stellar birth radii are imprinted in the bulge kinematics: the larger the birth radii of stars ending up in the bulge, the greater their rotational support and the higher their line-of-sight velocity dispersions (but note that this last trend depends on the bar viewing angle). (iv) The higher the classical bulge-over-disk ratio, the larger its fractional contribution of stars at large vertical distance from the galaxy midplane. Comparing these results with the properties of the stellar populations of the MW bulge recently revealed by the ARGOS survey, we conclude that (I) the two most metal-rich populations of the MW bulge, labeled A and B in the ARGOS survey, originate in the disk, with the population of A having formed on average closer to the Galaxy center than the population of component B; (II) a massive (B/D ~ 0.25) classical spheroid can be excluded for the MW, thus confirming previous findings that the MW bulge is composed of populations that mostly have a disk origin. On the basis of their chemical and kinematic characteristics, the results of our modeling suggest that

  13. Perceptions of dyspareunia in postmenopausal women with vulvar and vaginal atrophy: findings from the REVIVE survey.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Murray A

    2014-07-01

    Symptoms of vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA), including dyspareunia and vaginal dryness, have a distinct negative impact on a woman's quality of life. The REVIVE survey highlighted the lack of awareness of VVA symptoms among postmenopausal women with vaginal symptoms, with many women reluctant to initiate discussions with their healthcare professionals despite the presence of vaginal symptoms. The REVIVE survey also provided insights into women's views of VVA treatments. Women reported displeasure with the vaginal administration route, lack of symptom relief with over-the-counter products, and concerns about the safety of estrogen therapies. With the high prevalence of VVA, obstetricians/gynecologists should become vigilant in identifying women with VVA by implementing screening and discussion of symptoms during routine office visits - providing patients with information about appropriate therapies based on the severity and impact of symptoms, keeping in mind individual preferences and perceptions.

  14. Peculiar Behaviors of Faint Galactic Bulge Transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swank, J. H.

    2004-01-01

    The Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer PCA scans of the Galactic bulge (galactic longitude plus or minus 11 degrees) have detected 8 recent transients which have peak intensities of 10 to 400 mCrab. Some of the transient events have a fast rise and slow decay typical of accretion disk instabilities. It is common for these decays to be oscillatory, rather than steady, as if there are waves within the disk. There are also outbursts with symmetric light curves. In particular, the source in Terzan 2 which had a very long (decade) doubling of intensity peaking near the beginning of 1997, in 2004 has had two 30 day brightenings by a factor of 5 only 100 days apart. During each of these a burst was observed in snapshot observations near the peak. The source SLX 1735-269, also a burster, though not in our observations, has had irregularly repeated occurrences of fast swings between close to zero and 2-4 times normal. Some examples, such as the increase, drop, and slow recovery of GS 1826-238 suggest a change in the accretion disk such as emptying and refilling or a peculiar alignment. Follow up observations have provided deeper information about these transient sources and possible explanations for their behavior will be addressed.

  15. Kinematic Evaluation of Association between Disc Bulge Migration, Lumbar Segmental Mobility, and Disc Degeneration in the Lumbar Spine Using Positional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jonathan K.; Morishita, Yuichiro; Montgomery, Scott R.; Hymanson, Henry; Taghavi, Cyrus E.; Do, Duc; Wang, Jeff C.

    2011-01-01

    Degenerative disc disease and disc bulge in the lumbar spine are common sources of lower back pain. Little is known regarding disc bulge migration and lumbar segmental mobility as the lumbar spine moves from flexion to extension. In this study, 329 symptomatic (low back pain with or without neurological symptoms) patients with an average age of 43.5 years with varying degrees of disc degeneration were examined to characterize the kinematics of the lumbar intervertebral discs through flexion, neutral, and extension weight-bearing positions. In this population, disc bulge migration associated with dynamic motion of the lumbar spine significantly increased with increased grade of disk degeneration. Although no obvious trends relating the migration of disc bulge and angular segmental mobility were seen, translational segmental mobility tended to increase with disc bulge migration in all of the degenerative disc states. It appears that many factors, both static (intervertebral disc degeneration or disc height) and dynamic (lumbar segmental mobility), affect the mechanisms of lumbar disc bulge migration. PMID:24353937

  16. The gravitational self-interaction of the Earth's tidal bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norsen, Travis; Dreese, Mackenzie; West, Christopher

    2017-09-01

    According to a standard, idealized analysis, the Moon would produce a 54 cm equilibrium tidal bulge in the Earth's oceans. This analysis omits many factors (beyond the scope of the simple idealized model) that dramatically influence the actual height and timing of the tides at different locations, but it is nevertheless an important foundation for more detailed studies. Here, we show that the standard analysis also omits another factor—the gravitational interaction of the tidal bulge with itself—which is entirely compatible with the simple, idealized equilibrium model and which produces a surprisingly non-trivial correction to the predicted size of the tidal bulge. Our analysis uses ideas and techniques that are familiar from electrostatics, and should thus be of interest to teachers and students of undergraduate E&M, Classical Mechanics (and/or other courses that cover the tides), and geophysics courses that cover the closely related topic of Earth's equatorial bulge.

  17. A New Population of Galactic Bulge Planetary Nebulas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenborg, T. N.

    A new population of Galactic bulge planetary nebulas is presented. Nebula candidates were discovered by systematically reviewing archival [OIII] on/off band survey imaging of the central -5° ≤ l ≤ 5°, -5° ≤ b ≤ 5° region around the Galactic centre. An image segmentation and interleaving scheme was developed to facilitate this review. The resultant candidates (> 200) were then double checked against complementary archival Hα sky survey data to screen for obvious planetary nebula (PN) mimics or spurious image artefacts. Confirmatory spectroscopy of the PN candidates was pursued with thin slit, fibre multiobject and wide field spectrographs. Custom software was built to streamline interfacing with third-party spectroscopic management tools and a parallel greedy set cover algorithm implemented for efficient field selection in constrained multi-object observations. The combined imaging and spectroscopic evidence yielded true (4), probable (31) and possible (83) PNs toward the bulge. Secondary discoveries such as new PN mimics and late type stars were by-products of the confirmatory spectroscopy. Instances of literature PN duplication encountered during the investigation were noticed and documented. Spectral analysis of new PNs, including those obtained with a new optimised sky subtraction technique devised and demonstrated here, provided diagnostic data allowing radial velocity and Balmer decrement determination. Using a combined diameter and radial velocity criterion, bona fide bulge PNs were distinguished from new foreground PNs. Where Balmer decrements were available for new bulge PNs, differential aperture photometry was used to provide a modest data increment to Galactic bulge planetary nebula luminosity function (PNLF). The PNLF was revised with data from some new bulge PNs, but more significantly, by a series of corrections to the data derived from previously known bulge PNs (~225), such as improved filter transmission effects, statistically

  18. [Efficiency of fenticonazole for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis].

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Uncomplicated vulvovaginal candidiasis appears in 75% women of reproductive age. The most frequent causes are Candida albicans (85-95%) or C. glabrata, and infrequently C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. pseudotropicalis, etc. The aim of the study was to investigate efficiency and safety of fenticonazole for vaginal candidiasis treatment. Therapeutic effect of a single 600 mg fenticonasole vaginal capsule was observed in 417 women, aged 16-67, in five centers in Serbia. In all women, before the treatment, vaginal candidiasis was confirmed by testing of vaginal smear. Based on smear findings and associated symptoms observed on the 7th and 28th day after therapy administration, treatment results were evaluated. On the next day after drug application the patients recorded by using a questionnaire their own feelings on withdrawal symptoms and possible side effects in the period prior to the first control. Control after seven days showed a statistically significant decrease of symptoms. In 385 women, vaginal smear was found negative to yeast and yeast blastospores. Within the first seven days after treatment 84 women had to repeat therapy due to the persistence of symptoms or positive vaginal smear. After 28 days we recorded full recovery in 392 patients, clinical improvement in eight, no change in 16, and deterioration in one patient only. Side effects were very seldom, mostly in the form of a slight redness of the vulva and vagina, and mild itching during several days. Our observations confirmed good efficacy and safety of fenticonazole in the treatment of vaginal candidiasis.

  19. Nonlinear bulging factor based on R-curve data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeong, David Y.; Tong, Pin

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, a nonlinear bulging factor is derived using a strain energy approach combined with dimensional analysis. The functional form of the bulging factor contains an empirical constant that is determined using R-curve data from unstiffened flat and curved panel tests. The determination of this empirical constant is based on the assumption that the R-curve is the same for both flat and curved panels.

  20. Process optimization of joining by upset bulging with local heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusch, Michael; Almohallami, Amer; Sviridov, Alexander; Bonk, Christian; Behrens, Bernd-Arno; Bambach, Markus

    2017-10-01

    Joining by upset bulging is a mechanical joining method where axial load is applied to a tube to form two revolving bulges, which clamp the parts to be joined and create a force and form fit. It can be used to join tubes with other structures such as sheets, plates, tubes or profiles of the same or different materials. Other processes such as welding are often limited in joining multi-material assemblies or high-strength materials. With joining by upset bulging at room temperature, the main drawback is the possible initiation of damage (cracks) in the inner buckling zone because of high local stresses and strains. In this paper, a method to avoid the formation of cracks is introduced. Before forming the bulge the tube is locally heated by an induction coil. For the construction steel (E235+N) a maximum temperature of 700 °C was used to avoid phase transformation. For the numerical study of the process the mechanical properties of the tube material were examined at different temperatures and strain rates to determine its flow curves. A parametrical FE model was developed to simulate the bulging process with local heating. Experiments with local heating were executed and metallographic studies of the bulging area were conducted. While specimens heated to 500 °C showed small cracks left, damage-free flanges could be created at 600 and 700 °C. Static testing of damage-free bulges showed improvements in tensile strength and torsion strength compared to bulges formed at room-temperature, while bending and compression behavior remained nearly unchanged. In cyclic testing the locally heated specimens underwent about 3.7 times as many cycles before failure as the specimens formed at room temperature.

  1. Galaxies Grow Their Bulges and Black Holes in Diverse Ways

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Eric F.; Harmsen, Benjamin; D’Souza, Richard

    Galaxies with Milky Way–like stellar masses have a wide range of bulge and black hole masses; in turn, these correlate with other properties such as star formation history. While many processes may drive bulge formation, major and minor mergers are expected to play a crucial role. Stellar halos offer a novel and robust measurement of galactic merger history; cosmologically motivated models predict that mergers with larger satellites produce more massive, higher-metallicity stellar halos, reproducing the recently observed stellar halo metallicity–mass relation. We quantify the relationship between stellar halo mass and bulge or black hole prominence using a sample of 18more » Milky Way-mass galaxies with newly available measurements of (or limits on) stellar halo properties. There is an order of magnitude range in bulge mass, and two orders of magnitude in black hole mass, at a given stellar halo mass (or, equivalently, merger history). Galaxies with low-mass bulges show a wide range of quiet merger histories, implying formation mechanisms that do not require intense merging activity. Galaxies with massive “classical” bulges and central black holes also show a wide range of merger histories. While three of these galaxies have massive stellar halos consistent with a merger origin, two do not—merging appears to have had little impact on making these two massive “classical” bulges. Such galaxies may be ideal laboratories to study massive bulge formation through pathways such as early gas-rich accretion, violent disk instabilities, or misaligned infall of gas throughout cosmic time.« less

  2. Elucidation of kinematical and dynamical structure of the Galactic bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, T.; Gouda, N.; Ueda, H.; Koyama, H.; Kan-ya, Y.; Taruya, A.

    2008-07-01

    Future space mission of astrometric satellite, GAIA and JASMINE (Japan Astrometry Satellite Mission for Infrared Exploration), will produce astrometric parameter, such as positions, parallaxes, and proper motions of stars in the Galactic bulge. Then kinematical information will be obtained in the future. Accordingly it is expected that our understanding of the dynamical structure will be greatly improved. Therefore it is important to make a method to construct a kinematical and dynamical structure of the Galactic bulge immediately.

  3. MACHO RR Lyrae in the Inner Halo and Bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minniti, Dante; Alcock, Charles; Allsman, Robyn A.; Alves, David; Axelrod, Tim S.; Becker, Andrew C.; Bennett, David; Cook, Kem H.; Drake, Andrew J.; Freeman, Ken C.; Griest, Kim; Lehner, Matt; Marshall, Stuart; Peterson, Bruce; Pratt, Mark; Quinn, Peter; Rodgers, Alex; Stubbs, Chris; Sutherland, Will; Tomaney, Austin; Vandehei, Thor; Welch, Doug L.

    The RR Lyrae in the bulge have been proposed to be the oldest populations in the Milky Way, tracers of how the galaxy formed. We study here the distribution of ~1600 bulge RR Lyrae stars found by the MACHO Project. The RR Lyrae with Galactocentric radius 0.4

  4. Galaxies Grow Their Bulges and Black Holes in Diverse Ways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Eric F.; Monachesi, Antonela; Harmsen, Benjamin; de Jong, Roelof S.; Bailin, Jeremy; Radburn-Smith, David J.; D'Souza, Richard; Holwerda, Benne W.

    2017-03-01

    Galaxies with Milky Way-like stellar masses have a wide range of bulge and black hole masses; in turn, these correlate with other properties such as star formation history. While many processes may drive bulge formation, major and minor mergers are expected to play a crucial role. Stellar halos offer a novel and robust measurement of galactic merger history; cosmologically motivated models predict that mergers with larger satellites produce more massive, higher-metallicity stellar halos, reproducing the recently observed stellar halo metallicity-mass relation. We quantify the relationship between stellar halo mass and bulge or black hole prominence using a sample of 18 Milky Way-mass galaxies with newly available measurements of (or limits on) stellar halo properties. There is an order of magnitude range in bulge mass, and two orders of magnitude in black hole mass, at a given stellar halo mass (or, equivalently, merger history). Galaxies with low-mass bulges show a wide range of quiet merger histories, implying formation mechanisms that do not require intense merging activity. Galaxies with massive “classical” bulges and central black holes also show a wide range of merger histories. While three of these galaxies have massive stellar halos consistent with a merger origin, two do not—merging appears to have had little impact on making these two massive “classical” bulges. Such galaxies may be ideal laboratories to study massive bulge formation through pathways such as early gas-rich accretion, violent disk instabilities, or misaligned infall of gas throughout cosmic time.

  5. JASMINE: constructor of the dynamical structure of the Galactic bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouda, N.; Kobayashi, Y.; Yamada, Y.; Yano, T.; Tsujimoto, T.; Suganuma, M.; Niwa, Y.; Yamauchi, M.

    2008-07-01

    We introduce a Japanese space astrometry project which is called JASMINE. JASMINE (Japan Astrometry Satellite Mission for INfrared Exploration) will measure distances and tangential motions of stars in the Galactic bulge with yet unprecedented precision. JASMINE will operate in z-band whose central wavelength is 0.9 micron. It will measure parallaxes, positions with accuracy of about 10 micro-arcsec and proper motions with accuracy of about 10 micro- arcsec/year for the stars brighter than z=14 mag. The number of stars observed by JASMINE with high accuracy of parallaxes in the Galactic bulge is much larger than that observed in other space astrometry projects operating in optical bands. With the completely new “map of the Galactic bulge” including motions of bulge stars, we expect that many new exciting scientific results will be obtained in studies of the Galactic bulge. One of them is the construction of the dynamical structure of the Galactic bulge. Kinematics and distance data given by JASMINE are the closest approach to a view of the exact dynamical structure of the Galactic bulge. Presently, JASMINE is in a development phase, with a target launch date around 2016. We comment on the outline of JASMINE mission, scientific targets and a preliminary design of JASMINE in this paper.

  6. Discovery of carbon-rich Miras in the Galactic bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Menzies, John W.; Feast, Michael W.; Whitelock, Patricia A.; Onozato, Hiroki; Barway, Sudhanshu; Aydi, Elias

    2017-08-01

    Only one carbon-rich (C-rich, hereinafter) Mira variable has so far been suggested as a member of the Galactic bulge and this is in a symbiotic system. Here we describe a method for selecting C-rich candidates from an infrared colour-colour diagram, (J - Ks) versus ([9] - [18]). Follow-up low-resolution spectroscopy resulted in the detection of eight C-rich Mira variables from a sample of 36 candidates towards the Galactic bulge. Our near-infrared photometry indicates that two of these, including the known symbiotic, are closer than the main body of the bulge while a third is a known foreground object. Of the five bulge members, one shows He I and [O II] emission and is possibly another symbiotic star. Our method is useful for identifying rare C-rich stars in the Galactic bulge and elsewhere. The age of these C-rich stars and the evolutionary process which produced them remain uncertain. They could be old and the products of either binary mass transfer or mergers, I.e. the descendants of blue stragglers, but we cannot rule out the possibility that they belong to a small in situ population of metal-poor intermediate age (<5 Gyr) stars in the bulge or that they have been accreted from a dwarf galaxy.

  7. The continuous rise of bulges out of galactic disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breda, Iris; Papaderos, Polychronis

    2018-06-01

    Context. A key subject in extragalactic astronomy concerns the chronology and driving mechanisms of bulge formation in late-type galaxies (LTGs). The standard scenario distinguishes between classical bulges and pseudo-bulges (CBs and PBs, respectively), the first thought to form monolithically prior to disks and the second gradually out of disks. These two bulge formation routes obviously yield antipodal predictions on the bulge age and bulge-to-disk age contrast, both expected to be high (low) in CBs (PBs). Aims: Our main goal is to explore whether bulges in present-day LTGs segregate into two evolutionary distinct classes, as expected from the standard scenario. Other questions motivating this study center on evolutionary relations between LTG bulges and their hosting disks, and the occurrence of accretion-powered nuclear activity as a function of bulge stellar mass ℳ⋆ and stellar surface density Σ⋆. Methods: In this study, we have combined three techniques - surface photometry, spectral modeling of integral field spectroscopy data and suppression of stellar populations younger than an adjustable age cutoff with the code REMOVEYOUNG (ℛ𝒴) - toward a systematic analysis of the physical and evolutionary properties (e.g., ℳ⋆, Σ⋆ and mass-weighted stellar age ℳ and metallicity ℳ, respectively) of a representative sample of 135 nearby (≤ 130 Mpc) LTGs from the CALIFA survey that cover a range between 108.9 M⊙ and 1011.5 M⊙ in total stellar mass ℳ⋆,T. In particular, the analysis here revolves around ⟨δμ9G⟩, a new distance- and formally extinction-independent measure of the contribution by stellar populations of age ≥ 9 Gyr to the mean r-band surface brightness of the bulge. We argue that ⟨δμ9G⟩ offers a handy semi-empirical tracer of the physical and evolutionary properties of LTG bulges and a promising means for their characterization. Results: The essential insight from this study is that LTG bulges form

  8. The stimulation of the vaginal immune system with short-term administration of a vaginal gel containing fraction of Propionibacterium acnes, hyaluronic acid and polycarbophil is efficacious in vaginal infections dependent on disorders in the vaginal ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Melis, Gian Benedetto; Piras, Bruno; Marotto, Maria Francesca; Neri, Manuela; Corda, Valentina; Vallerino, Valerio; Saba, Alessandra; Lello, Stefano; Pilloni, Monica; Zedda, Pierina; Paoletti, Anna Maria; Mais, Valerio

    2018-04-12

    The vaginal immune system (VIS) is the first defense against antigens recognized as foreign. Substances capable of locally activating the VIS could be a valid strategy to treat vulvo-vaginal infections (VVI), caused by changes in the vaginal ecosystem, such as bacterial vaginosis (BV), vulvo-vaginal candidiasis (CA), and mixed vaginitis (MV). Bacterial lysates, obtained by crushing bacterial cultures, exert immuno-modulatory activities. The parietal fraction from Propionibacterium acnes is a patent of Depofarma (MoglianoVeneto, Italy). The preparation that associates such fraction to hyaluronic acid and polycarbophil is a registered trademark, commercially available in Italy as vaginal gel, Immunovag ® . The study aimed to evaluate whether a 5-day-treatment with Immunovag ® improves the symptoms and signs of VVI, in 60 women with Gardnerella vaginalis (GV), 154 with CA, 95 with MV, diagnosed with vulvar vaginal swab (VVS), and in 283 with BV, diagnosed with the Amsel criteria. At the end of the treatment (visit 2), the symptoms and signs of VVI disappeared in a significant number of subjects (χ 2 p < .02 vs pre-treatment) in all VVI groups, and their intensity was significantly (p < .0002) reduced in the subjects in which they were still present. Immunovag ® represents a valid treatment of VVI induced by changes in the vaginal ecosystem.

  9. Management of Vaginal Atrophy: Implications from the REVIVE Survey

    PubMed Central

    Wysocki, Susan; Kingsberg, Sheryl; Krychman, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA) is a chronic and progressive medical condition common in postmenopausal women. Symptoms of VVA such as dyspareunia, vaginal dryness, irritation, and itching can negatively impact sexual function and quality of life. The REVIVE (REal Women’s VIews of Treatment Options for Menopausal Vaginal ChangEs) survey assessed knowledge about VVA and recorded attitudes about interactions with healthcare providers (HCPs) and available treatment options for VVA. The REVIVE survey identified unmet needs of women with VVA symptoms such as poor understanding of the condition, poor communication with HCPs despite the presence of vaginal symptoms, and concerns about the safety, convenience, and efficacy of available VVA treatments. HCPs can address these unmet needs by proactively identifying patients with VVA and educating them about the condition as well as discussing treatment preferences and available therapies for VVA. PMID:24987271

  10. Management of Vaginal Atrophy: Implications from the REVIVE Survey.

    PubMed

    Wysocki, Susan; Kingsberg, Sheryl; Krychman, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA) is a chronic and progressive medical condition common in postmenopausal women. Symptoms of VVA such as dyspareunia, vaginal dryness, irritation, and itching can negatively impact sexual function and quality of life. The REVIVE (REal Women's VIews of Treatment Options for Menopausal Vaginal ChangEs) survey assessed knowledge about VVA and recorded attitudes about interactions with healthcare providers (HCPs) and available treatment options for VVA. The REVIVE survey identified unmet needs of women with VVA symptoms such as poor understanding of the condition, poor communication with HCPs despite the presence of vaginal symptoms, and concerns about the safety, convenience, and efficacy of available VVA treatments. HCPs can address these unmet needs by proactively identifying patients with VVA and educating them about the condition as well as discussing treatment preferences and available therapies for VVA.

  11. Vaginal toxic shock reaction triggering desquamative inflammatory vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Nigel; Edlind, Thomas D; Schlievert, Patrick M; Nyirjesy, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to report 2 cases of desquamative inflammatory vaginitis associated with toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1)-producing Staphylococcus aureus strains. Case report of 2 patients, 1 with an acute and 1 with a chronic presentation, diagnosed with desquamative inflammatory vaginitis on the basis of clinical findings and wet mount microscopy. Pretreatment and posttreatment vaginal bacterial and yeast cultures were obtained. Pretreatment vaginal bacterial cultures from both patients grew TSST-1-producing S. aureus. Subsequent vaginal bacterial culture results after oral antibiotic therapy were negative. Desquamative inflammatory vaginitis may be triggered through TSST-1-mediated vaginal toxic shock reaction.

  12. Vaginal drug distribution modeling.

    PubMed

    Katz, David F; Yuan, Andrew; Gao, Yajing

    2015-09-15

    This review presents and applies fundamental mass transport theory describing the diffusion and convection driven mass transport of drugs to the vaginal environment. It considers sources of variability in the predictions of the models. It illustrates use of model predictions of microbicide drug concentration distribution (pharmacokinetics) to gain insights about drug effectiveness in preventing HIV infection (pharmacodynamics). The modeling compares vaginal drug distributions after different gel dosage regimens, and it evaluates consequences of changes in gel viscosity due to aging. It compares vaginal mucosal concentration distributions of drugs delivered by gels vs. intravaginal rings. Finally, the modeling approach is used to compare vaginal drug distributions across species with differing vaginal dimensions. Deterministic models of drug mass transport into and throughout the vaginal environment can provide critical insights about the mechanisms and determinants of such transport. This knowledge, and the methodology that obtains it, can be applied and translated to multiple applications, involving the scientific underpinnings of vaginal drug distribution and the performance evaluation and design of products, and their dosage regimens, that achieve it. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Bulge Growth Through Disc Instabilities in High-Redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bournaud, Frédéric

    The role of disc instabilities, such as bars and spiral arms, and the associated resonances, in growing bulges in the inner regions of disc galaxies have long been studied in the low-redshift nearby Universe. There it has long been probed observationally, in particular through peanut-shaped bulges (Chap. 14 10.1007/978-3-319-19378-6_14"). This secular growth of bulges in modern disc galaxies is driven by weak, non-axisymmetric instabilities: it mostly produces pseudobulges at slow rates and with long star-formation timescales. Disc instabilities at high redshift (z > 1) in moderate-mass to massive galaxies (1010 to a few 1011 M⊙ of stars) are very different from those found in modern spiral galaxies. High-redshift discs are globally unstable and fragment into giant clumps containing 108-9 M⊙ of gas and stars each, which results in highly irregular galaxy morphologies. The clumps and other features associated to the violent instability drive disc evolution and bulge growth through various mechanisms on short timescales. The giant clumps can migrate inward and coalesce into the bulge in a few 108 years. The instability in the very turbulent media drives intense gas inflows toward the bulge and nuclear region. Thick discs and supermassive black holes can grow concurrently as a result of the violent instability. This chapter reviews the properties of high-redshift disc instabilities, the evolution of giant clumps and other features associated to the instability, and the resulting growth of bulges and associated sub-galactic components.

  14. Searching for fossil fragments of the Galactic bulge formation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Francesco

    2017-08-01

    We have discovered that the stellar system Terzan5 (Ter5) in the Galactic bulge harbors stellar populations with very different IRON content (delta[Fe/H] 1 dex, Ferraro+09, Nature 462, 483) and AGES (12 Gyr and 4.5 Gyr for the sub-solar and super-solar metallicity populations, respectively, Ferraro+16, ApJ,828,75). This evidence demonstrates that Ter5 is not a globular cluster, and identifies it as (1) a site in the Galactic bulge where recent star formation occurred, and (2) the remnant of a massive system able to retain the iron-enriched gas ejected by violent supernova explosions. The striking chemical similarity between Ter5 and the bulge opens the fascinating possibility that we discovered the fossil remnant of a pristine massive structure that could have contributed to the Galactic bulge assembly.Prompted by this finding, here we propose to secure deep HST optical observations for the bulge stellar system Liller1, that shows a similar complexity as Ter5, with evidence of two stellar populations with different iron content. The immediate goal is to properly explore the main sequence turnoff region of the system for unveiling possible splits due to stellar populations of different ages. As demonstrated by our experience with Ter5, the requested HST observations, in combination with the K-band diffraction limited images that we already secured with GeMS-Gemini, are essential to achieve this goal.The project will allow us to establish if other fossil remnants of the bulge formation epoch do exist, thus probing that the merging of pre-evolved massive structures has been an important channel for the formation of the Galactic bulge.

  15. Does vaginal irrigation with saline solution in women with infectious vaginitis contribute to the clinical and microbiological results of antibiotic therapy?

    PubMed

    Derbent, Aysel Uysal; Ulukanlıgil, Mustafa; Keskin, Esra Aktepe; Soylu, Gül; Kafalı, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    To compare the clinical and microbiological results between patients with infectious vaginitis receiving vaginal irrigation with saline or no irrigation before standard antibiotic therapy. Women with vaginitis (n = 109) were randomized to receive vaginal irrigation with saline or no irrigation before standard antibiotic therapy. The vaginal symptoms perceived by subjects and clinical findings were assessed with a standardized scale during four follow-up visits, and Gram stain Nugent scores and vaginal fluid cultures were analyzed at each visit. Vaginal discharge (z = 7.159; p < 0.001), pruritus (z = 5.169; p < 0.001), itching (z = 2.969; p < 0.003) and odor scores (z = 2.303; p < 0.021) were significantly reduced in the study group compared to the control group between the first visit and 3-5 days after irrigation, before the start of antibiotic therapy. The second and third visits (15 and 30-45 days after antibiotic therapy) showed that the patients' symptoms and amounts of visible vaginal discharge did not differ between the two groups. Moreover, the microbiological cures of patients in each group did not differ at these visits (z = 0.447; p = 0.655). Vaginal irrigation with saline significantly reduces self-reported symptoms in the short term but has no effect on long-term clinical and laboratory results in women with infectious vaginitis. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Vaginal Cancer—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Two-thirds of vaginal cancer cases are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). Vaccines that protect against infection with HPV may reduce the risk of vaginal cancer. When found early, vaginal cancer can often be cured. Start here to find information on vaginal cancer treatment and research.

  17. Recognition of DNA/RNA bulges by antimicrobial and antitumor metallohelices.

    PubMed

    Malina, Jaroslav; Scott, Peter; Brabec, Viktor

    2015-09-07

    Bulged structures have been identified in nucleic acids and have been shown to be linked to biomolecular processes involved in numerous diseases. Thus, chemical agents with affinity for bulged nucleic acids are of general biological significance. Herein, the mechanism of specific recognition and stabilization of bulged DNA and RNA by helical bimetallic species was established through detailed molecular biophysics and biochemistry assays. These agents, known as 'flexicates', are potential mimetics of α-helical peptides in cancer treatment, exhibiting antimicrobial and antitumor effects. The flexicates have positive impacts on the thermal stability of DNA duplexes containing bulges, which means that the flexicates interact with the duplexes containing bulges, and that these interactions stabilize the secondary structures of these duplexes. Notably, the stabilising effect of the flexicates increases with the size of the bulge, the maximal stabilization is observed for the duplexes containing a bulge composed of at least three bases. The flexicates bind most preferentially to the bulges composed of pyrimidines flanked on both sides also by pyrimidines. It is suggested that it is so because these bulges exhibit greatest conformational variability in comparison with other combinations of bases in the bulge loop and bases flanking the bulge. Finally, the results indicate that there is only one dominant binding site for the flexicates on the DNA and RNA bulges and that the flexicates bind directly to the bulge or in its close proximity. It is also shown that the flexicates effectively bind to RNA duplexes containing the bulged region of HIV-1 TAR RNA.

  18. Vaginal delivery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... slowly. Get plenty of rest. You can start sexual activity around 6 weeks after delivery, if the discharge or lochia has stopped. Women who breastfeed may have a lower sex drive than normal, along with vaginal dryness and pain ...

  19. Vaginitis - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    Vulvovaginitis - self-care; Yeast infections - vaginitis ... Creams or suppositories are used to treat yeast infections in the vagina. You can buy most of them without a prescription at drug stores, some grocery stores, and other stores. Treating yourself ...

  20. Vaginal Yeast Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... for sure if yogurt with Lactobacillus or other probiotics can prevent or treat vaginal yeast infections. If ... Chen, H., et al. (2013). Impact of eating probiotic yogurt on colonization by Candida species of the ...

  1. Review of Vaginitis

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Adisruption of the dynamic equilibrium of the healthy vagina may have significant sequelae, leading to chronic or serious conditions. Therefore, all cases of vaginitis should be accurately diagnosed and appropriately treated. PMID:18475337

  2. Vaginal Yeast Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... may feel more comfortable if you wear breathable cotton underwear and clothes and avoid vaginal sprays and ... help avoid them, follow your doctor's advice, wear cotton underwear, and try to wear loose-fitting clothes. ...

  3. Vaginal dryness alternative treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... JE, Murray MT, eds. Textbook of Natural Medicine . 4th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2013: ... Vaginal dryness. In: Rakel D, ed. Integrative Medicine . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 59.

  4. Fast track vaginal surgery.

    PubMed

    Ottesen, Marianne; Sørensen, Mette; Rasmussen, Yvonne; Smidt-Jensen, Steen; Kehlet, Henrik; Ottesen, Bent

    2002-02-01

    Our aim was to describe the need for postoperative hospitalization after vaginal surgery for utero-vaginal prolapse with well-defined charts for postoperative care. A prospective, descriptive study. Consecutive women admitted for first-time vaginal surgery for utero-vaginal prolapse at a public university hospital in Copenhagen, Denmark, underwent surgery and postoperative care in a fast track setting from September 15, 1999 to June 15 2000. A multimodal rehabilitation model with emphasis on information, standardized general anesthesia, reduced surgical distress, optimized pain-relief, early oral nutrition and ambulation, minimal use of indwelling catheter and vaginal packing. Postoperative hospital stay, complications, re-admission, success rate, patients' satisfaction and acceptability. Forty-one women with a median age of 69 years (range, 44-88 years) were included. All underwent anterior and/or posterior vaginal repair. Nineteen (46.3%) underwent vaginal hysterectomy, and eight (19.5%) underwent the Manchester procedure. Postoperative hospital stay was median 24 hr. Only three (7.3%) were discharged later than 48 hr. No re-admissions occurred. The most frequent complications were urinary retention exceeding 450 ml, and urinary tract infection (12.2%, and 9.8%, respectively). Short-term success rate was 97.6%. Patients' satisfaction rates were 85.4-95.1%. The median score of acceptability was 10 on a 0-10 points scale. The need for postoperative hospitalization was median 24 hr after vaginal surgery in a fast track setting, independently of the complexity of the procedure performed. Short-term success rate, satisfaction rates, and acceptability were all excellent. Follow up has been established to evaluate long-term success rates and recurrence.

  5. Determination of Material Strengths by Hydraulic Bulge Test.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hankui; Xu, Tong; Shou, Binan

    2016-12-30

    The hydraulic bulge test (HBT) method is proposed to determine material tensile strengths. The basic idea of HBT is similar to the small punch test (SPT), but inspired by the manufacturing process of rupture discs-high-pressure hydraulic oil is used instead of punch to cause specimen deformation. Compared with SPT method, the HBT method can avoid some of influence factors, such as punch dimension, punch material, and the friction between punch and specimen. A calculation procedure that is entirely based on theoretical derivation is proposed for estimate yield strength and ultimate tensile strength. Both conventional tensile tests and hydraulic bulge tests were carried out for several ferrous alloys, and the results showed that hydraulic bulge test results are reliable and accurate.

  6. Stellar populations in the bulges of isolated galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, L.; Parmiggiani, M.; Corsini, E. M.; Costantin, L.; Dalla Bontà, E.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Pizzella, A.

    2016-12-01

    We present photometry and long-slit spectroscopy for 12 S0 and spiral galaxies selected from the Catalogue of Isolated Galaxies. The structural parameters of the sample galaxies are derived from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey I-band images by performing a two-dimensional photometric decomposition of the surface brightness distribution. This is assumed to be the sum of the contribution of a Sérsic bulge, an exponential disc, and a Ferrers bar characterized by elliptical and concentric isophotes with constant ellipticity and position angles. The rotation curves and velocity dispersion profiles of the stellar component are measured from the spectra obtained along the major axis of galaxies. The radial profiles of the Hβ, Mg and Fe line-strength indices are derived too. Correlations between the central values of the Mg2 and line-strength indices and the velocity dispersion are found. The mean age, total metallicity and total α/Fe enhancement of the stellar population in the centre and at the radius, where the bulge gives the same contribution to the total surface brightness as the remaining components, are obtained using stellar population models with variable element abundance ratios. We identify intermediate-age bulges with solar metallicity and old bulges with a large spread in metallicity. Most of the sample bulges display supersolar α/Fe enhancement, no gradient in age and negative gradients of metallicity and α/Fe enhancement. These findings support a formation scenario via dissipative collapse where environmental effects are remarkably less important than in the assembly of bulges of galaxies in groups and clusters.

  7. The Star Formation History in the M31 Bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Hui; Olsen, Knut; Lauer, Tod; Saha, Abhijit; Li, Zhiyuan; García-Benito, Ruben; Schödel, Rainer

    2018-05-01

    We present the study of stellar populations in the central 5.5' (˜1.2 kpc) of the M31 bulge by using the optical color magnitude diagram derived from HST ACS WFC/HRC observations. In order to enhance image quality and then obtain deeper photometry, we construct Nyquist-sampled images and use a deconvolution method to detect sources and measure their photometry. We demonstrate that our method performs better than DOLPHOT in the extremely crowded region. The resolved stars in the M31 bulge have been divided into nine annuli and the color magnitude diagram fitting is performed for each of them. We confirm that the majority of stars (>70%) in the M31 bulge are indeed very old (> 5 Gyr) and metal-rich ([Fe/H]˜0.3). At later times, the star formation rate decreased and then experienced a significant rise around 1 Gyr ago, which pervaded the entire M31 bulge. After that, stars formed at less than 500 Myr ago in the central 130" . Through simulation, we find that these intermediate-age stars cannot be the artifacts introduced by the blending effect. Our results suggest that although the majority of the M31 bulge are very old, the secular evolutionary process still continuously builds up the M31 bulge slowly. We compare our star formation history with an older analysis derived from the spectral energy distribution fitting, which suggests that the latter one is still a reasonable tool for the study of stellar populations in remote galaxies.

  8. Aerobic vaginal pathogens and their sensitivity pattern.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, Shamim; Ahmad, Mumtaz; Aftab, Irum; Akhtar, Naeem; ul Hassan, Masood; Hamid, Abdul

    2008-01-01

    The vaginal flora is a complicated environment, containing dozens of microbiological species in variable quantities and relative proportions. The frequent cause of vaginal discharge is an infection or colonization with different microorganisms. Some pathologic conditions causing vaginitis are well defined yet, 7-72% of women with vaginitis may remain undiagnosed and such forms of abnormal vaginal flora neither considered as normal, nor can be called bacterial vaginosis have been termed as 'intermediate flora' and its management probably differ from that of bacterial vaginosis. It is of crucial importance in pregnant females at risk of preterm delivery. The present study has been conducted especially to elucidate this type of aerobic vaginal isolates and their culture and sensitivity towards currently used antibiotics. This study was conducted at the Microbiology Department of Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi over a period of two years (April 2004-March 2006). One thousand, nine hundred and twenty three high vaginal swabs, both from indoor and outdoor patients were collected, cultured and their susceptibility to various antibiotics was determined. Significant growth was obtained in 731 samples. The highest frequency of infection (39.5%) was observed at 31-40 years followed by 41-50 years (35.8%). About 76% were from outdoor and 24% were from indoor patients. Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent vaginal pathogen at 11-60 yrs & with highest prevalence at 31-40 years followed by 41-50 years. It was a predominant pathogen in both indoor (35%) as well as outdoor (41.6%) patients, followed by enteric gram-negative bacilli and other gram-positive cocci. There were very few antibiotics among the conventionally available aminoglycosides, third generation cephalosporins, penicillin, quinolones, sulfonamides and tetracyclines possessing good sensitivity (> 80%) against any one the common aerobic vaginal pathogens. The effective chemotherapeutics agents belong to

  9. What Are the Symptoms of Vaginitis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Videos Get to Know NICHD Podcasts and Audio Social Media Join NICHD Listservs About NICHD Organization Office of the Director Director's Corner Office of Administrative Management (OAM) Office of Communications (OC) Office of Global Health (OGH) Office of ...

  10. THE X-SHAPED BULGE OF THE MILKY WAY REVEALED BY WISE

    SciTech Connect

    Ness, Melissa; Lang, Dustin, E-mail: ness@mpia-hd.mpg.de

    2016-07-01

    The Milky Way bulge has a boxy/peanut morphology and an X-shaped structure. This X-shape has been revealed by the “split in the red clump” from star counts along the line of sight toward the bulge, measured from photometric surveys. This boxy, X-shaped bulge morphology is not unique to the Milky Way and such bulges are observed in other barred spiral galaxies. N -body simulations show that boxy and X-shaped bulges are formed from the disk via dynamical instabilities. It has also been proposed that the Milky Way bulge is not X-shaped, but rather, the apparent split in the red clumpmore » stars is a consequence of different stellar populations, in an old classical spheroidal bulge. We present a Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer ( WISE ) image of the Milky Way bulge, produced by downsampling the publicly available “unWISE” coadds. The WISE image of the Milky Way bulge shows that the X-shaped nature of the Milky Way bulge is self-evident and irrefutable. The X-shape morphology of the bulge in itself and the fraction of bulge stars that comprise orbits within this structure has important implications for the formation history of the Milky Way, and, given the ubiquity of boxy X-shaped bulges, spiral galaxies in general.« less

  11. Giant primary vaginal calculus secondary to vesicovaginal fistula with partial vaginal outlet obstruction in a 12-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shushang; Ge, Rong; Zhu, Lingfeng; Yang, Shunliang; Wu, Weizhen; Yang, Yin; Tan, Jianming

    2011-10-01

    A vesicovaginal fistula with vagina obstruction associated with vaginal calculi is an extremely rare medical condition. We report a giant primary vaginal calculus resulting from vesicovaginal fistula with partial vaginal outlet obstruction secondary to perineum trauma and surgery in a 12-year-old girl. Episiotomy was performed and the adhesive labia minora was split. After the removal of a giant calculus in the vagina, approximately 8 cm in diameter, the fistula tract was completely excised, followed by the repair of the vesicovagina fistula and the vagina. The patient was symptom-free at 6-month follow-up examination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Probiotics in the Prevention and Treatment of Postmenopausal Vaginal Infections: Review Article

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yoo Jin

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) and complicated vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) are frequently occurring vaginal infections in postmenopausal women, caused by an imbalance in vaginal microflora. Postmenopausal women suffer from decreased ovarian hormones estrogen and progesterone. A normal, healthy vaginal microflora mainly comprises Lactobacillus species (spp.), which act beneficially as a bacterial barrier in the vagina, interfering with uropathogens. During premenopausal period, estrogen promotes vaginal colonization by lactobacilli that metabolizing glycogen and producing lactic acid, and maintains intravaginal health by lowering the intravaginal pH level. A lower vaginal pH inhibits uropathogen growth, preventing vaginal infections. Decreased estrogen secretion in postmenopausal women depletes lactobacilli and increases intravaginal pH, resulting in increased vaginal colonization by harmful microorganisms (e.g., Enterobacter, Escherichia coli, Candida, and Gardnerella). Probiotics positively effects on vaginal microflora composition by promoting the proliferation of beneficial microorganisms, alters the intravaginal microbiota composition, prevents vaginal infections in postmenopausal. Probiotics also reduce the symptoms of vaginal infections (e.g., vaginal discharge, odor, etc.), and are thus helpful for the treatment and prevention of BV and VVC. In this review article, we provide information on the intravaginal mechanism of postmenopausal vaginal infections, and describes the effectiveness of probiotics in the treatment and prevention of BV and VVC. PMID:29354612

  13. Probiotics in the Prevention and Treatment of Postmenopausal Vaginal Infections: Review Article.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Mo; Park, Yoo Jin

    2017-12-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) and complicated vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) are frequently occurring vaginal infections in postmenopausal women, caused by an imbalance in vaginal microflora. Postmenopausal women suffer from decreased ovarian hormones estrogen and progesterone. A normal, healthy vaginal microflora mainly comprises Lactobacillus species (spp.), which act beneficially as a bacterial barrier in the vagina, interfering with uropathogens. During premenopausal period, estrogen promotes vaginal colonization by lactobacilli that metabolizing glycogen and producing lactic acid, and maintains intravaginal health by lowering the intravaginal pH level. A lower vaginal pH inhibits uropathogen growth, preventing vaginal infections. Decreased estrogen secretion in postmenopausal women depletes lactobacilli and increases intravaginal pH, resulting in increased vaginal colonization by harmful microorganisms (e.g., Enterobacter , Escherichia coli , Candida , and Gardnerella ). Probiotics positively effects on vaginal microflora composition by promoting the proliferation of beneficial microorganisms, alters the intravaginal microbiota composition, prevents vaginal infections in postmenopausal. Probiotics also reduce the symptoms of vaginal infections (e.g., vaginal discharge, odor, etc.), and are thus helpful for the treatment and prevention of BV and VVC. In this review article, we provide information on the intravaginal mechanism of postmenopausal vaginal infections, and describes the effectiveness of probiotics in the treatment and prevention of BV and VVC.

  14. Vaginal Cancer—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Vaginal cancer is often squamous cell carcinoma. Other types of vaginal cancer are adenocarcinoma, melanoma, and sarcoma. Infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) causes most vaginal cancer. Find evidence-based information on vaginal cancer treatment and research.

  15. Bulge-Formed Cooling Channels In A Wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcaninch, Michael D.; Holbrook, Richard L.; Lacount, Dale F.; Kawashige, Chester M.; Crapuchettes, John M.; Scala, James

    1996-01-01

    Vessels bounded by walls shaped as surfaces of revolution and contain integral cooling channels fabricated by improved method involving combination of welding and bulge forming. Devised to make rocket nozzles; also useful in fabrication of heat exchangers, stationary combustion chambers, and chemical-reactor vessels. Advantages include easier fabrication and greater flexibility of design.

  16. Mapping the X-shaped Milky Way Bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, R. K.; Zoccali, M.; McWilliam, A.; Minniti, D.; Gonzalez, O. A.; Hill, V.

    2011-09-01

    We analyzed the distribution of the red clump (RC) stars throughout the Galactic bulge using Two Micron All Sky Survey data. We mapped the position of the RC in 1 deg2 fields within the area |l| <= 8fdg5 and 3fdg5 <= |b| <= 8fdg5, for a total of 170 deg2. The single RC seen in the central area splits into two components at high Galactic longitudes in both hemispheres, produced by two structures at different distances along the same line of sight. The X-shape is clearly visible in the Z-X plane for longitudes close to the l = 0° axis. Crude measurements of the space densities of RC stars in the bright and faint RC populations are consistent with the adopted RC distances, providing further supporting evidence that the X-structure is real, and that there is approximate front-back symmetry in our bulge fields. We conclude that the Milky Way bulge has an X-shaped structure within |l| <~ 2°, seen almost edge-on with respect to the line of sight. Additional deep near-infrared photometry extending into the innermost bulge regions combined with spectroscopic data is needed in order to discriminate among the different possibilities that can cause the observed X-shaped structure.

  17. An asymmetric mesoscopic model for single bulges in RNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira Martins, Erik; Weber, Gerald

    2017-10-01

    Simple one-dimensional DNA or RNA mesoscopic models are of interest for their computational efficiency while retaining the key elements of the molecular interactions. However, they only deal with perfectly formed DNA or RNA double helices and consider the intra-strand interactions to be the same on both strands. This makes it difficult to describe highly asymmetric structures such as bulges and loops and, for instance, prevents the application of mesoscopic models to determine RNA secondary structures. Here we derived the conditions for the Peyrard-Bishop mesoscopic model to overcome these limitations and applied it to the calculation of single bulges, the smallest and simplest of these asymmetric structures. We found that these theoretical conditions can indeed be applied to any situation where stacking asymmetry needs to be considered. The full set of parameters for group I RNA bulges was determined from experimental melting temperatures using an optimization procedure, and we also calculated average opening profiles for several RNA sequences. We found that guanosine bulges show the strongest perturbation on their neighboring base pairs, considerably reducing the on-site interactions of their neighboring base pairs.

  18. Recognition of thymine in DNA bulges by a Zn(II) macrocyclic complex.

    PubMed

    del Mundo, Imee Marie A; Fountain, Matthew A; Morrow, Janet R

    2011-08-14

    A Zn(II) macrocyclic complex with appended quinoline is a bifunctional recognition agent that uses both the Zn(II) center and the pendent aromatic group to bind to thymine in bulges with good selectivity over DNA containing G, C or A bulges. Spectroscopic studies show that the stem containing the bulge stays largely intact in a DNA hairpin with the Zn(II) complex bound to the thymine bulge. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  19. Aerobic vaginitis in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Donders, Ggg; Bellen, G; Rezeberga, D

    2011-09-01

    Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is an alteration in vaginal bacterial flora that differs from bacterial vaginosis (BV). AV is characterised by an abnormal vaginal microflora accompanied by an increased localised inflammatory reaction and immune response, as opposed to the suppressed immune response that is characteristic of BV. Given the increased local production of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6 and IL-8 associated with AV during pregnancy, not surprisingly AV is associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery, chorioamnionitis and funisitis of the fetus. There is no consensus on the optimal treatment for AV in pregnant or non-pregnant women, but a broader spectrum drug such as clindamycin is preferred above metronidazole to prevent infection-related preterm birth. The exact role of AV in pregnancy, the potential benefit of screening, and the use of newer local antibiotics, disinfectants, probiotics and immune modulators need further study. © 2011 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2011 RCOG.

  20. General Information about Vaginal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Vaginal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Vaginal Cancer Go to Health Professional Version ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  1. Vaginal itching and discharge - child

    MedlinePlus

    ... vulvae; Itching - vaginal area; Vulvar itching; Yeast infection - child ... To prevent and treat vaginal irritation, your child should: Avoid colored or perfumed toilet tissue and bubble bath. Use plain, unscented soap. Limit bath time to 15 minutes or less. Ask ...

  2. Vaginal bleeding in late pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000627.htm Vaginal bleeding in late pregnancy To use the sharing ... JavaScript. One out of 10 women will have vaginal bleeding during their 3rd trimester. At times, it ...

  3. Age bimodality in the central region of pseudo-bulges in S0 galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Preetish K.; Barway, Sudhanshu; Wadadekar, Yogesh

    2017-11-01

    We present evidence for bimodal stellar age distribution of pseudo-bulges of S0 galaxies as probed by the Dn(4000) index. We do not observe any bimodality in age distribution for pseudo-bulges in spiral galaxies. Our sample is flux limited and contains 2067 S0 and 2630 spiral galaxies drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We identify pseudo-bulges in S0 and spiral galaxies, based on the position of the bulge on the Kormendy diagram and their central velocity dispersion. Dividing the pseudo-bulges of S0 galaxies into those containing old and young stellar populations, we study the connection between global star formation and pseudo-bulge age on the u - r colour-mass diagram. We find that most old pseudo-bulges are hosted by passive galaxies while majority of young bulges are hosted by galaxies that are star forming. Dividing our sample of S0 galaxies into early-type S0s and S0/a galaxies, we find that old pseudo-bulges are mainly hosted by early-type S0 galaxies while most of the pseudo-bulges in S0/a galaxies are young. We speculate that morphology plays a strong role in quenching of star formation in the disc of these S0 galaxies, which stops the growth of pseudo-bulges, giving rise to old pseudo-bulges and the observed age bimodality.

  4. Vaginal Toxic Shock Reaction Triggering Desquamative Inflammatory Vaginitis

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Nigel; Edlind, Thomas D.; Schlievert, Patrick M.; Nyirjesy, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Objective To report two cases of desquamative inflammatory vaginitis (DIV) associated with toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1)-producing Staphylococcus aureus strains. Materials and Methods Case report of two patients, one with an acute and one with a chronic presentation, diagnosed with DIV on the basis of clinical findings and wet mount microscopy. Pre- and posttreatment vaginal bacterial and yeast cultures were obtained. Results Pretreatment vaginal bacterial cultures from both patients grew TSST-1-producing S. aureus. Subsequent vaginal bacterial cultures following oral antibiotic therapy were negative. Conclusions DIV may be triggered through TSST-1-mediated vaginal toxic shock reaction. PMID:23222054

  5. Chemical evolution of the Galactic bulge as traced by microlensed dwarf and subgiant stars. IV. Two bulge populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensby, T.; Adén, D.; Meléndez, J.; Gould, A.; Feltzing, S.; Asplund, M.; Johnson, J. A.; Lucatello, S.; Yee, J. C.; Ramírez, I.; Cohen, J. G.; Thompson, I.; Bond, I. A.; Gal-Yam, A.; Han, C.; Sumi, T.; Suzuki, D.; Wada, K.; Miyake, N.; Furusawa, K.; Ohmori, K.; Saito, To.; Tristram, P.; Bennett, D.

    2011-09-01

    Based on high-resolution (R ≈ 42 000 to 48 000) and high signal-to-noise (S/N ≈ 50 to 150) spectra obtained with UVES/VLT, we present detailed elemental abundances (O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, Y, and Ba) and stellar ages for 12 new microlensed dwarf and subgiant stars in the Galactic bulge. Including previous microlensing events, the sample of homogeneously analysed bulge dwarfs has now grown to 26. The analysis is based on equivalent width measurements and standard 1-D LTE MARCS model stellar atmospheres. We also present NLTE Li abundances based on line synthesis of the 7Li line at 670.8 nm. The results from the 26 microlensed dwarf and subgiant stars show that the bulge metallicity distribution (MDF) is double-peaked; one peak at [Fe/H] ≈ -0.6 and one at [Fe/H] ≈ + 0.3, and with a dearth of stars around solar metallicity. This is in contrast to the MDF derived from red giants in Baade's window, which peaks at this exact value. A simple significance test shows that it is extremely unlikely to have such a gap in the microlensed dwarf star MDF if the dwarf stars are drawn from the giant star MDF. To resolve this issue we discuss several possibilities, but we can not settle on a conclusive solution for the observed differences. We further find that the metal-poor bulge dwarf stars arepredominantly old with ages greater than 10 Gyr, while the metal-rich bulge dwarf stars show a wide range of ages. The metal-poor bulge sample is very similar to the Galactic thick disk in terms of average metallicity, elemental abundance trends, and stellar ages. Speculatively, the metal-rich bulge population might be the manifestation of the inner thin disk. If so, the two bulge populations could support the recent findings, based on kinematics, that there are no signatures of a classical bulge and that the Milky Way is a pure-disk galaxy. Also, recent claims of a flat IMF in the bulge based on the MDF of giant stars may have to be revised based on the MDF and

  6. [Progress in research of relationship between vaginal Lactobacillus and preterm delivery].

    PubMed

    He, Y N; Xiong, H Y; Zheng, Y J

    2017-03-10

    The vaginal flora in most healthy women is dominated by Lactobacillus species. The absence of Lactobacillus species in vaginal flora might lead to a series of symptoms, especially in pregnant women causing adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as preterm delivery. This review focuses on the progress in the research of the relationship between vaginal Lactobacillus and preterm delivery, providing reference for the reduction of the incidence of preterm delivery.

  7. Non-specific vaginitis or vaginitis of undetermined aetiology.

    PubMed

    Faro, S; Phillips, L E

    1987-01-01

    Vaginitis is a complex syndrome that is probably the most common outpatient disease seen by the gynaecologist. The specific aetiologies of vaginitis are many. One of the most common entities, however, is "non-specific vaginitis" which can be subdivided into: Gardnerella vaginitis, anaerobic vaginosis, and vaginitis of undetermined aetiology. The role of Gardnerella as a causative agent for vaginitis has been studied in depth but its specific role remains controversial. Anaerobic vaginosis can be diagnosed by noting on microscopic examination the presence of clue cells, free-floating bacteria and numerous white blood cells (WBC's). Culturing an aliquot of the vaginal discharge reveals a high number of anaerobes. In addition, this condition responds to antibiotics effective against anaerobes, e.g., metronidazole. Vaginitis of undetermined aetiology is more complex and is characterized by a purulent vaginal discharge, a pH of 4.0-4.6, numerous WBC's, and a high concentration of bacteria. The microbiology of this vaginitis includes many facultative Gram-negative rods and Gram-positive cocci. Anaerobes may be present but do not make up a large component of the endogenous microflora. This condition does not respond to the usual antibiotic therapies employed in treating bacterial vaginitis. Since this condition appears to be primarily an inflammatory reaction, it may be responsive to topical antiinflammatory agents such as benzydamine.

