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Sample records for vaginal prolapse surgery

  1. Vaginal surgery for pelvic organ prolapse using mesh and a vaginal support device.

    PubMed

    Carey, M; Slack, M; Higgs, P; Wynn-Williams, M; Cornish, A

    2008-02-01

    To describe a new surgical procedure for pelvic organ prolapse using mesh and a vaginal support device (VSD) and to report the results of surgery. A prospective observational study. Two tertiary referral Urogynaecology practices. Ninety-five women with International Continence Society pelvic organ prolapse quantification stage 2 or more pelvic organ prolapse who underwent vaginal surgery using mesh augmentation and a VSD. Surgery involved a vaginal approach with mesh reinforcement and placement of a VSD for 4 weeks. At 6 and 12 months, women were examined for prolapse recurrence, and visual analogue scales for satisfaction were completed. Women completed quality-of-life (QOL) questionnaires preoperatively and at 6 and 12 months. Objective success of surgery at 6 and 12 months following surgery. Secondary outcomes were subjective success, complications, QOL outcomes and patients' satisfaction. Objective success rate was 92 and 85% at 6 and 12 months, respectively. Subjective success rate was 91 and 87% at 6 and 12 months, respectively. New prolapse in nonrepaired compartments accounted for 7 of 12 (58%) failures at 12 months. Two of 4 mesh exposures required surgery. Sexual dysfunction was reported by 58% of sexually active women preoperatively and 23% at 12 months. QOL scores significantly improved at 12 months compared with baseline (P < 0.0001). Vaginal surgery using mesh and a VSD is an effective procedure for pelvic organ prolapse. However, further studies are required to establish the role of the surgery described in this study.

  2. One-year clinical outcomes after prolapse surgery with nonanchored mesh and vaginal support device.

    PubMed

    Zyczynski, Halina M; Carey, Marcus P; Smith, Anthony R B; Gauld, Judi M; Robinson, David; Sikirica, Vanja; Reisenauer, Christl; Slack, Mark

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate outcomes after standardized transvaginal prolapse repair with nonanchored mesh and a vaginal support device. Postoperative vaginal support was assessed by pelvic organ prolapse quantitative examination after repair of symptomatic stage II/III prolapse. Validated questionnaires assessed pelvic symptoms and sexual function. Visual analog scales quantified experience with the vaginal support device. One hundred thirty-six women received the planned surgery; 95.6% of the women returned for the 1-year assessment: 76.9% of the cases were stage 0/I; however, in 86.9% of the cases, the leading vaginal edge was above the hymen. Pelvic symptoms, quality of life, and sexual function improved significantly from baseline (P < .05). Median visual analog scale scores for vaginal support device awareness and discomfort were 2.6 and 1.2, respectively (0 = none; 10 = worst possible). Vaginal support, pelvic symptoms, and sexual function improved at 1 year, compared with baseline, after trocar-free prolapse repair with nonanchored mesh and a vaginal support device. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Role of the Surgeon on Outcomes of Vaginal Prolapse Surgery With Mesh.

    PubMed

    Eilber, Karyn S; Alperin, Marianna; Khan, Aqsa; Wu, Ning; Pashos, Chris L; Clemens, J Quentin; Anger, Jennifer T

    Adverse outcomes after surgery for pelvic organ prolapse (POP) with mesh are often attributed to the mesh material with little attention paid to the influence of surgeon factors. We used a national data set to determine whether surgeon case volume and specialty influenced vaginal prolapse surgery outcomes with mesh. Public Use File data on a 5% random national sample of female Medicare beneficiaries were obtained from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Women with a diagnosis of POP who underwent surgery with mesh between 2007 and 2008 were identified by relevant International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification and Current Procedural Terminology, 4th Edition procedure codes. Outcomes were compared by surgeon case volume and specialty. From 2007 to 2008, 1657 surgeries for POP were performed with mesh. Low-, intermediate-, and high-volume surgeons performed 881 (53%), 408 (25%), and 368 (22%) of the cases with mesh, respectively. The cumulative reoperation rates for low-, intermediate-, and high-volume providers were 6%, 2%, and 3%, respectively. The difference in reoperation rates between low and intermediate and low- and high-volume surgeons was statistically significant (P = 0.007 and 0.003, respectively). There was no significant difference in reoperation rates between gynecologists and urologists when vaginal mesh was implanted for POP surgery. Low-volume surgeons performed most of the vaginal prolapse repairs with mesh and had significantly higher reoperation rates. Surgeon experience must be a consideration when reporting mesh-related complications of POP surgery.

  4. Resolution of Rectal Prolapse by Vaginal Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Devakumar, Hemikaa; Chandrasekaran, Neeraja; Alas, Alexandriah; Martin, Laura; Davila, G Willy; Hurtado, Eric

    Rectal prolapse is a disorder of the pelvic floor in which the layers of the rectal mucosa protrude outward through the anus. Surgical repair is the mainstay of treatment. Options include intra-abdominal procedures such as rectopexy and perineal procedures such as the Delorme and Altemeier perineal rectosigmoidectomy. Rectal and vaginal prolapse can often coexist. However, to our knowledge, there are no reported cases of rectal prolapse resolved by the repair of a compressive enterocele abutting the anterior rectal wall through a vaginal approach alone. We present a novel case of rectal prolapse that resolved by correction of the vaginal defect. A 53-year-old female with prior history of abdominal hysterectomy, presented to the urogynecology clinic with complaints of vaginal bulge, urge urinary incontinence, and rectal bulge on straining with no fecal incontinence for several years. On physical examination, she was found to have stage 2 anterior, posterior, and apical vaginal prolapse and reducible rectal prolapse. Colorectal surgery (CRS) evaluation was requested, which revealed minimal anterior mucosal prolapse on Valsalva with no full-thickness prolapse. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) defecogram was performed, which demonstrated a large rectocele, enterocele, and small bowel prolapsing between the rectum and vagina during the evacuation phase, with no rectal prolapse. The decision to proceed with vaginal prolapse surgery without concomitant rectal prolapse repair was made, as the patient had no fecal incontinence, and the degree of rectal prolapse was minimal. On the day of surgery, which was 2 months later, she presented with a 2-cm anterior rectal prolapse with no incontinence. Colorectal surgery was consulted again, but unavailable. After counseling, the patient wished to proceed with her planned surgery. It was felt that correcting the anterior rectocele and enterocele, thereby eliminating the descent of the bowel on the anterior rectal wall, might cause

  5. Synthetic Graft Augmentation in Vaginal Prolapse Surgery: Long-Term Objective and Subjective Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Isuzu; McGwin, Gerald; Swain, Thomas A; Alvarez, Mitchell D; Ellington, David R; Richter, Holly E

    2016-01-01

    To report long-term objectives and subjective outcomes in women who underwent prolapse surgery with a synthetic graft augmentation. Retrospective analysis (Canadian Task Force classification II-3). University hospital in the southeastern United States. Women with symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse who underwent transvaginal graft augmentation using the Prolift mesh system between July 2006 and December 2008 for a minimum 5-year follow-up. Subjects completed the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI-20), the Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire (PFIQ-7), the Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Function Questionnaire (PISQ), and the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire. Subjects also underwent postoperative physical examination with Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) and vaginal pain/stricture assessment. Long-term postoperative findings were compared with preoperative baseline data. Of 208 eligible subjects, 70 completed the questionnaires only, and 48 of these 70 provided both postoperative examination and questionnaire data. The mean duration of follow-up was 7.0 ± 0.7 years (range, 5.8-8.1 years). POP-Q measurements of Ba (point B anterior), Bp (B posterior), C (cervix), GH (genital hiatus), PB (perineal body), and overall pelvic organ prolapse stage were significantly improved (all p < .001 except for PB, p = .006). PFIQ-7 (total, Urinary Impact Questionnaire, and Pelvic Organ Prolapse Impact Questionnaire) and PFDI-20 (total, Urinary Distress Inventory, and Pelvic Organ Prolapse Distress Inventory) scores significantly improved (all p < .001). No differences were noted in the colorectal-anal subscales (Colorectal-Anal Impact Questionnaire and Colorectal-Anal Distress Inventory) and PISQ scores at >5-year follow-up (all p > .05). Satisfaction rates were 15.7% for not at all, 35.7% for somewhat, and 48.6% for completely satisfied. Complications included graft exposure (n = 3; 6%) and dyspareunia (n = 25; 36%). Women undergoing

  6. True vaginal prolapse in a bitch.

    PubMed

    Alan, M; Cetin, Y; Sendag, S; Eski, F

    2007-08-01

    Frequently, vaginal fold prolapse is the protrusion of edematous vaginal tissue into and through the opening of the vulva occurring during proestrus and estrus stages of the sexual cycle. True vaginal prolapse may occur near parturition, as the concentration of serum progesterone declines and the concentration of serum oestrogen increases. In the bitch, this type of true vaginal prolapse is a very rare condition. This short communication describes a 5-year-old female, cross-breed dog in moderate condition, weighing 33 kg, with distocia and true vaginal prolapse. Abdominal palpation and transabdominal ultrasonography revealed live and dead foetuses in the uterine horns. One dead and four live fetuses were removed from uterus by cesarean section. The ovariohysterectomy was performed after repositioning the vaginal wall with a combination of traction from within the abdomen and external manipulation through the vulva. Re-occurrence of a vaginal prolapse was not observed and the bitch recovered completely after the surgical therapy. Compared to other vaginal disorders, vaginal prolapse is an uncommon condition in the bitch. In the present case, extreme tenesmus arising from distocia may have predisposed to the vaginal prolapse. The cause of dystocia was probably the disposition of the first foetus. We concluded that the vaginal prolapse was the result of dystocia in the present case.

  7. First report of vaginal prolapse in a bitch treated with oestrogen.

    PubMed

    Sarrafzadeh-Rezaei, F; Saifzadeh, S; Mazaheri, R; Behfar, M

    2008-06-01

    Vaginal prolapse is the protrusion of edematous vaginal tissue into and through the opening of the vulva occurring during the pro-oestrus and oestrus stages of the sexual cycle. True vaginal prolapse may occur near parturition, as the concentration of serum progesterone declines and the concentration of serum oestrogen increases. In a bitch, true vaginal prolapse is a very rare condition. This case report describes an 18-month-old crossbreed bitch, weighing 40 kg presented with type III vaginal prolapse. The patient had developed vaginal prolapse after receiving oestrogen in order to oestrus induction. Subsequent to unsuccessful attempts for repositioning, ovariohysterectomy (OHE), circumferential excision of the prolapsed tissue and finally vulvoplasty were performed. There was no evidence of recurrence of the prolapse during 30 days after surgery. This case report describes type III vaginal prolapse as an unusual side effect of oestrus induction hormonal therapy in the bitch.

  8. Vaginal placement of synthetic mesh for pelvic organ prolapse.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Since 2004, use of synthetic mesh has increased in vaginal surgery for the treatment of pelvic organ prolapse. However, concerns exist about the safety and efficacy of transvaginally placed mesh. Based on the currently available limited data, although many patients undergoing mesh-augmented vaginal repairs heal well without problems, there seems to be a small but significant group of patients who experience permanent and life-altering sequelae, including pain and dyspareunia, from the use of vaginal mesh. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Urogynecologic Society provide background information on the use of vaginally placed mesh for the treatment of pelvic organ prolapse and offer recommendations for practice.

  9. One-year prospective comparison of vaginal pessaries and surgery for pelvic organ prolapse using the validated ICIQ-VS and ICIQ-UI (SF) questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Lone, Farah; Thakar, Ranee; Sultan, Abdul H

    2015-09-01

    Vaginal pessaries, pelvic floor exercises and surgery are treatment options for women with symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse (POP). The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of pessaries and surgery in women with symptomatic POP using the validated International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Vaginal Symptoms (ICIQ-VS) and Urinary Incontinence (ICIQ-UI) Short Form (SF). Women attending the Urogynecology clinics with symptomatic POP were recruited. All women were treated using either a vaginal pessary or surgery. Outcomes were evaluated and then compared at 1 year using the validated ICIQ-VS and ICIQ-UI (SF) questionnaires. A total of 287 women with symptomatic prolapse were recruited. 269 women completed the questionnaires at baseline and 183 at 1 year. At 1 year, improvement was noted in quality of life (QOL), frequency of urinary leak and vaginal symptoms in both groups except for the symptom of vaginal soreness in the pessary group and the symptom of a tight vagina in the surgery group. However, both these symptoms were not bothersome. Women who underwent surgery demonstrated an improvement in faecal evacuation and sex life. There was an overall statistically significant improvement in vaginal, sex, QOL and urinary symptom scores in both groups. No statistically significant difference was noted between the surgery and the pessary groups. Using validated questionnaires 1 year after treatment, women with symptomatic POP report improvement in vaginal, bowel, urinary and quality of life scores when treated with either pessary use or surgery. No statistically significant difference was noted in the two groups.

  10. Vaginal prolapse surgery with transvaginal mesh: results of the Austrian registry.

    PubMed

    Bjelic-Radisic, V; Aigmueller, T; Preyer, O; Ralph, G; Geiss, I; Müller, G; Riss, P; Klug, P; Konrad, M; Wagner, G; Medl, M; Umek, W; Lozano, P; Tamussino, K; Tammaa, A

    2014-08-01

    Several mesh repair systems for pelvic organ prolapse (POP) were introduced into clinical practice with limited data on safety, complications or success rates, and impact on sexual function. The Austrian Urogynecology Working Group initiated a registry to assess the use of transvaginal mesh devices for POP repair. We looked at perioperative data, as well as outcomes at 3 and 12 months. Between 2006 and 2010 a total of 20 gynecology departments in Austria participated in the Transvaginal Mesh Registry. Case report forms were completed to gather data on operations, the postoperative course, and results at 3 and 12 months. A total of 726 transvaginal procedures with 10 different transvaginal kits were registered. Intra- and perioperative complications were reported in 6.8%. The most common complication was increased intraoperative bleeding (2.2%). Bladder and bowel perforation occurred in 6 (0.8%) and 2 (0.3%) cases. Mesh exposure was seen in 11% at 3 and in 12% at 12 months. 24 (10%) previously asymptomatic patients developed bowel symptoms by 1 year. De novo bladder symptoms were reported in 39 (10%) at 3 and in 26 (11%) at 12 months. Dyspareunia was reported by 7% and 10% of 265 and 181 sexually active patients at 3 and 12 months postoperatively respectively. The 6.8% rate of intra- and perioperative complications is in line with previous reports. Visceral injury was rare. The 12% rate of mesh exposure is consistent with previous series.

  11. Fast track vaginal surgery.

    PubMed

    Ottesen, Marianne; Sørensen, Mette; Rasmussen, Yvonne; Smidt-Jensen, Steen; Kehlet, Henrik; Ottesen, Bent

    2002-02-01

    Our aim was to describe the need for postoperative hospitalization after vaginal surgery for utero-vaginal prolapse with well-defined charts for postoperative care. A prospective, descriptive study. Consecutive women admitted for first-time vaginal surgery for utero-vaginal prolapse at a public university hospital in Copenhagen, Denmark, underwent surgery and postoperative care in a fast track setting from September 15, 1999 to June 15 2000. A multimodal rehabilitation model with emphasis on information, standardized general anesthesia, reduced surgical distress, optimized pain-relief, early oral nutrition and ambulation, minimal use of indwelling catheter and vaginal packing. Postoperative hospital stay, complications, re-admission, success rate, patients' satisfaction and acceptability. Forty-one women with a median age of 69 years (range, 44-88 years) were included. All underwent anterior and/or posterior vaginal repair. Nineteen (46.3%) underwent vaginal hysterectomy, and eight (19.5%) underwent the Manchester procedure. Postoperative hospital stay was median 24 hr. Only three (7.3%) were discharged later than 48 hr. No re-admissions occurred. The most frequent complications were urinary retention exceeding 450 ml, and urinary tract infection (12.2%, and 9.8%, respectively). Short-term success rate was 97.6%. Patients' satisfaction rates were 85.4-95.1%. The median score of acceptability was 10 on a 0-10 points scale. The need for postoperative hospitalization was median 24 hr after vaginal surgery in a fast track setting, independently of the complexity of the procedure performed. Short-term success rate, satisfaction rates, and acceptability were all excellent. Follow up has been established to evaluate long-term success rates and recurrence.

  12. Synthetic vaginal mesh for pelvic organ prolapse.

    PubMed

    Iglesia, Cheryl B

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize recently published comparative trials on synthetic vaginal mesh versus traditional native tissue repairs for pelvic organ prolapse. Although studies suggest benefit from the use of synthetic vaginal mesh for anterior compartment prolapse, data are limited on the use of mesh for posterior and apical prolapse when compared with native tissue repair. The benefits of a more durable repair must be weighed against risks such as the development of de-novo stress incontinence, visceral injury, dyspareunia, pelvic pain and mesh contraction, exposure and extrusion requiring reoperation. Furthermore, the success rates of native tissue repairs are higher than previously considered using updated validated composite outcomes that incorporate both subjective relief of bulge and objective cure defined as prolapse above the hymenal ring. Surgeons placing synthetic mesh for pelvic organ prolapse should counsel patients regarding the potential benefits, risks, and alternatives including native tissue repairs. Level 1 evidence suggests anterior synthetic mesh may be superior to anterior repair. Expert opinion suggests potential benefit of vaginal mesh for recurrences, hysteropexy, and advanced prolapse in patients with medical co-morbidities precluding invasive open and endoscopic sacrocolpopexies; however, comparative clinical trials with long-term data are needed. (C) 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

  13. Chronic vaginal prolapse during pregnancy in a bitch.

    PubMed

    Memon, M A; Pavletic, M M; Kumar, M S

    1993-01-15

    A 4-year-old bitch was referred with chronic vaginal prolapse. It was first noticed during estrus, about 58 days prior to referral. Artificial insemination (AI) was performed twice after reducing the prolapse manually. Abdominal radiography (53 to 55 days after AI) was performed by the attending veterinarian and the bitch was determined to be not pregnant. Serum progesterone and estradiol concentrations were 1.38 ng/ml and 1.79 pg/ml, respectively. With the bitch under general anesthesia, the vaginal prolapse was partially reduced and a hysteropexy was performed. Six days after surgery, the bitch delivered a live male pup. It is recommended that bitches so affected should not be bred, and that those not required for breeding should be ovariectomized.

  14. Anovulvar cleft and vaginal prolapse-hyperplasia in a bitch.

    PubMed

    Mostachio, G Q; Vicente, W R R; Cardilli, D J; Pires, E A; Toniollo, G H

    2007-12-01

    This report presents the case of a nine-month-old bitch with incomplete occlusion of the skin and mucosa between the anus and dorsal commissure of the vulva. This anomaly, known as anovulvar cleft, was associated with a vaginal prolapse-hyperplasia. Anovulvar cleft is a rare condition in bitches and is caused by incomplete closure of the dorsal urogenital folds. Anovulvar cleft can lead to clitoritis, abrasion, dryness and devitalisation of the smooth exposed mucosa. Surgery can correct the condition. In the present study, surgical resection of the hyperplasic vaginal tissue associated with perineoplasty using an inverted V-shaped incision showed excellent results. An ovariohysterectomy was also performed to prevent recurrence of the vaginal prolapse-hyperplasia.

  15. Vaginal prolapse with urinary bladder incarceration and consecutive irreducible rectal prolapse in a dog.

    PubMed

    Ober, Ciprian-Andrei; Peștean, Cosmin Petru; Bel, Lucia Victoria; Taulescu, Marian; Cătoi, Cornel; Bogdan, Sidonia; Milgram, Joshua; Schwarz, Guenter; Oana, Liviu Ioan

    2016-09-22

    True vaginal prolapse is a rare condition in dogs and it is occasionally observed in animals with constipation, dystocia, or forced separation during breeding. If a true prolapse occurs, the bladder, the uterine body and/or distal part of the colon, may be present in the prolapse. A 2-year-old intact non pregnant Central Asian Shepherd dog in moderate condition, was presented for a true vaginal and rectal prolapse. The prolapses were confirmed by physical examination and ultrasonography. Herniation of the urinary bladder was identified within the vaginal prolapse. The necrotic vaginal wall was resected, the urinary bladder was reduced surgically and fixed to the right abdominal wall to prevent recurrence. Rectal resection and anastomosis was necessary to correct the rectal prolapse. Recurrence of the prolapses was not observed and the dog recovered completely after the surgical treatment. In our opinion, extreme tenesmus arising from constipation may have predisposed to the vaginal prolapse with bladder incarceration and secondarily to rectal prolapse. In the young female dog, true vaginal prolapse with secondary involvement of the urinary bladder and irreducible rectal prolapse is an exceptionally rare condition.

  16. Association Between the Amount of Vaginal Mesh Used With Mesh Erosions and Repeated Surgery After Repairing Pelvic Organ Prolapse and Stress Urinary Incontinence.

    PubMed

    Chughtai, Bilal; Barber, Matthew D; Mao, Jialin; Forde, James C; Normand, Sharon-Lise T; Sedrakyan, Art

    2017-03-01

    Mesh, a synthetic graft, has been used in pelvic organ prolapse (POP) repair and stress urinary incontinence (SUI) to augment and strengthen weakened tissue. Polypropylene mesh has come under scrutiny by the US Food and Drug Administration. To examine the rates of mesh complications and invasive reintervention after the placement of vaginal mesh for POP repair or SUI surgery. This investigation was an observational cohort study at inpatient and ambulatory surgery settings in New York State. Participants were women who underwent transvaginal repair for POP or SUI with mesh between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2012, and were followed up through December 31, 2013. They were divided into the following 4 groups based on the amount of mesh exposure: transvaginal POP repair surgery with mesh and concurrent sling use (vaginal mesh plus sling group), transvaginal POP repair with mesh and no concurrent sling use (vaginal mesh group), transvaginal POP repair without mesh but concurrent sling use for SUI (POP sling group), and sling for SUI alone (SUI sling group). The primary outcome was the occurrence of mesh complications and repeated invasive intervention within 1 year after the initial mesh implantation. A time-to-event analysis was performed to examine the occurrence of mesh erosions and subsequent reintervention. Secondary analyses of an age association (<65 vs ≥65 years) were conducted. The study identified 41 604 women who underwent 1 of the 4 procedures. The mean (SD) age of women at their initial mesh implantation was 56.2 (13.0) years. The highest risk of erosions was found in the vaginal mesh plus sling group (2.72%; 95% CI, 2.31%-3.21%) and the lowest in the SUI sling group (1.57%; 95% CI, 1.41%-1.74%). The risk of repeated surgery with concomitant erosion diagnosis was also the highest in the vaginal mesh plus sling group (2.13%; 95% CI, 1.76%-2.56%) and the lowest in the SUI sling group (1.16%; 95% CI, 1.03%-1.31%). The combined use of POP mesh and SUI

  17. Committee Opinion no. 513: vaginal placement of synthetic mesh for pelvic organ prolapse.

    PubMed

    2011-12-01

    Since 2004, use of synthetic mesh has increased in vaginal surgery for the treatment of pelvic organ prolapse. However, concerns exist about the safety and efficacy of transvaginally placed mesh. Based on the currently available limited data, although many patients undergoing mesh-augmented vaginal repairs heal well without problems, there seems to be a small but significant group of patients who experience permanent and life-altering sequelae, including pain and dyspareunia, from the use of vaginal mesh. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Urogynecologic Society provide background information on the use of vaginally placed mesh for the treatment of pelvic organ prolapse and offer recommendations for practice.

  18. Mesh for prolapse surgery: Why the fuss?

    PubMed

    Rajshekhar, Smita; Mukhopadhyay, Sambit; Klinge, Uwe

    2015-06-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse is a common gynaecological problem. Surgical techniques to repair prolapse have been constantly evolving to reduce the recurrence of prolapse and need for reoperation. Grafts made of synthetic and biological materials became popular in the last decade as they were intended to provide extra support to native tissue repairs. However, serious complications related to use of synthetic meshes have been reported and there is increasing medico-legal concern about mesh use in prolapse surgery. Some mesh products already have been withdrawn from the market and the FDA has introduced stricter surveillance of new and existing products. Large randomized studies comparing mesh with non-mesh procedures are lacking which creates uncertainty for the surgeon and their patients.The small cohorts of the RCTs available with short follow-up periods just allow the conclusion that the mesh repair can be helpful in the short to medium term but unfortunately are not able to prove safety for all patients. In particular, current clinical reports cannot define for which indication what material may be superior compared to non-mesh repair.Quality control through long-term individual and national mesh registries is needed to keep a record of all surgeons using mesh and all devices being used, monitoring their effectiveness and safety data. Meshes with better biocompatibility designed specifically for use in vaginal surgery may provide superior clinical results, where the reduction of complications may allow a wider range of indications. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Vaginal Approaches Using Synthetic Mesh to Treat Pelvic Organ Prolapse.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jei Won; Chae, Hee Dong

    2016-02-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a very common condition in elderly women. In women with POP, a sacrocolpopexy or a vaginal hysterectomy with anterior and posterior colporrhaphy has long been considered as the gold standard of treatment. However, in recent decades, the tendency to use a vaginal approach with mesh for POP surgery has been increasing. A vaginal approach using mesh has many advantages, such as its being less invasive than an abdominal approach and easier to do than a laparoscopic approach and its having a lower recurrence rate than a traditional approach. However, the advantages of a vaginal approach with mesh for POP surgery must be weighed against the disadvantages. Specific complications that have been reported when using mesh in POP procedures are mesh erosion, dyspareunia, hematomas, urinary incontinence and so on, and evidence supporting the use of transvaginal surgery with mesh is still lacking. Hence, surgeons should understand the details of the surgical pelvic anatomy, the various surgical techniques for POP surgery, including using mesh, and the possible side effects of using mesh.

  20. Under what circumstances should stress incontinence surgery be performed at the same time as prolapse surgery? ICI-RS 2015.

    PubMed

    Khullar, Vik; Anding, Ralf; Robinson, Dudley; Castro-Diaz, David; Dmochowski, Roger; Cardozo, Linda

    2017-04-01

    An International Consultation on Incontinence-Research Society (ICI-RS) Think Tank in 2015 discussed and evaluated the evidence of when stress incontinence surgery should be performed with prolapse surgery and highlighted evidence gaps, with the aim of recommending further clinical and research proposals. A review of the literature assessing randomized studies where women with vaginal prolapse have been randomized to vaginal prolapse surgery with or without continence surgery were evaluated. The different clinical presentations were also evaluated and their impact on outcome was critically reviewed. There are three symptomatic groups of women with vaginal prolapse who are treated. The first group is continent women with vaginal prolapse. The second group has stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and vaginal prolapse. The last group has vaginal prolapse and have been found through testing to have occult SUI. The studies have reported a range of outcomes for each of these groups. There are different outcomes based on the surgical method used to correct the prolapse and also the different continence surgical techniques. There are insufficient studies to allow firm conclusions to be drawn. The economic impact of the different management pathways is also discussed although costs vary according to different national medical funding systems. There is considerable uncertainty about the optimal method of managing women with vaginal prolapse and stress incontinence due to the different surgical techniques available. In particular the group of women with occult SUI are a challenge as the optimal diagnostic method has not yet been defined. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Vaginal sacrospinous colpopexy and laparoscopic sacral colpopexy for vaginal vault prolapse.

    PubMed

    Marcickiewicz, J; Kjöllesdal, M; Engh, M Ellström; Eklind, S; Axén, C; Brännström, M; Stjerndahl, J-H

    2007-01-01

    Vaginal sacrospinous colpopexy (VSC) and laparoscopic sacral colpopexy (LSC) both correct vault prolapse. The present study compares the perioperative course and long-term results of VSC and LSC. This retrospective study of post-hysterectomy vault prolapse involved 111 patients operated with either VSC (n=51) or LSC (n=60). The median time for the postoperative follow-up visit was 33.6 (range: 13-60) months for the LSC group and 38.4 (range: 7-108) months for the VSC group. Prolapse grade as well as the patient's satisfaction was recorded at the follow-up visit. Operation time was significantly shorter in the VSC group (median: 62 min) compared to the LSC group (median: 129 min). The rate of perioperative complications was low in both groups. There were 3 laparotomies in the LSC group, due to perioperative complications. The inpatients days were similar, with 3.7 days (1-18) and 4.0 days (2-21) in the VSC and the LSC group, respectively. Surgery for the recurrence of vault prolapse at any time before the follow-up visit did not occur in the VSC group, but occurred in 7 patients in the LSC group. At the follow-up visit, there was no recurrence of vault prolapse in either group. The subjective success rate was 82% in the VSC and 78% in the LSC group. This study indicates that VSC and LSC are two equally effective surgical procedures to correct vaginal vault prolapse, but the LSC technique requires a longer operating time.

  2. Medium-term clinical outcomes following surgical repair for vaginal prolapse with tension-free mesh and vaginal support device.

    PubMed

    Sayer, T; Lim, J; Gauld, J M; Hinoul, P; Jones, P; Franco, N; Van Drie, D; Slack, M

    2012-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate clinical outcomes ≥2 years following surgery with polypropylene mesh and vaginal support device (VSD) in women with vaginal prolapse, in a prospective, multi-center setting. Patients re-consented for this extended follow-up (n = 110), with anatomic evaluation using Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) and validated questionnaires to assess pelvic symptoms and sexual function. Complications were recorded (safety set; n = 121). Median length of follow-up was 29 months (range 24-34 months). The primary anatomic success, defined as POP-Q 0-I, was 69.1%; however, in 84.5% of the cases, the leading vaginal edge was above the hymen. Pelvic symptoms and sexual function improved significantly from baseline (p < 0.01). Mesh exposure rate was 9.1%. Five percent reported stress urinary incontinence and 3.3% required further prolapse surgery. These results indicate this non-anchored mesh repair is a safe and effective treatment for women with symptomatic vaginal prolapse in the medium term.

  3. Vaginal fold prolapse in a dog with pyometra and ovarian papillary cystadenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zedda, Maria-Teresa; Bogliolo, Luisa; Ariu, Federica; Ledda, Mauro; Falchi, Laura; Pinna-Parpaglia, Maria-Luisa; Pau, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    A 7-year-old 42-kg (92.4-lb) sexually intact nulliparous female Italian Mastiff was examined because of a history of vaginal prolapse during diestrus. A physical examination revealed vaginal fold prolapse. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed an enlarged uterus with hypoechogenic content, corpora lutea in the ovaries, and a cyst in the right ovary. Hematologic abnormalities included leukocytosis, neutrophilia, mild anemia, and low Hct. Progesterone and estradiol concentrations were 9.36 ng/mL and 30.42 pg/mL, respectively, in serum and 72.72 ng/mL and 792 pg/mL, respectively, in the ovarian cystic fluid. Ovariohysterectomy was performed; the prolapsed tissue was repositioned by external manipulation and maintained in situ by temporary apposition of the vulvar lips with a retention suture. Anatomic and histologic examinations of the excised tissues revealed pyometra and papillary cystadenocarcinoma in the right ovary. The vaginal hyperplasia completely regressed at 35 days after surgery; 5 months after surgery, the dog's general condition was considered good. Findings in this case were indicative of a hormonally active ovarian papillary cystadenocarcinoma in a female dog in diestrus. Hormone production by the cystadenocarcinoma was the predisposing factor that induced pyometra, mucosal hyperplasia, and vaginal fold prolapse in the dog. On the basis of these concurrent disorders, ovariohysterectomy was an appropriate treatment.

  4. Geriatric Pelvic Organ Prolapse Surgery: Going the Extra Mile.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Seethalakshmi

    2017-12-01

    To assess the quality of life in geriatric patients after reconstructive and obliterative vaginal surgery for advanced pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Prospective observational study was conducted between January 2009 and December 2014 at the department of Urogynaecology, Government Kasturbha Gandhi Hospital. A total of 424 women (between the age group of 60 and 94 years) with advanced pelvic organ prolapse underwent vaginal hysterectomy along with vaginal apical suspension procedures which were McCalls culdoplasty (35.02%), sacrospinous ligament suspension (8.3%), high uterosacral ligament suspension (26.2%), iliococcygeus fixation (4.6%) for stage 3-4 POP. Abdominal sacrocolpopexy (3.2%) was done for stage 3-4 vaginal vault prolapse. Patients with medical comorbidities underwent Leeforts partial colpocleisis (8.1%) and total colpocleisis (2%) for stage 3 and 4 POP. Site-specific repair (12.5%) was done for stage 3/4 cystocele and rectocele. The main outcomes measured were subjective cure (no prolapse), subjective improvements in pelvic floor symptoms as per the pelvic floor impact questionnaire, and objective cure (no prolapse of vaginal segment on maximum straining). Mean age of the patient was 64.29 years. The major complication rates were less than 1%. 85% were examined at 3 and 12 months. The subjective cure rate at 12 months is 92% and the objective cure rate is 94.5%. The geriatric patients who underwent either reconstructive or obliterative procedures were relieved of their preoperative symptoms and their quality of life had greatly improved.

  5. Trocar-guided trans-vaginal mesh surgery for pelvic organ prolapse: effects on urinary continence and anatomical and functional outcomes. A prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Natale, F; Costantini, E; La Penna, C; Illiano, E; Balsamo, R; Carbone, A; Cervigni, M

    2017-03-01

    Primary objective of this study was to assess the effects of trocar-guided transvaginal mesh surgery (TVM) on cure and prevention rates for incontinence, without concomitant surgery for Stress Urinary Incontinence (SUI). Our secondary objectives were anatomical outcomes, relief of symptoms and effect on quality of life (QoL). This prospective observational study evaluated women who underwent TVM for symptomatic stage >2 Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP). SUI was evaluated objectively using the cough stress test with prolapse reduced. SUI and urge urinary incontinence (UUI) were subjectively evaluated using ICIQ-SF. Anatomical cure was defined as stage <2 at POP-Q. McNemar chi-square test; paired t-test; Mann-Whitney test. Seventy-two patients reached final evaluation (mean follow-up 72 months). In the 40 pre-op continent patients, 34 (85%) remained continent postoperatively and 6 (15%) showed de novo SUI. Only 1 patient chose to undergo subsequent TVT. The number needed to treat was 6 to prevent 1 women developing de novo objective SUI and 39 to prevent 1 woman having to undergo SUI surgery. In the 32 pre-op incontinent patients, 18 (56.3%) became continent postoperatively. Only 1 patient chose to undergo subsequent TVT. UUI was present in 44 patients pre-operatively and 15 (20.8%) post-operatively (1 de novo). Forty-four patients (61.1%) were continent post-operatively for SUI and UUI. We observed a significant improvement in storage, voiding, post-micturition and prolapse-related symptoms. The anatomical cure rate was 87.5% for the anterior compartment and 90.3%.for the apical segment. The apical recurrence was 8.3% in the patients previously hysterectomised, 18.8% in the patients with uterus preservation and 0% in the patients with concomitant hysterectomy. QoL scores improved in all domains except sleep and personal relationships. We observed mesh exposure in 10 patients (13.9%), in 5 of whom it was associated with a concomitant hysterectomy CONCLUSIONS: TVM showed

  6. Vaginal Changes Due to Varying Degrees of Rectocele Prolapse: A Computational Study.

    PubMed

    Chanda, Arnab; Meyer, Isuzu; Richter, Holly E; Lockhart, Mark E; Moraes, Fabia R D; Unnikrishnan, Vinu

    2017-10-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP), downward descent of the pelvic organs resulting in a protrusion of the vagina, is a highly prevalent condition, responsible for 300,000 surgeries in the U.S. annually. Rectocele, a posterior vaginal wall (PVW) prolapse of the rectum, is the second most common type of POP after cystocele. A rectocele usually manifests itself along with other types of prolapse with multicompartment pelvic floor defects. To date, the specific mechanics of rectocele formation are poorly understood, which does not allow its early stage detection and progression prediction over time. Recently, with the advancement of imaging and computational modeling techniques, a plethora of finite element (FE) models have been developed to study vaginal prolapse from different perspectives and allow a better understanding of dynamic interactions of pelvic organs and their supporting structures. So far, most studies have focused on anterior vaginal prolapse (AVP) (or cystocele) and limited data exist on the role of pelvic muscles and ligaments on the development and progression of rectocele. In this work, a full-scale magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based three-dimensional (3D) computational model of the female pelvic anatomy, comprising the vaginal canal, uterus, and rectum, was developed to study the effect of varying degrees (or sizes) of rectocele prolapse on the vaginal canal for the first time. Vaginal wall displacements and stresses generated due to the varying rectocele size and average abdominal pressures were estimated. Considering the direction pointing from anterior to posterior side of the pelvic system as the positive Y-direction, it was found that rectocele leads to negative Y-direction displacements, causing the vaginal cross section to shrink significantly at the lower half of the vaginal canal. Besides the negative Y displacements, the rectocele bulging was observed to push the PVW downward toward the vaginal hiatus, exhibiting the well-known "kneeling

  7. A case of vaginal cancer with uterine prolapse.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hwi-Gon; Song, Yong Jung; Na, Yong Jin; Choi, Ook-Hwan

    2013-12-01

    Primary vaginal cancer combined with uterine prolapse is very rare. We present a case of 80-year-old postmenopausal women complaints of something coming out per vagina for the past 20 years, along with blood stained discharge, foul odor leukorrhea, and severe pelvic pain for the last 3 months. A 4 × 5 cm ulcer was present on middle third of vaginal wall with marked edema and ulceration of surrounding tissue. The prolapse was reduced under intravenous sedation in operating room. On gynecologic examination, uterus was normal in size, no adnexal mass was examined, and both parametrium were thickened. Papanicolaou smear was normal. Biopsy of the ulcer at vaginal wall revealed invasive squamous cell carcinoma of vagina. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of abdomen and pelvis showed left hydronephrosis and liver metastasis. Positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) revealed metastasis to lung, liver and iliac bone. She died from progression of disease one month after diagnosis.

  8. Graft and mesh use in vaginal surgery.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Raheela Mohsin; Chughtai, Novera Ghayoor

    2017-12-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse and urinary incontinence are among the most common chronic disorders in women. These are common problems whose pathogenesis remains unclear. As life expectancy increases, significantly greater number of women now present with pelvic organ prolapse and urinary incontinence requiring surgical intervention. Currently, the lifetime risk of undergoing prolapse or continence surgery is one in 11, and up to 30% of patients will require repeat reconstructive surgery and repeat surgery for incontinence in 10%. In an attempt to improve surgical outcomes and to preserve vaginal capacity and coital function, a number of synthetic and biological prostheses have been developed. This review aims to look at the role of graft and mesh in vaginal surgery. We conducted a search for English-language articles published during 1997 to 2016, using MEDLINE, PubMed and United States' National Library of Medicine databases. We reviewed around 50 papers but referenced only 30 for this article. The literature review provided us a new insight regarding safety of mesh. Polypropylene mesh is safe for vaginal surgery if used by experienced surgeons. The safety of mesh becomes compromised in the hands of commercial surgical kit providers. All the new mesh tailored kits should undergo evidence-based trials and then can be safely used worldwide.

  9. [Implants for genital prolapse : Contra mesh surgery].

    PubMed

    Hampel, C

    2017-12-01

    Alloplastic transvaginal meshes have become very popular in the surgery of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) as did alloplastic suburethral slings in female stress incontinence surgery, but without adequate supporting data. The simplicity of the mesh procedure facilitates its propagation with acceptance of higher revision and complication rates. Since attending physicians do more and more prolapse surgeries without practicing or teaching alternative techniques, expertise in these alternatives, which might be very useful in cases of recurrence, persistence or complications, is permanently lost. It is doubtful that proper and detailed information about alternatives, risks, and benefits of transvaginal alloplastic meshes is provided to every single prolapse patient according to the recommendations of the German POP guidelines, since the number of implanted meshes exceeds the number of properly indicated mesh candidates by far. Although there is no dissent internationally about the available mesh data, thousands of lawsuits in the USA, insolvency of companies due to claims for compensation and unambiguous warnings from foreign urological societies leave German urogynecologists still unimpressed. The existing literature in pelvic organ prolapse exclusively focusses on POP stage and improvement of that stage with surgical therapy. Instead, typical prolapse symptoms should trigger therapy and improvement of these symptoms should be the utmost treatment goal. It is strongly recommended for liability reasons to obtain specific written informed consent.

  10. [Are there selection criteria between abdominal approach and vaginal route for genital prolapse surgical management?].

    PubMed

    Cour, F; Vidart, A

    2016-07-01

    The never ending debate over the surgical approach of genital prolapse repair (abdominal versus vaginal route) is as passionate as ever. The available literature may support a multidisciplinary analysis of our expert daily practice. Our purpose was to define selection criteria for surgical approach between abdominal and vaginal route in the management of genital prolapse by reviewing the literature. Systematically review of the literature concerning comparative anatomical and functionnal results of surgery of pelvic organ prolaps by vaginal or abdominal route. We were confronted to the lack of data in the literature, with few prospective randomized comparative studies. Many limitations were identified such as small populations in the studies, no description of sub-population, multiplicity of surgical procedures. Moreover, vaginal route was compared to sacral colpopexy by open abdominal approach, whereas laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy is now recommended. Only one prospective randomized comparative trial assessed laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy and vaginal approach, in which was used a mesh withdrawn from the market. The lack of available randomized trials makes it impossible to define HAS compliant guidelines on this topic. However, selection criteria for each surgical approach and technique were drawn from experts' advices. © 2016 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. Tous droits réservés.

  11. A new operation technique for uterine prolapse: Vaginally-assisted laparoscopic sacrohysteropexy

    PubMed Central

    Sanverdi, İlhan; Kılıççı, Çetin; Polat, Mesut; Özkaya, Enis; Kılıç, Sami Gökhan; Dizdar, Merve; Karateke, Ateş

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To describe the new surgical technique and report the safety and feasibility of vaginally-assisted laparoscopic sacrohysteropexy (VALSH). Materials and Methods: Thirty-three women with stage 3 or more uterine prolapse underwent VALSH operation. Patients were followed up for 12 months for mesh-related complications and improvements of symptoms. The operation had three sections; 1st laparoscopic, 2nd vaginal, 3rd laparoscopic. Results: The mean age, gravidity, and parity of the study population were 46.5 years (range, 25-68 years), 4.3 (1-9), and 2.9 (1-6), respectively. The mean duration of operation was 59.5 min (range, 20-120 min). There were significant differences between the pre- and post-operative values of pelvic organ prolapse quantification parameters, which were favorable in the latter evaluation (p<0.001); total vaginal length was preserved after surgery (p>0.05). Conclusion: VALSH is a safe and minimally-invasive procedure in uterovaginal prolapse, with favorable anatomic and functional outcomes at 12 months post-operatively. PMID:29085709

  12. Iliococcygeus fixation for the treatment of apical vaginal prolapse: efficacy and safety at 5 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Serati, Maurizio; Braga, Andrea; Bogani, Giorgio; Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Sorice, Paola; Ghezzi, Fabio; Salvatore, Stefano

    2015-07-01

    Sacrocolpopexy is considered the gold standard treatment for vaginal vault prolapse. However, the vaginal approach is very common, with 80-90 % of procedures being performed via this route. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of iliococcygeus (ICG) fixation in the treatment of vaginal vault prolapse, with a minimum follow-up of 5 years. We prospectively enrolled women with symptomatic vaginal vault prolapse (Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification [POP-Q] stage ≥2) who were treated with ICG fixation. Subjective success was defined in the case of Patient Global Impression of Improvement ≤ 2 and an absence of bulging symptoms. Objective success was defined as stage of prolapse < 2 in all compartments. Overall success rate was defined as women without prolapse symptoms, PGI-I ≤ 2, stage of prolapse < 2, and no need for other surgery. All women filled in the Prolapse Quality of Life (P-QOL) questionnaire both at the preoperative visit and at every follow-up visit. Multiple logistic regression was performed to identify factors involved in the risk of recurrent POP. After a median (range) follow-up of 68.8 (60-92) months the subjective, objective, and overall cure rates were 88.6 % (39 out of 44), 84.1 % (37 out of 44), and 84.1 % (37 out of 44) respectively. Only preoperative stage IV vault descensus independently predicted POP recurrence after iliococcygeus fixation (OR: 8.78 [95 % CI: 1.31-9.42]; p < 0.001). Iliococcygeus fixation is a safe and effective surgical technique for the treatment of vaginal vault prolapse with long-lasting effectiveness.

  13. Vaginal approach to vesicovaginal fistula and vaginal vault prolapse preserving sexual function by Latzko repair and sacrospinous suspension

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, Erin C.; Berger, Mitchell B.; DeLancey, John O. L.

    2014-01-01

    The combination of vesicovaginal fistula and complete vaginal vault prolapse is rare. The only published treatment recommendations concern partial colpocleisis; an option that precludes intercourse. In this case report, we describe successful repair of this problem with a Latzko fistula repair and concomitant Michigan four-wall sacrospinous ligament suspension: curing the fistula, correcting the prolapse and preserving sexual function. PMID:22983277

  14. Outcomes following vaginal prolapse repair and mid urethral sling (OPUS) trial--design and methods.

    PubMed

    Wei, John; Nygaard, Ingrid; Richter, Holly; Brown, Morton; Barber, Matthew; Xiao Xu; Kenton, Kimberly; Nager, Charles; Schaffer, Joseph; Visco, Anthony; Weber, Anne

    2009-04-01

    The primary aims of this trial are to determine whether the use of a concomitant prophylactic anti-incontinence procedure may prevent stress urinary incontinence symptom development in women undergoing vaginal prolapse surgery and to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of this prophylactic approach. To present the rationale and design of a randomized controlled surgical trial (RCT), the Outcomes following vaginal Prolapse repair and mid Urethral Sling (OPUS) Trial highlighting the challenges in the design and implementation. The challenges of implementing this surgical trial combined with a cost-effectiveness study and patient preference group are discussed including the study design, ethical issues regarding use of sham incision, maintaining the masking of study staff, and pragmatic difficulties encountered in the collection of cost data. The trial is conducted by the NICHD-funded Pelvic Floor Disorders Network. The ongoing OPUS trial started enrollment in May 2007 with a planned accrual of 350. The use of sham incision was generally well accepted but the collection of cost data using conventional billing forms was found to potentially unmask key study personnel. This necessitated changes in the study forms and planned timing for collection of cost data. To date, the enrollment to the patient preference group has been lower than the limit established by the protocol suggesting a willingness on the part of women to participate in the randomization. Given the invasive nature of surgical intervention trials, potential participants may be reluctant to accept random assignment, potentially impacting generalizability. Findings from the OPUS trial will provide important information that will help surgeons to better counsel women on the benefits and risks of concomitant prophylactic anti-incontinence procedure at the time of vaginal surgery for prolapse. The implementation of the OPUS trial has necessitated that investigators consider ethical issues up front, remain flexible

  15. Vaginal fold prolapse during the last third of pregnancy, followed by normal parturition, in a bitch.

    PubMed

    Gouletsou, Pagona G; Galatos, Apostolos D; Apostolidis, Kosmas; Sideri, Aikaterini I

    2009-06-01

    This article describes a 1.5-year-old female, Greek Hound dog, weighing 16 kg, presented with a type III vaginal prolapse which occurred during the last third of pregnancy. Trans-abdominal ultrasonography revealed four live foetuses in the uterine horns. The animal was hospitalized and 4 days later gave birth without any interference. Three days later, resection of the prolapsed tissue was performed and the bitch recovered completely. Recurrence of a type I vaginal prolapse was observed 4 months later, during subsequent oestrus. This case is unusual because, although vaginal fold prolapse is mainly seen during proestrus/oestrus or during parturition, it was first noticed 47 days after mating and 13 days before parturition. Furthermore, even though the prolapse of vaginal fold was of type III and of considerable size, parturition proceeded normally. Finally, even though resection of the prolapsed tissue was performed 3 days after parturition, recurrence of vaginal fold oedema (type I) was observed in the subsequent oestrus.

