Sample records for vaginal mucosal flap

  1. Vaginal mucosal flap as a sling preservation for the treatment of vaginal exposure of mesh.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sea Young; Park, Jong Yeon; Kim, Han Kwon; Park, Chang Hoo; Kim, Sung Jin; Sung, Gi Teck; Park, Chang Myon

    2010-06-01

    Tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedures are used for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence in women. The procedures with synthetic materials can have a risk of vaginal erosion. We experienced transobturator suburethral sling (TOT) tape-induced vaginal erosion and report the efficacy of a vaginal mucosal covering technique. A total of 560 female patients diagnosed with stress urinary incontinence underwent TOT procedures at our hospital between January 2005 and August 2009. All patients succeeded in follow-ups, among which 8 patients (mean age: 50.5 years) presented with vaginal exposure of the mesh. A vaginal mucosal covering technique was performed under local anesthesia after administration of antibiotics and vaginal wound dressings for 3-4 days. Seven of the 8 patients complained of persistent vaginal discharge postoperatively. Two of the 8 patients complained of dyspareunia of their male partners. The one remaining patient was otherwise asymptomatic, but mesh erosion was discovered at the routine follow-up visit. Six of the 8 patients showed complete mucosal covering of the mesh after the operation (mean follow-up period: 16 moths). Vaginal mucosal erosion recurred in 2 patients, and the mesh was then partially removed. One patient had recurrent stress urinary incontinence. Vaginal mucosal covering as a sling preservation with continued patient continence may be a feasible and effective option for the treatment of vaginal exposure of mesh after TOT tape procedures.

  2. Successful vaginal delivery at term after vaginal reconstruction with labium minus flaps in a patient with vaginal atresia: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Wang, Yi-Feng

    2017-07-01

    We report a case of successful vaginal delivery after vaginal reconstruction with labium minus flaps in a 23-year-old patient with congenital vaginal atresia. The patient primarily presented with amenorrhea and cyclic abdominal pain; transabdominal ultrasonography revealed an enlarged uterus due to hematometra and absence of the lower segment of the vagina. Eight years ago, she had undergone an unsuccessful attempt at canalization at a local hospital. Upon referral to our hospital, she underwent vaginal reconstruction with labium minus flaps. Four months after this procedure, she became pregnant and, subsequently, successfully and safely vaginally delivered a healthy female baby weighing 3250 g at 38 +1 weeks' gestation. The delivery did not involve perineal laceration by lateral episiotomy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of successful vaginal delivery at term after vaginal reconstruction with labium minus flaps in a patient with vaginal atresia. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. A new mucosal propeller flap (deep lingual artery axial propeller): the renaissance of lingual flaps.

    PubMed

    Cordova, Adriana; Toia, Francesca; D'Arpa, Salvatore; Giunta, Gabriele; Moschella, Francesco

    2015-03-01

    Lingual flaps provide ideal mucosal coverage for intraoral defects but traditionally require two surgical stages. The authors present an axial mucosal propeller flap for single-stage intraoral reconstruction. The flap includes the mucosa of the lateral side of the tongue, islanded on the deep lingual vessels. Between 2011 and 2013, 23 patients underwent intraoral mucosal reconstruction with a deep lingual artery axial propeller flap after cancer resection in the cheek (n = 16), floor of the mouth (n = 2), retromolar trigone (n = 2), hard palate (n = 2), and soft palate (n = 1). Mean defect size was 19.5 cm. Preoperative and postoperative intraoral function was evaluated with the Functional Intraoral Glasgow Scale. The authors always achieved one-stage reconstruction with primary donor-site closure. The only complications were an infection treated conservatively and a late oronasal fistula caused by radiotherapy. All patients resumed an oral diet after 1 week and none required surgical revision. Mean 12-month postoperative Functional Intraoral Glasgow Scale score was better than the preoperative score (13.5 versus 12.8). The deep lingual artery axial propeller flap combines the advantages of the traditional lingual flap (i.e., reliable axial vascularization and like-with-like reconstruction) with those of a propeller flap (i.e., one-stage transfer of like tissue and extreme mobility) and has wider indications than a conventional lingual flap. The technique is fast and has low morbidity and good functional results, and the authors recommend it as a first-choice technique to reconstruct moderate to large intraoral defects. Therapeutic, IV.

  4. Murine Vaginal Colonization Model for Investigating Asymptomatic Mucosal Carriage of Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Michael E.; Nielsen, Hailyn V.; Hultgren, Scott J.

    2013-01-01

    While many virulence factors promoting Streptococcus pyogenes invasive disease have been described, specific streptococcal factors and host properties influencing asymptomatic mucosal carriage remain uncertain. To address the need for a refined model of prolonged S. pyogenes asymptomatic mucosal colonization, we have adapted a preestrogenized murine vaginal colonization model for S. pyogenes. In this model, derivatives of strains HSC5, SF370, JRS4, NZ131, and MEW123 established a reproducible, asymptomatic colonization of the vaginal mucosa over a period of typically 3 to 4 weeks' duration at a relatively high colonization efficiency. Prior treatment with estradiol prolonged streptococcal colonization and was associated with reduced inflammation in the colonized vaginal epithelium as well as a decreased leukocyte presence in vaginal fluid compared to the levels of inflammation and leukocyte presence in non-estradiol-treated control mice. The utility of our model for investigating S. pyogenes factors contributing to mucosal carriage was verified, as a mutant with a mutation in the transcriptional regulator catabolite control protein A (CcpA) demonstrated significant impairment in vaginal colonization. An assessment of in vivo transcriptional activity in the CcpA− strain for several known CcpA-regulated genes identified significantly elevated transcription of lactate oxidase (lctO) correlating with excessive generation of hydrogen peroxide to self-lethal levels. Deletion of lctO did not impair colonization, but deletion of lctO in a CcpA− strain prolonged carriage, exceeding even that of the wild-type strain. Thus, while LctO is not essential for vaginal colonization, its dysregulation is deleterious, highlighting the critical role of CcpA in promoting mucosal colonization. The vaginal colonization model should prove effective for future analyses of S. pyogenes mucosal colonization. PMID:23460515

  5. [The usage of inferior turbinate mucosal flap for repairing cleft lip].

    PubMed

    Gao, Pu; Zhao, Min; Qi, Ke-ming; Zhao, Zhen-min; Xiong, Bin

    2004-05-01

    To evaluate a technique for decreasing the tension of the nasal floor during the procedures of repairing complete clef lip. With the designation of an inferior turbinate mucosal flap combined with an oral mucosal flap in the splitting side, the tension was effectively decreased and the nasal floor was closed easily. Eighteen patients was selected for the treatment with this technique since 2000. The follow-ups were 10 to 24 months. All of the patients showed wound healing well with the significant improvement in the donor site. The above mentioned technique may effectively decrease the tension and be used to close the nasal floor safely. It could also reduce the incidence of the complications.

  6. Endoscopic partial medial maxillectomy with mucosal flap for maxillary sinus mucoceles.

    PubMed

    Durr, Megan L; Goldberg, Andrew N

    2014-01-01

    To describe a technique of endoscopic medial maxillectomy with mucosal flap for postoperative maxillary sinus mucoceles and to present a case series of subjects who underwent this procedure. This case series includes four subjects with postoperative maxillary sinus mucoceles who underwent resection via endoscopic partial medial maxillectomy with a mucosal flap. We will discuss the clinical presentation, imaging characteristics, operative details, and outcomes. Four subjects are included in this study. The average age at the time of medial maxillectomy was 52 years (range 35-65 years). Three subjects (75%) were female. One subject (25%) had bilateral postoperative maxillary sinus mucoceles. Two subjects (50%) had unilateral right sided mucoceles, and the remaining subject had a unilateral left sided mucocele. All subjects had a history of multiple sinus procedures for chronic sinusitis including Caldwell-Luc procedures ipsilateral to the postoperative mucocele. All subjects underwent endoscopic medial maxillectomy without complication and were symptom free at the last follow up appointment, average 24 months (range 3-71 months) after medial maxillectomy. For postoperative maxillary sinus mucoceles in locations that are difficult to access via the middle meatus antrostomy, we recommend endoscopic medial maxillectomy with mucosal flap. Our preliminary experience with four subjects demonstrates complete resolution of symptoms after this procedure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Vocal cord mucosal flap for the treatment of acquired anterior laryngeal web.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yang; Wang, Jun; Han, Demin; Ma, Lijing; Ye, Jingying; Xu, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Anterior glottic web is one type of laryngeal stenosis. Previous surgical methods had some drawbacks, such as large surgical trauma, long postoperative recovery time, and multiple-stage surgery. This study aimed to explore better treatment to repair anterior glottis web. We performed vocal cord mucosal flap procedure on 32 patients with anterior laryngeal webs. All subjects received vocal cord scar releasing and vocal cord mucosal flap repair and suture under general anesthesia with selfretaining laryngoscope. All 32 patients completed surgery in one stage, without postoperative laryngeal edema, difficulty in breathing, or other complications. After the surgery, the anterior commissure of vocal cords recovered to a decent triangle shape in 28 patients; however, in four patients there were 2 to 3 mm adhesion residuals on the anterior ends of the vocal cords, accompanied by scar appearance of bilateral vocal cords. The GRB score, voice handicap index scores, and maximum phonation time score significantly improved in all patients after the surgery. There was no evidence of recurrent laryngeal webbing in the 6-month follow-up. Vocal cords mucosal flap repair surgery has the advantages of less trauma, quick recovery, and significant improvement of the voice in the treatment of laryngeal webs.

  8. Sexual dysfunction after colpectomy and vaginal reconstruction with a vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap.

    PubMed

    Løve, Uffe S; Sjøgren, Pia; Rasmussen, Peter; Laurberg, Søren; Christensen, Henrik K

    2013-02-01

    The use of the vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap in reconstruction after abdominoperineal resection or pelvic exenteration for neoplasia is well documented. However, functional outcomes after vaginal reconstruction, including sexual function, are poorly described. This study aimed to examine sexual function in women following extensive pelvic surgery with colpectomy and vaginal reconstruction with the use of a vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap. This study is a retrospective review of medical records in combination with patient questionnaires. Nonresponders were followed up with a second contact. This study was performed at a tertiary care university medical center (Colorectal Section, Department of Surgery P, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark) All women undergoing pelvic surgery and simultaneous vaginal reconstruction with the use of a vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap between 2004 and 2010 at our department were identified from a patient database. Thirty women who were alive at the time of identification were included in the study. Sexual function before and after surgery was evaluated by the use of the Sexual function Vaginal changes Questionnaire. The main outcome end point was whether the patient was sexually active after vaginal reconstruction. Twenty-six participants (87%) answered the questionnaire. Fifty percent of patients reported an active sex life before surgery. In general, patients reported an unchanged desire for both physical and sexual contact after surgery. However, only 2 patients (14%) reported being sexually active after surgery. This was a retrospective study with a heterogeneous cohort involving several types of cancers and surgical procedures. Factors other than vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap reconstruction itself may interfere with the sexual function. Extensive pelvic surgery with colpectomy leads to sexual dysfunction even when the vagina is reconstructed with a vertical rectus abdominis

  9. Bilateral pedicled myocutaneous vertical rectus abdominus muscle flaps to close vesicovaginal and pouch-vaginal fistulas with simultaneous vaginal and perineal reconstruction in irradiated pelvic wounds.

    PubMed

    Horch, Raymund E; Gitsch, G; Schultze-Seemann, W

    2002-09-01

    Chronic postoperative pouch-vaginal and vesicovaginal fistulas after hysterectomy and irradiation to treat advanced cervical cancer do not respond to conventional treatment because of the low vascularity in the irradiated area. We present the successful repair of these complications in a female patient, in whom several vaginal and abdominal approaches had been tried and had resulted not only in failure but also in tissue loss and fibrosis and persisting fistulas. First, a synchronous vaginoabdominal approach using a vertical myocutaneous distally based rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap was used successfully to close a pouch-vaginal fistula and simultaneously reconstruct the posterior vaginal wall. In a second approach, the persisting vesicovaginal fistula was closed by a right rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap while simultaneously reconstructing the anterior vaginal wall, closing the enterocutaneous stoma and performing an appendicovesicostomy as a continence channel for catheterization. Despite unfavorable local wound situations, including an enterocutaneous stoma through the rectus abdominis and various previous incision lines, the transfer of axially well-vascularized tissue can solve these problem wounds. Consecutive bilateral use of the rectus abdominis flap may be necessary to deal with extensive pelvic wounds. This technique should be considered as one repair modality in irradiated pelvic wounds with fistulas. Previous enterostomy is not a contraindication to the use of this flap.

  10. The Arterialized Facial Artery Musculo-Mucosal Island Flap for Post-Oncological Tongue Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Moro, Alessandro; Saponaro, Gianmarco; Doneddu, Piero; Cervelli, Daniele; Pelo, Sandro; Gasparini, Giulio; Garagiola, Umberto; D'Amato, Giuseppe; Todaro, Mattia

    2018-05-15

    In 1992, Pribaz described the facial artery musculomucosal flap (FAMM), an axial musculomucosal flap based on the facial artery. The FAMM flap, a modification of the nasolabial and buccal mucosal flaps, is widely used in the reconstruction of defects in the oral cavity. Many modifications of this flap have been described in the literature. Here we aimed to explore the use of an arterialized tunnelized FAMM island flap (a-FAMMIF) for the reconstruction tongue defects after tumor resection. From January 2015 to December 2016, five cases of tongue cancer were selected for the use of arterialized FAMMIF flap to reconstruct defects after tumor resection. Reconstruction was successful in all cases, except one case of total flap necrosis; partial necrosis of the flap occurred in two patients, which were solved with medications. The authors consider the a-FAMMIF an unreliable flap in the reconstruction of tongue defects.The authors recommend avoiding tunneling and island modification when the vein is not included in the pedicle.

  11. Bilateral Superior Labial Mucosal Transposition Flaps to Correct Stenosis of the Nares Following Bilateral Rostral Maxillectomy Combined with Nasal Planum Resection in a Dog.

    PubMed

    Séguin, Bernard; Steinke, Julia R

    2016-04-01

    To describe a technique using labial mucosal flaps to correct stenosis of the nares subsequent to bilateral rostral maxillectomy and nasal planum resection. Case report Client-owned dog. A 10-year-old, neutered male Golden Retriever developed repeated stenosis of the nares, at first after bilateral rostral maxillectomy and nasal planum resection, and again after revision surgery. Bilateral, superior labial mucosal transposition flaps were created and interpolated between the nasal mucosa and skin after debridement of scar tissue. The stenosis did not recur after mucosal flap transposition and the dog returned to normal quality of life (last follow-up 25 months postoperative). Single-stage, superior labial mucosal transposition flaps can be used to correct nares stenosis subsequent to previous surgery. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  12. The evaluation of the local tolerance of vaginal formulations containing dapivirine using the Slug Mucosal Irritation test and the rabbit vaginal irritation test.

    PubMed

    Dhondt, Marijke M M; Adriaens, Els; Roey, Jens Van; Remon, Jean Paul

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the local tolerance of vaginal gels (three gels containing dapivirine, the placebo gel, and Conceptrol) with the Slug Mucosal Irritation test and to compare the results with those of the rabbit vaginal irritation test. The irritation potential on the slug mucosa was assessed by the mucus production caused by a repeated treatment for 5 successive days. Additionally, membrane damage was estimated by the protein and enzyme release. By means of a classification prediction model the formulations were classified into four irritation classes. The effect of a 10-day intravaginal application of the gels on the rabbit vaginal and cervical mucosa was evaluated by means of macroscopic and microscopic examination. The placebo and dapivirine gels induced no irritation of the slug mucosa (low mucus production and protein release, no enzyme release) and no vaginal or cervical irritation in rabbits. Conceptrol caused severe irritation of the slug mucosa (increased mucus production, protein release, and enzyme release) and irritation of the rabbit vagina and cervix. The results obtained with the Slug Mucosal Irritation test were comparable to those of the rabbit vaginal irritation test.

  13. Streptococcus agalactiae Inhibits Candida albicans Hyphal Development and Diminishes Host Vaginal Mucosal TH17 Response.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Yu; Fu, Fei; Kong, Wen-Na; Xuan, Qian-Kun; Wen, Dong-Hua; Chen, Xiao-Qing; He, Yong-Ming; He, Li-Hua; Guo, Jian; Zhou, Ai-Ping; Xi, Yang-Hong; Ni, Li-Jun; Yao, Yu-Feng; Wu, Wen-Juan

    2018-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae and Candida albicans often co-colonize the female genital tract, and under certain conditions induce mucosal inflammation. The role of the interaction between the two organisms in candidal vaginitis is not known. In this study, we found that co-infection with S. agalactiae significantly attenuated the hyphal development of C. albicans , and that EFG1 -Hwp1 signal pathway of C. albicans was involved in this process. In a mouse model of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), the fungal burden and the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α showed a increase on co-infection with S. agalactiae , while the level of TH17 T cells and IL-17 in the cervicovaginal lavage fluid were significantly decreased. Our results indicate that S. agalactiae inhibits C. albicans hyphal development by downregulating the expression of EFG1 -Hwp1. The interaction between S. agalactiae and C. albicans may attenuate host vaginal mucosal TH17 immunity and contribute to mucosal colonization by C. albicans .

  14. Vaginal-sparing ventral buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty for female urethral stricture: A novel modification of surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Hoag, Nathan; Gani, Johan; Chee, Justin

    2016-07-01

    To present a novel modification of surgical technique to treat female urethral stricture (FUS) by a vaginal-sparing ventral buccal mucosal urethroplasty. Recurrent FUS represents an uncommon, though difficult clinical scenario to manage definitively. A variety of surgical techniques have been described to date, yet a lack of consensus on the optimal procedure persists. We present a 51-year-old female with urethral stricture involving the entire urethra. Suspected etiology was iatrogenic from cystoscopy 17 years prior. Since then, the patient had undergone at least 25 formal urethral dilations and periods of self-dilation. In lithotomy position, the urethra was dilated to accommodate forceps, and ventral urethrotomy carried out sharply, exposing a bed of periurethral tissue. Buccal mucosa was harvested, and a ventral inlay technique facilitated by a nasal speculum, was used to place the graft from the proximal urethra/bladder neck to urethral meatus without a vaginal incision. Graft was sutured into place, and urethral Foley catheter inserted. The vaginal-sparing ventral buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty was deemed successful as of last follow-up. Flexible cystoscopy demonstrated patency of the repair at 6 months. At 10 months of follow-up, the patient was voiding well, with no urinary incontinence. No further interventions have been required. This case describes a novel modification of surgical technique for performing buccal mucosal urethroplasty for FUS. By avoiding incision of the vaginal mucosa, benefits may include reduced: morbidity, urinary incontinence, and wound complications including urethro-vaginal fistula.

  15. Vaginal-sparing ventral buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty for female urethral stricture: A novel modification of surgical technique

    PubMed Central

    Gani, Johan; Chee, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To present a novel modification of surgical technique to treat female urethral stricture (FUS) by a vaginal-sparing ventral buccal mucosal urethroplasty. Recurrent FUS represents an uncommon, though difficult clinical scenario to manage definitively. A variety of surgical techniques have been described to date, yet a lack of consensus on the optimal procedure persists. Materials and Methods We present a 51-year-old female with urethral stricture involving the entire urethra. Suspected etiology was iatrogenic from cystoscopy 17 years prior. Since then, the patient had undergone at least 25 formal urethral dilations and periods of self-dilation. In lithotomy position, the urethra was dilated to accommodate forceps, and ventral urethrotomy carried out sharply, exposing a bed of periurethral tissue. Buccal mucosa was harvested, and a ventral inlay technique facilitated by a nasal speculum, was used to place the graft from the proximal urethra/bladder neck to urethral meatus without a vaginal incision. Graft was sutured into place, and urethral Foley catheter inserted. Results The vaginal-sparing ventral buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty was deemed successful as of last follow-up. Flexible cystoscopy demonstrated patency of the repair at 6 months. At 10 months of follow-up, the patient was voiding well, with no urinary incontinence. No further interventions have been required. Conclusions This case describes a novel modification of surgical technique for performing buccal mucosal urethroplasty for FUS. By avoiding incision of the vaginal mucosa, benefits may include reduced: morbidity, urinary incontinence, and wound complications including urethro-vaginal fistula. PMID:27437540

  16. Streptococcus agalactiae Inhibits Candida albicans Hyphal Development and Diminishes Host Vaginal Mucosal TH17 Response

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiao-Yu; Fu, Fei; Kong, Wen-Na; Xuan, Qian-Kun; Wen, Dong-Hua; Chen, Xiao-Qing; He, Yong-Ming; He, Li-Hua; Guo, Jian; Zhou, Ai-Ping; Xi, Yang-Hong; Ni, Li-Jun; Yao, Yu-Feng; Wu, Wen-Juan

    2018-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae and Candida albicans often co-colonize the female genital tract, and under certain conditions induce mucosal inflammation. The role of the interaction between the two organisms in candidal vaginitis is not known. In this study, we found that co-infection with S. agalactiae significantly attenuated the hyphal development of C. albicans, and that EFG1-Hwp1 signal pathway of C. albicans was involved in this process. In a mouse model of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), the fungal burden and the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α showed a increase on co-infection with S. agalactiae, while the level of TH17 T cells and IL-17 in the cervicovaginal lavage fluid were significantly decreased. Our results indicate that S. agalactiae inhibits C. albicans hyphal development by downregulating the expression of EFG1-Hwp1. The interaction between S. agalactiae and C. albicans may attenuate host vaginal mucosal TH17 immunity and contribute to mucosal colonization by C. albicans. PMID:29527193

  17. Development of standard operating procedures to obtain longitudinal vaginal specimens from nulliparous rabbits as part of HIV vaccine mucosal immunogenicity studies.

    PubMed

    Gómez Román, Victor Raúl; Vinner, Lasse; Grevstad, Berit; Hansen, Jesper Juhl; Wegmann, Frank; Spetz, Anna-Lena; Fomsgaard, Anders

    2010-12-15

    The New Zealand white rabbit model (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is widely used to test whether HIV vaccine candidates elicit systemic antibody responses; however, its use in mucosal immunology has not been fully exploited due to the difficulty in collecting mucosal specimens longitudinally and reproducibly. Here we describe feasible and non-feasible methods to collect vaginal and nasal specimens from nulliparous rabbits. Non-feasible methods were those resulting in poor reproducibility and considerable animal twitching during sampling, whereas feasible methods resulted in no animal twitching and potential for sampling reproducibility. Standard operating procedures (SOPs) were implemented to collect vaginal swabs yielding total IgA titres ranging from 12,500 to 312,500. Intranasal immunisation with a naked DNA vaccine encoding HIV gp140 elicited HIV envelope-specific IgA detectable in nasal but not in vaginal secretions. Our methods provide an alternative to reliably assess pre- and post-vaccination mucosal antibody titres longitudinally in rabbits as part of mucosal HIV vaccine immunogenicity studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Combination of Estrogen and Immunosuppressive Agents to Establish a Mouse Model of Candidiasis with Concurrent Oral and Vaginal Mucosal Infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Le; Wang, Chong; Mei, Huan; Shen, Yongnian; Lv, Guixia; Zeng, Rong; Zhan, Ping; Li, Dongmei; Liu, Weida

    2016-02-01

    Mouse model is an appropriate tool for pathogenic determination and study of host defenses during the fungal infection. Here, we established a mouse model of candidiasis with concurrent oral and vaginal mucosal infection. Two C. albicans strains sourced from clinical candidemia (SC5314) and mucosal infection (ATCC62342) were tested in ICR mice. The different combinational panels covering estrogen and immunosuppressive agents, cortisone, prednisolone and cyclophosphamide were used for concurrent oral and vaginal candidiasis establishment. Prednisolone in combination with estrogen proved an optimal mode for concurrent mucosal infection establishment. The model maintained for 1 week with fungal burden reached at least 10(5) cfu/g of tissue. This mouse model was evaluated by in vivo pharmacodynamics of fluconazole and host mucosal immunity of IL-17 and IL-23. Mice infected by SC5314 were cured by fluconazole. An increase in IL-23 in both oral and vaginal homogenates was observed after infection, while IL-17 only had a prominent elevation in oral tissue. This model could properly mimic complicated clinical conditions and provides a valuable means for antifungal assay in vivo and may also provide a useful method for the evaluation of host-fungal interactions.

  19. Vaginal Mucosal Homeostatic Response May Determine Pregnancy Outcome in Women With Bacterial Vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Faure, Emmanuel; Faure, Karine; Figeac, Martin; Kipnis, Eric; Grandjean, Teddy; Dubucquoi, Sylvain; Villenet, Céline; Grandbastien, Bruno; Brabant, Gilles; Subtil, Damien; Dessein, Rodrigue

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is considered as a trigger for an inflammatory response that could promote adverse pregnancy outcome (APO). We hypothesized that BV-related inflammation could be counterbalanced by anti-inflammatory and mucosal homeostatic responses that could participate in pregnancy outcomes. A total of 402 vaginal self-samples from pregnant women in their first trimester were screened by Nugent score. In this population, we enrolled 23 pregnant women with BV but without APO, 5 pregnant women with BV and developing APO, 21 pregnant women with intermediate flora, and 28 random control samples from pregnant women without BV or APO. BV without APO in pregnant women was associated with 28-fold interleukin-8, 5-fold interleukin-10, and 40-fold interleukin-22 increases in expression compared to controls. BV associated with APO in pregnant women shared 4-fold increase in tumor necrosis factor, 100-fold decrease in interleukin-10, and no variation in interleukin-22 expressions compared to controls. Next-generation sequencing of vaginal microbiota revealed a shift from obligate anaerobic bacteria dominance in BV without APO pregnant women to Lactobacillus dominance microbiota in BV with APO. Our results show that the anti-inflammatory and mucosal homeostatic responses to BV may determine outcome of pregnancy in the setting of BV possibly through effects on the vaginal microbiota. PMID:26844497

  20. Vaginal type-II mucosa is an inductive site for primary CD8+ T-cell mucosal immunity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yichuan; Sui, Yongjun; Kato, Shingo; Hogg, Alison E.; Steel, Jason C.; Morris, John C.; Berzofsky, Jay A.

    2014-01-01

    The structured lymphoid tissues are considered the only inductive sites where primary T cell immune responses occur. The naïve T cells in structured lymphoid tissues, once being primed by antigen -bearing dendritic cells, differentiate into memory T cells and traffic back to the mucosal sites through the bloodstream. Contrary to this belief, here we show that the vaginal type-II mucosa itself, despite lack of structured lymphoid tissues, can act as an inductive site during primary CD8+ T cell immune responses. We provide evidence that the vaginal mucosa supports both the local immune priming of naïve CD8+ T cells and the local expansion of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells, thereby demonstrating a different paradigm for primary mucosal T cell immune induction. PMID:25600442

  1. Effects of feminine hygiene products on the vaginal mucosal biome.

    PubMed

    Fashemi, Bisiayo; Delaney, Mary L; Onderdonk, Andrew B; Fichorova, Raina N

    2013-01-01

    Over-the-counter (OTC) feminine hygiene products come with little warning about possible side effects. This study evaluates in-vitro their effects on Lactobacillus crispatus, which is dominant in the normal vaginal microbiota and helps maintain a healthy mucosal barrier essential for normal reproductive function and prevention of sexually transmitted infections and gynecologic cancer. A feminine moisturizer (Vagisil), personal lubricant, and douche were purchased OTC. A topical spermicide (nonoxynol-9) known to alter the vaginal immune barrier was used as a control. L. crispatus was incubated with each product for 2 and 24h and then seeded on agar for colony forming units (CFU). Human vaginal epithelial cells were exposed to products in the presence or absence of L. crispatus for 24h, followed by epithelium-associated CFU enumeration. Interleukin-8 was immunoassayed and ANOVA was used for statistical evaluation. Nonoxynol-9 and Vagisil suppressed Lactobacillus growth at 2h and killed all bacteria at 24h. The lubricant decreased bacterial growth insignificantly at 2h but killed all at 24h. The douche did not have a significant effect. At full strength, all products suppressed epithelial viability and all, except the douche, suppressed epithelial-associated CFU. When applied at non-toxic dose in the absence of bacteria, the douche and moisturizer induced an increase of IL-8, suggesting a potential to initiate inflammatory reaction. In the presence of L. crispatus, the proinflammatory effects of the douche and moisturizer were countered, and IL-8 production was inhibited in the presence of the other products. Some OTC vaginal products may be harmful to L. crispatus and alter the vaginal immune environment. Illustrated through these results, L. crispatus is essential in the preservation of the function of vaginal epithelial cells in the presence of some feminine hygiene products. More research should be invested toward these products before they are placed on the

  2. [Cleft palate repair with a combined method of mucosal flap pushback of the hard palate].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Z; Li, S; Xu, J

    1996-03-01

    From January of 1992, we applied a combined method to repair cleft palate in 20 patients and received satisfactory results. The method is characterized by pushing back the mucosal flap of the hard palate, a Z-plasty on the nasal mucosa, repositioning the levator muscle to lengthen the palate, circumferential pharyng oplasty using denervated extensor hallucis brevis muscle, without making relaxing incisions and elevating the mucoperiosteal flap, avoiding interference to the greater and lesser palatine vessels and nerves, without relaxing palatal aponeurosis. The advantages of this method are preserving the normal anatomy and function of the palate and nasopharyngeal cavity, improving the function of velopharyngeal closure and minimizing secondary deformities.

  3. Effects of feminine hygiene products on the vaginal mucosal biome

    PubMed Central

    Fashemi, Bisiayo; Delaney, Mary L.; Onderdonk, Andrew B.; Fichorova, Raina N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Over-the-counter (OTC) feminine hygiene products come with little warning about possible side effects. This study evaluates in-vitro their effects on Lactobacillus crispatus, which is dominant in the normal vaginal microbiota and helps maintain a healthy mucosal barrier essential for normal reproductive function and prevention of sexually transmitted infections and gynecologic cancer. Methods A feminine moisturizer (Vagisil), personal lubricant, and douche were purchased OTC. A topical spermicide (nonoxynol-9) known to alter the vaginal immune barrier was used as a control. L. crispatus was incubated with each product for 2 and 24h and then seeded on agar for colony forming units (CFU). Human vaginal epithelial cells were exposed to products in the presence or absence of L. crispatus for 24h, followed by epithelium-associated CFU enumeration. Interleukin-8 was immunoassayed and ANOVA was used for statistical evaluation. Results Nonoxynol-9 and Vagisil suppressed Lactobacillus growth at 2h and killed all bacteria at 24h. The lubricant decreased bacterial growth insignificantly at 2h but killed all at 24h. The douche did not have a significant effect. At full strength, all products suppressed epithelial viability and all, except the douche, suppressed epithelial-associated CFU. When applied at non-toxic dose in the absence of bacteria, the douche and moisturizer induced an increase of IL-8, suggesting a potential to initiate inflammatory reaction. In the presence of L. crispatus, the proinflammatory effects of the douche and moisturizer were countered, and IL-8 production was inhibited in the presence of the other products. Conclusion Some OTC vaginal products may be harmful to L. crispatus and alter the vaginal immune environment. Illustrated through these results, L. crispatus is essential in the preservation of the function of vaginal epithelial cells in the presence of some feminine hygiene products. More research should be invested toward these

  4. [The apron mucosal flap of the lower lip for the repair of the secondary deformities of the cleft lip].

    PubMed

    Wu, K; Xu, J; Lin, Y

    1996-05-01

    Twelve cases of secondary deformities of the cleft lip were repaired with the apron mucosal flap of the lower lip. The operation method is described. The advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Good results were obtained in patients with mild or medium secondary deformities.

  5. Management of surgical and radiation induced rectourethral fistulas with an interposition muscle flap and selective buccal mucosal onlay graft.

    PubMed

    Vanni, Alex J; Buckley, Jill C; Zinman, Leonard N

    2010-12-01

    Rectourethral fistulas are a rare but devastating complication of pelvic surgery and radiation. We review, analyze and describe the management and outcomes of nonradiated and radiation/ablation induced rectourethral fistulas during a consecutive 12-year period. We performed a retrospective review of patients undergoing rectourethral fistula repair between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2009. Patient demographics as well as preoperative, operative and postoperative data were obtained. All rectourethral fistulas were repaired using an anterior transperineal approach with a muscle interposition flap and selective use of a buccal mucosal graft urethral patch onlay. A total of 74 patients with rectourethral fistulas underwent repair with an anterior perineal approach and muscle interposition flap (68 gracilis muscle interposition flaps, 6 other muscle interposition flaps). We compared 35 nonradiated and 39 radiated/ablation induced rectourethral fistulas. Concurrent urethral strictures were present in 11% of nonradiated and 28% of radiated/ablation rectourethral fistulas. At a mean followup of 20 months 100% of nonradiated rectourethral fistulas were closed with 1 procedure while 84% of radiated/ablation rectourethral fistulas were closed in a single stage. Of the patients with nonradiated rectourethral fistulas 97% had the bowel undiverted. Of those undiverted cases 100% were without bowel complication. Of the patients with radiated/ablation rectourethral fistulas 31% required permanent fecal diversion. Successful rectourethral fistula closure can be achieved for nonradiated (100%) and radiation/ablation (84%) rectourethral fistulas using a standard anterior perineal approach with an interposition muscle flap and selective use of buccal mucosal graft, providing a standard for rectourethral fistula repair. Even the most complex radiation/ablation rectourethral fistula can be repaired avoiding permanent urinary and fecal diversion. Copyright © 2010 American Urological

  6. Mucosal integrity and inflammatory markers in the female lower genital tract as potential screening tools for vaginal microbicides.

    PubMed

    Su, H Irene; Schreiber, Courtney A; Fay, Courtney; Parry, Sam; Elovitz, Michal A; Zhang, Jian; Shaunik, Alka; Barnhart, Kurt

    2011-11-01

    In the female genital tract, vaginal colposcopy, endometrial mucosal integrity and inflammatory mediators are potential in vivo biomarkers of microbicide and contraceptive safety. A randomized, blinded crossover trial of 18 subjects comparing effects of nonoxynol-9 vaginal gel (Gynol II; putative inflammatory gel), hydroxyethyl cellulose gel (HEC; putative inert gel) and no gel exposure on endometrial and vaginal epithelial integrity and endometrial and vaginal inflammatory markers [interleukin (IL) 1β, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, RANTES, tumor necrosis factor α, IL-1RA, IL-10, SLPI). Gynol II was associated with more vaginal lesions. No endometrial disruptions were observed across conditions. In the vagina, RANTES (p=.055) and IL-6 (p=.04) were higher after HEC exposure than at baseline. In the endometrium, IL-1β (p=.003) and IL-8 (p=.025) were lower after Gynol II cycles than after no gel. Gynol II and HEC may modulate inflammatory markers in the vagina and endometrium. How these changes relate to infection susceptibility warrants further study. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Primary Palatoplasty for Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate Using Mucosal Grafts and Flaps.

    PubMed

    Torikai, Katsuyuki; Kijima, Takeshi; Hirakawa, Takashi; Naganishi, Hiroki; Ishiwata, Yasuo; Fukawa, Toshihiko; Funaki, Junzo; Nagaoka, Ryosuke; Suzuki, Keiko; Sano, Tsuguo

    2015-09-01

    The mucosal graft and flaps method (MG method) is a palatoplasty technique that was developed for the purpose of improving maxillary growth in patients with cleft palate. In the MG method, full-thickness buccal mucosa is grafted onto the raw surface created by pushback palatoplasty. The method is unlikely to result in severe scarring and has a favorable effect on maxillary growth. In addition, it is unlikely to result in oronasal fistula and provides good speech results. Overall, postive long-term treatment results have been obtained. Although the MG method is technically difficult and requires a lengthy surgery, the technique is considered to be effective for palate closure in terms of speech and maxillary growth.

  8. Protection against rat vaginal candidiasis by adoptive transfer of vaginal B lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    De Bernardis, Flavia; Santoni, Giorgio; Boccanera, Maria; Lucciarini, Roberta; Arancia, Silvia; Sandini, Silvia; Amantini, Consuelo; Cassone, Antonio

    2010-06-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a mucosal infection affecting many women, but the immune mechanisms operating against Candida albicans at the mucosal level remain unknown. A rat model was employed to further characterize the contribution of B and T cells to anti-Candida vaginal protection. Particularly, the protective role of vaginal B cells was studied by means of adoptive transfer of vaginal CD3(-) CD5(+) IgM(+) cells from Candida-immunized rats to naïve animals. This passive transfer of B cells resulted into a number of vaginal C. albicans CFU approximately 50% lower than their controls. Sorted CD3(-) CD5(+) IgM(+) vaginal B lymphocytes from Candida-infected rats proliferated in response to stimulation with an immunodominant mannoprotein (MP) antigen of the fungus. Importantly, anti-MP antibodies and antibody-secreting B cells were detected in the supernatant and cell cultures, respectively, of vaginal B lymphocytes from infected rats incubated in vitro with vaginal T cells and stimulated with MP. No such specific antibodies were found when using vaginal B cells from uninfected rats. Furthermore, inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-6 and IL-10, were found in the supernatant of vaginal B cells from infected rats. These data are evidence of a partial anti-Candida protective role of CD3(-) CD5(+) IgM(+) vaginal B lymphocytes in our experimental model.

  9. [BIPADDLED SPLIT PECTORALIS MAJOR MYOCUTANEOUS FLAPS FOR IMMEDIATE RECONSTRUCTION OF ORAL MUCOSAL DEFECTS AND NECK DEFECTS AFTER RESECTION OF RECURRENT ORAL CANCER].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Jiang, Canhua; Li, Ning; Gao, Zhengyang; Chen, Lichun; Wu, Xiaoshan; Chen, Xinqun; Jian, Xinchun

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the feasibility of the bipaddled split pectoralis major myocutaneous flap for immediate reconstruction of oral mucosal defects and neck defects after resection of recurrent oral cancer. Six patients with oral mucosal defects combined with neck defects after recurrent oral cancer resection were treated with bipaddled split pectoralis major myocutaneous flap between September 2013 and September 2014. There were 5 males and 1 female with an average age of 54.7 years (range, 45-62 years), including 4 cases of recurrent tongue cancer, 1 case of recurrent mandibular gingival cancer, and 1 case of mouth floor carcinoma. All patients underwent local recurrence at 8 to 14 months after first operation, with no distant metastasis. The defects of the intraoral mucosa was 4.0 cm x 2.5 cm to 6.5 cm x 3.5 cm and the defect of the neck skin was 5.5 cm x 3.5 cm to 7.5 cm x 5.0 cm. The pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps (14.0 cm x 3.5 cm to 17.0 cm x 5.5 cm) were incised at the level of the 3rd to the 4th rib, and then split down along the muscle fiber till about 2 cm away from the thoracoacromial vessels, forming 2 independent skin paddles with 1-2 branch vessels to the pedicles of the distal ones. The distal skin paddles were used for oral reconstruction while the proximal paddles for repair of neck defects. The chest donor sites were sutured directly. Cervical haematoma and infection happened in 1 patient respectively after operation, and were cured after symptomatic treatment. All 6 split pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps with 12 skin paddles completely survived. All patients were followed up 6 to 18 months (mean, 11 months). One patient died of pulmonary metastasis at 8 months after operation and the other 5 survived without relapse or metastasis during follow-up. The intraoral paddles showed good shape with satisfactory speech function and swallowing recovery. The paddles also healed perfectly on the neck with flat outlooks, and all patients obtained full

  10. Bacterial vaginosis and vaginal yeast, but not vaginal cleansing, increase HIV-1 acquisition in African women.

    PubMed

    van de Wijgert, Janneke H H M; Morrison, Charles S; Cornelisse, Peter G A; Munjoma, Marshall; Moncada, Jeanne; Awio, Peter; Wang, Jing; Van der Pol, Barbara; Chipato, Tsungai; Salata, Robert A; Padian, Nancy S

    2008-06-01

    To evaluate interrelationships between bacterial vaginosis (BV), vaginal yeast, vaginal practices (cleansing and drying/tightening), mucosal inflammation, and HIV acquisition. A multicenter, prospective, observational cohort study was conducted, enrolling 4531 HIV-negative women aged 18 to 35 years attending family planning clinics in Zimbabwe and Uganda. Participants were tested for HIV and reproductive tract infections and were interviewed about vaginal practices every 3 months for 15 to 24 months. BV was measured by Gram stain Nugent scoring, vaginal yeast by wet mount, and mucosal inflammation by white blood cells on Gram stain. HIV incidence was 4.12 and 1.53 per 100 woman-years of follow-up in Zimbabwe and Uganda, respectively (a total of 213 incident infections). Women with BV or vaginal yeast were more likely to acquire HIV, especially if the condition was present at the same visit as the new HIV infection and the visit preceding it (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.50, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.68 to 3.72 and HR = 2.97, 95% CI: 1.67 to 5.28 for BV and yeast, respectively). These relationships did not seem to be mediated by mucosal inflammation. Vaginal drying/tightening was associated with HIV acquisition in univariate (HR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.03 to 2.15) but not multivariate models. Vaginal cleansing was not associated with HIV acquisition. BV and yeast may contribute more to the HIV epidemic than previously thought.

  11. Safety of a progesterone-releasing intravaginal device as assessed from vaginal mucosal integrity and indicators of systemic inflammation in postpartum dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Robert B.; LeBlanc, Stephen J.; Vernooy, Erin; Leslie, Kenneth E.

    2008-01-01

    A clinical trial was conducted to investigate the animal safety of a progesterone-releasing intravaginal device (PRID). Anestrus cows at a mean of 63 ± 3.5 d in milk were randomly assigned to an ovulation-synchronization protocol that included placement of either a PRID or a placebo intravaginal device (PID) or no such treatment. At enrolment and at device removal 7 d later, blood samples were collected. The outcomes of interest included the vaginal reaction to the device, the vaginal mucosal integrity, and the results of bacterial culture of swabs of the vaginal mucosa. In addition, the leukocyte and haptoglobin responses were measured. Although only 5% of the PRID-treated animals compared with 19% of the PID-treated animals had a copious purulent vaginal discharge at the time of device removal, there was no significant difference in the proportions; furthermore, there was no evidence of vaginal mucosal damage associated with either device. The total blood leukocyte count was significantly lower in both the PRID-treated cows and the PID-treated cows after device removal compared with the start of treatment (P < 0.05) and compared with no treatment (P < 0.001); there was no difference in leukocyte response between the 2 device-treated groups. The decrease in leukocyte count was attributed to a significant reduction in the numbers of circulating neutrophils and lymphocytes, a pattern consistent with the luteal phase of the bovine estrus cycle. There was no significant difference in the circulating haptoglobin concentration between the 3 groups of cows. Culture revealed commensal bacterial growth in the vagina of all the cows. PMID:18214161

  12. Surgical Treatment of Iatrogenic Ventral Glottic Stenosis Using a Mucosal Flap Technique

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Timothy P.; O'Leary, John Mark; Dixon, Padraic M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe a novel surgical technique for correcting postoperative ventral glottic stenosis (cicatrix or web formation) and the outcome in 2 Thoroughbred racehorses. Study Design Retrospective case report. Animals Thoroughbreds diagnosed with ventral glottic stenosis (n=2). Methods Horses presenting with iatrogenic ventral glottic stenosis and resultant exercise intolerance and abnormal exercise‐related noise were anesthetized and a midline sagittal skin incision was made over the ventral larynx and between the sternohyoideus muscles overlying the cricothyroid notch. The cricothyroid ligament, attached laryngeal cicatrix, and overlying mucosa were sagittally sectioned at the dorsal aspect of the cicatrix on the left side. The laryngeal mucosa, cicatrix, and underlying cricothyroid ligament immediately rostral and caudal to the cicatrix were sectioned in a medial (axial) direction as far as the right side of the cricothyroid notch. After resection of the majority of the attached cicatrix tissue, the residual mucosal flap (attached to the right side of the larynx) was reflected ventrally and sutured to the attachment of the cricothyroid ligament on the right side of the cricothyroid notch, creating an intact mucosal layer on the right side of the ventral larynx. Results Both horses had good intralaryngeal wound healing with minimal redevelopment of ventral glottic stenosis at 5 and 9 months postoperatively and were successfully returned to racing with complete absence of abnormal respiratory noise. Conclusion The unique laryngeal anatomy of horses, with a cartilage‐free ventral laryngeal area (cricothyroid notch), allowed the use of this novel surgical technique to successfully treat ventral glottic stenosis. PMID:27013024

  13. Bulbocavernous myocutaneous flap: a new technique in repair of recurrent urethrovaginal fistula.

    PubMed

    Candiani, P; Campiglio, G L; Ceresoli, A; Zanetti, G; Colombo, F; Canclini, L; Austoni, E

    1993-12-01

    This paper describes the case of a recurrent post-partum urethrovaginal fistula. The extent of the vaginal tissues loss and the perilesional scarring made the direct closure of the defect non practicable. After suturing the urethra, the anterior vaginal wall was reconstructed with an island bulbocavernous musculocutaneous flap raised from the left labium majus. Nineteen months after surgery the flap healed well without peri urethral suffusion.

  14. Bladder Mucosal Graft Vaginoplasty: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Chiaramonte, Cinzia; Vestri, Elettra; Tripi, Flavia; Giannone, Antonino Giulio; Cimador, Marcello; Cataliotti, Ferdinando

    2018-06-18

    Female vaginoplasty reconstruction, by choice, is usually performed with adjacent tissue. However in some clinical conditions such as high urogenital confluence sinus, cloacal malformation with extreme vaginal hypoplasia, local tissue may not be available. When vaginal replacement is performed in pediatric patients intestinal segments is preferred to non-operative procedures that require continuative dilations. However mucus production, malignant transformation risk and diversion colitis are important side effects. We present a nouvel technique for vaginoplasty in a female child presenting with an isolated urogenital sinus malformation without virilization. The patient at 20 months underwent vaginoplasty using tubularized bladder mucosal graft. Surgical procedure was devoid of complications. Pubertal development occurred at age of 15. She underwent regular follow up until 18 years of age. At this age we performed clinical evaluation: absence of vaginal introitus stenosis and good cosmetic results were observed. Then she underwent vaginoscopy with multiple biopsies. Pathology examination of the bladder mucosal graft evidenced a normal structure of the mucosa, with a stratified squamous epithelium. Different techniques are taken into account for vaginal reconstruction according to the severity and to the type of malformation. We describe the use of bladder mucosal graft with favorable results after long term follow-up. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Systemic and mucosal immunization with Candida albicans hsp90 elicits hsp90-specific humoral response in vaginal mucosa which is further enhanced during experimental vaginal candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Raska, Milan; Belakova, Jana; Horynova, Milada; Krupka, Michal; Novotny, Jiri; Sebestova, Martina; Weigl, Evzen

    2008-08-01

    The Candida albicans heat shock protein 90 kDa (hsp90-CA) is an important target for protective antibodies in disseminated candidiasis of experimental mice and humans. Hsp90-CA is present in the cell wall of Candida pseudohyphae or hyphae--typical pathogenic morphotypes in both mucosal and systemic Candida infections. However, the potential protective effects of hsp90-CA-specific antibodies in vaginal candidiasis has not yet been reported. In the present study we used various vaccine formulations (recombinant hsp90-CA protein and hsp90-CA-encoding DNA vaccine) and routes of administration (intradermal, intranasal, and intravenous) to induce both hsp90-CA-specific systemic and vaginal mucosa immune responses in experimental BALB/c mice. The results showed that intradermal recombinant hsp90-CA protein priming, followed by intranasal or intradermal recombinant hsp90-CA protein boosting induced significant increases in both serum and vaginal hsp90-CA-specific IgG and IgA antibodies compared to the control group, as well as enhanced hsp90-CA-specific splenocyte responses in vitro. In the intradermally boosted group, subsequent experimental vaginal Candida infection induced additional increases in the hsp90-CA specific IgG isotype, suggesting that Candida has the ability to induce a local hsp90-specific antibody (IgG) response during vulvovaginal candidiasis. Further work is required to elucidate the importance of immunity to highly conserved antigens during infection of the human female reproductive tract where a balance between immunity to and tolerance for commonly antigens such as hsp90 is necessary for the maintenance of fertility.

  16. Determination of Prognostic Factors for Vaginal Mucosal Toxicity Associated With Intravaginal High-Dose Rate Brachytherapy in Patients With Endometrial Cancer

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bahng, Agnes Y.; Dagan, Avner; Bruner, Deborah W.

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to determine the patient- and treatment-related prognostic factors associated with vaginal toxicity in patients who received intravaginal high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy alone as adjuvant treatment for endometrial cancer. Secondary goals of this study included a quantitative assessment of optimal dilator use frequency and a crude assessment of clinical predictors for compliant dilator use. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 100 patients with histologically confirmed endometrial cancer who underwent total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with or without lymph node dissection and adjuvant intravaginal brachytherapy between 1995 and 2009 at themore » Hospital of University of Pennsylvania. The most common treatment regimen used was 21 Gy in three fractions (71 patients). Symptoms of vaginal mucosal toxicity were taken from the history and physical exams noted in the patients' charts and were graded according to the Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events v. 4.02. Results: The incidence of Grade 1 or asymptomatic vaginal toxicity was 33% and Grade 2-3 or symptomatic vaginal toxicity was 14%. Multivariate analysis of age, active length, and dilator use two to three times a week revealed odds ratios of 0.93 (p = 0.013), 3.96 (p = 0.008), and 0.17 (p = 0.032) respectively. Conclusion: Increasing age, vaginal dilator use of at least two to three times a week, and shorter active length were found to be significantly associated with a decreased risk of vaginal stenosis. Future prospective studies are necessary to validate our findings.« less

  17. Advanced topical drug delivery system for the management of vaginal candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Johal, Himmat Singh; Garg, Tarun; Rath, Goutam; Goyal, Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal candidiasis or vulvovaginal candidiasis (VC) is a common mucosal infection of vagina, mainly caused by Candida species. The major symptoms of VC are dyspareunia, pruritis, itching, soreness, vagina as well as vulvar erythema and edema. Most common risk factors that lead to the imbalance in the vaginal micro biota are the use of antibiotics, pregnancy, diabetes mellitus, immuno suppression as in AIDS or HIV patients, frequent sexual intercourse, spermicide and intra-uterine devices and vaginal douching. Various anti-fungal drugs are available for effective treatment of VC. Different conventional vaginal formulations (creams, gels, suppositories, powder, ointment, etc.) for VC are available today but have limited efficacy because of lesser residence time on vaginal epithelium due to self-cleansing action of vagina. So to overcome this problem, an extended and intimate contact with vaginal mucosa is desired; which can be accomplished by utilizing mucoadhesive polymers. Mucoadhesive polymers have an excellent binding capacity to mucosal tissues for considerable period of time. This unique property of these polymers significantly enhances retention time of different formulations on mucosal tissues. Currently, various novel formulations such as liposomes, nano- and microparticles, micro-emulsions, bio-adhesive gel and tablets are used to control and treat VC. In this review, we focused on current status of vaginal candidiasis, conventional and nanotechnology inspired formulation approaches.

  18. Comparison of Mucosal Markers of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Susceptibility in Healthy Premenopausal Versus Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Thurman, Andrea Ries; Yousefieh, Nazita; Chandra, Neelima; Kimble, Thomas; Asin, Susana; Rollenhagen, Christiane; Anderson, Sharon M; Herold, Betsy C; Freiermuth, Jamie L; Starkman, Brian S; Mesquita, Pedro M M; Richardson-Harman, Nicola; Cunningham, Tina; Hillier, Sharon; Rabe, Lorna; Schwartz, Jill L; Doncel, Gustavo F

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize cervicovaginal (CV) mucosal factors modulating susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition in healthy premenopausal (PRE) and postmenopausal (POST) women before and after treatment with estradiol (E2). We compared CV mucosal epithelial histology and immune cells, vaginal microbiota, antimicrobial activity of and soluble mucosal protein concentrations in the CV fluid lavage (CVL), and p24 antigen production after ex vivo infection of ectocervical tissues with HIV-1 BaL among PRE women (n = 20) in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle and POST women (n = 17) at baseline and after ∼1 month of treatment with 0.01% vaginal E2 cream. Compared to PRE women, we measured higher levels of p24 antigen after ex vivo infection in tissues from POST women. POST women had a significantly thinner vaginal epithelium with decreased tight junction proteins and a higher density of mucosal immune T cells and lower levels of CD1a antigen-presenting cells, antimicrobial peptides, and inflammatory cytokines in the CVL (p values <.05). POST women had higher vaginal pH and lower vaginal Lactobacilli (p values <.05) than PRE women. After vaginal E2 therapy, CV endpoints and ex vivo HIV replication in POST tissues were similar to those observed in PRE tissues. The CV mucosa in POST women is thinned and compromised, with increased HIV-target immune cells and decreased antimicrobial factors, being more susceptible to HIV infection. After POST women receive topical E2 treatment, mucosal endpoints are similar to PRE levels.

  19. Vaginal drug distribution modeling.

    PubMed

    Katz, David F; Yuan, Andrew; Gao, Yajing

    2015-09-15

    This review presents and applies fundamental mass transport theory describing the diffusion and convection driven mass transport of drugs to the vaginal environment. It considers sources of variability in the predictions of the models. It illustrates use of model predictions of microbicide drug concentration distribution (pharmacokinetics) to gain insights about drug effectiveness in preventing HIV infection (pharmacodynamics). The modeling compares vaginal drug distributions after different gel dosage regimens, and it evaluates consequences of changes in gel viscosity due to aging. It compares vaginal mucosal concentration distributions of drugs delivered by gels vs. intravaginal rings. Finally, the modeling approach is used to compare vaginal drug distributions across species with differing vaginal dimensions. Deterministic models of drug mass transport into and throughout the vaginal environment can provide critical insights about the mechanisms and determinants of such transport. This knowledge, and the methodology that obtains it, can be applied and translated to multiple applications, involving the scientific underpinnings of vaginal drug distribution and the performance evaluation and design of products, and their dosage regimens, that achieve it. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Surgical Procedure of Buccal Mucosal Carcinoma - Reconstruction of Mouth Angle].

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Aya; Kanno, Takahiro; Karino, Masaaki; Iwahashi, Teruaki; Sekine, Joji

    2018-03-01

    Surgical resection of the buccal mucosal carcinoma often induces soft tissue defect. The treatment plan should be considered to preserve oro-facial function and morpho-esthetics. This retrospective study reports the surgical reconstruction procedures in buccal mucosal carcinoma patients. We evaluated 4 cases(2 men, 2 women, mean age: 81.8 year-old)treated in Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Shimane University Hospital between June 2007 and January 2017. The average size of primary tumor was 4.9 cm2. And the average size of facial skin defect in the mouth angle was 3.1 cm2. The facial local skin flaps and/or other pedicled flap were used for the reconstruction of the mouth angle. Severe contraction of the scar was manifested in 2 cases. Though reconstruction using the local pedicled flaps for full thickness skin defect in the mouth angle would be feasible, special attention is considered regarding the postoperative contraction of the scar.

  1. Local expression of vaginal Th1 and Th2 cytokines in murine vaginal candidiasis under different immunity conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shanjuan; Li, Shaohua; Wu, Yan; Liu, Zhixiang; Li, Jiawen

    2008-08-01

    To investigate the expression of vaginal Th1 and Th2 cytokines in rats with experimental vaginal candidiasis under different immune conditions, ICR murine vaginal candidiasis model was established and immno-suppressed murine models of vaginal cadidiasis were established in estrogen-treated mice. Non-estrogen-treated mice were used as controls. The mRNA level of Th1 (IL-2)/Th2 (IL-4, IL-10, TGF-beta1) cytokines in murine vaginal tissues was determined by RT-PCR. The cykotine in local tissues was increased to different extent under normal immune condition. IL-2 mRNA was increased during early stage of infection, while IL-10 was increased transiently during late stage of infection. TGF-beta1 production was found to be increased persistently. At same time, the expression of IL-2 mRNA was suppressed in immno-suppressed group, and the level of IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-beta1 were higher than the normal immunity group to different degree during infection. The high level of IL-2 mRNA during early stage of infection was associated with clearance of mucosal Candidia albicans (C. albicans), and its expression suppressed leading to decreased clearance of mucosal C. albican in immuno-suppression. The over-expression of IL-4 and IL-10 could significantly enhance the susceptibility to C. albicans infection in mice.

  2. Inferiorly based buccinator myomucosal island flap in oral and pharyngeal reconstruction. Four techniques to increase its application

    PubMed Central

    Rahpeyma, Amin; khajehahmadi, Saeedeh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Reconstruction of oral and pharyngeal defects after pathologic resections with the same tissue is an optimal and ideal target. Islanded variety of inferiorly pedicled facial artery musculomucosal flap, in which facial artery and vein are skeletonized (referred to as inferiorly based BUMIF), is suitable for reconstruction of medium-sized mucosal defects. Presentation of cases In this article, with four cases, modifications of this flap are demonstrated in reconstruction of large intraoral and oropharyngeal defects and coverage of alveolar ridge in the mandible. Discussion In some situations, there is a need for more mucosal paddle, longer vascular pedicle and more adaptation to the recipient bed. Conclusion Relocating Stensen’s duct increases the mucosal paddle with cranial extension of superior limit while differential incision of the mucosa and buccinator muscle in mandibular vestibule extend the lower limit of this flap. Bone suture is a good complementary technique when this flap is used for coverage of mandibular alveolar ridge. Inferiorly based BUMIF with added length is indicated for oropharyngeal and contralateral mouth floor reconstructions. PMID:26218177

  3. Determining the activity of mucosal adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Baudner, Barbara C; Giudice, Giuseppe Del

    2010-01-01

    Mucosal vaccination offers the advantage of blocking pathogens at the portal of entry, improving patient's compliance, facilitating vaccine delivery, and decreasing the risk of unwanted spread of infectious agents via contaminated syringes.Recent advances in vaccinology have created an array of vaccine constructs that can be delivered to mucosal surfaces of the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary tracts using intranasal, oral, and vaginal routes. Due to the different characteristics of mucosal immune response, as compared with systemic response, mucosal immunization requires particular methods of antigen presentation. Well-tolerated adjuvants that enhance the efficacy of such vaccines will play an important role in mucosal immunization. Among promising mucosal adjuvants, mutants of cholera toxin and the closely related heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli present powerful tools, augmenting the local and systemic serum antibody response to co-administered antigens.In this chapter, we describe the formulation and application of vaccines using the genetically modified LTK63 mutant as a prototype of the family of these mucosal adjuvants and the tools to determine its activity in the mouse model.

  4. Reconstruction of the pelvic floor and the vagina after total pelvic exenteration using the transverse musculocutaneous gracilis flap.

    PubMed

    Kaartinen, Ilkka S; Vuento, Maarit H; Hyöty, Marja K; Kallio, Jukka; Kuokkanen, Hannu O

    2015-01-01

    Total pelvic exenteration (TPE) is a rare operation in which the pelvic contents are removed entirely. Several options for pelvic floor and vaginal reconstruction have been described including transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) or deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flaps. The transverse musculocutaneous gracilis (TMG) flap has been introduced for breast reconstruction as a free flap. We adopted the pedicled TMG flap for reconstructions after TPE. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of this method in the literature. Between November 2011 and February 2014, 12 patients underwent TPE and reconstruction with unilateral (six patients) or bilateral (six patients) pedicled TMG flaps. Five patients underwent vaginal reconstruction with bilateral TMG flaps. We describe the operative procedure and the outcome of the operation in these patients. The total mean operative times for TPE with or without vaginal reconstruction were 467 ± 12 and 386 ± 59 min, respectively. The TMG flaps had enough vascular tissue and mobility for reconstructing the TPE defects. There was distal edge necrosis in one out of 18 flaps, while the rest survived completely. During the follow-up, complete wound healing with no signs of weakening of the pelvic floor was observed in all cases. Soft-tissue reconstructions are needed to reduce complications associated with TPE, to secure the pelvic floor and to reconstruct the vagina in select patients. The TMG flap is a logical flap choice that does not lead to functional deficits, complicate the abdominal ostomies or weaken the abdominal wall. It reduces the length of operation compared to that of abdominal flaps. IV, therapeutic. Copyright © 2014 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Management of vaginal extrusion after tension-free vaginal tape procedure for urodynamic stress incontinence.

    PubMed

    Giri, Subhasis K; Sil, Debasri; Narasimhulu, Girish; Flood, Hugh D; Skehan, Mark; Drumm, John

    2007-06-01

    To report our experience in the management of vaginal extrusion after the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure for urodynamic stress incontinence. Five patients diagnosed with vaginal extrusion after a TVT procedure performed at our institution were identified. We reviewed the patients' records retrospectively. The interval from TVT placement to diagnosis, presenting symptoms and signs, duration of symptoms, diagnostic test findings, treatment, and postoperative results were recorded. Patients were followed up for at least 12 months. From January 2001 to June 2004, a total of 166 patients underwent the TVT procedure. Of these, 5 patients (3%) were diagnosed with isolated vaginal extrusion 4 to 40 months postoperatively. No cases of urethral or bladder erosion occurred in this series. The symptoms included vaginal discharge, pain, bleeding, and dyspareunia. The eroded margin of the vaginal mucosa was trimmed, mobilized, and closed over the tape with interrupted vertical mattress sutures in a single layer using 2-0 polyglactin 910 to avoid mucosal inversion. All patients remained symptom free without any evidence of defective healing or additional extrusion at a minimal follow-up of 12 months. Primary reclosure of the vaginal mucosa over the TVT tape is an effective first-line treatment option for vaginal extrusion without compromising continence. Patients undergoing the TVT procedure should be adequately counseled about the possibility of this complication and the available treatment options.

  6. Reconstruction of palatal defect using mucoperiosteal hinge flap and pushback palatoplasty.

    PubMed

    Lee, S I; Lee, H S; Hwang, K

    2001-11-01

    This article describes a simple, new surgical technique to provide a complete two-layer closure of palatal defect resulting from a surgical complication of trans palatal resection of skull base chordoma. The nasal layer was reconstructed with triangular shape oral mucoperiosteal turn over hinge flap based on anterior margin of palatal defect and rectangular shaped lateral nasal mucosal hinge flaps. The oral layer was reconstructed with conventional pushback V-Y advancement 2-flaps palatoplasty. Each layer of the flaps were secured with two key mattress suture for flap coaptation. This technique has some advantages: simple, short operation time, one-stage procedure, no need of osteotomy. It can close small- to medium-sized palatal defect of palate or wide cleft palate and can prevent common complication of oronasal fistula, which could be caused by tension.

  7. Cryopreservation of Human Mucosal Leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Zhiquan; Levy, Claire N.; Ferre, April L.; Hartig, Heather; Fang, Cifeng; Lentz, Gretchen; Fialkow, Michael; Kirby, Anna C.; Adams Waldorf, Kristina M.; Veazey, Ronald S.; Germann, Anja; von Briesen, Hagen; McElrath, M. Juliana; Dezzutti, Charlene S.; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Baker, Chris A. R.; Shacklett, Barbara L.; Gao, Dayong; Hladik, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding how leukocytes in the cervicovaginal and colorectal mucosae respond to pathogens, and how medical interventions affect these responses, is important for developing better tools to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. An effective cryopreservation protocol for these cells following their isolation will make studying them more feasible. Methods and Findings To find an optimal cryopreservation protocol for mucosal mononuclear leukocytes, we compared cryopreservation media and procedures using human vaginal leukocytes and confirmed our results with endocervical and colorectal leukocytes. Specifically, we measured the recovery of viable vaginal T cells and macrophages after cryopreservation with different cryopreservation media and handling procedures. We found several cryopreservation media that led to recoveries above 75%. Limiting the number and volume of washes increased the fraction of cells recovered by 10–15%, possibly due to the small cell numbers in mucosal samples. We confirmed that our cryopreservation protocol also works well for both endocervical and colorectal leukocytes. Cryopreserved leukocytes had slightly increased cytokine responses to antigenic stimulation relative to the same cells tested fresh. Additionally, we tested whether it is better to cryopreserve endocervical cells on the cytobrush or in suspension. Conclusions Leukocytes from cervicovaginal and colorectal tissues can be cryopreserved with good recovery of functional, viable cells using several different cryopreservation media. The number and volume of washes has an experimentally meaningful effect on the percentage of cells recovered. We provide a detailed, step-by-step protocol with best practices for cryopreservation of mucosal leukocytes. PMID:27232996

  8. Cryopreservation of Human Mucosal Leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Sean M; Shu, Zhiquan; Levy, Claire N; Ferre, April L; Hartig, Heather; Fang, Cifeng; Lentz, Gretchen; Fialkow, Michael; Kirby, Anna C; Adams Waldorf, Kristina M; Veazey, Ronald S; Germann, Anja; von Briesen, Hagen; McElrath, M Juliana; Dezzutti, Charlene S; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Baker, Chris A R; Shacklett, Barbara L; Gao, Dayong; Hladik, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how leukocytes in the cervicovaginal and colorectal mucosae respond to pathogens, and how medical interventions affect these responses, is important for developing better tools to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. An effective cryopreservation protocol for these cells following their isolation will make studying them more feasible. To find an optimal cryopreservation protocol for mucosal mononuclear leukocytes, we compared cryopreservation media and procedures using human vaginal leukocytes and confirmed our results with endocervical and colorectal leukocytes. Specifically, we measured the recovery of viable vaginal T cells and macrophages after cryopreservation with different cryopreservation media and handling procedures. We found several cryopreservation media that led to recoveries above 75%. Limiting the number and volume of washes increased the fraction of cells recovered by 10-15%, possibly due to the small cell numbers in mucosal samples. We confirmed that our cryopreservation protocol also works well for both endocervical and colorectal leukocytes. Cryopreserved leukocytes had slightly increased cytokine responses to antigenic stimulation relative to the same cells tested fresh. Additionally, we tested whether it is better to cryopreserve endocervical cells on the cytobrush or in suspension. Leukocytes from cervicovaginal and colorectal tissues can be cryopreserved with good recovery of functional, viable cells using several different cryopreservation media. The number and volume of washes has an experimentally meaningful effect on the percentage of cells recovered. We provide a detailed, step-by-step protocol with best practices for cryopreservation of mucosal leukocytes.

  9. Success of dental implants in vascularised fibular osteoseptocutaneous flaps used as onlay grafts after marginal mandibulectomy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Y-M; Pan, Y-H; Shen, Y-F; Chen, J-K; ALDeek, N F; Wei, F-C

    2016-12-01

    We have evaluated the survival of dental implants placed in vascularised fibular flap onlay grafts placed over marginal mandibulectomies and the effects on marginal bone loss of different types of soft tissue around implants under functional loading. From 2001-2009 we studied a total of 11 patients (1 woman and10 men), three of whom had had ameloblastoma and eight who had had squamous cell carcinomas resected. A total of 38 dental implants were placed either at the time of transfer of the vascularised fibular ostoseptocutaneous flaps (nine patients with 30 implants) or secondarily (two patients with eight implants). Four patients were given palatal mucosal grafts to replace intraoral skin flaps around the dental implants (n=13), and the other seven had the skin flaps around the dental implants thinned (n=25) at the second stage of implantation of the osteointegrated teeth. All vascularised fibular osteoseptocutaneous flaps were successfully transferred, and all implants survived a mean (range) of 73 (33-113) months after occlusal functional loading. The mean (SD) marginal bone loss was 0.5 (0.3) mm on both mesial and distal sides in patients who had palatal mucosal grafts, but 1.8 (1.6) mm, and 1.7 (1.5) mm, respectively, on the mesial and distal sides in the patients who had had thinning of their skin flaps. This difference is significant (p=0.008) with less resorption of bone in the group who had palatal mucosal grafts. Palatal mucosa around the implants helps to reduce resorption of bone after functional loading of implants. Copyright © 2016 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Epithelium-Innate Immune Cell Axis in Mucosal Responses to SIV

    PubMed Central

    Shang, L.; Duan, L.; Perkey, K. E.; Wietgrefe, S.; Zupancic, M.; Smith, A. J.; Southern, P. J.; Johnson, R. P.; Haase, A. T.

    2016-01-01

    In the SIV-rhesus macaque model of HIV-1 transmission to women, one hallmark of the mucosal response to exposure to high doses of SIV is CD4 T cell recruitment that fuels local virus expansion in early infection. In this study, we systematically analyzed the cellular events and chemoattractant profiles in cervical tissues that precede CD4 T cell recruitment. We show that vaginal exposure to the SIV inoculum rapidly induces chemokine expression in cervical epithelium including CCL3, CCL20, and CXCL8. The chemokine expression is associated with early recruitment of macrophages and plasmacytoid dendritic cells that are co-clustered underneath the cervical epithelium. Production of chemokines CCL3 and CXCL8 by these cells in turn generates a chemokine gradient that is spatially correlated with the recruitment of CD4 T cells. We further show that the protection of SIVmac239Δnef vaccination against vaginal challenge is correlated with the absence of this epithelium-innate immune cell-CD4 T cell axis response in the cervical mucosa. Our results reveal a critical role for cervical epithelium in initiating early mucosal responses to vaginal infection, highlight an important role for macrophages in target cell recruitment and provide further evidence of a paradoxical dampening effect of a protective vaccine on these early mucosal responses. PMID:27435105

  11. Epithelium-innate immune cell axis in mucosal responses to SIV.

    PubMed

    Shang, L; Duan, L; Perkey, K E; Wietgrefe, S; Zupancic, M; Smith, A J; Southern, P J; Johnson, R P; Haase, A T

    2017-03-01

    In the SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus)-rhesus macaque model of HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus type I) transmission to women, one hallmark of the mucosal response to exposure to high doses of SIV is CD4 T-cell recruitment that fuels local virus expansion in early infection. In this study, we systematically analyzed the cellular events and chemoattractant profiles in cervical tissues that precede CD4 T-cell recruitment. We show that vaginal exposure to the SIV inoculum rapidly induces chemokine expression in cervical epithelium including CCL3, CCL20, and CXCL8. The chemokine expression is associated with early recruitment of macrophages and plasmacytoid dendritic cells that are co-clustered underneath the cervical epithelium. Production of chemokines CCL3 and CXCL8 by these cells in turn generates a chemokine gradient that is spatially correlated with the recruitment of CD4 T cells. We further show that the protection of SIVmac239Δnef vaccination against vaginal challenge is correlated with the absence of this epithelium-innate immune cell-CD4 T-cell axis response in the cervical mucosa. Our results reveal a critical role for cervical epithelium in initiating early mucosal responses to vaginal infection, highlight an important role for macrophages in target cell recruitment, and provide further evidence of a paradoxical dampening effect of a protective vaccine on these early mucosal responses.