  8. Analysis of Vaginal Cell Populations during Experimental Vaginal Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Fidel, Paul L.; Luo, Wei; Steele, Chad; Chabain, Joseph; Baker, Marc; Wormley, Floyd

    1999-01-01

    Studies with an estrogen-dependent murine model of vaginal candidiasis suggest that local cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is more important than systemic CMI for protection against vaginitis. The present study, however, showed that, compared to uninfected mice, little to no change in the percentage or types of vaginal T cells occurred during a primary vaginal infection or during a secondary vaginal infection where partial protection was observed. Furthermore, depletion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) had no effect on infection in the presence or absence of pseudoestrus. These results indicate a lack of demonstrable effects by systemic CMI or PMN against vaginitis and suggest that if local T cells are important, they are functioning without showing significant increases in numbers within the vaginal mucosa during infection. PMID:10338532

  9. The vaginal microbiota, host defence and reproductive physiology.

    PubMed

    Smith, Steven B; Ravel, Jacques

    2017-01-15

    The interaction between the human host and the vaginal microbiota is highly dynamic. Major changes in the vaginal physiology and microbiota over a woman's lifetime are largely shaped by transitional periods such as puberty, menopause and pregnancy, while daily fluctuations in microbial composition observed through culture-independent studies are more likely to be the results of daily life activities and behaviours. The vaginal microbiota of reproductive-aged women is largely made up of at least five different community state types. Four of these community state types are dominated by lactic-acid producing Lactobacillus spp. while the fifth is commonly composed of anaerobes and strict anaerobes and is sometimes associated with vaginal symptoms. The production of lactic acid has been associated with contributing to the overall health of the vagina due to its direct and indirect effects on pathogens and host defence. Some species associated with non-Lactobacillus vaginal microbiota may trigger immune responses as well as degrade the host mucosa, processes that ultimately increase susceptibility to infections and contribute to negative reproductive outcomes such as infertility and preterm birth. Further studies are needed to better understand the functional underpinnings of how the vaginal microbiota affect host physiology but also how host physiology affects the vaginal microbiota. Understanding this fine-tuned interaction is key to maintaining women's reproductive health. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  10. Difficulty in the management of pregnancy after vaginal radical trachelectomy.

    PubMed

    Takada, Sakura; Ishioka, Shin-Ichi; Endo, Toshiaki; Baba, Tsuyoshi; Morishita, Miyuki; Akashi, Yushi; Mizuuchi, Masahito; Adachi, Hidefumi; Kim, Miseon; Saito, Tsuyoshi

    2013-12-01

    We have performed 26 vaginal radical trachelectomies (RTs) for patients with early invasive uterine cervical cancer since 2003 and, to date, have experienced 8 deliveries. The procedure has a high risk for preterm labor and the subsequent occurrence of preterm premature rupture of membranes (pPROM). We report the present situation and the limits of follow-up of pregnancy after vaginal RT. Our operative procedure is based on that of Dargent et al. We usually amputate the cervix approximately 10 mm below the isthmus. To remove the parametrium, we cut at the level of type II hysterectomy. Pregnancy courses after vaginal RT were studied in 8 patients with respect to symptoms, cervical length, and several infectious signs. We recommended that patients enter hospital early in their second trimester, and prophylactic daily vaginal disinfection with povidone-iodine and an ulinastatin vaginal suppository were administered. Careful checking for vaginal infectious signs, as well as cervical length and abdominal tension of patients was also performed. Four patients followed up with this modality were able to continue their pregnancies until late in the third trimester. However, this follow-up modality was not effective for patients who showed cervical incompetence due to slack cervical cerclage. They suffered from pPROM at 26 and 19 weeks of gestation. We need a new approach for the management of pregnant patients after vaginal RT with cervical incompetence due to slack cervical cerclage to prevent cervical infection.

  11. The vaginal microbiota, host defence and reproductive physiology

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Steven B

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The interaction between the human host and the vaginal microbiota is highly dynamic. Major changes in the vaginal physiology and microbiota over a woman's lifetime are largely shaped by transitional periods such as puberty, menopause and pregnancy, while daily fluctuations in microbial composition observed through culture‐independent studies are more likely to be the results of daily life activities and behaviours. The vaginal microbiota of reproductive‐aged women is largely made up of at least five different community state types. Four of these community state types are dominated by lactic‐acid producing Lactobacillus spp. while the fifth is commonly composed of anaerobes and strict anaerobes and is sometimes associated with vaginal symptoms. The production of lactic acid has been associated with contributing to the overall health of the vagina due to its direct and indirect effects on pathogens and host defence. Some species associated with non‐Lactobacillus vaginal microbiota may trigger immune responses as well as degrade the host mucosa, processes that ultimately increase susceptibility to infections and contribute to negative reproductive outcomes such as infertility and preterm birth. Further studies are needed to better understand the functional underpinnings of how the vaginal microbiota affect host physiology but also how host physiology affects the vaginal microbiota. Understanding this fine‐tuned interaction is key to maintaining women's reproductive health. PMID:27373840

  12. Failed Operative Vaginal Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, James M.; Leveno, Kenneth J.; Hauth, John C.; Landon, Mark B.; Gilbert, Sharon; Spong, Catherine Y.; Varner, Michael W.; Caritis, Steve N.; Meis, Paul; Wapner, Ronald J.; Sorokin, Yoram; Miodovnik, Menachem; O'Sullivan, Mary J.; Sibai, Baha M.; Langer, Oded; Gabbe, Steven G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare maternal and neonatal outcomes in women undergoing a second stage cesarean after a trial of operative vaginal delivery with women undergoing a second stage cesarean without such an attempt. Methods This study is a secondary analysis of the women who underwent second stage cesarean. .The maternal outcomes examined included blood transfusion, endometritis, wound complication, anesthesia use, and maternal death. Infant outcomes examined included umbilical artery pH < 7.0, Apgar of 3 or less at 5 minutes, seizures within 24 hours of birth, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), stillbirth, skull fracture, and neonatal death. Results Of 3189 women who underwent second stage cesarean, operative vaginal delivery was attempted in 640. Labor characteristics were similar in the two groups with the exception of the admission to delivery time and cesarean indication. Those with an attempted operative vaginal delivery were more likely to undergo cesarean delivery for a non-reassuring fetal heart rate tracing (18.0% vs 13.9%, p=.01), have a wound complication (2.7% vs 1.0%; OR 2.65 95% CI 1.43–4.91), and require general anesthesia (8.0% vs 4.1%, OR 2.05 95% CI 1.44–2.91). Neonatal outcomes including umbilical artery pH less than 7.0, Apgar at or below 3 at 5 minutes, and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy were more common for those with an attempted operative vaginal delivery. This was not significant when cases with a non-reassuring fetal heart rate tracing were removed. Conclusion Cesarean delivery after an attempt at operative vaginal delivery was not associated with adverse neonatal outcomes in the absence of a non-reassuring fetal heart rate tracing. PMID:20168101

  13. Recognition of DNA bulges by dinuclear iron(II) metallosupramolecular helicates.

    PubMed

    Malina, Jaroslav; Hannon, Michael J; Brabec, Viktor

    2014-02-01

    Bulged DNA structures are of general biological significance because of their important roles in a number of biochemical processes. Compounds capable of targeting bulged DNA sequences can be used as probes for studying their role in nucleic acid function, or could even have significant therapeutic potential. The interaction of [Fe(2)L(3)](4+) metallosupramolecular helicates (L = C(25)H(20)N(4)) with DNA duplexes containing bulges has been studied by measurement of the DNA melting temperature and gel electrophoresis. This study was aimed at exploring binding affinities of the helicates for DNA bulges of various sizes and nucleotide sequences. The studies reported herein reveal that both enantiomers of [Fe(2)L(3)](4+) bind to DNA bulges containing at least two unpaired nucleotides. In addition, these helicates show considerably enhanced affinity for duplexes containing unpaired pyrimidines in the bulge and/or pyrimidines flanking the bulge on both sides. We suggest that the bulge creates the structural motif, such as the triangular prismatic pocket formed by the unpaired bulge bases, to accommodate the [Fe(2)L(3)](4+) helicate molecule, and is probably responsible for the affinity for duplexes with a varying number of bulge bases. Our results reveal that DNA bulges represent another example of unusual DNA structures recognized by dinuclear iron(II) ([Fe(2)L(3)](4+)) supramolecular helicates. © 2013 FEBS.

  14. Saccharomyces cerevisiae vaginitis: transmission from yeast used in baking.

    PubMed

    Nyirjesy, P; Vazquez, J A; Ufberg, D D; Sobel, J D; Boikov, D A; Buckley, H R

    1995-09-01

    To determine whether vaginitis due to Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be caused by exposure to exogenous sources of baker's yeast. Eight women with S cerevisiae vaginitis were identified from a cohort of women referred for the evaluation of chronic vaginal symptoms. In those with high-level exposure to exogenous sources of S cerevisiae, isolates from the vagina and those sources were sent in a blinded fashion for contour-clamped homogeneous electric-field electrophoresis. Four women from a cohort of approximately 750 referred patients had high-level exposures to S cerevisiae. In one of these patients, electrophoresis analysis revealed similarities between the strains isolated from her vagina, her husband's fingers, and the yeast he used in his pizza shop. Saccharomyces cerevisiae vaginitis can be the result of the inoculation of this yeast from exogenous sources.

  15. Delayed diagnosis of Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome due to microperforation and pyocolpos in obstructed vaginal canal.

    PubMed

    Wozniakowska, Ewa; Torres, Anna; Milart, Pawel; Wozniak, Slawomir; Czuczwar, Piotr; Szkodziak, Piotr; Paszkowski, Tomasz

    2014-08-01

    To present a rare anomaly consisting of uterus didelphys, longitudinal vaginal septum, obstructed hemivagina with pyocolpos, fistula to the open vaginal canal, and ipsilateral renal agenesis, referred as Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome (HWWS). A 14-year-old girl with recurring purulent vaginal discharge lasting for a few months. Preoperative examination revealed one vaginal canal with one cervical opening on the right side. There was a fistula leading from the obstructed vaginal canal to the left vagina. Intravaginal ultrasound examination demonstrated a longitudinal vaginal septum and a closed pyocolpos on the right side. The longitudinal vaginal septum was excised by way of electrocauterization under direct vision. HWWS should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients with uterus didelphys and unusual symptoms such as pyocolpos and vaginal discharge. Copyright © 2014 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Anterior vaginal introitoplasty for an acquired sensation of wide vagina: a case report and new surgical intervention.

    PubMed

    Ostrzenski, Adam

    2014-01-01

    A vaginal introital defect case and its symptomatology have never been published before. The objective of this presentation was to describe symptoms associated with an acquired sensation of wide vagina and to present a new surgical treatment for anterior vaginal introital defects. A 42-year-old, Caucasian woman, G4P4013, presented with a sensation of wide vagina at the vaginal opening and a history of colpoperineoplasty, without mesh, for the same condition 4 years prior. Clinical evaluation documented anterior vaginal introital defects and the absence of vaginal site-specific defects. Reconstruction of a vaginal introital defect was completed without complications. Surgical resolution of symptoms and signs of this condition were noted. Anterior vaginal introitoplasty can assist in the management of an acquired sensation of wide vagina.

  17. Vaginal Douching Among Latinas: Practices and Meaning

    PubMed Central

    Baquero, María; Anderson, Matthew R.; Alvarez, Adelyn; Karasz, Alison

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Vaginal douching is widely practiced by American women, particularly among minority groups, and is associated with increased risk of pelvic and vaginal infections. This research sought to investigate vaginal hygiene practices and meaning associated with them among Latina women and adolescents. Study results would guide development of an intervention to decrease douching among Latinas. Methods In depth qualitative interviews conducted with English- and Spanish-speaking women aged 16–40, seeking care for any reason who reported douching within the last year (n = 34). Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and analyzed using qualitative methods. One-third of interviews were conducted in Spanish. Results Two explanatory models for douching motives emerged: one stressed cosmetic benefits; the other, infection prevention and control. Most women reported douching to eliminate menstrual residue; a small number reported douching in context of sexual intercourse or vaginal symptoms. Many were unaware of associated health risks. Respondents typically learned about douching from female family members and friends. Male partners were described as having little to no involvement in the decision to douche. Women varied in their willingness to stop douching. Two-thirds reported receiving harm reduction messages about “overdouching”. About half indicated previous discussion about douching with health care providers; some had reduced frequency in response to counseling. A number of previously unreported vaginal hygiene practices and products were described, including use of a range of traditional hygiene practices, and products imported from outside the US. Conclusions Respondents expressed a range of commitment to douching. Counseling messages acknowledging benefits women perceive as well as health risks should be developed and delivered tailored to individual beliefs. Further research is needed to assess prevalence and safety of previously unreported practices

  18. Vaginal health in contraceptive vaginal ring users - A review.

    PubMed

    Lete, Iñaki; Cuesta, María C; Marín, Juan M; Guerra, Sandra

    2013-08-01

    To provide an overview of the available data from clinical studies of vaginal conditions in women who use a vaginal ring as a contraceptive. A systematic review of the literature. Millions of women have already used the ethylene vinyl acetate vaginal ring that releases ethinylestradiol and etonogestrel for contraception. Because of its small size, more than four out of five women using the ring report that they do not feel it, even during sexual intercourse. No colposcopic or cytological changes have been observed in users, although approximately 10% have increased vaginal discharge. While in vitro studies have shown adhesion of Candida yeasts to the vaginal ring surface, clinical studies have not demonstrated a greater incidence of Candida infections compared to users of equivalent oral contraceptives. Some clinical studies suggest a lower incidence of bacterial vaginosis. No interaction exists between concomitant use of the vaginal ring and other drugs or products for vaginal use. The use of a contraceptive vaginal ring does not alter the vaginal ecosystem and therefore does not substantially affect vaginal health.

  19. Emission-line objects projected upon the galactic bulge.

    PubMed

    Herbig, G H

    1969-08-01

    Low-dispersion slit spectrograms have been obtained of 34 faint objects that lie in the direction of the galactic bulge and have the Halpha line in emission upon a detectable continuum. Eleven of these are certain or probable symbiotic stars. A rough comparison with R CrB stars in the same area suggests that these brightest symbiotics in the bulge have in the mean M(v) approximately -3 to -4, which suggest Population II red giants rather than conventional Population I M-type objects. The sample also contains a number of hot stars having H and [O II] or [O III] in emission, as well as four conventional Be stars, and six certain or possible planetary nebulae.

  20. EMISSION-LINE OBJECTS PROJECTED UPON THE GALACTIC BULGE*

    PubMed Central

    Herbig, G. H.

    1969-01-01

    Low-dispersion slit spectrograms have been obtained of 34 faint objects that lie in the direction of the galactic bulge and have the Hα line in emission upon a detectable continuum. Eleven of these are certain or probable symbiotic stars. A rough comparison with R CrB stars in the same area suggests that these brightest symbiotics in the bulge have in the mean Mv ≈ -3 to -4, which suggest Population II red giants rather than conventional Population I M-type objects. The sample also contains a number of hot stars having H and [O II] or [O III] in emission, as well as four conventional Be stars, and six certain or possible planetary nebulae. Images PMID:16578699

  1. The Extinction Toward the Galactic Bulge from RR Lyrae Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Kunder, A; Popowski, P; Cook, K

    2007-11-07

    The authors present mean reddenings toward 3525 RR0 Lyrae stars from the Galactic bulge fields of the MACHO Survey. These reddenings are determined using the color at minimum V-band light of the RR0 Lyrae stars themselves and are found to be in general agreement with extinction estimates at the same location obtained from other methods. Using 3256 stars located in the Galactic Bulge, they derive the selective extinction coefficient R{sub V,VR} = A{sub V}/E(V-R) = 4.2 {+-} 0.2. this value is what is expected for a standard extinction law with R{sub V,BV} = 3.1 {+-} 0.3

  2. Why are classical bulges more common in S0 galaxies than in spiral galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Preetish K.; Wadadekar, Yogesh; Barway, Sudhanshu

    2018-07-01

    In this paper, we try to understand why the classical bulge fraction observed in S0 galaxies is significantly higher than that in spiral galaxies. We carry out a comparative study of the bulge and global properties of a sample of spiral and S0 galaxies in a fixed environment. Our sample is flux limited and contains 262 spiral and 155 S0 galaxies drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We have classified bulges into classical and pseudo-bulge categories based on their position on the Kormendy diagram. Dividing our sample into bins of galaxy stellar mass, we find that the fraction of S0 galaxies hosting a classical bulge is significantly higher than the classical bulge fraction seen in spirals even at fixed stellar mass. We have compared the bulge and the global properties of spirals and S0 galaxies in our sample and find indications that spiral galaxies which host a classical bulge, preferentially get converted into S0 population as compared to pseudo-bulge hosting spirals. By studying the star formation properties of our galaxies in the NUV-r colour-mass diagram, we find that the pseudo-bulge hosting spirals are mostly star forming while the majority of classical bulge host spirals are in the green valley or in the passive sequence. We suggest that some internal process, such as AGN feedback or morphological quenching due to the massive bulge, quenches these classical bulge hosting spirals and transforms them into S0 galaxies, thus resulting in the observed predominance of the classical bulge in S0 galaxies.

  3. Vaginal Gene Expression During Treatment With Aromatase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kallak, Theodora Kunovac; Baumgart, Juliane; Nilsson, Kerstin; Åkerud, Helena; Poromaa, Inger Sundström; Stavreus-Evers, Anneli

    2015-12-01

    Aromatase inhibitor (AI) treatment suppresses estrogen biosynthesis and causes genitourinary symptoms of menopause such as vaginal symptoms, ultimately affecting the quality of life for many postmenopausal women with breast cancer. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine vaginal gene expression in women during treatment with AIs compared with estrogen-treated women. The secondary aim was to study the presence and localization of vaginal aromatase. Vaginal biopsies were collected from postmenopausal women treated with AIs and from age-matched control women treated with vaginal estrogen therapy. Differential gene expression was studied with the Affymetrix Gene Chip Gene 1.0 ST Array (Affymetrix Inc, Santa Clara, CA) system, Ingenuity pathway analysis, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. The expression of 279 genes differed between the 2 groups; AI-treated women had low expression of genes involved in cell differentiation, proliferation, and cell adhesion. Some differentially expressed genes were found to interact indirectly with the estrogen receptor alpha. In addition, aromatase protein staining was evident in the basal and the intermediate vaginal epithelium layers, and also in stromal cells with a slightly stronger staining intensity found in AI-treated women. In this study, we demonstrated that genes involved in cell differentiation, proliferation, and cell adhesion are differentially expressed in AI-treated women. The expression of vaginal aromatase suggests that this could be the result of local and systemic inhibition of aromatase. Our results emphasize the role of estrogen for vaginal cell differentiation and proliferation and future drug candidates should be aimed at improving cell differentiation and proliferation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Can group B streptococci cause symptomatic vaginitis?

    PubMed Central

    Honig, E; Mouton, J W; van der Meijden, W I

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal cervicovaginal colonization with Lancefield group B streptococci (GBS) is an important risk factor for neonatal morbidity and mortality. About 15% of women are carriers of GBS. Usually, they are asymptomatic. CASES: We describe two patients with symptomatic vaginitis for which no apparent cause was found. Both patients were heavily colonized with GBS. After antibiotic treatment, both became asymptomatic and culture negative, but after recolonization with GBS, symptoms resumed. This phenomenon was repeatedly observed. After emergence of resistance to antibiotics, local application of chlorhexidine appeared to be the only useful treatment. CONCLUSION: We hypothesize that GBS-vaginitis may be a possible disease entity. Although at present it is not clear why some patients become symptomatic, we speculate that the immunologic response is somehow selectively hampered in such patients. PMID:10449271

  5. DefenseLink.mil - Special Report: Battle of the Bulge

    Science.gov Websites

    World War II in a final desperate attempt to break and defeat Allied forces. The ensuing battle, fought the largest land battle involving American Forces in World War II. More than a million Allied troops lines of the Battle of the Bulge during World War II. The now 86-year-old returned to one of his former

  6. Spiral Galaxy Central Bulge Tangential Speed of Revolution Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taff, Laurence

    2013-03-01

    The objective was to, for the first time in a century, scientifically analyze the ``rotation curves'' (sic) of the central bulges of scores of spiral galaxies. I commenced with a methodological, rational, geometrical, arithmetic, and statistical examination--none of them carried through before--of the radial velocity data. The requirement for such a thorough treatment is the paucity of data typically available for the central bulge: fewer than 10 observations and frequently only five. The most must be made of these. A consequence of this logical handling is the discovery of a unique model for the central bulge volume mass density resting on the positive slope, linear, rise of its tangential speed of revolution curve and hence--for the first time--a reliable mass estimate. The deduction comes from a known physics-based, mathematically valid, derivation (not assertion). It rests on the full (not partial) equations of motion plus Poisson's equation. Following that is a prediction for the gravitational potential energy and thence the gravitational force. From this comes a forecast for the tangential speed of revolution curve. It was analyzed in a fashion identical to that of the data thereby closing the circle and demonstrating internal self-consistency. This is a hallmark of a scientific method-informed approach to an experimental problem. Multiple plots of the relevant quantities and measures of goodness of fit will be shown. Astronomy related

  7. a Study of the AGB in Local Group Bulge Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rich, R.

    1994-01-01

    We propose to survey the bolometric luminosities, colors, and space distribution of the most luminous asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the bulges of M31, M32, and M33. We seek to discover whether the bulges of these galaxies are relatively young, of order 10 Gyr rather than 15 Gyr. We will use WFPC2 and the R, I, and F1042M (1 micron) filters. Knowing that F1042M falls on the first continuum point of M giants, we have shown that we can use 1.04 micron fluxes to reliably calculate bolometric magnitudes for these very red stars. Color information from R and I will permit (1) comparison with Galactic bulge M giants, (2) an estimate of the spread of abundance and (3) increase the accuracy of the bolometric magnitudes. Frames with the damaged HST show signs of resolution to within 3" of the M31 nucleus; Red images with the aberrated HST show a red star cluster associated with the nucleus. Ground-based studies of M32 find an intermediate-age population from spectroscopy and infrared photometry. The repaired HST should resolve stars close to the nuclei of these galaxies. We will measure bolometric luminosity functions to determine if the populations are intermediate age, and attempt to measure the abundance range for stars near the nuclei of these galaxies. If metals have been lost due to winds, theory predicts that we should see a substantial spread of abundances even near the nucleus.

  8. Orbits of Selected Globular Clusters in the Galactic Bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Villegas, A.; Rossi, L.; Ortolani, S.; Casotto, S.; Barbuy, B.; Bica, E.

    2018-05-01

    We present orbit analysis for a sample of eight inner bulge globular clusters, together with one reference halo object. We used proper motion values derived from long time base CCD data. Orbits are integrated in both an axisymmetric model and a model including the Galactic bar potential. The inclusion of the bar proved to be essential for the description of the dynamical behaviour of the clusters. We use the Monte Carlo scheme to construct the initial conditions for each cluster, taking into account the uncertainties in the kinematical data and distances. The sample clusters show typically maximum height to the Galactic plane below 1.5 kpc, and develop rather eccentric orbits. Seven of the bulge sample clusters share the orbital properties of the bar/bulge, having perigalactic and apogalatic distances, and maximum vertical excursion from the Galactic plane inside the bar region. NGC 6540 instead shows a completely different orbital behaviour, having a dynamical signature of the thick disc. Both prograde and prograde-retrograde orbits with respect to the direction of the Galactic rotation were revealed, which might characterise a chaotic behaviour.

  9. Vaginal Microbiomes Associated With Aerobic Vaginitis and Bacterial Vaginosis.

    PubMed

    Kaambo, Evelyn; Africa, Charlene; Chambuso, Ramadhani; Passmore, Jo-Ann Shelley

    2018-01-01

    A healthy vaginal microbiota is considered to be significant for maintaining vaginal health and preventing infections. However, certain vaginal bacterial commensal species serve an important first line of defense of the body. Any disruption of this microbial barrier might result in a number of urogenital conditions including aerobic vaginitis (AV) and bacterial vaginosis (BV). The health of the vagina is closely associated with inhabitant microbiota. Furthermore, these microbes maintain a low vaginal pH, prevent the acquisition of pathogens, stimulate or moderate the local innate immune system, and further protect against complications during pregnancies. Therefore, this review will focus on vaginal microbial "health" in the lower reproductive tract of women and on the physiological characteristics that determine the well-being of reproductive health. In addition, we explore the distinct versus shared characteristics of BV and AV, which are commonly associated with increased risk for preterm delivery.

  10. Vaginal Microbiomes Associated With Aerobic Vaginitis and Bacterial Vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Kaambo, Evelyn; Africa, Charlene; Chambuso, Ramadhani; Passmore, Jo-Ann Shelley

    2018-01-01

    A healthy vaginal microbiota is considered to be significant for maintaining vaginal health and preventing infections. However, certain vaginal bacterial commensal species serve an important first line of defense of the body. Any disruption of this microbial barrier might result in a number of urogenital conditions including aerobic vaginitis (AV) and bacterial vaginosis (BV). The health of the vagina is closely associated with inhabitant microbiota. Furthermore, these microbes maintain a low vaginal pH, prevent the acquisition of pathogens, stimulate or moderate the local innate immune system, and further protect against complications during pregnancies. Therefore, this review will focus on vaginal microbial “health” in the lower reproductive tract of women and on the physiological characteristics that determine the well-being of reproductive health. In addition, we explore the distinct versus shared characteristics of BV and AV, which are commonly associated with increased risk for preterm delivery. PMID:29632854

  11. Vaginal microbicides and teenagers.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Richard E; Rosenthal, Susan L

    2003-10-01

    Sexually active teens are at significant risk from sexually transmitted infections and girls and women bear the greatest burden of these infections. New methods, such as vaginal microbicides, would provide female controlled options. Microbicides are currently in development and thus it is timely to discuss the progress made and factors that may influence acceptability for teens. Microbicide development presents many challenges, and several different potential mechanisms of action are being explored. There is interest in these products from women and men, and specific preferences are being investigated. Adolescents, due to reproductive system immaturity, developing cognitive abilities and the psychosocial context of their relationships, present a special set of challenges in efforts to foster microbicide use. Vaginal microbicides are on the horizon. Further study into teen issues is required to develop successful strategies for marketing and encouraging adolescent use of microbicides.

  12. Vaginal health and hygiene practices and product use in Canada: a national cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Crann, Sara E; Cunningham, Shannon; Albert, Arianne; Money, Deborah M; O'Doherty, Kieran C

    2018-03-23

    The vaginal microbiome influences quality of life and health. The composition of vaginal microbiota can be affected by various health behaviors, such as vaginal douching. The purpose of this study was to examine the types and prevalence of diverse vaginal/genital health and hygiene behaviors among participants living in Canada and to examine associations between behavioral practices and adverse gynecological health conditions. An anonymous online survey, available in English and French, was distributed across Canada. The sample consisted of 1435 respondents, 18 years or older, living in Canada. Respondents reported engaging in diverse vaginal/genital health and hygiene behavioral practices, including the use of commercially manufactured products and homemade and naturopathic products and practices. Over 95% of respondents reported using at least one product in or around the vaginal area. Common products and practices included vaginal/genital moisturizers, anti-itch creams, feminine wipes, washes, suppositories, sprays, powders, and waxing and shaving pubic hair. The majority of the sample (80%) reported experiencing one or more adverse vaginal/genital symptom in their lifetime. Participants who had used any vaginal/genital product(s) had approximately three times higher odds of reporting an adverse health condition. Several notable associations between specific vaginal/genital health and hygiene products and adverse health conditions were identified. This study is the first of its kind to identify the range and prevalence of vaginal/genital health and hygiene behaviors in Canada. Despite a lack of credible information about the impact of these behaviors on women's health, the use of commercially manufactured and homemade products for vaginal/genital health and hygiene is common. Future research can extend the current exploratory study by identifying causal relationships between vaginal/genital health and hygiene behaviors and changes to the vaginal microbiome.

  13. Comparison of the Hyaluronic Acid Vaginal Cream and Conjugated Estrogen Used in Treatment of Vaginal Atrophy of Menopause Women: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jokar, Azam; Davari, Tayebe; Asadi, Nasrin; Ahmadi, Fateme; Foruhari, Sedighe

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vaginal atrophy is a common complication in menopause which does not improve with time and, if untreated, can affect the quality of life for women. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the vaginal cream of hyaluronic acid and conjugated estrogen (Premarin) in treatment of vaginal atrophy. Methods: This study was a randomized controlled clinical trial on 56 menopausal women with symptoms of vaginal atrophy; they were randomly allocated to two groups (recipient conjugated estrogen and hyaluronic acid). The severity of each sign of atrophy was evaluated by visual analog signals (VAS) and on the basis of a four point scale. Also to recognize the cellular maturation with pap smear and the maturation degree were calculated according to the formula and scores 0-100. As to the vaginal PH, we used PH marker band, the rate of which was divided into 4 degrees. Data were analyzed using SPSS, version 20, and P≤0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The results of this study showed that the symptoms of vaginal atrophy compared with the baseline level were relieved significantly in both groups. Dryness, itching, maturation index, PH and composite score of the vaginal symptoms were relieved significantly in both groups (P<0.001). Dyspareunia in Premarin (P<0.05) and hyaluronic acid (P<0.001) decreased compared with pre-treatment. Urinary incontinence only showed improvement in the hyaluronic acid group (P<0.05). Improvement in urinary incontinence, dryness, maturation index (P<0.05) and composite score of vaginal symptoms (P<0.001) in the hyaluronic acid group was better than those in the Premarin group. Conclusion: According to the results of the present study, hyaluronic acid and conjugated estrogen improved the symptoms of vaginal atrophy. But hyaluronic acid was more effective and this drug is suggested for those who do not want to or cannot take local hormone treatment. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2013022712644N1 PMID:26793732

  14. Comparison of the Hyaluronic Acid Vaginal Cream and Conjugated Estrogen Used in Treatment of Vaginal Atrophy of Menopause Women: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Jokar, Azam; Davari, Tayebe; Asadi, Nasrin; Ahmadi, Fateme; Foruhari, Sedighe

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal atrophy is a common complication in menopause which does not improve with time and, if untreated, can affect the quality of life for women. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the vaginal cream of hyaluronic acid and conjugated estrogen (Premarin) in treatment of vaginal atrophy. This study was a randomized controlled clinical trial on 56 menopausal women with symptoms of vaginal atrophy; they were randomly allocated to two groups (recipient conjugated estrogen and hyaluronic acid). The severity of each sign of atrophy was evaluated by visual analog signals (VAS) and on the basis of a four point scale. Also to recognize the cellular maturation with pap smear and the maturation degree were calculated according to the formula and scores 0-100. As to the vaginal PH, we used PH marker band, the rate of which was divided into 4 degrees. Data were analyzed using SPSS, version 20, and P≤0.05 was considered as significant. The results of this study showed that the symptoms of vaginal atrophy compared with the baseline level were relieved significantly in both groups. Dryness, itching, maturation index, PH and composite score of the vaginal symptoms were relieved significantly in both groups (P<0.001). Dyspareunia in Premarin (P<0.05) and hyaluronic acid (P<0.001) decreased compared with pre-treatment. Urinary incontinence only showed improvement in the hyaluronic acid group (P<0.05). Improvement in urinary incontinence, dryness, maturation index (P<0.05) and composite score of vaginal symptoms (P<0.001) in the hyaluronic acid group was better than those in the Premarin group. According to the results of the present study, hyaluronic acid and conjugated estrogen improved the symptoms of vaginal atrophy. But hyaluronic acid was more effective and this drug is suggested for those who do not want to or cannot take local hormone treatment. IRCT2013022712644N1.

  15. YOUNG STARS IN AN OLD BULGE: A NATURAL OUTCOME OF INTERNAL EVOLUTION IN THE MILKY WAY

    SciTech Connect

    Ness, M.; Debattista, Victor P.; Cole, D. R.

    2014-06-01

    The center of our disk galaxy, the Milky Way, is dominated by a boxy/peanut-shaped bulge. Numerous studies of the bulge based on stellar photometry have concluded that the bulge stars are exclusively old. The perceived lack of young stars in the bulge strongly constrains its likely formation scenarios, providing evidence that the bulge is a unique population that formed early and separately from the disk. However, recent studies of individual bulge stars using the microlensing technique have reported that they span a range of ages, emphasizing that the bulge may not be a monolithic structure. In this Letter we demonstratemore » that the presence of young stars that are located predominantly nearer to the plane is expected for a bulge that has formed from the disk via dynamical instabilities. Using an N-body+ smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation of a disk galaxy forming out of gas cooling inside a dark matter halo and forming stars, we find a qualitative agreement between our model and the observations of younger metal-rich stars in the bulge. We are also able to partially resolve the apparent contradiction in the literature between results that argue for a purely old bulge population and those that show a population comprised of a range in ages; the key is where to look.« less

  16. Effects of De-spinning and Lithosphere Thickening on the Lunar Fossil Bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, S.; Qin, C.; Phillips, R. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Moon has abnormally large degree-2 anomalies in gravity and shape (or bulge). The degree-2 gravity coefficients C20 and C22 are, respectively, 22 and 7 times greater than expected from the Moon's current orbital and rotational states. One prevalent hypothesis, called the fossil bulge hypothesis, interprets the current degree-2 shape as a remnant of the bulge that froze in when the Moon was closer to the Earth with stronger tidal and rotational potentials. However, the dynamic feasibility of the freeze-in process has never been quantitatively examined. In this study, we explore, using numerical models of viscoelastic deformation with time-dependent rotational potential and lithospheric rheology, how the degree-2 bulge would evolve with time as the early Moon cools and migrates away from the Earth. Our model includes two competing effects: 1) a thickening lithosphere with time through cooling, which helps maintain the bulge, and 2) de-spinning through tidal locking, which tends to reduce the bulge. In our model, a strong lithosphere is represented by the topmost layer that is orders of magnitude more viscous than the mantle. The benchmark results show that our numerical model can compute the bulge size accurately. Our calculations start with a bulge size that is in hydrostatic equilibrium with the initial rotational rate. The bulge reduces with time as the Moon spins down, while the lithosphere can support certain amount of bulge as it thickens. We find that the final size of the bulge is controlled by the relative time scales of the two processes. At limiting cases, if the time scale of de-spinning were much larger than that of lithosphere thickening, the bulge size would be largely maintained. Conversely, the bulge size would be reduced significantly. We will consider more realistic time scales for these two processes, as well as effects of other subsequent processes after lunar magma ocean crystallization, such as large impacts and mare volcanism.

  17. Clinical Trials with Agents Currently Used in the Management of Vaginitis

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, J. R.

    1964-01-01

    Results of treatment of 151 cases of vaginitis in patients attending a leukorrhea clinic were studied. The incidence of each type of vaginitis is recorded. Analysis of results of treatment with six compounds currently used in the therapy of vaginitis indicated that acetarsol or pimaricin compounds, with their broader spectra of activity, appeared to be most useful, prior to establishment of a definite diagnosis by means of cultures. Chlordantoin is an effective antifungal agent and is associated with a high percentage of “culture cures”. Resistant cases should be investigated for diabetes mellitus, and many are aided by a low carbohydrate diet. Metronidazole was used only for resistant cases of trichomoniasis, with a cure rate of over 80% when both partners were treated simultaneously. Triple-sulfa vaginal cream was effective in over 80% of patients with nonspecific vaginitis; no cases of resistant bacterial infections were encountered. Dienestrol cream was effective in relieving the symptoms of atrophic vaginitis. PMID:14144540

  18. Ongoing Massive Star Formation in the Bulge of M51

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamers, H. J. G. L. M.; Panagia, N.; Scuderi, S.; Romaniello, M.; Spaans, M.; de Wit, W. J.; Kirshner, R.

    2002-02-01

    We present a study of Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 observations of the inner kiloparsec of the interacting galaxy M51 in six bands from 2550 to 8140 Å. The images show an oval-shaped area (which we call the ``bulge'') of about 11''×16'', or 450×650 pc, around the nucleus that is dominated by a smooth ``yellow/reddish'' background population with overimposed dust lanes. These dust lanes are the inner extensions of the spiral arms. The extinction properties, derived in four fields in and outside dust lanes, are similar to the Galactic extinction law. The reddish stellar population has an intrinsic color of (B-V)0~=1.0, suggesting an age in excess of 5 Gyr. We found 30 bright pointlike sources in the bulge of M51, i.e., within 110-350 pc from the nucleus. The point sources have 21.4

  19. Hysteroscopic Resection of the Vaginal Septum in Uterus Didelphys with Obstructed Hemivagina: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Eun; Lee, Gyoung Hoon; Jee, Byung Chul; Ku, Seung-Yup; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Seok Hyun; Kim, Jung Gu; Moon, Shin Yong

    2007-01-01

    Uterus didelphys with obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis is a rare congenital anomaly. Excision of the obstructed vaginal septum is the treatment of choice for symptom relief and the preservation of reproductive capability. A 14-yr-old girl complained of persistent vaginal spotting following each menstruation. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging revealed a uterus didelphys with left hematocolpos and ipsilateral renal agenesis. Instead of conventional transvaginal excision of the vaginal septum, we used hysteroscopic excision under transabdominal ultrasonographic guidance to preserve the integrity of the hymen. The postoperative course was uneventful, and clinical symptoms were completely resolved after this intervention. Resectoscopic excision of the vaginal septum was found to be easy, safe, effective, and appropriate for young women as it preserved hymen integrity. We believe that this is the first Korean report on the use of a hysteroscopy for vaginal septum resection in a patient with uterus didelphys with obstructed hemivagina. PMID:17728527

  20. [EPIDEMIOLOGICAL, CLINICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN WOMEN WITH AEROBIC VAGINITIS].

    PubMed

    Dermendjiev, T; Pehlivanov, B; Hadjieva, K; Stanev, S

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is an alterarion of the normal lactobacillic flora accompanied by signs of inflammation, presence of mainly aerobic microorganisms from intestinal commensals or other aerobic pathogens. Clinical symptoms may vary by type and intensity and are marked by a high tendency for recurrence and chronification. Inflammation and ulcerations in AV could increase the risk of contracting HIV or other sexually transmitted infections. The aim is to study some epidemiological, clinical and microbiological features of the aerobic vaginitis in patients of the specialized Obstetric and Gynecological Clinic in Plovdiv, Bulgaria. In a retrospective research 4687 vaginal smears have been gathered in Microbiological laboratory at "St. George" Hospital - Plovdiv. We used clinical, microbiological and statistical methods. Information processing is performed by variation, alternative, correlation and graphical analysis using specialized package SPSS v13.0. The overall prevalence rate of AV in the studied population is 11.77%. The levels of prevalence of AV in pregnant and non-pregnant women are respectively 13.08% and 4.34%. The highest frequency of AV is in the age group 21-30 years (32.3%). The results show a marked association between Escherichia coli and the cases of AV (p < 0.001). AV is a common cause of vaginal symptoms in patients of specialized ambulatory outpatient. One in ten women with vaginal complaints suffers from AV Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli are most often isolated aerobic microorganisms.

  1. A combined photometric and kinematic recipe for evaluating the nature of bulges using the CALIFA sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, J.; Wisotzki, L.; Choudhury, O. S.; Gadotti, D. A.; Walcher, C. J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; García-Benito, R.; González Delgado, R. M.; Husemann, B.; Marino, R. A.; Márquez, I.; Sánchez, S. F.; Ziegler, B.; Califa Collaboration

    2017-07-01

    Understanding the nature of bulges in disc galaxies can provide important insights into the formation and evolution of galaxies. For instance, the presence of a classical bulge suggests a relatively violent history. In contrast, the presence of an inner disc instead (also referred to as a "pseudobulge") indicates the occurrence of secular evolution processes in the main disc. However, we still lack criteria to effectively categorise bulges, limiting our ability to study their impact on the evolution of the host galaxies. Here we present a recipe to separate inner discs from classical bulges by combining four different parameters from photometric and kinematic analyses: the bulge Sérsic index nb, the concentration index C20,50, the Kormendy (1977, ApJ, 217, 406) relation and the inner slope of the radial velocity dispersion profile ∇σ. With that recipe we provide a detailed bulge classification for a sample of 45 galaxies from the integral-field spectroscopic survey CALIFA. To aid in categorising bulges within these galaxies, we perform 2D image decomposition to determine bulge Sérsic index, bulge-to-total light ratio, surface brightness and effective radius of the bulge and use growth curve analysis to derive a new concentration index, C20,50. We further extract the stellar kinematics from CALIFA data cubes and analyse the radial velocity dispersion profile. The results of the different approaches are in good agreement and allow a safe classification for approximately 95% of the galaxies. In particular, we show that our new "inner" concentration index performs considerably better than the traditionally used C50,90 when yielding the nature of bulges. We also found that a combined use of this index and the Kormendy relation gives a very robust indication of the physical nature of the bulge.

  2. JASMINE-Astrometric Map of the Galactic Bulge-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouda, N.; Kobayashi, Y.; Yamada, Y.; Yano, T.; Tsujimoto, T.; Suganuma, M.; Niwa, Y.; Yamauchi, M.; Kawakatsu, Y.; Matsuhara, H.; Moda, A.; Tsuiki, A.; Utashima, M.; Ogawa, A.; Sako, N.

    2006-08-01

    We introduce a Japanese plan of infrared(z-band:0.9μm) space astrometry (JASMINE-project). JASMINE is the satellite (Japan Astrometry Satellite Mission for INfrared Exploration) which will measure the distances and apparent motions of stars around the center of the Milky Way with yet unprecedented precision. It will measure parallaxes, positions with the accuracy of 10 micro-arcsec and proper motions with the accuracy of 4 micro-arcsec/year for stars brighter than z=14mag. JASMINE can observe about ten million stars belonging to the bulge components of our Galaxy, which are hidden by the interstellar dust extinction in optical bands. Number of stars with sigma/pi <0.1 in the direction of the Galactic central bulge is about 1000 times larger than those observed in optical bands, where pi is a parallax and sigma is an error of the parallax. With the completely new "map of the bulge in the Milky Way", it is expected that many new exciting scientific results will be obtained in various fields of astronomy. We will introduce some scientific topics which will be obtained by JASMINE. Presently, JASMINE is in a development phase, with a target launch date around 2015. We adopt the following instrument design of JASMINE in order to get the accurate positions of many stars. We adopt a 3-mirrors optical system (modified Korsch system) with a primary mirror of 0.75m. On the astro-focal plane, we put dozens of new type of CCDs for z-band to get a wide field of view. The consideration of overall system(bus) design is now going on in cooperation with Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The introduction of JASMINE and the present status of the project will be shown in the presentation.

  3. Signatures of bulge triaxiality from kinematics in Baade's window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hongsheng; Spergel, David N.; Rich, R. Michael

    1994-12-01

    We study a sample of 62 Baade's Window, (l,b) = (1, -4)deg, K giants that have published proper motions, radial velocity, and metallicity. Using R0 = 8 kpc, we construct the velocity ellipsoids, namely the 3x3 velocity dispersion tensors, for the metal rich stars ((Fe/H) greater than or equal to 0) and metal poor stars ((Fe/H) less than or equal to -0.2). After diagonalizing the tensor, we find a vertex deviation characteristic of a nonaxisymmetric system. Eigenvalues for the two velocity ellipsoids (sigma1, sigma2, sigma3) are (126, 89, 65) +/- 13 km/s for the metal rich sample and (154, 77, 83) +/- 25 km/s for the metal poor sample with their long axes pointing to two nearly perpendicular directions (lv, bv) = (-65 +/- 9 deg, +14 +/- 9 deg) and (lv, bv) = (25 +/- 14 deg, -11 +/- 14 deg), respectively. The vertex deviations of the velocity ellipsoids cannot be consistently explained by any oblate model. We are able to reject the hypothesis that the metal poor and metal rich populations are drawn from the same distribution at better than the 97% confidence level. We populate orbits in a realistic bar potential with a Gaussian velocity distribution, allowing us to simulate and interpret observations. We conclude that the data are consistent with a triaxial bulge pointing towards (l,b) with l less than 0 deg and b = 0 deg as suggested by earlier work on gas dynamics and the observed light distribution. We also predict that low latitude (absolute value of b less than or equal to 4 deg) bulge fields should show the vertex deviation more strongly and would therefore be the best locations for future proper motion studies. In the classification scheme of Athanassoula et al. (1983) the metal rich stars appear to occupy the B-family orbits which rotate in the prograde sense in the rest frame and have boxy shapes that are aligned with and supporting the bar. The metal poor stars in the sample lag behind the metal rich bulge and appear to occupy R-family orbits which rotate

  4. Effect of the Diurnal Atmospheric Bulge on Satellite Accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyatt, Stanley P.

    1961-01-01

    Formulas are developed to express the secular acceleration of a satellite on passing through an atmosphere which bulges in the sunward direction and in which the scale height increases with height, these two properties of the high atmosphere having previously been established from satellite observations. Comparison of the new formulas with those for a spherically symmetric atmosphere of constant scale height indicates that deduced atmospheric densities may be systematically incorrect by up to 50 or 60 percent at heights of 500 to 600 km when the earlier and simpler equations are used.

  5. The hair follicle bulge: a niche for adult stem cells.

    PubMed

    Pasolli, Hilda Amalia

    2011-08-01

    Adult stem cells (SCs) are essential for tissue homeostasis and wound repair. They have the ability to both self-renew and differentiate into multiple cell types. They often reside in specialized microenvironments or niches that preserve their proliferative and tissue regenerative capacity. The murine hair follicle (HF) has a specialized and permanent compartment--the bulge, which safely lodges SCs and provides the necessary molecular cues to regulate their function. The HF undergoes cyclic periods of destruction, regeneration, and rest, making it an excellent system to study SC biology.

  6. A Comparison of Galaxy Bulge+Disk Decomposition Between Pan-STARRS and SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokken, Martine Elena; McPartland, Conor; Sanders, David B.

    2018-01-01

    Measurements of the size and shape of bulges in galaxies provide key constraints for models of galaxy evolution. A comprehensive catalog of bulge measurements for Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7 galaxies is currently available to the public. However, the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) 3π survey now covers the same region with ~1-2 mag deeper photometry, a ~10-30% smaller PSF, and additional coverage in y-band. To test how much improvement in galaxy parameter measurements (e.g. bulge + disk) can be achieved using the new PS1 data, we make use of ultra-deep imaging data from the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) Subaru Strategic Program (SSP). We fit bulge+disk models to images of 372 bright (mi < 18.5) galaxies detected in all three surveys. Comparison of galaxy parameters derived from SDSS and PS1 images with those measured from HSC-SSP images shows a tighter correlation between PS1 and SSP measurements for both bulge and disk parameters. Bulge parameters, such as bulge-to-total fraction and bulge radius, show the strongest improvement. However, measurements of all parameters degrade for galaxies with total r-band magnitude below the SDSS spectroscopic limit, mr = 17.7. We plan to use the PS1 3π survey data to produce an updated catalog of bulge+disk decomposition measurements for the entire SDSS DR7 spectroscopic galaxy sample.

  7. Structural basis for bifunctional zinc(II) macrocyclic complex recognition of thymine bulges in DNA.

    PubMed

    del Mundo, Imee Marie A; Siters, Kevin E; Fountain, Matthew A; Morrow, Janet R

    2012-05-07

    The zinc(II) complex of 1-(4-quinoylyl)methyl-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (cy4q) binds selectively to thymine bulges in DNA and to a uracil bulge in RNA. Binding constants are in the low-micromolar range for thymine bulges in the stems of hairpins, for a thymine bulge in a DNA duplex, and for a uracil bulge in an RNA hairpin. Binding studies of Zn(cy4q) to a series of hairpins containing thymine bulges with different flanking bases showed that the complex had a moderate selectivity for thymine bulges with neighboring purines. The dissociation constants of the most strongly bound Zn(cy4q)-DNA thymine bulge adducts were 100-fold tighter than similar sequences with fully complementary stems or than bulges containing cytosine, guanine, or adenine. In order to probe the role of the pendent group, three additional zinc(II) complexes containing 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (cyclen) with aromatic pendent groups were studied for binding to DNA including 1-(2-quinolyl)methyl-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (cy2q), 1-(4-biphenyl)methyl-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (cybp), and 5-(1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecan-1-ylsulfonyl)-N,N-dimethylnaphthalen-1-amine (dsc). The Zn(cybp) complex binds with moderate affinity but little selectivity to DNA hairpins with thymine bulges and to DNA lacking bulges. Similarly, Zn(dsc) binds weakly both to thymine bulges and hairpins with fully complementary stems. The zinc(II) complex of cy2q has the 2-quinolyl moiety bound to the Zn(II) center, as shown by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and pH-potentiometric titrations. As a consequence, only weak (500 μM) binding is observed to DNA with no appreciable selectivity. An NMR structure of a thymine-bulge-containing hairpin shows that the thymine is extrahelical but rotated toward the major groove. NMR data for Zn(cy4q) bound to DNA containing a thymine bulge is consistent with binding of the zinc(II) complex to the thymine N3(-) and stacking of the quinoline on top of the thymine. The thymine-bulge bound

  8. Vulvar and vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women: findings from the REVIVE (REal Women's VIews of Treatment Options for Menopausal Vaginal ChangEs) survey.

    PubMed

    Kingsberg, Sheryl A; Wysocki, Susan; Magnus, Leslie; Krychman, Michael L

    2013-07-01

    Vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA) is a chronic medical condition experienced by many postmenopausal women. Symptoms include dyspareunia (pain with intercourse), vaginal dryness, and irritation and may affect sexual activities, relationships, and activities of daily life. The aim of this study is to characterize postmenopausal women's experience with and perception of VVA symptoms, interactions with healthcare professionals (HCPs), and available treatment options. An online survey was conducted in the United States in women from KnowledgePanel(®) , a 56,000-member probability-selected Internet panel projectable to the overall US population. Altogether, 3,046 postmenopausal women with VVA symptoms (the largest US cohort of recent surveys) responded to questions about their knowledge of VVA, impact of symptoms on their activities, communication with HCPs, and use of available treatments. Percent is calculated as the ratio of response over total responding for each question for all and stratified participants. The most common VVA symptoms were dryness (55% of participants), dyspareunia (44%), and irritation (37%). VVA symptoms affected enjoyment of sex in 59% of participants. Additionally, interference with sleep, general enjoyment of life, and temperament were reported by 24%, 23%, and 23% of participants, respectively. Few women attributed symptoms to menopause (24%) or hormonal changes (12%). Of all participants, 56% had ever discussed VVA symptoms with an HCP and 40% currently used VVA-specific topical treatments (vaginal over-the-counter [OTC] products [29%] and vaginal prescription therapies [11%]). Of those who had discussed symptoms with an HCP, 62% used OTC products. Insufficient symptom relief and inconvenience were cited as major limitations of OTC products and concerns about side effects and cancer risk limited use of topical vaginal prescription therapies. VVA symptoms are common in postmenopausal women. Significant barriers to treatment include lack of

  9. Odorous vaginal discharge - a case study for thorough investigation.

    PubMed

    Cernat, Geta; Leung, Lawrence

    2011-08-01

    Odorous vaginal discharge is a common presentation to general practitioners, and a frequent presentation for bacterial infections and sexually transmissible diseases. Busy GPs may be tempted to make a diagnosis from the clinical history and symptoms, and prescribe antibiotics as a first line treatment. This case highlights an unusual cause of persistent odorous vaginal discharge. If a thorough examination had not been conducted, the cause would have been overlooked, first line antibiotics would most likely have been ineffective, and potentially life threatening consequences may have occurred.

  10. Local oestrogen for vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Suckling, J; Lethaby, A; Kennedy, R

    2003-01-01

    Vaginal atrophy is a frequent complaint of postmenopausal women; symptoms include vaginal dryness, itching, discomfort and painful intercourse. Systemic treatment for these symptoms in the form of oral hormone replacement therapy is not always necessary. An alternative choice is oestrogenic preparations administered vaginally (in the form of creams, pessaries, tablets and the estradiol releasing ring). The objective of this review is to compare the effectiveness, safety and acceptability of oestrogenic preparations for women who suffer from vaginal atrophy. We searched the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group register of trials (searched January 2003), The Cochrane Library (Issue 2, 2003), MEDLINE (1966-January 2003), EMBASE (1980-January 2003), Current Contents (1993-January 2003), Biological Abstracts (1969-2002), Social Sciences Index (1980-January 2003), PsycINFO (1972-February 2003), CINAHL (1982-January 2003) and reference list of articles. We also contacted manufacturers and researchers in the field. The inclusion criteria were randomised comparisons of oestrogenic preparations administered intravaginally in postmenopausal women for the treatment of symptoms resulting from vaginal atrophy or vaginitis. Twenty nine trials were identified, of these 13 were excluded. Trials were assessed for quality and two reviewers extracted data independently. Ratios for dichotomous and means for continuous outcomes were estimated. Outcomes analysed were included under the headings of efficacy, safety and acceptability. Sixteen trials with 2129 women were included in this review. The overall quality of the studies was good, although not all trials measured the same outcomes. All trials measured efficacy with various outcome measures. When comparing efficacy of oestrogenic preparations (in the form of creams, pessaries, tablets and the estradiol releasing vaginal ring) with each other in relieving the symptoms of vaginal atrophy, results indicated significant

  11. Local oestrogen for vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Suckling, J; Lethaby, A; Kennedy, R

    2006-10-18

    Vaginal atrophy is a frequent complaint of postmenopausal women; symptoms include vaginal dryness, itching, discomfort and painful intercourse. Systemic treatment for these symptoms in the form of oral hormone replacement therapy is not always necessary. An alternative choice is oestrogenic preparations administered vaginally (in the form of creams, pessaries, tablets and the oestradiol-releasing ring). The objective of this review was to compare the effectiveness, safety and acceptability of oestrogenic preparations for women who suffer from vaginal atrophy. We searched the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group Register of trials (searched January 2006), The Cochrane Library (2006,Issue 2), MEDLINE (1966 to January 2006), EMBASE (1980 to January 2006), Current Contents (1993 to January 2006, Biological Abstracts (1969 to 2006), Social Sciences Index (1980 to January 2006), PsycINFO (1972 to February 2006), CINAHL (1982 to January 2006) and reference list of articles. We also contacted manufacturers and researchers in the field. The inclusion criteria were randomised comparisons of oestrogenic preparations administered intravaginally in postmenopausal women for the treatment of symptoms resulting from vaginal atrophy or vaginitis. Thirty-seven trials were identified: of these 18 were excluded. Included trials were assessed for quality and two reviewer authors extracted data independently. The ratios for dichotomous outcomes and means for continuous outcomes were calculated. The outcomes analysed were categorised under the headings of: efficacy, safety and acceptability. Nineteen trials with 4162 women were included in this review. The overall quality of the studies was good, although not all trials measured the same outcomes. All trials measured efficacy, with various outcome measures. When comparing the efficacy of different oestrogenic preparations (in the form of creams, pessaries, tablets and the oestradiol-releasing vaginal ring) in relieving the

  12. Observational constraints to boxy/peanut bulge formation time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, I.; Martínez-Valpuesta, I.; Ruiz-Lara, T.; de Lorenzo-Caceres, A.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Florido, E.; González Delgado, R. M.; Lyubenova, M.; Marino, R. A.; Sánchez, S. F.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; van de Ven, G.; Zurita, A.

    2017-09-01

    Boxy/peanut bulges are considered to be part of the same stellar structure as bars and both could be linked through the buckling instability. The Milky Way is our closest example. The goal of this Letter is to determine if the mass assembly of the different components leaves an imprint in their stellar populations allowing the estimation the time of bar formation and its evolution. To this aim, we use integral field spectroscopy to derive the stellar age distributions, SADs, along the bar and disc of NGC 6032. The analysis clearly shows different SADs for the different bar areas. There is an underlying old (≥12 Gyr) stellar population for the whole galaxy. The bulge shows star formation happening at all times. The inner bar structure shows stars of ages older than 6 Gyr with a deficit of younger populations. The outer bar region presents an SAD similar to that of the disc. To interpret our results, we use a generic numerical simulation of a barred galaxy. Thus, we constrain, for the first time, the epoch of bar formation, the buckling instability period and the posterior growth from disc material. We establish that the bar of NGC 6032 is old, formed around 10 Gyr ago while the buckling phase possibly happened around 8 Gyr ago. All these results point towards bars being long-lasting even in the presence of gas.

  13. The mechanics of decompressive craniectomy: Bulging in idealized geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weickenmeier, Johannes; Kuhl, Ellen; Goriely, Alain

    2016-11-01

    In extreme cases of traumatic brain injury or a stroke, the resulting uncontrollable swelling of the brain may lead to a harmful increase of the intracranial pressure. As a common measure for immediate release of pressure on the brain, part of the skull is surgically removed allowing for the brain to bulge outwards, a procedure known as a decompressive craniectomy. During this excessive brain swelling, the affected tissue typically undergoes large deformations resulting in a complex three-dimensional mechanical loading state with several important implications on optimal treatment strategies and outcome. Here, as a first step towards a better understanding of the mechanics of a decompressive craniectomy, we consider simple models for the bulging of elastic solids under geometric constraints representative of the surgical intervention. In small deformations and simple geometries, the exact solution of this problem is derived from the theory of contact mechanics. The analysis of these solutions reveals a number of interesting generic features relevant for the mechanics of craniectomy.