  16. Complications of pelvic organ prolapse surgery and methods of prevention.

    PubMed

    de Tayrac, Renaud; Sentilhes, Loic

    2013-11-01

    The aim was to review complications associated with pelvic organ prolapse surgery. Every 4 years and as part of the Fifth International Collaboration on Incontinence we reviewed the English-language scientific literature after searching PubMed, Medline, Cochrane library and Cochrane database of systematic reviews, published up to January 2012. Publications were classified as level 1 evidence (randomised controlled trials [RCT] or systematic reviews), level 2 (poor quality RCT, prospective cohort studies), level 3 (case series or retrospective studies) and level 4 (case reports). The highest level of evidence was utilised by the committee to make evidence-based recommendations based upon the Oxford grading system. Grade A recommendation usually depends on consistent level 1 evidence. Grade B recommendation usually depends on consistent level 2 and/or 3 studies, or "majority evidence" from RCTs. Grade C recommendation usually depends on level 4 studies or "majority evidence from level 2/3 studies or Delphi processed expert opinion. Grade D "no recommendation possible" would be used where the evidence is inadequate or conflicting and when expert opinion is delivered without a formal analytical process, such as by Delphi. Transvaginal mesh has a higher re-operation rate than native tissue vaginal repairs (grade A). If a synthetic mesh is placed via the vaginal route, it is recommended that a macroporous polypropylene monofilament mesh should be used. At sacral colpopexy mesh should not be introduced or sutured via the vaginal route and silicone-coated polyester, porcine dermis, fascia lata and polytetrafluoroethylene meshes are not recommended as grafts. Hysterectomy should also be avoided (grade B). There is no evidence to recommend routine local or systemic oestrogen therapy before or after prolapse surgery using mesh. The first cases should be undertaken with the guidance of an experienced surgeon in the relevant technique (grade C). Expert opinion suggests that by

  17. Vaginal prolapse repair using the Prolift kit: a registry of 100 successive cases.

    PubMed

    Simon, Marie; Debodinance, Philippe

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate anatomical, functional outcomes and complications inherent to the treatment of pelvic organ prolapse by implantation of polypropylene mesh, using the Prolift kit. Single-center observational study of 100 successive patients enrolled in a registry, who underwent Prolift prolapse repair. Data on prior treatments, associated procedures and per- and post-operative complications were collected and the patients were seen after 2, 6 and 12 months. Anatomical outcomes were assessed using the International Continence Society Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (ICS POP-Q) system. Function was assessed in terms of urinary and digestive problems, and impact on sex life. Failure was defined as relapse of POP-Q Grade 2 or more. Of the 100 patients, 32 had an anterior, 14 a posterior, 54 a total Prolift; 53 had concomitant urinary incontinence surgery. At 6 and 12 months respectively, 8% and 12% of the patients were lost to follow-up. Mean operating time was 39.8 min. With respect to peri-operative complications, there was no bladder or rectal damage but three patients experienced bleeding (≥ 300 ml) without needing transfusion. POP-Q Grades before surgery were: Grades III-IV cystocele in 65.7% of the anterior Prolift patients; Grades II-III rectocele in the posterior; and 77.8% of total were Grade III and 11.1% Grade IV. The incidence of recurrence was 3.6% at Month 6 and 10.2% at Month 12. Significant (p<0.05) improvements were seen in median scores for the various POP-Q items. With respect to functional problems, stress urinary incontinence was cured in 92% of the patients but 7.7% reported new-onset urinary incontinence after one year. One case of vaginal exposure after one year was observed and major or symptomatic mesh retraction was observed in 8%. New-onset dyspareunia was reported by 11.1% of the patients. These results confirm the feasibility of using the Prolift kit in the repair of prolapse via a vaginal approach and the low per- and post

  18. Do patients prefer mesh or anterior colporrhaphy for primary correction of anterior vaginal wall prolapse: a labelled discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Notten, K J B; Essers, B A; Weemhoff, M; Rutten, A G H; Donners, J J A E; van Gestel, I; Kruitwagen, R F P M; Roovers, J P W R; Dirksen, C D

    2015-05-01

    We investigated patients' preferences for anterior colporrhaphy or mesh surgery as surgical correction of anterior vaginal wall prolapse. Labelled discrete choice experiment. Three Dutch teaching hospitals. Women with anterior vaginal wall prolapse Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification stage 2 or more, indicated for anterior colporrhaphy (n = 100). Discrete choice experiments are an attribute-based survey method for measuring preferences. In this experiment, women were asked to choose between two treatment scenarios, mesh surgery or anterior colporrhaphy. These surgical treatments differed in four treatment attributes: (i) recurrence rate, (ii) exposure rate, (iii) infection rate, (iv) dyspareunia. Data were analysed using a multinomial logit model. Women's preferences for anterior colporrhaphy or mesh surgery for the repair of vaginal wall prolapse. All treatment attributes, i.e. recurrence, exposure, infection and dyspareunia, proved to be significant in the woman's decision to choose mesh surgery (P < 0.001), while only two attributes out of three, recurrence and infection, were significant for anterior colporrhaphy (P < 0.001). The relative importance data showed that with regards to the four statistically significant attributes for mesh, dyspareunia was the most important attribute, and of the two significant attributes for anterior colporrhaphy, the risk of infection. Based on the attributes and levels in our discrete choice experiment, anterior colporrhaphy was preferred in 74% as a primary correction of anterior vaginal wall prolapse, followed by a preference for mesh in 26% of all choices. This study showed that next to the risk of recurrence, other aspects like risk of infection, dyspareunia and exposure play a role in the woman's preference for a surgical treatment. In addition, our results indicate that anterior colporrhaphy is preferred in the majority of the choices, followed by a preference for mesh surgery in a quarter of all choice sets. However

  19. Biomechanical Properties of The Vaginal Wall: Effect of Pregnancy, Elastic Fiber Deficiency, and Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Rahn, David D.; Ruff, Matthew D.; Brown, Spencer A.; Tibbals, Harry F.; Word, R. Ann

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To identify pregnancy-induced changes in biomechanical properties of the vaginal wall and compare these with Fibulin-5 knockout mice (Fbln5-/-) with and without prolapse. Study Design Mid-vaginal segments of nonpregnant and late-pregnant wild type (WT), Fbln5-/- with prolapse, and Fbln5-/- mice without prolapse were studied. Tissue length at failure, maximal strain, maximal stress, and tissue stiffness were determined. Results Compared with nonpregnant mice, vaginas of pregnant and Fbln5-/- (with prolapse) mice exhibited decreased maximal stress, increased distensibility and strain, and decreased stiffness. Tissues from Fbln5-/- mice without prolapse were similar to nonpregnant WT animals. Conclusions Pregnancy confers remarkable changes in the vaginal wall including increased distensibility and decreased stiffness and maximal stress. Elastinopathy alone is insufficient to cause significant changes in these properties, but prolapse confers additional alterations in distensibility and stiffness similar to those observed in pregnancy. These changes may contribute to the poor durability of many restorative surgical procedures for prolapse. PMID:18455541

  20. [Indications of mesh in surgical treatment of pelvic organ prolapse by vaginal route: expert consensus from the French College of Gynecologists and Obstetricians (CNGOF)].

    PubMed

    Deffieux, X; Sentilhes, L; Savary, D; Letouzey, V; Marcelli, M; Mares, P; Pierre, F

    2013-11-01

    To determine the indications and contraindications concerning prosthetic surgery by vaginal route for pelvic organ prolapse. Literature review and rating of proposals using a formal consensus method. Before surgery for genital prolapse, the patient should be counselled about the different existing techniques (abdominal and vaginal surgery with and without mesh), the reasons why the surgeon offered her the placement of a synthetic mesh and also other nonsurgical treatments (pelvic floor rehabilitation and pessary). The intervention must be preceded by an assessment of bothersome pelvic, urinary, digestive and sexual symptoms. For the surgical treatment of cystocele, the use of a synthetic mesh placed by vaginal route is not recommended routinely. It should be discussed on a case by case considering the risk/benefit ratio. In patients presenting with cystocele recurrence, the placement of a synthetic mesh is a reasonable option, in order to reduce the risk of cystocele recurrence. With the exception of a few situations (rectocele recurrence), the placement of a synthetic mesh is not recommended as first-line therapy for the surgical treatment of rectocele by vaginal route. In case of uterine or vaginal vault prolapse, repositioning the vaginal vault or uterus using synthetic mesh arms is not recommended as first-line surgical therapy. Surgeons should implement established preventive recommendations that may reduce the risk of complications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Elastin density: Link between histological and biomechanical properties of vaginal tissue in women with pelvic organ prolapse?

    PubMed

    de Landsheere, Laurent; Brieu, Mathias; Blacher, Silvia; Munaut, Carine; Nusgens, Betty; Rubod, Chrystèle; Noel, Agnès; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Nisolle, Michelle; Cosson, Michel

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to correlate histological and biomechanical characteristics of the vaginal wall in women with pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Tissue samples were collected from the anterior [point Ba; POP Questionnaire (POP-Q)] and/or posterior (point Bp; POP-Q) vaginal wall of 15 women who underwent vaginal surgery for POP. Both histological and biomechanical assessments were performed from the same tissue samples in 14 of 15 patients. For histological assessment, the density of collagen and elastin fibers was determined by combining high-resolution virtual imaging and computer-assisted digital image analysis. For biomechanical testing, uniaxial tension tests were performed to evaluate vaginal tissue stiffness at low (C0) and high (C1) deformation rates. Biomechanical testing highlights the hyperelastic behavior of the vaginal wall. At low strains (C0), vaginal tissue appeared stiffer when elastin density was low. We found a statistically significant inverse relationship between C0 and the elastin/collagen ratio (p = 0.048) in the lamina propria. However, at large strain levels (C1), no clear relationship was observed between elastin density or elastin/collagen ratio and stiffness, likely reflecting the large dispersion of the mechanical behavior of the tissue samples. Histological and biomechanical properties of the vaginal wall vary from patient to patient. This study suggests that elastin density deserves consideration as a relevant factor of vaginal stiffness in women with POP.

  2. Factors affecting the feasibility of bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy during vaginal hysterectomy for uterine prolapse.

    PubMed

    Dain, Lena; Abramov, Yoram

    2011-08-01

    About 15% of all hysterectomies are performed for pelvic organ prolapse, generally through the transvaginal approach. However, concomitant bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) is not always feasible through this approach, because the adnexae are sometimes inaccessible. To identify factors affecting the feasibility of performing BSO during transvaginal hysterectomy for uterine prolapse. We reviewed charts of all women undergoing vaginal hysterectomy for uterine prolapse in our institution between December 2005 and November 2009, at which time BSO was uniformly attempted in all patients. One hundred and seventy-two women who underwent vaginal hysterectomy were identified, of whom 134 (78%) underwent concomitant BSO. Women in whom BSO was feasible were younger (60.6±10.1 vs 65.6±8.6 years, P<0.02) and had a higher prevalence of advanced prolapse, including stage IV cystocele (68% vs 38%, P=0.01), stage III-IV rectocele (40% vs 11%, P=0.003) and stage IV uterine prolapse (64% vs 25%, P=0.0005). The feasibility of BSO was primarily dependent on the stage of pelvic organ prolapse and patients' age. Relaxation of the adnexae because of weakness of the infundibulo-pelvic ligaments may accompany severe pelvic organ prolapse and may potentially explain the feasibility of BSO in these women. © 2011 The Authors. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2011 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  3. Assessment of posterior vaginal wall prolapse: comparison of physical findings to cystodefecoperitoneography.

    PubMed

    Altman, Daniel; López, Annika; Kierkegaard, Jonas; Zetterström, Jan; Falconer, Christian; Pollack, Johan; Mellgren, Anders

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare clinical and radiological findings when assessing posterior vaginal wall prolapse. Defecography can be used to complement the clinical evaluation in patients with posterior vaginal wall prolapse. Further development of the defecography technique, using contrast medium in the urinary bladder and intraperitoneally, have resulted in cystodefecoperitoneography (CDP). Thirty-eight women underwent clinical examination using the pelvic organ prolapse quantification system (POP-Q) followed by CDP. All patients answered a standardized bowel function questionnaire. Statistical analysis measuring correlation between POP-Q and CDP using Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) and Spearman's rank order correlation coefficient (rs) demonstrated a poor to moderate correlation, r=0.49 and rs=0.55. Although there was a strong association between large rectoceles (>3 cm) at CDP and symptoms of rectal emptying difficulties (p<0.001), severity and prevalence of bowel dysfunction showed poor coherence with clinical prolapse staging and findings at radiological imaging. Vaginal topography and POP-Q staging predict neither radiological size nor visceral involvement in posterior vaginal wall prolapse. Radiological evaluation may therefore be a useful complement in selected patients.

  4. Long term subjective cure rate, urinary tract symptoms and dyspareunia following mesh augmented anterior vaginal wall prolapse repair.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, A Y; Friedman, T; Baumfeld, Y; Neuman, M; Krissi, H

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess patient-centered long term outcomes following anterior vaginal repair with mesh. In January 2015, we identified 124 women who underwent anterior pelvic floor repair with mesh between January 2006 and February 2009. Patient records were reviewed and demographic, clinical, intra-operative and post-operative follow-up data retrieved. Telephone interviews were conducted to access information on clinical outcomes. Associations between baseline characteristics and long term symptoms were assessed by multivariable logistic regression models. Seventy-nine women were reached and consented to participate. Patients were interviewed 79-104 months after surgery. Their mean age at the time of surgery was 62.48 ± 9.53 years; all had stage III cystocele with a mean POP Q point Ba of 5.32 ± 1.47. Twenty-four (30%) had a previous hysterectomy and 26 (33%) had a previous pelvic organ prolapse or stress urinary incontinence operation. At telephone interviews, recurrence of prolapse symptoms was reported by 11 (13.9%) patients, mostly in the posterior compartment. Only 6 needed a corrective procedure. One patient had her mesh removed due to dyspareunia. Eleven (13.9%) reported lower urinary tract symptoms other than prolapse, as follows: stress urinary incontinence (1), overactive bladder (8) and dyspareunia (2). Long term rates of recurrent prolapse, dyspareunia and lower urinary tract symptoms were low for patients who underwent anterior vaginal wall mesh augmentation surgery for symptomatic cystoceles. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantification of Pelvic Organ Prolapse in Mice: Vaginal Protease Activity Precedes Increased MOPQ Scores in Fibulin 5 Knockout Mice1

    PubMed Central

    Wieslander, Cecilia K.; Rahn, David D.; McIntire, Donald D.; Acevedo, Jesús F.; Drewes, Peter G.; Yanagisawa, Hiromi; Word, R. Ann

    2008-01-01

    Two mouse models of pelvic organ prolapse have been generated recently, both of which have null mutations in genes involved in elastic fiber synthesis and assembly (fibulin 5 and lysyl oxidase-like 1). Interestingly, although these mice exhibit elastinopathies early in life, pelvic organ prolapse does not develop until later in life. In this investigation we developed and validated a tool to quantify the severity of pelvic organ prolapse in mice, and we used this tool prospectively to study the role of fibulin 5, aging, and vaginal proteases in the development of pelvic organ prolapse. The results indicate that >90% of Fbln5−/− mice develop prolapse by 6 mo of age, even in the absence of vaginal delivery, and that increased vaginal protease activity precedes the development of prolapse. PMID:18987327

  6. Pelvic Organ Prolapse---Vaginal and Laparoscopic Mesh: The Evidence.

    PubMed

    Richter, Lee A; Sokol, Andrew I

    2016-03-01

    This report summarizes the current literature on abdominal, laparoscopic, and transvaginal mesh for the treatment of pelvic organ prolapse. This article reviews objective and subjective cure rates as well as complications associated with synthetic mesh use for pelvic organ prolapse repair. The focus is on the latest literature that provides evidence for when synthetic mesh use is most appropriate. The use of mesh for the repair of urinary incontinence is not reviewed in this article. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Vaginal hysterectomy with apical fixation and anterior vaginal wall repair for prolapse: surgical technique and medium-term results.

    PubMed

    Marschke, Juliane; Pax, Carlo Michael; Beilecke, Kathrin; Schwab, Frank; Tunn, Ralf

    2018-03-24

    Stabilization of the vaginal apex (level 1) is an important component of operations to correct pelvic organ prolapse (POP). We report functional and anatomical results and patient-reported outcomes of our technique of vaginal vault fixation at the time of vaginal hysterectomy. One hundred and nine patients-mean 69 years, range 50.4-83.8; body mass index (BMI) 26.3, range 17.7-39.5-with symptomatic stage 2-3 uterine prolapse combined with stage 3-4 cystocele underwent vaginal hysterectomy with anterior vaginal wall repair; the apex was formed with high closure of the peritoneum and incorporation of the uterosacral and round ligaments. Only absorbable sutures were used. Follow-up included clinical examination with Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification system (POP-Q) scoring, introital ultrasonography, quality of life (QoL) Likert scale, and the German Pelvic Floor Questionnaire. Seventy patients (64%) were available for a follow-up after a mean of 2.8 years (range, 1.6-4.2). At follow-up, point C was stage 0 in 55 (78.6%) women and stage 1 in 15 (21.4%). The anterior vaginal wall was stage 0 or 1 in 35 (50%), stage 2 (no cystocele beyond the hymen) in 34 (49%), and stage 3 in 1 (1.4%). Vaginal length (VL) was 9 cm. Four women (4%) were reoperated for prolapse: two for recurrent anterior compartment prolapse and two for de novo rectocele. Postvoid residuals >150 ml were seen in 21(30%) patients preoperatively and resolved postoperatively in 20. Urgency occurred in nine (13%), stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in ten (14%), and nocturia in 19 (27%). No patient had discomfort at the vaginal vault and 62 patients (87%) reported improved QoL, which did not correlate with anatomical results. Cystocele ≥ 2° at follow-up was associated with BMI >25 (p = 0.03). Our surgical technique without permanent material offers good apical support and functional and subjective results. Anatomical improvement was achieved in all cases of cystocele repair. Recurrent cystoceles

  8. Effect of Uterosacral Ligament Suspension vs Sacrospinous Ligament Fixation With or Without Perioperative Behavioral Therapy for Pelvic Organ Vaginal Prolapse on Surgical Outcomes and Prolapse Symptoms at 5 Years in the OPTIMAL Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Jelovsek, J Eric; Barber, Matthew D; Brubaker, Linda; Norton, Peggy; Gantz, Marie; Richter, Holly E; Weidner, Alison; Menefee, Shawn; Schaffer, Joseph; Pugh, Norma; Meikle, Susan

    2018-04-17

    Uterosacral ligament suspension (ULS) and sacrospinous ligament fixation (SSLF) are commonly performed pelvic organ prolapse procedures despite a lack of long-term efficacy data. To compare outcomes in women randomized to (1) ULS or SSLF and (2) usual care or perioperative behavioral therapy and pelvic floor muscle training (BPMT) for vaginal apical prolapse. This 2 × 2 factorial randomized clinical trial was conducted at 9 US medical centers. Eligible participants who completed the Operations and Pelvic Muscle Training in the Management of Apical Support Loss Trial enrolled between January 2008 and March 2011 and were followed up 5 years after their index surgery from April 2011 through June 2016. Two randomizations: (1) BPMT (n = 186) or usual care (n = 188) and (2) surgical intervention (ULS: n = 188 or SSLF: n = 186). The primary surgical outcome was time to surgical failure. Surgical failure was defined as (1) apical descent greater than one-third of total vaginal length or anterior or posterior vaginal wall beyond the hymen or retreatment for prolapse (anatomic failure), or (2) bothersome bulge symptoms. The primary behavioral outcomes were time to anatomic failure and Pelvic Organ Prolapse Distress Inventory scores (range, 0-300). The original study randomized 374 patients, of whom 309 were eligible for this extended trial. For this study, 285 enrolled (mean age, 57.2 years), of whom 244 (86%) completed the extended trial. By year 5, the estimated surgical failure rate was 61.5% in the ULS group and 70.3% in the SSLF group (adjusted difference, -8.8% [95% CI, -24.2 to 6.6]). The estimated anatomic failure rate was 45.6% in the BPMT group and 47.2% in the usual care group (adjusted difference, -1.6% [95% CI, -21.2 to 17.9]). Improvements in Pelvic Organ Prolapse Distress Inventory scores were -59.4 in the BPMT group and -61.8 in the usual care group (adjusted mean difference, 2.4 [95% CI, -13.7 to 18.4]). Among women who had undergone

  9. Vaginal prolapse repair with or without a midurethral sling in women with genital prolapse and occult stress urinary incontinence: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    van der Ploeg, J Marinus; Oude Rengerink, Katrien; van der Steen, Annemarie; van Leeuwen, Jules H Schagen; van der Vaart, C Huub; Roovers, Jan-Paul W R

    2016-07-01

    We compared pelvic organ prolapse (POP) repair with and without midurethral sling (MUS) in women with occult stress urinary incontinence (SUI). This was a randomized trial conducted by a consortium of 13 teaching hospitals assessing a parallel cohort of continent women with symptomatic stage II or greater POP. Women with occult SUI were randomly assigned to vaginal prolapse repair with or without MUS. Women without occult SUI received POP surgery. Main outcomes were the absence of SUI at the 12-month follow-up based on the Urogenital Distress Inventory and the need for additional treatment for SUI. We evaluated 231 women, of whom 91 randomized as follows: 43 to POP surgery with and 47 without MUS. A greater number of women in the MUS group reported absence of SUI [86 % vs. 48 %; relative risk (RR) 1.79; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.29-2.48]. No women in the MUS group received additional treatment for postoperative SUI; six (13 %) in the control group had a secondary MUS. Women with occult SUI reported more urinary symptoms after POP surgery and more often underwent treatment for postoperative SUI than women without occult SUI. Women with occult SUI had a higher risk of reporting SUI after POP surgery compared with women without occult SUI. Adding a MUS to POP surgery reduced the risk of postoperative SUI and the need for its treatment in women with occult SUI. Of women with occult SUI undergoing POP-only surgery, 13 % needed additional MUS. We found no differences in global impression of improvement and quality of life.

  10. Prolapse repair by vaginal route using a new protected low-weight polypropylene mesh: 1-year functional and anatomical outcome in a prospective multicentre study.

    PubMed

    de Tayrac, Renaud; Devoldere, Guy; Renaudie, Joël; Villard, Pierre; Guilbaud, Olivier; Eglin, Georges

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the anatomical and functional results of a low-weight polypropylene mesh coated with an absorbable film in prolapse surgery by vaginal route. We have conducted a prospective multicentre study in 13 gynaecological and urological units. There were 230 patients requiring repair for anterior or posterior vaginal prolapse included. The present report is based on the analysis of the first 143 patients evaluated after at least 10 months follow-up. All patients were operated by the vaginal route using a specially designed mesh (Ugytex, Sofradim, France). Prolapse severity were evaluated using the Pelvic Organ Prolapse staging system. Symptoms and quality of life were evaluated preoperatively and during follow-up using the validated Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI) and Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire (PFIQ) self-questionnaires. Mean age was 63 years (37-91). Anterior, posterior and anterior-posterior repair with the mesh were performed in 67 (46.9%), 11 (7.7%) and 65 (45.4%) patients, respectively. With a mean follow-up of 13 months (10-19), 132 patients were considered anatomically cured (92.3%) with a recurrence rate of 9 of 132 for cystocele (6.8%) and 2 of 76 for rectocele (2.6%). Nine vaginal erosions occurred (6.3%), six of them necessitated another procedure by simple excision. The rate of de novo dyspareunia was 12.8%. At follow-up, improvement of PFDI and PFIQ scores were highly significant (p<0.0001). The use of low-weight polypropylene mesh coated with a hydrophilic absorbable film for vaginal repair of genital prolapse seems to decrease local morbidity while maintaining low recurrence rates.

  11. Imaging System for Vaginal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Taylor, G Bernard; Myers, Erinn M

    2015-12-01

    The vaginal surgeon is challenged with performing complex procedures within a surgical field of limited light and exposure. The video telescopic operating microscope is an illumination and imaging system that provides visualization during open surgical procedures with a limited field of view. The imaging system is positioned within the surgical field and then secured to the operating room table with a maneuverable holding arm. A high-definition camera and Xenon light source allow transmission of the magnified image to a high-definition monitor in the operating room. The monitor screen is positioned above the patient for the surgeon and assistants to view real time throughout the operation. The video telescopic operating microscope system was used to provide surgical illumination and magnification during total vaginal hysterectomy and salpingectomy, midurethral sling, and release of vaginal scar procedures. All procedures were completed without complications. The video telescopic operating microscope provided illumination of the vaginal operative field and display of the magnified image onto high-definition monitors in the operating room for the surgeon and staff to simultaneously view the procedures. The video telescopic operating microscope provides high-definition display, magnification, and illumination during vaginal surgery.

  12. Ovine multiparity is associated with diminished vaginal muscularis, increased elastic fibres and vaginal wall weakness: implication for pelvic organ prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Emmerson, Stuart; Young, Natharnia; Rosamilia, Anna; Parkinson, Luke; Edwards, Sharon L.; Vashi, Aditya V.; Davies-Tuck, Miranda; White, Jacinta; Elgass, Kirstin; Lo, Camden; Arkwright, John; Werkmeister, Jerome A.; Gargett, Caroline E.

    2017-01-01

    Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP) is a major clinical burden affecting 25% of women, with vaginal delivery a major contributing factor. We hypothesised that increasing parity weakens the vagina by altering the extracellular matrix proteins and smooth muscle thereby leading to POP vulnerability. We used a modified POP-quantification (POP-Q) system and a novel pressure sensor to measure vaginal wall weakness in nulliparous, primiparous and multiparous ewes. These measurements were correlated with histological, biochemical and biomechanical properties of the ovine vagina. Primiparous and multiparous ewes had greater displacement of vaginal tissue compared to nulliparous at points Aa, Ap and Ba and lower pressure sensor measurements at points equivalent to Ap and Ba. Vaginal wall muscularis of multiparous ewes was thinner than nulliparous and had greater elastic fibre content. Collagen content was lower in primiparous than nulliparous ewes, but collagen organisation did not differ. Biomechanically, multiparous vaginal tissue was weaker and less stiff than nulliparous. Parity had a significant impact on the structure and function of the ovine vaginal wall, as the multiparous vaginal wall was weaker and had a thinner muscularis than nulliparous ewes. This correlated with “POP-Q” and pressure sensor measurements showing greater tissue laxity in multiparous compared to nulliparous ewes. PMID:28374826

  13. Defining patients' knowledge and perceptions of vaginal mesh surgery.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lindsay K; Fenner, Dee E; Berger, Mitchell B; Delancey, John O L; Morgan, Daniel M; Patel, Divya A; Schimpf, Megan O

    2013-01-01

    Given recent government investigations and media coverage of the controversy regarding mesh surgery, we sought to define patients' knowledge and perceptions of vaginal mesh surgery. An anonymous survey was distributed to a convenience sample of new patients at urogynecology and female urology clinics at a single medical center during April to June 2012. The survey assessed patients' demographics, information sources, and beliefs and concerns regarding mesh surgery. The Fisher's exact test was used to identify predictors of patients' beliefs regarding mesh. Logistic and linear regressions were used to identify predictors of aversion to surgery and higher concern regarding future surgery. One hundred sixty-four women completed the survey; 62.2% (102/164) indicated knowledge of mesh surgery for prolapse and/or incontinence and were included in subsequent analyses. The mean ± SD age was 58.0 ± 12.5 years, and 24.5% reported prior mesh surgery. The most common information source was television commercials (57.8%); only 23.5% of the women reported receiving information from a medical professional. Participants indicated the following regarding vaginal mesh: class-action lawsuit in progress (55/102 [54.0%]), causes pain (47/102 [47.1%]), possibility of rejection (35/102 [34.3%]), can cause bleeding and become exposed vaginally (30/102 [29.4%]), and should be removed owing to recall (28/102 [27.5%]). Of these women, 22.1% (19/86) indicated they would not consider mesh surgery. On multivariable logistic regression, level of concern, information from friends/family, and knowledge of class-action lawsuit predicted aversion to mesh surgery. Nearly two thirds of new patients had knowledge of vaginal mesh surgery. We identified considerable misinformation and aversion to future mesh surgery among these women.

  14. Hydronephrosis and utero-vaginal prolapse in postmenopausal women: management and treatment

    PubMed Central

    LEANZA, V.; CIOTTA, L.; VECCHIO, R.; ZANGHÌ, G.; MAIORANA, A.; LEANZA, G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pelvic organ prolapse is a multifactorial disease. Aim was to evaluate the effect of the whole surgical correction of pelvic floor on hydronephrosis due to severe prolapse. Patients and Methods A retrospective case study on 250 patients presenting with severe uterovaginal prolapse was carried out. Results Hydronephrosis was found in 32/234 (13.7 %). All patients underwent hysterectomy, vaginal apex axial suspension, posterior and anterior repair, vaginally. Prepubic TICT (Tension free Incontinence Cystocoele Treatment) was done in 38 cases (3 with hydronephrosis). Of the 32/234 (13.7 %) patients with hydronephrosis, 18/32 (56.25%) had complete resolution of hydronephrosis after treatment, 14/32 (43.75%) had a reduction of calico-pyelic dilatation, among them 8 patients had a second degree and 6 a first degree of hydronephrosis. Conclusions Vaginal-hysterectomy, axial apex suspension, anterior and posterior repair resulted in either complete resolution or improvement of hydronephrosis. Prepubic TICT did not interfere on mechanical obstruction and maintained postoperative continence in the event of occult Stress Urinary Incontinence (SUI). PMID:26888700

  15. Hydronephrosis and utero-vaginal prolapse in postmenopausal women: management and treatment.

    PubMed

    Leanza, V; Ciotta, L; Vecchio, R; Zanghì, G; Maiorana, A; Leanza, G

    2015-01-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse is a multifactorial disease. Aim was to evaluate the effect of the whole surgical correction of pelvic floor on hydronephrosis due to severe prolapse. A retrospective case study on 250 patients presenting with severe uterovaginal prolapse was carried out. Hydronephrosis was found in 32/234 (13.7 %). All patients underwent hysterectomy, vaginal apex axial suspension, posterior and anterior repair, vaginally. Prepubic TICT (Tension free Incontinence Cystocoele Treatment) was done in 38 cases (3 with hydronephrosis). Of the 32/234 (13.7 %) patients with hydronephrosis, 18/32 (56.25%) had complete resolution of hydronephrosis after treatment, 14/32 (43.75%) had a reduction of calico-pyelic dilatation, among them 8 patients had a second degree and 6 a first degree of hydronephrosis. Vaginal-hysterectomy, axial apex suspension, anterior and posterior repair resulted in either complete resolution or improvement of hydronephrosis. Prepubic TICT did not interfere on mechanical obstruction and maintained postoperative continence in the event of occult Stress Urinary Incontinence (SUI).

  16. Prolapse and continence surgery in countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development in 2012.

    PubMed

    Haya, Nir; Baessler, Kaven; Christmann-Schmid, Corina; de Tayrac, Renaud; Dietz, Viviane; Guldberg, Rikke; Mascarenhas, Teresa; Nussler, Emil; Ballard, Emma; Ankardal, Maud; Boudemaghe, Thierry; Wu, Jennifer M; Maher, Christopher F

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the rates and types of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and female continence surgery performed in member countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 2012. The published health outcome data sources of the 34 OECD countries were contacted for data on POP and female continence interventions from 2010-2012. In nonresponding countries, data were sought from national or insurer databases. Extracted data were entered into an age-specific International Classification of Disease, edition 10 (ICD-10)-compliant Excel spreadsheet by 2 authors independently in English-speaking countries and a single author in non-English-speaking countries. Data were collated centrally and discrepancies were resolved by mutual agreement. We report on 684,250 POP and 410,352 continence procedures that were performed in 15 OECD countries in 2012. POP procedures (median rate, 1.38/1000 women; range, 0.51-2.55 prolapse procedures/1000 women) were performed 1.8 times more frequently than continence procedures (median rate, 0.75/1000 women; range, 0.46-1.65 continence procedures/1000 women). Repairs of the anterior vaginal compartment represented 54% of POP procedures; posterior repairs represented 43% of the procedures, and apical compartment repairs represented 20% of POP procedures. Median rate of graft usage was 15.7% of anterior vaginal repairs (range, 3.3-25.6%) and 8.5% (range, 3.2-17%) of posterior vaginal repairs. Apical compartment repairs were repaired vaginally at a median rate of 70% (range, 35-95%). Sacral colpopexy represented a median rate of 17% (range, 5-65%) of apical repairs; 61% of sacral colpopexies were performed minimally invasively. Between 2010 and 2012, there was a 3.7% median reduction in transvaginal grafts, a 4.0% reduction in midurethral slings, and a 25% increase in sacral colpopexies that were performed per 1000 women. Midurethral slings represented 82% of female continence surgeries. The 5

  17. Vaginal hysterectomies in patients without uterine prolapse: ten-year experience.

    PubMed

    Cheung, K W; Pun, T C

    2013-08-01

    To review the results of vaginal hysterectomies in patients without uterine prolapse. Retrospective chart review. University affiliated hospital, Hong Kong. All patients who had vaginal hysterectomies in the absence of uterine prolapse from 1999 to 2005 inclusive (first period) and 2006 to 2009 inclusive (second period). The number of such hysterectomies, indications, operative procedures, complications, use of preoperative gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, and concomitant vaginal salpingo-oophorectomies performed. In all, 94 and 98 patients fulfilling the necessary inclusion criteria within the two respective periods underwent vaginal hysterectomy. The indications for hysterectomy in the respective groups were similar, and 89 (95%) and 90 (92%) of the patients were Chinese. The respective proportions having additional procedures were 11% versus 23% (P=0.018) and the respective vaginal bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy rates were 1% versus 15% (P<0.001). The vault haematoma rate decreased significantly in the second period (from 12% to 1%; P=0.002). There were no significant differences between the periods with respect to mean operative blood losses, uterine weights, and operating times. The use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist resulted in reduced mean uterine sizes (12 weeks vs 10 weeks; P=0.041). A decreasing trend in mean operating times and blood losses was also observed after such use. Vaginal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomies were successfully performed in 12 (80%) patients without laparoscopic assistance. For this procedure, a learning curve was also evident. Surgeons' experience can influence the complication rate and the chance of successful vaginal salpingo-oophorectomy. More liberal use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist may further reduce the complication rate and allow more vaginal hysterectomies.

  18. Laparoscopic-assisted tension-free vaginal mesh: an innovative approach to placing synthetic mesh: transvaginally for surgical correction of pelvic organ prolapse.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Toyohiko; Inoue, Miyabi; Ishii, Ayano; Yamato, Toyoko; Yamamoto, Masumi; Sasaki, Katsumi; Kobayashi, Yasuyuki; Araki, Motoo; Uehara, Shinya; Saika, Takashi; Kumon, Hiromi

    2012-01-01

    Polypropylene mesh implants for the correction of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) are now available in Japan. We developed an innovative approach for correcting POP by placing polypropylene mesh transvaginally with laparoscopic assistance. From June 2007 through March 2010, sixteen consecutive patients with symptomatic stage 2 or 3 pelvic organ prolapse underwent the laparoscopic-assisted tension-free vaginal mesh procedure at Okayama University Hospital. All patients were evaluated before and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. Female sexual function was also evaluated with the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). The procedure was performed successfully without significant complications. Fifteen of 16 patients were considered anatomically cured (93.8%) at 12 months postoperatively. One patient with a recurrent stage 3 vaginal vault prolapse required sacral colpopexy six months postoperatively. Total FSFI scores improved significantly from 10.3 ± 1.3 at baseline to 18.0 ± 1.2 at 12 months after surgery. The laparoscopic-assisted trans-vaginal mesh is a safe, effective, and simple procedure for POP repairs. The procedure not only restores anatomic relationships but also improves sexual function.

  19. Evidence-based outcomes for mesh-based surgery for pelvic organ prolapse.

    PubMed

    Mettu, Jayadev R; Colaco, Marc; Badlani, Gopal H

    2014-07-01

    In light of all the recent controversy regarding the use of synthetic mesh for pelvic organ prolapse, we did a retrospective review of the evidence-based outcomes and complications for its use. A total of 18 of the most recent studies in the last 5 years were selected. Studies selected were prospective randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials that included surgical operations for pelvic organ prolapse for this review. Additionally, Cochrane review and meta-analysis of outcomes and complication were also analyzed. In terms of outcomes, the definition of successful surgery is currently being debated. Synthetic mesh provides superior anatomical and subjective cure rates compared with native tissue repair. Success rates varied greatly depending on the nature of prolapse and surgical approach. Furthermore, recurrence rates for mesh-based surgery are significantly lower than that for native tissue repair. The main unique complication of mesh is exposure and was reported in a mean of 11.4% of patients, with 6.8% of patients requiring surgical partial excision of mesh. Mesh significantly improves anatomical outcomes with sacrocolpopexy and vaginal repair. Mesh does create the unique complication which can be reduced with training and proper patient selection. Further development of better materials is vital rather than reverting to tissue-based repair. Ultimately, the decision to use mesh should be based upon a patient's personal goals and preferences after an informed conversation with her physician.

  20. Transvaginal single-incision mesh reconstruction for recurrent or advanced anterior vaginal wall prolapse.

    PubMed

    Marschke, J; Hengst, L; Schwertner-Tiepelmann, N; Beilecke, K; Tunn, R

    2015-05-01

    Single-incision transvaginal mesh for reconstruction of Level I and II prolapses in women with recurrent or advanced prolapse. We evaluated functional, anatomical, sonomorphological and quality-of-life outcome. Data were collected retrospectively for preoperative parameters and at follow-up visits. Anatomical cure was assessed with vaginal examination using the ICS-POP-Q system; introital-ultrasound scan for postvoidal residual and description of mesh characteristics was performed. We applied a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the German Pelvic Floor Questionnaire to assess quality-of-life. Seventy women with cystocele (III: 61.3%/IV: 16%), all post-hysterectomy and in majority (81.4%) after previous cystocele repair, were operated using a single-incision transvaginal technique. Overall anatomical success rate was 95.7% with significant improvement in quality-of-life (p < 0.0001). Mesh erosion occurred in 5.7%, one patient presented symptomatic vaginal vault prolapse. Postvoidal residual declined significantly (58 vs. 2.9%). Sonographic mesh length was 55.7% of implanted mesh with a wide range of mesh position, but no signs of mesh dislocation. There was no de novo dyspareunia reported, one case of preoperative existing dyspareunia worsened. No severe adverse event was observed. We hereby present a trial of a high-risk group of patients requiring reconstruction of anterior and apical vaginal wall in mostly recurrent prolapse situation. Our data support the hypothesis of improved anatomical and functional results and less mesh shrinkage caused by the single-incision technique with fixation in sacrospinous ligament in combination with modification in mesh quality compared to former multi-incision techniques.

  1. Use of Concomitant Stress Incontinence Surgery at Time of Pelvic Organ Prolapse Surgery Since Release of the 2011 Notification on Serious Complications Associated with Transvaginal Mesh.

    PubMed

    Drain, Alice; Khan, Aqsa; Ohmann, Erin L; Brucker, Benjamin M; Smilen, Scott; Rosenblum, Nirit; Nitti, Victor W

    2017-04-01

    There is controversy regarding the performance of concomitant anti-incontinence procedures at the time of pelvic organ prolapse repair. Data support improvement in stress urinary incontinence with a concomitant sling but increased adverse events. We assessed trends in preoperative stress urinary incontinence evaluation, concomitant anti-incontinence procedure at pelvic organ prolapse surgery and postoperative anti-incontinence procedures at our institution before and after the 2011 FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) Public Health Notification pertaining to vaginal mesh. We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who underwent pelvic organ prolapse surgery from 2009 to 2015. Preoperative workup included assessment of subjective stress urinary incontinence and/or evaluation for leakage with reduction of pelvic organ prolapse on physical examination, urodynamics or a pessary trial. The percentages of concomitant and postoperative anti-incontinence procedures were compared before and after the 2011 FDA notification. A total of 775 women underwent pelvic organ prolapse repair. The percentage of anti-incontinence procedures at pelvic organ prolapse repair decreased from 54.8% to 38.0% after the FDA notification (p = 0.002) while the incidence of preoperative objective stress urinary incontinence on examination, urodynamics and pessary trials remained constant. The incidence of postoperative anti-incontinence procedures within 1 year of the index surgery remained low. We found a decrease in the incidence of concomitant anti-incontinence procedures at the time of pelvic organ prolapse repair following the 2011 FDA notification despite no significant decline in subjective stress urinary incontinence or demonstrable stress urinary incontinence on preoperative evaluation. Further analysis is warranted to assess the impact of the FDA notification on treatment patterns in women with pelvic organ prolapse and stress urinary incontinence. Copyright © 2017 American

  2. Management of occult stress urinary incontinence with prolapse surgery.

    PubMed

    Al-Mandeel, H; Al-Badr, A

    2013-08-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and stress urinary incontinence (SUI), are two common health-related conditions, each affecting up to 50% women worldwide. Stress urinary incontinence only observed after the reduction of co-existent prolapse is called occult SUI (OSUI), and is found in up to 80% of women with advanced POP. Although there is no consensus on how to diagnose OSUI, there are several reported methods to better diagnose. Counseling symptomatically continent women with POP concerning the potential risk for developing SUI postoperatively cannot be overstated. Evidence suggests that positive OSUI in symptomatically continent women who are planning to have POP repair is associated with a high risk of POSUI, furthermore, adding continence procedure is found to reduce postoperative SUI. Therefore, adding continence surgery at the time of POP surgery in patients who are found to have OSUI preoperatively is advocated.

  3. [The Life Impacts and Symptom Distress in Women With Pelvic Organ Prolapse Syndrome Before Pelvic Reconstruction Surgery].

    PubMed

    Ko, I-Chen; Lo, Tsia-Shu; Lu, Yu-Ying; Tsao, Lee-Ing

    2017-02-01

    The decision whether or not to undergo pelvic reconstructive surgery is difficult for women suffering from pelvic organ prolapse. However, little research has examined the symptom distress and life impacts that these women face prior to this surgery. Thus, it is crucial that gynecology nurses learn about these life impacts and symptom distresses in order to help these women make the best decisions with regard to surgery. To explore the life impacts and degree of symptom distress in pre-surgery women with pelvic organ prolapse; to explore the relationships between demographic data and the variables of life impact and degree of symptom distress; and to identify the factors that relate to the explainable variance in the life impacts of these women. A cross-sectional and correlational research design was used and a total of 110 women with pelvic organ prolapse who had not yet undergone pelvic reconstruction surgery were recruited in the gynecological clinics of one medical center in Taiwan. Daytime urination frequency was the most prevalent urinary tract symptom noted by the participants; vaginal protrusion was the most prevalent pelvis-related symptom noted; and depression and anxiety were the most prevalent life impacts noted. Moreover, greater lower-urinary-tract symptom distress was associated with greater pelvic-symptom distress. Furthermore, greater lower urinary tract and pelvic symptom distresses were associated with a greater negative impact on life. Education background and pelvis-related symptoms were the explained variances in pre-surgery life impacts. Women with pelvic organ prolapse should pay particular attention to symptoms that include: daytime urinary frequency, vaginal protrusion, and emotional problems including depression and anxiety. Education background and level of symptom distress should be taken into consideration when caring for the life impacts of this vulnerable group of women.

  4. Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) surgery: the evidence for the repairs.

    PubMed

    Gomelsky, Alex; Penson, David F; Dmochowski, Roger R

    2011-06-01

    What is known on the subject? and What does the study add? Substantial experience of the outcomes has been gathered regarding the acute and sub-acute experience with various types of corrective procedures for POP. These include long-term POP correction as well as more recent recognition of improvement in functional disorders associated with POP such as UI, colorectal dysfunction, and sexual dysfunction. Long-term follow-up is available for some of the older types of interventions and current multicentre trials are being accrued with longer term follow-up for new interventions including mesh-type repairs. The study adds a condensed and summarized version of the current literature regarding the various interventions for POP and also provides an overview of the current controversies and areas where knowledge is incomplete and in need of further elaboration for definitive answers regarding optimization of surgical care for POP. Our aim is to summarise the available data on the transvaginal placement of synthetic mesh for pelvic organ prolapse (POP) repair, with a focus on the outcomes and complications of commercial POP-repair kits. As the stability and durability of autologous tissues may be questionable, nonabsorbable, synthetic materials are an attractive alternative for providing additional support during POP surgery. These materials are not novel, and most have been used for many years in surgical applications, e.g. hernia repairs. While theoretically appealing, the implantation of synthetic mesh in the pelvis may be associated with inherent adverse consequences, such as erosion, extrusion, and infection. Additionally, the routine use of these materials may carry potential long-term complications, such as dyspareunia, chronic pelvic pain, and vaginal distortion. The success and failure of mesh-augmented POP repair is related not only to the synthetic material itself, but also to patient- and surgeon-related factors. Recent warnings by the USA Food and Drug

  5. Does the Vaginal Flora Modify When a Synthetic Mesh is Used for Genital Prolapse Repair in Postmenopausal Women? A Pilot, Randomized Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Edilson Benedito; Brito, Luiz Gustavo Oliveria; Giraldo, Paulo César; Teatin Juliato, Cássia Raquel

    2018-01-10

    The vaginal flora from postmenopausal women with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is different from younger women. We hypothesized that the decision of a surgical route using a mesh would modify the vaginal flora. The purpose of this study was to analyze the vaginal flora from postmenopausal women that were submitted to abdominal sacrocervicopexy or vaginal sacrospinous fixation. A pilot, randomized controlled study with 50 women aged 55 to 75 years (n = 25; abdominal sacrocervicopexy + subtotal hysterectomy; n = 25 vaginal sacrospinous fixation + vaginal hysterectomy) was performed. A polyvinylidene mesh was used in both arms. The vaginal content analysis was collected before and 60 days after the surgery. The type of flora, the presence of lactobacilli/leukocytes, and the Nugent criteria were analyzed. Most of the women were white (80%), with at least 1 comorbidity (69.9%), did not present sexual activity (60%), and presented advanced stage 4 POP. Two thirds of women presented a type 3 flora, and half of them did not present lactobacilli (48.3%). About the Nugent criteria, 51.7% presented normal flora, 46.6% found altered flora, and 1.7% had bacterial vaginosis. There were no differences about the type of flora (P = 1), number of lactobacilli (P = 0.9187), Nugent criteria (P = 0.4235), inflammation (P = 0.1018), and bacterial vaginosis (P = 0.64) before and after surgery in both groups. In this pilot study, the use of synthetic mesh by vaginal or abdominal route did not affect the vaginal flora in postmenopausal women operated on by POP surgery.