  12. Vulvar and vaginal melanoma: A unique subclass of mucosal melanoma based on a comprehensive molecular analysis of 51 cases compared with 2253 cases of nongynecologic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Hou, June Y; Baptiste, Caitlin; Hombalegowda, Radhika Bangalore; Tergas, Ana I; Feldman, Rebecca; Jones, Nathaniel L; Chatterjee-Paer, Sudeshna; Bus-Kwolfski, Ama; Wright, Jason D; Burke, William M

    2017-04-15

    Optimal treatments for vulvar and vaginal melanomas (VVMs) have not been identified. Herein, the authors compare molecular profiles between VVM and nongynecologic melanoma (NGM) subtypes with the objective of identifying novel, targetable biomarkers. In total, 2304 samples of malignant melanoma that were submitted to Caris Life Sciences between 2009 and 2015 were reviewed. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were used to assess copy numbers and protein expression of selected genes. Sequenced variants were analyzed using a proprietary cancer panel. In total, 51 VVMs (14 vaginal and 37 vulvar melanomas) were compared with 2253 malignant NGMs, including 2127 cutaneous, 105 mucosal, and 21 acral melanomas. In VVMs, B-Raf proto-oncogene serine/threonine kinase (BRAF) was the most frequently mutated gene (26%) compared with 8.3% of mucosal NGMs (P = .008). In BRAF-mutated tumors, fewer VVMs (50%), compared with NGMs (82.1%), had a variant within the valine codon 600 (V600) domain. The KIT mutation rate was highest in VVMs (22%) compared with 3% in cutaneous (P < .001) and 8.8% in mucosal (P = .05) melanoma subtypes. NRAS mutations were rare in VVMs compared with cutaneous (25.9%; P = .009) and acral (40.6%; P = .002) melanoma subtypes. PD-L1 (56%) and PD-1 (75%) were frequently expressed in VVM, whereas PI3KCA pathway mutations and estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor expression were rare. Compared with VVMs that had KIT mutations, wild-type KIT VVMs were more likely to express molecular markers suggestive of platinum resistance (ERCC1), alkylating sensitivity (MGMT), and anthracycline sensitivity (TOP2A). The unique molecular features of VVM render this disease a distinct subtype of melanoma. Gene-based molecular therapy and immunotherapies may be promising and should be evaluated in clinical trials. Cancer 2017;123:1333-1344. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  13. NKp46+ Innate Lymphoid Cells Dampen Vaginal CD8 T Cell Responses following Local Immunization with a Cholera Toxin-Based Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Luci, Carmelo; Bekri, Selma; Bihl, Franck; Pini, Jonathan; Bourdely, Pierre; Nouhen, Kelly; Malgogne, Angélique; Walzer, Thierry; Braud, Véronique M.; Anjuère, Fabienne

    2015-01-01

    Innate and adaptive immune cells work in concert to generate efficient protection at mucosal surface. Vaginal mucosa is an epithelial tissue that contains innate and adaptive immune effector cells. Our previous studies demonstrated that vaginal administration of Cholera toxin -based vaccines generate antigen-specific CD8 T cells through the stimulation of local dendritic cells (DC). Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) are a group of lymphocytes localized in epithelial tissues that have important immune functions against pathogens and in tissue homeostasis. Their contribution to vaccine-induced mucosal T cell responses is an important issue for the design of protective vaccines. We report here that the vaginal mucosa contains a heterogeneous population of NKp46+ ILC that includes conventional NK cells and ILC1-like cells. We show that vaginal NKp46+ ILC dampen vaccine-induced CD8 T cell responses generated after local immunization. Indeed, in vivo depletion of NKp46+ ILC with anti-NK1.1 antibody or NKG2D blockade increases the magnitude of vaginal OVA-specific CD8 T cells. Furthermore, such treatments also increase the number of DC in the vagina. NKG2D ligands being expressed by vaginal DC but not by CD8 T cells, these results support that NKp46+ ILC limit mucosal CD8 T cell responses indirectly through the NKG2D-dependent elimination of vaginal DC. Our data reveal an unappreciated role of NKp46+ ILC in the regulation of mucosal CD8 T cell responses. PMID:26630176

  14. A Rare Case of Foreign Body Causing Recurrent Vaginal Discharge in Prepubertal Child

    PubMed Central

    Gobbur, Raghavendra.H.; Patil, Ashwini.G; Endigeri, Preetish

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal discharge in prepubertal children is mainly due to hypoestrogenic state of vaginal mucosa making it thin and alkaline leading to mucosal invasion by pathogen. In a paediatric case with persistent foul smelling , blood stained vaginal discharge not responding to medical therapy, vaginal foreign body should always be ruled out. Here, we report a 3 -year -old girl with complaint of recurrent vaginal discharge occasionally blood stained not relieved despite few antibiotics courses. On X -ray pelvis, a radioopaque foreign body hair clip was seen. Under sedation foreign body was removed by forceps following which child became asymptomatic. PMID:25738041

  15. A rare case of foreign body causing recurrent vaginal discharge in prepubertal child.

    PubMed

    Gobbur, Vijayalakshmi R; Gobbur, Raghavendra H; Patil, Ashwini G; Endigeri, Preetish

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal discharge in prepubertal children is mainly due to hypoestrogenic state of vaginal mucosa making it thin and alkaline leading to mucosal invasion by pathogen. In a paediatric case with persistent foul smelling , blood stained vaginal discharge not responding to medical therapy, vaginal foreign body should always be ruled out. Here, we report a 3 -year -old girl with complaint of recurrent vaginal discharge occasionally blood stained not relieved despite few antibiotics courses. On X -ray pelvis, a radioopaque foreign body hair clip was seen. Under sedation foreign body was removed by forceps following which child became asymptomatic.

  16. Modified trans-oral approach with an inferiorly based flap.

    PubMed

    Al-Holou, Wajd N; Park, Paul; Wang, Anthony C; Than, Khoi D; Marentette, Lawrence J

    2010-04-01

    The trans-oral approach allows direct access to pathologies of the anterior craniocervical junction. However, the classic midline incision of the posterior pharyngeal wall can be surgically burdensome and limits lateral exposure. We reviewed the medical records of nine patients undergoing the trans-oral approach. The sites of the pathology ranged from the clivus to C2, and surgical exposure ranged from the clivus to C3. Each operation utilized an inferiorly based flap. None of the patients experienced vascular or neurologic complications, and no patient had a cerebrospinal fluid fistula, pseudomeningocele, or meningitis postoperatively. The trans-oral approach with an inferiorly based flap can therefore be safely and effectively performed with minimal oropharyngeal and neurologic morbidity. Not only does a U-shaped flap allow adequate exposure from the lower half of the clivus to C3, a flap improves lateral exposure, provides a clear operating field, and allows superficial mucosal closure not directly overlying the operative field. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cell Adhesion Molecule and Lymphocyte Activation Marker Expression during Experimental Vaginal Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Wormley, Floyd L.; Chaiban, Joseph; Fidel, Paul L.

    2001-01-01

    Cell-mediated immunity by Th1-type CD4+ T cells is the predominant host defense mechanism against mucosal candidiasis. However, studies using an estrogen-dependent murine model of vaginal candidiasis have demonstrated little to no change in resident vaginal T cells during infection and no systemic T-cell infiltration despite the presence of Candida-specific systemic Th1-type responses in infected mice. The present study was designed to further investigate these observations by characterizing T-cell activation and cell adhesion molecule expression during primary and secondary C. albicans vaginal infections. While flow cytometry analysis of activation markers showed some evidence for activation of CD3+ draining lymph node and/or vaginal lymphocytes during both primary and secondary vaginal Candida infection, CD3+ cells expressing the homing receptors and integrins α4β7, αM290β7, and α4β1 in draining lymph nodes of mice with primary and secondary infections were reduced compared to results for uninfected mice. At the local level, few vaginal lymphocytes expressed integrins, with only minor changes observed during both primary and secondary infections. On the other hand, immunohistochemical analysis of vaginal cell adhesion molecule expression showed increases in mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 expression during both primary and secondary infections. Altogether, these data suggest that although the vaginal tissue is permissive to cellular infiltration during a vaginal Candida infection, the reduced numbers of systemic cells expressing the reciprocal cellular adhesion molecules may preempt cellular infiltration, thereby limiting Candida-specific T-cell responses against infection. PMID:11447188

  18. Mucus-penetrating nanoparticles for vaginal and gastrointestinal drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ensign-Hodges, Laura

    A method that could provide more uniform and longer-lasting drug delivery to mucosal surfaces holds the potential to greatly improve the effectiveness of prophylactic and therapeutic approaches for numerous diseases and conditions, including sexually transmitted infections and inflammatory bowel disease. However, the body's natural defenses, including adhesive, rapidly cleared mucus linings coating nearly all entry points to the body not covered by skin, has limited the effectiveness of drug and gene delivery by nanoscale delivery systems. Here, we investigate the use of muco-inert mucus-penetrating nanoparticles (MPP) for improving vaginal and gastrointestinal drug delivery. Conventional hydrophobic nanoparticles strongly adhere to mucus, facilitating rapid clearance from the body. Here, we demonstrate that mucoadhesive polystyrene nanoparticles (conventional nanoparticles, CP) become mucus-penetrating in human cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) after pretreatment with sufficient concentrations of Pluronic F127. Importantly, the diffusion rate of large MPP did not change in F127 pretreated CVM, implying there is no affect on the native pore structure of CVM. Additionally, there was no increase in inflammatory cytokine release in the vaginal tract of mice after daily application of 1% F127 for one week. Importantly, HSV virus remains adherent in F127-pretreated CVM. Mucosal epithelia use osmotic gradients for fluid absorption and secretion. We hypothesized that hypotonically-induced fluid uptake could be advantageous for rapidly delivering drugs through mucus to the vaginal epithelium. We evaluated hypotonic formulations for delivering water-soluble drugs and for drug delivery with MPP. Hypotonic formulations markedly increased the rate at which drugs and MPP reached the epithelial surface. Additionally, hypotonic formulations greatly enhanced drug and MPP delivery to the entire epithelial surface, including deep into the vaginal folds (rugae) that isotonic formulations

  19. Assessment of microbiota:host interactions at the vaginal mucosa interface.

    PubMed

    Pruski, Pamela; Lewis, Holly V; Lee, Yun S; Marchesi, Julian R; Bennett, Phillip R; Takats, Zoltan; MacIntyre, David A

    2018-04-27

    There is increasing appreciation of the role that vaginal microbiota play in health and disease throughout a woman's lifespan. This has been driven partly by molecular techniques that enable detailed identification and characterisation of microbial community structures. However, these methods do not enable assessment of the biochemical and immunological interactions between host and vaginal microbiota involved in pathophysiology. This review examines our current knowledge of the relationships that exist between vaginal microbiota and the host at the level of the vaginal mucosal interface. We also consider methodological approaches to microbiomic, immunologic and metabolic profiling that permit assessment of these interactions. Integration of information derived from these platforms brings the potential for biomarker discovery, disease risk stratification and improved understanding of the mechanisms regulating vaginal microbial community dynamics in health and disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Two-stage repair for severe proximal hypospadias using oral mucosal grafts: combination of a modified Bracka method and a modified Byars flap method.

    PubMed

    Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki; Saiga, Atsuomi; Akita, Shinsuke; Kubota, Yoshitaka; Kuriyama, Motone; Satoh, Kaneshige

    2015-02-01

    One-stage repair is a conventional treatment of hypospadias. If hypospadias is severe as in the scrotal type and perineal type, penile curvature sometimes cannot be corrected by dorsal midline plication alone. In addition to resection of the urethral plate, ventral grafting becomes necessary for insufficient skin and subcutaneous tissue. In recent years, there has been renewed interest in 2-stage repair for such severe cases and salvage of failed cases with scarring. In the present study, novel 2-stage urethroplasty was performed in 6 cases to repair severe proximal hypospadias which required resection of the urethral plate. This novel method consisted of a combination of a modified Bracka method using oral mucosal grafts and a modified Byars flap of the dorsal foreskin. Good results were obtained using this novel method.

  1. Free tissue transfer of the rectus abdominis myoperitoneal flap for oral reconstruction in a dog.

    PubMed

    Lanz, O I

    2001-12-01

    A five-month-old intact/male Boxer dog was presented 5-days following bite wound trauma to the maxillary region resulting in an oronasal fistula extending from the maxillary canine teeth to the soft palate. Multiple surgical procedures using local, buccal mucosal flaps failed to repair the oronasal fistula. Free tissue transfer of the rectus abdominis myoperitoneal flap using microvascular surgical techniques was successful in providing soft tissue reconstruction of the hard palate area. Complications of these surgical techniques included muscle contraction and subsequent muzzle distortion. Small, refractory oronasal fistulae at the perimeter of the myoperitoneal flap were repaired by primary wound closure.

  2. Characterization of an immortalized human vaginal epithelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Rajan, N; Pruden, D L; Kaznari, H; Cao, Q; Anderson, B E; Duncan, J L; Schaeffer, A J

    2000-02-01

    Adherence of type 1 piliated Escherichia coli to vaginal mucosa plays a major role in the pathogenesis of ascending urinary tract infections (UTIs) in women. Progress in understanding the mechanism of adherence to the vaginal surface could be enhanced by the utilization of well-characterized vaginal epithelial cells. The objective of this study was to immortalize vaginal epithelial cells and study their bacterial adherence properties. Primary vaginal cells were obtained from a normal post-menopausal woman, immortalized by infection with E6/E7 genes from human papillomavirus 16 (HPV 16) and cultured in serum free keratinocyte growth factor medium. Positive immunostaining with a pool of antibodies to cytokeratins 1, 5, 10 and 14 (K1, K5, K10 and K14) and to K13 confirmed the epithelial origin of these cells. The immortalized cells showed binding of type 1 piliated E. coli in a pili specific and mannose sensitive manner. This model system should facilitate studies on the interaction of pathogens with vaginal mucosal cells, an essential step in the progression of ascending UTIs in women.

  3. Metastatic mucosal melanoma: imaging patterns of metastasis and recurrence.

    PubMed

    O'Regan, Kevin; Breen, Micheál; Ramaiya, Nikhil; Jagannathan, Jyothi; DiPiro, Pamela J; Hodi, F Stephen; Van den Abbeele, Annick D

    2013-12-30

    Mucosal melanoma is a rare but aggressive subtype of melanoma with unique clinicopathologic features. We hypothesize that mucosal melanoma shows predilection for separate and unique metastatic pathways. This was a retrospective analysis of 19 patients (5 men and 14 women; median age 60 years, range 38-76 years) with metastatic mucosal melanoma presenting to a tertiary oncology center between 2005 and 2010. We performed a review of medical records and histologic and imaging studies to evaluate the natural history, metastatic patterns and the role of imaging in the management of patients with advanced mucosal melanoma. At presentation, disease was confined to the primary site (58%, n = 11) or to the regional lymph nodes (32%, n = 6) in most patients. The most common site of metastasis was the lungs (89%, n = 16), followed by the liver (67%, n = 12) and peritoneum (44%, n = 8). Sinonasal melanoma preferentially spread to the liver (100%, n = 4), vaginal melanoma to the lungs (100%, n = 7) and anal melanoma to the inguinal lymph nodes (100%, n = 4). Pathways of metastatic spread in mucosal melanoma may differ from other forms of melanoma and between different primary sites of mucosal origin.

  4. Vesicovaginal fistula repair with rectus abdominus myofascial interposition flap.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, W Stuart; Gottlieb, Lawrence J; Lucioni, Alvaro; Rapp, David E; Song, David H; Bales, Gregory T

    2008-06-01

    Complex, recurrent vesicovaginal fistulas (VVFs) can be very challenging to repair and often require interposition of nonirradiated, well-vascularized tissue between the urinary system and vagina. We report our experience using a rectus abdominus myofascial (RAM) interposition flap for VVF repair. A retrospective analysis was performed to identify patients who had undergone VVF repair with RAM interposition. Data were collected focusing on preoperative patient characteristics, etiology of VVF, intraoperative parameters, including surgical techniques, and postoperative patient outcomes. We used a RAM interposition flap for VVF repair in 5 patients. All VVFs had developed postoperatively; no patient had received radiotherapy. VVF developed after total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) or radical cystectomy in 3 and 2 cases, respectively. Both cases of VVF after radical cystectomy occurred in conjunction with orthotopic diversion (neobladder-vaginal fistula). In 3 patients with post-TAH VVF, a total of five previous failed repairs were attempted before RAM interposition. In 1 patient with a neobladder-vaginal fistula, who had received adjuvant chemotherapy, RAM interposition failed, and the patient ultimately required cutaneous urinary diversion after two subsequent failed attempts at repair (68 months of follow-up). The remaining 4 patients (80%) had no evidence of recurrent VVF or voiding abnormalities at a mean follow-up of 19 months (range 8 to 32). Rectus abdominus muscle can be a successful interposition flap during repair of complex, recurrent VVF. In our experience, this has been successful in most cases, particularly in younger patients with nonmalignant processes.

  5. Development of amino acid substituted gemini surfactant-based mucoadhesive gene delivery systems for potential use as noninvasive vaginal genetic vaccination.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jagbir; Michel, Deborah; Getson, Heather M; Chitanda, Jackson M; Verrall, Ronald E; Badea, Ildiko

    2015-02-01

    Recently, we synthesized amino acid- and peptide-substituted gemini surfactants, 'biolipids' that exhibited high transfection efficiency in vitro. In this study, we developed these plasmid DNA and gemini surfactant lipid particles for noninvasive administration in vaginal cavity. Novel formulations of these gene delivery systems were prepared with poloxamer 407 to induce in situ gelling of the formulation and diethylene glycol monoethyl ether to improve their penetration across mucosal tissue. Poloxamer at 16% w/v concentration in diethylene glycol monoethyl ether aqueous solution produced dispersions that gelled near body temperature and had a high yield value, preventing leakage of the formulation from the vaginal cavity. Intravaginal administration in rabbits showed that the glycyl-lysine-substituted gemini surfactant led to a higher gene expression compared with the parent unsubstituted gemini surfactant. This provides a proof-of-concept that amino acid substituted gemini surfactants can be used as noninvasive mucosal (vaginal) gene delivery systems to treat diseases associated with mucosal epithelia.

  6. Long-term effect of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate on vaginal microbiota, epithelial thickness and HIV target cells.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Caroline M; McLemore, Leslie; Westerberg, Katharine; Astronomo, Rena; Smythe, Kimberly; Gardella, Carolyn; Mack, Matthias; Magaret, Amalia; Patton, Dorothy; Agnew, Kathy; McElrath, M Juliana; Hladik, Florian; Eschenbach, David

    2014-08-15

    Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) has been linked to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) acquisition. Vaginal microbiota of women using DMPA for up to 2 years were cultured. Mucosal immune cell populations were measured by immunohistological staining. Over 12 months, the proportion with H2O2-positive lactobacilli decreased (n = 32; 53% vs 27%; P = .03). Median vaginal CD3(+) cells also decreased (n = 15; 355 vs 237 cells/mm(2); P = .03), as did CD3(+)CCR5(+) cells (195 vs 128 cells/mm(2); P = .04), HLA-DR(+) cells (130 vs 96 cells/mm(2); P = .27), and HLA-DR(+)CCR5(+) cells (18 vs 10 cells/mm(2); P = .33). DMPA contraception does not increase vaginal mucosal CCR5(+) HIV target cells but does decrease CD3(+) T lymphocytes and vaginal H2O2-producing lactobacilli. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Complex anal fistulas: plug or flap?

    PubMed

    Muhlmann, Mark D; Hayes, Julian L; Merrie, Arend E H; Parry, Bryan R; Bissett, Ian P

    2011-10-01

    Rectal mucosal advancement flaps (RMAF) and fistula plugs (FP) are techniques used to manage complex anal fistulas. The purpose of this study was to review and compare the results of these methods of repair. A retrospective review of all complex anal fistulas treated by either a RMAF or a FP at Auckland City Hospital from 2004 to 2008. Comparisons were made in terms of successful healing rates, time to failure and the use of magnetic resonance imaging. Overall, 70 operations were performed on 55 patients (55.7% male). The mean age was 44.9 years. Twenty-one patients (30%) had had at least one previous unsuccessful repair. Indications for repair included 57 high cryptoglandular anal (81%), 4 Crohn's anal (6%), 7 rectovaginal (10%), 1 rectourethral (1%) and 1 pouch-vaginal fistula (1%). All patients were followed up with a mean of 4.5 months. Forty-eight RMAFs (69% of total) were performed with 16 successful repairs (33%). Twenty-two FPs (31% of total) were performed with 7 successful repairs (32%, P = 0.9). In failed repairs, there was no difference in terms of mean time to failure (RMAF 4.8 months versus FP 4.1 months, P = 0.62). Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 21 patients (37%) before the repair. The success rate in these patients was 20%. The results of treatment of complex anal fistulas are disappointing. The choice of operation of either a RMAF or a FP did not alter the poor healing rates of about one third of patients in each group.

  8. Tissue-engineered oral mucosa grafts for intraoral lining reconstruction of the maxilla and mandible with a fibula flap.

    PubMed

    Sieira Gil, Ramón; Pagés, Carles Martí; Díez, Eloy García; Llames, Sara; Fuertes, Ada Ferrer; Vilagran, Jesús Lopez

    2015-01-01

    Many types of soft tissue grafts have been used for grafting or prelaminating bone flaps for intraoral lining reconstruction. The best results are achieved when prelaminating free flaps with mucosal grafts. We suggest a new approach to obtain keratinized mucosa over a fibula flap using full-thickness, engineered, autologous oral mucosa. We report on a pilot study for grafting fibula flaps for mandibular and maxilla reconstruction with full-thickness tissue-engineered autologous oral mucosa. We describe 2 different techniques: prelaminating the fibula flap and second-stage grafting of the fibula after mandibular reconstruction. Preparation of the full-thickness tissue-engineered oral mucosa is also described. The clinical outcome of the tissue-engineered intraoral lining reconstruction and response after implant placement are reported. A peri-implant granulation tissue response was not observed when prelaminating the fibula, and little response was observed when intraoral grafting was performed. Tissue engineering represents an alternative method by which to obtain sufficient autologous tissue for reconstructing mucosal oral defects. The full-thickness engineered autologous oral mucosa offers definite advantages in terms of reconstruction planning, donor site morbidity, and quality of the intraoral soft tissue reconstruction, thereby restoring native tissue and avoiding peri-implant tissue complications. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. KIT pathway alterations in mucosal melanomas of the vulva and other sites.

    PubMed

    Omholt, Katarina; Grafström, Eva; Kanter-Lewensohn, Lena; Hansson, Johan; Ragnarsson-Olding, Boel K

    2011-06-15

    A significant proportion of mucosal melanomas contain alterations in KIT. The aim of this study was to characterize the pattern of KIT, NRAS, and BRAF mutations in mucosal melanomas at specific sites and to assess activation of the KIT downstream RAF/MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathways in mucosal melanoma specimens. Seventy-one primary mucosal melanomas from various sites were studied. Mutation analysis was done by DNA sequencing. Expression of KIT, phosphorylated (p)-ERK, and p-AKT was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. KIT mutations were detected in 35% (8 of 23) of vulvar, 9% (2 of 22) of anorectal, 7% (1 of 14) of nasal cavity, and 20% (1 of 5) of penile melanomas. No KIT mutations were found in 7 vaginal melanomas. The difference in KIT mutation frequency between vulvar and nonvulvar cases was statistically significant (P = 0.014). The overall frequencies of NRAS and BRAF mutations were 10% and 6%, respectively. Notably, vaginal melanomas showed a NRAS mutation rate of 43%. KIT gene amplification (≥4 copies), as assessed by quantitative real-time PCR, was observed in 19% of cases. KIT expression was associated with KIT mutation status (P < 0.001) and was more common in vulvar than nonvulvar tumors (P = 0.016). Expression of p-ERK and p-AKT was observed in 42% and 59% of tumors, respectively, and occurred irrespective of KIT/NRAS/BRAF mutation status. NRAS mutation was associated with worse overall survival in univariate analysis. Results show that KIT mutations are more common in vulvar melanomas than other types of mucosal melanomas and that both the RAF/MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT pathways are activated in mucosal melanoma specimens. ©2011 AACR.

  10. Metastatic mucosal melanoma: imaging patterns of metastasis and recurrence

    PubMed Central

    O’Regan, Kevin; Ramaiya, Nikhil; Jagannathan, Jyothi; DiPiro, Pamela J.; Stephen Hodi, F.; Van den Abbeele, Annick D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Mucosal melanoma is a rare but aggressive subtype of melanoma with unique clinicopathologic features. We hypothesize that mucosal melanoma shows predilection for separate and unique metastatic pathways. Materials and methods: This was a retrospective analysis of 19 patients (5 men and 14 women; median age 60 years, range 38–76 years) with metastatic mucosal melanoma presenting to a tertiary oncology center between 2005 and 2010. We performed a review of medical records and histologic and imaging studies to evaluate the natural history, metastatic patterns and the role of imaging in the management of patients with advanced mucosal melanoma. Results: At presentation, disease was confined to the primary site (58%, n = 11) or to the regional lymph nodes (32%, n = 6) in most patients. The most common site of metastasis was the lungs (89%, n = 16), followed by the liver (67%, n = 12) and peritoneum (44%, n = 8). Sinonasal melanoma preferentially spread to the liver (100%, n = 4), vaginal melanoma to the lungs (100%, n = 7) and anal melanoma to the inguinal lymph nodes (100%, n = 4). Conclusion: Pathways of metastatic spread in mucosal melanoma may differ from other forms of melanoma and between different primary sites of mucosal origin. PMID:24434078

  11. The mucosal expression pattern of interferon-ε in rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Demers, Andrew; Kang, Guobin; Ma, Fungrui; Lu, Wuxun; Yuan, Zhe; Li, Yue; Lewis, Mark; Kraiselburd, Edmundo N; Montaner, Luis; Li, Qingsheng

    2014-12-01

    Type I IFNs play an important role in innate and adaptive immunity against viral infections. A novel type I IFN, namely IFN-ε, which can protect against vaginal transmission of HSV2 and Chlamydia muridarum bacterial infection, has been described in mice and humans. Nevertheless, the principle cell type and the expression pattern of IFN-ε in tissues remain uncertain. In addition, the expression of IFN-ε in Indian rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) has not been reported. Here, we analyzed IFN-ε expression in multiple mucosal sites of uninfected or SIV-infected Indian rhesus macaques using IHCS. We report for the first time the detection of IFN-ε expression in situ in the lung, foreskin, vaginal, cervical, and small and large intestinal mucosae of rhesus macaques. We found that the expression of IFN-ε was exclusive to the epithelial cells in all of the aforementioned mucosal tissues. Furthermore, the macaque IFN-ε sequence in this study revealed that macaque IFN-ε is highly conserved among human and other nonhuman primates. Lastly, SIV rectal infection did not significantly alter the expression of IFN-ε in rectal mucosae. Together, these findings indicate that IFN-ε may function as the first line of defense against the invasion of mucosal pathogens. Further studies should be conducted to examine IFN-ε protection against gastrointestinal as well as respiratory infections. © 2014 Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  12. The mucosal expression pattern of interferon-ε in rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Demers, Andrew; Kang, Guobin; Ma, Fungrui; Lu, Wuxun; Yuan, Zhe; Li, Yue; Lewis, Mark; Kraiselburd, Edmundo N.; Montaner, Luis; Li, Qingsheng

    2014-01-01

    Type I IFNs play an important role in innate and adaptive immunity against viral infections. A novel type I IFN, namely IFN-ε, which can protect against vaginal transmission of HSV2 and Chlamydia muridarum bacterial infection, has been described in mice and humans. Nevertheless, the principle cell type and the expression pattern of IFN-ε in tissues remain uncertain. In addition, the expression of IFN-ε in Indian rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) has not been reported. Here, we analyzed IFN-ε expression in multiple mucosal sites of uninfected or SIV-infected Indian rhesus macaques using IHCS. We report for the first time the detection of IFN-ε expression in situ in the lung, foreskin, vaginal, cervical, and small and large intestinal mucosae of rhesus macaques. We found that the expression of IFN-ε was exclusive to the epithelial cells in all of the aforementioned mucosal tissues. Furthermore, the macaque IFN-ε sequence in this study revealed that macaque IFN-ε is highly conserved among human and other nonhuman primates. Lastly, SIV rectal infection did not significantly alter the expression of IFN-ε in rectal mucosae. Together, these findings indicate that IFN-ε may function as the first line of defense against the invasion of mucosal pathogens. Further studies should be conducted to examine IFN-ε protection against gastrointestinal as well as respiratory infections. PMID:25139290

  13. W-V flap: a new technique for reconstruction of female distal urethral stricture using vestibular mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Dalela, Diwakar; Gupta, Piyush; Dalela, Disha; Govil, Tuhina

    2016-01-01

    A premenopausal woman having a totally occlusive distal urethral stricture, with suprapubic catheter (SPC) in situ, was referred to us for a definitive procedure. On discussion of the treatment options, the patient refused for a buccal or vaginal flap procedure. Thus, a local W-V flap was fashioned from the periurethral vestibular mucosa with seemingly excellent results, both in terms of resolution of her symptoms and a forwardly directed stream of urine without incontinence. PMID:27170612

  14. The importance of the vaginal delivery route for antiretrovirals in HIV prevention

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Lindsay M; Rohan, Lisa Cencia

    2012-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic continues to be a global health priority, with high rates of new HIV-1 infections persisting in young women. One HIV prevention strategy is topical pre-exposure prophylactics or microbicides, which are applied vaginally or rectally to protect the user from HIV and possibly other sexually transmitted infections. Vaginal microbicide delivery will be the focus of this review. Multiple nonspecific and specific antiretroviral microbicide products have been clinically evaluated, and many are in preclinical development. The events of HIV mucosal transmission and dynamics of the cervicovaginal environment should be considered for successful vaginal microbicide delivery. Beyond conventional vaginal formulations, intravaginal rings, tablets and films are employed as platforms in the hope to increase the likelihood of microbicide use. Furthermore, combining multiple antiretrovirals within a given formulation, combining a microbicide product with a vaginal device and integrating novel drug-delivery strategies within a microbicide product are approaches to successful vaginal-microbicide delivery. PMID:22468220

  15. Rationale and Safety Assessment of a Novel Intravaginal Drug-Delivery System with Sustained DL-Lactic Acid Release, Intended for Long-Term Protection of the Vaginal Microbiome.

    PubMed

    Verstraelen, Hans; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis is a prevalent state of dysbiosis of the vaginal microbiota with wide-ranging impact on human reproductive health. Based on recent insights in community ecology of the vaginal microbiome, we hypothesize that sustained vaginal DL-lactic acid enrichment will enhance the recruitment of lactobacilli, while counteracting bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria. We therefore aimed to develop an intravaginal device that would be easy to insert and remove, while providing sustained DL-lactic acid release into the vaginal lumen. The final prototype selected is a vaginal ring matrix system consisting of a mixture of ethylene vinyl acetate and methacrylic acid-methyl methacrylate copolymer loaded with 150 mg DL-lactic acid with an L/D-lactic acid ratio of 1:1. Preclinical safety assessment was performed by use of the Slug Mucosal Irritation test, a non-vertebrate assay to evaluate vaginal mucosal irritation, which revealed no irritation. Clinical safety was evaluated in a phase I trial with six healthy nulliparous premenopausal volunteering women, with the investigational drug left in place for 7 days. Colposcopic monitoring according to the WHO/CONRAD guidelines for the evaluation of vaginal products, revealed no visible cervicovaginal mucosal changes. No adverse events related to the investigational product occurred. Total release from the intravaginal ring over 7 days was estimated through high performance liquid chromatography at 37.1 (standard deviation 0.9) mg DL-lactic acid. Semisolid lactic acid formulations have been studied to a limited extent in the past and typically consist of a large volume of excipients and very high doses of lactic acid, which is of major concern to mucosal safety. We have documented the feasability of enriching the vaginal environment with pure DL-lactic acid with a prototype intravaginal ring. Though the efficacy of this platform remains to be established possibly requiring further development, this approach may offer a

  16. Rationale and Safety Assessment of a Novel Intravaginal Drug-Delivery System with Sustained DL-Lactic Acid Release, Intended for Long-Term Protection of the Vaginal Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Verstraelen, Hans; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis is a prevalent state of dysbiosis of the vaginal microbiota with wide-ranging impact on human reproductive health. Based on recent insights in community ecology of the vaginal microbiome, we hypothesize that sustained vaginal DL-lactic acid enrichment will enhance the recruitment of lactobacilli, while counteracting bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria. We therefore aimed to develop an intravaginal device that would be easy to insert and remove, while providing sustained DL-lactic acid release into the vaginal lumen. The final prototype selected is a vaginal ring matrix system consisting of a mixture of ethylene vinyl acetate and methacrylic acid-methyl methacrylate copolymer loaded with 150 mg DL-lactic acid with an L/D-lactic acid ratio of 1:1. Preclinical safety assessment was performed by use of the Slug Mucosal Irritation test, a non-vertebrate assay to evaluate vaginal mucosal irritation, which revealed no irritation. Clinical safety was evaluated in a phase I trial with six healthy nulliparous premenopausal volunteering women, with the investigational drug left in place for 7 days. Colposcopic monitoring according to the WHO/CONRAD guidelines for the evaluation of vaginal products, revealed no visible cervicovaginal mucosal changes. No adverse events related to the investigational product occurred. Total release from the intravaginal ring over 7 days was estimated through high performance liquid chromatography at 37.1 (standard deviation 0.9) mg DL-lactic acid. Semisolid lactic acid formulations have been studied to a limited extent in the past and typically consist of a large volume of excipients and very high doses of lactic acid, which is of major concern to mucosal safety. We have documented the feasability of enriching the vaginal environment with pure DL-lactic acid with a prototype intravaginal ring. Though the efficacy of this platform remains to be established possibly requiring further development, this approach may offer a

  17. Cultivated vaginal microbiomes alter HIV-1 infection and antiretroviral efficacy in colonized epithelial multilayer cultures.

    PubMed

    Pyles, Richard B; Vincent, Kathleen L; Baum, Marc M; Elsom, Barry; Miller, Aaron L; Maxwell, Carrie; Eaves-Pyles, Tonyia D; Li, Guangyu; Popov, Vsevolod L; Nusbaum, Rebecca J; Ferguson, Monique R

    2014-01-01

    There is a pressing need for modeling of the symbiotic and at times dysbiotic relationship established between bacterial microbiomes and human mucosal surfaces. In particular clinical studies have indicated that the complex vaginal microbiome (VMB) contributes to the protection against sexually-transmitted pathogens including the life-threatening human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). The human microbiome project has substantially increased our understanding of the complex bacterial communities in the vagina however, as is the case for most microbiomes, very few of the community member species have been successfully cultivated in the laboratory limiting the types of studies that can be completed. A genetically controlled ex vivo model system is critically needed to study the complex interactions and associated molecular dialog. We present the first vaginal mucosal culture model that supports colonization by both healthy and dysbiotic VMB from vaginal swabs collected from routine gynecological patients. The immortalized vaginal epithelial cells used in the model and VMB cryopreservation methods provide the opportunity to reproducibly create replicates for lab-based evaluations of this important mucosal/bacterial community interface. The culture system also contains HIV-1 susceptible cells allowing us to study the impact of representative microbiomes on replication. Our results show that our culture system supports stable and reproducible colonization by VMB representing distinct community state types and that the selected representatives have significantly different effects on the replication of HIV-1. Further, we show the utility of the system to predict unwanted alterations in efficacy or bacterial community profiles following topical application of a front line antiretroviral.

  18. Cultivated Vaginal Microbiomes Alter HIV-1 Infection and Antiretroviral Efficacy in Colonized Epithelial Multilayer Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Pyles, Richard B.; Vincent, Kathleen L.; Baum, Marc M.; Elsom, Barry; Miller, Aaron L.; Maxwell, Carrie; Eaves-Pyles, Tonyia D.; Li, Guangyu; Popov, Vsevolod L.; Nusbaum, Rebecca J.; Ferguson, Monique R.

    2014-01-01

    There is a pressing need for modeling of the symbiotic and at times dysbiotic relationship established between bacterial microbiomes and human mucosal surfaces. In particular clinical studies have indicated that the complex vaginal microbiome (VMB) contributes to the protection against sexually-transmitted pathogens including the life-threatening human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). The human microbiome project has substantially increased our understanding of the complex bacterial communities in the vagina however, as is the case for most microbiomes, very few of the community member species have been successfully cultivated in the laboratory limiting the types of studies that can be completed. A genetically controlled ex vivo model system is critically needed to study the complex interactions and associated molecular dialog. We present the first vaginal mucosal culture model that supports colonization by both healthy and dysbiotic VMB from vaginal swabs collected from routine gynecological patients. The immortalized vaginal epithelial cells used in the model and VMB cryopreservation methods provide the opportunity to reproducibly create replicates for lab-based evaluations of this important mucosal/bacterial community interface. The culture system also contains HIV-1 susceptible cells allowing us to study the impact of representative microbiomes on replication. Our results show that our culture system supports stable and reproducible colonization by VMB representing distinct community state types and that the selected representatives have significantly different effects on the replication of HIV-1. Further, we show the utility of the system to predict unwanted alterations in efficacy or bacterial community profiles following topical application of a front line antiretroviral. PMID:24676219

  19. Uterine preservation and vaginal reconstruction in a patient with congenital vaginal agenesis presenting with cyclic menouria.

    PubMed

    Erman-Akar, Munire; Ozkan, Ozlenen; Ozkan, Omer; Yucel, Selcuk; Dolay, Kemal; Ertugrul, Fatma; Bektas, Gamze

    2011-01-01

    Herein we report the case of a patient with primary amenorrhea and cyclic menouria. The patient was a 20-year-old woman with primary amenorrhea and inability to achieve sexual intercourse. Clinical examination revealed normally developed labia majora and minora, clitoris, and external urethral orifice, but no vaginal opening. A mature female pubic hair pattern was present, and axillary hair development was normal. Breasts were normally developed. Abdominopelvic magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a remnant upper vagina and unicornuate uterus filled with fluid, and left-sided renal agenesis. Intraoperatively, a congenital vesicouterine fistulous tract was observed. The fistulous tract was completely resected. Vaginal reconstruction using a sigmoid colon pedicled flap was performed. The proximal part of the neovagina was connected to the remnant cervix, and a Foley catheter was left in the uterine cavity for 7 days to prevent obstruction. The patient has been menstruating regularly since the operation. Menouria might be an early sign of congenital vesicouterine fistula. Resection of the fistulous tract with uterine preservation might be considered in patients with vaginal agenesis. Copyright © 2011 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Liposome-based mucus-penetrating particles (MPP) for mucosal theranostics: demonstration of diamagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer (diaCEST) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

    PubMed

    Yu, Tao; Chan, Kannie W Y; Anonuevo, Abraham; Song, Xiaolei; Schuster, Benjamin S; Chattopadhyay, Sumon; Xu, Qingguo; Oskolkov, Nikita; Patel, Himatkumar; Ensign, Laura M; van Zjil, Peter C M; McMahon, Michael T; Hanes, Justin

    2015-02-01

    Mucus barriers lining mucosal epithelia reduce the effectiveness of nanocarrier-based mucosal drug delivery and imaging ("theranostics"). Here, we describe liposome-based mucus-penetrating particles (MPP) capable of loading hydrophilic agents, e.g., the diaCEST MRI contrast agent barbituric acid (BA). We observed that polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated liposomes containing ≥7 mol% PEG diffused only ~10-fold slower in human cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) compared to their theoretical speeds in water. 7 mol%-PEG liposomes contained sufficient BA loading for diaCEST contrast, and provided improved vaginal distribution compared to 0 and 3mol%-PEG liposomes. However, increasing PEG content to ~12 mol% compromised BA loading and vaginal distribution, suggesting that PEG content must be optimized to maintain drug loading and stability. Non-invasive diaCEST MRI illustrated uniform vaginal coverage and longer retention of BA-loaded 7 mol%-PEG liposomes compared to unencapsulated BA. Liposomal MPP with optimized PEG content hold promise for drug delivery and imaging at mucosal surfaces. This team of authors characterized liposome-based mucus-penetrating particles (MPP) capable of loading hydrophilic agents, such as barbituric acid (a diaCEST MRI contrast agent) and concluded that liposomal MPP with optimized PEG coating enables drug delivery and imaging at mucosal surfaces. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. pH-sensitive Eudragit nanoparticles for mucosal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jin-Wook; Giri, Namita; Lee, Chi H

    2011-01-17

    Drug delivery via vaginal epithelium has suffered from lack of stability due to acidic and enzymatic environments. The biocompatible pH-sensitive nanoparticles composed of Eudragit S-100 (ES) were developed to protect loaded compounds from being degraded under the rigorous vaginal conditions and achieve their therapeutically effective concentrations in the mucosal epithelium. ES nanoparticles containing a model compound (sodium fluorescein (FNa) or nile red (NR)) were prepared by the modified quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion method. Loading efficiencies were found to be 26% and 71% for a hydrophilic and a hydrophobic compound, respectively. Both hydrophilic and hydrophobic model drugs remained stable in nanoparticles at acidic pH, whereas they are quickly released from nanoparticles upon exposure at physiological pH. The confocal study revealed that ES nanoparticles were taken up by vaginal cells, followed by pH-responsive drug release, with no cytotoxic activities. The pH-sensitive nanoparticles would be a promising carrier for the vaginal-specific delivery of various therapeutic drugs including microbicides and peptides/proteins. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Candida albicans yeast and hyphae are discriminated by MAPK signaling in vaginal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Moyes, David L; Murciano, Celia; Runglall, Manohursingh; Islam, Ayesha; Thavaraj, Selvam; Naglik, Julian R

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported that a bi-phasic innate immune MAPK response, constituting activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphatase MKP1 and c-Fos transcription factor, discriminates between the yeast and hyphal forms of Candida albicans in oral epithelial cells (ECs). Since the vast majority of mucosal Candida infections are vaginal, we sought to determine whether a similar bi-phasic MAPK-based immune response was activated by C. albicans in vaginal ECs. Here, we demonstrate that vaginal ECs orchestrate an innate response to C. albicans via NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. However, unlike in oral ECs, the first MAPK response, defined by c-Jun transcription factor activation, is delayed until 2 h in vaginal ECs but is still independent of hypha formation. The 'second' or 'late' MAPK response, constituting MKP1 and c-Fos transcription factor activation, is identical to oral ECs and is dependent upon both hypha formation and fungal burdens. NF-κB activation is immediate but independent of morphology. Furthermore, the proinflammatory response in vaginal ECs is different to oral ECs, with an absence of G-CSF and CCL20 and low level IL-6 production. Therefore, differences exist in how C. albicans activates signaling mechanisms in oral and vaginal ECs; however, the activation of MAPK-based pathways that discriminate between yeast and hyphal forms is retained between these mucosal sites. We conclude that this MAPK-based signaling pathway is a common mechanism enabling different human epithelial tissues to orchestrate innate immune responses specifically against C. albicans hyphae.

  3. Mucosal immunogenicity of plant lectins in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lavelle, E C; Grant, G; Pusztai, A; Pfüller, U; O’Hagan, D T

    2000-01-01

    The mucosal immunogenicity of a number of plant lectins with different sugar specificities was investigated in mice. Following intranasal (i.n.) or oral administration, the systemic and mucosal antibody responses elicited were compared with those induced by a potent mucosal immunogen (cholera toxin; CT) and a poorly immunogenic protein (ovalbumin; OVA). After three oral or i.n. doses of CT, high levels of specific serum antibodies were measured and specific IgA was detected in the serum, saliva, vaginal wash, nasal wash and gut wash of mice. Immunization with OVA elicited low titres of serum IgG but specific IgA was not detected in mucosal secretions. Both oral and i.n. delivery of all five plant lectins investigated [Viscum album (mistletoe lectin 1; ML‐1), Lycospersicum esculentum (tomato lectin; LEA), Phaseolus vulgaris (PHA), Triticum vulgaris (wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Ulex europaeus I (UEA‐1)] stimulated the production of specific serum IgG and IgA antibody after three i.n. or oral doses. Immunization with ML‐1 induced high titres of serum IgG and IgA in addition to specific IgA in mucosal secretions. The response to orally delivered ML‐1 was comparable to that induced by CT, although a 10‐fold higher dose was administered. Immunization with LEA also induced high titres of serum IgG, particularly after i.n. delivery. Low specific IgA titres were also detected to LEA in mucosal secretions. Responses to PHA, WGA and UEA‐1 were measured at a relatively low level in the serum, and little or no specific mucosal IgA was detected. PMID:10651938

  4. Vaginal Immunization to Elicit Primary T-Cell Activation and Dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Pettini, Elena; Prota, Gennaro; Ciabattini, Annalisa; Boianelli, Alessandro; Fiorino, Fabio; Pozzi, Gianni; Vicino, Antonio; Medaglini, Donata

    2013-01-01

    Primary T-cell activation at mucosal sites is of utmost importance for the development of vaccination strategies. T-cell priming after vaginal immunization, with ovalbumin and CpG oligodeoxynucleotide adjuvant as model vaccine formulation, was studied in vivo in hormone-synchronized mice and compared to the one induced by the nasal route. Twenty-four hours after both vaginal or nasal immunization, antigen-loaded dendritic cells were detected within the respective draining lymph nodes. Vaginal immunization elicited a strong recruitment of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells into draining lymph nodes that was more rapid than the one observed following nasal immunization. T-cell clonal expansion was first detected in iliac lymph nodes, draining the genital tract, and proliferated T cells disseminated towards distal lymph nodes and spleen similarly to what observed following nasal immunization. T cells were indeed activated by the antigen encounter and acquired homing molecules essential to disseminate towards distal lymphoid organs as confirmed by the modulation of CD45RB, CD69, CD44 and CD62L marker expression. A multi-type Galton Watson branching process, previously used for in vitro analysis of T-cell proliferation, was applied to model in vivo CFSE proliferation data in draining lymph nodes 57 hours following immunization, in order to calculate the probabilistic decision of a cell to enter in division, rest in quiescence or migrate/die. The modelling analysis indicated that the probability of a cell to proliferate was higher following vaginal than nasal immunization. All together these data show that vaginal immunization, despite the absence of an organized mucosal associated inductive site in the genital tract, is very efficient in priming antigen-specific CD4+ T cells and inducing their dissemination from draining lymph nodes towards distal lymphoid organs. PMID:24349003

  5. Glycerol Monolaurate Does Not Alter Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) Vaginal Lactobacilli and Is Safe for Chronic Use▿

    PubMed Central

    Schlievert, Patrick M.; Strandberg, Kristi L.; Brosnahan, Amanda J.; Peterson, Marnie L.; Pambuccian, Stefan E.; Nephew, Karla R.; Brunner, Kevin G.; Schultz-Darken, Nancy J.; Haase, Ashley T.

    2008-01-01

    Glycerol monolaurate (GML) is a fatty acid monoester that inhibits growth and exotoxin production of vaginal pathogens and cytokine production by vaginal epithelial cells. Because of these activities, and because of the importance of cytokine-mediated immune activation in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission to women, our laboratories are performing studies on the potential efficacy of GML as a topical microbicide to interfere with HIV-1 transmission in the simian immunodeficiency virus-rhesus macaque model. While GML is generally recognized as safe by the FDA for topical use, its safety for chronic use and effects on normal vaginal microflora in this animal model have not been evaluated. GML was therefore tested both in vitro for its effects on vaginal flora lactobacilli and in vivo as a 5% gel administered vaginally to monkeys. In vitro studies demonstrated that lactobacilli are not killed by GML; GML blocks the loss of their viability in stationary phase and does not interfere with lactic acid production. GML (5% gel) does not quantitatively alter monkey aerobic vaginal microflora compared to vehicle control gel. Lactobacilli and coagulase-negative staphylococci are the dominant vaginal aerobic microflora, with beta-hemolytic streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus, and yeasts sporadically present; gram-negative rods are not part of their vaginal flora. Colposcopy and biopsy studies indicate that GML does not alter normal mucosal integrity and does not induce inflammation; instead, GML reduces epithelial cell production of interleukin 8. The studies suggest that GML is safe for chronic use in monkeys when applied vaginally; it does not alter either mucosal microflora or integrity. PMID:18838587

  6. History and update on host defense against vaginal candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Fidel, Paul L

    2007-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), caused by Candida albicans, remains a significant problem in women of childbearing age. While cell-mediated immunity is considered the predominant host defense mechanism against mucosal candidal infections, two decades of research from animal models and clinical studies have revealed a lack of a protective role for adaptive immunity against VVC caused by putative immunoregulatory mechanisms. Moreover, natural protective mechanisms and factors associated with susceptibility to infection have remained elusive. That is until recently, when through a live challenge model in humans, it was revealed that protection against vaginitis coincides with a non-inflammatory innate presence, whereas symptomatic infection correlates with a neutrophil infiltrate in the vaginal lumen and elevated fungal burden. Thus, instead of VVC being caused by a putative deficient adaptive immune response, it is now being considered that symptomatic vaginitis is caused by an aggressive innate response.

  7. Creation of an acellular vaginal matrix for potential vaginal augmentation and cloacal repair.

    PubMed

    Greco, K V; Jones, L G; Obiri-Yeboa, I; Ansari, T

    2018-05-21

    our aim was to use porcine vagina to create a vaginal matrix and test its cellular biocompatibility. vagina was harvested from pigs and de-cellularised (DC) using a combination of detergents (Triton x-100 and sodium deoxycholate) and enzymes (DNAse/RNAse). the presence of cellular material, collagen structural integrity and basement membrane proteins were assessed histologically. To address cytocompatibility, porcine adipose derived-mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSC) were harvested from abdominal fat together with vaginal epithelial cells (VEC) and seeded onto the mucosal aspect of the vaginal scaffold. Both cells populations were seeded individually and assessed histologically at days 3 and 10. MAIN OUTCOMES/RESULTS: the combination of enzymes and detergents resulted in a totally acellular matrix with very low DNA amount (control= 97.5ng/μl ± 10.8 vs DC= 40.1 ng/μl ±0.33 p=0.02). The extra cellular matrix (ECM) showed retention of collagen fibres and elastin and a 50% retention in glycosaminoglycan content; (control= 1.18μg/mg ± 0.28 DC = 1.35μg/mg ± 0.1 p=0.03) and an intact basement membrane (positive for both laminin and collagen IV). Seeded scaffolds showed cell attachment with both AD-MSC and VEC at days 3 and 10. it is possible to generate an acellular porcine vaginal matrix capable of supporting cells to reconstruct the vagina for future pre-clinical testing, and holds promise for creating clinically relevant sized tissue for human application. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Mucosal vaccination by adenoviruses displaying reovirus sigma 1

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Weaver, Eric A.; Camacho, Zenaido T.; Hillestad, Matthew L.

    We developed adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vectors displaying the sigma 1 protein from reovirus as mucosal vaccines. Ad5-sigma retargets to JAM-1 and sialic acid, but has 40-fold reduced gene delivery when compared to Ad5. While weaker at transduction, Ad5-sigma generates stronger T cell responses than Ad5 when used for mucosal immunization. In this work, new Ad5-fiber-sigma vectors were generated by varying the number of fiber β-spiral shaft repeats (R) between the fiber tail and sigma. Increasing chimera length led to decreasing insertion of these proteinsAd5 virions. Ad-R3 and R14 vectors effectively targeted JAM-1 in vitro while R20 did not. Whenmore » wereused to immunize mice by the intranasal route, Ad5-R3-sigma produced higher serum and vaginal antibody responses than Ad5. These data suggest optimized Ad-sigma vectors may be useful vectors for mucosal vaccination. - Highlights: • Constructed adenoviruses (Ads) displaying different reovirus sigma 1 fusion proteins. • Progressively longer chimeras were more poorly encapsidated onto Ad virions. • Ad5-R3-sigma mediated better systemic and mucosal immune responses than Ad5.« less

  9. Commensal Bacteria Modulate Innate Immune Responses of Vaginal Epithelial Cell Multilayer Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Rose, William A.; McGowin, Chris L.; Spagnuolo, Rae Ann; Eaves-Pyles, Tonyia D.; Popov, Vsevolod L.; Pyles, Richard B.

    2012-01-01

    The human vaginal microbiome plays a critical but poorly defined role in reproductive health. Vaginal microbiome alterations are associated with increased susceptibility to sexually-transmitted infections (STI) possibly due to related changes in innate defense responses from epithelial cells. Study of the impact of commensal bacteria on the vaginal mucosal surface has been hindered by current vaginal epithelial cell (VEC) culture systems that lack an appropriate interface between the apical surface of stratified squamous epithelium and the air-filled vaginal lumen. Therefore we developed a reproducible multilayer VEC culture system with an apical (luminal) air-interface that supported colonization with selected commensal bacteria. Multilayer VEC developed tight-junctions and other hallmarks of the vaginal mucosa including predictable proinflammatory cytokine secretion following TLR stimulation. Colonization of multilayers by common vaginal commensals including Lactobacillus crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. rhamnosus led to intimate associations with the VEC exclusively on the apical surface. Vaginal commensals did not trigger cytokine secretion but Staphylococcus epidermidis, a skin commensal, was inflammatory. Lactobacilli reduced cytokine secretion in an isolate-specific fashion following TLR stimulation. This tempering of inflammation offers a potential explanation for increased susceptibility to STI in the absence of common commensals and has implications for testing of potential STI preventatives. PMID:22412914

  10. Local Production of Chemokines during Experimental Vaginal Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Saavedra, Michael; Taylor, Brad; Lukacs, Nicholas; Fidel, Paul L.

    1999-01-01

    Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, caused by Candida albicans, is a significant problem in women of childbearing age. Although cell-mediated immunity (CMI) due to T cells and cytokines is the predominant host defense mechanism against C. albicans at mucosal tissue sites, host defense mechanisms against C. albicans at the vaginal mucosa are poorly understood. Based on an estrogen-dependent murine model of vaginal candidiasis, our data suggest that systemic CMI is ineffective against C. albicans vaginal infections. Thus, we have postulated that local immune mechanisms are critical for protection against infection. In the present study, the kinetic production of chemokines normally associated with the chemotaxis of T cells, macrophages (RANTES, MIP-1α, MCP-1), and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (MIP-2) was examined following intravaginal inoculation of C. albicans in estrogen-treated or untreated mice. Results showed significant increases in MCP-1 protein and mRNA in vaginal tissue of infected mice as early as 2 and 4 days postinoculation, respectively, that continued through a 21-day observation period, irrespective of estrogen status. No significant changes were observed with RANTES, MIP-1α, or MIP-2, although relatively high constitutive levels of RANTES mRNA and MIP-2 protein were observed. Furthermore, intravaginal immunoneutralization of MCP-1 with anti-MCP-1 antibodies resulted in a significant increase in vaginal fungal burden early during infection, suggesting that MCP-1 plays some role in reducing the fungal burden during vaginal infection. However, the lack of changes in leukocyte profiles in vaginal lavage fluids collected from infected versus uninfected mice suggests that MCP-1 functions to control vaginal C. albicans titers in a manner independent of cellular chemotactic activity. PMID:10531235

  11. Current review of prepubertal vaginal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Dwiggins, Maggie; Gomez-Lobo, Veronica

    2017-10-01

    Prepubertal vaginal bleeding raises many concerns and evaluation and diagnosis may prove difficult for many providers. We aim to provide a comprehensive review and recent updates for those practitioners who care for these patients. Prompt management in the case of prepubertal vaginal bleeding is indicated, especially to rule out malignancy or abuse. If a child is reluctant to undergo examination, or if the extent of injury or source of bleeding cannot be determined, examination under anesthesia and vaginoscopy is recommended. Use of vaginoscopy allows for clear visualization of the vagina and cervix without distorting hymenal anatomy, as well as diagnosis and removal of a foreign body and evaluation of mucosal damage caused. In the case of sexual abuse, providers specifically trained in pediatrics need to be present, and safety of the patient should always be ensured. Careful history taking and targeted examination may lead to diagnosis in the case of prepubertal vaginal bleeding. However, in more difficult cases, practitioners should not hesitate to examine a patient in the operating room using general anesthesia to elicit the cause. Although sexual abuse and malignancy are always on the differential, most causes of bleeding are benign and easily treated.

  12. [Vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap for the closure of perineal wound after abdominoperineal resection of the rectum].

    PubMed

    Orhalmi, J; Vreský, B; Holéczy, P; Jackanin, S; Biath, P

    2009-06-01

    A major source of morbidity after abdominoperineal resection (APR) after neoadjuvant external beam pelvic radiation are perineal wound complications. Wound complications are common for 25-66% of patients overall. There are many of procedures provided to reconstruct the perineal defect after APR e.g. primary closure, secondary closure, superior gluteal artery flap and vertical rectus abdominus myocutaneous (VRAM) flap. Our purpose was to describe the effect of VRAM flap on reconstruction of perineal wound. VRAM flaps are ideally suited to bring nonirradiated tissue into defect associated with radical surgical extirpation procedures and irradiated fields. This flap, distally based in the deep inferior epigastric vessels, provides several distinct advantages. It is well perfused by the robust dominant pedicle and the deep inferior epigastric artery and vein. In addition, this flap provides adequate muscle bulk to obliterate pelvic dead space. The skin island can be used for resurfacing the perineal region, including the vaginal wall, and provides versatility for all patterns of resection. VRAM flap provides very good aesthetic and functional results, is technically relatively simple and radically decreases wound complications rate. The additional possibility is pull-through the flap transpelvically intraabdominally instead of pull-through via subcutaneous channel, especially with females.

  13. An overview of in vitro dissolution/release methods for novel mucosal drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Jug, Mario; Hafner, Anita; Lovrić, Jasmina; Kregar, Maja Lusina; Pepić, Ivan; Vanić, Željka; Cetina-Čižmek, Biserka; Filipović-Grčić, Jelena

    2018-01-05

    In vitro dissolution/release tests are an important tool in the drug product development phase as well as in its quality control and the regulatory approval process. Mucosal drug delivery systems are aimed to provide both local and systemic drug action via mucosal surfaces of the body and exhibit significant differences in formulation design, as well as in their physicochemical and release characteristics. Therefore it is not possible to devise a single test system which would be suitable for release testing of such complex dosage forms. This article is aimed to provide a comprehensive review of both compendial and noncompendial methods used for in vitro dissolution/release testing of novel mucosal drug delivery systems aimed for ocular, nasal, oromucosal, vaginal and rectal administration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Fractional CO2 Laser: From Skin Rejuvenation to Vulvo-Vaginal Reshaping.

    PubMed

    Filippini, Maurizio; Del Duca, Ester; Negosanti, Francesca; Bonciani, Diletta; Negosanti, Luca; Sannino, Mario; Cannarozzo, Giovanni; Nisticò, Steven Paul

    2017-03-01

    The CO 2 laser has become the gold standard treatment in dermatologic surgery for the treatment of a large number of skin and mucosal lesions. The introduction of the fractional micro-ablative technology represented an integration to the ablative resurfacing technique, reducing the healing time and the side effects. Vaginal rejuvenation performed with this technique is a minimally invasive procedure that stimulates internal tissues of the female lower genital tract to regenerate the mucosa, improving tissue trophism and restoring the correct functionality. In our experience, 386 menopausal women affected with vulvo-vaginal atrophy (VVA) were treated with three section of fractional micro-ablative CO 2 laser. After three treatments, patients reported a complete improvement of the symptoms (59.94% dryness, 56.26% burn, sensation, 48.75% dyspareunia, 56.37% itch, 73.15% soreness, and 48.79% vaginal introitus pain). Fractional micro-ablative CO 2 laser seems to reduce symptoms related to vaginal atrophy. The beneficial effects were reported just after the first session and confirmed 12 months after the last session.

  15. Probiotics as Antifungals in Mucosal Candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Victor H; Bandara, H M H N; Mayer, Marcia P A; Samaranayake, Lakshman P

    2016-05-01

    Candidais an opportunistic pathogen that causes mucosal and deep systemic candidiasis. The emergence of drug resistance and the side effects of currently available antifungals have restricted their use as long-term prophylactic agents for candidal infections. Given this scenario, probiotics have been suggested as a useful alternative for the management of candidiasis. We analyzed the available data on the efficacy of probiotics in candidal colonization of host surfaces. A number of well-controlled studies indicate that probiotics, particularly lactobacilli, suppressCandidagrowth and biofilm development in vitro.A few clinical trials have also shown the beneficial effects of probiotics in reducing oral, vaginal, and enteric colonization byCandida; alleviation of clinical signs and symptoms; and, in some cases, reducing the incidence of invasive fungal infection in critically ill patients. Probiotics may serve in the future as a worthy ally in the battle against chronic mucosal candidal infections. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Utility and versatility of the supraclavicular artery island flap in head and neck reconstruction.

    PubMed

    González-García, José A; Chiesa-Estomba, Carlos M; Sistiaga, Jon A; Larruscain, Ekhiñe; Álvarez, Leire; Altuna, Xabier

    The supraclavicular island flap is a rotational pedicled flap and may have some advantages in head and neck reconstruction compared with free-tissue transfer when this kind of reconstruction is not affordable or recommended. We present our experience during the year 2016 in the application of the supraclavicular island flap in five cases as an alternative to microvascular reconstruction in several defects after resection of head and neck tumours. In two patients, the flap was used to close the surgical pharyngostoma after total laryngectomy with partial pharyngectomy. In one patient, it was used in lateral facial reconstruction after partial resection of the temporal bone. In one case, it was used to close a skin defect after total laryngectomy with prelaryngeal tissue extension. And in the last case to close a neck skin defect after primary closure of a pharyngo-cutaneous fistula. There were no flap complications, and the result was satisfactory in all cases. The supraclavicular artery island flap is useful and versatile in head and neck reconstruction. Operating room time in aged patients or those with comorbidities will be reduced compared to free flaps. The surgical technique is relatively easy and can be used for skin and mucosal coverage. The supraclavicular island flap could be a recommended option in head and neck reconstruction, its use seems to be increasing and provides a safe and time-saving option to free flaps in selected patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  17. Mucosal complications of modified osteo-odonto keratoprosthesis in chronic Stevens-Johnson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Basu, Sayan; Pillai, Vinay Sukumara; Sangwan, Virender S

    2013-11-01

    To describe clinical outcomes of complications afflicting the autologous oral mucous membrane graft after modified osteo-odonto keratoprosthesis surgery in chronic Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS). Prospective case series. This study included 30 eyes of 30 patients with SJS-induced dry keratinized ocular surfaces; the patients underwent various stages of this procedure between August 2009 and February 2012. Mucosal complications were classified as either necrosis or overgrowth. Mucosal necrosis was managed according to a predesigned algorithm based on timing (pre- and postimplantation) and location (central or peripheral) of necrosis. Cases with mucosal overgrowth underwent mucosal debulking and trimming. Mucosal necrosis developed in 15 (50%) eyes and overgrowth in 4 (13.3%) eyes. Preimplantation necrosis (n = 7) was initially managed conservatively, but 2 eyes required free labial-mucous membrane grafting for persistent corneal exposure. Free labial-mucous membrane grafting was performed in all cases of postimplantation necrosis (n = 10), but 8 eyes required additional tarsal pedicle flaps (n = 6, for peripheral necrosis) or through-the-lid revisions (n = 2, for central necrosis). Debulking and trimming effectively managed all cases of mucosal overgrowth, but 3 eyes required repeat procedures. At 24.1 ± 6.5 months postimplantation, the keratoprosthesis was retained in all eyes, and the probability of maintaining 20/60 or better vision was similar in eyes with or without mucosal necrosis (86 ± 8.8% vs 80 ± 10.3%). Mucosal complications, especially necrosis, occurred commonly following modified osteo-odonto keratoprosthesis surgery in dry keratinized post-SJS eyes. The algorithm-based management approach described in this study was successful in treating these complications, retaining the prosthesis and preserving useful vision. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of TLR Agonists as Potential Mucosal Adjuvants for HIV gp140 and Tetanus Toxoid in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Buffa, Viviana; Klein, Katja; Fischetti, Lucia; Shattock, Robin J.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study we investigate the impact of a range of TLR ligands and chitosan as potential adjuvants for different routes of mucosal immunisation (sublingual (SL), intranasal (IN), intravaginal (IVag) and a parenteral route (subcutaneous (SC)) in the murine model. We assess their ability to enhance antibody responses to HIV-1 CN54gp140 (gp140) and Tetanus toxoid (TT) in systemic and vaginal compartments. A number of trends were observed by route of administration. For non-adjuvanted antigen, SC>SL>IN immunisation with respect to systemic IgG responses, where endpoint titres were greater for TT than for gp140. In general, co-administration with adjuvants increased specific IgG responses where IN = SC>SL, while in the vaginal compartment IN>SL>SC for specific IgA. In contrast, for systemic and mucosal IgA responses to antigen alone SL>IN = SC. A number of adjuvants increased specific systemic IgA responses where in general IN>SL>SC immunisation, while for mucosal responses IN = SL>SC. In contrast, direct intravaginal immunisation failed to induce any detectable systemic or mucosal responses to gp140 even in the presence of adjuvant. However, significant systemic IgG responses to TT were induced by intravaginal immunisation with or without adjuvant, and detectable mucosal responses IgG and IgA were observed when TT was administered with FSL-1 or Poly I∶C. Interestingly some TLRs displayed differential activity dependent upon the route of administration. MPLA (TLR4) suppressed systemic responses to SL immunisation while enhancing responses to IN or SC immunisation. CpG B enhanced SL and IN responses, while having little or no impact on SC immunisation. These data demonstrate important route, antigen and adjuvant effects that need to be considered in the design of mucosal vaccine strategies. PMID:23272062

  19. Comparison of the vaginal environment of Macaca mulatta and Macaca nemestrina throughout the menstrual cycle

    PubMed Central

    Hadzic, Sarah V.; Wang, Xiaolei; Dufour, Jason; Doyle, Lara; Marx, Preston A.; Lackner, Andrew A.; Paulsen, Daniel B.; Veazey, Ronald S.

    2014-01-01

    Problem Pigtail macaques, Macaca nemestrina (PT) are more susceptible to vaginal transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STD) than rhesus macaques (RM). However, comparative studies to explore the reasons for these differences are lacking. Method of Study Here we compared differences in hormone levels and vaginal mucosal anatomy and thickness of RM and PT through different stages of the menstrual cycle. Concentrations of plasma estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) were determined weekly, and vaginal biopsies examined at day 0 and 14 of the menstrual cycle. Results Consistent changes in vaginal epithelial thickness occurred at different stages of the menstrual cycle. In both species, the vaginal epithelium was significantly thicker in the follicular than in luteal phase. Keratinized epithelium was strikingly much more prominent in RM, especially during the luteal phase. Further, the vaginal epithelium was significantly thinner and the P4:E2 ratio was higher in PT during luteal phase than RM. Conclusions Striking anatomical differences in the vaginal epithelium between rhesus and pigtail macaques combined with differences in P4:E2 ratio support the hypothesis that thinning and less keratinization of the vaginal epithelium may be involved in the greater susceptibility of pigtail macaques to vaginal transmission of SIV or other STD. PMID:24521395

  20. In vitro evaluation of mucoadhesive vaginal tablets of antifungal drugs prepared with thiolated polymer and development of a new dissolution technique for vaginal formulations.

    PubMed

    Baloglu, Esra; Ay Senyıgıt, Zeynep; Karavana, Sinem Yaprak; Vetter, Anja; Metın, Dilek Yesim; Hilmioglu Polat, Suleyha; Guneri, Tamer; Bernkop-Schnurch, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to develop antifungal matrix tablet for vaginal applications using mucoadhesive thiolated polymer. Econazole nitrate (EN) and miconazole nitrate (MN) were used as antifungal drugs to prepare the vaginal tablet formulations. Thiolated poly(acrylic acid)-cysteine (PAA-Cys) conjugate was synthesized by the covalent attachment of L-cysteine to PAA with the formation of amide bonds between the primary amino group of L-cysteine and the carboxylic acid group of the polymer. Vaginal mucoadhesive matrix tablets were prepared by direct compression technique. The investigation focused on the influence of modified polymer on water uptake behavior, mucoadhesive property and release rate of drug. Thiolated polymer increased the water uptake ratio and mucoadhesive property of the formulations. A new simple dissolution technique was developed to simulate the vaginal environment for the evaluation of release behavior of vaginal tablets. In this technique, daily production amount and rate of the vaginal fluid was used without any rotational movement. The drug release was found to be slower from PAA-Cys compared to that from PAA formulations. The similarity study results confirmed that the difference in particle size of EN and MN did not affect their release profile. The release process was described by plotting the fraction released drug versus time and n fitting data to the simple exponential model: M(t)/M(∞)=kt(n). The release kinetics were determined as Super Case II for all the formulations prepared with PAA or PAA-Cys. According to these results the mucoadhesive vaginal tablet formulations prepared with PAA-Cys represent good example for delivery systems which prolong the residence time of drugs at the vaginal mucosal surface.

  1. Reconstruction of the lower vermilion with a musculomucosal flap from the upper lip in the repair of extensive lower lip and chin defects.

    PubMed

    Rong, Li; Lan, Shi-Jie; Zhang, Duo; Wang, Wang-Shu; Liu, Chao; Peng, Wei-Hai

    2014-09-01

    In the repair of extensive lower lip and chin defects, the reconstruction of vermilion at the same time is a great challenge to plastic surgeons. We describe a novel method for the reconstruction of lower vermilion with musculomucosal flap from the upper lip in the repair of extensive lower lip and chin defects. Two patients underwent extensive lower lip and chin reconstruction together with vermilion reconstruction. This technique used 3 basic components: musculomucosal flap from the upper lip, buccal mucosal advancement flap, and cutaneous rotational flap from the neck. All the flaps survived without significant complications. Labial function in the motions of expression and speaking was maintained. The patients could basically close their mouths completely, and there were no drooping or small-mouth deformities postoperatively. Functional and cosmetically acceptable lower-lip and chin reconstructions in both patients were achieved.

  2. Novel engineered systems for oral, mucosal and transdermal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Li, Hairui; Yu, Yuan; Faraji Dana, Sara; Li, Bo; Lee, Chi-Ying; Kang, Lifeng

    2013-08-01

    Technological advances in drug discovery have resulted in increasing number of molecules including proteins and peptides as drug candidates. However, how to deliver drugs with satisfactory therapeutic effect, minimal side effects and increased patient compliance is a question posted before researchers, especially for those drugs with poor solubility, large molecular weight or instability. Microfabrication technology, polymer science and bioconjugate chemistry combine to address these problems and generate a number of novel engineered drug delivery systems. Injection routes usually have poor patient compliance due to their invasive nature and potential safety concerns over needle reuse. The alternative non-invasive routes, such as oral, mucosal (pulmonary, nasal, ocular, buccal, rectal, vaginal), and transdermal drug delivery have thus attracted many attentions. Here, we review the applications of the novel engineered systems for oral, mucosal and transdermal drug delivery.