  14. Heterogeneity of Vaginal Microbial Communities within Individuals▿ #

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Kyung; Thomas, Susan M.; Ho, Mengfei; Sharma, Shobha; Reich, Claudia I.; Frank, Jeremy A.; Yeater, Kathleen M.; Biggs, Diana R.; Nakamura, Noriko; Stumpf, Rebecca; Leigh, Steven R.; Tapping, Richard I.; Blanke, Steven R.; Slauch, James M.; Gaskins, H. Rex; Weisbaum, Jon S.; Olsen, Gary J.; Hoyer, Lois L.; Wilson, Brenda A.

    2009-01-01

    Recent culture-independent studies have revealed that a healthy vaginal ecosystem harbors a surprisingly complex assemblage of microorganisms. However, the spatial distribution and composition of vaginal microbial populations have not been investigated using molecular methods. Here, we evaluated site-specific microbial composition within the vaginal ecosystem and examined the influence of sampling technique in detection of the vaginal microbiota. 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were prepared from samples obtained from different locations (cervix, fornix, outer vaginal canal) and by different methods (swabbing, scraping, lavaging) from the vaginal tracts of eight clinically healthy, asymptomatic women. The data reveal that the vaginal microbiota is not homogenous throughout the vaginal tract but differs significantly within an individual with regard to anatomical site and sampling method used. Thus, this study illuminates the complex structure of the vaginal ecosystem and calls for the consideration of microenvironments when sampling vaginal microbiota as a clinical predictor of vaginal health. PMID:19158255

  15. A study of the effect of bulges on bar formation in disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataria, Sandeep Kumar; Das, Mousumi

    2018-04-01

    We use N-body simulations of bar formation in isolated galaxies to study the effect of bulge mass and bulge concentration on bar formation. Bars are global disc instabilities that evolve by transferring angular momentum from the inner to outer discs and to the dark matter halo. It is well known that a massive spherical component such as halo in a disc galaxy can make it bar stable. In this study, we explore the effect of another spherical component, the bulge, on bar formation in disc galaxies. In our models, we vary both the bulge mass and concentration. We have used two sets of models: one that has a dense bulge and high surface density disc, and the other model has a less concentrated bulge and a lighter disc. In both models, we vary the bulge to disc mass fraction from 0 to 0.7. Simulations of both the models show that there is an upper cut-off in bulge-to-disc mass ratio Mb/Md above which bars cannot form; the cut-off is smaller for denser bulges (Mb/Md = 0.2) compared to less denser ones (Mb/Md = 0.5). We define a new criterion for bar formation in terms of the ratio of bulge to total radial force (Fb/Ftot) at the disc scale lengths above which bars cannot form. We find that if Fb/Ftot > 0.35, a disc is stable and a bar cannot form. Our results indicate that early-type disc galaxies can still form strong bars in spite of having massive bulges.

  16. Why are classical bulges more common in S0 galaxies than in spiral galaxies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Preetish K.; Wadadekar, Yogesh; Barway, Sudhanshu

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we try to understand why the classical bulge fraction observed in S0 galaxies is significantly higher than that in spiral galaxies. We carry out a comparative study of the bulge and global properties of a sample of spiral and S0 galaxies in a fixed environment. Our sample is flux limited and contains 262 spiral and 155 S0 galaxies drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We have classified bulges into classical and pseudobulge categories based on their position on the Kormendy diagram. Dividing our sample into bins of galaxy stellar mass, we find that the fraction of S0 galaxies hosting a classical bulge is significantly higher than the classical bulge fraction seen in spirals even at fixed stellar mass. We have compared the bulge and the global properties of spirals and S0 galaxies in our sample and find indications that spiral galaxies which host a classical bulge, preferentially get converted into S0 population as compared to pseudobulge hosting spirals. By studying the star formation properties of our galaxies in the NUV - r color-mass diagram, we find that the pseudobulge hosting spirals are mostly star forming while the majority of classical bulge host spirals are in the green valley or in the passive sequence. We suggest that some internal process, such as AGN feedback or morphological quenching due to the massive bulge, quenches these classical bulge hosting spirals and transforms them into S0 galaxies, thus resulting in the observed predominance of the classical bulge in S0 galaxies.

  17. [Vaginal infections in a Family Health Clinic in the Metropolitan Region, Chile].

    PubMed

    Villaseca, Rodrigo; Ovalle, Alfredo; Amaya, Fernando; Labra, Bayron; Escalona, Natalia; Lizana, Paola; Montoya, M José; Lillo, Eduardo; Martínez, M Angélica

    2015-02-01

    Vaginal infections are a frequent cause for consultation, but their prevalence and etiology vary in different populations. To determine the prevalence and etiologies of vaginal infection in women attending a family health center in the Metropolitan Region of Chile. The microbiological diagnosis was made by wet mount and Gram stain. Diagnosis of trichomoniasis was performed by wet mount, culture and polymerase chain reaction. 101 women aged 15-54, not selected by signs or symptoms of vaginal infection, 46 of them pregnant were included. In 47 women (46.5%), vaginal infections were diagnosed. An association was observed between age and frequency of vaginal infection. The proportion of infections among pregnant and non-pregnant women was similar. The most frequent infections were bacterial vaginosis (16.8%), vulvovaginal candidiasis (11.9%) and co-infections (6.9%). We found 5.9% of intermediate microbiota cases, 3% of trichomoniasis and 2% of aerobic vaginitis. Symptoms of vaginal infection had poor agreement with microbiological findings. Otherwise physical signs had good agreement with the presence of infection, but low to moderate concordance with a specific etiology. We found a high prevalence of vaginal infections in the study population. It is necessary to improve the definitions and criteria of microbiological diagnosis of co-infections and intermediate microbiota, for them to be diagnosed in the clinical practice. More descriptive questionnaires are recommended to enhance the usefulness of clinical examination.

  18. The effect of microablative fractional CO2 laser on vaginal flora of postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Athanasiou, S; Pitsouni, E; Antonopoulou, S; Zacharakis, D; Salvatore, S; Falagas, M E; Grigoriadis, T

    2016-10-01

    To assess the effect of microablative fractional CO2 laser (MFCO2-Laser) therapy on the vaginal microenvironment of postmenopausal women. Three laser therapies at monthly intervals were applied in postmenopausal women with moderate to severe symptoms of genitourinary syndrome of menopause, pH of vaginal fluid >4.5 and superficial epithelial cells on vaginal smear <5%. Vaginal fluid pH values, fresh wet mount microscopy, Gram stain and aerobic and anaerobic cultures were evaluated at baseline and 1 month after each subsequent therapy. Nugent score and Hay-Ison criteria were used to evaluate vaginal flora. Fifty-three women (mean age 57.2 ± 5.4 years) participated and completed this study. MFCO2-Laser therapy increased Lactobacillus (p < 0.001) and normal flora (p < 0.001) after the completion of the therapeutic protocol, which decreased vaginal pH from a mean of 5.5 ± 0.8 (initial value) to 4.7 ± 0.5 (p < 0.001). The prevalence of Lactobacillus changed from 30% initially to 79% after the last treatment. Clinical signs and symptoms of bacterial vaginosis, aerobic vaginitis or candidiasis did not appear in any participant. MFCO2-Laser therapy is a promising treatment for improving the vaginal health of postmenopausal women by helping repopulate the vagina with normally existing Lactobacillus species and reconstituting the normal flora to premenopausal status.

  19. [Management of vaginal infection following failure of a probabilistic treatment: is the vaginal swab really useful?].

    PubMed

    Bretelle, F; Chiarelli, P; Palmer, I; Glatt, N

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this observational national multi-centre study was to describe medical care of vaginal infections resisting a primary probabilistic treatment. Two hundred and seventy female patients were included during a 9-month period (from 2013, March 20th to 2013, December 7th) by 155 gynaecologists located throughout France. All patients were presenting a vulvo-vaginitis episode which started about three weeks ago and which was characterized by leucorrhea (93 % cases), itching (88 % cases) and/or vulvar and/or vaginal irritation (88 % cases). In most cases, this episode was previously treated by a short course of an azole antifungal medication. This treatment was initiated by the patient herself without any doctor's prescription in six out of 10 cases and had no influence on the evolution of the original clinical symptoms. Second line treatments included azole antifungal medications (56 % cases), local fixed combinations (antifungal agent and bactericidal antibiotic) (29 %), metronidazole (9 %), oral antibiotics (7.4 %). At the end of the treatment, 85 % patients recovered from vaginitis symptoms. The recovery rate was 82.6 % for patients who got a bacteriological examination and 87.6 % for patients who were treated without any bacteriological examination. The difference is not statistically significant. These results seem to show that a probabilistic medical care is as effective as (but probably more economical than) a therapeutic strategy guided by the results of further examinations in case of failure of a primary treatment. This conclusion should be confirmed by a medico-economic comparison after randomization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Episiotomy for vaginal birth

    PubMed Central

    Carroli, Guillermo; Mignini, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    Background Episiotomy is done to prevent severe perineal tears, but its routine use has been questioned. The relative effects of midline compared with midlateral episiotomy are unclear. Objectives The objective of this review was to assess the effects of restrictive use of episiotomy compared with routine episiotomy during vaginal birth. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (March 2008). Selection criteria Randomized trials comparing restrictive use of episiotomy with routine use of episiotomy; restrictive use of mediolateral episiotomy versus routine mediolateral episiotomy; restrictive use of midline episiotomy versus routine midline episiotomy; and use of midline episiotomy versus mediolateral episiotomy. Data collection and analysis The two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted the data. Main results We included eight studies (5541 women). In the routine episiotomy group, 75.15% (2035/2708) of women had episiotomies, while the rate in the restrictive episiotomy group was 28.40% (776/2733). Compared with routine use, restrictive episiotomy resulted in less severe perineal trauma (relative risk (RR) 0.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49 to 0.91), less suturing (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.81) and fewer healing complications (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.85). Restrictive episiotomy was associated with more anterior perineal trauma (RR 1.84, 95% CI 1.61 to 2.10). There was no difference in severe vaginal/perineal trauma (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.18); dyspareunia (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.16); urinary incontinence (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.20) or several pain measures. Results for restrictive versus routine mediolateral versus midline episiotomy were similar to the overall comparison. Authors’ conclusions Restrictive episiotomy policies appear to have a number of benefits compared to policies based on routine episiotomy. There is less posterior perineal trauma, less suturing and

  1. Vaginal Changes Due to Varying Degrees of Rectocele Prolapse: A Computational Study.

    PubMed

    Chanda, Arnab; Meyer, Isuzu; Richter, Holly E; Lockhart, Mark E; Moraes, Fabia R D; Unnikrishnan, Vinu

    2017-10-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP), downward descent of the pelvic organs resulting in a protrusion of the vagina, is a highly prevalent condition, responsible for 300,000 surgeries in the U.S. annually. Rectocele, a posterior vaginal wall (PVW) prolapse of the rectum, is the second most common type of POP after cystocele. A rectocele usually manifests itself along with other types of prolapse with multicompartment pelvic floor defects. To date, the specific mechanics of rectocele formation are poorly understood, which does not allow its early stage detection and progression prediction over time. Recently, with the advancement of imaging and computational modeling techniques, a plethora of finite element (FE) models have been developed to study vaginal prolapse from different perspectives and allow a better understanding of dynamic interactions of pelvic organs and their supporting structures. So far, most studies have focused on anterior vaginal prolapse (AVP) (or cystocele) and limited data exist on the role of pelvic muscles and ligaments on the development and progression of rectocele. In this work, a full-scale magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based three-dimensional (3D) computational model of the female pelvic anatomy, comprising the vaginal canal, uterus, and rectum, was developed to study the effect of varying degrees (or sizes) of rectocele prolapse on the vaginal canal for the first time. Vaginal wall displacements and stresses generated due to the varying rectocele size and average abdominal pressures were estimated. Considering the direction pointing from anterior to posterior side of the pelvic system as the positive Y-direction, it was found that rectocele leads to negative Y-direction displacements, causing the vaginal cross section to shrink significantly at the lower half of the vaginal canal. Besides the negative Y displacements, the rectocele bulging was observed to push the PVW downward toward the vaginal hiatus, exhibiting the well-known "kneeling

  2. Abundances of disk and bulge giants from high-resolution optical spectra. II. O, Mg, Ca, and Ti in the bulge sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jönsson, H.; Ryde, N.; Schultheis, M.; Zoccali, M.

    2017-02-01

    Context. Determining elemental abundances of bulge stars can, via chemical evolution modeling, help to understand the formation and evolution of the bulge. Recently there have been claims both for and against the bulge having a different [α/Fe] versus [Fe/H] trend as compared to the local thick disk. This could possibly indicate a faster, or at least different, formation timescale of the bulge as compared to the local thick disk. Aims: We aim to determine the abundances of oxygen, magnesium, calcium, and titanium in a sample of 46 bulge K giants, 35 of which have been analyzed for oxygen and magnesium in previous works, and compare this sample to homogeneously determined elemental abundances of a local disk sample of 291 K giants. Methods: We used spectral synthesis to determine both the stellar parameters and elemental abundances of the bulge stars analyzed here. We used the exact same method that we used to analyze the comparison sample of 291 local K giants in Paper I of this series. Results: Compared to the previous analysis of the 35 stars in our sample, we find lower [Mg/Fe] for [Fe/H] >-0.5, and therefore contradict the conclusion about a declining [O/Mg] for increasing [Fe/H]. We instead see a constant [O/Mg] over all the observed [Fe/H] in the bulge. Furthermore, we find no evidence for a different behavior of the alpha-iron trends in the bulge as compared to the local thick disk from our two samples. Note to the reader: following the publication of the corrigendum, the subtitle of the article was corrected on April 6, 2017. "O, Mg, Co, and Ti" has been replaced by "O, Mg, Ca, and Ti".Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile (ESO programs 71.B-0617(A), 073.B-0074(A), and 085.B-0552(A)).

  3. Vaginal oxytetracycline concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Thin, R N; Al Rawi, Z H; Simmons, P D; Treharne, J; Tabaqchali, S

    1979-01-01

    Although tetracycline preparations are widely used in departments of genitourinary medicine, or sexually transmitted diseases clinics, little is known of the concentrations of these preparations in genital secretions. For this reason a microbiological method was used for estimating oxytetracycline concentrations in vaginal secretions. These concentrations varied from 0.6 to 6.5 microgram/ml in 19 women who had had sexual contact with a man with non-specific urethritis and who were taking oxytetracycline dihydrate 250 mg four times daily. They were well in excess of the minimum inhibitory concentration of oxytetracycline (0.2 microgram/ml) for the strains of Chlamydia trachomatis isolated from the patients with positive culture results. Thus, oxytetracycline 250 mg four times daily appears to be a satisfactory regimen for the treatment of chlamydial genital infection in women. PMID:509190

  4. One-year clinical outcomes after prolapse surgery with nonanchored mesh and vaginal support device.

    PubMed

    Zyczynski, Halina M; Carey, Marcus P; Smith, Anthony R B; Gauld, Judi M; Robinson, David; Sikirica, Vanja; Reisenauer, Christl; Slack, Mark

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate outcomes after standardized transvaginal prolapse repair with nonanchored mesh and a vaginal support device. Postoperative vaginal support was assessed by pelvic organ prolapse quantitative examination after repair of symptomatic stage II/III prolapse. Validated questionnaires assessed pelvic symptoms and sexual function. Visual analog scales quantified experience with the vaginal support device. One hundred thirty-six women received the planned surgery; 95.6% of the women returned for the 1-year assessment: 76.9% of the cases were stage 0/I; however, in 86.9% of the cases, the leading vaginal edge was above the hymen. Pelvic symptoms, quality of life, and sexual function improved significantly from baseline (P < .05). Median visual analog scale scores for vaginal support device awareness and discomfort were 2.6 and 1.2, respectively (0 = none; 10 = worst possible). Vaginal support, pelvic symptoms, and sexual function improved at 1 year, compared with baseline, after trocar-free prolapse repair with nonanchored mesh and a vaginal support device. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Tracing the evolution of the Galactic bulge with chemodynamical modelling of alpha-elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friaça, A. C. S.; Barbuy, B.

    2017-02-01

    Context. Galactic bulge abundances can be best understood as indicators of bulge formation and nucleosynthesis processes by comparing them with chemo-dynamical evolution models. Aims: The aim of this work is to study the abundances of alpha-elements in the Galactic bulge, including a revision of the oxygen abundance in a sample of 56 bulge red giants. Methods: Literature abundances for O, Mg, Si, Ca and Ti in Galactic bulge stars are compared with chemical evolution models. For oxygen in particular, we reanalysed high-resolution spectra obtained using FLAMES+UVES on the Very Large Telescope, now taking each star's carbon abundances, derived from CI and C2 lines, into account simultaneously. Results: We present a chemical evolution model of alpha-element enrichment in a massive spheroid that represents a typical classical bulge evolution. The code includes multi-zone chemical evolution coupled with hydrodynamics of the gas. Comparisons between the model predictions and the abundance data suggest a typical bulge formation timescale of 1-2 Gyr. The main constraint on the bulge evolution is provided by the O data from analyses that have taken the C abundance and dissociative equilibrium into account. Mg, Si, Ca and Ti trends are well reproduced, whereas the level of overabundance critically depends on the adopted nucleosynthesis prescriptions. Observations collected both at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO programmes 71.B-0617A, 73.B0074A, and GTO 71.B-0196)

  6. Hair Follicle Bulge Stem Cells Appear Dispensable for the Acute Phase of Wound Re‐epithelialization

    PubMed Central

    Garcin, Clare L.; Ansell, David M.; Headon, Denis J.; Paus, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The cutaneous healing response has evolved to occur rapidly, in order to minimize infection and to re‐establish epithelial homeostasis. Rapid healing is achieved through complex coordination of multiple cell types, which importantly includes specific cell populations within the hair follicle (HF). Under physiological conditions, the epithelial compartments of HF and interfollicular epidermis remain discrete, with K15+ve bulge stem cells contributing progeny for HF reconstruction during the hair cycle and as a basis for hair shaft production during anagen. Only upon wounding do HF cells migrate from the follicle to contribute to the neo‐epidermis. However, the identity of the first‐responding cells, and in particular whether this process involves a direct contribution of K15+ve bulge cells to the early stage of epidermal wound repair remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that epidermal injury in murine skin does not induce bulge activation during early epidermal wound repair. Specifically, bulge cells of uninjured HFs neither proliferate nor appear to migrate out of the bulge niche upon epidermal wounding. In support of these observations, Diphtheria toxin‐mediated partial ablation of K15+ve bulge cells fails to delay wound healing. Our data suggest that bulge cells only respond to epidermal wounding during later stages of repair. We discuss that this response may have evolved as a protective safeguarding mechanism against bulge stem cell exhaust and tumorigenesis. Stem Cells 2016;34:1377–1385 PMID:26756547

  7. Hair Follicle Bulge Stem Cells Appear Dispensable for the Acute Phase of Wound Re-epithelialization.

    PubMed

    Garcin, Clare L; Ansell, David M; Headon, Denis J; Paus, Ralf; Hardman, Matthew J

    2016-05-01

    The cutaneous healing response has evolved to occur rapidly, in order to minimize infection and to re-establish epithelial homeostasis. Rapid healing is achieved through complex coordination of multiple cell types, which importantly includes specific cell populations within the hair follicle (HF). Under physiological conditions, the epithelial compartments of HF and interfollicular epidermis remain discrete, with K15(+ve) bulge stem cells contributing progeny for HF reconstruction during the hair cycle and as a basis for hair shaft production during anagen. Only upon wounding do HF cells migrate from the follicle to contribute to the neo-epidermis. However, the identity of the first-responding cells, and in particular whether this process involves a direct contribution of K15(+ve) bulge cells to the early stage of epidermal wound repair remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that epidermal injury in murine skin does not induce bulge activation during early epidermal wound repair. Specifically, bulge cells of uninjured HFs neither proliferate nor appear to migrate out of the bulge niche upon epidermal wounding. In support of these observations, Diphtheria toxin-mediated partial ablation of K15(+ve) bulge cells fails to delay wound healing. Our data suggest that bulge cells only respond to epidermal wounding during later stages of repair. We discuss that this response may have evolved as a protective safeguarding mechanism against bulge stem cell exhaust and tumorigenesis. Stem Cells 2016;34:1377-1385. © 2016 The Authors. Stem Cells published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  8. Bulge Region as a Putative Hair Follicle Stem Cells Niche: A Brief Review

    PubMed Central

    JOULAI VEIJOUYE, Sanaz; YARI, Abazar; HEIDARI, Fatemeh; SAJEDI, Nayereh; GHOROGHI MOGHANI, Fatemeh; NOBAKHT, Maliheh

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hair follicle stem cells exist in different sites. Most of the hair follicle stem cells are reside in niche called bulge. Bulge region is located between the opening of sebaceous gland and the attachment site of the arrector pili muscle. Methods: Data were collected using databases and resources of PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct, Scopus, MEDLINE and their references from the earliest available published to identify English observational studies on hair follicle bulge region. Results: Bulge stem cells are pluripotent with high proliferative capacity. Specific markers allow the bulge cells to be isolated from mouse or human hair follicle. Stem cells isolated from bulge region are label retaining and slow cycling hence these cells are defined as label-retaining cells. Bulge cell populations, due to their plasticity nature are able to differentiate into distinct linage and could contribute in tissue regeneration. Conclusion: The current review discuss about bulge stem cells characteristics and biology including their cycle, location, plasticity, specific markers and regenerative nature. Also the differences between mouse and human hair follicles are investigated. PMID:29026781

  9. Revisiting the Stellar Mass–Angular Momentum–Morphology Relation: Extension to Higher Bulge Fraction and the Effect of Bulge Type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, Sarah M.; Fisher, David; Glazebrook, Karl; Obreschkow, Danail; Lagos, Claudia; Wang, Liang

    2018-06-01

    We present the relation between stellar specific angular momentum j *, stellar mass M *, and bulge-to-total light ratio β for The H I Nearby Galaxy Survey, the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area Survey, and Romanowsky & Fall data sets, exploring the existence of a fundamental plane between these parameters, as first suggested by Obreschkow & Glazebrook. Our best-fit M *–j * relation yields a slope of α = 1.03 ± 0.11 with a trivariate fit including β. When ignoring the effect of β, the exponent α = 0.56 ± 0.06 is consistent with α = 2/3 that is predicted for dark matter halos. There is a linear β–j */M * relation for β ≲ 0.4, exhibiting a general trend of increasing β with decreasing j */M *. Galaxies with β ≳ 0.4 have higher j * than predicted by the relation. Pseudobulge galaxies have preferentially lower β for a given j */M * than galaxies that contain classical bulges. Pseudobulge galaxies follow a well-defined track in β–j */M * space, consistent with Obreschkow & Glazebrook, while galaxies with classical bulges do not. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that while growth in either bulge type is linked to a decrease in j */M *, the mechanisms that build pseudobulges seem to be less efficient at increasing bulge mass per decrease in specific angular momentum than those that build classical bulges.

  10. Central stars of planetary nebulae in the Galactic bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hultzsch, P. J. N.; Puls, J.; Méndez, R. H.; Pauldrach, A. W. A.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Hoffmann, T. L.; McCarthy, J. K.

    2007-06-01

    Context: Optical high-resolution spectra of five central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPN) in the Galactic bulge have been obtained with Keck/HIRES in order to derive their parameters. Since the distance of the objects is quite well known, such a method has the advantage that stellar luminosities and masses can in principle be determined without relying on theoretical relations between both quantities. Aims: By alternatively combining the results of our spectroscopic investigation with evolutionary tracks, we obtain so-called spectroscopic distances, which can be compared with the known (average) distance of the bulge-CSPN. This offers the possibility to test the validity of model atmospheres and present date post-AGB evolution. Methods: We analyze optical H/He profiles of five Galactic bulge CSPN (plus one comparison object) by means of profile fitting based on state of the art non-LTE modeling tools, to constrain their basic atmospheric parameters (Teff, log g, helium abundance and wind strength). Masses and other stellar radius dependent quantities are obtained from both the known distances and from evolutionary tracks, and the results from both approaches are compared. Results: The major result of the present investigation is that the derived spectroscopic distances depend crucially on the applied reddening law. Assuming either standard reddening or values based on radio-Hβ extinctions, we find a mean distance of 9.0±1.6 kpc and 12.2±2.1 kpc, respectively. An “average extinction law” leads to a distance of 10.7±1.2 kpc, which is still considerably larger than the Galactic center distance of 8 kpc. In all cases, however, we find a remarkable internal agreement of the individual spectroscopic distances of our sample objects, within ±10% to ±15% for the different reddening laws. Conclusions: Due to the uncertain reddening correction, the analysis presented here cannot yet be regarded as a consistency check for our method, and a rigorous test of the CSPN

  11. Laboratory diagnosis of vaginal infections.

    PubMed

    Metzger, G D

    1998-01-01

    Vaginal discomfort and/or odor are a common complaint in primary care visits by female patients. This is especially true among sexually active women of childbearing age. Because treatment varies depending upon which syndrome is present, effective treatment depends upon accurate diagnosis. The microscopic exams for diagnosing vaginal complaints are most frequently done in primary care sites. Because of this, few clinical laboratory scientists (CLSs) have the opportunity to become familiar with microscopy on this specimen type. In addition, literature on the subject is only gradually becoming available. This paper will attempt to briefly review the clinical and microscopic features of the common syndromes associated with vaginal discomfort.

  12. Can we predict detrusor overactivity in women with lower urinary tract symptoms? The King's Detrusor Overactivity Score (KiDOS).

    PubMed

    Giarenis, Ilias; Musonda, Patrick; Mastoroudes, Heleni; Robinson, Dudley; Cardozo, Linda

    2016-10-01

    Traditionally, urodynamic studies (UDS) have been used to assess lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), but their routine use is now discouraged. While urodynamic stress incontinence is strongly associated with the symptom of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and a positive cough test, there is a weak relationship between symptoms of overactive bladder and detrusor overactivity (DO). The aim of our study was to develop a model to predict DO in women with LUTS. This prospective study included consecutive women with LUTS attending a urodynamic clinic. All women underwent a comprehensive clinical and urodynamic assessment. The effect of each variable on the odds of DO was estimated both by univariate analysis and adjusted analysis using logistic regression. 1006 women with LUTS were included in the study with 374 patients (37%) diagnosed with DO. The factors considered to be the best predictors of DO were urgency urinary incontinence, urge rating/void and parity (p-value<0.01). The absence of SUI, vaginal bulging and previous continence surgery were also good predictors of DO (p-value<0.01). We have created a prediction model for DO based on our best predictors. In our scoring system, presence of UUI scores 5; mean urge rating/void≥3 scores 3; parity≥2 scores 2; previous continence surgery scores -1; presence of SUI scores -1; and the complaint of vaginal bulging scores -1. If a criterion is absent, then the score is 0 and the total score can vary from a value of -3 to +10. The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis for the overall cut-off points revealed an area under the curve of 0.748 (95%CI 0.741, 0.755). This model is able to predict DO more accurately than a symptomatic diagnosis alone, in women with LUTS. The introduction of this scoring system as a screening tool into clinical practice may reduce the need for expensive and invasive tests to diagnose DO, but cannot replace UDS completely. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Formation of the Lunar Fossil Bulges and Its Implication for the Early Earth and Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Chuan; Zhong, Shijie; Phillips, Roger

    2018-02-01

    First recognized by Laplace over two centuries ago, the Moon's present tidal-rotational bulges are significantly larger than hydrostatic predictions. They are likely relics of a former hydrostatic state when the Moon was closer to the Earth and had larger bulges, and they were established when stresses in a thickening lunar lithosphere could maintain the bulges against hydrostatic adjustment. We formulate the first dynamically self-consistent model of this process and show that bulge formation is controlled by the relative timing of lithosphere thickening and lunar orbit recession. Viable solutions indicate that lunar bulge formation was a geologically slow process lasting several hundred million years, that the process was complete about 4 Ga when the Moon-Earth distance was less than 32 Earth radii, and that the Earth in Hadean was significantly less dissipative to lunar tides than during the last 4 Gyr, possibly implying a frozen hydrosphere due to the fainter young Sun.

  14. Numerical Simulation of Bulging Deformation for Wide-Thick Slab Under Uneven Cooling Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chenhui; Ji, Cheng; Zhu, Miaoyong

    2018-06-01

    In the present work, the bulging deformation of a wide-thick slab under uneven cooling conditions was studied using finite element method. The non-uniform solidification was first calculated using a 2D heat transfer model. The thermal material properties were derived based on a microsegregation model, and the water flux distribution was measured and applied to calculate the cooling boundary conditions. Based on the solidification results, a 3D bulging model was established. The 2D heat transfer model was verified by the measured shell thickness and the slab surface temperature, and the 3D bulging model was verified by the calculated maximum bulging deflections using formulas. The bulging deformation behavior of the wide-thick slab under uneven cooling condition was then determined, and the effect of uneven solidification, casting speed, and roll misalignment were investigated.

  15. Quantitative analysis of the extensional tectonics of Tharsis bulge, Mars - Geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, P. G.; Allemand, P.

    1993-07-01

    The amount of horizontal strain on the Martian Tharsis bulge is quantified in order to provide further information on the tectonic evolution of this province. About 10 percent of the Tharsis surface bulge exhibits elliptical impact craters, which are the largest strain markers in the solar system. It is shown that these strain ellipses indicate more strain than could be due to the bulge building alone. The existence of such intensely deformed areas, the direction of the extensive strain, the localization of these areas on the bulge crest or on the top of topographic slopes, and the evidence of nonthinned crust under these areas may all be explained by gravitational slidings of the bulge surface over the topographic slope. This sliding would be possible because of the presence of a decollement level two kilometers below the surface, and because of the prefracturation which have made the detachment possible.

  16. Numerical Simulation of Bulging Deformation for Wide-Thick Slab Under Uneven Cooling Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chenhui; Ji, Cheng; Zhu, Miaoyong

    2018-02-01

    In the present work, the bulging deformation of a wide-thick slab under uneven cooling conditions was studied using finite element method. The non-uniform solidification was first calculated using a 2D heat transfer model. The thermal material properties were derived based on a microsegregation model, and the water flux distribution was measured and applied to calculate the cooling boundary conditions. Based on the solidification results, a 3D bulging model was established. The 2D heat transfer model was verified by the measured shell thickness and the slab surface temperature, and the 3D bulging model was verified by the calculated maximum bulging deflections using formulas. The bulging deformation behavior of the wide-thick slab under uneven cooling condition was then determined, and the effect of uneven solidification, casting speed, and roll misalignment were investigated.

  17. Topical kanamycin: an effective therapeutic option in aerobic vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Tempera, G; Abbadessa, G; Bonfiglio, G; Cammarata, E; Cianci, A; Corsello, S; Raimondi, A; Ettore, G; Nicolosi, D; Furneri, P M

    2006-08-01

    Eighty-one patients with clinical diagnosis of aerobic vaginitis (AV) were included in the study. The patients were randomized for treatment, 45 with kanamycin (100 mg vaginal ovules for 6 days, consecutively) and 36 with meclocycline (35 mg vaginal ovules for 6 days, consecutively). The patients were examined before starting the study, 1-2 days after treatment and 30 days after the end of the study. At the first follow-up the patients showed different levels of symptom reduction. Reduction in the presence of leukocytes, vaginal mucosa burning and itching were statistically significant in the group treated with kanamycin with respect to the group treated with meclocycline. Moreover, there was also reduced isolation of Enterobacteriaeae (97%) in the group treated with kanamycin versus those treated with meclocycline (76%). At the second follow-up, vaginal homeostasis (normalization of pH and presence of lactobacilli) was more evident in the kanamycin-treated group. In conclusion, our data suggest that the topical use of kanamycin could be considered a specific antibiotic for the therapy of this new pathology.

  18. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome secondary to group A Streptococcus vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Hikone, Mayu; Kobayashi, Ken-Ichiro; Washino, Takuya; Ota, Masayuki; Sakamoto, Naoya; Iwabuchi, Sentaro; Ohnishi, Kenji

    2015-12-01

    Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a systemic illness usually caused in the setting of infection by group A Streptococcus (GAS). The primary infections are often invasive infections of the respiratory tract or necrotizing infections of the skin and soft tissue, but some infections occur without relevant focus. GAS vaginitis is a rare condition among adult women and is accordingly thought to be uncommon as a cause of streptococcal TSS. Here we report the cases of two postmenopausal women with streptococcal TSS secondary to GAS vaginitis, one aged 55 and one aged 60. Both came to our emergency department with complaints or symptoms of abdominal pain, fever, hypotension, and multi-organ failure. In both cases, the relevant factor associated with streptococcal infection was a recent episode of GAS vaginitis. Both underwent fluid management and 14 days of antibiotic treatment and fully recovered without complications. Vaginitis was likely to be the primary infectious trigger of TSS in these two cases. Intrauterine device insertion, endometrial biopsy, and post-partum state have all been previously reported in TSS patients, and the female genital tract has been described as a portal of entry. GAS vaginitis warrants appropriate treatment as it may progress to severe systemic infection as described. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Gamma Rays from the Galactic Bulge and Large Extra Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassé, Michel; Paul, Jacques; Bertone, Gianfranco; Sigl, Günter

    2004-03-01

    An intriguing feature of extra dimensions is the possible production of Kaluza Klein gravitons by nucleon-nucleon bremsstrahlung, in the course of core collapse of massive stars, with gravitons then being trapped around the newly born neutron stars and decaying into two gamma rays, making neu­tron stars gamma-ray sources. We strengthen the limits on the radius of compactification of extra dimensions for a small number n of them, or alternatively the fundamental scale of quantum gravity, considering the gamma-ray emission of the whole population of neutron stars sitting in the Galactic bulge, instead of the closest member of this category. For n=1 the constraint on the compactification radius is R<400 μm.

  20. The Compositin of the Bulge Globular Cluster NGC 6273

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilachowski, Catherine A.; Johnson, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Observations of red giants in the Bulge globular cluster NGC 6273 with the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS) mounted on the Nasmyth-East port of the Magellan-Clay 6.5m telescope at Las Campanas Observatory reveal a spread in metallicity. Members have been confirmed with radial velocity. NGC 6273 has at least two populations separated by 0.2-0.3 dex in [Fe/H]. The sodium and aluminum abundances are correlated while the magnesium and aluminum abundances are anti-correlated. The cluster also shows a rise in the abundance of the s-process element lanthanum with [Fe/H] similar to other massive clusters. The cluster contains a possible 3rd population depleted in most elements by 0.3 dex.

  1. The Composition of the Bulge Globular Cluster NGC 6273

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilachowski, C. A.; Johnson, C. I.; Rich, R. M.; Caldwell, N.; Mateo, M.; Bailey, J. I.; Crane, J. D.

    2017-03-01

    Observations of red giants in the Bulge globular cluster NGC 6273 with the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS) mounted on the Nasmuth-East port of the Magellan-Clay 6.5-m telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory reveal a spread in metallicity. Members have been confirmed with radial velocity. NGC 6273 has at least two populations separated by 0.2-0.3 dex in [Fe/H]. The sodium and aluminum abundances are correlated while the magnesium and aluminum abundances are anti-correlated. The cluster also shows a rise in the abundance of the s-process element lanthanum with [Fe/H] similar to other massive clusters. The cluster contains a possible third population depleted in most elements by 0.3 dex.

  2. X-Shaped Bulge in the Milky Way

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-07-19

    In 2010, NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission observed the entire sky twice. Astronomers used these data to point out the X-shaped structure in the bulge of the Milky Way, contained in the small circle at center, as well as the inset image. The circled central portion covers roughly the area of sky that would be blocked by a basketball when held out at arm's length. Dustin Lang, an astronomer at the Dunlap Institute of the University of Toronto, used these data to make this map, which shows the full 360-degree panorama of the sky as seen by WISE. Lang collaborated with Melissa Ness, postdoctoral researcher at the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy in Germany, http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20699

  3. Chemodynamical modelling of the galactic bulge and bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portail, Matthieu; Wegg, Christopher; Gerhard, Ortwin; Ness, Melissa

    2017-09-01

    We present the first self-consistent chemodynamical model fitted to reproduce data for the galactic bulge, bar and inner disc. We extend the Made-to-Measure method to an augmented phase-space including the metallicity of stars, and show its first application to the bar region of the Milky Way. Using data from the ARGOS and APOGEE (DR12) surveys, we adapt the recent dynamical model from Portail et al. to reproduce the observed spatial and kinematic variations as a function of metallicity, thus allowing the detailed study of the 3D density distributions, kinematics and orbital structure of stars in different metallicity bins. We find that metal-rich stars with [Fe/H] ≥ -0.5 are strongly barred and have dynamical properties that are consistent with a common disc origin. Metal-poor stars with [Fe/H] ≤ -0.5 show strong kinematic variations with metallicity, indicating varying contributions from the underlying stellar populations. Outside the central kpc, metal-poor stars are found to have the density and kinematics of a thick disc while in the inner kpc, evidence for an extra concentration of metal-poor stars is found. Finally, the combined orbit distributions of all metallicities in the model naturally reproduce the observed vertex deviations in the bulge. This paper demonstrates the power of Made-to-Measure chemodynamical models, that when extended to other chemical dimensions will be very powerful tools to maximize the information obtained from large spectroscopic surveys such as APOGEE, GALAH and MOONS.

  4. 2D kinematic signatures of boxy/peanut bulges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iannuzzi, Francesca; Athanassoula, E.

    2015-07-01

    We study the imprints of boxy/peanut structures on the 2D line-of-sight kinematics of simulated disc galaxies. The models under study belong to a family with varying initial gas fraction and halo triaxiality, plus few other control runs with different structural parameters; the kinematic information was extracted using the Voronoi-binning technique and parametrized up to the fourth order of a Gauss-Hermite series. Building on a previous work for the long-slit case, we investigate the 2D kinematic behaviour in the edge-on projection as a function of the boxy/peanut strength and position angle; we find that for the strongest structures the highest moments show characteristic features away from the mid-plane in a range of position angles. We also discuss the masking effect of a classical bulge and the ambiguity in discriminating kinematically this spherically symmetric component from a boxy/peanut bulge seen end-on. Regarding the face-on case, we extend existing results to encompass the effect of a second buckling and find that this phenomenon spurs an additional set of even deeper minima in the fourth moment. Finally, we show how the results evolve when inclining the disc away from perfectly edge-on and face-on. The behaviour of stars born during the course of the simulations is discussed and confronted to that of the pre-existing disc. The general aim of our study is providing a handle to identify boxy/peanut structures and their properties in latest generation Integral Field Unit observations of nearby disc galaxies.

  5. Chronic vaginal discharge and left leg edema after a transobturator tape procedure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Hee; Lee, Hae-Hyeog; Kim, Jun-Mo

    2014-05-01

    We report on a patient who underwent total vaginal hysterectomy for urinary incontinence 8 years previously with a sling operation using transobturator tape (TOT). She was admitted to our hospital after complaints of vaginal discharge, foul odor, and bleeding, left thigh pain, and edema. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) revealed a fistula tract from the vagina or urethra with remnant sling tape. We removed the remnant tape using intraoperative ultrasonography. This case exemplifies the rare occurrence of a vaginal fistula extending to the obturator, adductor, and pectineus muscles combined with myositis after TOT placement. It is important that urogynecologists recognize that TOT procedures may result in complications accompanied by common recurrent vaginal symptoms, such as vaginal odor and spotting, which can be identified by MRI or CT.

  6. Implementation of a protocol to reduce occurrence of retained sponges after vaginal delivery.

    PubMed

    Lutgendorf, Monica A; Schindler, Lynnett L; Hill, James B; Magann, Everett F; O'Boyle, John D

    2011-06-01

    Retained sponges (gossypiboma) following vaginal delivery are an uncommon occurrence. Although significant morbidity from such an event is unlikely, there are many reported adverse effects, including symptoms of malodorous discharge, loss of confidence in providers and the medical system, and legal claims. To report a protocol intended to reduce the occurrence of retained sponges following vaginal delivery. After identification of limitations with existing delivery room protocols, we developed a sponge count protocol to reduce occurrence of retained vaginal sponges. We report our experience at Naval Medical Center Portsmouth, a large tertiary care military treatment facility with our efforts to implement a sponge count protocol to reduce retained sponges following vaginal delivery. With appropriate pre-implementation training, protocols which incorporate post-delivery vaginal sweep and sponge counts are well accepted by the health care team and can be incorporated into the delivery room routine.

  7. Vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Health Problems in Pregnancy Vaginal Bleeding Browse the Encyclopedia A. ...

  8. Vaginal eroticism: a replication study.

    PubMed

    Alzate, H

    1985-12-01

    Vaginal eroticism was investigated in a group of 27 coitally experienced volunteers by means of systematic digital stimulation of both vaginal walls. Erogenous zones were found in all subjects, mainly located on the upper anterior wall and the lower posterior one. An orgasmic response was elicited by stimulation of these zones in 89% of the subjects. This study supports previous findings regarding vaginal eroticism. It does not support the existence of the discrete anatomical structure called the Grafenberg spot. It supports the contention that there are two distinct types of female orgasm, vaginally evoked and clitorally evoked. It also supports the finding that some women expel a fluid through the urethra at the time of orgasm. In this particular case the fluid was chemically indistinguishable from urine.

  9. Drugs Approved for Vaginal Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to prevent vaginal cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  10. Desquamative inflammatory vaginitis. A review.

    PubMed Central

    Oates, J K; Rowen, D

    1990-01-01

    Desquamative inflammatory vaginitis is an uncommon cause of an intractable vaginitis often accompanied by serious dyspareunia, which can occur at any stage of reproductive life and after the menopause. The cytological changes are identical with those seen in atrophic vaginitis yet the disorder often occurs in the presence of apparently normal ovarian function. Vaginal synechiae and stenosis develop in an appreciable number of patients. Treatment is unsatisfactory though there is some response to either local or systemic steroid therapy. The literature is reviewed and the association of some cases with lichen planus of the mouth and genitals discussed. Its causation and natural history remain largely unknown and there is as yet, insufficient evidence to regard it as a single entity. It is likely that the incidence of the disorder is underestimated. PMID:2202657

  11. Vaginal rhinosporidiosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Jahan, S; Haque, M A; Nessa, F; Begum, A; Hasan, A H; Sen, S; Huq, M H

    2014-07-01

    The female genital tract is an extremely rare site for Rhinosporidiosis. Here we described a 13 year old girl who presented with a slow growing polypoid fleshy mass in the posterior vaginal wall near the orifice for 6 months with scanty bleeding from the mass. The girl was admitted to hospital with profuse watery vaginal discharge. Excision of the mass was followed by histopathological examination which confirmed the diagnosis Rhinosporidiosis.

  12. How do clinicians manage vaginal complaints? An Internet survey.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Matthew R; Karasz, Alison

    2005-06-21

    Although vaginal symptoms are among the most common presentations in primary care, little is known about how clinicians manage them. We undertook an Internet survey to determine how clinicians decided what was normal, how they evaluated vaginal complaints, and what happened when a diagnosis could not be reached. A 27-question anonymous survey was conducted using the Medscape Internet publication platform and Medscape General Medicine , an online, peer-reviewed, open-access general medical journal. The study was targeted at physicians and nurse practitioners. There were 556 nurse practitioner and 608 physician respondents. Clinicians generally agreed that a midcycle increase in discharge and discharge seen at the introitus were normal; itching/irritation, odor, and a green discharge were not. There was less agreement concerning the value of a yellow discharge and "self-diagnosis" of abnormality. Eighty-two percent of MDs and 77% of NPs reported examining patients prior to treatment always or often. Only about 30% performed pH testing always or often. Ninety percent of NPs and 92% of MDs reported not making a diagnosis rarely or sometimes. When offered 4 different management strategies for patients in whom no diagnosis was made (watch and wait, symptomatic therapy, empiric antibiotics, referral), there was no clear preference. There was a weak correlation between performance of a wet mount and reports of less non-diagnosis. There was no correlation between pH and whiff testing and reports of less non-diagnosis. Clinicians do not always agree about what constitutes a vaginal symptom. Although most providers usually examine patients with vaginal complaints, pH and whiff testing are performed less frequently. Our data suggest the latter 2 maneuvers are not diagnostically helpful. There is no consensus regarding what to do when no diagnosis is made. Our findings suggest that the traditional approach to the evaluation of vaginal symptoms may have limited relevance for

  13. Oxytocin stimulates cell proliferation in vaginal cell line Vk2E6E7.

    PubMed

    Kallak, Theodora K; Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin

    2017-03-01

    Objective During and after menopause, the symptoms of vaginal atrophy cause great discomfort and necessitate effective treatment options. Currently, vaginally applied oxytocin is being investigated as a treatment for the symptoms of vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women. To clarify the mechanisms behind oxytocins effects on vaginal atrophy, the present study investigated the effects of oxytocin on cell proliferation in the cells of the Vk2E6E7 line, a non-tumour vaginal cell line. The study also compared the effects of oxytocin with those of estradiol (E2). Study design The effects of both oxytocin and E2 on the proliferation of Vk2E6E7 cells were investigated using Cell Proliferation ELISA BrdU Colorimetric Assay. The expression of both oxytocin and oxytocin receptor was studied in Vk2E6E7 cells using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescent staining. Main outcome measures Cell proliferation and gene expression. Results Oxytocin increased cell proliferation both time dependently and dose dependently. This differed from the effect pattern observed in cells treated with E2. In addition, in oxytocin-treated cells, the oxytocin receptor was found to be co-localized with caveolin-1, indicating pro-proliferative signalling within the cell. Conclusions Oxytocin stimulates cell proliferation and the co-localization of oxytocin receptor with caveolin-1 in oxytocin-treated cells, supporting the role of oxytocin signalling in cell proliferation. In addition, these findings suggest that increased cell proliferation is one mechanism by which local vaginal oxytocin treatment increases vaginal thickness and relieves vaginal symptoms in postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy.

  14. Accuracy of the clinical diagnosis of vaginitis compared with a DNA probe laboratory standard.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Nancy K; Neal, Jeremy L; Ryan-Wenger, Nancy A

    2009-01-01

    To estimate the accuracy of the clinical diagnosis of the three most common causes of acute vulvovaginal symptoms (bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis vaginitis, and trichomoniasis vaginalis) using a traditional, standardized clinical diagnostic protocol compared with a DNA probe laboratory standard. This prospective clinical comparative study had a sample of 535 active-duty United States military women presenting with vulvovaginal symptoms. Clinical diagnoses were made by research staff using a standardized protocol of history, physical examination including pelvic examination, determination of vaginal pH, vaginal fluid amines test, and wet-prep microscopy. Vaginal fluid samples were obtained for DNA analysis. The research clinicians were blinded to the DNA results. The participants described a presenting symptom of abnormal discharge (50%), itching/irritation (33%), malodor (10%), burning (4%), or others such as vulvar pain and vaginal discomfort. According to laboratory standard, there were 225 cases (42%) of bacterial vaginosis, 76 cases (14%) of candidiasis vaginitis, 8 cases (1.5%) of trichomoniasis vaginalis, 87 cases of mixed infections (16%), and 139 negative cases (26%). For each single infection, the clinical diagnosis had a sensitivity and specificity of 80.8% and 70.0% for bacterial vaginosis, 83.8% and 84.8% for candidiasis vaginitis, and 84.6% and 99.6% for trichomoniasis vaginalis when compared with the DNA probe standard. Compared with a DNA probe standard, clinical diagnosis is 81-85% sensitive and 70-99% specific for bacterial vaginosis, Candida vaginitis, and trichomoniasis. Even under research conditions that provided clinicians with sufficient time and materials to conduct a thorough and standardized clinical evaluation, the diagnosis and, therefore, subsequent treatment of these common vaginal problems remains difficult. II.

  15. [Operative vaginal deliveries training].

    PubMed

    Dupuis, O

    2008-12-01

    The appropriate use of forceps, vacuums or spatulas facilitates the rapid delivery of foetuses faced with life-threatening situations. It also makes possible the relief of certain cases of prolonged second-stage labor. In France, operative vaginal delivery (OVD) accounts for approximately 10% of all births. OVD training aims to optimize maternal, as well as neonatal safety. It should enable trainees to indicate or contraindicate an OVD safely, as well as to choose the appropriate instrument, use it correctly, and master quality control principles. Traditional OVD training is confronted with both spatial and time-related limitations. Spatial constraints involve both the teacher and trainee who only have limited visual access to the pelvic canal, and the head of the foetus; the time constraint occurs whenever the OVD occurs in an emergency setting. These limitations have been further aggravated by new constraints: decreasing time dedicated to training (European safety rules prohibit work the day after night duty), increasing litigation, and constraints imposed by society. Training by means of simulation removes such limitations making it possible to both avoid exposing pregnant women to the hazards of traditional training, and adapt the training to the skills of each trainee. OVD training should include forceps, vacuums and the use of spatulas. The OVD skills of obstetricians should be audited regularly on both a personal and a confidential level. Such audits could be based on a method using a simulator. Prospective studies comparing traditional and simulation-based training should be encouraged.

  16. Medium-term clinical outcomes following surgical repair for vaginal prolapse with tension-free mesh and vaginal support device.

    PubMed

    Sayer, T; Lim, J; Gauld, J M; Hinoul, P; Jones, P; Franco, N; Van Drie, D; Slack, M

    2012-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate clinical outcomes ≥2 years following surgery with polypropylene mesh and vaginal support device (VSD) in women with vaginal prolapse, in a prospective, multi-center setting. Patients re-consented for this extended follow-up (n = 110), with anatomic evaluation using Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) and validated questionnaires to assess pelvic symptoms and sexual function. Complications were recorded (safety set; n = 121). Median length of follow-up was 29 months (range 24-34 months). The primary anatomic success, defined as POP-Q 0-I, was 69.1%; however, in 84.5% of the cases, the leading vaginal edge was above the hymen. Pelvic symptoms and sexual function improved significantly from baseline (p < 0.01). Mesh exposure rate was 9.1%. Five percent reported stress urinary incontinence and 3.3% required further prolapse surgery. These results indicate this non-anchored mesh repair is a safe and effective treatment for women with symptomatic vaginal prolapse in the medium term.

  17. METALLICITY GRADIENTS THROUGH DISK INSTABILITY: A SIMPLE MODEL FOR THE MILKY WAY'S BOXY BULGE

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Valpuesta, Inma; Gerhard, Ortwin, E-mail: imv@mpe.mpg.de, E-mail: gerhard@mpe.mpg.de

    2013-03-20

    Observations show a clear vertical metallicity gradient in the Galactic bulge, which is often taken as a signature of dissipative processes in the formation of a classical bulge. Various evidence shows, however, that the Milky Way is a barred galaxy with a boxy bulge representing the inner three-dimensional part of the bar. Here we show with a secular evolution N-body model that a boxy bulge formed through bar and buckling instabilities can show vertical metallicity gradients similar to the observed gradient if the initial axisymmetric disk had a comparable radial metallicity gradient. In this framework, the range of metallicities inmore » bulge fields constrains the chemical structure of the Galactic disk at early times before bar formation. Our secular evolution model was previously shown to reproduce inner Galaxy star counts and we show here that it also has cylindrical rotation. We use it to predict a full mean metallicity map across the Galactic bulge from a simple metallicity model for the initial disk. This map shows a general outward gradient on the sky as well as longitudinal perspective asymmetries. We also briefly comment on interpreting metallicity gradient observations in external boxy bulges.« less

  18. Effect of an upstream bulge configuration on film cooling with and without mist injection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Li, Qianqian; Sundén, Bengt; Ma, Ting; Cui, Pei

    2017-12-01

    To meet the economic requirements of power output, the increased inlet temperature of modern gas turbines is above the melting point of the material. Therefore, high-efficient cooling technology is needed to protect the blades from the hot mainstream. In this study, film cooling was investigated in a simplified channel. A bulge located upstream of the film hole was numerically investigated by analysis of the film cooling effectiveness distribution downstream of the wall. The flow distribution in the plate channel is first presented. Comparing with a case without bulge, different cases with bulge heights of 0.1d, 0.3d and 0.5d were examined with blowing ratios of 0.5 and 1.0. Cases with 1% mist injection were also included in order to obtain better cooling performance. Results show that the bulge configuration located upstream the film hole makes the cooling film more uniform, and enhanceslateral cooling effectiveness. Unlike other cases, the configuration with a 0.3d-height bulge shows a good balance in improving the downstream and lateral cooling effectiveness. Compared with the case without mist at M = 0.5, the 0.3d-height bulge with 1% mist injection increases lateral average effectiveness by 559% at x/d = 55. In addition, a reduction of the thermal stress concentration can be obtained by increasing the height of the bulge configuration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Definition of a type of abnormal vaginal flora that is distinct from bacterial vaginosis: aerobic vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Donders, Gilbert G G; Vereecken, Annie; Bosmans, Eugene; Dekeersmaecker, Alfons; Salembier, Geert; Spitz, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    To define an entity of abnormal vaginal flora: aerobic vaginitis. Observational study. University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven, Belgium. 631 women attending for routine prenatal care or attending vaginitis clinic. Samples were taken for fresh wet mount microscopy of vaginal fluid, vaginal cultures and measurement of lactate, succinate and cytokine levels in vaginal fluid. Smears deficient in lactobacilli and positive for clue cells were considered to indicate a diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. Aerobic vaginitis was diagnosed if smears were deficient in lactobacilli, positive for cocci or coarse bacilli, positive for parabasal epithelial cells, and/or positive for vaginal leucocytes (plus their granular aspect). Genital complaints include red inflammation, yellow discharge, vaginal dyspareunia. Group B streptococci, escherichia coli, staphylococcus aureus and trichomonas vaginalis are frequently cultured. Vaginal lactate concentration is severely depressed in women with aerobic vaginitis, as in bacterial vaginosis, but vaginal succinate is not produced. Also in contrast to bacterial vaginosis, aerobic vaginitis produces a host immune response that leads to high production of interleukin-6, interleukin-1-beta and leukaemia inhibitory factor in the vaginal fluid. Aerobic vaginitis is associated with aerobic micro-organisms, mainly group B streptococci and E. coli. Its characteristics are different from those of bacterial vaginosis and elicit an important host response. The most severe form of aerobic vaginitis equals desquamative inflammatory vaginitis. In theory, aerobic vaginitis may be a better candidate than bacterial vaginosis as the cause of pregnancy complications, such as ascending chorioamnionitis, preterm rupture of the membranes and preterm delivery.

  20. Vaginal Testosterone for Management of Aromatase Inhibitor-Related Sexual Dysfunction: An Integrative Review.

    PubMed

    Lemke, Emily A; Madsen, Lydia T; Dains, Joyce E

    2017-05-01

    Women taking aromatase inhibitors (AIs) as part of the management of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer experience more symptoms of sexual dysfunction, including vaginal atrophy, as opposed to postmenopausal women and women treated with tamoxifen (Nolvadex®). Vaginal testosterone could be an alternative to estrogen, which is contraindicated in this population.
. A systematic review was completed by searching PubMed and Scopus databases.
. 64 search results were reduced to a final sample of 3 articles after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria.
. Published results suggest that vaginally applied testosterone doses of 150 mcg and 300 mcg improve symptoms of sexual dysfunction in women taking AIs. Minimal side effects are observed, and estradiol levels are not affected by vaginally applied testosterone. Additional research is needed to evaluate vaginal testosterone in women taking AIs.
. Vaginal testosterone shows preliminary promise as an option to manage sexual side effects of AI therapy in postmenopausal cancer survivors; however, available data are too limited to draw practice-changing conclusions.
. Large-scale randomized, controlled trials need to be completed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of vaginal testosterone in women taking AIs.

  1. Comparison of the Effect of Vaginal Zataria multiflora Cream and Oral Metronidazole Pill on Results of Treatments for Vaginal Infections including Trichomoniasis and Bacterial Vaginosis in Women of Reproductive Age.