  6. Vaginal wall weakness in parous ewes: a potential preclinical model of pelvic organ prolapse.

    PubMed

    Young, Natharnia; Rosamilia, Anna; Arkwright, John; Lee, Joseph; Davies-Tuck, Miranda; Melendez, Joan; Werkmeister, Jerome; Gargett, Caroline E

    2017-07-01

    Ewes develop pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and may be a suitable model for preclinical studies evaluating cell-based therapies for POP. The aim of this study was to establish a clinical score of vaginal weakness and to compare POP Quantification System (POP-Q) values in conscious nulliparous and parous ewes and determine whether ewes are a suitable POP model. Ewes (n = 114) were examined while conscious, without sedation, and standing in a V conveyer by adapting the human POP-Q measurement. Ovine POP was defined as descent to the introitus from POP-Q points Aa 3 cm above the introitus on the anterior wall, Ap 3 cm above the introitus on the posterior wall, or increased Ba anterior wall descent above the urethra (≥0). A test-retest showed good inter- and intrarater reliability. There was no evidence of tissue mobility at Aa, Ap, Ba (all -3 cm) in nulliparous ewes (n = 14). In contrast, multiparous ewes had a median of -1 and interquartile range (IQR) (-2 to 0) for Aa, [0 (-1 to 0)] for Ap and [0 (-2.75 to 0)] for Ba (n = 33; P < 0.0001 in comparison with nulliparous) ewes. Ovine vaginal displacement was seen in 50.9 % of parous ewes and was strongly associated with parity (P = 0.003). A modified POP-Q in conscious ewes was established showing that the vaginal wall of parous animals has similar regions of weakness as do women and may be similarly related to parity. Ewes appear to be a representative preclinical model of human vaginal prolapse.

  7. The influence of BMI, smoking, and age on vaginal erosions after synthetic mesh repair of pelvic organ prolapses. A multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Araco, Francesco; Gravante, Gianpiero; Sorge, Roberto; Overton, John; De Vita, Davide; Primicerio, Mario; Dati, Stefano; Araco, Placido; Piccione, Emilio

    2009-01-01

    To study the influence of body mass index (BMI), smoking, and age on the risk of vaginal erosions after mesh repair of pelvic prolapses. Retrospective study. Three university and community hospitals. Patients that underwent mesh correction of prolapses between 2002 and 2007. Excluded were those with stress urinary incontinence, ongoing clinical infections, with a complete antibiotic course in the last six months and with systemic diseases affecting tissue oxygenation. Revision of medical notes. Risk contributions for age, smoking, and BMI on the occurrence of vaginal erosions. Data were collected from 460 patients. Postoperative erosions were present in 7%. BMI greater than 30 conferred a 10.1-fold increase in the risk of developing erosions, smoking a 3.7-fold increase, and age greater than 60 years a 2.2-fold increase. A cut-off value of seven pack years was determined for smoking where the risk associated with light smokers was similar to that of non-smokers. BMI, smoking, and age are important risk factors for pelvic organ prolapse surgery. Our data could be used to stratify patients according to their risk so that preventative measures can be taken in high-risk patients.

  8. Vaginal Vault Suspension at Hysterectomy for Prolapse – Myths and Facts, Anatomical Requirements, Fixation Techniques, Documentation and Cost Accounting

    PubMed Central

    Graefe, F.; Marschke, J.; Dimpfl, T.; Tunn, R.

    2012-01-01

    Vaginal vault suspension during hysterectomy for prolapse is both a therapy for apical insufficiency and helps prevent recurrence. Numerous techniques exist, with different anatomical results and differing complications. The description of the different approaches together with a description of the vaginal vault suspension technique used at the Department for Urogynaecology at St. Hedwig Hospital could serve as a basis for reassessment and for recommendations by scientific associations regarding general standards. PMID:25278621

  9. Effect of vaginal distention on elastic fiber synthesis and matrix degradation in the vaginal wall: potential role in the pathogenesis of pelvic organ prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Rahn, D. D.; Acevedo, J. F.; Word, R. A.

    2008-01-01

    Matrix metalloprotease (MMP) activity is increased in the postpartum vagina of wild-type (WT) animals. This degradative activity is also accompanied by a burst in elastic fiber synthesis and assembly. The mechanisms that precipitate these changes are unclear. The goals of this study were to determine how vaginal distention (such as in parturition) affects elastic fiber homeostasis in the vaginal wall and the potential significance of these changes in the pathogenesis of pelvic organ prolapse. Vaginal distention with a balloon simulating parturition resulted in increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity in the vaginal wall of nonpregnant and pregnant animals. This was accompanied by visible fragmented and disrupted elastic fibers in the vaginal wall. In nonpregnant animals, the abundant amounts of tropoelastin and fibulin-5 in the vagina were not increased further by distention. In contrast, in pregnant animals, the suppressed levels of both proteins were increased 3-fold after vaginal distention. Distention performed in fibulin-5-deficient (Fbln5−/−) mice with defective elastic fiber synthesis and assembly induced accelerated pelvic organ prolapse, which never recovered. We conclude that, in pregnant mice, vaginal distention results in increased protease activity in the vaginal wall but also increased synthesis of proteins important for elastic fiber assembly. Distention may thereby contribute to the burst of elastic fiber synthesis in the postpartum vagina. The finding that distention results in accelerated pelvic organ prolapse in Fbln5−/− animals, but not in WT, indicates that elastic fiber synthesis is crucial for recovery of the vaginal wall from distention-induced increases in vaginal protease activity. PMID:18635445

  10. Bladder function after sacrospinous hysteropexy and vaginal wall repair in women with uterovaginal prolapse.

    PubMed

    Sayed Ahmed, Waleed A; Taha, Omima T; Hamdy, Mostafa A; Ibrahim, Zakia M; Elshahat, Amal M

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the impact of repair of uterovaginal prolapse using sacrospinous hysteropexy and vaginal wall repair on the bladder function. The study was conducted at the urogynecology clinic of Suez Canal University Hospitals, Ismailia from January 2014 to March 2016. This study included women with a diagnosis of uterovaginal prolapse and wishing to preserve their uteri. Bladder function was evaluated through assessment of urological symptoms using a standardized questionnaire - the urogenital distress inventory (UDI-6) - in addition to urodynamic studies just before and six-months after the sacrospinous hysteropexy ± associated vaginal wall repair operation. Twenty-seven patients completed the study with a mean age of 36.5 ± 4 years. Only 3 women had sacrospinous hysteropexy with no additional procedures. Other procedures included anterior colporrhaphy (12), posterior colporrhaphy (9) and perineorrhaphy (15). Based on UDI-6, there was no significant difference between the pre- and post-operative symptoms of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) [8/27 (29.6%) vs. 9/27 (33.3%) respectively; p value = 0.7]. The pre- and post-operative symptoms of urge urinary incontinence were also insignificantly different [13/27 (48.1%) vs. 15/27 (55.5%); p value = 0.5]. The total score of UDI-6 increased from 24.5 ± (14.2) to 32.8 ± (29.4) which was not statistically significant (p value = 0.12). Urodynamically, voiding dysfunction was found less frequently after the operation, however the difference was statistically insignificant [9/27 (33.3%) vs. 8/27 (29.6%); p value = 0.7]. Sacrospinous hysteropexy and associated vaginal wall repair do not affect the bladder function either subjectively or objectively. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Defecatory dysfunction and fecal incontinence in women with or without posterior vaginal wall prolapse as measured by pelvic organ prolapse quantification (POP-Q).

    PubMed

    Augusto, Kathiane Lustosa; Bezerra, Leonardo Robson Pinheiro Sobreira; Murad-Regadas, Sthela Maria; Vasconcelos Neto, José Ananias; Vasconcelos, Camila Teixeira Moreira; Karbage, Sara Arcanjo Lino; Bilhar, Andreisa Paiva Monteiro; Regadas, Francisco Sérgio Pinheiro

    2017-07-01

    Pelvic Floor Dysfunction is a complex condition that may be asymptomatic or may involve a loto f symptoms. This study evaluates defecatory dysfunction, fecal incontinence, and quality of life in relation to presence of posterior vaginal prolapse. 265 patients were divided into two groups according to posterior POP-Q stage: posterior POP-Q stage ≥2 and posterior POP-Q stage <2. The two groups were compared regarding demographic and clinical data; overall POP-Q stage, percentage of patients with defecatory dysfunction, percentage of patients with fecal incontinence, pelvic floor muscle strength, and quality of life scores. The correlation between severity of the prolapse and severity of constipation was calculated using ρ de Spearman (rho). Women with Bp stage ≥2 were significantly older and had significantly higher BMI, numbers of pregnancies and births, and overall POP-Q stage than women with stage <2. No significant differences between the groups were observed regarding proportion of patients with defecatory dysfunction or incontinence, pelvic floor muscle strength, quality of life (ICIQ-SF), or sexual impact (PISQ-12). POP-Q stage did not correlate with severity of constipation and incontinence. General quality of life perception on the SF-36 was significantly worse in patients with POP-Q stage ≥2 than in those with POP-Q stage <2. The lack of a clinically important association between the presence of posterior vaginal prolapse and symptoms of constipation or anal incontinence leads us to agree with the conclusion that posterior vaginal prolapse probably is not an independent cause defecatory dysfunction or fecal incontinence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The UK National Prolapse Survey: 10 years on.

    PubMed

    Jha, Swati; Cutner, Alfred; Moran, Paul

    2018-06-01

    To assess trends in the surgical management of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) amongst UK practitioners and changes in practice since a previous similar survey. An online questionnaire survey (Typeform Pro) was emailed to British Society of Urogynaecology (BSUG) members. They included urogynaecologists working in tertiary centres, gynaecologists with a designated special interest in urogynaecology and general gynaecologists. The questionnaire included case scenarios encompassing contentious issues in the surgical management of POP and was a revised version of the questionnaire used in the previous surveys. The revised questionnaire included additional questions relating to the use of vaginal mesh and laparoscopic urogynaecology procedures. Of 516 BSUG members emailed, 212 provided completed responses.. For anterior vaginal wall prolapse the procedure of choice was anterior colporrhaphy (92% of respondents). For uterovaginal prolapse the procedure of choice was still vaginal hysterectomy and repair (75%). For posterior vaginal wall prolapse the procedure of choice was posterior colporrhaphy with midline fascial plication (97%). For vault prolapse the procedure of choice was sacrocolpopexy (54%) followed by vaginal wall repair and sacrospinous fixation (41%). The laparoscopic route was preferred for sacrocolpopexy (62% versus 38% for the open procedure). For primary prolapse, vaginal mesh was used by only 1% of respondents in the anterior compartment and by 3% in the posterior compartment. Basic trends in the use of native tissue prolapse surgery remain unchanged. There has been a significant decrease in the use of vaginal mesh for both primary and recurrent prolapse, with increasing use of laparoscopic procedures for prolapse.

  13. Randomized controlled trial of postoperative belladonna and opium rectal suppositories in vaginal surgery.

    PubMed

    Butler, Kristina; Yi, John; Wasson, Megan; Klauschie, Jennifer; Ryan, Debra; Hentz, Joseph; Cornella, Jeffrey; Magtibay, Paul; Kho, Roseanne

    2017-05-01

    After vaginal surgery, oral and parenteral narcotics are used commonly for pain relief, and their use may exacerbate the incidence of sedation, nausea, and vomiting, which ultimately delays convalescence. Previous studies have demonstrated that rectal analgesia after surgery results in lower pain scores and less intravenous morphine consumption. Belladonna and opium rectal suppositories may be used to relieve pain and minimize side effects; however, their efficacy has not been confirmed. We aimed to evaluate the use of belladonna and opium suppositories for pain reduction in vaginal surgery. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that used belladonna and opium suppositories after inpatient or outpatient vaginal surgery was conducted. Vaginal surgery was defined as (1) vaginal hysterectomy with uterosacral ligament suspension or (2) posthysterectomy prolapse repair that included uterosacral ligament suspension and/or colporrhaphy. Belladonna and opium 16A (16.2/60 mg) or placebo suppositories were administered rectally immediately after surgery and every 8 hours for a total of 3 doses. Patient-reported pain data were collected with the use of a visual analog scale (at 2, 4, 12, and 20 hours postoperatively. Opiate use was measured and converted into parenteral morphine equivalents. The primary outcome was pain, and secondary outcomes included pain medication, antiemetic medication, and a quality of recovery questionnaire. Adverse effects were surveyed at 24 hours and 7 days. Concomitant procedures for urinary incontinence or pelvic organ prolapse did not preclude enrollment. Ninety women were randomly assigned consecutively at a single institution under the care of a fellowship-trained surgeon group. Demographics did not differ among the groups with mean age of 55 years, procedure time of 97 minutes, and prolapse at 51%. Postoperative pain scores were equivalent among both groups at each time interval. The belladonna and opium group used a

  14. Ultrasound in the investigation of posterior compartment vaginal prolapse and obstructed defecation.

    PubMed

    Dietz, H P; Beer-Gabel, M

    2012-07-01

    Recent developments in diagnostic imaging have made gynecologists, colorectal surgeons and gastroenterologists realize as never before that they share a common interest in anorectal and pelvic floor dysfunction. While we often may be using different words to describe the same phenomenon (e.g. anismus/vaginismus) or attributing different meanings to the same words (e.g. rectocele), we look after patients with problems that transcend the borders of our respective specialties. Like no other diagnostic modality, imaging helps us understand each other and provides new insights into conditions we all need to learn to investigate better in order to improve clinical management. In this review we attempt to show what modern ultrasound imaging can contribute to the diagnostic work-up of patients with posterior vaginal wall prolapse, obstructed defecation and rectal intussusception/prolapse. In summary, it is evident that translabial/perineal ultrasound can serve as a first-line diagnostic tool in women with such complaints, replacing defecation proctography and MR proctography in a large proportion of female patients. This is advantageous for the women themselves because ultrasound is much better tolerated, as well as for healthcare systems since sonographic imaging is much less expensive. However, there is a substantial need for education, which currently remains unmet. Copyright © 2012 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Concomitant apical suspensory procedures in women with anterior vaginal wall prolapse in the United States in 2011.

    PubMed

    Northington, Gina M; Hudson, Catherine O; Karp, Deborah R; Huber, Sarah A

    2016-04-01

    Although the surgical restoration of apical support has been shown to decrease reoperation rates, it is unclear whether this has been incorporated into current practice. The aims of this study were to determine the rate of concomitant apical suspensory procedures in women with anterior vaginal wall prolapse undergoing surgical repair in 2011 and to identify associated factors. This cross-sectional study queried the Nationwide Inpatient Sample for women with a primary diagnosis of cystocele who underwent prolapse repair in 2011. The study cohort was analyzed for demographics, concomitant procedures, and hospital characteristics. The rate of apical suspensory procedures was determined. Factors potentially associated with receiving concomitant apical suspensory procedure were evaluated using univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression. A total of 2,900 women in the database had a primary diagnosis of cystocele and underwent surgical prolapse repair in 2011. 925 (31.9 %) subjects underwent a concomitant apical suspensory procedure. The mean age in the study cohort was 61.9 ± 12.8 years. Hysterectomies were performed in 11.1 % of subjects. 61.1 % were performed vaginally, 26.5 % laparoscopically, and 12.5 % abdominally. On multivariate analysis, age greater than 50 years, Caucasian race, concomitant hysterectomy, and an urban teaching hospital setting were independently associated with receiving concomitant apical suspensory procedure in 2011. Despite evidence that the restoration of apical support is important for optimal anterior support, the overall rate of concomitant apical suspensory procedures is low. Several factors may play a role in whether or not women receive an apical suspensory procedure. This study highlights opportunities to improve the quality of surgical care provided to women with anterior vaginal prolapse.

  16. Laparoscopic promontofixation for the treatment of recurrent sigmoid neovaginal prolapse: case report and systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kondo, William; Ribeiro, Reitan; Tsumanuma, Fernanda Keiko; Zomer, Monica Tessmann

    2012-01-01

    Prolapse of a sigmoid neovagina, created in patients with congenital vaginal aplasia, is rare. In correcting this condition, preservation of coital function and restoration of the vaginal axis should be of primary interest. A 34-year-old woman with vaginal agenesis underwent vaginoplasty using sigmoid colon. Almost 6 years after the initial operation, she started complaining of a bearing-down sensation and an increase in vaginal discharge. She underwent 2 open surgeries and one vaginal surgery to treat the prolapse with no success. She came to our service and at vaginal examination the neovagina protruded approximately 5 cm beyond the hymen. The prolapse was treated successfully using a laparoscopic approach to suspend the neovagina to the sacral promontory (laparoscopic promontofixation). Prolapse of an artificially created vagina is a rare occurrence, without a standard treatment. Laparoscopy may be an alternative approach to restore the neovagina without compromising its function. Copyright © 2012 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A retrospective comparison of two vaginal mesh kits in the management of anterior and apical vaginal prolapse: long-term results for apical fixation and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Lamblin, Gery; Gouttenoire, Chloé; Panel, Laure; Moret, Stéphanie; Chene, Gautier; Courtieu, Christophe

    2016-12-01

    To compare apical correction in stage ≥3 cystocele between two mesh kits. This was a retrospective, nonrandomized study that compared two groups matched on anterior/apical POP-Q stage: 84 received Elevate Ant™ single-incision mesh (Elevate Ant group) and 42 Perigee™ transvaginal mesh (Perigee group). Follow-up at 1 and 2 years comprised objective (POP-Q) and subjective (PFDI-20, PFIQ-7, PISQ-12) assessments. The primary endpoint was objective success: 2-year apical POP-Q stage ≤1. Secondary endpoints were anterior POP-Q stage, subjective results and complications. Groups were comparable in terms of age (66.6 and 64.7 years, respectively; p = 0.19), BMI (both 25.4 kg/m 2 ; p = 0.93), and history of hysterectomy (7.2 % and 14.3 %; p = 0.21) or prolapse surgery (12 % and 14.3 %; p = 0.72). Operative time was shorter in the Elevate Ant group (54.1 vs. 62.5 min; p = 0.048), and the 2-year objective apical success rate was higher (92.9 % vs. 66.7 %; p < 0.0001), with better point C correction (-5 vs. -3.8; p = 0.006). Function improved in both groups, with significantly better PFIQ-7 (p = 0.03) and PFDI-20 (p = 0.02) scores in the Elevate Ant group at 2 years. Vaginal exposure was not seen in the Elevate Ant group but occurred in two patients in the Perigee group (p = 0.33). Factors associated with success were age >65 years (OR 7.16, 95 % CI 1.83 - 27.97) and treatment with Elevate Ant mesh (OR 10.16, 95 % CI 2.78 - 37.14). Postoperative stress urinary incontinence rate was greater with the Elevate Ant group (29.8 % and 16.7 %; p = 0.11). The use of the Elevate Ant mesh was associated with significantly better apical correction at 2 years. Function improved in both groups, but with a significantly better PFDI-20 score in the Elevate Ant group at 1 and 2 years. The postoperative stress urinary incontinence rate, however, tended to be greater in the Elevate Ant group. The results need confirming

  18. Tailored prolapse surgery for the treatment of hemorrhoids with a new dedicated device: TST Starr plus.

    PubMed

    Naldini, G; Fabiani, B; Menconi, C; Giani, I; Toniolo, G; Martellucci, J

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the results of the stapled transanal procedure in the treatment of hemorrhoidal prolapse in terms of postoperative complications and recurrence rate using a new dedicated device, TST Starr plus. Patients affected by III-IV degree hemorrhoidal prolapsed that underwent stapled transanal resection with the TST Starr plus were included in the present study. Results of the procedure with perioperative complications, postoperative complications, and recurrence rate were reported. From November 2012 to October 2014, 52 patients (19 females) were enrolled in the study. The main symptoms were prolapse (100 %) and bleeding (28.8 %). Transanal rectal resection was performed with parachute technique in 24 patients (46.2 %) and purse string technique in 23 patients (53.8 %). A mild hematoma at the suture line occurred in one patient (1.9 %). Postoperative bleeding was reported in three patients (5.7 %), in one of which, reoperation was necessary (1.9 %). Tenesmus occurred in one patient (1.9 %), and it was resolved with medical therapy. Urgency was reported in nine patients (17.1 %) at 7 days after surgery. Of these, three patients (5.7 %) complained urgency at the median follow-up of 14.5 months. Reoperation was performed in one patient (1.9 %) for chronic anal pain for rigid suture fixed on the deep plans. Occasional bleeding was reported in four patients (7.7 %). No recurrence of prolapse was reported at a median of 14.5 months after surgery, even if one patient (1.9 %) had a partial recurrent prolapse of a downstaged single pile. TST Starr plus seems to be safe and effective for a tailored transanal stapled surgery for the treatment of III-IV degree hemorrhoidal prolapse. The new conformation and innovative technology of the stapler seems to reduce some postoperative complications and recurrence rate.

  19. Innovative non-surgical management of pelvic and anterior vaginal wall abscess following vaginal surgery.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nisha; Negi, Neha; Kumar, Namrata

    2016-08-29

    Surgical site infections remain a common cause of morbidity following gynaecological surgery. The widespread implementation of antibiotic prophylaxis prior to surgery, as well as cognizance of modifiable risk factors for postoperative infection, has led to a significant reduction in postoperative infection rates. However, in low resource settings where sepsis and infections are common, surgical site infections following vaginal hysterectomy are sometimes encountered. It is a challenge to treat these infections with minimal intervention avoiding repeat surgery. We report here a unique situation following vaginal hysterectomy and then laparotomy; where a pelvic abscess communicated with the vesicovaginal space and drained through an opening into the anterior vaginal wall. An innovative technique was used to drain this anterior vaginal wall abscess connecting to pelvic cavity using a 40 cm long disposable urinary catheter (made of polyvinyl chloride), which was inserted into the vaginal opening under ultrasound guidance. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  20. Effects of mesh-related complications in vaginal surgery on quality of life.

    PubMed

    Kowalik, Claudia R; Lakeman, Mariëlle M E; de Kraker, Alyde T; Roovers, Jan Paul W R

    2018-06-16

    Vaginal mesh surgery is subject of debate due to the impact of mesh-related complications on patient's lives. Not all of these complications are symptomatic. Restoration of the anatomy and improvement of pelvic floor function as a result may counter the experienced discomfort related to adverse events. We hypothesized that health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) is comparable in women after vaginal mesh surgery regardless of the presence or absence of a mesh-specific complication. This was a cross-sectional study of 128 women who had vaginal mesh surgery in a Dutch university hospital between 2007 and 2012. HR-QoL was measured in women with and without mesh complications using standardized QoL questionnaires Urogenital Distress Inventory-6 (UDI-6), Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ), Defecation Distress Inventory (DDI), and Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Function Questionnaire (PISQ-12). Complications were scored according to the International Urogynecological Association (IUGA) complication classification. Comparisons between groups were performed with Student's t test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. In 29 (23%) women, a mesh-related complication occurred. The domain scores of the UDI-6, DDI, IIQ, and PISQ showed no statistically significant differences between women with and without a mesh-related complication. A post hoc analysis showed similar HR-QoL for those in whom the complication had been resolved and those with persistent symptoms of the complication. Mesh surgery imposes specific complications. When counseling patients about the potential adverse events related to vaginal mesh surgery, it is important to inform them that mesh-related complications do not negatively affect QoL related to micturition, defecation, and sexual functioning.

  1. Outcomes and complications of trans-vaginal mesh repair using the Prolift™ kit for pelvic organ prolapse at 4 years median follow-up in a tertiary referral centre.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zainab A; Thomas, Lee; Emery, Simon J

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the anatomical, functional and post-operative outcomes of polypropylene mesh (Prolift™) in the surgical management of pelvic organ prolapse (POP). A single-centre observational study of 106 successive patients, who underwent Prolift™ mesh repair (POP ≥ 2) with a median follow-up of 4 years, was performed. Outcomes of interest measured included patient demographics, intra and post-operative complications, concomitant procedures for POP or urinary incontinence. Using the Baden-Walker classification, grade ≥2 prolapses in the operated compartment were deemed as surgical failure. Validated questionnaires including ICIQ-VS and ICIQ-UI were used to assess functional outcome. Of the 106 patients, 56 had an anterior, 36 a posterior and 14 a total Prolift™. 101 patients were available for follow-up (median 4 years). 82 women underwent a clinical follow-up whilst 19 underwent a telephonic follow-up. Peri-operative bladder injury was noted in 2 (1.9 %) cases. Six (5.6 %) patients developed mesh exposure post-operatively. Re-operation rates for recurrent prolapse in the operated compartment were 2.8 % (n = 3). At follow-up, prolapse recurrence in the operated compartment was noted in another 7.3 % (n = 6) patients. Combining re-operations for POP and recurrences noted during follow-up, the revised failure rate was 10.1 % (n = 9). De novo prolapse in the non-operated compartment occurred in 19.5 % (n = 16) women. Our study demonstrates that Prolift™ vaginal mesh surgery offers anatomical cure rates of 89.9 %. A higher rate of de novo recurrence in the non-operated compartment was noted suggesting that surgical correction in one compartment may exacerbate recurrence in other compartments.

  2. [Analysis of mesh related complications after trans-vaginal mesh-augmented pelvic floor reconstruction surgery].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun; Han, Jin-song; Zhu, Fu-li; Yao, Ying

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the complications after trans-vaginal mesh-augmented pelvic floor reconstruction in treatment of pelvic organ prolapse (POP). From February 2007 to October 2009, vaginal mesh procedures were performed on 91 women with POP stage III-IV in Peking University Third Hospital. The operative complications were studied. Ninety patients underwent successful surgery among 91 patients. Follow-up rate was 94% (85/90) at a median follow-up of 28.4 (15 - 44) months. One patient underwent intraoperative organ injuries, and 10 patients had postoperation mesh-related complications. The rate of mesh-related complications was 2% (2/85), 2% (2/85), 4% (3/85), 4% (3/85) on 6, 6 - 12, 12 - 24 and more than 24 months following up, respectively. Seven patients underwent conservative treatment and the symptoms were improved. Three patients underwent the second surgery, and the symptoms were cured or relieved. The incidence of mesh-related complications was low, and interventions were effective in vaginal mesh procedure.

  3. Long-term outcomes of synthetic transobturator nonabsorbable anterior mesh versus anterior colporrhaphy in symptomatic, advanced pelvic organ prolapse surgery.

    PubMed

    Lo, Tsia-Shu; Pue, Leng Boi; Tan, Yiap Loong; Wu, Pei-Ying

    2014-02-01

    Anterior vaginal mesh (AVM) combined with sacrospinous ligament fixation (SSF) yields better long-term success rates over anterior colporrhaphy (AC) in advanced pelvic organ prolapse (POP) surgery, with a low rate of mesh-related complications. Medical records of 198 patients who underwent surgery for POP between January 2006 and March 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients' assessment at baseline and third-year postoperative follow-up were analyzed. SSF plus AC or AVM was performed for apical and anterior compartment repair. Primary outcome was objective cure [Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) stage ≤ 1)], and subjective cure defined as negative response to questions 2 and 3 on the POPDI-6. Secondary outcomes were complications, symptoms severity and quality of life as measured with validated questionnaires. Post-operative data were available for 186 patients, 72 in AC group and 114 in AVM group were analyzed. The mean age, parity and operating time in AVM group were significantly higher as compared to AC group. The overall objective and subjective cure rate in AVM group was significantly higher than AC group (90.3 % and 88.6 % versus 73.6 % and 70.8 %, with P value = 0.003 and 0.002 respectively). Mesh exposure rate was 3.5 %. Improvement in both POPDI-6 and PISQ-12 in AVM group was statistically significant compared to AC group. Transobturator synthetic nonabsorbable AVM combined with SSF yielded a favorable and sustainable result over 5 years as compared to traditional AC, both in anatomical and subjective success rate. Mesh related morbidities were low and acceptable.

  4. Life after pelvic organ prolapse surgery: a qualitative study in Amhara region, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gjerde, Janne L; Rortveit, Guri; Adefris, Mulat; Belayneh, Tadesse; Blystad, Astrid

    2018-05-29

    Women living in resource constrained settings often have limited knowledge of and access to surgical treatment for pelvic organ prolapse. Additionally, little is known about experiences during recovery periods or about the reintegration process for women who do gain access to medical services, including surgery. This study aimed to explore women's experiences related to recovery and reintegration after free surgical treatment for pelvic organ prolapse in a resource-constrained setting. The study had a qualitative design and used in-depth interviews in the data collection with a purposive sample of 25 participants, including 12 women with pelvic organ prolapse. Recruitment took place at the University of Gondar Hospital, Ethiopia, where women with pelvic organ prolapse had been admitted for free surgical treatment. In-depth interviews were carried out with women at the hospital prior to surgery and in their homes 5-9 months following surgery. Interviews were also conducted with health-care providers (8), representatives from relevant organizations (3), and health authorities (2). The fieldwork was carried out in close collaboration with a local female interpreter. The majority of the women experienced a transformation after prolapse surgery. They went from a life dominated by fear of disclosure, discrimination, and divorce due to what was perceived as a shameful and strongly prohibitive condition both physically and socially, to a life of gradually regained physical health and reintegration into a social life. The strong mobilization of family-networks for most of the women facilitated work-related help and social support during the immediate post-surgery period as well as on a long-term basis. The women with less extensive social networks expressed greater challenges, and some struggled to meet their basic needs. All the women openly disclosed their health condition after surgery, and several actively engaged in creating awareness about the condition. Free surgical

  5. Laser surgery in the treatment of vaginal cysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wozniak, Jakub; Dydowicz, Piotr; Opala, Tomasz; Pisarska-Krawczyk, Magdalena; Wilczak, Maciej; Pisarski, Tadeusz

    1997-10-01

    The authors described the results of treatment of vaginal cysts with CO2 laser under colposcopic control in 12 women. In five of them the recurrent Bartholin's, in another five the Gartner's and in tow the endometrial cysts were diagnosed. All laser surgeries were done in the Department of Reproduction, Institute of Gynecology, Karol Marcinkowski School of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland between September 1995 and September 1996. In the authors' opinion the use of CO2 laser is the efficient method of treatment of vaginal cysts. The most of laser procedures are doing as the one-day surgery. There are no serious postoperative complications after laser surgery.

  6. Relationship between intra-abdominal pressure and vaginal wall movements during Valsalva in women with and without pelvic organ prolapse: technique development and early observations.

    PubMed

    Spahlinger, D M; Newcomb, L; Ashton-Miller, J A; DeLancey, J O L; Chen, Luyun

    2014-07-01

    To develop and test a method for measuring the relationship between the rise in intra-abdominal pressure and sagittal plane movements of the anterior and posterior vaginal walls during Valsalva in a pilot sample of women with and without prolapse. Mid-sagittal MRI images were obtained during Valsalva while changes in intra-abdominal pressure were measured via a bladder catheter in 5 women with cystocele, 5 women with rectocele, and 5 controls. The regional compliance of the anterior and posterior vagina wall support systems were estimated from the ratio of displacement (mm) of equidistant points along the anterior and posterior vaginal walls to intra-abdominal pressure rise (mmHg). The compliance of both anterior and posterior vaginal wall support systems varied along different regions of vaginal wall for all three groups, with the highest compliance found near the vaginal apex and the lowest near the introitus. Women with cystocele had more compliant anterior and posterior vaginal wall support systems than women with rectocele. The movement direction differs between cystocele and rectocele. In cystocele, the anterior vaginal wall moves mostly toward the vaginal orifice in the upper vagina, but in a ventral direction in the lower vagina. In rectocele, the direction of the posterior vaginal wall movement is generally toward the vaginal orifice. Movement of the vaginal wall and compliance of its support is quantifiable and was found to vary along the length of the vagina. Compliance was greatest in the upper vagina of all groups. Women with cystocele demonstrated the most compliant vaginal wall support.

  7. Experimental study and constitutive modeling of the viscoelastic mechanical properties of the human prolapsed vaginal tissue.

    PubMed

    Peña, Estefania; Calvo, B; Martínez, M A; Martins, P; Mascarenhas, T; Jorge, R M N; Ferreira, A; Doblaré, M

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, the viscoelastic mechanical properties of vaginal tissue are investigated. Using previous results of the authors on the mechanical properties of biological soft tissues and newly experimental data from uniaxial tension tests, a new model for the viscoelastic mechanical properties of the human vaginal tissue is proposed. The structural model seems to be sufficiently accurate to guarantee its application to prediction of reliable stress distributions, and is suitable for finite element computations. The obtained results may be helpful in the design of surgical procedures with autologous tissue or prostheses.

  8. Between hope and fear: patient's expectations prior to pelvic organ prolapse surgery.

    PubMed

    Lawndy, Sameh S S; Withagen, Mariella I; Kluivers, Kirsten B; Vierhout, Mark E

    2011-09-01

    The aim of our study was to analyse the patient's expectations (fears and goals (hopes)) in women who are scheduled for pelvic organ prolapse (POP) surgery. All consecutive women awaiting surgery for POP in a tertiary urogynaecological centre were included. A short questionnaire with two open questions on goals and fears with regard to the operation was used. Ninety-six out of 111 distributed questionnaires (86%) were analysed. Goals and fears were categorized into five groups. De novo symptoms (63%), POP recurrence (34%) and surgical complications (29%) were the most important fears. Symptom release (96%), improved lifestyle (physical capabilities; 30%) and improved sexual life (18%) were important goals. A wide variety of expectations both positive and negative can be found in women before POP surgery and should be an integral part of preoperative counselling. Achieving the individual goals as based on expectations, positive (goals) and negative (fears), should be part of the POP surgery evaluation.

  9. [Traumatically caused prolapse of the vaginal mucosa and retroflexion of the bladder in the bitch].

    PubMed

    Arbeiter, K; Bucher, A

    1994-02-01

    Four years after having been heavily injured in the perineal region by a firearm the presented bitch showed dysuria and signs of intense irritation. Clinical and radiological examinations revealed the fact of a partial loss of the vaginal channel and supporting tissues, consequently leading to a retroflexion of the bladder into the extroverted part of the vagina. The bitch recovered completely after a plastic operation.

  10. Small Bowel Prolapse (Enterocele)

    MedlinePlus

    ... heavy lifting Being overweight or obese Pregnancy and childbirth Pregnancy and childbirth are the most common causes of pelvic organ ... of developing small bowel prolapse include: Pregnancy and childbirth. Vaginal delivery of one or more children contributes ...

  11. Procedure for prolapse and hemorrhoids vs traditional surgery for outlet obstructive constipation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ming; Yang, Bo; Liu, Yang; Liu, Qing; Wen, Hao

    2015-07-14

    To compare the clinical efficacies of two surgical procedures for hemorrhoid rectal prolapse with outlet obstruction-induced constipation. One hundred eight inpatients who underwent surgery for outlet obstructive constipation caused by internal rectal prolapse and circumferential hemorrhoids at the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University from June 2012 to June 2013 were prospectively included in the study. The patients with rectal prolapse hemorrhoids with outlet obstruction-induced constipation were randomly divided into two groups to undergo either a procedure for prolapse and hemorrhoids (PPH) (n = 54) or conventional surgery (n = 54; control group). Short-term (operative time, postoperative hospital stay, postoperative urinary retention, postoperative perianal edema, and postoperative pain) and long-term (postoperative anal stenosis, postoperative sensory anal incontinence, postoperative recurrence, and postoperative difficulty in defecation) clinical effects were compared between the two groups. The short- and long-term efficacies of the two procedures were determined. In terms of short-term clinical effects, operative time and postoperative hospital stay were significantly shorter in the PPH group than in the control group (24.36 ± 5.16 min vs 44.27 ± 6.57 min, 2.1 ± 1.4 d vs 3.6 ± 2.3 d, both P < 0.01). The incidence of postoperative urinary retention was higher in the PPH group than in the control group, but the difference was not statistically significant (48.15% vs 37.04%). The incidence of perianal edema was significantly lower in the PPH group (11.11% vs 42.60%, P < 0.05). The visual analogue scale scores at 24 h after surgery, first defecation, and one week after surgery were significantly lower in the PPH group (2.9 ± 0.9 vs 8.3 ± 1.1, 2.0 ± 0.5 vs 6.5 ± 0.8, and 1.7 ± 0.5 vs 5.0 ± 0.7, respectively, all P < 0.01). With regard to long-term clinical effects, the incidence of anal stenosis was lower in the PPH group than in

  12. Procedure for prolapse and hemorrhoids vs traditional surgery for outlet obstructive constipation

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ming; Yang, Bo; Liu, Yang; Liu, Qing; Wen, Hao

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare the clinical efficacies of two surgical procedures for hemorrhoid rectal prolapse with outlet obstruction-induced constipation. METHODS: One hundred eight inpatients who underwent surgery for outlet obstructive constipation caused by internal rectal prolapse and circumferential hemorrhoids at the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University from June 2012 to June 2013 were prospectively included in the study. The patients with rectal prolapse hemorrhoids with outlet obstruction-induced constipation were randomly divided into two groups to undergo either a procedure for prolapse and hemorrhoids (PPH) (n = 54) or conventional surgery (n = 54; control group). Short-term (operative time, postoperative hospital stay, postoperative urinary retention, postoperative perianal edema, and postoperative pain) and long-term (postoperative anal stenosis, postoperative sensory anal incontinence, postoperative recurrence, and postoperative difficulty in defecation) clinical effects were compared between the two groups. The short- and long-term efficacies of the two procedures were determined. RESULTS: In terms of short-term clinical effects, operative time and postoperative hospital stay were significantly shorter in the PPH group than in the control group (24.36 ± 5.16 min vs 44.27 ± 6.57 min, 2.1 ± 1.4 d vs 3.6 ± 2.3 d, both P < 0.01). The incidence of postoperative urinary retention was higher in the PPH group than in the control group, but the difference was not statistically significant (48.15% vs 37.04%). The incidence of perianal edema was significantly lower in the PPH group (11.11% vs 42.60%, P < 0.05). The visual analogue scale scores at 24 h after surgery, first defecation, and one week after surgery were significantly lower in the PPH group (2.9 ± 0.9 vs 8.3 ± 1.1, 2.0 ± 0.5 vs 6.5 ± 0.8, and 1.7 ± 0.5 vs 5.0 ± 0.7, respectively, all P < 0.01). With regard to long-term clinical effects, the incidence of anal stenosis was lower in

  13. The feasibility of transvaginal robotic surgery in the repair of pelvic organ prolapse.

    PubMed

    Yaghnam, Ibrahim; Thomas, Dominique; Rosenblatt, Peter; Chughtai, Bilal

    2017-08-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP), the descent of one or more pelvic organs, occurs in an estimated 40 to 60% of parous women. Conventional transvaginal surgery for POP has been plagued with high failure rates. The purpose was to determine the safety and feasibility of robotic transvaginal POP surgery. The da Vinci Surgical Robot, SI was used in the POP surgical procedures. There were two cadavers (aged 18 and 78 years of age; BMI 17.2 and 19.2 respectively). POP-Q scores before intervention were stage 1 for both cadavers. The visualization of anatomical landmarks and the placement of sutures at these locations were successful. Robotic transvaginal POP is a feasible option for POP surgery. Further studies are warranted to determine the role of robotic transvaginal POP repair.

  14. Chronic vaginocervical prolapse with visceral incarceration in a dog.

    PubMed

    McNamara, P S; Harvey, H J; Dykes, N

    1997-01-01

    A bitch was presented for a vaginal prolapse of five years' duration. The prolapse was confirmed by physical examination and evaluated by contrast radiography. Herniation of the uterine body, urinary bladder, and distal aspect of the colon was identified within the prolapse. The prolapse was reduced surgically, and an ovariohysterectomy, cystopexy, and colopexy were performed. Compared to other vaginal disorders, vaginal prolapse is an uncommon condition in the bitch. The secondary involvement of abdominal viscera appears to be exceptionally rare.

  15. Ethamsylate in vaginal surgery under lumbar epidural anaesthesia.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, G. B.; Eltringham, R. J.; Nightingale, J. J.

    1983-01-01

    Sixty patients scheduled for vaginal surgery under lumbar epidural block were randomly allocated into two groups, one of which received ethamsylate intravenously prior to induction of anaesthesia. Ethamsylate did not reduce the blood loss at operation in these patients. The possible factors underlying this observation are discussed. PMID:6338800

  16. Risk factors of surgical failure following sacrospinous colpopexy for the treatment of uterovaginal prolapse.

    PubMed

    Qatawneh, Ayman; Thekrallah, Fida; Bata, Majed; Al-Kazaleh, Fawaz; Almustafa, Mahmoud; Abu-Kader, Ilham

    2013-06-01

    Trans-vaginal sacrospinous colpopexy is one of the surgical procedures used to repair varying degrees of vaginal vault and uterovaginal prolapse. The purpose of this study is to analyse the potential risk factors of surgical failure following sacrospinous colpopexy. A retrospective study of 114 women who underwent unilateral sacrospinous colpopexy at Jordan University Hospital from January 2005 to January 2008 were included. Patient demographics, clinical characteristics and concomitant pelvic organ prolapse surgery were assessed. The patients were evaluated at 6 weeks, and every 6 months thereafter. Twelve (11 %) had recurrent apical (vaginal cuff) prolapse, 26 (23 %) had recurrent prolapse at any compartment were compared with those who had successful surgery. Univariate and logistic regression analyses were used to assess the independent prognostic values of the variables associated with surgical failure. After a mean follow-up of 40 months, the statistically significant predictors of surgical failure included the presence of advanced pre-operative stages of prolapse (stages III and IV), the more distally located points Ba, Bp and C and a lack of mesh augmentation of the anterior vaginal wall during surgery (P = 0.01, 0.027, 0.024, 0.034 and 0.006, respectively). However, a history of prior vaginal repair, the more distally located point Ba and a lack of anterior vaginal wall mesh augmentation were defined as independent predictive variables based on logistic regression analyses (P = 0.04, 0.005 and 0.046, respectively). The presence of advanced anterior vaginal wall prolapse, prior vaginal repair and a lack of mesh augmentation of the anterior compartment are significant risk factors for the surgical failure of sacrospinous suspension surgery.

  17. Mesh, graft, or standard repair for women having primary transvaginal anterior or posterior compartment prolapse surgery: two parallel-group, multicentre, randomised, controlled trials (PROSPECT).

    PubMed

    Glazener, Cathryn Ma; Breeman, Suzanne; Elders, Andrew; Hemming, Christine; Cooper, Kevin G; Freeman, Robert M; Smith, Anthony Rb; Reid, Fiona; Hagen, Suzanne; Montgomery, Isobel; Kilonzo, Mary; Boyers, Dwayne; McDonald, Alison; McPherson, Gladys; MacLennan, Graeme; Norrie, John

    2017-01-28

    95 to 2·59; p=0·08). The cumulative number of women with a mesh complication over 2 years in women actually exposed to synthetic mesh was 51 (12%) of 434. Augmentation of a vaginal repair with mesh or graft material did not improve women's outcomes in terms of effectiveness, quality of life, adverse effects, or any other outcome in the short term, but more than one in ten women had a mesh complication. Therefore, follow-up is vital to identify any longer-term potential benefits and serious adverse effects of mesh or graft reinforcement in vaginal prolapse surgery. UK National Institute of Health Research. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Static Mechanical Loading Influences the Expression of Extracellular Matrix and Cell Adhesion Proteins in Vaginal Cells Derived From Premenopausal Women With Severe Pelvic Organ Prolapse.