  3. Effects of Reproductive Hormones on Experimental Vaginal Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Fidel, Paul L.; Cutright, Jessica; Steele, Chad

    2000-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an opportunistic mucosal infection caused by Candida albicans that affects large numbers of otherwise healthy women of childbearing age. Acute episodes of VVC often occur during pregnancy and during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, when levels of progesterone and estrogen are elevated. Although estrogen-dependent experimental rodent models of C. albicans vaginal infection are used for many applications, the role of reproductive hormones and/or their limits in the acquisition of vaginal candidiasis remain unclear. This study examined the effects of estrogen and progesterone on several aspects of an experimental infection together with relative cell-mediated immune responses. Results showed that while decreasing estrogen concentrations eventually influenced infection-induced vaginal titers of C. albicans and rates of infection in inoculated animals, the experimental infection could not be achieved in mice treated with various concentrations of progesterone alone. Furthermore, progesterone had no effect on (i) the induction and persistence of the infection in the presence of estrogen, (ii) delayed-type hypersensitivity in primary-infected mice, or (iii) the partial protection from a secondary vaginal infection under pseudoestrus conditions. Other results with estrogen showed that a persistent infection could be established with a wide range of C. albicans inocula under supraphysiologic and near-physiologic (at estrus) concentrations of estrogen and that vaginal fungus titers or rates of infection were similar if pseudoestrus was initiated several days before or after inoculation. However, the pseudoestrus state had to be maintained for the infection to persist. Finally, estrogen was found to reduce the ability of vaginal epithelial cells to inhibit the growth of C. albicans. These results suggest that estrogen, but not progesterone, is an important factor in hormone-associated susceptibility to C. albicans vaginitis. PMID

  4. The Extended Nasoseptal Flap for Skull Base Reconstruction of the Clival Region: An Anatomical and Radiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Peris-Celda, Maria; Pinheiro-Neto, Carlos Diogenes; Funaki, Takeshi; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C.; Gardner, Paul; Snyderman, Carl; Rhoton, Albert L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Reconstruction of large clival defects after an endoscopic endonasal procedure is challenging. The objective is to analyze the morphology, indications, and limitations of the extended nasoseptal flap, which adds the nasal floor and inferior meatus mucosa, compared with the standard nasoseptal flap, for clival reconstruction. Design Twenty-seven sides of formalin-fixed anatomical specimens and 13 computed tomography (CT) scans were used. Under 0-degree endoscopic visualization, a standard flap on one side and an extended flap on the other side were performed, as well as exposure of the sella, cavernous sinus, and clival dura mater. Coverage of both flaps was assessed, and they were incised and extracted for measurements. Results The extended flap has two parts: septal and inferior meatal. The extended flaps are 20 mm longer and add 774 mm2 of mucosal area. They cover a clival defect from tuberculum to foramen magnum in 66.6% cases and from below the sella in 91.6%. They cover both parasellar and paraclival segments of the internal carotid arteries. The lateral inferior limits are the medial aspect of the hypoglossal canals and Eustachian tubes. CT scans can predict the need or limitation of an extended nasoseptal flap. Conclusions The nasal floor and inferior meatus mucosa adds a significant area for reconstruction of the clivus. A defect laterally beyond the hypoglossal canals is not likely covered with this variation of the flap. Preoperative CT scans are useful to guide the reconstruction techniques. PMID:24436940

  5. A MIV-150/zinc acetate gel inhibits SHIV-RT infection in macaque vaginal explants.

    PubMed

    Barnable, Patrick; Calenda, Giulia; Ouattara, Louise; Gettie, Agegnehu; Blanchard, James; Jean-Pierre, Ninochka; Kizima, Larisa; Rodríguez, Aixa; Abraham, Ciby; Menon, Radhika; Seidor, Samantha; Cooney, Michael L; Roberts, Kevin D; Sperling, Rhoda; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Fernandez-Romero, Jose A; Zydowsky, Thomas M; Robbiani, Melissa; Teleshova, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    To extend our observations that single or repeated application of a gel containing the NNRTI MIV-150 (M) and zinc acetate dihydrate (ZA) in carrageenan (CG) (MZC) inhibits vaginal transmission of simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-RT in macaques, we evaluated safety and anti-SHIV-RT activity of MZC and related gel formulations ex vivo in macaque mucosal explants. In addition, safety was further evaluated in human ectocervical explants. The gels did not induce mucosal toxicity. A single ex vivo exposure to diluted MZC (1∶30, 1∶100) and MC (1∶30, the only dilution tested), but not to ZC gel, up to 4 days prior to viral challenge, significantly inhibited SHIV-RT infection in macaque vaginal mucosa. MZC's activity was not affected by seminal plasma. The antiviral activity of unformulated MIV-150 was not enhanced in the presence of ZA, suggesting that the antiviral activity of MZC was mediated predominantly by MIV-150. In vivo administration of MZC and CG significantly inhibited ex vivo SHIV-RT infection (51-62% inhibition relative to baselines) of vaginal (but not cervical) mucosa collected 24 h post last gel exposure, indicating barrier effect of CG. Although the inhibitory effect of MZC (65-74%) did not significantly differ from CG (32-45%), it was within the range of protection (∼75%) against vaginal SHIV-RT challenge 24 h after gel dosing. Overall, the data suggest that evaluation of candidate microbicides in macaque explants can inform macaque efficacy and clinical studies design. The data support advancing MZC gel for clinical evaluation.

  6. Immune Cell-Mediated Protection against Vaginal Candidiasis: Evidence for a Major Role of Vaginal CD4+ T Cells and Possible Participation of Other Local Lymphocyte Effectors

    PubMed Central

    Santoni, Giorgio; Boccanera, Maria; Adriani, Daniela; Lucciarini, Roberta; Amantini, Consuelo; Morrone, Stefania; Cassone, Antonio; De Bernardis, Flavia

    2002-01-01

    The protective roles of different lymphocyte subsets were investigated in a rat vaginal candidiasis model by adoptive transfer of vaginal lymphocytes (VL) or sorted, purified CD3+ T cells, CD4+ or CD8+ T cells, or CD3− CD5+ B cells from the vaginas of naïve or immune rats following three rounds of Candida albicans infection. The adoptive transfer of total VL from nonimmune animals did not alter the course of vaginal candidiasis of the recipient rats. In contrast, the animals receiving total VL or CD3+ T cells from immune rats showed a highly significant acceleration of fungus clearance compared with animals which received nonimmune VL. The animals with vaginal CD3− CD5+ B cells transferred from immune rats also had fewer Candida CFU than the controls, but fungal clearance was significantly retarded with respect to the animals administered immune T cells. Sorted, purified CD4+ and CD8+ vaginal T cells from immune rats were also adoptively transferred to naïve animals. Although both populations were seen to accelerate the clearance of the fungus from the vagina, CD4+ T cells were much more effective than CD8+ T cells. Overall, there was no difference between the antifungal effects of immune vaginal CD4+ T cells and those achievable with the transfer of whole, immune VL. Histological observations of the vaginal tissues of rats with adoptively transferred immune T cells demonstrated a remarkable accumulation of lymphocytes in the subepithelial lamina propria and also infiltrating the mucosal epithelium. These results strongly suggest that distinct vaginal lymphocyte subsets participate in the adaptive anti-Candida immunity at the vaginal level, with the vaginal CD4+ T cells probably playing a major role. PMID:12183521

  7. Nd:YAG laser therapy for rectal and vaginal venous malformations.

    PubMed

    Gurien, Lori A; Jackson, Richard J; Kiser, Michelle M; Richter, Gresham T

    2017-08-01

    Limited therapeutic options exist for rectal and vaginal venous malformations (VM). We describe our center's experience using Nd:YAG laser for targeted ablation of abnormal veins to treat mucosally involved pelvic VM. Records of patients undergoing non-contact Nd:YAG laser therapy of pelvic VM at a tertiary children's hospital were reviewed. Symptoms, operative findings and details, complications, and outcomes were evaluated. Nine patients (age 0-24) underwent Nd:YAG laser therapy of rectal and/or vaginal VM. Rectal bleeding was present in all patients and vaginal bleeding in all females (n = 5). 5/7 patients had extensive pelvic involvement on MRI. Typical settings were 30 (rectum) and 20-25 W (vagina), with 0.5-1.0 s pulse duration. Patients underwent the same-day discharge. Treatment intervals ranged from 14 to 180 (average = 56) weeks, with 6.1-year mean follow-up. Five patients experienced symptom relief with a single treatment. Serial treatments managed recurrent bleeding successfully in all patients, with complete resolution of vaginal lesions in 40% of cases. No complications occurred. Nd:YAG laser treatment of rectal and vaginal VM results in substantial improvement and symptom control, with low complication risk. Given the high morbidity of surgical resection, Nd:YAG laser treatment of pelvic VM should be considered as first line therapy.

  8. Four-flap Breast Reconstruction: Bilateral Stacked DIEP and PAP Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, James L.; Allen, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In cases of bilateral breast reconstruction when the deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) free flap alone does not provide sufficient volume for body-specific reconstruction, stacking each DIEP flap with a second free flap will deliver added volume and maintain a purely autologous reconstruction. Stacking the profunda artery perforator (PAP) flap with the DIEP flap offers favorable aesthetics and ideal operative efficiency. We present the indications, technique, and outcomes of our experience with 4-flap breast reconstruction using stacked DIEP/PAP flaps. Methods: The authors performed 4-flap DIEP/PAP breast reconstruction in 20 patients who required bilateral reconstruction without adequate single donor flap volume. The timing of reconstruction, average mastectomy/flap weights, and operative time are reported. Complications reviewed include fat necrosis, dehiscence, hematoma, seroma, mastectomy flap necrosis, and flap loss. Results: Twenty patients underwent 4-flap DIEP/PAP breast reconstruction. Surgical time averaged 7 hours and 20 minutes. The primary recipient vessels were the antegrade and retrograde internal mammary vessels. No flap losses occurred. Complications included 1 hematoma, 1 incidence of arterial and venous thrombosis successfully treated with anastomotic revision, 1 incidence of thigh donor site dehiscence, and 3 episodes of minor mastectomy skin flap necrosis. Conclusions: Four-flap breast reconstruction is a favorable autologous reconstructive option for patients requiring bilateral reconstruction without adequate single donor flap volume. Stacking DIEP/PAP flaps as described is both safe and efficient. Furthermore, this combination provides superior aesthetics mirroring the natural geometry of the breast. Bilateral stacked DIEP/PAP flaps represent our first choice for breast reconstruction in this patient population. PMID:26090273

  9. Comparison of the vaginal environment of Macaca mulatta and Macaca nemestrina throughout the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Hadzic, Sarah V; Wang, Xiaolei; Dufour, Jason; Doyle, Lara; Marx, Preston A; Lackner, Andrew A; Paulsen, Daniel B; Veazey, Ronald S

    2014-04-01

    Pigtail macaques, Macaca nemestrina (PT), are more susceptible to vaginal transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STD) than rhesus macaques (RM). However, comparative studies to explore the reasons for these differences are lacking. Here, we compared differences in hormone levels and vaginal mucosal anatomy and thickness of RM and PT through different stages of the menstrual cycle. Concentrations of plasma estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) were determined weekly, and vaginal biopsies examined at days 0 and 14 of the menstrual cycle. Consistent changes in vaginal epithelial thickness occurred at different stages of the menstrual cycle. In both species, the vaginal epithelium was significantly thicker in the follicular than in luteal phase. Keratinized epithelium was strikingly much more prominent in RM, especially during the luteal phase. Further, the vaginal epithelium was significantly thinner, and the P4:E2 ratio was higher in PT during luteal phase than RM. Striking anatomic differences in the vaginal epithelium between rhesus and pigtail macaques combined with differences in P4:E2 ratio support the hypothesis that thinning and less keratinization of the vaginal epithelium may be involved in the greater susceptibility of pigtail macaques to vaginal transmission of SIV or other STD. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Phase I Randomized Safety Study of Twice Daily Dosing of Acidform Vaginal Gel: Candidate Antimicrobial Contraceptive

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Marla J.; Carpenter, Colleen A.; Lo, Yungtai; Einstein, Mark H.; Liu, Congzhou; Fredricks, David N.; Herold, Betsy C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Acidform gel, an acid-buffering product that inactivates spermatozoa, may be an effective topical non-hormonal contraceptive. This study was designed to evaluate the safety of vaginal dosing and effects of Acidform on mucosal immune mediators, antimicrobial properties of genital secretions, and vaginal microbiota. Methods Thirty-six sexually abstinent U.S. women were randomized to apply Acidform or hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) placebo gel twice daily for 14 consecutive days. Safety was assessed by symptoms and pelvic examination. The impact of gel on mucosal immunity was assessed by quantifying cytokines, chemokines, antimicrobial proteins and antimicrobial activity of genital secretions collected by cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) at screening, 2 hours after gel application, and on days 7, 14 and 21. Vaginal microbiota was characterized at enrollment and day 14 using species-specific quantitative PCR assays. Results The median vaginal and cervical pH was significantly lower 2 hours after application of Acidform and was associated with an increase in the bactericidal activity of CVL against E. coli. However, 65% of women who received Acidform had at least one local adverse event compared with 11% who received placebo (p = 0.002). While there was no increase in inflammatory cytokines or chemokines, CVL concentrations of lactoferrin and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), an anti-inflammatory protein, were significantly lower following Acidform compared to HEC placebo gel application. There were no significant changes in Lactobacillus crispatus or Lactobacillus jensenii in either group but there was a decrease in Gardnerella vaginalis in the Acidform group (p = 0.08). Conclusions Acidform gel may augment mucosal defense as evidenced by an increase in bactericidal activity of genital secretions against E. coli and a decrease in Gardnerella vaginalis colonization. However, Acidform was associated with more irritation than placebo and lower levels

  11. Sacrococcygeal Teratoma Presenting with Vaginal Discharge and Polyp in an Infant.

    PubMed

    Ladenhauf, Hannah N; Brandtner, M Georgina; Schimke, Christa; Ardelean, Mircia A; Metzger, Roman

    2018-06-01

    Sacrococcygeal teratoma accounts for the most common solid tumor in neonates. Because of improved technology, 50%-70% of cases can be diagnosed antenatally during routine ultrasound screenings. If not diagnosed antenatally, clinical findings at birth are distinct in most cases including a palpable or visible mass. We report an unusual case of a 1-year-old girl who presented with persistent vaginal discharge leading to diagnosis of a mucosal polypoid lesion of the vagina, ultimately revealing a hidden sacrococcygeal teratoma. We suggest thorough investigation of all infants who present with purulent discharge and recurrent vaginal mass; sacrococcygeal teratoma should routinely be considered as a differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The posterior nasoseptal flap: A novel technique for closure after endoscopic transsphenoidal resection of pituitary adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Barger, James; Siow, Matthew; Kader, Michael; Phillips, Katherine; Fatterpekar, Girish; Kleinberg, David; Zagzag, David; Sen, Chandranath; Golfinos, John G.; Lebowitz, Richard; Placantonakis, Dimitris G.

    2018-01-01

    Background: While effective for the repair of large skull base defects, the Hadad-Bassagasteguy nasoseptal flap increases operative time and can result in a several-week period of postoperative crusting during re-mucosalization of the denuded nasal septum. Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenoma resection is generally not associated with large dural defects and high-flow cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks requiring extensive reconstruction. Here, we present the posterior nasoseptal flap as a novel technique for closure of skull defects following endoscopic resection of pituitary adenomas. This flap is raised in all surgeries during the transnasal exposure using septal mucoperiosteum that would otherwise be discarded during the posterior septectomy performed in binostril approaches. Methods: We present a retrospective, consecutive case series of 43 patients undergoing endoscopic transsphenoidal resection of a pituitary adenoma followed by posterior nasoseptal flap placement and closure. Main outcome measures were extent of resection and postoperative CSF leak. Results: The mean extent of resection was 97.16 ± 1.03%. Radiographic measurement showed flap length to be adequate. While a defect in the diaphragma sellae and CSF leak were identified in 21 patients during surgery, postoperative CSF leak occurred in only one patient. Conclusions: The posterior nasoseptal flap provides adequate coverage of the surgical defect and is nearly always successful in preventing postoperative CSF leak following endoscopic transsphenoidal resection of pituitary adenomas. The flap is raised from mucoperiosteum lining the posterior nasal septum, which is otherwise resected during posterior septectomy. Because the anterior septal cartilage is not denuded, raising such flaps avoids the postoperative morbidity associated with the larger Hadad-Bassagasteguy nasoseptal flap. PMID:29527390

  13. Medial sural artery perforator flap: a challenging free flap.

    PubMed

    Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    Oral and extremity defect reconstruction can often require a flap that is thin, and traditionally, the radial forearm free flap has been used, however, this has significant donor site morbidity. Over the last decade, the medial sural artery perforator (MSAP) flap has emerged as a possible alternative with lower donor site morbidity. We present our experiences and review the literature regarding this promising but challenging flap. The study was a retrospective case series in a university hospital setting. All patients who had a MSAP flap performed at our institution were included until March 2015, and their data was retrieved from electronic patient records. In total, ten patients were reconstructed with a MSAP flap for floor of mouth (eight) and lower extremity (two) defect reconstruction. The median flap dimensions were as follows: 10 cm (range 7-14 cm), width 5 cm (range 3.5-8 cm), thickness 5 mm (range 4-8 mm), and pedicle length 10 cm (range 8-12 cm). In one case, the procedure was abandoned because of very small perforators and another flap was used. In two cases, late onset of venous congestion occurred which could not be salvaged. There were no donor site complaints. The MSAP flap is an ideal flap when a thin free flap is needed with lower donor site morbidity than alternative solutions. There seems to be a higher rate of late onset of venous thrombosis compared with more established flaps. Therefore, this flap should be monitored more closely for venous problems and we recommend performing two venous anastomoses when using this flap. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study.

  14. Free-style puzzle flap: the concept of recycling a perforator flap.

    PubMed

    Feng, Kuan-Ming; Hsieh, Ching-Hua; Jeng, Seng-Feng

    2013-02-01

    Theoretically, a flap can be supplied by any perforator based on the angiosome theory. In this study, the technique of free-style perforator flap dissection was used to harvest a pedicled or free skin flap from a previous free flap for a second difficult reconstruction. The authors call this a free-style puzzle flap. For the past 3 years, the authors treated 13 patients in whom 12 pedicled free-style puzzle flaps were harvested from previous redundant free flaps and recycled to reconstruct soft-tissue defects at various anatomical locations. One free-style free puzzle flap was harvested from a previous anterolateral thigh flap for buccal cancer to reconstruct a foot defect. Total flap survival was attained in 12 of 13 flaps. One transferred flap failed completely. This patient had received postoperative radiotherapy after the initial cancer ablation and free anterolateral thigh flap reconstruction. Another free flap was used to close and reconstruct the wound. All the donor sites could be closed primarily. The free-style puzzle flap, harvested from a previous redundant free flap and used as a perforator flap to reconstruct a new defect, has proven to be versatile and reliable. When indicated, it is an alternative donor site for further reconstruction of soft-tissue defects.

  15. HIV Infection and Compromised Mucosal Immunity: Oral Manifestations and Systemic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Heron, Samantha E.; Elahi, Shokrollah

    2017-01-01

    Mucosal surfaces account for the vast majority of HIV transmission. In adults, HIV transmission occurs mainly by vaginal and rectal routes but rarely via oral route. By contrast, pediatric HIV infections could be as the result of oral route by breastfeeding. As such mucosal surfaces play a crucial role in HIV acquisition, and spread of the virus depends on its ability to cross a mucosal barrier. HIV selectively infects, depletes, and/or dysregulates multiple arms of the human immune system particularly at the mucosal sites and causes substantial irreversible damage to the mucosal barriers. This leads to microbial products translocation and subsequently hyper-immune activation. Although introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has led to significant reduction in morbidity and mortality of HIV-infected patients, viral replication persists. As a result, antigen presence and immune activation are linked to “inflammaging” that attributes to a pro-inflammatory environment and the accelerated aging process in HIV patients. HIV infection is also associated with the prevalence of oral mucosal infections and dysregulation of oral microbiota, both of which may compromise the oral mucosal immunity of HIV-infected individuals. In addition, impaired oral immunity in HIV infection may predispose the patients to periodontal diseases that are associated with systemic inflammation and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this review is to examine existing evidence regarding the role of innate and cellular components of the oral cavity in HIV infection and how HIV infection may drive systemic hyper-immune activation in these patients. We will also discuss current knowledge on HIV oral transmission, HIV immunosenescence in relation to the oral mucosal alterations during the course of HIV infection and periodontal disease. Finally, we discuss oral manifestations associated with HIV infection and how HIV infection and ART influence the oral microbiome

  16. HIV Infection and Compromised Mucosal Immunity: Oral Manifestations and Systemic Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Heron, Samantha E; Elahi, Shokrollah

    2017-01-01

    Mucosal surfaces account for the vast majority of HIV transmission. In adults, HIV transmission occurs mainly by vaginal and rectal routes but rarely via oral route. By contrast, pediatric HIV infections could be as the result of oral route by breastfeeding. As such mucosal surfaces play a crucial role in HIV acquisition, and spread of the virus depends on its ability to cross a mucosal barrier. HIV selectively infects, depletes, and/or dysregulates multiple arms of the human immune system particularly at the mucosal sites and causes substantial irreversible damage to the mucosal barriers. This leads to microbial products translocation and subsequently hyper-immune activation. Although introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has led to significant reduction in morbidity and mortality of HIV-infected patients, viral replication persists. As a result, antigen presence and immune activation are linked to "inflammaging" that attributes to a pro-inflammatory environment and the accelerated aging process in HIV patients. HIV infection is also associated with the prevalence of oral mucosal infections and dysregulation of oral microbiota, both of which may compromise the oral mucosal immunity of HIV-infected individuals. In addition, impaired oral immunity in HIV infection may predispose the patients to periodontal diseases that are associated with systemic inflammation and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this review is to examine existing evidence regarding the role of innate and cellular components of the oral cavity in HIV infection and how HIV infection may drive systemic hyper-immune activation in these patients. We will also discuss current knowledge on HIV oral transmission, HIV immunosenescence in relation to the oral mucosal alterations during the course of HIV infection and periodontal disease. Finally, we discuss oral manifestations associated with HIV infection and how HIV infection and ART influence the oral microbiome. Therefore

  17. Resolution of Rectal Prolapse by Vaginal Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Devakumar, Hemikaa; Chandrasekaran, Neeraja; Alas, Alexandriah; Martin, Laura; Davila, G Willy; Hurtado, Eric

    Rectal prolapse is a disorder of the pelvic floor in which the layers of the rectal mucosa protrude outward through the anus. Surgical repair is the mainstay of treatment. Options include intra-abdominal procedures such as rectopexy and perineal procedures such as the Delorme and Altemeier perineal rectosigmoidectomy. Rectal and vaginal prolapse can often coexist. However, to our knowledge, there are no reported cases of rectal prolapse resolved by the repair of a compressive enterocele abutting the anterior rectal wall through a vaginal approach alone. We present a novel case of rectal prolapse that resolved by correction of the vaginal defect. A 53-year-old female with prior history of abdominal hysterectomy, presented to the urogynecology clinic with complaints of vaginal bulge, urge urinary incontinence, and rectal bulge on straining with no fecal incontinence for several years. On physical examination, she was found to have stage 2 anterior, posterior, and apical vaginal prolapse and reducible rectal prolapse. Colorectal surgery (CRS) evaluation was requested, which revealed minimal anterior mucosal prolapse on Valsalva with no full-thickness prolapse. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) defecogram was performed, which demonstrated a large rectocele, enterocele, and small bowel prolapsing between the rectum and vagina during the evacuation phase, with no rectal prolapse. The decision to proceed with vaginal prolapse surgery without concomitant rectal prolapse repair was made, as the patient had no fecal incontinence, and the degree of rectal prolapse was minimal. On the day of surgery, which was 2 months later, she presented with a 2-cm anterior rectal prolapse with no incontinence. Colorectal surgery was consulted again, but unavailable. After counseling, the patient wished to proceed with her planned surgery. It was felt that correcting the anterior rectocele and enterocele, thereby eliminating the descent of the bowel on the anterior rectal wall, might cause

  18. Enhanced vaginal drug delivery through the use of hypotonic formulations that induce fluid uptake

    PubMed Central

    Ensign, Laura M.; Hoen, Timothy; Maisel, Katharina; Cone, Richard; Hanes, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Mucosal epithelia use osmotic gradients for fluid absorption and secretion. We hypothesized that administration of hypotonic solutions would induce fluid uptake that could be advantageous for rapidly delivering drugs through mucus to the vaginal epithelium. We found that hypotonic formulations markedly increased the rate at which small molecule drugs and muco-inert nanoparticles (mucus-penetrating particles, or MPP), but not conventional mucoadhesive nanparticles (CP), reached the vaginal epithelial surface in vivo in mice. Additionally, hypotonic formulations greatly enhanced drug and MPP delivery to the entire epithelial surface, including deep into the vaginal folds (rugae) that drugs or MPP in isotonic formulations failed to reach efficiently. However, hypotonic formulations caused unencapsulated “free” drugs to be drawn through the epithelium, reducing vaginal retention. In contrast, hypotonic formulations caused MPP to accumulate rapidly and uniformly on vaginal surfaces, ideally positioned for localized sustained drug delivery. Using a mouse model of vaginal genital herpes (HSV-2) infection, we found that hypotonic delivery of free drug led to improved immediate protection, but diminished longer-term protection. In contrast, as we previously demonstrated, hypotonic delivery of drug via MPP led to better long-term retention and protection in the vagina. Importantly, we demonstrate that slightly hypotonic formulations provided rapid and uniform delivery of MPP to the entire vaginal surface, thus enabling formulations with minimal risk of epithelial toxicity. Hypotonic formulations for vaginal drug delivery via MPP may significantly improve prevention and treatment of reproductive tract diseases and disorders. PMID:23769419

  19. Reconstruction of maxillary defect with musculo-adipose rectus free flap.

    PubMed

    Low, Tsu-Hui Hubert; Lindsay, Andrew; Clark, Jonathan; Chai, Francis; Lewis, Richard

    2017-02-01

    The rectus myocutaneous free flap (RMFF) is used for medium to large maxillectomy defects. However, in patients with central obesity the inset could be difficult due to the bulk from excessive layer of adipose tissue. We describe a modification of the RMFF for patients with excessive central obesity with a flap consisting of adipose tissue with minimal rectus muscle; the musculo-adipose rectus free flap (MARF). Five cases of MARF reconstruction were performed between 2003 and 2013, with patients' body mass indexes ranging from 29.0 to 41.2 kg/m 2 . All patients had sinonasal tumor, of which three were adenoid cystic carcinoma, one squamous cell carcinoma, and one melanoma. Four patients had Codeiro IIIb defects and one had Codeiro II defect. Using the MARF technique, the maxillectomy defect was obliterated with vascularized adipose tissue overlying the rectus muscle and was trimmed to fit the maxillectomy defect. The adipose tissue was allowed to granulate and mucosalize. The volume of adipose tissue harvested was between 120 and 160 mL. All flaps survived with no requirement for re-exploration. Complete oro-nasal separation was achieved in all patients. The time to commencement of oral intake ranges from 5 to 15 days. One patient developed seroma and one developed wound breakdown on the donor site. The length of stay at the hospital ranges from 9 to 22 days. On follow-up ranging 7.5-32.8 months, two patients died from their malignancies. The other three patients were able to tolerate oral soft diet. The MARF may be considered as an alternative to myocutaneous rectus free flap particularly for the reconstruction of maxillary defects in patients with central obesity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery 37:137-141, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Nivolumab or Expectant Observation Following Ipilimumab, Nivolumab, and Surgery in Treating Patients With High Risk Localized, Locoregionally Advanced, or Recurrent Mucosal Melanoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-10-16

    Cervical Carcinoma; Esophageal Carcinoma; Mucosal Melanoma; Mucosal Melanoma of the Head and Neck; Oral Cavity Mucosal Melanoma; Recurrent Melanoma; Stage II Vulvar Cancer AJCC v7; Stage III Vulvar Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Oral Cavity Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IV Vulvar Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVC Oral Cavity Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Vaginal Carcinoma

  1. Outcomes in patients with mucosal melanomas.

    PubMed

    Keller, Deborah S; Thomay, Alan A; Gaughan, John; Olszanski, Anthony; Wu, Hong; Berger, Adam C; Farma, Jeffrey M

    2013-12-01

    Our goal was to evaluate the different subtypes of mucosal melanoma and describe specific variables that predict outcomes. Prospective review of two tertiary care center databases identified 76 mucosal melanoma patients; 73 with complete records were included. Demographic and clinical data were analyzed. Cox regression determined variables impacting recurrence and survival. In the 73 patients, the mean age was 64 years, and 74% were female. Sixty-seven percent presented with lymph node involvement, and 73% had ulcerated tumors. Major sites affected were nasal/palate/oral (36%), vulvar/vaginal/cervical (48%), and anorectal (15%). Mean overall and disease-free survival were 56.9 and 27.2 months. Variables associated with decreased survival included: lymphovascular invasion (HR17.70, P = 0.0093), Caucasian race (HR3.02, P = 0.0362), nasal/palate/oral sub-group (HR1.85, P = 0.026), Breslow thickness (HR1.23, P = 0.00004), T stage (HR1.34, P = 0.0075), M stage (HR3.03, P = 0.0039), and chemotherapy (HR3.13, P = 0.0002). The worst prognosis was seen in the nasal/palate/oral sub-group, with a median overall survival of 9.7 months and recurrence-free time of 4.5 months. This subtype also demonstrated high lymph node positivity, ulceration, and larger tumor size. The nasal, palate, oral subtype has the worst prognosis compared to other mucosal melanoma locations. Studies are ongoing to evaluate pathologic and genomic variables that may predict outcomes. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Newly developed vaginal atrophy symptoms II and vaginal pH: a better correlation in vaginal atrophy?

    PubMed

    Tuntiviriyapun, P; Panyakhamlerd, K; Triratanachat, S; Chatsuwan, T; Chaikittisilpa, S; Jaisamrarn, U; Taechakraichana, N

    2015-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation among symptoms, signs, and the number of lactobacilli in postmenopausal vaginal atrophy. The secondary objective was to develop a new parameter to improve the correlation. A cross-sectional descriptive study. Naturally postmenopausal women aged 45-70 years with at least one clinical symptom of vaginal atrophy of moderate to severe intensity were included in this study. All of the objective parameters (vaginal atrophy score, vaginal pH, the number of lactobacilli, vaginal maturation index, and vaginal maturation value) were evaluated and correlated with vaginal atrophy symptoms. A new parameter of vaginal atrophy, vaginal atrophy symptoms II, was developed and consists of the two most bothersome symptoms (vaginal dryness and dyspareunia). Vaginal atrophy symptoms II was analyzed for correlation with the objective parameters. A total of 132 naturally postmenopausal women were recruited for analysis. Vaginal pH was the only objective parameter found to have a weak correlation with vaginal atrophy symptoms (r = 0.273, p = 0.002). The newly developed vaginal atrophy symptoms II parameter showed moderate correlation with vaginal pH (r = 0.356, p < 0.001) and a weak correlation with the vaginal atrophy score (r = 0.230, p < 0.001). History of sexual intercourse within 3 months was associated with a better correlation between vaginal atrophy symptoms and the objective parameters. Vaginal pH was significantly correlated with vaginal atrophy symptoms. The newly developed vaginal atrophy symptoms II was associated with a better correlation. The vaginal atrophy symptoms II and vaginal pH may be better tools for clinical evaluation and future study of the vaginal ecosystem.

  3. Labial flap vaginoplasty with sacrospinous fixation

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Chandrashekar; Ashok, Kiran; Kalal, Susheel Kumar

    2010-01-01

    We present a case of congenital absence of Vagina which was treated by reconstruction of the vagina using vascular labial flaps. Furthermore, we anchored the neo-vagina to the Sacro-spinous ligament on either side. The aim of the attachment to the sacro-spinous ligament is to provide a durable apical support and to give an immediate, good vaginal length. Various techniques have been described for the construction of Neo-vagina. Except for sigmoid vaginoplasty, most other procedures are associated with a significant risk of post-operative restenosis, for which prolonged dilatation is necessary. Attaching to the sacro-spinous ligament gives the vagina good depth and, to some extent, decreases the risk of re-stenosis. This technique is simpler, does not require sophisticated instruments or prolonged post operative dilatation and is particularly suitable for under-developed countries. PMID:24591942

  4. Labial flap vaginoplasty with sacrospinous fixation.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Chandrashekar; Ashok, Kiran; Kalal, Susheel Kumar

    2010-01-01

    We present a case of congenital absence of Vagina which was treated by reconstruction of the vagina using vascular labial flaps. Furthermore, we anchored the neo-vagina to the Sacro-spinous ligament on either side. The aim of the attachment to the sacro-spinous ligament is to provide a durable apical support and to give an immediate, good vaginal length. Various techniques have been described for the construction of Neo-vagina. Except for sigmoid vaginoplasty, most other procedures are associated with a significant risk of post-operative restenosis, for which prolonged dilatation is necessary. Attaching to the sacro-spinous ligament gives the vagina good depth and, to some extent, decreases the risk of re-stenosis. This technique is simpler, does not require sophisticated instruments or prolonged post operative dilatation and is particularly suitable for under-developed countries.

  5. Vaginal reconstruction following resection of primary locally advanced and recurrent colorectal malignancies.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Dougal N; Pera, Miguel; Nelson, Heidi; Finical, Stephan J; Tran, Nho V

    2003-12-01

    Vertical rectus abdominus myocutaneous flap reconstruction facilitates healing within the radiated pelvis and preserves the possibility of subsequent sexual function in patients with colorectal cancer who require partial or complete resection of the vagina. A retrospective review of a consecutive series of patients. A tertiary referral center. All patients undergoing surgical treatment of locally advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer and vertical rectus abdominus myocutaneous flap reconstruction of the vagina. Vertical rectus abdominus myocutaneous flap reconstruction. Operative feasibility, complications, and sexual function. Twelve patients underwent extended resection for primary locally advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer including total or near total vaginectomy. Median age was 47 years. Tumors included 9 rectal adenocarcinomas, 2 anal squamous cell carcinomas, and 1 recurrent cecal adenocarcinoma. Surgical procedures included 8 abdominoperineal resections with posterior exenteration; resection of pelvic tumor and partial vaginectomy in 2 patients with previous abdominoperineal resection; 1 total exenteration; and 1 total proctocolectomy with posterior exenteration. The average operative time for tumor extirpation, irradiation, and reconstruction was more than 9 hours and all patients required blood transfusions. Despite 2 patients having superficial necrosis and 4 having mild wound infections, no patient required reoperation and all achieved complete healing. Five patients reported resuming sexual intercourse. The vertical rectus abdominus myocutaneous flap can be successfully used for vaginal reconstruction following resection of locally advanced colorectal cancer. It provides nonirradiated, vascularized tissue that fills the pelvic dead space, allows for stomal placement, and provides a chance for sexual function.

  6. Alpha-Toxin Promotes Staphylococcus aureus Mucosal Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Michele J.; Lin, Ying-Chi; Gillman, Aaron N.; Parks, Patrick J.; Schlievert, Patrick M.; Peterson, Marnie L.

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus causes many diseases in humans, ranging from mild skin infections to serious, life-threatening, superantigen-mediated Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS). S. aureus may be asymptomatically carried in the anterior nares or vagina or on the skin, serving as a reservoir for infection. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis clonal type USA200 is the most widely disseminated colonizer and the leading cause of TSS. The cytolysin α-toxin (also known as α-hemolysin or Hla) is the major epithelial proinflammatory exotoxin produced by TSS S. aureus USA200 isolates. The current study aims to characterize the differences between TSS USA200 strains [high (hla+) and low (hla−) α-toxin producers] in their ability to disrupt vaginal mucosal tissue and to characterize the subsequent infection. Tissue viability post-infection and biofilm formation of TSS USA200 isolates CDC587 and MN8, which contain the α-toxin pseudogene (hla−), MNPE (hla+), and MNPE isogenic hla knockout (hlaKO), were observed via LIVE/DEAD® staining and confocal microscopy. All TSS strains grew to similar bacterial densities (1–5 × 108 CFU) on the mucosa and were proinflammatory over 3 days. However, MNPE formed biofilms with significant reductions in the mucosal viability whereas neither CDC587 (hla−), MN8 (hla−), nor MNPE hlaKO formed biofilms. The latter strains were also less cytotoxic than wild-type MNPE. The addition of exogenous, purified α-toxin to MNPE hlaKO restored the biofilm phenotype. We speculate that α-toxin affects S. aureus phenotypic growth on vaginal mucosa by promoting tissue disruption and biofilm formation. Further, α-toxin mutants (hla−) are not benign colonizers, but rather form a different type of infection, which we have termed high density pathogenic variants (HDPV). PMID:22919655

  7. Vaginal disorders.

    PubMed

    Soderberg, S F

    1986-05-01

    Chronic vaginitis is the most common vaginal disorder. Dogs with vaginitis show no signs of systemic illness but often lick at the vulva and have purulent or hemorrhagic vaginal discharges. Vaginitis is most commonly secondary to a noninfectious inciting factor such as congenital vaginal anomalies, clitoral hypertrophy, foreign bodies, trauma to the vaginal mucosa, or vaginal tumors. Inspection of the caudal vagina and vestibule both visually and digitally will often reveal the source of vaginal irritation. Vaginal cytology is used to establish the stage of the estrous cycle as well as distinguish uterine from vaginal sources of discharge. Vaginal cultures are used to establish the predominant offending organism associated with vaginal discharges and may be used as a guide for selection of a therapeutic agent. Vaginitis is best managed by removing the inciting cause and treating the area locally with antiseptic douches. Congenital malformations at the vestibulovaginal or vestibulovulvar junction may prevent normal intromission. Affected bitches may be reluctant to breed naturally because of pain. Such defects are detected best by digital examination. Congenital vaginal defects may be corrected by digital or surgical means. Prolapse of tissue through the lips of the vulva may be caused by clitoral hypertrophy, vaginal hyperplasia, or vaginal tumors. Enlargement of clitoral tissue is the result of endogenous or exogenous sources of androgens. Treatment of this condition includes removal of the androgen source and/or surgical removal of clitoral tissue. Vaginal hyperplasia is detected during proestrus or estrus of young bitches. Hyperplastic tissue will regress during diestrus. Tissue that is excessively traumatized and/or prolapse of the entire vaginal circumference may be removed surgically. Ovariohysterectomy may be used to prevent recurrence. Vaginal tumors are detected most often in older intact bitches. Such tumors are generally of smooth muscle or fibrous

  8. Molecular Definition of Vaginal Microbiota in East African Commercial Sex Workers ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Schellenberg, John J.; Links, Matthew G.; Hill, Janet E.; Dumonceaux, Tim J.; Kimani, Joshua; Jaoko, Walter; Wachihi, Charles; Mungai, Jane Njeri; Peters, Geoffrey A.; Tyler, Shaun; Graham, Morag; Severini, Alberto; Fowke, Keith R.; Ball, T. Blake; Plummer, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    Resistance to HIV infection in a cohort of commercial sex workers living in Nairobi, Kenya, is linked to mucosal and antiinflammatory factors that may be influenced by the vaginal microbiota. Since bacterial vaginosis (BV), a polymicrobial dysbiosis characterized by low levels of protective Lactobacillus organisms, is an established risk factor for HIV infection, we investigated whether vaginal microbiology was associated with HIV-exposed seronegative (HESN) or HIV-seropositive (HIV+) status in this cohort. A subset of 44 individuals was selected for deep-sequencing analysis based on the chaperonin 60 (cpn60) universal target (UT), including HESN individuals (n = 16), other HIV-seronegative controls (HIV-N, n = 16), and HIV+ individuals (n = 12). Our findings indicate exceptionally high phylogenetic resolution of the cpn60 UT using reads as short as 200 bp, with 54 species in 29 genera detected in this group. Contrary to our initial hypothesis, few differences between HESN and HIV-N women were observed. Several HIV+ women had distinct profiles dominated by Escherichia coli. The deep-sequencing phylogenetic profile of the vaginal microbiota corresponds closely to BV+ and BV− diagnoses by microscopy, elucidating BV at the molecular level. A cluster of samples with intermediate abundance of Lactobacillus and dominant Gardnerella was identified, defining a distinct BV phenotype that may represent a transitional stage between BV+ and BV−. Several alpha- and betaproteobacteria, including the recently described species Variovorax paradoxus, were found to correlate positively with increased Lactobacillus levels that define the BV− (“normal”) phenotype. We conclude that cpn60 UT is ideally suited to next-generation sequencing technologies for further investigation of microbial community dynamics and mucosal immunity underlying HIV resistance in this cohort. PMID:21531840

  9. Generation of Female Genital Tract Antibody Responses by Local or Central (Common) Mucosal Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hong-Yin; Abdu, Samira; Stinson, Dana; Russell, Michael W.

    2000-01-01

    Genital antibody responses were compared in female mice immunized intravaginally (i.vag.) or intranasally (i.n.) with a bacterial protein antigen (AgI/II of Streptococcus mutans) coupled to the B subunit of cholera toxin. Serum and salivary antibodies were also evaluated as measures of disseminated mucosal and systemic responses. Although i.vag. immunization induced local vaginal immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG antibody responses, these were not disseminated to a remote secretion, the saliva, and only modest levels of serum antibodies were generated. In contrast, i.n. immunization was substantially more effective at inducing IgA and IgG antibody responses in the genital tract and in the circulation, as well as at inducing IgA antibodies in the saliva. Moreover, mucosal and systemic antibodies induced by i.n. immunization persisted for at least 12 months. Analysis of the molecular form of genital IgA indicated that the majority of both total IgA and specific IgA antibody was polymeric, and likely derived from the common mucosal immune system. PMID:10992451

  10. The temporalis muscle flap and temporoparietal fascial flap.

    PubMed

    Lam, Din; Carlson, Eric R

    2014-08-01

    The temporal arterial system provides reliable vascular anatomy for the temporalis muscle flap and temporoparietal fascial flap that can support multiple reconstructive needs of the oral and maxillofacial region. The minimal donor site morbidity and ease of development of these flaps result in their predictable and successful transfer for reconstructive surgery of the oral and maxillofacial region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Vaginal toxic shock reaction triggering desquamative inflammatory vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Nigel; Edlind, Thomas D; Schlievert, Patrick M; Nyirjesy, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to report 2 cases of desquamative inflammatory vaginitis associated with toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1)-producing Staphylococcus aureus strains. Case report of 2 patients, 1 with an acute and 1 with a chronic presentation, diagnosed with desquamative inflammatory vaginitis on the basis of clinical findings and wet mount microscopy. Pretreatment and posttreatment vaginal bacterial and yeast cultures were obtained. Pretreatment vaginal bacterial cultures from both patients grew TSST-1-producing S. aureus. Subsequent vaginal bacterial culture results after oral antibiotic therapy were negative. Desquamative inflammatory vaginitis may be triggered through TSST-1-mediated vaginal toxic shock reaction.

  12. Th17 Cells Are Preferentially Infected Very Early after Vaginal Transmission of SIV in Macaques.

    PubMed

    Stieh, Daniel J; Matias, Edgar; Xu, Huanbin; Fought, Angela J; Blanchard, James L; Marx, Preston A; Veazey, Ronald S; Hope, Thomas J

    2016-04-13

    The difficulty in detecting rare infected cells immediately after mucosal HIV transmission has hindered our understanding of the initial cells targeted by the virus. Working with the macaque simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) vaginal challenge model, we developed methodology to identify discrete foci of SIV (mac239) infection 48 hr after vaginal inoculation. We find infectious foci throughout the reproductive tract, from labia to ovary. Phenotyping infected cells reveals that SIV has a significant bias for infection of CCR6+ CD4+ T cells. SIV-infected cells expressed the transcriptional regulator RORγt, confirming that the initial target cells are specifically of the Th17 lineage. Furthermore, we detect host responses to infection, as evidenced by apoptosis, cell lysis, and phagocytosis of infected cells. Thus, our analysis identifies Th17-lineage CCR6+ CD4+ T cells as primary targets of SIV during vaginal transmission. This opens new opportunities for interventions to protect these cells and prevent HIV transmission. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Instep island flaps.

    PubMed

    Reading, G

    1984-12-01

    The instep island flap is safe and useful. It is based on branches of the posterior tibial artery and can be a musculocutaneous or a direct fasciocutaneous island flap. Sensory branches of the digital nerves may be transposed with the flap. There is a wide arc of transposition and the flap has survived even in very difficult circumstances.

  14. Mucosal safety of PHI-443 and stampidine as a combination microbicide to prevent genital transmission of HIV-1.

    PubMed

    D'Cruz, Osmond J; Uckun, Fatih M

    2007-10-01

    To investigate the in vitro and in vivo mucosal safety of a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor (PHI-443) and a nucleoside analogue RT inhibitor (stampidine)-based anti-HIV microbicide either alone or in combination. In vitro and in vivo studies using three-dimensional vaginal epithelia integrating Langerhans cells and 16 New Zealand White rabbits, respectively. Research laboratory. Rabbits in groups of four were exposed intravaginally to a gel with and without 1% PHI-443, 1% stampidine, or 1% PHI-443 plus 1% stampidine for 14 days. Cytokine/chemokine release by three-dimensional co-cultures in the presence and absence of PHI-443 or stampidine. Histologic scoring of vaginal tissue for mucosal toxicity at 24 hours after dosing. Simultaneous evaluation of levels of 10 cytokines (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-1 alpha, interleukin-13, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-18, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, interleukin-1 beta, and interferon-gamma) and 6 chemokines (epithelial neutrophil-activating peptide-78, interleukin-8, monocyte/macrophage chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-3 alpha, interferon-inducible protein-10, and regulated upon activation of normal T-cell expressed and secreted) in culture media by a multiplexed chemiluminescence-based immunoassay. In the rabbit model, repeated intravaginal administration of PHI-443 plus stampidine via a gel formulation at concentrations nearly 2,000 and 10,000 times higher than their respective in vitro anti-HIV IC(50) values did not result in vaginal irritation. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines secreted by multilayered human genital epithelia integrating Langerhans cells were unaffected by prolonged exposure to PHI-443 or stampidine. The combination of PHI-443 and stampidine was noncytotoxic to vaginal epithelial cells, nonirritating to vaginal mucosa, and did not induce

  15. Reduction of Flap Side Edge Noise - the Blowing Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Brooks, THomas F.

    2005-01-01

    A technique to reduce the noise radiating from a wing-flap side edge is being developed. As an airplane wing with an extended flap is exposed to a subsonic airflow, air is blown outward through thin rectangular chord-wise slots at various locations along the side edges and side surface of the flap to weaken and push away the vortices that originate in that region of the flap and are responsible for important noise emissions. Air is blown through the slots at up to twice the local flow velocity. The blowing is done using one or multiple slots, where a slot is located along the top, bottom or side surface of the flap along the side edge, or also along the intersection of the bottom (or top) and side surfaces.

  16. Lower-limb reconstruction with chimeric flaps: The quad flap.

    PubMed

    Azouz, Solomon M; Castel, Nikki A; Vijayasekaran, Aparna; Rebecca, Alanna M; Lettieri, Salvatore C

    2018-05-07

    Early soft-tissue coverage is critical for treating traumatic open lower-extremity wounds. As free-flap reconstruction evolves, injuries once thought to be nonreconstructable are being salvaged. Free-tissue transfer is imperative when there is extensive dead space or exposure of vital structures such as bone, tendon, nerves, or blood vessels. We describe 2 cases of lower-extremity crush injuries salvaged with the quad flap. This novel flap consists of parascapular, scapular, serratus, and latissimus dorsi free flaps in combination on one pedicle. This flap provides the large amount of soft-tissue coverage necessary to cover substantial defects from skin degloving, tibia and fibula fractures, and soft-tissue loss. In case 1, a 51-year-old woman was struck by an automobile and sustained bilateral tibia and fibula fractures, a crush degloving injury of the left leg, and a right forefoot traumatic amputation. She underwent reconstruction with a contralateral quad free flap. In case 2, a 53-year-old man sustained a right tibia plateau fracture with large soft-tissue defects from a motorcycle accident. He had a crush degloving injury of the entire anterolateral compartment over the distal and lower third of the right leg. The large soft-tissue defect was reconstructed with a contralateral quad flap. In both cases, the donor site was closed primarily and without early flap failures. There was one surgical complication, an abscess in case 2; the patient was taken back to the operating room for débridement of necrotic tissue. There have been no long-term complications in either case. Both patients achieved adequate soft-tissue coverage, avoided amputation, and had satisfactory aesthetic and functional outcomes. With appropriate surgical technique and patient selection, the quad-flap technique is promising for reconstructing the lower extremity. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Manifestation Pattern of Early-Late Vaginal Morbidity After Definitive Radiation (Chemo)Therapy and Image-Guided Adaptive Brachytherapy for Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer: An Analysis From the EMBRACE Study

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kirchheiner, Kathrin, E-mail: kathrin.kirchheiner@meduniwien.ac.at; Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna; Nout, Remi A.

    2014-05-01

    Background and Purpose: Brachytherapy in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer has changed substantially because of the introduction of combined intracavitary/interstitial applicators and an adaptive target concept, which is the focus of the prospective, multi-institutional EMBRACE study ( (www.embracestudy.dk)) on image-guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT). So far, little has been reported about the development of early to late vaginal morbidity in the frame of IGABT. Therefore, the aim of the present EMBRACE analysis was to evaluate the manifestation pattern of vaginal morbidity during the first 2 years of follow-up. Methods and Materials: In total, 588 patients with a median follow-up timemore » of 15 months and information on vaginal morbidity were included. Morbidity was prospectively assessed at baseline, every 3 months during the first year, and every 6 months in the second year according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3, regarding vaginal stenosis, dryness, mucositis, bleeding, fistula, and other symptoms. Crude incidence rates, actuarial probabilities, and prevalence rates were analyzed. Results: At 2 years, the actuarial probability of severe vaginal morbidity (grade ≥3) was 3.6%. However, mild and moderate vaginal symptoms were still pronounced (grade ≥1, 89%; grade ≥2, 29%), of which the majority developed within 6 months. Stenosis was most frequently observed, followed by vaginal dryness. Vaginal bleeding and mucositis were mainly mild and infrequently reported. Conclusion: Severe vaginal morbidity within the first 2 years after definitive radiation (chemo)therapy including IGABT with intracavitary/interstitial techniques for locally advanced cervical cancer is limited and is significantly less than has been reported from earlier studies. Thus, the new adaptive target concept seems to be a safe treatment with regard to the vagina being an organ at risk. However, mild to moderate vaginal

  18. Free-style free flaps.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fu-Chan; Mardini, Samir

    2004-09-15

    Free-tissue transfer has become the accepted standard for reconstruction of complex defects. With the growth of this field, anatomic studies and clinical work have added many flaps to the armamentarium of the microvascular surgeon. Further advancements and experience with techniques of perforator flap surgery have allowed for the harvest of flaps in a free-style manner, where a flap is harvested based only on the preoperative knowledge of Doppler signals present in a specific region. Between June of 2002 and September of 2003, 13 free-style free flaps were harvested from the region of the thigh. All patients presented with an oral or pharyngeal cancer and underwent resection and immediate reconstruction of these flaps. All flaps were cutaneous and were harvested in a suprafascial plane. The average size of the flaps was 108 cm2 (range, 36 to 187 cm2), and the average length of the vascular pedicle was 10 cm (range, 9 to 12 cm). All flaps were successful in achieving wound coverage and functional outcomes without any vascular compromise necessitating re-exploration. Free-style free flaps have become a clinical reality. The concepts and techniques used to harvest a free-style free flap will aid in dealing with anatomic variations that are encountered during conventional flap harvest. Future trends in flap selection will focus mainly on choosing tissue with appropriate texture, thickness, and pliability to match requirements at the recipient site while minimizing donor-site morbidity.

  19. Non-specific vaginitis or vaginitis of undetermined aetiology.

    PubMed

    Faro, S; Phillips, L E

    1987-01-01

    Vaginitis is a complex syndrome that is probably the most common outpatient disease seen by the gynaecologist. The specific aetiologies of vaginitis are many. One of the most common entities, however, is "non-specific vaginitis" which can be subdivided into: Gardnerella vaginitis, anaerobic vaginosis, and vaginitis of undetermined aetiology. The role of Gardnerella as a causative agent for vaginitis has been studied in depth but its specific role remains controversial. Anaerobic vaginosis can be diagnosed by noting on microscopic examination the presence of clue cells, free-floating bacteria and numerous white blood cells (WBC's). Culturing an aliquot of the vaginal discharge reveals a high number of anaerobes. In addition, this condition responds to antibiotics effective against anaerobes, e.g., metronidazole. Vaginitis of undetermined aetiology is more complex and is characterized by a purulent vaginal discharge, a pH of 4.0-4.6, numerous WBC's, and a high concentration of bacteria. The microbiology of this vaginitis includes many facultative Gram-negative rods and Gram-positive cocci. Anaerobes may be present but do not make up a large component of the endogenous microflora. This condition does not respond to the usual antibiotic therapies employed in treating bacterial vaginitis. Since this condition appears to be primarily an inflammatory reaction, it may be responsive to topical antiinflammatory agents such as benzydamine.

  20. Vaginal cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Vaginal cancer; Cancer - vagina; Tumor - vaginal ... Most vaginal cancers occur when another cancer, such as cervical or endometrial cancer , spreads. This is called secondary vaginal cancer. Cancer ...

  1. Vaginal fold prolapse in a dog with pyometra and ovarian papillary cystadenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zedda, Maria-Teresa; Bogliolo, Luisa; Ariu, Federica; Ledda, Mauro; Falchi, Laura; Pinna-Parpaglia, Maria-Luisa; Pau, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    A 7-year-old 42-kg (92.4-lb) sexually intact nulliparous female Italian Mastiff was examined because of a history of vaginal prolapse during diestrus. A physical examination revealed vaginal fold prolapse. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed an enlarged uterus with hypoechogenic content, corpora lutea in the ovaries, and a cyst in the right ovary. Hematologic abnormalities included leukocytosis, neutrophilia, mild anemia, and low Hct. Progesterone and estradiol concentrations were 9.36 ng/mL and 30.42 pg/mL, respectively, in serum and 72.72 ng/mL and 792 pg/mL, respectively, in the ovarian cystic fluid. Ovariohysterectomy was performed; the prolapsed tissue was repositioned by external manipulation and maintained in situ by temporary apposition of the vulvar lips with a retention suture. Anatomic and histologic examinations of the excised tissues revealed pyometra and papillary cystadenocarcinoma in the right ovary. The vaginal hyperplasia completely regressed at 35 days after surgery; 5 months after surgery, the dog's general condition was considered good. Findings in this case were indicative of a hormonally active ovarian papillary cystadenocarcinoma in a female dog in diestrus. Hormone production by the cystadenocarcinoma was the predisposing factor that induced pyometra, mucosal hyperplasia, and vaginal fold prolapse in the dog. On the basis of these concurrent disorders, ovariohysterectomy was an appropriate treatment.

  2. A quantitative multiplex nuclease protection assay reveals immunotoxicity gene expression profiles in the rabbit model for vaginal drug safety evaluation.

    PubMed

    Fichorova, Raina N; Mendonca, Kevin; Yamamoto, Hidemi S; Murray, Ryan; Chandra, Neelima; Doncel, Gustavo F

    2015-06-15

    Any vaginal product that alters the mucosal environment and impairs the immune barrier increases the risk of sexually transmitted infections, especially HIV infection, which thrives on mucosal damage and inflammation. The FDA-recommended rabbit vaginal irritation (RVI) model serves as a first line selection tool for vaginal products; however, for decades it has been limited to histopathology scoring, insufficient to select safe anti-HIV microbicides. In this study we incorporate to the RVI model a novel quantitative nuclease protection assay (qNPA) to quantify mRNA levels of 25 genes representing leukocyte differentiation markers, toll-like receptors (TLR), cytokines, chemokines, epithelial repair, microbicidal and vascular markers, by designing two multiplex arrays. Tissue sections were obtained from 36 rabbits (6 per treatment arm) after 14 daily applications of a placebo gel, saline, 4% nonoxynol-9 (N-9), and three combinations of the anti-HIV microbicides tenofovir (TFV) and UC781 in escalating concentrations (highest: 10% TFV+2.5%UC781). Results showed that increased expression levels of toll-like receptor (TLR)-4, interleukin (IL)-1β, CXCL8, epithelial membrane protein (EMP)-1 (P<0.05), and decreased levels of TLR2 (P<0.05), TLR3 and bactericidal permeability increasing protein (BPI) (P<0.001) were associated with cervicovaginal mucosal alteration (histopathology). Seven markers showed a significant linear trend predicting epithelial damage (up with CD4, IL-1β, CXCL8, CCL2, CCL21, EMP1 and down with BPI). Despite the low tissue damage RVI scores, the high-dose microbicide combination gel caused activation of HIV host cells (SLC and CD4) while N-9 caused proinflammatory gene upregulation (IL-8 and TLR4) suggesting a potential for increasing risk of HIV via different mechanisms depending on the chemical nature of the test product. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Vaginal Atrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... an Endocrinologist Search Featured Resource Menopause Map™ View Vaginal Atrophy October 2017 Download PDFs English Editors Christine ... during this time, including vaginal dryness. What is vaginal atrophy? Vaginal atrophy (also referred to as vulvovaginal ...

  4. Vaginal health in contraceptive vaginal ring users - A review.

    PubMed

    Lete, Iñaki; Cuesta, María C; Marín, Juan M; Guerra, Sandra

    2013-08-01

    To provide an overview of the available data from clinical studies of vaginal conditions in women who use a vaginal ring as a contraceptive. A systematic review of the literature. Millions of women have already used the ethylene vinyl acetate vaginal ring that releases ethinylestradiol and etonogestrel for contraception. Because of its small size, more than four out of five women using the ring report that they do not feel it, even during sexual intercourse. No colposcopic or cytological changes have been observed in users, although approximately 10% have increased vaginal discharge. While in vitro studies have shown adhesion of Candida yeasts to the vaginal ring surface, clinical studies have not demonstrated a greater incidence of Candida infections compared to users of equivalent oral contraceptives. Some clinical studies suggest a lower incidence of bacterial vaginosis. No interaction exists between concomitant use of the vaginal ring and other drugs or products for vaginal use. The use of a contraceptive vaginal ring does not alter the vaginal ecosystem and therefore does not substantially affect vaginal health.

  5. Influence of Chitosan Swelling Behaviour on Controlled Release of Tenofovir from Mucoadhesive Vaginal Systems for Prevention of Sexual Transmission of HIV

    PubMed Central

    Notario-Pérez, Fernando; Martín-Illana, Araceli; Cazorla-Luna, Raúl; Ruiz-Caro, Roberto; Bedoya, Luis-Miguel; Tamayo, Aitana; Rubio, Juan; Veiga, María-Dolores

    2017-01-01

    The main challenges facing efforts to prevent the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are the lack of access to sexual education services and sexual violence against young women and girls. Vaginal formulations for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections are currently gaining importance in drug development. Vaginal mucoadhesive tablets can be developed by including natural polymers that have good binding capacity with mucosal tissues, such as chitosan or guar gum, semisynthetic polymers such as hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, or synthetic polymers such as Eudragit® RS. This paper assesses the potential of chitosan for the development of sustained-release vaginal tablets of Tenofovir and compares it with different polymers. The parameters assessed were the permanence time of the bioadhesion—determined ex vivo using bovine vaginal mucosa as substrate—the drug release profiles from the formulation to the medium (simulated vaginal fluid), and swelling profiles in the same medium. Chitosan can be said to allow the manufacture of tablets that remain adhered to the vaginal mucosa and release the drug in a sustained way, with low toxicity and moderate swelling that ensures the comfort of the patient and may be useful for the prevention of sexual transmission of HIV. PMID:28230790

  6. Influence of Chitosan Swelling Behaviour on Controlled Release of Tenofovir from Mucoadhesive Vaginal Systems for Prevention of Sexual Transmission of HIV.

    PubMed

    Notario-Pérez, Fernando; Martín-Illana, Araceli; Cazorla-Luna, Raúl; Ruiz-Caro, Roberto; Bedoya, Luis-Miguel; Tamayo, Aitana; Rubio, Juan; Veiga, María-Dolores

    2017-02-21

    The main challenges facing efforts to prevent the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are the lack of access to sexual education services and sexual violence against young women and girls. Vaginal formulations for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections are currently gaining importance in drug development. Vaginal mucoadhesive tablets can be developed by including natural polymers that have good binding capacity with mucosal tissues, such as chitosan or guar gum, semisynthetic polymers such as hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, or synthetic polymers such as Eudragit ® RS. This paper assesses the potential of chitosan for the development of sustained-release vaginal tablets of Tenofovir and compares it with different polymers. The parameters assessed were the permanence time of the bioadhesion-determined ex vivo using bovine vaginal mucosa as substrate-the drug release profiles from the formulation to the medium (simulated vaginal fluid), and swelling profiles in the same medium. Chitosan can be said to allow the manufacture of tablets that remain adhered to the vaginal mucosa and release the drug in a sustained way, with low toxicity and moderate swelling that ensures the comfort of the patient and may be useful for the prevention of sexual transmission of HIV.

  7. An innovative method of planning and displaying flap volume in DIEP flap breast reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Hummelink, S; Verhulst, Arico C; Maal, Thomas J J; Hoogeveen, Yvonne L; Schultze Kool, Leo J; Ulrich, Dietmar J O

    2017-07-01

    Determining the ideal volume of the harvested flap to achieve symmetry in deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flap breast reconstructions is complex. With preoperative imaging techniques such as 3D stereophotogrammetry and computed tomography angiography (CTA) available nowadays, we can combine information to preoperatively plan the optimal flap volume to be harvested. In this proof-of-concept, we investigated whether projection of a virtual flap planning onto the patient's abdomen using a projection method could result in harvesting the correct flap volume. In six patients (n = 9 breasts), 3D stereophotogrammetry and CTA data were combined from which a virtual flap planning was created comprising perforator locations, blood vessel trajectory and flap size. All projected perforators were verified with Doppler ultrasound. Intraoperative flap measurements were collected to validate the determined flap delineation volume. The measured breast volume using 3D stereophotogrammetry was 578 ± 127 cc; on CTA images, 527 ± 106 cc flap volumes were planned. The nine harvested flaps weighed 533 ± 109 g resulting in a planned versus harvested flap mean difference of 5 ± 27 g (flap density 1.0 g/ml). In 41 out of 42 projected perforator locations, a Doppler signal was audible. This proof-of-concept shows in small numbers that flap volumes can be included into a virtual DIEP flap planning, and transferring the virtual planning to the patient through a projection method results in harvesting approximately the same volume during surgery. In our opinion, this innovative approach is the first step in consequently achieving symmetric breast volumes in DIEP flap breast reconstructions. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Experimental Study of Wake / Flap Interaction Noise and the Reduction of Flap Side Edge Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Stead, Daniel J.; Plassman, Gerald E.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the interaction of a wake with a half-span flap on radiated noise are examined. The incident wake is generated by bars of various widths and lengths or by a simplified landing gear model. Single microphone and phased array measurements are used to isolate the effects of the wake interaction on the noise radiating from the flap side edge and flap cove regions. The effects on noise of the wake generator's geometry and relative placement with respect to the flap are assessed. Placement of the wake generators upstream of the flap side edge is shown to lead to the reduction of flap side edge noise by introducing a velocity deficit and likely altering the instabilities in the flap side edge vortex system. Significant reduction in flap side edge noise is achieved with a bar positioned directly upstream of the flap side edge. The noise reduction benefit is seen to improve with increased bar width, length and proximity to the flap edge. Positioning of the landing gear model upstream of the flap side edge also leads to decreased flap side edge noise. In addition, flap cove noise levels are significantly lower than when the landing gear is positioned upstream of the flap mid-span. The impact of the local flow velocity on the noise radiating directly from the landing gear is discussed. The effects of the landing gear side-braces on flap side edge, flap cove and landing gear noise are shown.

  9. Effects of sea buckthorn oil intake on vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Larmo, Petra S; Yang, Baoru; Hyssälä, Juha; Kallio, Heikki P; Erkkola, Risto

    2014-11-01

    Vaginal atrophy, the thinning and drying of vaginal mucosa, is associated with menopause. The standard estrogen treatment is not suitable for all women. To investigate the effects of oral sea buckthorn (SB) oil supplementation on vaginal atrophy. A total of 116 postmenopausal women experiencing symptoms of vaginal dryness, itching or burning were randomized to this placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Ninety-eight participants completed the intervention of three months, during which they consumed 3g of SB or placebo oil daily. At the beginning and end, factors of vaginal health were scored by a gynecologist, vaginal pH and moisture were measured and vaginal health index was calculated. Symptoms of atrophy and menopause were evaluated at study visits and by daily logbooks. Serum samples were collected for the analysis of circulating lipids, liver enzymes and C-reactive protein. Compared to placebo, there was a significantly better rate of improvement in the integrity of vaginal epithelium in the SB group when both compliant and noncompliant participants were included (odds ratio (OR)=3.1, 95% CI 1.11-8.95). A beneficial trend was observed when only the compliant participants were included (OR=2.9; 95% CI 0.99-8.35). There was a tendency (P=0.08) toward better improvement of vaginal health index from baseline to the end in the SB group [(0.8 (SD 2.8)] compared to placebo [-0.1 (SD 2.0)]. SB oil showed beneficial effects on vaginal health, indicating it is a potential alternative for mucosal integrity for those women not able to use estrogen treatment for vaginal atrophy. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. The midline central artery forehead flap: a valid alternative to supratrochlear-based forehead flaps.

    PubMed

    Faris, Callum; van der Eerden, Paul; Vuyk, Hade

    2015-01-01

    This study clarifies the pedicle geometry and vascular supply of a midline forehead flap for nasal reconstruction. It reports on the vascular reliability of this flap and its ability to reduce hair transposition to the nose, a major complicating factor of previous forehead flap designs. To compare the vascular reliability of 3 different pedicle designs of the forehead flap in nasal reconstruction (classic paramedian, glabellar paramedian, and central artery flap design) and evaluate hair transposition rates and aesthetic results. Retrospective analysis of patient data and outcomes retrieved from computer files generated at the time of surgery, supplemented by data from the patient medical records and photographic documentation, from a tertiary referral nasal reconstructive practice, within a secondary-care hospital setting. The study population included all consecutive patients over a 19-year period who underwent primary forehead flap repair of nasal defects, with more than 3 months of postoperative follow-up and photographic documentation. Three sequential forehead flap patterns were used (classic paramedian flap, glabella flap, and central artery flap) for nasal reconstruction over the study duration. Data collected included patient characteristics, method of repair, complications, functional outcome, and patient satisfaction score. For cosmetic outcome, photographic documentation was scored by a medical juror. No forehead flap had vascular compromise in the first stage. Partial flap necrosis was reported in subsequent stages in 4 patients (1%), with no statistical difference in the rate of vascular compromise between the 3 flap designs. Hair transposition to the nose was lower in the central artery forehead flap (7%) compared with the classic paramedian (23%) and glabellar paramedian (13%) flaps (P < .05). Photographic evaluation in 227 patients showed that brow position (98%) and color match (83%) were good in the majority of the patients. In this series

  11. Reconstruction of Complex Facial Defects Using Cervical Expanded Flap Prefabricated by Temporoparietal Fascia Flap.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Yang, Qinghua; Jiang, Haiyue; Liu, Ge; Huang, Wanlu; Dong, Weiwei

    2015-09-01

    Reconstruction of complex facial defects using cervical expanded flap prefabricated by temporoparietal fascia flap. Complex facial defects are required to restore not only function but also aesthetic appearance, so it is vital challenge for plastic surgeons. Skin grafts and traditional flap transfer cannot meet the reconstructive requirements of color and texture with recipient. The purpose of this sturdy is to create an expanded prefabricated temporoparietal fascia flap to repair complex facial defects. Two patients suffered severe burns on the face underwent complex facial resurfacing with prefabricated cervical flap. The vasculature of prefabricated flap, including the superficial temporal vessel and surrounding fascia, was used as the vascular carrier. The temporoparietal fascia flap was sutured underneath the cervical subcutaneous tissue, and expansion was begun in postoperative 1 week. After 4 to 6 months of expansion, the expander was removed, facial scars were excised, and cervical prefabricated flap was elevated and transferred to repair the complex facial defects. Two complex facial defects were repaired successfully by prefabricated temporoparietal fascia flap, and prefabricated flaps survived completely. On account of donor site's skin was thinner and expanded too fast, 1 expanded skin flap was rupture during expansion, but necrosis was not occurred after the 2nd operation. Venous congestion was observed in 1 patient, but after dressing, flap necrosis was not happened. Donor site was closed primarily. Postoperative follow-up 6 months, the color, texture of prefabricated flap was well-matched with facial skin. This method of expanded prefabricated flap may provide a reliable solution to the complex facial resurfacing.

  12. Refining the cross-finger flap: Considerations of flap insetting, aesthetics and donor site morbidity.

    PubMed

    Chong, Chew-Wei; Lin, Cheng-Hung; Lin, Yu-Te; Hsu, Chung-Chen; Chen, Shih-Heng

    2018-04-01

    We described a laterally based cross-finger flap for reconstruction of soft tissue defects in the fingers. This modification enables coverage of volar or dorsal soft tissue defects at the distal, middle or proximal phalanx. From March 2015 to January 2017, a total of 12 patients (13 fingers) underwent soft tissue reconstruction of the fingers with a laterally based cross-finger flap. The flap dimensions ranged from 13 ×7 mm to 43 ×13 mm. Eleven of the 13 flaps survived completely. The two flap failures were attributed to injuries in the donor fingers, rendering the blood supply of the flaps unreliable. All donor sites were closed primarily without the need for skin grafting, negating the problem of donor site morbidity that is associated with skin graft harvesting. The laterally based cross-finger flap is a versatile flap with less donor site morbidity and better aesthetics than a conventional cross-finger flap. We described the design of the flap, as well as the advantages and disadvantages, in doing a laterally based cross-finger flap. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Selection of new lactic acid bacteria strains bearing probiotic features from mucosal microbiota of healthy calves: Looking for immunobiotics through in vitro and in vivo approaches for immunoprophylaxis applications.

    PubMed

    Sandes, Sávio; Alvim, Luige; Silva, Bruno; Acurcio, Leonardo; Santos, Cinara; Campos, Márcia; Santos, Camila; Nicoli, Jacques; Neumann, Elisabeth; Nunes, Álvaro

    2017-07-01

    From the birth, since their mucosal microbiota and immune system are not fully developed, newborn calves are susceptible to several mucosal pathogenic microorganisms. Operating through humoral and non-humoral mechanisms in the host, several lactic acid bacteria strains bearing probiotic features are often employed in livestock as food supplement, improving animal production performance, promoting health and reducing the severity of mucosal infections. Accordingly, we isolated, species-level identified and screened for their probiotic potentials seventy lactic acid bacteria strains from upper airway, vaginal and intestinal mucosa of healthy calves. Based on in vitro approaches, we selected three strains: Lactobacillus fermentum V3B-08 isolated from upper airway mucosa, Weissella hellenica V1V-30 isolated from vaginal mucosa and Lactobacillus farciminis B4F-06 isolated from intestinal mucosa were used to mono-colonize germ-free mice in the same site in which these strains were isolated, aiming to characterize their immunomodulatory features. These strains were able to colonize germ-free mice mucosa and trigger sIgA synthesis at a local level, in addition to stimulating, in different ways, adaptive immune responses at a systemic level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. A quantitative multiplex nuclease protection assay reveals immunotoxicity gene expression profiles in the rabbit model for vaginal drug safety evaluation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Fichorova, Raina N., E-mail: rfichorova@rics.bwh.harvard.edu; Mendonca, Kevin; Yamamoto, Hidemi S.

    Any vaginal product that alters the mucosal environment and impairs the immune barrier increases the risk of sexually transmitted infections, especially HIV infection, which thrives on mucosal damage and inflammation. The FDA-recommended rabbit vaginal irritation (RVI) model serves as a first line selection tool for vaginal products; however, for decades it has been limited to histopathology scoring, insufficient to select safe anti-HIV microbicides. In this study we incorporate to the RVI model a novel quantitative nuclease protection assay (qNPA) to quantify mRNA levels of 25 genes representing leukocyte differentiation markers, toll-like receptors (TLR), cytokines, chemokines, epithelial repair, microbicidal and vascularmore » markers, by designing two multiplex arrays. Tissue sections were obtained from 36 rabbits (6 per treatment arm) after 14 daily applications of a placebo gel, saline, 4% nonoxynol-9 (N-9), and three combinations of the anti-HIV microbicides tenofovir (TFV) and UC781 in escalating concentrations (highest: 10% TFV + 2.5%UC781). Results showed that increased expression levels of toll-like receptor (TLR)-4, interleukin (IL)-1β, CXCL8, epithelial membrane protein (EMP)-1 (P < 0.05), and decreased levels of TLR2 (P < 0.05), TLR3 and bactericidal permeability increasing protein (BPI) (P < 0.001) were associated with cervicovaginal mucosal alteration (histopathology). Seven markers showed a significant linear trend predicting epithelial damage (up with CD4, IL-1β, CXCL8, CCL2, CCL21, EMP1 and down with BPI). Despite the low tissue damage RVI scores, the high-dose microbicide combination gel caused activation of HIV host cells (SLC and CD4) while N-9 caused proinflammatory gene upregulation (IL-8 and TLR4) suggesting a potential for increasing risk of HIV via different mechanisms depending on the chemical nature of the test product. - Highlights: • A transcriptome nuclease protection assay assessed microbicides for vaginal safety.