    PubMed

    Abdali, Khadijeh; Jahed, Leila; Amooee, Sedigheh; Zarshenas, Mahnaz; Tabatabaee, Hamidreza; Bekhradi, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Effect of Zataria multiflora on bacterial vaginosis and Trichomonas vaginalis is shown in vivo and in vitro. We compare the effectiveness of Zataria multiflora cream and oral metronidazole pill on results of treatment for vaginal infections including Trichomonas and bacterial vaginosis; these infections occur simultaneously. The study included 420 women with bacterial vaginosis, Trichomonas vaginalis, or both infections together, who were randomly divided into six groups. Criteria for diagnosis were wet smear and Gram stain. Vaginal Zataria multiflora cream and placebo pill were administered to the experiment groups; the control group received oral metronidazole pill and vaginal placebo cream. Comparison of the clinical symptoms showed no significant difference in all three vaginitis groups receiving metronidazole pill and vaginal Zataria multiflora cream. However, comparison of the wet smear test results was significant in patients with trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis associated with trichomoniasis in the two treatment groups (p = 0.001 and p = 0.01). Vaginal Zataria multiflora cream had the same effect of oral metronidazole tablets in improving clinical symptoms of all three vaginitis groups, as well as the treatment for bacterial vaginosis. It can be used as a drug for treatment of bacterial vaginosis and elimination of clinical symptoms of Trichomonas vaginitis.

  2. Comparison of the Effect of Vaginal Zataria multiflora Cream and Oral Metronidazole Pill on Results of Treatments for Vaginal Infections including Trichomoniasis and Bacterial Vaginosis in Women of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Abdali, Khadijeh; Jahed, Leila; Amooee, Sedigheh; Zarshenas, Mahnaz; Tabatabaee, Hamidreza; Bekhradi, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Effect of Zataria multiflora on bacterial vaginosis and Trichomonas vaginalis is shown in vivo and in vitro. We compare the effectiveness of Zataria multiflora cream and oral metronidazole pill on results of treatment for vaginal infections including Trichomonas and bacterial vaginosis; these infections occur simultaneously. The study included 420 women with bacterial vaginosis, Trichomonas vaginalis, or both infections together, who were randomly divided into six groups. Criteria for diagnosis were wet smear and Gram stain. Vaginal Zataria multiflora cream and placebo pill were administered to the experiment groups; the control group received oral metronidazole pill and vaginal placebo cream. Comparison of the clinical symptoms showed no significant difference in all three vaginitis groups receiving metronidazole pill and vaginal Zataria multiflora cream. However, comparison of the wet smear test results was significant in patients with trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis associated with trichomoniasis in the two treatment groups (p = 0.001 and p = 0.01). Vaginal Zataria multiflora cream had the same effect of oral metronidazole tablets in improving clinical symptoms of all three vaginitis groups, as well as the treatment for bacterial vaginosis. It can be used as a drug for treatment of bacterial vaginosis and elimination of clinical symptoms of Trichomonas vaginitis. PMID:26266260

  3. Morpho-kinematic properties of field S0 bulges in the CALIFA survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez-Abreu, J.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Ruiz-Lara, T.; Sánchez-Menguiano, L.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Costantin, L.; Catalán-Torrecilla, C.; Zhu, L.; Sánchez-Blazquez, P.; Florido, E.; Corsini, E. M.; Wild, V.; Lyubenova, M.; van de Ven, G.; Sánchez, S. F.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Galbany, L.; García-Benito, R.; García-Lorenzo, B.; González Delgado, R. M.; López-Sánchez, A. R.; Marino, R. A.; Márquez, I.; Ziegler, B.; Califa Collaboration

    2018-02-01

    We study a sample of 28 S0 galaxies extracted from the integral field spectroscopic (IFS) survey Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area. We combine an accurate two-dimensional (2D) multicomponent photometric decomposition with the IFS kinematic properties of their bulges to understand their formation scenario. Our final sample is representative of S0s with high stellar masses (M⋆/M⊙ > 1010). They lay mainly on the red sequence and live in relatively isolated environments similar to that of the field and loose groups. We use our 2D photometric decomposition to define the size and photometric properties of the bulges, as well as their location within the galaxies. We perform mock spectroscopic simulations mimicking our observed galaxies to quantify the impact of the underlying disc on our bulge kinematic measurements (λ and v/σ). We compare our bulge corrected kinematic measurements with the results from Schwarzschild dynamical modelling. The good agreement confirms the robustness of our results and allows us to use bulge deprojected values of λ and v/σ. We find that the photometric (n and B/T) and kinematic (v/σ and λ) properties of our field S0 bulges are not correlated. We demonstrate that this morpho-kinematic decoupling is intrinsic to the bulges and it is not due to projection effects. We conclude that photometric diagnostics to separate different types of bulges (disc-like versus classical) might not be useful for S0 galaxies. The morpho-kinematics properties of S0 bulges derived in this paper suggest that they are mainly formed by dissipational processes happening at high redshift, but dedicated high-resolution simulations are necessary to better identify their origin.

  4. Stellar populations of bulges in galaxies with a low surface-brightness disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, L.; Corsini, E. M.; Pizzella, A.; Dalla Bontà, E.; Coccato, L.; Méndez-Abreu, J.

    2015-03-01

    The radial profiles of the Hβ, Mg, and Fe line-strength indices are presented for a sample of eight spiral galaxies with a low surface-brightness stellar disc and a bulge. The correlations between the central values of the line-strength indices and velocity dispersion are consistent to those known for early-type galaxies and bulges of high surface-brightness galaxies. The age, metallicity, and α/Fe enhancement of the stellar populations in the bulge-dominated region are obtained using stellar population models with variable element abundance ratios. Almost all the sample bulges are characterized by a young stellar population, on-going star formation, and a solar α/Fe enhancement. Their metallicity spans from high to sub-solar values. No significant gradient in age and α/Fe enhancement is measured, whereas only in a few cases a negative metallicity gradient is found. These properties suggest that a pure dissipative collapse is not able to explain formation of all the sample bulges and that other phenomena, like mergers or acquisition events, need to be invoked. Such a picture is also supported by the lack of a correlation between the central value and gradient of the metallicity in bulges with very low metallicity. The stellar populations of the bulges hosted by low surface-brightness discs share many properties with those of high surface-brightness galaxies. Therefore, they are likely to have common formation scenarios and evolution histories. A strong interplay between bulges and discs is ruled out by the fact that in spite of being hosted by discs with extremely different properties, the bulges of low and high surface-brightness discs are remarkably similar.

  5. The vaginal microbiome: New information about genital tract flora using molecular based techniques

    PubMed Central

    Lamont, Ronald F.; Sobel, Jack D.; Akins, Robert A.; Hassan, Sonia S.; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Romero, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Vaginal microbiome studies provide information which may change the way we define vaginal flora. Normal flora appears dominated by one or two species of Lactobacillus. Significant numbers of healthy women lack appreciable numbers of vaginal lactobacilli. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is not a single entity, but different bacterial communities or profiles of greater microbial diversity than is evident from cultivation-dependent studies. BV should be considered a syndrome of variable composition which results in different symptoms, phenotypical outcomes, and responses to different antibiotic regimens. This information may help to elucidate the link between BV and infection-related adverse outcomes of pregnancy. PMID:21251190

  6. Diffraction and Smith-Purcell radiation on the hemispherical bulges in a metal plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syshchenko, V. V.; Larikova, E. A.; Gladkih, Yu. P.

    2017-12-01

    The radiation resulting from the uniform motion of a charged particle near a hemispheric bulge on a metal plane is considered. The description of the radiation process based on the method of images is developed for the case of non-relativistic particle and a perfectly conducting target. The spectral-angular and spectral densities of the diffraction radiation on the single bulge (as well as the Smith-Purcell radiation on the periodic string of bulges) are computed. The possibility of application of the developed approach to the case of relativistic incident particle is discussed.

  7. Using 3D Spectroscopy to Probe the Orbital Structure of Composite Bulges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erwin, Peter; Saglia, Roberto; Thomas, Jens; Fabricius, Maximilian; Bender, Ralf; Rusli, Stephanie; Nowak, Nina; Beckman, John E.; Vega Beltrán, Juan Carlos

    2015-02-01

    Detailed imaging and spectroscopic analysis of the centers of nearby S0 and spiral galaxies shows the existence of ``composite bulges'', where both classical bulges and disky pseudobulges coexist in the same galaxy. As part of a search for supermassive black holes in nearby galaxy nuclei, we obtained VLT-SINFONI observations in adaptive-optics mode of several of these galaxies. Schwarzschild dynamical modeling enables us to disentangle the stellar orbital structure of the different central components, and to distinguish the differing contributions of kinematically hot (classical bulge) and kinematically cool (pseudobulge) components in the same galaxy.

  8. THE MOLECULAR GAS DENSITY IN GALAXY CENTERS AND HOW IT CONNECTS TO BULGES

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, David B.; Bolatto, Alberto; Drory, Niv

    2013-02-20

    In this paper we present gas density, star formation rate (SFR), stellar masses, and bulge-disk decompositions for a sample of 60 galaxies. Our sample is the combined sample of the BIMA SONG, CARMA STING, and PdBI NUGA surveys. We study the effect of using CO-to-H{sub 2} conversion factors that depend on the CO surface brightness, and also that of correcting SFRs for diffuse emission from old stellar populations. We estimate that SFRs in bulges are typically lower by 20% when correcting for diffuse emission. Using the surface brightness dependent conversion factor, we find that over half of the galaxies inmore » our sample have {Sigma}{sub mol} > 100 M {sub Sun} pc{sup -2}. Though our sample is not complete in any sense, our results are enough to rule out the assumption that bulges are uniformly gas-poor systems. We find a trend between gas density of bulges and bulge Sersic index; bulges with lower Sersic index have higher gas density. Those bulges with low Sersic index (pseudobulges) have gas fractions that are similar to that of disks. Conversely, the typical molecular gas fraction in classical bulges is more similar to that of an elliptical galaxy. We also find that there is a strong correlation between bulges with the highest gas surface density and the galaxy being barred. However, we also find that classical bulges with low gas surface density can be barred as well. Our results suggest that understanding the connection between the central surface density of gas in disk galaxies and the presence of bars should also take into account the total gas content of the galaxy. Finally, we show that when using the corrected SFRs and gas densities, the correlation between SFR surface density and gas surface density of bulges is similar to that of disks. This implies that at the scale of the bulges the timescale for converting gas into stars is comparable to those results found in disks.« less

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: OGLE II. VI photometry of Galactic Bulge (Udalski+, 2002)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udalski, A.; Szymanski, M.; Kubiak, M.; Pietrzynski, G.; Soszynski, I.; Wozniak, P.; Zebrun, K.; Szewczyk, O.; Wyrzykowski, L.

    2003-09-01

    We present the VI photometric maps of the Galactic bulge. They contain VI photometry and astrometry of about 30 million stars from 49 fields of 0.225 square degree each in the Galactic center region. The data were collected during the second phase of the OGLE microlensing project. We discuss the accuracy of data and present color-magnitude diagrams of selected fields observed by OGLE in the Galactic bulge. The VI maps of the Galactic bulge are accessible electronically for the astronomical community from the OGLE Internet archive (2 data files).

  10. The Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment. BVI Maps of Dense Stellar Regions. III. The Galactic Bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udalski, A.; Szymanski, M.; Kubiak, M.; Pietrzynski, G.; Soszynski, I.; Wozniak, P.; Zebrun, K.; Szewczyk, O.; Wyrzykowski, L.

    2002-09-01

    We present the VI photometric maps of the Galactic bulge. They contain VI photometry and astrometry of about 30 million stars from 49 fields of 0.225 square degree each in the Galactic center region. The data were collected during the second phase of the OGLE microlensing project. We discuss the accuracy of data and present color-magnitude diagrams of selected fields observed by OGLE in the Galactic bulge. The VI maps of the Galactic bulge are accessible electronically for the astronomical community from the OGLE Internet archive.

  11. Structure of the bulge of the galaxy NGC 4258

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveyenko, L. I.; Demichev, V. A.

    2017-09-01

    The superfine structure of the bulge of the galaxy NGC 4258 has been investigated in H2O maser emission at the epochs on February 4, 2013, and November 29, 2013. The peak intensities of the spectral components reached F ≈ 5 Jy. The emission of the component at v = 476 km s-1 dominated at the beginning of this period; the second component at v = 487 km s-1 was observed at the end of the period. The structure is a chain of compact components up to 200 µas or 7mpc in extent. The velocity of the local standard of rest is v LSR = 482 km s-1. Two bright compact components with a separation between them Δ ρ ≈ 35 µas or 1.3 mpc and a pair of components spaced 13 µas apart, whose brightness reaches 30% of the peak value corresponding to a brightness temperature T b ≈ 1018 K, are located at the center. The sizes of the components are 2-3 µas. A splitting and a shift of the two pairs of components relative to each other by 8 µas or 0.3 mpc in the 45° direction are observed at the end of the period. The velocity gradient of the structure is dV/dρ = 224 km s-1 mas-1, suggesting a solid-body rotation with a period T ≈ 760 years. The compact components correspond to the tangential directions of the arm. Two parallel chains of components corresponding to the tangential directions of the walls of the bipolar outflow carrying away an excess angular momentum are ejected from the central part of the bulge, two sources. The outflow is oriented at an angle X ≈ 15° relative to the disk axis. The brightness of the outflow fragments does not exceed 1.5% of the peak value. The ejection of material from the central part in the northward direction at a level up to 0.2%, T b ≈ 1015 K, is observed at the epoch on February 4, 2013, at v = 478 km s-1. The core structure suggests a double system: parallel disks-vortices spaced 0.25 mpc apart.

  12. Bulge RR Lyrae stars in the VVV tile b201

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gran, F.; Minniti, D.; Saito, R. K.; Navarrete, C.; Dékány, I.; McDonald, I.; Contreras Ramos, R.; Catelan, M.

    2015-03-01

    Context. The VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) Survey is one of the six ESO public surveys currently ongoing at the VISTA telescope on Cerro Paranal, Chile. VVV uses near-IR (ZYJHKs) filters that at present provide photometry to a depth of Ks ~ 17.0 mag in up to 36 epochs spanning over four years, and aim at discovering more than 106 variable sources as well as trace the structure of the Galactic bulge and part of the southern disk. Aims: A variability search was performed to find RR Lyrae variable stars. The low stellar density of the VVV tile b201, which is centered at (ℓ,b) ~ (-9°, -9°), makes it suitable to search for variable stars. Previous studies have identified some RR Lyrae stars using optical bands that served to test our search procedure. The main goal is to measure the reddening, interstellar extinction, and distances of the RR Lyrae stars and to study their distribution on the Milky Way bulge. Methods: For each star in the tile with more than 25 epochs (~90% of the objects down to Ks ~ 17.0 mag), the standard deviation and χ2 test were calculated to identify variable candidates. Periods were determined using the analysis of variance. Objects with periods in the RR Lyrae range of 0.2 ≤ P ≤ 1.2 days were selected as candidate RR Lyrae. They were individually examined to exclude false positives. Results: A total of 1.5 sq deg were analyzed, and we found 39 RR Lyr stars, 27 of which belong to the ab-type and 12 to the c-type. Our analysis recovers all the previously identified RR Lyrae variables in the field and discovers 29 new RR Lyr stars. The reddening and extinction toward all the RRab stars in this tile were derived, and distance estimations were obtained through the period-luminosity relation. Despite the limited amount of RR Lyrae stars studied, our results are consistent with a spheroidal or central distribution around ~8.1 and ~8.5 kpc. for either the Cardelli or Nishiyama extinction law. Our analysis does not reveal a stream

  13. Postmenopausal vaginal atrophy: evaluation of treatment with local estrogen therapy

    PubMed Central

    Minkin, Mary Jane; Maamari, Ricardo; Reiter, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Postmenopausal vaginal atrophy, resulting from decreased estrogen production, frequently requires treatment. Estrogen preparations provide the most effective treatment; local application is preferred to systemic drugs when treating only vaginal symptoms. As local estrogen therapies have comparable efficacy, this study aimed to understand treatment practices, assess experiences with different forms of local estrogen-delivering applicators, and evaluate satisfaction. Women who were US residents aged ≥18 years, menopausal (no spontaneous menstrual period for ≥1 year or with a double oophorectomy), and receiving local estrogen therapy for 1–6 months (vaginal cream [supplied with a reusable applicator] or vaginal tablets [supplied with a single-use/disposable applicator]), completed an online questionnaire. Data from 200 women (100 cream users and 100 tablet users; mean therapy duration 3.48 months) showed that most stored medication in the room in which it was applied (88%) and applied it at bedtime (71%), a procedure for which cream users required, on average, more than twice the time of tablet users (5.08 minutes versus 2.48 minutes). Many cream users applied larger-than-prescribed amounts of cream, attempting to achieve greater efficacy (42%), or lower-than-recommended doses (45%), most frequently to avoid messiness (33%) or leakage (30%). More tablet users (69%) than cream users (14%) were “extremely satisfied” with their applicator. Postmenopausal women using local estrogen therapy were generally more satisfied with the application of vaginal tablets than cream. Patient satisfaction may help to facilitate accurate dosing. Positive perceptions of medication will help to optimize treatment, which, although not assessed in this study, is likely, in turn, to improve vaginal health. PMID:24648772

  14. Clinical Characteristics of Aerobic Vaginitis and Its Association to Vaginal Candidiasis, Trichomonas Vaginitis and Bacterial Vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Jahic, Mahira; Mulavdic, Mirsada; Nurkic, Jasmina; Jahic, Elmir; Nurkic, Midhat

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim of the work: Examine clinical characteristics of aerobic vaginitis and mixed infection for the purpose of better diagnostic accuracy and treatment efficiency. Materials and methods: Prospective research has been conducted at Clinic for Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department for Microbiology and Pathology at Polyclinic for laboratory diagnostic and Gynecology and Obstetrics Department at Health Center Sapna. Examination included 100 examinees with the signs of vaginitis. Examination consisted of: anamnesis, clinical, gynecological and microbiological examination of vaginal smear. Results: The average age of the examinees was 32,62±2,6. Examining vaginal smears of the examinees with signs of vaginitis in 96% (N-96) different microorganisms have been isolated, while in 4% (N-4) findings were normal. AV has been found in 51% (N-51) of the examinees, Candida albicans in 17% (N-17), BV in 15% (N-15), Trichomonas vaginalis in 13% (N-13). In 21% (N-21) AV was diagnosed alone while associated with other agents in 30% (N-30). Most common causes of AV are E. coli (N-55) and E. faecalis (N-52). AV and Candida albicanis have been found in (13/30, 43%), Trichomonas vaginalis in (9/30, 30%) and BV (8/30, 26%). Vaginal secretion is in 70,05% (N-36) yellow coloured, red vagina wall is recorded in 31,13% (N-16) and pruritus in 72,54% (N-37). Increased pH value of vagina found in 94,10% (N-48). The average pH value of vaginal environment was 5,15±0,54 and in associated presence of AV and VVC, TV and BV was 5,29±0,56 which is higher value considering presence of AV alone but that is not statistically significant difference (p>0,05). Amino-odor test was positive in 29,94% (N-15) of associated infections. Lactobacilli are absent, while leukocytes are increased in 100% (N-51) of the examinees with AV. Conclusion: AV is vaginal infection similar to other vaginal infections. It is important to be careful while diagnosing because the treatment of AV differentiates from

  15. Clinical characteristics of aerobic vaginitis and its association to vaginal candidiasis, trichomonas vaginitis and bacterial vaginosis.

    PubMed

    Jahic, Mahira; Mulavdic, Mirsada; Nurkic, Jasmina; Jahic, Elmir; Nurkic, Midhat

    2013-12-01

    Examine clinical characteristics of aerobic vaginitis and mixed infection for the purpose of better diagnostic accuracy and treatment efficiency. Prospective research has been conducted at Clinic for Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department for Microbiology and Pathology at Polyclinic for laboratory diagnostic and Gynecology and Obstetrics Department at Health Center Sapna. Examination included 100 examinees with the signs of vaginitis. anamnesis, clinical, gynecological and microbiological examination of vaginal smear. The average age of the examinees was 32,62±2,6. Examining vaginal smears of the examinees with signs of vaginitis in 96% (N-96) different microorganisms have been isolated, while in 4% (N-4) findings were normal. AV has been found in 51% (N-51) of the examinees, Candida albicans in 17% (N-17), BV in 15% (N-15), Trichomonas vaginalis in 13% (N-13). In 21% (N-21) AV was diagnosed alone while associated with other agents in 30% (N-30). Most common causes of AV are E. coli (N-55) and E. faecalis (N-52). AV and Candida albicanis have been found in (13/30, 43%), Trichomonas vaginalis in (9/30, 30%) and BV (8/30, 26%). Vaginal secretion is in 70,05% (N-36) yellow coloured, red vagina wall is recorded in 31,13% (N-16) and pruritus in 72,54% (N-37). Increased pH value of vagina found in 94,10% (N-48). The average pH value of vaginal environment was 5,15±0,54 and in associated presence of AV and VVC, TV and BV was 5,29±0,56 which is higher value considering presence of AV alone but that is not statistically significant difference (p>0,05). Amino-odor test was positive in 29,94% (N-15) of associated infections. Lactobacilli are absent, while leukocytes are increased in 100% (N-51) of the examinees with AV. AV is vaginal infection similar to other vaginal infections. It is important to be careful while diagnosing because the treatment of AV differentiates from treatment of other vaginitis.

  16. Imaging System for Vaginal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Taylor, G Bernard; Myers, Erinn M

    2015-12-01

    The vaginal surgeon is challenged with performing complex procedures within a surgical field of limited light and exposure. The video telescopic operating microscope is an illumination and imaging system that provides visualization during open surgical procedures with a limited field of view. The imaging system is positioned within the surgical field and then secured to the operating room table with a maneuverable holding arm. A high-definition camera and Xenon light source allow transmission of the magnified image to a high-definition monitor in the operating room. The monitor screen is positioned above the patient for the surgeon and assistants to view real time throughout the operation. The video telescopic operating microscope system was used to provide surgical illumination and magnification during total vaginal hysterectomy and salpingectomy, midurethral sling, and release of vaginal scar procedures. All procedures were completed without complications. The video telescopic operating microscope provided illumination of the vaginal operative field and display of the magnified image onto high-definition monitors in the operating room for the surgeon and staff to simultaneously view the procedures. The video telescopic operating microscope provides high-definition display, magnification, and illumination during vaginal surgery.

  17. Endometriosis presenting as a vaginal mass.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Philippa

    2018-01-23

    A 43-year-old woman with an anterior vaginal wall mass was referred to gynaecology outpatient for diagnosis and management. Clinical assessment was indicative of a urethral diverticulum, however MRI and ultrasound imaging suggested a Gartner's duct cyst. Following excision of the lesion, histology revealed evidence of an endometriotic cyst. The patient had no other symptoms of endometriosis and remained asymptomatic 3 months following excision. This case highlights the widespread locations in which endometrial tissue can be found, and therefore the range of symptomatology. This in turn lends itself to diagnostic difficulty without histological confirmation. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Temporal Dynamics of the Human Vaginal Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Gajer, Pawel; Brotman, Rebecca M.; Bai, Guoyun; Sakamoto, Joyce; Schütte, Ursel M.E.; Zhong, Xue; Koenig, Sara S.K.; Fu, Li; Ma, Zhanshan; Zhou, Xia; Abdo, Zaid; Forney, Larry J.; Ravel, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Elucidating the factors that impinge on the stability of bacterial communities in the vagina may help in predicting the risk of diseases that affect women’s health. Here, we describe the temporal dynamics of the composition of vaginal bacterial communities in 32 reproductive age women over a 16-week period. The analysis revealed the dynamics of five major classes of bacterial communities and showed that some communities change markedly over short time periods, whereas others are relatively stable. Modeling community stability using new quantitative measures indicates that deviation from stability correlates with time in the menstrual cycle, bacterial community composition and sexual activity. The women studied are healthy, thus it appears that neither variation in community composition per se, nor higher levels of observed diversity (co-dominance) are necessarily indicative of dysbiosis, in which there is microbial imbalance accompanied by symptoms. PMID:22553250

  19. Dynamical manifestations of quantum chaos: correlation hole and bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Herrera, E. J.; Santos, Lea F.

    2017-10-01

    A main feature of a chaotic quantum system is a rigid spectrum where the levels do not cross. We discuss how the presence of level repulsion in lattice many-body quantum systems can be detected from the analysis of their time evolution instead of their energy spectra. This approach is advantageous to experiments that deal with dynamics, but have limited or no direct access to spectroscopy. Dynamical manifestations of avoided crossings occur at long times. They correspond to a drop, referred to as correlation hole, below the asymptotic value of the survival probability and to a bulge above the saturation point of the von Neumann entanglement entropy and the Shannon information entropy. By contrast, the evolution of these quantities at shorter times reflects the level of delocalization of the initial state, but not necessarily a rigid spectrum. The correlation hole is a general indicator of the integrable-chaos transition in disordered and clean models and as such can be used to detect the transition to the many-body localized phase in disordered interacting systems. This article is part of the themed issue 'Breakdown of ergodicity in quantum systems: from solids to synthetic matter'.

  20. Mutiple Stellar Populations in Blanco DECam Bulge Survey Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Doryan; Pilachowski, C. A.; Johnson, C. I.; Rich, R. Michael; Clarkson, William I.; Young, M.; Michael, S.

    2018-01-01

    Preliminary SDSS ugrizY photometric observations of globular cluster stars included in the Blanco DECam Bulge Survey (BDBS) were examined to determine the suitability of these data to characterize stellar populations within clusters. The BDBS fields include around two dozen globular clusters, including the iron-complex cluster M22 and the pulsar-rich cluster Terzan 5. Many globular clusters show evidence for multiple stellar populations as a spread in the u-g color of stars in a given phase of stellar evolution, and in some clusters, the populations have different radial distributions. BDBS clusters with low and/or non-variable reddening and long dynamical mixing time scales were selected for study, and photometry for RGB and main sequence stars within two half-light radii from the center of each cluster was extracted from the BDBS preliminary catalog. Field contamination was reduced in each candidate cluster by removing all stars more than a tenth of a magnitude from the best-fit fiducial curves following the g-r vs r color-magnitude diagram. The remaining stars were split into separate populations based on u-g color, and effective cumulative distribution functions vs. half-light radius were compared to identify differences in the populations’ radial distributions.

  1. EXPLORING THE UNUSUALLY HIGH BLACK-HOLE-TO-BULGE MASS RATIOS IN NGC 4342 AND NGC 4291: THE ASYNCHRONOUS GROWTH OF BULGES AND BLACK HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Bogdan, Akos; Forman, William R.; Kraft, Ralph P.

    2012-07-10

    We study two nearby early-type galaxies, NGC 4342 and NGC 4291, that host unusually massive black holes relative to their low stellar mass. The observed black-hole-to-bulge mass ratios of NGC 4342 and NGC 4291 are 6.9{sup +3.8}{sub -2.3}% and 1.9% {+-} 0.6%, respectively, which significantly exceed the typical observed ratio of {approx}0.2%. As a consequence of the exceedingly large black-hole-to-bulge mass ratios, NGC 4342 and NGC 4291 are Almost-Equal-To 5.1{sigma} and Almost-Equal-To 3.4{sigma} outliers from the M{sub .}-M{sub bulge} scaling relation, respectively. In this paper, we explore the origin of the unusually high black-hole-to-bulge mass ratio. Based on Chandra X-raymore » observations of the hot gas content of NGC 4342 and NGC 4291, we compute gravitating mass profiles, and conclude that both galaxies reside in massive dark matter halos, which extend well beyond the stellar light. The presence of dark matter halos around NGC 4342 and NGC 4291 and a deep optical image of the environment of NGC 4342 indicate that tidal stripping, in which {approx}> 90% of the stellar mass was lost, cannot explain the observed high black-hole-to-bulge mass ratios. Therefore, we conclude that these galaxies formed with low stellar masses, implying that the bulge and black hole did not grow in tandem. We also find that the black hole mass correlates well with the properties of the dark matter halo, suggesting that dark matter halos may play a major role in regulating the growth of the supermassive black holes.« less

  2. Metallicity-dependent kinematics and morphology of the Milky Way bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athanassoula, E.; Rodionov, S. A.; Prantzos, N.

    2017-05-01

    We use N-body chemo-dynamic simulations to study the coupling between morphology, kinematics and metallicity of the bar/bulge region of our Galaxy. We make qualitative comparisons of our results with available observations and find very good agreement. We conclude that this region is complex, since it comprises several stellar components with different properties - I.e. a boxy/peanut bulge, thin and thick disc components, and, to lesser extents, a disky pseudo-bulge, a stellar halo and a small classical bulge - all cohabiting in dynamical equilibrium. Our models show strong links between kinematics and metallicity, or morphology and metallicity, as already suggested by a number of recent observations. We discuss and explain these links.

  3. Galactic bulge preferred over dark matter for the Galactic centre gamma-ray excess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macias, Oscar; Gordon, Chris; Crocker, Roland M.; Coleman, Brendan; Paterson, Dylan; Horiuchi, Shunsaku; Pohl, Martin

    2018-05-01

    An anomalous gamma-ray excess emission has been found in the Fermi Large Area Telescope data1 covering the centre of the Galaxy2,3. Several theories have been proposed for this `Galactic centre excess'. They include self-annihilation of dark-matter particles4, an unresolved population of millisecond pulsars5, an unresolved population of young pulsars6, or a series of burst events7. Here, we report on an analysis that exploits hydrodynamical modelling to register the position of interstellar gas associated with diffuse Galactic gamma-ray emission. We find evidence that the Galactic centre excess gamma rays are statistically better described by the stellar over-density in the Galactic bulge and the nuclear stellar bulge, rather than a spherical excess. Given its non-spherical nature, we argue that the Galactic centre excess is not a dark-matter phenomenon but rather associated with the stellar population of the Galactic bulge and the nuclear bulge.

  4. Before the Bar: Kinematic Detection of a Spheroidal Metal-poor Bulge Component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunder, Andrea; Rich, R. M.; Koch, A.; Storm, J.; Nataf, D. M.; De Propris, R.; Walker, A. R.; Bono, G.; Johnson, C. I.; Shen, Juntai; Li, Z.-Y.

    2016-04-01

    We present 947 radial velocities of RR Lyrae variable stars in four fields located toward the Galactic bulge, observed within the data from the ongoing Bulge RR Lyrae Radial Velocity Assay (BRAVA-RR). We show that these RR Lyrae stars (RRLs) exhibit hot kinematics and null or negligible rotation and are therefore members of a separate population from the bar/pseudobulge that currently dominates the mass and luminosity of the inner Galaxy. Our RRLs predate these structures and have metallicities, kinematics, and spatial distribution that are consistent with a “classical” bulge, although we cannot yet completely rule out the possibility that they are the metal-poor tail of a more metal-rich ([{Fe}/{{H}}]˜ -1 dex) halo-bulge population. The complete catalog of radial velocities for the BRAVA-RR stars is also published electronically.

  5. The stellar population and luminosity function in M31 bulge and Inner Disk Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rich, R. Michael; Mould, J. R.; Graham, James R.

    1993-01-01

    We report infrared photometry and stellar identifications for stars in five fields in the M31 bulge located from 2 to 11 arcmin from the nucleus. These fields have been chosen such that the bulge/disk star ratio predicted from Kent's (1989) small bulge model varies from 7:1 to 1:5, allowing a study of near pure disk and near pure bulge stellar populations. We reject the hypothesis of Davies et al. (1991) that luminous stars found within 500 pc of the nucleus are due to a contaminating disk population. We find that the bulge contains stars in excess of M(sub bol) = -5 mag and that the bulge luminosity function has a distinct shape different from the disk fields. We find many stars redder than (J-K) = 2 mag, and suggest that these stars may be the counterparts of the IRAS-selected Galactic bulge Miras studied by Whitelock et at. (1991). The number of bright stars (M(sub bol) is less than -5 mag) falls off more rapidly than the r band surface brightness. By building model fields out of a bulge luminosity function and artificial stars, we are able to show that the change in the luminosity function toward the center cannot be explained simply by the mismeasurement of overcrowded star images. However, these tests also raise the possibility that the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) tip may be approximately equal to 1 mag fainter than actually measured in our most crowded field, reaching only M(sub bol) = -5. We compare observed counts of AGB stars with those predicted from theoretical lifetimes using a technique of general interest for this problem, the Fuel Consumption Theorem of Renzini & Buzzoni (1986) Spectral Evolution of Galaxies (Reidel, Dordrecht). Our methodology is generally applicable to the study of other resolved extragalactic stellar populations. The number of observed stars per magnitude up to a luminosity of M(bol) = -5.5 mag is consistent with AGB evolution of the whole population of the innermost bulge field with the standard lifetime on the AGB of 1.3 Myr

  6. Vaginitis: current microbiologic and clinical concepts.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, L V; Embil, J A

    1986-01-01

    Infectious vaginitis occurs when the normal vaginal flora is disrupted; it may arise when saprophytes overwhelm the host immune response, when pathogenic organisms are introduced into the vagina or when changes in substrate allow an imbalance of microorganisms to develop. Examples of these types of vaginitis include the presence of chronic fungal infection in women with an inadequate cellular immune response to the yeast, the introduction of trichomonads into vaginal epithelium that has a sufficient supply of glycogen, and the alteration in bacterial flora, normally dominated by Lactobacillus spp., and its metabolites that is characteristic of "nonspecific vaginitis". The authors review microbiologic and clinical aspects of the fungal, protozoal and bacterial infections, including the interactions of bacteria thought to produce nonspecific vaginitis, that are now recognized as causing vaginitis. Other causes of vaginitis are also discussed. PMID:3510698

  7. Vaginitis: current microbiologic and clinical concepts.

    PubMed

    Hill, L V; Embil, J A

    1986-02-15

    Infectious vaginitis occurs when the normal vaginal flora is disrupted; it may arise when saprophytes overwhelm the host immune response, when pathogenic organisms are introduced into the vagina or when changes in substrate allow an imbalance of microorganisms to develop. Examples of these types of vaginitis include the presence of chronic fungal infection in women with an inadequate cellular immune response to the yeast, the introduction of trichomonads into vaginal epithelium that has a sufficient supply of glycogen, and the alteration in bacterial flora, normally dominated by Lactobacillus spp., and its metabolites that is characteristic of "nonspecific vaginitis". The authors review microbiologic and clinical aspects of the fungal, protozoal and bacterial infections, including the interactions of bacteria thought to produce nonspecific vaginitis, that are now recognized as causing vaginitis. Other causes of vaginitis are also discussed.

  8. Bulge growth and quenching since z = 2.5 in CANDELS/3D-HST

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, Philipp; Wuyts, Stijn; Schreiber, Natascha M. Förster

    2014-06-10

    Exploiting the deep high-resolution imaging of all five CANDELS fields, and accurate redshift information provided by 3D-HST, we investigate the relation between structure and stellar populations for a mass-selected sample of 6764 galaxies above 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, spanning the redshift range 0.5 < z < 2.5. For the first time, we fit two-dimensional models comprising a single Sérsic fit and two-component (i.e., bulge + disk) decompositions not only to the H-band light distributions, but also to the stellar mass maps reconstructed from resolved stellar population modeling. We confirm that the increased bulge prominence among quiescent galaxies, as reportedmore » previously based on rest-optical observations, remains in place when considering the distributions of stellar mass. Moreover, we observe an increase of the typical Sérsic index and bulge-to-total ratio (with median B/T reaching 40%-50%) among star-forming galaxies above 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}. Given that quenching for these most massive systems is likely to be imminent, our findings suggest that significant bulge growth precedes a departure from the star-forming main sequence. We demonstrate that the bulge mass (and ideally knowledge of the bulge and total mass) is a more reliable predictor of the star-forming versus quiescent state of a galaxy than the total stellar mass. The same trends are predicted by the state-of-the-art, semi-analytic model by Somerville et al. In this model, bulges and black holes grow hand in hand through merging and/or disk instabilities, and feedback from active galactic nuclei shuts off star formation. Further observations will be required to pin down star formation quenching mechanisms, but our results imply that they must be internal to the galaxies and closely associated with bulge growth.« less

  9. VERY METAL-POOR STARS IN THE OUTER GALACTIC BULGE FOUND BY THE APOGEE SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia Perez, Ana E.; Majewski, Steven R.; Hearty, Fred R.

    2013-04-10

    Despite its importance for understanding the nature of early stellar generations and for constraining Galactic bulge formation models, at present little is known about the metal-poor stellar content of the central Milky Way. This is a consequence of the great distances involved and intervening dust obscuration, which challenge optical studies. However, the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), a wide-area, multifiber, high-resolution spectroscopic survey within Sloan Digital Sky Survey III, is exploring the chemistry of all Galactic stellar populations at infrared wavelengths, with particular emphasis on the disk and the bulge. An automated spectral analysis of data on 2403more » giant stars in 12 fields in the bulge obtained during APOGEE commissioning yielded five stars with low metallicity ([Fe/H] {<=} -1.7), including two that are very metal-poor [Fe/H] {approx} -2.1 by bulge standards. Luminosity-based distance estimates place the 5 stars within the outer bulge, where 1246 of the other analyzed stars may reside. A manual reanalysis of the spectra verifies the low metallicities, and finds these stars to be enhanced in the {alpha}-elements O, Mg, and Si without significant {alpha}-pattern differences with other local halo or metal-weak thick-disk stars of similar metallicity, or even with other more metal-rich bulge stars. While neither the kinematics nor chemistry of these stars can yet definitively determine which, if any, are truly bulge members, rather than denizens of other populations co-located with the bulge, the newly identified stars reveal that the chemistry of metal-poor stars in the central Galaxy resembles that of metal-weak thick-disk stars at similar metallicity.« less

  10. Bulge Growth and Quenching since z = 2.5 in CANDELS/3D-HST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Philipp; Wuyts, Stijn; Somerville, Rachel S.; Förster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Genzel, Reinhard; Bell, Eric F.; Brammer, Gabe; Dekel, Avishai; Faber, Sandra M.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Lutz, Dieter; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica J.; Primack, Joel R.; Rosario, David J.; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Tacconi, Linda J.; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Whitaker, Katherine E.

    2014-06-01

    Exploiting the deep high-resolution imaging of all five CANDELS fields, and accurate redshift information provided by 3D-HST, we investigate the relation between structure and stellar populations for a mass-selected sample of 6764 galaxies above 1010 M ⊙, spanning the redshift range 0.5 < z < 2.5. For the first time, we fit two-dimensional models comprising a single Sérsic fit and two-component (i.e., bulge + disk) decompositions not only to the H-band light distributions, but also to the stellar mass maps reconstructed from resolved stellar population modeling. We confirm that the increased bulge prominence among quiescent galaxies, as reported previously based on rest-optical observations, remains in place when considering the distributions of stellar mass. Moreover, we observe an increase of the typical Sérsic index and bulge-to-total ratio (with median B/T reaching 40%-50%) among star-forming galaxies above 1011 M ⊙. Given that quenching for these most massive systems is likely to be imminent, our findings suggest that significant bulge growth precedes a departure from the star-forming main sequence. We demonstrate that the bulge mass (and ideally knowledge of the bulge and total mass) is a more reliable predictor of the star-forming versus quiescent state of a galaxy than the total stellar mass. The same trends are predicted by the state-of-the-art, semi-analytic model by Somerville et al. In this model, bulges and black holes grow hand in hand through merging and/or disk instabilities, and feedback from active galactic nuclei shuts off star formation. Further observations will be required to pin down star formation quenching mechanisms, but our results imply that they must be internal to the galaxies and closely associated with bulge growth.

  11. Effect of Explosion Bulge Test Parameters on the Measurement of Deformation Resistance for Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Effect of Explosion Bulge Test Parameters on the Measurement of Deformation Resistance for Steel C...Measurement of Deformation Resistance for Steel Executive Summary The Explosion Bulge Test has been used for over 60 years as a standard test for...the assessment of steel toughness and deformation resistance under blast loading conditions [1-3]. However, details of the test conditions vary

  12. Technique and outcomes of laparoscopic bulge repair after abdominal free flap reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Johnson C; Whipple, Lauren A; Binetti, Brian; Singh, T Paul; Agag, Richard

    2016-01-21

    Bulges and hernias after abdominal free flap surgery are uncommon with rates ranging from as low as 0-36%. In the free flap breast reconstruction population, there are no clear guidelines or optimal strategies to treating postoperative bulges. We describe our minimally invasive technique and outcomes in managing bulge complications in abdominal free flap breast reconstruction patients. A retrospective review was performed on all abdominal free flap breast reconstruction patients at Albany Medical Center from 2011 to 2014. All patients with bulges on clinical exam underwent abdominal CT imaging prior to consultation with a minimally invasive surgeon. Confirmed symptomatic bulges were repaired laparoscopically and patients were monitored regularly in the outpatient setting. Sixty-two patients received a total of 80 abdominal free flap breast reconstructions. Flap types included 41 deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP), 36 muscle-sparing transverse rectus abdominus myocutaneous (msTRAM), 2 superficial inferior epigastric artery, and 1 transverse rectus abdominus myocutaneous flap. There were a total of 9 (14.5%) bulge complications, with the majority of patients having undergone msTRAM or DIEP reconstruction. There were no complications, revisions, or recurrences from laparoscopic bulge repair after an average follow-up of 181 days. Although uncommon, bulge formation after abdominal free flap reconstruction can create significant morbidity to patients. Laproscopic hernia repair using composite mesh underlay offers an alternative to traditional open hernia repair and can be successfully used to minimize scarring, infection, and pain to free flap patients who have already undergone significant reconstructive procedures. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The Chemical Composition of the Galactic Bulge and Implications for its Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McWilliam, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    At a bulge latitude of b = -4°, the average [Fe/H] and [Mg/H] values are +0.06 and +0.17 dex, roughly 0.2 and 0.7 dex higher than the local thin and thick disk values, respectively, suggesting a large bulge effective yield, perhaps due to efficient retention of supernova ejecta. The bulge vertical [Fe/H] gradient, at ∼0.5 dex/kpc, appears to be due to a changing mixture of sub-populations (near +0.3 dex and -0.3 dex and one possibly near -0.7 dex) with latitude. At solar [Fe/H], the bulge [Al/Fe] and [α/Fe] ratios are ∼ +0.15 dex. Below [Fe/H] ∼ -0.5 dex, the bulge and local thick disk compositions are very similar; but the measured [Mg/Fe], [/Fe], [La/Eu] and dramatic [Cu/Fe] ratios suggest higher SFR in the bulge. However, these composition differences with the thick disk could be due to measurement errors and non-LTE effects. Unusual zig-zag trends of [Cu/Fe] and [Na/Fe] suggest metallicity-dependent nucleosynthesis by core-collapse supernovae in the Type Ia supernova time-delay scenario. The bulge sub-population compositions resemble the local thin and thick disks, but at higher [Fe/H], suggesting a radial [Fe/H] gradient of -0.04 to -0.05 dex/kpc for both the thin and thick disks. If the bulge formed through accretion of inner thin and thick disk stars, it appears that these stars retained vertical scale heights characteristic of their kinematic origin, resulting in the vertical [Fe/H] gradient and [α/Fe] trends seen today.

  14. A HIGH-VELOCITY BULGE RR LYRAE VARIABLE ON A HALO-LIKE ORBIT

    SciTech Connect

    Kunder, Andrea; Storm, J.; Rich, R. M.

    2015-07-20

    We report on the RR Lyrae variable star, MACHO 176.18833.411, located toward the Galactic bulge and observed within the data from the ongoing Bulge RR Lyrae Radial Velocity Assay, which has the unusual radial velocity of −372 ± 8 km s{sup −1} and true space velocity of −482 ± 22 km s{sup −1} relative to the Galactic rest frame. Located less than 1 kpc from the Galactic center and toward a field at (l, b) = (3, −2.5), this pulsating star has properties suggesting it belongs to the bulge RR Lyrae star population, yet a velocity indicating it is abnormal,more » at least with respect to bulge giants and red clump stars. We show that this star is most likely a halo interloper and therefore suggest that halo contamination is not insignificant when studying metal-poor stars found within the bulge area, even for stars within 1 kpc of the Galactic center. We discuss the possibility that MACHO 176.18833.411 is on the extreme edge of the bulge RR Lyrae radial velocity distribution, and also consider a more exotic scenario in which it is a runaway star moving through the Galaxy.« less

  15. The Bulging Behavior of Thick-Walled 6063 Aluminum Alloy Tubes Under Double-Sided Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xiao-Lei; Wang, Xiao-Song; Yuan, Shi-Jian

    2015-05-01

    To make further exploration on the deformation behavior of tube under double-sided pressures, the thick-walled 6063 aluminum alloy tubes with an outer diameter of 65 mm and an average thickness of 7.86 mm have been used to be bulged under the combined action of internal and external pressures. In the experiment, two ends of the thick-walled tubes were fixed using the tooth and groove match. Three levels of external pressure (0 MPa, 40 MPa, and 80 MPa), in conjunction with the internal pressure, were applied on the tube outside and inside simultaneously. The effect of external pressure on the bulging behavior of the thick-walled tubes, such as the limiting expansion ratio, the bulging zone profile, and the thickness distribution, has been investigated. It is shown that the limiting expansion ratio, the bulging zone profile, and the thickness distribution in the homogeneous bulging area are all insensitive to the external pressure. However, the external pressure can make the thick-walled tube achieve a thinner wall at the fracture area. It reveals that the external pressure can only improve the fracture limit of the thick-walled 6063 tubes, but it has very little effect on their homogeneous bulging behavior. It might be because the external pressure can only increase the magnitude of the hydrostatic pressure for the tube but has no effect on the Lode parameter.

  16. THE NUMBER OF TIDAL DWARF SATELLITE GALAXIES IN DEPENDENCE OF BULGE INDEX

    SciTech Connect

    López-Corredoira, Martín; Kroupa, Pavel, E-mail: martinlc@iac.es, E-mail: pavel@astro.uni-bonn.de

    We show that a significant correlation (up to 5σ) emerges between the bulge index, defined to be larger for a larger bulge/disk ratio, in spiral galaxies with similar luminosities in the Galaxy Zoo 2 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the number of tidal-dwarf galaxies in the catalog by Kaviraj et al. In the standard cold or warm dark matter cosmological models, the number of satellite galaxies correlates with the circular velocity of the dark matter host halo. In generalized gravity models without cold or warm dark matter, such a correlation does not exist, because host galaxies cannot capture infalling dwarfmore » galaxies due to the absence of dark-matter-induced dynamical friction. However, in such models, a correlation is expected to exist between the bulge mass and the number of satellite galaxies because bulges and tidal-dwarf satellite galaxies form in encounters between host galaxies. This is not predicted by dark matter models in which bulge mass and the number of satellites are a priori uncorrelated because higher bulge/disk ratios do not imply higher dark/luminous ratios. Hence, our correlation reproduces the prediction of scenarios without dark matter, whereas an explanation is not found readily from the a priori predictions of the standard scenario with dark matter. Further research is needed to explore whether some application of the standard theory may explain this correlation.« less

  17. A catalog of polychromatic bulge-disc decompositions of ˜17.600 galaxies in CANDELS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimauro, Paola; Huertas-Company, Marc; Daddi, Emanuele; Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Bernardi, Mariangela; Barro, Guillermo; Buitrago, Fernando; Caro, Fernando; Cattaneo, Andrea; Dominguez-Sánchez, Helena; Faber, Sandra M.; Häußler, Boris; Kocevski, Dale D.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Koo, David C.; Lee, Christoph T.; Mei, Simona; Margalef-Bentabol, Berta; Primack, Joel; Rodriguez-Puebla, Aldo; Salvato, Mara; Shankar, Francesco; Tuccillo, Diego

    2018-05-01

    Understanding how bulges grow in galaxies is critical step towards unveiling the link between galaxy morphology and star-formation. To do so, it is necessary to decompose large sample of galaxies at different epochs into their main components (bulges and discs). This is particularly challenging, especially at high redshifts, where galaxies are poorly resolved. This work presents a catalog of bulge-disc decompositions of the surface brightness profiles of ˜17.600 H-band selected galaxies in the CANDELS fields (F160W < 23, 0 < z < 2) in 4 to 7 filters covering a spectral range of 430 - 1600nm. This is the largest available catalog of this kind up to z = 2. By using a novel approach based on deep-learning to select the best model to fit, we manage to control systematics arising from wrong model selection and obtain less contaminated samples than previous works. We show that the derived structural properties are within ˜10 - 20% of random uncertainties. We then fit stellar population models to the decomposed SEDs (Spectral Energy Distribution) of bulges and discs and derive stellar masses (and stellar mass bulge-to-total ratios) as well as rest-frame colors (U,V,J) for bulges and discs separately. All data products are publicly released with this paper and through the web page https://lerma.obspm.fr/huertas/form_CANDELS and will be used for scientific analysis in forthcoming works.

  18. Improved Model for Predicting the Free Energy Contribution of Dinucleotide Bulges to RNA Duplex Stability.

    PubMed

    Tomcho, Jeremy C; Tillman, Magdalena R; Znosko, Brent M

    2015-09-01

    Predicting the secondary structure of RNA is an intermediate in predicting RNA three-dimensional structure. Commonly, determining RNA secondary structure from sequence uses free energy minimization and nearest neighbor parameters. Current algorithms utilize a sequence-independent model to predict free energy contributions of dinucleotide bulges. To determine if a sequence-dependent model would be more accurate, short RNA duplexes containing dinucleotide bulges with different sequences and nearest neighbor combinations were optically melted to derive thermodynamic parameters. These data suggested energy contributions of dinucleotide bulges were sequence-dependent, and a sequence-dependent model was derived. This model assigns free energy penalties based on the identity of nucleotides in the bulge (3.06 kcal/mol for two purines, 2.93 kcal/mol for two pyrimidines, 2.71 kcal/mol for 5'-purine-pyrimidine-3', and 2.41 kcal/mol for 5'-pyrimidine-purine-3'). The predictive model also includes a 0.45 kcal/mol penalty for an A-U pair adjacent to the bulge and a -0.28 kcal/mol bonus for a G-U pair adjacent to the bulge. The new sequence-dependent model results in predicted values within, on average, 0.17 kcal/mol of experimental values, a significant improvement over the sequence-independent model. This model and new experimental values can be incorporated into algorithms that predict RNA stability and secondary structure from sequence.

  19. Spectroscopic decomposition of NGC 3521: unveiling the properties of the bulge and disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coccato, Lodovico; Fabricius, Maximilian H.; Saglia, Roberto P.; Bender, Ralf; Erwin, Peter; Drory, Niv; Morelli, Lorenzo

    2018-06-01

    We study the kinematics and the stellar populations of the bulge and disc of the spiral galaxy NGC 3521. At each position in the field of view, we separate the contributions of the bulge and the disc from the total observed spectrum and study their kinematics, age, and metallicities independently. Their properties are clearly distinct: the bulge rotates more slowly, has a higher velocity dispersion, and is less luminous than the disc. We identify three main populations of stars in NGC 3521: old (≥7 Gyr), intermediate (≈3 Gyr), and young (≤1 Gyr). The mass and light of NGC 3521 are dominated by the intermediate stellar population. The youngest population contributes mostly to the disc component and its contribution increases with radius. We also study the luminosity-weighed properties of the stars in NGC 3521. Along the photometric major axis, we find (i) no age gradient for the stars in the bulge, and a negative age gradient for the stars in the disc; (ii) negative metallicity gradients and subsolar α-enhancement for both the bulge and the disc. We propose the following picture for the formation of NGC 3521: initial formation a long time ago (≥7 Gyr), followed by a second burst of star formation or a merger (≈3 Gyr ago), which contributed predominantly to the mass build-up of the bulge. Recently (≤1 Gyr), the disc of NGC 3521 experienced an additional episode of star formation that started in the innermost regions.

  20. Gauging the Helium Abundance of the Galactic Bulge RR Lyrae Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marconi, Marcella; Minniti, Dante

    2018-02-01

    We report the first estimate of the He abundance of the population of RR Lyrae stars in the Galactic bulge. This is done by comparing the recent observational data with the latest models. We use the large samples of ab-type RR Lyrae stars found by OGLE IV in the inner bulge and by the VVV survey in the outer bulge. We present the result from the new models computed by Marconi et al., showing that the minimum period for fundamental RR Lyrae pulsators depends on the He content. By comparing these models with the observations in a period versus effective temperature plane, we find that the bulk of the bulge ab-type RR Lyrae are consistent with primordial He abundance Y = 0.245, ruling out a significant He-enriched population. This work demonstrates that the He content of the bulge RR Lyrae is different from that of the bulk of the bulge population as traced by the red clump giants that appear to be significantly more He-rich. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere under ESO programmes 179.B-2002 and 298.D-5048.

  1. DEMOGRAPHICS OF BULGE TYPES WITHIN 11 Mpc AND IMPLICATIONS FOR GALAXY EVOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, David B.; Drory, Niv, E-mail: dbfisher@astro.umd.edu

    2011-06-01

    We present an inventory of galaxy bulge types (elliptical galaxy, classical bulge, pseudobulge, and bulgeless galaxy) in a volume-limited sample within the local 11 Mpc sphere using Spitzer 3.6 {mu}m and Hubble Space Telescope data. We find that whether counting by number, star formation rate, or stellar mass, the dominant galaxy type in the local universe has pure disk characteristics (either hosting a pseudobulge or being bulgeless). Galaxies that contain either a pseudobulge or no bulge combine to account for over 80% of the number of galaxies above a stellar mass of 10{sup 9} M{sub sun}. Classical bulges and ellipticalmore » galaxies account for {approx}1/4, and disks for {approx}3/4 of the stellar mass in the local 11 Mpc. About 2/3 of all star formation in the local volume takes place in galaxies with pseudobulges. Looking at the fraction of galaxies with different bulge types as a function of stellar mass, we find that the frequency of classical bulges strongly increases with stellar mass, and comes to dominate above 10{sup 10.5} M{sub sun}. Galaxies with pseudobulges dominate at 10{sup 9.5}-10{sup 10.5} M{sub sun}. Yet lower-mass galaxies are most likely to be bulgeless. If pseudobulges are not a product of mergers, then the frequency of pseudobulges in the local universe poses a challenge for galaxy evolution models.« less

  2. Structure and hydrodynamics of a DNA G-quadruplex with a cytosine bulge.

    PubMed

    Meier, Markus; Moya-Torres, Aniel; Krahn, Natalie J; McDougall, Matthew D; Orriss, George L; McRae, Ewan K S; Booy, Evan P; McEleney, Kevin; Patel, Trushar R; McKenna, Sean A; Stetefeld, Jörg

    2018-06-01

    The identification of four-stranded G-quadruplexes (G4s) has highlighted the fact that DNA has additional spatial organisations at its disposal other than double-stranded helices. Recently, it became clear that the formation of G4s is not limited to the traditional G3+NL1G3+NL2G3+NL3G3+ sequence motif. Instead, the G3 triplets can be interrupted by deoxythymidylate (DNA) or uridylate (RNA) where the base forms a bulge that loops out from the G-quadruplex core. Here, we report the first high-resolution X-ray structure of a unique unimolecular DNA G4 with a cytosine bulge. The G4 forms a dimer that is stacked via its 5'-tetrads. Analytical ultracentrifugation, static light scattering and small angle X-ray scattering confirmed that the G4 adapts a predominantly dimeric structure in solution. We provide a comprehensive comparison of previously published G4 structures containing bulges and report a special γ torsion angle range preferentially populated by the G4 core guanylates adjacent to bulges. Since the penalty for introducing bulges appears to be negligible, it should be possible to functionalize G4s by introducing artificial or modified nucleotides at such positions. The presence of the bulge alters the surface of the DNA, providing an opportunity to develop drugs that can specifically target individual G4s.