    PubMed

    Kufaishi, Hala; Alarab, May; Drutz, Harold; Lye, Stephen; Shynlova, Oksana

    2016-08-01

    Primary human vaginal cells derived from women with severe pelvic organ prolapse (POP-HVCs) demonstrate altered cellular characteristics as compared to cells derived from asymptomatic women (control-HVCs). Using computer-controllable Flexcell stretch unit, we examined whether POP-HVCs react differently to mechanical loading as compared to control-HVCs by the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) components, cell-ECM adhesion proteins, and ECM degrading and maturating enzymes. Vaginal tissue biopsies from premenopausal patients with Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification System stage ≥3 (n = 8) and asymptomatic controls (n = 7) were collected during vaginal hysterectomy or repair. Human vaginal cells were isolated by enzymatic digestion, seeded on collagen (COLI)-coated plates, and stretched (24 hours, 25% elongation). Total RNA was extracted, and 84 genes were screened using Human ECM and Adhesion Molecules polymerase chain reaction array; selected genes were verified by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Stretch-conditioned media (SCM) were collected and analyzed by protein array, immunoblotting, and zymography. In mechanically stretched control-HVCs, transcript levels of integrins (ITGA1, ITGA4, ITGAV, and ITGB1) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 2, 8, and 13 were downregulated (P < .05); in POP-HVCs, MMP1, MMP3, and MMP10, ADAMTS8 and 13, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) 1 to 3, ITGA2, ITGA4, ITGA6, ITGB1, contactin (CNTN1), catenins (A1 and B1), and laminins (A3 and C1) were significantly upregulated, whereas COLs (1, 4, 5, 6, 11, and 12) and LOXL1 were downregulated. Human vaginal cells massively secrete MMPs and TIMPs proteins; MMP1, MMP8, MMP9 protein expression and MMP2 gelatinase activity were increased, whereas TIMP2 decreased in SCM from POP-HVCs compared to control-HVCs. Primary human vaginal cells derived from women with severe pelvic organ prolapse and control-HVCs react differentially to in vitro

  19. [Study on reductive surgery for pelvic organ prolapse concomitant with anti-incontinence sling for treatment of occult stress urinary incontinence].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaolong; Lu, Yongxian; Shen, Wenjie; Liu, Jingxia; Ge, Jing; Liu, Xin; Zhao, Ying; Niu, Ke; Zhang, Yinghui; Wang, Wenying; Qiu, Chengli

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical outcome of anti-incontinence sling in the treatment of occult stress urinary incontinence (OSUI) during reductive surgery for advanced pelvic organ prolapse (POP). From Jun. 2003 to Dec. 2012, 78 patients with OSUI underwent reductive surgery for advanced POP such as high uterosacral ligament suspension, sacrospinous ligament suspension and sacral colpopexy in the First Affiliated Hospital, General Hospital of People's Liberation Army. Among them, 41 patients received reductive surgery alone was enrolled in non-concomitant anti-incontinence group and the other 37 patients who underwent same surgery with tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) or tension-free vaginal tape-obturator technique (TVT-O) was in anti-incontinence group. The patient's demography, objective and subjective outcomes, as well as complications and injures were compared between the two groups. The pelvic organ prolapse quantitation (POP-Q) was used to evaluate the objective outcomes of POP. Urinary distress inventory (UDI-6) and incontinence impact questionnaire short form (IIQ-7) were used to evaluate the subjective outcomes of stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Compared with the non-concomitant anti-incontinence group, the objective outcomes of reductive surgery exhibited no significant differences (100%, 78/78), and only the operation time of anti-incontinence group slightly increased 16 minutes. The occurrence rate of postoperative SUI was 12% (5/41), 15% (6/41), 17% (7/41) respectively after the operation at 2-month, 6-month and 12-month follow up in the non-concomitant anti-incontinence group; and the occurrence rate of the anti-incontinence group was 3% (1/37), 3% (1/37), 3% (1/37); but none of patients in the two groups require further surgery for stress urinary incontinence. Mean score of UDI-6 and IIQ-7 in all the patients decreased significantly after operation at 2-month, 6-month and 12-month follow up (all P < 0.01). However, there was no statistic difference

  20. Results of surgical excision of urethral prolapse in symptomatic patients.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mary E; Oyesanya, Tola; Cameron, Anne P

    2017-11-01

    Here, we present the clinical presentation and surgical outcomes of women with symptomatic urethral prolapse presenting to our institution over 20 years, and seek to provide treatment recommendations for management of symptomatic urethral prolapse and caruncle. A retrospective review of medical records from female patients who underwent surgery for symptomatic urethral prolapse from June 1995 to August 2015 was performed. Surgical technique consisted of a four-quadrant excisional approach for repair of urethral prolapse. A total of 26 patients were identified with a mean age of 38.8 years (range 3-81). The most common presentations were vaginal bleeding, hematuria, pain, and dysuria. All patients underwent surgical excision of urethral prolapse via a standard approach. Follow-up data was available in 24 patients. Six patients experienced temporary postoperative bleeding, and one patient required placement of a Foley catheter for tamponade. One patient experienced temporary postoperative urinary retention requiring Foley catheter placement. Three patients had visible recurrence of urethral prolapse, for which one later underwent re-excision. Surgical excision of urethral prolapse is a reasonable treatment option in patients who have tried conservative management without relief, as well as in those who present with severe symptoms. Possible complications following excision include postoperative bleeding and recurrence, and patients must be counseled accordingly. In this work, we propose a treatment algorithm for symptomatic urethral prolapse. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of surgical options for the management of anterior and/or posterior vaginal wall prolapse: two randomised controlled trials within a comprehensive cohort study - results from the PROSPECT Study.

    PubMed

    Glazener, Cathryn; Breeman, Suzanne; Elders, Andrew; Hemming, Christine; Cooper, Kevin; Freeman, Robert; Smith, Anthony; Hagen, Suzanne; Montgomery, Isobel; Kilonzo, Mary; Boyers, Dwayne; McDonald, Alison; McPherson, Gladys; MacLennan, Graeme; Norrie, John

    2016-12-01

    The use of mesh in prolapse surgery is controversial, leading to a number of enquiries into its safety and efficacy. To compare synthetic non-absorbable mesh inlay, biological graft and mesh kit with a standard repair in terms of clinical effectiveness, adverse effects, quality of life (QoL), costs and cost-effectiveness. Two randomised controlled trials within a comprehensive cohort (CC) study. Allocation was by a remote web-based randomisation system in a 1 :1 : 1 ratio (Primary trial) or 1 : 1 : 2 ratio (Secondary trial), and was minimised on age, type of prolapse repair planned, need for a concomitant continence procedure, need for a concomitant upper vaginal prolapse procedure and surgeon. Participants and outcome assessors were blinded to randomisation; participants were unblinded if they requested the information. Surgeons were not blinded to allocated procedure. Thirty-five UK hospitals. Primary study : 2474 women in the analysis (including 1348 randomised) having primary anterior or posterior prolapse surgery. Secondary study : 398 in the analysis (including 154 randomised) having repeat anterior or posterior prolapse surgery. CC3 : 215 women having either uterine or vault prolapse repair. Anterior or posterior repair alone, or with mesh inlay, biological graft or mesh kit. Prolapse symptoms [Pelvic Organ Prolapse Symptom Score (POP-SS)]; prolapse-specific QoL; cost-effectiveness [incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY)]. Primary trials : adjusting for baseline and minimisation covariates, mean POP-SS was similar for each comparison {standard 5.4 [standard deviation (SD) 5.5] vs. mesh 5.5 (SD 5.1), mean difference (MD) 0.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.70 to 0.71; standard 5.5 (SD 5.6) vs. graft 5.6 (SD 5.6), MD -0.15, 95% CI -0.93 to 0.63}. Serious non-mesh adverse effects rates were similar between the groups in year 1 [standard 7.2% vs. mesh 7.8%, risk ratio (RR) 1.08, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.72; standard 6.3% vs. graft 9.8%, RR 1

  2. Cumulative Incidence of a Subsequent Surgery After Stress Urinary Incontinence and Pelvic Organ Prolapse Procedure.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jennifer M; Dieter, Alexis A; Pate, Virginia; Jonsson Funk, Michele

    2017-06-01

    To assess the 5-year risk and timing of repeat stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and pelvic organ prolapse (POP) procedures. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using a nationwide database, the 2007-2014 MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters and Medicare Supplemental Databases (Truven Health Analytics), which contain deidentified health care claims data from approximately 150 employer-based insurance plans across the United States. We included women aged 18-84 years and used Current Procedural Terminology codes to identify surgeries for SUI and POP. We identified index procedures for SUI or POP after at least 3 years of continuous enrollment without a prior procedure. We defined three groups of women based on the index procedure: 1) SUI surgery only; 2) POP surgery only; and 3) Both SUI+POP surgery. We assessed the occurrence of a subsequent SUI or POP procedure over time for women younger than 65 years and 65 years or older with a median follow-up time of 2 years (interquartile range 1-4). We identified a total of 138,003 index procedures: SUI only n=48,196, POP only n=49,120, and both SUI+POP n=40,687. The overall cumulative incidence of a subsequent SUI or POP surgery within 5 years after any index procedure was 7.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 7.6-8.1) for women younger than 65 years and 9.9% (95% CI 9.4-10.4) for women 65 years or older. The cumulative incidence was lower if the initial surgery was SUI only and higher if an initial POP procedure was performed, whether POP only or SUI+POP. The 5-year risk of undergoing a repeat SUI or POP surgery was less than 10% with higher risks for women 65 years or older and for those who underwent an initial POP surgery.

  3. Exploring the umbilical and vaginal port during minimally invasive surgery.

    PubMed

    Tinelli, Andrea; Tsin, Daniel A; Forgione, Antonello; Zorron, Ricardo; Dapri, Giovanni; Malvasi, Antonio; Benhidjeb, Tahar; Sparic, Radmila; Nezhat, Farr

    2017-09-01

    This article focuses on the anatomy, literature, and our own experiences in an effort to assist in the decision-making process of choosing between an umbilical or vaginal port. Umbilical access is more familiar to general surgeons; it is thicker than the transvaginal entry, and has more nerve endings and sensory innervations. This combination increases tissue damage and pain in the umbilical port site. The vaginal route requires prophylactic antibiotics, a Foley catheter, and a period of postoperative sexual abstinence. Removal of large specimens is a challenge in traditional laparoscopy. Recently, there has been increased interest in going beyond traditional laparoscopy by using the navel in single-incision and port-reduction techniques. The benefits for removal of surgical specimens by colpotomy are not new. There is increasing interest in techniques that use vaginotomy in multifunctional ways, as described under the names of culdolaparoscopy, minilaparoscopy-assisted natural orifice surgery, and natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery. Both the navel and the transvaginal accesses are safe and convenient to use in the hands of experienced laparoscopic surgeons. The umbilical site has been successfully used in laparoscopy as an entry and extraction port. Vaginal entry and extraction is associated with a lower risk of incisional hernias, less postoperative pain, and excellent cosmetic results.

  4. Role of robotics in managing mesh and suture complications of prior pelvic organ prolapse surgery.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Michael N; O'Sullivan, Orfhlaith E; O'Reilly, Barry A

    2017-03-01

    Robotic surgery is proving essential in providing a minimally invasive approach to complex urogynaecological cases. This video highlights the diversity and complexity of cases performed using the robot-assisted approach. The robot-assisted approach was utilised for excellent effect in two complex urogynaecological cases. In the first case the entire left arm of an intravesically placed TVT was removed using a combined vaginal and robotic approach. The second case involved removing four paravaginal sutures, one of which breeched the bladder and was encrusted with calculus. These were placed during a laparoscopic paravaginal repair 2 years previously. She had a concomitant vaginal hysterectomy, Mc Calls culdoplasty and anterior wall repair. The robot-assisted approach allows for excellent access to the pelvis and retropubic space facilitating the surgical management of complex urogynaecology cases.

  5. Commercial pressures and professional ethics: troubling revisions to the recent ACOG Practice Bulletins on surgery for pelvic organ prolapse.

    PubMed

    Wall, L Lewis; Brown, Douglas

    2009-07-01

    Commercial interests are reshaping the practice of gynecological surgery by promoting the use of trochar-and-mesh surgical "kits" for the treatment of stress incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse. In this article, we discuss the ethical implications of changes in surgical practice that are driven by commercial interests. We point out the dangers inherent in the adoption of new procedures without adequate and documented evidence to support their safety and efficacy. We discuss the most recent American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) Practice Bulletins on pelvic organ prolapse (numbers 79 and 85) which were altered without explanation to downplay the experimental nature of these commercial products. We suggest that in so doing, ACOG is not meeting its fiduciary responsibilities to patients and is undermining important professional values.

  6. A systematic review of online resources to support patient decision-making for full-thickness rectal prolapse surgery.

    PubMed

    Fowler, G E; Baker, D M; Lee, M J; Brown, S R

    2017-11-01

    The internet is becoming an increasingly popular resource to support patient decision-making outside of the clinical encounter. The quality of online health information is variable and largely unregulated. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of online resources to support patient decision-making for full-thickness rectal prolapse surgery. This systematic review was registered on the PROSPERO database (CRD42017058319). Searches were performed on Google and specialist decision aid repositories using a pre-defined search strategy. Sources were analysed according to three measures: (1) their readability using the Flesch-Kincaid Reading Ease score, (2) DISCERN score and (3) International Patient Decision Aids Standards (IPDAS) minimum standards criteria score (IPDASi, v4.0). Overall, 95 sources were from Google and the specialist decision aid repositories. There were 53 duplicates removed, and 18 sources did not meet the pre-defined eligibility criteria, leaving 24 sources included in the full-text analysis. The mean Flesch-Kincaid Reading Ease score was higher than recommended for patient education materials (48.8 ± 15.6, range 25.2-85.3). Overall quality of sources supporting patient decision-making for full-thickness rectal prolapse surgery was poor (median DISCERN score 1/5 ± 1.18, range 1-5). No sources met minimum decision-making standards (median IPDASi score 5/12 ± 2.01, range 1-8). Currently, easily accessible online health information to support patient decision-making for rectal surgery is of poor quality, difficult to read and does not support shared decision-making. It is recommended that professional bodies and medical professionals seek to develop decision aids to support decision-making for full-thickness rectal prolapse surgery.

  7. Does pelvic floor muscle training augment the effect of surgery in women with pelvic organ prolapse? A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng-Wa; Wei, Fen; Wang, Hai-Lin; Pan, Yuan-Qing; Zhen, Jie-Yu; Zhang, Jv-Xia; Yang, Ke-Hu

    2016-08-01

    Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) is often used as a treatment for pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and can improve function. However, the effectiveness of this modality as an adjunct to prolapse surgery for women with POP is unknown. To evaluate whether the use of pelvic floor muscle training as an adjunct to prolapse surgery is superior to surgery alone for women with pelvic organ prolapse. We searched PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and the Web of Science from their inception dates to June 30, 2014 for data describing randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compare the efficacy of PFMT with or without lifestyle modification plus surgery versus surgery alone for women with POP. Additional relevant studies were identified by searching the references of retrieved articles and using Google Scholar. Two investigators independently reviewed and selected relevant studies that met the pre-specified inclusion criteria, extracted the data, and assessed the risk of bias in the included studies according to the Cochrane Handbook, version 5.1.0. Due to great heterogeneity in the choice and reporting of outcome measures and the different durations of follow-up among the studies, this analysis is confined to a qualitative systematic review. Five RCTs involving 591 women were reviewed (treatment group [TG], 292 cases; control group [CG], 299 cases). Generally, the five RCTs exhibited low risk of bias. This study indicated no significant improvement in prolapse symptoms, in quality of life, or in the degree of prolapse for women with POP in the TG compared to those in the CG. Insufficient evidence was found to support adding perioperative PFMT to surgery over the use of surgery alone in women undergoing surgery for POP. Adequately, powered RCTs with longer follow-up periods are required to evaluate the long-term effect of perioperative PFMT. Neurourol. Urodynam. 35:666-674, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Tailored prolapse surgery for the treatment of haemorrhoids and obstructed defecation syndrome with a new dedicated device: TST STARR Plus.

    PubMed

    Naldini, Gabriele; Martellucci, Jacopo; Rea, Roberto; Lucchini, Stefano; Schiano di Visconte, Michele; Caviglia, Angelo; Menconi, Claudia; Ren, Donglin; He, Ping; Mascagni, Domenico

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the safety, efficacy and feasibility of stapled transanal procedures performed by a new dedicated device, TST STARR Plus, for tailored transanal stapled surgery. All the consecutive patients admitted to eight referral centres affected by prolapses with III-IV degrees haemorrhoids or obstructed defecation syndrome (ODS) with rectocele and/or rectal intussusception that underwent stapled transanal resection with TST STARR plus were included in the present study. Haemostatic stitches for bleeding of the suture line, specimen volume, operative time, hospital stay and perioperative complications were recorded. From 1 November 2012 to 31 March 2013, 160 consecutive patients (96 females) were enrolled in the study. In 94 patients, the prolapse was over the half of the circular anal dilator (CAD). The mean duration of the procedure was 25 min. The mean resected volume of the specimen was 13.3 cm(3), the mean hospital stay was 2.2 days. In 88 patients (55%), additional stitches on the suture line were needed (mean 2.1). Suture line dehiscence was reported in four cases, with intraoperative reinforcement. Bleeding was reported in seven patients (5%). Urgency after 30 days was reported in one patient. No major complication occurred. The new device seems to be safe and effective for a tailored approach to anorectal prolapse due to haemorrhoids or obstructed defecation.

  9. Vaginal disorders.

    PubMed

    Soderberg, S F

    1986-05-01

    Chronic vaginitis is the most common vaginal disorder. Dogs with vaginitis show no signs of systemic illness but often lick at the vulva and have purulent or hemorrhagic vaginal discharges. Vaginitis is most commonly secondary to a noninfectious inciting factor such as congenital vaginal anomalies, clitoral hypertrophy, foreign bodies, trauma to the vaginal mucosa, or vaginal tumors. Inspection of the caudal vagina and vestibule both visually and digitally will often reveal the source of vaginal irritation. Vaginal cytology is used to establish the stage of the estrous cycle as well as distinguish uterine from vaginal sources of discharge. Vaginal cultures are used to establish the predominant offending organism associated with vaginal discharges and may be used as a guide for selection of a therapeutic agent. Vaginitis is best managed by removing the inciting cause and treating the area locally with antiseptic douches. Congenital malformations at the vestibulovaginal or vestibulovulvar junction may prevent normal intromission. Affected bitches may be reluctant to breed naturally because of pain. Such defects are detected best by digital examination. Congenital vaginal defects may be corrected by digital or surgical means. Prolapse of tissue through the lips of the vulva may be caused by clitoral hypertrophy, vaginal hyperplasia, or vaginal tumors. Enlargement of clitoral tissue is the result of endogenous or exogenous sources of androgens. Treatment of this condition includes removal of the androgen source and/or surgical removal of clitoral tissue. Vaginal hyperplasia is detected during proestrus or estrus of young bitches. Hyperplastic tissue will regress during diestrus. Tissue that is excessively traumatized and/or prolapse of the entire vaginal circumference may be removed surgically. Ovariohysterectomy may be used to prevent recurrence. Vaginal tumors are detected most often in older intact bitches. Such tumors are generally of smooth muscle or fibrous

  10. The Effect of Resident Involvement in Pelvic Prolapse Surgery: A Retrospective Study From a Nationwide Inpatient Sample.

    PubMed

    Caveney, Maxx; Matthews, Catherine; Mirzazadeh, Majid

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the effect of resident involvement on perioperative complication rates in pelvic organ prolapse surgery using the National Surgical Quality Improvement database. All pelvic organ prolapse operations from 2006 to 2012 were identified and dichotomized by resident participation. Preoperative characteristics and 30-day perioperative outcomes were compared using χ and Student t test. To control for nonrandomization of cases, propensity scores representing the probability of resident involvement as a function of a case's comorbidities were calculated. They were then divided into quartiles, and because of equal probabilities for the first and second quartiles, 3 groups were created (Q1/2, Q3, and Q4), followed by substratification and analysis. As a control, complications of transurethral resection of prostate and nephrectomy were dichotomized by resident involvement. We identified 2637 cases. Resident involvement was associated with increased postoperative urinary tract infections, perioperative complications, and procedure length. After stratification by propensity scoring, the following unique findings occurred in each group: in the first group, resident involvement was associated with increased rates of readmission, pulmonary embolism, and sepsis; in the second and third groups, resident involvement was associated with increased rates of superficial surgical site infection. Resident involvement in nephrectomy observed increased perioperative complications and procedural length. In prostate resection, increased procedure lengths and decreased postoperative length of stay were observed. Resident involvement in pelvic organ prolapse surgery was associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes. A similar effect was seen with nephrectomy but not with a more simple endoscopic urologic procedure.

  11. Lymphangiosarcoma in a 3.5-year-old Bullmastiff bitch with vaginal prolapse, primary lymph node fibrosis and other congenital defects.

    PubMed

    Williams, J H; Birrell, J; Van Wilpe, E

    2005-09-01

    Lymphangiosarcoma is an extremely rare tumour in dogs with only 16 cases reported in the literature. Lymphoedema, which may be primary due to defects in the lymphatic system, or secondary to various other pathologies, often precedes malignancy. Of the 16 canine reports, only 1 dog was confirmed as having had prior primary lymphoedema due to aplasia of the popliteal lymph nodes. A case of lymphangiosarcoma is described in a 3.5-year-old purebred, Bullmastiff bitch which presented with vaginal blood 'spotting' for 3 weeks after cessation of oestrus, during which intromission by the male had been unsuccessful. During ovariohysterectomy a large multicystic, proliferative, spongy, fluid-filled, brownish-red mass surrounding the cervix and projecting into the abdominal space was removed with the cervix, and a diagnosis of lymphangiosarcoma made on histological and electron microscopic examination of the tissue. Ultrastructurally, no basement membrane or pericytes were found, only some of the neoplastic endothelial cells were linked by tight junctions while there were gaps between others, and neither micropinocytotic vesicles nor Weibel-Palade bodies occurred in the cells examined. Very few of the endothelial cells lining the many interlinking, tortuous maze of channels, stained slightly positive immunohistochemically for factor VIII-related antigen. The channels were filled mostly with serous fluid, and occasionally mixed leucocytes and some erythrocytes. The endothelium was often associated with underlying blocks of collagenous material, as well as loosely-arranged aggregates of lymphocytes, other mononuclear cells and occasional neutrophils in the connective tissue septae and more prominently perivascularly. The bitch was discharged on antibiotic treatment but returned 2 weeks later with apparent prolapsed vagina which failed to reduce over the next week. Laparotomy revealed the tumour to have spread extensively in the caudal abdomen to involve the broad ligament and

  12. Transvaginal prolapse repair with or without the addition of a midurethral sling in women with genital prolapse and stress urinary incontinence: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    van der Ploeg, J M; Oude Rengerink, K; van der Steen, A; van Leeuwen, J H S; Stekelenburg, J; Bongers, M Y; Weemhoff, M; Mol, B W; van der Vaart, C H; Roovers, J-P W R

    2015-06-01

    To compare transvaginal prolapse repair combined with midurethral sling (MUS) versus prolapse repair only. Multi-centre randomised trial. Fourteen teaching hospitals in the Netherlands. Women with symptomatic stage two or greater pelvic organ prolapse (POP), and subjective or objective stress urinary incontinence (SUI) without prolapse reduction. Women were randomly assigned to undergo vaginal prolapse repair with or without MUS. Analysis was according to intention to treat. The primary outcome at 12 months' follow-up was the absence of urinary incontinence (UI) assessed with the Urogenital Distress Inventory and treatment for SUI or overactive bladder. Secondary outcomes included complications. One hundred and thirty-four women were analysed at 12 months' follow-up (63 in MUS and 71 in control group). More women in the MUS group reported the absence of UI and SUI; respectively 62% versus 30% UI (relative risk [RR] 2.09; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.39-3.15) and 78% versus 39% SUI (RR 1.97; 95% CI 1.44-2.71). Fewer women underwent treatment for postoperative SUI in the MUS group (10% versus 37%; RR 0.26; 95% CI 0.11-0.59). In the control group, 12 women (17%) underwent MUS after prolapse surgery versus none in the MUS group. Severe complications were more common in the MUS group, but the difference was not statistically significant (16% versus 6%; RR 2.82; 95% CI 0.93-8.54). Women with prolapse and co-existing SUI are less likely to have SUI after transvaginal prolapse repair with MUS compared with prolapse repair only. However, only 17% of the women undergoing POP surgery needed additional MUS. A well-informed decision balancing risks and benefits of both strategies should be tailored to individual women. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  13. Definitions of apical vaginal support loss: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Meister, Melanie R L; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Lowder, Jerry L

    2017-03-01

    We sought to identify and summarize definitions of apical support loss utilized for inclusion, success, and failure in surgical trials for treatment of apical vaginal prolapse. Pelvic organ prolapse is a common condition affecting more than 3 million women in the US, and the prevalence is increasing. Prolapse may occur in the anterior compartment, posterior compartment or at the apex. Apical support is considered paramount to overall female pelvic organ support, yet apical support loss is often underrecognized and there are no guidelines for when an apical support procedure should be performed or incorporated into a procedure designed to address prolapse. A systematic literature search was performed in 8 search engines: PubMed 1946-, Embase 1947-, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Database of Abstracts of Review Effects, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ClinicalTrials.gov, Proquest Dissertations and Theses, and FirstSearch Proceedings, using key words for apical pelvic organ prolapse and apical suspension procedures through April 2016. Searches were limited to human beings using human filters and articles published in English. Study authors (M.R.L.M., J.L.L.) independently reviewed publications for inclusion based on predefined variables. Articles were eligible for inclusion if they satisfied any of the following criteria: (1) apical support loss was an inclusion criterion in the original study, (2) apical support loss was a surgical indication, or (3) an apical support procedure was performed as part of the primary surgery. A total of 4469 publications were identified. After review, 35 articles were included in the analysis. Prolapse-related inclusion criteria were: (1) apical prolapse (n = 20, 57.1%); (2) overall prolapse (n = 8, 22.8%); or (3) both (n = 6, 17.1%). Definitions of apical prolapse (relative to the hymen) included: (1) apical prolapse >-1 cm (n = 13, 50.0%); (2) apical prolapse >+1 cm (n = 7, 26.9%); (3) apical

  14. Uterine Prolapse

    MedlinePlus

    ... during bowel movements Family history of weakness in connective tissue Being Hispanic or white Complications Uterine prolapse is ... You might experience: Anterior prolapse (cystocele). Weakness of connective tissue separating the bladder and vagina may cause the ...

  15. Vaginitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... discharge usually is thin and dark or dull gray, but may have a greenish color. Itching is ... trichomoniasis? Signs of trichomoniasis may include a yellow-gray or green vaginal discharge. The discharge may have ...

  16. Study comparing 3 hour and 24 hour post-operative removal of bladder catheter and vaginal pack following vaginal surgery: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Priya; Soundara Raghavan, S; Sharma, Deepak

    2017-09-11

    Traditional practice after vaginal hysterectomy was to keep the vaginal pack and urinary catheter for 24 hours post operatively. But there were studies that prolonged cathterisation was associated with urinary infection. So this study was conducted to compare the post operative outcome when the urinary catheter and vaginal pack were removed after 3 hours and after 24 hours after surgery. The study was done in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, in a tertiary teaching institute of South India from September 2008 to March 2010. It was a randomised controlled trial involving 200 women undergoing vaginal surgery, who were randomly assigned to 2 groups - catheter and vaginal pack were removed either in 3 h in study group or were removed in 24 h in control group. The outcome of the study were vaginal bleeding, urinary retention, febrile morbidity, and urinary infection. There was no significant difference between the study and control groups with respect to vaginal bleeding (0 and 1%, p = 1), urinary retention (9 and 4%, p = 0.15), febrile morbidity (7 and 4%, p = 0.35), and urinary infection (26% in each group, p = 1.0). Keeping the urinary catheter and vaginal pack for 24 h following vaginal surgery does not offer any additional benefit against removing them after 3 h.

  17. Cross-linked xenogenic collagen implantation in the sheep model for vaginal surgery.

    PubMed

    Endo, Masayuki; Urbankova, Iva; Vlacil, Jaromir; Sengupta, Siddarth; Deprest, Thomas; Klosterhalfen, Bernd; Feola, Andrew; Deprest, Jan

    The properties of meshes used in reconstructive surgery affect the host response and biomechanical characteristics of the grafted tissue. Whereas durable synthetics induce a chronic inflammation, biological grafts are usually considered as more biocompatible. The location of implantation is another determinant of the host response: the vagina is a different environment with specific function and anatomy. Herein, we evaluated a cross-linked acellular collagen matrix (ACM), pretreated by the anti-calcification procedure ADAPT® in a sheep model for vaginal surgery. Ten sheep were implanted with a cross-linked ACM, and six controls were implanted with a polypropylene (PP; 56 g/m 2 ) control. One implant was inserted in the lower rectovaginal septum, and one was used for abdominal wall defect reconstruction. Grafts were removed after 180 days; all graft-related complications were recorded, and explants underwent bi-axial tensiometry and contractility testing. Half of ACM-implanted animals had palpable induration in the vaginal implantation area, two of these also on the abdominal implant. One animal had a vaginal exposure. Vaginal ACMs were 63 % less stiff compared to abdominal ACM explants ( p  = 0.01) but comparable to vaginal PP explants. Seven anterior vaginal ACM explants showed areas of graft degradation on histology. There was no overall difference in vaginal contractility. Considering histologic degradation in the anterior vaginal implant as representative for the host, posterior ACM explants of animals with degradation had a 60 % reduced contractility as compared to PP ( p  = 0.048). Three abdominal implants showed histologic degradation; those were more compliant than non-degraded implants. Vaginal implantation with ACM was associated with graft-related complications (GRCs) and biomechanical properties comparable to PP. Partially degraded ACM had a decreased vaginal contractility.

  18. Delayed vaginal and urethral mesh exposure: 10 years after TVT surgery.

    PubMed

    Khanuengkitkong, Siwatchaya; Lo, Tsia-Shu; Dass, Anil Krishna

    2013-03-01

    Delayed mesh exposure after tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure is rare. We report a case of mesh exposure into the vagina and urethra that developed 10 years after TVT surgery. A 58-year-old postmenopausal woman presented with mixed urinary incontinence. She was investigated, and her stress urinary incontinence was cured with a TVT procedure 10 years ago. She was then scheduled follow-up annually. Two years postsurgery, a granulation tissue was observed and excised at the vaginal incision site. Vaginal examination 10 years postsurgery showed vaginal mesh erosion 0.5 cm from urethral meatus. Cystoscopy revealed concomitant urethral erosion at the posterior urethral wall. Mesh excision was performed, and urethra and vagina were repaired in layers. Postoperative recovery was uneventful. This finding shows that, although rare, complications can occur even after 10 years of TVT surgery.

  19. Vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, E G

    1985-06-01

    Vaginitis is one of the most common complaints of women in the United States today. About 90% of patients with this problem suffer from infection of the vagina caused by Candida, Gardnerella, or Trichomonas. The diagnosis and effective treatment of these common infections depend on accurate identification of the entity, effective specific therapy, and restoration of the normal ecosystem of the vagina. At the same time women should be made aware that not all discharge means infection and that any attempts at self-treatment may only worsen their condition. Proper hygiene habits, dietary control, and management of stress are all helpful factors in the control of recurrent vaginal infections.

  20. Laparoscopic correction of right transverse colostomy prolapse.

    PubMed

    Gundogdu, Gokhan; Topuz, Ufuk; Umutoglu, Tarik

    2013-08-01

    Colostomy prolapse is a frequently seen complication of transverse colostomy. In one child with recurrent stoma prolapse, we performed a loop-to-loop fixation and peritoneal tethering laparoscopically. No prolapse had recurred at follow-up. Laparoscopic repair of transverse colostomy prolapse seems to be a less invasive method than other techniques. © 2013 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Evaluation of a transvaginal mesh delivery system for the correction of pelvic organ prolapse: subjective and objective findings at least 1 year after surgery.

    PubMed

    Culligan, Patrick J; Littman, Paul M; Salamon, Charbel G; Priestley, Jennifer L; Shariati, Amir

    2010-11-01

    We sought to track objective and subjective outcomes ≥1 year after transvaginal mesh system to correct prolapse. This was a retrospective cohort study of 120 women who received a transvaginal mesh procedure (Avaulta Solo, CR Bard Inc, Covington, GA). Outcomes were pelvic organ prolapse quantification values; Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory, Short Form 20/Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire, Short Form 7 scores; and a surgical satisfaction survey. "Surgical failure" was defined as pelvic organ prolapse quantification point >0, and/or any reports of vaginal bulge. Of 120 patients, 116 (97%) were followed up for a mean of 14.4 months (range, 12-30). In all, 74 patients had only anterior mesh, 21 only posterior mesh, and 21 both meshes. Surgical cure rate was 81%. Surgical failure was more common if preoperative point C ≥+2 (35% vs 16%; P = .04). Mesh erosion and de novo pain occurred in 11.7% and 3.3%, respectively. Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory, Short Form 20/Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire, Short Form 7 scores improved (P < .01). Objective and subjective improvements occurred at ≥1 year, yet failure rates were high when preoperative point C was ≥+2. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Intraoperative cervix location and apical support stiffness in women with and without pelvic organ prolapse.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Carolyn W; Smith, Tovia M; Luo, Jiajia; Kolenic, Giselle E; Ashton-Miller, James A; DeLancey, John O

    2017-02-01

    It is unknown how initial cervix location and cervical support resistance to traction, which we term "apical support stiffness," compare in women with different patterns of pelvic organ support. Defining a normal range of apical support stiffness is important to better understand the pathophysiology of apical support loss. The aims of our study were to determine whether: (1) women with normal apical support on clinic Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification, but with vaginal wall prolapse (cystocele and/or rectocele), have the same intraoperative cervix location and apical support stiffness as women with normal pelvic support; and (2) all women with apical prolapse have abnormal intraoperative cervix location and apical support stiffness. A third objective was to identify clinical and biomechanical factors independently associated with clinic Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification point C. We conducted an observational study of women with a full spectrum of pelvic organ support scheduled to undergo gynecologic surgery. All women underwent a preoperative clinic examination, including Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification. Cervix starting location and the resistance (stiffness) of its supports to being moved steadily in the direction of a traction force that increased from 0-18 N was measured intraoperatively using a computer-controlled servoactuator device. Women were divided into 3 groups for analysis according to their pelvic support as classified using the clinic Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification: (1) "normal/normal" was women with normal apical (C < -5 cm) and vaginal (Ba and Bp < 0 cm) support; (2) normal/prolapse had normal apical support (C < -5 cm) but prolapse of the anterior or posterior vaginal walls (Ba and/or Bp ≥ 0 cm); and (3) prolapse/prolapse had both apical and vaginal wall prolapse (C > -5 cm and Ba and/or Bp ≥ 0 cm). Demographics, intraoperative cervix locations, and apical support stiffness values were then compared. Normal range of cervix

  3. Assessment of hot flushes and vaginal dryness among obese women undergoing bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Goughnour, S L; Thurston, R C; Althouse, A D; Freese, K E; Edwards, R P; Hamad, G G; McCloskey, C; Ramanathan, R; Bovbjerg, D H; Linkov, F

    2016-01-01

    Menopausal symptoms are associated with a negative impact on the quality of life, leading women to seek medical treatment. Obesity has been linked to higher levels of menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes. This assessment will explore whether the prevalence and bother of hot flushes and vaginal dryness change from pre- to post-bariatric surgery among obese midlife women. This study is a longitudinal analysis of data from 69 women (ages 35-72 years) undergoing bariatric surgery with reported reproductive histories and menopausal symptoms at preoperative and 6-month postoperative visits. Prevalence of and degree of bother of hot flushes and vaginal dryness at pre- and post-surgery were compared using McNemar's test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The reported degree of bother of symptoms associated with hot flushes decreased from pre- to post-surgery (p < 0.01). There was no significant change in the prevalence of hot flushes or vaginal dryness in the overall study sample. The degree of bother of symptoms associated with hot flushes among midlife women may decrease after bariatric surgery. These results highlight important secondary gains, including less bothersome menopausal symptoms, for women who choose bariatric surgery for weight loss.

  4. Reality of the G-spot and its relation to female circumcision and vaginal surgery.

    PubMed

    Thabet, Saeed Mohamad Ahmad

    2009-10-01

    To clarify the reality of the G-spot anatomically, functionally and histologically, and to determine the possible effect of female circumcision and anterior vaginal wall surgery on the integrity and function of the G-spot. A controlled descriptive and comparative cohort prospective study was conducted at Kasr El Aini School of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt, of 50 uncircumcised and 125 circumcised women with small to moderate anterior vaginal wall descent. Preoperative sexual examination was performed to map the site of the G-spot and other anatomical landmarks on the anterior vaginal wall and to verify the associated circumcision state. Pre- and postoperative sexual assessment and histological examination of different mapped sites in the anterior vagina were also conducted. Histological findings, results of the anatomical and sexual mapping of the anterior vaginal wall and sexual scores were recorded. The G-spot was proved functionally in 144 (82.3%) of women and anatomically in 95 (65.9%). The latter appeared as two small flaccid balloon-like masses on either side of the lower third of the urethra and were named 'the sexual bodies of the G-spot'. These bodies were significantly detected in all histo-positive cases in the circumcised women and in the uncircumcised women who had small or average clitorises. The G-spot was also proved histologically in 47.4% of all cases and was formed of epithelial, glandular and erectile tissue. Sex scores were significantly higher in the histo-positive cases with sexual bodies but significantly dropped after anterior vaginal wall surgery. In contrast, female circumcision rarely alters the scores. The G-spot is functional reality in 82.3% of women, an anatomical reality in 54.3% and a histological reality in 47.4%. Anterior vaginal wall surgery usually affects the G-spot and female sexuality, but female circumcision rarely affects them.

  5. Is vaginal mesh a stimulus of autoimmune disease?

    PubMed

    Chughtai, Bilal; Sedrakyan, Art; Mao, Jialin; Eilber, Karyn S; Anger, Jennifer T; Clemens, J Quentin

    2017-05-01

    Polypropylene mesh has been used as a means of reinforcing weak tissues in women with pelvic organ prolapse and stress urinary incontinence. We sought to investigate a potential link between the development of systemic/autoimmune disorders and synthetic polypropylene mesh repairs. New York State Department of Health Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System data were utilized to conduct this retrospective cohort study. Adult women undergoing surgery for pelvic organ prolapse with vaginally implanted mesh from January 2008 through December 2009 in inpatient and ambulatory surgery settings in New York State were identified. Two separate control cohorts were created to compare outcomes, including a screening colonoscopy cohort and a vaginal hysterectomy cohort for benign gynecologic conditions (without pelvic organ prolapse repair or sling). Patients in the mesh cohort were individually matched to the control cohorts based on demographics, comorbidities, and procedure date. The development of systemic/autoimmune disease was determined before and after matching for 1-year, 2-year, 3-year, and entire follow-up (up to 6 years until December 2014) and differences between groups were evaluated. A total of 2102 patients underwent mesh-based pelvic organ prolapse surgery from January 2008 through December 2009. In the control cohorts, 37,298 patients underwent colonoscopy and 7338 underwent vaginal hysterectomy. When patients were matched based on demographics, comorbidities, and procedure time, mesh-based surgery was not associated with an increased risk of developing autoimmune disease at any of the evaluated time periods. Mesh-based vaginal surgery was not associated with the development of systemic/autoimmune diseases. These data refute claims against mesh as a cause of systemic disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy after multiple abdominal surgeries--case study].

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Andrzej; Wiecka-Płusa, Monika; Mołas, Justyna

    2009-11-01

    At present the laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH) is the most widespread and most frequently executed variation of hysterectomy. It is an effective and safe operating alternative for the traditional way--abdominal hysterectomy. Good cosmetic effects, short post-operative stay at hospital and, first of all, a small risk of intra- and postoperative complications are the major driving factors justifying the choice of this method of surgery. In the following article we describe a case of a 43-year-old woman who underwent many interventions in the peritoneal cavity (abdominal surgery) and was shortlisted for the laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy. The cause of the operation was recurrent bilateral ovary cystis that could not be treated neither conservatively nor surgically, as well as the uterus myoma leading to abnormal uterus bleeding and hypermenorrhoea. Surgery in patients who have previously undergone abdominal operations is always difficult and the risk of complications is high indeed. In this case, while selecting the method of the next surgical procedure, surgeons must not exclude the vaginal and laparoscopic methods, or use them simultaneously. Experiences of other surgeons, as well as the unique case of a treated patient, show that previous abdominal surgical procedures are not a contraindication for either vaginal or laparoscopic procedures, and in some cases they might be safer than yet another laparotomy.

  7. Uterine prolapse

    MedlinePlus

    ... devices. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Partin AW, Peters CA, eds. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 11th ed. Philadelphia, ... prolapse. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Partin AW, Peters CA, eds. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 11th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  8. Should asymptomatic anterior pelvic organ prolapse be corrected to treat irritative urinary symptoms?

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Suzette E

    2010-09-01

    In clinical practice, women seen with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) often present with a variety of pelvic floor symptoms: urinary incontinence, irritative or overactive bladder symptoms, fecal urgency or incontinence, obstructive voiding, sexual disorders, pelvic and perineal pain, and vaginal bulging. Among these, the only symptom reliably associated with clinically relevant POP that will resolve following vaginal reconstructive surgery is the visualization and/or sensation of a vaginal bulge. Most other symptoms often attributed to POP at best have only weak correlations with worsening pelvic anatomical support. Specifically, with respect to the anterior and/or apical vaginal compartment, there does not appear to be a correlation between irritative overactive bladder symptoms and the presence or degree of anterior vaginal wall prolapse. Furthermore, no other symptoms, urinary or otherwise, are reliably influenced by correction of anatomical defects of pelvic support, especially in the otherwise asymptomatic patient with POP without vaginal bulge. A review of the recent literature underscores the realization that the relationship between pelvic floor symptoms and anatomy is incompletely and poorly understood. With this in mind, there does not seem to be any absolute justification for the surgical correction of otherwise asymptomatic pelvic support defects.

  9. Strangulation of giant rectal prolapse.

    PubMed

    El Moussaoui, Imad; Limbga, Augustin; Dika, Manke; Mehdi, Abdelilah

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Rectal prolapse is the complete protrusion of the rectum through the anal canal, incarceration rarely complicates rectal prolapse. Even more rarely, it becomes strangulated and gangrenous, necessitating emergency surgery. Case presentation We present the first reported case of strangulated acute rectal prolapse as the first manifestation of rectal prolapse. The patient was a 26-year-old man who presented with a 20×6 cm semi-spherical mass extra-anally. Rectosigmoidectomy with sacral rectopexy was performed, resecting 20 cm of the incarcerated rectum and sigmoid colon. The postoperative course was uneventful with a good final result after colostomy closure and continuity restoration. Conclusion The successful treatment of this patient illustrates the value of surgery in this difficult and unusual case scenario of rectal incarceration.

  10. Use and risks of surgical mesh for pelvic organ prolapse surgery in women in New York state: population based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chughtai, Bilal; Mao, Jialin; Buck, Jessica; Kaplan, Steven; Sedrakyan, Art

    2015-06-02

    To assess the use of mesh in pelvic organ prolapse surgery, and compare short term outcomes between procedures using and not using mesh. All inclusive, population based cohort study. Statewide surgical care captured in the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System. Women who underwent prolapse repair procedures in New York state from 2008 to 2011. 90 day safety events and reinterventions within one year, after propensity score matching. Categorical, time to event, and subgroup analyses (<65 and ≥ 65 year age groups) were conducted. Of 27,991 patients in total, 7338 and 20, 653 underwent prolapse repair procedures with and without mesh, respectively. Mesh use increased by 44.7%, from 1461 procedures in 2008 to 2114 procedures in 2011. Most patients in the cohort were younger than 65 years (62.3% (n=17,424/27, 991)). However, more patients were aged 65 years and older in the mesh group than in the non-mesh group (44.3% (n=3249) v 35.4% (n=7318)). Complications after surgery were not common, irrespective of the use or non-use of mesh. After propensity score matching, patients who received the surgery with mesh had a higher chance of having a reintervention within one year (mesh 3.3% v no mesh 2.2%, hazard ratio 1.47 (95% confidence interval 1.21 to 1.79)) and were more likely to have urinary retention within 90 days (mesh 7.5% v no mesh 5.6%, risk ratio 1.33 (95% confidence interval 1.18 to 1.51)), compared with those who received surgery without mesh. In subgroup analyses based on age, mesh use was associated with an increased risk of reintervention within one year in patients under age 65 years, and increased risk of urinary retention in patients aged 65 years and over. Despite multiple warnings released by the US Food and Drug Administration since 2008, use of mesh in pelvic organ prolapse surgery continues to grow. In this statewide comprehensive study, mesh procedures were associated with an increased risk of reinterventions within one year

  11. Update on laparoscopic, robotic, and minimally invasive vaginal surgery for pelvic floor repair.

    PubMed

    Ross, J W; Preston, M R

    2009-06-01

    Advanced laparoscopic surgery marked the beginning of minimally invasive pelvic surgery. This technique lead to the development of laparoscopic hysterectomy, colposuspension, paravaginal repair, uterosacral suspension, and sacrocolpopexy without an abdominal incision. With laparoscopy there is a significant decrease in postoperative pain, shorter length of hospital stay, and a faster return to normal activities. These advantages made laparoscopy very appealing to patients. Advanced laparoscopy requires a special set of surgical skills and in the early phase of development training was not readily available. Advanced laparoscopy was developed by practicing physicians, instead of coming down through the more usual academic channels. The need for special training did hinder widespread acceptance. Nonetheless by physician to physician training and society training courses it has continued to grow and now has been incorporated in most medical school curriculums. In the last few years there has been new interest in laparoscopy because of the development of robotic assistance. The 3D vision and 720 degree articulating arms with robotics have made suture intensive procedures much easier. Laparosco-pic robotic-assisted sacrocolpopexy is in the reach of most surgeons. This field is so new that there is very little data to evaluate at this time. There are short comings with laparoscopy and even with robotic-assisted procedures it is not the cure all for pelvic floor surgery. Laparoscopic procedures are long and many patients requiring pelvic floor surgery have medical conditions preventing long anesthesia. Minimally invasive vaginal surgery has developed from the concept of tissue replacement by synthetic mesh. Initially sheets of synthetic mesh were tailored by physicians to repair the anterior and posterior vaginal compartment. The use of mesh by general surgeons for hernia repair has served as a model for urogynecology. There have been rapid improvements in biomaterials

  12. Comparison of clinical outcomes of multi-point umbrella suturing and single purse suturing with two-point traction after procedure for prolapse and hemorrhoids (PPH) surgery.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Huiyong; Hao, Xiuyan; Xin, Ying; Pan, Youzhen

    2017-11-01

    To compare the clinical outcomes of multipoint umbrella suture and single-purse suture with two-point traction after procedure for prolapse and hemorrhoids surgery (PPH) for the treatment of mixed hemorrhoids. Ninety patients were randomly divided into a PPH plus single-purse suture group (Group A) and a PPH plus multipoint umbrella suture (Group B). All operations were performed by an experienced surgeon. Operation time, width of the specimen, hemorrhoids retraction extent, postoperative pain, postoperative bleeding, and length of hospitalization were recorded and compared. Statistical analysis was conducted by t-test and χ2 test. There were no significant differences in sex, age, course of disease, and degree of prolapse of hemorrhoids between the two groups. The operative time in Group A was significantly shorter than that in Group B (P < 0.05). However, the incidence rates of submucosal hematoma and incomplete hemorrhoid core retraction were significantly lower in Group B (P < 0.05), whereas the width of the specimens in Group B was greater than that in Group A (P < 0.05). There were fewer redundant skin tags in Group B at three months follow-up. No significant difference in postoperative pain, postoperative bleeding, and time of hospital stay (P > 0.05 for all comparisons) was observed. The multipoint umbrella suture showed better clinical outcomes because of its targeted suture according to the extent of hemorrhoid prolapse. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. General or Spinal Anaesthetic for Vaginal Surgery in Pelvic Floor Disorders (GOSSIP): a feasibility randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Purwar, B; Ismail, K M; Turner, N; Farrell, A; Verzune, M; Annappa, M; Smith, I; El-Gizawy, Zeiad; Cooper, J C

    2015-08-01

    Spinal anaesthesia (SA) and general anaesthesia (GA) are widely used techniques for vaginal surgery for pelvic floor disorders with inconclusive evidence of the superiority of either. We conducted a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to assess the feasibility of a full scale RCT aiming to examine the effect of anaesthetic mode for vaginal surgery on operative, patient reported and length of hospital stay (LOHS) outcomes. Patients undergoing vaginal surgery, recruited through a urogynaecology service in a University teaching hospital, were randomised to receive either GA or SA. Patients were followed up for 12 weeks postoperatively. Pain was measured on a visual analogue scale; nausea was assessed with a four-point verbal rating scale. Patient's subjective perception of treatment outcome, quality of life (QoL) and functional outcomes were assessed using the International Consultation on Incontinence Modular Questionnaire (ICIQ) on vaginal symptoms and the SF-36 questionnaire. Sixty women were randomised, 29 to GA and 31 to SA. The groups were similar in terms of age and type of vaginal surgery performed. No statistically significant differences were noted between the groups with regard to pain, nausea, quality of life (QoL), functional outcomes as well as length of stay in the postoperative recovery room, use of analgesia postoperatively and LOHS. This study has demonstrated that a full RCT is feasible and should focus on the length of hospital stay in a subgroup of patients undergoing vaginal surgery where SA may help to facilitate enhanced recovery or day surgery.