  15. Latissimus Dorsi Myocutaneous Flap for Breast Reconstruction: Bad Rap or Good Flap?

    PubMed Central

    Perdikis, Galen; Koonce, Stephanie; Collis, George; Eck, Dustin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This article serves to review latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap as an option for breast reconstruction postmastectomy. Since the introduction of the latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap in the late 1970s, its use has always been as a secondary technique, particularly after the development of the transverse rectus abdominus myocutaneous flap in the 1980s. Methods: A literature review of the history of latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap utilized for breast reconstruction as well as a review of our institution's experience with latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap and tissue expander placement was performed. Results: There remains a paucity of published studies investigating latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap for breast reconstruction. Most studies have small numbers and do not utilize tissue expanders. More recently several small studies have been published that show acceptably low complication rates with aesthetically pleasing outcomes when latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap is employed with a tissue expander. At our institution, we have employed latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap with tissue expander placement for both delayed and immediate reconstruction with subsequent replacement with a permanent implant with a capsular contraction rate of 10.5%. Our data and others more recently published demonstrate very acceptable capsular contracture rates and aesthetic outcomes, particularly when an expander is utilized. Conclusion: The latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap remains an excellent choice for breast reconstruction with a low risk of complications. PMID:22031843

  16. Latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap for breast reconstruction: bad rap or good flap?

    PubMed

    Perdikis, Galen; Koonce, Stephanie; Collis, George; Eck, Dustin

    2011-01-01

    This article serves to review latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap as an option for breast reconstruction postmastectomy. Since the introduction of the latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap in the late 1970s, its use has always been as a secondary technique, particularly after the development of the transverse rectus abdominus myocutaneous flap in the 1980s. A literature review of the history of latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap utilized for breast reconstruction as well as a review of our institution's experience with latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap and tissue expander placement was performed. There remains a paucity of published studies investigating latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap for breast reconstruction. Most studies have small numbers and do not utilize tissue expanders. More recently several small studies have been published that show acceptably low complication rates with aesthetically pleasing outcomes when latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap is employed with a tissue expander. At our institution, we have employed latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap with tissue expander placement for both delayed and immediate reconstruction with subsequent replacement with a permanent implant with a capsular contraction rate of 10.5%. Our data and others more recently published demonstrate very acceptable capsular contracture rates and aesthetic outcomes, particularly when an expander is utilized. The latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap remains an excellent choice for breast reconstruction with a low risk of complications.

  17. Analysis of Vaginal Cell Populations during Experimental Vaginal Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Fidel, Paul L.; Luo, Wei; Steele, Chad; Chabain, Joseph; Baker, Marc; Wormley, Floyd

    1999-01-01

    Studies with an estrogen-dependent murine model of vaginal candidiasis suggest that local cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is more important than systemic CMI for protection against vaginitis. The present study, however, showed that, compared to uninfected mice, little to no change in the percentage or types of vaginal T cells occurred during a primary vaginal infection or during a secondary vaginal infection where partial protection was observed. Furthermore, depletion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) had no effect on infection in the presence or absence of pseudoestrus. These results indicate a lack of demonstrable effects by systemic CMI or PMN against vaginitis and suggest that if local T cells are important, they are functioning without showing significant increases in numbers within the vaginal mucosa during infection. PMID:10338532

  18. Influence of Flap Thickness on Nipple Projection After Nipple Reconstruction Using a Modified Star Flap.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Naohiro; Ando, Jiro; Harao, Michiko; Takemae, Masaru; Kishi, Kazuo

    2018-05-07

    In nipple reconstruction, the width, length, and thickness of modified star flaps are concerns for long-term reconstructed nipple projection. However, the flap's projection has not been analyzed, based on its thickness. The aim of the present study was to investigate how flap thickness in a modified star flap influences the resulting reconstructed nipple and achieves an appropriate flap width in design. Sixty-three patients who underwent nipple reconstruction using a modified star flap following implant-based breast reconstruction between August 2014 and July 2016 were included in this case-controlled study. The length of laterally diverging flaps was 1.5 times their width. The thickness of each flap was measured using ultrasonography, and the average thickness was defined as the flap thickness. We investigated the correlation between the resulting reconstructed nipple and flap thickness, and the difference of the change in the reconstructed nipple projection after using a thin or thick flap. The average flap thickness was 3.8 ± 1.7 (range 2.5-6.0) mm. There was a significant, linear correlation between the flap thickness and resulting reconstructed nipple projection (β = 0.853, p < 0.01). Furthermore, the difference between the thin and thick flaps in the resulting reconstructed nipple projection was significant (p < 0.01). Measuring the flap thickness preoperatively may allow surgeons to achieve an appropriate flap width; otherwise, alternative methods for higher projection might be used. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  19. Vaginal Toxic Shock Reaction Triggering Desquamative Inflammatory Vaginitis

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Nigel; Edlind, Thomas D.; Schlievert, Patrick M.; Nyirjesy, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Objective To report two cases of desquamative inflammatory vaginitis (DIV) associated with toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1)-producing Staphylococcus aureus strains. Materials and Methods Case report of two patients, one with an acute and one with a chronic presentation, diagnosed with DIV on the basis of clinical findings and wet mount microscopy. Pre- and posttreatment vaginal bacterial and yeast cultures were obtained. Results Pretreatment vaginal bacterial cultures from both patients grew TSST-1-producing S. aureus. Subsequent vaginal bacterial cultures following oral antibiotic therapy were negative. Conclusions DIV may be triggered through TSST-1-mediated vaginal toxic shock reaction. PMID:23222054

  20. Lack of in vitro-in vivo correlation for a UC781-releasing vaginal ring in macaques.

    PubMed

    McConville, Christopher; Smith, James M; McCoy, Clare F; Srinivasan, Priya; Mitchell, James; Holder, Angela; Otten, Ron A; Butera, Salvatore; Doncel, Gustavo F; Friend, David R; Malcolm, R Karl

    2015-02-01

    This study describes the preclinical development of a matrix-type silicone elastomer vaginal ring device designed to provide controlled release of UC781, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. Testing of both human- and macaque-sized rings in a sink condition in vitro release model demonstrated continuous UC781 release in quantities considered sufficient to maintain vaginal fluid concentrations at levels 82-860-fold higher than the in vitro IC50 (2.0 to 10.4 nM) and therefore potentially protect against mucosal transmission of HIV. The 100-mg UC781 rings were well tolerated in pig-tailed macaques, did not induce local inflammation as determined by cytokine analysis and maintained median concentrations in vaginal fluids of UC781 in the range of 0.27 to 5.18 mM during the course of the 28-day study. Analysis of residual UC781 content in rings after completion of both the in vitro release and macaque pharmacokinetic studies revealed that 57 and 5 mg of UC781 was released, respectively. The pharmacokinetic analysis of a 100-mg UC781 vaginal ring in pig-tailed macaques showed poor in vivo-in vitro correlation, attributed to the very poor solubility of UC781 in vaginal fluid and resulting in a dissolution-controlled drug release mechanism rather than the expected diffusion-controlled mechanism.

  1. A study of the osmotic characteristics, water permeability, and cryoprotectant permeability of human vaginal immune cells.

    PubMed

    Shu, Zhiquan; Hughes, Sean M; Fang, Cifeng; Huang, Jinghua; Fu, Baiwen; Zhao, Gang; Fialkow, Michael; Lentz, Gretchen; Hladik, Florian; Gao, Dayong

    2016-04-01

    Cryopreservation of specimens taken from the genital tract of women is important for studying mucosal immunity during HIV prevention trials. However, it is unclear whether the current, empirically developed cryopreservation procedures for peripheral blood cells are also ideal for genital specimens. The optimal cryopreservation protocol depends on the cryobiological features of the cells. Thus, we obtained tissue specimens from vaginal repair surgeries, isolated and flow cytometry-purified immune cells, and determined fundamental cryobiological characteristics of vaginal CD3(+) T cells and CD14(+) macrophages using a microfluidic device. The osmotically inactive volumes of the two cell types (Vb) were determined relative to the initial cell volume (V0) by exposing the cells to hypotonic and hypertonic saline solutions, evaluating the equilibrium volume, and applying the Boyle van't Hoff relationship. The cell membrane permeability to water (Lp) and to four different cryoprotective agent (CPA) solutions (Ps) at room temperature were also measured. Results indicated Vb values of 0.516 V0 and 0.457 V0 for mucosal T cells and macrophages, respectively. Lp values at room temperature were 0.196 and 0.295 μm/min/atm for T cells and macrophages, respectively. Both cell types had high Ps values for the three CPAs, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), propylene glycol (PG) and ethylene glycol (EG) (minimum of 0.418 × 10(-3) cm/min), but transport of the fourth CPA, glycerol, occurred 50-150 times more slowly. Thus, DMSO, PG, and EG are better options than glycerol in avoiding severe cell volume excursion and osmotic injury during CPA addition and removal for cryopreservation of human vaginal immune cells. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. The transverse musculocutaneous gracilis flap for breast reconstruction: guidelines for flap and patient selection.

    PubMed

    Schoeller, Thomas; Huemer, Georg M; Wechselberger, Gottfried

    2008-07-01

    The transverse musculocutaneous gracilis (TMG) flap has received little attention in the literature as a valuable alternative source of donor tissue in the setting of breast reconstruction. The authors give an in-depth review of their experience with breast reconstruction using the TMG flap. A retrospective review of 111 patients treated with a TMG flap for breast reconstruction in an immediate or a delayed setting between August of 2002 and July of 2007 was undertaken. Of these, 26 patients underwent bilateral reconstruction and 68 underwent unilateral reconstruction, and 17 patients underwent reconstruction unilaterally with a double TMG flap. Patient age ranged between 24 and 65 years (mean, 37 years). Twelve patients had to be taken back to the operating room because of flap-related problems and nine patients underwent successful revision microsurgically, resulting in three complete flap losses in a series of 111 patients with 154 transplanted TMG flaps. Partial flap loss was encountered in two patients, whereas fat tissue necrosis was managed conservatively in six patients. Donor-site morbidity was an advantage of this flap, with a concealed scar and minimal contour irregularities of the thigh, even in unilateral harvest. Complications included delayed wound healing (n = 10), hematoma (n = 5), and transient sensory deficit over the posterior thigh (n = 49). The TMG flap is more than an alternative to the deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap in microsurgical breast reconstruction in selected patients. In certain indications, such as bilateral reconstructions, it possibly surpasses the DIEP flap because of a better concealed donor scar and easier harvest.

  3. Vaginal Atrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome of menopause (GSM) increases your risk of: Vaginal infections. Changes in the acid balance of your vagina makes vaginal infections (vaginitis) more likely. Urinary problems. Urinary changes associated ...

  4. [Pedicle flap of nasal septum-basis nasi and temporal muscucofascial flap to repair nasoseptal perforation].

    PubMed

    Yin, Xinghong; Hu, Wei; Zhang, Xinhai; Sun, Min

    2014-10-01

    To explore curative effect with pedicle flap of nasal septum-basis nasi and temporal muscucofascial flap to repair nasal septal perforation. Dissecting mucoperichondrium and mucoperioseptum around the perforation and taking dowm and out xia-ward to the floor of nasal cavity to make a inferior extremity pedicle flap. Then,the flap was tumbled and sutured onto raw surface of contralateral side through perforation. Reapplicating autoallergic temporal musculofascial flap to repair another side perforation. Repairing perforation Sin twelve cases were sucessfully healed in endoscope. The pedicle flap of nasal septum-basis nasi and temporal muscucofascial flap is easy to acquire and no rejection. The flap has good blood supplying, high survival rate and provides adequate transplantating materail to repair comparatively large perforation.

  5. Reconstruction of the Foot and Ankle Using Pedicled or Free Flaps: Perioperative Flap Survival Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiucun; Cui, Jianli; Maharjan, Suraj; Lu, Laijin; Gong, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to determine the correlation between non-technical risk factors and the perioperative flap survival rate and to evaluate the choice of skin flap for the reconstruction of foot and ankle. Methods This was a clinical retrospective study. Nine variables were identified. The Kaplan-Meier method coupled with a log-rank test and a Cox regression model was used to predict the risk factors that influence the perioperative flap survival rate. The relationship between postoperative wound infection and risk factors was also analyzed using a logistic regression model. Results The overall flap survival rate was 85.42%. The necrosis rates of free flaps and pedicled flaps were 5.26% and 20.69%, respectively. According to the Cox regression model, flap type (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.592; 95% confidence interval [CI] (1.606, 4.184); P < 0.001) and postoperative wound infection (HR = 0.266; 95% CI (0.134, 0.529); P < 0.001) were found to be statistically significant risk factors associated with flap necrosis. Based on the logistic regression model, preoperative wound bed inflammation (odds ratio [OR] = 11.371,95% CI (3.117, 41.478), P < 0.001) was a statistically significant risk factor for postoperative wound infection. Conclusion Flap type and postoperative wound infection were both independent risk factors influencing the flap survival rate in the foot and ankle. However, postoperative wound infection was a risk factor for the pedicled flap but not for the free flap. Microvascular anastomosis is a major cause of free flap necrosis. To reconstruct complex or wide soft tissue defects of the foot or ankle, free flaps are safer and more reliable than pedicled flaps and should thus be the primary choice. PMID:27930679

  6. Pedicled Temporalis Muscle Flap for Craniofacial Reconstruction: A 35-Year Clinical Experience with 366 Flaps.

    PubMed

    Spanio di Spilimbergo, Stefano; Nordera, Paolo; Mardini, Samir; Castiglione, Giusy; Chim, Harvey; Pinna, Vittore; Brunello, Massimo; Cusino, Claudio; Roberto, Squaquara; Baciliero, Ugo

    2017-02-01

    In the past 130 years, the temporalis muscle flap has been used for a variety of different indications. In this age of microsurgery and perforator flaps, the temporalis muscle flap still has many useful applications for craniofacial reconstruction. Three hundred sixty-six temporalis muscle flaps were performed in a single center between 1978 and 2012. The authors divided the cases into two series-before and after 1994-because, after 1994, they started to perform free flap reconstructions, and indications for reconstruction with a temporalis muscle flap were changed RESULTS:: In the series after 1994, flaps were most commonly used for reconstruction of defects in the maxilla, mandible, and oropharynx, in addition to facial reanimation and filling of orbital defects. Complications included total flap necrosis (1.6 percent) and partial flap necrosis (10.7 percent). The rate of material extrusion at the donor site decreased after porous polyethylene was uniformly used for reconstruction from 17.1 to 7.9 percent. The pedicled temporalis muscle flap continues to have many applications in craniofacial reconstruction. With increasing use of free flaps, the authors' indications for the pedicled temporalis muscle flap are now restricted to (1) orbital filling for congenital or acquired anophthalmia; (2) filling of unilateral maxillectomy defects; and (3) facial reanimation in selected cases of facial nerve palsy. Therapeutic, IV.

  7. Aerodynamics power consumption for mechanical flapping wings undergoing flapping and pitching motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razak, N. A.; Dimitriadis, G.; Razaami, A. F.

    2017-07-01

    Lately, due to the growing interest in Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAV), interest in flapping flight has been rekindled. The reason lies in the improved performance of flapping wing flight at low Reynolds number regime. Many studies involving flapping wing flight focused on the generation of unsteady aerodynamic forces such as lift and thrust. There is one aspect of flapping wing flight that received less attention. The aspect is aerodynamic power consumption. Since most mechanical flapping wing aircraft ever designed are battery powered, power consumption is fundamental in improving flight endurance. This paper reports the results of experiments carried out on mechanical wings under going active root flapping and pitching in the wind tunnel. The objective of the work is to investigate the effect of the pitch angle oscillations and wing profile on the power consumption of flapping wings via generation of unsteady aerodynamic forces. The experiments were repeated for different airspeeds, flapping and pitching kinematics, geometric angle of attack and wing sections with symmetric and cambered airfoils. A specially designed mechanical flapper modelled on large migrating birds was used. It will be shown that, under pitch leading conditions, less power is required to overcome the unsteady aerodnamics forces. The study finds less power requirement for downstroke compared to upstroke motion. Overall results demonstrate power consumption depends directly on the unsteady lift force.

  8. Tracking vaginal, anal and oral infection in a mouse papillomavirus infection model.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiafen; Budgeon, Lynn R; Cladel, Nancy M; Balogh, Karla; Myers, Roland; Cooper, Timothy K; Christensen, Neil D

    2015-12-01

    Noninvasive and practical techniques to longitudinally track viral infection are sought after in clinical practice. We report a proof-of-principle study to monitor the viral DNA copy number using a newly established mouse papillomavirus (MmuPV1) mucosal infection model. We hypothesized that viral presence could be identified and quantified by collecting lavage samples from cervicovaginal, anal and oral sites. Nude mice infected at these sites with infectious MmuPV1 were tracked for up to 23 weeks starting at 6 weeks post-infection. Viral DNA copy number was determined by SYBR Green Q-PCR analysis. In addition, we tracked viral DNA load through three complete oestrous cycles to pinpoint whether there was a correlation between the DNA load and the four stages of the oestrous cycle. Our results showed that high viral DNA copy number was reproducibly detected from both anal and cervicovaginal lavage samples. The infection and disease progression were further confirmed by histology, cytology, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. Interestingly, the viral copy number fluctuated over the oestrous cycle, with the highest level at the oestrus stage, implying that multiple sampling might be necessary to provide a reliable diagnosis. Virus DNA was detected in oral lavage samples at a later time after infection. Lower viral DNA load was found in oral samples when compared with those in anal and vaginal tracts. To our knowledge, our study is the first in vivo study to sequentially monitor papillomavirus infection from mucosal anal, oral and vaginal tracts in a preclinical model.

  9. Dendritic cell-targeting DNA-based mucosal adjuvants for the development of mucosal vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Kataoka, Kosuke; Fujihashi, Kohtaro

    2009-01-01

    In order to establish effective mucosal immunity against various mucosal pathogens, vaccines must be delivered via the mucosal route and contain effective adjuvant(s). Since mucosal adjuvants can simply mix with the antigen, it is relatively easy to adapt them for different types of vaccine development. Even in simple admixture vaccines, the adjuvant itself must be prepared without any complications. Thus, CpG oligodeoxynucleotides or plasmids encoding certain cDNA(s) would be potent mucosal adjuvant candidates when compared with other substances that can be used as mucosal adjuvants. The strategy of a DNA-based mucosal adjuvant facilitates the targeting of mucosal dendritic cells, and thus is an effective and safe approach. It would also provide great flexibility for the development of effective vaccines for various mucosal pathogens. PMID:19722892

  10. Dancing girl flap: a new flap suitable for web release.

    PubMed

    Shinya, K

    1999-12-01

    To create a deep web, a flap must be designed to have a high elongation effect in one direction along the mid-lateral line of the finger and also to have a shortening effect in the other direction, crossing at a right angle to the mid-lateral line. The dancing girl flap is a modification of a four-flap Z-plasty with two additional Z-plasties. It has a high elongation effect in one direction (>550%) and a shortening effect in the other direction at a right angle (<33%), creating a deep, U-shaped surface. This new flap can be used to release severe scar contracture with a web, and is most suitable for incomplete syndactyly with webs as high as the proximal interphalangeal joint.

  11. PIV Measurements on a Blowing Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Stead, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    PIV measurements of the flow in the region of a flap side edge are presented for several blowing flap configurations. The test model is a NACA 63(sub 2)-215 Hicks Mod-B main-element airfoil with a half-span Fowler flap. Air is blown from small slots located along the flap side edge on either the top, bottom or side surfaces. The test set up is described and flow measurements for a baseline and three blowing flap configurations are presented. The effects that the flap tip jets have on the structure of the flap side edge flow are discussed for each of the flap configurations tested. The results indicate that blowing air from a slot located along the top surface of the flap greatly weakened the top vortex system and pushed it further off the top surface. Blowing from the bottom flap surface kept the strong side vortex further outboard while blowing from the side surface only strengthened the vortex system or accelerated the merging of the side vortex to the flap top surface. It is concluded that blowing from the top or bottom surfaces of the flap may lead to a reduction of flap side edge noise.

  12. Comparison of Follicular and Luteal Phase Mucosal Markers of HIV Susceptibility in Healthy Women

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Neelima; Yousefieh, Nazita; Zalenskaya, Irina; Kimble, Thomas; Asin, Susana; Rollenhagen, Christiane; Anderson, Sharon M.; Herold, Betsy; Mesquita, Pedro M.M.; Richardson-Harman, Nicola; Cunningham, Tina; Schwartz, Jill L.; Doncel, Gustavo F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in vaginal immune cell populations, vaginal tissue gene expression, antimicrobial activity of the cervicovaginal (CV) lavage (CVL), vaginal flora, and p24 antigen production from CV tissues after ex vivo human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection between follicular (FOL) and luteal (LUT) phases of the menstrual cycle. CV tissue biopsies, CV secretions, and blood samples were obtained as part of two longitudinal clinical trials of healthy women (CONRAD D11-119 and A12-124 studies). Participants (n = 39) were HIV-seronegative women not using exogenous hormone supplementation, with normal menstrual cycles, who were screened to exclude sexually transmitted and reproductive tract infections. Serum levels of estradiol and progesterone were significantly higher in the LUT versus the FOL phase of the menstrual cycle. Controlling for race, reported contraceptive use/sexual practices, and clinical trial, we found no differences in vaginal tissue immune cell populations and activation status, transcriptomes, inhibition of HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2 and Escherichia coli by the CVL, vaginal pH or Nugent score, or production of p24 antigen after ex vivo infection by HIV-1BaL between CV samples obtained in the FOL phase versus the LUT phase of the menstrual cycle. There were no significant correlations between serum estradiol and progesterone levels and CV endpoints. The hypothesis that the LUT phase of the menstrual cycle represents a more vulnerable stage for mucosal infection with HIV was not supported by data from samples obtained from the lower genital tract (ectocervix and vagina) from these two clinical trials. PMID:26750085

  13. Emphysematous vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Lima-Silva, Joana; Vieira-Baptista, Pedro; Cavaco-Gomes, João; Maia, Tiago; Beires, Jorge

    2015-04-01

    Emphysematous vaginitis is a rare condition, characterized by the presence of multiple gas-filled cysts in the vaginal and/or exocervical mucosa. Although its etiology is not completely understood, it is self-limited, with a benign clinical course. Vaginal discharge, sometimes bloody, and pruritus are the most common symptoms. Chronic and acute inflammation can be found, and diseases that impair the immune system and pregnancy have been associated with this condition. A 48-year-old postmenopausal woman, with a history of hysterectomy with several comorbidities, presented with a 4-month history of bloody discharge and vulvar pruritus. Examination showed multiple cystic lesions, 1 to 5 mm, occupying the posterior and right lateral vaginal walls. Speculum examination produced crepitus. Vaginal wet mount was normal, except for diminished lactobacilli; results of Trichomonas vaginalis DNA test and vaginal cultures were negative. Lugol's iodine applied to the vagina was taken up by the intact lesions. Biopsy result showed typical features of emphysematous vaginitis. This is an unusual entity, presenting with common gynecological complaints, and both physicians and pathologists should be aware to prevent misdiagnosis and overtreatment.

  14. Lower Extremity Limb Salvage with Cross Leg Pedicle Flap, Cross Leg Free Flap, and Cross Leg Vascular Cable Bridge Flap.

    PubMed

    Manrique, Oscar J; Bishop, Sarah N; Ciudad, Pedro; Adabi, Kian; Martinez-Jorge, Jorys; Moran, Steven L; Huang, Tony; Vijayasekaran, Aparna; Chen, Shih-Heng; Chen, Hung-Chi

    2018-05-16

     Lower extremity salvage following significant soft tissue loss can be complicated by lack of recipient vessel for free tissue transfer. We describe our experience in lower limb salvage for patients with no recipient vessels with the use of pedicle, free and cable bridge flaps.  A retrospective review from 1985 to 2017 of patients undergoing lower limb salvage using a contralateral pedicle cross leg (PCL) flaps, free cross leg (FCL) flaps, or free cable bridge (FCB) flaps was conducted. Demographics, etiology of the reconstruction, type of flap used, donor-site vessels, defect size, operating time, time of pedicle division, length of hospital stay, time to ambulation, and complications were analyzed.  A total of 53 patients (48 males and 5 females) with an average age of 35 years (range, 29-38 years) were identified. The etiology for the reconstruction was trauma in 52 patients and oncological resection in 1 patient. There were 18 PCL, 25 FCL, and 10 FCB completed. The recipient vessels for all flaps were the posterior tibial artery and vein. The average operating room times for PCL, FCL, and FCB flaps were 4, 9, and 10 hours, respectively. The average length of hospital stay was 5 weeks and average time to ambulation was 4 weeks. The average follow-up time was 7.5 years (range, 3-12 years). Complications encountered were hematoma (six), prolonged pain (six), total flap loss (two), reoperation (five), and infection (four). Limb salvage rates were 96.2%.  When ipsilateral limb vessels are not available, and other reconstructive options have been exhausted, cross leg flaps can be a viable option for limb salvage in the setting of extensive defects. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  15. Navier-Stokes Computations of a Wing-Flap Model With Blowing Normal to the Flap Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    A computational study of a generic wing with a half span flap shows the mean flow effects of several blown flap configurations. The effort compares and contrasts the thin-layer, Reynolds averaged, Navier-Stokes solutions of a baseline wing-flap configuration with configurations that have blowing normal to the flap surface through small slits near the flap side edge. Vorticity contours reveal a dual vortex structure at the flap side edge for all cases. The dual vortex merges into a single vortex at approximately the mid-flap chord location. Upper surface blowing reduces the strength of the merged vortex and moves the vortex away from the upper edge. Lower surface blowing thickens the lower shear layer and weakens the merged vortex, but not as much as upper surface blowing. Side surface blowing forces the lower surface vortex farther outboard of the flap edge by effectively increasing the aerodynamic span of the flap. It is seen that there is no global aerodynamic penalty or benefit from the particular blowing configurations examined.

  16. The "Tokyo" consensus on propeller flaps.

    PubMed

    Pignatti, Marco; Ogawa, Rei; Hallock, Geoffrey G; Mateev, Musa; Georgescu, Alexandru V; Balakrishnan, Govindasamy; Ono, Shimpei; Cubison, Tania C S; D'Arpa, Salvatore; Koshima, Isao; Hyakusoku, Hikko

    2011-02-01

    Over the past few years, the use of propeller flaps, which base their blood supply on subcutaneous tissue or isolated perforators, has become increasingly popular. Because no consensus has yet been reached on terminology and nomenclature of the propeller flap, different and confusing uses of the term can be found in the literature. In this article, the authors report the consensus on the definition and classification of propeller flaps reached by the authors that gathered at the First Tokyo Meeting on Perforator and Propeller Flaps in June of 2009. Some peculiar aspects of the surgical technique are discussed. A propeller flap can be defined as an "island flap that reaches the recipient site through an axial rotation." The classification is based on the nourishing pedicle (subcutaneous pedicled propeller flap, perforator pedicled propeller flap, supercharged propeller flap), the degrees of skin island rotation (90 to 180 degrees) and, when possible, the artery of origin of the perforator. The propeller flap is a useful reconstructive tool that can achieve good cosmetic and functional results. A flap should be called a propeller flap only if it fulfils the definition above. The type of nourishing pedicle, the source vessel (when known), and the degree of skin island rotation should be specified for each flap.

  17. Noise Reduction of Aircraft Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Florence V. (Inventor); Brooks, Thomas F. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A reduction in noise radiating from a side of a deployed aircraft flap is achieved by locating a slot adjacent the side of the flap, and then forcing air out through the slot with a suitable mechanism. One, two or even three or more slots are possible, where the slot is located at one;or more locations selected from a group of locations comprising a top surface of the flap, a bottom surface of the flap, an intersection of the top and side surface of the flap, an intersection of the bottom and side surfaces of the flap, and a side surface of the flap. In at least one embodiment the slot is substantially rectangular. A device for adjusting a rate of the air forced out through the slot can also be provided.

  18. New model of flap-gliding flight.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Gottfried

    2015-07-21

    A new modelling approach is presented for describing flap-gliding flight in birds and the associated mechanical energy cost of travelling. The new approach is based on the difference in the drag characteristics between flapping and non-flapping due to the drag increase caused by flapping. Thus, the possibility of a gliding flight phase, as it exists in flap-gliding flight, yields a performance advantage resulting from the decrease in the drag when compared with continuous flapping flight. Introducing an appropriate non-dimensionalization for the mathematical relations describing flap-gliding flight, results and findings of generally valid nature are derived. It is shown that there is an energy saving of flap-gliding flight in the entire speed range compared to continuous flapping flight. The energy saving reaches the highest level in the lower speed region. The travelling speed of flap-gliding flight is composed of the weighted average of the differing speeds in the flapping and gliding phases. Furthermore, the maximum range performance achievable with flap-gliding flight and the associated optimal travelling speed are determined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Management of Dropped Skull Flaps.

    PubMed

    Abdelfatah, Mohamed AbdelRahman

    2017-01-01

    Dropping a skull flap on the floor is an uncommon and avoidable mistake in the neurosurgical operating theater. This study retrospectively reviewed all incidents of dropped skull flaps in Ain-Shams University hospitals during a 10-year period to show how to manage this problem and its outcome. Thirty-one incidents of dropped skull flaps occurred from January 2004 to January 2014 out of more than 10,000 craniotomies. Follow-up period varied from 20 to 44 months. The bone flap was dropped while elevating the bone (n = 16), while drilling the bone on the operating table (n = 5), and during insertion of the bone flap (n = 10). Treatment included re-insertion of the skull flap after soaking it in povidone iodine and antibiotic solution (n = 17) or after autoclaving (n = 11), or discarding the skull flap and replacing it with a mesh cranioplasty in the same operation (n = 3). No bone or wound infection was noted during the follow-up period. Management of dropped skull flap is its prevention. Replacement of the skull flap, after decontamination, is an option that avoids the expense and time of cranioplasty.

  20. Decellularized skin/adipose tissue flap matrix for engineering vascularized composite soft tissue flaps.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qixu; Johnson, Joshua A; Dunne, Lina W; Chen, Youbai; Iyyanki, Tejaswi; Wu, Yewen; Chang, Edward I; Branch-Brooks, Cynthia D; Robb, Geoffrey L; Butler, Charles E

    2016-04-15

    Using a perfusion decellularization protocol, we developed a decellularized skin/adipose tissue flap (DSAF) comprising extracellular matrix (ECM) and intact vasculature. Our DSAF had a dominant vascular pedicle, microcirculatory vascularity, and a sensory nerve network and retained three-dimensional (3D) nanofibrous structures well. DSAF, which was composed of collagen and laminin with well-preserved growth factors (e.g., vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor), was successfully repopulated with human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), which integrated with DSAF and formed 3D aggregates and vessel-like structures in vitro. We used microsurgery techniques to re-anastomose the recellularized DSAF into nude rats. In vivo, the engineered flap construct underwent neovascularization and constructive remodeling, which was characterized by the predominant infiltration of M2 macrophages and significant adipose tissue formation at 3months postoperatively. Our results indicate that DSAF co-cultured with hASCs and HUVECs is a promising platform for vascularized soft tissue flap engineering. This platform is not limited by the flap size, as the entire construct can be immediately perfused by the recellularized vascular network following simple re-integration into the host using conventional microsurgical techniques. Significant soft tissue loss resulting from traumatic injury or tumor resection often requires surgical reconstruction using autologous soft tissue flaps. However, the limited availability of qualitative autologous flaps as well as the donor site morbidity significantly limits this approach. Engineered soft tissue flap grafts may offer a clinically relevant alternative to the autologous flap tissue. In this study, we engineered vascularized soft tissue free flap by using skin/adipose flap extracellular matrix scaffold (DSAF) in combination with multiple types of human cells. Following

  1. Neutralization Takes Precedence Over IgG or IgA Isotype-related Functions in Mucosal HIV-1 Antibody-mediated Protection.

    PubMed

    Astronomo, Rena D; Santra, Sampa; Ballweber-Fleming, Lamar; Westerberg, Katharine G; Mach, Linh; Hensley-McBain, Tiffany; Sutherland, Laura; Mildenberg, Benjamin; Morton, Georgeanna; Yates, Nicole L; Mize, Gregory J; Pollara, Justin; Hladik, Florian; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Denny, Thomas N; Warrier, Ranjit; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Nitayapan, Sorachai; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Ferrari, Guido; Shaw, George M; Xia, Shi-Mao; Liao, Hua-Xin; Montefiori, David C; Tomaras, Georgia D; Haynes, Barton F; McElrath, Juliana M

    2016-12-01

    HIV-1 infection occurs primarily through mucosal transmission. Application of biologically relevant mucosal models can advance understanding of the functional properties of antibodies that mediate HIV protection, thereby guiding antibody-based vaccine development. Here, we employed a human ex vivo vaginal HIV-1 infection model and a rhesus macaque in vivo intrarectal SHIV challenge model to probe the protective capacity of monoclonal broadly-neutralizing (bnAb) and non-neutralizing Abs (nnAbs) that were functionally modified by isotype switching. For human vaginal explants, we developed a replication-competent, secreted NanoLuc reporter virus system and showed that CD4 binding site bnAbs b12 IgG1 and CH31 IgG1 and IgA2 isoforms potently blocked HIV-1 JR-CSF and HIV-1 Bal26 infection. However, IgG1 and IgA nnAbs, either alone or together, did not inhibit infection despite the presence of FcR-expressing effector cells in the tissue. In macaques, the CH31 IgG1 and IgA2 isoforms infused before high-dose SHIV challenge were completely to partially protective, respectively, while nnAbs (CH54 IgG1 and CH38 mIgA2) were non-protective. Importantly, in both mucosal models IgG1 isotype bnAbs were more protective than the IgA2 isotypes, attributable in part to greater neutralization activity of the IgG1 variants. These findings underscore the importance of potent bnAb induction as a primary goal of HIV-1 vaccine development. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Face resurfacing using a cervicothoracic skin flap prefabricated by lateral thigh fascial flap and tissue expander.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingfeng; Zan, Tao; Gu, Bin; Liu, Kai; Shen, Guoxiong; Xie, Yun; Weng, Rui

    2009-01-01

    Resurfacing of facial massive soft tissue defect is a formidable challenge because of the unique character of the region and the limitation of well-matched donor site. In this report, we introduce a technique for using the prefabricated cervicothoracic skin flap for facial resurfacing, in an attempt to meet the principle of flap selection in face reconstructive surgery for matching the color and texture, large dimension, and thinner thickness (MLT) of the recipient. Eleven patients with massive facial scars underwent resurfacing procedures with prefabricated cervicothoracic flaps. The vasculature of the lateral thigh fascial flap, including the descending branch of the lateral femoral circumflex vessels and the surrounding muscle fascia, was used as the vascular carrier, and the pedicles of the fascial flap were anastomosed to either the superior thyroid or facial vessels in flap prefabrication. A tissue expander was placed beneath the fascial flap to enlarge the size and reduce the thickness of the flap. The average size of the harvested fascia flap was 6.5 x 11.7 cm. After a mean interval of 21.5 weeks, the expanders were filled to a mean volume of 1,685 ml. The sizes of the prefabricated skin flaps ranged from 12 x 15 cm to 15 x 32 cm. The prefabricated skin flaps were then transferred to the recipient site as pedicled flaps for facial resurfacing. All facial soft tissue defects were successfully covered by the flaps. The donor sites were primarily closed and healed without complications. Although varied degrees of venous congestion were developed after flap transfers, the marginal necrosis only occurred in two cases. The results in follow-up showed most resurfaced faces restored natural contour and regained emotional expression. MLT is the principle for flap selection in resurfacing of the massive facial soft tissue defect. Our experience in this series of patients demonstrated that the prefabricated cervicothoracic skin flap could be a reliable alternative

  3. Propeller flaps in eyelid reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Rajak, Saul N; Huilgol, Shyamala C; Murakami, Masahiro; Selva, Dinesh

    2018-03-14

    Propeller flaps are island flaps that reach the recipient site through an axial rotation. The flap has a subcutaneous pedicle on which it pivots, thereby resembling a helicopter propeller. We present our series of propeller flaps for the reconstruction of large eyelid defects. This is a retrospective review of the clinical case notes of eight patients that underwent tumour excision with reconstruction with a cutaneous propeller flap supplied by a non-perforator orbicularis pedicle between July and December 2016. Propeller flaps were used in the reconstruction of five lower lid defects (size range 19 × 5 mm to 25 × 8 mm), one medial canthus defect (13 mm diameter), one complete upper lid defect (42 × 19 mm diameter) and one lid sparing extenteration defect. The flaps were recruited from nasolabial, lateral canthal, temple or medial upper cheek skin. Post-operatively one case had 'trapdooring' which required flap revision at 4 months and one had persistent oedema that settled without intervention. The reconstruction of large eyelid defects is challenging in part because of the paucity of locally available skin. Propeller flaps are a paradigm shift in periocular reconstruction in which the subcutaneous pedicle enables the recruitment of large and highly mobile skin flaps from a wide area of regional tissue.

  4. The acute neutrophil response mediated by S100 alarmins during vaginal Candida infections is independent of the Th17-pathway.

    PubMed

    Yano, Junko; Kolls, Jay K; Happel, Kyle I; Wormley, Floyd; Wozniak, Karen L; Fidel, Paul L

    2012-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) caused by Candida albicans affects a significant number of women during their reproductive ages. Clinical observations revealed that a robust vaginal polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) migration occurs in susceptible women, promoting pathological inflammation without affecting fungal burden. Evidence to date in the mouse model suggests that a similar acute PMN migration into the vagina is mediated by chemotactic S100A8 and S100A9 alarmins produced by vaginal epithelial cells in response to Candida. Based on the putative role for the Th17 response in mucosal candidiasis as well as S100 alarmin induction, this study aimed to determine whether the Th17 pathway plays a role in the S100 alarmin-mediated acute inflammation during VVC using the experimental mouse model. For this, IL-23p19(-/-), IL-17RA(-/-) and IL-22(-/-) mice were intravaginally inoculated with Candida, and vaginal lavage fluids were evaluated for fungal burden, PMN infiltration, the presence of S100 alarmins and inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Compared to wild-type mice, the cytokine-deficient mice showed comparative levels of vaginal fungal burden and PMN infiltration following inoculation. Likewise, inoculated mice of all strains with substantial PMN infiltration exhibited elevated levels of vaginal S100 alarmins in both vaginal epithelia and secretions in the vaginal lumen. Finally, cytokine analyses of vaginal lavage fluid from inoculated mice revealed equivalent expression profiles irrespective of the Th17 cytokine status or PMN response. These data suggest that the vaginal S100 alarmin response to Candida does not require the cells or cytokines of the Th17 lineage, and therefore, the immunopathogenic inflammatory response during VVC occurs independently of the Th17-pathway.

  5. Vaginal Cancer Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Vaginal Cancer Vaginal Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Vaginal Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Vaginal Cancer Introduction Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors and ...

  6. Comparison of gluteal perforator flaps and gluteal fasciocutaneous rotation flaps for reconstruction of sacral pressure sores.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Chou; Huang, Eng-Yen; Lin, Pao-Yuan

    2014-03-01

    The gluteus maximus myocutaneous flap was considered the workhorse that reconstructed sacral pressure sores, but was gradually replaced by fasciocutaneous flap because of several disadvantages. With the advent of the perforator flap technique, gluteal perforator (GP) flap has gained popularity nowadays. The aim of this study was to compare the complications and outcomes between GP flaps and gluteal fasciocutaneous rotation (FR) flaps in the treatment of sacral pressure sores. Between April 2007 and June 2012, 63 patients underwent sacral pressure sore reconstructions, with a GP flap used in 31 cases and an FR flap used in 32 cases. Data collected on the patients included patient age, gender, co-morbidity for being bedridden and follow-up time. Surgical details collected included the defect size, operative time and estimated blood loss. Complications recorded included re-operation, dehiscence, flap necrosis, wound infection, sinus formation, donor-site morbidity and recurrence. The complications and clinical outcomes were compared between these two groups. We found that there was no significant difference in patient demographics, surgical complications and recurrence between these two groups. In gluteal FR flap group, all recurrent cases (five) were treated by reuse of previous flaps. Both methods are comparable, good and safe in treating sacral pressure sores. Gluteal FR flap can be performed without microsurgical dissection, and re-rotation is feasible in recurrent cases. The authors suggest using gluteal FR flaps in patients with a high risk of sore recurrence. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Vaginal Microbiomes Associated With Aerobic Vaginitis and Bacterial Vaginosis.

    PubMed

    Kaambo, Evelyn; Africa, Charlene; Chambuso, Ramadhani; Passmore, Jo-Ann Shelley

    2018-01-01

    A healthy vaginal microbiota is considered to be significant for maintaining vaginal health and preventing infections. However, certain vaginal bacterial commensal species serve an important first line of defense of the body. Any disruption of this microbial barrier might result in a number of urogenital conditions including aerobic vaginitis (AV) and bacterial vaginosis (BV). The health of the vagina is closely associated with inhabitant microbiota. Furthermore, these microbes maintain a low vaginal pH, prevent the acquisition of pathogens, stimulate or moderate the local innate immune system, and further protect against complications during pregnancies. Therefore, this review will focus on vaginal microbial "health" in the lower reproductive tract of women and on the physiological characteristics that determine the well-being of reproductive health. In addition, we explore the distinct versus shared characteristics of BV and AV, which are commonly associated with increased risk for preterm delivery.

  8. Vaginal Microbiomes Associated With Aerobic Vaginitis and Bacterial Vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Kaambo, Evelyn; Africa, Charlene; Chambuso, Ramadhani; Passmore, Jo-Ann Shelley

    2018-01-01

    A healthy vaginal microbiota is considered to be significant for maintaining vaginal health and preventing infections. However, certain vaginal bacterial commensal species serve an important first line of defense of the body. Any disruption of this microbial barrier might result in a number of urogenital conditions including aerobic vaginitis (AV) and bacterial vaginosis (BV). The health of the vagina is closely associated with inhabitant microbiota. Furthermore, these microbes maintain a low vaginal pH, prevent the acquisition of pathogens, stimulate or moderate the local innate immune system, and further protect against complications during pregnancies. Therefore, this review will focus on vaginal microbial “health” in the lower reproductive tract of women and on the physiological characteristics that determine the well-being of reproductive health. In addition, we explore the distinct versus shared characteristics of BV and AV, which are commonly associated with increased risk for preterm delivery. PMID:29632854

  9. On the generation of side-edge flap noise. [part span trailing edge flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, M. S.

    1981-01-01

    A theory is proposed for estimating the noise generated at the side edges of part span trailing edge flaps in terms of pressure fluctuations measured just in-board of the side edge of the upper surface of the flap. Asymptotic formulae are developed in the opposite extremes of Lorentz contracted acoustic wavelength large/small compared with the chord of the flap. Interpolation between these limiting results enables the field shape and its dependence on subsonic forward flight speed to be predicted over the whole frequency range. It is shown that the mean width of the side edge gap between the flap and the undeflected portion of the airfoil has a significant influence on the intensity of the radiated sound. It is estimated that the noise generated at a single side edge of a full scale part span flap can exceed that produced along the whole of the trailing edge of the flap by 3 dB or more.

  10. Clinical and histologic studies of olfactory outcomes after nasoseptal flap harvesting.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Wook; Park, Kyung Bum; Khalmuratova, Roza; Lee, Hong-Kyoung; Jeon, Sea-Yuong; Kim, Dae Woo

    2013-07-01

    Since the introduction of an endonasal endoscopic approach in transsphenoidal pituitary surgery, reports of perioperative olfactory changes have presented conflicting results. We examined the incidence of olfactory loss in cases of endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery with skull base repair using the nasoseptal flap (NSF) and the effects of monopolar electrocautery commonly used in designing the NSF. Case-control study. Fifteen patients who underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery with skull base reconstruction using the NSF were divided into cold knife (n = 8) and electrocautery (n = 7) groups according to the device used in the superior incision of the NSF. Patients were followed regularly to monitor the need for dressing or adhesiolysis around the olfactory cleft. All subjects received olfactory tests before and 6 months after surgery. Septal mucosa specimens obtained during posterior septectomy were incised with different devices, and the degree of mucosal damage was evaluated. One patient in the electrocautery group demonstrated olfactory dysfunction postoperatively, but the other 14 patients showed no decrease in olfaction. In histologic analyses, 55.8% and 76.9% of the mucosal surface showed total epithelial loss when the mucosa was cut with cutting- and coagulation-mode electrocautery, respectively. In contrast, only 20% of the mucosal surface exhibited total epithelial loss when the mucosa was cut with a cold knife (P < .01). Olfactory impairment is not common after use of the NSF. Use of the cold knife in making superior incision may reduce tissue damage with better olfactory outcomes. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. In vitro and ex vivo evaluation of polymeric nanoparticles for vaginal and rectal delivery of the anti-HIV drug dapivirine.

    PubMed

    das Neves, José; Araújo, Francisca; Andrade, Fernanda; Michiels, Johan; Ariën, Kevin K; Vanham, Guido; Amiji, Mansoor; Bahia, Maria Fernanda; Sarmento, Bruno

    2013-07-01

    Prevention strategies such as the development of microbicides are thought to be valuable in the fight against HIV/AIDS. Despite recent achievements, there is still a long road ahead in the field, particularly at the level of drug formulation. Drug nanocarriers based on polymers may be useful in enhancing local drug delivery while limiting systemic exposure. We prepared differently surface-engineered poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) nanoparticles (NPs) and tested their ability to modulate the permeability and retention of dapivirine in cell monolayers and pig vaginal and rectal mucosa. NPs coated with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) were shown able to reduce permeability across monolayers/tissues, while modification of nanosystems with cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) enhanced transport. In the case of coating NPs with sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), dapivirine permeability was unchanged. All NPs increased monolayer/tissue drug retention as compared to unformulated dapivirine. This fact was associated, at least partially, to the ability of NPs to be taken up by cells or penetrate mucosal tissue. Cell and tissue toxicity was also affected differently by NPs: PEO modification decreased the in vitro (but not ex vivo) toxicity of dapivirine, while higher toxicity was generally observed for NPs coated with SLS or CTAB. Overall, presented results support that PCL nanoparticles are capable of modulating drug permeability and retention in cell monolayers and mucosal tissues relevant for vaginal and rectal delivery of microbicides. In particular, PEO-modified dapivirine-loaded PCL NPs may be advantageous in increasing drug residence at epithelial cell lines/mucosal tissues, which may potentially increase the efficacy of microbicide drugs.

  12. Foucher first dorsal metacarpal artery flap versus littler heterodigital neurovascular flap in resurfacing thumb pulp loss defects.

    PubMed

    Delikonstantinou, Iraklis P; Gravvanis, Andreas I; Dimitriou, Vasilios; Zogogiannis, Ioannis; Douma, Amalia; Tsoutsos, Dimosthenis A

    2011-08-01

    Our study aims to illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of Foucher's first dorsal metacarpal artery flap and Littler's heterodigital neurovascular flap in thumb pulp reconstruction, by assessing wound healing of donor and recipient sites, sensibility, and functional outcome of the reconstructed thumb. Fourteen male patients were reconstructed either with Foucher (n = 8) or Littler flap (n = 6). Dissection of Foucher's flap was faster than that of Littler's flap. All Littler flaps survived completely, but we experienced 1 partial Foucher flap necrosis. Thumb motility and stability was optimal in all patients. Wound healing of donor sites was achieved in both groups. Two patients reconstructed with Littler flap developed scar contractures and presented a reduced range of motion of donor finger and first webspace, respectively. Although Littler flap resulted in better sensibility and tactile gnosis of the reconstructed thumb-pulp, Foucher flap ensured negligible donor site morbidity, complete cortical reorientation, and better overall hand function.

  13. Role for Dendritic Cells in Immunoregulation during Experimental Vaginal Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, Dana M.; Barousse, Melissa M.; Fidel, Paul L.

    2006-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) caused by the commensal organism Candida albicans remains a significant problem among women of childbearing age, with protection against and susceptibility to infection still poorly understood. While cell-mediated immunity by CD4+ Th1-type cells is protective against most forms of mucosal candidiasis, no protective role for adaptive immunity has been identified against VVC. This is postulated to be due to immunoregulation that prohibits a more profound Candida-specific CD4+ T-cell response against infection. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of dendritic cells (DCs) in the induction phase of the immune response as a means to understand the initiation of the immunoregulatory events. Immunostaining of DCs in sectioned murine lymph nodes draining the vagina revealed a profound cellular reorganization with DCs becoming concentrated in the T-cell zone throughout the course of experimental vaginal Candida infection consistent with cell-mediated immune responsiveness. However, analysis of draining lymph node DC subsets revealed a predominance of immunoregulation-associated CD11c+ B220+ plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) under both uninfected and infected conditions. Staining of vaginal DCs showed the presence of both DEC-205+ and pDCs, with extension of dendrites into the vaginal lumen of infected mice in close contact with Candida. Flow cytometric analysis of draining lymph node DC costimulatory molecules and activation markers from infected mice indicated a lack of upregulation of major histocompatibility complex class II, CD80, CD86, and CD40 during infection, consistent with a tolerizing condition. Together, the results suggest that DCs are involved in the immunoregulatory events manifested during a vaginal Candida infection and potentially through the action of pDCs. PMID:16714548

  14. Therapeutic activity of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based probiotic and inactivated whole yeast on vaginal candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Pericolini, Eva; Gabrielli, Elena; Ballet, Nathalie; Sabbatini, Samuele; Roselletti, Elena; Cayzeele Decherf, Amélie; Pélerin, Fanny; Luciano, Eugenio; Perito, Stefano; Jüsten, Peter; Vecchiarelli, Anna

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vulvovaginal candidiasis is the most prevalent vaginal infection worldwide and Candida albicans is its major agent. Vulvovaginal candidiasis is characterized by disruption of the vaginal microbiota composition, as happens following large spectrum antibiotic usage. Recent studies support the effectiveness of oral and local probiotic treatment for prevention of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a safe yeast used as, or for, the production of ingredients for human nutrition and health. Here, we demonstrate that vaginal administration of probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae live yeast (GI) and, in part, inactivated whole yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (IY), used as post-challenge therapeutics, was able to positively influence the course of vaginal candidiasis by accelerating the clearance of the fungus. This effect was likely due to multiple interactions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with Candida albicans. Both live and inactivated yeasts induced coaggregation of Candida and consequently inhibited its adherence to epithelial cells. However, only the probiotic yeast was able to suppress some major virulence factors of Candida albicans such as the ability to switch from yeast to mycelial form and the capacity to express several aspartyl proteases. The effectiveness of live yeast was higher than that of inactivated whole yeast suggesting that the synergy between mechanical effects and biological effects were dominant over purely mechanical effects. The protection of epithelial cells to Candida-induced damage was also observed. Overall, our data show for the first time that Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based ingredients, particularly the living cells, can exert beneficial therapeutic effects on a widespread vaginal mucosal infection. PMID:27435998

  15. Therapeutic activity of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based probiotic and inactivated whole yeast on vaginal candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Pericolini, Eva; Gabrielli, Elena; Ballet, Nathalie; Sabbatini, Samuele; Roselletti, Elena; Cayzeele Decherf, Amélie; Pélerin, Fanny; Luciano, Eugenio; Perito, Stefano; Jüsten, Peter; Vecchiarelli, Anna

    2017-01-02

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is the most prevalent vaginal infection worldwide and Candida albicans is its major agent. Vulvovaginal candidiasis is characterized by disruption of the vaginal microbiota composition, as happens following large spectrum antibiotic usage. Recent studies support the effectiveness of oral and local probiotic treatment for prevention of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a safe yeast used as, or for, the production of ingredients for human nutrition and health. Here, we demonstrate that vaginal administration of probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae live yeast (GI) and, in part, inactivated whole yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (IY), used as post-challenge therapeutics, was able to positively influence the course of vaginal candidiasis by accelerating the clearance of the fungus. This effect was likely due to multiple interactions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with Candida albicans. Both live and inactivated yeasts induced coaggregation of Candida and consequently inhibited its adherence to epithelial cells. However, only the probiotic yeast was able to suppress some major virulence factors of Candida albicans such as the ability to switch from yeast to mycelial form and the capacity to express several aspartyl proteases. The effectiveness of live yeast was higher than that of inactivated whole yeast suggesting that the synergy between mechanical effects and biological effects were dominant over purely mechanical effects. The protection of epithelial cells to Candida-induced damage was also observed. Overall, our data show for the first time that Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based ingredients, particularly the living cells, can exert beneficial therapeutic effects on a widespread vaginal mucosal infection.

  16. Treatment of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy with 10-μg estradiol vaginal tablets.

    PubMed

    Panay, Nick; Maamari, Ricardo

    2012-03-01

    Postmenopausal estrogen deficiency can lead to symptoms of urogenital atrophy. Individuals with urogenital atrophy have symptoms that include vaginal dryness, vaginal and vulval irritation, vaginal soreness, pain and burning during urination (dysuria), increased vaginal discharge, vaginal odour, vaginal infections, recurrent urinary tract infections, pain associated with sexual activity (dyspareunia) and vaginal bleeding associated with sexual activity. Despite the frequency and effects of vaginal atrophy symptoms, they are often under-reported and, consequently, under-treated. Therefore, care of a menopausal woman should include a physical assessment of vaginal atrophy and a dialogue between the physician and the patient that explores existing symptoms and their effect on vulvovaginal health, sexuality and quality-of-life issues. The development of the ultra-low-dose 10-µg estradiol vaginal tablets is in line with the requirements of regulatory agencies and women's health societies regarding the use of the lowest effective hormonal dose. Because of its effectiveness and safety profiles, in addition to its minimal systemic absorption, the 10-µg estradiol vaginal tablet can offer greater reassurance to health-care providers and postmenopausal women with an annual estradiol administration of only 1.14 mg.

  17. [Reconstructive treatment of female urethral estenosis secondary to erosion by suburethral tape].

    PubMed

    Angulo, J C; Mateo, E; Lista, F; Andrés, G

    2011-04-01

    Female urethral stricture secondary to erosión by suburethral sling is an unfrequent problem of difficult solution. Ventral vaginal rotation flaps or buccal mucosa dorsal grafts are not useful because this type of stricture is very proximal (close to the bladder neck) and the vagina is thinned. We present our experience to manage this problem using excision of disease urethral tract, associated to bladder mucosa flap and vaginal sling using transverse vaginal flap to repair the weakened vaginal wall. Three females with urethral stricture secondary to urethral erosion of their sling were treated with a technique of combined urethroplasty with bladder flap and vaginal reinforcement with pediculated vaginal flap transferred in a mini-sling fashion. Two of the patients suffered chronic urinary retention and preoperative placement of urethral catheter was not possible. The patients were evaluated 12, 36 and 55 months after surgery, respectively. Surgery was performed without complications. Results were satisfactory in all the patients, reaching good micturition postoperative caliber and being without incontinence at follow-up. Patients with suburethral erosion by a synthetic sling and secondary severe urethral stricture need total extirpation of the mesh and complete reconstruction of the urethro-vaginal septum. Tension-free urethral suture and use of vaginal sling with the technique here described are two useful technical tips for this problem. Copyright © 2011 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of Dorsal Intercostal Artery Perforator Propeller Flaps and Bilateral Rotation Flaps in Reconstruction of Myelomeningocele Defects.

    PubMed

    Tenekeci, Goktekin; Basterzi, Yavuz; Unal, Sakir; Sari, Alper; Demir, Yavuz; Bagdatoglu, Celal; Tasdelen, Bahar

    2018-04-09

    Bilateral rotation flaps are considered the workhorse flaps in reconstruction of myelomeningocele defects. Since the introduction of perforator flaps in the field of reconstructive surgery, perforator flaps have been used increasingly in the reconstruction of various soft tissue defects all over the body because of their appreciated advantages. The aim of this study was to compare the complications and surgical outcomes between bilateral rotation flaps and dorsal intercostal artery perforator (DICAP) flaps in the soft tissue reconstruction of myelomeningocele defects. Between January 2005-February 2017, we studied 47 patients who underwent reconstruction of myelomeningocele defects. Patient demographics, operative data, and postoperative data were reviewed retrospectively and are included in the study. We found no statistically significant differences in patient demographics and surgical complications between these two groups; this may be due to small sample size. With regard to complications-partial flap necrosis, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage, necessity for reoperation, and wound infection-DICAP propeller flaps were clinically superior to rotation flaps. Partial flap necrosis was associated with CSF leakage and wound infection, and CSF leakage was associated with wound dehiscence. Although surgical outcomes obtained with DICAP propeller flaps were clinically superior to those obtained with rotation flaps, there was no statistically significant difference between the two patient groups. A well-designed comparative study with adequate sample size is needed. Nonetheless, we suggest using DICAP propeller flaps for reconstruction of large myelomeningocele defects.

  19. Carnauba wax nanoparticles enhance strong systemic and mucosal cellular and humoral immune responses to HIV-gp140 antigen

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Mauricio A.; Loxley, Andrew; Eatmon, Christy; Van Roey, Griet; Fairhurst, David; Mitchnick, Mark; Dash, Philip; Cole, Tom; Wegmann, Frank; Sattentau, Quentin; Shattock, Robin

    2011-01-01

    Induction of humoral responses to HIV at mucosal compartments without inflammation is important for vaccine design. We developed charged wax nanoparticles that efficiently adsorb protein antigens and are internalized by DC in the absence of inflammation. HIV-gp140-adsorbed nanoparticles induced stronger in vitro T-cell proliferation responses than antigen alone. Such responses were greatly enhanced when antigen was co-adsorbed with TLR ligands. Immunogenicity studies in mice showed that intradermal vaccination with HIV-gp140 antigen-adsorbed nanoparticles induced high levels of specific IgG. Importantly, intranasal immunization with HIV-gp140-adsorbed nanoparticles greatly enhanced serum and vaginal IgG and IgA responses. Our results show that HIV-gp140-carrying wax nanoparticles can induce strong cellular/humoral immune responses without inflammation and may be of potential use as effective mucosal adjuvants for HIV vaccine candidates. PMID:21145913

  20. Externally-blown-flap noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorsch, R. G.; Kreim, W. J.; Olsen, W. A.

    1972-01-01

    Noise data were obtained with a large externally blown flap model. A fan-jet engine exhaust was simulated by a 1/2-scale bypass nozzle supplied by pressurized air. The nozzle was pylon mounted on a wing section having a double-slotted flap for lift augmentation. Noise radiation patterns and spectra were obtained for nozzle exhaust velocities between 400 and 1150 ft/sec. The blown flap noise data are in good agreement with previous small model results extrapolated to test conditions by Strouhal scaling. The results indicate that blown flap noise must be suppressed to meet STOL aircraft noise goals.

  1. Premenarchal, recurrent vaginal discharge associated with an incomplete obstructing longitudinal vaginal septum.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Keith A; DeWitt, Jason

    2005-12-01

    To describe an unusual, premenarchal presentation of an obstructive vaginal anomaly. Case Report. University Medical Center. Premenarchal subject Vaginogram, vaginal septum resection. Vaginal septum resection with resolution of vaginal discharge. This case demonstrates some of the typical features of uterus didelphys bicollis with incomplete obstructing hemivagina, but had a unique presentation with premenarchal, recurrent vaginal discharge. Typically, patients with an obstructing mullerian anomaly present after menarche with pelvic pain and a mass. The vaginogram assists in the preoperative definition of abnormal anatomy which allows the surgeon to develop the most appropriate surgical approach. Resection of this incompletely obstructing vaginal septum resulted in resolution of the recurrent vaginal discharge.

  2. An Island Flap Technique for Laryngeal Intracordal Mucous Retention Cysts.

    PubMed

    Izadi, Farzad; Ghanbari, Hadi; Zahedi, Sahar; Pousti, Behzad; Maleki Delarestaghi, Mojtaba; Salehi, Abolfazl

    2015-09-01

    Mucous retention cysts are a subtype of intracordal vocal cysts that may occur spontaneously or may be associated with poor vocal hygiene, and which require optimal treatment. The objective of this study was to present a new laser-assisted microsurgery technique for treating intracordal mucous retention cysts and to describe the final outcomes. In this prospective study, we assessed the pre-operative and post-operative acoustic analysis, maximum phonation time (MPT), and voice handicap index (VHI) of four patients with a diagnosis of mucous retention cyst. The island flap technique was applied to all patients without any complications. In this procedure, we favored the super-pulse mode using a 2-W power CO2 laser to remove the medial wall of the cyst, before clearing away the lateral wall margins of the cyst using repeat-pulse mode and a 2-W power CO2 laser. Indeed, we maintained the underlying epithelium and lamina propria, including the island flap attached to the vocal ligament. There was a statistically significant improvement in the MPT (pre-op,11.05 s; post-op,15.85 s; P=0.002) and the VHI (pre-operative, 72/120; post-operative,27/120; P=0.001) in all patients. Moreover, jitter and shimmer were refined after surgery, but there was no statistically significant relationship between pre-operative and post-operative data (P=0.071) (P=0.622). In the follow-up period (median, 150 days), there was no report of recurrence or mucosal stiffness. The island flap procedure in association with CO2 laser microsurgery appears to be a safe and effective treatment option for intracordal mucous retention cysts, but needs further investigation to allow comparison with other methods.

  3. An Island Flap Technique for Laryngeal Intracordal Mucous Retention Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Izadi, Farzad; Ghanbari, Hadi; Zahedi, Sahar; Pousti, Behzad; Maleki Delarestaghi, Mojtaba; Salehi, Abolfazl

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Mucous retention cysts are a subtype of intracordal vocal cysts that may occur spontaneously or may be associated with poor vocal hygiene, and which require optimal treatment. The objective of this study was to present a new laser-assisted microsurgery technique for treating intracordal mucous retention cysts and to describe the final outcomes. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, we assessed the pre-operative and post-operative acoustic analysis, maximum phonation time (MPT), and voice handicap index (VHI) of four patients with a diagnosis of mucous retention cyst. The island flap technique was applied to all patients without any complications. In this procedure, we favored the super-pulse mode using a 2-W power CO2 laser to remove the medial wall of the cyst, before clearing away the lateral wall margins of the cyst using repeat-pulse mode and a 2-W power CO2 laser. Indeed, we maintained the underlying epithelium and lamina propria, including the island flap attached to the vocal ligament. Results: There was a statistically significant improvement in the MPT (pre-op,11.05 s; post-op,15.85 s; P=0.002) and the VHI (pre-operative, 72/120; post-operative,27/120; P=0.001) in all patients. Moreover, jitter and shimmer were refined after surgery, but there was no statistically significant relationship between pre-operative and post-operative data (P=0.071) (P=0.622). In the follow-up period (median, 150 days), there was no report of recurrence or mucosal stiffness. Conclusion: The island flap procedure in association with CO2 laser microsurgery appears to be a safe and effective treatment option for intracordal mucous retention cysts, but needs further investigation to allow comparison with other methods. PMID:26568936

  4. Hysterectomy - vaginal - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; Laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; LAVH - discharge ... you were in the hospital, you had a vaginal hysterectomy. Your surgeon made a cut in your ...

  5. Vaginal foreign bodies.

    PubMed

    Stricker, T; Navratil, F; Sennhauser, F H

    2004-04-01

    To evaluate the clinical features and outcome in girls with a vaginal foreign body. Retrospective review of medical records of 35 girls with a vaginal foreign body seen in an outpatient clinic for paediatric and adolescent gynaecology between 1980 and 2000. The ages ranged from 2.6 to 9.2 years. The most common symptom was blood-stained vaginal discharge/vaginal bleeding (49%). Duration of symptoms varied from 1 day to 2 years. Fifty-four percent of the patients recalled insertion of the foreign object, usually by the girl herself. All but three patients (91%) either recalled insertion of the foreign object and/or had vaginal bleeding or blood-stained or foul-smelling vaginal discharge, and/or visualization or palpation of the foreign body in physical examination. Symptoms resolved after removal of the foreign body followed by a single irrigation with Providon-Iod (Betadine). In the majority of patients a carefully obtained history and physical examination suggest the diagnosis of a vaginal foreign object. The leading symptoms are vaginal bleeding and blood-stained or foul smelling vaginal discharge. Removal of the foreign object followed by a single irrigation with Providon-Iod is the definitive treatment and does not require additional measures.

  6. Superficial ulnar artery perforator flap.

    PubMed

    Schonauer, Fabrizio; Marlino, Sergio; Turrà, Francesco; Graziano, Pasquale; Dell'Aversana Orabona, Giovanni

    2014-09-01

    Superficial ulnar artery is a rare finding but shows significant surgical implications. Its thinness and pliability make this flap an excellent solution for soft tissue reconstruction, especially in the head and neck region. We hereby report a successful free superficial ulnar artery perforator forearm flap transfer for tongue reconstruction. A 64-year-old man presenting with a squamous cell carcinoma of the left tongue underwent a wide resection of the tumor, left radical neck dissection, and reconstruction of the tongue and the left tonsillar pillar with the mentioned flap. No complications were observed postoperatively. The flap survived completely; no recurrence at 6 months of follow-up was detected. Superficial ulnar artery perforator flap has shown to be a safe alternative to other free tissue flaps in specific forearm anatomic conditions.

  7. Clinical characteristics of aerobic vaginitis and its association to vaginal candidiasis, trichomonas vaginitis and bacterial vaginosis.

    PubMed

    Jahic, Mahira; Mulavdic, Mirsada; Nurkic, Jasmina; Jahic, Elmir; Nurkic, Midhat

    2013-12-01

    Examine clinical characteristics of aerobic vaginitis and mixed infection for the purpose of better diagnostic accuracy and treatment efficiency. Prospective research has been conducted at Clinic for Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department for Microbiology and Pathology at Polyclinic for laboratory diagnostic and Gynecology and Obstetrics Department at Health Center Sapna. Examination included 100 examinees with the signs of vaginitis. anamnesis, clinical, gynecological and microbiological examination of vaginal smear. The average age of the examinees was 32,62±2,6. Examining vaginal smears of the examinees with signs of vaginitis in 96% (N-96) different microorganisms have been isolated, while in 4% (N-4) findings were normal. AV has been found in 51% (N-51) of the examinees, Candida albicans in 17% (N-17), BV in 15% (N-15), Trichomonas vaginalis in 13% (N-13). In 21% (N-21) AV was diagnosed alone while associated with other agents in 30% (N-30). Most common causes of AV are E. coli (N-55) and E. faecalis (N-52). AV and Candida albicanis have been found in (13/30, 43%), Trichomonas vaginalis in (9/30, 30%) and BV (8/30, 26%). Vaginal secretion is in 70,05% (N-36) yellow coloured, red vagina wall is recorded in 31,13% (N-16) and pruritus in 72,54% (N-37). Increased pH value of vagina found in 94,10% (N-48). The average pH value of vaginal environment was 5,15±0,54 and in associated presence of AV and VVC, TV and BV was 5,29±0,56 which is higher value considering presence of AV alone but that is not statistically significant difference (p>0,05). Amino-odor test was positive in 29,94% (N-15) of associated infections. Lactobacilli are absent, while leukocytes are increased in 100% (N-51) of the examinees with AV. AV is vaginal infection similar to other vaginal infections. It is important to be careful while diagnosing because the treatment of AV differentiates from treatment of other vaginitis.

  8. Free-style Deepithelialized Propeller Flaps: An Ideal Local Flap to Obliterate Wounds with Dead Space.

    PubMed

    Datli, Asli; Suh, HyunSuk; Kim, Young Chul; Choi, Doon Hoon; Hong, Joon Pio Jp

    2017-03-01

    The reconstruction of the posterior trunk, especially with large dead spaces, remains challenging. Regional muscle flaps may lack adequate volume and reach. The purpose of this report was to evaluate the efficacy of deepithelialized free-style perforator-based propeller flaps to obliterate defects with large dead space. A total of 7 patients with defects on the posterior trunk with large dead spaces were evaluated. After complete debridement or resection, all flaps were designed on a single perforator adjacent to the defect, deepithelialized, and then rotated in a propeller fashion. Flaps were further modified in some cases such as folding the flap after deepithelialization to increase bulk and to obliterate the dead space. The flap dimension ranged from 10 × 5 × 1 to 15 × 8 × 2.5 cm based on a single perforator. The rotation arch of the flap ranged from 90 to 180 degrees. Uneventful healing was noted in all cases. One case showed latent redness and swelling at 7 months after falling down, which resolved with medication. During the average follow-up of 28 months, there were no other flap and donor site complications. The deepithelialized propeller flap can be used efficiently to obliterate dead spaces in the posterior trunk and retains advantages such as having a good vascular supply, adequate bulk, sufficient reach without tension, and minimal donor site morbidity.

  9. Comparison of impact of four surgical methods on surgical outcomes in endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy.

    PubMed

    Roh, Hyun Cheol; Baek, Sehyun; Lee, Hwa; Chang, Minwook

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate differences in the surgical outcomes of endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) according to four different surgical methods. This retrospective study included 222 patients who underwent endoscopic DCR from 2011 to 2013. All patients were assigned to one of four groups according to instruments for incision of nasal mucosa and the formation of mucosal flap: group 1, a sickle knife with mucosal flap; group 2, a sickle knife without mucosal flap; group 3, electrocautery with mucosal flap; and group 4, electrocautery without mucosal flap. The follow up period was at least 6 months. There were 33 eyes in group 1, 44 eyes in group 2, 49 eyes in group 3, and 97 eyes in group 4. There were no significant differences in success rate between groups (P = 0.878). Wound healing time was significantly different between groups (P < 0.001). In post hoc analysis, wound healing time was significantly shorter in group 1 and group 2 than in group 3 and group 4. The vertical ostium size and postsurgical complication were not significantly different between groups. The use of cold instruments such as sickle knife may be more helpful and effective for shortening wound healing time rather than making mucosal flaps in endoscopic DCR. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Venous coupler use for free-flap breast reconstructions: specific analyses of TMG and DIEP flaps.

    PubMed

    Bodin, Frédéric; Brunetti, Stefania; Dissaux, Caroline; Erik, A Sauleau; Facca, Sybille; Bruant-Rodier, Catherine; Liverneaux, Philippe

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this report was to present the results of comparisons of anastomotic data and flap complications in the use of venous coupler in breast reconstruction with the transverse musculocutaneous gracilis (TMG) flap and the deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap. Over a three-year period, 95 patients suffering from breast cancer were treated with mastectomy and breast reconstruction using free flaps. We performed 121 mechanical venous anastomoses for 105 flap procedures (80 DIEP and 25 TMG). The coupler size, anastomotic duration, number of anastomoses and postoperative complications were assessed for the entire series. The coupling device was perfectly suitable for all end-to-end anastomoses between the vein(s) of the flap and the internal mammary vein(s). No venous thrombosis occurred. The mean anastomotic time did not significantly differ between the DIEP (330 seconds) and TMG flap procedures (352 seconds) (P = 0.069). Additionally, there were no differences in coupling time observed following a comparison of seven coupler sizes (P = 0.066). The mean coupler size used during the TMG flap procedure was smaller than that used with the DIEP (2.4 mm versus 2.8 mm) (P < 0.001). The mean size was also smaller when double venous anastomoses were required compared to single anastomosis (2.4 mm versus 2.9 mm) (P < 0.001). The double branching was more frequent with the TMG flap (28%) than with the DIEP flap (11%). The coupler size used was smaller for the TMG procedure and when double venous anastomosis was performed. Additionally, anastomotic time was not affected by the flap type or coupler size used or by anastomosis number. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Value of bacterial culture of vaginal swabs in diagnosis of vaginal infections.

    PubMed

    Nenadić, Dane; Pavlović, Miloš D

    2015-06-01

    Vaginal and cervical swab culture is still very common procedure in our country's everyday practice whereas simple and rapid diagnostic methods have been very rarely used. The aim of this study was to show that the employment of simple and rapid diagnostic tools [vaginal fluid wet mount microscopy (VFWMM), vaginal pH and potassium hydroxide (KOH) test] offers better assessment of vaginal environment than standard microbiologic culture commonly used in Serbia. This prospective study included 505 asymptomatic pregnant women undergoing VFWMM, test with 10% KOH, determination of vaginal pH and standard culture of cervicovaginal swabs. Combining findings from the procedures was used to make diagnoses of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and vaginitis. In addition, the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) was determined in each sample and analyzed along with other findings. Infections with Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis were confirmed or excluded by microscopic examination. In 36 (6%) patients cervicovaginal swab cultures retrieved several aerobes and facultative anaerobes, whereas in 52 (11%) women Candida albicans was isolated. Based on VFWMM findings and clinical criteria 96 (19%) women had BV, 19 (4%) vaginitis, and 72 (14%) candidiasis. Of 115 women with BV and vaginitis, pH 4.5 was found in 5, and of 390 with normal findings 83 (21%) had vaginal pH 4.5. Elevated numbers of PMN were found in 154 (30%) women--in 83 (54%) of them VFWMM was normal. Specificity and sensitivity of KOH test and vaginal pH determination in defining pathological vaginal flora were 95% and 81%, and 79% and 91%, respectively. Cervicovaginal swab culture is expensive but almost non-informative test in clinical practice. The use of simpler and rapid methods as vaginal fluid wet mount microscopy, KOH test and vaginal pH offers better results in diagnosis, and probably in the treatment and prevention of sequels of vaginal infections.