  3. Role of the CCA bulge of prohead RNA of bacteriophage ø29 in DNA packaging.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Morais, Marc C; Anderson, Dwight L; Jardine, Paul J; Grimes, Shelley

    2008-11-14

    The oligomeric ring of prohead RNA (pRNA) is an essential component of the ATP-driven DNA packaging motor of bacteriophage ø29. The A-helix of pRNA binds the DNA translocating ATPase gp16 (gene product 16) and the CCA bulge in this helix is essential for DNA packaging in vitro. Mutation of the bulge by base substitution or deletion showed that the size of the bulge, rather than its sequence, is primary in DNA packaging activity. Proheads reconstituted with CCA bulge mutant pRNAs bound the packaging ATPase gp16 and the packaging substrate DNA-gp3, although DNA translocation was not detected with several mutants. Prohead/bulge-mutant pRNA complexes with low packaging activity had a higher rate of ATP hydrolysis per base pair of DNA packaged than proheads with wild-type pRNA. Cryoelectron microscopy three-dimensional reconstruction of proheads reconstituted with a CCA deletion pRNA showed that the protruding pRNA spokes of the motor occupy a different position relative to the head when compared to particles with wild-type pRNA. Therefore, the CCA bulge seems to dictate the orientation of the pRNA spokes. The conformational changes observed for this mutant pRNA may affect gp16 conformation and/or subsequent ATPase-DNA interaction and, consequently, explain the decreased packaging activity observed for CCA mutants.

  4. Formation of the bulge of Iapetus through long-wavelength folding of the lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, Jonathan P.; Dombard, Andrew J.

    2018-03-01

    Previous models that attempted to explain the formation of the pronounced oblate shape of Iapetus suggested that it was a preserved rotational bulge. These models found that heating was provided by short-lived radioactive isotopes that decayed rapidly and allowed the excess flattening of the lithosphere to be locked in by a thickening lithosphere, but placed severe timing constraints on the formation of Iapetus and its bulge. Here, we show that finite element simulations with an elastic-viscous-plastic rheology indicate it is possible to form the bulge through long-wavelength folding of the lithosphere of Iapetus during an epoch of contraction combined with a latitudinal surface temperature gradient. In contrast to models of a frozen rotational bulge, heat generated by long-lived radioactive isotopes warms the interior, which causes porosity loss and forces Iapetus to compact by ∼10%. Our simulations are most successful when there is a 30 K temperature difference between the pole and the equator. Tectonic growth of the bulge is not sensitive to the time scale over which the moon contracts, and lithospheric thickness primarily controls whether a fold can form, not fold wavelength. In addition, long term simulations show that when no stress is applied, the mechanical lithosphere is strong enough to support the bulge, with negligible relaxation over billion year time scales.

  5. Premenarchal, recurrent vaginal discharge associated with an incomplete obstructing longitudinal vaginal septum.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Keith A; DeWitt, Jason

    2005-12-01

    To describe an unusual, premenarchal presentation of an obstructive vaginal anomaly. Case Report. University Medical Center. Premenarchal subject Vaginogram, vaginal septum resection. Vaginal septum resection with resolution of vaginal discharge. This case demonstrates some of the typical features of uterus didelphys bicollis with incomplete obstructing hemivagina, but had a unique presentation with premenarchal, recurrent vaginal discharge. Typically, patients with an obstructing mullerian anomaly present after menarche with pelvic pain and a mass. The vaginogram assists in the preoperative definition of abnormal anatomy which allows the surgeon to develop the most appropriate surgical approach. Resection of this incompletely obstructing vaginal septum resulted in resolution of the recurrent vaginal discharge.

  6. Conservative Management of Placenta Accreta/Increta after Vaginal Birth

    PubMed Central

    Peiffer, S.; Reinhard, J.; Reitter, A.; Louwen, F.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Aim of the study was to show that conservative management with preservation of the uterus and of fertility is possible in patients with placenta accreta/increta after vaginal delivery. Method: A retrospective analysis of patients with placental attachment disorders after vaginal delivery was done in a perinatal centre between November 2009 and April 2011. The patient collective was identified using the ICD-10 codes for placenta accreta/increta/percreta, and patient records were analysed for risk factors, maternal morbidity, preservation of the uterus and of fertility, and neonatal outcome. Results: Three cases of placenta increta were identified in the last 1.5 years out of a total of 1457 vaginal deliveries, and all 3 cases were treated conservatively. Mean maternal age was 35.3 years; gestational age ranged from 39 to 41 weeks, and mean duration between delivery of the child and delivery of the placenta was 44.67 days (range: 14–100 days). Two patients developed symptoms of endomyometritis, including fever, leukocytosis and increased CRP levels. All 3 women were successfully managed with preservation of the uterus. Conclusion: In selected cases with placenta accreta/increta after vaginal delivery, it is possible to avoid surgical procedures, particularly hysterectomy procedures, and successfully manage these patients conservatively with preservation of the uterus. PMID:25308979

  7. 21 CFR 884.3575 - Vaginal pessary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vaginal pessary. 884.3575 Section 884.3575 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... Vaginal pessary. (a) Identification. A vaginal pessary is a removable structure placed in the vagina to...

  8. 21 CFR 884.5920 - Vaginal insufflator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vaginal insufflator. 884.5920 Section 884.5920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5920 Vaginal insufflator. (a) Identification. A vaginal insufflator is a device used to treat...

  9. BULGES OF NEARBY GALAXIES WITH SPITZER: THE GROWTH OF PSEUDOBULGES IN DISK GALAXIES AND ITS CONNECTION TO OUTER DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, David B.; Drory, Niv; Fabricius, Maximilian H.

    2009-05-20

    We study star formation rates (SFRs) and stellar masses in bulges of nearby disk galaxies. For this we construct a new SFR indicator that linearly combines data from the Spitzer Space Telescope and the Galaxy Evolution Explorer. All bulges are found to be forming stars irrespective of bulge type (pseudobulge or classical bulge). At present-day SFR the median pseudobulge could have grown the present-day stellar mass in 8 Gyr. Classical bulges have the lowest specific SFR implying a growth times that are longer than a Hubble time, and thus the present-day SFR does not likely play a major role inmore » the evolution of classical bulges. In almost all galaxies in our sample the specific SFR (SFR per unit stellar mass) of the bulge is higher than that of the outer disk. This suggests that almost all galaxies are increasing their B/T through internal star formation. The SFR in pseudobulges correlates with their structure. More massive pseudobulges have higher SFR density, this is consistent with that stellar mass being formed by moderate, extended star formation. Bulges in late-type galaxies have similar SFRs as pseudobulges in intermediate-type galaxies, and are similar in radial size. However, they are deficient in mass; thus, they have much shorter growth times, {approx}2 Gyr. We identify a class of bulges that have nuclear morphology similar to pseudobulges, significantly lower specific SFR than pseudobulges, and are closer to classical bulges in structural parameter correlations. These are possibly composite objects, evolved pseudobulges or classical bulges experiencing transient, enhanced nuclear star formation. Our results are consistent with a scenario in which bulge growth via internal star formation is a natural, and near ubiquitous phenomenon in disk galaxies. Those galaxies with large classical bulges are not affected by the in situ bulge growth, likely because the majority of their stellar mass comes from some other phenomenon. Yet, those galaxies without

  10. [Itraconazole and secnidazole capsules vs. vaginal ovules of fluocinolone acetonide, nystatin and metronidazole in the symptomatic treatment of vaginitis].

    PubMed

    Alvarado García, A; Gaviño Ambriz, S

    1998-04-01

    Evaluation of oral treatment in vaginitis and vaginosis using Itraconazol and sechidazol, in comparison to topic treatment using vaginal ovules of acetonido of fluocinolona 0.50 mg, nistatina 100,000 U and metronidazol 500 mg. Longitudinal, prospective and open comparative study. Servicio de Reproducción Humana(Human Reproduction Department), Centro Médico Nacional "20 de Noviembre". Forty female patients, without any relevant differences in their general characteristics, chose diagnosis was vaginitis and vaginosis, who were medically treated through external consultation, divided in two groups of twenty each one. Group 1 oral treatment with itraconazol and secnidazol. Group 2 had topic treatment with fluocinolona, nistatina and metronidazol. All of the patients were controlled in seven and fourteen days time, in order to evaluate the intensity of their clinical symptomatology, as well as the efficacy in both ways of treatment. Leukorrhea was the most important symptom in all the cases, going from minor to serious white discharge. After the treatment, we found a relevant difference statistically significative in patients treated with intraconazol and secnidazol. We did not find any differences in relation to ardor, pruritus, dispareunia and disuria at post-treatment evaluation. However, group 1 betterment was statistically significative between the first and the seventh days of treatment. Treating vaginitis or vaginosis (or both) with itraconazol and secnidazol takes less time for betterment in addition to comfort and easiness of oral administration; therefore, we consider them proper medicines in these specific cases.

  11. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Emission Toward the Galactic Bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shannon, M. J.; Peeters, E.; Cami, J.; Blommaert, J. A. D. L.

    2018-03-01

    We examine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), dust, and atomic/molecular emission toward the Galactic bulge using Spitzer Space Telescope observations of four fields: C32, C35, OGLE, and NGC 6522. These fields are approximately centered on (l, b) = (0.°0, 1.°0), (0.°0, ‑1.°0), (0.°4, ‑2.°4), and (1.°0, ‑3.°8), respectively. Far-infrared photometric observations complement the Spitzer/IRS spectroscopic data and are used to construct spectral energy distributions. We find that the dust and PAH emission are exceptionally similar between C32 and C35 overall, in part explained due to their locations—they reside on or near boundaries of a 7 Myr old Galactic outflow event and are partly shock-heated. Within the C32 and C35 fields, we identify a region of elevated Hα emission that is coincident with elevated fine-structure and [O IV] line emission and weak PAH feature strengths. We are likely tracing a transition zone of the outflow into the nascent environment. PAH abundances in these fields are slightly depressed relative to typical ISM values. In the OGLE and NGC 6522 fields, we observe weak features on a continuum dominated by zodiacal dust. SED fitting indicates that thermal dust grains in C32 and C35 have temperatures comparable to those of diffuse, high-latitude cirrus clouds. Little variability is detected in the PAH properties between C32 and C35, indicating that a stable population of PAHs dominates the overall spectral appearance. In fact, their PAH features are exceptionally similar to that of the M82 superwind, emphasizing that we are probing a local Galactic wind environment.

  12. Microbiological/clinical characteristics and validation of topical therapy with kanamycin in aerobic vaginitis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tempera, G; Bonfiglio, G; Cammarata, E; Corsello, S; Cianci, A

    2004-07-01

    The term 'aerobic vaginitis' defines a 'new' vaginal pathology that is neither classifiable as specific vaginitis nor as bacterial vaginosis. We studied a sample of 30 women with a clinical and microbiological diagnosis of aerobic vaginitis and compared the efficacy and tolerability of kanamycin and meclocycline, two products commercially available in Italy in the form of vaginal pessaries. In chronological order of enrollment, the patients were alternately treated with kanamycin or meclocycline; the dose of administration in both groups was of one pessary per day for 6 days. The evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy was carried out both at the first check-up (7th-8th day) and at a second check-up (13th-16th day). At the first follow-up carried out immediately at the end of therapy, the percentage of normalisation of clinical signs and symptoms was increased independently of the type of treatment in the case of moderate grade aerobic vaginitis, while kanamycin was produced a better effect in the group with severe aerobic vaginitis. Furthermore, at the second follow-up, a direct correlation with recovery of vaginal homeostasis was demonstrated by the normalisation of the vaginal pH and by the presence of lactobacilli, only in kanamycin treated group. In conclusion, our results showed the validity of the treatment with kanamycin intravaginally in this recently recognised disease.

  13. Optical clearing of vaginal tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chun-Hung; Myers, Erinn M.; Kennelly, Michael J.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2017-02-01

    Near-IR laser energy in conjunction with applied tissue cooling is being investigated for thermal remodeling of endopelvic fascia during minimally invasive treatment of female stress urinary incontinence. Previous simulations of light transport, heat transfer, and tissue thermal damage have shown that a transvaginal approach is more feasible than a transurethral approach. However, undesirable thermal insult to vaginal wall was predicted. This study explores whether an optical clearing agent (OCA) can improve optical penetration depth and completely preserve vaginal wall during subsurface treatment of endopelvic fascia. Several OCA mixtures were tested, and 100% glycerol was found to be optimal. Optical transmission studies, optical coherence tomography, reflection spectroscopy, and computer simulations of thermal damage to tissue using glycerol were performed. The OCA produced a 61% increase in optical transmission through porcine vaginal wall at 37 °C after 30 min. Monte Carlo (MC) light transport, heat transfer, and Arrhenius integral thermal damage simulations were performed. MC model showed improved energy deposition in endopelvic fascia using OCA. Without OCA, 62, 37, and 1% of energy was deposited in vaginal wall, endopelvic fascia, and urethral wall, compared with 50, 49, and 1% with OCA. Use of OCA also yielded 0.5 mm increase in treatment depth, allowing potential thermal tissue remodeling at 3 mm depth.

  14. ["Mixed" and "miscellaneous" vulvovaginitis: diagnostics and therapy of vaginal administration of nystatin and nifuratel].

    PubMed

    Cepický, P; Malina, J; Líbalová, Z; Kuzelová, M

    2005-05-01

    The evaluation of combined and miscellaneous vulvovaginal infections incidence and their treatment with combined vaginal products containing nifuratel and nystatin. Prospective study. Gynecologic outpatient department LEVRET, Prague; Laboratories of Microbiology AescuLab, Prague. 70 consecutive patients were examined with complaint of vaginal fluor and/or pruritus. We established macroscopic features of fluor, pH, amine test and mounts stained with Giemsa and Gram. We qualified the cases with more diagnostic criteria (mycosis, lactobacillosis, anaerobic vaginosis, aerobic vaginitis) as combined infection, those with no diagnostic criteria as miscellaneous. We treated all patients with vaginal tablets nystatin + nifuratel (Macmiror complex). We prescribed clotrimazol cream, if pruritus was present. We evaluated withdrawals of symptoms and relapses during 3 months after treatment. Combined infection was found in 21 patients from 70 (30%). The most frequent combination was that of mycosis and aerobic vaginitis (13/70, 18.6%) or mycosis and anaerobic vaginosis (4/70, 5.7%); 11 patients fulfilled criteria of no diagnosis. We concluded them as "miscelaneous". The treatment was successful in all cases, 10 women relapsed in 3 months. Combined vaginal infection findings are present very often (30%), likewise miscellaneous ones (15%) occur. The treatment of these women in successful with vaginal tablets with nystatin + nifuratel.

  15. Foreign Body in Vagina: An Uncommon Cause of Vaginitis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Chinawa, JM; Obu, HA; Uwaezuoke, SN

    2013-01-01

    Vaginal discharge in children may result from a variety of causes. A long-standing intra-vaginal foreign body can pose both diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in children. Treatment failure may occur because of alteration of the normal vaginal flora. A 6-year-old girl, who lived with her parents, presented with a foul-smelling, blood-stained vaginal discharge as well as dysuria for 2 years. There was no history of sexual abuse. Initial evaluation that excluded gynecologic examination revealed lower abdominal tenderness. Vaginal swab and urine cultures yielded Staphylococcus aureus sensitive to ceftriaxone only. She was commenced on this antibiotic for 2 weeks, but the discharge persisted, necessitating referral to the gynecologist. Examination under anesthesia by the gynecologist revealed shreds of toilet tissue paper extracted from the vagina and slight excoriations on the wall of the vagina. Vaginal foreign body can present with diverse symptoms. It should be considered in any young female patient presenting with recurrent or persistent vaginal discharge. PMID:23634340

  16. Prospective study of vaginal bacterial flora and other risk factors for vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    PubMed

    McClelland, R Scott; Richardson, Barbra A; Hassan, Wisal M; Graham, Susan M; Kiarie, James; Baeten, Jared M; Mandaliya, Kishorchandra; Jaoko, Walter; Ndinya-Achola, Jeckoniah O; Holmes, King K

    2009-06-15

    It has been suggested that vaginal colonization with lactobacilli may reduce the risk of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), but supporting data are limited. Our objective was to determine the relationship between vaginal bacterial flora and VVC. We conducted a prospective cohort analysis that involved 151 Kenyan sex workers. At monthly follow-up visits, VVC was defined as the presence of yeast buds, pseudohyphae, or both on a wet preparation (including potassium hydroxide preparation) of vaginal secretions. Generalized estimating equations were used to identify correlates of VVC. Participants returned for a median of 12 visits (interquartile range, 11-12 visits). VVC was identified at 162 visits, including 26 involving symptomatic VVC. Bacterial vaginosis was associated with fewer episodes of VVC (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.29 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.16-0.50]). After excluding women with concurrent bacterial vaginosis, another possible cause of vaginal symptoms, the likelihood of symptomatic VVC was higher among those who had had yeast identified on wet preparation of vaginal secretions during the past 60 days (aOR, 4.06 [95% CI, 1.12-14.74]) and those with concurrent vaginal Lactobacillus colonization (aOR, 3.75 [95% CI, 1.30-10.83]). Contrary to the commonly posited hypothesis that vaginal Lactobacillus colonization has a protective effect, we found that such colonization was associated with a nearly 4-fold increase in the likelihood of symptomatic VVC.

  17. A Prospective Study of Vaginal Bacterial Flora and Other Risk Factors for Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, R. Scott; Richardson, Barbra A.; Hassan, Wisal M.; Graham, Susan M.; Kiarie, James; Baeten, Jared M.; Mandaliya, Kishorchandra; Jaoko, Walter; Ndinya-Achola, Jeckoniah O.; Holmes, King K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that vaginal lactobacilli may reduce the risk of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), but supporting data are limited. Our objective was to determine the relationship between vaginal bacterial flora and VVC. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort analysis among 151 Kenyan sex workers. At monthly follow-up, VVC was defined as the presence of yeast buds, pseudohyphae, or both on vaginal wet preparation or KOH preparation. Generalized estimating equations were used to identify correlates of VVC. Results: Participants returned for a median of 12 (interquartile range 11-12) visits. Vulvovaginal candidiasis was present at 162 visits, including 26 with symptomatic VVC. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) was associated with fewer episodes of VVC (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16-0.50). After excluding women with concurrent BV, another possible cause of vaginal symptoms, the likelihood of symptomatic VVC was higher in those with yeast on vaginal wet preparation in the past 60 days (aOR 4.06, 95% CI 1.12-14.74) and those with concurrent vaginal Lactobacillus colonization (aOR 3.75, 95% CI 1.30-10.83). Conclusions: Contrary to a commonly posed hypothesis of a protective effect, we found that vaginal Lactobacillus colonization was associated with a >4-fold increase in the likelihood of symptomatic VVC. PMID:19456235

  18. Pilot randomized trial for treatment of bacterial vaginosis using in situ forming metronidazole vaginal gel.

    PubMed

    Shaaban, Omar M; Fetih, Gihan N; Abdellah, Noura H; Ismail, Saeyd; Ibrahim, Maggie A; Ibrahim, El-sayed A

    2011-07-01

    To compare the efficacy of a novel vaginal delivery system for metronidazole (0.8% MTZ in situ gel) versus a conventional MTZ vaginal gel product in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis (BV). All consecutive patients who presented to a tertiary care hospital with symptoms suggestive of BV were approached to participate in the study. Forty-two eligible participants were randomly assigned to either MTZ in situ gel or a conventional vaginal gel product twice daily for 5 days. All participants were re-examined after one and 4 weeks of the beginning of treatment to ensure cure of infection and any side-effects. Demographic criteria of the participants were comparable in the two treatment groups. The cure rate after one week from the treatment was 85% in the in situ gel group and 71.4% in the conventional vaginal gel group (P = 0.294), while after 4 weeks, the cure rate showed significant difference in the in situ gel group as compared to the conventional vaginal gel group (16/20 [80%]) and (9/19 [47.4%]), respectively (P = 0.034). Pilot testing showed that in situ MTZ vaginal gel is more effective than the conventional vaginal gel for long-term cure of BV. These findings suggest a novel and efficient long-term treatment of BV. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2011 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  19. Advanced topical drug delivery system for the management of vaginal candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Johal, Himmat Singh; Garg, Tarun; Rath, Goutam; Goyal, Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal candidiasis or vulvovaginal candidiasis (VC) is a common mucosal infection of vagina, mainly caused by Candida species. The major symptoms of VC are dyspareunia, pruritis, itching, soreness, vagina as well as vulvar erythema and edema. Most common risk factors that lead to the imbalance in the vaginal micro biota are the use of antibiotics, pregnancy, diabetes mellitus, immuno suppression as in AIDS or HIV patients, frequent sexual intercourse, spermicide and intra-uterine devices and vaginal douching. Various anti-fungal drugs are available for effective treatment of VC. Different conventional vaginal formulations (creams, gels, suppositories, powder, ointment, etc.) for VC are available today but have limited efficacy because of lesser residence time on vaginal epithelium due to self-cleansing action of vagina. So to overcome this problem, an extended and intimate contact with vaginal mucosa is desired; which can be accomplished by utilizing mucoadhesive polymers. Mucoadhesive polymers have an excellent binding capacity to mucosal tissues for considerable period of time. This unique property of these polymers significantly enhances retention time of different formulations on mucosal tissues. Currently, various novel formulations such as liposomes, nano- and microparticles, micro-emulsions, bio-adhesive gel and tablets are used to control and treat VC. In this review, we focused on current status of vaginal candidiasis, conventional and nanotechnology inspired formulation approaches.

  20. Safety of a silicone elastomer vaginal ring as potential microbicide delivery method in African women: A Phase 1 randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Nel, Annaléne; Martins, Janine; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Ramjee, Gita; Masenga, Gileard; Rees, Helen; van Niekerk, Neliëtte

    2018-01-01

    Women in sub-Saharan Africa are in urgent need of female-initiated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) preventative methods. Vaginal rings are one dosage form in development for delivery of HIV microbicides. However, African women have limited experience with vaginal rings. This Phase I, randomized, crossover trial assessed and compared the safety, acceptability and adherence of a silicone elastomer placebo vaginal ring, intended as a microbicide delivery method, inserted for a 12-week period in healthy, HIV-negative, sexually active women in South Africa and Tanzania. 170 women, aged 18 to 35 years were enrolled with 88 women randomized to Group A, using a placebo vaginal ring for 12 weeks followed by a 12-week safety observation period. 82 women were randomized to Group B and observed for safety first, followed by a placebo vaginal ring for 12 weeks. Safety was assessed by clinical laboratory assessments, pelvic/colposcopy examinations and adverse events. Possible carry-over effect was addressed by ensuring no signs or symptoms of genital irritation at crossover. No safety concerns were identified for any safety variables assessed during the trial. No serious adverse events were reported considered related to the placebo vaginal ring. Vaginal candidiasis was the most common adverse event occurring in 11% of participants during each trial period. Vaginal discharge (2%), vaginal odour (2%), and bacterial vaginitis (2%) were assessed as possibly or probably related to the vaginal ring. Thirty-four percent of participants had sexually transmitted infections (STIs) at screening, compared to 12% of participants who tested positive for STIs at crossover and the final trial visit. Three participants (2%) tested HIV positive during the trial. The silicone elastomer vaginal ring had no safety concerns, demonstrating a profile favorable for further development for topical release of antiretroviral-based microbicides.

  1. Safety of a silicone elastomer vaginal ring as potential microbicide delivery method in African women: A Phase 1 randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Nel, Annaléne; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Ramjee, Gita; Masenga, Gileard; Rees, Helen; van Niekerk, Neliëtte

    2018-01-01

    Background Women in sub-Saharan Africa are in urgent need of female-initiated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) preventative methods. Vaginal rings are one dosage form in development for delivery of HIV microbicides. However, African women have limited experience with vaginal rings. Objectives This Phase I, randomized, crossover trial assessed and compared the safety, acceptability and adherence of a silicone elastomer placebo vaginal ring, intended as a microbicide delivery method, inserted for a 12-week period in healthy, HIV-negative, sexually active women in South Africa and Tanzania. Methods 170 women, aged 18 to 35 years were enrolled with 88 women randomized to Group A, using a placebo vaginal ring for 12 weeks followed by a 12-week safety observation period. 82 women were randomized to Group B and observed for safety first, followed by a placebo vaginal ring for 12 weeks. Safety was assessed by clinical laboratory assessments, pelvic/colposcopy examinations and adverse events. Possible carry-over effect was addressed by ensuring no signs or symptoms of genital irritation at crossover. Results No safety concerns were identified for any safety variables assessed during the trial. No serious adverse events were reported considered related to the placebo vaginal ring. Vaginal candidiasis was the most common adverse event occurring in 11% of participants during each trial period. Vaginal discharge (2%), vaginal odour (2%), and bacterial vaginitis (2%) were assessed as possibly or probably related to the vaginal ring. Thirty-four percent of participants had sexually transmitted infections (STIs) at screening, compared to 12% of participants who tested positive for STIs at crossover and the final trial visit. Three participants (2%) tested HIV positive during the trial. Conclusions The silicone elastomer vaginal ring had no safety concerns, demonstrating a profile favorable for further development for topical release of antiretroviral-based microbicides. PMID

  2. [Aerobic vaginitis--diagnostic problems and treatment].

    PubMed

    Romanik, Małgorzata; Wojciechowska-Wieja, Anna; Martirosian, Gayane

    2007-06-01

    The diagnostic criteria and treatment of aerobic vaginitis--AV--have been summarized in this review. An expansion of mixed aerobic microflora, especially Group B Streptococcus--GBS, Escherichia coli--E. coli, Enterococcus spp., and the development of inflammation of the vaginal mucous membrane due to a decreasing amount of Lactobacillus spp., have been observed in women with AV. Disruptions of the vaginal ecosystem during AV cause an increase in pH to >6, a decrease in lactates concentration and an increase in proinflammatory cytokines concentration in vaginal discharge. An optimal treatment scheme for AV, which includes antibacterial agents and simultaneously normalizes the vaginal ecosystem, has not been established until today.

  3. True vaginal prolapse in a bitch.

    PubMed

    Alan, M; Cetin, Y; Sendag, S; Eski, F

    2007-08-01

    Frequently, vaginal fold prolapse is the protrusion of edematous vaginal tissue into and through the opening of the vulva occurring during proestrus and estrus stages of the sexual cycle. True vaginal prolapse may occur near parturition, as the concentration of serum progesterone declines and the concentration of serum oestrogen increases. In the bitch, this type of true vaginal prolapse is a very rare condition. This short communication describes a 5-year-old female, cross-breed dog in moderate condition, weighing 33 kg, with distocia and true vaginal prolapse. Abdominal palpation and transabdominal ultrasonography revealed live and dead foetuses in the uterine horns. One dead and four live fetuses were removed from uterus by cesarean section. The ovariohysterectomy was performed after repositioning the vaginal wall with a combination of traction from within the abdomen and external manipulation through the vulva. Re-occurrence of a vaginal prolapse was not observed and the bitch recovered completely after the surgical therapy. Compared to other vaginal disorders, vaginal prolapse is an uncommon condition in the bitch. In the present case, extreme tenesmus arising from distocia may have predisposed to the vaginal prolapse. The cause of dystocia was probably the disposition of the first foetus. We concluded that the vaginal prolapse was the result of dystocia in the present case.

  4. The vaginal mycobiome: A contemporary perspective on fungi in women's health and diseases.

    PubMed

    Bradford, L Latéy; Ravel, Jacques

    2017-04-03

    Most of what is known about fungi in the human vagina has come from culture-based studies and phenotypic characterization of single organisms. Though valuable, these approaches have masked the complexity of fungal communities within the vagina. The vaginal mycobiome has become an emerging field of study as genomics tools are increasingly employed and we begin to appreciate the role these fungal communities play in human health and disease. Though vastly outnumbered by its bacterial counterparts, fungi are important constituents of the vaginal ecosystem in many healthy women. Candida albicans, an opportunistic fungal pathogen, colonizes 20% of women without causing any overt symptoms, yet it is one of the leading causes of infectious vaginitis. Understanding its mechanisms of commensalism and patho-genesis are both essential to developing more effective therapies. Describing the interactions between Candida, bacteria (such as Lactobacillus spp.) and other fungi in the vagina is funda-mental to our characterization of the vaginal mycobiome.

  5. Daily temporal dynamics of vaginal microbiota before, during and after episodes of bacterial vaginosis.

    PubMed

    Ravel, Jacques; Brotman, Rebecca M; Gajer, Pawel; Ma, Bing; Nandy, Melissa; Fadrosh, Douglas W; Sakamoto, Joyce; Koenig, Sara Sk; Fu, Li; Zhou, Xia; Hickey, Roxana J; Schwebke, Jane R; Forney, Larry J

    2013-12-02

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common gynecologic diagnosis characterized by dysbiosis of the vaginal microbiota. It is often accompanied by vaginal symptoms such as odor and discharge, but can be asymptomatic. Despite over 50 years of research, the etiology of BV is not well understood, which is a major impediment to treatment and prevention of BV. Here we report on the temporal dynamics of 25 vaginal communities over a 10 week period using samples collected daily from women who were diagnosed with symptomatic BV (15 women), asymptomatic BV (6 women), and women who did not have BV (4 women). This unique resource of samples and data will contribute to a better understanding of the role that the vaginal microbes have in the natural history of BV and lead to improved diagnosis and treatment.

  6. The vaginal mycobiome: A contemporary perspective on fungi in women's health and diseases

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Most of what is known about fungi in the human vagina has come from culture-based studies and phenotypic characterization of single organisms. Though valuable, these approaches have masked the complexity of fungal communities within the vagina. The vaginal mycobiome has become an emerging field of study as genomics tools are increasingly employed and we begin to appreciate the role these fungal communities play in human health and disease. Though vastly outnumbered by its bacterial counterparts, fungi are important constituents of the vaginal ecosystem in many healthy women. Candida albicans, an opportunistic fungal pathogen, colonizes 20% of women without causing any overt symptoms, yet it is one of the leading causes of infectious vaginitis. Understanding its mechanisms of commensalism and patho-genesis are both essential to developing more effective therapies. Describing the interactions between Candida, bacteria (such as Lactobacillus spp.) and other fungi in the vagina is funda-mental to our characterization of the vaginal mycobiome. PMID:27657355

  7. Vaginal metastasis presenting as postmenopausal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Ng, Qiu Ju; Namuduri, Rama Padma; Yam, Kwai Lam; Lim-Tan, Soo Kim

    2015-08-01

    Vaginal cancer is rare worldwide and represents 2% of all gynaecological cancers in Singapore. Primary vaginal malignancies are rare and vaginal metastases constitute the majority of vaginal malignancies. Most of these metastases arise from the cervix, endometrium or ovary, although they can also metastasise from distant sites such as the colon, breast and pancreas. We report a rare case of vaginal metastasis in a patient with previous gastric and rectal adenocarcinomas. An 89-year-old woman with a history of gastric and rectal malignancy presented with postmenopausal bleeding. A 2-cm vaginal tumour at the introitus was discovered upon examination. This case demonstrates the importance of performing a gynaecological examination during follow-up for patients with a history of malignancy. The prognosis for vaginal metastasis is poor, as it is often associated with disseminated disease. Depending on the extent of the lesions, radiotherapy or surgery can be considered.

  8. Supermassive black holes and their host galaxies. I. Bulge luminosities from dedicated near-infrared data

    SciTech Connect

    Läsker, Ronald; Van de Ven, Glenn; Ferrarese, Laura, E-mail: laesker@mpia.de

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to secure, refine, and supplement the relation between central supermassive black hole masses, M {sub •}, and the bulge luminosities of their host galaxies, L {sub bul}, we obtained deep, high spatial resolution K-band images of 35 nearby galaxies with securely measured M {sub •}, using the wide-field WIRCam imager at the Canada-France-Hawaii-Telescope. A dedicated data reduction and sky subtraction strategy was adopted to estimate the brightness and structure of the sky, a critical step when tracing the light distribution of extended objects in the near-infrared. From the final image product, bulge and total magnitudes were extractedmore » via two-dimensional profile fitting. As a first order approximation, all galaxies were modeled using a simple Sérsic-bulge+exponential-disk decomposition. However, we found that such models did not adequately describe the structure that we observed in a large fraction of our sample galaxies which often include cores, bars, nuclei, inner disks, spiral arms, rings, and envelopes. In such cases, we adopted profile modifications and/or more complex models with additional components. The derived bulge magnitudes are very sensitive to the details and number of components used in the models, although total magnitudes remain almost unaffected. Usually, but not always, the luminosities and sizes of the bulges are overestimated when a simple bulge+disk decomposition is adopted in lieu of a more complex model. Furthermore, we found that some spheroids are not well fit when the ellipticity of the Sérsic model is held fixed. This paper presents the details of the image processing and analysis, while we discuss how model-induced biases and systematics in bulge magnitudes impact the M {sub •}-L {sub bul} relation in a companion paper.« less

  9. Supermassive Black Holes and Their Host Galaxies. I. Bulge Luminosities from Dedicated Near-infrared Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Läsker, Ronald; Ferrarese, Laura; van de Ven, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to secure, refine, and supplement the relation between central supermassive black hole masses, M •, and the bulge luminosities of their host galaxies, L bul, we obtained deep, high spatial resolution K-band images of 35 nearby galaxies with securely measured M •, using the wide-field WIRCam imager at the Canada-France-Hawaii-Telescope. A dedicated data reduction and sky subtraction strategy was adopted to estimate the brightness and structure of the sky, a critical step when tracing the light distribution of extended objects in the near-infrared. From the final image product, bulge and total magnitudes were extracted via two-dimensional profile fitting. As a first order approximation, all galaxies were modeled using a simple Sérsic-bulge+exponential-disk decomposition. However, we found that such models did not adequately describe the structure that we observed in a large fraction of our sample galaxies which often include cores, bars, nuclei, inner disks, spiral arms, rings, and envelopes. In such cases, we adopted profile modifications and/or more complex models with additional components. The derived bulge magnitudes are very sensitive to the details and number of components used in the models, although total magnitudes remain almost unaffected. Usually, but not always, the luminosities and sizes of the bulges are overestimated when a simple bulge+disk decomposition is adopted in lieu of a more complex model. Furthermore, we found that some spheroids are not well fit when the ellipticity of the Sérsic model is held fixed. This paper presents the details of the image processing and analysis, while we discuss how model-induced biases and systematics in bulge magnitudes impact the M •-L bul relation in a companion paper.

  10. Bulge Growth and Quenching Since Z=2.5 in Candels/3D-HST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Phillip; Wuyts, Stijn; Somerville, Rachel S.; Schreiber, Natascha M. Foerster; Genzel, Reinhard; Bell, Eric F.; Brammer, Gabe; Dekel, Avishai; Faber, Sandra M.; Ferguson, Henry C.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Exploiting the deep high-resolution imaging of all 5 CANDELS fields, and accurate redshift informationprovided by 3D-HST, we investigate the relation between structure and stellar populations fora mass-selected sample of 6764 galaxies above 1010 M, spanning the redshift range 0.5 z 2.5.For the first time, we fit 2-dimensional models comprising a single Sersic fit and two-component (i.e.,bulge + disk) decompositions not only to the H-band light distributions, but also to the stellar massmaps reconstructed from resolved stellar population modeling. We confirm that the increased bulgeprominence among quiescent galaxies, as reported previously based on rest-optical observations, remainsin place when considering the distributions of stellar mass. Moreover, we observe an increaseof the typical Sersic index and bulge-to-total ratio (with median BT reaching 40-50) among starforminggalaxies above 1011 M. Given that quenching for these most massive systems is likely tobe imminent, our findings suggest that significant bulge growth precedes a departure from the starformingmain sequence. We demonstrate that the bulge mass (and ideally knowledge of the bulge andtotal mass) is a more reliable predictor of the star-forming versus quiescent state of a galaxy thanthe total stellar mass. The same trends are predicted by the state-of-the-art semi-analytic model bySomerville et al. In the latter, bulges and black holes grow hand in hand through merging andordisk instabilities, and AGN-feedback shuts off star formation. Further observations will be requiredto pin down star formation quenching mechanisms, but our results imply they must be internal to thegalaxies and closely associated with bulge growth.

  11. Eggs containing larvae of Enterobius vermicularis in vaginal smear

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Jyothi B; Kulkarni, Dhanashri V; Prabhu, VL

    2012-01-01

    Enterobius vermicularis also known commonly as pinworm is the most common intestinal parasite. It is a nematode that inhabits the human terminal ileum, colon and appendix. The fertilized female migrates to the perianal area where eggs are deposited but occasionally introduces itself into adjacent orifices, most commonly the female genitourinary tract. Thus the eggs can be seen in the vaginal smear as a result of contamination. We report a case wherein the patient presented with signs and symptoms of vulvovaginitis. In her vaginal smear there were eggs of Enterobius vermicularis which showed a coiled larva within it. In the background there were plenty of acute inflammatory cells. This patient responded favorably to antihelminthics. We report this case to highlight the morphology of the parasite and also to emphasize that such findings should not be neglected. Timely reporting and appropriate treatment of such cases will prevent further complications of this parasite including endometritis, salphingitis and peritonitis. PMID:22438633

  12. Eggs containing larvae of Enterobius vermicularis in vaginal smear.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Jyothi B; Kulkarni, Dhanashri V; Prabhu, Vl

    2012-01-01

    Enterobius vermicularis also known commonly as pinworm is the most common intestinal parasite. It is a nematode that inhabits the human terminal ileum, colon and appendix. The fertilized female migrates to the perianal area where eggs are deposited but occasionally introduces itself into adjacent orifices, most commonly the female genitourinary tract. Thus the eggs can be seen in the vaginal smear as a result of contamination. We report a case wherein the patient presented with signs and symptoms of vulvovaginitis. In her vaginal smear there were eggs of Enterobius vermicularis which showed a coiled larva within it. In the background there were plenty of acute inflammatory cells. This patient responded favorably to antihelminthics. We report this case to highlight the morphology of the parasite and also to emphasize that such findings should not be neglected. Timely reporting and appropriate treatment of such cases will prevent further complications of this parasite including endometritis, salphingitis and peritonitis.

  13. A new look at the kinematics of the bulge from an N-body model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, A.; Di Matteo, P.; Stefanovitch, N.; Haywood, M.; Combes, F.; Katz, D.; Babusiaux, C.

    2016-05-01

    By using an N-body simulation of a bulge that was formed via a bar instability mechanism, we analyse the imprints of the initial (I.e. before bar formation) location of stars on the bulge kinematics, in particular on the heliocentric radial velocity distribution of bulge stars. Four different latitudes were considered: b = -4°, -6°, -8°, and -10°, along the bulge minor axis as well as outside it, at l = ± 5° and l = ± 10°. The bulge X-shaped structure comprises stars that formed in the disk at different locations. Stars formed in the outer disk, beyond the end of the bar, which are part of the boxy peanut-bulge structure may show peaks in the velocity distributions at positive and negative heliocentric radial velocities with high absolute values that can be larger than 100 km s-1, depending on the observed direction. In some cases the structure of the velocity field is more complex and several peaks are observed. Stars formed in the inner disk, the most numerous, contribute predominantly to the X-shaped structure and present different kinematic characteristics. They display a rather symmetric velocity distribution and a smaller fraction of high-velocity stars. The stellar stream motion, which is induced by the bar changes with the star initial position, can reach more than 40 km s-1 for stars that originated in the external disk, depending on the observed direction. Otherwise it is smaller than approximately 20 km s-1. In all cases, it decreases from b = -4° to -10°. Our results may enable us to interpret the cold high-velocity peak observed in the APOGEE commissioning data, as well as the excess of high-velocity stars in the near and far arms of the X-shaped structure at l = 0° and b = -6°. When compared with real data, the kinematic picture becomes more complex due to the possible presence in the observed samples of classical bulge and/or thick disk stars. Overall, our results point to the existence of complex patterns and structures in the bulge

  14. The bulge-disc decomposed evolution of massive galaxies at 1 < z < 3 in CANDELS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruce, V. A.; Dunlop, J. S.; McLure, R. J.; Cirasuolo, M.; Buitrago, F.; Bowler, R. A. A.; Targett, T. A.; Bell, E. F.; McIntosh, D. H.; Dekel, A.; Faber, S. M.; Ferguson, H. C.; Grogin, N. A.; Hartley, W.; Kocevski, D. D.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Koo, D. C.; McGrath, E. J.

    2014-10-01

    We present the results of a new and improved study of the morphological and spectral evolution of massive galaxies over the redshift range 1 < z < 3. Our analysis is based on a bulge-disc decomposition of 396 galaxies with M* > 1011 M⊙ uncovered from the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3)/IR imaging within the Cosmological Evolution Survey (COSMOS) and UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) UDS survey fields. We find that, by modelling the H160 image of each galaxy with a combination of a de Vaucouleurs bulge (Sérsic index n = 4) and an exponential disc (n = 1), we can then lock all derived morphological parameters for the bulge and disc components, and successfully reproduce the shorter-wavelength J125, i814, v606 HST images simply by floating the magnitudes of the two components. This then yields sub-divided four-band HST photometry for the bulge and disc components which, with no additional priors, is well described by spectrophotometric models of galaxy evolution. Armed with this information, we are able to properly determine the masses and star formation rates for the bulge and disc components, and find that: (i) from z = 3 to 1 the galaxies move from disc dominated to increasingly bulge dominated, but very few galaxies are pure bulges/ellipticals by z = 1; (ii) while most passive galaxies are bulge dominated, and most star-forming galaxies disc dominated, 18 ± 5 per cent of passive galaxies are disc dominated, and 11 ± 3 per cent of star-forming galaxies are bulge dominated, a result which needs to be explained by any model purporting to connect star formation quenching with morphological transformations; (iii) there exists a small but significant population of pure passive discs, which are generally flatter than their star-forming counterparts (whose axial ratio distribution peaks at b/a ≃ 0.7); (iv) flatter/larger discs re-emerge at the highest star formation rates, consistent with

  15. Vulvar and vaginal atrophy in four European countries: evidence from the European REVIVE Survey.

    PubMed

    Nappi, R E; Palacios, S; Panay, N; Particco, M; Krychman, M L

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the European REVIVE survey was to achieve a better understanding of vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA), a chronic and progressive condition after menopause. We investigated perceptions, experiences and needs in terms of sexual and vaginal health in a sample of European postmenopausal women. An online internet based survey was conducted in Italy, Germany, Spain and the UK with a total surveyed sample of 3768 postmenopausal women (age: 45-75 years). The most common VVA symptom was vaginal dryness (70%). VVA has a significant impact on the ability to be intimate (62%), to enjoy sexual intercourse (72%) and to feel sexual spontaneity (66%). Postmenopausal women with VVA are sexually active (51%), but their sexual drive is reduced. Health-care professionals (HCPs) have discussed VVA with postmenopausal women (62%), but they initiated the conversation only in 10% of the cases. The most common treatments for VVA are over-the-counter, non-hormonal, local vaginal products. Thirty-two per cent of postmenopausal women were naïve to any kind of treatment, whereas discussion with the HCP was relevant to be on current treatment (60% of postmenopausal women that discussed VVA with a HCP vs. 23% who did not). The top reasons for poor compliance with vaginal treatments were: not bothersome enough symptoms (18%); vaginal changes not therapeutically reversed (18%); relief from VVA symptoms (17%). Approximately 45% were satisfied with treatment. The most frequent disliked aspects of treatment were the route of administration or the messiness. The fear of hormones was common in postmenopausal women using vaginal prescription products. The European REVIVE survey confirmed that VVA symptoms are frequent in postmenopausal women and demonstrates a significant impact on quality of life and sexual life. However, the condition is still under-diagnosed and under-treated, with a high rate of dissatisfaction for actual available treatments in the four European countries surveyed. The

  16. "Shotgun" versus sequential testing. Cost-effectiveness of diagnostic strategies for vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Carr, Phyllis L; Rothberg, Michael B; Friedman, Robert H; Felsenstein, Donna; Pliskin, Joseph S

    2005-09-01

    Although vaginitis is a common outpatient problem, only 60% of patients can be diagnosed at the initial office visit of a primary care provider using the office procedures of pH testing, whiff tests, normal saline, and potassium hydroxide preps. To determine the most cost-effective diagnostic and treatment approach for the medical management of vaginitis. Decision and cost-effectiveness analyses. Healthy women with symptoms of vaginitis undiagnosed after an initial pelvic exam, wet mount preparations, pH, and the four criteria to diagnose bacterial vaginosis. General office practice. We evaluated 28 diagnostic strategies comprised of combinations of pH testing, vaginal cultures for yeast and Trichomonas vaginalis, Gram's stain for bacterial vaginosis, and DNA probes for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia. Data sources for the study were confined to English language literature. The outcome measures were symptom-days and costs. The least expensive strategy was to perform yeast culture, gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia probes at the initial visit, and Gram's stain and Trichomonas culture only when the vaginal pH exceeded 4.9 (330 dollars, 7.30 symptom days). Other strategies cost 8 dollars to 76 dollars more and increased duration of symptoms by up to 1.3 days. In probabilistic sensitivity analysis, this strategy was always the most effective strategy and was also least expensive 58% of the time. For patients with vaginitis symptoms undiagnosed by pelvic examination, wet mount preparations and related office tests, a comprehensive, pH-guided testing strategy at the initial office visit is less expensive and more effective than ordering tests sequentially.

  17. Selecting anti-microbial treatment of aerobic vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Donders, Gilbert G G; Ruban, Katerina; Bellen, Gert

    2015-05-01

    Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is a vaginal infectious condition which is often confused with bacterial vaginosis (BV) or with the intermediate microflora as diagnosed by Nugent's method to detect BV on Gram-stained specimens. However, although both conditions reflect a state of lactobacillary disruption in the vagina, leading to an increase in pH, BV and AV differ profoundly. While BV is a noninflammatory condition composed of a multiplex array of different anaerobic bacteria in high quantities, AV is rather sparely populated by one or two enteric commensal flora bacteria, like Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylocuccus aureus, or Escherichia coli. AV is typically marked by either an increased inflammatory response or by prominent signs of epithelial atrophy or both. The latter condition, if severe, is also called desquamative inflammatory vaginitis. As AV is per exclusionem diagnosed by wet mount microscopy, it is a mistake to treat just vaginal culture results. Vaginal cultures only serve as follow-up data in clinical research projects and are at most used in clinical practice to confirm the diagnosis or exclude Candida infection. AV requires treatment based on microscopy findings and a combined local treatment with any of the following which may yield the best results: antibiotic (infectious component), steroids (inflammatory component), and/or estrogen (atrophy component). In cases with Candida present on microscopy or culture, antifungals must be tried first in order to see if other treatment is still needed. Vaginal rinsing with povidone iodine can provide rapid relief of symptoms but does not provide long-term reduction of bacterial loads. Local antibiotics most suitable are preferably non-absorbed and broad spectrum, especially those covering enteric gram-positive and gram-negative aerobes, like kanamycin. To achieve rapid and short-term improvement of severe symptoms, oral therapy with amoxyclav or moxifloxacin can be used, especially in deep dermal vulvitis and

  18. Phase I Trial of a Lactobacillus crispatus Vaginal Suppository for Prevention of Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection in Women

    PubMed Central

    Czaja, Christopher A.; Stapleton, Ann E.; Yarova-Yarovaya, Yuliya; Stamm, Walter E.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: We performed a phase I trial to assess the safety and tolerance of a Lactobacillus vaginal suppository for prevention of recurrent UTI. Methods: Premenopausal women with a history of recurrent UTI were randomized to use L. crispatus CTV-05 or placebo vaginal suppositories daily for five days. Results: 30 women were randomized (15 to L. crispatus CTV-05). No severe adverse events occurred. Mild to moderate vaginal discharge and genital irritation were reported by women in both study arms. Seven women randomized to L. crispatus CTV-05 developed pyuria without associated symptoms. Most women had high concentrations of vaginal H202-producing lactobacilli before randomization. L. crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. gasseri were the most common Lactobacillus species identified, with stable prevalence over time. Conclusions: L. crispatus CTV-05 can be given as a vaginal suppository with minimal sideeffects to healthy women with a history of recurrent UTI. Mild inflammation of the urinary tract was noted in some women. PMID:18288237

  19. Phase I trial of a Lactobacillus crispatus vaginal suppository for prevention of recurrent urinary tract infection in women.

    PubMed

    Czaja, Christopher A; Stapleton, Ann E; Yarova-Yarovaya, Yuliya; Stamm, Walter E

    2007-01-01

    We performed a phase I trial to assess the safety and tolerance of a Lactobacillus vaginal suppository for prevention of recurrent UTI. Premenopausal women with a history of recurrent UTI were randomized to use L. crispatus CTV-05 or placebo vaginal suppositories daily for five days. 30 women were randomized (15 to L. crispatus CTV-05). No severe adverse events occurred. Mild to moderate vaginal discharge and genital irritation were reported by women in both study arms. Seven women randomized to L. crispatus CTV-05 developed pyuria without associated symptoms. Most women had high concentrations of vaginal H202-producing lactobacilli before randomization. L. crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. gasseri were the most common Lactobacillus species identified, with stable prevalence over time. L. crispatus CTV-05 can be given as a vaginal suppository with minimal sideeffects to healthy women with a history of recurrent UTI. Mild inflammation of the urinary tract was noted in some women.

  20. Nd:YAG laser therapy for rectal and vaginal venous malformations.

    PubMed

    Gurien, Lori A; Jackson, Richard J; Kiser, Michelle M; Richter, Gresham T

    2017-08-01

    Limited therapeutic options exist for rectal and vaginal venous malformations (VM). We describe our center's experience using Nd:YAG laser for targeted ablation of abnormal veins to treat mucosally involved pelvic VM. Records of patients undergoing non-contact Nd:YAG laser therapy of pelvic VM at a tertiary children's hospital were reviewed. Symptoms, operative findings and details, complications, and outcomes were evaluated. Nine patients (age 0-24) underwent Nd:YAG laser therapy of rectal and/or vaginal VM. Rectal bleeding was present in all patients and vaginal bleeding in all females (n = 5). 5/7 patients had extensive pelvic involvement on MRI. Typical settings were 30 (rectum) and 20-25 W (vagina), with 0.5-1.0 s pulse duration. Patients underwent the same-day discharge. Treatment intervals ranged from 14 to 180 (average = 56) weeks, with 6.1-year mean follow-up. Five patients experienced symptom relief with a single treatment. Serial treatments managed recurrent bleeding successfully in all patients, with complete resolution of vaginal lesions in 40% of cases. No complications occurred. Nd:YAG laser treatment of rectal and vaginal VM results in substantial improvement and symptom control, with low complication risk. Given the high morbidity of surgical resection, Nd:YAG laser treatment of pelvic VM should be considered as first line therapy.

  1. Clues to the Formation of Lenticular Galaxies Using Spectroscopic Bulge-Disk Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, E. J.; Aragón-Salamanca, A.; Merrifield, M. R.; Bedregal, A. G.

    2014-03-01

    Lenticular galaxies have long been thought of as evolved spirals, but the processes involved to quench the star formation are still unclear. By studying the individual star formation histories of the bulges and disks of lenticulars, it is possible to look for clues to the processes that triggered their transformation from spirals. To accomplish this feat, we present a new method for spectroscopic bulge-disk decomposition, in which a long-slit spectrum is decomposed into two one-dimensional spectra representing purely the bulge and disk light. We present preliminary results from applying this method to lenticular galaxies in the Virgo and Fornax Clusters, in which we show that the most recent star formation activity in these galaxies occurred within the bulges. We also find that the star formation timescales of the bulges are longer than the disks, and that more massive galaxies take longer to lose their gas during the transformation. These results point towards slow processes, such as ram-pressure stripping or harassment, being the mechanism responsible for the quenching of star formation in spirals, followed by a burst of star formation in the central regions from the gas that has been funnelled inwards through the disk.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SDSS bulge, disk and total stellar mass estimates (Mendel+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendel, J. T.; Simard, L.; Palmer, M.; Ellison, S. L.; Patton, D. R.

    2014-01-01

    We present a catalog of bulge, disk, and total stellar mass estimates for ~660000 galaxies in the Legacy area of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data (SDSS) Release 7. These masses are based on a homogeneous catalog of g- and r-band photometry described by Simard et al. (2011, Cat. J/ApJS/196/11), which we extend here with bulge+disk and Sersic profile photometric decompositions in the SDSS u, i, and z bands. We discuss the methodology used to derive stellar masses from these data via fitting to broadband spectral energy distributions (SEDs), and show that the typical statistical uncertainty on total, bulge, and disk stellar mass is ~0.15 dex. Despite relatively small formal uncertainties, we argue that SED modeling assumptions, including the choice of synthesis model, extinction law, initial mass function, and details of stellar evolution likely contribute an additional 60% systematic uncertainty in any mass estimate based on broadband SED fitting. We discuss several approaches for identifying genuine bulge+disk systems based on both their statistical likelihood and an analysis of their one-dimensional surface-brightness profiles, and include these metrics in the catalogs. Estimates of the total, bulge and disk stellar masses for both normal and dust-free models and their uncertainties are made publicly available here. (4 data files).

  3. Extremely metal-poor stars from the cosmic dawn in the bulge of the Milky Way.

    PubMed

    Howes, L M; Casey, A R; Asplund, M; Keller, S C; Yong, D; Nataf, D M; Poleski, R; Lind, K; Kobayashi, C; Owen, C I; Ness, M; Bessell, M S; Da Costa, G S; Schmidt, B P; Tisserand, P; Udalski, A; Szymański, M K; Soszyński, I; Pietrzyński, G; Ulaczyk, K; Wyrzykowski, Ł; Pietrukowicz, P; Skowron, J; Kozłowski, S; Mróz, P

    2015-11-26

    The first stars are predicted to have formed within 200 million years after the Big Bang, initiating the cosmic dawn. A true first star has not yet been discovered, although stars with tiny amounts of elements heavier than helium ('metals') have been found in the outer regions ('halo') of the Milky Way. The first stars and their immediate successors should, however, preferentially be found today in the central regions ('bulges') of galaxies, because they formed in the largest over-densities that grew gravitationally with time. The Milky Way bulge underwent a rapid chemical enrichment during the first 1-2 billion years, leading to a dearth of early, metal-poor stars. Here we report observations of extremely metal-poor stars in the Milky Way bulge, including one star with an iron abundance about 10,000 times lower than the solar value without noticeable carbon enhancement. We confirm that most of the metal-poor bulge stars are on tight orbits around the Galactic Centre, rather than being halo stars passing through the bulge, as expected for stars formed at redshifts greater than 15. Their chemical compositions are in general similar to typical halo stars of the same metallicity although intriguing differences exist, including lower abundances of carbon.

  4. The missing bulge globular clusters in M31 - New optical candidates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wirth, A.; Smarr, L. L.; Bruno, T. L.

    1985-01-01

    A new method to attack the question of the 'missing' globular clusters in the bulge of M31 is used. Image-processing techniques were used on 13 videocamera fields to obtain an accurate photometric census of stellar objects in M31's bulge down to a limiting B magnitude of 21. This luminosity distribution is compared with the Bahcall-Soneira model of galactic foreground stars. A statistically significant excess of bright images in the luminosity range of globular clusters at M31's distance is found. If the optical candidates considered prove to be globular clusters, they would double the number of known globular clusters in the surveyed region. The colors of a subsample of the candidates are the same as those of the known globular clusters. It is concluded that the previously observed flattening away from a de Vaucouleurs law in the radial distribution of M31 may be an observational selection effect. As an offshoot of this analysis, no evidence is found for very luminous stars in the inner bulge of M31. The lack of such stars indicates that there has not been active star formation (with a normal IMF) in the recent past. Coupled with the existence of many planetary nebulae in the bulge, this may strengthen the case for a galactic wind in M31's bulge.