  14. Anterior pelvic organ prolapse repair using synthetic mesh.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhavin N; Lucioni, Alvaro; Kobashi, Kathleen C

    2012-06-01

    Since the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) statement on mesh in July of 2011, there has been controversy regarding synthetic mesh repairs for vaginal prolapse. In this article, we review the biochemical basis for the use of synthetic mesh in prolapse repair as well as clinical results of anterior compartment prolapse repair with synthetic mesh. Finally, we discuss the FDA warning regarding mesh.

  15. Vaginal estrogen: a dual-edged sword in postoperative healing of the vaginal wall.

    PubMed

    Ripperda, Christopher M; Maldonado, Pedro Antonio; Acevedo, Jesus F; Keller, Patrick W; Akgul, Yucel; Shelton, John M; Word, Ruth Ann

    2017-07-01

    Reconstructive surgery for pelvic organ prolapse is plagued with high failure rates possibly due to impaired healing or regeneration of the vaginal wall. Here, we tested the hypothesis that postoperative administration of local estrogen, direct injection of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), or both lead to improved wound healing of the injured vagina in a menopausal rat model. Ovariectomized rats underwent surgical injury to the posterior vaginal wall and were randomized to treatment with placebo (n = 41), estrogen cream (n = 47), direct injection of MSCs (n = 39), or both (n = 43). MSCs did not survive after injection and had no appreciable effects on healing of the vaginal wall. Acute postoperative administration of vaginal estrogen altered the response of the vaginal wall to injury with decreased stiffness, decreased collagen content, and decreased expression of transcripts for matrix components in the stromal compartment. Conversely, vaginal estrogen resulted in marked proliferation of the epithelial layer and increased expression of genes related to epithelial barrier function and protease inhibition. Transcripts for genes involved in chronic inflammation and adaptive immunity were also down-regulated in the estrogenized epithelium. Collectively, these data indicate that, in contrast to the reported positive effects of preoperative estrogen on the uninjured vagina, acute administration of postoperative vaginal estrogen has adverse effects on the early phase of healing of the stromal layer. In contrast, postoperative estrogen plays a positive role in healing of the vaginal epithelium after injury.

  16. Vaginal estrogen: a dual-edged sword in postoperative healing of the vaginal wall

    PubMed Central

    Ripperda, Christopher M.; Maldonado, Pedro Antonio; Acevedo, Jesus F.; Keller, Patrick W.; Akgul, Yucel; Shelton, John M.; Word, Ruth Ann

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Reconstructive surgery for pelvic organ prolapse is plagued with high failure rates possibly due to impaired healing or regeneration of the vaginal wall. Here, we tested the hypothesis that postoperative administration of local estrogen, direct injection of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), or both lead to improved wound healing of the injured vagina in a menopausal rat model. Methods: Ovariectomized rats underwent surgical injury to the posterior vaginal wall and were randomized to treatment with placebo (n = 41), estrogen cream (n = 47), direct injection of MSCs (n = 39), or both (n = 43). Results: MSCs did not survive after injection and had no appreciable effects on healing of the vaginal wall. Acute postoperative administration of vaginal estrogen altered the response of the vaginal wall to injury with decreased stiffness, decreased collagen content, and decreased expression of transcripts for matrix components in the stromal compartment. Conversely, vaginal estrogen resulted in marked proliferation of the epithelial layer and increased expression of genes related to epithelial barrier function and protease inhibition. Transcripts for genes involved in chronic inflammation and adaptive immunity were also down-regulated in the estrogenized epithelium. Conclusions: Collectively, these data indicate that, in contrast to the reported positive effects of preoperative estrogen on the uninjured vagina, acute administration of postoperative vaginal estrogen has adverse effects on the early phase of healing of the stromal layer. In contrast, postoperative estrogen plays a positive role in healing of the vaginal epithelium after injury. PMID:28169915

  17. On the Biomechanics of Vaginal Birth and Common Sequelae

    PubMed Central

    Ashton-Miller, James A.; DeLancey, John O.L.

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 11% of U.S. women undergo surgery for pelvic floor dysfunction, including genital organ prolapse and urinary and fecal incontinence. The major risk factor for developing these conditions is giving vaginal birth. Vaginal birth is a remarkable event about which little is known from a biomechanical perspective. We first review the functional anatomy of the female pelvic floor, the normal loads acting on the pelvic floor in activities of daily living, and the functional capacity of the pelvic floor muscles. Computer models show that the stretch ratio in the pelvic floor muscles can reach an extraordinary 3.26 by the end of the second stage of labor. Magnetic resonance images provide evidence that show that the pelvic floor regions experiencing the most stretch are at the greatest risk for injury, especially in forceps deliveries. A conceptual model suggests how these injuries may lead to the most common form of pelvic organ prolapse, a cystocele. PMID:19591614

  18. Uterosacral ligament vaginal vault suspension: anatomy, outcome and surgical considerations.

    PubMed

    Yazdany, Taji; Bhatia, Narender

    2008-10-01

    With aging populations, primary pelvic organ and recurrent pelvic organ prolapse have become a large-scale public health concern. Surgical options for patients include both abdominal and vaginal approaches, each with its own safety and efficacy profiles. This review summarizes the most recent anatomic, surgical and outcome data for uterosacral ligament vault suspension. It offers data on methods to avoid complications and difficult surgical scenarios. Uterosacral ligament suspension allows reattachment of the vaginal vault high within the pelvis. New modifications in technique including the extraperitoneal and laparoscopic approaches allow surgeons more freedom when planning surgery. Five-year data on the durability of the procedure make it a viable surgical option. As a technique widely used by many pelvic reconstructive surgeons, uterosacral ligament vault suspension provides a safe, anatomically correct and durable approach to uterine and vault prolapse. It requires advanced surgical training and an intimate understanding of pelvic anatomy to avoid and identify ureteral injury.

  19. Two parallel, pragmatic, UK multicentre, randomised controlled trials comparing surgical options for upper compartment (vault or uterine) pelvic organ prolapse (the VUE Study): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Glazener, Cathryn; Constable, Lynda; Hemming, Christine; Breeman, Suzanne; Elders, Andrew; Cooper, Kevin; Freeman, Robert; Smith, Anthony R B; Hagen, Suzanne; McDonald, Alison; McPherson, Gladys; Montgomery, Isobel; Kilonzo, Mary; Boyers, Dwayne; Goulao, Beatriz; Norrie, John

    2016-09-08

    One in three women who have a prolapse operation will go on to have another operation, though not necessarily in the same compartment. Surgery can result in greater impairment of quality of life than the original prolapse itself (such as the development of new-onset urinary incontinence, or prolapse at a different site). Anterior and posterior prolapse surgery is most common (90 % of operations), but around 43 % of women also have a uterine (34 %) or vault (9 %) procedure at the same time. There is not enough evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to guide management of vault or uterine prolapse. The Vault or Uterine prolapse surgery Evaluation (VUE) study aims to assess the surgical management of upper compartment pelvic organ prolapse (POP) in terms of clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and adverse events. VUE is two parallel, pragmatic, UK multicentre, RCTs (Uterine Trial and Vault Trial). Eligible for inclusion are women with vault or uterine prolapse: requiring a surgical procedure, suitable for randomisation and willing to be randomised. Randomisation will be computer-allocated separately for each trial, minimised on: requiring concomitant anterior and/or posterior POP surgery or not, concomitant incontinence surgery or not, age (under 60 years or 60 years and older) and surgeon. Participants will be randomly assigned, with equal probability to intervention or control arms in either the Uterine Trial or the Vault Trial. Uterine Trial participants will receive either a vaginal hysterectomy or a uterine preservation procedure. Vault Trial participants will receive either a vaginal sacrospinous fixation or an abdominal sacrocolpopexy. Participants will be followed up by postal questionnaires (6 months post surgery and 12 months post randomisation) and also reviewed in clinic 12 months post surgery. The primary outcome is the participant-reported Pelvic Organ Prolapse Symptom Score (POP-SS) at 12 months post randomisation

  20. Clinical approach to vaginal/vestibular masses in the bitch.

    PubMed

    Manothaiudom, K; Johnston, S D

    1991-05-01

    The most common causes of vaginal/vestibular masses in the bitch are vaginal prolapse, vaginal neoplasia, and urethral neoplasia protruding into the vaginal vault. Other possible causes are clitoral enlargement, vaginal polyps, uterine prolapse, and vaginal abscessation or hematoma. Vaginal prolapse usually can be distinguished from neoplasia by the age of the patient, the time of occurrence during the estrous cycle, and the site of origin of the mass. Prolapse usually occurs in bitches under 4 years of age during proestrus, estrus, or at the end of diestrus and usually arises from the floor of the vagina, except for urethral tumors that protrude from the external urethral orifice. Appropriate diagnostic workup of bitches with vaginal vestibular masses includes complete history and physical examination, vaginal cytologic and vaginoscopic examination, retrograde vaginography or urethrocystography, serum progesterone and estradiol concentrations, and, in the case of suspect neoplasms, surgical or excision biopsy of the mass.

  1. Genital hiatus size is associated with and predictive of apical vaginal support loss.

    PubMed

    Lowder, Jerry L; Oliphant, Sallie S; Shepherd, Jonathan P; Ghetti, Chiara; Sutkin, Gary

    2016-06-01

    Recognition and assessment of apical vaginal support defects remains a significant challenge in the evaluation and management of prolapse. There are several reasons that this is likely: (1) Although the Pelvic Organ Prolapse-Quantification examination is the standard prolapse staging system used in the Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery field for reporting outcomes, this assessment is not used commonly in clinical care outside the subspecialty; (2) no clinically useful and accepted definition of apical support loss exists, and (3) no consensus or guidelines address the degree of apical support loss at which an apical support procedure should be performed routinely. The purpose of this study was to identify a simple screening measure for significant loss of apical vaginal support. This was an analysis of women with Pelvic Organ Prolapse-Quantification stage 0-IV prolapse. Women with total vaginal length of ≥7 cm were included to define a population with "normal" vaginal length. Univariable and linear regression analyses were used to identify Pelvic Organ Prolapse-Quantification points that were associated with 3 definitions of apical support loss: the International Consultation on Incontinence, the Pelvic Floor Disorders Network revised eCARE, and a Pelvic Organ Prolapse-Quantification point C cut-point developed by Dietz et al. Linear and logistic regression models were created to assess predictors of overall apical support loss according to these definitions. Receiver operator characteristic curves were generated to determine test characteristics of the predictor variables and the areas under the curves were calculated. Of 469 women, 453 women met the inclusion criterion. The median Pelvic Organ Prolapse-Quantification stage was III, and the median leading edge of prolapse was +2 cm (range, -3 to 12 cm). By stage of prolapse (0-IV), mean genital hiatus size (genital hiatus; mid urethra to posterior fourchette) increased: 2.0 ± 0.5, 3.0 ± 0

  2. Robotic-assisted sacrocolpopexy for pelvic organ prolapse.

    PubMed

    White, Wesley M; Pickens, Ryan B; Elder, Robert F; Firoozi, Farzeen

    2014-11-01

    The demand for surgical correction of pelvic organ prolapse is expected to grow as the aging population remains active and focused on quality of life. Definitive correction of pelvic organ prolapse can be accomplished through both vaginal and abdominal approaches. This article provides a contemporary reference source that specifically addresses the historical framework, diagnostic algorithm, and therapeutic options for the treatment of female pelvic organ prolapse. Particular emphasis is placed on the role and technique of abdominal-based reconstruction using robotic technology and the evolving controversy regarding the use of synthetic vaginal mesh. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Urethral pressure reflectometry in women with pelvic organ prolapse: a study of reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Khayyami, Yasmine; Lose, Gunnar; Klarskov, Niels

    2017-05-01

    The mechanism of continence in women with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) before and after surgery remains unknown. Urethral pressure reflectometry (UPR) separates women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) from continent women by measuring urethral opening pressure at an abdominal pressure of 50 cmH 2 O (P O-Abd 50 ). UPR can help identify women with POP at risk of postoperative de novo SUI. The aim of this study was to investigate the reproducibility of UPR in women with POP. Women with anterior or posterior vaginal wall prolapse were recruited for this prospective, observational study from our outpatient clinic. The women were examined with UPR on two occasions. Measurements were done at rest, and during squeezing and straining. Statistical analyses were performed using SAS 9.4. A Bland-Altman analysis with limits of agreement and coefficients of variation was used to determine the level of agreement between measurements. Paired t tests were used to estimate the difference; a two-tailed P value of <0.05 was considered significant. We recruited 19 women with anterior vaginal wall prolapse and 11 women with posterior vaginal wall prolapse. There were no significant differences in the opening pressures at rest or during squeezing or in the values of P O-Abd 50 . P O-Abd 50 showed limits of agreement of 15.3 cmH 2 O and a coefficient of variation of 9.9 %. UPR was found to be a highly reproducible method in women with POP. UPR may be used in future studies to help reveal urodynamic features predictive of postoperative de novo SUI in women with POP.

  4. Ischiorectal abscess and ischiorectal-vaginal fistula as delayed complications of posterior intravaginal slingplasty: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chen, Heidi Wen-Chu; Guess, Marsha K; Connell, Kathleen A; Bercik, Richard S

    2009-10-01

    Synthetic meshes have been used extensively to augment surgical management of pelvic organ prolapses. Posterior intravaginal sling (IVS) is a technique used for correcting vaginal vault/apical prolapse, posterior vaginal prolapse or rectocele. There are limited data on long-term safety of this procedure. In a subanalysis of the IVS tapes from the SUSPEND trial performed secondary to the large number of patients with complications of suburethral sling erosions after IVS, it was noted that the sling erosion tended to have a delayed presentation secondary to poor incorporation of the mesh. A 48-year-old woman with cystocele, uterine prolapse and rectocele had undergone total vaginal hysterectomy, mesh-augmented anterior repair, posterior colporrhaphy and posterior intravaginal slingplasty (IVS) in July 2005. Thirty months after the surgery, she presented with gradual symptoms of copious vaginal discharge for several weeks followed by constant right buttock pain and swelling. Examination was notable for intact mesh with no signs of erosion and a 3-cm induration deep within the right buttock. Computed tomography suggested a pelvic abscess. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed a right ischiorectal fossa abscess and a vaginal fistula. The patient underwent sling excision, right ischiorectal fossa exploration and vaginal fistula repair. A fistulous tract was found to extend along the intact sling from the vaginal epithelium toward the right ischiorectal fossa. At 2 months' followup, there were no recurrences or other complications. This is the first report of a delayed complication of an ischiorectal abscess associated with an ischiorectal-vaginal fistula that presented 30 months after the placement of a posterior IVS.

  5. [Treatment of Urinary incontinence associated with genital prolapse: Clinical practrice guidelines].

    PubMed

    Cortesse, A; Cardot, V; Basset, V; Le Normand, L; Donon, L

    2016-07-01

    Prolapse and urinary incontinence are frequently associated. Patente (or proven) stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is defined by a leakage of urine that occurs with coughing or Valsalva, in the absence of any prolapse reduction manipulation. Masked urinary incontinence results in leakage of urine occurring during reduction of prolapse during the clinical examination in a patient who does not describe incontinence symptoms at baseline. The purpose of this chapter is to consider on the issue of systematic support or not of urinary incontinence, patent or hidden, during the cure of pelvic organs prolapse by abdominal or vaginal approach. This work is based on an systematic review of the literature (PubMed, Medline, Cochrane Library, Cochrane database of systematic reviews, EMBASE) for meta-analyzes, randomized trials, registries, literature reviews, controlled studies and major not controlled studies, published on the subject. Its implementation has followed the methodology of the HAS on the recommendations for clinical practice, with a scientific argument (with the level of evidence, NP) and a recommendation grade (A, B, C, and professional agreement). In case of patent IUE, concomitant treatment of prolapse and SUI reduces the risk of postoperative SUI. However, the isolated treatment of prolapse can treat up to 30% of preoperative SUI. Concomitant treatment of SUI exposed to a specific overactive bladder and dysuria morbidity. The presence of a hidden IUE represents a risk of postoperative SUI, but there is no clinical or urodynamic test to predict individually the risk of postoperative SUI. Moreover, the isolated treatment of prolapse can treat up to 60% of the masked SUI. Concomitant treatment of the hidden IUE therefore exposes again to overtreatment and a specific overactive bladder and dysuria morbidity. In case of overt or hidden urinary incontinence, concomitant treatment of SUI and prolapse reduces the risk of postoperative SUI but exposes to a specific

  6. Towards rebuilding vaginal support utilizing an extracellular matrix bioscaffold.

    PubMed

    Liang, Rui; Knight, Katrina; Easley, Deanna; Palcsey, Stacy; Abramowitch, Steven; Moalli, Pamela A

    2017-07-15

    As an alternative to polypropylene mesh, we explored an extracellular matrix (ECM) bioscaffold derived from urinary bladder matrix (MatriStem™) in the repair of vaginal prolapse. We aimed to restore disrupted vaginal support simulating application via transvaginal and transabdominal approaches in a macaque model focusing on the impact on vaginal structure, function, and the host immune response. In 16 macaques, after laparotomy, the uterosacral ligaments and paravaginal attachments to pelvic side wall were completely transected (IACUC# 13081928). 6-ply MatriStem was cut into posterior and anterior templates with a portion covering the vagina and arms simulating uterosacral ligaments and paravaginal attachments, respectively. After surgically exposing the correct anatomical sites, in 8 animals, a vaginal incision was made on the anterior and posterior vagina and the respective scaffolds were passed into the vagina via these incisions (transvaginal insertion) prior to placement. The remaining 8 animals underwent the same surgery without vaginal incisions (transabdominal insertion). Three months post implantation, firm tissue bands extending from vagina to pelvic side wall appeared in both MatriStem groups. Experimental endpoints examining impact of MatriStem on the vagina demonstrated that vaginal biochemical and biomechanical parameters, smooth muscle thickness and contractility, and immune responses were similar in the MatriStem no incision group and sham-operated controls. In the MatriStem incision group, a 41% decrease in vaginal stiffness (P=0.042), a 22% decrease in collagen content (P=0.008) and a 25% increase in collagen subtypes III/I was observed vs. Sham. Active MMP2 was increased in both Matristem groups vs. Sham (both P=0.002). This study presents a novel application of ECM bioscaffolds as a first step towards the rebuilding of vaginal support. Pelvic organ prolapse is a common condition related to failure of the supportive soft tissues of the vagina

  7. Fallopian tube prolapse following hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Fan, Qing-bo; Liu, Zhu-feng; Lang, Jing-he; Sun, Da-wei; Leng, Jin-hua; Zhu, Lan; Ning, Liu

    2006-03-01

    To investigate the clinical diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of fallopian tube prolapse (FTP) after hysterectomy. A total of 7949 patients received hysterectomy from January 1983 to August 2005 in Peking Union Medical College Hospital, and 9 cases (including 1 case from other hospital) of FTP after hysterectomy were involved during this period. All of them were diagnosed according to pathological results and were followed up. The symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of the FTP patients were analyzed retrospectively. The incidence of FTP after hysterectomy was 0.1% (8/7949), with the incidence of FTP after transabdominal hysterectomy being 0.06% (4/6229), after trans-vaginal hysterectomy being 0.5% (4/780), after laparoscopic assistant vaginal hysterectomy being 0 (0/940). There was no symptom in 3 cases. The pelvic examination revealed the typical prolapsed fimbrial end of a fallopian tube in 3 cases and the other 6 cases revealed red granulation tissue. All of them were excised vaginally and cauterized. The results were proved by pathological examination. No recurrence was reported during follow-up. FTP is a rare complication after hysterectomy. The prognosis is well after proper diagnosis and treatment Fixation of accessories onto the pelvic wall and complete peritonealization at the time of hysterectomy are the most important methods to prevent FTP after hysterectomy.

  8. Predictors of recurrence of prolapse after procedure for prolapse and haemorrhoids.

    PubMed

    Festen, S; Molthof, H; van Geloven, A A W; Luchters, S; Gerhards, M F

    2012-08-01

    The procedure for prolapse and haemorrhoids (PPH) is an effective surgical therapy for symptomatic haemorrhoids. Compared with haemorrhoidectomy, meta-analysis has shown PPH to be less painful, with higher patient satisfaction and a quicker return to work, but at the cost of higher prolapse recurrence rates. This is the first report describing predictors of prolapse recurrence after PPH. A cohort of patients with symptomatic haemorrhoids, treated with PPH in our hospital between 2002 and 2009, was retrospectively analysed. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify patient-related and perioperative predictors associated with persisting prolapse and prolapse recurrence. In total, 159 consecutively enrolled patients were analysed. Persistence and recurrence of prolapse was observed in 16% of the patients. Increased surgical experience showed a trend towards lower recurrence rates. Multivariate analysis identified female gender, long duration of PPH surgery and the absence of muscle tissue in the resected specimen as independent predictors of postoperative persistence of prolapse of haemorrhoids. The absence of prior treatment with rubber band ligation (RBL) as well as increased PPH experience at the hospital showed a trend towards a higher rate of prolapse recurrence. In order to reduce recurrence of prolapse, PPH should be performed by a surgeon with adequate PPH experience, patients should be treated with RBL prior to PPH and a resection of mucosa with underlying muscle fibres should be strived for. © 2011 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2011 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  9. The efficacy of pelvic floor muscle training for pelvic organ prolapse: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunbo; Gong, Yuping; Wang, Bei

    2016-07-01

    Our objective was to assess the effectiveness of pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) as a treatment for women with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) or as an adjunct to prolapse surgery. Relevant literature sources were searched using databases including PubMed, Ovid, Web of Science, Scopus, ClinicalTrials.gov, EBSCO, CINAHL, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CNKI, VIP, Wanfang, and CBM until 5 July 2015. Eligible studies were restricted to randomized controlled trials (RCT). The available data were pooled using Review Manager version 5.2. For data deemed not appropriate for synthesis, a narrative overview was conducted. In total, 13 studies with 2,340 patients were included. Our results indicated women receiving PFMT gained a greater improvement than controls in prolapse symptom score [mean difference (MD) -3.07, 95 % confidence interval (CI) -3.91 to -2.23] and POP stages [risk ratio (RR) 1.70, 95 % CI 1.19-2.44]. The number of women who said their prolapse was getting better was higher (RR 5.48, 95 % CI 2.19-13.72) and other discomfort syndromes, such as vaginal, bladder, and rectum, were lower in the PFMT groups than in controls. Meanwhile, women after PFMT had greater improvement in muscle strength and endurance but did not show a significant difference for further treatment needs. In addition, the results evaluating PFMT as an adjunct to prolapse surgery were inconclusive because of the variability in methods of measuring outcome. Our meta-analysis demonstrated women who received PFMT showed a greater subjective improvement in prolapse symptoms and an objective improvement in POP severity.

  10. Treatment strategies for pelvic organ prolapse: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Hullfish, Kathie L; Trowbridge, Elisa R; Stukenborg, George J

    2011-05-01

    To compare the relative cost effectiveness of treatment decision alternatives for post-hysterectomy pelvic organ prolapse (POP). A Markov decision analysis model was used to assess and compare the relative cost effectiveness of expectant management, use of a pessary, and surgery for obtaining months of quality-adjusted life over 1 year. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine whether the results depended on specific estimates of patient utilities for pessary use, probabilities for complications and other events, and estimated costs. Only two treatment alternatives were found to be efficient choices: initial pessary use and vaginal reconstructive surgery (VRS). Pessary use (including patients that eventually transitioned to surgery) achieved 10.4 quality-adjusted months, at a cost of $10,000 per patient, while VRS obtained 11.4 quality-adjusted months, at $15,000 per patient. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated that these baseline results depended on several key estimates in the model. This analysis indicates that pessary use and VRS are the most cost-effective treatment alternatives for treating post-hysterectomy vaginal prolapse. Additional research is needed to standardize POP outcomes and complications, so that healthcare providers can best utilize cost information in balancing the risks and benefits of their treatment decisions.

  11. Ablative dual-phase Erbium:YAG laser treatment of atrophy-related vaginal symptoms in post-menopausal breast cancer survivors omitting hormonal treatment.

    PubMed

    Mothes, A R; Runnebaum, M; Runnebaum, I B

    2018-05-01

    First evaluation of dual-phase vaginal Er:YAG laser to omit hormonal treatment for atrophy-related symptoms in post-menopausal breast cancer survivors following prolapse surgery. Patients with a history of breast cancer at the time of surgery for pelvic organ prolapse were offered non-hormonal vaginal Er:YAG laser treatment when complaining of atrophy-related genitourinary syndrome of menopause. A single 10-min course of dual-phase protocol of pulsed Er:YAG laser (2940 nm, fractional ablative and thermal mode, fluence according to tissue thickness). Follow-up included subjective satisfaction, vaginal pH, vaginal health index (VHI), and complications after 6 weeks. A total of 16 breast cancer survivors (age 71 years, SD 7) had been seeking treatment for pelvic floor symptoms related to vaginal atrophy at follow-up visits after prolapse surgery. All ablative vaginal Er:YAG laser outpatient procedures were successfully completed, all patients returned to daily activities without a need for analgetic medication. Evaluation was performed after 8.3 (SD 2.5) weeks. Pre-laser VHI scored 16 (SD 4.6) and post-laser VHI 20 (SD 3) with p = 0.01. Patients were satisfied in 94% (n = 15) regarding symptom relief. Breast cancer survivors with atrophy-related complaints after pelvic floor surgery may benefit from vaginal application of this innovative dual protocol of Er:YAG laser technology as a non-hormonal treatment approach.

  12. What's new in the functional anatomy of pelvic organ prolapse?

    PubMed

    DeLancey, John O L

    2016-10-01

    Provide an evidence-based review of pelvic floor functional anatomy related to pelvic organ prolapse. Pelvic organ support depends on interactions between the levator ani muscle and pelvic connective tissues. Muscle failure exposes the vaginal wall to a pressure differential producing abnormal tension on the attachments of the pelvic organs to the pelvic sidewall. Birth-induced injury to the pubococcygeal portion of the levator ani muscle is seen in 55% of women with prolapse and 16% of women with normal support. Failure of the lateral connective tissue attachments between the uterus and vagina to the pelvic wall (cardinal, uterosacral, and paravaginal) are strongly related with prolapse (effect sizes ∼2.5) and are also highly correlated with one another (r ∼ 0.85). Small differences exist with prolapse in factors involving the vaginal wall length and width (effect sizes ∼1). The primary difference in ligament properties between women with and without prolapse is found in ligament length. Only minor differences in ligament stiffness are seen. Pelvic organ prolapse occurs because of injury to the levator ani muscles and failure of the lateral connections between the pelvic organs to the pelvic sidewall. Abnormalities of the vaginal wall fascial tissues may play a minor role.

  13. The S.A.C.S. (Satisfaction-Anatomy-Continence-Safety) score for evaluating pelvic organ prolapse surgery: a proposal for an outcome-based scoring system.

    PubMed

    Mearini, Luigi; Zucchi, Alessandro; Nunzi, Elisabetta; Di Biase, Manuel; Bini, Vittorio; Costantini, Elisabetta

    2015-07-01

    To date, there is no overall consensus on the definition of cure after surgery for pelvic organ prolapse (POP). The aim of the study was to design and test the scoring system S.A.C.S. (Satisfaction-Anatomy-Continence-Safety) to assess and compare the outcomes of POP repair. A total of 233 women underwent open sacrocolpopexy. The S.A.C.S. outcome scoring system was scheduled at 24 months of follow-up, and each component was detected according to: Satisfaction by mean of Patient Global Improvement Inventory scale, Anatomy by mean of POP Quantification system and bulge symptom, Continence by mean of pad use, and Safety by mean of the Clavien-Dindo classification of surgical complications. Each component produced a binary nominal categorical variable (1 or 0), with a total score of 4 representing cure. As a comparative tool, patients answered a simple yes/no question: "If you had to undergo surgery all over again, would you still do it?". The degree of concordance was estimated using Cohen's Kappa test. According to the S.A.C.S. scoring system, only 160 patients (68.6 %) reached the maximum score of cure. Sensitivity of the S.A.C.S. score was 74.1 %, specificity was 90 %, total diagnostic capacity was 75.5 %. The S.A.C.S. score internal consistency was good; the k-coefficient was higher for the satisfaction component of the score (k = 0.560). This study proposes an original, simple post-operative scoring system integrating satisfaction, anatomy, continence, and safety reports for patients undergoing surgery for POP, providing a complete, although perfectible, method to accurately report outcomes in all clinical scenarios.

  14. Immediate effects of the initial FDA notification on the use of surgical mesh for pelvic organ prolapse surgery in medicare beneficiaries.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, W Stuart; Gold, Karen P; Ni, Shenghua; Kaufman, Melissa R; Dmochowski, Roger R; Penson, David F

    2013-04-01

    Prompted by increased reports of complications with the use of mesh for pelvic organ prolapse (POP) surgery, the FDA issued an initial public health notification (PHN) in 2008. We proposed to determine if the numbers of POP cases augmented with surgical mesh performed in U.S. Medicare beneficiaries changed relative to this PHN. Using administrative healthcare claims for beneficiaries enrolled in the U.S. Medicare program from 2008 to 2009, we identified women who underwent POP surgery with and without surgical mesh by procedural and diagnosis coding. In addition to comparing cases with and without mesh, we also calculated rates (number of cases per 100,000 female beneficiaries) and compared these relative to the timing of the PHN. We identified 104,185 POP procedures, of which 27,839 (26.7%) included mesh material and 76,346 (73.3%) did not. Between the last three quarters of 2008 and the first three of 2009, the rates of mesh cases increased (40.3-42.1, P < 0.001) and those without mesh decreased (115.5-111.4, P < 0.001). Inpatient procedures decreased and outpatient procedures increased for both those with and without mesh augmentation. For inpatient procedures, the relative use of biologic graft and synthetic mesh material did not vary over the study period. A substantial number of Medicare beneficiaries underwent mesh POP procedures in 2008-2009. However, despite the PHN cautioning about potential mesh complications, the numbers of mesh cases continued to rise in the immediate period after the PHN. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Biomechanical properties of synthetic surgical meshes for pelvic prolapse repair.

    PubMed

    Todros, S; Pavan, P G; Natali, A N

    2015-03-01

    Synthetic meshes are widely used for surgical repair of different kind of prolapses. In the light of the experience of abdominal wall repair, similar prostheses are currently used in the pelvic region, to restore physiological anatomy after organ prolapse into the vaginal wall, that represent a recurrent dysfunction. For this purpose, synthetic meshes are surgically positioned in contact with the anterior and/or posterior vaginal wall, to inferiorly support prolapsed organs. Nonetheless, while mesh implantation restores physiological anatomy, it is often associated with different complications in the vaginal region. These potentially dangerous effects induce the surgical community to reconsider the safety and efficacy of mesh transvaginal placement. For this purpose, the evaluation of state-of-the-art research may provide the basis for a comprehensive analysis of mesh compatibility and functionality. The aim of this work is to review synthetic surgical meshes for pelvic organs prolapse repair, taking into account the mechanics of mesh material and structure, and to relate them with pelvic and vaginal tissue biomechanics. Synthetic meshes are currently available in different chemical composition, fiber and textile conformations. Material and structural properties are key factors in determining mesh biochemical and mechanical compatibility in vivo. The most significant results on vaginal tissue and surgical meshes mechanical characterization are here reported and discussed. Moreover, computational models of the pelvic region, which could support the surgeon in the evaluation of mesh performances in physiological conditions, are recalled. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of horizontal vs vertical vaginal cuff closure techniques on vagina length after vaginal hysterectomy: a prospective randomized study.

    PubMed

    Cavkaytar, Sabri; Kokanali, Mahmut Kuntay; Topcu, Hasan Onur; Aksakal, Orhan Seyfi; Doganay, Melike

    2014-01-01

    To compare the effects of horizontal and vertical vaginal cuff closure techniques on vagina length after vaginal hysterectomy. Prospective randomized study (Canadian Task Force classification I). Teaching and research hospital, a tertiary center. Fifty-two women with POP-Q stage 0 or 1 uterine prolapse were randomized into 2 groups using vertical (n = 26) or horizontal (n = 26) vaginal cuff closure. All patients underwent vaginal hysterectomy. Vagina length in the 2 groups was compared preoperatively, immediately after surgery, and at 6 weeks postoperatively. Mean (SD) preoperative vagina length in the horizontal and vertical groups was similar (7.87 [0.92] cm vs 7.99 [0.78] cm; p = .41). Immediately postoperatively, the vagina was significantly shorter in the horizontal group than in the vertical group (6.61 [0.89] cm vs 7.51 [0.74] cm; p < .001). At 6 weeks postoperatively, the vagina was still significantly shorter in the horizontal group (6.55 [0.89] cm vs 7.42 (0.73) cm; p < .001). The mean difference in vagina length before and after surgery was also significantly higher in the horizontal group than in the vertical group (-1.26 [0.12] cm vs 0.49 [0.11] cm; p < .001). Vertical cuff closure during vaginal hysterectomy seems to preserve vagina length better than does horizontal cuff closure. Copyright © 2014 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Sexual outcome after pelvic reconstructive surgery].

    PubMed

    Fatton, B; Savary, D; Velemir, L; Amblard, J; Accoceberry, M; Jacquetin, B

    2009-02-01

    Sexual well-being is an important parameter of women's health and quality of live. Sexual disorders may occur in women with pelvic organ prolapse and/or stress urinary incontinence and also after pelvic reconstructive surgery. Sexual dysfunction after POP or SUI surgery has been poorly documented but new condition specific questionnaires have been developed to help us to better evaluate such consequences. This paper reports available data and highlights more specifically consequences of surgery with mesh reinforcement which is, currently, an important issue particularly when performing by vaginal approach.

  18. Vaginal carcinoma in a young woman who underwent fertility-sparing treatment involving chemotherapy and conservative surgery.

    PubMed

    Mabuchi, Yasushi; Yahata, Tamaki; Kobayashi, Aya; Tanizaki, Yuko; Minami, Sawako; Ino, Kazuhiko

    2015-06-01

    Vaginal carcinoma is a rare gynecological malignancy that is usually treated by radiation therapy and/or surgery combined with chemotherapy. Here, we report a case of invasive vaginal carcinoma in a young woman who underwent fertility-sparing treatment involving neoadjuvant chemotherapy and conservative surgery. A 36-year-old non-parous woman had a solid tumor in the vagina. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography showed a tumor in the vagina with high FDG uptake (SUV = 17.33) but no metastatic lesions. The patient was diagnosed with vaginal squamous cell carcinoma, FIGO stage I, T1N0M0. Because she wished to retain her fertility, neoadjuvant chemotherapy consisting of irinotecan hydrochloride and nedaplatin was initiated. After four courses of chemotherapy, partial vaginectomy was carried out and the pathological diagnosis of the residual lesion was VAIN 3. Following two further courses of the same chemotherapy, she obtained complete response, and has shown no evidence of disease for 14 months. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  19. Prevention and management of pelvic organ prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Giarenis, Ilias

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse is a highly prevalent condition in the female population, which impairs the health-related quality of life of affected individuals. Despite the lack of robust evidence, selective modification of obstetric events or other risk factors could play a central role in the prevention of prolapse. While the value of pelvic floor muscle training as a preventive treatment remains uncertain, it has an essential role in the conservative management of prolapse. Surgical trends are currently changing due to the controversial issues surrounding the use of mesh and the increasing demand for uterine preservation. The evolution of laparoscopic and robotic surgery has increased the use of these techniques in pelvic floor surgery. PMID:25343034

  20. Advances in the surgical management of prolapse.

    PubMed

    Slack, Alex; Jackson, Simon

    2007-03-01

    Prolapse is an extremely common condition, for which 11% of women will have a surgical procedure at some point in their lives. The recurrence rate after most of the traditional surgical procedures is high and upto 29% of women who have had surgery for prolapse will require a further operation. In order to improve the surgical outcome, there is currently much interest in the use of grafts to augment traditional repairs and new procedures have been developed using specifically developed grafts. These have been combined with minimally invasive surgical techniques in an attempt to reduce surgical morbidity. These procedures may improve the outcome of surgery for prolapse. However, there is currently a lack of long-term data from randomized trials to demonstrate their effectiveness and safety.

  1. Preoperative Prolapse Stage as Predictor of Failure of Sacrocolpopexy.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Muhammad F; Osmundsen, Blake; Edwards, Sharon R; Matthews, Catherine; Gregory, William T

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to determine if there was a correlation between the preoperative prolapse stage and postoperative recurrence of prolapse 1 year after sacrocolpopexy. Our null hypothesis is that the preoperative stage of prolapse does not increase the risk of recurrence. This is a multicenter cohort study from 3 centers. We included subjects who underwent robotic-assisted sacrocolpopexy and completed a standardized 1-year follow-up from 2009-2014. All subjects underwent a complete preoperative evaluation and completed 12 months of follow-up with the pelvic organ prolapse quantification examination. We compared those subjects who met the definition of recurrence with those who did not, analyzing the following covariates: stage of prolapse using International Continence Society (ICS) definitions, individual pelvic organ prolapse quantification points, age, body mass index, race, exogenous estrogen use, menopause, smoking, vaginal parity, cesarean section, and performance of concomitant procedures. We defined recurrence as any prolapse beyond the hymen. We had 125 women from 3 centers who met our criteria, with 23.2% of them having recurrence at 1 year. We found that recurrence increased as the preoperative ICS stage of prolapse increased (P = <0.001 in the univariate model). In the multivariate model, using logistic regression, we found that the risk of recurrence of pelvic organ prolapse increased as the presurgery clinical stage increased with an odds ratio of 3.8 (95% confidence interval, 1.5-9) when controlling for age, menopausal status, and genital hiatus (P = 0.004). Much like a higher stage of disease in oncology, we found that increasing stage of prolapse preoperatively increased the risk of recurrence at 1 year after sacrocolpopexy.

  2. Animal models of female pelvic organ prolapse: lessons learned

    PubMed Central

    Couri, Bruna M; Lenis, Andrew T; Borazjani, Ali; Paraiso, Marie Fidela R; Damaser, Margot S

    2012-01-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse is a vaginal protrusion of female pelvic organs. It has high prevalence worldwide and represents a great burden to the economy. The pathophysiology of pelvic organ prolapse is multifactorial and includes genetic predisposition, aberrant connective tissue, obesity, advancing age, vaginal delivery and other risk factors. Owing to the long course prior to patients becoming symptomatic and ethical questions surrounding human studies, animal models are necessary and useful. These models can mimic different human characteristics – histological, anatomical or hormonal, but none present all of the characteristics at the same time. Major animal models include knockout mice, rats, sheep, rabbits and nonhuman primates. In this article we discuss different animal models and their utility for investigating the natural progression of pelvic organ prolapse pathophysiology and novel treatment approaches. PMID:22707980

  3. [Imaging of pelvic organ prolapse].

    PubMed

    Lapray, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    Colpocystodefecography (CCD) and dynamic MRI with defecography (MRId) allow an alternation between filling and emptying the hollow organs and the maximum abdominal strain offered by the defecation. When applied in imaging these two principles reveal the masked or underestimated prolapses at the time of the physical examination. A rigorous application of the technique guarantees almost equivalent results from the two examinations. The CCD provides voiding views and improved analysis of the anorectal pathology (intussusception, anismus) but involves radiation and a more invasive examination. MRId has the advantage of providing continuous visibility of the peritoneal compartment, and a multiplanar representation, enabling an examination of the morphology of the pelvic organs and of the supporting structures, with the disadvantage of still necessitating a supine examination, resulting sometimes in an incomplete or impossible evacuation. The normal and abnormal results (cystoptosis, vaginal vault prolapse, enterocele, anorectal intussuception, rectocele, descending perineum, urinary and fecal incontinence) and the respective advantages and limits of the various imaging methods are detailed. Dynamic perineal and introital ultrasound remains more limited in the appreciation of posterior colpoceles and especially in anorectal disorders, than CCD or MRId. Endoanal ultrasound is the first line morphological evaluation of the anal sphincter. Transvaginal and introital ultrasound can detect some complications of suburethral tapes and meshes. Morphological and dynamic imaging are essential complementary tools to the physical examination, especially when a precise anatomic assessment is required to understand the functional complaint or when a reintervention is needed.

  4. Characterizing Pelvic Organ Prolapse in Adult Spina Bifida Patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Joceline S; Vo, Amanda X; Doolittle, Johnathan; Hamoui, Nabeel; Lewicky-Gaupp, Christina; Kielb, Stephanie J

    2016-11-01

    To report the distribution of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) stages in adult spina bifida (SB) patients. The severity of POP in the SB population has not been previously reported. Retrospective review of SB patients ≥18 years with a documented POP quantification examination between 2006 and 2014 were included. Patient demographics, gestation, parity, POP quantification examinations and prolapse symptoms were obtained. Thirty-three SB patients were identified with a mean age of 33.2 years. Five patients (15.2%) had stage 0 prolapse, 12 (36.4%) had stage 1, 12 (36.4%) had stage 2, 3 (9.1%) had stage 3, and 1 (3.0%) had stage 4. Of the 16 patients with advanced POP (stage 2 prolapse or greater), only 6 patients (37.5%) reported symptoms related to POP. All 6 symptomatic patients endorsed sensation of a vaginal bulge. Two of the 6 patients also reported dyspareunia. Additionally, 1 patient with advanced POP presented with vaginal bulge, noted by a caregiver, and cervical bleeding, but was otherwise asymptomatic. Twenty-four patients (72.7%) were nulliparous, and 12 of the 24 nulliparous patients (50%) demonstrated prolapse. Despite young age and frequent nulliparity, patients with SB are more likely to have POP than the general population. Additionally, the majority of SB patients with prolapse are asymptomatic. Assessment of pelvic organ prolapse should be included in the evaluation of adult SB females due to the low rate of symptoms even in the setting of advanced stage prolapse and potential impact on both urinary and bowel function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Vaginal cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Vaginal cancer; Cancer - vagina; Tumor - vaginal ... Most vaginal cancers occur when another cancer, such as cervical or endometrial cancer , spreads. This is called secondary vaginal cancer. Cancer ...

  6. Effects of Preoperative Local Estrogen in Postmenopausal Women With Prolapse: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Good, Meadow M.; Roshanravan, Shayzreen M.; Shi, Haolin; Schaffer, Joseph I.; Singh, Ravinder J.; Word, R. Ann

    2014-01-01

    Context: Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) increases in prevalence with age; recurrence after surgical repair is common. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the effects of local estrogen treatment on connective tissue synthesis and breakdown in the vaginal wall of postmenopausal women planning surgical repair of POP. Design: This was a randomized trial. Setting: The study was conducted at an academic tertiary medical center. Patients or Other Participants: Postmenopausal women with a uterus and symptomatic anterior and/or apical prolapse at stage 2 or greater participated in the study. Intervention: Estrogen (Premarin) or placebo cream for 6 weeks preoperatively was the intervention. Main Outcome Measures: Full-thickness anterior apical vaginal wall biopsies were obtained at the time of hysterectomy and analyzed for mucosa and muscularis thickness, connective tissue synthesis, and degradation. Serum levels of estrone and 17β-estradiol were analyzed at baseline and the day of surgery using highly sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Fifteen women per group (n = 30 total) were randomized; 13 per group underwent surgery. Among drug-adherent participants (n = 8 estrogen, n = 13 placebo), epithelial and muscularis thickness was increased 1.8- and 2.7-fold (P = .002 and P =.088, respectively) by estrogen. Collagen types 1α1 and 1α2 mRNA increased 6.0- and 1.8-fold in the vaginal muscularis (P < .05 for both); collagen type Ia protein increased 9-fold in the muscularis (P = .012), whereas collagen III was not changed significantly. MMP-12 (human macrophage elastase) mRNA was suppressed in the vaginal mucosa from estrogen-treated participants (P = .011), and matrix metalloprotease-9 activity was decreased 6-fold in the mucosa and 4-fold in the muscularis (P = .02). Consistent with menopausal norms, serum estrone and 17β-estradiol were low and did not differ among the two groups. Conclusions: Vaginal estrogen application for 6

  7. Effects of mechanical stretching on the morphology of extracellular polymers and the mRNA expression of collagens and small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycans in vaginal fibroblasts from women with pelvic organ prolapse.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sumei; Lü, Dongyuan; Zhang, Zhenyu; Jia, Xingyuan; Yang, Lei

    2018-01-01

    To determine the effect of mechanical stretching load and the efficacy of postmenopausal estrogen therapy (ET) on pelvic organ prolapse (POP), vaginal fibroblasts isolated from postmenopausal women with or without POP were subjected to 0.1-Hz uniaxial cyclic mechanical stretching (CS) with 10% elongation and 10-8 M 17-β-estradiol (E2) treatment. We investigated the morphological characteristics of extracellular polymers using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and monitored the mRNA expression of type I collagen (COL I) and type III collagen (COL III) as well as the small leucine-rich proteoglycan (SLRP) family members decorin (DCN), biglycan (BGN), fibromodulin (FMO), and lumican (LUM), using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Using SEM, certain viscoelastic polymers were found to be randomly distributed among fibroblasts, which for normal fibroblasts formed clusters of plum flower-like patterns under static-culture conditions and resembled stretched strips when stretched in culture, whereas polymers among POP fibroblasts resembled stretched strips under static-cultured conditions and presented broken networks when stretched in culture. RT-PCR revealed that COL I, DCN, BGN, FMO, and LUM mRNA expression was significantly higher in POP than in normal fibroblasts under static-culture condition. Following CS, COL I and BGN mRNA expression was significantly up-regulated in normal fibroblasts, and DCN and FMO mRNA expression was down-regulated in POP fibroblasts. Following concomitant CS and E2 treatment, significantly elevated COL I and DCN mRNA expression was observed in normal fibroblasts, and significantly elevated COL I and BGN mRNA expression was observed in POP fibroblasts. COL III mRNA expression was not significantly different between the POP and normal group, and CS did not significantly affect expression in either group, though COL III was down-regulated in normal fibroblasts concomitantly treated with E2 and CS. We conclude that the

  8. Vaginal rupture and evisceration in a dog.

    PubMed

    Prassinos, Nikitas N; Adamama-Moraitou, Katerina K; Ververidis, Haralabos N; Anagnostou, Tilemachos L; Kladakis, Stefanos E

    2010-09-01

    A 1.5-year-old German Shepherd mixed breed dog was admitted with mild haemorrhage from the vulva and a perineal mass of 24-hour duration, which had been first observed immediately after parturition. Parturition had occurred at low ambient temperature, and only one puppy survived out of the seven oversized fetuses. The dog was in poor body condition, dehydrated, hypothermic, depressed, non-ambulatory and in a state of shock. Intestinal loops, the urinary bladder and the uterine horns and body were protruding from the vulva. A true vaginal prolapse was also observed. The abdominal viscera were flushed with warm sterile saline solution, protected and maintained wet. The laboratory findings included moderate anaemia, leukocytosis, hypoalbuminaemia, azotaemia and elevated liver enzyme activities. Stabilisation of the dog's general condition was attempted before surgery. Antimicrobial and analgesic drugs were also administered. After exploratory laparotomy the protruding organs, which were in good condition, were reduced. A recent rupture in the vaginal wall, approximately 6 cm long, was observed. Ovariohysterectomy and partial vaginectomy were performed. The preoperative course of therapy was continued, but the bitch died 12 hours later. The probable cause of vaginal rupture and evisceration in this bitch was tenesmus and/or trauma due to the oversized fetuses.