  12. The Acute Neutrophil Response Mediated by S100 Alarmins during Vaginal Candida Infections Is Independent of the Th17-Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Junko; Kolls, Jay K.; Happel, Kyle I.; Wormley, Floyd; Wozniak, Karen L.; Fidel, Paul L.

    2012-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) caused by Candida albicans affects a significant number of women during their reproductive ages. Clinical observations revealed that a robust vaginal polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) migration occurs in susceptible women, promoting pathological inflammation without affecting fungal burden. Evidence to date in the mouse model suggests that a similar acute PMN migration into the vagina is mediated by chemotactic S100A8 and S100A9 alarmins produced by vaginal epithelial cells in response to Candida. Based on the putative role for the Th17 response in mucosal candidiasis as well as S100 alarmin induction, this study aimed to determine whether the Th17 pathway plays a role in the S100 alarmin-mediated acute inflammation during VVC using the experimental mouse model. For this, IL-23p19−/−, IL-17RA−/− and IL-22−/− mice were intravaginally inoculated with Candida, and vaginal lavage fluids were evaluated for fungal burden, PMN infiltration, the presence of S100 alarmins and inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Compared to wild-type mice, the cytokine-deficient mice showed comparative levels of vaginal fungal burden and PMN infiltration following inoculation. Likewise, inoculated mice of all strains with substantial PMN infiltration exhibited elevated levels of vaginal S100 alarmins in both vaginal epithelia and secretions in the vaginal lumen. Finally, cytokine analyses of vaginal lavage fluid from inoculated mice revealed equivalent expression profiles irrespective of the Th17 cytokine status or PMN response. These data suggest that the vaginal S100 alarmin response to Candida does not require the cells or cytokines of the Th17 lineage, and therefore, the immunopathogenic inflammatory response during VVC occurs independently of the Th17-pathway. PMID:23050010

  13. Optimal propulsive flapping in Stokes flows.

    PubMed

    Was, Loïc; Lauga, Eric

    2014-03-01

    Swimming fish and flying insects use the flapping of fins and wings to generate thrust. In contrast, microscopic organisms typically deform their appendages in a wavelike fashion. Since a flapping motion with two degrees of freedom is able, in theory, to produce net forces from a time-periodic actuation at all Reynolds numbers, we compute in this paper the optimal flapping kinematics of a rigid spheroid in a Stokes flow. The hydrodynamics for the force generation and energetics of the flapping motion is solved exactly. We then compute analytically the gradient of a flapping efficiency in the space of all flapping gaits and employ it to derive numerically the optimal flapping kinematics as a function of the shape of the flapper and the amplitude of the motion. The kinematics of optimal flapping are observed to depend weakly on the flapper shape and are very similar to the figure-eight motion observed in the motion of insect wings. Our results suggest that flapping could be a exploited experimentally as a propulsion mechanism valid across the whole range of Reynolds numbers.

  14. Oral mucositis - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer treatment - mucositis; Cancer treatment - mouth pain; Cancer treatment - mouth sores; Chemotherapy - mucositis; Chemotherapy - mouth pain; Chemotherapy - mouth sores; Radiation therapy - mucositis; Radiation therapy - mouth pain; Radiation therapy - mouth ...

  15. Propeller Flaps: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Sisti, Andrea; D'Aniello, Carlo; Fortezza, Leonardo; Tassinari, Juri; Cuomo, Roberto; Grimaldi, Luca; Nisi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Since their introduction in 1991, propeller flaps are increasingly used as a surgical approach to loss of substance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the indications and to verify the outcomes and the complication rates using this reconstructing technique through a literature review. A search on PubMed was performed using "propeller flap", "fasciocutaneous flap", "local flap" or "pedicled flap" as key words. We selected clinical studies using propeller flaps as a reconstructing technique. We found 119 studies from 1991 to 2015. Overall, 1,315 propeller flaps were reported in 1,242 patients. Most frequent indications included loss of substance following tumor excision, repair of trauma-induced injuries, burn scar contractures, pressure sores and chronic infections. Complications were observed in 281/1242 patients (22.6%) occurring more frequently in the lower limbs (31.8%). Partial flap necrosis and venous congestion were the most frequent complications. The complications' rate was significantly higher in infants (<10 years old) and in the older population (>70 years old) but there was not a significant difference between the sexes. Trend of complication rate has not improved during the last years. Propeller flaps showed a great success rate with low morbidity, quick recovery, good aesthetic outcomes and reduced cost. The quality and volume of the transferred soft tissue, the scar orientation and the possibility of direct donor site closure should be considered in order to avoid complications. Indications for propeller flaps are small- or medium-sized defects located in a well-vascularized area with healthy surrounding tissues. Copyright © 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  16. Serum and mucosal immune responses to an inactivated influenza virus vaccine induced by epidermal powder immunization.

    PubMed

    Chen, D; Periwal, S B; Larrivee, K; Zuleger, C; Erickson, C A; Endres, R L; Payne, L G

    2001-09-01

    Both circulating and mucosal antibodies are considered important for protection against infection by influenza virus in humans and animals. However, current inactivated vaccines administered by intramuscular injection using a syringe and needle elicit primarily circulating antibodies. In this study, we report that epidermal powder immunization (EPI) via a unique powder delivery system elicits both serum and mucosal antibodies to an inactivated influenza virus vaccine. Serum antibody responses to influenza vaccine following EPI were enhanced by codelivery of cholera toxin (CT), a synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide containing immunostimulatory CpG motifs (CpG DNA), or the combination of these two adjuvants. In addition, secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) antibodies were detected in the saliva and mucosal lavages of the small intestine, trachea, and vaginal tract, although the titers were much lower than the IgG titers. The local origin of the sIgA antibodies was further shown by measuring antibodies released from cultured tracheal and small intestinal fragments and by detecting antigen-specific IgA-secreting cells in the lamina propria using ELISPOT assays. EPI with a single dose of influenza vaccine containing CT or CT and CpG DNA conferred complete protection against lethal challenges with an influenza virus isolated 30 years ago, whereas a prime and boost immunizations were required for protection in the absence of an adjuvant. The ability to elicit augmented circulating antibody and mucosal antibody responses makes EPI a promising alternative to needle injection for administering vaccines against influenza and other diseases.

  17. Control of Flap Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenblatt, David

    2005-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation was carried out on a semi-span wing model to assess the feasibility of controlling vortices emanating from outboard flaps and tip-flaps by actively varying the degree of boundary layer separation. Separation was varied by means of perturbations produced from segmented zero-efflux oscillatory blowing slots, while estimates of span loadings and vortex sheet strengths were obtained by integrating wing surface pressures. These estimates were used as input to inviscid rollup relations as a means of predicting changes to the vortex characteristics resulting from the perturbations. Surveys of flow in the wake of the outboard and tip-flaps were made using a seven-hole probe, from which the vortex characteristics were directly deduced. Varying the degree of separation had a marked effect on vortex location, strength, tangential velocity, axial velocity and size for both outboard and tip-flaps. Qualitative changes in vortex characteristics were well predicted by the inviscid rollup relations, while the failure to account for viscosity was presumed to be the main reason for observed discrepancies. Introducing perturbations near the outboard flap-edges or on the tip-flap exerted significant control over vortices while producing negligible lift excursions.

  18. [A variant of island flaps for the covering of pressure sores: the hatchet flap. Apropos of 31 cases].

    PubMed

    Quillot, M; Lodde, J P; Pegorier, O; Reynaud, J P; Cormerais, A

    1994-08-01

    The authors propose a modification of the classical design of island flaps for cover of pressure sores, applied to gluteus maximus and tensor fascia lata muscles: the hatchet flap. 31 flaps have been used including 13 gluteus maximus superior flaps for sacral pressure sores, 9 gluteal inferior flaps for ischial pressure sores and 9 tensor fascia lata flaps for trochanteric pressure sores. A small partial necrosis and two cases of sepsis were observed in this series, but did not require surgical revision. The authors emphasize the value of this modification of the classical flap design, which preserves an even better musculocutaneous capital in these patients, who are often already multi-operated. The very rapid recovery of patients supports the authors' application of hatchet flaps to the surgery of pressure sores, and suggests the extension to other musculocutaneous flaps in the future.

  19. Mucosal vaccines: a paradigm shift in the development of mucosal adjuvants and delivery vehicles.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Atul; Gowda, Devegowda Vishakante; Madhunapantula, SubbaRao V; Shinde, Chetan G; Iyer, Meenakshi

    2015-04-01

    Mucosal immune responses are the first-line defensive mechanisms against a variety of infections. Therefore, immunizations of mucosal surfaces from which majority of infectious agents make their entry, helps to protect the body against infections. Hence, vaccinization of mucosal surfaces by using mucosal vaccines provides the basis for generating protective immunity both in the mucosal and systemic immune compartments. Mucosal vaccines offer several advantages over parenteral immunization. For example, (i) ease of administration; (ii) non-invasiveness; (iii) high-patient compliance; and (iv) suitability for mass vaccination. Despite these benefits, to date, only very few mucosal vaccines have been developed using whole microorganisms and approved for use in humans. This is due to various challenges associated with the development of an effective mucosal vaccine that can work against a variety of infections, and various problems concerned with the safe delivery of developed vaccine. For instance, protein antigen alone is not just sufficient enough for the optimal delivery of antigen(s) mucosally. Hence, efforts have been made to develop better prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines for improved mucosal Th1 and Th2 immune responses using an efficient and safe immunostimulatory molecule and novel delivery carriers. Therefore, in this review, we have made an attempt to cover the recent advancements in the development of adjuvants and delivery carriers for safe and effective mucosal vaccine production. © 2015 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Vaginal yeast infection

    MedlinePlus

    Yeast infection - vagina; Vaginal candidiasis; Monilial vaginitis ... Most women have a vaginal yeast infection at some time. Candida albicans is a common type of fungus. It is often found in small amounts in the ...

  1. [Aesthetic effect of wound repair with flaps].

    PubMed

    Tan, Qian; Zhou, Hong-Reng; Wang, Shu-Qin; Zheng, Dong-Feng; Xu, Peng; Wu, Jie; Ge, Hua-Qiang; Lin, Yue; Yan, Xin

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the aesthetic effect of wound repair with flaps. One thousand nine hundred and ninety-six patients with 2082 wounds hospitalized from January 2004 to December 2011. These wounds included 503 deep burn wounds, 268 pressure sores, 392 soft tissue defects caused by trauma, 479 soft tissue defects due to resection of skin cancer and mole removal, 314 soft tissue defects caused by scar excision, and 126 other wounds. Wound area ranged from 1.5 cm x 1.0 cm to 30.0 cm x 22.0 cm. Sliding flaps, expanded flaps, pedicle flaps, and free flaps were used to repair the wounds in accordance with the principle and timing of wound repair with flaps. Five flaps showed venous congestion within 48 hours post-operation, 2 flaps of them improved after local massage. One flap survived after local heparin wet packing and venous bloodletting. One flap survived after emergency surgical embolectomy and bridging with saphenous vein graft. One flap showed partial necrosis and healed after skin grafting. The other flaps survived well. One thousand three hundred and twenty-one patients were followed up for 3 months to 2 years, and flaps of them were satisfactory in shape, color, and elasticity, similar to that of normal skin. Some patients underwent scar revision later with good results. Application of suitable flaps in wound repair will result in quick wound healing, good function recovery, and satisfactory aesthetic effect.

  2. Clinical Characteristics of Aerobic Vaginitis and Its Association to Vaginal Candidiasis, Trichomonas Vaginitis and Bacterial Vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Jahic, Mahira; Mulavdic, Mirsada; Nurkic, Jasmina; Jahic, Elmir; Nurkic, Midhat

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim of the work: Examine clinical characteristics of aerobic vaginitis and mixed infection for the purpose of better diagnostic accuracy and treatment efficiency. Materials and methods: Prospective research has been conducted at Clinic for Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department for Microbiology and Pathology at Polyclinic for laboratory diagnostic and Gynecology and Obstetrics Department at Health Center Sapna. Examination included 100 examinees with the signs of vaginitis. Examination consisted of: anamnesis, clinical, gynecological and microbiological examination of vaginal smear. Results: The average age of the examinees was 32,62±2,6. Examining vaginal smears of the examinees with signs of vaginitis in 96% (N-96) different microorganisms have been isolated, while in 4% (N-4) findings were normal. AV has been found in 51% (N-51) of the examinees, Candida albicans in 17% (N-17), BV in 15% (N-15), Trichomonas vaginalis in 13% (N-13). In 21% (N-21) AV was diagnosed alone while associated with other agents in 30% (N-30). Most common causes of AV are E. coli (N-55) and E. faecalis (N-52). AV and Candida albicanis have been found in (13/30, 43%), Trichomonas vaginalis in (9/30, 30%) and BV (8/30, 26%). Vaginal secretion is in 70,05% (N-36) yellow coloured, red vagina wall is recorded in 31,13% (N-16) and pruritus in 72,54% (N-37). Increased pH value of vagina found in 94,10% (N-48). The average pH value of vaginal environment was 5,15±0,54 and in associated presence of AV and VVC, TV and BV was 5,29±0,56 which is higher value considering presence of AV alone but that is not statistically significant difference (p>0,05). Amino-odor test was positive in 29,94% (N-15) of associated infections. Lactobacilli are absent, while leukocytes are increased in 100% (N-51) of the examinees with AV. Conclusion: AV is vaginal infection similar to other vaginal infections. It is important to be careful while diagnosing because the treatment of AV differentiates from

  3. Effects of Female Sex Hormones on Susceptibility to HSV-2 in Vaginal Cells Grown in Air-Liquid Interface.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yung; Dizzell, Sara E; Leung, Vivian; Nazli, Aisha; Zahoor, Muhammad A; Fichorova, Raina N; Kaushic, Charu

    2016-08-30

    The lower female reproductive tract (FRT) is comprised of the cervix and vagina, surfaces that are continuously exposed to a variety of commensal and pathogenic organisms. Sexually transmitted viruses, such as herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), have to traverse the mucosal epithelial lining of the FRT to establish infection. The majority of current culture systems that model the host-pathogen interactions in the mucosal epithelium have limitations in simulating physiological conditions as they employ a liquid-liquid interface (LLI), in which both apical and basolateral surfaces are submerged in growth medium. We designed the current study to simulate in vivo conditions by growing an immortalized vaginal epithelial cell line (Vk2/E6E7) in culture with an air-liquid interface (ALI) and examined the effects of female sex hormones on their growth, differentiation, and susceptibility to HSV-2 under these conditions, in comparison to LLI cultures. ALI conditions induced Vk2/E6E7 cells to grow into multi-layered cultures compared to the monolayers present in LLI conditions. Vk2 cells in ALI showed higher production of cytokeratin in the presence of estradiol (E2), compared to cells grown in progesterone (P4). Cells grown under ALI conditions were exposed to HSV-2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) and the highest infection and replication was observed in the presence of P4. Altogether, this study suggests that ALI cultures more closely simulate the in vivo conditions of the FRT compared to the conventional LLI cultures. Furthermore, under these conditions P4 was found to confer higher susceptibility to HSV-2 infection in vaginal cells. The vaginal ALI culture system offers a better alternative to study host-pathogen interactions.

  4. Propeller Flap for Complex Distal Leg Reconstruction: A Versatile Alternative when Reverse Sural Artery Flap is Not Feasible.

    PubMed

    Ademola, Samuel A; Michael, Afieharo I; Oladeji, Femi J; Mbaya, Kefas M; Oyewole, O

    2015-01-01

    Reverse sural artery fasciocutaneous flap has become a workhorse for the reconstruction of distal leg soft tissue defects. When its use is not feasible, perforator-based propeller flap offers a better, easier, faster, and cheaper alternative to free flap. We present our experience with two men both aged 34 years who sustained Gustilo 3B injuries from gunshot. The donor area for reversed sural artery flap was involved in the injuries. They had early debridement, external fixation, and wound coverage with perforator-based propeller flaps. The donor sites were covered with skin graft. All flaps survived. There were minor wound edge ulcers due to the pressure of positioning that did not affect flap survival and the ulcers healed with conservative management. Perforator-based propeller flap is a versatile armamentarium for reconstruction of soft tissue defects of the distal leg in resource-constrained settings, especially when the donor area for a reverse flow sural flap artery is involved in the injury.

  5. Yeast Infection (Vaginal)

    MedlinePlus

    Yeast infection (vaginal) Overview A vaginal yeast infection is a fungal infection that causes irritation, discharge and intense itchiness ... symptoms Causes The fungus candida causes a vaginal yeast infection. Your vagina naturally contains a balanced mix of yeast, including ...

  6. Comparison of gluteal fasciocutaneous rotational flaps and myocutaneous flaps for the treatment of sacral sores

    PubMed Central

    Ip, F. K.

    2005-01-01

    To compare the outcomes of gluteal fasciocutaneous rotational flaps and myocutaneous flaps in the treatment of sacral sores, together with a review of surgical complications in two matched cohorts. Thirty-eight patients (18 gluteal fasciocutaneous rotational flaps and 20 myocutaneous flaps) were reviewed retrospectively at a mean follow-up of 58 weeks. The rate of healing of the sore, the sore healing time, and the incidence of surgical complications, together with rate of recurrence, were obtained by chart review. Treatment groups were matched by patient characteristics, operative time and blood loss. The rate of healing of the sore, sore healing time and complication rate were comparable in the two groups but the rate of recurrence was lower to a statistically significant extent in myocutaneous flap patients. The authors suggest that both methods are comparable, good and safe in treating sacral sores; myocutaneous flaps are more durable. PMID:16333656

  7. Carnauba wax nanoparticles enhance strong systemic and mucosal cellular and humoral immune responses to HIV-gp140 antigen.

    PubMed

    Arias, Mauricio A; Loxley, Andrew; Eatmon, Christy; Van Roey, Griet; Fairhurst, David; Mitchnick, Mark; Dash, Philip; Cole, Tom; Wegmann, Frank; Sattentau, Quentin; Shattock, Robin

    2011-02-01

    Induction of humoral responses to HIV at mucosal compartments without inflammation is important for vaccine design. We developed charged wax nanoparticles that efficiently adsorb protein antigens and are internalized by DC in the absence of inflammation. HIV-gp140-adsorbed nanoparticles induced stronger in vitro T-cell proliferation responses than antigen alone. Such responses were greatly enhanced when antigen was co-adsorbed with TLR ligands. Immunogenicity studies in mice showed that intradermal vaccination with HIV-gp140 antigen-adsorbed nanoparticles induced high levels of specific IgG. Importantly, intranasal immunization with HIV-gp140-adsorbed nanoparticles greatly enhanced serum and vaginal IgG and IgA responses. Our results show that HIV-gp140-carrying wax nanoparticles can induce strong cellular/humoral immune responses without inflammation and may be of potential use as effective mucosal adjuvants for HIV vaccine candidates. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The myocutaneous trapezius flap revisited: a treatment algorithm for optimal surgical outcomes based on 43 flap reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Can, Anil; Orgill, Dennis P; Dietmar Ulrich, J O; Mureau, Marc A M

    2014-12-01

    Because the vascular anatomy of the trapezius flap is highly variable, choosing the most appropriate flap type and design is essential to optimize outcomes and minimize postoperative complications. The aim of this study was to develop a surgical treatment algorithm for trapezius flap transfers. The medical files of all consecutive patients with a myocutaneous trapezius flap reconstruction of the head, neck, and upper back area treated at three different university medical centers between July 2001 and November 2012 were reviewed. There were 43 consecutive flaps performed in 38 patients with a mean follow-up time of 15 months (range, 1-48 months). Eleven patients had a mentosternal burn scar contracture (12 flaps), 12 patients (13 flaps) presented with cancer, and 15 patients (18 flaps) were suffering from chronic wounds due to failed previous reconstruction (n = 6), osteoradionecrosis (n = 1), chronic infection (n = 3), bronchopleural fistula (n = 3), and pressure sores (n = 2). The mean defect size was 152 cm(2). Sixteen flaps were based on the superficial cervical artery (SCA; type 2), 16 were based on the dorsal scapular artery (DSA; type 3), one was based on the intercostal arteries (type 4), and 10 flaps were based on both the DSA and SCA. Recipient-site complications requiring reoperation occurred in 16.3%, including one total flap failure (2.6%). The trapezius myocutaneous flap is a valuable option to reconstruct various head and neck and upper back defects. Based on our data, a surgical treatment algorithm was developed in an attempt to reduce variation in care and improve clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2014 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Treatment of ischial pressure sores with both profunda femoris artery perforator flaps and muscle flaps.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chae Min; Yun, In Sik; Lee, Dong Won; Lew, Dae Hyun; Rah, Dong Kyun; Lee, Won Jai

    2014-07-01

    Reconstruction of ischial pressure sore defects is challenging due to extensive bursas and high recurrence rates. In this study, we simultaneously applied a muscle flap that covered the exposed ischium and large bursa with sufficient muscular volume and a profunda femoris artery perforator fasciocutaneous flap for the management of ischial pressure sores. We retrospectively analyzed data from 14 patients (16 ischial sores) whose ischial defects had been reconstructed using both a profunda femoris artery perforator flap and a muscle flap between January 2006 and February 2014. We compared patient characteristics, operative procedure, and clinical course. All flaps survived the entire follow-up period. Seven patients (50%) had a history of surgery at the site of the ischial pressure sore. The mean age of the patients included was 52.8 years (range, 18-85 years). The mean follow-up period was 27.9 months (range, 3-57 months). In two patients, a biceps femoris muscle flap was used, while a gracilis muscle flap was used in the remaining patients. In four cases (25%), wound dehiscence occurred, but healed without further complication after resuturing. Additionally, congestion occurred in one case (6%), but resolved with conservative treatment. Among 16 cases, there was only one (6%) recurrence at 34 months. The combination of a profunda femoris artery perforator fasciocutaneous flap and muscle flap for the treatment of ischial pressure sores provided pliability, adequate bulkiness and few long-term complications. Therefore, this may be used as an alternative treatment method for ischial pressure sores.

  10. Treatment of Ischial Pressure Sores with Both Profunda Femoris Artery Perforator Flaps and Muscle Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chae Min; Yun, In Sik; Lee, Dong Won; Lew, Dae Hyun; Rah, Dong Kyun

    2014-01-01

    Background Reconstruction of ischial pressure sore defects is challenging due to extensive bursas and high recurrence rates. In this study, we simultaneously applied a muscle flap that covered the exposed ischium and large bursa with sufficient muscular volume and a profunda femoris artery perforator fasciocutaneous flap for the management of ischial pressure sores. Methods We retrospectively analyzed data from 14 patients (16 ischial sores) whose ischial defects had been reconstructed using both a profunda femoris artery perforator flap and a muscle flap between January 2006 and February 2014. We compared patient characteristics, operative procedure, and clinical course. Results All flaps survived the entire follow-up period. Seven patients (50%) had a history of surgery at the site of the ischial pressure sore. The mean age of the patients included was 52.8 years (range, 18-85 years). The mean follow-up period was 27.9 months (range, 3-57 months). In two patients, a biceps femoris muscle flap was used, while a gracilis muscle flap was used in the remaining patients. In four cases (25%), wound dehiscence occurred, but healed without further complication after resuturing. Additionally, congestion occurred in one case (6%), but resolved with conservative treatment. Among 16 cases, there was only one (6%) recurrence at 34 months. Conclusions The combination of a profunda femoris artery perforator fasciocutaneous flap and muscle flap for the treatment of ischial pressure sores provided pliability, adequate bulkiness and few long-term complications. Therefore, this may be used as an alternative treatment method for ischial pressure sores. PMID:25075362

  11. Gastrocnaemius-propeller extended miocutanous flap: a new chimaeric flap for soft tissue reconstruction of the knee.

    PubMed

    Innocenti, M; Cardin-Langlois, E; Menichini, G; Baldrighi, C

    2014-02-01

    Soft tissue defects involving the anterior aspect of the knee are a frequent finding in a number of pathological conditions. The aim of this article is to describe a new pedicled flap consisting of a conventional medial gastrocnaemius muscle flap associated with a propeller flap based on a perforator of the medial sural artery. Five males ranging in age between 26 and 72 years underwent a reconstruction of the soft tissue of the knee by means of the described procedure. Three patients sustained complex tissue loss subsequent to high-energy trauma; two losses were due to septic complications after elective knee surgery. Four flaps survived allowing adequate proximal tibial metaphysis and patella coverage. One patient underwent early above-the-knee amputation due to life-threatening septicaemia. The described chimaera flap consists of a medial gastrocnaemius flap with a skin paddle that is elevated on a perforator of the medial sural artery and then rotated according to the propeller flaps' principles. It provides effective coverage of large soft tissue defects of the knee. In the authors' experience, the propeller flap portion proved to be particularly useful to cover the patella, while the muscle flap was used to cover the proximal metaphysis of the tibia and fill the dead space if present. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Vaginal Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Mendling, Werner

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge about the normal and abnormal vaginal microbiome has changed over the last years. Culturing techniques are not suitable any more for determination of a normal or abnormal vaginal microbiota. Non culture-based modern technologies revealed a complex and dynamic system mainly dominated by lactobacilli.The normal and the abnormal vaginal microbiota are complex ecosystems of more than 200 bacterial species influenced by genes, ethnic background and environmental and behavioral factors. Several species of lactobacilli per individuum dominate the healthy vagina. They support a defense system together with antibacterial substances, cytokines, defensins and others against dysbiosis, infections and care for an normal pregnancy without preterm birth.The numbers of Lactobacillus (L.) iners increase in the case of dysbiosis.Bacterial vaginosis (BV) - associated bacteria (BVAB), Atopobium vaginae and Clostridiales and one or two of four Gardnerella vaginalis - strains develop in different mixtures and numbers polymicrobial biofilms on the vaginal epithelium, which are not dissolved by antibiotic therapies according to guidelines and, thus, provoke recurrences.Aerobic vaginitis seems to be an immunological disorder of the vagina with influence on the microbiota, which is here dominated by aerobic bacteria (Streptococcus agalactiae, Escherichia coli). Their role in AV is unknown.Vaginal or oral application of lactobacilli is obviously able to improve therapeutic results of BV and dysbiosis.

  13. Free Boomerang-shaped Extended Rectus Abdominis Myocutaneous flap: The longest possible skin/myocutaneous free flap for soft tissue reconstruction of extremities.

    PubMed

    Koul, Ashok R; Nahar, Sushil; Prabhu, Jagdish; Kale, Subhash M; Kumar, Praveen H P

    2011-09-01

    A soft tissue defect requiring flap cover which is longer than that provided by the conventional "long" free flaps like latissimus dorsi (LD) and anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap is a challenging problem. Often, in such a situation, a combination of flaps is required. Over the last 3 years, we have managed nine such defects successfully with a free "Boomerang-shaped" Extended Rectus Abdominis Myocutaneous (BERAM) flap. This flap is the slightly modified and "free" version of a similar flap described by Ian Taylor in 1983. This is a retrospective study of patients who underwent free BERAM flap reconstruction of soft tissue defects of extremity over the last 3 years. We also did a clinical study on 30 volunteers to compare the length of flap available using our design of BERAM flap with the maximum available flap length of LD and ALT flaps, using standard markings. Our clinical experience of nine cases combined with the results of our clinical study has confirmed that our design of BERAM flap consistently provides a flap length which is 32.6% longer than the standard LD flap and 42.2% longer than the standard ALT flap in adults. The difference is even more marked in children. The BERAM flap is consistently reliable as long as the distal end is not extended beyond the mid-axillary line. BERAM flap is simple in design, easy to harvest, reliable and provides the longest possible free skin/myocutaneous flap in the body. It is a useful new alternative for covering long soft tissue defects in the limbs.

  14. Treatment of abnormal vaginal flora in early pregnancy with clindamycin for the prevention of spontaneous preterm birth: a systematic review and metaanalysis

    PubMed Central

    Lamont, Ronald F.; Nhan-Chang, Chia-Ling; Sobel, Jack D.; Workowski, Kimberly; Conde-Agudelo, Agustin; Romero, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the administration of clindamycin to women with abnormal vaginal flora at <22 weeks of gestation reduces the risk of preterm birth and late miscarriage. We conducted a systematic review and metaanalysis of randomized controlled trials of the early administration of clindamycin to women with abnormal vaginal flora at <22 weeks of gestation. Five trials that comprised 2346 women were included. Clindamycin that was administered at <22 weeks of gestation was associated with a significantly reduced risk of preterm birth at <37 weeks of gestation and late miscarriage. There were no overall differences in the risk of preterm birth at <33 weeks of gestation, low birthweight, very low birthweight, admission to neonatal intensive care unit, stillbirth, peripartum infection, and adverse effects. Clindamycin in early pregnancy in women with abnormal vaginal flora reduces the risk of spontaneous preterm birth at <37 weeks of gestation and late miscarriage. There is evidence to justify further randomized controlled trials of clindamycin for the prevention of preterm birth. However, a deeper understanding of the vaginal microbiome, mucosal immunity, and the biology of bacterial vaginosis will be needed to inform the design of such trials. PMID:22071048

  15. Pedicled Extranasal Flaps in Skull Base Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Grace G.; Hang, Anna X.; Mitchell, Candace; Zanation, Adam M.

    2013-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks most commonly arise during or after skull base surgery, although they occasionally present spontaneously. Recent advances in the repair of CSF leaks have enabled endoscopic endonasal surgery to become the preferred option for management of skull base pathology. Small defects (<1cm) can be repaired by multilayered free grafts. For large defects (>3cm), pedicled vascular flaps are the repair method of choice, resulting in much lower rates of postoperative CSF leaks. The pedicled nasoseptal flap (NSF) constitutes the primary reconstructive option for the vast majority of skull base defects. It has a large area of potential coverage and high rates of success. However, preoperative planning is required to avoid sacrificing the NSF during resection. In cases where the NSF is unavailable, often due to tumor involvement of the septum or previous resection removing or compromising the flap, other flaps may be considered. These flaps include intranasal options—inferior turbinate (IT) or middle turbinate (MT) flaps—as well as regional pedicled flaps: pericranial flap (PCF), temporoparietal fascial flap (TPFF), or palatal flap (PF). More recently, novel alternatives such as the pedicled facial buccinator flap (FAB) and the pedicled occipital galeopericranial flap (OGP) have been added to the arsenal of options for skull base reconstruction. Characteristics of and appropriate uses for each flap are described. PMID:23257554

  16. The radix nasi island flap: a versatile musculocutaneous flap for defects of the eyelids, nose, and malar region.

    PubMed

    Seyhan, Tamer

    2009-03-01

    A versatile musculocutan flap from the radix nasi region, the radix nasi island flap, is described. The flap has an axial blood supply derived from the dorsal nasal branch of the ophthalmic artery which is anastomosed to the terminal branch of the facial artery. The flap includes the skin, subcutaneous tissue, and procerus muscle. Ten patients, aged 50 to 86 years, have been reconstructed with this flap for defects in the nose (in 4 cases), midface (in 4 cases) and lower eyelids (in 2 cases). The mean flap size was 17 x 23 mm (range: 15 x 20 to 20 x 27 mm). All flaps fully survived. Additional complications and morbidity were not observed. The donor sites were closed a primarily closure in all cases. Follow-up ranged from 3 to 12 months (mean: 8.2 months). The radix nasi flap is a safe flap, has minimal donor site morbidity, and is especially suited for nasal and midface reconstruction in terms of attaining a suitable color and thickness.

  17. Medroxyprogesterone acetate and levonorgestrel increase genital mucosal permeability and enhance susceptibility to genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection.

    PubMed

    Quispe Calla, N E; Vicetti Miguel, R D; Boyaka, P N; Hall-Stoodley, L; Kaur, B; Trout, W; Pavelko, S D; Cherpes, T L

    2016-11-01

    Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is a hormonal contraceptive especially popular in areas with high prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). Although observational studies identify DMPA as an important STI risk factor, mechanisms underlying this connection are undefined. Levonorgestrel (LNG) is another progestin used for hormonal contraception, but its effect on STI susceptibility is much less explored. Using a mouse model of genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection, we herein found that DMPA and LNG similarly reduced genital expression of the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein-1α (DSG1α), enhanced access of inflammatory cells to genital tissue by increasing mucosal epithelial permeability, and increased susceptibility to viral infection. Additional studies with uninfected mice revealed that DMPA-mediated increases in mucosal permeability promoted tissue inflammation by facilitating endogenous vaginal microbiota invasion. Conversely, concomitant treatment of mice with DMPA and intravaginal estrogen restored mucosal barrier function and prevented HSV-2 infection. Evaluating ectocervical biopsy tissue from women before and 1 month after initiating DMPA remarkably revealed that inflammation and barrier protection were altered by treatment identically to changes seen in progestin-treated mice. Together, our work reveals DMPA and LNG diminish the genital mucosal barrier; a first-line defense against all STI, but may offer foundation for new contraceptive strategies less compromising of barrier protection.

  18. Free Boomerang-shaped Extended Rectus Abdominis Myocutaneous flap: The longest possible skin/myocutaneous free flap for soft tissue reconstruction of extremities

    PubMed Central

    Koul, Ashok R.; Nahar, Sushil; Prabhu, Jagdish; Kale, Subhash M.; Kumar, Praveen H. P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: A soft tissue defect requiring flap cover which is longer than that provided by the conventional “long” free flaps like latissimus dorsi (LD) and anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap is a challenging problem. Often, in such a situation, a combination of flaps is required. Over the last 3 years, we have managed nine such defects successfully with a free “Boomerang-shaped” Extended Rectus Abdominis Myocutaneous (BERAM) flap. This flap is the slightly modified and “free” version of a similar flap described by Ian Taylor in 1983. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of patients who underwent free BERAM flap reconstruction of soft tissue defects of extremity over the last 3 years. We also did a clinical study on 30 volunteers to compare the length of flap available using our design of BERAM flap with the maximum available flap length of LD and ALT flaps, using standard markings. Results: Our clinical experience of nine cases combined with the results of our clinical study has confirmed that our design of BERAM flap consistently provides a flap length which is 32.6% longer than the standard LD flap and 42.2% longer than the standard ALT flap in adults. The difference is even more marked in children. The BERAM flap is consistently reliable as long as the distal end is not extended beyond the mid-axillary line. Conclusion: BERAM flap is simple in design, easy to harvest, reliable and provides the longest possible free skin/myocutaneous flap in the body. It is a useful new alternative for covering long soft tissue defects in the limbs. PMID:22279271

  19. Vaginal Cancer—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Two-thirds of vaginal cancer cases are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). Vaccines that protect against infection with HPV may reduce the risk of vaginal cancer. When found early, vaginal cancer can often be cured. Start here to find information on vaginal cancer treatment and research.

  20. More frequent vaginal orgasm is associated with experiencing greater excitement from deep vaginal stimulation.

    PubMed

    Brody, Stuart; Klapilova, Katerina; Krejčová, Lucie

    2013-07-01

    Research indicated that: (i) vaginal orgasm (induced by penile-vaginal intercourse [PVI] without concurrent clitoral masturbation) consistency (vaginal orgasm consistency [VOC]; percentage of PVI occasions resulting in vaginal orgasm) is associated with mental attention to vaginal sensations during PVI, preference for a longer penis, and indices of psychological and physiological functioning, and (ii) clitoral, distal vaginal, and deep vaginal/cervical stimulation project via different peripheral nerves to different brain regions. The aim of this study is to examine the association of VOC with: (i) sexual arousability perceived from deep vaginal stimulation (compared with middle and shallow vaginal stimulation and clitoral stimulation), and (ii) whether vaginal stimulation was present during the woman's first masturbation. A sample of 75 Czech women (aged 18-36), provided details of recent VOC, site of genital stimulation during first masturbation, and their recent sexual arousability from the four genital sites. The association of VOC with: (i) sexual arousability perceived from the four genital sites and (ii) involvement of vaginal stimulation in first-ever masturbation. VOC was associated with greater sexual arousability from deep vaginal stimulation but not with sexual arousability from other genital sites. VOC was also associated with women's first masturbation incorporating (or being exclusively) vaginal stimulation. The findings suggest (i) stimulating the vagina during early life masturbation might indicate individual readiness for developing greater vaginal responsiveness, leading to adult greater VOC, and (ii) current sensitivity of deep vaginal and cervical regions is associated with VOC, which might be due to some combination of different neurophysiological projections of the deep regions and their greater responsiveness to penile stimulation. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  1. Management of aerobic vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Tempera, Gianna; Furneri, Pio Maria

    2010-01-01

    Aerobic vaginitis is a new nonclassifiable pathology that is neither specific vaginitis nor bacterial vaginosis. The diversity of this microbiological peculiarity could also explain several therapeutic failures when patients were treated for infections identified as bacterial vaginosis. The diagnosis 'aerobic vaginitis' is essentially based on microscopic examinations using a phase-contrast microscope (at ×400 magnification). The therapeutic choice for 'aerobic vaginitis' should take into consideration an antibiotic characterized by an intrinsic activity against the majority of bacteria of fecal origin, bactericidal effect and poor/absent interference with the vaginal microbiota. Regarding the therapy for aerobic vaginitis when antimicrobial agents are prescribed, not only the antimicrobial spectrum but also the presumed ecological disturbance on the anaerobic and aerobic vaginal and rectal microbiota should be taken into a consideration. Because of their very low impact on the vaginal microbiota, kanamycin or quinolones are to be considered a good choice for therapy. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Cost-effectiveness of monitoring free flaps.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Shiva; Sharp, David; Jardim, Christopher; Batstone, Martin D

    2016-06-01

    Methods of free flap monitoring have become more sophisticated and expensive. This study aims to determine the cost of free flap monitoring and examine its cost effectiveness. We examined a group of patients who had had free flaps to the head and neck over a two-year period, and combined these results with costs obtained from business managers and staff. There were 132 free flaps with a success rate of 99%. The cost of monitoring was Aus $193/flap. Clinical monitoring during this time period cost Aus$25 476 and did not lead to the salvage of any free flaps. Cost equivalence is reached between monitoring and not monitoring only at a failure rate of 15.8%. This is to our knowledge the first study to calculate the cost of clinical monitoring of free flaps, and to examine its cost-effectiveness. Copyright © 2016 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. All rights reserved.

  3. Rotation Flaps-Principles and Locations.

    PubMed

    LoPiccolo, Matteo C

    2015-10-01

    The rotation flap is a classic method of tissue rearrangement. It is a simple yet effective tool for recruiting tissue from areas of laxity and redirecting vectors of tension to reconstruct wounds not amenable to primary closure. This article presents the basic design principles and specific applications of the rotation flap in dermatologic surgery. A Medline search of articles describing rotation flaps published prior to April 1, 2015 was performed, and several prominent texts in dermatologic surgery were reviewed. Information gathered from the above sources is combined with the clinical experience of the author and editors to present surgeons with a guide for planning and executing various rotation flaps. Mastering the technique of the rotation flap will allow a surgeon to repair a wide variety of cutaneous defects.

  4. Post-traumatic female urethral reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Blaivas, Jerry G; Purohit, Rajveer S

    2008-09-01

    Post-traumatic urethral damage resulting in urethrovaginal fistulas or strictures, though rare, should be suspected in patients who have unexpected urinary incontinence or lower urinary tract symptoms after pelvic surgery, pelvic fracture, a long-term indwelling urethral catheter, or pelvic radiation. Careful physical examination and cystourethroscopy are critical to diagnose and assess the extent of the fistula. A concomitant vesicovaginal or ureterovaginal fistula should also be ruled out. The two main indications for reconstruction are sphincteric incontinence and urethral obstruction. Surgical correction intends to create a continent urethra that permits volitional, painless, and unobstructed passage of urine. An autologous pubovaginal sling, with or without a Martius flap at time of reconstruction, should be considered. The three approaches to urethral reconstruction are anterior bladder flaps, posterior bladder flaps, and vaginal wall flaps. We believe vaginal flaps are usually the best option. Options for vaginal repair of fistula include primary closure, peninsula flaps, bilateral labial pedicle flaps, and labial island flaps. Outcomes are optimized by using exacting surgical principles during repair and careful postoperative management by an experienced reconstructive surgeon.

  5. Lower Extremity Free Flaps for Breast Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Dayan, Joseph H; Allen, Robert J

    2017-11-01

    Thigh-based flaps are typically a secondary option for breast reconstruction because of concerns regarding limited tissue volume and donor-site morbidity. In recent years, there have been a number of new techniques and insights that have resulted in greater flexibility and improved outcomes. This article reviews lessons learned from a large collective experience using the following 4 flaps: transverse upper gracilis also known as transverse myocutaneous gracilis, diagonal upper gracilis, profunda artery perforator, and lateral thigh perforator flaps. Flap selection considerations include the patient's fat distribution and skin laxity, perforator anatomy, and scar location. Pearls to minimize donor-site morbidity include avoiding major lymphatic collectors in the femoral triangle and along the greater saphenous vein and respecting the limits of flap dimension to reduce wound healing complications and distal ischemia. Limited flap volume may be addressed with stacking another flap from the contralateral thigh or primary fat grafting as opposed to overaggressive flap harvest from a single thigh. A detailed review of the benefits and disadvantages of each flap and strategies to improve results is discussed. With careful planning and selection, thigh-based flaps can provide a reliable option patients desiring autologous breast reconstruction.

  6. Power performance optimization and loads alleviation with active flaps using individual flap control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettas, Vasilis; Barlas, Thanasis; Gertz, Drew; Madsen, Helge A.

    2016-09-01

    The present article investigates the potential of Active Trailing Edge Flaps (ATEF) in terms of increase in annual energy production (AEP) as well as reduction of fatigue loads. The basis for this study is the DTU 10 MW Reference Wind Turbine (RWT) simulated using the aeroelastic code HAWC2. In an industrial-oriented manner the baseline rotor is upscaled by 5% and the ATEFs are implemented in the outer 30% of the blades. The flap system is kept simple and robust with a single flap section and control with wind speed, rotor azimuth, root bending moments and angle of attack in flap's mid-section being the sensor inputs. The AEP is increased due to the upscaling but also further due to the flap system while the fatigue loads in components of interest (blade, tower, nacelle and main bearing) are reduced close to the level of the original turbine. The aim of this study is to demonstrate a simple and applicable method that can be a technology enabler for rotor upscaling and lowering cost of energy.

  7. Vaginal Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... bleeding is any vaginal bleeding unrelated to normal menstruation. This type of bleeding may include spotting of ... two or more hours. Normal vaginal bleeding, or menstruation, occurs every 21 to 35 days when the ...

  8. Vaginal Odor

    MedlinePlus

    ... usually don't cause vaginal odors. Neither do yeast infections. Generally, if you have vaginal odor without ... Avoid douching. All healthy vaginas contain bacteria and yeast. The normal acidity of your vagina keeps bacteria ...

  9. Clindamycin Vaginal

    MedlinePlus

    ... an infection caused by an overgrowth of harmful bacteria in the vagina). Clindamycin is in a class ... works by slowing or stopping the growth of bacteria. Vaginal clindamycin cannot be used to treat vaginal ...

  10. Vaginal Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Vaginal problems are some of the most common reasons women go to the doctor. They may have ... common problem is vaginitis, an inflammation of the vagina. Other problems that affect the vagina include sexually ...

  11. Bilobed flap in sole surgery

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Sanchez-Conejo-Mir, J.; Bueno Montes, J.; Moreno Gimenez, J.C.

    1985-09-01

    The bilobed flap is a simple reconstructive technique principally used to correct substantial defects in the facial region. The authors present their experience with this local flap in the difficult plantar area, with excellent short-term functional results. They describe the special characteristics of the bilobed flap in this zone, and comment on its indications and possible complications.

  12. Optimization design and dynamic analysis on the drive mechanisms of flapping-wing air vehicles based on flapping trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Lingwang; Zhang, Xingwei; Luo, Pan; Huang, Panpan

    2017-10-01

    The optimization designs and dynamic analysis on the driving mechanism of flapping-wing air vehicles on base of flapping trajectory patterns is carried out in this study. Three different driving mechanisms which are spatial double crank-rocker, plane five-bar and gear-double slider, are systematically optimized and analysed by using the Mat lab and Adams software. After a series debugging on the parameter, the comparatively ideal flapping trajectories are obtained by the simulation of Adams. Present results indicate that different drive mechanisms output different flapping trajectories and have their unique characteristic. The spatial double crank-rocker mechanism can only output the arc flapping trajectory and it has the advantages of small volume, high flexibility and efficient space utilization. Both planar five-bar mechanism and gear-double slider mechanism can output the oval, figure of eight and double eight flapping trajectories. Nevertheless, the gear-double slider mechanism has the advantage of convenient parameter setting and better performance in output double eight flapping trajectory. This study can provide theoretical basis and helpful reference for the design of the drive mechanisms of flapping-wing air vehicles with different output flapping trajectories.

  13. Definition of a type of abnormal vaginal flora that is distinct from bacterial vaginosis: aerobic vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Donders, Gilbert G G; Vereecken, Annie; Bosmans, Eugene; Dekeersmaecker, Alfons; Salembier, Geert; Spitz, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    To define an entity of abnormal vaginal flora: aerobic vaginitis. Observational study. University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven, Belgium. 631 women attending for routine prenatal care or attending vaginitis clinic. Samples were taken for fresh wet mount microscopy of vaginal fluid, vaginal cultures and measurement of lactate, succinate and cytokine levels in vaginal fluid. Smears deficient in lactobacilli and positive for clue cells were considered to indicate a diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. Aerobic vaginitis was diagnosed if smears were deficient in lactobacilli, positive for cocci or coarse bacilli, positive for parabasal epithelial cells, and/or positive for vaginal leucocytes (plus their granular aspect). Genital complaints include red inflammation, yellow discharge, vaginal dyspareunia. Group B streptococci, escherichia coli, staphylococcus aureus and trichomonas vaginalis are frequently cultured. Vaginal lactate concentration is severely depressed in women with aerobic vaginitis, as in bacterial vaginosis, but vaginal succinate is not produced. Also in contrast to bacterial vaginosis, aerobic vaginitis produces a host immune response that leads to high production of interleukin-6, interleukin-1-beta and leukaemia inhibitory factor in the vaginal fluid. Aerobic vaginitis is associated with aerobic micro-organisms, mainly group B streptococci and E. coli. Its characteristics are different from those of bacterial vaginosis and elicit an important host response. The most severe form of aerobic vaginitis equals desquamative inflammatory vaginitis. In theory, aerobic vaginitis may be a better candidate than bacterial vaginosis as the cause of pregnancy complications, such as ascending chorioamnionitis, preterm rupture of the membranes and preterm delivery.

  14. Skin flaps and grafts - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Free flap - self-care; Skin autografting - self-care; Pressure ulcer skin flap self-care; Burns skin flap self- ... skin infection Surgery for skin cancer Venous ulcers , pressure ulcers , or diabetic ulcers that DO NOT heal After ...

  15. Amine content of vaginal fluid from untreated and treated patients with nonspecific vaginitis.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, K C; Forsyth, P S; Buchanan, T M; Holmes, K K

    1979-01-01

    We examined the vaginal washings from patients with nonspecific vaginitis (NSV) to seek biochemical markers and possible explanations for the signs and symptoms of this syndrome. Seven amines were identified including methylamine, isobutylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, and phenethylamine. These amines may contribute to the symptoms of NSV and may contribute to the elevated pH of the vaginal discharge. They may also be partly responsible for the "fishy" odor that is characteristic of vaginal discharges from these patients. Among the seven amines, putrescine and cadaverine were the most abundant and were present in all vaginal discharges from each of ten patients before treatment. These amines are produced in vitro during growth of mixed vaginal bacteria in chemically defined medium, presumably by decarboxylation of the corresponding amino acids. We hypothesize the anaerobic vaginal organisms, previously shown to be quantitatively increased in NSV, are responsible for the amine production, because metronidazole inhibited the production of amines by vaginal bacteria in vitro, and Haemophilus vaginalis did not produce amines. H. vaginalis did release high concentrations of pyruvic acid and of amino acids during growth in peptone-starch-dextrose medium, whereas, other vaginal flora consumed both pyruvic acid and amino acids in the same medium during growth. These findings suggest that a symbiotic relationship may exist between H. vaginalis and other vaginal flora in patients with NSV. Images PMID:447831

  16. Interactions of microbicide nanoparticles with a simulated vaginal fluid.

    PubMed

    das Neves, José; Rocha, Cristina M R; Gonçalves, Maria Pilar; Carrier, Rebecca L; Amiji, Mansoor; Bahia, Maria Fernanda; Sarmento, Bruno

    2012-11-05

    The interaction with cervicovaginal mucus presents the potential to impact the performance of drug nanocarriers. These systems must migrate through this biological fluid in order to deliver their drug payload to the underlying mucosal surface. We studied the ability of dapivirine-loaded polycaprolactone (PCL)-based nanoparticles (NPs) to interact with a simulated vaginal fluid (SVF) incorporating mucin. Different surface modifiers were used to produce NPs with either negative (poloxamer 338 NF and sodium lauryl sulfate) or positive (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) surface charge. Studies were performed using the mucin particle method, rheological measurements, and real-time multiple particle tracking. Results showed that SVF presented rheological properties similar to those of human cervicovaginal mucus. Analysis of NP transport indicated mild interactions with mucin and low adhesive potential. In general, negatively charged NPs underwent subdiffusive transport in SVF, i.e., hindered as compared to their diffusion in water, but faster than for positively charged NPs. These differences were increased when the pH of SVF was changed from 4.2 to 7.0. Diffusivity was 50- and 172-fold lower in SVF at pH 4.2 than in water for negatively charged and positively charged NPs, respectively. At pH 7.0, this decrease was around 20- and 385-fold, respectively. The estimated times required to cross a layer of SVF were equal to or lower than 1.7 h for negatively charged NPs, while for positively charged NPs these values were equal to or higher than 7 h. Overall, our results suggest that negatively charged PCL NPs may be suitable to be used as carriers in order to deliver dapivirine and potentially other antiretroviral drugs to the cervicovaginal mucosal lining. Also, they further reinforce the importance in characterizing the interactions of nanosystems with mucus fluids or surrogates when considering mucosal drug delivery.

  17. Development of a morphing flap using shape memory alloy actuators: the aerodynamic characteristics of a morphing flap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Seung-Hee; Bae, Jae-Sung; Rho, Jin-Ho

    2014-07-01

    The discontinuous contour of a wing with conventional flaps diminishes the aerodynamic performance of an aircraft. A wing with a continuous contour does not experience extreme flow stream fluctuations during flight, and consequently has good aerodynamic characteristics. In this study, a morphing flap using shape memory alloy actuators is proposed, designed and fabricated, and its aerodynamic characteristics are investigated using aerodynamic analyses and wind tunnel tests. The ribs of the morphing flap are designed and fabricated with multiple elements joined together in a way that allows relative rotations of adjacent elements and forms a smooth contour of the morphing flap. The aerodynamic analyses of this multiple-element morphing-flap wing are performed using XFLR pro; its aerodynamic performance is compared with that of a mechanical-flap wing, and is measured through wind-tunnel tests.

  18. Characterisation of protein stability in rod-insert vaginal rings.

    PubMed

    Pattani, Aditya; Lowry, Deborah; Curran, Rhonda M; McGrath, Stephanie; Kett, Vicky L; Andrews, Gavin P; Malcolm, R Karl

    2012-07-01

    A major goal in vaccine development is elimination of the 'cold chain', the transport and storage system for maintenance and distribution of the vaccine product. This is particularly pertinent to liquid formulation of vaccines. We have previously described the rod-insert vaginal ring (RiR) device, comprising an elastomeric body into which are inserted lyophilised, rod-shaped, solid drug dosage forms, and having potential for sustained mucosal delivery of biomacromolecules, such as HIV envelope protein-based vaccine candidates. Given the solid, lyophilised nature of these insert dosage forms, we hypothesised that antigen stability may be significantly increased compared with more conventional solubilised vaginal gel format. In this study, we prepared and tested vaginal ring devices fitted with lyophilised rod inserts containing the model antigen bovine serum albumin (BSA). Both the RiRs and the gels that were freeze-dried to prepare the inserts were evaluated for BSA stability using PAGE, turbidimetry, microbial load, MALDI-TOF and qualitative precipitate solubility measurements. When stored at 4 °C, but not when stored at 40 °C/75% RH, the RiR formulation offered protection against structural and conformational changes to BSA. The insert also retained matrix integrity and release characteristics. The results demonstrate that lypophilised gels can provide relative protection against degradation at lower temperatures compared to semi-solid gels. The major mechanism of degradation at 40 °C/75% RH was shown to be protein aggregation. Finally, in a preliminary study, we found that addition of trehalose to the formulation significantly reduces the rate of BSA degradation compared to the original formulation when stored at 40 °C/75% RH. Establishing the mechanism of degradation, and finding that degradation is decelerated in the presence of trehalose, will help inform further development of RiRs specifically and polymer based freeze-dried systems in general. Copyright

  19. Vaginal orgasm is associated with vaginal (not clitoral) sex education, focusing mental attention on vaginal sensations, intercourse duration, and a preference for a longer penis.

    PubMed

    Brody, Stuart; Weiss, Petr

    2010-08-01

    Evidence was recently provided for vaginal orgasm, orgasm triggered purely by penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI), being associated with better psychological functioning. Common sex education and sexual medicine approaches might undermine vaginal orgasm benefits. To examine the extent to which women's vaginal orgasm consistency is associated with (i) being told in childhood or adolescence that the vagina was the important zone for inducing female orgasm; (ii) how well they focus mentally on vaginal sensations during PVI; (iii) greater PVI duration; and (iv) preference for above-average penis length.   In a representative sample of the Czech population, 1,000 women reported their vaginal orgasm consistency (from never to almost every time; only 21.9% never had a vaginal orgasm), estimates of their typical foreplay and PVI durations, what they were told in childhood and adolescence was the important zone for inducing female orgasm, their degree of focus on vaginal sensations during PVI, and whether they were more likely to orgasm with a longer than average penis. The association of vaginal orgasm consistency with the predictors noted above. Vaginal orgasm consistency was associated with all hypothesized correlates. Multivariate analysis indicated the most important predictors were being educated that the vagina is important for female orgasm, being mentally focused on vaginal sensations during PVI, and in some analyses duration of PVI (but not foreplay) and preferring a longer than average penis. Focusing attention on penile-vaginal sensation supports vaginal orgasm and the myriad benefits thereof. Brody S, and Weiss P. Vaginal orgasm is associated with vaginal (not clitoral) sex education, focusing mental attention on vaginal sensations, intercourse duration, and a preference for a longer penis. © 2009 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  20. Aerodynamic characteristics of a wing with Fowler flaps including flap loads, downwash, and calculated effect on take-off

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, Robert C

    1936-01-01

    This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests of a wing in combination with each of three sizes of Fowler flap. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the aerodynamic characteristics as affected by flap chord and position, the air loads on the flaps, and the effect of flaps on the downwash.

  1. Vaginal cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... essential to determine what type of cyst or mass you may have. A mass or bulge of the vaginal wall may be ... to rule out vaginal cancer, especially if the mass appears to be solid. If the cyst is ...

  2. Menopause and the vaginal microbiome.

    PubMed

    Muhleisen, Alicia L; Herbst-Kralovetz, Melissa M

    2016-09-01

    For over a century it has been well documented that bacteria in the vagina maintain vaginal homeostasis, and that an imbalance or dysbiosis may be associated with poor reproductive and gynecologic health outcomes. Vaginal microbiota are of particular significance to postmenopausal women and may have a profound effect on vulvovaginal atrophy, vaginal dryness, sexual health and overall quality of life. As molecular-based techniques have evolved, our understanding of the diversity and complexity of this bacterial community has expanded. The objective of this review is to compare the changes that have been identified in the vaginal microbiota of menopausal women, outline alterations in the microbiome associated with specific menopausal symptoms, and define how hormone replacement therapy impacts the vaginal microbiome and menopausal symptoms; it concludes by considering the potential of probiotics to reinstate vaginal homeostasis following menopause. This review details the studies that support the role of Lactobacillus species in maintaining vaginal homeostasis and how the vaginal microbiome structure in postmenopausal women changes with decreasing levels of circulating estrogen. In addition, the associated transformations in the microanatomical features of the vaginal epithelium that can lead to vaginal symptoms associated with menopause are described. Furthermore, hormone replacement therapy directly influences the dominance of Lactobacillus in the microbiota and can resolve vaginal symptoms. Oral and vaginal probiotics hold great promise and initial studies complement the findings of previous research efforts concerning menopause and the vaginal microbiome; however, additional trials are required to determine the efficacy of bacterial therapeutics to modulate or restore vaginal homeostasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence of vaginal candidiasis among pregnant women with abnormal vaginal discharge in Maiduguri.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, S M; Bukar, M; Mohammed, Y; Mohammed, B; Yahaya, M; Audu, B M; Ibrahim, H M; Ibrahim, H A

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy represents a risk factor in the occurrence of vaginal candidiasis. To determine the prevalence and clinical features associated with abnormal vaginal discharge and C. albicans infection in pregnant women. High vaginal swab samples and data on epidemiological characteristics were collected from 400 pregnant women with complaints of abnormal vaginal discharge at booking clinic of University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital. The data was analysed using SPSS 16.0 statistical software. The prevalence of abnormal vaginal discharge in pregnancy was 31.5%. The frequency of abnormal vaginal discharge was 183 (45.8%) among those aged 20-24 years, 291 (72.8%) in multipara, 223 (55.8%) in those with Primary education and 293 (73.2%) in unemployed. Vulval pruritus 300 (75.0%) was significantly related to abnormal vaginal discharge (P < 0.001). The prevalence of C. albicans was 41%. The frequencies of Vulval itching, Dyspareunia and vulval excoriation among those with candidiasis were 151 (50.3%), 14 (56.0%) and 75 (75.0%) respectively (P < 0.001). The prevalence of abnormal vaginal discharge in pregnancy was high in this study and C. albicans was the commonest cause. It is recommended that a pregnant woman complaining of abnormal vaginal discharge be assessed and Laboratory diagnosis done in order to give appropriate treatment.

  4. Perforator Peroneal Artery Flap for Tongue Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Shubhra; Chavre, Sachin; Chandrashekar, Naveen Hedne; B S, Naveen

    2017-03-01

    Reconstruction has evolved long way from primary closure to flaps. As time evolved, better understanding of vascularity of flap has led to the development of innovative reconstructive techniques. These flaps can be raised from various parts of the body for reconstruction and have shown least donor site morbidity. We use one such peroneal artery perforator flap for tongue reconstruction with advantage of thin pliable flap, minimal donor site morbidity and hidden scar. Our patient 57yrs old lady underwent wide local excision with selective neck dissection. Perforators are marked about 10 and 15 cm inferiorly from the fibular head using hand held Doppler. Leg is positioned in such a way to give better exposure during dissection of the flap and flap is harvested under a tourniquet with pressure kept 350 mm Hg. The perforator is kept at the eccentric location, so as to gain length of the pedicle. Skin incison is placed over the peroneal muscle and deepened unto the deep facia, then the dissection is continued over the muscle and the perforator arising from the lateral septum. The proximal perforator about 10 cm from the fibular head is a constant perforator and bigger one, which is traced up to the peroneal vessel. We could get a 6 cm of pedicle length. Finally the flap is islanded on this perforator and the pedicle is ligated and flap harvested. Anastamosis was done to the ipsilateral side to facial vessels. The donor site is closed primarily and in the upper half one can harvest 5 cm width flap without requiring a skin graft along with a length of 8 to 12 cm. Various local and free flap has been used for reconstruction of partial tongue defects with its obvious donor site problems, like less pliable skin and not so adequate tissue from local flaps and sacrificing a important artery as in radial forearm flap serves as the work horse in reconstruction of partial tongue defects, Concept of super microsurgery was popularized by Japanese in 1980s and the concept of

  5. Lower Extremity Reconstruction with Free Gracilis Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Nicoson, Michael C; Parikh, Rajiv P; Tung, Thomas H

    2017-01-01

    Background There have been significant advancements in lower extremity reconstruction over the last several decades, and the plastic surgeon’s armamentarium has grown to include free muscle and fasciocutaneous flaps along with local perforator and propeller flaps. While we have found a use for a variety of techniques for lower extremity reconstruction, the free gracilis has been our workhorse flap due to the ease of harvest, reliability, and low donor site morbidity. Methods This is a retrospective review of a single surgeon’s series of free gracilis flaps utilized for lower extremity reconstruction. Demographic information, comorbidities, outcomes and secondary procedures were analyzed. Results We identified 24 free gracilis flaps. The duration from injury to free flap coverage was 7 days or less in 6 patients, 8–30 days in 11 patients, 31–90 days in 4 patients, and > 90 days in 3 patients. There were 22 (92%) successful flaps and an overall limb salvage rate of 92%. There was one partial flap loss. Two flaps underwent incision and drainage in the operating room for infection. Two patients developed donor site hematomas. Four patients underwent secondary procedures for contouring. Our subset of pediatric patients had 100% flap survival and no secondary procedures at a mean 30 month follow up. Conclusions This study demonstrates the utility of the free gracilis flap in reconstruction of small to medium sized defects of the lower extremity. This flap has a high success rate and low donor site morbidity. Atrophy of the denervated muscle over time allows for good shoe fit, often obviating the need for secondary contouring procedures. PMID:28024305

  6. Usefulness of myofascial flap without skin in contemporary oral and maxillofacial reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Wada, Takeshi; Nakatani, Ken; Hiraishi, Yukihiro; Negoro, Kenji; Iwagami, Yoshinobu; Fujita, Shigeyuki

    2011-06-01

    Pedicle myofascial graft should be considered in contemporary oral and maxillofacial reconstruction for the following reasons: 1) the pedicle myofascial unit is reliable and easily handled; 2) on the grafted myofascia in the oral cavity, the mucosa regenerates naturally with regard to suppleness and surface characteristics; and 3) vascularized myofascial coverage of tissues or materials is useful in some clinical situations. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the usefulness of this graft material. Using myofascial flaps from the pectoralis major muscle in 15 patients and from the platysma muscle in 11 patients, several types of reconstructive procedures were conducted in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Wakayama Medical University. Myofascial tissue was used to cover the surgical defect and for regeneration of oral mucosa (24 patients), to prevent exposure of the mandibular reconstruction plate (4 patients), for prevention of wound breakdown and secondary infection in the oral cavity (2 patients), for vascularized coverage of free grafted autologous bone (2 patients), and for protection of large vessels after radical neck dissection (9 patients). Although partial flap necrosis or wound dehiscence was noticed in 3 patients with a platysma-myofascial graft, the healing process of all patients was favorable and required no additional operations. This procedure is most suitable for the reconstruction of small to medium-sized soft tissue defects in the oral cavity, because it induces the formation of nearly normal mucosa through epithelial regeneration without clear scar formation. Myofascial flap is a useful option in certain oral and maxillofacial reconstruction cases in which mucosal regeneration and/or vascularized soft tissue coverage are required. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Reconstruction of a traumatic plantar foot defect with a novel free flap: The medial triceps brachii free flap.

    PubMed

    Leclère, Franck Marie; Casoli, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Lower extremity defects may account for 14.6% of the approximately 117 million visits to emergency departments in the U. S. in 2007. In this article, we present a reconstruction of a traumatic plantar foot defect with a medial triceps brachii (MTB) free flap. A 53-year-old man sustained an accidental gunshot wound to the right foot. The patient was admitted after the failure of a sural flap procedure performed in another hospital. He presented with a soft-tissue defect with calcaneal exposition and osteomyelitis. The defect was reconstructed with a MTB free flap anastomosed to his dorsalis pedis vessels. Flap raising time was 52 min. There were no intraoperative complications. The total flap surface was 38.5 cm². The pedicle length was 3 cm. The diameters of the artery and vein of the flap pedicle were 1.1 mm and 1.4 mm, respectively. Ischemia time was 28 min. His donor site healed uneventfully without any morbidity, and the scar was well concealed. The flaps survived and there was no partial flap necrosis. A split-thickness skin graft was performed 12 days postoperatively. Two months later, he had a completely healed wound with no contour abnormality. The total follow-up was 24 months. The patient was able to walk normally. MTB free flap appears to be an excellent option for plantar foot defects in patients with preserved vascularization of the foot. Due to the anatomical shape of the flap, the position of its pedicle, and the moldability of the muscle, we predict that the use of the MTB free flap will grow and develop rapidly for reconstruction of ankle and foot defects.

  8. Tensor fascia lata flap versus tensor fascia lata perforator-based island flap for the coverage of extensive trochanteric pressure sores.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youn Hwan; Kim, Sang Wha; Kim, Jeong Tae; Kim, Chang Yeon

    2013-06-01

    Tensor fascia lata (TFL) musculocutaneous flaps often require a donor site graft when harvesting a large flap. However, a major drawback is that it also sacrifices the muscle. To overcome this disadvantage, we designed a TFL perforator-based island flap that was harvested from a site near the defect and involved transposition within 90 degrees without full isolation of the pedicles. We performed procedures on 17 musculocutaneous flaps and 23 perforator-based island flaps, and compared the outcomes of these surgeries. The overall complication rate was 27.5% (11 regions). There were 7 complications related to the musculocutaneous flaps and 4 complications related to the perforator flaps. Although there were no statistical differences between those groups, lower complication rates were associated with procedures involving perforator flaps. The TFL perforator procedure is a simple and fast operation that avoids sacrificing muscle. This decreases complication rates compared to true perforator flap techniques that require dissection around the perforator or pedicle.

  9. Rate-determining Step of Flap Endonuclease 1 (FEN1) Reflects a Kinetic Bias against Long Flaps and Trinucleotide Repeat Sequences.

    PubMed

    Tarantino, Mary E; Bilotti, Katharina; Huang, Ji; Delaney, Sarah

    2015-08-21

    Flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) is a structure-specific nuclease responsible for removing 5'-flaps formed during Okazaki fragment maturation and long patch base excision repair. In this work, we use rapid quench flow techniques to examine the rates of 5'-flap removal on DNA substrates of varying length and sequence. Of particular interest are flaps containing trinucleotide repeats (TNR), which have been proposed to affect FEN1 activity and cause genetic instability. We report that FEN1 processes substrates containing flaps of 30 nucleotides or fewer at comparable single-turnover rates. However, for flaps longer than 30 nucleotides, FEN1 kinetically discriminates substrates based on flap length and flap sequence. In particular, FEN1 removes flaps containing TNR sequences at a rate slower than mixed sequence flaps of the same length. Furthermore, multiple-turnover kinetic analysis reveals that the rate-determining step of FEN1 switches as a function of flap length from product release to chemistry (or a step prior to chemistry). These results provide a kinetic perspective on the role of FEN1 in DNA replication and repair and contribute to our understanding of FEN1 in mediating genetic instability of TNR sequences. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. A Pilot Study Measuring the Distribution and Permeability of a Vaginal HIV Microbicide Gel Vehicle Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography, and a Radiolabeled Small Molecule.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Edward J; Schwartz, Jill L; Friend, David R; Coleman, Jenell S; Hendrix, Craig W

    2015-11-01

    Vaginal microbicide gels containing tenofovir have proven effective in HIV prevention, offering the advantage of reduced systemic toxicity. We studied the vaginal distribution and effect on mucosal permeability of a gel vehicle. Six premenopausal women were enrolled. In Phase 1, a spreading gel containing (99m)technetium-DTPA ((99m)Tc) radiolabel and gadolinium contrast for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was dosed intravaginally. MRI was obtained at 0.5, 4, and 24 h, and single photon emission computed tomography with conventional computed tomography (SPECT/CT) at 1.5, 5, and 25 h postdosing. Pads and tissues were measured for activity to determine gel loss. In Phase 2, nonoxynol-9 (N-9), containing (99m)Tc-DTPA, was dosed as a permeability control; permeability was measured in blood and urine for both phases. SPECT/CT showed the distribution of spreading gel throughout the vagina with the highest concentration of radiosignal in the fornices and ectocervix; signal intensity diminished over 25 h. MRI showed the greatest signal accumulation in the fornices, most notably 1-4 h postdosing. The median (interquartile range) isotope signal loss from the vagina through 6 h was 29.1% (15.8-39.9%). Mucosal permeability to (99m)Tc-DTPA following spreading gel was negligible, in contrast to N-9, with detectable radiosignal in plasma, peaking at 8 h (5-12). Following spreading gel dosing, 0.004% (0.001-2.04%) of the radiosignal accumulated in urine over 12 h compared to 8.31% (7.07-11.01%) with N-9, (p=0.043). Spreading gel distributed variably throughout the vagina, persisting for 24 h, with signal concentrating in the fornices and ectocervix. The spreading gel had no significant effect on vaginal mucosal permeability.

  11. Herbs in Oral Mucositis

    PubMed Central

    Baharvand, Maryam; Jafari, Soudeh

    2017-01-01

    Oral mucositis is an inflammatory mucosal destruction as a result of chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy, which in severe cases can impair patients’ quality of life. Moreover, mucosal infection and/or systemic involvement due to compromised immunity leads to delay or discontinuation of the treatment. Many strategies and agents have been suggested for the management of this condition. Because of their lower side effects compared to chemical drugs, general interest in evaluating therapeutic effects of herbs has been increased intensively. Herbal plants apply their effect through different mechanisms of action: antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antiseptic, and anticarcinogenic activity. Recently, various natural agents in plants have been noticed in mucositis, which may improve the symptoms through different interventions. The purpose of this review is to focus on the preventive or therapeutic use of herbal medicine to alleviate oral mucositis. PMID:28511530

  12. Evaluation of the cranial rectus abdominus muscle pedicle flap as a blood supply for the caudal superficial epigastric skin flap in dogs.

    PubMed

    Degner, D A; Walshaw, R; Arnoczky, S P; Smith, R J; Patterson, J S; Degner, L A; Hamaide, A; Rosenstein, D

    1996-01-01

    This study evaluates the cranial rectus abdominus muscle pedicle flap as the sole blood supply for the caudal superficial epigastric skin flap. This flap was composed of a cranially based rectus abdominus muscle pedicle flap that was attached to the caudal superficial epigastric island skin flap (including mammary glands 2 to 5) via the pudendoepigastric trunk. Selective angiography of the cranial epigastric artery in eight cadaver dogs proved that the arterial vasculature in the cranial rectus abdominus was contiguous with that in the caudal superficial epigastric skin flap. In the live dog study, three of six of the flaps failed because of venous insufficiency. Necrosis of mammary gland 2 occurred in two of six flaps. One of six flaps survived with the exception of the cranial most aspect of mammary gland 2. Angiography of the cranial epigastric artery proved that arterial blood supply to these flaps was intact. Histological evaluation of the failed flaps showed full-thickness necrosis of the skin and subcutaneous tissues, the presence of severe congestion, and venous thrombosis. Retrograde venous blood flow through the flap was inconsistent, and hence resulted in failure of this myocutaneous flap. Use of this flap for clinical wound reconstruction cannot be recommended.

  13. Vaginal Fistula

    MedlinePlus

    Vaginal fistula Overview A vaginal fistula is an abnormal opening that connects your vagina to another organ, such as your bladder, colon or rectum. Your ... describe the condition as a hole in your vagina that allows stool or urine to pass through ...

  14. Comparison between vaginal royal jelly and vaginal estrogen effects on quality of life and vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women: a clinical trial study.