  5. Efficacy and safety of vitamin C vaginal tablets in the treatment of non-specific vaginitis. A randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Petersen, E Eiko; Magnani, Paola

    2004-11-10

    This was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Vitamin C vaginal tablets (250 mg) given once a day in patients suffering from non-specific vaginitis. The total length of the study was 20 days, including a treatment phase of 6 days. The primary end-point was the presence in the two groups of non-specific vaginitis 1 and 2 weeks after the end of treatment, as assessed by at least 3 out of the 4 characteristic symptoms: discharge, fishy odour, vaginal pH >/= 4.7, and presence of clue cells. Secondary end-points were the individual symptoms and signs, above reported, and pruritus, fever, superinfections, microscopic findings on vaginal smear, and colposcopy. One hundred female patients aged 18 years or older and suffering from non-specific vaginitis were included in the study after giving their informed consent. Fifty were randomised to the active treatment and 50 to placebo. Seven patients, three in the Vitamin C group and four in the placebo group, were lost to follow-up and did not complete the treatment period. Two patients in the active group showed protocol deviations (age under 18 years and HIV-positive, respectively). The two groups resulted comparable for demographics, history and baseline clinical picture. A cluster analysis of the four main symptoms showed a statistically significant difference between the active group and the placebo group; significantly more patients were still affected by non-specific vaginitis after placebo (35.7%) compared to patients treated with Vitamin C tablets (14.0%). The meaningful secondary variable, referring to the microscopic examination of vaginal smear, supported the trend for efficacy in the Vitamin C treated group. The clue cells disappeared in 79% of patients treated with the drug and in 53% of patients on placebo. Similarly, bacteria disappeared in 77 and 54%, respectively, while lactobacilli reappeared in 79.1 and 53.3%, respectively. Vaginal pH values decreased

  6. [Application of sumamed in treatment of bacterial vaginal infections during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Nikolov, A; Shopova, E; Nashar, S; Dimitrov, A

    2008-01-01

    To study the efficacy of Sumamed in cases of endogenous bacterial vaginal infections during third trimester of pregnancy. 34 women in last trimester of pregnancy with Streptococcus group B, Streptococcus group A, alpha hemolytic Streptococci, S. aureus infections and intermediate state of vaginal ecosystem (Nugent score 4-6) were treated with Sumamed (Azithromycin, 500 mg. p.o. for 3 days). Patients were separated in two groups. First group included 19 women with symptomatic and microbiologically proven recurrent vaginal infection during last 6 months. Second group included 15 symptom free pregnant women, in whom, pathogenic bacteria were found on vaginal swab and culture. Culture revealed 2 cases of Streptococcus group A infection in the second study group. Streptococcus group B was isolated in 19 patients--11 group 1 and 8--group 2. S. aureus was found in 6 patients from group 1 and 3 patients from group 2. Alpha hemolytic streptococci were cultured in 4 cases--2 from group 1 and 2 from group 2. Isolated microorganisms showed in vitro sensibility toward Sumamed. After treatment completion, control swab and culture was performed in 26 cases (14 group 1 and 12 group 2 patients). In group 1 in 12 (85,7%) patients no pathological microorganisms were cultured, Nugent scores were between 0-3 and no subjective symptoms were reported. 2 (14,3%) patients had Candida infection. In the second group 10 patients (83,5%) had normal vaginal microbiology, 2(16,5%) remained with intermediate vaginal microflora state. No newborn infections and cases of endometritis were found in both study groups. Sumamed is an efficacious treatment in cases of streptococcal and staphylococcal vaginal infections during pregnancy. Application of Sumamed results in alleviation of clinical symptoms and in sanitation of birth canal.

  7. Evaluation and Management of Vaginitis

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Phyllis L; Felsenstein, Donna; Friedman, Robert H

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate recent advances in our understanding of the clinical relevance, diagnosis, and treatment of vaginal infections, and to determine an efficient and effective method of evaluating this clinical problem in the outpatient setting. DATA SOURCES Relevant papers on vaginitis limited to the English language obtained through a MEDLINE search for the years 1985 to 1997 were reviewed. DATA SYNTHESIS Techniques that enable the identification of the various strains of candida have helped lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of recurrent candida infection. From this information a rationale for the treatment of recurrent disease can be developed. Bacterial vaginosis has been associated with complications, including upper genital tract infection, preterm delivery, and wound infection. Women undergoing pelvic surgery, procedures in pregnancy, or pregnant women at risk of preterm delivery should be evaluated for bacterial vaginosis to decrease the rate of complications associated with this condition. New, more standardized criteria for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis may improve diagnostic consistency among clinicians and comparability of study results. Use of topical therapies in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis are effective and associated with fewer side effects than systemic medication. Trichomonas vaginalis, although decreasing in incidence, has been associated with upper genital tract infection. Therapy of T. vaginalis infection has been complicated by an increasing incidence of resistance to metronidazole. CONCLUSIONS Vaginitis is a common medical problem in women that is associated with significant morbidity and previously unrecognized complications. Research in recent years has improved diagnostic tools as well as treatment modalities for all forms of vaginitis. PMID:9613891

  8. Central Stellar Mass Deficits in the Bulges of Local Lenticular Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dullo, B. T.

    2014-03-01

    The centers of giant galaxies display stellar mass deficits (Mdef) which are thought to be a signature left by inspiraling supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries that are formed in post-merger galaxies. We quantify these deficits for a sample of five luminous lenticular galaxies with bulge magnitude MV ≲ -21 mag and find Mdef ≍ 0.5 - 2MBH (black hole mass). Contrary to the traditionally proposed lenticular galaxy formation mechanisms such as ram-pressure stripping and galaxy harassment, the mass deficits in these galaxies suggest a two stage inside-out process for their assembly. That is, their bulges may have formed through “dry” major-merger events involving SMBHs while their disk was subsequently built up via cold gas accretion scenarios. Interestingly, these bulges have sizes and mass densities comparable to the compact massive galaxies found at z ˜ 2.

  9. Kinematics and abundances of K giants in the nuclear bulge of the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rich, R. Michael

    1990-10-01

    Radial velocities have been determined for 53 K giants in Baade's window, which belong to the nuclear bulge population and have abundances derived from low resolution spectra. Additional radial velocities for an overlapping sample of 71 bulge K giants show the same dependence of velocity dispersion on abundance; in both samples, the lower velocity dispersion of the metal-rich giants is found to be significant at a level above 90 percent. Extant data support the hypothesis that both M giants and IRAS bulge sources follow steep density laws similar to that which has been predicted for the metal-rick K giants. The abundance distribution of 88 K giants in Baade's window is noted to be notably well fitted by the simple, 'closed box' model of chemical evolution.

  10. The Globular Clusters of the Galactic Bulge: Results from Multiwavelength Follow-up Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Roger; Geisler, Doug; Mauro, Francesco; Alonso Garcia, Javier; Hempel, Maren; Sarajedini, Ata

    2018-01-01

    The Galactic globular clusters (GGCs) located towards the bulge of the Milky Way suffer from severe total and differential extinction and high field star densities. They have therefore been systematically excluded from deep, large-scale homogenous GGC surveys, and will present a challenge for Gaia. Meanwhile, existing observations of bulge GGCs have revealed tantalizing hints that they hold clues to Galactic formation and evolution not found elsewhere. Therefore, in order to better characterize these poorly studied stellar systems and place them in the context of their optically well-studied counterparts, we have undertaken imaging programs at optical and near-infrared wavelengths. We describe these programs and present a variety of results, including self-consistent measurement of bulge GGC ages and structural parameters. The limitations imposed by spatially variable extinction and extinction law are highlighted, along with the complimentary nature of forthcoming facilities, allowing us to finally complete our picture of the Milky Way GGC system.

  11. The Split Red Clump of the Galactic Bulge from OGLE-III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nataf, D. M.; Udalski, A.; Gould, A.; Fouqué, P.; Stanek, K. Z.

    2010-09-01

    The red clump (RC) is found to be split into two components along several sightlines toward the Galactic bulge. This split is detected with high significance toward the areas (-3.5 < l < 1, b < -5) and (l, b) = (0, + 5.2), i.e., along the bulge minor axis and at least 5 deg off the plane. The fainter (hereafter "main") component is the one that more closely follows the distance-longitude relation of the bulge RC. The main component is ~0.5 mag fainter than the secondary component and with an overall approximately equal population. For sightlines further from the plane, the difference in brightness increases, and more stars are found in the secondary component than in the main component. The two components have very nearly equal (V - I) color.

  12. Chandra Studies of Unidentified X-ray Sources in the Galactic Bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Hideyuki

    2013-09-01

    We propose to study a complete X-ray sample in the luminosity range of > 10^34 erg s^-1 in the Galactic bulge, including 5 unidentified sources detected in the ROSAT All Sky Survey. Our goal is to obtain a clear picture about X-ray populations in the bulge, by utilizing the excellent Chandra position accuracy leading to unique optical identification together with the X-ray spectral properties. This is a new step toward understanding the formation history of the bulge. Furthermore, because the luminosity range we observe corresponds to a ``missing link'' region ever studied for a neutron star or blackhole X-ray binary, our results are also unique to test accretion disk theories at intermediate mass accretion rates.

  13. Tracing the Chemical Evolution of Metal-rich Galactic Bulge Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz Gonzalez, Cesar; Saviane, Ivo; Geisler, Doug; Villanova, Sandro

    2018-01-01

    We present in this poster the metallicity characterization of the four metal rich Bulge Galactic Gobular Clusters, which have controversial metallicities. We analyzed our high-resolution spectra (using UVES-580nm and GIRAFFE-HR13 setups) for a large sample of RGB/AGB targets in each cluster in order to measure their metallicity and prove or discard the iron spread hypothesis. We have also characterized chemically stars with potentially different iron content by measuring light (O, Na, Mg, Al), alpha (Si, Ca, Ti), iron–peak (V, Cr, Ni, Mn) and s and r process (Y, Zr, Ba, Eu) elements. We have identified possible channels responsible for the chemical heterogeneity of the cluster populations, like AGB or massive fast-rotating stars contamination, or SN explosion. Also, we have analyzed the origin and evolution of these bulge GCs and their connection with the bulge itself.

  14. Establishing the connection between peanut-shaped bulges and galactic bars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuijken, Konrad; Merrifield, Michael R.

    1995-01-01

    It has been suggested that the peanut-shaped bulges seen in some edge-on disk galaxies are due to the presence of a central bar. Although bars cannot be detected photometrically in edge-on galaxies, we show that barred potentials produce a strong kinematic signature in the form of double-peaked line-of-sight velocity distributions with a characteristic 'figure-of-eight' variation with radius. We have obtained spectroscopic observations of two edge-on galaxies with peanut-shaped bulges (NGC 5746 and NGC 5965), and they reveal exactly such line-of-sight velocity distributions in both their gaseous (emission line) and their stellar (absorption line) components. These observations provide strong observational evidence that peanut-shaped bulges are a by-product of bar formation.

  15. The peculiar Na-O anticorrelation of the bulge globular cluster NGC 6440

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, C.; Villanova, S.; Geisler, D.; Saviane, I.; Dias, B.; Cohen, R. E.; Mauro, F.

    2017-08-01

    Context. Galactic globular clusters (GCs) are essential tools for understanding the earliest epoch of the Milky Way, since they are among the oldest objects in the Universe and can be used to trace its formation and evolution. Current studies using high-resolution spectroscopy for many stars in each of a large sample of GCs allow us to develop a detailed observational picture of their formation and their relation with the Galaxy. However, it is necessary to complete this picture by including GCs that belong to all major Galactic components, including the bulge. Aims: Our aim is to perform a detailed chemical analysis of the bulge GC NGC 6440 in order to determine if this object has multiple populations (MPs) and investigate its relation with the bulge of the Milky Way and with the other Galactic GCs, especially those associated with the bulge, which are largely poorly studied. Methods: We determined the stellar parameters and the chemical abundances of light elements (Na, Al), iron-peak elements (Fe, Sc, Mn, Co, Ni), α-elements (O, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti) and heavy elements (Ba, Eu) in seven red giant members of NGC 6440 using high-resolution spectroscopy from FLAMES-UVES. Results: We found a mean iron content of [Fe/H] =-0.50 ± 0.03 dex in agreement with other studies. We found no internal iron spread. On the other hand, Na and Al show a significant intrinsic spread, but the cluster has no significant O-Na anticorrelation nor does it exhibit a Mg-Al anticorrelation. The α-elements show good agreement with the bulge field star trend, although they are at the high alpha end and are also higher than those of other GCs of comparable metallicity. The heavy elements are dominated by the r-process, indicating a strong contribution by SNeII. The chemical analysis suggests an origin similar to that of the bulge field stars.

  16. What the Milky Way bulge reveals about the initial metallicity gradients in the disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragkoudi, F.; Di Matteo, P.; Haywood, M.; Khoperskov, S.; Gomez, A.; Schultheis, M.; Combes, F.; Semelin, B.

    2017-11-01

    We use APOGEE DR13 data to examine the metallicity trends in the Milky Way (MW) bulge and we explore their origin by comparing two N-body models of isolated galaxies that develop a bar and a boxy/peanut (b/p) bulge. Both models have been proposed as scenarios for reconciling a disc origin of the MW bulge with a negative vertical metallicity gradient. The first model is a superposition of co-spatial, I.e. overlapping, disc populations with different scale heights, kinematics, and metallicities. In this model the thick, metal-poor, and centrally concentrated disc populations contribute significantly to the stellar mass budget in the inner galaxy. The second model is a single disc with an initial steep radial metallicity gradient; this disc is mapped by the bar into the b/p bulge in such a way that the vertical metallicity gradient of the MW bulge is reproduced, as has been shown already in previous works in the literature. However, as we show here, the latter model does not reproduce the positive longitudinal metallicity gradient of the inner disc, nor the metal-poor innermost regions seen in the data. On the other hand, the model with co-spatial thin and thick disc populations reproduces all the aforementioned trends. We therefore see that it is possible to reconcile a (primarily) disc origin for the MW bulge with the observed trends in metallicity by mapping the inner thin and thick discs of the MW into a b/p. For this scenario to reproduce the observations, the α-enhanced, metal-poor, thick disc populations must have a significant mass contribution in the inner regions, as has been suggested for the Milky Way.

  17. A case against an X-shaped structure in the Milky Way young bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Corredoira, Martín

    2016-09-01

    Context. A number of recent papers have claimed the discovery of an X-shape structure in the bulge of our Galaxy in the population of the red clumps. Aims: We endeavor to analyze the stellar density of bulge stars in the same regions using a different stellar population that is characteristic of the young bulge (≲ 5 Gyr). Particularly, we use F0-F5 main-sequence stars with distances derived through photometric parallax. Methods: We extract these stars from extinction-corrected color-magnitude diagrams in the near-infrared of VISTA-VVV data in some bulge regions and calculate the densities along the line of sight. We take the uncertaintity in the photometric parallax and the contamination of other sources into account, and we see that these errors do not avoid the detection of a possible double peak along some lines of sight as expected for a X-shape bulge if it existed. Results: Only a single peak in the density distribution along the line of sight is observed, so apparently there is no X-shape structure for this population of stars. Nonetheless, the effects of the dispersion of absolute magnitudes in the selected population might be an alternative explanation, although in principle these effects are insufficient to explain this lack of double peak according to our calculations. Conclusions: The results of the present paper do not demonstrate that previous claims of X-shaped bulge using only red clump stars are incorrect, but there are apparently some puzzling questions if we want to maintain the validity of both the red-clump results and the results of this paper.

  18. The imprints of bars on the vertical stellar population gradients of galactic bulges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molaeinezhad, A.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Martínez-Valpuesta, I.; Khosroshahi, H. G.; Vazdekis, A.; La Barbera, F.; Peletier, R. F.; Balcells, M.

    2017-05-01

    This is the second paper of a series aimed to study the stellar kinematics and population properties of bulges in highly inclined barred galaxies. In this work, we carry out a detailed analysis of the stellar age, metallicity and [Mg/Fe] of 28 highly inclined (I > 65°) disc galaxies, from S0 to S(B)c, observed with the SAURON integral-field spectrograph. The sample is divided into two clean samples of barred and unbarred galaxies, on the basis of the correlation between the stellar velocity and h3 profiles, as well as the level of cylindrical rotation within the bulge region. We find that while the mean stellar age, metallicity and [Mg/Fe] in the bulges of barred and unbarred galaxies are not statistically distinct, the [Mg/Fe] gradients along the minor axis (away from the disc) of barred galaxies are significantly different than those without bars. For barred galaxies, stars that are vertically further away from the mid-plane are in general more [Mg/Fe]-enhanced and thus the vertical gradients in [Mg/Fe] for barred galaxies are mostly positive, while for unbarred bulges the [Mg/Fe] profiles are typically negative or flat. This result, together with the old populations observed in the barred sample, indicates that bars are long-lasting structures, and therefore are not easily destroyed. The marked [Mg/Fe] differences with the bulges of unbarred galaxies indicate that different formation/evolution scenarios are required to explain their build-up, and emphasizes the role of bars in redistributing stellar material in the bulge-dominated regions.

  19. Most pseudo-bulges can be formed at later stages of major mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauvaget, T.; Hammer, F.; Puech, M.; Yang, Y. B.; Flores, H.; Rodrigues, M.

    2018-01-01

    Most giant spiral galaxies have pseudo or disc-like bulges that are considered to be the result of purely secular processes. This may challenge the hierarchical scenario predicting about one major merger per massive galaxy (>3 × 1010 M⊙) since the last ∼9 billion years. Here, we verify whether or not the association between pseudo-bulges and secular processes is irrevocable. Using GADGET2 N-body/SPH simulations, we have conducted a systematic study of remnants of major mergers for which progenitors have been selected (1) to follow the gas richness-look back time relationship, and (2) with a representative distribution of orbits and spins in a cosmological frame. Analysing the surface mass density profile of both nearby galaxies and merger remnants with two components, we find that most of them show pseudo-bulges or bar dominated centres. Even if some orbits lead to classical bulges just after the fusion, the contamination by the additional gas that gradually accumulates to the centre and forming stars later on, leads to remnants apparently dominated by pseudo-bulges. We also found that simple smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations should be sufficient to form realistic spiral galaxies as remnants of ancient gas-rich mergers without the need for specifically tuned feedback conditions. We then conclude that pseudo-bulges and bars in spiral galaxies are natural consequences of major mergers when they are realized in a cosmological context, i.e. with gas-rich progenitors as expected when selected in the distant Universe.

  20. Dinoprostone vaginal insert versus intravenous oxytocin to reduce postpartum blood loss following vaginal or cesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Ozalp, E; Tanir, H M; Sener, T

    2010-01-01

    To compare the impact of a dinoprostone vaginal insert and intravenous oxytocin in reducing blood loss of women undergoing vaginal or cesarean delivery. This study was conducted among term singleton pregnancies delivered vaginally or by elective cesarean section. In the vaginally delivered cases, active management of the third stage of labor was conducted. During cesarean delivery, 20 IU of intravenous oxytocin was administered. Women, who either delivered via the vaginal or abdominal route, were then randomly allocated to receive 10 mg vaginal dinoprostone insert for 12 hours (group I, n: 100) or intravenous oxytocin (group II, n: 100), respectively. Mean blood loss and need for additional uterotonics and postpartum hemoglobin and hematocrit levels at 24 and 36 hours after delivery did not differ between the two groups. Women allocated to the dinoprostone vaginal insert arm experienced more nausea and vomiting. Dinoprostone vaginal insert was as effective as intravenous oxytocin in the prevention of postpartum blood loss.

  1. Images in the rocket ultraviolet - The stellar population in the central bulge of M31

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohlin, R. C.; Cornett, R. H.; Hill, J. K.; Hill, R. S.; Oconnell, R. W.; Stecher, T. P.

    1985-01-01

    Imagery of the bulge of M31 obtained with a rocket-borne telescope in two broad bands centered at 1460 A and 2380 A is discussed. The UV spatial profiles over a region about 200 arcsec wide are identical with those at visible wavelengths. The absence of detectable point sources indicates that main-sequence stars hotter than B0 V are not present in the bulge. It is suggested that the far-UV flux in old stellar populations originates in post-AGB stars. The UV flux from such stars is extremely sensitive to age and the physics of their previous mass loss.

  2. ALMA observations of molecular absorption in four directions toward the Galactic bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liszt, H.; Gerin, M.

    2018-02-01

    Context. Alma Cycle 3 observations serendipitously showed strong absorption from diffuse molecular gas in the Galactic bulge at -200 km s-1 < v < -140 km s-1 toward the compact extragalactic continuum source J1744-3116 at (l, b) = -2.13∘, - 1.00∘. Aims: We aimed to test whether molecular gas in the bulge could also be detected toward the three other, sufficiently strong mm-wave continuum sources seen toward the bulge at |b| < 3∘. Methods: We took absorption profiles of HCO+ (1-0), HCN(1-0), C2H(1-0), CS(2-1) and H13CO+(1-0) in ALMA Cycle 4 toward J1713-3418, J1717-3341, J1733-3722 and J1744-3116. Results: Strong molecular absorption from disk gas at |ν| ≲ 30 km s-1 was detected in all directions, and absorption from the 3 kpc arm was newly detected toward J1717 and J1744. However, only the sightline toward J1744 is dominated by molecular gas overall and no other sightlines showed molecular absorption from gas deep inside the bulge. No molecular absorption was detected toward J1717 where H I emission from the bulge was previously known. As observed in HCO+, HCN, C2H and CS, the bulge gas toward J1744 at v < -135 km s-1 has chemistry and kinematics like that seen near the Sun and in the Milky Way disk generally. We measured isotopologic ratios N(HCO+)/N(H13CO+) > 51(3σ) for the bulge gas toward J1744 and 58 ± 9 and 64 ± 4 for the disk gas toward J1717 and J1744, respectively, all well above the value of 20-25 typical of the central molecular zone. Conclusions: The kinematics and chemistry of the bulge gas observed toward J1744 more nearly resemble that of gas in the Milky Way disk than in the central molecular zone.

  3. Miniature bulge test and energy release rate in HIPed aluminum/aluminum interfacial fracture

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, C.; Lovato, M. L.; Clarke, K. D.; ...

    2017-10-13

    We summarize the development of a technique of using miniature bulge test combined with three-dimensional digital image correlation (3D-DIC) for measuring energy release rate or fracture toughness of bimaterial interface of thin metal foils. Furthermore, the energy release rate associated with the HIPed aluminum/aluminum interfacial delamination is determined experimentally using the proposed technique. Detailed discussions of the schemes of preparing and conducting the bulge test, and computing various quantities required for the determination of the energy release rate are presented.

  4. Miniature bulge test and energy release rate in HIPed aluminum/aluminum interfacial fracture

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.; Lovato, M. L.; Clarke, K. D.

    We summarize the development of a technique of using miniature bulge test combined with three-dimensional digital image correlation (3D-DIC) for measuring energy release rate or fracture toughness of bimaterial interface of thin metal foils. Furthermore, the energy release rate associated with the HIPed aluminum/aluminum interfacial delamination is determined experimentally using the proposed technique. Detailed discussions of the schemes of preparing and conducting the bulge test, and computing various quantities required for the determination of the energy release rate are presented.

  5. Vulvovaginitis and vaginal discharge in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Shannon, W.

    1975-01-01

    Ninety-four patients with vulvovaginitis and vaginal discharge were assessed clinically and had vaginal swabs taken in an effort to establish a definite diagnosis. A high incidence of fungous infection was found while there was a surprisingly low incidence of Trichomonal vaginitis. These findings vary markedly from recent surveys in other countries (Delaha et al. (1964); Gray and Barnes, 1965; Desai et al., 1966). PMID:1223281

  6. The Age of the Young Bulge-like Population in the Stellar System Terzan 5: Linking the Galactic Bulge to the High-z Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, F. R.; Massari, D.; Dalessandro, E.; Lanzoni, B.; Origlia, L.; Rich, R. M.; Mucciarelli, A.

    2016-09-01

    The Galactic bulge is dominated by an old, metal-rich stellar population. The possible presence and the amount of a young (a few gigayears old) minor component is one of the major issues debated in the literature. Recently, the bulge stellar system Terzan 5 was found to harbor three sub-populations with iron content varying by more than one order of magnitude (from 0.2 up to two times the solar value), with chemical abundance patterns strikingly similar to those observed in bulge field stars. Here we report on the detection of two distinct main-sequence turnoff points in Terzan 5, providing the age of the two main stellar populations: 12 Gyr for the (dominant) sub-solar component and 4.5 Gyr for the component at super-solar metallicity. This discovery classifies Terzan 5 as a site in the Galactic bulge where multiple bursts of star formation occurred, thus suggesting a quite massive progenitor possibly resembling the giant clumps observed in star-forming galaxies at high redshifts. This connection opens a new route of investigation into the formation process and evolution of spheroids and their stellar content. Based on data obtained with (1) the ESA/NASA HST, under programs GO-14061, GO-12933, GO-10845, (2) the Very Large Telescope of the European Southern Observatory during the Science Verification of the camera MAD; (3) the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and NASA.

  7. Vaginal delivery of breech presentation.

    PubMed

    Kotaska, Andrew; Menticoglou, Savas; Gagnon, Robert

    2009-06-01

    To review the physiology of breech birth; to discern the risks and benefits of a trial of labour versus planned Caesarean section; and to recommend to obstetricians, family physicians, midwives, obstetrical nurses, anaesthesiologists, pediatricians, and other health care providers selection criteria, intrapartum management parameters, and delivery techniques for a trial of vaginal breech birth. Trial of labour in an appropriate setting or delivery by pre-emptive Caesarean section for women with a singleton breech fetus at term. Reduced perinatal mortality, short-term neonatal morbidity, long-term infant morbidity, and short- and long-term maternal morbidity and mortality. Medline was searched for randomized trials, prospective cohort studies, and selected retrospective cohort studies comparing planned Caesarean section with a planned trial of labour; selected epidemiological studies comparing delivery by Caesarean section with vaginal breech delivery; and studies comparing long-term outcomes in breech infants born vaginally or by Caesarean section. Additional articles were identified through bibliography tracing up to June 1, 2008. The evidence collected was reviewed by the Maternal Fetal Medicine Committee of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC) and quantified using the criteria and classifications of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. This guideline was compared with the 2006 American College of Obstetrician's Committee Opinion on the mode of term singleton breech delivery and with the 2006 Royal College of Obstetrician and Gynaecologists Green Top Guideline: The Management of Breech Presentation. The document was reviewed by Canadian and International clinicians with particular expertise in breech vaginal delivery. The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. SUMMARY STATEMENTS: 1. Vaginal breech birth can be associated with a higher risk of perinatal mortality and short-term neonatal morbidity than

  8. Comparing the effects of Calendula officinalis and clotrimazole on vaginal Candidiasis: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Saffari, Elnaz; Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi, Sakineh; Adibpour, Mohammad; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Javadzadeh, Yousef

    2017-01-01

    This triple-blind trial examined the effects of Calendula officinalis vaginal cream on the treatment of vaginal Candidiasis (primary outcome) and sexual function (secondary outcome). Married women aged 18-45 years with vaginal Candidiasis (n = 150) were recruited from April to October 2014 and randomized into Calendula and clotrimazole groups, using 5-g vaginal cream every night for seven nights. Clinical and laboratory assessments were conducted at 10-15 and 30-35 days after intervention and the female sexual function index was assessed at 30-35 days. Six women were lost to follow-up. The frequency of testing negative for Candidiasis in the Calendula group was significantly lower at the first (49% vs. 74%; odds ratio (OR) 0.32; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.16-0.67) but higher at the second (77% vs. 34%; OR 3.1; 95% CI 1.5-6.2) follow-up compared to the clotrimazole group. The frequency of most signs and symptoms were almost equal in the two groups at the first follow-up, but were significantly lower in the Calendula group at the second follow-up. Sexual function had almost equal significant improvement in both groups. Calendula vaginal cream appears to have been effective in the treatment of vaginal Candidiasis and to have a delayed but greater long-term effect compared to clotrimazole.

  9. A new reconstructive technique for posterior vaginal wall defects, a case report.

    PubMed

    Zetlitz, Elisabeth; Manook, Miriam; MacLeod, Alison; Hamilton, Stuart

    2013-10-01

    Post-partum vaginal laxity is a problem encountered by many women. More uncommon is a resulting vaginal defect. In most cases of laxity, a period of extensive physiotherapy can strengthen the pelvic muscles enough for symptoms to be minimized. However, this is not the case once there is a tissue defect. To present a new reconstructive method for patients with posterior vaginal wall defects. We present a case of a 38-year-old female who, 12 years prior to presentation, had a vaginal delivery. Due to complications during the delivery, she sustained pelvic trauma and developed a posterior vaginal wall defect. She had a sizable soft tissue defect, causing sexual, urinary, and confidence problems. Fat was harvested from the patient's abdomen and injected into the defect after more conservative treatment options were exhausted. The defect was corrected successfully using the minimally invasive Coleman fat grafting technique. This is to our knowledge the first case in the literature where a posterior vaginal defect has been corrected using Coleman fat grafting, and we believe that this treatment method may be of benefit to more patients. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  10. Prevalence of vaginal infections and associated lifestyles of students in the university of Cape Coast, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Aubyn, Gloria Baaba; Tagoe, Daniel Nii Aryee

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of vaginal infections and associated lifestyles of students visiting the University of Cape Coast Hospital. Methods Fifty female students presenting with clinical symptoms of vaginitis were sampled. One hundred samples made up of 50 urine and 50 higher vaginal swabs (HVS) were obtained from patients and questionnaire administered. Samples were wet prepared, examined microscopically, and cultured on blood and chocolate agars for 24 h at (35±2) °C. Colonial morphology, Gram reactions and biochemical tests were used for the identification of isolates. Results There were high percentages of pus cells (64%), epithelial cells (62%) and yeast cells (56%) in all urine samples. Bacterial isolates included Staphylococcus aureus (28%) and (22%), Klebsiella spp. (6%) and (4%) in urine and HVS samples respectively; Escherichia coli in urine (18%) and Candida in HVS (16%). The overall prevalence of vaginitis was 66%, including bacterial vaginosis 28%, Candida infection 22% and co-infection of bacterial and Candida 16%. Lifestyle data showed all sampled students were sexually active, 48% used contraceptives, 54% used antimicrobial agents, and 92% prefered wearing of trousers and shorts. Conclusions The present study indicates prevalence of vaginal infection among female students, which strongly correlates with student lifestyle. Education on lifestyle modifications will go a long way in reducing the prevalence of vaginitis.

  11. K-band observations of boxy bulges - I. Morphology and surface brightness profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bureau, M.; Aronica, G.; Athanassoula, E.; Dettmar, R.-J.; Bosma, A.; Freeman, K. C.

    2006-08-01

    In this first paper of a series on the structure of boxy and peanut-shaped (B/PS) bulges, Kn-band observations of a sample of 30 edge-on spiral galaxies are described and discussed. Kn-band observations best trace the dominant luminous galactic mass and are minimally affected by dust. Images, unsharp-masked images, as well as major-axis and vertically summed surface brightness profiles are presented and discussed. Galaxies with a B/PS bulge tend to have a more complex morphology than galaxies with other bulge types, more often showing centred or off-centred X structures, secondary maxima along the major-axis and spiral-like structures. While probably not uniquely related to bars, those features are observed in three-dimensional N-body simulations of barred discs and may trace the main bar orbit families. The surface brightness profiles of galaxies with a B/PS bulge are also more complex, typically containing three or more clearly separated regions, including a shallow or flat intermediate region (Freeman Type II profiles). The breaks in the profiles offer evidence for bar-driven transfer of angular momentum and radial redistribution of material. The profiles further suggest a rapid variation of the scaleheight of the disc material, contrary to conventional wisdom but again as expected from the vertical resonances and instabilities present in barred discs. Interestingly, the steep inner region of the surface brightness profiles is often shorter than the isophotally thick part of the galaxies, itself always shorter than the flat intermediate region of the profiles. The steep inner region is also much more prominent along the major-axis than in the vertically summed profiles. Similarly to other recent work but contrary to the standard `bulge + disc' model (where the bulge is both thick and steep), we thus propose that galaxies with a B/PS bulge are composed of a thin concentrated disc (a disc-like bulge) contained within a partially thick bar (the B/PS bulge), itself

  12. Differential expression of lactic acid isomers, extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer, and matrix metalloproteinase-8 in vaginal fluid from women with vaginal disorders.

    PubMed

    Beghini, J; Linhares, I M; Giraldo, P C; Ledger, W J; Witkin, S S

    2015-11-01

    Do metabolites in vaginal samples vary between women with different vaginal disorders. Cross-sectional study. Campinas, Brazil. Seventy-seven women (39.9%) with no vaginal disorder, 52 women (26.9%) with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), 43 women (22.3%) with bacterial vaginosis (BV), and 21 women (10.9%) with cytolytic vaginosis (CTV). Concentrations of D- and L-lactic acid, extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN), and matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8), and the influence of Candida albicans on EMMPRIN production by cultured vaginal epithelial cells, were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Associations were determined by the Mann-Whitney U-test and by Spearman's rank correlation test. Metabolite levels and their correlation with diagnoses. Vaginal concentrations of D- and L-lactic acid were reduced from control levels in BV (P < 0.0001); L-lactic acid levels were elevated in CTV (P = 0.0116). EMMPRIN and MMP-8 concentrations were elevated in VVC (P < 0.0001). EMMPRIN and L-lactic acid concentrations (P ≤ 0.008), but not EMMPRIN and D-lactic acid, were correlated in all groups. EMMPRIN also increased in proportion with the ratio of L- to D-lactic acid in controls and in women with BV (P ≤ 0.009). Concentrations of EMMPRIN and MMP-8 were correlated in controls and women with VVC (P ≤ 0.0002). Candida albicans induced EMMPRIN release from vaginal epithelial cells. Vaginal secretions from women with BV are deficient in D- and L-lactic acid, women with VVC have elevated EMMPRIN and MMP-8 levels, and women with CTV have elevated L-lactic acid levels. These deviations may contribute to the clinical signs, symptoms, and sequelae that are characteristic of these disorders. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  13. Hyaluronan in vaginal secretions: association with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Lev-Sagie, Ahinoam; Nyirjesy, Paul; Tarangelo, Nicholas; Bongiovanni, Ann Marie; Bayer, Cynthia; Linhares, Iara M; Giraldo, Paulo C; Ledger, William J; Witkin, Steven S

    2009-08-01

    We evaluated whether vaginal concentrations of hyaluronan were altered in women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC). Lavage samples from 17 women with acute RVVC, 27 women who were receiving a maintenance antifungal regimen, and 24 control women were tested for hyaluronan and interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, and IL-23 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Median vaginal hyaluronan concentrations were 33.8 ng/mL (range, 21.6-66.3 ng/mL) in women with acute RVVC, 15.0 ng/mL (range, 11.2-50.6 ng/mL) in women who were receiving maintenance therapy, and 4.2 ng/mL (range, 3.6-12.0 ng/mL) in control subjects (P vaginal hyaluronan concentration was 27.4 ng/mL (range, 15.4-37.7 ng/mL) when Candida was detected by microscopy and 9.5 ng/mL (range, 7.7-14.6 ng/mL) in microscopy-negative cases (P = .0354). Elevated hyaluronan levels were associated with itching plus burning (40.7 ng/mL) or itching plus discharge (42.1 ng/mL), as opposed to itching only (6.2 ng/mL; P = .0152). Hyaluronan and IL-6 levels were correlated (P = .0009). Hyaluronan release is a component of the host response to a candidal infection and may contribute to symptoms.

  14. Vaginal microbiota and its role in HIV transmission and infection.

    PubMed

    Petrova, Mariya I; van den Broek, Marianne; Balzarini, Jan; Vanderleyden, Jos; Lebeer, Sarah

    2013-09-01

    The urogenital tract appears to be the only niche of the human body that shows clear differences in microbiota between men and women. The female reproductive tract has special features in terms of immunological organization, an epithelial barrier, microbiota, and influence by sex hormones such as estrogen. While the upper genital tract is regarded as free of microorganisms, the vagina is colonized by bacteria dominated by Lactobacillus species, although their numbers vary considerably during life. Bacterial vaginosis is a common pathology characterized by dysbiosis, which increases the susceptibility for HIV infection and transmission. On the other hand, HIV infections are often characterized by a disturbed vaginal microbiota. The endogenous vaginal microbiota may protect against HIV by direct production of antiviral compounds, through blocking of adhesion and transmission by ligands such as lectins, and/or by stimulation of immune responses. The potential role of probiotics in the prevention of HIV infections and associated symptoms, by introducing them to the vaginal and gastrointestinal tract (GIT), is also discussed. Of note, the GIT is a site of considerable HIV replication and CD4(+) T-cell destruction, resulting in both local and systemic inflammation. Finally, genetically engineered lactobacilli show promise as new microbicidal agents against HIV. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Vaginal pH and Microbicidal Lactic Acid When Lactobacilli Dominate the Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    O’Hanlon, Deirdre E.; Moench, Thomas R.; Cone, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Lactic acid at sufficiently acidic pH is a potent microbicide, and lactic acid produced by vaginal lactobacilli may help protect against reproductive tract infections. However, previous observations likely underestimated healthy vaginal acidity and total lactate concentration since they failed to exclude women without a lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microbiota, and also did not account for the high carbon dioxide, low oxygen environment of the vagina. Fifty-six women with low (0-3) Nugent scores (indicating a lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microbiota) and no symptoms of reproductive tract disease or infection, provided a total of 64 cervicovaginal fluid samples using a collection method that avoided the need for sample dilution and rigorously minimized aerobic exposure. The pH of samples was measured by microelectrode immediately after collection and under a physiological vaginal concentration of CO2. Commercial enzymatic assays of total lactate and total acetate concentrations were validated for use in CVF, and compared to the more usual HPLC method. The average pH of the CVF samples was 3.5 ± 0.3 (mean ± SD), range 2.8-4.2, and the average total lactate was 1.0% ± 0.2% w/v; this is a five-fold higher average hydrogen ion concentration (lower pH) and a fivefold higher total lactate concentration than in the prior literature. The microbicidal form of lactic acid (protonated lactic acid) was therefore eleven-fold more concentrated, and a markedly more potent microbicide, than indicated by prior research. This suggests that when lactobacilli dominate the vaginal microbiota, women have significantly more lactic acid-mediated protection against infections than currently believed. Our results invite further evaluations of the prophylactic and therapeutic actions of vaginal lactic acid, whether provided in situ by endogenous lactobacilli, by probiotic lactobacilli, or by products that reinforce vaginal lactic acid. PMID:24223212

  16. Vaginal pH and microbicidal lactic acid when lactobacilli dominate the microbiota.

    PubMed

    O'Hanlon, Deirdre E; Moench, Thomas R; Cone, Richard A

    2013-01-01

    Lactic acid at sufficiently acidic pH is a potent microbicide, and lactic acid produced by vaginal lactobacilli may help protect against reproductive tract infections. However, previous observations likely underestimated healthy vaginal acidity and total lactate concentration since they failed to exclude women without a lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microbiota, and also did not account for the high carbon dioxide, low oxygen environment of the vagina. Fifty-six women with low (0-3) Nugent scores (indicating a lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microbiota) and no symptoms of reproductive tract disease or infection, provided a total of 64 cervicovaginal fluid samples using a collection method that avoided the need for sample dilution and rigorously minimized aerobic exposure. The pH of samples was measured by microelectrode immediately after collection and under a physiological vaginal concentration of CO2. Commercial enzymatic assays of total lactate and total acetate concentrations were validated for use in CVF, and compared to the more usual HPLC method. The average pH of the CVF samples was 3.5 ± 0.3 (mean ± SD), range 2.8-4.2, and the average total lactate was 1.0% ± 0.2% w/v; this is a five-fold higher average hydrogen ion concentration (lower pH) and a fivefold higher total lactate concentration than in the prior literature. The microbicidal form of lactic acid (protonated lactic acid) was therefore eleven-fold more concentrated, and a markedly more potent microbicide, than indicated by prior research. This suggests that when lactobacilli dominate the vaginal microbiota, women have significantly more lactic acid-mediated protection against infections than currently believed. Our results invite further evaluations of the prophylactic and therapeutic actions of vaginal lactic acid, whether provided in situ by endogenous lactobacilli, by probiotic lactobacilli, or by products that reinforce vaginal lactic acid.

  17. The effect of a vaginal suppository formulation of dill (Anethum graveolens) in comparison to clotrimazole vaginal tablet on the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Saghafi, Nafiseh; Karjalian, Maryam; Ghazanfarpour, Masumeh; Khorsand, Imaneh; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Mirteimouri, Masumeh; Babakhanian, Masoudeh; Khadivzadeh, Talat; Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Ghorbani, Ahmad; Pourali, Leila; Bahman, Sara

    2018-03-19

    The goal of this study was to compare the effect of Anethum graveolens (dill) vaginal suppositories and 100 mg clotrimazole vaginal tablets on vulvovaginal Candidiasis. This study was a single centre, single-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial, in which 60 women with microbiology-confirmed vulvovaginal candidiasis were randomly assigned to dill and clotrimazole groups. At the end of the study, the estimated prevalence of leucorrhoea, burning, and itching was 23%, 23% and 20% in dill users, respectively. This figure was 20%, 10% and 16.7% for the clotrimazole group, respectively. The difference between the two groups was not significant. 13% of suppository patients, compared with 10% of clotrimazole-treatment patients, had a positive culture, which was not significant (p = .68). According to findings, 2% dill vaginal suppositories were as effective as clotrimazole vaginal tablets in reducing both clinical and microbiological symptoms of Candidiasis. Studies with larger sample sizes are required to confirm current findings. Impact statement What is already known on the subject? Based on results from in vivo and in vitro animal studies, dill (Anethum graveolens) has anti-candida activity. What do the results of this study add? It appears that 2% dill vaginal suppositories were as effective as 100 mg clotrimazole vaginal tablets in reducing both the clinical and microbiological symptoms. What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and further research? Obstetricians and gynaecologists can offer dill as a useful alternative to chemical drugs, especially in women who are often interested in herbal medicine, or in women who are resistant or are not allowed to use antifungal drugs.

  18. More frequent vaginal orgasm is associated with experiencing greater excitement from deep vaginal stimulation.

    PubMed

    Brody, Stuart; Klapilova, Katerina; Krejčová, Lucie

    2013-07-01

    Research indicated that: (i) vaginal orgasm (induced by penile-vaginal intercourse [PVI] without concurrent clitoral masturbation) consistency (vaginal orgasm consistency [VOC]; percentage of PVI occasions resulting in vaginal orgasm) is associated with mental attention to vaginal sensations during PVI, preference for a longer penis, and indices of psychological and physiological functioning, and (ii) clitoral, distal vaginal, and deep vaginal/cervical stimulation project via different peripheral nerves to different brain regions. The aim of this study is to examine the association of VOC with: (i) sexual arousability perceived from deep vaginal stimulation (compared with middle and shallow vaginal stimulation and clitoral stimulation), and (ii) whether vaginal stimulation was present during the woman's first masturbation. A sample of 75 Czech women (aged 18-36), provided details of recent VOC, site of genital stimulation during first masturbation, and their recent sexual arousability from the four genital sites. The association of VOC with: (i) sexual arousability perceived from the four genital sites and (ii) involvement of vaginal stimulation in first-ever masturbation. VOC was associated with greater sexual arousability from deep vaginal stimulation but not with sexual arousability from other genital sites. VOC was also associated with women's first masturbation incorporating (or being exclusively) vaginal stimulation. The findings suggest (i) stimulating the vagina during early life masturbation might indicate individual readiness for developing greater vaginal responsiveness, leading to adult greater VOC, and (ii) current sensitivity of deep vaginal and cervical regions is associated with VOC, which might be due to some combination of different neurophysiological projections of the deep regions and their greater responsiveness to penile stimulation. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  19. Vaginal hysterectomy, an outpatient procedure.

    PubMed

    Engh, Marie Ellström; Hauso, Wenche

    2012-11-01

    To report our experience of treating women undergoing vaginal hysterectomy in an outpatient setting and to identify risk factors for hospital admission and women dissatisfied with care. Prospective observational report. department of obstetrics and gynecology, university hospital in Norway. 150 women who underwent vaginal hysterectomy at the outpatient clinic from February 2009 to April 2010. Perioperative data were collected prospectively and case notes were searched for complications. On the first postoperative day all women were contacted by telephone by a nurse. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to monitor pain and nausea during the stay at the outpatient clinic and the day after surgery. VAS was also used to specify the women's degree of satisfaction with care the day after surgery. The number of women who could be discharged from the outpatient unit and had a satisfaction score of ≥7 the day after surgery. Of the 150 women, 84% could be discharged after a mean observation period of 276 min (SD ± 80 min). The mean satisfaction score was 9.0, SD ± 1.4, and 92.6% of the women reported ≥7 points in the satisfaction score. No women with serious complications were sent home. Using a multivariable logistic regression model only pain at discharge was found as significant (p= 0.009) for admittance to hospital. Vaginal hysterectomy is a feasible outpatient procedure and the majority of women were satisfied with the care they received. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Supracervical hysterectomy - the vaginal route.

    PubMed

    Wilczyński, Miłosz; Cieślak, Jarosław; Malinowski, Andrzej

    2014-06-01

    Removal of the cervix during hysterectomy is not mandatory. There has been no irrefutable evidence so far that total hysterectomy is more beneficial to patients in terms of pelvic organ function. The procedure that leaves the cervix intact is called a subtotal hysterectomy. Traditional approaches to this surgery include laparoscopic and abdominal routes. Vaginal total hysterectomy has been proven to present many advantages over the other approaches. Therefore, it seems that this route should also be applied in the case of subtotal hysterectomy. We present 9 cases of patients who underwent subtotal hysterectomy performed through the vagina for benign gynecological diseases.

  1. Two Populations of SiO Masers in the Galactic Bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trapp, Adam; Rich, Robert Michael; Morris, Mark; Pihlstrom, Ylva; Sjouwerman, Lorant; Claussen, Mark J.; Stroh, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We present a summary of the kinematics of stellar SiO masers observed in the direction of the galactic bulge with ALMA (885 sources), and the JVLA (2,479 sources). These objects are selected by color from the MSX point source catalog, which has given an SiO detection rate of ~70%. The presented sample, along with the ~24,000 sources still being observed and reduced, enable radial velocity measurements even in regions with extreme optical extinction. These maser stars are compared to the known bulge surveys: APOGEE (~25,000 sources), BRAVA (~8000 sources), and GIBS (~6,400 sources). We have found that BAaDE stars in the direction of the bulge exist in two subpopulations: (1) A kinematically hot population exhibiting cylindrical rotation consistent with the other bulge surveys, and (2) a kinematically cold population more consistent with a disk population. In the ALMA data, we find evidence for a -200 km/s feature at (l,b) = (-9,0), possibly the symmetric complement to a previously proposed +200 km/s feature (Nidever 2012), that we do not confirm with our data.

  2. Peanuts, brezels and bananas: food for thought on the orbital structure of the Galactic bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portail, Matthieu; Wegg, Christopher; Gerhard, Ortwin

    2015-06-01

    Recent observations have discovered the presence of a box/peanut or X-shape structure in the Galactic bulge. Such box/peanut structures are common in external disc galaxies, and are well known in N-body simulations where they form following the buckling instability of a bar. From studies of analytical potentials and N-body models, it has been claimed in the past that box/peanut bulges are supported by `bananas', or x1v1 orbits. We present here a set of N-body models where instead the peanut bulge is mainly supported by brezel-like orbits, allowing strong peanuts to form with short extent relative to the bar length. This shows that stars in the X-shape do not necessarily stream along banana orbits which follow the arms of the X-shape. The brezel orbits are also found to be the main orbital component supporting the peanut shape in our recent made-to-measure dynamical models of the Galactic bulge. We also show that in these models the fraction of stellar orbits that contribute to the X-structure account for 40-45 per cent of the stellar mass.

  3. The Gaia-ESO Survey: Exploring the complex nature and origins of the Galactic bulge populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas-Arriagada, A.; Recio-Blanco, A.; de Laverny, P.; Mikolaitis, Š.; Matteucci, F.; Spitoni, E.; Schultheis, M.; Hayden, M.; Hill, V.; Zoccali, M.; Minniti, D.; Gonzalez, O. A.; Gilmore, G.; Randich, S.; Feltzing, S.; Alfaro, E. J.; Babusiaux, C.; Bensby, T.; Bragaglia, A.; Flaccomio, E.; Koposov, S. E.; Pancino, E.; Bayo, A.; Carraro, G.; Casey, A. R.; Costado, M. T.; Damiani, F.; Donati, P.; Franciosini, E.; Hourihane, A.; Jofré, P.; Lardo, C.; Lewis, J.; Lind, K.; Magrini, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Sacco, G. G.; Worley, C. C.; Zaggia, S.

    2017-05-01

    Context. As observational evidence steadily accumulates, the nature of the Galactic bulge has proven to be rather complex: the structural, kinematic, and chemical analyses often lead to contradictory conclusions. The nature of the metal-rich bulge - and especially of the metal-poor bulge - and their relation with other Galactic components, still need to be firmly defined on the basis of statistically significant high-quality data samples. Aims: We used the fourth internal data release of the Gaia-ESO survey to characterize the bulge metallicity distribution function (MDF), magnesium abundance, spatial distribution, and correlation of these properties with kinematics. Moreover, the homogeneous sampling of the different Galactic populations provided by the Gaia-ESO survey allowed us to perform a comparison between the bulge, thin disk, and thick disk sequences in the [Mg/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] plane in order to constrain the extent of their eventual chemical similarities. Methods: We obtained spectroscopic data for 2500 red clump stars in 11 bulge fields, sampling the area -10° ≤ l ≤ + 8° and -10° ≤ b ≤ -4° from the fourth internal data release of the Gaia-ESO survey. A sample of 6300 disk stars was also selected for comparison. Spectrophotometric distances computed via isochrone fitting allowed us to define a sample of stars likely located in the bulge region. Results: From a Gaussian mixture models (GMM) analysis, the bulge MDF is confirmed to be bimodal across the whole sampled area. The relative ratio between the two modes of the MDF changes as a function of b, with metal-poor stars dominating at high latitudes. The metal-rich stars exhibit bar-like kinematics and display a bimodality in their magnitude distribution, a feature which is tightly associated with the X-shape bulge. They overlap with the metal-rich end of the thin disk sequence in the [Mg/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] plane. On the other hand, metal-poor bulge stars have a more isotropic hot kinematics and do

  4. New insights on the origin of the High Velocity Peaks in the Galactic Bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Robin, A. C.; Moreno, E.; Pérez-Villegas, A.; Pichardo, B.

    2017-12-01

    We provide new insight on the origin of the cold high-V_{los} peaks (˜200 kms^{-1}) in the Milky Way bulge discovered in the APOGEE commissioning data (Nidever et al. 2012). Here we show that such kinematic behaviour present in the field regions towards the Galactic bulge is not likely associated with orbits that build the boxy/peanut (B/P) bulge. To this purpose, a new set of test particle simulations of a kinematically cold stellar disk evolved in a 3D steady-state barred Milky Way galactic potential, has been analysed in detail. Especially bar particles trapped into the bar are identified through the orbital Jacobi energy E_{J}, which allows us to identify the building blocks of the B/P feature and investigate their kinematic properties. Finally, we present preliminary results showing that the high-V_{los} features observed towards the Milky Way bulge are a natural consequence of a large-scale midplane particle structure, which is unlikely associated with the Galactic bar.

  5. Genetically induced cell death in bulge stem cells reveals their redundancy for hair and epidermal regeneration.

    PubMed

    Driskell, Iwona; Oeztuerk-Winder, Feride; Humphreys, Peter; Frye, Michaela

    2015-03-01

    Adult mammalian epidermis contains multiple stem cell populations in which quiescent and more proliferative stem and progenitor populations coexist. However, the precise interrelation of these populations in homeostasis remains unclear. Here, we blocked the contribution of quiescent keratin 19 (K19)-expressing bulge stem cells to hair follicle formation through genetic ablation of the essential histone methyltransferase Setd8 that is required for the maintenance of adult skin. Deletion of Setd8 eliminated the contribution of bulge cells to hair follicle regeneration through inhibition of cell division and induction of cell death, but the growth and morphology of hair follicles were unaffected. Furthermore, ablation of Setd8 in the hair follicle bulge blocked the contribution of K19-postive stem cells to wounded epidermis, but the wound healing process was unaltered. Our data indicate that quiescent bulge stem cells are dispensable for hair follicle regeneration and epidermal injury in the short term and support the hypothesis that quiescent and cycling stem cell populations are equipotent. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  6. Light, alpha, and Fe-peak element abundances in the galactic bulge

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Christian I.; Rich, R. Michael; Kobayashi, Chiaki

    2014-10-01

    We present radial velocities and chemical abundances of O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu for a sample of 156 red giant branch stars in two Galactic bulge fields centered near (l, b) = (+5.25,–3.02) and (0,–12). The (+5.25,–3.02) field also includes observations of the bulge globular cluster NGC 6553. The results are based on high-resolution (R ∼ 20,000), high signal-to-noise ration (S/N ≳ 70) FLAMES-GIRAFFE spectra obtained through the European Southern Observatory archive. However, we only selected a subset of the original observations that included spectra with both high S/N and that did notmore » show strong TiO absorption bands. This work extends previous analyses of this data set beyond Fe and the α-elements Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti. While we find reasonable agreement with past work, the data presented here indicate that the bulge may exhibit a different chemical composition than the local thick disk, especially at [Fe/H] ≳ –0.5. In particular, the bulge [α/Fe] ratios may remain enhanced to a slightly higher [Fe/H] than the thick disk, and the Fe-peak elements Co, Ni, and Cu appear enhanced compared to the disk. There is also some evidence that the [Na/Fe] (but not [Al/Fe]) trends between the bulge and local disk may be different at low and high metallicity. We also find that the velocity dispersion decreases as a function of increasing [Fe/H] for both fields, and do not detect any significant cold, high-velocity populations. A comparison with chemical enrichment models indicates that a significant fraction of hypernovae may be required to explain the bulge abundance trends, and that initial mass functions that are steep, top-heavy (and do not include strong outflow), or truncated to avoid including contributions from stars >40 M {sub ☉} are ruled out, in particular because of disagreement with the Fe-peak abundance data. For most elements, the NGC 6553 stars exhibit abundance trends nearly identical to comparable metallicity bulge

  7. Formation of the Lunar Fossil Bulges and its Implication for the Early Earth and Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, C.; Zhong, S.; Phillips, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    First recognized by Laplace more than two centuries ago, the lunar gravitational and shape anomalies associated with rotational and tidal bulges are significantly larger than predicted from the hydrostatic theory. The harmonic degree-2 gravitational coefficients of the Moon, C20 and C22 (measuring the size of the rotational and tidal bulges), are 17 and 14 times of their hydrostatic counterparts, respectively, after removal of the effect from large impact basins. The bulges are commonly considered as remnant hydrostatic features, "frozen-in" when the Moon was closer to the Earth, experiencing larger tidal-rotational forces. The extant hypothesis is that as the Moon cooled and migrated outwards, a strong outer layer (lithosphere) thickened and reached a stress state that supported the bulges, which no longer tracked the hydrostatic ellipticity. However, this process is poorly understood and an appropriate dynamical model has not been engaged. Here we present the first dynamically self-consistent model of lunar bulge formation that couples a lunar interior thermal evolution model to the tidal-rotational forcing of the Moon. The forcing magnitude decreases with time as the Moon despins on the receding orbit, while the recession rate is controlled by the Earth's tidal dissipation factor Q. Assuming a viscoelastic rheology, the cooling of the Moon is described by a model with high viscosity lithosphere thickening with time. While conventional methods are not suitable for models with time-dependent viscoelastic structure, a semi-analytical method has been developed to address this problem. We show that the bulge formation is controlled by the relative timing of lithosphere thickening and lunar orbit recession. Based on our calculations, we conclude that the development of the fossil bulges may have taken as long as 400 million years after the formation of lunar lithosphere and was complete when the lunar orbit semi-major axis, a, was 32 Earth's radius, RE. We find a

  8. Binding of pixantrone to DNA at CpA dinucleotide sequences and bulge structures.

    PubMed

    Konda, Shyam K; Wang, Haiqiang; Cutts, Suzanne M; Phillips, Don R; Collins, J Grant

    2015-06-07

    The binding of the anti-cancer drug pixantrone to three oligonucleotide sequences, d(TCATATGA)2, d(CCGAGAATTCCGG)2 {double bulge = DB} and the non-self complementary d(TACGATGAGTA) : d(TACCATCGTA) {single bulge = SB}, has been studied by NMR spectroscopy and molecular modelling. The upfield shifts observed for the aromatic resonances of pixantrone upon addition of the drug to each oligonucleotide confirmed the drug bound by intercalation. For the duplex sequence d(TCATATGA)2, NOEs were observed from the pixantrone aromatic H7/8 and aliphatic Ha/Hb protons to the H6/H8 and H1' protons of the C2, A3, T6 and G7 nucleotides, demonstrating that pixantrone preferentially binds at the symmetric CpA sites. However, weaker NOEs observed to various protons from the T4 and A5 residues indicated alternative minor binding sites. NOEs from the H7/H8 and Ha/Hb protons to both major (H6/H8) and minor groove (H1') protons indicated approximately equal proportions of intercalation was from the major and minor groove at the CpA sites. Intermolecular NOEs were observed between the H7/H8 and H4 protons of pixantrone and the A4H1' and G3H1' protons of the oligonucleotide that contains two symmetrically related bulge sites (DB), indicative of binding at the adenine bulge sites. For the oligonucleotide that only contains a single bulge site (SB), NOEs were observed from pixantrone protons to the SB G7H1', A8H1' and G9H1' protons, confirming that the drug bound selectively at the adenine bulge site. A molecular model of pixantrone-bound SB could be constructed with the drug bound from the minor groove at the A8pG9 site that was consistent with the observed NMR data. The results demonstrate that pixantrone preferentially intercalates at adenine bulge sites, compared to duplex DNA, and predominantly from the minor groove.