  9. Prolapse-related knowledge and attitudes toward the uterus in women with pelvic organ prolapse symptoms.

    PubMed

    Good, Meadow M; Korbly, Nicole; Kassis, Nadine C; Richardson, Monica L; Book, Nicole M; Yip, Sallis; Saguan, Docile; Gross, Carey; Evans, Janelle; Harvie, Heidi S; Sung, Vivian

    2013-11-01

    The objective of the study was to describe the basic knowledge about prolapse and attitudes regarding the uterus in women seeking care for prolapse symptoms. This was a cross-sectional study of English-speaking women presenting with prolapse symptoms. Patients completed a self-administered questionnaire that included 5 prolapse-related knowledge items and 6 benefit-of-uterus attitude items; higher scores indicated greater knowledge or more positive perception of the uterus. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple linear regression. A total of 213 women were included. The overall mean knowledge score was 2.2 ± 1.1 (range, 0-5); 44% of the items were answered correctly. Participants correctly responded that surgery (79.8%), pessary (55.4%), and pelvic muscle exercises (34.3%) were prolapse treatment options. Prior evaluation by a female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery specialist (beta = 0.57, P = .001) and higher education (beta = 0.3, P = .07) was associated with a higher mean knowledge score. For attitude items, the overall mean score was 15.1 (4.7; range, 6-30). A total of 47.4% disagreed with the statement that the uterus is important for sex. The majority disagreed with the statement that the uterus is important for a sense of self (60.1%); that hysterectomy would make me feel less feminine (63.9%); and that hysterectomy would make me feel less whole (66.7%). Previous consultation with a female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery specialist was associated with a higher mean benefit of uterus score (beta = 1.82, P = .01). Prolapse-related knowledge is low in women seeking care for prolapse symptoms. The majority do not believe the uterus is important for body image or sexuality and do not believe that hysterectomy will negatively affect their sex lives. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Pelvic organ prolapse in jimma university specialized hospital, southwest ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Akmel, Menur; Segni, Hailemariam

    2012-07-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse is the down ward descent of female organs including the bladder, small and large bowel resulting in protrusion of the vagina, uterus or both. It is a disorder exclusive to women and one of the most common indications for gynecologic surgery. This hospital based retrospective descriptive study was conducted to assess the magnitude of pelvic organ prolapse and risk factors for it. All cases of pelvic organ prolapse admitted and treated in Jimma University Specialized Hospital from July 1, 2008 to June 30, 2011 were included. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS computer software version 16.0. Chi-square test was used and was considered to be significant when p<0.05. Pelvic organ prolapse accounted for 40.7% of major gynecologic operations. Mean age of patients was 42.43 ± 10.4 years and there was a significant association between prolapse and age of patients (p <0.05). Mean parity of patients was 6.5± 2.64 with a significant association between prolapse and parity (p < 0.05). Majority of them (80.6%) lived in rural area and there was a significant association between prolapse and residence area. Farmers accounted for 68.2% of the patients and there was a significant association between prolapse and occupation (p < 0.05). Risk factors identified were chronic cough (20.9%), constipation (30.2%) with some having more than one risk factor while none was identified in 59.7%. Prolapse is common among rural, farmer, parous and older women where most of them delivered at home with prolonged labor. Age, parity and occupation were associated with the stage of prolapse. Awareness creation on risk factors of pelvic organ prolapse and use of contraception to reduce parity is recommended. Health institution delivery should be advocated to minimize the rate of home deliveries and hence of prolonged labor.

  11. Prolapse repair using the Elevate™ kit: prospective study on 70 patients.

    PubMed

    Azaïs, H; Charles, C Jean; Delporte, P; Debodinance, P

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the anatomical and functional results of prolapse repair by a vaginal approach using the Elevate kit. This was a prospective study of 70 patients presenting with symptomatic urogenital prolapse. Twenty Elevate Anterior, 16 Posterior, and 34 Anterior and Posterior repair systems were placed. Perioperative and postoperative complications were assessed. The patients were interviewed at 2 months and 1 year post-surgery. Recurrences were recorded in 21 patients (31.3%) at the 1-year follow-up. However, at the 1-year follow-up, there were 14 cases (20.9%) of direct recurrence (two anterior, two posterior, and ten combined anterior and posterior) compared with seven cases (10.4%) of indirect recurrence. Of the 21 failures (stage ≥ 2), 13 were stage 2 with the leading edge above the hymen. None of the patients underwent revision surgery. The exposure rate was 4.5%. The anterior and posterior shrinkage rates were 68.7% and 31.9%, respectively. There were four cases of de novo dyspareunia. Patients reported a significant decrease in the impact of pelvic floor distress on the PFIQ-7 questionnaire, but an improvement on the PFDI-20. There was no improvement in sexual function (PISQ-12). The Elevate™ kit is associated with satisfactory functional results. However, the anatomical results require ongoing evaluation.

  12. Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    MedlinePlus

    ... occurs when the tissue and muscles of the pelvic floor no longer support the pelvic organs resulting in ... organ prolapse. Supporting muscles and tissue of the pelvic floor may become torn or stretched because of labor ...

  13. Mitral Valve Prolapse

    MedlinePlus

    ... valve syndrome . What happens during MVP? Watch an animation of mitral valve prolapse When the heart pumps ( ... our brochures Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  14. Surgery for Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    MedlinePlus

    ... to control bodily functions such as urination. Kegel Exercises: Pelvic muscle exercises that assist in bladder and bowel control as ... Uterus: A muscular organ located in the female pelvis that contains and nourishes ... pregnancy. Vagina: A tube-like structure surrounded by muscles ...

  15. The role of nurses in the management of women with pelvic organ prolapse.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Karen; Hagen, Suzanne

    Pelvic organ prolapse is a common female complaint, with 50% of women experiencing some degree of pelvic relaxation, although not all have any symptoms. Prolapse is found most commonly in the anterior vaginal walls. Posterior vaginal wall and apical prolapse are the other, less common, categories. There are a large number of potential risk factors, but increased age, parity and body mass index are most consistently reported. A variety of symptoms may be experienced, including a feeling of something coming down, pelvic heaviness, urinary, bowel and sexual dysfunction. Two main treatment options exist, conservative management (pessary or pelvic floor rehabilitation) or surgical repair, however the evidence-base for treatment is weak. The specialist nurse is well-placed to contribute to the initial assessment, management and ongoing support of women with prolapse.

  16. Sentiment Analysis of Web Sites Related to Vaginal Mesh Use in Pelvic Reconstructive Surgery.

    PubMed

    Hobson, Deslyn T G; Meriwether, Kate V; Francis, Sean L; Kinman, Casey L; Stewart, J Ryan

    2018-05-02

    The purpose of this study was to utilize sentiment analysis to describe online opinions toward vaginal mesh. We hypothesized that sentiment in legal Web sites would be more negative than that in medical and reference Web sites. We generated a list of relevant key words related to vaginal mesh and searched Web sites using the Google search engine. Each unique uniform resource locator (URL) was sorted into 1 of 6 categories: "medical", "legal", "news/media", "patient generated", "reference", or "unrelated". Sentiment of relevant Web sites, the primary outcome, was scored on a scale of -1 to +1, and mean sentiment was compared across all categories using 1-way analysis of variance. Tukey test evaluated differences between category pairs. Google searches of 464 unique key words resulted in 11,405 URLs. Sentiment analysis was performed on 8029 relevant URLs (3472 legal, 1625 "medical", 1774 "reference", 666 "news media", 492 "patient generated"). The mean sentiment for all relevant Web sites was +0.01 ± 0.16; analysis of variance revealed significant differences between categories (P < 0.001). Web sites categorized as "legal" and "news/media" had a slightly negative mean sentiment, whereas those categorized as "medical," "reference," and "patient generated" had slightly positive mean sentiments. Tukey test showed differences between all category pairs except the "medical" versus "reference" in comparison with the largest mean difference (-0.13) seen in the "legal" versus "reference" comparison. Web sites related to vaginal mesh have an overall mean neutral sentiment, and Web sites categorized as "medical," "reference," and "patient generated" have significantly higher sentiment scores than related Web sites in "legal" and "news/media" categories.

  17. The genital prolapse of Australopithecus Lucy?

    PubMed

    Chene, Gautier; Lamblin, Gery; Lebail-Carval, Karine; Chabert, Philippe; Marès, Pierre; Coppens, Yves; Mellier, Georges

    2015-07-01

    The female bony pelvis has to fulfil opposing functions: it has to be sufficiently closed to support the pelvic viscera in the upright position, while remaining sufficiently open to allow vaginal delivery. We aim to give an evolutionary perspective and the possible evolution of the bony pelvis from Lucy to the modern female with the implications in terms of genital prolapse. Thirteen pelvimetric measurements were performed on 178 bony pelves: 1 fossil pelvis from Australopithecus Lucy, 128 female Caucasian modern adult pelves and 49 female Catarrhine pelves (29 gorillas and 20 chimpanzees). Lucy's pelvis shape was the most transversely oval, short and broad, termed platypelloid. Modern female pelves were transversely oval only at the inlet. A protruding ischial spine, fairly small ischial tuberosities and a sacral concavity made Lucy closer to Homo sapiens and less like the great apes. In the last group, pelvic planes were anteroposteriorly oval, except in the gorilla, where the outlet was round or slightly transversely oval. The subpubic angle was narrowest in Lucy, whereas it was greater than 90° in the great apes. The female pelvis is involved in both visceral support and parturition and represents a compromise. The narrower pelvis of Australopithecus Lucy provided protection against genital prolapse, but resulted in complex obstetrical mechanics. From an evolutionary perspective, the pelvis of Homo sapiens became modified to make parturition easier, but increased the risk of genital prolapse: the ilia became wide open laterally and the sacrum broadened with a shorter distance between the sacroiliac and coxofemoral joints.

  18. Laparoscopic promontofixation for pelvic organ prolapse: a 10-year single center experience in a series of 501 patients.

    PubMed

    Bacle, Julien; Papatsoris, Athanasios G; Bigot, Pierre; Azzouzi, Abdel-Rahmene; Brychaet, Pierre-Emmanuel; Piussan, Jean; Mandron, Eric

    2011-12-01

    To assess the long-term outcomes of laparoscopic promontofixation (LP) for the treatment of pelvic organ prolapse (POP). A total of 501 consecutive patients with POP were included in this prospective study. The patients' mean age was 63.23 (36-90) years, their mean body mass index was 25.14 (15-36) and their mean number of deliveries was 3.3 (0-14). A POP grade ≥3 was diagnosed in 70.4% of the patients and 38.9% of them had a history of abdominal surgery. The patients underwent a Bonney test and urodynamic study. In cases of stress urinary incontinence (SUI), the patients underwent the simultaneous insertion of a tension-free vaginal tape. A prolapse quality of life questionnaire was sent to all patients. The mean operative time was 97.4 min (50-210) and there were 1.7% cases of intra-operative complications. The mean hospitalization time was 3.7 days (1-13 days). During the mean follow-up of 20.7 months (3-120), 91 (17.8%) complications were recorded, including constipation (5.5%), SUI (3.5%), vaginal erosion (2.4%), and urge incontinence (2%). Recurrences were recorded in 11.5% of the patients within an average time of 37.2 months. Risk factors for recurrence were the use of the polypropylene mesh compared with the polyester mesh (P<0.0001), an intra-operative hysterectomy (P=0.02), and bleeding (P=0.049). There was a statistical significant (P<0.001) improvement in most of the symptoms in the prolapse quality of life questionnaire. LP is safe with effective long-term results, with low recurrence and morbidity rates, and a good quality of life. © 2011 The Japanese Urological Association.

  19. Necrotising fasciitis after hysterectomy and concomitant transvaginal mesh repair in a patient with pelvic organ prolapse.

    PubMed

    Pushkar, Dmitry Y; Vasilchenko, Mikhail I; Kasyan, George R

    2013-10-01

    Necrotising fasciitis is a severe form of soft tissue infection. Herein, we present an unreported complication of the transvaginal repair of a pelvic organ prolapse (POP) with trocar-guided polypropylene mesh and a concomitant hysterectomy. A 61-year-old Caucasian female who had been using an intrauterine device (IUD) for 30 years presented with a stage 3 pelvic organ prolapse. A genital ultrasound examination confirmed the presence of an IUD, but found no endometrial abnormalities. The surgical management was limited to a transvaginal hysterectomy and simultaneous anterior vaginal wall repair augmented with trocar-guided mesh. A morphological examination of the removed uterus confirmed the presence of the intrauterine device and additionally found endometrial cancer (T1N0M0), which was not revealed during the preoperative ultrasound. Within 6 days of the surgery, she developed anaerobic bilateral necrotising fasciitis on both thighs. Non-clostridial streptococci were identified in the wound. After 18 days of intensive care, the patient died of fatal coagulopathy.

  20. What’s new in the functional anatomy of pelvic organ prolapse?

    PubMed Central

    DeLancey, John O. L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of Review Provide an evidence-based review of pelvic floor functional anatomy related to pelvic organ prolapse. Recent Findings Pelvic organ support depends on interactions between the levator ani muscle and pelvic connective tissues. Muscle failure exposes the vaginal wall a pressure differential producing abnormal tension on the attachments of the pelvic organs to the pelvic side-wall. Birth-induced injury to the pubococcygeal portion of the levator ani muscle is seen in 55% of women with prolapse and 16% of women with normal support. Failure of the connective tissue attachments between the uterus and vagina to the pelvic wall (cardinal, uterosacral, paravaginal) are strongly related with prolapse (effect sizes ~2.5) and are also highly correlated with one another (r ~0.85). Small differences exist with prolapse in factors involving the vaginal wall length and width (effect sizes ~1). The primary difference in ligament properties between women with and without prolapse is found in ligament length. Only minor differences in ligament stiffness are seen. Summary Pelvic organ prolapse occurs due to injury to the levator ani muscles and failure of the connections between the pelvic organs to the pelvic sidewall. Abnormalities of the vaginal wall fascial tissues may play a minor role. PMID:27517338

  1. Estrogen receptor expression and vessel density in the vagina wall in postmenopausal women with prolapse.

    PubMed

    Lara, Lúcia Alves da Silva; Ribeiro da Silva, Alfredo; Rosa-e-Silva, Julio Cesar; Silva-de-Sá, Marcos Felipe; Rosa-e-Silva, Ana Carolina Japur de Sá

    2014-04-01

    After menopause, critically estrogen low levels result in modifications in vaginal wall. This cross-sectional study aims to determine whether there is a change in the number of vessels in the lamina propria of the vagina after menopause in parallel to the ER-alpha expression on the vaginal wall. Twelve women who underwent a genital surgery for genital prolapse up to grade II were selected. They were divided into two groups: a premenopausal group (PG) consisting of six women who were 18-40 years old with FSH levels =12 mIU/ml and regular cycles, and a menopausal group (MG) consisting of six women at least one year after menopause who were <65 years old with FSH levels =40 mIU/ml. Slides were stained for ER-alpha immunohistochemistry, and an endothelial cell marker CD3 was used to label vessels which were identified by using a system for morphometry. The number of vessels was significantly higher in the PG than in the MG both on the anterior wall (PG: 1.055 ± 145.8 vessels/mm(2), MG: 346.6 ± 209.9 vessels/mm(2), p<0.0001) and on the posterior wall (PG: 1064 ± 303.3 vessels/mm(2), MG: 348.6 ± 167.3 vessels/mm(2), p=0.0005). The ER-alpha score was significantly higher in the PG than the score for the MG on both the anterior and posterior walls (PG: 6.0 ± 0.52, MG: 2.5 ± 0.89, p=0.007; PG: 5.8 ± 0.79, MG: 2.7 ± 0.95, p=0.03, respectively). There was a positive correlation between the ER-alpha score and the vessel concentration on the anterior (r=0.6656, p=0.018) and posterior (r=0.6738, p=0.016) vaginal walls. Age was strongly negatively correlated with vessel concentration on the vaginal walls (respectively r=-0.9033, p<0.0001, r=-0.7440, p=0.0055). Therefore, postmenopausal women with genital prolapse have a smaller number of vessels on the vaginal wall compared to normoestrogenic controls with the same pathological condition. Hypoestrogenism and advancing age are factors that are associated to these changes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Vaginal Atrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... an Endocrinologist Search Featured Resource Menopause Map™ View Vaginal Atrophy October 2017 Download PDFs English Editors Christine ... during this time, including vaginal dryness. What is vaginal atrophy? Vaginal atrophy (also referred to as vulvovaginal ...

  3. Physical examination of the female internal and external genitalia with and without pelvic organ prolapse: A review.

    PubMed

    Pahwa, Avita K; Siegelman, Evan S; Arya, Lily A

    2015-04-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse, a herniation of pelvic organs through the vagina, is a common condition in older women. Pelvic organ prolapse distorts vaginal anatomy making pelvic examination difficult. A clinician must accurately identify anatomic landmarks both in women presenting with symptoms of prolapse and in women noted to have coincidental prolapse during routine gynecologic examination. We present a systematic approach to the female pelvic examination including anatomic landmarks of the external genitalia, vagina, and uterus in women with normal support as well as changes that occur with pelvic organ prolapse. Knowledge and awareness of normal anatomic landmarks will improve a clinician's ability to identify defects in pelvic support and allow for better diagnosis and treatment of pelvic organ prolapse. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Surgical Updates in the Treatment of Pelvic Organ Prolapse.

    PubMed

    Geynisman-Tan, Julia; Kenton, Kimberly

    2017-04-28

    Pelvic organ prolapse affects approximately 8% of women, and the demand for pelvic organ prolapse surgery is expected to increase by nearly 50% over the next 40 years. The surgical techniques used to correct pelvic organ prolapse have evolved over the last 10 years, with multiple well-designed studies addressing the risks, outcomes, reoperation rates, and optimal surgical approaches. Here we review the most recent evidence on the route of access, concomitant procedures, and synthetic materials for augmenting the repair. Ultimately, this review highlights that there is no optimal method for correcting pelvic organ prolapse and that the risks, benefits, and approaches should be discussed in a patient-centered, goal-oriented approach to decision-making.

  5. Safety of Synthetic Glue Used for Laparoscopic Prolapse Treatment.

    PubMed

    Sarasa Castelló, Núria; Toth, Alexandra; Canis, Michel; Botchorishvilli, Revaz

    2017-12-29

    .5 years after LPF in another center. At the surgery, 1 cm of the prosthesis was identified in the vagina, dissected, and sutured. One year later, she consulted for dyspareunia and purulent discharge; vaginal rigid mesh exposure with an epithelization defect and inflammatory signs was seen. During laparoscopy, prosthetic exposition and glue debris on the prosthesis were identified. In all 3 cases, debris of glue were identified in the no integrated mesh area. The suggested reasons of exposure can be the excessive amount of surgical glue applied. Moreover, a large amount of glue may be impairing tissue ingrowth through the mesh pores, causing low fibrosis and poor tissue integration [3]. Glue seems to prevent fibrosis from occurring. Its use in pelvic organ prolapse laparoscopic mesh fixation should be done with caution. No prospective studies reporting long-term comorbidities and results have been published. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Gynecologic Laparoscopists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Vaginal Atrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome of menopause (GSM) increases your risk of: Vaginal infections. Changes in the acid balance of your vagina makes vaginal infections (vaginitis) more likely. Urinary problems. Urinary changes associated ...

  7. Malignant mixed Mullerian tumour of the prolapsed cervix: A case report.

    PubMed

    Massinde, Anthony N; Rumanyika, Richard R; Kihunrwa, Albert; Rambau, Peter; Magoma, Moke

    2012-04-01

    Malignant mixed Mullerian tumour is a rare gynaecological tumour commonly presenting with vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain or mass in the uterine cavity, cervix or vagina. The neoplasms are commonly seen in postmenopausal women although it has been observed in younger women. Ovaries and the corpus of the uterus are commonly involved, whereas involvement of the cervix and vagina is rare. A 37 year-old Tanzania lady para 7 with a previous history of two genital polypectomies presented with history of recurrent vaginal mass which was associated with abnormal vaginal bleeding and foul smelling discharge. Vaginal examination revealed a prolapsed uterus with giant fungating cervical mass which was ulcerated, friable, and bled easily on touch. Impression was grade three uterine prolapse with infected cervical polyp/cervical sarcoma. Excision of the tumour through trans-vaginal hysterectomy was performed, no lymphadenopathy was found, no adnexa abnormalities, and no involvement of the vaginal wall. Histological diagnosis of Malignant mixed Mullerian tumour of the cervix was made. Patient recovery was unremarkable; however she was lost to follow up. The patient's mass was initially suspected to be prolapsed uterus with decubitus ulcer but the histological results were of a malignant condition. Lack of clear management guidelines for some rare mixed tumours remains a challenge for clinicians in low resource settings.

  8. Reasons for and Against Use of Non-absorbable, Synthetic Mesh During Pelvic Organ Prolapse Repair, According to the Prolapsed Compartment.

    PubMed

    Kontogiannis, Stavros; Goulimi, Evangelia; Giannitsas, Konstantinos

    2017-01-01

    Awareness and reporting of mesh-related complications of pelvic organ prolapse repairs have increased in recent years. As a result, deciding whether to use a mesh or not has become a difficult task for urogynecologists. Our aim was to summarize reasons for and against the use of mesh in prolapse repair based on a review of relevant literature. Scopus and PubMed databases were searched for papers reporting on the efficacy and safety of native tissue versus non-absorbable, synthetic mesh prolapse repairs. Randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses were included. Evidence is presented for each vaginal compartment separately. In the anterior compartment, mesh repairs seem to offer clearly superior efficacy and durability of results compared to native tissue repairs, but with an equally clear increase in complication rates. In the isolated posterior compartment prolapse, high-quality evidence is sparse. As far as the apical compartment is concerned, sacrocolpopexy is the most efficacious, yet the most invasive procedure. Data on the comparison of transvaginal mesh versus native tissue repairs of the apical compartment are somewhat ambiguous. Given the inevitable coexistence of advantages and disadvantages of mesh use in each of the prolapsed vaginal compartments, an individualized treatment decision, based on weighing risks against benefits for each patient, seems to be the most rational approach.

  9. [Impact of colpocleisis on body image in women with severe pelvic organ prolapse].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-hui; Lu, Yong-xian; Liu, Xin; Liu, Jing-xia; Shen, Wen-jie; Wang, Wen-ying; Ge, Jing; Zhao, Ying; Niu, Ke

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the impact of colpocleisis on body image in women with severe pelvic organ prolapse (POP). From Oct. 2005 to Feb. 2010, 60 POP patients with stage III and IV by POP quantitation system underwent total or partial colpocleisis. Patients received body image evaluation before and 1 year after operation. One year after operation, 52 (87%, 52/60) patients completed body image evaluation. Before and 1 year after operation, the ratio of answer "Not at all" of questions such as "Have you felt less physically attractive as a result of your vaginal prolapse?", "Have you been feeling less feminine as a result of your vaginal prolapse?", "Did you find it difficult to look at yourself naked?", "Have you been feeling less sexually attractive as a result of your vaginal prolapse?", "Have you felt dissatisfied with your body?" were 25% and 96% (P < 0.01), 21% and 96% (P < 0.01), 37% and 67% (P = 0.018), 29% and 96% (P < 0.01), 12% and 83% (P < 0.01), respectively, indicating significant improvement on body image after operation for patients treated by colpocleisis. Women underwent colpocleisis for severe POP could not decrease their body image as a result of the disability of vaginal intercourse.

  10. Current Developments and Perspectives on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Urinary Incontinence and Genital Prolapse in Women

    PubMed Central

    Naumann, G.; Kölbl, H.

    2012-01-01

    As a key area of gynaecology, urogynaecology has undergone impressive changes in the past few years. Together with the high prevalence of functional pelvic floor disorders, modern anaesthesia procedures and the introduction of new, innovative minimally invasive operation techniques have led to a dramatic increase in the number of operations for incontinence and prolapses. The increasingly subtle diagnostic options, such as, e. g., 2D and 3D sonography of the pelvic floor provide unambiguous findings and facilitate decision making. Tension-free vaginal slings in retro-pubic, trans-obturator or single-incision techniques show a high success rate with few complications and have almost completely replaced the more invasive abdominal surgical techniques for the operative management of stress incontinence. Especially for recurrent prolapse the use of alloplastic nets leads to a markedly improved anatomic and functional outcome. In spite of the euphoria about modern operation techniques and novel net materials, in-depth knowledge of pelvic floor anatomy, sufficient surgical experience and unequivocal guideline-conform indications are mandatory for satisfactory treatment outcomes. The afflicted women must be informed in detail about alternative procedures and more emphasis should be placed on conservative therapy. Novel surgical techniques should be monitored by registers or clinical trials. The professional society is called upon to improve the training curricula for pelvic floor surgery. PMID:25308980

  11. Changes in pelvic organ prolapse mesh mechanical properties following implantation in rats.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Daniela; Edwards, Sharon L; Alexander, David L J; Rosamilia, Anna; Werkmeister, Jerome A; Gargett, Caroline E; Letouzey, Vincent

    2016-02-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a multifactorial disease that manifests as the herniation of the pelvic organs into the vagina. Surgical methods for prolapse repair involve the use of a synthetic polypropylene mesh. The use of this mesh has led to significantly higher anatomical success rates compared with native tissue repairs, and therefore, despite recent warnings by the Food and Drug Administration regarding the use of vaginal mesh, the number of POP mesh surgeries has increased over the last few years. However, mesh implantation is associated with higher postsurgery complications, including pain and erosion, with higher consecutive rates of reoperation when placed vaginally. Little is known on how the mechanical properties of the implanted mesh itself change in vivo. It is assumed that the mechanical properties of these meshes remain unchanged, with any differences in mechanical properties of the formed mesh-tissue complex attributed to the attached tissue alone. It is likely that any changes in mesh mechanical properties that do occur in vivo will have an impact on the biomechanical properties of the formed mesh-tissue complex. The objective of the study was to assess changes in the multiaxial mechanical properties of synthetic clinical prolapse meshes implanted abdominally for up to 90 days, using a rat model. Another objective of the study was to assess the biomechanical properties of the formed mesh-tissue complex following implantation. Three nondegradable polypropylene clinical synthetic mesh types for prolapse repair (Gynemesh PS, Polyform Lite, and Restorelle) and a partially degradable polypropylene/polyglecaprone mesh (UltraPro) were mechanically assessed before and after implantation (n = 5/ mesh type) in Sprague Dawley rats for 30 (Gynemesh PS, Polyform Lite, and Restorelle) and 90 (UltraPro and Polyform Lite) days. Stiffness and permanent extension following cyclic loading, and breaking load, of the preimplanted mesh types, explanted mesh

  12. [Utilize the simplified POP-Q system in the clinical practice of staging for pelvic organ prolapse: comparative analysis with standard POP-Q system].

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Zhu, L; Xu, T; Lang, J H

    2016-07-25

    To determine the association between simplified pelvic organ prolapse quantification system(S-POP-Q)and the standard pelvic organ prolapse quantification system(POP-Q)in describing pelvic organ prolapse. This was an observational study. From Jan. 2010 to Jan. 2014, 256 subjects with pelvic floor disorder symptoms underwent two exams: a POP-Q exam and a S-POP-Q exam. For the S-POP-Q system, vaginal segments of the exam were defined using points Ba, Bp, C, and D. For the POP-Q system vaginal segments of the exam were defined using points Aa, Ba, Ap, Bp, C, and D. The inter-system consistency between the overall ordinal stages, the anterior vaginal wall stages, the posterior vaginal wall stages, the cervix stages, the posterior fornix or vaginal cuff stages from each two kind of exam were compared. The Kendall tau-b correlation coefficient for overall stage was 0.81, the Kendall tau-b correlation coefficients were 0.81, 0.81, 0.85, 0.88 for the anterior vaginal wall, for the posterior vaginal wall, for the cervix, for the posterior fornix or vaginal cuff, respectively. There is almost perfect association between S-POP-Q and POP-Q in describing pelvic organ prolapse.

  13. Erosions on a prolapsed uterine in an old woman: an unusual manifestation of pemphigus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Ramezani, Ali; Ghandi, Narges; Akhyani, Maryam; Daneshpazhooh, Maryam; Naraghi, Zahra S; Chams-Davatchi, Cheyda

    2009-09-15

    Vaginal involvement in pemphigus vulgaris has previously been described. In all those cases a pelvic examination was needed to explore the lesions. We describe a patient with pemphigus vulgaris who had pemphigus erosions on a prolapsed uterus (i.e., on the everted surface of vagina). The patient had widespread lesions of pemphigus in other mucosal and cutaneous sites. Biopsy, antibodies against desmoglein 1 and 3, and direct and indirect immunofluorescence were confirming. The erosions on the prolapsed uterus were resistant to treatment; other mucosal and cutaneous lesions responded rapidly to prednisolone and azathioprine. After lowering the dose of prednisolone the patient was referred to a gynecologist for a vaginal hysterectomy. This case was unique because her vaginal lesions could be easily examined and followed.

  14. Pelvic Organ Prolapse Repair with Mesh: Mid-Term Efficacy and Complications.

    PubMed

    Mateu Arrom, Laura; Errando Smet, Carlos; Gutierrez Ruiz, Cristina; Araño, Pedro; Palou Redorta, Joan

    2018-06-06

    Our aim was to assess the efficacy and complications of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) correction with transvaginal mesh (TVM). We retrospectively assessed patients who had undergone a repair of an apical (primary or recurrent) or recurrent POP using TVM in our department since 2007. Meshes used were Prolift®, Elevate®, and Surelift®. Satisfaction with surgery was assessed on a 0-10 scale. A total of 83 patients were included (33 Prolift®, 36 Elevate®, 14 Surelift®), with a mean age of 67.8 ± 9.7 years. Eighteen (21.6%) patients underwent a recurrent POP correction. Follow-up was 49 ± 34 months. Twelve (14.4%) symptomatic recurrences were identified, 3 of which required further surgery. Satisfaction was 8.7. Four (4.8%) vaginal exposures were detected, 2 of which required partial mesh removal. Three (3.6%) cases of dyspareunia and 1 (1.2%) case of mild pelvic pain were reported, which did not require further treatment. The use of TVM for apical or recurrent POP repair is effective and is associated with a high satisfaction rate while complications are infrequent. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. [Vaginal mesh operations in the urogynecological practice after the FDA warnings. Use or not to use mesh?

    PubMed

    Fekete, Zoltán; Körösi, Szilvia; Németh, Gábor

    2018-03-01

    The prevalence of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) with aging is escalating alarmingly, and now becoming a growing epidemic among the elderly. Synthetic transvaginal mesh (TVM) has been employed with increasing popularity in the treatment of POP until the end of the last decade. After the U.S. Drug and Food Administration (FDA) warnings in the years 2008 and 2011, the number of vaginal mesh operations has decreased dramatically. The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the anti-POP effectivity, the anti-stress incontinence (anti-SUI) efficacy, and the late (36 months) post-operative complications of the anterior vaginoplasty and the TVM operations. We analysed the clinical data from 120 patients with stage II-III anterior prolapse and concomitant SUI who had undergone surgery at a tertiary referral centre in Hungary between January 2013 and January 2014. Sixty patients underwent Kelly-Stoeckel vaginoplasty and the other 60 cases had TVM operation. The surgical complications were classified using the Clavien-Dindo (CD) classification system. The anti-POP (91.6% vs. 63.3%; p<0.001) and the anti-SUI efficacy (90% vs. 55%, p<0.001) were significantly higher in the TVM group than in the vaginoplasty group, while the overall extrusion rate was found 8.3% after a 3-year follow-up. The Clavien-Dindo score (CD) proved that the early post-operative complication profile was similar among the TVM patients as compared to the vaginoplasty group (p = 0.405). Vaginal mesh surgery represents an effective procedure for prolapse and concomitant SUI with a decreased risk of short- and long-term complications. Orv Hetil. 2018; 159(10): 397-404.

  16. Gluteo-vaginal sinus formation complicating posterior intravaginal slingplasty followed by successful IVS removal. A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mikos, Themistoklis; Tsalikis, Tryfon; Papanikolaou, Alexios; Pournaropoulos, Fotios; Bontis, John N

    2008-03-01

    Posterior intravaginal slingplasty (IVS) is a technique used for the treatment of apical prolapse. Type III meshes have been mostly used with this technique. In this article, a case of bilateral gluteo-vaginal sinus tract formation that complicated a posterior vaginal slingplasty with a type III mesh is presented. At 3 months follow-up, the patient complained for bulking through the vagina, continuous offensive vaginal discharge, and constant pain at the buttocks. She had prolapse recurrence, and there was defective healing at the gluteal entry points of the posterior IVS. Ten months after the initial surgery, she underwent a laparotomic subtotal hysterectomy and sacrocervicopexy with prolene type I mesh. At the same time, the posterior mesh was removed allowing the surgeon to discover communication of the canal of the mesh extending from gluteal incisions to the vagina epithelium. The sinus tract was managed surgically with excision of the surrounding tissues. There was no recurrence or other complications at 2 months follow-up.

  17. [Is the use of synthetic mesh by vaginal route decrease the risk of cystocele recurrence? Clinical practice guidelines].

    PubMed

    Le Normand, L; Deffieux, X; Donon, L; Fatton, B; Cour, F

    2016-07-01

    The use of prosthetic surgery by vaginal route has been widely used to try to reduce the risk of prolapse recurrence in the surgical treatment of vaginal cystoceles. Specific complications including type of erosion have led to randomized studies comparing surgery by vaginal route with and without use of Mesh. This work is based on a systematic review of the literature (PubMed, Medline, Cochrane Library, Cochrane database of systemactic reviews, EMBASE) for meta-analyzes, randomized trials, registries, literature reviews, controlled studies and major not controlled studies, published on the subject. Its implementation has followed the methodology of the HAS on the recommendations for clinical practice, with a scientific argument (with the level of evidence, NP) and a recommendation grade (A, B, C, and professional agreement (AP)). The use of inter-vesicovaginal synthetic mesh improves the anatomical result compared to the autologous surgery for the treatment of cystocele (NP1). However, there is no difference in the functional outcome and there is an increase in the number of reoperations related to specific complications, including vaginal erosions. If the use of inter-vesicovaginal synthetic mesh improves the anatomical result compared to the autologous surgery for the treatment of cystocele (NP1), no difference in functional outcome and the increased number of related reoperations specific complications including vaginal erosions, do not argue for the systematic use of mesh in the treatment of primary cystocele. It must be discussed case by case basis taking into account a risk-benefit uncertain at long-term (grade B). Its use should be supported by additional studies focused on specific populations at risk of recurrence. © 2016 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. Tous droits réservés.

  18. Rectal prolapse repair - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the body through the anus. The rectum is anchored in position by ligaments. When these ligaments weaken, the rectum can move out of its normal position, downward, and pass through the anus. This is called rectal prolapse.

  19. A simple teaching tool for training the pelvic organ prolapse quantification system.

    PubMed

    Geiss, Ingrid M; Riss, Paul A; Hanzal, Engelbert; Dungl, Andrea

    2007-09-01

    The pelvic organ prolapse quantification (POPQ) system is currently the most common and specific system describing different prolapse stages. Nevertheless, its use is not yet accepted worldwide in routine care. Our aim was to develop a simple teaching tool for the POPQ system capable of simulating different stages of uterovaginal prolapse for use in medical education with hands on training. We constructed a moveable and flexible tool with an inverted Santa Claus' cap, which simulated the vaginal cuff and the tassel at the end representing the cervix. A wooden embroidery frame fixed the cap and served as the hymen, the reference point for all measurements. Inside the cap, we sewed buttons to define the anatomic landmark points Aa and Ap located 3 cm distal from the frame. After explaining the device to the students, we used the three-by-three grid for recording the quantitative description of the pelvic organ support. First, each student had to demonstrate a specific prolapse with his cap device. Then, a prolapse was simulated on the cap, and the student had to take the relevant measurements and record them in the POPQ grid. The main training effect to understand the POPQ system seems to be the possibility for each trainee to simulate a three-dimensional prolapse with this flexible vagina model.

  20. Vaginal Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... bleeding is any vaginal bleeding unrelated to normal menstruation. This type of bleeding may include spotting of ... two or more hours. Normal vaginal bleeding, or menstruation, occurs every 21 to 35 days when the ...

  1. Vaginal Odor

    MedlinePlus

    ... usually don't cause vaginal odors. Neither do yeast infections. Generally, if you have vaginal odor without ... Avoid douching. All healthy vaginas contain bacteria and yeast. The normal acidity of your vagina keeps bacteria ...

  2. Clindamycin Vaginal

    MedlinePlus

    ... an infection caused by an overgrowth of harmful bacteria in the vagina). Clindamycin is in a class ... works by slowing or stopping the growth of bacteria. Vaginal clindamycin cannot be used to treat vaginal ...

  3. Vaginal Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Vaginal problems are some of the most common reasons women go to the doctor. They may have ... common problem is vaginitis, an inflammation of the vagina. Other problems that affect the vagina include sexually ...

  4. Vaginal cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... essential to determine what type of cyst or mass you may have. A mass or bulge of the vaginal wall may be ... to rule out vaginal cancer, especially if the mass appears to be solid. If the cyst is ...

  5. [Surgical treatment of prolapse by abdominal route and effort-related urinary incontinence].

    PubMed

    Wagner, L; Fatton, B; Delmas, V; Haab, F; Costa, P

    2009-12-01

    Stress urinary incontinence is often associated with prolapse. The suburethral tapes have modified the indication for a preventive treatment of incontinence. The tapes are necessary in case of patent or masked incontinence, discussed in case of potential incontinence. The diagnosis of incontinence is done on questions to the patient, clinical exam, more than in urodynamic study. There is no absolute sign allowing to predict postoperative incontinence after surgery for prolapse. A continent woman can be incontinent postoperatively. If a potential incontinence is treated in the same as the prolapse, the patient must be informed of risk of obstruction and/or urgency.

  6. Forceps delivery is associated with increased risk of pelvic organ prolapse and muscle trauma: a cross-sectional study 16-24 years after first delivery.

    PubMed

    Volløyhaug, I; Mørkved, S; Salvesen, Ø; Salvesen, K Å

    2015-10-01

    To study possible associations between mode of delivery and pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and pelvic floor muscle trauma 16-24 years after first delivery and, in particular, to identify differences between forceps and vacuum delivery. This was a cross-sectional study including 608 women who delivered their first child in 1990-1997 and were examined with POP quantification (POP-Q) and pelvic floor ultrasound in 2013-2014. Outcome measures were POP ≥ Stage 2 or previous prolapse surgery, levator avulsion and levator hiatal area on Valsalva. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses and ANCOVA were applied to identify outcome variables associated with mode of delivery. Comparing forceps to vacuum delivery, the adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were 1.72 (95% CI, 1.06-2.79; P = 0.03) for POP ≥ Stage 2 or previous prolapse surgery and 4.16 (95% CI, 2.28-7.59; P < 0.01) for levator avulsion. Hiatal area on Valsalva was larger, with adjusted mean difference (aMD) of 4.75 cm(2) (95% CI, 2.46-7.03; P < 0.01). Comparing forceps with normal vaginal delivery, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) was 1.74 (95% CI, 1.12-2.68; P = 0.01) for POP ≥ Stage 2 or surgery and 4.35 (95% CI, 2.56-7.40; P < 0.01) for levator avulsion; hiatal area on Valsalva was larger, with an aMD of 3.84 cm(2) (95% CI, 1.78-5.90; P < 0.01). Comparing Cesarean delivery with normal vaginal delivery, aOR was 0.06 (95% CI, 0.02-0.14; P < 0.01) for POP ≥ Stage 2 or surgery and crude OR was 0.00 (95% CI, 0.00-0.30; P < 0.01) for levator avulsion; hiatal area on Valsalva was smaller, with an aMD of -8.35 cm(2) (95% CI, -10.87 to -5.84; P < 0.01). No differences were found between vacuum and normal vaginal delivery. We found that mode of delivery was associated with POP and pelvic floor muscle trauma in women from a general population, 16-24 years after their first delivery. Forceps was associated with significantly more POP

  7. Short-term complications associated with the use of transvaginal mesh in pelvic floor reconstructive surgery: Results from a multi-institutional prospectively maintained dataset.

    PubMed

    Caveney, Maxx; Haddad, Devin; Matthews, Catherine; Badlani, Gopal; Mirzazadeh, Majid

    2017-11-01

    Vaginal reconstructive surgery can be performed with or without mesh. We sought to determine comparative rates of perioperative complications of native tissue versus vaginal mesh repairs for pelvic organ prolapse. Using the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database, we concatenated surgical data from vaginal procedures for prolapse repair, including anterior and posterior colporrhaphy, paravaginal defect repair, enterocele repair, and vaginal colpopexy using Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) coding. We stratified this data by the modifier associated with mesh usage at the time of the procedure. We then compared 30-day perioperative outcomes, postoperative complications (bleeding, infection, etc), and readmission rates between women with and without mesh-based repairs. We identified 10 657 vaginal reconstructive procedures without mesh and 959 mesh-based repairs from 2009 through 2013. Patients undergoing mesh repair were more likely to experience at least one complication than native tissue repair (9.28% vs 6.15%, P < 0.001), with the overall complication rate also being higher in the mesh group (11.37% vs 9.39%, P = 0.03). Procedures with mesh had a higher rate of perioperative bleeding requiring transfusion than native tissue repair (2.3% vs 0.49%, P < 0.001), and organ surgical site infection (SSI) (0.52% vs 0.17%, P = 0.02). There were no significant differences in rates of readmission, superficial, or deep SSIs, pneumonia, urinary tract infection, sepsis, or renal failure. The use of vaginal mesh for pelvic organ prolapse repair appears to result in a higher rate of perioperative complications than native tissue repair. Patients undergoing these procedures should be counselled preoperatively concerning these risks. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Apical sling: an approach to posthysterectomy vault prolapse.

    PubMed

    Alas, Alexandriah N; Pereira, Ines; Chandrasekaran, Neeraja; Devakumar, Hemikaa; Espaillat, Luis; Hurtado, Eric; Davila, G Willy

    2016-09-01

    This video demonstrates a transvaginal technique for vaginal vault suspension using an apical sling suspended from the sacrospinous ligaments. This was a retrospective review of apical sling procedures performed from July 2013 to November 2014. The technique is started by marking the vaginal apex. A posterior dissection is performed and the sacrospinous ligaments are identified after dissection into the pararectal space. A 10-cm piece of monofilament, inelastic polypropylene tape is attached to the underside of the vaginal apex. Polypropylene sutures are placed into the sacrospinous ligament and threaded though the lateral edges of the apical sling and tied down, restoring apical support. Finally, the vaginal epithelium is closed. A total of 67 women underwent an apical sling procedure with 70 % (47/67) completing 6 months follow-up. The subjective cure rate ("cured" or "greatly improved") was 78.7 % and the objective cure rate (anatomical success, defined as apical prolapse stage ≤1) was 100 % (47 patients). Our apical sling sacrospinous ligament fixation approach is a unique, minimal mesh approach using a tape commonly used for midurethral slings to suspend the vaginal apex. We achieved high anatomical success and patient satisfaction.

  9. Estrogen Alters Remodeling of the Vaginal Wall after Surgical Injury in Guinea Pigs1

    PubMed Central

    Balgobin, Sunil; Montoya, T. Ignacio; Shi, Haolin; Acevedo, Jesus F.; Keller, Patrick W.; Riegel, Matthew; Wai, Clifford Y.; Word, Ruth Ann

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Loss of pelvic organ support (i.e., pelvic organ prolapse) is common in menopausal women. Surgical reconstruction of pelvic organ prolapse is plagued with high failure rates. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of estrogen on biomechanical properties, lysyl oxidase (LOX), collagen content, and histomorphology of the vagina with or without surgical injury. Nulliparous ovariectomized guinea pigs were treated systemically with either 50 μg/kg/day estradiol (E2,) or vehicle. After 2 wk, vaginal surgery was performed, and animals were treated with either beta-aminopropionitrile (BAPN, an irreversible LOX inhibitor), or vehicle to determine the role of LOX in recovery of the vaginal wall from injury with or without E2. Estradiol resulted in (i) significant growth, increased smooth muscle, and increased thickness of the vagina, (ii) increased distensibility without compromise of maximal force at failure, and (iii) increased total and cross-linked collagen. In the absence of E2, BAPN resulted in decreased collagen and vaginal wall strength in the area of the injury. In contrast, in E2-treated animals, increased distensibility, maximal forces, and total collagen were maintained despite BAPN. Interestingly, LOX mRNA was induced dramatically (9.5-fold) in the injured vagina with or without E2 at 4 days. By 21 days, however, LOX levels declined to near baseline in E2-deprived animals. LOX mRNA levels remained strikingly elevated (12-fold) at 21 days in the estrogenized vagina. The results suggest that prolonged E2 induced increases in LOX, and collagen cross-links may act to sustain a matrix environment that optimizes long-term surgical wound healing in the vagina. PMID:24174572

  10. Characteristics of women with continued use of vaginal pessaries.

    PubMed

    Lewthwaite, Barbara J; Staley, Doug; Girouard, Lise; Maslow, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Vaginal pessaries have been shown to be a safe, effective treatment for pelvic organ prolapse, and in some cases, female urinary incontinence. There are limited data that predict long-term pessary use; therefore, the aim of this retrospective, exploratory study was to describe selected characteristics of women using a pessary for 12 months or longer in a nurse-run clinic.