    PubMed

    Seyyedi, Fatemeh; Kopaei, Mahmoud Rafiean; Miraj, Sepideh

    2016-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the therapeutic effects of vaginal royal jelly and vaginal estrogen on quality of life and vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women. This double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial was carried out at gynecology and obstetrics clinics of Hajar Hospital of Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences (Iran) from January 2013 to January 2014. The study was conducted on married postmenopausal women between 50 and 65 years old. Of 120 patients, 30 individuals were excluded based on the exclusion criteria, and 90 women were randomly distributed into three groups of 30 royal jelly vaginal cream 15%, vaginal Premarin, and placebo (lubricant), for three months. At the beginning and the end of the study, quality of life and vaginal cytology assay were evaluated. Data were analyzed by SPSS Version 11. Vaginal cream of royal jelly is significantly more effective than vaginal cream of Premarin and lubricant in improvement of quality of life in postmenopausal women (p<0.05). Moreover, Pap smear results showed that vaginal atrophy in vaginal Premarin group was lower than the other groups (p<0.001), and there was no significant difference between lubricant and royal jelly groups (p=0.89). Administration of vaginal royal jelly was effective in quality-of-life improvement of postmenopausal women. Given to the various properties of royal jelly and its effectiveness on quality of life and vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women, further studies are recommended for using =royal jelly in improving menopausal symptoms. The trial was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (http://www.irct.ir) with the IRCT code: 2014112220043n1. Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences supported this research (project no. 1440).

  15. 14 CFR 23.697 - Wing flap controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wing flap controls. 23.697 Section 23.697... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 23.697 Wing flap controls. (a) Each wing flap control must be designed so that, when the flap...

  16. 14 CFR 23.697 - Wing flap controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 23.697 Wing flap controls. (a) Each wing flap control must be designed so that, when the flap... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wing flap controls. 23.697 Section 23.697...

  17. 14 CFR 23.697 - Wing flap controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 23.697 Wing flap controls. (a) Each wing flap control must be designed so that, when the flap... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wing flap controls. 23.697 Section 23.697...

  18. 14 CFR 23.697 - Wing flap controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 23.697 Wing flap controls. (a) Each wing flap control must be designed so that, when the flap... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wing flap controls. 23.697 Section 23.697...

  19. 14 CFR 23.697 - Wing flap controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 23.697 Wing flap controls. (a) Each wing flap control must be designed so that, when the flap... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wing flap controls. 23.697 Section 23.697...

  20. Why mucosal health?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aquaculture species depend more heavily on mucosal barriers than their terrestrial agricultural counterparts as they are continuously interacting with the aquatic microbiota. Unlike classical immune centers, such as the spleen and kidney, the accessibility of mucosal surfaces through immersion/dip t...

  1. Propeller thoracodorsal artery perforator flap for breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Angrigiani, Claudio; Rancati, Alberto; Escudero, Ezequiel; Artero, Guillermo; Gercovich, Gustavo; Deza, Ernesto Gil

    2014-08-01

    The thoracodorsal artery perforator (TDAP) flap has been described for breast reconstruction. This flap requires intramuscular dissection of the pedicle. A modification of the conventional TDAP surgical technique for breast reconstruction is described, utilizing instead a propeller TDAP flap. The authors present their clinical experience with the propeller TDAP flap in breast reconstruction alone or in combination with expanders or permanent implants. From January 2009 to February 2013, sixteen patients had breast reconstruction utilizing a propeller TDAP flap. Retrospective analysis of patient characteristics, clinical indications, procedure and outcomes were performed. The follow-up period ranged from 4 to 48 months. Sixteen patients had breast reconstruction using a TDAP flap with or without simultaneous insertion of an expander or implant. All flaps survived, while two cases required minimal resection due to distal flap necrosis, healing by second intention. There were not donor-site seromas, while minimal wound dehiscence was detected in two cases. The propeller TDAP flap appears to be safe and effective for breast reconstruction, resulting in minimal donor site morbidity. The use of this propeller flap emerges as a true alternative to the traditional TDAP flap.

  2. Vaginal lactobacilli profile in pregnant women with normal & abnormal vaginal flora.

    PubMed

    Yeruva, Thirupathaiah; Rajkumar, Hemalatha; Donugama, Vasundhara

    2017-10-01

    Lactobacilli species that are better adapted to vaginal environment of women may colonize better and offer protection against vaginal pathogenic bacteria. In this study, the distribution of common Lactobacillus species was investigated in pregnant women. Sixty seven pregnant women were included in the study and vaginal samples were collected for Gram staining. Women were classified as normal vaginal flora, intermediate flora and bacterial vaginosis (BV) based on Nugent's score. Vaginal samples were also collected for the identification of Lactobacillus spp. by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) profiling of 16S rDNA amplification method. Lactobacillus crispatus (100%) was the most predominant Lactobacillus spp. present in pregnant women with normal flora, followed by L. iners (77%), L. jensenii (74%) and L. helveticus (60%). While, L. iners was commonly present across groups in women with normal, intermediate or BV flora, L. crispatus, L. jensenii and L. helveticus decreased significantly as the vaginal flora changed to intermediate and BV. In women with BV, except L. iners other species of lactobacilli was less frequently prevalent. Species such as L. rhamnosus, L. fermentum, L. paracasei and L. casei were not detected in any vaginal sample. L. crispatus, L. jensinii and L. helveticus were predominant species in women with normal flora. L. crispatus alone or in combination with L. jensinii and L. helveticus may be evaluated for probiotic properties for the prevention and treatment of BV.

  3. Free flap reconstruction for diabetic foot limb salvage.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tomoya; Yana, Yuichiro; Ichioka, Shigeru

    2017-12-01

    Although free flap is gaining popularity for the reconstruction of diabetic foot ulcers, it is unclear whether free flap reconstruction increases the chances of postoperative independent ambulation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between free flap success and postoperative ambulation. This study reviewed 23 cases of free flap reconstruction for diabetic foot ulcers between January 2007 and March 2014. Free rectus abdominis, latissimus dorsi, and anterolateral thigh flaps were used in ten, eight, and five patients, respectively. A comparison was made between free flap success and postoperative independent ambulation using Fisher's exact test. Two patients developed congestive heart failure with fatal consequences within 14 days postoperatively, resulting in an in-hospital mortality rate of 8.7%. Five patients lost their flaps (21.7%). Of the 16 patients who had flap success, 12 achieved independent ambulation. Five patients with flap loss did not achieve independent ambulation, except one patient who underwent secondary flap reconstruction using a distally based sural flap. Fisher's exact test revealed that independent ambulation was associated with free flap success (p = 0.047). The present study indicates that free flap reconstruction may increase the possibility of independent ambulation for patients with extensive tissue defects due to diabetic ulcers. Intermediate limb salvage rates and independent ambulation rates were favourable in patients with successful reconstruction. The use of foot orthoses and a team approach with pedorthists were effective to prevent recurrence.

  4. Vaginal biogenic amines: biomarkers of bacterial vaginosis or precursors to vaginal dysbiosis?

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Tiffanie M.; Borgogna, Joanna-Lynn C.; Brotman, Rebecca M.; Ravel, Jacques; Walk, Seth T.; Yeoman, Carl J.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common vaginal disorder among reproductive age women. One clinical indicator of BV is a “fishy” odor. This odor has been associated with increases in several biogenic amines (BAs) that may serve as important biomarkers. Within the vagina, BA production has been linked to various vaginal taxa, yet their genetic capability to synthesize BAs is unknown. Using a bioinformatics approach, we show that relatively few vaginal taxa are predicted to be capable of producing BAs. Many of these taxa (Dialister, Prevotella, Parvimonas, Megasphaera, Peptostreptococcus, and Veillonella spp.) are more abundant in the vaginal microbial community state type (CST) IV, which is depleted in lactobacilli. Several of the major Lactobacillus species (L. crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. gasseri) were identified as possessing gene sequences for proteins predicted to be capable of putrescine production. Finally, we show in a small cross sectional study of 37 women that the BAs putrescine, cadaverine and tyramine are significantly higher in CST IV over CSTs I and III. These data support the hypothesis that BA production is conducted by few vaginal taxa and may be important to the outgrowth of BV-associated (vaginal dysbiosis) vaginal bacteria. PMID:26483694

  5. Vaginal biogenic amines: biomarkers of bacterial vaginosis or precursors to vaginal dysbiosis?

    PubMed

    Nelson, Tiffanie M; Borgogna, Joanna-Lynn C; Brotman, Rebecca M; Ravel, Jacques; Walk, Seth T; Yeoman, Carl J

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common vaginal disorder among reproductive age women. One clinical indicator of BV is a "fishy" odor. This odor has been associated with increases in several biogenic amines (BAs) that may serve as important biomarkers. Within the vagina, BA production has been linked to various vaginal taxa, yet their genetic capability to synthesize BAs is unknown. Using a bioinformatics approach, we show that relatively few vaginal taxa are predicted to be capable of producing BAs. Many of these taxa (Dialister, Prevotella, Parvimonas, Megasphaera, Peptostreptococcus, and Veillonella spp.) are more abundant in the vaginal microbial community state type (CST) IV, which is depleted in lactobacilli. Several of the major Lactobacillus species (L. crispatus, L. jensenii, and L. gasseri) were identified as possessing gene sequences for proteins predicted to be capable of putrescine production. Finally, we show in a small cross sectional study of 37 women that the BAs putrescine, cadaverine and tyramine are significantly higher in CST IV over CSTs I and III. These data support the hypothesis that BA production is conducted by few vaginal taxa and may be important to the outgrowth of BV-associated (vaginal dysbiosis) vaginal bacteria.

  6. Vaginal bleeding in pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Pregnancy - vaginal bleeding; Maternal blood loss - vaginal ... Up to 1 in 4 women have vaginal bleeding at some time during their pregnancy. Bleeding is more common in the first 3 months (first trimester), especially with twins.

  7. Single-stage interpolation flaps in facial reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hollmig, S Tyler; Leach, Brian C; Cook, Joel

    2014-09-01

    Relatively deep and complex surgical defects, particularly when adjacent to or involving free margins, present significant reconstructive challenges. When the use of local flaps is precluded by native anatomic restrictions, interpolation flaps may be modified to address these difficult wounds in a single operative session. To provide a framework to approach difficult soft tissue defects arising near or involving free margins and to demonstrate appropriate design and execution of single-stage interpolation flaps for reconstruction of these wounds. Examination of our utilization of these flaps based on an anatomic region and surgical approach. A region-based demonstration of flap conceptualization, design, and execution is provided. Tunneled, transposed, and deepithelialized variations of single-stage interpolation flaps provide versatile options for reconstruction of a variety of defects encroaching on or involving free margins. The inherently robust vascularity of these flaps supports importation of necessary tissue bulk while allowing aggressive contouring to restore an intricate native topography. Critical flap design allows access to distant tissue reservoirs and placement of favorable incision lines while preserving the inherent advantages of a single operative procedure.

  8. Ipsilateral pedicled TRAM flaps: the safer alternative?

    PubMed

    Clugston, P A; Gingrass, M K; Azurin, D; Fisher, J; Maxwell, G P

    2000-01-01

    Transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap breast reconstruction has become a commonly performed procedure in the 1990s. The original description of the procedure was that of an ipsilaterally based pedicle procedure. Concerns about potential folding of the pedicle with possible compromise of the vascular supply led many surgeons to prefer the contralateral pedicle. Subsequently, there have been several large clinical series of pedicled TRAM flaps showing a relatively high complication rate related to flap vascularity problems. Partial flap necrosis rates in pedicled TRAM series range from 5 to 44 percent. These findings resulted in many centers favoring free TRAM flap breast reconstruction, despite an increase in resource use and negligible differences in complication rates. Ipsilateral pedicle TRAM flap breast reconstruction is not a commonly reported procedure and is reserved for cases for which scars preclude use of the contralateral pedicle. Simplicity and versatility of flap shaping, improved maintenance of the inframammary fold, and lack of disruption of the natural xiphoid hollow give ipsilateral TRAM flaps further advantages. This study reports on a series of 252 consecutive ipsilateral TRAM flap reconstructions in 190 patients. The majority of patients underwent muscle-sparing procedures with preservation of a medial and a lateral strip of rectus muscle. Immediate reconstruction was done in 104 of the 190 patients. Skin-sparing (69 patients) or skin-reduction procedures (21 patients) were used in 90 of the 104 patients (87 percent) undergoing immediate reconstruction. Complication rates were comparable to those of series reported for contralateral TRAM flaps, except that partial flap necrosis (2.0 percent) was less in this series. Risk factors were analyzed with regard to the most common complications seen in this study. Ipsilateral TRAM flap breast reconstruction is our preferred method, if available, because we believe that it has several

  9. The vaginal microbiota: what have we learned after a decade of molecular characterization?

    PubMed

    van de Wijgert, Janneke H H M; Borgdorff, Hanneke; Verhelst, Rita; Crucitti, Tania; Francis, Suzanna; Verstraelen, Hans; Jespers, Vicky

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of the Medline database (U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, U.S.A) to determine if consistent molecular vaginal microbiota (VMB) composition patterns can be discerned after a decade of molecular testing, and to evaluate demographic, behavioral and clinical determinants of VMB compositions. Studies were eligible when published between 1 January 2008 and 15 November 2013, and if at least one molecular technique (sequencing, PCR, DNA fingerprinting, or DNA hybridization) was used to characterize the VMB. Sixty three eligible studies were identified. These studies have now conclusively shown that lactobacilli-dominated VMB are associated with a healthy vaginal micro-environment and that bacterial vaginosis (BV) is best described as a polybacterial dysbiosis. The extent of dysbiosis correlates well with Nugent score and vaginal pH but not with the other Amsel criteria. Lactobacillus crispatus is more beneficial than L. iners. Longitudinal studies have shown that a L. crispatus-dominated VMB is more likely to shift to a L. iners-dominated or mixed lactobacilli VMB than to full dysbiosis. Data on VMB determinants are scarce and inconsistent, but dysbiosis is consistently associated with HIV, human papillomavirus (HPV), and Trichomonas vaginalis infection. In contrast, vaginal colonization with Candida spp. is more common in women with a lactobacilli-dominated VMB than in women with dysbiosis. Cervicovaginal mucosal immune responses to molecular VMB compositions have not yet been properly characterized. Molecular techniques have now become more affordable, and we make a case for incorporating them into larger epidemiological studies to address knowledge gaps in etiology and pathogenesis of dysbiosis, associations of different dysbiotic states with clinical outcomes, and to evaluate interventions aimed at restoring and maintaining a lactobacilli-dominated VMB.

  10. The Vaginal Microbiota: What Have We Learned after a Decade of Molecular Characterization?

    PubMed Central

    van de Wijgert, Janneke H. H. M.; Borgdorff, Hanneke; Verhelst, Rita; Crucitti, Tania; Francis, Suzanna; Verstraelen, Hans; Jespers, Vicky

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of the Medline database (U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, U.S.A) to determine if consistent molecular vaginal microbiota (VMB) composition patterns can be discerned after a decade of molecular testing, and to evaluate demographic, behavioral and clinical determinants of VMB compositions. Studies were eligible when published between 1 January 2008 and 15 November 2013, and if at least one molecular technique (sequencing, PCR, DNA fingerprinting, or DNA hybridization) was used to characterize the VMB. Sixty three eligible studies were identified. These studies have now conclusively shown that lactobacilli-dominated VMB are associated with a healthy vaginal micro-environment and that bacterial vaginosis (BV) is best described as a polybacterial dysbiosis. The extent of dysbiosis correlates well with Nugent score and vaginal pH but not with the other Amsel criteria. Lactobacillus crispatus is more beneficial than L. iners. Longitudinal studies have shown that a L. crispatus-dominated VMB is more likely to shift to a L. iners-dominated or mixed lactobacilli VMB than to full dysbiosis. Data on VMB determinants are scarce and inconsistent, but dysbiosis is consistently associated with HIV, human papillomavirus (HPV), and Trichomonas vaginalis infection. In contrast, vaginal colonization with Candida spp. is more common in women with a lactobacilli-dominated VMB than in women with dysbiosis. Cervicovaginal mucosal immune responses to molecular VMB compositions have not yet been properly characterized. Molecular techniques have now become more affordable, and we make a case for incorporating them into larger epidemiological studies to address knowledge gaps in etiology and pathogenesis of dysbiosis, associations of different dysbiotic states with clinical outcomes, and to evaluate interventions aimed at restoring and maintaining a lactobacilli-dominated VMB. PMID:25148517

  11. Vaginitis: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Faro, S

    1996-01-01

    The various conditions that give rise to vaginitis include specific and nonspecific entities, such as candidiasis, trichomoniasis, bacterial vaginosis, group B streptococcal vaginitis, purulent vaginitis, volvodynia, and vestibulitis. The patient with chronic vaginitis usually develops this condition because of a misdiagnosis. It is critical that patients who have chronic vaginitis be thoroughly evaluated to determine if there is a specific etiology and whether their condition is recurrent or persistent, or is a reinfection. This also must include obtaining a detailed history, beginning with the patient's best recollection of when she felt perfectly normal. The physician must have an understanding of a healthy vaginal ecosystem and what mechanisms are in place to maintain the equilibrium. The vaginal ecosystem is a complex system of micro-organisms interacting with host factors to maintain its equilibrium. The endogenous microflora consists of a variety of bacteria, which include aerobic, facultative and obligate anaerobic bacteria. These organisms exist in a commensal, synergistic or antagonistic relationship. Therefore, it is important to understand what factors control the delicate equilibrium of the vaginal ecosystem, and which factors, both endogenous and exogenous, can disrupt this system. It is also important for the physician to understand that when a patient has symptoms of vaginitis it is not always due to an infectious etiology. There are situations in which an inflammatory reaction occurs but the specific etiology may not be determined. Thus, it is important that the physician not rush through the history or the examination.

  12. Comparison between vaginal royal jelly and vaginal estrogen effects on quality of life and vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women: a clinical trial study

    PubMed Central

    Seyyedi, Fatemeh; Kopaei, Mahmoud Rafiean; Miraj, Sepideh

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to evaluate the therapeutic effects of vaginal royal jelly and vaginal estrogen on quality of life and vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women. Methods This double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial was carried out at gynecology and obstetrics clinics of Hajar Hospital of Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences (Iran) from January 2013 to January 2014. The study was conducted on married postmenopausal women between 50 and 65 years old. Of 120 patients, 30 individuals were excluded based on the exclusion criteria, and 90 women were randomly distributed into three groups of 30 royal jelly vaginal cream 15%, vaginal Premarin, and placebo (lubricant), for three months. At the beginning and the end of the study, quality of life and vaginal cytology assay were evaluated. Data were analyzed by SPSS Version 11. Results Vaginal cream of royal jelly is significantly more effective than vaginal cream of Premarin and lubricant in improvement of quality of life in postmenopausal women (p<0.05). Moreover, Pap smear results showed that vaginal atrophy in vaginal Premarin group was lower than the other groups (p<0.001), and there was no significant difference between lubricant and royal jelly groups (p=0.89). Conclusion Administration of vaginal royal jelly was effective in quality-of-life improvement of postmenopausal women. Given to the various properties of royal jelly and its effectiveness on quality of life and vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women, further studies are recommended for using =royal jelly in improving menopausal symptoms. Clinical trial registration The trial was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (http://www.irct.ir) with the IRCT code: 2014112220043n1. Funding Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences supported this research (project no. 1440). PMID:28070251

  13. Vaginal Cancer—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Vaginal cancer is often squamous cell carcinoma. Other types of vaginal cancer are adenocarcinoma, melanoma, and sarcoma. Infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) causes most vaginal cancer. Find evidence-based information on vaginal cancer treatment and research.

  14. Energy management - The delayed flap approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    Flight test evaluation of a Delayed Flap approach procedure intended to provide reductions in noise and fuel consumption is underway using the NASA CV-990 test aircraft. Approach is initiated at a high airspeed (240 kt) and in a drag configuration that allows for low thrust. The aircraft is flown along the conventional ILS glide slope. A Fast/Slow message display signals the pilot when to extend approach flaps, landing gear, and land flaps. Implementation of the procedure in commercial service may require the addition of a DME navigation aid co-located with the ILS glide slope transmitter. The Delayed Flap approach saves 250 lb of fuel over the Reduced Flap approach, with a 95 EPNdB noise contour only 43% as large.

  15. Primary mucosal melanomas: a comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Mihajlovic, Marija; Vlajkovic, Slobodan; Jovanovic, Predrag; Stefanovic, Vladisav

    2012-01-01

    Primary mucosal melanomas arise from melanocytes located in mucosal membranes lining respiratory, gastrointestinal and urogenital tract. Although a majority of mucosal melanomas originate from the mucosa of the nasal cavity and accessory sinuses, oral cavity, anorectum, vulva and vagina, they can arise in almost any part of mucosal membranes. Most of mucosal melanomas occur in occult sites, which together with the lack of early and specific signs contribute to late diagnosis, and poor prognosis. Because of their rareness the knowledge about their pathogenesis and risk factors is insufficient, and also there are not well established protocols for staging and treatment of mucosal melanomas. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment, with trends toward more conservative treatment since radical surgery did not show an advantage for survival. Radiotherapy can provide better local control in some locations, but did not show improvement in survival. There is no effective systemic therapy for these aggressive tumors. Compared with cutaneous and ocular melanoma, mucosal melanomas have lowest percent of five-year survival. Recently revealed molecular changes underlying mucosal melanomas offer new hope for development of more effective systemic therapy for mucosal melanomas. Herein we presented a comprehensive review of various locations of primary melanoma along mucosal membranes, their epidemiological and clinical features, and treatment options. We also gave a short comparison of some characteristics of cutaneous and mucosal melanomas. PMID:23071856

  16. Primary mucosal melanomas: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Mihajlovic, Marija; Vlajkovic, Slobodan; Jovanovic, Predrag; Stefanovic, Vladisav

    2012-01-01

    Primary mucosal melanomas arise from melanocytes located in mucosal membranes lining respiratory, gastrointestinal and urogenital tract. Although a majority of mucosal melanomas originate from the mucosa of the nasal cavity and accessory sinuses, oral cavity, anorectum, vulva and vagina, they can arise in almost any part of mucosal membranes. Most of mucosal melanomas occur in occult sites, which together with the lack of early and specific signs contribute to late diagnosis, and poor prognosis. Because of their rareness the knowledge about their pathogenesis and risk factors is insufficient, and also there are not well established protocols for staging and treatment of mucosal melanomas. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment, with trends toward more conservative treatment since radical surgery did not show an advantage for survival. Radiotherapy can provide better local control in some locations, but did not show improvement in survival. There is no effective systemic therapy for these aggressive tumors. Compared with cutaneous and ocular melanoma, mucosal melanomas have lowest percent of five-year survival. Recently revealed molecular changes underlying mucosal melanomas offer new hope for development of more effective systemic therapy for mucosal melanomas. Herein we presented a comprehensive review of various locations of primary melanoma along mucosal membranes, their epidemiological and clinical features, and treatment options. We also gave a short comparison of some characteristics of cutaneous and mucosal melanomas.

  17. Risk Factor Analysis of Freestyle Propeller Flaps.

    PubMed

    Paik, Joo Myong; Pyon, Jai-Kyong

    2017-01-01

    Background  Freestyle propeller flaps have been widely used as a reconstructive option for both trunk and extremities. It offers the advantage of "like-with-like" reconstruction with an adjacent tissue with no dissection to the source vessels. However, there is the risk of vascular complications. In the present study, the authors investigated the incidence of vascular complications and their risk factors following freestyle propeller flap in the trunk and extremities. Methods  The authors conducted a retrospective review of 50 patients who underwent soft tissue reconstruction of the trunk and the extremities with 55 freestyle propeller flaps from 2004 to 2015. Data regarding patient demographics, surgical details, including the arc of rotation, and flap complications were collected from a prospectively maintained database and analyzed. Results  There were 10 flap complications (18.2%), including 7 superficial partial necrosis, 2 full-thickness partial necrosis, and 1 total necrosis from the 55 freestyle propeller flaps harvested. Previous irradiation was a significant risk factor for flap complications and the propeller flap harvested from the extremities showed a significantly higher rate of complications compared with those harvested from the trunk. Complication rates were higher in flaps with the arc of rotation between 150 and 180 degrees with marginal significance compared with flaps with the arc of rotation less than 150 degrees. Conclusions  Freestyle propeller flaps proved to be a valid and reliable option for reconstruction of defects in the trunk, while complication rate was quite high in the extremities. A prudent preoperative evaluation and preparation may be necessary before performing this surgical technique in the extremities. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  18. Externally blown flap noise research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorsch, R. G.

    1974-01-01

    The Lewis Research Center cold-flow model externally blown flap (EBF) noise research test program is summarized. Both engine under-the-wing and over-the-wing EBF wing section configurations were studied. Ten large scale and nineteen small scale EBF models were tested. A limited number of forward airspeed effect and flap noise suppression tests were also run. The key results and conclusions drawn from the flap noise tests are summarized and discussed.

  19. Pharmacokinetic profile of raltegravir, elvitegravir and dolutegravir in plasma and mucosal secretions in rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Massud, Ivana; Martin, Amy; Dinh, Chuong; Mitchell, James; Jenkins, Leecresia; Heneine, Walid; Pau, Chou-Pong; García-Lerma, J Gerardo

    2015-05-01

    Pharmacokinetic studies in animal models are important for assessing the prophylactic potential of antiretroviral drugs for HIV prevention. This study sought to identify clinically relevant doses of the marketed integrase inhibitors raltegravir, elvitegravir and dolutegravir in macaques and investigate drug penetration and antiviral activity in mucosal secretions. Macaques received one oral dose of raltegravir, elvitegravir or dolutegravir alone or in combination with emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate followed by drug level measurements in blood and rectal and vaginal secretions. Antiviral activity was investigated in TZM-bl cells exposed to SHIV162p3 in the presence of rectal secretions collected from treated animals. Plasma drug concentrations with 50 mg/kg raltegravir or elvitegravir were within the range seen in humans receiving 400-800 mg of raltegravir or 800 mg of unboosted elvitegravir but lower than with 150 mg of elvitegravir boosted with cobicistat. AUC0-24 values for dolutegravir increased proportionally with the dose, with a calculated human-equivalent dose of 20 mg/kg. Elvitegravir showed the highest penetration in rectal and vaginal fluids despite the absence of pharmacological boosting, followed by raltegravir and dolutegravir. Rectal secretions collected at 24 h from treated macaques blocked infection of TZM-bl cells by 50% at dilutions of 1/1000 (raltegravir), 1/800 (dolutegravir) and >1/30 000 (elvitegravir). We defined macaque doses of HIV integrase inhibitors that recapitulate human clinical doses, which will facilitate efficacy and dose escalation studies in macaques. High and sustained drug concentrations and activity in mucosal secretions suggest that integrase inhibitors are promising candidates for HIV prevention. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. 14 CFR 25.1511 - Flap extended speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flap extended speed. 25.1511 Section 25... Limitations § 25.1511 Flap extended speed. The established flap extended speed V FE must be established so that it does not exceed the design flap speed V F chosen under §§ 25.335(e) and 25.345, for the...

  1. 14 CFR 25.1511 - Flap extended speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flap extended speed. 25.1511 Section 25... Limitations § 25.1511 Flap extended speed. The established flap extended speed V FE must be established so that it does not exceed the design flap speed V F chosen under §§ 25.335(e) and 25.345, for the...

  2. Vaginal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Vaginal cancer is a rare type of cancer. It is more common in women 60 and older. You are also more likely to get it if you have had a human ... test can find abnormal cells that may be cancer. Vaginal cancer can often be cured in its ...

  3. Comparison of morbidity-related seroma formation following conventional latissimus dorsi flap versus muscle-sparing latissimus dorsi flap breast reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Numajiri, Toshiaki; Nakatsukasa, Katsuhiko; Sakaguchi, Koichi; Taguchi, Tetsuya

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The pedicled, descending-branch muscle-sparing latissimus dorsi (MSLD) flap has been widely used for breast reconstruction following total mastectomy. However, the superiority of the MSLD flap compared to the conventional latissimus dorsi (CLD) flap in preventing seroma formation has not been demonstrated. This study compares the morbidities related to seroma formation following pedicled MSLD flap and CLD flap breast reconstruction. Methods A total of 15 women who underwent partial mastectomy and immediate partial breast reconstruction with MSLD flaps were compared with 15 women under identical conditions with CLD flap breast reconstruction. The medical records were reviewed for both complications and demographic data. The authors compared morbidity, including donor-site seroma, total volume of drain discharge, indwelling period of drainage, and length of hospital stay following both MSLD flap and CLD flap breast reconstruction. Results The demographic data of the 2 groups were not significantly different. Donor-site seroma occurred in 2 MSLD patients (13.3%) and in 6 CLD patients (40.0%). The total volume of the drain discharge and the indwelling period of drainage at donor site were significantly lower in the MSLD group. The length of hospital stay was significantly shorter (by approximately a day and a half) for the MSLD group. Conclusion The MSLD flap, with its low complication rate and associated minimal functional and aesthetic deficits at the donor site, may be a useful option for small breast reconstruction if earlier discharge from hospital is demanded. PMID:28932726

  4. Comparison of morbidity-related seroma formation following conventional latissimus dorsi flap versus muscle-sparing latissimus dorsi flap breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Sowa, Yoshihiro; Numajiri, Toshiaki; Nakatsukasa, Katsuhiko; Sakaguchi, Koichi; Taguchi, Tetsuya

    2017-09-01

    The pedicled, descending-branch muscle-sparing latissimus dorsi (MSLD) flap has been widely used for breast reconstruction following total mastectomy. However, the superiority of the MSLD flap compared to the conventional latissimus dorsi (CLD) flap in preventing seroma formation has not been demonstrated. This study compares the morbidities related to seroma formation following pedicled MSLD flap and CLD flap breast reconstruction. A total of 15 women who underwent partial mastectomy and immediate partial breast reconstruction with MSLD flaps were compared with 15 women under identical conditions with CLD flap breast reconstruction. The medical records were reviewed for both complications and demographic data. The authors compared morbidity, including donor-site seroma, total volume of drain discharge, indwelling period of drainage, and length of hospital stay following both MSLD flap and CLD flap breast reconstruction. The demographic data of the 2 groups were not significantly different. Donor-site seroma occurred in 2 MSLD patients (13.3%) and in 6 CLD patients (40.0%). The total volume of the drain discharge and the indwelling period of drainage at donor site were significantly lower in the MSLD group. The length of hospital stay was significantly shorter (by approximately a day and a half) for the MSLD group. The MSLD flap, with its low complication rate and associated minimal functional and aesthetic deficits at the donor site, may be a useful option for small breast reconstruction if earlier discharge from hospital is demanded.

  5. Comparison of Tear cytokines and clinical outcomes between off-flap and on-flap epi-LASIK with mitomycin C.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Chen, Yue-Guo; Xia, Ying-Jie; Qi, Hong

    2012-09-01

    To compare tear cytokines and clinical outcomes between off-flap and on-flap epi-LASIK eyes and explore the possible mechanism for the clinical differences. This double-masked, randomized study enrolled 18 myopic patients who underwent off-flap epi-LASIK with mitomycin C (MMC) in 1 eye and on-flap epi-LASIK with MMC in the contralateral eye. Tears were collected from each eye preoperatively and 2 hours, 1 day, and 5 days postoperatively. Concentrations of multiple tear cytokines were measured by a multiplex immunobead assay. Uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), refraction, haze scores, pain scores, and percentage of corneal epithelial healing were evaluated. Compared with the on-flap group, the off-flap group had outcomes of better UDVA and higher percentages of epithelial healing at 5 days after surgery (P<.001) and lower levels of haze at 1 month after surgery (P=.049). Preoperatively, no significant differences were noted in the release rate of all tear cytokines between groups. At 2 hours postoperatively, the release rate of tear basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in the off-flap group were significantly lower than those in the on-flap group (P=.011, .017, .048, and .041, respectively). Off-flap epi-LASIK with MMC offers faster corneal epithelial healing and visual recovery, and temporary less haze than on-flap epi-LASIK with MMC. The lower tear levels of bFGF, PDGF-BB, IL-8, and TNF-α in the offflap group 2 hours after surgery may suggest a possible mechanism for the clinical differences. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. The effect of vaginal cream containing ginger in users of clotrimazole vaginal cream on vaginal candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Shabanian, Sheida; Khalili, Sima; Lorigooini, Zahra; Malekpour, Afsaneh; Heidari-Soureshjani, Saeid

    2017-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is one of the most common infections of the genital tract in women that causes many complications. Therefore, we examined the clinical effect of ginger cream along with clotrimazole compared to vaginal clotrimazole alone in this study. This double-blind clinical trial was conducted on 67 women admitted to the Gynecology Clinic of Hajar Hospital with vaginal candidiasis. The patients were divided randomly into two groups of 33 and 34 people. The diagnosis was made according to clinical symptoms, wet smear, and culture. Ginger-clotrimazole vaginal cream 1% and clotrimazole vaginal cream 1% were administered to groups 1 and 2, respectively, once a day for 7 days and therapeutic effects and symptoms were evaluated in readmission. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 22, t -test and Chi-square. The mean value of variables itching ( P > 0.05), burning ( P > 0.05), and cheesy secretion ( P < 0.05) in users of ginger-clotrimazole was less than the other group after the treatment. Recurrence in clotrimazole group was 48.5% and in ginger-clotrimazole group 51.2% during the 1-month follow-up with no significant difference. Study results showed that cream containing ginger and clotrimazole 1% was more effective and may be more useful than the clotrimazole to treat vaginal candidiasis.

  7. Reconstruction of Facial Defect Using Deltopectoral Flap.

    PubMed

    Aldelaimi, Tahrir N; Khalil, Afrah A

    2015-11-01

    Reconstruction of the head and neck is a challenge for otolarygology surgeons, maxillofacial surgeons as well as plastic surgeons. Defects caused by the resection and/or trauma should be closed with flaps which match in color, texture and hair bearing characteristics with the face. Deltopectoral flap is a one such flap from chest and neck skin mainly used to cover the facial defects. This study report a patient presenting with tragic Road Traffic Accident (RTA) admitted to maxillofacial surgery department at Ramadi Teaching Hospital, Anbar province, Iraq. An incision, medially based, was done and deltopectoral fascio-cutaneous flap was used for surgical exposure and closure of defects after RTA. There was no major complication. Good aesthetic and functional results were achieved. Deltopectoral flap is an excellent alternative for the reconstruction of head and neck. Harvesting and application of the flap is rapid and safe. Only a single incision is sufficient for dissection and flap elevation.

  8. Innervated boomerang flap for finger pulp reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-Liang; Chiou, Tai-Fung

    2007-11-01

    The boomerang flap originates from the dorsolateral aspect of the proximal phalanx of an adjacent digit and is supplied by the retrograde blood flow through the vascular arcades between the dorsal and palmar digital arteries. To provide sensation of the boomerang flap for finger pulp reconstruction, the dorsal sensory branch of the proper digital nerve and the superficial sensory branch of the corresponding radial or ulnar nerve are included within the skin flap. After transfer of the flap to the injured site, epineural neurorrhaphies are done between the digital nerves of the pulp and the sensory branches of the flap. We used this sensory flap in five patients, with more than 1 year follow-up, and all patients achieved measurable two-points discrimination. The boomerang flap not only preserves the proper palmar digital artery but also provides an extended and innervated skin paddle. It seems to be an alternative choice for one-stage reconstruction of major pulp defect.

  9. Refining the intrinsic chimera flap: a review.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Jayant P; Agarwal, Shailesh; Adler, Neta; Gottlieb, Lawrence J

    2009-10-01

    Reconstruction of complex tissue deficiencies in which each missing component is in a different spatial relationship to each other can be particularly challenging, especially in patients with limited recipient vessels. The chimera flap design is uniquely suited to reconstruct these deformities. Chimera flaps have been previously defined in many ways with 2 main categories: prefabricated or intrinsic. Herein we attempt to clarify the definition of a true intrinsic chimeric flap and provide examples of how these constructs provide a method for reconstruction of complex defects. The versatility of the intrinsic chimera flap and its procurement from 7 different vascular systems is described. A clarification of the definition of a true intrinsic chimera flap is described. In addition, construction of flaps from the lateral femoral circumflex, deep circumflex iliac, inferior gluteal, peroneal, subscapular, thoracodorsal, and radial arterial systems is described to showcase the versatility of these chimera flaps. A true intrinsic chimera flap must consist of more than a single tissue type. Each of the tissue components receives its blood flow from separate vascular branches or perforators that are connected to a single vascular source. These vascular branches must be of appropriate length to allow for insetting with 3-dimensional spatial freedom. There are a multitude of sites from which true intrinsic chimera flaps may be harvested.

  10. To flap or not to flap: a discussion between a fish and a jellyfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Nathan; Roh, Chris; Idrees, Suhail; Gharib, Morteza

    2016-11-01

    Fish and jellyfish are known to swim by flapping and by periodically contracting respectively, but which is the more effective propulsion mechanism? In an attempt to answer this question, an experimental comparison is made between simplified versions of these motions to determine which generates the greatest thrust for the least power. The flapping motion is approximated by pitching plates while periodic contractions are approximated by clapping plates. A machine is constructed to operate in either a flapping or a clapping mode between Reynolds numbers 1,880 and 11,260 based on the average plate tip velocity and span. The effect of the total sweep angle, total sweep time, plate flexibility, and duty cycle are investigated. The average thrust generated and power required per cycle are compared between the two modes when their total sweep angle and total sweep time are identical. In general, operating in the clapping mode required significantly more power to generate a similar thrust compared to the flapping mode. However, modifying the duty cycle for clapping caused the effectiveness to approach that of flapping with an unmodified duty cycle. These results suggest that flapping is the more effective propulsion mechanism within the range of Reynolds numbers tested. This work was supported by the Charyk Bio-inspired Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology, the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1144469, and the Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowships program.

  11. Aeroacoustic Measurements of a Wing-Flap Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meadows, Kristine R.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Humphreys, William M.; Hunter, William H.; Gerhold, Carl H.

    1997-01-01

    Aeroacoustic measurements are being conducted to investigate the mechanisms of sound generation in high-lift wing configurations, and initial results are presented. The model is approximately 6 percent of a full scale configuration, and consists of a main element NACA 63(sub 2) - 215 wing section and a 30 percent chord half-span flap. Flow speeds up to Mach 0.17 are tested at Reynolds number up to approximately 1.7 million. Results are presented for a main element at a 16 degree angle of attack, and flap deflection angles of 29 and 39 degrees. The measurement systems developed for this test include two directional arrays used to localize and characterize the noise sources, and an array of unsteady surface pressure transducers used to characterize wave number spectra and correlate with acoustic measurements. Sound source localization maps show that locally dominant noise sources exist on the flap-side edge. The spectral distribution of the noise sources along the flap-side edge shows a decrease in frequency of the locally dominant noise source with increasing distance downstream of the flap leading edge. Spectra are presented which show general spectral characteristics of Strouhal dependent flow-surface interaction noise. However, the appearance of multiple broadband tonal features at high frequency indicates the presence of aeroacoustic phenomenon following different scaling characteristics. The scaling of the high frequency aeroacoustic phenomenon is found to be different for the two flap deflection angles tested. Unsteady surface pressure measurements in the vicinity of the flap edge show high coherence levels between adjacent sensors on the flap-side edge and on the flap edge upper surface in a region which corresponds closely to where the flap-side edge vortex begins to spill over to the flap upper surface. The frequency ranges where these high levels of coherence occur on the flap surface are consistent with the frequency ranges in which dominant features

  12. [COMPARISON OF REPAIR EFFECT BETWEEN CHIMERIC ANTEROLATERAL THIGH FLAP AND SERIES-WOUND FLAPS FOR DEFECT AFTER RESECTION OF ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL CANCER].

    PubMed

    Yang, Heping; Zhang, Hongwu; Chen, Haidi; Yang, Shuxiong; Wang, Jun; Hu, Dawang

    2016-04-01

    To compare the effectiveness of complex defects repair between using chimeric anterolateral thigh flap and series-wound flaps after resection of oral and maxillofacial cancer. After resection of oral and maxillofacial cancer, defect was repaired with chimeric anterolateral thigh flap in 39 patients between January 2011 and July 2014 (chimeric anterolateral thigh flap group); and defect was repaired with series-wound flaps in 35 patients between January 2009 and December 2010 (series-wound flaps group). There was no significant difference in gender, age, duration of disease, tumor type, tumor staging, defect location, and defect area between 2 groups (P > 0.05). The operation time, flap harvesting and microvascular anastomosis time, stomach tube extraction time, and oral feeding time were recorded and compared between 2 groups, and postoperative complications were observed; the effectiveness was evaluated according to clinical efficacy evaluation table of bone and soft tissue defects reconstruction surgery in oral and maxillofacial region. Vascular crisis occurred in 2 cases of chimeric anterolateral thigh flap group, and 4 cases of series-wound flaps group. Partial necrosis appeared at distal end of a series-wound flaps, and oral fistula and infection developed in 3 series-wound flaps. The other flaps and the grafted skin at donor site survived; wounds at recipient site healed by first intention. The operation time, stomach tube extraction time, and oral feeding time of chimeric anterolateral thigh flap group were significantly shorter than those of series-wound flaps group (P < 0.05), while the flap harvesting and microvascular anastomosis time was significantly longer than that of series-wound flaps group (P < 0.05). The patients were followed up 1-5 years (mean, 2.5 years). At 3 months after operation, the appearance, patients' satisfaction, working conditions, oral closure function, chew, language performance, and swallowing scores of the chimeric anterolateral

  13. CTA1-DD adjuvant promotes strong immunity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoproteins following mucosal immunization.

    PubMed

    Sundling, Christopher; Schön, Karin; Mörner, Andreas; Forsell, Mattias N E; Wyatt, Richard T; Thorstensson, Rigmor; Karlsson Hedestam, Gunilla B; Lycke, Nils Y

    2008-12-01

    Strategies to induce potent and broad antibody responses against the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoproteins (Env) at both systemic and mucosal sites represent a central goal for HIV-1 vaccine development. Here, we show that the non-toxic CTA1-DD adjuvant promoted mucosal and systemic humoral and cell-mediated immune responses following intranasal (i.n.) immunizations with trimeric or monomeric forms of HIV-1 Env in mice and in non-human primates. Env-specific IgG subclasses in the serum of immunized mice reflected a balanced Th1/Th2 type of response. Strikingly, i.n. immunizations with Env and the CTA1-DD adjuvant induced substantial levels of mucosal anti-Env IgA in bronchial alveolar lavage and also detectable levels in vaginal secretions. By contrast, parenteral immunizations of Env formulated in Ribi did not stimulate mucosal IgA responses, while the two adjuvants induced a similar distribution of Env-specific IgG-subclasses in serum. A single parenteral boost with Env in Ribi adjuvant into mice previously primed i.n. with Env and CTA1-DD, augmented the serum anti-Env IgG levels to similar magnitudes as those observed after three intraperitoneal immunizations with Env in Ribi. The augmenting potency of CTA1-DD was similar to that of LTK63 or CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN). However, in contrast to CpG ODN, the effect of CTA1-DD and LTK63 appeared to be independent of MyD88 and toll-like receptor signalling. This is the first demonstration that CTA1-DD augments specific immune responses also in non-human primates, suggesting that this adjuvant could be explored further as a clinically safe mucosal vaccine adjuvant for humoral and cell-mediated immunity against HIV-1 Env.

  14. Lactobacilli Dominance and Vaginal pH: Why Is the Human Vaginal Microbiome Unique?

    PubMed

    Miller, Elizabeth A; Beasley, DeAnna E; Dunn, Robert R; Archie, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    The human vaginal microbiome is dominated by bacteria from the genus Lactobacillus , which create an acidic environment thought to protect women against sexually transmitted pathogens and opportunistic infections. Strikingly, lactobacilli dominance appears to be unique to humans; while the relative abundance of lactobacilli in the human vagina is typically >70%, in other mammals lactobacilli rarely comprise more than 1% of vaginal microbiota. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain humans' unique vaginal microbiota, including humans' distinct reproductive physiology, high risk of STDs, and high risk of microbial complications linked to pregnancy and birth. Here, we test these hypotheses using comparative data on vaginal pH and the relative abundance of lactobacilli in 26 mammalian species and 50 studies ( N = 21 mammals for pH and 14 mammals for lactobacilli relative abundance). We found that non-human mammals, like humans, exhibit the lowest vaginal pH during the period of highest estrogen. However, the vaginal pH of non-human mammals is never as low as is typical for humans (median vaginal pH in humans = 4.5; range of pH across all 21 non-human mammals = 5.4-7.8). Contrary to disease and obstetric risk hypotheses, we found no significant relationship between vaginal pH or lactobacilli relative abundance and multiple metrics of STD or birth injury risk ( P -values ranged from 0.13 to 0.99). Given the lack of evidence for these hypotheses, we discuss two alternative explanations: the common function hypothesis and a novel hypothesis related to the diet of agricultural humans. Specifically, with regard to diet we propose that high levels of starch in human diets have led to increased levels of glycogen in the vaginal tract, which, in turn, promotes the proliferation of lactobacilli. If true, human diet may have paved the way for a novel, protective microbiome in human vaginal tracts. Overall, our results highlight the need for continuing research on non

  15. Human α-amylase present in lower-genital-tract mucosal fluid processes glycogen to support vaginal colonization by Lactobacillus.

    PubMed

    Spear, Gregory T; French, Audrey L; Gilbert, Douglas; Zariffard, M Reza; Mirmonsef, Paria; Sullivan, Thomas H; Spear, William W; Landay, Alan; Micci, Sandra; Lee, Byung-Hoo; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2014-10-01

    Lactobacillus colonization of the lower female genital tract provides protection from the acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus, and from adverse pregnancy outcomes. While glycogen in vaginal epithelium is thought to support Lactobacillus colonization in vivo, many Lactobacillus isolates cannot utilize glycogen in vitro. This study investigated how glycogen could be utilized by vaginal lactobacilli in the genital tract. Several Lactobacillus isolates were confirmed to not grow in glycogen, but did grow in glycogen-breakdown products, including maltose, maltotriose, maltopentaose, maltodextrins, and glycogen treated with salivary α-amylase. A temperature-dependent glycogen-degrading activity was detected in genital fluids that correlated with levels of α-amylase. Treatment of glycogen with genital fluids resulted in production of maltose, maltotriose, and maltotetraose, the major products of α-amylase digestion. These studies show that human α-amylase is present in the female lower genital tract and elucidates how epithelial glycogen can support Lactobacillus colonization in the genital tract. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. New frontiers in mucositis.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Douglas E; Keefe, Dorothy M; Sonis, Stephen T

    2012-01-01

    Mucositis is among the most debilitating side effects of radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and targeted anticancer therapy. Research continues to escalate regarding key issues such as etiopathology, incidence and severity across different mucosae, relationships between mucosal and nonmucosal toxicities, and risk factors. This approach is being translated into enhanced management strategies. Recent technology advances provide an important foundation for this continuum. For example, evolution of applied genomics is fostering development of new algorithms to rapidly screen genomewide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for patient-associated risk prediction. This modeling will permit individual tailoring of the most effective, least toxic treatment in the future. The evolution of novel cancer therapeutics is changing the mucositis toxicity profile. These agents can be associated with unique mechanisms of mucosal damage. Additional research is needed to optimally manage toxicity caused by agents such as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors and tyrosine kinase inhibitors, without reducing antitumor effect. There has similarly been heightened attention across the health professions regarding clinical practice guidelines for mucositis management in the years following the first published guidelines in 2004. New opportunities exist to more effectively interface this collective guideline portfolio by capitalizing upon novel technologies such as an Internet-based Wiki platform. Substantive progress thus continues across many domains associated with mucosal injury in oncology patients. In addition to enhancing oncology patient care, these advances are being integrated into high-impact educational and scientific venues including the National Cancer Institute Physician Data Query (PDQ) portfolio as well as a new Gordon Research Conference on mucosal health and disease scheduled for June 2013.

  17. The First Dorsal Metatarsal Artery Perforator Propeller Flap.

    PubMed

    Hallock, Geoffrey G

    2016-06-01

    Distal foot and toe defects requiring a vascularized flap for coverage have very limited options, oftentimes justifying even a free flap. Perforator flaps in general and propeller flaps in particular have opened up an entirely new subset of local tissue transfer alternatives that can potentially avoid the difficulties that accompany microvascular tissue transfers. The first dorsal metatarsal artery (FDMA) perforator propeller flap represents another variation of this theme. A standard FDMA flap from the dorsum of the foot was raised in reversed fashion based on the distal communicating branch or "perforator" from the plantar foot circulation in 2 patients with great toe defects. All distal skin tissue between this perforator and the defect was kept with the FDMA flap as an attached minor blade, to thereby create an FDMA propeller flap. Salvage of the great toe in both patients was achieved. The benefit of the minor blade of the propeller was to fill a portion of the donor site defect of the traditional FDMA major blade, to permit tension-free donor site closure of the dorsal foot without sequela. The distal-based FDMA flap can be useful as a local flap for coverage of distal foot and toe wounds, but direct donor site closure can be problematic as mirrored by its relative the dorsalis pedis flap. The FDMA perforator propeller flap variation can achieve the same reconstructive goals while simultaneously transferring vascularized tissue into the dorsal foot donor site to thereby minimize the tension if direct closure is possible or minimize the need for a skin graft in this notoriously difficult region.

  18. Experimental study on axial pedicled composite flap prefabrication with high density porous polyethylene implants: medporocutaneous flap.

    PubMed

    Kocman, A Emre; Kose, Aydan A; Karabagli, Yakup; Baycu, Cengiz; Cetin, Cengiz

    2008-01-01

    Composite flaps including soft tissues with bone or cartilage are widely used in reconstruction of three-dimensional defects, but have some disadvantages. Flap prefabrication with alloplastic implants is an alternative procedure. Axial pattern vascularised high density porous polyethylene (HDPP) implants are capable of sustaining skin grafts. The purpose of this study was to examine the vascularisation pattern of the skin island in a composite flap prefabrication model prepared with vascularised HDPP implants. Forty male Wistar rats divided into four groups were used. A 9.5 x 6 x 2 mm HDPP block was centered on the dissected saphenous pedicle and anchored under the abdominal skin in the experimental group I (n=10). In experimental group II (n=10) saphenous artery and vein were put between the skin and the implant. Thus, the structures were laid as skin, HDPP block, pedicle in experimental group I and skin, pedicle, HDPP block in experimental group II. HDPP block-implanted and pedicle-implanted only groups served as control groups I and II, respectively. Eight weeks after prefabrication, skin islands 1.5 x 5 cm in size incorporated with implants were elevated based on saphenous vessels in the experimental groups and skin islands only based on the pedicle in control group II. Skin islands of the same dimensions were raised as grafts in control group I. Nylon sheets were put under the flaps and grafts to prevent vascularisation from the recipient bed. Flap viability was assessed by measuring the surface area on the 7th day. Total necrosis developed in composite grafts of control group I. Flap survival was higher in experimental group II and control group II (45% and 46.8%) than in group I (29.28%). Histologic studies demonstrated fibrovascular ingrowth into the HDPP implants, except in control group I, with significant inflammatory response and necrosis. Vascularisation of skin and implants from the pedicle was seen also microangiographically. In conclusion, a

  19. Retention of a reconstructed nipple using a C-V flap with different layer thicknesses in the C-flap.

    PubMed

    Sowa, Yoshihiro; Itsukage, Sizu; Sakaguchi, Kouichi; Taguchi, Tetsuya; Numajiri, Toshiaki

    2018-04-01

    The C-V flap for nipple reconstruction is now one of standard surgical techniques. But decreased projection is still a problem. In recent years, it has been suggested that projection can be more easily maintained when raising of the C-flap is performed with a split thickness dermis. In this study, we examined whether decrease of projection can be prevented by raising of a C-flap with a split dermis rather than with full dermis. A total of 49 consecutive patients who underwent reconstruction of a nipple using the C-V flap technique were enrolled. The patients included 22 who underwent surgery using a C-flap with a full thickness dermis (Group F), and 27 who underwent surgery with raising of a flap with a split thickness dermis (Group S). The size of the reconstructed nipple was measured at 2 weeks, 6 months and 1 year postoperatively for comparison between Groups F and S. Partial necrosis of the C-flap end occurred in 4 subjects in only Group S. The decrease in projection after 1 year postoperatively in Group S was significantly lower than that in Group F. In contrast, the teat base size in Group F tended to be greater than that in Group S, suggesting a tendency for an expanded base using a flap with a full dermis. Our results indicated that it is recommended to use a C-flap with a split dermis for cases with high projection of the nipple on the contralateral side.

  20. Parasacral Perforator Flaps for Reconstruction of Sacral Pressure Sores.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin-Ta; Chen, Shih-Yi; Chen, Shyi-Gen; Tzeng, Yuan-Sheng; Chang, Shun-Cheng

    2015-07-01

    Despite advances in reconstruction techniques, pressure sores continue to present a challenge to the plastic surgeon. The parasacral perforator flap is a reliable flap that preserves the entire contralateral side as a future donor site. On the ipsilateral side, the gluteal muscle itself is preserved and all flaps based on the inferior gluteal artery are still possible. We present our experience of using parasacral perforator flaps in reconstructing sacral defects. Between August 2004 and January 2013, 19 patients with sacral defects were included in this study. All the patients had undergone surgical reconstruction of sacral defects with a parasacral perforator flap. The patients' sex, age, cause of sacral defect, flap size, flap type, numbers of perforators used, rotation angle, postoperative complications, and hospital stay were recorded. There were 19 parasacral perforator flaps in this series. All flaps survived uneventfully except for 1 parasacral perforator flap, which failed because of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. The overall flap survival rate was 95% (18/19). The mean follow-up period was 17.3 months (range, 2-24 months). The average length of hospital stay was 20.7 days (range, 9-48 days). No flap surgery-related mortality was found. Also, there was no recurrence of sacral pressure sores or infected pilonidal cysts during the follow-up period. Perforator-based flaps have become popular in modern reconstructive surgery because of low donor-site morbidity and good preservation of muscle. Parasacral perforator flaps are durable and reliable in reconstructing sacral defects. We recommend the parasacral perforator flap as a good choice for reconstructing sacral defects.

  1. Purification and functional characterization of mucosal IgA from vaccinated and SIV-infected rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Musich, Thomas; Demberg, Thorsten; Morgan, Ian L; Estes, Jacob D; Franchini, Genoveffa; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    2015-06-01

    Vaccine-induced mucosal antibodies are often evaluated using small volumes of secretory fluids. However, fecal matter containing mucosal IgA is abundant. We purified fecal IgA from five SIV-vaccinated and five SIV-infected rhesus macaques by sequential affinity chromatography. The purified IgA was dimeric by native PAGE, contained secretory component, and was analogous to IgA in colostrum and vaginal fluid by western blot. IgA from one infected and four vaccinated animals neutralized H9-derived SIV(mac)251 with IC(50)s as low as 1 μg/mL. Purified IgAs inhibited transcytosis and exhibited phagocytic activity, the latter significantly correlated with SIV(mac)251 Env-specific IgA in the purified samples. Among different affinity resins, peptide M was optimal compared to jacalin, anti-monkey IgA and SSL7 for IgA purification, as confirmed using tandem peptide M/anti-monkey IgA columns. Fecal IgA provided material sufficient for several assays relevant to protective efficacy, and was shown to be multifunctional. Our approach is potentially applicable to human clinical studies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Pressure Distributions for the GA(W)-2 Airfoil with 20% Aileron, 25% Slotted Flap and 30% Fowler Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentz, W. H., Jr.; Fiscko, K. A.

    1978-01-01

    Surface pressure distributions were measured for the 13% thick GA(W)-2 airfoil section fitted with 20% aileron, 25% slotted flap and 30% Fowler flap. All tests were conducted at a Reynolds number of 2.2 x 10 to the 6th power and a Mach number of 0.13. Pressure distribution and force and moment coefficient measurements are compared with theoretical results for a number of cases. Agreement between theory and experiment is generally good for low angles of attack and small flap deflections. For high angles and large flap deflections where regions of separation are present, the theory is inadequate. Theoretical drag predictions are poor for all flap-extended cases.

  3. Evaluation of efficacy, pharmacokinetics and tolerability of peptidomimetic aspartic proteinase inhibitors as cream formulation in experimental vaginal candidiasis.

    PubMed

    De Bernardis, Flavia; Arancia, Silvia; Tringali, Giuseppe; Greco, Maria Cristina; Ragazzoni, Enzo; Calugi, Chiara; Trabocchi, Andrea; Sandini, Silvia; Graziani, Sofia; Cauda, Roberto; Cassone, Antonio; Guarna, Antonio; Navarra, Pierluigi

    2014-08-01

    It has been previously shown that the treatment with the two protease inhibitors APG12 and APG19 confers protection in a rat model of mucosal candidiasis; in this study, we examined whether these peptidomimetic inhibitors are also effective as a cream formulation in reducing Candida albicans vaginal infection. These efficacy studies were performed in a rat model of estrogen-dependent rat vaginitis by C. albicans on both azole-susceptible and azole-resistant C. albicans, and on both caspofungin-susceptible and caspofungin-resistant C. albicans strains. In vivo studies were also conducted in female albino rats and rabbits to obtain information about the safety, local tolerability and principal pharmacokinetics parameters of the two compounds. Both hit compounds showed remarkable results within the 48-h range as effective inhibitors of the infection, particularly causing rapid decay of vaginal C. albicans burden. Importantly, the two compounds showed marked acceleration of fungus clearance in the rats challenged with the fluconazole-resistant as well as with the capsofungin-resistant strain of C. albicans. Both compounds showed fast elimination rates when given by the intravenous route, and poor systemic absorption after intravaginal cream administration. Test drugs were also well tolerated in 7-day local tolerability experiments in the rabbit. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  4. Clothing factors and vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Heidrich, F E; Berg, A O; Bergman, J J

    1984-10-01

    Associations of clothing factors and vulvovaginal symptoms, signs, and microbiology were sought in 203 women seeking care at a university family medicine clinic. Clothing factors studied were use of panty hose, underwear for sleep, cotton lining panels, and pants vs skirts. Women wearing and not wearing panty hose had similar rates of vaginitis symptoms and signs, but yeast vaginitis was about three times more common among wearers. Relationships of other clothing factors to vaginitis were not found. Nonspecific vaginitis was not found to be related to clothing.

  5. The interaction between vaginal microbiota, cervical length, and vaginal progesterone treatment for preterm birth risk.

    PubMed

    Kindinger, Lindsay M; Bennett, Phillip R; Lee, Yun S; Marchesi, Julian R; Smith, Ann; Cacciatore, Stefano; Holmes, Elaine; Nicholson, Jeremy K; Teoh, T G; MacIntyre, David A

    2017-01-19

    Preterm birth is the primary cause of infant death worldwide. A short cervix in the second trimester of pregnancy is a risk factor for preterm birth. In specific patient cohorts, vaginal progesterone reduces this risk. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we undertook a prospective study in women at risk of preterm birth (n = 161) to assess (1) the relationship between vaginal microbiota and cervical length in the second trimester and preterm birth risk and (2) the impact of vaginal progesterone on vaginal bacterial communities in women with a short cervix. Lactobacillus iners dominance at 16 weeks of gestation was significantly associated with both a short cervix <25 mm (n = 15, P < 0.05) and preterm birth <34 +0  weeks (n = 18; P < 0.01; 69% PPV). In contrast, Lactobacillus crispatus dominance was highly predictive of term birth (n = 127, 98% PPV). Cervical shortening and preterm birth were not associated with vaginal dysbiosis. A longitudinal characterization of vaginal microbiota (<18, 22, 28, and 34 weeks) was then undertaken in women receiving vaginal progesterone (400 mg/OD, n = 25) versus controls (n = 42). Progesterone did not alter vaginal bacterial community structure nor reduce L. iners-associated preterm birth (<34 weeks). L. iners dominance of the vaginal microbiota at 16 weeks of gestation is a risk factor for preterm birth, whereas L. crispatus dominance is protective against preterm birth. Vaginal progesterone does not appear to impact the pregnancy vaginal microbiota. Patients and clinicians who may be concerned about "infection risk" associated with the use of a vaginal pessary during high-risk pregnancy can be reassured.

  6. The possibility for use of venous flaps in plastic surgery

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Baytinger, V. F., E-mail: baitinger@mail.tomsknet.ru; Kurochkina, O. S., E-mail: kurochkinaos@yandex.ru; Selianinov, K. V.

    2015-11-17

    The use of venous flaps is controversial. The mechanism of perfusion of venous flaps is still not fully understood. The research was conducted on 56 white rats. In our experimental work we studied two different models of venous flaps: pedicled venous flap (PVF) and pedicled arterialized venous flap (PAVF). Our results showed that postoperative congestion was present in all flaps. However 66.7% of all pedicled venous flaps and 100% of all pedicled arterialized venous flaps eventually survived. Histological examination revealed that postoperatively the blood flow in the skin of the pedicled arterialized venous flap became «re-reversed» again; there were nomore » differences between mechanism of survival of venous flaps and other flaps. On the 7-14th day in the skin of all flaps were processes of neoangiogenesis and proliferation. Hence the best scenario for the clinical use of venous flaps unfolds when both revascularization and skin coverage are required.« less

  7. Translational damping on high-frequency flapping wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, Perry A.

    Flapping fliers such as insects and birds depend on passive translational and rotational damping to terminate quick maneuvers and to provide a source of partial stability in an otherwise unstable dynamic system. Additionally, passive translational and rotational damping reduce the amount of active kinematic changes that must be made to terminate maneuvers and maintain stability. The study of flapping-induced damping phenomena also improves the understanding of micro air vehicle (MAV) dynamics needed for the synthesis of effective flight control strategies. Aerodynamic processes which create passive translational and rotational damping as a direct result of symmetric flapping with no active changes in wing kinematics have been previously studied and were termed flapping counter-force (FCF) and flapping counter-torque (FCT), respectively. In this first study of FCF measurement in air, FCF generation is measured using a pendulum system designed to isolate and measure the relationship of translational flapping-induced damping with wingbeat frequency for a 2.86 gram mechanical flapper equipped with real cicada wings. Analysis reveals that FCF generation and wingbeat frequency are directly proportional, as expected from previous work. The quasi-steady FCF model using Blade-Element-Theory is used as an estimate for translational flapping-induced damping. In most cases, the model proves to be accurate in predicting the relationship between flapping-induced damping and wingbeat frequency. "Forward-backward" motion proves to have the strongest flapping-induced damping while "up-down" motion has the weakest.

  8. Microsurgical free flaps: Controversies in maxillofacial reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    George, Rinku K.; Krishnamurthy, Arvind

    2013-01-01

    Reconstructive microsurgery for oral and maxillofacial (OMF) defects is considered as a niche specialty and is performed regularly only in a handful of centers. Till recently the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMC) was considered to be the benchmark for OMF reconstruction. This philosophy is changing fast with rapid advancement in reconstructive microsurgery. Due to improvement in instrumentation and the development of finer techniques of flap harvesting we can positively state that microsurgery has come of age. Better techniques, microscopes and micro instruments enable us to do things previously unimaginable. Supramicrosurgery and ultrathin flaps are a testimony to this. Years of innovation in reconstructive microsurgery have given us a reasonably good number of very excellent flaps. Tremendous work has been put into producing some exceptionally brilliant research articles, sometimes contradicting each other. This has led to the need for clarity in some areas in this field. This article will review some controversies in reconstructive microsurgery and analyze some of the most common microvascular free flaps (MFF) used in OMF reconstruction. It aims to buttress the fact that three flaps-the radial forearm free flap (RFFF), anterolateral thigh flap (ALT) and fibula are the ones most expedient in the surgeon's arsenal, since they can cater to almost all sizeable defects we come across after ablative surgery in the OMF region. They can thus aptly be titled as the workhorses of OMF reconstruction with regard to free flaps. PMID:23662264

  9. The gust-mitigating potential of flapping wings.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Alex; Ravi, Sridhar; Watkins, Simon; Watmuff, Jon; Wang, Chun; Liu, Hao; Petersen, Phred

    2016-08-02

    Nature's flapping-wing flyers are adept at negotiating highly turbulent flows across a wide range of scales. This is in part due to their ability to quickly detect and counterract disturbances to their flight path, but may also be assisted by an inherent aerodynamic property of flapping wings. In this study, we subject a mechanical flapping wing to replicated atmospheric turbulence across a range of flapping frequencies and turbulence intensities. By means of flow visualization and surface pressure measurements, we determine the salient effects of large-scale freestream turbulence on the flow field, and on the phase-average and fluctuating components of pressure and lift. It is shown that at lower flapping frequencies, turbulence dominates the instantaneous flow field, and the random fluctuating component of lift contributes significantly to the total lift. At higher flapping frequencies, kinematic forcing begins to dominate and the flow field becomes more consistent from cycle to cycle. Turbulence still modulates the flapping-induced flow field, as evidenced in particular by a variation in the timing and extent of leading edge vortex formation during the early downstroke. The random fluctuating component of lift contributes less to the total lift at these frequencies, providing evidence that flapping wings do indeed provide some inherent gust mitigation.

  10. Effect of vaginal or systemic estrogen on dynamics of collagen assembly in the rat vaginal wall.

    PubMed

    Montoya, T Ignacio; Maldonado, P Antonio; Acevedo, Jesus F; Word, R Ann

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of systemic and local estrogen treatment on collagen assembly and biomechanical properties of the vaginal wall. Ovariectomized nulliparous rats were treated with estradiol or conjugated equine estrogens (CEEs) either systemically, vaginal CEE, or vaginal placebo cream for 4 wk. Low-dose local CEE treatment resulted in increased vaginal epithelial thickness and significant vaginal growth without uterine hyperplasia. Furthermore, vaginal wall distensibility increased without compromise of maximal force at failure. Systemic estradiol resulted in modest increases in collagen type I with no change in collagen type III mRNA. Low-dose vaginal treatment, however, resulted in dramatic increases in both collagen subtypes whereas moderate and high dose local therapies were less effective. Consistent with the mRNA results, low-dose vaginal estrogen resulted in increased total and cross-linked collagen content. The inverse relationship between vaginal dose and collagen expression may be explained in part by progressive downregulation of estrogen receptor-alpha mRNA with increasing estrogen dose. We conclude that, in this menopausal rat model, local estrogen treatment increased total and cross-linked collagen content and markedly stimulated collagen mRNA expression in an inverse dose-effect relationship. High-dose vaginal estrogen resulted in downregulation of estrogen receptor-alpha and loss of estrogen-induced increases in vaginal collagen. These results may have important clinical implications regarding the use of local vaginal estrogen therapy and its role as an adjunctive treatment in women with loss of vaginal support. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  11. Pressure Distribution Over Airfoils with Fowler Flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenzinger, Carl J; Anderson, Walter B

    1938-01-01

    Report presents the results of tests made of a Clark y airfoil with a Clark y Fowler flap and of an NACA 23012 airfoil with NACA Fowler flaps. Some of the tests were made in the 7 by 10-foot wind tunnel and others in the 5-foot vertical wind tunnel. The pressures were measured on the upper and lower surfaces at one chord section both on the main airfoils and on the flaps for several angles of attack with the flaps located at the maximum-lift settings. A test installation was used in which the model was mounted in the wind tunnel between large end planes so that two-dimensional flow was approximated. The data are given in the form of pressure-distribution diagrams and as plots of calculated coefficients for the airfoil-and-flap combinations and for the flaps alone.

  12. Reconstruction of Large Postburn Facial-Scalp Scars by Expanded Pedicled Deltopectoral Flap and Random Scalp Flap: Technique Improvements to Enlarge the Reconstructive Territory.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xianjie; Li, Yang; Li, Weiyang; Liu, Chaohua; Peng, Pai; Song, Baoqiang; Xia, Wensen; Yi, Chenggang; Lu, Kaihua; Su, Yingjun

    2017-09-01

    The scars of face and scalp caused by burning often show as 1 large facial-scalp scar. The deltopectoral flap was recognized as one of the first choices for the facial scar reconstruction. However, this flap cannot cross the level of zygomatic arch traditionally when it was transferred with pedicle. When the flap reconstructed the facial-scalp scars with expanded random scalp flap, another flap was often needed to reconstruct the remaining temple and forehead scars. The authors reviewed 24 patients of large facial-scalp scars reconstructed by expanded pedicled deltopectoral flap and scalp flap with several technique improvements. The seaming scar between the deltopectoral flap and scalp flap in the temple region formed the new hairline. The technique improvements included ligation of the perforating branches of the transverse cervical artery and thoracoacromial artery when dissecting the pocket, the partial bolster compressive dressing to the distal part of the flap and dividing the pedicle partly as a delaying procedure before dividing the pedicle completely. Good skin compliance, normal contours, and emotional expression were noted. There were complications including expander exposure in 3 patients, stretch marks in 5 patients, flap tip necrosis in 2 patients, and mild postoperative hypertrophic scars in 3 patients. In conclusion, the expanded pedicled deltopectoral flap can enlarge the reconstructive territory in face successfully with the technique improvements. The combination of the expanded pedicled deltopectoral flap and scalp flap is a reliable and excellent reconstructive option for large postburn facial-scalp scars.

  13. [Pedicled versus free TRAM flap for breast reconstruction].

    PubMed

    Galla, T J; Lukas, B; Feller, A M

    1999-03-01

    In breast reconstruction, the free TRAM-flap offers many advantages over the pedicled TRAM-flap. Due to its superior perfusion, the free flap rarely develops necrosis. Shaping of the flap is easier due to the lack of the thick muscle pedicle. Because the rectus muscle is spared, there is minimal donor site morbidity. However, the necessary microvascular anastomoses reduced the acceptance of the free TRAM-flap. During a 13-months period, 51 breast reconstructions were performed in 41 patients, 31 unilateral and ten bilateral. 45 flaps served for delayed reconstruction and six flaps for immediate reconstruction. The operations were performed by two teams working simultaneously. The average operating time was 3.9 hours for unilateral and 6.9 hours for bilateral delayed reconstruction. For immediate reconstruction, 6.2 and 6.3 hours were required for uni- and bilateral procedures, respectively. In 38 flaps, the thoracodorsal vessels served as recipient vessels; 13 flaps were anastomosed to the internal mammary artery and vein. Postoperative complications were observed in 13 patients. Three vessel anastomoses had to be revised. In one flap, a partial necrosis occurred; in two flaps hematoma evacuation was necessary. Two patients suffered from fat necroses at the abdomen and one umbilicus was lost. Skin irritations and seromas at the abdomen occurred in five patients. Pulmonary embolism was diagnosed in one patient three weeks postoperatively. Abdominal hernias or bulging in the epigastric area were not observed up to 15 months after reconstruction. These results reveal a low complication rate for breast reconstruction with the free TRAM-flap. The advantages of this technique as compared to the pedicled technique are discussed.

  14. Vortex leading edge flap assembly for supersonic airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, Peter K. C. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A leading edge flap (16) for supersonic transport airplanes is disclosed. In its stowed position, the leading edge flap forms the lower surface of the wing leading edge up to the horizontal center of the leading edge radius. For low speed operation, the vortex leading edge flap moves forward and rotates down. The upward curve of the flap leading edge triggers flow separation on the flap and rotational flow on the upper surface of the flap (vortex). The rounded shape of the upper fixed leading edge provides the conditions for a controlled reattachment of the flow on the upper wing surface and therefore a stable vortex. The vortex generates lift and a nose-up pitching moment. This improves maximum lift at low speed, reduces attitude for a given lift coefficient and improves lift to drag ratio. The mechanism (27) to move the vortex flap consists of two spanwise supports (24) with two diverging straight tracks (64 and 68) each and a screw drive mechanism (62) in the center of the flap panel (29). The flap motion is essentially normal to the airloads and therefore requires only low actuation forces.

  15. Release of hand burn contracture: comparing the ALT perforator flap with the gracilis free flap with split skin graft.