  9. Vaginal mucosal flap as a sling preservation for the treatment of vaginal exposure of mesh.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sea Young; Park, Jong Yeon; Kim, Han Kwon; Park, Chang Hoo; Kim, Sung Jin; Sung, Gi Teck; Park, Chang Myon

    2010-06-01

    Tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedures are used for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence in women. The procedures with synthetic materials can have a risk of vaginal erosion. We experienced transobturator suburethral sling (TOT) tape-induced vaginal erosion and report the efficacy of a vaginal mucosal covering technique. A total of 560 female patients diagnosed with stress urinary incontinence underwent TOT procedures at our hospital between January 2005 and August 2009. All patients succeeded in follow-ups, among which 8 patients (mean age: 50.5 years) presented with vaginal exposure of the mesh. A vaginal mucosal covering technique was performed under local anesthesia after administration of antibiotics and vaginal wound dressings for 3-4 days. Seven of the 8 patients complained of persistent vaginal discharge postoperatively. Two of the 8 patients complained of dyspareunia of their male partners. The one remaining patient was otherwise asymptomatic, but mesh erosion was discovered at the routine follow-up visit. Six of the 8 patients showed complete mucosal covering of the mesh after the operation (mean follow-up period: 16 moths). Vaginal mucosal erosion recurred in 2 patients, and the mesh was then partially removed. One patient had recurrent stress urinary incontinence. Vaginal mucosal covering as a sling preservation with continued patient continence may be a feasible and effective option for the treatment of vaginal exposure of mesh after TOT tape procedures.

  10. 21 CFR 884.3900 - Vaginal stent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vaginal stent. 884.3900 Section 884.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... stent. (a) Identification. A vaginal stent is a device used to enlarge the vagina by stretching, or to...

  11. VBAC (Vaginal Birth After C-Section)

    MedlinePlus

    Vaginal birth after C-section (VBAC) Overview If you've delivered a baby by C-section and you're pregnant again, you might be able to choose between scheduling a repeat C-section or attempting vaginal birth after C-section ( ...

  12. Assessment of hot flushes and vaginal dryness among obese women undergoing bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Goughnour, S L; Thurston, R C; Althouse, A D; Freese, K E; Edwards, R P; Hamad, G G; McCloskey, C; Ramanathan, R; Bovbjerg, D H; Linkov, F

    2016-01-01

    Menopausal symptoms are associated with a negative impact on the quality of life, leading women to seek medical treatment. Obesity has been linked to higher levels of menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes. This assessment will explore whether the prevalence and bother of hot flushes and vaginal dryness change from pre- to post-bariatric surgery among obese midlife women. This study is a longitudinal analysis of data from 69 women (ages 35-72 years) undergoing bariatric surgery with reported reproductive histories and menopausal symptoms at preoperative and 6-month postoperative visits. Prevalence of and degree of bother of hot flushes and vaginal dryness at pre- and post-surgery were compared using McNemar's test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The reported degree of bother of symptoms associated with hot flushes decreased from pre- to post-surgery (p < 0.01). There was no significant change in the prevalence of hot flushes or vaginal dryness in the overall study sample. The degree of bother of symptoms associated with hot flushes among midlife women may decrease after bariatric surgery. These results highlight important secondary gains, including less bothersome menopausal symptoms, for women who choose bariatric surgery for weight loss.

  13. First detection of the white dwarf cooling sequence of the galactic bulge

    SciTech Connect

    Calamida, A.; Sahu, K. C.; Anderson, J.

    2014-08-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope data of the low-reddening Sagittarius window in the Galactic bulge. The Sagittarius Window Eclipsing Extrasolar Planet Search field (∼3'× 3'), together with three more Advanced Camera for Surveys and eight Wide-Field Camera 3 fields, were observed in the F606W and F814W filters, approximately every two weeks for 2 yr, with the principal aim of detecting a hidden population of isolated black holes and neutron stars through astrometric microlensing. Proper motions were measured with an accuracy of ≈0.1 mas yr{sup –1} (≈4 km s{sup –1}) at F606W ≈ 25.5 mag, and better than ≈0.5 mas yr{supmore » –1} (≈20 km s{sup –1}) at F606W ≈ 28 mag, in both axes. Proper-motion measurements allowed us to separate disk and bulge stars and obtain a clean bulge color-magnitude diagram. We then identified for the first time a white dwarf (WD) cooling sequence in the Galactic bulge, together with a dozen candidate extreme horizontal branch stars. The comparison between theory and observations shows that a substantial fraction of the WDs (≈30%) are systematically redder than the cooling tracks for CO-core H-rich and He-rich envelope WDs. This evidence would suggest the presence of a significant number of low-mass WDs and WD-main-sequence binaries in the bulge. This hypothesis is further supported by the finding of two dwarf novae in outburst, two short-period (P ≲ 1 day) ellipsoidal variables, and a few candidate cataclysmic variables in the same field.« less

  14. Chemical Characterization of the Inner Galactic bulge: North-South Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandakumar, G.; Ryde, N.; Schultheis, M.; Thorsbro, B.; Jönsson, H.; Barklem, P. S.; Rich, R. M.; Fragkoudi, F.

    2018-05-01

    While the number of stars in the Galactic bulge with detailed chemical abundance measurements is increasing rapidly, the inner Galactic bulge (|b| < 2°) remains poorly studied, due to heavy interstellar absorption and photometric crowding. We have carried out a high-resolution IR spectroscopic study of 72 M giants in the inner bulge using the CRIRES (ESO/VLT) facility. Our spectra cover the wavelength range of 2.0818 - 2.1444 μm with the resolution of R˜50,000 and have signal-to-noise ratio of 50-100. Our stars are located along the bulge minor axis at l = 0°, b = ±0°, ±1°, ±2°and +3°. Our sample was analysed in a homogeneous way using the most current K-band line list. We clearly detect a bimodal MDF with a metal-rich peak at ˜ +0.3 dex and a metal-poor peak at ˜ -0.5 dex, and no stars with [Fe/H] > +0.6 dex. The Galactic Center field reveals in contrast a mainly metal-rich population with a mean metallicity of +0.3 dex. We derived [Mg/Fe] and [Si/Fe] abundances which are consistent with trends from the outer bulge. We confirm for the supersolar metallicity stars the decreasing trend in [Mg/Fe] and [Si/Fe] as expected from chemical evolution models. With the caveat of a relatively small sample, we do not find significant differences in the chemical abundances between the Northern and the Southern fields, hence the evidence is consistent with symmetry in chemistry between North and South.

  15. Localized bulging in an inflated cylindrical tube of arbitrary thickness - the effect of bending stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Y. B.; Liu, J. L.; Francisco, G. S.

    2016-05-01

    We study localized bulging of a cylindrical hyperelastic tube of arbitrary thickness when it is subjected to the combined action of inflation and axial extension. It is shown that with the internal pressure P and resultant axial force F viewed as functions of the azimuthal stretch on the inner surface and the axial stretch, the bifurcation condition for the initiation of a localized bulge is that the Jacobian of the vector function (P , F) should vanish. This is established using the dynamical systems theory by first computing the eigenvalues of a certain eigenvalue problem governing incremental deformations, and then deriving the bifurcation condition explicitly. The bifurcation condition is valid for all loading conditions, and in the special case of fixed resultant axial force it gives the expected result that the initiation pressure for localized bulging is precisely the maximum pressure in uniform inflation. It is shown that even if localized bulging cannot take place when the axial force is fixed, it is still possible if the axial stretch is fixed instead. The explicit bifurcation condition also provides a means to quantify precisely the effect of bending stiffness on the initiation pressure. It is shown that the (approximate) membrane theory gives good predictions for the initiation pressure, with a relative error less than 5%, for thickness/radius ratios up to 0.67. A two-term asymptotic bifurcation condition for localized bulging that incorporates the effect of bending stiffness is proposed, and is shown to be capable of giving extremely accurate predictions for the initiation pressure for thickness/radius ratios up to as large as 1.2.

  16. Value of bacterial culture of vaginal swabs in diagnosis of vaginal infections.

    PubMed

    Nenadić, Dane; Pavlović, Miloš D

    2015-06-01

    Vaginal and cervical swab culture is still very common procedure in our country's everyday practice whereas simple and rapid diagnostic methods have been very rarely used. The aim of this study was to show that the employment of simple and rapid diagnostic tools [vaginal fluid wet mount microscopy (VFWMM), vaginal pH and potassium hydroxide (KOH) test] offers better assessment of vaginal environment than standard microbiologic culture commonly used in Serbia. This prospective study included 505 asymptomatic pregnant women undergoing VFWMM, test with 10% KOH, determination of vaginal pH and standard culture of cervicovaginal swabs. Combining findings from the procedures was used to make diagnoses of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and vaginitis. In addition, the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) was determined in each sample and analyzed along with other findings. Infections with Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis were confirmed or excluded by microscopic examination. In 36 (6%) patients cervicovaginal swab cultures retrieved several aerobes and facultative anaerobes, whereas in 52 (11%) women Candida albicans was isolated. Based on VFWMM findings and clinical criteria 96 (19%) women had BV, 19 (4%) vaginitis, and 72 (14%) candidiasis. Of 115 women with BV and vaginitis, pH 4.5 was found in 5, and of 390 with normal findings 83 (21%) had vaginal pH 4.5. Elevated numbers of PMN were found in 154 (30%) women--in 83 (54%) of them VFWMM was normal. Specificity and sensitivity of KOH test and vaginal pH determination in defining pathological vaginal flora were 95% and 81%, and 79% and 91%, respectively. Cervicovaginal swab culture is expensive but almost non-informative test in clinical practice. The use of simpler and rapid methods as vaginal fluid wet mount microscopy, KOH test and vaginal pH offers better results in diagnosis, and probably in the treatment and prevention of sequels of vaginal infections.

  17. Diagnostic Value of Vaginal Discharge, Wet Mount and Vaginal pH – An Update on the Basics of Gynecologic Infectiology

    PubMed Central

    Frobenius, W.; Bogdan, C.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of uncomplicated vulvovaginal complaints (e.g. bacterial vaginosis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis) can be detected with uncomplicated basic infectiological tests and can usually be treated effectively without requiring further diagnostic procedures. Tests include measurement of vaginal pH, preparation and assessment of wet mount slides prepared from vaginal or cervical discharge, and the correct clinical and microbiological classification of findings. In Germany, at least in recent years, this has not been sufficiently taught or practiced. As new regulations on specialist gynecologic training in Germany are currently being drawn up, this overview provides basic information on gynecologic infectiology and summarizes clinically relevant aspects of recent microbiological findings on the physiology and pathology of vaginal flora. The clinical signs and symptoms of aerobic vaginitis, the pathogenesis of which is still not completely understood, are also reviewed. Finally, the symptoms, indications and risk factors for pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) are presented. In contrast to the above-listed infections, PID requires immediate culture of the pathogen from samples (e.g. obtained by laparoscopy) with microbiological diagnostic procedures carried out by specialist laboratories. A schematic summary of all pathologies discussed here is presented. PMID:26028693

  18. A Multi-center, Double-blind, Randomized Study, Comparing Clindamycin Phosphate Vaginal Cream 2% (Watson Laboratories, Inc.) to Clindesse® (Ther-Rx™, Clindamyin Phosphate Vaginal Cream 2%) and Both Active Treatments to a Placebo Control in the Treatment of Bacterial Vaginosis in Non-pregnant Women

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-18

    BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS; Signs and Symptoms to be Evaluated and Recorded Include:; Vaginal Discharge: Color, Odor, and Consistency;; Vulvovaginal Itching and Irritation (Subjective): Absent, Mild, Moderate, or Severe; Vulvovaginal Inflammation (Objective): Absent, Mild, Moderate, or Severe.

  19. Vaginitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... a change in the balance of bacteria or yeast that are normally found in your vagina. There ... with a new partner Having many sexual partners Yeast infections (candidiasis) happen when too much candida grows ...

  20. Effects of sea buckthorn oil intake on vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Larmo, Petra S; Yang, Baoru; Hyssälä, Juha; Kallio, Heikki P; Erkkola, Risto

    2014-11-01

    Vaginal atrophy, the thinning and drying of vaginal mucosa, is associated with menopause. The standard estrogen treatment is not suitable for all women. To investigate the effects of oral sea buckthorn (SB) oil supplementation on vaginal atrophy. A total of 116 postmenopausal women experiencing symptoms of vaginal dryness, itching or burning were randomized to this placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Ninety-eight participants completed the intervention of three months, during which they consumed 3g of SB or placebo oil daily. At the beginning and end, factors of vaginal health were scored by a gynecologist, vaginal pH and moisture were measured and vaginal health index was calculated. Symptoms of atrophy and menopause were evaluated at study visits and by daily logbooks. Serum samples were collected for the analysis of circulating lipids, liver enzymes and C-reactive protein. Compared to placebo, there was a significantly better rate of improvement in the integrity of vaginal epithelium in the SB group when both compliant and noncompliant participants were included (odds ratio (OR)=3.1, 95% CI 1.11-8.95). A beneficial trend was observed when only the compliant participants were included (OR=2.9; 95% CI 0.99-8.35). There was a tendency (P=0.08) toward better improvement of vaginal health index from baseline to the end in the SB group [(0.8 (SD 2.8)] compared to placebo [-0.1 (SD 2.0)]. SB oil showed beneficial effects on vaginal health, indicating it is a potential alternative for mucosal integrity for those women not able to use estrogen treatment for vaginal atrophy. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Protection against rat vaginal candidiasis by adoptive transfer of vaginal B lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    De Bernardis, Flavia; Santoni, Giorgio; Boccanera, Maria; Lucciarini, Roberta; Arancia, Silvia; Sandini, Silvia; Amantini, Consuelo; Cassone, Antonio

    2010-06-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a mucosal infection affecting many women, but the immune mechanisms operating against Candida albicans at the mucosal level remain unknown. A rat model was employed to further characterize the contribution of B and T cells to anti-Candida vaginal protection. Particularly, the protective role of vaginal B cells was studied by means of adoptive transfer of vaginal CD3(-) CD5(+) IgM(+) cells from Candida-immunized rats to naïve animals. This passive transfer of B cells resulted into a number of vaginal C. albicans CFU approximately 50% lower than their controls. Sorted CD3(-) CD5(+) IgM(+) vaginal B lymphocytes from Candida-infected rats proliferated in response to stimulation with an immunodominant mannoprotein (MP) antigen of the fungus. Importantly, anti-MP antibodies and antibody-secreting B cells were detected in the supernatant and cell cultures, respectively, of vaginal B lymphocytes from infected rats incubated in vitro with vaginal T cells and stimulated with MP. No such specific antibodies were found when using vaginal B cells from uninfected rats. Furthermore, inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-6 and IL-10, were found in the supernatant of vaginal B cells from infected rats. These data are evidence of a partial anti-Candida protective role of CD3(-) CD5(+) IgM(+) vaginal B lymphocytes in our experimental model.

  2. Effect of vaginal or systemic estrogen on dynamics of collagen assembly in the rat vaginal wall.

    PubMed

    Montoya, T Ignacio; Maldonado, P Antonio; Acevedo, Jesus F; Word, R Ann

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of systemic and local estrogen treatment on collagen assembly and biomechanical properties of the vaginal wall. Ovariectomized nulliparous rats were treated with estradiol or conjugated equine estrogens (CEEs) either systemically, vaginal CEE, or vaginal placebo cream for 4 wk. Low-dose local CEE treatment resulted in increased vaginal epithelial thickness and significant vaginal growth without uterine hyperplasia. Furthermore, vaginal wall distensibility increased without compromise of maximal force at failure. Systemic estradiol resulted in modest increases in collagen type I with no change in collagen type III mRNA. Low-dose vaginal treatment, however, resulted in dramatic increases in both collagen subtypes whereas moderate and high dose local therapies were less effective. Consistent with the mRNA results, low-dose vaginal estrogen resulted in increased total and cross-linked collagen content. The inverse relationship between vaginal dose and collagen expression may be explained in part by progressive downregulation of estrogen receptor-alpha mRNA with increasing estrogen dose. We conclude that, in this menopausal rat model, local estrogen treatment increased total and cross-linked collagen content and markedly stimulated collagen mRNA expression in an inverse dose-effect relationship. High-dose vaginal estrogen resulted in downregulation of estrogen receptor-alpha and loss of estrogen-induced increases in vaginal collagen. These results may have important clinical implications regarding the use of local vaginal estrogen therapy and its role as an adjunctive treatment in women with loss of vaginal support. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  3. Milky Way demographics with the VVV survey. I. The 84-million star colour-magnitude diagram of the Galactic bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, R. K.; Minniti, D.; Dias, B.; Hempel, M.; Rejkuba, M.; Alonso-García, J.; Barbuy, B.; Catelan, M.; Emerson, J. P.; Gonzalez, O. A.; Lucas, P. W.; Zoccali, M.

    2012-08-01

    Context. The Milky Way (MW) bulge is a fundamental Galactic component for understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies, in particular our own. The ESO Public Survey VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea is a deep near-IR survey mapping the Galactic bulge and southern plane. Particularly for the bulge area, VVV is covering ~315 deg2. Data taken during 2010 and 2011 covered the entire bulge area in the JHKs bands. Aims: We used VVV data for the whole bulge area as a single and homogeneous data set to build for the first time a single colour - magnitude diagram (CMD) for the entire Galactic bulge. Methods: Photometric data in the JHKs bands were combined to produce a single and huge data set containing 173 150 467 sources in the three bands, for the ~315 deg2 covered by VVV in the bulge. Selecting only the data points flagged as stellar, the total number of sources is 84 095 284. Results: We built the largest colour-magnitude diagrams published up to date, containing 173.1+ million sources for all data points, and more than 84.0 million sources accounting for the stellar sources only. The CMD has a complex shape, mostly owing to the complexity of the stellar population and the effects of extinction and reddening towards the Galactic centre. The red clump (RC) giants are seen double in magnitude at b ~ -8° -10°, while in the inner part (b ~ -3°) they appear to be spreading in colour, or even splitting into a secondary peak. Stellar population models show the predominance of main-sequence and giant stars. The analysis of the outermost bulge area reveals a well-defined sequence of late K and M dwarfs, seen at (J - Ks) ~ 0.7-0.9 mag and Ks ≳ 14 mag. Conclusions: The interpretation of the CMD yields important information about the MW bulge, showing the fingerprint of its structure and content. We report a well-defined red dwarf sequence in the outermost bulge, which is important for the planetary transit searches of VVV. The double RC in magnitude seen in the

  4. Zinc abundances in Galactic bulge field red giants: Implications for damped Lyman-α systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbuy, B.; Friaça, A. C. S.; da Silveira, C. R.; Hill, V.; Zoccali, M.; Minniti, D.; Renzini, A.; Ortolani, S.; Gómez, A.

    2015-08-01

    Context. Zinc in stars is an important reference element because it is a proxy to Fe in studies of damped Lyman-α systems (DLAs), permitting a comparison of chemical evolution histories of bulge stellar populations and DLAs. In terms of nucleosynthesis, it behaves as an alpha element because it is enhanced in metal-poor stars. Abundance studies in different stellar populations can give hints to the Zn production in different sites. Aims: The aim of this work is to derive the iron-peak element Zn abundances in 56 bulge giants from high resolution spectra. These results are compared with data from other bulge samples, as well as from disk and halo stars, and damped Lyman-α systems, in order to better understand the chemical evolution in these environments. Methods: High-resolution spectra were obtained using FLAMES+UVES on the Very Large Telescope. We computed the Zn abundances using the Zn i lines at 4810.53 and 6362.34 Å. We considered the strong depression in the continuum of the Zn i 6362.34 Å line, which is caused by the wings of the Ca i 6361.79 Å line suffering from autoionization. CN lines blending the Zn i 6362.34 Å line are also included in the calculations. Results: We find [Zn/Fe] = +0.24 ± 0.02 in the range -1.3 < [Fe/H] < -0.5 and [Zn/Fe] = + 0.06 ± 0.02 in the range -0.5 < [Fe/H] < -0.1, whereas for [Fe/H] ≥ -0.1, it shows a spread of -0.60 < [Zn/Fe] < + 0.15, with most of these stars having low [Zn/Fe] < 0.0. These low zinc abundances at the high metallicity end of the bulge define a decreasing trend in [Zn/Fe] with increasing metallicities. A comparison with Zn abundances in DLA systems is presented, where a dust-depletion correction was applied for both Zn and Fe. When we take these corrections into account, the [Zn/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] of the DLAs fall in the same region as the thick disk and bulge stars. Finally, we present a chemical evolution model of Zn enrichment in massive spheroids, representing a typical classical bulge evolution

  5. [POLYGYNAX IN THE TREATMENT OF VAGINAL INFECTIONS IN PREGNANT AND NON-PREGNANT WOMEN--CLINICAL EXPERIENCE].

    PubMed

    Popovski, N; Popovski, K; Nedelkovski, V

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal infections /VI/ represent some of the most common diseases by infection of FGS. The aim of this study is to analyze clinical and bacteriological efficacy of Polygynax in the treatment of vaginal infections and to take into account the correlation between the results of microbiological controls and reduction of clinical symptoms. The study included 100 patients, including 50 pregnant and non-pregnant 50 for a period of 3 months. All of them was diagnosed with vaginitis clinical examination, taken material from vagina for microbiological testing. The studied women was conducted targeted therapy Polygynax 12 capsules, in the form of vaginal capsules for 12 days, after which the sample control microbiology. Behind the subjective complaints of the patient and to reduce them as a result of treatment. The effective implementation of Polygynax 12 capsules is equally good as in non-pregnant and pregnant women. In a summary of the survey data to make relevant analyzes and conclusions from the results.

  6. Vulvar Pain-Associations Between First-Time Vaginal Intercourse, Tampon Insertion, and Later Experiences of Pain.

    PubMed

    Elmerstig, Eva; Thomtén, Johanna

    2016-11-16

    This study examines associations between the first experience of vaginal intercourse/tampon insertion and later experiences of vulvar pain. The study is based on questionnaire data from 1,259 Swedish female senior high-school students, aged 18 to 22 years old. Of these, 592 women reported present vulvar pain. Present vulvar pain was associated with first-time experiences of vaginal intercourse (pain, negative experience, against will) and with pain at tampon insertion. First-time experiences were also related to temporal aspects of present vulvar pain during vaginal intercourse (at the beginning, after a while during, and after). Implications of first-time experiences of vaginal intercourse for future symptoms of vulvar pain are discussed.

  7. Reduced vaginal elasticity, reduced lubrication, and deep and superficial dyspareunia in irradiated gynecological cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Stinesen Kollberg, Karin; Waldenström, Ann-Charlotte; Bergmark, Karin; Dunberger, Gail; Rossander, Anna; Wilderäng, Ulrica; Åvall-Lundqvist, Elisabeth; Steineck, Gunnar

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether or not vaginal elasticity or lack of lubrication is associated with deep or superficial dyspareunia. We investigated gynecological cancer survivors treated with radiation therapy. In a population-based study with 616 women answering a questionnaire (participation rate 78%) and who were treated with radiotherapy for gynecological cancer, we analyzed information from 243 women (39%) who reported that they had had intercourse during the previous six months. Analyses included log-binomial regression (relative risks) and multiple imputations by chained equations in combination with Bayesian Model Averaging, yielding a posterior probability value. Age range of this cancer recurrent-free group of women was 29-80. Dyspareunia affected 164 of 243 of the women (67%). One hundred thirty-four women (55%) reported superficial pain, 97 women (40%) reported deep pain, and 87 women (36%) reported both types of dyspareunia. The relative risk (RR) of deep dyspareunia was 1.87 (CI 1.41-2.49) with impaired vaginal elasticity compared to normal vaginal elasticity. Age and lower abdominal swelling were separate risk factors for deep dyspareunia. However, effects remain after adjusting for these factors. The relative risk of deep dyspareunia was almost twice as high with impaired vaginal elasticity compared to normal vaginal elasticity. If we wish to treat or even prevent deep dyspareunia in women with gynecological cancer, we may use our knowledge of the pathophysiology of deep dyspareunia and increasingly provide dilators together with instructions on how to use them for stretching exercises in order to retain vaginal elasticity. Results highlight the need for studies with more precise questions distinguishing superficial from deep dyspareunia so that in the future we may be able to primarily try to avoid reduced vaginal elasticity and secondarily reduce the symptoms.

  8. Diagnostic Performance of a Molecular Test versus Clinician Assessment of Vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Schwebke, Jane R; Gaydos, Charlotte A; Nyirjesy, Paul; Paradis, Sonia; Kodsi, Salma; Cooper, Charles K

    2018-06-01

    Vaginitis is a common complaint, diagnosed either empirically or using Amsel's criteria and wet mount microscopy. This study sought to determine characteristics of an investigational test (a molecular test for vaginitis), compared to reference, for detection of bacterial vaginosis, Candida spp., and Trichomonas vaginalis Vaginal specimens from a cross-sectional study were obtained from 1,740 women (≥18 years old), with vaginitis symptoms, during routine clinic visits (across 10 sites in the United States). Specimens were analyzed using a commercial PCR/fluorogenic probe-based investigational test that detects bacterial vaginosis, Candida spp., and Trichomonas vaginalis Clinician diagnosis and in-clinic testing (Amsel's test, potassium hydroxide preparation, and wet mount) were also employed to detect the three vaginitis causes. All testing methods were compared to the respective reference methods (Nugent Gram stain for bacterial vaginosis, detection of the Candida gene its2 , and Trichomonas vaginalis culture). The investigational test, clinician diagnosis, and in-clinic testing were compared to reference methods for bacterial vaginosis, Candida spp., and Trichomonas vaginalis The investigational test resulted in significantly higher sensitivity and negative predictive value than clinician diagnosis or in-clinic testing. In addition, the investigational test showed a statistically higher overall percent agreement with each of the three reference methods than did clinician diagnosis or in-clinic testing. The investigational test showed significantly higher sensitivity for detecting vaginitis, involving more than one cause, than did clinician diagnosis. Taken together, these results suggest that a molecular investigational test can facilitate accurate detection of vaginitis. Copyright © 2018 Schwebke et al.

  9. Comparison of clinical diagnosis and microbiological test results in vaginal infections.

    PubMed

    Karaca, M; Bayram, A; Kocoglu, M E; Gocmen, A; Eksi, F

    2005-01-01

    Lower genital tract infections continue to be a problem due to the fact that the clinical diagnosis is usually inadequate, and subsequent care is suboptimal. This study aimed at evaluating the accuracy of clinical diagnosis by comparing it with microbiologic test results, and to determine the causative agents of vaginal infections. Sixty-seven nonpregnant women (18-45 years of age) with the clinical diagnosis of lower genital tract infection were enrolled in the study. Patients were not included if they had a history of vaginal infection during the previous three-month period or intrauterine device. The clinical diagnosis was based on the combinations of symptoms, direct observation of wet mount, homogeneous discharge, vaginal pH > 4.5, and detection of the amine odor after exposure of vaginal secretions to 10% KOH. Vaginal samples were taken with two cotton swabs, one was used for pH determination, and the second was utilized for microbiological tests. Gram staining and cultures with Sabouraud agar and chocolate agar were performed for microbiological diagnosis, and the results were compared. The clinical diagnoses included 26 (38.8%) candidiasis, 18 (26.8%) bacterial vaginosis, three (4.5%) trichomoniasis, and 20 (29.9%) mixed vaginal infections. Of the 26 patients with clinical diagnoses of candidiasis, 12 (46.1%) revealed Candiada albicans, nine (34.6) patients revealed microorganisms other than candida species, and five (19.2%) patients had no growth. Five (27.8%) bacterial vaginosis patients revealed Gardnarella vaginalis and 12 patients (66.6%) did not grow any microorganism. The overall rate of accurate clinical diagnoses confirmed by microbiological test results was 43.2%. Seventeen (43.6) of the 39 microbiological test results correlated with clinical diagnosis, and no growth was observed in 28 (41.8%) cultures. We conclude that the clinical diagnosis of vaginal infection is inadequate and should be confirmed with microbiological testing if the resources

  10. Diagnostic Performance of a Molecular Test versus Clinician Assessment of Vaginitis

    PubMed Central

    Gaydos, Charlotte A.; Nyirjesy, Paul; Paradis, Sonia; Kodsi, Salma; Cooper, Charles K.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vaginitis is a common complaint, diagnosed either empirically or using Amsel's criteria and wet mount microscopy. This study sought to determine characteristics of an investigational test (a molecular test for vaginitis), compared to reference, for detection of bacterial vaginosis, Candida spp., and Trichomonas vaginalis. Vaginal specimens from a cross-sectional study were obtained from 1,740 women (≥18 years old), with vaginitis symptoms, during routine clinic visits (across 10 sites in the United States). Specimens were analyzed using a commercial PCR/fluorogenic probe-based investigational test that detects bacterial vaginosis, Candida spp., and Trichomonas vaginalis. Clinician diagnosis and in-clinic testing (Amsel's test, potassium hydroxide preparation, and wet mount) were also employed to detect the three vaginitis causes. All testing methods were compared to the respective reference methods (Nugent Gram stain for bacterial vaginosis, detection of the Candida gene its2, and Trichomonas vaginalis culture). The investigational test, clinician diagnosis, and in-clinic testing were compared to reference methods for bacterial vaginosis, Candida spp., and Trichomonas vaginalis. The investigational test resulted in significantly higher sensitivity and negative predictive value than clinician diagnosis or in-clinic testing. In addition, the investigational test showed a statistically higher overall percent agreement with each of the three reference methods than did clinician diagnosis or in-clinic testing. The investigational test showed significantly higher sensitivity for detecting vaginitis, involving more than one cause, than did clinician diagnosis. Taken together, these results suggest that a molecular investigational test can facilitate accurate detection of vaginitis. PMID:29643195

  11. Causes and Diagnosis of Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Sokol, Elizabeth; Peddinti, Radhika

    2015-07-01

    Abnormal vaginal bleeding in a postmenarchal adolescent patient is most often related to dysfunctional uterine bleeding. However, there are other potential etiologies, including hematologic disorders, infections, and oncologic problems. We present a 12-year-old girl who presented with prolonged vaginal bleeding and was ultimately diagnosed with rhabdomyosarcoma. In this article, we discuss the approach to a patient with vaginal bleeding along with a more in-depth review of risk stratification in rhabdomyosarcoma, including treatment options such as chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation therapy. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. The Vaginal Microbiota and Urinary Tract Infection.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Ann E

    2016-12-01

    The vagina is a key anatomical site in the pathogenesis of urinary tract infection (UTI) in women, serving as a potential reservoir for infecting bacteria and a site at which interventions may decrease the risk of UTI. The vaginal microbiota is a dynamic and often critical factor in this pathogenic interplay, because changes in the characteristics of the vaginal microbiota resulting in the loss of normally protective Lactobacillus spp. increase the risk of UTI. These alterations may result from the influence of estrogen deficiency, antimicrobial therapy, contraceptives, or other causes. Interventions to reduce adverse effects on the vaginal microbiota and/or to restore protective lactobacilli may reduce the risks of UTI.

  13. Proinflammatory Cytokines as Regulators of Vaginal Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Kremleva, E A; Sgibnev, A V

    2016-11-01

    It was shown that IL-1β, IL-8, and IL-6 in concentrations similar to those in the vagina of healthy women stimulated the growth of normal microflora (Lactobacillus spp.) and suppressed the growth and biofilm production by S. aureus and E. coli. On the contrary, these cytokines in higher concentrations typical of vaginal dysbiosis suppressed normal microflora and stimulated the growth of opportunistic microorganisms. TGF-β1 in both doses produced a stimulating effects on study vaginal microsymbionts. It is hypothesized that pro-inflammatory cytokines serve as the molecules of interspecies communication coordinating the interactions of all components of the vaginal symbiotic system.

  14. Surgical removal of a large vaginal calculus formed after a tension-free vaginal tape procedure.

    PubMed

    Zilberlicht, Ariel; Feiner, Benjamin; Haya, Nir; Auslender, Ron; Abramov, Yoram

    2016-11-01

    Vaginal calculus is a rare disorder which has been reported in association with urethral diverticulum, urogenital sinus anomaly, bladder exstrophy and the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure. We report a 42-year-old woman who presented with persistent, intractable urinary tract infection (UTI) following a TVT procedure. Cystoscopy demonstrated an eroded tape with the formation of a bladder calculus, and the patient underwent laser cystolithotripsy and cystoscopic resection of the tape. Following this procedure, her UTI completely resolved and she remained asymptomatic for several years. Seven years later she presented with a solid vaginal mass. Pelvic examination followed by transvaginal ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a large vaginal calculus located at the lower third of the anterior vaginal wall adjacent to the bladder neck. This video presents the transvaginal excision and removal of the vaginal calculus.

  15. Vaginal Calculus in a Woman With Mixed Urinary Incontinence and Vaginal Mesh Exposure.

    PubMed

    Winkelman, William D; Rabban, Joseph T; Korn, Abner P

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal calculi are extremely rare and are most commonly encountered in the setting of an urethrovaginal or vesicovaginal fistula. We present a case of a 72-year-old woman with mixed urinary incontinence and vaginal mesh exposure incidentally found to have a large vaginal calculus. We removed the calculus surgically and analyzed the components. Results demonstrated the presence of ammonium-magnesium phosphate hexahydrate and carbonate apatite.

  16. The interaction between vaginal microbiota, cervical length, and vaginal progesterone treatment for preterm birth risk.

    PubMed

    Kindinger, Lindsay M; Bennett, Phillip R; Lee, Yun S; Marchesi, Julian R; Smith, Ann; Cacciatore, Stefano; Holmes, Elaine; Nicholson, Jeremy K; Teoh, T G; MacIntyre, David A

    2017-01-19

    Preterm birth is the primary cause of infant death worldwide. A short cervix in the second trimester of pregnancy is a risk factor for preterm birth. In specific patient cohorts, vaginal progesterone reduces this risk. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we undertook a prospective study in women at risk of preterm birth (n = 161) to assess (1) the relationship between vaginal microbiota and cervical length in the second trimester and preterm birth risk and (2) the impact of vaginal progesterone on vaginal bacterial communities in women with a short cervix. Lactobacillus iners dominance at 16 weeks of gestation was significantly associated with both a short cervix <25 mm (n = 15, P < 0.05) and preterm birth <34 +0  weeks (n = 18; P < 0.01; 69% PPV). In contrast, Lactobacillus crispatus dominance was highly predictive of term birth (n = 127, 98% PPV). Cervical shortening and preterm birth were not associated with vaginal dysbiosis. A longitudinal characterization of vaginal microbiota (<18, 22, 28, and 34 weeks) was then undertaken in women receiving vaginal progesterone (400 mg/OD, n = 25) versus controls (n = 42). Progesterone did not alter vaginal bacterial community structure nor reduce L. iners-associated preterm birth (<34 weeks). L. iners dominance of the vaginal microbiota at 16 weeks of gestation is a risk factor for preterm birth, whereas L. crispatus dominance is protective against preterm birth. Vaginal progesterone does not appear to impact the pregnancy vaginal microbiota. Patients and clinicians who may be concerned about "infection risk" associated with the use of a vaginal pessary during high-risk pregnancy can be reassured.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galactic bulge eclipsing & ellipsoidal binaries (Soszynski+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soszynski, I.; Pawlak, M.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Udalski, A.; Szymanski, M. K.; Wyrzykowski, L.; Ulaczyk, K.; Poleski, R.; Kozlowski, S.; Skowron, D. M.; Skowron, J.; Mroz, P.; Hamanowicz, A.

    2018-04-01

    Our collection of binary systems in the Galactic bulge is based on the photometric data collected by the OGLE survey between 1997 and 2015 at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, with the 1.3-m Warsaw Telescope. The observatory is operated by the Carnegie Institution for Science. In 1997-2000, during the OGLE-II stage, about 30 million stars in the area of 11 square degrees in the central parts of the Milky Way were constantly monitored. In 2001, with the beginning of the OGLE-III survey, the sky coverage was extended to nearly 69 square degrees and the number of monitored stars increased to 200 million. Finally, from 2010 until today the OGLE-IV project regularly observes about 400 million stars in 182 square degrees of the densest regions of the Galactic bulge. Our search for eclipsing variables was based primarily on the OGLE-IV data. (4 data files).

  18. The BRAVE Program. I. Improved Bulge Stellar Velocity Dispersion Estimates for a Sample of Active Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batiste, Merida; Bentz, Misty C.; Manne-Nicholas, Emily R.; Onken, Christopher A.; Bershady, Matthew A.

    2017-02-01

    We present new bulge stellar velocity dispersion measurements for 10 active galaxies with secure MBH determinations from reverberation mapping. These new velocity dispersion measurements are based on spatially resolved kinematics from integral-field (IFU) spectroscopy. In all but one case, the field of view of the IFU extends beyond the effective radius of the galaxy, and in the case of Mrk 79 it extends to almost one half the effective radius. This combination of spatial resolution and field of view allows for secure determinations of stellar velocity dispersion within the effective radius for all 10 target galaxies. Spatially resolved maps of the first (V) and second (σ⋆) moments of the line of sight velocity distribution indicate the presence of kinematic substructure in most cases. In future projects we plan to explore methods of correcting for the effects of kinematic substructure in the derived bulge stellar velocity dispersion measurements.

  19. Quantitative studies on the vaginal flora of asymptomatic women and patients with vaginitis and vaginosis.

    PubMed

    Hammann, R; Kronibus, A; Lang, N; Werner, H

    1987-07-01

    Vaginal washings of 22 patients with vaginitis, 11 with vaginosis, and 12 healthy subjects were investigated quantitatively and qualitatively for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and yeasts. Gardnerella vaginalis was recovered from 9 of the vaginitis patients, 7 of the vaginosis patients, and 4 of the asymptomatic subjects. Obligate anaerobes were found in 11 of the vaginitis patients, 4 of the vaginosis patients, and none of the control subjects. Bacteroides bivius was the anaerobe most frequently isolated from symptomatic subjects. Anaerobic vibrios were recovered twice from symptomatic subjects. The counts for Gardnerella vaginalis and anaerobes when present were generally very high. The most frequent aerobes were beta-hemolytic streptococci (group B) and staphylococci.

  20. Prevalence of vaginal candidiasis among pregnant women with abnormal vaginal discharge in Maiduguri.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, S M; Bukar, M; Mohammed, Y; Mohammed, B; Yahaya, M; Audu, B M; Ibrahim, H M; Ibrahim, H A

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy represents a risk factor in the occurrence of vaginal candidiasis. To determine the prevalence and clinical features associated with abnormal vaginal discharge and C. albicans infection in pregnant women. High vaginal swab samples and data on epidemiological characteristics were collected from 400 pregnant women with complaints of abnormal vaginal discharge at booking clinic of University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital. The data was analysed using SPSS 16.0 statistical software. The prevalence of abnormal vaginal discharge in pregnancy was 31.5%. The frequency of abnormal vaginal discharge was 183 (45.8%) among those aged 20-24 years, 291 (72.8%) in multipara, 223 (55.8%) in those with Primary education and 293 (73.2%) in unemployed. Vulval pruritus 300 (75.0%) was significantly related to abnormal vaginal discharge (P < 0.001). The prevalence of C. albicans was 41%. The frequencies of Vulval itching, Dyspareunia and vulval excoriation among those with candidiasis were 151 (50.3%), 14 (56.0%) and 75 (75.0%) respectively (P < 0.001). The prevalence of abnormal vaginal discharge in pregnancy was high in this study and C. albicans was the commonest cause. It is recommended that a pregnant woman complaining of abnormal vaginal discharge be assessed and Laboratory diagnosis done in order to give appropriate treatment.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: APOGEE kinematics. I. Galactic bulge overview (Ness+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ness, M.; Zasowski, G.; Johnson, J. A.; Athanassoula, E.; Majewski, S. R.; Garcia Perez, A. E.; Bird, J.; Nidever, D.; Schneider, D. P.; Sobeck, J.; Frinchaboy, P.; Pan, K.; Bizyaev, D.; Oravetz, D.; Simmons, A.

    2016-05-01

    We use the APOGEE spectra (R=22500) from the SDSS-III Data Release 12 (DR12; Ahn et al. 2014ApJS..211...17A) for about 20000 stars toward the Galactic bulge and surrounding disk. The APOGEE survey, part of the SDSS-III project (Eisenstein et al. 2011AJ....142...72E), operates at the 2.5m telescope of the Apache Point Observatory. (1 data file).

  2. From a structural average to the conformational ensemble of a DNA bulge

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xuesong; Beauchamp, Kyle A.; Harbury, Pehr B.; Herschlag, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Direct experimental measurements of conformational ensembles are critical for understanding macromolecular function, but traditional biophysical methods do not directly report the solution ensemble of a macromolecule. Small-angle X-ray scattering interferometry has the potential to overcome this limitation by providing the instantaneous distance distribution between pairs of gold-nanocrystal probes conjugated to a macromolecule in solution. Our X-ray interferometry experiments reveal an increasing bend angle of DNA duplexes with bulges of one, three, and five adenosine residues, consistent with previous FRET measurements, and further reveal an increasingly broad conformational ensemble with increasing bulge length. The distance distributions for the AAA bulge duplex (3A-DNA) with six different Au-Au pairs provide strong evidence against a simple elastic model in which fluctuations occur about a single conformational state. Instead, the measured distance distributions suggest a 3A-DNA ensemble with multiple conformational states predominantly across a region of conformational space with bend angles between 24 and 85 degrees and characteristic bend directions and helical twists and displacements. Additional X-ray interferometry experiments revealed perturbations to the ensemble from changes in ionic conditions and the bulge sequence, effects that can be understood in terms of electrostatic and stacking contributions to the ensemble and that demonstrate the sensitivity of X-ray interferometry. Combining X-ray interferometry ensemble data with molecular dynamics simulations gave atomic-level models of representative conformational states and of the molecular interactions that may shape the ensemble, and fluorescence measurements with 2-aminopurine-substituted 3A-DNA provided initial tests of these atomistic models. More generally, X-ray interferometry will provide powerful benchmarks for testing and developing computational methods. PMID:24706812

  3. An Optimal Strategy for Accurate Bulge-to-disk Decomposition of Disk Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hua; Ho, Luis C.

    2017-08-01

    The development of two-dimensional (2D) bulge-to-disk decomposition techniques has shown their advantages over traditional one-dimensional (1D) techniques, especially for galaxies with non-axisymmetric features. However, the full potential of 2D techniques has yet to be fully exploited. Secondary morphological features in nearby disk galaxies, such as bars, lenses, rings, disk breaks, and spiral arms, are seldom accounted for in 2D image decompositions, even though some image-fitting codes, such as GALFIT, are capable of handling them. We present detailed, 2D multi-model and multi-component decomposition of high-quality R-band images of a representative sample of nearby disk galaxies selected from the Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey, using the latest version of GALFIT. The sample consists of five barred and five unbarred galaxies, spanning Hubble types from S0 to Sc. Traditional 1D decomposition is also presented for comparison. In detailed case studies of the 10 galaxies, we successfully model the secondary morphological features. Through a comparison of best-fit parameters obtained from different input surface brightness models, we identify morphological features that significantly impact bulge measurements. We show that nuclear and inner lenses/rings and disk breaks must be properly taken into account to obtain accurate bulge parameters, whereas outer lenses/rings and spiral arms have a negligible effect. We provide an optimal strategy to measure bulge parameters of typical disk galaxies, as well as prescriptions to estimate realistic uncertainties of them, which will benefit subsequent decomposition of a larger galaxy sample.

  4. High resolution infrared spectra of Bulge Globular Clusters: Liller 1, NGC 6553, and Ter 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Origlia, L.; Rich, R. M.; Castro, S. M.

    2001-12-01

    Using the NIRSPEC spectrograph at Keck II, we have obtained echelle spectra covering the range 1.5-1.8μ m for 2 of the brightest giants in Liller 1 and NGC 6553, old metal rich globular clusters in the Galactic bulge. We also report a preliminary analysis for two giants in the obscured bulge globular cluster Ter 5. We use spectrum synthesis for the abundance analysis, and find [Fe/H]=-0.3+/-0.2 and [O/H]=+0.3+/- 0.1 (from the OH lines) for the giants in Liller 1 and NGC 6553. We measure strong lines for the alpha elements Mg, Ca, and Si, but the lower sensitivity of these lines to abundance permits us to only state a general [α /Fe]=+0.3+/-0.2 dex. The composition of the clusters is similar to that of field stars in the bulge and is consistent with a scenario in which the clusters formed early, with rapid enrichment. Our iron abundance for NGC 6553 is poorly consistent with either the low or the high values recently reported in the literature, unless unusally large, or no α -element enhancements are adopted, respectively. We will also present an abundance analsyis for 2 giants in the highly reddened bulge cluster Ter 5, which appears to be near the Solar metallicity. R. Michael Rich acknowledges finacial support from grant AST-0098739, from the National Science Foundation. Data presented herein were obtained at the W.M.Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation. The authors gratefully acknowledge those of Hawaiian ancestry on whose sacred mountain we are privileged to be guests. Without their generous hospitality, none of the observations presented would have been possible.

  5. New VVV Survey Globular Cluster Candidates in the Milky Way Bulge

    SciTech Connect

    Minniti, Dante; Gómez, Matías; Geisler, Douglas

    It is likely that a number of Galactic globular clusters remain to be discovered, especially toward the Galactic bulge. High stellar density combined with high and differential interstellar reddening are the two major problems for finding globular clusters located toward the bulge. We use the deep near-IR photometry of the VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) Survey to search for globular clusters projected toward the Galactic bulge, and hereby report the discovery of 22 new candidate globular clusters. These objects, detected as high density regions in our maps of bulge red giants, are confirmed as globular cluster candidates bymore » their color–magnitude diagrams. We provide their coordinates as well as their near-IR color–magnitude diagrams, from which some basic parameters are derived, such as reddenings and heliocentric distances. The color–magnitude diagrams reveal well defined red giant branches in all cases, often including a prominent red clump. The new globular cluster candidates exhibit a variety of extinctions (0.06 < A {sub Ks} < 2.77) and distances (5.3 < D < 9.5 kpc). We also classify the globular cluster candidates into 10 metal-poor and 12 metal-rich clusters, based on the comparison of their color–magnitude diagrams with those of known globular clusters also observed by the VVV Survey. Finally, we argue that the census for Galactic globular clusters still remains incomplete, and that many more candidate globular clusters (particularly the low luminosity ones) await to be found and studied in detail in the central regions of the Milky Way.« less

  6. The diffuse molecular component in the nuclear bulge of the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riquelme, D.; Bronfman, L.; Mauersberger, R.; Finger, R.; Henkel, C.; Wilson, T. L.; Cortés-Zuleta, P.

    2018-02-01

    Context. The bulk of the molecular gas in the central molecular zone (CMZ) of the Galactic center region shows warm kinetic temperatures, ranging from >20 K in the coldest and densest regions (n 104-5 cm-3) up to more than 100 K for densities of about n 103 cm-3. Recently, a more diffuse, hotter (n 100 cm-3, T 250 K) gas component was discovered through absorption observations of H3+. This component may be widespread in the Galactic center, and low density gas detectable in absorption may be present even outside the CMZ along sightlines crossing the extended bulge of the Galaxy. Aim. We aim to observe and characterize diffuse and low density gas using observations of 3-mm molecular transitions seen in absorption. Methods: Using the Atacama Large (sub)Millimeter Array (ALMA) we observed the absorption against the quasar J1744-312, which is located toward the Galactic bulge region at (l, b) = (-2̊.13, -1̊.0), but outside the main molecular complexes. Results: ALMA observations in absorption against the J1744-312 quasar reveal a rich and complex chemistry in low density molecular and presumably diffuse clouds. We detected three velocity components at 0, -153, and -192 km s-1. The component at 0 km s-1 could represent gas in the Galactic disk while the velocity components at -153, and -192 km s-1 likely originate from the Galactic bulge. We detected 12 molecules in the survey, but only 7 in the Galactic bulge gas. This paper makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2012.1.00119.S. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA) and NINS (Japan), together with NRC (Canada), NSC and ASIAA (Taiwan), and KASI (Republic of Korea), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, AUI/NRAO, and NAOJ.

  7. Two Red Clumps and the X-shaped Milky Way Bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McWilliam, Andrew; Zoccali, Manuela

    2010-12-01

    From Two Micron All Sky Survey infrared photometry, we find two red clump (RC) populations coexisting in fields toward the Galactic bulge at latitudes |b|>5fdg5, ranging over ~13° in longitude and 20° in latitude. These RC peaks indicate two stellar populations separated by ~2.3 kpc at (l, b) = (+1, - 8) the two RCs are located at 6.5 and 8.8 ± 0.2 kpc. The double-peaked RC is inconsistent with a tilted bar morphology. Most of our fields show the two RCs at roughly constant distance with longitude, also inconsistent with a tilted bar; however, an underlying bar may be present. Stellar densities in the two RCs change dramatically with longitude: on the positive longitude side the foreground RC is dominant, while the background RC dominates negative longitudes. A line connecting the maxima of the foreground and background populations is tilted to the line of sight by ~20°±4°, similar to claims for the tilt of a Galactic bar. The distance between the two RCs decreases toward the Galactic plane; seen edge-on the bulge is X-shaped, resembling some extragalactic bulges and the results of N-body simulations. The center of this X is consistent with the distance to the Galactic center, although better agreement would occur if the bulge is 2-3 Gyr younger than 47 Tuc. Our observations may be understood if the two RC populations emanate, nearly tangentially, from the Galactic bar ends, in a funnel shape. Alternatively, the X, or double funnel, may continue to the Galactic center. From the Sun, this would appear peanut/box shaped, but X-shaped when viewed tangentially.

  8. An Optimal Strategy for Accurate Bulge-to-disk Decomposition of Disk Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Hua; Ho, Luis C.

    The development of two-dimensional (2D) bulge-to-disk decomposition techniques has shown their advantages over traditional one-dimensional (1D) techniques, especially for galaxies with non-axisymmetric features. However, the full potential of 2D techniques has yet to be fully exploited. Secondary morphological features in nearby disk galaxies, such as bars, lenses, rings, disk breaks, and spiral arms, are seldom accounted for in 2D image decompositions, even though some image-fitting codes, such as GALFIT, are capable of handling them. We present detailed, 2D multi-model and multi-component decomposition of high-quality R -band images of a representative sample of nearby disk galaxies selected from the Carnegie-Irvine Galaxymore » Survey, using the latest version of GALFIT. The sample consists of five barred and five unbarred galaxies, spanning Hubble types from S0 to Sc. Traditional 1D decomposition is also presented for comparison. In detailed case studies of the 10 galaxies, we successfully model the secondary morphological features. Through a comparison of best-fit parameters obtained from different input surface brightness models, we identify morphological features that significantly impact bulge measurements. We show that nuclear and inner lenses/rings and disk breaks must be properly taken into account to obtain accurate bulge parameters, whereas outer lenses/rings and spiral arms have a negligible effect. We provide an optimal strategy to measure bulge parameters of typical disk galaxies, as well as prescriptions to estimate realistic uncertainties of them, which will benefit subsequent decomposition of a larger galaxy sample.« less

  9. Chemically Dissected Rotation Curves of the Galactic Bulge from Main-sequence Proper Motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarkson, William I.; Calamida, Annalisa; Sahu, Kailash C.; Brown, Thomas M.; Gennaro, Mario; Avila, Roberto J.; Valenti, Jeff; Debattista, Victor P.; Rich, R. Michael; Minniti, Dante; Zoccali, Manuela; Aufdemberge, Emily R.

    2018-05-01

    We report results from an exploratory study implementing a new probe of Galactic evolution using archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging observations. Precise proper motions are combined with photometric relative metallicity and temperature indices, to produce the proper-motion rotation curves of the Galactic bulge separately for metal-poor and metal-rich main-sequence samples. This provides a “pencil-beam” complement to large-scale wide-field surveys, which to date have focused on the more traditional bright giant branch tracers. We find strong evidence that the Galactic bulge rotation curves drawn from “metal-rich” and “metal-poor” samples are indeed discrepant. The “metal-rich” sample shows greater rotation amplitude and a steeper gradient against line-of-sight distance, as well as possibly a stronger central concentration along the line of sight. This may represent a new detection of differing orbital anisotropy between metal-rich and metal-poor bulge objects. We also investigate selection effects that would be implied for the longitudinal proper-motion cut often used to isolate a “pure-bulge” sample. Extensive investigation of synthetic stellar populations suggests that instrumental and observational artifacts are unlikely to account for the observed rotation curve differences. Thus, proper-motion-based rotation curves can be used to probe chemodynamical correlations for main-sequence tracer stars, which are orders of magnitude more numerous in the Galactic bulge than the bright giant branch tracers. We discuss briefly the prospect of using this new tool to constrain detailed models of Galactic formation and evolution. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope and obtained from the data archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute. STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  10. The Formation Of Bulges, Discs And Two Component Galaxies In The CANDELS Survey At z<3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margaleff Bentabol, Berta; Conselice, Christopher; CANDELS Team

    2016-09-01

    The most massive galaxies in the local Universe can be classified as disk-dominated and spheroid-dominated (i.e. Hubble type). However, it is unclear how and when these dominant structures form and the possible connection between them. To address this issue we have investigated massive galaxies (logM>10) in the CANDELS fields at the epoch of 1bulge and an `outer part' or disc (2 components). I will show in this talk that the most massive galaxies are more likely to consist of a bulge and a disk compared to lower mass galaxies. The number of such 2-component systems decreases at higher redshift; by a factor of 3 from z=1 to z=3. We find that single `disc-like' galaxies have the highest relative number densities at all redshifts, and that 2-component galaxies have the greatest increase and become at par with discs by z = 1. We also find that the 2I component systems have an increase in the sizes of their outer components, or `discs' by about a factor of three from z = 3 to z = 1.5, while the inner components or `bulges' stay roughly the same size. This suggests that these systems are growing from the inside out, whilst the bulges or protobulges are in place early in the history of these galaxies.

  11. SDSS-IV MaNGA: bulge-disc decomposition of IFU data cubes (BUDDI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Evelyn J.; Häußler, Boris; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Merrifield, Michael R.; Bamford, Steven; Bershady, Matthew A.; Bundy, Kevin; Drory, Niv; Fu, Hai; Law, David; Nitschelm, Christian; Thomas, Daniel; Roman Lopes, Alexandre; Wake, David; Yan, Renbin

    2017-02-01

    With the availability of large integral field unit (IFU) spectral surveys of nearby galaxies, there is now the potential to extract spectral information from across the bulges and discs of galaxies in a systematic way. This information can address questions such as how these components built up with time, how galaxies evolve and whether their evolution depends on other properties of the galaxy such as its mass or environment. We present bulge-disc decomposition of IFU data cubes (BUDDI), a new approach to fit the two-dimensional light profiles of galaxies as a function of wavelength to extract the spectral properties of these galaxies' discs and bulges. The fitting is carried out using GALFITM, a modified form of GALFIT which can fit multiwaveband images simultaneously. The benefit of this technique over traditional multiwaveband fits is that the stellar populations of each component can be constrained using knowledge over the whole image and spectrum available. The decomposition has been developed using commissioning data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-IV Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO (MaNGA) survey with redshifts z < 0.14 and coverage of at least 1.5 effective radii for a spatial resolution of 2.5 arcsec full width at half-maximum and field of view of > 22 arcsec, but can be applied to any IFU data of a nearby galaxy with similar or better spatial resolution and coverage. We present an overview of the fitting process, the results from our tests, and we finish with example stellar population analyses of early-type galaxies from the MaNGA survey to give an indication of the scientific potential of applying bulge-disc decomposition to IFU data.