  11. Expression of fibulin-5 in the skin of patients with rectal prolapse.

    PubMed

    Joshi, H M; Gosselink, M P; Smyth, E A; Hompes, R; Cunningham, C; Lindsey, I; Urban, J; Jones, O M

    2015-11-01

    Components of connective tissue other than collagen have been found to be involved in patients with rectal prolapse. The organization of elastic fibres differs between controls and subsets of patients with rectal prolapse, and their importance for maintaining the structural and functional integrity of the pelvic floor has been demonstrated in transgenic mice, with animals which have a null mutation in fibulin-5 (Fbln5(i/i)) developing prolapse. This study aimed to compare fibulin-5 expression in the skin of patients with and without rectal prolapse. Between January 2013 and February 2014, skin specimens were obtained during surgery from 20 patients with rectal prolapse and from 21 without prolapse undergoing surgery for other indications. Fibroblasts from the skin were cultured and the level of fibulin-5 expression was determined on cultured fibroblasts, isolated from these specimens by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemistry was performed on fixed tissue specimens to assess fibulin-5 expression. Fibulin-5 mRNA expression and fibulin-5 staining intensity were significantly lower in young male patients with rectal prolapse compared with age-matched controls [fibulin-5 mean ± SD mRNA relative units, 1.1 ± 0.41 vs 0.53 ± 0.22, P = 0.001; intensity score, median (range), 2 (0-3) vs 1 (0-3), P = 0.05]. There were no significant differences in the expression of fibulin-5 in women with rectal prolapse compared with controls. Fibulin-5 may be implicated in the aetiology of rectal prolapse in a subgroup of young male patients. Colorectal Disease © 2015 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  12. Outcome of the use of tension-free vaginal tape in women with mixed urinary incontinence, previous failed surgery, or low valsalva pressure.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hady, El-Said; Constantine, Glyn

    2005-02-01

    To assess the safety and efficacy of the use of tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women with mixed incontinence, previous failed incontinence surgery or low valsalva leak point pressure (VLPP). Six hundred and fifty-eight women with SUI underwent the TVT procedure. These included women with mixed stress and urge incontinence (n=128), previous surgery for SUI (n=118), low VLPP (n=80), and those over 70 years old (n=68). The procedure was carried out under spinal anesthetic and operative and immediate postoperative data was collected for all women. Six-month follow-up data was available on 454 women, with the first 300 women completing a quality of life (QOL) questionnaire before and after surgery. The overall subjective cure rate at 6 months was 91%, with 8% of women reporting significant (>50%) improvement in their symptoms. Subgroups with a body mass index > 30, age > 70 years, coexisting instability, previous failed surgery, and low VLPP showed cure rates of 81-89%. QOL improvements for all groups were highly significant. Significant complications included voiding difficulties in 29 women (4.4%), retropubic hematomas in four (0.6%), and thromboembolic episodes in three (0.5%). The simplicity and high efficacy of the TVT makes it the first choice for the treatment of women with SUI, including those with more complex problems or coexisting risk factors.

  13. Long-term clinical outcomes with the retropubic tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure compared to Burch colposuspension for correcting stress urinary incontinence (SUI).

    PubMed

    Holdø, Bjørn; Verelst, Margareta; Svenningsen, Rune; Milsom, Ian; Skjeldestad, Finn Egil

    2017-11-01

    The retropubic tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure replaced Burch colposuspension as the primary surgical method for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) in women in our department in 1998. In this study we compared the short-term and long-term clinical outcomes of these surgical procedures. Using a case series design, we compared the last 5 years of the Burch procedure (n = 127, 1994-1999) with the first 5 years of the retropubic TVT procedure (n = 180, 1998-2002). Information from the medical records was transferred to a case report form comprising data on perioperative and long-term complications as well as recurrence of UI, defined as bothersome UI or UI in need of repeat surgery. Other endpoints were rates of perioperative and late complications and the rates of prolapse surgery after primary surgery. The data were analyzed with the chi-squared and t tests and survival analysis using SPSS. The cumulative recurrence rate of SUI in women with preoperative SUI was significantly higher after the Burch procedure, but no difference was observed in women with MUI. There were no significant differences in rates of perioperative and late complications. At 12 years there was a significant increase in rates of repeat surgery for incontinence and prolapse in women after the Burch procedure. The long-term efficacy of TVT surgery was superior to that of Burch colposuspension in women with SUI. In addition, the rate of late prolapse surgery was significantly higher after the Burch procedure.

  14. Uterine prolapse with an interesting vascular anomaly in a cheetah: a case report.

    PubMed

    Nöthling, J O; Knesl, O; Irons, P; Lane, E

    2002-12-01

    A 5-year-old cheetah suffered a complete prolapse of the left uterine horn after the birth of her second litter. Two attempts to reduce the prolapse transvaginally failed. The animal was hospitalized 13 days after the prolapse first occurred, and an ovariohysterectomy was performed to resolve the prolapse. The prolapsed uterine horn had been mutilated: its tip, together with the ipsilateral ovary was absent. Laparotomy revealed no sign of recent or past hemorrhage or adhesions, or any signs of the left ovarian artery or left ovarian vein in the remnants of the left mesovarium. A large vein crossed the uterine body from the left uterine horn to join the right uterine vein, presumably serving as the only route of venous drainage for the prolapsed uterine horn. A possible cause for the prolapse is excessive mobility of the uterus due to prior rupture of its mesial support. The animal died 24 days after surgery due to chronic renal failure, as a result of severe renal amyloidosis.

  15. Neonatal prolapsed patent vitellointestinal duct

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ramnik V; Kumar, Hemant; Sinha, C K; Patricolo, Mario

    2013-01-01

    A case of a prolapsed patent vitellointestinal duct (PVID) in a 10-day-old neonate who presented with vomiting and poor weight gain with partial intestinal obstruction and a flower like pink, prolapsing lesion at his umbilicus has been reported. A limited contrast study through the tubular structure confirmed it to be a PVID. He underwent transumbilical exploration and resection and anastomosis uneventfully. Persistence of the vitellointestinal duct as a whole or part of it leads to a wide variety of anomalies–Meckel's diverticulum is the commonest lesion and a PVID is the rarest. Umbilical cord clamping flush with the abdominal wall may convert a Meckel's diverticulum prolapsing in the base of umbilical ring into a PVID. Careful assessment should be made for associated anomalies. Transumbilical exploration gives the best cosmetic and functional results. PMID:23845681

  16. Neonatal prolapsed patent vitellointestinal duct.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ramnik V; Kumar, Hemant; Sinha, C K; Patricolo, Mario

    2013-07-10

    A case of a prolapsed patent vitellointestinal duct (PVID) in a 10-day-old neonate who presented with vomiting and poor weight gain with partial intestinal obstruction and a flower like pink, prolapsing lesion at his umbilicus has been reported. A limited contrast study through the tubular structure confirmed it to be a PVID. He underwent transumbilical exploration and resection and anastomosis uneventfully. Persistence of the vitellointestinal duct as a whole or part of it leads to a wide variety of anomalies-Meckel's diverticulum is the commonest lesion and a PVID is the rarest. Umbilical cord clamping flush with the abdominal wall may convert a Meckel's diverticulum prolapsing in the base of umbilical ring into a PVID. Careful assessment should be made for associated anomalies. Transumbilical exploration gives the best cosmetic and functional results.

  17. The Quality of Health Information Available on the Internet for Patients With Pelvic Organ Prolapse.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Ellen R; Janssen, Kristine; Krajewski, Colleen M; Barber, Matthew D

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the quality of Web sites that provide information on pelvic organ prolapse using validated quality measurement tools. The Google search engine was used to perform a search of the following 4 terms: "pelvic organ prolapse," "dropped bladder," "cystocele," and "vaginal mesh." The DISCERN appraisal tool and JAMA benchmark criteria were used to determine the quality of health information of each Web site. Cohen κ was performed to determine interrater reliability between reviewers. Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to compare DISCERN scores and JAMA criteria among search terms. Interrater reliability between the two reviewers using DISCERN was κ = 0.71 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.68-0.74] and using JAMA criteria was κ = 0.98 (95% CI, 0.74-1.0). On the basis of the DISCERN appraisal tool, the search term "vaginal mesh" had significantly lower Web site quality than "pelvic organ prolapse" and "cystocele," respectively [mean difference of DISCERN score, -14.65 (95% CI, -25.50 to 8.50, P < 0.0001) and -12.55 (95% CI, -24.00 to 7.00, P = 0.0007)]. "Dropped bladder" had significantly lower Web site quality compared to "pelvic organ prolapse" and "cystocele," respectively (mean difference of DISCERN score, -9.55 (95% CI, -20.00 to 3.00, P = 0.0098) and -7.80 (95% CI, -18.00 to 1.00, P = 0.0348). Using JAMA criteria, there were no statistically significant differences between Web sites. Web sites queried under search terms "vaginal mesh" and "dropped bladder" are lower in quality compared with the Web sites found using the search terms "pelvic organ prolapse" and "cystocele."

  18. Prolapse repair with and without apical resuspension-Practice patterns among certifying American urologists.

    PubMed

    Liu, Joceline S; Nettey, Oluwarotimi; Vo, Amanda X; Hofer, Matthias D; Flury, Sarah C; Kielb, Stephanie J

    2017-02-01

    To examine surgeon characteristics in certifying urologists performing prolapse surgeries. Anterior compartment prolapse is often associated with apical prolapse, with high rates of recurrence when anterior repair is performed without apical resuspension. Six-month case log data of certifying urologists between 2003 and 2013 was obtained from the American Board of Urology (ABU). Cases with a CPT code for common prolapse repairs in females ≥18 years were analyzed. Among 2,588 urologists logging at least one prolapse surgery and a total of 30,983 surgeries, 320 (1.0% of all cases) uterosacral ligament suspension, 3,673 (11.9%) sacrospinous ligament suspension, and 2,618 (8.4%) abdominal sacrocolpopexy were identified. The remaining 14,585 cases were logged as anterior repair. 54.7% of anterior repairs did not include apical suspension. The proportion of anterior repairs without apical suspension has decreased from 77.7% in 2004 to 41.4% in 2012 (P < 0.001). Female subspecialists before 2011 performed anterior repair without apical suspension in 58.5%, versus 70.3% by all others. Since 2011 there has been a decrease in number of anterior repairs without apical suspension, notably in those applying for Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery (FPMRS) certification (17.1% vs. 30.7% by all other urologists, P < 0.001); nonacademically affiliated urologists are 2.1 times more likely to report anterior repair without apical suspension than academically affiliated colleagues (P < 0.001). The proportion of prolapse repairs reported as anterior repairs without apical suspension is decreasing, although it remains a substantial portion. Recent log year, FPMRS, and academic affiliation were associated with prolapse repairs addressing apical support. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:344-348, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Mitral Valve Prolapse

    MedlinePlus

    ... valve. MVP puts you at risk for infective endocarditis, a kind of heart infection. To prevent it, ... surgeries. Now, only people at high risk of endocarditis need the antibiotics. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and ...

  20. Mitral valve prolapse

    MedlinePlus

    ... and lungs. The provider may feel a thrill (vibration) over the heart, and hear a heart murmur ( ... many heart medicines that may be used to control this condition. You may need surgery to repair ...

  1. Vaginal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Vaginal cancer is a rare type of cancer. It is more common in women 60 and older. You are also more likely to get it if you have had a human ... test can find abnormal cells that may be cancer. Vaginal cancer can often be cured in its ...

  2. Vaginal Fistula

    MedlinePlus

    Vaginal fistula Overview A vaginal fistula is an abnormal opening that connects your vagina to another organ, such as your bladder, colon or rectum. Your ... describe the condition as a hole in your vagina that allows stool or urine to pass through ...

  3. [POP-Q indication points, Aa and Ba, involve in diagnosis and prognosis of occult stress urinary incontinence complicated with pelvic organ prolapse].

    PubMed

    Liu, Cheng; Wu, Wenying; Yang, Qing; Hu, Ming; Zhao, Yang; Hong, Li

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the correlation between pelvic organ prolapse quantitation (POP-Q) indication points and the incidence of occult stress urinary incontinence (OSUI) and its impact on prognosis. Retrospective study medical records of 93 patients with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) staged at III-IV, of which underwent pelvic reconstruction operations with Prolift system from Jan. 2007 to Sept. 2012. None of these patients had clinical manifestations of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) before surgery, and in which 44 patients were included in study group (POP complicated with OSUI) because they were identified with OSUI, another 49 patients as control group (simple POP). Follow-up and collecting datas including POP-Q, stress test, urodynamic recordings, incidence of de novo SUI, statistic analyzing by logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). (1) The study group had a much higher incidence of 30% (13/44) on de novo SUI than that of control group (4%, 2/49; P < 0.01). (2) Vaginal delivery (OR = 5.327, 95% CI: 1.120-25.347), constipation (OR = 5.789, 95% CI: 1.492-22.459), preoperative OSUI (OR = 13.695, 95% CI: 2.980-62.944), anterior vaginal wall prolapse (OR = 6.115, 95% CI: 1.231-30.379) were identified as dependent risk factors for de novo SUI by logistic regression analysis. (3) For POP patients that complicated with OSUI, we chose a cutoff value of +1.5 cm for Aa point as the threshold to predicting incidence of de novo SUI according to ROC curve, area under the curve (AUC) was 0.889 (P < 0.05), the sensitivity reached 88.9% and specificity was 73.9%. According to ROC curve of Ba point, a cutoff value of +2.5 cm was chosen as the threshold to predicting incidence of de novo SUI post-operation, it had a sensitivity of 66.7% and specificity of 82.6%, AUC was 0.766 (P < 0.05). Pre-operative OSUI is a dependent risk factor of de novo SUI for advanced POP patients. Aa and Ba points are correlated with preoperative OSUI, and it is worthy to be

  4. Bio-Thiersch as an Adjunct to Perineal Proctectomy Reduces Rates of Recurrent Rectal Prolapse.

    PubMed

    Eftaiha, Saleh M; Calata, Jed F; Sugrue, Jeremy J; Marecik, Slawomir J; Prasad, Leela M; Mellgren, Anders; Nordenstam, Johan; Park, John J

    2017-02-01

    The rates of recurrent prolapse after perineal proctectomy vary widely in the literature, with incidences ranging between 0% and 50%. The Thiersch procedure, first described in 1891 for the treatment of rectal prolapse, involves encircling the anus with a foreign material with the goal of confining the prolapsing rectum above the anus. The Bio-Thiersch procedure uses biological mesh for anal encirclement and can be used as an adjunct to perineal proctectomy for rectal prolapse to reduce recurrence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Bio-Thiersch procedure as an adjunct to perineal proctectomy and its impact on recurrence compared with perineal proctectomy alone. A retrospective review of consecutive patients undergoing perineal proctectomy with and without Bio-Thiersch was performed. Procedures took place in the Division of Colon and Rectal Surgery at a tertiary academic teaching hospital. Patients who had undergone perineal proctectomy and those who received perineal proctectomy with Bio-Thiersch were evaluated and compared. All of the patients with rectal prolapse received perineal proctectomy with levatorplasty, and a proportion of those patients had a Bio-Thiersch placed as an adjunct. The incidence of recurrent rectal prolapse after perineal proctectomy alone or perineal proctectomy with Bio-Thiersch was documented. Sixty-two patients underwent perineal proctectomy (8 had a previous prolapse procedure), and 25 patients underwent perineal proctectomy with Bio-Thiersch (12 had a previous prolapse procedure). Patients who received perineal proctectomy with Bio-Thiersch had a lower rate of recurrent rectal prolapse (p < 0.05) despite a higher proportion of them having had a previous prolapse procedure (p < 0.01). Perineal proctectomy with Bio-Thiersch had a lower recurrence over time versus perineal proctectomy alone (p < 0.05). This study was limited by nature of being a retrospective review. Bio-Thiersch as an adjunct to perineal proctectomy may reduce

  5. Experiences and expectations of women with urogenital prolapse: a quantitative and qualitative exploration.

    PubMed

    Srikrishna, S; Robinson, D; Cardozo, L; Cartwright, R

    2008-10-01

    To explore the expectations and goals of women undergoing surgery for urogenital prolapse using both a quantitative quality of life approach exploring symptom bother and a qualitative interview-based approach exploring patient goals and expectations. Prospective observational study. Tertiary referral centre for urogynaecology. Forty-three women with symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse were recruited from the waiting list for pelvic floor reconstructive surgery. All women were assessed with a structured clinical interview on an individual basis. The data obtained were transcribed verbatim and then analysed thematically based on the grounded theory. Individual codes and subcodes were identified to develop a coding framework. The prolapse quality-of-life (pQoL) questionnaire was used to determine the impact of pelvic organ prolapse on the woman's daily life. We arbitrarily classified 'bother' as minimal, mild, moderate and marked if scores ranged from 0 to 25, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100, respectively. The degree of prolapse was objectively quantified using the pelvic organ prolapse quantification (POP-Q) system. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS. Ethical approval was obtained from the Kings College Hospital Ethics Committee. Quantitative data from POP-Q, subjective data from pQoL, qualitative data based on the structured clinical interview. Forty-three women were recruited over the first 1 year of the study. Their mean age was 56 years (range 36-78) and mean parity was 2 (range 0-6). The mean ordinal stage of the prolapse was 2 (range stages 1-4). Quantitative analysis of the pQoL data suggested that the main domains affected were prolapse impact on life (mean score 74.71) and personal relationships (mean score 46.66). Qualitative analysis based on the clinical interview suggested that these women were most affected by the actual physical symptoms of prolapse (bulge, pain and bowel problems) as well by the impact prolapse has on their sexual function. While

  6. Emphysematous vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Lima-Silva, Joana; Vieira-Baptista, Pedro; Cavaco-Gomes, João; Maia, Tiago; Beires, Jorge

    2015-04-01

    Emphysematous vaginitis is a rare condition, characterized by the presence of multiple gas-filled cysts in the vaginal and/or exocervical mucosa. Although its etiology is not completely understood, it is self-limited, with a benign clinical course. Vaginal discharge, sometimes bloody, and pruritus are the most common symptoms. Chronic and acute inflammation can be found, and diseases that impair the immune system and pregnancy have been associated with this condition. A 48-year-old postmenopausal woman, with a history of hysterectomy with several comorbidities, presented with a 4-month history of bloody discharge and vulvar pruritus. Examination showed multiple cystic lesions, 1 to 5 mm, occupying the posterior and right lateral vaginal walls. Speculum examination produced crepitus. Vaginal wet mount was normal, except for diminished lactobacilli; results of Trichomonas vaginalis DNA test and vaginal cultures were negative. Lugol's iodine applied to the vagina was taken up by the intact lesions. Biopsy result showed typical features of emphysematous vaginitis. This is an unusual entity, presenting with common gynecological complaints, and both physicians and pathologists should be aware to prevent misdiagnosis and overtreatment.

  7. [Relevance between expectations before treatment, new symptoms and satisfaction after treatment in patients with pelvic organ prolapse].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Han, Jinsong; Zhang, Kun; Zhu, Fuli; Yang, Junfang; Wang, Yiting

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the relevance between expectations before treatment, new symptoms and satisfaction after treatment of the pelvic organ prolapse (POP) patients. Made a collection of 75 cases of POP patients at Peking University Third Hospital, who were affected by the POP symptoms and came to our clinic for treatment from January to December in 2013. Prospectively investigate the patients' expectations before treatment, which were the most troubling symptoms to be solved. According to treatment we divided the patients into surgery and pessary groups. Two groups were followed up with the degree to achieve the desired goals using patient global impression of improvement (PGI-I), new symptoms and satisfaction after treatment, try to find the relevance between expectations before treatment, new symptoms and satisfaction after treatment. There were 47 (63%, 47/75) patients in the surgical group and 28 (37%, 28/75) patients in the pessary group. The top three problems for patients were friction when walking (25%, 19/75), dysuria (23%, 17/75) and the feeling of vaginal prolapse (19%, 14/75). The follow-up rate was of 93% (70/75), follow-up time was (5 ± 4) months. Satisfaction score after treatment of surgical group was higher than that of pessary group [(4.9 ± 0.4) versus (4.0 ± 1.3) scores, P < 0.01]. There was no statistically significant difference between two groups of PGI-I score [(6.7 ± 0.6) versus (6.6 ± 0.9) scores, P = 0.886]. The top three new symptoms after treatment were increased secretion, urinary incontinence and dysuria. PGI-I and satisfaction scores was relevant (P = 0.021). The availability of new symptoms and satisfaction scores was relevant (P = 0.001). When achieving higher expectations to the treatment and no more new symptoms, the satisfaction score after treatment is higher.

  8. Incidence and Management of De Novo Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms After Pelvic Organ Prolapse Repair.

    PubMed

    Tran, Henry; Chung, Doreen E

    2017-09-12

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a significant problem with many options for surgical correction. Following prolapse surgery, de novo lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are not uncommon. We review the current literature on de novo lower urinary tract symptoms following POP repair and discuss the role of urodynamics in the evaluation of the prolapse patient. Patients with occult stress urinary incontinence (SUI) appear to be at higher risk of developing de novo SUI after POP repair. Prolapse reduction in patients undergoing urodynamic evaluation is important. Different types of POP repair influence rates of de novo SUI. Also, prophylactic anti-incontinence procedures at time of POP repair appear to lower the incidence of de novo SUI, but at the cost of increased risk of complications and morbidity. Pre-existing overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms may either improve or persist, and de novo OAB can develop. The specific role of urodynamic study testing for POP is still being determined. Increasingly, women are seeking surgical treatment for POP. Aside from complications related to surgery in general, proper patient counseling is important regarding the risk of development of de novo voiding problems following surgery. Despite a growing body of literature looking at de novo voiding symptoms after prolapse repair, more studies are still needed.

  9. [Study on concomitant surgical correction of pelvic organ prolapse and TVT-O for treatment of stress urinary incontinence].

    PubMed

    Wang, Su-mei; Zhang, Zhen-yu; Liu, Chong-dong; Wang, Shu-zhen

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the necessity, safety and efficacy of transobturator tension-free vaginal tape (TVT-O) for treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) during transvaginal corrective operation of pelvic organ prolapse (POP). From Jan. 2005 to Dec. 2010, 92 patients undergoing transvaginal pelvic reconstruction surgery for correction of POP concomitant TVT-O for treatment of SUI in Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology affiliated to Beijing Chaoyang Hospital as concomitant surgery group were enrolled in this retrospective study matched with 90 patients with mild SUI without SUI surgery as non-concomitant surgery group and 120 patients without SUI as control group.Variable clinical index, clinical efficacy and complications were compared among those three groups. Compared with those in the other two groups, the mean age [(62 ± 11) years] was lower (P = 0.007,0.038), the operation time only slightly increased (12.8 min and 12.9 min respectively) significantly in concomitant TVT-O group. The bleeding loss and the length of staying hospital after operation all exhibited no significant differences within three groups (P > 0.05). The effective rate for SUI was 96.7% (89/92) in concomitant TVT-O group, corrective operation of POP was ineffective for 74.4% (67/90) SUI, 9.2% (11/120) patients presented new SUI in the patients without SUI preoperatively. TVT-O is a simple, safe and effective method in the treatment of SUI, which is more suitable for performing simultaneously during the corrective operation of POP.Efficacy of SUI correction was limited in those patients undergoing only pelvic reconstructive surgery. However, a preventive anti-incontinence procedure is not recommended because of the lower incidence in POP patients without SUI preoperatively.

  10. Metronidazole Vaginal

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat vaginal infections such as bacterial vaginosis (an infection caused from too much of certain bacteria in the vagina). Metronidazole is in a class of medications called nitroimidazole antimicrobials. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria.

  11. Vaginal bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... who are approaching menopause. Women who take oral contraceptives may experience episodes of abnormal vaginal bleeding. Often ... Practice Bulletin No. 110: noncontraceptive uses of hormonal contraceptives. Obstet Gynecol . 2010;115(1):206-218. PMID: ...

  12. Vaginal Discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... also be on the lookout for symptoms of yeast infections, bacterial vaginosis and trichomoniasis, 3 infections that ... cause changes in your vaginal discharge. Signs of yeast infections White, cottage cheese-like discharge Swelling and ...

  13. Estrogen Vaginal

    MedlinePlus

    ... estradiol vaginal ring is also used to treat hot flushes ('hot flashes'; sudden strong feelings of heat and sweating) ... leave the ring in place when you have sex. If you choose to remove it or if ...

  14. Vaginal Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Mendling, Werner

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge about the normal and abnormal vaginal microbiome has changed over the last years. Culturing techniques are not suitable any more for determination of a normal or abnormal vaginal microbiota. Non culture-based modern technologies revealed a complex and dynamic system mainly dominated by lactobacilli.The normal and the abnormal vaginal microbiota are complex ecosystems of more than 200 bacterial species influenced by genes, ethnic background and environmental and behavioral factors. Several species of lactobacilli per individuum dominate the healthy vagina. They support a defense system together with antibacterial substances, cytokines, defensins and others against dysbiosis, infections and care for an normal pregnancy without preterm birth.The numbers of Lactobacillus (L.) iners increase in the case of dysbiosis.Bacterial vaginosis (BV) - associated bacteria (BVAB), Atopobium vaginae and Clostridiales and one or two of four Gardnerella vaginalis - strains develop in different mixtures and numbers polymicrobial biofilms on the vaginal epithelium, which are not dissolved by antibiotic therapies according to guidelines and, thus, provoke recurrences.Aerobic vaginitis seems to be an immunological disorder of the vagina with influence on the microbiota, which is here dominated by aerobic bacteria (Streptococcus agalactiae, Escherichia coli). Their role in AV is unknown.Vaginal or oral application of lactobacilli is obviously able to improve therapeutic results of BV and dysbiosis.

  15. Hysterectomy - vaginal - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; Laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; LAVH - discharge ... you were in the hospital, you had a vaginal hysterectomy. Your surgeon made a cut in your ...

  16. Vaginal metastasis presenting as postmenopausal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Ng, Qiu Ju; Namuduri, Rama Padma; Yam, Kwai Lam; Lim-Tan, Soo Kim

    2015-08-01

    Vaginal cancer is rare worldwide and represents 2% of all gynaecological cancers in Singapore. Primary vaginal malignancies are rare and vaginal metastases constitute the majority of vaginal malignancies. Most of these metastases arise from the cervix, endometrium or ovary, although they can also metastasise from distant sites such as the colon, breast and pancreas. We report a rare case of vaginal metastasis in a patient with previous gastric and rectal adenocarcinomas. An 89-year-old woman with a history of gastric and rectal malignancy presented with postmenopausal bleeding. A 2-cm vaginal tumour at the introitus was discovered upon examination. This case demonstrates the importance of performing a gynaecological examination during follow-up for patients with a history of malignancy. The prognosis for vaginal metastasis is poor, as it is often associated with disseminated disease. Depending on the extent of the lesions, radiotherapy or surgery can be considered.

  17. Health-related quality of life and outcomes after surgical treatment of complications from vaginally placed mesh.

    PubMed

    Hokenstad, Erik D; El-Nashar, Sherif A; Blandon, Roberta E; Occhino, John A; Trabuco, Emanuel C; Gebhart, John B; Klingele, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to report on health-related quality of life after surgical excision of vaginally placed mesh for treatment of pelvic organ prolapse and to identify predictors of successful surgical management. We identified patients who underwent surgery for treatment of complications from vaginally placed mesh from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2011, and conducted a follow-up survey. Logistic regression models were used to identify predictors of successful treatment. We identified 114 patients who underwent surgery for mesh-related complications and 68 underwent mesh excision. Of the 68 patients, 44 (64.7%) completed the survey. Of the 44 responders, 41 returned their consent form and were included in the analysis. Only 22 (54%) patients reported a successful outcome after mesh excision. Of 29 (71%) sexually active patients, 23 had dyspareunia before mesh excision and only 3 patients reported resolution of dyspareunia after excision. We reported a multivariable model for predicting successful surgical outcome with an area under the curve for the receiver operator characteristic of 0.781. In this model, complete excision of mesh, new overactive bladder symptoms after mesh placement, and a body mass index higher than 30 kg/m were associated with successful patient-reported outcomes; adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 5.46 (1.10-41.59), 7.76 (1.18-89.55), and 8.41 (1.35-92.41), respectively. Only half of the patients who had surgery for vaginally placed mesh complications reported improvement after surgery, with modest improvement in dyspareunia. Patients who had complete mesh excision, new overactive bladder symptoms, and obesity were more likely to report improvement.

  18. Simultaneous Delorme's procedure and inter-sphinteric prosthetic implant for the treatment of rectal prolapse and faecal incontinence: preliminary experience and literature review.

    PubMed

    Cavazzoni, Emanuel; Rosati, Emanuele; Zavagno, Valentina; Graziosi, Luigina; Donini, Annibale

    2015-02-01

    Rectal prolapse is a distressing condition affecting mostly elderly patients and females. Delorme's procedure is frequently performed since it offers good results and is burdened by a particularly low morbidity. Faecal Incontinence is associated with prolapse in a large percentage of patients, due to the sphincter damage caused by the prolapsed rectum through the anal canal. Prolapse resection is often ineffective in treating incontinence, and further specific procedures are frequently required. At present, no data are available on combined Delorme's procedure with the implant of Bulking Agents for the simultaneous treatment of rectal prolapse and faecal incontinence. Three patients affected by complete external rectal prolapse underwent simultaneous Delorme's procedure with application of six polyacrylonitrile prosthetic cylinders in the inter-sphinteric space (Gate Keeper™, THD, Correggio Italy). Follow up was at 3,6 and 12 months. Gate Keeper procedure required a short operative time; no morbidity or complications were experienced. Prolapse was successfully treated in all patients and the mean Vaizey's incontinence score value dropped from pre-operative 19.3 to 9.3 after 3 months. All patients experienced a reduction of incontinence episodes and an improvement in daily activities and lifestyle. Gate Keeper implant is feasible and safe when associated to surgical procedures like Delorme's prolapse resection. Preliminary results are positive even if a study with a larger numbers of patients is needed to confirm the efficacy. A simultaneous treatment of faecal incontinence should be always considered when performing surgery for rectal prolapse. The present manuscript describes a simultaneous combination of two surgical techniques to treat rectal prolapse and faecal incontinence. To date, there are no published data on a similar approach. The paper underlies the importance of treating faecal incontinence when performing surgery for rectal prolapse. Copyright

  19. Gluteo-vaginal fistula after posterior intravaginal slingplasty: a case report.

    PubMed

    Grynberg, Michael; Teyssedre, Jacques; Staerman, Frederic

    2009-07-01

    In patients with posthysterectomy prolapse of the vaginal vault, the posterior intravaginal slingplasty (posterior IVS, Tyco Healthcare, USA) has been suggested as an alternative to traditional vaginal vault suspensions. The goal of this technique is to recreate the uterosacral ligaments and to reinforce the rectovaginal fascia with the use of prosthetic material. We report the case of a 53-year-old woman with a history of 27 months of perineal suppurative discharge after she underwent a vaginal vault prolapse and rectocele repair using a posterior IVS (Tyco Healthcare, USA). The IVS tape was reinforced by interposing a rectovaginal monofilament polypropylene mesh (Parietex, Sofradim, France). Imaging studies and surgical exploration confirmed infection of the IVS mesh with the formation of a gluteo-vaginal fistula while the rectovaginal mesh was intact.

  20. Laparoscopic hysteropexy: the initial results of a uterine suspension procedure for uterovaginal prolapse.

    PubMed

    Price, Natalia; Slack, A; Jackson, S R

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of laparoscopic hysteropexy, a surgical technique for the management of uterine prolapse, involving suspension of the uterus from the sacral promontory using bifurcated polypropylene mesh. The investigation was designed as a prospective observational study (clinical audit). The study was undertaken at a tertiary referral urogynaecology unit in the UK. The participants comprised 51 consecutive women with uterovaginal prolapse, who chose laparoscopic hysteropexy as one of the available surgical options. The hysteropexy was conducted laparoscopically in all cases. A bifurcated polypropylene mesh was used to suspend the uterus from the sacral promontory. The two arms of the mesh were introduced through bilateral windows created in the broad ligaments, and were sutured to the anterior cervix; the mesh was then fixed to the anterior longitudinal ligament over the sacral promontory, to elevate the uterus. Cure of the uterine prolapse was evaluated subjectively using the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire for vaginal symptoms (ICIQ-VS), and objectively by vaginal examination using the Baden-Walker halfway system and the pelvic organ prolapse quantification (POP-Q) scale. Operative and postoperative complications were also assessed. The mean age of the 51 women was 52.5 years (range 19-71 years). All were sexually active, and at least three of them expressed a strong desire to have children in the future. All were available for follow-up in clinic at 10 weeks, and 38 have completed the questionnaires. In 50 out of 51 women the procedure was successful, with no objective evidence of uterine prolapse on examination at follow-up; there was one failure. Significant subjective improvements in prolapse symptoms, sexual wellbeing and related quality of life were observed, as detected by substantial reductions in the respective questionnaire scores. Laparoscopic hysteropexy is both a feasible and an effective

  1. Sexual function in women following transvaginal mesh procedures for the treatment of pelvic organ prolapse.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ching-Chung; Lo, Tsia-Shu; Tseng, Ling-Hong; Lin, Yi-Hao; Lin, Yu-Jr; Chang, Shuenn-Dhy

    2012-10-01

    Synthetic mesh kits recently adopted in pelvic reconstructive surgeries have achieved great surgical efficacy, but the effects of transvaginal synthetic mesh procedures on women's sexual function are still controversial. This study was conducted to demonstrate sexual function in women before and after surgery with transvaginal mesh (TVM) repair for pelvic organ prolapse (POP). A total of 93 sexually active women scheduled for correcting POP with synthetic mesh kits were recruited. In addition to urogynecological history, pelvic examination by the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification system, and urodynamic testing, consenting participants were asked to complete the Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire (PISQ-12) to evaluate sexual function before and after surgery. At the 3-month urodynamic studies, among the 25 patients with coexistent urodynamic stress incontinence (USI) who had undergone a concomitant transobturator suburethral tape procedure (TOT), 1 (4 %) had persistent USI; 8 of 68 (11.8 %) patients with a negative pessary test developed postoperative USI. Six-month prolapse recurrence rates following TVM alone and TVM with concomitant TOT were 9 and 12 %, respectively. The total PISQ-12 score after surgery showed worse results in the TVM alone group but not in the TVM with concomitant TOT group. The individual scores of PISQ-12 after surgery demonstrated prolapse-related items improved in both TVM groups; sexual function worsened in dyspareunia and behavior domains. Our data revealed that transvaginal synthetic mesh procedures for the treatment of POP generated favorable clinical outcomes, but situations might worsen in dyspareunia and behavior domains, thereby invoking a negative emotional reaction during intercourse after surgery.

  2. Surgery Videos: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... 2009) Mitral Valve Prolapse Minimally Invasive Heart Surgery: Robot Assisted Mitral Valve Repair (Baptist Health South Florida, ... Center, Merriam, KS, 05/04/2012) Kidney Cancer Robot Assisted Partial Nephrectomy Using Fluorescence (Shawnee Mission Medical ...

  3. Male-to-female transsexualism: laparoscopic pelvic floor repair of prolapsed neovagina.

    PubMed

    Condous, George; Jones, Robert; Lam, Alan M

    2006-06-01

    The incidence of prolapse of the neovagina after male-to-female gender reassignment surgery is unknown. We present the first case of laparoscopic total pelvic floor repair in a male-to-female transsexual. This surgical procedure combined an understanding of the anatomy of the male pelvis with the principles of laparoscopic pelvic floor repair in the XX female.

  4. Primary small intestinal volvulus after laparoscopic rectopexy for rectal prolapse.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Michihiro; Yamada, Takeshi; Shinji, Seiichi; Yokoyama, Yasuyuki; Takahashi, Goro; Hotta, Masahiro; Iwai, Takuma; Hara, Keisuke; Takeda, Kohki; Kan, Hayato; Takasaki, Hideaki; Ohta, Keiichiro; Uchida, Eiji

    2018-02-01

    Primary small intestinal volvulus is defined as torsion in the absence of congenital malrotation, band, or postoperative adhesions. Its occurrence as an early postoperative complication is rare. A 40-year-old woman presented with rectal prolapse, and laparoscopic rectopexy was uneventfully performed. She could not have food on the day after surgery. She started oral intake on postoperative day 3 but developed abdominal pain after the meal. Contrast-enhanced CT revealed torsion of the small intestinal mesentery. An emergent laparotomy showed small intestinal volvulus, without congenital malformation or intestinal adhesions. We diagnosed it as primary small intestinal volvulus. The strangulated intestine was resected, and reconstruction was performed. The patient recovered uneventfully after the second surgery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of primary small intestinal volvulus occurring after rectopexy for rectal prolapse. Primary small intestinal volvulus could be a postoperative complication after laparoscopy. © 2018 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. 21 CFR 884.3900 - Vaginal stent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... stent. (a) Identification. A vaginal stent is a device used to enlarge the vagina by stretching, or to support the vagina and to hold a skin graft after reconstructive surgery. (b) Classification. Class II...

  6. 21 CFR 884.3900 - Vaginal stent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... stent. (a) Identification. A vaginal stent is a device used to enlarge the vagina by stretching, or to support the vagina and to hold a skin graft after reconstructive surgery. (b) Classification. Class II...

  7. 21 CFR 884.3900 - Vaginal stent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... stent. (a) Identification. A vaginal stent is a device used to enlarge the vagina by stretching, or to support the vagina and to hold a skin graft after reconstructive surgery. (b) Classification. Class II...

  8. 21 CFR 884.3900 - Vaginal stent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... stent. (a) Identification. A vaginal stent is a device used to enlarge the vagina by stretching, or to support the vagina and to hold a skin graft after reconstructive surgery. (b) Classification. Class II...

  9. Primary invasive carcinoma of the vagina after Le Fort partial colpocleisis for stage IV pelvic organ prolapse: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cho, Moon Kyoung; Kim, Chul Hong; Kim, Yoon Ha

    2011-11-01

    We present here the case report of a postmenopausal woman who complained of recurrent pus-like vaginal discharge and perianal pain 1 year after Le Fort colpocleisis, which was subsequently identified as a primary invasive carcinoma of the vagina. Biopsy confirmed a squamous cell carcinoma in the vagina, and the disease was classified as stage III according to FIGO staging. The patient received pelvic radiotherapy. This case emphasizes that differential diagnosis of recurrent vaginal discharge that presents remote from obliterative procedure for pelvic organ prolapse should consider not only pyometra, but also other causes.

  10. Individualised pelvic floor muscle training in women with pelvic organ prolapse (POPPY): a multicentre randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Suzanne; Stark, Diane; Glazener, Cathryn; Dickson, Sylvia; Barry, Sarah; Elders, Andrew; Frawley, Helena; Galea, Mary P; Logan, Janet; McDonald, Alison; McPherson, Gladys; Moore, Kate H; Norrie, John; Walker, Andrew; Wilson, Don

    2014-03-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse is common and is strongly associated with childbirth and increasing age. Women with prolapse are often advised to do pelvic floor muscle exercises, but evidence supporting the benefits of such exercises is scarce. We aimed to establish the effectiveness of one-to-one individualised pelvic floor muscle training for reducing prolapse symptoms. We did a parallel-group, multicentre, randomised controlled trial at 23 centres in the UK, one in New Zealand, and one in Australia, between June 22, 2007, and April 9, 2010. Female outpatients with newly-diagnosed, symptomatic stage I, II, or III prolapse were randomly assigned (1:1), by remote computer allocation with minimsation, to receive an individualised programme of pelvic floor muscle training or a prolapse lifestyle advice leaflet and no muscle training (control group). Outcome assessors, and investigators who were gynaecologists at trial sites, were masked to group allocation; the statistician was masked until after data analysis. Our primary endpoint was participants' self-report of prolapse symptoms at 12 months. Analysis was by intention-to-treat analysis. This trial is registered, number ISRCTN35911035. 447 eligible patients were randomised to the intervention group (n=225) or the control group (n=222). 377 (84%) participants completed follow-up for questionnaires at 6 months and 295 (66%) for questionnaires at 12 months. Women in the intervention group reported fewer prolapse symptoms (ie, a significantly greater reduction in the pelvic organ prolapse symptom score [POP-SS]) at 12 months than those in the control group (mean reduction in POP-SS from baseline 3.77 [SD 5.62] vs 2.09 [5.39]; adjusted difference 1.52, 95% CI 0.46-2.59; p=0.0053). Findings were robust to missing data. Eight adverse events (six vaginal symptoms, one case of back pain, and one case of abdominal pain) and one unexpected serious adverse event, all in women from the intervention group, were regarded as unrelated to

  11. The prevalence and treatment pattern of clinically diagnosed pelvic organ prolapse: a Korean National Health Insurance Database-based cross-sectional study 2009-2015.

    PubMed

    Yuk, Jin-Sung; Lee, Jung Hun; Hur, Jun-Young; Shin, Jung-Ho

    2018-01-22

    The study aim was to evaluate the prevalence of pelvic organ prolapse using claim data of South Korea and to evaluate treatment patterns. The Korea National Health Insurance Corporation pay medical costs for most diseases. This study used Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service-National Inpatient Sample (HIRA-NIS) 2009-2015. Pelvic organ prolapse was defined by diagnostic code (N81.x). Of the approximately 4.5 million women included in HIRA-NIS 2009-2015, 10,305 women were selected as having pelvic organ prolapse, and the mean age of the pelvic organ prolapse group was 63.9 ± 0.2 years. The prevalence of pelvic organ prolapse was 180 ± 4 per 100,000 population in women older than 50 years old. In logistic regression analysis, constipation increased the prevalence of all pelvic organ prolapse (odds ratio, 4.04; 95% confidence interval, 3.52-4.63; P < 0.01). The number of women requiring pessary only and surgery only were 26 ± 2 per 100,000 population and 89 ± 1 per 100,000 population, respectively, for women over 50 years of age. The prevalence of pelvic organ prolapse was quite lower than in previous studies. Surgery peaked at approximately 70 years of age. Pessary increased dramatically among women after the age of 65.

  12. Silicone rubber band treatment of rectal prolapse.

    PubMed

    Jackaman, F R; Francis, J N; Hopkinson, B R

    1980-09-01

    Fifty-two patients with rectal prolapse have been treated by the silicone rubber band perianal suture technique and satisfactory results have been obtained in 46 (89%). Eleven patients required reoperation to achieve this result. The procedure is a minor one, with little morbidity and no mortality. Provided that faecal impaction can be avoided in patients having this operation a successful outcome, can be expected. It is recommended especially for the frail and elderly with rectal prolapse.

  13. Silicone rubber band treatment of rectal prolapse.

    PubMed Central

    Jackaman, F. R.; Francis, J. N.; Hopkinson, B. R.

    1980-01-01

    Fifty-two patients with rectal prolapse have been treated by the silicone rubber band perianal suture technique and satisfactory results have been obtained in 46 (89%). Eleven patients required reoperation to achieve this result. The procedure is a minor one, with little morbidity and no mortality. Provided that faecal impaction can be avoided in patients having this operation a successful outcome, can be expected. It is recommended especially for the frail and elderly with rectal prolapse. PMID:7002011

  14. The significance of organ prolapse in gastroschisis.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Shannon M; Szabo, Aniko; Loichinger, Matt; Peterson, Erika; Christensen, Melissa; Wagner, Amy J

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and importance of organ prolapse (stomach, bladder, reproductive organs) in gastroschisis. This is a retrospective review of gastroschisis patients from 2000 to 2014 at a single tertiary institution. Statistical analysis was performed using a chi-square test, Student's t test, log-rank test, or Cox regression analysis models. All tests were conducted as two-tailed tests, and p-values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. One hundred seventy-one gastroschisis patients were identified. Sixty-nine (40.6%) had at least one prolapsed organ besides bowel. The most commonly prolapsed organs were stomach (n=45, 26.3%), reproductive organs (n=34, 19.9%), and bladder (n=15, 8.8%). Patients with prolapsed organs were more likely to have simple gastroschisis with significant decreases in the rate of atresia and necrosis/perforation. They progressed to earlier enteral feeds, discontinuation of parenteral nutrition, and discharge. Likewise, these patients were less likely to have complications such as central line infections, sepsis, and short gut syndrome. Gastroschisis is typically described as isolated bowel herniation, but a large portion have prolapse of other organs. Prolapsed organs are associated with simple gastroschisis, and improved outcomes most likely due to a larger fascial defect. This may be useful for prenatal and postnatal counseling of families. Case Control/Retrospective Comparative Study. Level III. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Robotic sacrocolpoperineopexy with ventral rectopexy for the combined treatment of rectal and pelvic organ prolapse: initial report and technique.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Jhansi; Ridgeway, Beri; Gurland, Brooke; Paraiso, Marie Fidela R

    2011-09-01

    The objective of our study is to describe the peri-operative and early postoperative surgical outcomes following robotic sacrocolpoperineopexy with ventral rectopexy for the combined treatment of rectal and pelvic organ prolapse. This was a retrospective cohort study of ten women with symptomatic Stage 2 or greater pelvic organ prolapse and concomitant rectal prolapse who desired combined robotic surgery, at a single institution. The mean age of the subjects was 55.3 ± 19.2 years (range 19-86)  and the mean body mass index was 25.8 ± 5.7 kg/m(2). Preoperatively, the women had Stage 2 or greater pelvic organ prolapse and the average length of rectal prolapse was 2.1 ± 1.9 cm. There were no conversions to conventional laparoscopy or laparotomy. The mean operating room time was 307 ± 45 min with an estimated blood loss of 144 ± 68 ml. The average length of stay was 2.4 ± 0.8 days. Preliminary data suggest that robotic sacrocolpoperineopexy with ventral rectopexy is a feasible procedure with minimal operative morbidity for the combined treatment of rectal and pelvic organ prolapse. Longer follow-up is needed to ensure favorable long-term subjective and objective outcomes.

  16. Yeast Infection (Vaginal)

    MedlinePlus

    Yeast infection (vaginal) Overview A vaginal yeast infection is a fungal infection that causes irritation, discharge and intense itchiness ... symptoms Causes The fungus candida causes a vaginal yeast infection. Your vagina naturally contains a balanced mix of yeast, including ...