    PubMed

    Misani, M; Zirak, C; Hau, Lê Thua Trung; De Mey, A; Boeckx, W

    2013-08-01

    The use of microsurgery in the management of burn sequelae is not a new idea. According to the properties of various types of free flaps different goals can be achieved or various additional procedures have to be combined. We report the comparison of two different free flaps on a single patient for reconstruction of both upper extremities for burn sequelae. A 1-year-old child sustained severe burns on both hands, arms and thorax and was initially only treated conservatively. This resulted in severe contractures. At the age of 4-years a free gracilis flap was selected for reconstruction of his left hand and a free anterolateral thigh flap for the right hand. We noticed a better functional and esthetic result for the gracilis flap associated with a shorter operative time and a minor donor site morbidity. The intraoperative technique and time, postoperative complications, functional and esthetic results and donor site morbidities were studied in the two types of flaps chosen. A review of literature was also performed. Our experience reported a better success of the gracilis muscle flap covered with a split skin graft compared to the anterolateral thigh flap in the reconstruction of hand function after severe burn sequelae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. Recombinant poxviruses as mucosal vaccine vectors.

    PubMed

    Gherardi, M Magdalena; Esteban, Mariano

    2005-11-01

    The majority of infections initiate their departure from a mucosal surface, such as Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a sexually transmitted virus. Therefore, the induction of mucosal immunity is a high priority in the development of vaccines against mucosal pathogens. The selection of an appropriate antigen delivery system is necessary to induce an efficient mucosal immune response. Poxvirus vectors have been the most intensively studied live recombinant vector, and numerous studies have demonstrated their ability to induce mucosal immune responses against foreign expressed antigens. Previous studies have demonstrated that recombinants based on the attenuated modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vector were effective in inducing protective responses against different respiratory viruses, such as influenza and respiratory syncytial virus, following immunization via mucosal routes. Recent studies performed in the murine and macaque models have shown that recombinant MVA (rMVA) does not only stimulate HIV-specific immunity in the genital and rectal tracts following mucosal delivery, but can also control simian/human immunodeficiency viraemia and disease progression. In addition, a prime-boost vaccination approach against tuberculosis emphasized the importance of the intranasal rMVA antigen delivery to induce protective immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The aim of this review is to summarize the studies employing recombinant poxviruses, specifically rMVA as a mucosal delivery vector. The results demonstrate that rMVAs can activate specific immune responses at mucosal surfaces, and encourage further studies to characterize and improve the MVA mucosal immunogenicity of poxvirus vectors.

  17. Cystoscopic temporary ureteral catheterization during radical vaginal and abdominal trachelectomy.

    PubMed

    Abu-Rustum, Nadeem R; Sonoda, Yukio; Black, Destin; Chi, Dennis S; Barakat, Richard R

    2006-11-01

    approximately 15-20 min. Twenty-eight patients (74%) had 5Fr whistle-tip ureteral catheters inserted, and 10 had open-ended catheters inserted. There were no intraoperative complications. Median hospital stay was 3 days (range, 3-7). Hematuria, evident in the drainage bag attached to the Foley catheter, usually resolved in 24-48 h. Two (20%) of 10 patients who had open-ended catheters inserted developed a transient rise in postoperative creatinine (1.7 and 3.5 mg/dl, respectively) compared to 0/28 patients who had whistle-tip catheters placed (P<0.001). Both were attributed to postoperative distal ureteral edema, and only one patient required reinsertion of temporary ureteral stents. No patient developed long-term urinary complications or fistulae. Cystourethroscopy and bilateral retrograde ureteral catheterization by gynecologic oncologists is a simple and quick procedure that may facilitate identifying the distal ureter during radical vaginal or abdominal trachelectomy. We favor using 5Fr whistle-tip catheters as they may be associated with less ureteral mucosal trauma and subsequent postoperative edema. The skills needed for this procedure should be available to fellows in gynecologic oncology training.

  18. Cytokines in the host response to Candida vaginitis: Identifying a role for non-classical immune mediators, S100 alarmins

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Junko; Noverr, Mairi C.; Fidel, Paul L.

    2011-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), caused by Candida albicans, affects a significant number of women during their reproductive years. More than two decades of research have been focused on the mechanisms associated with susceptibility or resistance to symptomatic infection. Adaptive immunity by Th1-type CD4+ T cells and downstream cytokine responses are considered the predominant host defense mechanisms against mucosal Candida infections. However, numerous clinical and animal studies have indicated no or limited protective role of cells and cytokines of the Th1 or Th2 lineage against vaginal infection. The role for Th17 is only now begun to be investigated in-depth for VVC with results already showing significant controversy. On the other hand, a clinical live-challenge study and an established animal model have shown that a symptomatic condition is intimately associated with the vaginal infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) but with no effect on vaginal fungal burden. Subsequent studies identified S100A8 and S100A9 Alarmins as key chemotactic mediators of the acute PMN response. These chemotactic danger signals appear to be secreted by vaginal epithelial cells upon interaction and early adherence of Candida. Thus, instead of a putative immunodeficiency against Candida involving classical immune cells and cytokines of the adaptive response, the pathological inflammation in VVC is now considered a consequence of a non-productive innate response initiated by non-classical immune mediators. PMID:22182685

  19. Mucosal immunity and probiotics in fish.

    PubMed

    Lazado, Carlo C; Caipang, Christopher Marlowe A

    2014-07-01

    Teleost mucosal immunity has become the subject of unprecedented research studies in recent years because of its diversity and defining characteristics. Its immune repertoire is governed by the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (MALT) which are divided into gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT), skin-associated lymphoid tissues (SALT), and gill-associated lymphoid tissues (GIALT). The direct contact with its immediate environment makes the mucosal surfaces of fish susceptible to a wide variety of pathogens. The inherent immunocompetent cells and factors in the mucosal surfaces together with the commensal microbiota have pivotal role against pathogens. Immunomodulation is a popular prophylactic strategy in teleost and probiotics possess this beneficial feature. Most of the studies on the immunomodulatory properties of probiotics in fish mainly discussed their impacts on systemic immunity. In contrast, few of these studies discussed the immunomodulatory features of probiotics in mucosal surfaces and are concentrated on the influences in the gut. Significant attention should be devoted in understanding the relationship of mucosal immunity and probiotics as the present knowledge is limited and are mostly based on extrapolations of studies in humans and terrestrial vertebrates. In the course of the advancement of mucosal immunity and probiotics, new perspectives in probiotics research, e.g., probiogenomics have emerged. This review affirms the relevance of probiotics in the mucosal immunity of fish by revisiting and bridging the current knowledge on teleost mucosal immunity, mucosal microbiota and immunomodulation of mucosal surfaces by probiotics. Expanding the knowledge of immunomodulatory properties of probiotics especially on mucosal immunity is essential in advancing the use of probiotics as a sustainable and viable strategy for successful fish husbandry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Assisted Vaginal Delivery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Education FAQs Assisted Vaginal Delivery Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Assisted Vaginal Delivery FAQ192, February 2016 PDF ... on Patient Safety For Patients Patient FAQs Spanish Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & Governance ...

  1. Vaginal estrogen: a dual-edged sword in postoperative healing of the vaginal wall.

    PubMed

    Ripperda, Christopher M; Maldonado, Pedro Antonio; Acevedo, Jesus F; Keller, Patrick W; Akgul, Yucel; Shelton, John M; Word, Ruth Ann

    2017-07-01

    Reconstructive surgery for pelvic organ prolapse is plagued with high failure rates possibly due to impaired healing or regeneration of the vaginal wall. Here, we tested the hypothesis that postoperative administration of local estrogen, direct injection of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), or both lead to improved wound healing of the injured vagina in a menopausal rat model. Ovariectomized rats underwent surgical injury to the posterior vaginal wall and were randomized to treatment with placebo (n = 41), estrogen cream (n = 47), direct injection of MSCs (n = 39), or both (n = 43). MSCs did not survive after injection and had no appreciable effects on healing of the vaginal wall. Acute postoperative administration of vaginal estrogen altered the response of the vaginal wall to injury with decreased stiffness, decreased collagen content, and decreased expression of transcripts for matrix components in the stromal compartment. Conversely, vaginal estrogen resulted in marked proliferation of the epithelial layer and increased expression of genes related to epithelial barrier function and protease inhibition. Transcripts for genes involved in chronic inflammation and adaptive immunity were also down-regulated in the estrogenized epithelium. Collectively, these data indicate that, in contrast to the reported positive effects of preoperative estrogen on the uninjured vagina, acute administration of postoperative vaginal estrogen has adverse effects on the early phase of healing of the stromal layer. In contrast, postoperative estrogen plays a positive role in healing of the vaginal epithelium after injury.

  2. Vaginal estrogen: a dual-edged sword in postoperative healing of the vaginal wall

    PubMed Central

    Ripperda, Christopher M.; Maldonado, Pedro Antonio; Acevedo, Jesus F.; Keller, Patrick W.; Akgul, Yucel; Shelton, John M.; Word, Ruth Ann

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Reconstructive surgery for pelvic organ prolapse is plagued with high failure rates possibly due to impaired healing or regeneration of the vaginal wall. Here, we tested the hypothesis that postoperative administration of local estrogen, direct injection of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), or both lead to improved wound healing of the injured vagina in a menopausal rat model. Methods: Ovariectomized rats underwent surgical injury to the posterior vaginal wall and were randomized to treatment with placebo (n = 41), estrogen cream (n = 47), direct injection of MSCs (n = 39), or both (n = 43). Results: MSCs did not survive after injection and had no appreciable effects on healing of the vaginal wall. Acute postoperative administration of vaginal estrogen altered the response of the vaginal wall to injury with decreased stiffness, decreased collagen content, and decreased expression of transcripts for matrix components in the stromal compartment. Conversely, vaginal estrogen resulted in marked proliferation of the epithelial layer and increased expression of genes related to epithelial barrier function and protease inhibition. Transcripts for genes involved in chronic inflammation and adaptive immunity were also down-regulated in the estrogenized epithelium. Conclusions: Collectively, these data indicate that, in contrast to the reported positive effects of preoperative estrogen on the uninjured vagina, acute administration of postoperative vaginal estrogen has adverse effects on the early phase of healing of the stromal layer. In contrast, postoperative estrogen plays a positive role in healing of the vaginal epithelium after injury. PMID:28169915

  3. Reproducing SIVΔnef vaccine correlates of protection: trimeric gp41 antibody concentrated at mucosal front lines

    PubMed Central

    Voss, James E.; Macauley, Matthew S.; Rogers, Kenneth A.; Villinger, Francois; Duan, Lijie; Shang, Liang; Fink, Elizabeth A.; Andrabi, Raiees; Colantonio, Arnaud D.; Robinson, James E.; Johnson, R. Paul; Burton, Dennis R.; Haase, Ashley T.

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination with SIVmac239Δnef provides robust protection against subsequent challenge with wild type SIV, but safety issues have precluded designing an HIV-1 vaccine based on a live attenuated virus concept. Safe immunogens and adjuvants that could reproduce identified immune correlates of SIVmac239Δnef protection therefore offer an alternative path for development of an HIV vaccine. Here we describe SIV envelope trimeric gp41 (gp41t) immunogens based on a protective correlate of antibodies to gp41t concentrated on the path of virus entry by the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) in cervical vaginal epithelium. We developed a gp41t immunogen-MPLA adjuvant liposomal nanoparticle for intra-muscular immunization and a gp41t-Fc immunogen for intranasal immunization for pilot studies in mice, rabbits, and rhesus macaques. Repeated immunizations to mimic persistent antigen exposure in infection elicited gp41t antibodies in rhesus macaques that were detectable in FcRn+ cervical vaginal epithelium, thus recapitulating one key feature of SIVmac239Δnef vaccinated and protected animals. While this strategy did not reproduce the system of local production of antibody in SIVmac239Δnef-vaccinated animals, passive immunization experiments supported the concept that sufficiently high levels of antibody can be concentrated by the FcRn at mucosal frontlines, thus setting the stage for assessing protection against vaginal challenge by gp41t immunization. PMID:27428745

  4. Lactobacilli Dominance and Vaginal pH: Why Is the Human Vaginal Microbiome Unique?

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Elizabeth A.; Beasley, DeAnna E.; Dunn, Robert R.; Archie, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    The human vaginal microbiome is dominated by bacteria from the genus Lactobacillus, which create an acidic environment thought to protect women against sexually transmitted pathogens and opportunistic infections. Strikingly, lactobacilli dominance appears to be unique to humans; while the relative abundance of lactobacilli in the human vagina is typically >70%, in other mammals lactobacilli rarely comprise more than 1% of vaginal microbiota. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain humans' unique vaginal microbiota, including humans' distinct reproductive physiology, high risk of STDs, and high risk of microbial complications linked to pregnancy and birth. Here, we test these hypotheses using comparative data on vaginal pH and the relative abundance of lactobacilli in 26 mammalian species and 50 studies (N = 21 mammals for pH and 14 mammals for lactobacilli relative abundance). We found that non-human mammals, like humans, exhibit the lowest vaginal pH during the period of highest estrogen. However, the vaginal pH of non-human mammals is never as low as is typical for humans (median vaginal pH in humans = 4.5; range of pH across all 21 non-human mammals = 5.4–7.8). Contrary to disease and obstetric risk hypotheses, we found no significant relationship between vaginal pH or lactobacilli relative abundance and multiple metrics of STD or birth injury risk (P-values ranged from 0.13 to 0.99). Given the lack of evidence for these hypotheses, we discuss two alternative explanations: the common function hypothesis and a novel hypothesis related to the diet of agricultural humans. Specifically, with regard to diet we propose that high levels of starch in human diets have led to increased levels of glycogen in the vaginal tract, which, in turn, promotes the proliferation of lactobacilli. If true, human diet may have paved the way for a novel, protective microbiome in human vaginal tracts. Overall, our results highlight the need for continuing research on non

  5. [APPLICATION VALUE OF INDOCYANINE GREEN ANGIOGRAPHY IN FLAP RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY].

    PubMed

    Yang, Kai; Mu, Lan; Liu, Yan; Peng, Zhe; Li, Guangxue

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the utility of indocyanine green angiography in flap reconstructive surgery and possibility of decrease the complications. Indocyanine green angiography was performed on 14 patients undergoing flap reconstructive surgery between February and December 2014 to evaluate the blood perfusion of the flap and to adjust the operation plan. Of 14 cases, 2 were male and 12 were female, aged 23-58 years (mean, 35.5 years); 11 flaps were used for breast reconstruction [including 3 free deep inferior epigastric antery perforator (DIEP) flaps, 4 pedicled transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flaps (TRAM), 2 pedicled TRAM and free TRAM, and 2 pedicled latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flaps and prosthesis], 1 pedicled latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap for repairing chest wall defect, 1 pedicled profunda artery perforator (PAP) flap for upper leg defect, and 1 pedicled descending genicular artery perforator flap for knee defect. The size of the flaps ranged from 9 cm x 6 cm to 26 cm x 12 cm. A total of 32 indocyanine green angiography were performed. There was no adverse reactions to the infusion of indocyanine green. The surgery management was adjusted according to results of indocyanine green angiography findings in 5 of 14 cases. The distal part of flap were discarded because of poor perfusion in 3 cases (1 DIEP flap, 1 TRAM, and 1 PAP flap) and the other 2 cases (pedicled TRAM) needed additional free anastomosis to ensure sufficient blood supply (pedicled TRAM and free TRAM); the other flaps were harvested according to preoperative plan and repaired defect successfully. The mean follow-up was 5 months (range, 1-9 months). The other flaps survived without infection or fat necrosis except 1 PAP flap with distal necrosis. Intraoperative indocyanine green angiography can provide real-time information of flap perfusion and then the operation plan can be adjusted in time to ensure the flap survival.

  6. Novel vaccine development strategies for inducing mucosal immunity

    PubMed Central

    Fujkuyama, Yoshiko; Tokuhara, Daisuke; Kataoka, Kosuke; Gilbert, Rebekah S; McGhee, Jerry R; Yuki, Yoshikazu; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Fujihashi, Kohtaro

    2012-01-01

    To develop protective immune responses against mucosal pathogens, the delivery route and adjuvants for vaccination are important. The host, however, strives to maintain mucosal homeostasis by responding to mucosal antigens with tolerance, instead of immune activation. Thus, induction of mucosal immunity through vaccination is a rather difficult task, and potent mucosal adjuvants, vectors or other special delivery systems are often used, especially in the elderly. By taking advantage of the common mucosal immune system, the targeting of mucosal dendritic cells and microfold epithelial cells may facilitate the induction of effective mucosal immunity. Thus, novel routes of immunization and antigen delivery systems also show great potential for the development of effective and safe mucosal vaccines against various pathogens. The purpose of this review is to introduce several recent approaches to induce mucosal immunity to vaccines, with an emphasis on mucosal tissue targeting, new immunization routes and delivery systems. Defining the mechanisms of mucosal vaccines is as important as their efficacy and safety, and in this article, examples of recent approaches, which will likely accelerate progress in mucosal vaccine development, are discussed. PMID:22380827

  7. Efficient flapping flight of pterosaurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strang, Karl Axel

    In the late eighteenth century, humans discovered the first pterosaur fossil remains and have been fascinated by their existence ever since. Pterosaurs exploited their membrane wings in a sophisticated manner for flight control and propulsion, and were likely the most efficient and effective flyers ever to inhabit our planet. The flapping gait is a complex combination of motions that sustains and propels an animal in the air. Because pterosaurs were so large with wingspans up to eleven meters, if they could have sustained flapping flight, they would have had to achieve high propulsive efficiencies. Identifying the wing motions that contribute the most to propulsive efficiency is key to understanding pterosaur flight, and therefore to shedding light on flapping flight in general and the design of efficient ornithopters. This study is based on published results for a very well-preserved specimen of Coloborhynchus robustus, for which the joints are well-known and thoroughly described in the literature. Simplifying assumptions are made to estimate the characteristics that can not be inferred directly from the fossil remains. For a given animal, maximizing efficiency is equivalent to minimizing power at a given thrust and speed. We therefore aim at finding the flapping gait, that is the joint motions, that minimize the required flapping power. The power is computed from the aerodynamic forces created during a given wing motion. We develop an unsteady three-dimensional code based on the vortex-lattice method, which correlates well with published results for unsteady motions of rectangular wings. In the aerodynamic model, the rigid pterosaur wing is defined by the position of the bones. In the aeroelastic model, we add the flexibility of the bones and of the wing membrane. The nonlinear structural behavior of the membrane is reduced to a linear modal decomposition, assuming small deflections about the reference wing geometry. The reference wing geometry is computed for

  8. Keystone-designed buried de-epithelialized flap

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hoon; Ryu, Wan Cheol; Yoon, Chi Sun; Kim, Kyu Nam

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Effective obliteration of dead space after reconstructive surgery facilitates a good cosmetic outcome and prevention of delayed wound healing and recurrent infection. We evaluated the efficacy of a keystone-designed buried de-epithelialized (KBD) flap for the obliteration of small to moderately sized surgical dead spaces. We reviewed the medical records of patients who received a KBD flap following removal of a mass or debridement of necrotic tissue from September 2015 to February 2016. The diagnosis, site, dead space dimensions, flap width, drain data, complications, and follow-up duration were recorded. Twenty-eight KBD flaps were evaluated, including 9 cases of fat necrosis, 7 cases of epidermal cyst, and 12 cases of lipoma. Dead space dimensions ranged from 2 × 1.5 × 1 cm to 10 × 5 × 3 cm, with a mean depth of 2.01 cm. Flap sizes ranged from 2.5 × 1 cm to 11 × 3 cm, with a mean flap width of 2.01 cm. No postoperative complications, such as seroma or hematoma, occurred. The cosmetic results were favorable, and all patients were satisfied with their final outcomes. The KBD flap is useful for the obliteration of small to moderately sized surgical dead spaces both spatially and physiologically and shows excellent cosmetic outcomes. PMID:28538418

  9. Cannula-Assisted Flap Elevation (CAFE): a novel technique for developing flaps during skin-sparing mastectomies.

    PubMed

    Grant, Michael D

    2015-02-01

    One of the most challenging procedures in breast surgery is the skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM). Various techniques and incisions have evolved that characterize this procedure; however, what is common in all of them is the smaller the incision, the more difficult it is to develop the skin flaps. A procedure was developed that incorporates the use of liposuction cannulas (without suction) to create the skin flaps. The technique and results are described in this manuscript. From October of 2012 to April 2014, 289 mastectomies (171 patients) were performed using the CAFE procedure on women of all shapes and sizes. Postoperatively, no problems were experienced with flap viability using this technique. The main difference in side effects between the CAFE technique and other standard techniques for developing flaps in SSMs was more bruising than normal, but this resolved rapidly. The results for use of this technique were consistently impressive. The learning curve for this procedure is very short, especially for those who perform SSMs using sharp technique (scissors). Residents and fellows became proficient with the CAFE technique in a relatively short amount of time. Plastic surgeons were pleased with the cosmetic outcomes of their reconstructions that follow this type of mastectomy. Patients were extremely satisfied with their reconstructions as well. Incorporating the use of liposuction cannulas (without suction) makes the creation of flaps for SSM a relatively simple and rapid method. It is especially useful to assist in developing skin flaps with even the smallest of skin incisions.

  10. The role of postoperative hematoma on free flap compromise.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Faisal I; Gerecci, Deniz; Gonzalez, Javier D; Peck, Jessica J; Wax, Mark K

    2015-08-01

    Hematomas may develop in the postoperative setting after free tissue transfer. When hematomas occur, they can exert pressure on surrounding tissues. Their effect on the vascular pedicle of a free flap is unknown. We describe our incidence of hematoma in free flaps and outcomes when the flap is compromised. Retrospective chart review of 1,883 free flaps performed between July 1998 and June 2014 at a tertiary referral center. Patients with free flap compromise due to hematoma were identified. Etiology, demographic data, and outcomes were evaluated. Eighty-eight (4.7%) patients developed hematomas. Twenty (22.7%) of those had flap compromise. Twelve compromises (60%) showed evidence of pedicle thrombosis. The salvage rate was 75% versus 54% in 79 flaps with compromise from other causes (P = .12). Mean time to detection of the hematoma was 35.3 hours in salvaged flaps compared to 91.6 hours in unsalvageable flaps (P = .057). Time to operating room (OR) from detection was 2.8 hours in salvageable flaps compared to 12.4 hours in nonsalvageable flaps (P = .053). The salvage rate for flaps that returned to the OR in <5 hours was 93.3% compared to 20% (P = .0049) for those that did not. Vascular thrombosis reduced salvage rate to 58.3% from 100% (P = .002) when there was no thrombosis. In our series hematomas developed rarely. When they did, 23% went on to develop flap compromise. Prompt recognition and re-exploration allowed for a high salvage rate. Vessel thrombosis predicted inability to salvage the flap. 4 © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. True vaginal prolapse in a bitch.

    PubMed

    Alan, M; Cetin, Y; Sendag, S; Eski, F

    2007-08-01

    Frequently, vaginal fold prolapse is the protrusion of edematous vaginal tissue into and through the opening of the vulva occurring during proestrus and estrus stages of the sexual cycle. True vaginal prolapse may occur near parturition, as the concentration of serum progesterone declines and the concentration of serum oestrogen increases. In the bitch, this type of true vaginal prolapse is a very rare condition. This short communication describes a 5-year-old female, cross-breed dog in moderate condition, weighing 33 kg, with distocia and true vaginal prolapse. Abdominal palpation and transabdominal ultrasonography revealed live and dead foetuses in the uterine horns. One dead and four live fetuses were removed from uterus by cesarean section. The ovariohysterectomy was performed after repositioning the vaginal wall with a combination of traction from within the abdomen and external manipulation through the vulva. Re-occurrence of a vaginal prolapse was not observed and the bitch recovered completely after the surgical therapy. Compared to other vaginal disorders, vaginal prolapse is an uncommon condition in the bitch. In the present case, extreme tenesmus arising from distocia may have predisposed to the vaginal prolapse. The cause of dystocia was probably the disposition of the first foetus. We concluded that the vaginal prolapse was the result of dystocia in the present case.

  12. Mandibular reconstruction in irradiated patients utilizing myosseous-cutaneous flaps

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Pearlman, N.W.; Albin, R.E.; O'Donnell, R.S.

    1983-10-01

    Myosseous-cutaneous flaps were used for mandibular reconstruction in 16 irradiated patients. Three of six sternomastoid-clavicle flaps failed (all in conjunction with a neck dissection), as did one of 10 pectoralis major-anterior-fifth rib flaps. One trapezius-scapular flap was used and it succeeded. We found the blood supply of the sternomastoid-clavicle flap too tenuous for use in conjunction with a neck dissection. The trapezius-scapular flap had too short an arc of rotation to be used for defects other than those in the horizontal ramus. In addition, this flap required a change of position and created an undesirable functional deformity. The pectoralis major-fifthmore » rib flap, in contrast, could be used for a variety of defects, in conjunction with a neck dissection, and did not require a change of position during operation. We found it to be the most versatile and dependable of the flaps employed in this series.« less

  13. 50 CFR Figure 16 to Part 223 - Escape Opening and Flap Dimensions for the Double Cover Flap TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Escape Opening and Flap Dimensions for the Double Cover Flap TED 16 Figure 16 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES... MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 16 Figure 16 to Part 223—Escape Opening and Flap Dimensions...

  14. 50 CFR Figure 16 to Part 223 - Escape Opening and Flap Dimensions for the Double Cover Flap TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Escape Opening and Flap Dimensions for the Double Cover Flap TED 16 Figure 16 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES... MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 16 Figure 16 to Part 223—Escape Opening and Flap Dimensions...

  15. Dinoprostone vaginal insert versus intravenous oxytocin to reduce postpartum blood loss following vaginal or cesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Ozalp, E; Tanir, H M; Sener, T

    2010-01-01

    To compare the impact of a dinoprostone vaginal insert and intravenous oxytocin in reducing blood loss of women undergoing vaginal or cesarean delivery. This study was conducted among term singleton pregnancies delivered vaginally or by elective cesarean section. In the vaginally delivered cases, active management of the third stage of labor was conducted. During cesarean delivery, 20 IU of intravenous oxytocin was administered. Women, who either delivered via the vaginal or abdominal route, were then randomly allocated to receive 10 mg vaginal dinoprostone insert for 12 hours (group I, n: 100) or intravenous oxytocin (group II, n: 100), respectively. Mean blood loss and need for additional uterotonics and postpartum hemoglobin and hematocrit levels at 24 and 36 hours after delivery did not differ between the two groups. Women allocated to the dinoprostone vaginal insert arm experienced more nausea and vomiting. Dinoprostone vaginal insert was as effective as intravenous oxytocin in the prevention of postpartum blood loss.

  16. TLR7 and 9 agonists are highly effective mucosal adjuvants for norovirus virus-like particle vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Hjelm, Brooke E; Kilbourne, Jacquelyn; Herbst-Kralovetz, Melissa M

    2014-01-01

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) are an active area of vaccine research, development and commercialization. Mucosal administration of VLPs provides an attractive avenue for delivery of vaccines with the potential to produce robust immune responses. Nasal and oral delivery routes are particularly intriguing due to differential activation of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues. We compared both intranasal and oral administration of VLPs with a panel of toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists (TLR3, 5, 7, 7/8, and 9) to determine the mucosal adjuvant activity of these immunomodulators. We selected Norwalk virus (NV) VLPs because it is an effective model antigen and an active area of research and commercialization. To prioritize these adjuvants, VLP-specific antibody production in serum (IgG, IgG1, IgG2a), vaginal lavages (IgG, IgA), and fecal pellets (IgA) were measured across a longitudinal timeseries in vaccinated mice. Additional distal mucosal sites (nasal, brochoalveolar, salivary, and gastrointestinal) were evaluated for VLP-specific responses (IgA). Intranasal co-delivery of VLPs with TLR7 or TLR9 agonists produced the most robust and broad-spectrum immune responses, systemically and at distal mucosal sites inducing VLP-specific antibodies at all sites evaluated. In addition, these VLP-specific antibodies blocked binding of NV VLPs to histo-blood group antigen (H type 1), supporting their functionality. Oral administration and/or other TLR agonists tested in the panel did not consistently enhance VLP-specific immune responses. This study demonstrates that intranasal co-delivery of VLPs with TLR7 or TLR9 agonists provides dose-sparing advantages for induction of specific and functional antibody responses against VLPs (i.e., non-replicating antigens) in the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and reproductive tract. PMID:24280723

  17. Evaluation of vaginal complaints.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Matthew R; Klink, Kathleen; Cohrssen, Andreas

    2004-03-17

    Vaginal symptoms are one of the most common reasons for gynecological consultation. Clinicians have traditionally diagnosed vaginal candidiasis, bacterial vaginosis, and vaginal trichomoniasis using some combination of physical examination, pH, the wet mount, and the whiff test. To evaluate the role of the clinical examination and determine the positive and negative likelihood ratios (LRs) for the diagnosis of vaginal candidiasis, bacterial vaginosis, and vaginal trichomoniasis. Using a structured literature review, we abstracted information on sensitivity and specificity for symptoms, signs, and office laboratory procedures. We chose published (1966 to April 2003) articles that appeared in the MEDLINE database and were indexed under the combined search terms of diagnosis with vaginitis, vaginal discharge, candidiasis, bacterial vaginosis, and trichomoniasis. Included studies of symptomatic premenopausal women seen in primary care settings. Tests were evaluated only if they would provide diagnostic information during the office visit and were compared with an acceptable criterion standard. All 3 authors extracted the data and computed sensitivity and specificity from each article independently. The absence of standard definitions for symptoms and signs made it impossible to combine results across studies. Symptoms alone do not allow clinicians to distinguish confidently between the causes of vaginitis. However, a patient's lack of itching makes candidiasis less likely (range of LRs, 0.18 [95% confidence interval [CI], 0.05-0.70] to 0.79 [95% CI, 0.72-0.87]) and lack of perceived odor makes bacterial vaginosis unlikely (LR, 0.07 [95% CI, 0.01-0.51]). Similarly, physical examination signs are limited in their diagnostic power. The presence of inflammatory signs is associated with candidiasis (range of LRs, 2.1 [95% CI, 1.5-2.8] to 8.4 [95% CI, 2.3-31]). Presence of a "high cheese" odor on examination is predictive of bacterial vaginosis (LR, 3.2 [95% CI, 2

  18. Phosphate steering by Flap Endonuclease 1 promotes 5'-flap specificity and incision to prevent genome instability

    DOE PAGES

    Tsutakawa, Susan E.; Thompson, Mark J.; Arvai, Andrew S.; ...

    2017-06-27

    DNA replication and repair enzyme Flap Endonuclease 1 (FEN1) is vital for genome integrity, and FEN1 mutations arise in multiple cancers. FEN1 precisely cleaves single-stranded (ss) 5'-flaps one nucleotide into duplex (ds) DNA. Yet, how FEN1 selects for but does not incise the ss 5'-flap was enigmatic. Here we combine crystallographic, biochemical and genetic analyses to show that two dsDNA binding sites set the 5'polarity and to reveal unexpected control of the DNA phosphodiester backbone by electrostatic interactions. Via phosphate steering', basic residues energetically steer an inverted ss 5'-flap through a gateway over FEN1's active site and shift dsDNA formore » catalysis. Mutations of these residues cause an 18,000-fold reduction in catalytic rate in vitro and large-scale trinucleotide (GAA) n repeat expansions in vivo, implying failed phosphate-steering promotes an unanticipated lagging-strand template-switch mechanism during replication. Thus, phosphate steering is an unappreciated FEN1 function that enforces 5'-flap specificity and catalysis, preventing genomic instability.« less

  19. Phosphate steering by Flap Endonuclease 1 promotes 5'-flap specificity and incision to prevent genome instability

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Tsutakawa, Susan E.; Thompson, Mark J.; Arvai, Andrew S.

    DNA replication and repair enzyme Flap Endonuclease 1 (FEN1) is vital for genome integrity, and FEN1 mutations arise in multiple cancers. FEN1 precisely cleaves single-stranded (ss) 5'-flaps one nucleotide into duplex (ds) DNA. Yet, how FEN1 selects for but does not incise the ss 5'-flap was enigmatic. Here we combine crystallographic, biochemical and genetic analyses to show that two dsDNA binding sites set the 5'polarity and to reveal unexpected control of the DNA phosphodiester backbone by electrostatic interactions. Via phosphate steering', basic residues energetically steer an inverted ss 5'-flap through a gateway over FEN1's active site and shift dsDNA formore » catalysis. Mutations of these residues cause an 18,000-fold reduction in catalytic rate in vitro and large-scale trinucleotide (GAA) n repeat expansions in vivo, implying failed phosphate-steering promotes an unanticipated lagging-strand template-switch mechanism during replication. Thus, phosphate steering is an unappreciated FEN1 function that enforces 5'-flap specificity and catalysis, preventing genomic instability.« less

  20. Pre-expanded Intercostal Perforator Super-Thin Skin Flap.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yunjun; Luo, Yong; Lu, Feng; Hyakusoku, Hiko; Gao, Jianhua; Jiang, Ping

    2017-01-01

    This article introduces pre-expanded super-thin intercostal perforator flaps, particularly the flap that has a perforator from the first to second intercostal spaces. The key techniques, advantages and disadvantages, and complications and management of this flap are described. At present, the thinnest possible flap is achieved by thinning the pre-expanded flap that has a perforator from the first to second intercostal spaces. It is used to reconstruct large defects on the face and neck, thus restoring function and cosmetic appearance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 14 CFR 25.1511 - Flap extended speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flap extended speed. 25.1511 Section 25.1511 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Limitations § 25.1511 Flap extended speed. The established flap extended speed V FE must be established so...

  2. 14 CFR 25.1511 - Flap extended speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flap extended speed. 25.1511 Section 25.1511 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Limitations § 25.1511 Flap extended speed. The established flap extended speed V FE must be established so...

  3. 14 CFR 25.1511 - Flap extended speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flap extended speed. 25.1511 Section 25.1511 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Limitations § 25.1511 Flap extended speed. The established flap extended speed V FE must be established so...

  4. Vaginitis: current microbiologic and clinical concepts.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, L V; Embil, J A

    1986-01-01

    Infectious vaginitis occurs when the normal vaginal flora is disrupted; it may arise when saprophytes overwhelm the host immune response, when pathogenic organisms are introduced into the vagina or when changes in substrate allow an imbalance of microorganisms to develop. Examples of these types of vaginitis include the presence of chronic fungal infection in women with an inadequate cellular immune response to the yeast, the introduction of trichomonads into vaginal epithelium that has a sufficient supply of glycogen, and the alteration in bacterial flora, normally dominated by Lactobacillus spp., and its metabolites that is characteristic of "nonspecific vaginitis". The authors review microbiologic and clinical aspects of the fungal, protozoal and bacterial infections, including the interactions of bacteria thought to produce nonspecific vaginitis, that are now recognized as causing vaginitis. Other causes of vaginitis are also discussed. PMID:3510698

  5. Vaginitis: current microbiologic and clinical concepts.

    PubMed

    Hill, L V; Embil, J A

    1986-02-15

    Infectious vaginitis occurs when the normal vaginal flora is disrupted; it may arise when saprophytes overwhelm the host immune response, when pathogenic organisms are introduced into the vagina or when changes in substrate allow an imbalance of microorganisms to develop. Examples of these types of vaginitis include the presence of chronic fungal infection in women with an inadequate cellular immune response to the yeast, the introduction of trichomonads into vaginal epithelium that has a sufficient supply of glycogen, and the alteration in bacterial flora, normally dominated by Lactobacillus spp., and its metabolites that is characteristic of "nonspecific vaginitis". The authors review microbiologic and clinical aspects of the fungal, protozoal and bacterial infections, including the interactions of bacteria thought to produce nonspecific vaginitis, that are now recognized as causing vaginitis. Other causes of vaginitis are also discussed.

  6. Neisseria gonorrhoeae co-infection exacerbates vaginal HIV shedding without affecting systemic viral loads in human CD34+ engrafted mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Stacey X; Leontyev, Danila; Kaul, Rupert; Gray-Owen, Scott D

    2018-01-01

    HIV synergy with sexually transmitted co-infections is well-documented in the clinic. Co-infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae in particular, increases genital HIV shedding and mucosal transmission. However, no animal model of co-infection currently exists to directly explore this relationship or to bridge the gap in understanding between clinical and in vitro studies of this interaction. This study aims to test the feasibility of using a humanized mouse model to overcome this barrier. Combining recent in vivo modelling advancements in both HIV and gonococcal research, we developed a co-infection model by engrafting immunodeficient NSG mice with human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells to generate humanized mice that permit both systemic HIV infection and genital N. gonorrhoeae infection. Systemic plasma and vaginal lavage titres of HIV were measured in order to assess the impact of gonococcal challenge on viral plasma titres and genital shedding. Engrafted mice showed human CD45+ leukocyte repopulation in blood and mucosal tissues. Systemic HIV challenge resulted in 104-105 copies/mL of viral RNA in blood by week 4 post-infection, as well as vaginal shedding of virus. Subsequent gonococcal challenge resulted in unchanged plasma HIV levels but higher viral shedding in the genital tract, which reflects published clinical observations. Thus, human CD34+ stem cell-transplanted NSG mice represent an experimentally tractable animal model in which to study HIV shedding during gonococcal co-infection, allowing dissection of molecular and immunological interactions between these pathogens, and providing a platform to assess future therapeutics aimed at reducing HIV transmission.

  7. Effect of Vaginal or Systemic Estrogen on Dynamics of Collagen Assembly in the Rat Vaginal Wall1

    PubMed Central

    Montoya, T. Ignacio; Maldonado, P. Antonio; Acevedo, Jesus F.; Word, R. Ann

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to compare the effects of systemic and local estrogen treatment on collagen assembly and biomechanical properties of the vaginal wall. Ovariectomized nulliparous rats were treated with estradiol or conjugated equine estrogens (CEEs) either systemically, vaginal CEE, or vaginal placebo cream for 4 wk. Low-dose local CEE treatment resulted in increased vaginal epithelial thickness and significant vaginal growth without uterine hyperplasia. Furthermore, vaginal wall distensibility increased without compromise of maximal force at failure. Systemic estradiol resulted in modest increases in collagen type I with no change in collagen type III mRNA. Low-dose vaginal treatment, however, resulted in dramatic increases in both collagen subtypes whereas moderate and high dose local therapies were less effective. Consistent with the mRNA results, low-dose vaginal estrogen resulted in increased total and cross-linked collagen content. The inverse relationship between vaginal dose and collagen expression may be explained in part by progressive downregulation of estrogen receptor-alpha mRNA with increasing estrogen dose. We conclude that, in this menopausal rat model, local estrogen treatment increased total and cross-linked collagen content and markedly stimulated collagen mRNA expression in an inverse dose-effect relationship. High-dose vaginal estrogen resulted in downregulation of estrogen receptor-alpha and loss of estrogen-induced increases in vaginal collagen. These results may have important clinical implications regarding the use of local vaginal estrogen therapy and its role as an adjunctive treatment in women with loss of vaginal support. PMID:25537371

  8. Reconstruction of pressure sores with perforator-based propeller flaps.

    PubMed

    Jakubietz, Rafael G; Jakubietz, Danni F; Zahn, Robert; Schmidt, Karsten; Meffert, Rainer H; Jakubietz, Michael G

    2011-03-01

    Perforator flaps have been successfully used for reconstruction of pressure sores. Although V-Y advancement flaps approximate debrided wound edges, perforator-based propeller flaps allow rotation of healthy tissue into the defect. Perforator-based propeller flaps were planned in 13 patients. Seven pressure sores were over the sacrum, five over the ischial tuberosity, and one on the tip of the scapula. Three patients were paraplegic, six were bedridden, and five were ambulatory. In three patients, no perforators were found. In 10 patients, propeller flaps were transferred. In two patients, total flap necrosis occurred, which was reconstructed with local advancement flaps. In two cases, a wound dehiscence occurred and had to be revised. One hematoma required evacuation. No further complications were noted. No recurrence at the flap site occurred. Local perforator flaps allow closure of pressure sores without harvesting muscle. The propeller version has the added benefit of transferring tissue from a distant site, avoiding reapproximation of original wound edges. Twisting of the pedicle may cause torsion and venous obstruction. This can be avoided by dissecting a pedicle of at least 3 cm. Propeller flaps are a safe option for soft tissue reconstruction of pressure sores. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  9. Reconstruction Using Locoregional Flaps for Large Skull Base Defects.

    PubMed

    Hatano, Takaharu; Motomura, Hisashi; Ayabe, Shinobu

    2015-06-01

    We present a modified locoregional flap for the reconstruction of large anterior skull base defects that should be reconstructed with a free flap according to Yano's algorithm. No classification of skull base defects had been proposed for a long time. Yano et al suggested a new classification in 2012. The lb defect of Yano's classification extends horizontally from the cribriform plate to the orbital roof. According to Yano's algorithm for subsequent skull base reconstructive procedures, a lb defect should be reconstructed with a free flap such as an anterolateral thigh free flap or rectus abdominis myocutaneous free flap. However, our modified locoregional flap has also enabled reconstruction of lb defects. In this case series, we used a locoregional flap for lb defects. No major postoperative complications occurred. We present our modified locoregional flap that enables reconstruction of lb defects.

  10. Directed shift of vaginal microbiota induced by vaginal application of sucrose gel in rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Hu, Kai-tao; Zheng, Jin-xin; Yu, Zhi-jian; Chen, Zhong; Cheng, Hang; Pan, Wei-guang; Yang, Wei-zhi; Wang, Hong-yan; Deng, Qi-wen; Zeng, Zhong-ming

    2015-04-01

    Sucrose gel was used to treat bacterial vaginosis in a phase III clinical trial. However, the changes of vaginal flora after treatment were only examined by Nugent score in that clinical trial, While the vaginal microbiota of rhesus macaques is characterized by anaerobic, Gram-negative bacteria, few lactobacilli, and pH levels above 4.6, similar to the microbiota of patients with bacterial vaginosis. This study is aimed to investigate the change of the vaginal microbiota of rehsus macaques after topical use of sucrose gel to reveal more precisely the bacterial population shift after the topical application of sucrose gel. Sixteen rhesus macaques were treated with 0.5 g sucrose gel vaginally and three with 0.5 g of placebo gel. Vaginal swabs were collected daily following treatment. Vaginal pH levels and Nugent scores were recorded. The composition of the vaginal micotbiota was tested by V3∼V4 16S rDNA metagenomic sequencing. Dynamic changes in the Lactobacillus genus were analyzed by qPCR. The vaginal microbiota of rhesus macaques are dominated by anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria, with few lactobacilli and high pH levels above 4.6. After five days' treatment with topical sucrose gel, the component percentage of Lactobacillus in vaginal microbiota increased from 1.31% to 81.59%, while the component percentage of Porphyromonas decreased from 18.60% to 0.43%, Sneathia decreased from 15.09% to 0.89%, Mobiluncus decreased from 8.23% to 0.12%, etc.. The average vaginal pH values of 16 rhesus macaques of the sucrose gel group decreased from 5.4 to 3.89. There were no significant changes in microbiota and vaginal pH observed in the placebo group. Rhesus macaques can be used as animal models of bacterial vaginosis to develop drugs and test treatment efficacy. Furthermore, the topical application of sucrose gel induced the shifting of vaginal flora of rhesus macaques from a BV kind of flora to a lactobacilli-dominating flora. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by

  11. Normal Tissue Complication Probability (NTCP) Modelling of Severe Acute Mucositis using a Novel Oral Mucosal Surface Organ at Risk.

    PubMed

    Dean, J A; Welsh, L C; Wong, K H; Aleksic, A; Dunne, E; Islam, M R; Patel, A; Patel, P; Petkar, I; Phillips, I; Sham, J; Schick, U; Newbold, K L; Bhide, S A; Harrington, K J; Nutting, C M; Gulliford, S L

    2017-04-01

    A normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model of severe acute mucositis would be highly useful to guide clinical decision making and inform radiotherapy planning. We aimed to improve upon our previous model by using a novel oral mucosal surface organ at risk (OAR) in place of an oral cavity OAR. Predictive models of severe acute mucositis were generated using radiotherapy dose to the oral cavity OAR or mucosal surface OAR and clinical data. Penalised logistic regression and random forest classification (RFC) models were generated for both OARs and compared. Internal validation was carried out with 100-iteration stratified shuffle split cross-validation, using multiple metrics to assess different aspects of model performance. Associations between treatment covariates and severe mucositis were explored using RFC feature importance. Penalised logistic regression and RFC models using the oral cavity OAR performed at least as well as the models using mucosal surface OAR. Associations between dose metrics and severe mucositis were similar between the mucosal surface and oral cavity models. The volumes of oral cavity or mucosal surface receiving intermediate and high doses were most strongly associated with severe mucositis. The simpler oral cavity OAR should be preferred over the mucosal surface OAR for NTCP modelling of severe mucositis. We recommend minimising the volume of mucosa receiving intermediate and high doses, where possible. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fast track vaginal surgery.

    PubMed

    Ottesen, Marianne; Sørensen, Mette; Rasmussen, Yvonne; Smidt-Jensen, Steen; Kehlet, Henrik; Ottesen, Bent

    2002-02-01

    Our aim was to describe the need for postoperative hospitalization after vaginal surgery for utero-vaginal prolapse with well-defined charts for postoperative care. A prospective, descriptive study. Consecutive women admitted for first-time vaginal surgery for utero-vaginal prolapse at a public university hospital in Copenhagen, Denmark, underwent surgery and postoperative care in a fast track setting from September 15, 1999 to June 15 2000. A multimodal rehabilitation model with emphasis on information, standardized general anesthesia, reduced surgical distress, optimized pain-relief, early oral nutrition and ambulation, minimal use of indwelling catheter and vaginal packing. Postoperative hospital stay, complications, re-admission, success rate, patients' satisfaction and acceptability. Forty-one women with a median age of 69 years (range, 44-88 years) were included. All underwent anterior and/or posterior vaginal repair. Nineteen (46.3%) underwent vaginal hysterectomy, and eight (19.5%) underwent the Manchester procedure. Postoperative hospital stay was median 24 hr. Only three (7.3%) were discharged later than 48 hr. No re-admissions occurred. The most frequent complications were urinary retention exceeding 450 ml, and urinary tract infection (12.2%, and 9.8%, respectively). Short-term success rate was 97.6%. Patients' satisfaction rates were 85.4-95.1%. The median score of acceptability was 10 on a 0-10 points scale. The need for postoperative hospitalization was median 24 hr after vaginal surgery in a fast track setting, independently of the complexity of the procedure performed. Short-term success rate, satisfaction rates, and acceptability were all excellent. Follow up has been established to evaluate long-term success rates and recurrence.

  13. A Phase 1 Trial to Assess the Safety, Acceptability, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamics of a Novel Dapivirine Vaginal Film.

    PubMed

    Bunge, Katherine E; Dezzutti, Charlene S; Rohan, Lisa C; Hendrix, Craig W; Marzinke, Mark A; Richardson-Harman, Nicola; Moncla, Bernard J; Devlin, Brid; Meyn, Leslie A; Spiegel, Hans M L; Hillier, Sharon L

    2016-04-15

    Films may deliver antiretroviral drugs efficiently to mucosal tissues. In this first in-human trial of a vaginal film for delivering the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor dapivirine, safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of film and gel formulations were compared with placebo. Sixty-one healthy HIV-negative women were randomized to daily dapivirine (0.05%) or placebo gel, or dapivirine (1.25 mg) or placebo film for seven days. The proportion of participants experiencing grade 2 and higher adverse events related to study product were compared. Plasma dapivirine concentrations were quantified. Paired cervical and vaginal tissue biopsies obtained ∼2 hours after the last dose were measured for tissue drug concentration and exposed to HIV in an ex vivo challenge assay. Two grade 2 related adverse events occurred in the placebo film group. Women randomized to gel and film products had 4 log10 higher of dapivirine in cervical and vaginal tissues than plasma. Although gel and film users had comparable plasma dapivirine concentrations, tissue concentrations of dapivirine were 3-5 times higher in the gel users when compared with film users. HIV replication in the ex vivo challenge assay was significantly reduced in vaginal tissues from women randomized to dapivirine film or gel; furthermore, tissue drug concentrations were highly correlated with HIV protection. Women rated the film more comfortable with less leakage but found it more difficult to insert than gel. Both film and gel delivered dapivirine at concentrations sufficient to block HIV ex vivo. This proof-of-concept study suggests film formulations for microbicides merit further investigation.

  14. A Phase 1 trial to assess the safety, acceptability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a novel dapivirine vaginal film

    PubMed Central

    Bunge, Authors: Katherine E.; Dezzutti, Charlene S.; Rohan, Lisa C.; Hendrix, Craig W.; Marzinke, Mark A.; Richardson-Harman, Nicola; Moncla, Bernard J.; Devlin, Brid; Meyn, Leslie A.; M.L.Spiegel, Hans; Hillier, Sharon L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Films may deliver antiretroviral drugs efficiently to mucosal tissues. In this first in-human trial of a vaginal film for delivering the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor dapivirine, safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of film and gel formulations were compared to placebo. Methods 61 healthy HIV negative women were randomized to daily dapivirine (0.05%) or placebo gel, or dapivirine (1.25mg) or placebo film for seven days. The proportion of participants experiencing Grade 2 and higher adverse events related to study product were compared. Plasma dapivirine concentrations were quantified. Paired cervical and vaginal tissue biopsies obtained ∼2 hours following the last dose were measured for tissue drug concentration and exposed to HIV in an ex vivo challenge assay. Results Two Grade 2 related AEs occurred in the placebo film group. Women randomized to gel and film products had 4 log10 higher of dapivirine in cervical and vaginal tissues than plasma. While gel and film users had comparable plasma dapivirine concentrations, tissue concentrations of dapivirine were 3 to 5 times higher in the gel users when compared to film users. HIV replication in the ex vivo challenge assay was significantly reduced in vaginal tissues from women randomized to dapivirine film or gel; furthermore, tissue drug concentrations were highly correlated with HIV protection. Women rated the film more comfortable with less leakage, but found it more difficult to insert than gel. Discussion Both film and gel delivered dapivirine at concentrations sufficient to block HIV ex vivo. This proof of concept study suggests film formulations for microbicides merit further investigation. PMID:26565716

  15. Semaphorin 4D induces vaginal epithelial cell apoptosis to control mouse postnatal vaginal tissue remodeling.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takuji; Bai, Tao; Tanaka, Tetsuji; Yoshida, Kenji; Ueyama, Takashi; Miyajima, Masayasu; Negishi, Takayuki; Kawasaki, Takahiko; Takamatsu, Hyota; Kikutani, Hitoshi; Kumanogoh, Atsushi; Yukawa, Kazunori

    2015-02-01

    The opening of the mouse vaginal cavity to the skin is a postnatal tissue remodeling process that occurs at approximately five weeks of age for the completion of female genital tract maturation at puberty. The tissue remodeling process is primarily composed of a hormonally triggered apoptotic process predominantly occurring in the epithelium of the distal section of the vaginal cavity. However, the detailed mechanism underlying the apoptotic induction remains to be elucidated. In the present study, it was observed that the majority of BALB/c mice lacking the class 4 semaphorin, semaphorin 4D (Sema4D), developed imperforate vagina and hydrometrocolpos resulting in a perpetually unopened vaginal cavity regardless of a normal estrogen level comparable with that in wild‑type (WT) mice. Administration of β‑estradiol to infant Sema4D‑deficient (Sema4D‑/‑) mice did not induce precocious vaginal opening, which was observed in WT mice subjected to the same β‑estradiol administration, excluding the possibility that the closed vaginal phenotype was due to insufficient estrogen secretion at the time of vaginal opening. In order to assess the role of Sema4D in the postnatal vaginal tissue remodeling process, the expression of Sema4D and its receptor, plexin‑B1, was examined as well as the level of apoptosis in the vaginal epithelia of five‑week‑old WT and Sema4D‑/‑ mice. Immunohistochemical analyses confirmed the localization of Sema4D and plexin‑B1 in the mouse vaginal epithelia. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay and immunohistochemistry detecting activated caspase‑3 revealed significantly fewer apoptotic cells in situ in the vaginal mucosa of five‑week‑old Sema4D‑/‑ mice compared with WT mice. The addition of recombinant Sema4D to Sema4D‑/‑ vaginal epithelial cells in culture significantly enhanced apoptosis of the vaginal epithelial cells, demonstrating the apoptosis‑inducing activity of Sema4D. The

  16. Semaphorin 4D induces vaginal epithelial cell apoptosis to control mouse postnatal vaginal tissue remodeling

    PubMed Central

    ITO, TAKUJI; BAI, TAO; TANAKA, TETSUJI; YOSHIDA, KENJI; UEYAMA, TAKASHI; MIYAJIMA, MASAYASU; NEGISHI, TAKAYUKI; KAWASAKI, TAKAHIKO; TAKAMATSU, HYOTA; KIKUTANI, HITOSHI; KUMANOGOH, ATSUSHI; YUKAWA, KAZUNORI

    2015-01-01

    The opening of the mouse vaginal cavity to the skin is a postnatal tissue remodeling process that occurs at approximately five weeks of age for the completion of female genital tract maturation at puberty. The tissue remodeling process is primarily composed of a hormonally triggered apoptotic process predominantly occurring in the epithelium of the distal section of the vaginal cavity. However, the detailed mechanism underlying the apoptotic induction remains to be elucidated. In the present study, it was observed that the majority of BALB/c mice lacking the class 4 semaphorin, semaphorin 4D (Sema4D), developed imperforate vagina and hydrometrocolpos resulting in a perpetually unopened vaginal cavity regardless of a normal estrogen level comparable with that in wild-type (WT) mice. Administration of β-estradiol to infant Sema4D-deficient (Sema4D−/−) mice did not induce precocious vaginal opening, which was observed in WT mice subjected to the same β-estradiol administration, excluding the possibility that the closed vaginal phenotype was due to insufficient estrogen secretion at the time of vaginal opening. In order to assess the role of Sema4D in the postnatal vaginal tissue remodeling process, the expression of Sema4D and its receptor, plexin-B1, was examined as well as the level of apoptosis in the vaginal epithelia of five-week-old WT and Sema4D−/− mice. Immunohistochemical analyses confirmed the localization of Sema4D and plexin-B1 in the mouse vaginal epithelia. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay and immunohistochemistry detecting activated caspase-3 revealed significantly fewer apoptotic cells in situ in the vaginal mucosa of five-week-old Sema4D−/− mice compared with WT mice. The addition of recombinant Sema4D to Sema4D−/− vaginal epithelial cells in culture significantly enhanced apoptosis of the vaginal epithelial cells, demonstrating the apoptosis-inducing activity of Sema4D. The experimental reduction of

  17. The "chimeric" trapezius muscle and fasciocutaneous flap (dorsal scapular artery perforator flap): a new design for complex 3-dimensional defects.

    PubMed

    Rozen, Warren M; Fox, Carly M; Leong, James; Morsi, Adel

    2013-11-01

    Multiple variations of the musculocutaneous trapezius flap have been described, each of which use a single composite musculocutaneous unit in their designs. The limitation of such designs is the ability to use the components in a 3-dimensional manner, with only 1 vector existing in the geometry of the musculocutaneous unit. A review of the literature was undertaken with regard to designs of the musculocutaneous trapezius flap, and we present a new technique for flap design. With identification of individual perforators to each of the muscle and fasciocutaneous portions of the trapezius flap, the 2 components can act in a chimeric fashion, able to fill both a deep and complex 3-dimensional space while covering the wound with robust skin. A range of flap designs have been described, including transverse, oblique, and vertical skin paddles accompanying the trapezius muscle. We describe a technique with which a propeller-style skin paddle based on a cutaneous perforator can be raised in any orientation with respect to the underlying muscle. In a presented case, separation of the muscular and fasciocutaneous components of the trapezius flap was able to obliterate dead space around exposed cervicothoracic spinal metalwork and obtain robust wound closure in a patient with previous radiotherapy. This concomitant use of a muscle and fasciocutaneous perforator flap based on a single perforator, a so-called chimeric perforator flap, is a useful modification to trapezius musculocutaneous flap design.

  18. 14 CFR 23.1511 - Flap extended speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flap extended speed. 23.1511 Section 23.1511 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Information § 23.1511 Flap extended speed. (a) The flap extended speed V FE must be established so that it is...

  19. 14 CFR 23.1511 - Flap extended speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flap extended speed. 23.1511 Section 23.1511 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Information § 23.1511 Flap extended speed. (a) The flap extended speed V FE must be established so that it is...

  20. 14 CFR 23.1511 - Flap extended speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flap extended speed. 23.1511 Section 23.1511 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Information § 23.1511 Flap extended speed. (a) The flap extended speed V FE must be established so that it is...

  1. 14 CFR 23.1511 - Flap extended speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flap extended speed. 23.1511 Section 23.1511 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Information § 23.1511 Flap extended speed. (a) The flap extended speed V FE must be established so that it is...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1511 - Flap extended speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flap extended speed. 23.1511 Section 23.1511 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Information § 23.1511 Flap extended speed. (a) The flap extended speed V FE must be established so that it is...

  3. Biology and Mucosal Immunity to Myxozoans

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Daniela; Bartholomew, Jerri; Sunyer, J. Oriol

    2014-01-01

    Myxozoans are among the most abundant parasites in nature. Their life cycles involve two hosts: an invertebrate, usually an annelid, and a vertebrate, usually a fish. They affect fish species in their natural habitats but also constitute a menace for fish aquaculture. Using different strategies they are able to parasitize and cause damage in multiple organs, including mucosal tissues, which they use also as portals of entry. In fish, the main mucosal sites include the intestine, skin and gills. Recently the finding of a specific mucosal immunoglobulin in teleost (IgT), analogous to mammalian IgA, and the capacity of fish to develop a specific mucosal immune response against different pathogens, has highlighted the importance of studying immune responses at mucosal sites. In this review, we describe the major biological characteristics of myxozoan parasites and present the data available regarding immune responses for species that infect mucosal sites. As models for mucosal immunity we review the responses to Enteromyxum spp. and Ceratomyxa shasta, both of which parasitize the intestine. The immune response at the skin and gills is also described, as these mucosal tissues are used by myxozoans as attaching surfaces and portal of entry, and some species also parasitize these sites. Finally, the development of immunoprophylactic strategies is discussed. PMID:23994774

  4. Intestinal mucositis: mechanisms and management.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Dorothy M

    2007-07-01

    To describe the advances in the rapidly evolving field of intestinal (or alimentary) mucositis during the past year. Major advances have been made in both the clinical and preclinical setting, with the publication of a suite of articles regarding the pathobiology and management of mucositis, as well as several articles on important basic research in the area. The mechanism of mucositis development is now understood to be much more complex than previously thought, with an interplay of host and drug factors leading to overt damage, and variation in manifestation of that damage depending on the specific region of the gut. The MASCC/ISOO management guidelines for mucositis have been updated: a recommendation for the use of palifermin in the hematology transplant setting has been added, and a couple of previous recommendations have been revoked. This marks an important milestone in mucositis, as it is the first time a drug has been available that substantially reduces the occurrence and severity of mucositis. There is still much to be done to abolish the severe toxicity of chemotherapy and radiotherapy; however, progress is accelerating, and new targeted drugs are becoming available.

  5. Long-Term Follow-Up of Flap Prefabrication in Facial Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weixin; Zhao, Muxin; Tang, Yong; Chen, Wen; Yang, Zhe; Ma, Ning; Xu, Lisi; Feng, Jun; Li, Yangqun

    2017-07-01

    Flap prefabrication is to turn a random flap into an axial flap by transferring a vascular pedicle. In the past 13 years, we have prefabricated 20 flaps in 20 patients by the superficial temporal artery and its concomitant veins. Typically, a 50- to 800-mL tissue expander was implanted in the donor site. After flap maturation, the prefabricated flap was raised and transferred locally to cover the large defect on the face. All the cases were followed up regularly. The patients' age were between 3 and 27 years, the size of the flaps were between 3.5 × 5.5 cm and 13 × 15 cm, the superficial temporal artery length was between 10 and 15 cm. All flaps were transferred successfully: 10 of the flaps had venous congestion, partial epidermis exfoliation and flap necrosis occurred in 4 flaps. All cases were followed up for at least 1 year, the longest follow-up period was 9 years. Long-term follow-up results showed the prefabricated flap survived in good condition and had a satisfactory outcome. Because flap prefabrication is practical, and long-term follow-ups have proved its preferable characters and stability, it is a fine method for large area facial reconstructions.

  6. Vaginal innate immune mediators are modulated by a water extract of Houttuynia cordata Thunb.

    PubMed

    Satthakarn, Surada; Hladik, Florian; Promsong, Aornrutai; Nittayananta, Wipawee

    2015-06-16

    Vaginal epithelial cells (VECs) produce antimicrobial peptides including human β-defensin 2 (hBD2) and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), as well as cytokines and chemokines that play vital roles in mucosal innate immunity of the female reproductive tract. Houttuynia cordata Thunb (H. cordata), a herbal plant found in Asia, possesses various activities including antimicrobial activity and anti-inflammation. As inflammation and infection are commonly found in female reproductive tract, we aimed to investigate the effects of H. cordata water extract in modulating innate immune factors produced by VECs. Primary human VECs were cultured and treated with H. cordata at a concentration ranging from 25-200 μg/ml for 6 or 18 h. After treatment, the cells and culture supernatants were harvested. The expression of hBD2 and SLPI mRNA was evaluated by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR. Levels of secreted hBD2 and SLPI as well as cytokines and chemokines in the supernatants were measured by ELISA and Luminex assay, respectively. Cytotoxicity of the extract on VECs was assessed by CellTiter-Blue Cell Viability Assay. H. cordata did not cause measurable toxicity on VECs after exposure for 18 h. The expression of hBD2 and SLPI mRNA as well as the secreted hBD2 protein were increased in response to H. cordata exposure for 18 h when compared to the untreated controls. However, treatment with the extract for 6 h had only slight effects on the mRNA expression of hBD2 and SLPI. The secretion of IL-2 and IL-6 proteins by VECs was also increased, while the secretion of CCL5 was decreased after treatment with the extract for 18 h. Treatment with H. cordata extract had some effects on the secretion of IL-4, IL-8, CCL2, and TNF-α, but not statistically significant. H. cordata water extract modulates the expression of antimicrobial peptides and cytokines produced by VECs, which play an important role in the mucosal innate immunity in the female reproductive

  7. Bacterial vaginosis, vaginal flora patterns and vaginal hygiene practices in patients presenting with vaginal discharge syndrome in The Gambia, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Demba, Edward; Morison, Linda; van der Loeff, Maarten Schim; Awasana, Akum A; Gooding, Euphemia; Bailey, Robin; Mayaud, Philippe; West, Beryl

    2005-01-01

    Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV) – a syndrome characterised by a shift in vaginal flora – appears to be particularly common in sub-Saharan Africa, but little is known of the pattern of vaginal flora associated with BV in Africa. We conducted a study aimed at determining the prevalence of BV and patterns of BV-associated vaginal micro-flora among women with vaginal discharge syndrome (VDS) in The Gambia, West Africa. Methods We enrolled 227 women with VDS from a large genito-urinary medicine clinic in Fajara, The Gambia. BV was diagnosed by the Nugent's score and Amsel's clinical criteria. Vaginal swabs were collected for T vaginalis and vaginal flora microscopy, and for Lactobacillus spp, aerobic organisms, Candida spp and BV-associated bacteria (Gardnerella vaginalis, anaerobic bacteria, and Mycoplasma spp) cultures; and cervical swabs were collected for N gonorrhoeae culture and C trachomatis PCR. Sera were tested for HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies. Sexual health history including details on sexual hygiene were obtained by standardised questionnaire. Results BV prevalence was 47.6% by Nugent's score and 30.8% by Amsel's clinical criteria. Lactobacillus spp were isolated in 37.8% of women, and 70% of the isolates were hydrogen-peroxide (H202)-producing strains. Prevalence of BV-associated bacteria were: G vaginalis 44.4%; Bacteroides 16.7%; Prevotella 15.2%; Peptostretococcus 1.5%; Mobiluncus 0%; other anaerobes 3.1%; and Mycoplasma hominis 21.4%. BV was positively associated with isolation of G vaginalis (odds-ratio [OR] 19.42, 95%CI 7.91 – 47.6) and anaerobes (P = 0.001 [OR] could not be calculated), but not with M hominis. BV was negatively associated with presence of Lactobacillus (OR 0.07, 95%CI 0.03 – 0.15), and H2O2-producing lactobacilli (OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.05 – 0.28). Presence of H2O2-producing lactobacilli was associated with significantly lower prevalence of G vaginalis, anaerobes and C trachomatis. HIV prevalence was 12.8%. Overall, there was

  8. Comparison of the deep inferior epigastric perforator flap and free transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap in postmastectomy reconstruction: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Achilleas; Veltri, Karen; Khuthaila, Dana; Rockwell, Gloria; Duku, Eric

    2004-05-01

    This study compared the deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap and the free transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap in postmastectomy reconstruction using a cost-effectiveness analysis. A decision analytic model was used. Medical costs associated with the two techniques were estimated from the Ontario Ministry of Health Schedule of Benefits for 2002. Hospital costs were obtained from St. Joseph's Healthcare, a university teaching hospital in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The utilities of clinically important health states related to breast reconstruction were obtained from 32 "experts" across Canada and converted into quality-adjusted life years. The probabilities of these various clinically important health states being associated with the DIEP and free TRAM flaps were obtained after a thorough review of the literature. The DIEP flap was more costly than the free TRAM flap ($7026.47 versus $6508.29), but it provided more quality-adjusted life years than the free TRAM flap (28.88 years versus 28.53 years). The baseline incremental cost-utility ratio was $1464.30 per quality-adjusted life year, favoring adoption of the DIEP flap. Sensitivity analyses were performed by assuming that the probabilities of occurrence of hernia, abdominal bulging, total flap loss, operating room time, and hospital stay were identical with the DIEP and free TRAM techniques. By assuming that the probability of postoperative hernia for the DIEP flap increased from 0.008 to 0.054 (same as for TRAM flap), the incremental cost-utility ratio changed to $1435.00 per quality-adjusted life year. A sensitivity analysis was performed for the complication of hernia because the DIEP flap allegedly diminishes this complication. Increasing the probability of abdominal bulge from 0.041 to 0.103 for the DIEP flap changed the ratio to $2731.78 per quality-adjusted life year. When the probability of total flap failure was increased from 0.014 to 0.016, the ratio changed to $1384.01 per

  9. A computer program to calculate the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of wing-flap configurations with externally blown flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendenhall, M. R.; Goodwin, F. K.; Spangler, S. B.

    1976-01-01

    A vortex lattice lifting-surface method is used to model the wing and multiple flaps. Each lifting surface may be of arbitrary planform having camber and twist, and the multiple-slotted trailing-edge flap system may consist of up to ten flaps with different spans and deflection angles. The engine wakes model consists of a series of closely spaced vortex rings with circular or elliptic cross sections. The rings are normal to a wake centerline which is free to move vertically and laterally to accommodate the local flow field beneath the wing and flaps. The two potential flow models are used in an iterative fashion to calculate the wing-flap loading distribution including the influence of the waves from up to two turbofan engines on the semispan. The method is limited to the condition where the flow and geometry of the configurations are symmetric about the vertical plane containing the wing root chord. The calculation procedure starts with arbitrarily positioned wake centerlines and the iterative calculation continues until the total configuration loading converges within a prescribed tolerance. Program results include total configuration forces and moments, individual lifting-surface load distributions, including pressure distributions, individual flap hinge moments, and flow field calculation at arbitrary field points.

  10. Heterogeneity of Vaginal Microbial Communities within Individuals▿ #

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Kyung; Thomas, Susan M.; Ho, Mengfei; Sharma, Shobha; Reich, Claudia I.; Frank, Jeremy A.; Yeater, Kathleen M.; Biggs, Diana R.; Nakamura, Noriko; Stumpf, Rebecca; Leigh, Steven R.; Tapping, Richard I.; Blanke, Steven R.; Slauch, James M.; Gaskins, H. Rex; Weisbaum, Jon S.; Olsen, Gary J.; Hoyer, Lois L.; Wilson, Brenda A.

    2009-01-01

    Recent culture-independent studies have revealed that a healthy vaginal ecosystem harbors a surprisingly complex assemblage of microorganisms. However, the spatial distribution and composition of vaginal microbial populations have not been investigated using molecular methods. Here, we evaluated site-specific microbial composition within the vaginal ecosystem and examined the influence of sampling technique in detection of the vaginal microbiota. 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were prepared from samples obtained from different locations (cervix, fornix, outer vaginal canal) and by different methods (swabbing, scraping, lavaging) from the vaginal tracts of eight clinically healthy, asymptomatic women. The data reveal that the vaginal microbiota is not homogenous throughout the vaginal tract but differs significantly within an individual with regard to anatomical site and sampling method used. Thus, this study illuminates the complex structure of the vaginal ecosystem and calls for the consideration of microenvironments when sampling vaginal microbiota as a clinical predictor of vaginal health. PMID:19158255

  11. Mucosal immunization: a review of strategies and challenges.

    PubMed

    Patel, Hinal; Yewale, Chetan; Rathi, Mohan N; Misra, Ambikanandan

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of pathogens enter the human body via the mucosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and urogenital tracts, where they initiate mucosal infections that lead to systemic infections. Despite strong evidence that a good mucosal immune response can effectively prevent systemic infection too, only a few mucosal vaccines are available due to their low efficiency. Most current immunization techniques involve systemic injection, but they are ineffective to induce immunization at a mucosal site. It is a great challenge to target a mucosal compartment that can induce protective immunity at mucosal sites as well as systemic sites. A better understanding of cellular and molecular factors involved in the regulation of mucosal immunity will aid in the design of safer mucosal vaccines that elicit the desired protective immunity against infectious diseases such as HIV. The development of mucosal vaccines, whether for prevention of infectious diseases or for immunotherapy, requires antigen delivery and adjuvant systems that can effectively present vaccine or immunotherapeutic antigens to the mucosal sites. In this review, we examine the mechanism of mucosal protection, induction of mucosal immune response, types of vaccines, current status of marketed vaccines, and novel strategies for protection against infections and for treatment of inflammatory disorders. Additionally, we offer perspectives on future challenges and research directions.

  12. Effects of a One Year Reusable Contraceptive Vaginal Ring on Vaginal Microflora and the Risk of Vaginal Infection: An Open-Label Prospective Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yongmei; Merkatz, Ruth B; Hillier, Sharon L; Roberts, Kevin; Blithe, Diana L; Sitruk-Ware, Régine; Creinin, Mitchell D

    2015-01-01

    A contraceptive vaginal ring (CVR) containing Nestorone® (NES) and ethinyl estradiol (EE) that is reusable for 1- year (13 cycles) is under development. This study assessed effects of this investigational CVR on the incidence of vaginal infections and change in vaginal microflora. There were 120 women enrolled into a NES/EE CVR Phase III trial and a microbiology sub-study for up to 1- year of cyclic product use. Gynecological examinations were conducted at baseline, the first week of cycle 6 and last week of cycle 13 (or during early discontinuation visits). Vaginal swabs were obtained for wet mount microscopy, Gram stain and culture. The CVR was removed from the vagina at the last study visit and cultured. Semi-quantitative cultures for Lactobacillus, Gardnerella vaginalis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, anaerobic gram negative rods (GNRs), Candida albicans and other yeasts were performed on vaginal and CVR samples. Vaginal infections were documented throughout the study. Over 1- year of use, 3.3% of subjects were clinically diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis, 15.0% with vulvovaginal candidiasis, and 0.8% with trichomoniasis. The detection rate of these three infections did not change significantly from baseline to either Cycle 6 or 13. Nugent scores remained stable. H2O2-positive Lactobacillus dominated vaginal flora with a non-significant prevalence increase from 76.7% at baseline to 82.7% at cycle 6 and 90.2% at cycle 13, and a median concentration of 107 colony forming units (cfu) per gram. Although anaerobic GNRs prevalence increased significantly, the median concentration decreased slightly (104 to 103cfu per gram). There were no significant changes in frequency or concentrations of other pathogens. High levels of agreement between vaginal and ring surface microbiota were observed. Sustained use of the NES/EE CVR did not increase the risk of vaginal infection and was not disruptive to the vaginal ecosystem. Clinical

  13. Effects of a One Year Reusable Contraceptive Vaginal Ring on Vaginal Microflora and the Risk of Vaginal Infection: An Open-Label Prospective Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yongmei; Merkatz, Ruth B.; Hillier, Sharon L.; Roberts, Kevin; Blithe, Diana L.; Sitruk-Ware, Régine; Creinin, Mitchell D.