  12. Quasiperiodic oscillations in bright galactic-bulge X-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, F. K.; Shibazaki, N.; Alpar, M. A.; Shaham, J.

    1985-01-01

    Quasiperiodic oscillations with frequencies in the range 5-50 Hz have recently been discovered in X-rays from two bright galactic-bulge sources and Sco X-1. These sources are weakly magnetic neutron stars accreting from disks which the plasma is clumped. The interaction of the magnetosphere with clumps in the inner disk causes oscillations in the X-ray flux with many of the properties observed.

  13. New VVV Survey Globular Cluster Candidates in the Milky Way Bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minniti, Dante; Geisler, Douglas; Alonso-García, Javier; Palma, Tali; Beamín, Juan Carlos; Borissova, Jura; Catelan, Marcio; Clariá, Juan J.; Cohen, Roger E.; Contreras Ramos, Rodrigo; Dias, Bruno; Fernández-Trincado, Jose G.; Gómez, Matías; Hempel, Maren; Ivanov, Valentin D.; Kurtev, Radostin; Lucas, Phillip W.; Moni-Bidin, Christian; Pullen, Joyce; Ramírez Alegría, Sebastian; Saito, Roberto K.; Valenti, Elena

    2017-11-01

    It is likely that a number of Galactic globular clusters remain to be discovered, especially toward the Galactic bulge. High stellar density combined with high and differential interstellar reddening are the two major problems for finding globular clusters located toward the bulge. We use the deep near-IR photometry of the VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) Survey to search for globular clusters projected toward the Galactic bulge, and hereby report the discovery of 22 new candidate globular clusters. These objects, detected as high density regions in our maps of bulge red giants, are confirmed as globular cluster candidates by their color-magnitude diagrams. We provide their coordinates as well as their near-IR color-magnitude diagrams, from which some basic parameters are derived, such as reddenings and heliocentric distances. The color-magnitude diagrams reveal well defined red giant branches in all cases, often including a prominent red clump. The new globular cluster candidates exhibit a variety of extinctions (0.06 < A Ks < 2.77) and distances (5.3 < D < 9.5 kpc). We also classify the globular cluster candidates into 10 metal-poor and 12 metal-rich clusters, based on the comparison of their color-magnitude diagrams with those of known globular clusters also observed by the VVV Survey. Finally, we argue that the census for Galactic globular clusters still remains incomplete, and that many more candidate globular clusters (particularly the low luminosity ones) await to be found and studied in detail in the central regions of the Milky Way. Based on observations taken within the ESO programs 179.B-2002 and 298.D-5048.

  14. Chemical Abundances of Planetary Nebulae in the Bulge and Disk of M31

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacoby, George H.; Ciardullo, Robin

    1998-01-01

    We derive abundances and central star parameters for 15 planetary nebulae (PNe) in M31: 12 in the bulge and 3 in a disk field 14 kpc from the nucleus. No single abundance value characterizes the bulge stars: although the median abundances of the sample are similar to those seen for PNe in the LMC, the distribution of abundances is several times broader, spanning over 1 decade. None of the PNe in our sample approach the super metal-rich ([Fe/H] approximately 0.25) expectations for the bulge of M31, although a few PNe in the sample of Stasinska, Richer, & Mc Call (1998) come close. This [O/H] vs [Fe/H] discrepancy is likely due to a combination of factors, including an inability of metal-rich stars to produce bright PNe, a luminosity selection effect, and an abundance gradient in the bulge of M31. We show that PNe that are near the bright limit of the [O III] lambda.5007 planetary nebula luminosity function (PNLF) span nearly a decade in oxygen abundance, and thus, support the use of the PNLF for deriving distances to galaxies (Jacoby 1996) with differing metallicities. We also identify a correlation between central star mass and PN dust formation that partially alleviates any dependence of the PNLF maximum magnitude on population age. Additionally, we identify a spatially compact group of 5 PNe having unusually high O/H; this subgroup may arise from a recent merger, but velocity information is needed to assess the true nature of the objects.

  15. Tidal stripping stellar substructures around four metal-poor globular clusters in the galactic bulge

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, Sang-Hyun; Kang, Minhee; Jung, DooSeok

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the spatial density configuration of stars around four metal-poor globular clusters (NGC 6266, NGC 6626, NGC 6642, and NGC 6723) in the Galactic bulge region using wide-field deep J, H, and K imaging data obtained with the Wide Field Camera near-infrared array on the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope. A statistical weighted filtering algorithm for the stars on the color–magnitude diagram is applied in order to sort cluster member candidates from the field star contamination. In two-dimensional isodensity contour maps of the clusters, we find that all four of the globular clusters exhibit strong evidence of tidally stripped stellarmore » features beyond the tidal radius in the form of tidal tails or small density lobes/chunks. The orientations of the extended stellar substructures are likely to be associated with the effect of dynamic interaction with the Galaxy and the cluster's space motion. The observed radial density profiles of the four globular clusters also describe the extended substructures; they depart from theoretical King and Wilson models and have an overdensity feature with a break in the slope of the profile at the outer region of clusters. The observed results could imply that four globular clusters in the Galactic bulge region have experienced strong environmental effects such as tidal forces or bulge/disk shocks of the Galaxy during the dynamical evolution of globular clusters. These observational results provide further details which add to our understanding of the evolution of clusters in the Galactic bulge region as well as the formation of the Galaxy.« less

  16. Research on Al-alloy sheet forming formability during warm/hot sheet hydroforming based on elliptical warm bulging test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Gaoshen; Wu, Chuanyu; Gao, Zepu; Lang, Lihui; Alexandrov, Sergei

    2018-05-01

    An elliptical warm/hot sheet bulging test under different temperatures and pressure rates was carried out to predict Al-alloy sheet forming limit during warm/hot sheet hydroforming. Using relevant formulas of ultimate strain to calculate and dispose experimental data, forming limit curves (FLCS) in tension-tension state of strain (TTSS) area are obtained. Combining with the basic experimental data obtained by uniaxial tensile test under the equivalent condition with bulging test, complete forming limit diagrams (FLDS) of Al-alloy are established. Using a quadratic polynomial curve fitting method, material constants of fitting function are calculated and a prediction model equation for sheet metal forming limit is established, by which the corresponding forming limit curves in TTSS area can be obtained. The bulging test and fitting results indicated that the sheet metal FLCS obtained were very accurate. Also, the model equation can be used to instruct warm/hot sheet bulging test.

  17. A novel 3D deformation measurement method under optical microscope for micro-scale bulge-test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Dan; Xie, Huimin

    2017-11-01

    A micro-scale 3D deformation measurement method combined with optical microscope is proposed in this paper. The method is based on gratings and phase shifting algorithm. By recording the grating images before and after deformation from two symmetrical angles and calculating the phases of the grating patterns, the 3D deformation field of the specimen can be extracted from the phases of the grating patterns. The proposed method was applied to the micro-scale bulge test. A micro-scale thermal/mechanical coupling bulge-test apparatus matched with the super-depth microscope was exploited. With the gratings fabricated onto the film, the deformed morphology of the bulged film was measured reliably. The experimental results show that the proposed method and the exploited bulge-test apparatus can be used to characterize the thermal/mechanical properties of the films at micro-scale successfully.

  18. Vaginal Bleeding: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bleeding (American Academy of Family Physicians) Also in Spanish Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (Beyond the Basics) (UpToDate) Abnormal ... College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists) - PDF Also in Spanish Vaginal Bleeding (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and ...

  19. Application of vaginal temperature measurement in bitches.

    PubMed

    Maeder, B; Arlt, S; Burfeind, O; Heuwieser, W

    2012-12-01

    Finding innovative, non-invasive methods for continuously measuring body temperature minimizing human interference is important for accurate data collection. The objective of this study was to assess feasibility and accuracy of continuous body temperature measurements with loggers placed in the vaginal cavity of bitches. First, an in vitro experiment was performed to compare values obtained by temperature loggers (n = 26) to a calibrated liquid-in-glass thermometer. The mean differences between the two methods were low. Next, an in vivo experiment was performed using five healthy bitches, and values obtained by the vaginal loggers were compared to measurements collected rectally with digital thermometers. The results show that rectal and vaginal temperatures were correlated. The mean differences between rectal and vaginal temperatures were negligible. We conclude that the utilized temperature loggers provide accurate and reliable data. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Vaginal Discharge: What's Normal, What's Not

    MedlinePlus

    ... Discharge? Vaginal infections, such as bacterial vaginosis , candidiasis ( yeast infection ), and trichomoniasis are common causes of abnormal ... having sex, such as bacterial vaginosis or a yeast infection. If you notice any changes in your ...

  1. Vaginal itching and discharge - Adult and adolescent

    MedlinePlus

    ... 003158.htm Vaginal itching and discharge - adult and adolescent To use the sharing features on this page, ... fabric softeners, feminine sprays, ointments, creams, douches, and contraceptive foams or jellies or creams. This may irritate ...

  2. 21 CFR 884.3900 - Vaginal stent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... stent. (a) Identification. A vaginal stent is a device used to enlarge the vagina by stretching, or to support the vagina and to hold a skin graft after reconstructive surgery. (b) Classification. Class II...

  3. 21 CFR 884.3900 - Vaginal stent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... stent. (a) Identification. A vaginal stent is a device used to enlarge the vagina by stretching, or to support the vagina and to hold a skin graft after reconstructive surgery. (b) Classification. Class II...

  4. 21 CFR 884.3900 - Vaginal stent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... stent. (a) Identification. A vaginal stent is a device used to enlarge the vagina by stretching, or to support the vagina and to hold a skin graft after reconstructive surgery. (b) Classification. Class II...

  5. 21 CFR 884.3900 - Vaginal stent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... stent. (a) Identification. A vaginal stent is a device used to enlarge the vagina by stretching, or to support the vagina and to hold a skin graft after reconstructive surgery. (b) Classification. Class II...

  6. Vaginal birth after C-section

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000589.htm Vaginal birth after C-section To use the sharing features on this ... enable JavaScript. If you had a cesarean birth (C-section) before, it does not mean that you ...

  7. Optical clearing of vaginal tissues in cadavers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chun-Hung; Hardy, Luke A.; Peters, Michael G.; Bastawros, Dina A.; Myers, Erinn M.; Kennelly, Michael J.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2018-02-01

    A nonsurgical laser procedure is being developed for treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Previous studies in porcine vaginal tissues, ex vivo, as well as computer simulations, showed the feasibility of using near-infrared laser energy delivered through a transvaginal contact cooling probe to thermally remodel endopelvic fascia, while preserving the vaginal wall from thermal damage. This study explores optical properties of vaginal tissue in cadavers as an intermediate step towards future pre-clinical and clinical studies. Optical clearing of tissue using glycerol resulted in a 15-17% increase in optical transmission after 11 min at room temperature (and a calculated 32.5% increase at body temperature). Subsurface thermal lesions were created using power of 4.6 - 6.4 W, 5.2-mm spot, and 30 s irradiation time, resulting in partial preservation of vaginal wall to 0.8 - 1.1 mm depth.

  8. DISCOVERY OF RR LYRAE STARS IN THE NUCLEAR BULGE OF THE MILKY WAY

    SciTech Connect

    Minniti, Dante; Ramos, Rodrigo Contreras; Zoccali, Manuela

    Galactic nuclei, such as that of the Milky Way, are extreme regions with high stellar densities, and in most cases, the hosts of a supermassive black hole. One of the scenarios proposed for the formation of the Galactic nucleus is merging of primordial globular clusters. An implication of this model is that this region should host stars that are characteristically found in old Milky Way globular clusters. RR Lyrae stars are primary distance indicators, well known representatives of old and metal-poor stellar populations, and therefore are regularly found in globular clusters. Here we report the discovery of a dozen RRmore » Lyrae type ab stars in the vicinity of the Galactic center, i.e., in the so-called nuclear stellar bulge of the Milky Way. This discovery provides the first direct observational evidence that the Galactic nuclear stellar bulge contains ancient stars (>10 Gyr old). Based on this we conclude that merging globular clusters likely contributed to the build-up of the high stellar density in the nuclear stellar bulge of the Milky Way.« less

  9. Laser-bulge based ultrasonic bonding method for fabricating multilayer thermoplastic microfluidic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Chao; Liu, Chong; Liu, Ziyang; Meng, Fanjian; Li, Jingmin

    2017-11-01

    Ultrasonic bonding is a commonly-used method for fabrication of thermoplastic microfluidic devices. However, due to the existence of the energy director (a convex structure to concentrate the ultrasonic energy), it is difficult to control its molten polymer flow, which may result in a small gap between the bonding interface or microchannel clogging. In this paper, we present an approach to address these issues. Firstly, the microchannels were patterned onto the PMMA sheets using hot embossing with the wire electrical discharge machined molds. Then, a small bulge, which was formed at the edge of the laser-ablated groove (LG), was generated around the microchannel using a CO2 laser ablation system. By using the bulge to concentrate the ultrasonic energy, there was no need for fabricating the complicated and customized energy director. When the bulge was melted, it was able to flow into the LG which overcame the ‘gap’ and ‘clogging’ problems. Here, two types of two-layer microfluidic devices and a five-layer micromixer were fabricated to validate its performance. Our results showed that these thermoplastic microdevices can be successfully bonded by using this method. The liquid leakage was not observed in both the capillary-driven flowing test and the pressure-driven mixing experiments. It is a potential method for bonding the thermoplastic microfluidic devices.

  10. Star formation history of the Galactic bulge from deep HST imaging of low reddening windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Edouard J.; Schultheis, Mathias; Di Matteo, Paola; Hill, Vanessa; Haywood, Misha; Calamida, Annalisa

    2018-04-01

    Despite the huge amount of photometric and spectroscopic efforts targetting the Galactic bulge over the past few years, its age distribution remains controversial owing to both the complexity of determining the age of individual stars and the difficult observing conditions. Taking advantage of the recent release of very deep, proper-motion-cleaned colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of four low reddening windows obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), we used the CMD-fitting technique to calculate the star formation history (SFH) of the bulge at -2° > b > -4° along the minor axis. We find that over 80 percent of the stars formed before 8 Gyr ago, but that a significant fraction of the super-solar metallicity stars are younger than this age. Considering only the stars that are within reach of the current generation of spectrographs (i.e. V≲ 21), we find that 10 percent of the bulge stars are younger than 5 Gyr, while this fraction rises to 20-25 percent in the metal-rich peak. The age-metallicity relation is well parametrized by a linear fit implying an enrichment rate of dZ/dt ˜ 0.005 Gyr-1. Our metallicity distribution function accurately reproduces that observed by several spectroscopic surveys of Baade's window, with the bulk of stars having metal-content in the range [Fe/H]˜-0.7 to ˜0.6, along with a sparse tail to much lower metallicities.

  11. Star formation history of the Galactic bulge from deep HST imaging of low reddening windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Edouard J.; Schultheis, Mathias; Di Matteo, Paola; Hill, Vanessa; Haywood, Misha; Calamida, Annalisa

    2018-07-01

    Despite the huge amount of photometric and spectroscopic efforts targeting the Galactic bulge over the past few years, its age distribution remains controversial owing to both the complexity of determining the age of individual stars and the difficult observing conditions. Taking advantage of the recent release of very deep, proper-motion-cleaned colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of four low reddening windows obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), we used the CMD-fitting technique to calculate the star formation history (SFH) of the bulge at -2° > b > -4° along the minor axis. We find that over 80 per cent of the stars formed before 8 Gyr ago, but that a significant fraction of the super-solar metallicity stars are younger than this age. Considering only the stars that are within reach of the current generation of spectrographs (i.e. V≲ 21), we find that 10 per cent of the bulge stars are younger than 5 Gyr, while this fraction rises to 20-25 per cent in the metal-rich peak. The age-metallicity relation is well parametrized by a linear fit, implying an enrichment rate of dZ/dt ˜ 0.005 Gyr-1. Our metallicity distribution function accurately reproduces that observed by several spectroscopic surveys of Baade's window, with the bulk of stars having metal content in the range [Fe/H]˜-0.7 to ˜0.6, along with a sparse tail to much lower metallicities.

  12. Nonlinear Local Bending Response and Bulging Factors for Longitudinal and Circumferential Cracks in Pressurized Cylindrical Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Richard D.; Rose, Cheryl A.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Results of a geometrically nonlinear finite element parametric study to determine curvature correction factors or bulging factors that account for increased stresses due to curvature for longitudinal and circumferential cracks in unstiffened pressurized cylindrical shells are presented. Geometric parameters varied in the study include the shell radius, the shell wall thickness, and the crack length. The major results are presented in the form of contour plots of the bulging factor as a function of two nondimensional parameters: the shell curvature parameter, lambda, which is a function of the shell geometry, Poisson's ratio, and the crack length; and a loading parameter, eta, which is a function of the shell geometry, material properties, and the applied internal pressure. These plots identify the ranges of the shell curvature and loading parameters for which the effects of geometric nonlinearity are significant. Simple empirical expressions for the bulging factor are then derived from the numerical results and shown to predict accurately the nonlinear response of shells with longitudinal and circumferential cracks. The numerical results are also compared with analytical solutions based on linear shallow shell theory for thin shells, and with some other semi-empirical solutions from the literature, and limitations on the use of these other expressions are suggested.

  13. The population of single and binary white dwarfs of the Galactic bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, S.; García-Berro, E.; Cojocaru, R.; Calamida, A.

    2018-05-01

    Recent Hubble Space Telescope observations have unveiled the white dwarf cooling sequence of the Galactic bulge. Although the degenerate sequence can be well fitted employing the most up-to-date theoretical cooling sequences, observations show a systematic excess of red objects that cannot be explained by the theoretical models of single carbon-oxygen white dwarfs of the appropriate masses. Here, we present a population synthesis study of the white dwarf cooling sequence of the Galactic bulge that takes into account the populations of both single white dwarfs and binary systems containing at least one white dwarf. These calculations incorporate state-of-the-art cooling sequences for white dwarfs with hydrogen-rich and hydrogen-deficient atmospheres, for both white dwarfs with carbon-oxygen and helium cores, and also take into account detailed prescriptions of the evolutionary history of binary systems. Our Monte Carlo simulator also incorporates all the known observational biases. This allows us to model with a high degree of realism the white dwarf population of the Galactic bulge. We find that the observed excess of red stars can be partially attributed to white dwarf plus main sequence binaries, and to cataclysmic variables or dwarf novae. Our best fit is obtained with a higher binary fraction and an initial mass function slope steeper than standard values, as well as with the inclusion of differential reddening and blending. Our results also show that the possible contribution of double degenerate systems or young and thick-discbulge stars is negligible.

  14. POWERFUL RADIO EMISSION FROM LOW-MASS SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES FAVORS DISK-LIKE BULGES

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Xu, Y.; Xu, D. W.

    The origin of spin of low-mass supermassive black holes (SMBHs) is still a puzzle at present. We report here a study on the host galaxies of a sample of radio-selected nearby ( z < 0.05) Seyfert 2 galaxies with a BH mass of 10{sup 6–7} M{sub ⊙}. By modeling the SDSS r -band images of these galaxies through a two-dimensional bulge+disk decomposition, we identify a new dependence of SMBH's radio power on host bulge surface brightness profiles, in which more powerful radio emission comes from an SMBH associated with a more disk-like bulge. This result means low-mass and high-mass SMBHsmore » are spun up by two entirely different modes that correspond to two different evolutionary paths. A low-mass SMBH is spun up by a gas accretion with significant disk-like rotational dynamics of the host galaxy in the secular evolution, while a high-mass one by a BH–BH merger in the merger evolution.« less

  15. Mechanics of membrane bulging during cell-wall disruption in Gram-negative bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, Kristopher E.; Huang, Kerwyn Casey; Wingreen, Ned S.; Mukhopadhyay, Ranjan

    2011-04-01

    The bacterial cell wall is a network of sugar strands crosslinked by peptides that serve as the primary structure for bearing osmotic stress. Despite its importance in cellular survival, the robustness of the cell wall to network defects has been relatively unexplored. Treatment of the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli with the antibiotic vancomycin, which disrupts the crosslinking of new material during growth, leads to the development of pronounced bulges and eventually of cell lysis. Here, we model the mechanics of the bulging of the cytoplasmic membrane through pores in the cell wall. We find that the membrane undergoes a transition between a nearly flat state and a spherical bulge at a critical pore radius of ~20 nm. This critical pore size is large compared to the typical distance between neighboring peptides and glycan strands, and hence pore size acts as a constraint on network integrity. We also discuss the general implications of our model to membrane deformations in eukaryotic blebbing and vesiculation in red blood cells.

  16. The extended stellar substructures of four metal-poor globular clusters in the galactic bulge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Sang-Hyun; Sohn, Young-Jong

    2015-08-01

    We investigated stellar spatial density distribution around four metal-poor globular clusters (NGC 6266, NGC 6626, NGC 6642 and NGC 6723) in order to find extended stellar substructures. Wide-field deep J, H, and K imaging data were taken using the WFCAM near-infrared array on United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT). The contamination of field stars around clusters was minimised by applying a statistical weighted filtering algorithm for the stars on the color-magnitude diagram. In two-dimensional isodensity contour map, we find that all four of the globular clusters shows tidal stripping stellar features in the form of tidal tails (NGC 6266 and NGC 6723) or small density lobes/chunk (NGC 6642 and NGC 6723). The stellar substructures extend toward the Galactic centre or anticancer, and the proper motion direction of the clusters. The radial density profiles of the clusters also depart from theoretical King and Wilson models and show overdensity feature with a break in a slope of profile at the outer region of clusters. The observed results indicate that four globular clusters in the Galactic bulge have experienced strong tidal force or bulge/disk shock effect of the Galaxy. These observational results provide us further constraints to understand the evolution of clusters in the Galactic bulge region as well as the formation of the Galaxy.

  17. Near-infrared counterparts to the Galactic Bulge Survey X-ray source population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiss, S.; Steeghs, D.; Jonker, P. G.; Torres, M. A. P.; Maccarone, T. J.; Hynes, R. I.; Britt, C. T.; Nelemans, G.; Gänsicke, B. T.

    2014-03-01

    We report on the near-infrared matches, drawn from three surveys, to the 1640 unique X-ray sources detected by Chandra in the Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS). This survey targets faint X-ray sources in the bulge, with a particular focus on accreting compact objects. We present all viable counterpart candidates and associate a false alarm probability (FAP) to each near-infrared match in order to identify the most likely counterparts. The FAP takes into account a statistical study involving a chance alignment test, as well as considering the positional accuracy of the individual X-ray sources. We find that although the star density in the bulge is very high, ˜90 per cent of our sources have an FAP <10 per cent, indicating that for most X-ray sources, viable near-infrared counterparts candidates can be identified. In addition to the FAP, we provide positional and photometric information for candidate counterparts to ˜95 per cent of the GBS X-ray sources. This information in combination with optical photometry, spectroscopy and variability constraints will be crucial to characterize and classify secure counterparts.

  18. Vaginal microbiota and viral sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Nardis, C; Mosca, L; Mastromarino, P

    2013-01-01

    Healthy vaginal microbiota is an important biological barrier to pathogenic microorganisms. When this predominantly Lactobacillus community is disrupted, decreased in abundance and replaced by different anaerobes, bacterial vaginosis (BV) may occur. BV is associated with prevalence and incidence of several sexually transmitted infections. This review provides background on BV, discusses the epidemiologic data to support a role of altered vaginal microbiota for acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases and analyzes mechanisms by which lactobacilli could counteract sexually transmitted viral infections.

  19. Effect of vaginal estrogen on pessary use

    PubMed Central

    Dessie, Sybil G.; Armstrong, Katherine; Modest, Anna M.; Hacker, Michele R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis Many providers recommend concurrent estrogen therapy with pessary use to limit complications; however, limited data exist to support this practice. We hypothesized that vaginal estrogen supplementation decreases incidence of pessary-related complications and discontinuation. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of women who underwent a pessary fitting from 1 January 2007 through 1 September 2013 at one institution; participants were identified by billing code and were eligible if they were post-menopausal and had at least 3 months of pessary use and 6 months of follow-up. All tests were two sided, and P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results Data from 199 women were included; 134 used vaginal estrogen and 65 did not. Women who used vaginal estrogen had a longer median follow-up time (29.5 months) compared with women who did not (15.4 months) and were more likely to have at least one pessary check (98.5 % vs 86.2 %, P < 0.001). Those in the estrogen group were less likely to discontinue using their pessary (30.6 % vs 58.5 %, P < 0.001) and less likely to develop increased vaginal discharge than women who did not [hazard ratio (HR) 0.31, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.17–0.58]. Vaginal estrogen was not protective against erosions (HR 0.93, 95 % CI 0.54–1.6) or vaginal bleeding (HR 0.78, 95 % CI 0.36–1.7). Conclusions Women who used vaginal estrogen exhibited a higher incidence of continued pessary use and lower incidence of increased vaginal discharge than women who did not. PMID:26992727

  20. Clinicoetiological Characterization of Infectious Vaginitis amongst Women of Reproductive Age Group from Navi Mumbai, India

    PubMed Central

    Narayankhedkar, Anuradha; Hodiwala, Anahita; Mane, Arati

    2015-01-01

    Vaginitis is one of the commonest reproductive tract infections in sexually active women. In the present study clinicoetiological characterization of infectious vaginitis amongst 380 women of reproductive age group (18–45 years) was done. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) was detected by Nugent's scoring, Candida infection by culture, and trichomoniasis (TV) by wet mount. One hundred and ten (28.9%) women presented with symptoms of vaginitis. The presenting symptoms were vaginal discharge 106 (96.4%), vulval itching/irritation 19 (17.3%), malodor 5 (4.5%), pain in abdomen 3 (2.7%), and dysuria 1 (0.9%). The commonest etiology detected was Candida in 33 (30%) cases, of which 18 (54.5%) were C. albicans and 15 (45.5%) non-albicans Candida (NAC) infections. The NAC isolates were C. glabrata (n = 10), C. tropicalis (n = 3), and C. krusei (n = 2). BV and TV were observed in 19 (17.3%) and 2 (1.8%) cases, respectively. A statistically significant association between Candida infection and presence of curdy-white discharge (p = 0.001) and vulval itching/irritation (p = 0.007) was noted. To conclude, we observed the etiological predominance of Candida infection, with considerable prevalence of NAC, indicating the need for microbiological investigation up to species level in cases of Candida infections, to ensure appropriate management. PMID:26351613

  1. [Intravaginal treatment of colpitis maculosa with an oestriol-containing vaginal cream (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Schröck, A; Kofler, K; Baumgarten, K; Endl, J; Schmidt, J; Tatschl, S

    1981-12-11

    43 patients with colpitis maculosa (average age 60.2 years) were selected for an open control therapeutic study with Ortho-Gynest vaginal cream (Ortho-Cilag). The cream contains 0.5 mg of oestriol per single applicator filling. The treatment lasted from 3 to 4 weeks, success being evaluated by clinical documentation and cytological evaluation of vaginal smears before and after treatment. 10 patients (23.3%) were treated successfully, 29 (67.4%) showed a distinct improvement both clinically and cytologically, whilst the remaining 4 (9.3%) showed only moderate improvement. Hence, 39 patients (90.7%) were classified as having been successfully or partly successfully treated. Severe symptoms disappeared completely or were greatly alleviated in 91.4% cases. Moderate symptoms vanished in 59.7%. 58.1% showed a complete normalisation of the former atrophic vaginal skin. Blood spotting and reddening of the vaginal wall vanished completely. A change from dry to moist vagina occurred in 77.3% patients. Discharge vanished completely in 80.6% cases. No untoward side effects were recorded.

  2. Fractional CO2 Laser: From Skin Rejuvenation to Vulvo-Vaginal Reshaping.

    PubMed

    Filippini, Maurizio; Del Duca, Ester; Negosanti, Francesca; Bonciani, Diletta; Negosanti, Luca; Sannino, Mario; Cannarozzo, Giovanni; Nisticò, Steven Paul

    2017-03-01

    The CO 2 laser has become the gold standard treatment in dermatologic surgery for the treatment of a large number of skin and mucosal lesions. The introduction of the fractional micro-ablative technology represented an integration to the ablative resurfacing technique, reducing the healing time and the side effects. Vaginal rejuvenation performed with this technique is a minimally invasive procedure that stimulates internal tissues of the female lower genital tract to regenerate the mucosa, improving tissue trophism and restoring the correct functionality. In our experience, 386 menopausal women affected with vulvo-vaginal atrophy (VVA) were treated with three section of fractional micro-ablative CO 2 laser. After three treatments, patients reported a complete improvement of the symptoms (59.94% dryness, 56.26% burn, sensation, 48.75% dyspareunia, 56.37% itch, 73.15% soreness, and 48.79% vaginal introitus pain). Fractional micro-ablative CO 2 laser seems to reduce symptoms related to vaginal atrophy. The beneficial effects were reported just after the first session and confirmed 12 months after the last session.

  3. Clinicoetiological Characterization of Infectious Vaginitis amongst Women of Reproductive Age Group from Navi Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Narayankhedkar, Anuradha; Hodiwala, Anahita; Mane, Arati

    2015-01-01

    Vaginitis is one of the commonest reproductive tract infections in sexually active women. In the present study clinicoetiological characterization of infectious vaginitis amongst 380 women of reproductive age group (18-45 years) was done. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) was detected by Nugent's scoring, Candida infection by culture, and trichomoniasis (TV) by wet mount. One hundred and ten (28.9%) women presented with symptoms of vaginitis. The presenting symptoms were vaginal discharge 106 (96.4%), vulval itching/irritation 19 (17.3%), malodor 5 (4.5%), pain in abdomen 3 (2.7%), and dysuria 1 (0.9%). The commonest etiology detected was Candida in 33 (30%) cases, of which 18 (54.5%) were C. albicans and 15 (45.5%) non-albicans Candida (NAC) infections. The NAC isolates were C. glabrata (n = 10), C. tropicalis (n = 3), and C. krusei (n = 2). BV and TV were observed in 19 (17.3%) and 2 (1.8%) cases, respectively. A statistically significant association between Candida infection and presence of curdy-white discharge (p = 0.001) and vulval itching/irritation (p = 0.007) was noted. To conclude, we observed the etiological predominance of Candida infection, with considerable prevalence of NAC, indicating the need for microbiological investigation up to species level in cases of Candida infections, to ensure appropriate management.

  4. Vaginal microbial flora and outcome of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Donati, Laura; Di Vico, Augusto; Nucci, Marta; Quagliozzi, Lorena; Spagnuolo, Terryann; Labianca, Antonietta; Bracaglia, Marina; Ianniello, Francesca; Caruso, Alessandro; Paradisi, Giancarlo

    2010-04-01

    The vaginal microflora of a healthy asymptomatic woman consists of a wide variety of anaerobic and aerobic bacterial genera and species dominated by the facultative, microaerophilic, anaerobic genus Lactobacillus. The activity of Lactobacillus is essential to protect women from genital infections and to maintain the natural healthy balance of the vaginal flora. Increasing evidence associates abnormalities in vaginal flora during pregnancy with preterm labor and delivery with potential neonatal sequelae due to prematurity and poor perinatal outcome. Although this phenomenon is relatively common, even in populations of women at low risk for adverse events, the pathogenetic mechanism that leads to complications in pregnancy is still poorly understood. This review summarizes the current knowledge and uncertainties in defining alterations of vaginal flora in non-pregnant adult women and during pregnancy, and, in particular, investigates the issue of bacterial vaginosis and aerobic vaginitis. This could help specialists to identify women amenable to treatment during pregnancy leading to the possibility to reduce the preterm birth rate, preterm premature rupture of membranes, chorioamnionitis, neonatal, puerperal and maternal-fetal infectious diseases. Vaginal ecosystem study with the detection of pathogens is a key instrument in the prevention of preterm delivery, pPROM, chorioamnionitis, neonatal, puerperal and maternal-fetal infections.

  5. The vaginal microbiome: rethinking health and diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Bing; Forney, Larry J.; Ravel, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Vaginal microbiota form a mutually beneficial relationship with their host and have major impact on health and disease. In recent years our understanding of vaginal bacterial community composition and structure has significantly broadened as a result of investigators using cultivation-independent methods based on the analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences. In asymptomatic, otherwise healthy women, several kinds of vaginal microbiota exist, the majority often dominated by species of Lactobacillus, while others comprise a diverse array of anaerobic microorganisms. Bacterial vaginosis is the most common vaginal conditions and is vaguely characterized as the disruption of the equilibrium of the ‘normal’ vaginal microbiots. A better understanding of ‘normal’ and ‘healthy’ vaginal ecosystems that is based on its ‘true’ function and not simply on its composition would help better define health and further improve disease diagnostics as well as the development of more personalized regimens to promote health and treat diseases. PMID:22746335

  6. THE VERTICAL X-SHAPED STRUCTURE IN THE MILKY WAY: EVIDENCE FROM A SIMPLE BOXY BULGE MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zhaoyu; Shen Juntai, E-mail: jshen@shao.ac.cn

    2012-09-20

    A vertical X-shaped structure in the Galactic bulge was recently reported. Here, we present evidence of a similar X-shaped structure in the Shen et al. 2010 bar/boxy bulge model that simultaneously matches the stellar kinematics successfully. The X-shaped structure is found in the central region of our bar/boxy bulge model and is qualitatively consistent with the observed one in many aspects. End-to-end separations of the X-shaped structure in the radial and vertical directions are roughly 3 kpc and 1.8 kpc, respectively. The X-shaped structure contains about 7% of light in the boxy bulge region, but it is significant enough tomore » be identified in observations. An X-shaped structure naturally arises in the formation of bar/boxy bulges and is mainly associated with orbits trapped around the vertically extended x{sub 1} family. Like the bar in our model, the X-shaped structure tilts away from the Sun-Galactic center line by 20 Degree-Sign . The X-shaped structure becomes increasingly symmetric about the disk plane, so the observed symmetry may indicate that it formed at least a few billion years ago. The existence of the vertical X-shaped structure suggests that the formation of the Milky Way bulge is shaped mainly by internal disk dynamical instabilities.« less

  7. Structure/cleavage-based insights into helical perturbations at bulge sites within T. thermophilus Argonaute silencing complexes

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Gang; Gogakos, Tasos; Wang, Jiuyu; Zhao, Hongtu; Serganov, Artem; Juranek, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We have undertaken a systematic structural study of Thermus thermophilus Argonaute (TtAgo) ternary complexes containing single-base bulges positioned either within the seed segment of the guide or target strands and at the cleavage site. Our studies establish that single-base bulges 7T8, 5A6 and 4A5 on the guide strand are stacked-into the duplex, with conformational changes localized to the bulge site, thereby having minimal impact on the cleavage site. By contrast, single-base bulges 6’U7’ and 6’A7’ on the target strand are looped-out of the duplex, with the resulting conformational transitions shifting the cleavable phosphate by one step. We observe a stable alignment for the looped-out 6’N7’ bulge base, which stacks on the unpaired first base of the guide strand, with the looped-out alignment facilitated by weakened Watson–Crick and reversed non-canonical flanking pairs. These structural studies are complemented by cleavage assays that independently monitor the impact of bulges on TtAgo-mediated cleavage reaction. PMID:28911094

  8. Successful vaginal delivery at term after vaginal reconstruction with labium minus flaps in a patient with vaginal atresia: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Wang, Yi-Feng

    2017-07-01

    We report a case of successful vaginal delivery after vaginal reconstruction with labium minus flaps in a 23-year-old patient with congenital vaginal atresia. The patient primarily presented with amenorrhea and cyclic abdominal pain; transabdominal ultrasonography revealed an enlarged uterus due to hematometra and absence of the lower segment of the vagina. Eight years ago, she had undergone an unsuccessful attempt at canalization at a local hospital. Upon referral to our hospital, she underwent vaginal reconstruction with labium minus flaps. Four months after this procedure, she became pregnant and, subsequently, successfully and safely vaginally delivered a healthy female baby weighing 3250 g at 38 +1 weeks' gestation. The delivery did not involve perineal laceration by lateral episiotomy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of successful vaginal delivery at term after vaginal reconstruction with labium minus flaps in a patient with vaginal atresia. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  9. Plasmasphere dynamics in the duskside bulge region: A new look at old topic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, D. L.; Giles, B. L.; Chappell, C. R.; Decreau, P. M. E.; Anderson, R. R.; Persoon, A. M.; Smith, A. J.; Corcuff, Y.; Canu, P.

    1993-01-01

    Data acquired during several multiday periods in 1982 at ground stations Siple, Halley, and Kerguelen and on satellites Dynamics Explorer 1, International Sun Earth Explorer 1, and GEOS 2 have been used to investigate thermal plasma structure and dynamics in the duskside plasmasphere bulge region of the Earth. The distribution of thermal plasma in the dusk bulge sector is difficult to describe realistically, in part because of the time integral manner in which the thermal plasma distribution depends upon on the effects of bulk cross-B flow and interchange plasma flows along B. While relatively simple MHD models can be useful for qualitatively predicting certain effects of enhanced convection on a quiet plasmasphere, such as an initial sunward entrainment of the outer regions, they are of limited value in predicting the duskside thermal plasma structures that are observed. Furthermore, use of such models can be misleading if one fails to realize that they do not address the question of the formation of the steep plasmapause profile or provide for a possible role of instabilities or other irreversible processes in plasmapause formation. Our specific findings, which are based both upon the present case studies and upon earlier work, include the following: (1) during active periods the plasmasphere appears to become divided into two entities, a main plasmasphere and a duskside bulge region. (2) in the aftermath of an increase in convection activity, the main plasmasphere tends (from a statistical point of view) to become roughly circular in equatorial cross section, with only a slight bulge at dusk; (3) the abrupt westward edge of the duskside bulge observed from whistlers represents a state in the evolution of sunward extending streamers; (4) in the aftermath of a weak magnetic storm, 10 to 30% of the plasma 'removed' from the outer plasmasphere appears to remain in the afternoon-dusk sector beyond the main plasmasphere. (5) outlying dense plasma structures may

  10. X-ray Selected Symbiotic Candidates in the Galactic Bulge Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynes, Robert I.; Wetuski, Joshua` D.; Jonker, Peter; Torres, Manuel; Heinke, Craig O.; Maccarone, Tom; Steeghs, Danny; Britt, Christopher; Johnson, Christopher; Nelemans, Gijs

    2017-06-01

    The Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS) is a broad, shallow survey of Bulge X-ray sources with extensive multiwavelength support. The limiting sensitivity, about 2×1032 erg/s at the Bulge distance, is well suited to finding symbiotic X-ray binaries (SyXBs) containing neutron stars accreting from a cool giant wind, as well as X-ray bright white dwarf systems. Giant counterparts can be securely detected in IR photometry, allowing us to estimate the total number of symbiotics detected by the GBS, and identify a good number of promising candidates. Such an X-ray selected symbiotic sample may be quite different to the traditional symbiotic star population which is usually selected by optical spectroscopy, and consequently biased towards systems with rich line emission. Of the 1640 unique X-ray sources identified by the GBS we find 91 significant matches with candidate Bulge giants. We expect 68 coincidences, so estimate a total sample of about 23 X-ray emitting cool giants detected by the GBS. Most of these are likely to be SyXBs or symbiotics of some type. Narrowing our search to sources coincident to 1", we find 23 matches, with only 8 coincidences expected, so this subsample has a relatively high purity, and likely includes most of the GBS symbiotics. The properties of this subsample are mostly consistent with cool giants, with typical SEDs, long-term lightcurves, and spectra. The sources are inconsistent in color with nearby M dwarfs and show small proper motions, so the foreground contamination is likely small. We present a selection of the best studied objects, focusing on one extremely variable X-ray source coincident with a carbon giant. This is quite an unusual object as carbon stars are rare in the Bulge. The scientific results reported in this article are based on observations made by the Chandra X-ray Observatory and data obtained from the Chandra Data Archive. Support for this work was provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration through Chandra

  11. A large primary vaginal calculus in a woman with paraplegia.

    PubMed

    Avsar, Ayse Filiz; Keskin, Huseyin Levent; Catma, Tuba; Kaya, Basak; Sivaslioglu, Ahmet Akın

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to report a primary vaginal stone, an extremely rare entity, without vesicovaginal fistula in a woman with disability. We describe the case of a large primary vaginal calculus in a 22-year-old woman with paraplegia, which, surprisingly, was not diagnosed until she was examined under general anesthesia during a preparation for laparoscopy for an adnexal mass. The stone had not been identified by physical examination with the patient in a recumbent position or by transabdominal ultrasonography and pelvic tomography during the preoperative preparation. Vaginoscopy was not performed because the vagina was completely filled with the mass. As a result of its size and hard consistency, a right-sided episiotomy was performed and a 136-g stone was removed using ring forceps. A vesicovaginal fistula was excluded. There was no evidence of a foreign body or other nidus on the cut section of the stone, and it was determined to be composed of 100% struvite (ammonium magnesium phosphate). Culture of urine obtained via catheter showed Escherichia coli. After the surgical removal of the calculus without complications, a program of intermittent catheterization was started. The follow-up period was uneventful, and the patient was symptom free at 6 months after the operation. We postulate that the calculus formed as a consequence of urinary contamination of the vagina in association with incontinence and prolonged maintenance in a recumbent posture. This report is important because it highlights that, although vaginal stones are very rare, their possibility should be considered in the differential diagnosis of individuals with long-term paraplegia.

  12. Nonspecific aerobic vaginitis and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Curzik, D; Drazancić, A; Hrgović, Z

    2001-01-01

    During the period 1996-1998, cervical swabs of 50 pregnant women with subacute amniotic infection syndrome (AIS) and the semen of their consorts were bacteriologically analyzed. In the control group were 50 healthy pregnant women and their consorts too. Pathogenic bacteria (the most common were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum) were isolated from the cervical swab of 50 pregnant patients with AIS in 86.0% of them, while in the control group of healthy pregnant women in 28.0%. Pathogenic bacteria were present in 70.0% of semen of consorts pregnant women with AIS and only in 30.0% of semen of the control group. The congruity of pathogenic bacteria in the cervical swab and semen in the investigated group was 69.2%, while only 35.7% in the control group. Following erythromycin, cefuroxime and local tetracyclin treatment, the negativization of the cervical swab resulted in 30 pregnant patients with AIS, while the colonization persisted in 20 of them. The outcome of pregnancy was significantly better in cases with negativization of the cervical swab: perinatal loss was 6.7%, while in cases with persistent infection it was 55.0%. The authors presume the amniotic infection syndrome should be ascending manifestation of nonspecific vaginitis, which is maintained by the consort's urogenital infection. AIS should be classified as a 'sexually-transmitted disease'. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  13. METALLICITY DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS, RADIAL VELOCITIES, AND ALPHA ELEMENT ABUNDANCES IN THREE OFF-AXIS BULGE FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Christian I.; Rich, R. Michael; Kobayashi, Chiaki

    2013-03-10

    We present radial velocities and chemical abundance ratios of [Fe/H], [O/Fe], [Si/Fe], and [Ca/Fe] for 264 red giant branch stars in three Galactic bulge off-axis fields located near (l, b) = (-5.5, -7), (-4, -9), and (+8.5, +9). The results are based on equivalent width and spectrum synthesis analyses of moderate resolution (R Almost-Equal-To 18,000), high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N {approx} 75-300 pixel{sup -1}) spectra obtained with the Hydra spectrographs on the Blanco 4 m and WIYN 3.5 m telescopes. The targets were selected from the blue side of the giant branch to avoid cool stars that would be strongly affectedmore » by CN and TiO; however, a comparison of the color-metallicity distribution in literature samples suggests that our selection of bluer targets should not present a significant bias against metal-rich stars. We find a full range in metallicity that spans [Fe/H] Almost-Equal-To -1.5 to +0.5, and that, in accordance with the previously observed minor-axis vertical metallicity gradient, the median [Fe/H] also declines with increasing Galactic latitude in off-axis fields. The off-axis vertical [Fe/H] gradient in the southern bulge is estimated to be {approx}0.4 dex kpc{sup -1}; however, comparison with the minor-axis data suggests that a strong radial gradient does not exist. The (+8.5, +9) field exhibits a higher than expected metallicity, with a median [Fe/H] = -0.23, that might be related to a stronger presence of the X-shaped bulge structure along that line-of-sight. This could also be the cause of an anomalous increase in the median radial velocity for intermediate metallicity stars in the (+8.5, +9) field. However, the overall radial velocity and dispersion for each field are in good agreement with recent surveys and bulge models. All fields exhibit an identical, strong decrease in velocity dispersion with increasing metallicity that is consistent with observations in similar minor-axis outer bulge fields. Additionally, the [O/Fe], [Si

  14. Vaginal orgasm is associated with vaginal (not clitoral) sex education, focusing mental attention on vaginal sensations, intercourse duration, and a preference for a longer penis.

    PubMed

    Brody, Stuart; Weiss, Petr

    2010-08-01

    Evidence was recently provided for vaginal orgasm, orgasm triggered purely by penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI), being associated with better psychological functioning. Common sex education and sexual medicine approaches might undermine vaginal orgasm benefits. To examine the extent to which women's vaginal orgasm consistency is associated with (i) being told in childhood or adolescence that the vagina was the important zone for inducing female orgasm; (ii) how well they focus mentally on vaginal sensations during PVI; (iii) greater PVI duration; and (iv) preference for above-average penis length.   In a representative sample of the Czech population, 1,000 women reported their vaginal orgasm consistency (from never to almost every time; only 21.9% never had a vaginal orgasm), estimates of their typical foreplay and PVI durations, what they were told in childhood and adolescence was the important zone for inducing female orgasm, their degree of focus on vaginal sensations during PVI, and whether they were more likely to orgasm with a longer than average penis. The association of vaginal orgasm consistency with the predictors noted above. Vaginal orgasm consistency was associated with all hypothesized correlates. Multivariate analysis indicated the most important predictors were being educated that the vagina is important for female orgasm, being mentally focused on vaginal sensations during PVI, and in some analyses duration of PVI (but not foreplay) and preferring a longer than average penis. Focusing attention on penile-vaginal sensation supports vaginal orgasm and the myriad benefits thereof. Brody S, and Weiss P. Vaginal orgasm is associated with vaginal (not clitoral) sex education, focusing mental attention on vaginal sensations, intercourse duration, and a preference for a longer penis. © 2009 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  15. The Women's EMPOWER Survey: Women's Knowledge and Awareness of Treatment Options for Vulvar and Vaginal Atrophy Remains Inadequate.

    PubMed

    Krychman, Michael; Graham, Shelli; Bernick, Brian; Mirkin, Sebastian; Kingsberg, Sheryl A

    2017-03-01

    Postmenopausal women's knowledge about vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA) and available treatment options has historically been inadequate. Recent direct-to-consumer marketing and educational efforts would have been expected to increase awareness and treatment options. To compare results of the Women's EMPOWER survey with other available VVA surveys to assess progress in women's understanding and approaches to treatment of VVA. The Women's EMPOWER survey, an internet-based survey of US women with VVA symptoms, assessed women's awareness of VVA and their behaviors and attitudes associated with symptom treatment. These survey results were compared with previously published results of the Revealing Vaginal Effects at Mid-Life (REVEAL), Women's Voices in Menopause (WVM), Vaginal Health: Insight, Views, & Attitudes (VIVA), Clarifying Vaginal Atrophy's Impact on Sex and Relationship (CLOSER), and Real Women's Views of Treatment Options for Menopausal Vaginal Changes (REVIVE) surveys. Results of the Women's EMPOWER survey were consistent with those of past VVA surveys and showed that postmenopausal women generally failed to recognize VVA and its chronic, progressive process and that they were reluctant to discuss vaginal or sexual symptoms with their health care professionals (HCPs). However, women indicated a strong desire for accurate medical information about VVA from their health care professionals and a willingness to learn if HCPs would initiate the conversation. Most women believed that vaginal symptoms are a normal part of aging and they just need to cope with the symptoms. In the United States, women were most concerned with safety-related issues, including increased risk of breast cancer, side effects, and systemic absorption. The Women's EMPOWER survey demonstrates and reinforces that even with multimedia marketing and educational strategies in the years after other major VVA surveys, minimal progress has been made toward increasing women's awareness of

  16. Clinical approach to vaginal/vestibular masses in the bitch.

    PubMed

    Manothaiudom, K; Johnston, S D

    1991-05-01

    The most common causes of vaginal/vestibular masses in the bitch are vaginal prolapse, vaginal neoplasia, and urethral neoplasia protruding into the vaginal vault. Other possible causes are clitoral enlargement, vaginal polyps, uterine prolapse, and vaginal abscessation or hematoma. Vaginal prolapse usually can be distinguished from neoplasia by the age of the patient, the time of occurrence during the estrous cycle, and the site of origin of the mass. Prolapse usually occurs in bitches under 4 years of age during proestrus, estrus, or at the end of diestrus and usually arises from the floor of the vagina, except for urethral tumors that protrude from the external urethral orifice. Appropriate diagnostic workup of bitches with vaginal vestibular masses includes complete history and physical examination, vaginal cytologic and vaginoscopic examination, retrograde vaginography or urethrocystography, serum progesterone and estradiol concentrations, and, in the case of suspect neoplasms, surgical or excision biopsy of the mass.

  17. Vulvar and vaginal atrophy in four European countries: evidence from the European REVIVE Survey

    PubMed Central

    Nappi, R. E.; Palacios, S.; Panay, N.; Particco, M.; Krychman, M. L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The aim of the European REVIVE survey was to achieve a better understanding of vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA), a chronic and progressive condition after menopause. We investigated perceptions, experiences and needs in terms of sexual and vaginal health in a sample of European postmenopausal women. Methods An online internet based survey was conducted in Italy, Germany, Spain and the UK with a total surveyed sample of 3768 postmenopausal women (age: 45–75 years). Results The most common VVA symptom was vaginal dryness (70%). VVA has a significant impact on the ability to be intimate (62%), to enjoy sexual intercourse (72%) and to feel sexual spontaneity (66%). Postmenopausal women with VVA are sexually active (51%), but their sexual drive is reduced. Health-care professionals (HCPs) have discussed VVA with postmenopausal women (62%), but they initiated the conversation only in 10% of the cases. The most common treatments for VVA are over-the-counter, non-hormonal, local vaginal products. Thirty-two per cent of postmenopausal women were naïve to any kind of treatment, whereas discussion with the HCP was relevant to be on current treatment (60% of postmenopausal women that discussed VVA with a HCP vs. 23% who did not). The top reasons for poor compliance with vaginal treatments were: not bothersome enough symptoms (18%); vaginal changes not therapeutically reversed (18%); relief from VVA symptoms (17%). Approximately 45% were satisfied with treatment. The most frequent disliked aspects of treatment were the route of administration or the messiness. The fear of hormones was common in postmenopausal women using vaginal prescription products. Conclusions The European REVIVE survey confirmed that VVA symptoms are frequent in postmenopausal women and demonstrates a significant impact on quality of life and sexual life. However, the condition is still under-diagnosed and under-treated, with a high rate of dissatisfaction for actual available treatments in

  18. Vaginal estrogen: a dual-edged sword in postoperative healing of the vaginal wall.

    PubMed

    Ripperda, Christopher M; Maldonado, Pedro Antonio; Acevedo, Jesus F; Keller, Patrick W; Akgul, Yucel; Shelton, John M; Word, Ruth Ann

    2017-07-01

    Reconstructive surgery for pelvic organ prolapse is plagued with high failure rates possibly due to impaired healing or regeneration of the vaginal wall. Here, we tested the hypothesis that postoperative administration of local estrogen, direct injection of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), or both lead to improved wound healing of the injured vagina in a menopausal rat model. Ovariectomized rats underwent surgical injury to the posterior vaginal wall and were randomized to treatment with placebo (n = 41), estrogen cream (n = 47), direct injection of MSCs (n = 39), or both (n = 43). MSCs did not survive after injection and had no appreciable effects on healing of the vaginal wall. Acute postoperative administration of vaginal estrogen altered the response of the vaginal wall to injury with decreased stiffness, decreased collagen content, and decreased expression of transcripts for matrix components in the stromal compartment. Conversely, vaginal estrogen resulted in marked proliferation of the epithelial layer and increased expression of genes related to epithelial barrier function and protease inhibition. Transcripts for genes involved in chronic inflammation and adaptive immunity were also down-regulated in the estrogenized epithelium. Collectively, these data indicate that, in contrast to the reported positive effects of preoperative estrogen on the uninjured vagina, acute administration of postoperative vaginal estrogen has adverse effects on the early phase of healing of the stromal layer. In contrast, postoperative estrogen plays a positive role in healing of the vaginal epithelium after injury.

  19. Vaginal estrogen: a dual-edged sword in postoperative healing of the vaginal wall

    PubMed Central

    Ripperda, Christopher M.; Maldonado, Pedro Antonio; Acevedo, Jesus F.; Keller, Patrick W.; Akgul, Yucel; Shelton, John M.; Word, Ruth Ann

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Reconstructive surgery for pelvic organ prolapse is plagued with high failure rates possibly due to impaired healing or regeneration of the vaginal wall. Here, we tested the hypothesis that postoperative administration of local estrogen, direct injection of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), or both lead to improved wound healing of the injured vagina in a menopausal rat model. Methods: Ovariectomized rats underwent surgical injury to the posterior vaginal wall and were randomized to treatment with placebo (n = 41), estrogen cream (n = 47), direct injection of MSCs (n = 39), or both (n = 43). Results: MSCs did not survive after injection and had no appreciable effects on healing of the vaginal wall. Acute postoperative administration of vaginal estrogen altered the response of the vaginal wall to injury with decreased stiffness, decreased collagen content, and decreased expression of transcripts for matrix components in the stromal compartment. Conversely, vaginal estrogen resulted in marked proliferation of the epithelial layer and increased expression of genes related to epithelial barrier function and protease inhibition. Transcripts for genes involved in chronic inflammation and adaptive immunity were also down-regulated in the estrogenized epithelium. Conclusions: Collectively, these data indicate that, in contrast to the reported positive effects of preoperative estrogen on the uninjured vagina, acute administration of postoperative vaginal estrogen has adverse effects on the early phase of healing of the stromal layer. In contrast, postoperative estrogen plays a positive role in healing of the vaginal epithelium after injury. PMID:28169915

  20. Associations between sexual habits, menstrual hygiene practices, demographics and the vaginal microbiome as revealed by Bayesian network analysis

    PubMed Central

    Noyes, Noelle; Cho, Kyu-Chul; Ravel, Jacques; Forney, Larry J.

    2018-01-01

    The vaginal microbiome plays an influential role in several disease states in reproductive age women, including bacterial vaginosis (BV). While demographic characteristics are associated with differences in vaginal microbiome community structure, little is known about the influence of sexual and hygiene habits. Furthermore, associations between the vaginal microbiome and risk symptoms of bacterial vaginosis have not been fully elucidated. Using Bayesian network (BN) analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence results, demographic and extensive questionnaire data, we describe both novel and previously documented associations between habits of women and their vaginal microbiome. The BN analysis approach shows promise in uncovering complex associations between disparate data types. Our findings based on this approach support published associations between specific microbiome members (e.g., Eggerthella, Gardnerella, Dialister, Sneathia and Ruminococcaceae), the Nugent score (a BV diagnostic) and vaginal pH (a risk symptom of BV). Additionally, we found that several microbiome members were directly connected to other risk symptoms of BV (such as vaginal discharge, odor, itch, irritation, and yeast infection) including L. jensenii, Corynebacteria, and Proteobacteria. No direct connections were found between the Nugent Score and risk symptoms of BV other than pH, indicating that the Nugent Score may not be the most useful criteria for assessment of clinical BV. We also found that demographics (i.e., age, ethnicity, previous pregnancy) were associated with the presence/absence of specific vaginal microbes. The resulting BN revealed several as-yet undocumented associations between birth control usage, menstrual hygiene practices and specific microbiome members. Many of these complex relationships were not identified using common analytical methods, i.e., ordination and PERMANOVA. While these associations require confirmatory follow-up study, our findings strongly suggest that future