    2015-01-01

    Background A contraceptive vaginal ring (CVR) containing Nestorone® (NES) and ethinyl estradiol (EE) that is reusable for 1- year (13 cycles) is under development. This study assessed effects of this investigational CVR on the incidence of vaginal infections and change in vaginal microflora. Methods There were 120 women enrolled into a NES/EE CVR Phase III trial and a microbiology sub-study for up to 1- year of cyclic product use. Gynecological examinations were conducted at baseline, the first week of cycle 6 and last week of cycle 13 (or during early discontinuation visits). Vaginal swabs were obtained for wet mount microscopy, Gram stain and culture. The CVR was removed from the vagina at the last study visit and cultured. Semi-quantitative cultures for Lactobacillus, Gardnerella vaginalis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, anaerobic gram negative rods (GNRs), Candida albicans and other yeasts were performed on vaginal and CVR samples. Vaginal infections were documented throughout the study. Results Over 1- year of use, 3.3% of subjects were clinically diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis, 15.0% with vulvovaginal candidiasis, and 0.8% with trichomoniasis. The detection rate of these three infections did not change significantly from baseline to either Cycle 6 or 13. Nugent scores remained stable. H2O2-positive Lactobacillus dominated vaginal flora with a non-significant prevalence increase from 76.7% at baseline to 82.7% at cycle 6 and 90.2% at cycle 13, and a median concentration of 107 colony forming units (cfu) per gram. Although anaerobic GNRs prevalence increased significantly, the median concentration decreased slightly (104 to 103cfu per gram). There were no significant changes in frequency or concentrations of other pathogens. High levels of agreement between vaginal and ring surface microbiota were observed. Conclusion Sustained use of the NES/EE CVR did not increase the risk of vaginal infection and was not disruptive to

  14. Lift production through asymmetric flapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalikop, Shreyas; Sreenivas, K. R.

    2009-11-01

    At present, there is a strong interest in developing Micro Air Vehicles (MAV) for applications like disaster management and aerial surveys. At these small length scales, the flight of insects and small birds suggests that unsteady aerodynamics of flapping wings can offer many advantages over fixed wing flight, such as hovering-flight, high maneuverability and high lift at large angles of attack. Various lift generating mechanims such as delayed stall, wake capture and wing rotation contribute towards our understanding of insect flight. We address the effect of asymmetric flapping of wings on lift production. By visualising the flow around a pair of rectangular wings flapping in a water tank and numerically computing the flow using a discrete vortex method, we demonstrate that net lift can be produced by introducing an asymmetry in the upstroke-to-downstroke velocity profile of the flapping wings. The competition between generation of upstroke and downstroke tip vortices appears to hold the key to understanding this lift generation mechanism.

  15. Scalp Free Flap Reconstruction Using Anterolateral Thigh Flap Pedicle for Interposition Artery and Vein Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jun Hyung; Eun, Suk Chan; Lee, Jong Hoon; Hong, Sung Hee; Kim, Chin Whan

    2012-01-01

    We experienced satisfactory outcomes by synchronously transplanting an artery and vein using an anterolateral thigh flap pedicle between the vascular pedicle and recipient vessel of a flap for scalp reconstruction. A 45-year-old man developed a subdural hemorrhage due to a fall injury. In this patient, the right temporal cranium was missing and the patient had 4×3 cm and 6×5 cm scalp defects. We planned a scalp reconstruction using a latissimus dorsi free flap. Intraoperatively, there was a severe injury to the right superficial temporal vessel because of previous neurosurgical operations. A 15 cm long pedicle defect was needed to reach the recipient facial vessels. For the vascular graft, the descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery and two venae comitantes were harvested. The flap survived well and the skin graft was successful with no notable complications. When an interposition graft is needed in the reconstruction of the head and neck region for which mobility is mandatory to a greater extent, a sufficient length of graft from an anterolateral flap pedicle could easily be harvested. Thus, this could contribute to not only resolving the disadvantages of a venous graft but also to successfully performing a vascular anastomosis. PMID:22783493

  16. Reconstruction of Anterolateral Thigh Defects Using Perforator-Based Propeller Flaps.

    PubMed

    Iida, Takuya; Yoshimatsu, Hidehiko; Koshima, Isao

    2017-10-01

    Usually, anterolateral thigh (ALT) defects with width more than 8 cm cannot be closed directly. Although several methods of using local flaps exist, flap mobility of these methods is limited. We introduced a perforator-based propeller flap for such reconstruction. Their maximal mobility, which minimizes their size, is their greatest advantage. In addition, we present our technical refinements including double-axes propeller flap, the use of indocyanine green real-time angiography, and supercharged propeller flap for safer flap transfer. Seven patients underwent perforator-based propeller flap reconstruction of ALT defects. Flaps were designed cranial or caudal to the defect according to the perforator locations. To maximize mobility, flaps were designed so that the perforator was located at the periphery and closer to the defect. After rotating the flap to the defect, indocyanine green angiography was performed to determine the need for supercharge. In all cases, all flaps survived completely. Defect size ranged from 12 × 11 cm to 18 × 16 cm, and flap size ranged from 7 × 5 cm to 15 × 7 cm. The number of perforators in the flap was 1 in 3 cases and 2 in 4 cases. Supercharging was performed in 3 cases. Donor-site complications, including gait disturbance, were not observed. This method achieves ALT defect closure with minimal donor-site morbidity and can provide prompt and aesthetically acceptable results. Indocyanine green real-time angiography and supercharging technique are also useful for safer and reliable flap transfer.

  17. Flow field of flexible flapping wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallstrom, Erik

    The agility and maneuverability of natural fliers would be desirable to incorporate into engineered micro air vehicles (MAVs). However, there is still much for engineers to learn about flapping flight in order to understand how such vehicles can be built for efficient flying. The goal of this study is to develop a methodology for capturing high quality flow field data around flexible flapping wings in a hover environment and to interpret it to gain a better understanding of how aerodynamic forces are generated. The flow field data was captured using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and required that measurements be taken around a repeatable flapping motion to obtain phase-averaged data that could be studied throughout the flapping cycle. Therefore, the study includes the development of flapping devices with a simple repeatable single degree of freedom flapping motion. The acquired flow field data has been examined qualitatively and quantitatively to investigate the mechanisms behind force production in hovering flight and to relate it to observations in previous research. Specifically, the flow fields have been investigated around a rigid wing and several carbon fiber reinforced flexible membrane wings. Throughout the whole study the wings were actuated with either a sinusoidal or a semi-linear flapping motion. The semi-linear flapping motion holds the commanded angular velocity nearly constant through half of each half-stroke while the sinusoidal motion is always either accelerating or decelerating. The flow fields were investigated by examining vorticity and vortex structures, using the Q criterion as the definition for the latter, in two and three dimensions. The measurements were combined with wing deflection measurements to demonstrate some of the key links in how the fluid-structure interactions generated aerodynamic forces. The flow fields were also used to calculate the forces generated by the flapping wings using momentum balance methods which yielded

  18. Surgical removal of a large vaginal calculus formed after a tension-free vaginal tape procedure.

    PubMed

    Zilberlicht, Ariel; Feiner, Benjamin; Haya, Nir; Auslender, Ron; Abramov, Yoram

    2016-11-01

    Vaginal calculus is a rare disorder which has been reported in association with urethral diverticulum, urogenital sinus anomaly, bladder exstrophy and the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure. We report a 42-year-old woman who presented with persistent, intractable urinary tract infection (UTI) following a TVT procedure. Cystoscopy demonstrated an eroded tape with the formation of a bladder calculus, and the patient underwent laser cystolithotripsy and cystoscopic resection of the tape. Following this procedure, her UTI completely resolved and she remained asymptomatic for several years. Seven years later she presented with a solid vaginal mass. Pelvic examination followed by transvaginal ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a large vaginal calculus located at the lower third of the anterior vaginal wall adjacent to the bladder neck. This video presents the transvaginal excision and removal of the vaginal calculus.

  19. Combined application of latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap and iliac bone flap in the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis of the lower extremity.

    PubMed

    Ju, Jihui; Li, Lei; Zhou, Rong; Hou, Ruixing

    2018-05-18

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap (stage I) combined with iliac bone flap (stage II) in the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis of the lower extremity. Clinical data of 18 patients undergoing latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap in combination with iliac bone flap grafting were retrospectively analyzed. Among them, 2 patients developed chronic osteomyelitis of the lower segment of the femur, 4 were diagnosed with chronic osteomyelitis of the tibial plateau, and 12 with chronic osteomyelitis of the lower segment of the tibia. All the latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flaps survived in 18 patients. After the corresponding surgery, primary wound healing was achieved in 11 patients, and delayed wound healing was obtained in 7 cases. All wounds were completely healed with postoperative 2 months. Following the iliac bone flap grafting, primary would healing was accomplished in all cases. All dorsal window chambers survived. The bone defects were properly restored within 4-12 postoperative months. Functional training was performed after removal of the internal and external fixators. Postoperative follow-up was endured from 6 months to 10 years. All patients were satisfied with the bone healing and flap texture without the incidence of osteomyelitis and sinus tract. No contraction was observed in the grafting area of 2 patients receiving latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap grafting. Residual linear scars were noted in the dorsal and iliac donor sites. Combined usage of stage I latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap and stage II iliac bone flap grafting is an efficacious and safe surgical technique in clinical practice.

  20. Vaginal Calculus in a Woman With Mixed Urinary Incontinence and Vaginal Mesh Exposure.

    PubMed

    Winkelman, William D; Rabban, Joseph T; Korn, Abner P

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal calculi are extremely rare and are most commonly encountered in the setting of an urethrovaginal or vesicovaginal fistula. We present a case of a 72-year-old woman with mixed urinary incontinence and vaginal mesh exposure incidentally found to have a large vaginal calculus. We removed the calculus surgically and analyzed the components. Results demonstrated the presence of ammonium-magnesium phosphate hexahydrate and carbonate apatite.

  1. A Simple Strategy in Avulsion Flap Injury: Prediction of Flap Viability Using Wood's Lamp Illumination and Resurfacing with a Full-thickness Skin Graft.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyoseob; Han, Dae Hee; Lee, Il Jae; Park, Myong Chul

    2014-03-01

    Extensive degloving injuries of the extremities usually result in necrosis of the flap, necessitating comprehensive skin grafting. Provided there is a sufficient tool to evaluate flap viability, full-thickness skin can be used from a nonviable avulsed flap. We used a Wood's lamp to determine the viability of avulsed flaps in the operation field after intravenous injection of fluorescein dye. We experienced 13 cases during 16 months. Fifteen minutes after the intravenous injection of fluorescein dye, the avulsed skin flaps were examined and non-fluorescent areas were marked under Wood's lamp illumination. The marked area was defatted for full-thickness skin grafting. The fluorescent areas were sutured directly without tension. The non-fluorescent areas were covered by defatted skin. Several days later, there was soft tissue necrosis within the flap area. We measured necrotic area and revised the flap. Among all the cases, necrotic area was 21.3% of the total avulsed area. However, if we exclude three cases, one of a carelessly managed patient and two cases of the flaps were inappropriately applied, good results were obtained, with a necrotic area of only 8.4%. Eight patients needed split-thickness skin grafts, and heel pad reconstruction was performed with free flap. A full-thickness skin graft from an avulsed flap is a good method for addressing aesthetic concerns without producing donor site morbidity. Fluorescein dye is a useful, simple, and cost-effective tool for evaluating flap viability. Avulsed flap injuries can be managed well with Wood's lamp illumination and a full-thickness skin graft.

  2. Providers' Experiences with Vaginal Dilator Training for Patients with Vaginal Agenesis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vrunda; Hakim, Julie; Gomez-Lobo, Veronica; Amies Oelschlager, Anne-Marie

    2018-02-01

    To examine providers' experiences with vaginal dilator training for patients with vaginal agenesis. Anonymous electronic survey. Members of the North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. How providers learn about vaginal dilator training, common techniques, and methods used for patient training, assessment of patient readiness, common patient complaints, issues leading to early discontinuation. There were a total of 55 completed survey responses of which 31 respondents (56%) had been in practice for more than 10 years. Forty-nine were gynecologists (89%), 20 had completed a fellowship in pediatric and adolescent gynecology (36%), and 6 were reproductive endocrinologists (11%). Thirty-one respondents had first learned about vaginal dilator training through lectures (56%) whereas only 9 through mentorship and fellowship (16%). According to respondents, the most common issue leading to early discontinuation was lack of patient motivation and readiness (n = 42; 76%). The most common complication was pain or discomfort (n = 45; 82%). More than half of respondents determined dilator therapy was successful when patients reported comfortable sexual intercourse (n = 30; 55%) and 65% (n = 35) did not delineate any restrictions to initiation of sexual intercourse. Most respondents (87%) requested further vaginal dilator training at either a clinical meeting (n = 26; 47%) or with a training video (n = 22; 40%). Our study in an experienced cohort of pediatric gynecology providers highlights the need for further research and training on vaginal dilation education. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [DORSALIS PEDIS FLAP SERIES-PARALLEL BIG TOE NAIL COMPOSITE TISSUE FLAP TO REPAIR HAND SKIN OF DEGLOVING INJURY WITH THUMB DEFECT].

    PubMed

    Shi, Pengju; Zhang, Wenlong; Zhao, Gang; Li, Zhigang; Zhao, Shaoping; Zhang, Tieshan

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of dorsalis pedis flap series-parallel big toe nail composite tissue flap in the repairment of hand skin of degloving injury with tumb defect. Between March 2009 and June 2013, 8 cases of hand degloving injury with thumb defect caused by machine twisting were treated. There were 7 males and 1 female with the mean age of 36 years (range, 26-48 years). Injury located at the left hand in 3 cases and at the right hand in 5 cases. The time from injury to hospitalization was 1.5-4.0 hours (mean, 2.5 hours). The defect area was 8 cm x 6 cm to 15 cm x 1 cm. The thumb defect was rated as degree I in 5 cases and as degree II in 3 cases. The contralateral dorsal skin flap (9 cm x 7 cm to 10 cm x 8 cm) combined with ipsilateral big toe nail composite tissue flap (2.5 cm x 1.8 cm to 3.0 cm x 2.0 cm) was used, including 3 parallel anastomosis flaps and 5 series anastomosis flaps. The donor site of the dorsal flap was repaired with thick skin grafts, the stumps wound was covered with tongue flap at the shank side of big toe. Vascular crisis occurred in 1 big toe nail composite tissue flap, margin necrosis occurred in 2 dorsalis pedis flap; the other flaps survived, and primary healing of wound was obtained. The grafted skin at dorsal donor site all survived, skin of hallux toe stump had no necrosis. Eight cases were followed up 4-20 months (mean, 15.5 months). All flaps had soft texture and satisfactory appearance; the cutaneous sensory recovery time was 4-7 months (mean, 5 months). At 4 months after operation, the two-point discrimination of the thumb pulp was 8-10 mm (mean, 9 mm), and the two-point discrimination of dorsal skin flap was 7-9 mm (mean, 8.5 mm). According to Society of Hand Surgery standard for the evaluation of upper part of the function, the results were excellent in 4 cases, good in 3 cases, and fair in 1 case. The donor foot had normal function. Dorsalis pedis flap series-parallel big toe nail composite tissue flap is an ideal

  4. Repair of nostril stenosis using a triple flap combination: boomerang, nasolabial, and vestibular rotation flaps.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Mehmet; Kapi, Emin; Kuvat, Samet Vasfi; Selçuk, Caferi Tayyar

    2012-11-01

    Tissue losses within the nose due to various reasons result in the loss of normal anatomy and function. The external nasal valve area is one of the most important functional components of the nose. The columella, lobule, nostril, and alar region are among the components forming the external nasal valve area. Deformities of the nostrils are among the most frequently observed features that interfere with the functional anatomy of the nose. Malformations of the nostrils often emerge subsequent to cleft lip repairs. Stenoses are a common type of pathology among nostril deformities. In cases where a stenosis has formed, breathing problems and developmental anomalies may occur. In the patient with nostril stenosis presented in this report, there was a serious alar collapse and contracture subsequent to a cleft lip repair. In order to repair the nostril stenosis, a "boomerang flap" was chosen. This boomerang flap was used in combination with a nasolabial flap, a vestibular rotation flap, and a conchal cartilage graft to achieve a satisfactory repair.

  5. Triple flap technique for vulvar reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Mercut, R; Sinna, R; Vaucher, R; Giroux, P A; Assaf, N; Lari, A; Dast, S

    2018-04-09

    Perineal defects are encountered ever more frequently, in the treatment of vulvar cancers or abdominoperineal resection. The surgical treatment of vulvar cancer leads to significant skin defect. The aim of the reconstruction is not to provide volume but rather to resurface perineum. We propose a new solution to cover the extensive skin defect remaining after excision. We report 3 patients who underwent large excision for vulvar cancer, with lymph node dissection. For reconstruction, we performed 3 advancement flaps. Two V-Y flaps cantered on the infra-gluteal folds and based on pudendal perforator arteries were used to cover the postero-lateral parts of the defect. The third advancement flap from the superior aspect of the defect was a Y-V Mons pubis flap. The defects were successfully covered by the 3 flap technique. The first patient suffered a non-union that slowly healed by secondary intention. For the other cases, we used the same technique, but applied negative pressure wound therapy on the sutures, with excellent results. The 3 flap technique is a simple and reliable method and the donor site morbidity is minimal. It can be realised without changing the position of the patient after tumour excision, and does not require delicate perforator dissection. This surgical option can be easily applied, allowing better management of these cases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. "Internet of Things" Real-Time Free Flap Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Hun; Shin, Ho Seong; Lee, Sang Hwan

    2018-01-01

    Free flaps are a common treatment option for head and neck reconstruction in plastic reconstructive surgery, and monitoring of the free flap is the most important factor for flap survival. In this study, the authors performed real-time free flap monitoring based on an implanted Doppler system and "internet of things" (IoT)/wireless Wi-Fi, which is a convenient, accurate, and efficient approach for surgeons to monitor a free flap. Implanted Doppler signals were checked continuously until the patient was discharged by the surgeon and residents using their own cellular phone or personal computer. If the surgeon decided that a revision procedure or exploration was required, the authors checked the consumed time (positive signal-to-operating room time) from the first notification when the flap's status was questioned to the determination for revision surgery according to a chart review. To compare the efficacy of real-time monitoring, the authors paired the same number of free flaps performed by the same surgeon and monitored the flaps using conventional methods such as a physical examination. The total survival rate was greater in the real-time monitoring group (94.7% versus 89.5%). The average time for the real-time monitoring group was shorter than that for the conventional group (65 minutes versus 86 minutes). Based on this study, real-time free flap monitoring using IoT technology is a method that surgeon and reconstruction team can monitor simultaneously at any time in any situation.

  7. Pressure Available for Cooling with Cowling Flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stickle, George W; Naiman, Irven; Crigler, John L

    1941-01-01

    Report presents the results of a full-scale investigation conducted in the NACA 20-foot tunnel to determine the pressure difference available for cooling with cowling flaps. The flaps were applied to an exit slot of smooth contour at 0 degree flap angle. Flap angles of 0 degree, 15 degrees, and 30 degrees were tested. Two propellers were used; propeller c which has conventional round blade shanks and propeller f which has airfoil sections extending closer to the hub. The pressure available for cooling is shown to be a direct function of the thrust disk-loading coefficient of the propeller.

  8. Flap Edge Noise Reduction Fins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R. (Inventor); Choudhan, Meelan M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A flap of the type that is movably connected to an aircraft wing to provide control of an aircraft in flight includes opposite ends, wherein at least a first opposite end includes a plurality of substantially rigid, laterally extending protrusions that are spaced apart to form a plurality of fluidly interconnected passageways. The passageways have openings adjacent to upper and lower sides of the flap, and the passageways include a plurality of bends such that high pressure fluid flows from a high pressure region to a low pressure region to provide a boundary condition that inhibits noise resulting from airflow around the end of the flap.

  9. Coarse-grained models for interacting, flapping swimmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oza, Anand; Ristroph, Leif; Shelley, Michael; Courant Institute Applied Math Lab Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    We present the results of a theoretical investigation into the dynamics of interacting flapping swimmers. Our study is motivated by ongoing experiments in the NYU Applied Math Lab, in which freely-translating, heaving airfoils interact hydrodynamically to choose their relative positions and velocities. We develop a discrete dynamical system in which flapping swimmers shed point vortices during each flapping cycle, which in turn exert forces on the swimmers. We present a framework for finding exact solutions to the evolution equations and for assessing their stability, giving physical insight into the preference for certain observed "schooling states". The model may be extended to arrays of flapping swimmers, and configurations in which the swimmers' flapping frequencies are incommensurate. Generally, our results indicate how hydrodynamics may mediate schooling and flocking behavior in biological contexts. A. Oza acknowledges the support of the NSF Mathematical Sciences Postdoctoral Fellowship.

  10. Outcomes of using a modified anteromedial thigh perforator flap for repairing the anterolateral thigh free flap donor site: A retrospective clinical review.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao; Wang, Jin; Qiang, Li; Rui, Yongjun; Xue, Mingyu

    2018-04-01

    The anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap plays an essential part in plastic and reconstructive surgery. However, repair of the anterolateral donor site has not been the focus of the clinicians.To assess the clinical value and feasibility of using a modified anteromedial thigh (AMT) perforator flap for repairing the ALT free flap donor site.In this retrospective study, 16 ALT flaps were transferred to resurface large soft-tissue defects (ranged from 7 × 5 to 13 × 8 cm) in the foot or hand from June 2012 to March 2013. The donor sites were repaired with an advancement flap pedicled with an AMT perforator. Sensation within the advancement flap, return-to-work (RTW) time, the aesthetic appearance of the donor sites, and functional recovery were measured.All 15 flaps survived completely without necrosis. One flap developed partial necrosis in the tip but healed with dressing changes after 1 week. The medain follow-up period was 3.5 months (range, 3-6 months). The average median time was 9.5 weeks (range 8-13 weeks). There was no numbness of the advancement flap. Additionally, there was no specific complication at both the recipient and donor sites. Thigh quadriceps muscle strength and activities of the knee were normal. All patients were satisfied with the aesthetic outcome postoperatively at the 3-month to 6-month follow-up.The modified advancement flap pedicled with an AMT perforator is an ideal option for repairing the anterolateral donor site.

  11. Flap Edge Aeroacoustic Measurements and Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thomas F.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    An aeroacoustic model test has been conducted to investigate the mechanisms of sound generation on high-lift wing configurations. This paper presents an analysis of flap side-edge noise, which is often the most dominant source. A model of a main element wing section with a half-span flap was tested at low speeds of up to a Mach number of 0.17, corresponding to a wing chord Reynolds number of approximately 1.7 million. Results are presented for flat (or blunt), flanged, and round flap-edge geometries, with and without boundary-layer tripping, deployed at both moderate and high flap angles. The acoustic database is obtained from a Small Aperture Directional Array (SADA) of microphones, which was constructed to electronically steer to different regions of the model and to obtain farfield noise spectra and directivity from these regions. The basic flap-edge aerodynamics is established by static surface pressure data, as well as by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations and simplified edge flow analyses. Distributions of unsteady pressure sensors over the flap allow the noise source regions to be defined and quantified via cross-spectral diagnostics using the SADA output. It is found that shear layer instability and related pressure scatter is the primary noise mechanism. For the flat edge flap, two noise prediction methods based on unsteady surface pressure measurements are evaluated and compared to measured noise. One is a new causality spectral approach developed here. The other is a new application of an edge-noise scatter prediction method. The good comparisons for both approaches suggest that much of the physics is captured by the prediction models. Areas of disagreement appear to reveal when the assumed edge noise mechanism does not fully define the noise production. For the different edge conditions, extensive spectra and directivity are presented. Significantly, for each edge configuration, the spectra for different flow speeds, flap angles, and

  12. Flap Edge Aeroacoustic Measurements and Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thomas F.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    An aeroacoustic model test has been conducted to investigate the mechanisms of sound generation on high-lift wing configurations. This paper presents an analysis of flap side-edge noise, which is often the most dominant source. A model of a main element wing section with a half-span flap was tested at low speeds of up to a Mach number of 0.17, corresponding to a wing chord Reynolds number of approximately 1.7 million. Results are presented for flat (or blunt), flanged, and round flap-edge geometries, with and without boundary-layer tripping, deployed at both moderate and high flap angles. The acoustic database is obtained from a Small Aperture Directional Array (SADA) of microphones, which was constructed to electronically steer to different regions of the model and to obtain farfield noise spectra and directivity from these regions. The basic flap-edge aerodynamics is established by static surface pressure data, as well as by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations and simplified edge flow analyses. Distributions of unsteady pressure sensors over the flap allow the noise source regions to be defined and quantified via cross-spectral diagnostics using the SADA output. It is found that shear layer instability and related pressure scatter is the primary noise mechanism. For the flat edge flap, two noise prediction methods based on unsteady-surface-pressure measurements are evaluated and compared to measured noise. One is a new causality spectral approach developed here. The other is a new application of an edge-noise scatter prediction method. The good comparisons for both approaches suggest that much of the physics is captured by the prediction models. Areas of disagreement appear to reveal when the assumed edge noise mechanism does not fully define, the noise production. For the different edge conditions, extensive spectra and directivity are presented. Significantly, for each edge configuration, the spectra for different flow speeds, flap angles, and

  13. Vaginitis test - wet mount

    MedlinePlus

    ... prep - vaginitis; Vaginosis - wet mount; Trichomoniasis - wet mount; Vaginal candida - wet mount ... provider gently inserts an instrument (speculum) into the vagina to hold it open and view inside. A ...

  14. Dectin-1 isoforms contribute to distinct Th1/Th17 cell activation in mucosal candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Agostinho; Giovannini, Gloria; De Luca, Antonella; D'Angelo, Carmen; Casagrande, Andrea; Iannitti, Rossana G; Ricci, Giovanni; Cunha, Cristina; Romani, Luigina

    2012-01-01

    The recognition of β-glucans by dectin-1 has been shown to mediate cell activation, cytokine production and a variety of antifungal responses. Here, we report that the functional activity of dectin-1 in mucosal immunity to Candida albicans is influenced by the genetic background of the host. Dectin-1 was required for the proper control of gastrointestinal and vaginal candidiasis in C57BL/6, but not BALB/c mice; in fact, the latter showed increased resistance in the absence of dectin-1. The susceptibility of dectin-1-deficient C57BL/6 mice to infection was associated with defects in IL-17A and aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent IL-22 production and in adaptive Th1 responses. In contrast, the resistance of dectin-1-deficient BALB/c mice was associated with increased IL-17A and IL-22 production and the skewing towards Th1/Treg immune responses that provide immunological memory. Disparate canonical/noncanonical NF-κB signaling pathways downstream of dectin-1 were activated in the two different mouse strains. Thus, the net activity of dectin-1 in antifungal mucosal immunity is dependent on the host's genetic background, which affects both the innate cytokine production and the adaptive Th1/Th17 cell activation upon dectin-1 signaling. PMID:22543832

  15. Vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, E G

    1985-06-01

    Vaginitis is one of the most common complaints of women in the United States today. About 90% of patients with this problem suffer from infection of the vagina caused by Candida, Gardnerella, or Trichomonas. The diagnosis and effective treatment of these common infections depend on accurate identification of the entity, effective specific therapy, and restoration of the normal ecosystem of the vagina. At the same time women should be made aware that not all discharge means infection and that any attempts at self-treatment may only worsen their condition. Proper hygiene habits, dietary control, and management of stress are all helpful factors in the control of recurrent vaginal infections.

  16. Protective activity of geranium oil and its component, geraniol, in combination with vaginal washing against vaginal candidiasis in mice.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Naho; Takizawa, Toshio; Ishibashi, Hiroko; Hisajima, Tatsuya; Inouye, Shigeharu; Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Abe, Shigeru

    2008-08-01

    In order to evaluate an effective administration method of essential oils for vaginal candidiasis, efficacy of vaginal application of essential oils against murine experimental candidiasis was investigated. The effect on vaginal inflammation and Candida growth form was also studied. Vaginal candidiasis was established by intravaginal infection of C. albicans to estradiol-treated mice. These mice intravaginally received essential oils such as geranium and tea tree singly or in combination with vaginal washing. Vaginal administration of clotrimazole significantly decreased the number of viable C. albicans cells in the vaginal cavity by itself. In contrast, these essential oils did not lower the cell number. When application of geranium oil or geraniol was combined with vaginal washing, the cell number was decreased significantly. The myeloperoxidase activity assay exhibited the possibility that essential oils worked not only to reduce the viable cell number of C. albicans, but also to improve vaginal inflammation. The smear of vaginal washing suspension suggested that more yeast-form cells appeared in vaginal smears of these oil-treated mice than in control mice. In vitro study showed that a very low concentration (25 microg/ml) of geranium oil and geraniol inhibited mycelial growth, but not yeast growth. Based on these findings, it is estimated that vaginal application of geranium oil or its main component, geraniol, suppressed Candida cell growth in the vagina and its local inflammation when combined with vaginal washing.

  17. Beneficial effects of a Coriolus versicolor-based vaginal gel on cervical epithelization, vaginal microbiota and vaginal health: a pilot study in asymptomatic women.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Santiago; Losa, Fernando; Dexeus, Damián; Cortés, Javier

    2017-03-16

    To assess the effect of a 12-day treatment using a vaginal gel based on niosomes containing hyaluronic acid, ß-glucan, alpha-glucan oligosaccharide, Coriolus versicolor, Asian centella, Azadirachta indica and Aloe vera on vaginal microbiota, cervical epithelization and vaginal health. Open-label, prospective pilot study conducted in asymptomatic women in daily practice. Cervical epithelization was evaluated by colposcopy using an ectopy epithelization score (from 5: no ectopy to 1: severe ectopy and bleeding), vaginal microbiota using the VaginaStatus-Diagnostic test (Instiüt für Mikroökologie, Herborn, Germany) and further rated by the investigator using a 5-point Liker scale (from 5: normal to 1: very severe deterioration in which all evaluated species were altered), and vaginal health using the Vaginal Health Index. In 21 women, a positive effect to improve epithelization of the cervical mucosa, with a mean score of 4.42 at the final visit as compared to 3.09 at baseline (P < 0.0001) (43% improvement). In 10 women, there was a trend of improving of vaginal microbiota status, with a mean score of 4.0 at the final visit vs. 3.3 at baseline (P = NS) (21.2% improvement). In 11 women, the Vaginal Health Index increased from 19.0 at baseline to 22.3 at the final visit (P = 0.007). The concentration of Lactobacillus spp. increased 54.5% of women and pH decreased from 4.32 to 4.09. These encouraging preliminary results provide the basis for designing a randomized controlled study, and for potential use in human papilloma virus infection. ISRCTN77955077 . Registration date: February 15, 2017. Retrospectively registered.

  18. Classification and Microvascular Flap Selection for Anterior Cranial Fossa Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Vargo, James D; Przylecki, Wojciech; Camarata, Paul J; Andrews, Brian T

    2018-05-18

     Microvascular reconstruction of the anterior cranial fossa (ACF) creates difficult challenges. Reconstructive goals and flap selection vary based on the defect location within the ACF. This study evaluates the feasibility and reliability of free tissue transfer for salvage reconstruction of low, middle, and high ACF defects.  A retrospective review was performed. Reconstructions were anatomically classified as low (anterior skull base), middle (frontal bar/sinus), and high (frontal bone/soft tissue). Subjects were evaluated based on pathologic indication and goal, type of flap used, and complications observed.  Eleven flaps in 10 subjects were identified and anatomic sites included: low ( n  = 5), middle ( n  = 3), and high ( n  = 3). Eight of 11 reconstructions utilized osteocutaneous flaps including the osteocutaneous radial forearm free flap (OCRFFF) ( n  = 7) and fibula ( n  = 1). Other reconstructions included a split calvarial graft wrapped within a temporoparietal fascia free flap ( n  = 1), latissimus myocutaneous flap ( n  = 1), and rectus abdominis myofascial flap ( n  = 1). All 11 flaps were successful without microvascular compromise. No complications were observed in the high and middle ACF defect groups. Two of five flaps in the low defect group using OCRFFF flaps failed to achieve surgical goals despite demonstrating healthy flaps upon re-exploration. Complications included persistent cerebrospinal fluid leak ( n  = 1) and pneumocephalus ( n  = 1), requiring flap repositioning in one subject and a second microvascular flap in the second subject to achieve surgical goals.  In our experience, osteocutaneous flaps (especially the OCRFFF) are preferred for complete autologous reconstruction of high and middle ACF defects. Low skull base defects are more difficult to reconstruct, and consideration of free muscle flaps (no bone) should be weighed as an option in this anatomic area. Thieme Medical Publishers

  19. Endobronchial Mucosal Neuroma with Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Ipek; Duman, Dildar; Eroglu, Selma; Agca, Meltem; Erdagi, Aykut; Turker, Hatice; Hazar, Armagan

    2018-02-01

    A first case of endobronchial mucosal neuroma with sarcoidosis is hereby reported. A 67-year female patient, who was diagnosed as sarcoidosis previously, was admitted to our hospital with symptoms of dyspnea, chest pain and fatigue. Middle lobe atelectasis and endobronchial lesion were observed in thorax computed tomography (CT). Fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed polypoid lesions and histopathological examination of biopsy material showed clustered nerve bundles consistent with mucosal neuroma and non-necrotising granulomas consistent with sarcoidosis. Mucosal neuromas are pathognomonic features of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2B. But other components of MEN type 2B such as medullary tyroid carcinoma or pheochromocytoma were not detected in our patient. Hence, a diagnosis of solitary mucosal neuroma and sarcoidosis in the bronchi was made.

  20. Temporalis myo-osseous flap: an experimental study

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Antonyshyn, O.; Colcleugh, R.G.; Hurst, L.N.

    1986-03-01

    The present paper investigates the anatomy and vascularization of the temporalis myo-osseous flap. This is a calvarial bone flap that employs temporalis muscle and its distal pericranial extension as a pedicle. In six human cadavers the flap was raised as an island on the anterior deep temporal artery after transecting the zygomatic arch and coronoid process. Maximal mobilization was thus obtained, allowing rotation of the flap into the mouth for intraoral reconstruction. The arc of rotation and potential surgical applications were noted. A comparative study of the temporalis myo-osseous flap and free calvarial bone graft was then conducted in amore » rabbit model. Vascularization of the calvarial bone flap was confirmed by technetium scintigraphy performed on the first postoperative day. The uptake of fluorochrome labels immediately after transfer verified the adequacy of the periosteal circulation in maintaining viability and new osteoid formation throughout the full thickness of calvarial bone. The transplantation of free calvarial bone grafts was followed by necrosis of most cellular elements. This was demonstrated by an absence of fluorochrome uptake up to 19 days postoperatively and a predominance of empty lacunae and nonviable marrow.« less

  1. The clinical application of anterolateral thigh flap.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yao-Chou; Chiu, Haw-Yen; Shieh, Shyh-Jou

    2011-01-01

    The anterolateral thigh flap can provide a large skin paddle nourished by a long and large-caliber pedicle and can be harvested by two-team work. Most importantly, the donor-site morbidity is minimal. However, the anatomic variations decreased its popularity. By adapting free-style flap concepts, such as preoperative mapping of the perforators and being familiar with retrograde perforator dissection, this disadvantage had been overcome gradually. Furthermore, several modifications widen its clinical applications: the fascia lata can be included for sling or tendon reconstruction, the bulkiness could be created by including vastus lateralis muscle or deepithelization of skin flap, the pliability could be increased by suprafascial dissection or primary thinning, the pedicle length could be lengthening by proximally eccentric placement of the perforator, and so forth. Combined with these technical and conceptual advancements, the anterolateral thigh flap has become the workhorse flap for soft-tissue reconstructions from head to toe.

  2. Vaginal metastasis presenting as postmenopausal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Ng, Qiu Ju; Namuduri, Rama Padma; Yam, Kwai Lam; Lim-Tan, Soo Kim

    2015-08-01

    Vaginal cancer is rare worldwide and represents 2% of all gynaecological cancers in Singapore. Primary vaginal malignancies are rare and vaginal metastases constitute the majority of vaginal malignancies. Most of these metastases arise from the cervix, endometrium or ovary, although they can also metastasise from distant sites such as the colon, breast and pancreas. We report a rare case of vaginal metastasis in a patient with previous gastric and rectal adenocarcinomas. An 89-year-old woman with a history of gastric and rectal malignancy presented with postmenopausal bleeding. A 2-cm vaginal tumour at the introitus was discovered upon examination. This case demonstrates the importance of performing a gynaecological examination during follow-up for patients with a history of malignancy. The prognosis for vaginal metastasis is poor, as it is often associated with disseminated disease. Depending on the extent of the lesions, radiotherapy or surgery can be considered.

  3. Administration of oral and vaginal prebiotic lactoferrin for a woman with a refractory vaginitis recurring preterm delivery: appearance of lactobacillus in vaginal flora followed by term delivery.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Katsufumi; Tokunaka, Mayumi; Oba, Tomohiro; Nakamura, Masamitsu; Shirato, Nahoko; Okai, Takashi

    2014-02-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is one of the prebiotics present in the human body. A 38-year-old multiparous woman with poor obstetrical histories, three consecutive preterm premature rupture of membrane at the 19th, 23rd and 25th week of pregnancy, was referred to our hospital. She was diagnosed as having refractory vaginitis. Although estriol vaginal tablets were used for 4 months, the vaginitis was not cured. We administrated vaginal tablets and oral agents of prebiotic LF, resulting in a Lactobacillus predominant vaginal flora. When she was pregnant, she continued to use the LF, and the Lactobacillus in the vaginal flora was continuously observed during pregnancy. An elective cesarean section was performed at the 38th week of pregnancy. When the administration of LF was discontinued after the delivery, Lactobacillus in the vaginal flora was disappeared. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. Update on primary mucosal melanoma.

    PubMed

    Tacastacas, Joselin D; Bray, Julie; Cohen, Yoon K; Arbesman, Joshua; Kim, Julian; Koon, Henry B; Honda, Kord; Cooper, Kevin D; Gerstenblith, Meg R

    2014-08-01

    Mucosal melanomas are aggressive cancers of mucosal surfaces with clinical and pathologic characteristics distinct from cutaneous melanomas, warranting different staging systems and treatment approaches. Surgical resection is performed frequently for the primary tumor, although the utility of lymph node surgery and radiation therapy is not established. Therapies targeted against C-KIT activating mutations, identified in many mucosal melanomas, are emerging as promising treatments. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Reconstruction of eyelids with Washio flap in anophthalmia.

    PubMed

    Tvrdek, M; Kozák, J

    2014-01-01

    The authors present a case report of a patient with anophthalmia in whom retroauriculo-temporal flap (Washio flap) was used for reconstruction of eyelids. This flap, which is mostly used for reconstructions of nasal defects, was not used in this way according to available literature.

  6. Pectoralis myocutaneous flap for salvage of necrotic wounds

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Price, J.C.; Davis, R.K.; Koltai, P.J.

    1985-02-01

    The authors have utilized six pectoralis major myocutaneous flaps in attempts to salvage extensive necrotic wounds of the pharynx and neck. The flap was employed in the following situations: massive necrosis of the entire neck skin with both carotid artery systems exposed, radiation necrosis of the neck skin with exposure of carotid artery, dehiscence of gastric pull-up from pharynx with resultant carotid exposure, failed trapezius flap in a radionecrotic oral cavity, and two cases of pharyngocutaneous fistula with extensive soft tissue necrosis. These flaps achieved healing in all cases. One death occurred 3 weeks following complete cutaneous healing secondary tomore » a ruptured carotid pseudoaneurysm. One flap underwent total skin loss but the entirety of the muscle survived and the fistula was successfully closed with the back of the muscle being subsequently skin grafted. One case of dehiscence of the flap from oral mucosa resulted in a minor exposure of mandible with limited osteoradionecrosis controlled by topical means. This flap has performed extremely well in these precarious and difficult situations that previously may not have been salvageable. It has also been effective in abbreviating the required hospitalization and wound care. The authors conclude that the pectoralis myocutaneous flap should be the primary choice for the management of extensive postsurgical wound necrosis.« less

  7. Calf Perforator Flaps: A Freestyle Solution for Oral Cavity Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Molina, Alexandra R; Citron, Isabelle; Chinaka, Fungayi; Cascarini, Luke; Townley, William A

    2017-02-01

    Reconstruction of oral cavity defects requires a thin, pliable flap for optimal functional results. Traditional flap choices are imperfect: the anterolateral thigh flap is excessively thick, whereas the radial forearm flap has a poor donor site. The authors therefore favor calf perforator flaps such as the medial sural artery perforator flap to provide thin tissue with an acceptable donor site. This two-part study aims to demonstrate their suitability for intraoral reconstruction. In the radiologic part of the study, the authors compared thigh and calf tissue thickness by examining lower limb computed tomographic scans of 100 legs. For their clinical study, they collected data prospectively on 20 cases of oral cavity reconstruction using calf perforator flaps. The mean thickness of the calf tissue envelope was significantly less than that of the thigh (8.4 mm compared with 17 mm) based on computed tomographic analysis. In the clinical study, a medial sural artery perforator was used in the majority of cases (17 of 20). The mean pedicle length was 10.2 cm and the mean time to raise a flap was 85 minutes. There were no flap losses. One patient was returned to the operating room for management of late hematoma and wound dehiscence. Calf perforator flaps provide ideal tissue for intraoral reconstruction and are significantly thinner than anterolateral thigh flaps. In addition to medial sural artery perforator flaps, the authors raised both sural and soleal artery perforator flaps in this series. Opportunistic use of the calf donor site allows the harvest of thin tissue with minimal donor-site morbidity. Therapeutic, IV.

  8. New method for maximum mobilization of temporalis muscle flap.

    PubMed

    Masic, Tarik; Babajic, Emina; Dervisevic, Almir; Hassouba, Mahmoud

    2012-01-01

    Pedicled temporalis muscle flap presenting a good flap for closing large craniofacial defects. Careful surgeons usually do not mobilize temporalis muscle flap enough to make appropriate use, fully closure, especially if defect exceeds the median line. Temporalis flap was used in 16 patients, ages ranged between 12 and 76. In all cases defect reconstruction was done by useing new method of extending standard temporal muscle flap. During surgical procedure it is very important to keep periosteal elevator in close contact with the bone. Then, there is no risk for pedicle injury. After vascular pedicle is identified elevating temporal muscle has to be continued by releasing the muscle insertion from the coronoid process. By this way, flap length and arc of rotation is increased. The flap remained viable in all instances. Most of the patients experienced no perioperative complications. There was no major complications or mortality as a result of performed procedures. With this division, flap length was increased at least 2 cm wich is enough for covering defects crossing the midline. Instead of using bilateral temporalis muscle flaps for defect closure, unilateral is sufficient. With this extension of the pedicle length now rotation point is not at the level of the zygomatic arch but lower part mandibular neck.

  9. Oral Immunization with a Recombinant Lactococcus lactis-Expressing HIV-1 Antigen on Group A Streptococcus Pilus Induces Strong Mucosal Immunity in the Gut.

    PubMed

    Chamcha, Venkateswarlu; Jones, Andrew; Quigley, Bernard R; Scott, June R; Amara, Rama Rao

    2015-11-15

    The induction of a potent humoral and cellular immune response in mucosal tissue is important for the development of an effective HIV vaccine. Most of the current HIV vaccines under development use the i.m. route for immunization, which is relatively poor in generating potent and long-lived mucosal immune responses. In this article, we explore the ability of an oral vaccination with a probiotic organism, Lactococcus lactis, to elicit HIV-specific immune responses in the mucosal and systemic compartments of BALB/c mice. We expressed the HIV-1 Gag-p24 on the tip of the T3 pilus of Streptococcus pyogenes as a fusion to the Cpa protein (LL-Gag). After four monthly LL-Gag oral immunizations, we observed strong Gag-specific IgG and IgA responses in serum, feces, and vaginal secretions. However, the Gag-specific CD8 T cell responses in the blood were at or below our detection limit. After an i.m. modified vaccinia Ankara/Gag boost, we observed robust Gag-specific CD8 T cell responses both in systemic and in mucosal tissues, including intraepithelial and lamina propria lymphocytes of the small intestine, Peyer's patches, and mesenteric lymph nodes. Consistent with strong immunogenicity, the LL-Gag induced activation of CD11c(+) CD11b(+) dendritic cells in the Peyer's patches after oral immunization. Our results demonstrate that oral immunization with L. lactis expressing an Ag on the tip of the group A Streptococcus pilus serves as an excellent vaccine platform to induce strong mucosal humoral and cellular immunity against HIV. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  10. Flexible wings in flapping flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moret, Lionel; Thiria, Benjamin; Zhang, Jun

    2007-11-01

    We study the effect of passive pitching and flexible deflection of wings on the forward flapping flight. The wings are flapped vertically in water and are allowed to move freely horizontally. The forward speed is chosen by the flapping wing itself by balance of drag and thrust. We show, that by allowing the wing to passively pitch or by adding a flexible extension at its trailing edge, the forward speed is significantly increased. Detailed measurements of wing deflection and passive pitching, together with flow visualization, are used to explain our observations. The advantage of having a wing with finite rigidity/flexibility is discussed as we compare the current results with our biological inspirations such as birds and fish.

  11. Vaginal sponge and spermicides

    MedlinePlus

    Birth control - over the counter; Contraceptives - over the counter; Family planning - vaginal sponge; Contraception - vaginal sponge ... preventing pregnancy as some other forms of birth control. However, using a spermicide or sponge is much ...

  12. Serum, uterine, and vaginal mucosal IgG antibody responses against Tritrichomonas foetus after administration of a commercial killed whole T foetus vaccine in beef cows.

    PubMed

    Palomares, R A; Hurley, D J; Crum, L T; Rollin, E; Collop, T; Williard, A; Felton, J; Parrish, J; Corbeil, L B

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the level and duration of IgG antibodies induced against killed whole Tritrichomonas foetus and T foetus-purified surface antigen (TF1.17) in serum, vaginal, and uterine secretions after systemic immunization of beef cows with a vaccine containing killed whole T foetus. Twenty nonpregnant beef cows were randomly assigned to vaccine or control groups as follows: Vaccine (n = 10): cows received 2 mL of a commercial vaccine containing killed whole T foetus subcutaneously and a 2-mL booster 2 weeks later. Control (n = 10): cows received 2 mL of sterile saline on the same schedule. Vaginal secretions and blood samples were collected on Days 0, 8, 15, 22, 29, 36, 43, 50, 60, 75, 89, 110, 146, and 182 relative to day of primary vaccination. Uterine flush fluid was collected on Days 0, 15, 29, and 43 after the day of primary vaccination. Samples were assayed for IgG antibodies to the killed whole T foetus and surface antigen TF1.17 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum whole T foetus-specific IgG levels were significantly increased (between Days 15 and 182) following vaccination with T foetus or with saline. No differences between vaccinates and controls in uterine responses to whole-cell antigen were detected. Serum anti-TF1.17 IgG responses to vaccination were significantly higher than Day 0 throughout the immunization period (P < 0.001) and were higher than responses in control animals on each day post immunization through Day 146 (P < 0.001). A significant rise in TF1.17-specific IgG levels was observed in vaginal and uterine fluids from Day 15 post vaccination compared to the Day 0 levels. These levels remained significantly elevated in vaginal and uterine fluids through Days 75 (P < 0.05) and 43 (P < 0.001) after primary vaccination, respectively. Antibody levels in serum, vaginal, and uterine secretions against TF1.17 remained low in the control group throughout the study. In conclusion, vaccination of

  13. Douching for perceived vaginal odor with no infectious cause of vaginitis: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Sarmina; Chatwani, Ashwin; Brovender, Herman; Zane, Richard; Valaoras, Thomas; Sobel, Jack D

    2011-04-01

    To demonstrate the effectiveness of medical-grade stainless steel Water Works Douching Device for treating abnormal vaginal odor in comparison with a commercially available over-the-counter plastic douching device. In a multicenter study, 140 women with perceived vaginal odor with no vaginal infection were randomized to either Water Works or control group in a 1:1 ratio and were douched daily for 4 weeks. A visual analog scale (VAS) was used to assess the intensity of vaginal odor. Primary outcome included subject assessment of odor improvement and Nugent Gram stain score of vaginal secretions. Secondary outcome compared the efficacy and safety of Water Works with control douching device. Each patient underwent baseline, week 2, and week 4 visits. The final analytic sample consisted of 96 women. Success score at 4 weeks was 78% for the Water Works group and 38.5% for the control group. Mean VAS was significantly reduced, and Nugent and Lactobacillus scores were maintained in both groups. In the Water Works group, VAS was reduced from 7.3 ± 0.3 to 1.8 ± 0.6 (p < .001) after 4 weeks. In the control group, baseline versus 4 weeks VAS was 7.2 ± 0.3 and 3.4 ± 0.8 (p < .003). Women reported significant reduction of vaginal odor after douching with water for 4 weeks without any alteration of vaginal flora. The Water Works Douching Device was superior to over- the-counter device in reducing vaginal odor.

  14. Innovative non-surgical management of pelvic and anterior vaginal wall abscess following vaginal surgery.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nisha; Negi, Neha; Kumar, Namrata

    2016-08-29

    Surgical site infections remain a common cause of morbidity following gynaecological surgery. The widespread implementation of antibiotic prophylaxis prior to surgery, as well as cognizance of modifiable risk factors for postoperative infection, has led to a significant reduction in postoperative infection rates. However, in low resource settings where sepsis and infections are common, surgical site infections following vaginal hysterectomy are sometimes encountered. It is a challenge to treat these infections with minimal intervention avoiding repeat surgery. We report here a unique situation following vaginal hysterectomy and then laparotomy; where a pelvic abscess communicated with the vesicovaginal space and drained through an opening into the anterior vaginal wall. An innovative technique was used to drain this anterior vaginal wall abscess connecting to pelvic cavity using a 40 cm long disposable urinary catheter (made of polyvinyl chloride), which was inserted into the vaginal opening under ultrasound guidance. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  15. Postoperative evaluation of palatoplasty using the modified Kaplan method.

    PubMed

    Isago, Tsukasa; Nozaki, Motohiro; Honda, Takashi; Kikuchi, Yuji

    2005-01-01

    Bilateral buccal mucosal flaps were used for a pushback operation of the nasal mucosa as well as the oral mucosa. Two flaps from the buccal mucosal areas were inserted into the nasal mucosal raw surface at the hard and soft palatal border to achieve nasal mucosal pushback. Forty-four children with cleft palates were retrospectively studied to investigate the velopharyngeal function, articulation, and craniofacial morphology following primary palatoplasty using the modified Kaplan method. 72.7% showed good velopharyngeal function. Articulation disorders were found in 26 of the 44 subjects (59.1%). A craniofacial morphological analysis revealed no major changes in the SNA (sella-nasion point A angle) and SNB (sella-nasion point B angle) and no cases of a marked loss of maxillary mandibular balance. In addition, no significant differences were observed in the maxillary length and width. The results of these palatoplasties by the modified Kaplan method indicated that the use of bilateral buccal mucosal flaps for the pushback of the nasal mucosa was effective in preventing the contraction of the maxillary and mandibular corpal lengths.

  16. Application of multidetector-row computed tomography in propeller flap planning.

    PubMed

    Ono, Shimpei; Chung, Kevin C; Hayashi, Hiromitsu; Ogawa, Rei; Takami, Yoshihiro; Hyakusoku, Hiko

    2011-02-01

    The propeller flap is defined as (1) being island-shaped, (2) having an axis that includes the perforators, and (3) having the ability to be rotated around an axis. The advantage of the propeller flap is that it is a pedicle flap that can be applied to cover defects located at the distal ends of the extremities. The specific aims of the authors' study were (1) to evaluate the usefulness of multidetector-row computed tomography in the planning of propeller flaps and (2) to present a clinical case series of propeller flap reconstructions that were planned preoperatively using multidetector-row computed tomography. The authors retrospectively analyzed all cases between April of 2007 and April of 2010 at Nippon Medical School Hospital in Tokyo, where multidetector-row computed tomography was used preoperatively to plan surgical reconstructions using propeller flaps. Thirteen patients underwent 16 flaps using the propeller flap technique. The perforators were identified accurately by multidetector-row computed tomography preoperatively in all cases. This is the first report describing the application of multidetector-row computed tomography in the planning of propeller flaps. Multidetector-row computed tomography is superior to other imaging methods because it demonstrates more precisely the perforator's position and subcutaneous course using high-resolution three-dimensional images. By using multidetector-row computed tomography to preoperatively identify a flap's perforators, the surgeon can better plan the flap design to efficiently conduct the flap surgery.

  17. A performance application study of a jet-flap helicopter rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, R. J.; Laforge, S.; Holchin, B. W.

    1972-01-01

    A performance study was made of the application of a jet-flap to a reaction-drive rotor for a heavy-lift helicopter mission and for a high-speed-helicopter maneuverability (200 knots, 2g) mission. The results of the study are as follows: As a result of the increase in maximum airfoil lift coefficient achieved by the jet-flap, rotor solidity is reduced with the jet-flap to approximately 59% of a nonjet-flap rotor. As a result of the saving in rotor solidity, and hence in rotor weight, the jet-flap configuration had a 21% higher productivity than a nonjet-flap configuration. Of the three propulsion systems studied utilizing a jet-flap (hot cycle, warm cycle, cold cycle) the hot cycle gave the largest increase in productivity. The 200 knot 2g mission is performed best with a warm cycle propulsion system. The jet-flap permits designing for a rotor blade loading coefficient C sub T/sigma = .170 at 2g without encountering blade stall. The jet-flap rotor permits a 200 knot 2g maneuver without suffering the penalty of an unreasonable rotor solidity that would be required by a nonjet-flap rotor.

  18. Newcastle disease virus expressing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein induces strong mucosal and serum antibody responses in Guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Khattar, Sunil K; Samal, Sweety; Devico, Anthony L; Collins, Peter L; Samal, Siba K

    2011-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is transmitted mainly through mucosal sites. Optimum strategies to elicit both systemic and mucosal immunity are critical for the development of vaccines against HIV-1. We therefore sought to evaluate the induction of systemic and mucosal immune responses by the use of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) as a vaccine vector. We generated a recombinant NDV, designated rLaSota/gp160, expressing the gp160 envelope (Env) protein of HIV-1 from an added gene. The gp160 protein expressed by rLaSota/gp160 virus was detected on an infected cell surface and was incorporated into the NDV virion. Biochemical studies showed that gp160 present in infected cells and in the virion formed a higher-order oligomer that retained recognition by conformationally sensitive monoclonal antibodies. Expression of gp160 did not increase the virulence of recombinant NDV (rNDV) strain LaSota. Guinea pigs were administered rLaSota/gp160 via the intranasal (i.n.) or intramuscular (i.m.) route in different prime-boost combinations. Systemic and mucosal antibody responses specific to the HIV-1 envelope protein were assessed in serum and vaginal washes, respectively. Two or three immunizations via the i.n. or i.m. route induced a more potent systemic and mucosal immune response than a single immunization by either route. Priming by the i.n. route was more immunogenic than by the i.m. route, and the same was true for the boosts. Furthermore, immunization with rLaSota/gp160 by any route or combination of routes induced a Th1-type response, as reflected by the induction of stronger antigen-specific IgG2a than IgG1 antibody responses. Additionally, i.n. immunization elicited a stronger neutralizing serum antibody response to laboratory-adapted HIV-1 strain MN.3. These data illustrate that it is feasible to use NDV as a vaccine vector to elicit potent humoral and mucosal responses to the HIV-1 envelope protein.

  19. Comparison of 5468 retreatments after laser in situ keratomileusis by lifting the flap or performing photorefractive keratectomy on the flap.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Usobiaga, J; Llovet-Osuna, F; Katz, T; Djodeyre, M R; Druchkiv, V; Bilbao-Calabuig, R; Baviera, J

    2018-02-01

    To assess visual outcomes of retreatment after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) by lifting the flap or performing photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) on the flap, as well as to establish whether there was an increased risk of epithelial ingrowth (EIG) when LASIK and lifting of the flap are separated by a long time interval and to determine the incidence of corneal haze after PRK. Retrospective study of 4077 patients (5468 eyes) who underwent LASIK and subsequent retreatment were reviewed in order to study their visual results and identify cases of EIG and corneal haze. Enhancements included 5196 eyes from 3876 patients that were retreated by lifting the flap, and 272 eyes from 201 patients that were retreated by PRK on the flap. No statistically significant differences were found between the retreatments in terms of predictability, efficacy, and safety. A total of 704 cases of EIG were found after lifting the flap, for which surgical cleansing was necessary in 70. Surgical cleansing decreased the efficacy index when compared with patients with EIG who did not need cleansing (P=.01). Differences in terms of safety and predictability were not statistically significant. The incidence of corneal haze after ablation of the surface of the previous flap was 14.34%, although none of these cases were clinically relevant. Visual outcomes were similar between patients who were retreated by lifting the flap and those who underwent PRK. The incidence of EIG when the flap was lifted was 13.55%. The incidence of EIG increases with the time elapsed between the primary procedure and retreatment. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. The stimulation of the vaginal immune system with short-term administration of a vaginal gel containing fraction of Propionibacterium acnes, hyaluronic acid and polycarbophil is efficacious in vaginal infections dependent on disorders in the vaginal ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Melis, Gian Benedetto; Piras, Bruno; Marotto, Maria Francesca; Neri, Manuela; Corda, Valentina; Vallerino, Valerio; Saba, Alessandra; Lello, Stefano; Pilloni, Monica; Zedda, Pierina; Paoletti, Anna Maria; Mais, Valerio

    2018-04-12

    The vaginal immune system (VIS) is the first defense against antigens recognized as foreign. Substances capable of locally activating the VIS could be a valid strategy to treat vulvo-vaginal infections (VVI), caused by changes in the vaginal ecosystem, such as bacterial vaginosis (BV), vulvo-vaginal candidiasis (CA), and mixed vaginitis (MV). Bacterial lysates, obtained by crushing bacterial cultures, exert immuno-modulatory activities. The parietal fraction from Propionibacterium acnes is a patent of Depofarma (MoglianoVeneto, Italy). The preparation that associates such fraction to hyaluronic acid and polycarbophil is a registered trademark, commercially available in Italy as vaginal gel, Immunovag ® . The study aimed to evaluate whether a 5-day-treatment with Immunovag ® improves the symptoms and signs of VVI, in 60 women with Gardnerella vaginalis (GV), 154 with CA, 95 with MV, diagnosed with vulvar vaginal swab (VVS), and in 283 with BV, diagnosed with the Amsel criteria. At the end of the treatment (visit 2), the symptoms and signs of VVI disappeared in a significant number of subjects (χ 2 p < .02 vs pre-treatment) in all VVI groups, and their intensity was significantly (p < .0002) reduced in the subjects in which they were still present. Immunovag ® represents a valid treatment of VVI induced by changes in the vaginal ecosystem.

  1. The Clinical Application of Anterolateral Thigh Flap

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yao-Chou; Chiu, Haw-Yen; Shieh, Shyh-Jou

    2011-01-01

    The anterolateral thigh flap can provide a large skin paddle nourished by a long and large-caliber pedicle and can be harvested by two-team work. Most importantly, the donor-site morbidity is minimal. However, the anatomic variations decreased its popularity. By adapting free-style flap concepts, such as preoperative mapping of the perforators and being familiar with retrograde perforator dissection, this disadvantage had been overcome gradually. Furthermore, several modifications widen its clinical applications: the fascia lata can be included for sling or tendon reconstruction, the bulkiness could be created by including vastus lateralis muscle or deepithelization of skin flap, the pliability could be increased by suprafascial dissection or primary thinning, the pedicle length could be lengthening by proximally eccentric placement of the perforator, and so forth. Combined with these technical and conceptual advancements, the anterolateral thigh flap has become the workhorse flap for soft-tissue reconstructions from head to toe. PMID:22567234

  2. Defining the Role of Free Flaps in Partial Breast Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mark L; Molina, Bianca J; Dayan, Erez; Jablonka, Eric M; Okwali, Michelle; Kim, Julie N; Dayan, Joseph H

    2018-03-01

     Free flaps have a well-established role in breast reconstruction after mastectomy; however, their role in partial breast reconstruction remains poorly defined. We reviewed our experience with partial breast reconstruction to better understand indications for free tissue transfer.  A retrospective review was performed of all patients undergoing partial breast reconstruction at our center between February 2009 and October 2015. We evaluated the characteristics of patients who underwent volume displacement procedures versus volume replacement procedures and free versus pedicled flap reconstruction.  There were 78 partial breast reconstructions, with 52 reductions/tissue rearrangements (displacement group) and 26 flaps (replacement group). Bra cup size and body mass index (BMI) were significantly smaller in the replacement group. Fifteen pedicled and 11 free flaps were performed. Most pedicled flaps (80.0%) were used for lateral or upper pole defects. Most free flaps (72.7%) were used for medial and inferior defects or when there was inadequate donor tissue for a pedicled flap. Complications included hematoma, cellulitis, and one aborted pedicled flap.  Free and pedicled flaps are useful for partial breast reconstruction, particularly in breast cancer patients with small breasts undergoing breast-conserving treatment (BCT). Flap selection depends on defect size, location, and donor tissue availability. Medial defects are difficult to reconstruct using pedicled flaps due to arc of rotation and intervening breast tissue. Free tissue transfer can overcome these obstacles. Confirming negative margins before flap reconstruction ensures harvest of adequate volume and avoids later re-operation. Judicious use of free flaps for oncoplastic reconstruction expands the possibility for breast conservation. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  3. Propeller Perforator Flaps in Distal Lower Leg: Evolution and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Simple or complex defects in the lower leg, and especially in its distal third, continue to be a challenging task for reconstructive surgeons. A variety of flaps were used in the attempt to achieve excellence in form and function. After a long evolution of the reconstructive methods, including random pattern flaps, axial pattern flaps, musculocutaneous flaps and fasciocutaneous flaps, the reappraisal of the works of Manchot and Salmon by Taylor and Palmer opened the era of perforator flaps. This era began in 1989, when Koshima and Soeda, and separately Kroll and Rosenfield described the first applications of such flaps. Perforator flaps, whether free or pedicled, gained a high popularity due to their main advantages: decreasing donor-site morbidity and improving aesthetic outcome. The use as local perforator flaps in lower leg was possible due to a better understanding of the cutaneous circulation, leg vascular anatomy, angiosome and perforasome concepts, as well as innovations in flaps design. This review will describe the evolution, anatomy, flap design, and technique of the main distally pedicled propeller perforator flaps used in the reconstruction of defects in the distal third of the lower leg and foot. PMID:22783507

  4. Effect of marking pens on femtosecond laser-assisted flap creation.

    PubMed

    Ide, Takeshi; Kymionis, George D; Abbey, Ashkan M; Yoo, Sonia H; Culbertson, William W; O'Brien, Terrence P

    2009-06-01

    To compare the ease of the flap lift after central corneal marking with 2 types of marking pens after femtosecond laser-assisted flap creation in laser in situ keratomileusis. Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA. Porcine eyes were prepared for flap creation with a femtosecond laser (IntraLase). The eyes were assigned to 1 of 4 groups. After the femtosecond laser treatment, the difficulty of flap lifting the 4 groups was compared. Twelve porcine eyes, 3 in each group, were evaluated. In the 2 groups in which an oil-based pen was used, the corneal flap could not be lifted. In the 2 groups in which a water-based pen was used, the corneal flap was easily lifted. Oil-based ink may reduce the ability of the femtosecond laser to penetrate the cornea. The resultant corneal flap may require aggressive manipulation to be lifted. When used to mark the center of the cornea before flap creation, water-based ink provided greater ease of corneal flap lifting than oil-based ink. Because the marking is located over the center of the pupil, any alteration of the cornea in this area from aggressive flap lifting may result in substantial visual loss. Therefore, the use of an oil-based ink to mark the central cornea must be avoided to prevent traumatic irregularities of the flap stroma.

  5. Double transverse myocutaneous gracilis free flaps for unilateral breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Werdin, Frank; Haug, Daniel M; Amr, Amro; Schoeller, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    In cases were the deep inferior epigastric perforator flap (DIEP flap) is not available and unilateral transverse myocutaneous gracilis flap (TMG flap) is not sufficient for breast reconstruction, we perform double TMG flaps as a reconstructive method. In this report, we present our results of the use of double TMG free-flap-transfer for unilateral breast reconstruction. Between August 2004 and June 2012 we performed 58 TMG flaps in 29 patients for unilateral breast reconstruction. Patient data were analyzed and operative outcome (operation time, complication rate and aesthetic results) were investigated. Aesthetic outcome was evaluated retrospectively via photo documentation by an independent plastic surgeon. The results were classified in;unsatisfactory, satisfactory, good and very good. The average operating time was 6 hours 55 minutes (295 - 650 minutes). Of 58 TMG flaps, 57 (98.3%) were successful. Thrombosis occurred in seven (12%) cases (1 arterial, 6 venous). Flap salvage was successful in six cases and flap failure occurred in one (1.7%) case. The results of 25 patients were graded as good and very good. Three patients showed satisfying and one patient unsatisfying results. Double TMG flaps in unilateral breast reconstruction could lead to good operative results. This method further expands the range of options with autologous tissue in reconstructive breast surgery. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery 36:539-545, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. HSV-2-Driven Increase in the Expression of α4β7 Correlates with Increased Susceptibility to Vaginal SHIVSF162P3 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Goode, Diana; Truong, Rosaline; Villegas, Guillermo; Calenda, Giulia; Guerra-Perez, Natalia; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Blanchard, James; Gettie, Agegnehu; Robbiani, Melissa; Martinelli, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The availability of highly susceptible HIV target cells that can rapidly reach the mucosal lymphoid tissues may increase the chances of an otherwise rare transmission event to occur. Expression of α4β7 is required for trafficking of immune cells to gut inductive sites where HIV can expand and it is expressed at high level on cells particularly susceptible to HIV infection. We hypothesized that HSV-2 modulates the expression of α4β7 and other homing receptors in the vaginal tissue and that this correlates with the increased risk of HIV acquisition in HSV-2 positive individuals. To test this hypothesis we used an in vivo rhesus macaque (RM) model of HSV-2 vaginal infection and a new ex vivo model of macaque vaginal explants. In vivo we found that HSV-2 latently infected RMs appeared to be more susceptible to vaginal SHIVSF162P3 infection, had higher frequency of α4β7 high CD4+ T cells in the vaginal tissue and higher expression of α4β7 and CD11c on vaginal DCs. Similarly, ex vivo HSV-2 infection increased the susceptibility of the vaginal tissue to SHIVSF162P3. HSV-2 infection increased the frequencies of α4β7 high CD4+ T cells and this directly correlated with HSV-2 replication. A higher amount of inflammatory cytokines in vaginal fluids of the HSV-2 infected animals was similar to those found in the supernatants of the infected explants. Remarkably, the HSV-2-driven increase in the frequency of α4β7 high CD4+ T cells directly correlated with SHIV replication in the HSV-2 infected tissues. Our results suggest that the HSV-2-driven increase in availability of CD4+ T cells and DCs that express high levels of α4β7 is associated with the increase in susceptibility to SHIV due to HSV-2. This may persists in absence of HSV-2 shedding. Hence, higher availability of α4β7 positive HIV target cells in the vaginal tissue may constitute a risk factor for HIV transmission. PMID:25521298

  7. Flap-edge aeroacoustic measurements and predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Thomas F.; Humphreys, William M.

    2003-03-01

    An aeroacoustic model test has been conducted to investigate the mechanisms of sound generation on high-lift wing configurations. This paper presents an analysis of flap side-edge noise, which is often the most dominant source. A model of a main element wing section with a half-span flap was tested at low speeds of up to a Mach number of 0.17, corresponding to a wing chord Reynolds number of approximately 1.7 million. Results are presented for flat (or blunt), flanged, and round flap-edge geometries, with and without boundary-layer tripping, deployed at both moderate and high flap angles. The acoustic database is obtained from a small aperture directional array (SADA) of microphones, which was constructed to electronically steer to different regions of the model and to obtain farfield noise spectra and directivity from these regions. The basic flap-edge aerodynamics is established by static surface pressure data, as well as by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations and simplified edge flow analyses. Distributions of unsteady pressure sensors over the flap allow the noise source regions to be defined and quantified via cross-spectral diagnostics using the SADA output. It is found that shear layer instability and related pressure scatter is the primary noise mechanism. For the flat edge flap, two noise prediction methods based on unsteady-surface-pressure measurements are evaluated and compared to measured noise. One is a new causality spectral approach developed here. The other is a new application of an edge-noise scatter prediction method. The good comparisons for both approaches suggest that the prediction models capture much of the physics. Areas of disagreement appear to reveal when the assumed edge noise mechanism does not fully define the noise production. For the different edge conditions, extensive spectra and directivity are presented. The complexity of the directivity results demonstrate the strong role of edge source geometry and frequency in

  8. Accuracy of Visual Estimation of LASIK Flap Thickness.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Jason E; Fadlallah, Ali; Hatch, Kathryn M; Choi, Catherine; Sayegh, Rony R; Kouyoumjian, Paul; Wu, Simon; Frangieh, George T; Melki, Samir A

    2017-11-01

    To assess the accuracy of surgeons' visual estimation of LASIK flap thickness when created by a femtosecond laser by comparing it to ultrasound measurements. Surgeons were asked to visually estimate the thickness of a femtosecond flap during the procedure. Total corneal thickness was measured by ultrasound pachymetry prior to the procedure and the stromal bed was similarly measured after flap lifting. The estimates from three experienced surgeons (cornea fellowship trained and more than 5 years in practice) were compared to those of three cornea fellows, with each surgeon evaluating 20 eyes (120 total). Surgeons were not told the thickness of the flaps unless required for safety reasons. The average difference between visual and ultrasonic estimation of LASIK flap thickness was 15.20 μm. The flap was 10 μm thicker than estimated in 37% of eyes, 20 μm thicker in 17% of eyes, and 30 μm thicker in 10% of eyes. The largest deviation was 53 μm. There was no statistically significant difference between the accuracy of experienced surgeons and fellows (P = .51). There are significant differences between surgeons' visual estimates and ultrasonic measurements of LASIK flap thickness. Relying on these visual estimates may lead to deeper excimer laser ablation than intended. This could lead to thinner residual stromal beds and higher percent tissue altered than planned. The authors recommend that surgeons measure flaps intraoperatively to maximize accuracy and safety. [J Refract Surg. 2017;33(11):765-767.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. [The repair of bulky tissue defect of forearm with skin flaps].

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoyuan; Long, Jianhong; Xie, Tinghong; Zhang, Minghua; Zhang, Pihong; Yang, Xinghua; Zhong, Keqin

    2002-12-01

    To evaluate the repairing methods of bulky tissue defect of forearm with flaps. Twenty-one burned patients with wounds in the forearm were enrolled in this study. The injury causes were high-voltage electricity, hot press or crush injury. After local debridement, the forearm defects were repaired with pedicled complex flaps, latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous island flaps or large thoraco-abdominal flaps immediately. All the flaps survived very well with satisfactory results except for 1 patient in whom local ischemic necrosis and sub-flap infection at the distal end of the flap occurred. Early debridement followed by skin flaps with pedicles or musculocutaneous flaps transfer could