  17. Vaginal yeast infection

    MedlinePlus

    Yeast infection - vagina; Vaginal candidiasis; Monilial vaginitis ... Most women have a vaginal yeast infection at some time. Candida albicans is a common type of fungus. It is often found in small amounts in the ...

  18. Vaginal bleeding in pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Pregnancy - vaginal bleeding; Maternal blood loss - vaginal ... Up to 1 in 4 women have vaginal bleeding at some time during their pregnancy. Bleeding is more common in the first 3 months (first trimester), especially with twins.

  19. Alteration of apoptosis-related genes in postmenopausal women with uterine prolapse.

    PubMed

    Saatli, Bahadir; Kizildag, Sefa; Cagliyan, Erkan; Dogan, Erbil; Saygili, Ugur

    2014-07-01

    We aimed to compare expression levels of antiapoptotic and proapoptotic genes in parametrial and vaginal tissues from postmenopausal women with and without pelvic organ prolapse (POP). We hypothesized that the expression of genes that induce apoptosis may be altered in vaginal and parametrial tissues in postmenopausal women with POP. Samples of vaginal and parametrial tissues were obtained from postmenopausal women with (n = 10) and without (n = 10) POP who underwent vaginal or abdominal hysterectomy. Expression levels of antiapoptotic (BCL-2, BCL-XL) and proapoptotic (BAX, BAD) genes were studied by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Gene expression levels of BCL-2 (P < 0.001), BCL-XL (P < 0.001), BAX (p = 0.001), and BAD (p = 0.004) were all higher in vaginal tissues from the POP group compared with the non-POP group. Similarly, gene expression levels of BCL-2 (p < 0.001), BCL-XL (p < 0.001), BAX (p < 0.001), and BAD (p < 0.001) in parametrial tissues were also significantly higher in the POP group compared with the non-POP group. Additionally, expression levels of BCL-2 (p = 0.05), BCL-XL (p < 0.05), BAX (p = 0.05), and BAD (p = 0.07) in the POP group were higher in parametrial tissue than in vaginal tissue samples. Antiapoptotic and proapoptotic gene expression levels differed significantly between postmenopausal women with and without POP. Bcl-2 family genes were overexpressed in the parametrium of patients with POP compared with vaginal tissue, suggesting that the processes responsible for POP have a greater effect on parametrial tissue than vaginal tissue during the development of POP.

  20. Robot-assisted rectopexy is a safe and feasible option for treatment of rectal prolapse.

    PubMed

    Haahr, Camilla; Jakobsen, Henrik Loft; Gögenur, Ismail

    2014-05-01

    Rectal prolapse is seen in up to one in 100 elderly women and results in symptoms such as incontinence, mucus secretion and constipation. The aim of this study was to present short- and longterm outcomes after robot-assisted rectopexy in patients with rectal prolapse. All patients diagnosed with rectal prolapse at our institution underwent robot-assisted rectopexy. Data regarding the surgical procedure and post-operative morbidity were collected retrospectively. Patients were contacted to register long-term results regarding recurrence, incontinence and satisfaction. A total of 24 consecutive patients underwent robot-assisted rectopexy from October 2010 to July 2012. Data regarding their long-term outcome was available for 18 patients at follow-up (average ten months). 50% of the patients suffered from faecal incontinence before surgery (n = 9/18, 50%). The mean age at surgery was 72 years (28-93 years). The mean duration of surgery was 123 min. (70-245 min.). The median length of stay in hospital was 4.1 days (0-15 days). There was one procedure-related complication (small-bowel obstruction) resulting in reoperation. At the time of follow-up, two patients (11%) had a subjective recurrence of rectal prolapse, and three patients (17%) had faecal incontinence. 89% were satisfied with the operation, and 94% would recommend this operation to other patients with the same condition. Robot-assisted rectopexy is a safe procedure for patients with rectal prolapse and is associated with acceptable functional outcomes and recurrence rates. There is no evidence in the literature of advantages compared with the corresponding laparoscopic procedure. not relevant. not relevant.

  1. Vaginal resection and anastomosis for treatment of vestibulovaginal stenosis in 4 dogs with recurrent urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Kieves, Nina R; Novo, Roberto E; Martin, Robert B

    2011-10-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION-4 dogs were evaluated because of recurrent urinary tract infections. CLINICAL FINDINGS-All dogs had recurrent urinary tract infections and similar clinical signs; 3 dogs had urinary incontinence. Digital vaginal examination revealed vestibulovaginal stenosis in all dogs, which was confirmed by results of contrast vaginourethrography. From image measurements, the vestibulovaginal ratio (ratio of the height of the vestibulovaginal junction to the maximum height of the vagina on a lateral vaginourethrogram) was calculated for each dog. Three dogs had severe stenosis (vestibulovaginal ratio, < 0.20; severe stenosis is defined as a vestibulovaginal ratio < 0.20), whereas the fourth dog had moderate stenosis (vestibulovaginal ratio, 0.24; ratio range for moderate stenosis is 0.20 to 0.25). TREATMENT AND OUTCOME-All dogs were anesthetized for surgical correction of the vestibulovaginal stenosis. Vaginal resection and anastomosis of the stenosis was performed in all 4 dogs, with 1 dog also undergoing episioplasty. Complete resolution of clinical signs was apparent in 3 dogs; 1 dog had postoperative complications including pollakiuria and stranguria, which resulted in rectal and vaginal prolapse. This dog underwent ovariohysterectomy, after which clinical signs resolved. All dogs had resolution of urinary tract infections at the time of follow-up (6 to 8 months after surgery). CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Resection and anastomosis may resolve recurrent urinary tract infections in dogs with severe or moderate vestibulovaginal stenosis. Episiotomy was not necessary for success of surgical treatment, and overall, that procedure increased morbidity, the severity of intraoperative hemorrhage, and duration of surgery.

  2. A comparison of abdominal and vaginal hysterectomies in Benghazi, Libya.

    PubMed

    Agnaeber, K; Bodalal, Z

    2013-08-01

    We performed a comparative study between abdominal and vaginal hysterectomies using clinical data from Al-Jamhouria hospital (one of the largest maternity hospitals in Eastern Libya). Various parameters were taken into consideration: the rates of each type (and their subtypes); average age of patients; indications; causes; postoperative complications; and duration of stay in the hospital afterwards. Conclusions and recommendations were drawn from the results of this study. In light of the aforementioned parameters, it was found that: (1) abdominal hysterectomies were more common than vaginal hysterectomies (p < 0.001); (2) patients admitted for abdominal hysterectomies are younger than those admitted for vaginal hysterectomies (p < 0.001); (3) the most common indication for an abdominal hysterectomy was menstrual disturbances, while for vaginal hysterectomies it was vaginal prolapse; (4) the histopathological cause for abdominal and vaginal hysterectomies were observed and the most common were found to be leiomyomas and atrophic endometrium; (5) there was no significant difference between the two routes in terms of postoperative complications; (6) patients who were admitted for abdominal hysterectomies spent a longer amount of time in the hospital (p < 0.01). It was concluded that efforts should be made to further pursue vaginal and laparoscopic hysterectomies as a viable option to the more conventional abdominal route.

  3. Thermosensitive hydrogels deliver bioactive protein to the vaginal wall

    PubMed Central

    Good, Meadow M.; Montoya, T. Ignacio; Shi, Haolin; Zhou, Jun; Huang, YiHui; Tang, Liping; Acevedo, Jesus F.

    2017-01-01

    The pathophysiology and natural history of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) are poorly understood. Consequently, our approaches to treatment of POP are limited. Alterations in the extracellular matrix components of pelvic support ligaments and vaginal tissue, including collagen and elastin, have been associated with the development of POP in animals and women. Prior studies have shown the protease MMP-9, a key player of ECM degradation, is upregulated in vaginal tissues from both mice and women with POP. On the other hand, fibulin-5, an elastogenic organizer, has been found to inhibit MMP-9 in the vaginal wall. Hence, we hypothesized that prolonged release of fibulin-5 may delay progression of POP. To test the hypothesis, oligo (ethylene glycol)-based thermosensitive hydrogels were fabricated, characterized and then used to deliver fibulin-5 to the vaginal wall and inhibit MMP-9 activity. The results indicate that hydrogels are cell and tissue compatible. The hydrogels also prolong the ½ life of fibulin-5 in cultured vaginal fibroblasts and in the vaginal wall in vivo. Finally, fibulin-5-containing hydrogels resulted in incorporation of fibulin-5 into the vaginal matrix and inhibition of MMP-9 for several weeks after injection. These results support the idea of fibulin-5 releasing hydrogel being developed as a new treatment for POP. PMID:29073153

  4. Complex rectovaginal fistulas after pelvic organ prolapse repair with synthetic mesh: a multidisciplinary approach to evaluation and management.

    PubMed

    Choi, Judy M; Nguyen, Vian; Khavari, Rose; Reeves, Keith; Snyder, Michael; Fletcher, Sophie G

    2012-01-01

    The use of synthetic mesh for transvaginal pelvic organ prolapse (POP) repair is associated with the rare complication of mesh erosion into hollow viscera. This study presents a single-institution series of complex rectovaginal fistulas (RVFs) after synthetic mesh-augmented POP repair, as well as strategies for identification and management. Institutional review board approval was obtained for this retrospective study. Data were collected and analyzed on all female patients undergoing RVF repair from 2000 to 2011 at our institution. Thirty-seven patients underwent RVF repair at our multidisciplinary center for restorative pelvic medicine. Of these, 10 (27.0%) were associated with POP repairs using mesh. The POP repairs resulting in RVF were transvaginal repair with mesh (n = 8), laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy with concomitant traditional posterior repair (n = 1), and robotic-assisted laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy (n = 1). Time to presentation was an average of 7.1 months after POP repair. Patients underwent a mean of 4.4 surgeries for definitive RVF repair, with 40% of patients requiring a bowel diversion (3 temporary ileostomies and 1 long-term colostomy). Mean follow-up time after last surgery was 9.2 months. On follow-up, 1 patient has a persistent fistula with vaginal mesh extrusion. One patient has persistent pelvic pain. This series highlights the significant impact of synthetic mesh complications in the posterior compartment. These complications should be cautionary for synthetic graft use by those with limited experience, particularly when an alternate choice of traditional repair is available. When symptoms of RVF are present, collaboration with a colon and rectal specialist should be initiated as soon as possible for evaluation and definitive repair.

  5. Dysregulation of Protease and Protease Inhibitors in a Mouse Model of Human Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Budatha, Madhusudhan; Silva, Simone; Montoya, Teodoro Ignacio; Suzuki, Ayako; Shah-Simpson, Sheena; Wieslander, Cecilia Karin; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Word, Ruth Ann; Yanagisawa, Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    Mice deficient for the fibulin-5 gene (Fbln5−/−) develop pelvic organ prolapse (POP) due to compromised elastic fibers and upregulation of matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-9. Here, we used casein zymography, inhibitor profiling, affinity pull-down, and mass spectrometry to discover additional protease upregulated in the vaginal wall of Fbln5−/− mice, herein named V1 (25 kDa). V1 was a serine protease with trypsin-like activity similar to protease, serine (PRSS) 3, a major extrapancreatic trypsinogen, was optimum at pH 8.0, and predominantly detected in estrogenized vaginal epithelium of Fbln5−/− mice. PRSS3 was (a) localized in epithelial secretions, (b) detected in media of vaginal organ culture from both Fbln5−/− and wild type mice, and (c) cleaved fibulin-5 in vitro. Expression of two serine protease inhibitors [Serpina1a (α1-antitrypsin) and Elafin] was dysregulated in Fbln5−/− epithelium. Finally, we confirmed that PRSS3 was expressed in human vaginal epithelium and that SERPINA1 and Elafin were downregulated in vaginal tissues from women with POP. These data collectively suggest that the balance between proteases and their inhibitors contributes to support of the pelvic organs in humans and mice. PMID:23437119

  6. Uterine prolapse prevention in Eastern Nepal: the perspectives of women and health care professionals.

    PubMed

    Radl, Christina M; Rajwar, Ranjita; Aro, Arja R

    2012-01-01

    Uterine prolapse is a major reproductive health issue in Nepal. There is a wide range of literature available on the causes and risk factors of uterine prolapse and on the ways to prevent and treat it. There is still a lack of published evidence on what prevention and treatment services are working well or the attitudes toward them. This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study on primary and secondary prevention of uterine prolapse in Eastern Nepal. The study involved eight focus group discussions with 71 women in six villages of the eastern districts of Siraha and Saptari and 14 qualitative interviews with health professionals from the local to central level. The group discussions and interviews covered the awareness levels of uterine prolapse and its prevention and treatment, as well as participants' opinions on and experiences with the services offered. It was found that patriarchy, gender discrimination, and cultural traditions such as early marriage and pregnancy make it difficult for people to discontinue uterine prolapse risk behaviors. Women are aware of risk factors, prevention, and treatment, but are powerless to change their situations. Health professionals and women are fond of surgery as treatment, but opinions on the use of ring pessaries and pelvic floor muscle training are split. The main recommendation that can be drawn from this study is that research on the effectiveness of early treatments, such as ring pessaries and exercise, should be conducted. Furthermore, the involvement of other target groups (husbands, adolescents, and mothers-in-law) needs to be increased in order to make it easier for women to adapt low-risk behaviors. Finally, uterine prolapse prevention should be better integrated in national reproductive health services. Enforcing transparency, monitoring systems, and collaborations are important factors that should be considered as well.

  7. Uterine prolapse prevention in Eastern Nepal: the perspectives of women and health care professionals

    PubMed Central

    Radl, Christina M; Rajwar, Ranjita; Aro, Arja R

    2012-01-01

    Uterine prolapse is a major reproductive health issue in Nepal. There is a wide range of literature available on the causes and risk factors of uterine prolapse and on the ways to prevent and treat it. There is still a lack of published evidence on what prevention and treatment services are working well or the attitudes toward them. This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study on primary and secondary prevention of uterine prolapse in Eastern Nepal. Method The study involved eight focus group discussions with 71 women in six villages of the eastern districts of Siraha and Saptari and 14 qualitative interviews with health professionals from the local to central level. The group discussions and interviews covered the awareness levels of uterine prolapse and its prevention and treatment, as well as participants’ opinions on and experiences with the services offered. Results It was found that patriarchy, gender discrimination, and cultural traditions such as early marriage and pregnancy make it difficult for people to discontinue uterine prolapse risk behaviors. Women are aware of risk factors, prevention, and treatment, but are powerless to change their situations. Health professionals and women are fond of surgery as treatment, but opinions on the use of ring pessaries and pelvic floor muscle training are split. Conclusion The main recommendation that can be drawn from this study is that research on the effectiveness of early treatments, such as ring pessaries and exercise, should be conducted. Furthermore, the involvement of other target groups (husbands, adolescents, and mothers-in-law) needs to be increased in order to make it easier for women to adapt low-risk behaviors. Finally, uterine prolapse prevention should be better integrated in national reproductive health services. Enforcing transparency, monitoring systems, and collaborations are important factors that should be considered as well. PMID:22927768

  8. Pelvic floor dysfunction in the immediate puerperium, and 1 month and 3 months after vaginal or cesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Colla, Cássia; L Paiva, Luciana; Ferla, Lia; B Trento, Maria J; M P de Vargas, Isadora; A Dos Santos, Bianca; Ferreira, Charles F; L Ramos, José G

    2018-06-07

    To identify and assess postpartum pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD) between vaginal delivery, elective cesarean delivery (ECD), and intrapartum cesarean delivery (ICD). The present prospective observational study included women aged at least 18 years with no history of pelvic surgery or lower urinary tract malformation, and who had not undergone pelvic floor muscle (PFM) training in the preceding 12 months, who underwent delivery at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA), Porto Alegre, Brazil between August 1, 2016, and May 31, 2017. Participants were assessed at 48 hours (phase 1), 1 month (phase 2), and 3 months (phase 3) after delivery. Assessments included the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire, Short Form (ICIQ-SF); the Jorge-Wexner anal incontinence scale; a self-rated visual analog scale for pelvic pain; the pelvic organ prolapse quantification (POP-Q) system; and a PFM perineometer. A total of 227 women were assessed in phase 1 (141 vaginal deliveries; 28 ICDs; and 58 ECDs), 79 in phase 2, and 41 in phase 3. The ICIQ-SF, Jorge-Wexner scale, visual analog scale, and perineometer measurements did not identify significant differences in relation to the type of delivery (P>0.05). The type of delivery was not associated with differences in the short-term development of postpartum PFD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Correction of anterior mitral prolapse: the parachute technique.

    PubMed

    Zannis, Konstantinos; Mitchell-Heggs, Laurens; Di Nitto, Valentina; Kirsch, Matthias E W; Noghin, Milena; Ghorayeb, Gabriel; Lessana, Arrigo

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate a new surgical technique for the correction of anterior mitral leaflet prolapse. From October 2006 to November 2011, 44 consecutive patients (28 males, mean age 55 ± 13 years) underwent mitral valve repair because of anterior mitral leaflet prolapse. Echocardiography was performed to evaluate the distance from the tip of each papillary muscle to the annular plane. A specially designed caliper was used to manufacture a parachute-like device, by looping a 4-0 polytetrafluoroethylene suture between a Dacron strip and Teflon felt pledget, according to the preoperative echocardiographic measurements. This parachute was then used to resuspend the anterior mitral leaflet to the corresponding papillary muscle. Of the 44 patients, 35 (80%) required concomitant posterior leaflet repair. Additional procedures were required in 16 patients (36%). The preoperative logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation was 4.3 ± 6.9. The clinical and echocardiographic follow-up were complete. The total follow-up was 1031 patient-months and averaged 23.4 ± 17.2 months per patient. The overall mortality rate was 4.5% (n = 2). Also, 2 patients (4.5%) with recurrent mitral regurgitation required mitral valve replacement, 1 on the first postoperative day and 1 after 13 months. In the latter patient, histologic analysis showed complete endothelialization of the Dacron strip. At follow-up, all non-reoperated survivors (n = 40) were in New York Heart Association class I, with no regurgitation in 40 patients (93%) and grade 2+ mitral regurgitation in 3 (7%). This technique offers a simple and reproducible solution for correction of anterior leaflet prolapse. Echocardiography can reliably evaluate the length of the chordae. However, the long-term results must be evaluated and compared with other surgical strategies. Copyright © 2012 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Vaginal Cancer Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Vaginal Cancer Vaginal Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Vaginal Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Vaginal Cancer Introduction Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors and ...

  11. Significance of preoperative calculation of uterine weight as an indicator for preserving the uterus in pelvic reconstructive surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Qingsong; Ma, Ning; Huang, Huijuan; Xu, Bo; He, Chunni; Song, Yanfeng

    2015-01-01

    Recently, increasing evidence has shown that uterus preservation is beneficial for pelvic organ prolapse (POP) patients, both physiologically and psychologically. However, the preoperative indicators for uterus preservation have rarely been examined. The current study was designed to determine the relationship between the preoperative evaluated uterus weight and the operation selection (preserving the uterus or not) in pelvic reconstructive surgery (PRS) using vaginal meshes. First, in a series of 96 patients undergoing hysterectomy, the uterine weight was calculated by preoperative ultrasound measurements, and was then compared with the postoperative actual weight of the uterus. Subsequently, in a series of 65 patients undergone PRS using vaginal meshes and preserving the uterus, the uterine weight was calculated by preoperative ultrasound measurements. Lastly, in a series of 43 patients with a uterine weight > 56.12 g who had undergone PRS using vaginal meshes, the operation success rate in patients with a preserved uterus was compared to patients for whom the uterus was not preserved. The results showed that uterus weight can be evaluated by ultrasound and used as a preoperative indicator for whether the uterus should be preserved or not in PRS when using vaginal meshes. It was indicated that preoperative evaluation of uterine weight is beneficial for surgical planning and guidance. PMID:25755793

  12. Causes and Diagnosis of Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Sokol, Elizabeth; Peddinti, Radhika

    2015-07-01

    Abnormal vaginal bleeding in a postmenarchal adolescent patient is most often related to dysfunctional uterine bleeding. However, there are other potential etiologies, including hematologic disorders, infections, and oncologic problems. We present a 12-year-old girl who presented with prolonged vaginal bleeding and was ultimately diagnosed with rhabdomyosarcoma. In this article, we discuss the approach to a patient with vaginal bleeding along with a more in-depth review of risk stratification in rhabdomyosarcoma, including treatment options such as chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation therapy. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Trends in management of pelvic organ prolapse among female Medicare beneficiaries.

    PubMed

    Khan, Aqsa A; Eilber, Karyn S; Clemens, J Quentin; Wu, Ning; Pashos, Chris L; Anger, Jennifer T

    2015-04-01

    In the last decade, many new surgical treatments have been developed to achieve less-invasive approaches to prolapse management. However, limited data exist on how the patterns of care for women with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) may have changed over the last decade, and whether mesh implantation techniques have influenced the type of specific compartment repair performed. We used a national data set to analyze the temporal trends in patterns of care for women with POP. Data were obtained from Public Use Files from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services for a 5% random sample of national beneficiaries with an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis of POP from 1999 through 2009. Current Procedural Terminology, 4th Edition and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification procedure codes were used to evaluate nonsurgical and surgical management trends for this cohort. Types of surgery were categorized by prolapse compartment and combinations of repairs. After 2005, when applicable codes became available, mesh or graft repairs were also analyzed. Over the study time period, the number of women with a diagnosis of POP in any 1 year in our 5% sample of Medicare beneficiaries remained relatively stable (range, 21,245-23,268 per year). Rates of pessary insertion were also consistent at 11-13% over the study period. Of the women with a prolapse diagnosis, 14-15% underwent surgical repair, and there was little change over time in surgical management patterns based on compartment. Most commonly, multiple compartments were repaired simultaneously. There was a rapid increase in mesh use such that in 2009, 41% of all women who underwent surgery (5.8% of the total cohort) had mesh or graft inserted in their repair. Hysterectomy rates for prolapse decreased over time. Rates of vault suspension at the time of hysterectomy for prolapse were low; however, they showed a relative increase over

  14. Trends in management of pelvic organ prolapse among female Medicare beneficiaries

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Aqsa A.; Eilber, Karyn S.; Clemens, J. Quentin; Wu, Ning; Pashos, Chris L.; Anger, Jennifer T.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In the last decade, many new surgical treatments have been developed to achieve less-invasive approaches to prolapse management. However, limited data exist on how the patterns of care for women with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) may have changed over the last decade, and whether mesh implantation techniques have influenced the type of specific compartment repair performed. We used a national data set to analyze the temporal trends in patterns of care for women with POP. STUDY DESIGN Data were obtained from Public Use Files from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services for a 5% random sample of national beneficiaries with an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis of POP from 1999 through 2009. Current Procedural Terminology, 4th Edition and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification procedure codes were used to evaluate nonsurgical and surgical management trends for this cohort. Types of surgery were categorized by prolapse compartment and combinations of repairs. After 2005, when applicable codes became available, mesh or graft repairs were also analyzed. RESULTS Over the study time period, the number of women with a diagnosis of POP in any 1 year in our 5% sample of Medicare beneficiaries remained relatively stable (range, 21,245–23,268 per year). Rates of pessary insertion were also consistent at 11–13% over the study period. Of the women with a prolapse diagnosis, 14–15% underwent surgical repair, and there was little change over time in surgical management patterns based on compartment. Most commonly, multiple compartments were repaired simultaneously. There was a rapid increase in mesh use such that in 2009, 41% of all women who underwent surgery (5.8% of the total cohort) had mesh or graft inserted in their repair. Hysterectomy rates for prolapse decreased over time. Rates of vault suspension at the time of hysterectomy for prolapse were low; however

  15. Effect of Mula Bandha Yoga in Mild Grade Pelvic Organ Prolapse: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Sweta, K M; Godbole, Amrit; Awasthi, H H; Pandey, Uma

    2018-01-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse is the growing health issue related to women of the reproductive and postmenopausal age group in India and across the globe. Treatment option for pelvic organ prolapse includes both surgical and non-surgical intervention. The development of pelvic organ prolapse is an indication for major surgery among 20% of all women. Nevertheless, the recurrence of pelvic organ prolapse is detected among 58% of the patient after surgery. This highlights the need for preventive measures for reducing the impact of pelvic organ prolapse. To study the effect of 3 months yoga therapy in female patients suffering from mild pelvic organ prolapse. 50 Participants were allocated into two groups (25 in each group) by generating Random allocation sequence. Women aged 20-60 with symptomatic mild pelvic organ prolapse in the yoga group were offered Mulabandha yoga therapy along with other conventional treatment modalities, while the control group was only on conventional treatment. All participants gave written informed consent. An assessment was done by improvement in chief complaints and Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory-20 (PFDI-20) & Pelvic floor impact Questionnaire-7 (PFIQ-7) at baseline and at the end of 4, 8 & 12 weeks. Results At the end of 12 weeks, Post-study comparison between the two groups showed a significant improvement in chief complaints like perennial pain, P/V discharge, Perineal muscle laxity and Feeling of something coming out P/V ( P < 0.001). Participants in the yoga group improved by (on average) 5.7 (95% confidence interval 3.1 to 14.7) points more on the PFDI-20 than did participants in the control group ( P = 0.1) and a mean score of PFIQ-7 was also improved significantly. Although Mulabandha (Root Lock) yoga therapy led to a significantly greater improvement in PFDI-20 & PFIQ-7 scores the difference between the groups was below the presumed level of clinical relevance (15 points). More studies are needed to identify factors related to the

  16. Vaginosacral colpopexy (VSC)--a new modification of the Mc Call operation using vaginosacral ligaments as autologous sliding grafts in posthysterectomy vault prolapse.

    PubMed

    Antovska, S V; Dimitrov, D G

    2006-01-01

    The effect of a new modification of the Mc Call operation, vaginosacral colpopexy (VSC) was evaluated in the group of 32 patients. Due to our bad experience with transabdominal lumbosacral colpopexy, we tried to find out another solution. VSC using the mobilized vaginosacral ligaments as sliding grafts (two sutures through the vaginosacral ligaments and posterior vaginal wall and the third suture through the uterosacral ligaments) for vault prolapse was performed in the group of 32 patients. Before operation, the median stage of prolapse was: stage III (range, 0-IV) for anterior site; stage II (range, 0-IV) for posterior site; stage I (range, 0-IV) of the apical segment, and stage III (range 0-IV) for the most severe segment of prolapse. The mean follow-up was 24.5 months (range 9-42 months). There were no intraoperative injuries of the bladder, ureter, rectum or small bowel. At the final follow-up, the mean stage of the prolapse was following: stage 0 (range, 0-III) for anterior site, posterior site and the most severe segment of prolapse; and stage 0 (range, 0-I) of the apical segment. The total vaginal length (tvl) increased significantly (p < 0.001) (Valsalva maneuver) (Vm) and (p < 0.001) (Pozzi maneuver) (Pm) from the preoperative mean value of 3.20 +/- 1.18 (Vm) and 2.70 +/- 0.92 (Pm) to (- 8.33 +/- 0.77) (Vm) and (-7.82 +/- 0.89) (Pm). All 8 patients with genuine stress incontinence, became continent. 3 of 4 patients with potential urinary incontinence required Marshal-Marchetti operation for persistent stress incontinence. VSC seems to be quick, safe and effective procedure for vault prolapse (Tab. 5, Fig. 8, Ref. 31).

  17. Laparoscopic and vaginal approaches to hysterectomy in the obese.

    PubMed

    Bogani, Giorgio; Cromi, Antonella; Serati, Maurizio; Di Naro, Edoardo; Casarin, Jvan; Pinelli, Ciro; Uccella, Stefano; Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Marconi, Nicola; Ghezzi, Fabio

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to compare surgery-related outcomes between laparoscopic (LH) and vaginal (VH) hysterectomy, performed for benign uterine disease (other than pelvic organs prolapse) in obese women. Data of consecutive obese (BMI≥30) patients undergoing LH and VH, between 2000 and 2013, were compared using a propensity-matched analysis. One hundred propensity-matched patient pairs (200 patients) undergoing LH (n=100) and VH (n=100) represented the study group. Baseline demographic characteristics were similar between groups. Patients undergoing LH experienced similar operative time (87.5 (25-360) vs. 85 (25-240)min; p=0.28), slightly lower blood loss (100 (10-3200) vs. 150 (10-800)ml; p=0.006) and shorter length of hospital stay (1 (1-5) vs. 2 (1-5) days; p<0.001) than women undergoing VH. There was no statistically significant difference between LH and VH in complication rate (3% for VH vs. 10% for LH; OR: 3.4; 95%CI: 0.95-13.5; p=0.08). At multivariable analysis complication rates increased as BMI increase (OR: 1.01 (1.00-1.02) for 1-unit increase in BMI; p=0.05). Independently, LH correlated with reduced hospital stay (OR: 0.63 (95%CI: 0.49-0.82); p=0.001) and complication rates (OR: 0.91 (95%CI: 0.85-0.97); p=0.01). In obese women affected by benign uterine disease LH and VH should not be denied on the basis of the mere BMI, per se. In this setting, LH upholds effectiveness of VH, improving postoperative outcomes. However, complication rate increases as BMI increase, regardless surgical route. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Treatment-seeking behaviour and social status of women with pelvic organ prolapse, 4th-degree obstetric tears, and obstetric fistula in western Uganda.

    PubMed

    Krause, Hannah G; Natukunda, Harriet; Singasi, Isaac; Hicks, Sylvia S W; Goh, Judith T W

    2014-11-01

    This study looks at a trilogy of women's health issues including severe pelvic organ prolapse, unrepaired 4th degree obstetric tears and obstetric fistula, all of which can cause significant suffering in the lives of women and their families. Women undergoing surgery for severe pelvic organ prolapse, unrepaired 4th degree obstetric tears and obstetric fistulae, were interviewed to assess their perceptions of what caused their condition, subsequent impact on their social situation and sexual activity, and whether they had sought treatment previously. One hundred fifty women participated in the survey, including 69 undergoing surgery for genito-urinary fistula, 25 with faecal incontinence only (including 24 women with unrepaired 4th degree obstetric tears and 1 woman with an isolated rectovaginal fistula), and 56 women with severe pelvic organ prolapse. All groups of women were exposed to abandonment by their families with 42 % of women with genito-urinary fistula, 21 % with unrepaired 4th degree obstetric tear, and 25 % of women with severe pelvic organ prolapse rejected by their husbands. Most of the women had actively sought treatment for their condition with no success due to unavailability of treatment or misinformation. This study confirms the social stigma associated with obstetric fistula, however also highlights the social stigma faced by women suffering with severe pelvic organ prolapse and unrepaired 4th degree obstetric tears in western Uganda. There is an urgent need for education and training in obstetric management and pelvic organ prolapse management in such areas of limited resources.

  19. An unusual cause of vaginal discharge following gender reassignment.

    PubMed

    Sukumaran, S; Moran, P A; Makar, A

    2009-02-01

    Neovaginal reconstruction is an important part of gender reassignment surgery. We report a case of stone formation at the apex of vaginal vault constructed with sigmoid colon segment. A 48-year-old woman presented with profuse vaginal discharge for 1 year. She had a history of gender reassignment surgery (male to female) in 1994, and the neovagina had been constructed with an isolated sigmoid colon. Vaginoscopy performed using a cystoscope revealed multiple calculi at the vaginal vault on the endoscopic gastrointestinal anastomosis staples that had been used to close the vault. Colon-vaginoplasty has the advantages of providing adequate lubrication, but excessive vaginal discharge could be a problem, as colon is a mucous membrane. Stone formation in the vaginal vault should be considered in cases of gender reassignment with persistent vaginal discharge. This case also highlights the use of cystoscope in visualising the upper vagina in difficult circumstances.

  20. [The incidence and prevalence of complications after urogynaecological and reconstructive pelvic floor prosthetic surgery and management of these complications in women].

    PubMed

    Martan, A; Svabík, K; Masata, J

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this article is to review the incidence and prevalence of complications after prosthetic surgery for POP (pelvic organ prolaps) and USI (urodynamic stress incontinence) and to introduce diagnostic and therapeutic advice into clinical practice. Review article. Gynecological and Obstetric Clinic, 1st LF UK and VFN, Prague. Summary of complications, recent findings, opinions and specific diagnostic and therapeutic recommendations with special focus to vaginal erosion, post-operative voiding difficulties, persisting leakage of urine and de novo urgency. In the last decade the surgical treatment of female USI by prosthetic slings procedures has been shown to be effective with high cure rate and low morbidity. Similary, prosthetic reconstruction of pelvic organ prolapse through the different compartments has been introduced into clinical practice with good anatomical and promising functional results. The article is structured to the different sections, describing the epidemiology and management of complications after prosthetic slings procedures and after vaginal prosthetic treatment of pelvic organ prolapse. The effect of various operations of pelvic floor and USI using synthetic implants may differ, depending on the material of the implant used. Current recommendation for the implants material: a light-weight, flexible polypropylene; Amid's classification: type 1, i.e macro-porous, monofilament material. The advantage of surgical treatment of pelvic floor defect using implants comprises a low percentage of recurrence of the descensus.

  1. [Evolution of clinical practices in the surgical management of pelvic organ prolapse in a "vaginalist" team over the period 2010-2015: A paradigm shift towards pluripotency].

    PubMed

    Baubil, F; Guerby, P; Léonard, F; Rimailho, J; Parant, O; Tanguy le Gac, Y; Chantalat, E; Vidal, F

    2018-06-22

    To determine whether the 2011 FDA alert and French Guidelines have impacted the routine surgical practice in the management of pelvic organ prolapse in a "vaginalist" team over the period 2010-2015. Retrospective study involving all patients undergoing surgical management of anterior and/or apical symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse during the civil years 2010 and 2015. Both naive and relapsed prolapses were eligible. Overall, 338 patients were included: 187 in 2010 and 151 in 2015. Among patients with naive prolapse, we observed a significant increase in the number of laparoscopic sacrocolpopexies (11.1% in 2010 versus 34.4% in 2015, P=0.001) and a significant decline in the use of native tissue repair (67.6% in 2010 versus 39% in 2015, P=0.001). While the number of transvaginal meshes did not decline over the study period, their indications displayed a significant evolution towards a restricted use to advanced stages. We did not observe any difference regarding the treatment of recurred pelvic organ prolapse. Vaginal route remained the preferred approach in this indication. In our "vaginalist" team, routine practice has significantly evolved over the period 2010-2015, resulting in a diversification of the healthcare offer. This paradigm shift towards pluripotency is mandatory, since patients' preference should also drive the choice of both surgical route and technique. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  2. Incidence of Extrusion Following Type I Polypropylene Mesh “Kit” Repairs in the Correction of Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Lukban, James C.; Beyer, Roger D.; Moore, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction and Hypothesis. We sought to determine the mesh extrusion (vaginal exposure) rates and subject outcomes following IntePro (Type I polypropylene) mesh “kit” repairs for vaginal prolapse. Methods. Data were pooled from two prospective multicenter studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of the Perigee and Apogee (American Medical Systems, Minnetonka, Minn, USA) to treat anterior and posterior/apical prolapses, respectively. Extrusions involving the anterior compartment (AC) or posterior compartment/apex (PC/A) were recorded. Results. Two hundred sixty women underwent mesh placement, with a total of 368 mesh units inserted (173 in the AC and 195 in the PC/A). Extrusions were noted in 13 (7.5%) of AC implants and 27 (13.8%) of PC/A implants through 12 months. No difference was seen between those with and without extrusion in regard to anatomic cure, postoperative painor quality of life at 1 year. Conclusions. Extrusion had no apparent effect on short-term outcomes. Given the unknown long-term sequellae of vaginal mesh exposure, a thorough assessment of risks and benefits of transvaginal mesh placement should be considered at the time of preoperative planning. PMID:22190952

  3. Correlation of pelvic organ prolapse quantification system scores with obstetric parameters and lower urinary tract symptoms in primiparae postpartum.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ching-Chung; Tseng, Ling-Hong; Horng, Shang-Gwo; Lin, I-wen; Chang, Shuenn-Dhy

    2007-05-01

    This study investigated the correlation between results of the pelvic organ prolapse quantification (POPQ) system at 3 days and at 2 months postpartum with obstetric parameters and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in 125 primiparae with vaginal delivery. The clinical characteristics, prevalence of pregnancy-related LUTS, and POPQ scores were evaluated. Regarding the relationship of obstetric parameters with POPQ scoring, the gh was found positively correlated with the body mass index and vaginal laceration at 2 months postpartum. The POPQ evaluation did not find the LUTS to be significantly related to the prolapse score. The mean scores of points C and D were significantly increased, and gh, pb, and tvl were significantly decreased between the initial and 2-month follow-up scores. Our results revealed that a decrease in vaginal size is the principal change during the first 2 months postpartum and that with the exception of gh, neither the obstetric parameters nor the LUTS were associated with the POPQ scoring system.

  4. Management of aerobic vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Tempera, Gianna; Furneri, Pio Maria

    2010-01-01

    Aerobic vaginitis is a new nonclassifiable pathology that is neither specific vaginitis nor bacterial vaginosis. The diversity of this microbiological peculiarity could also explain several therapeutic failures when patients were treated for infections identified as bacterial vaginosis. The diagnosis 'aerobic vaginitis' is essentially based on microscopic examinations using a phase-contrast microscope (at ×400 magnification). The therapeutic choice for 'aerobic vaginitis' should take into consideration an antibiotic characterized by an intrinsic activity against the majority of bacteria of fecal origin, bactericidal effect and poor/absent interference with the vaginal microbiota. Regarding the therapy for aerobic vaginitis when antimicrobial agents are prescribed, not only the antimicrobial spectrum but also the presumed ecological disturbance on the anaerobic and aerobic vaginal and rectal microbiota should be taken into a consideration. Because of their very low impact on the vaginal microbiota, kanamycin or quinolones are to be considered a good choice for therapy. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Vaginal sponge and spermicides

    MedlinePlus

    Birth control - over the counter; Contraceptives - over the counter; Family planning - vaginal sponge; Contraception - vaginal sponge ... preventing pregnancy as some other forms of birth control. However, using a spermicide or sponge is much ...

  6. Assisted Vaginal Delivery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Education FAQs Assisted Vaginal Delivery Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Assisted Vaginal Delivery FAQ192, February 2016 PDF ... on Patient Safety For Patients Patient FAQs Spanish Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & Governance ...

  7. Vaginitis test - wet mount

    MedlinePlus

    ... prep - vaginitis; Vaginosis - wet mount; Trichomoniasis - wet mount; Vaginal candida - wet mount ... provider gently inserts an instrument (speculum) into the vagina to hold it open and view inside. A ...

  8. Mitral valve prolapse and hyperthyroidism: effect of patient selection.

    PubMed

    Zullo, M A; Devereux, R B; Kramer-Fox, R; Lutas, E M; Brown, W T

    1985-11-01

    Patients with mitral valve prolapse and hyperthyroidism have common symptoms; the most outstanding symptom is palpitation. To determine whether or not common symptoms contributed to the reported association of these conditions, we evaluated 220 patients with symptomatic mitral valve prolapse and 216 first-degree relatives in 72 families; 65 relatives with mitral valve prolapse and 151 relatives without mitral valve prolapse, all greater than or equal to 16 years of age. Thirty subjects, aged 49 +/- 13 years (p less than 0.025 vs entire study group), had thyroid disease (23 subjects had definite thyroid disease, seven subjects had probable); 27 of 30 subjects with thyroid disease (90%) were female (p less than 0.005). The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of hyperthyroidism was significantly higher in probands with mitral valve prolapse than in family members without mitral valve prolapse (3.5% vs 0%, p = 0.03), while an intermediate prevalence of hyperthyroidism (2.2%) was observed in family members with mitral valve prolapse. Thus, the prevalence of hyperthyroidism is increased among symptomatic patients with mitral valve prolapse as compared to family members without mitral valve prolapse, but the prevalence of thyroid conditions is similar among family members with or without this condition. These findings are explained by the effect of common symptoms on clinical detection of both mitral valve prolapse and hyperthyroidism.

  9. [Laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy for pelvic organ prolapse: guidelines for clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Wagner, L; Meurette, G; Vidart, A; Warembourg, S; Terassa, J-B; Berrogain, N; Ragni, E; Le Normand, L

    2016-07-01

    Open sacrocolpopexy have demonstrated its efficiency in surgical treatment of pelvic organ prolapse with an important backward on a large number of patients. Laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy reproduced the same surgical technique with reduced morbidity and may benefits from the recent development of robotic. Numerous technical variants have been developped around the original procedure but results seems not ever equivalent. Our objectives are to establish practical recommendations issues from the data of the litterature on the various technical aspects of this technique. This work leans on an exhaustive lecture of the literature concerning meta analyses, randomized tries, registers, controlled studies and the largest non controlled studies published on the subject. Recommendations were developed by a multidisciplinary workgroup then reread and amended by an also multidisciplinary group of proofreaders (urologists, gynecologists, gastroenterologists and surgeons). The methodology follows at best the recommendations of the HAS with a scientific argument for every question (accompanied with the level of proof, NP) and the recommendations, the officers (In, B, C and agreement of experts) and validated at the end of the phase of review. Surgical treatment of uro-genital prolapse by abdominal route classically associated hystero and anterior vaginopexy on the sacral ligament with a synthethic mesh. There are no argument to systematically associated a posterior vaginopexy to prevent secondary rectocele (level C). The consensual indication of laparoscopic rectopexy is represented by symptomatic rectal prolapse, the anatomical and functional results of which are the best estimated (level C). The surgical treatment of rectocele, elytrocele and enterocele with a posterior vaginopexy is not well estimated (level 3). Thus, it is not possible to conclude on the results of a posterior vaginal fixation with a mesh in these indications (AP). In the absence of colpocèle, the interest

  10. Pelvic Organ Prolapse and Pregnancy in the Female Bladder Exstrophy Patient.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Melissa R

    2018-02-26

    Classic bladder exstrophy (BE) remains one of the most demanding reconstructive challenges encountered in urology. In female BE patients, the long-term sequela of both primary and revision genitoplasty, as well as intrinsic pelvic floor deficits, predispose adult women to significant issues with sexual function, pelvic organ prolapse (POP), and complexities with reproductive health. Contemporary data suggest 30-50% of women with BE develop prolapse at a mean age of 16 years. Most women will require revision genitoplasty for successful sexual function, although in some series over 40% report dyspareunia. Current management for pregnancy includes elective cesarean section with involvement of high-risk obstetrics and urologic surgery. This review encapsulates contemporary concepts of etiology, prevalence, and management of POP and pregnancy in the adult female BE patient.

  11. The modified Altemeier procedure for a loop colostomy prolapse.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Makoto; Murakami, Masahiko; Ozawa, Yoshiaki; Uchida, Marie; Yamazaki, Kimiyasu; Fujimori, Akira; Otsuka, Koji; Aoki, Takeshi

    2015-11-01

    Loop colostomy prolapse is associated with an impaired quality of life. Surgical treatment may sometimes be required for cases that cannot be closed by colon colostomy because of high-risk morbidities or advanced disease. We applied the Altimeter operation for patients with transverse loop colostomy. The Altemeier operation is therefore indicated for rectal prolapse. This technique involves a simple operation, which includes a circumferential incision through the full thickness of the outer and inner cylinder of the prolapsed limb, without incising the abdominal wall, and anastomosis with sutures using absorbable thread. We performed the Altemeier operation for three cases of loop stomal prolapse. Those patients demonstrated no postoperative complications (including obstruction, prolapse recurrence, or hernia). Our findings suggest that this procedure is useful as an optional surgical treatment for cases of transverse loop colostomy prolapse as a permanent measure in patients with high-risk morbidities or advanced disease.

  12. Cloacal Prolapse in Raptors: Review of 16 Cases.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Thomas A G; Forbes, Neil A; Carrasco, Daniel Calvo

    2016-06-01

    Sixteen cases of cloacal prolapse in raptors were reviewed in this study. Colonic prolapse was the most common presentation (56% of cases). Red-tailed hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis ) were overrepresented, comprising 66% of colonic prolapse cases. In cases of colonic prolapse, postsurgical stricture formation was a commonly identified complication after resection and anastomosis of the colon. A novel technique was used in 2 cases of colonic prolapse, in which sterile, semirigid rubber tubing was placed in the distal colon and removed per-cloaca at the end of the procedure; this facilitated a secure, fluid-tight anastomosis while maintaining sufficient intestinal lumen. Oviductal prolapse (31% of cases) was associated with the most guarded prognosis (40% treatment success). Cloacoliths were treated successfully in 2 birds (13% of cases) by minimally invasive per-cloacal manual removal.

  13. [The "prince of surgery," Antoine Jobert de Lamballe (1799-1867) and the first radical cure of vesico-vaginal fistulae with his method of cystoplasty].

    PubMed

    Androutsos, Georges

    2003-09-01

    Jobert de Lamballe, consultant-physician of Louis-Philippe, first surgeon of Napoleon III, Professor of Clinic Surgery, President of the Academy of medicine and member of the Institute, was a very inventive research worker and provided to the surgical technique of his time an essential contribution to the area of intestinal, urologic, gynecologic and plastic surgery. He died, in 1867, by general paresis.

  14. Vaginal delivery of breech presentation.

    PubMed

    Kotaska, Andrew; Menticoglou, Savas; Gagnon, Robert

    2009-06-01

    examination is recommended to rule out prolapsed cord. (III-B) 6. In the absence of adequate progress in labour, Caesarean section is advised. (II-1A) 7. Induction of labour is not recommended for breech presentation. (II-3B) Oxytocin augmentation is acceptable in the presence of uterine dystocia. (II-1A) 8. A passive second stage without active pushing may last up to 90 minutes, allowing the breech to descend well into the pelvis. Once active pushing commences, if delivery is not imminent after 60 minutes, Caesarean section is recommended. (I-A) 9. The active second stage of labour should take place in or near an operating room with equipment and personnel available to perform a timely Caesarean section if necessary. (III-A) 10. A health care professional skilled in neonatal resuscitation should be in attendance at the time of delivery. (III-A) DELIVERY TECHNIQUE: 11. The health care provider for a planned vaginal breech delivery needs to possess the requisite skills and experience. (II-1A) 12. An experienced obstetrician-gynaecologist comfortable in the performance of vaginal breech delivery should be present at the delivery to supervise other health care providers, including a trainee. (I-A) 13. The requirements for emergency Caesarean section, including availability of the hospital operating room team and the approximate 30-minute timeline to commence a laparotomy, must be in accordance with the recommendations of the SOGC Policy Statement, "Attendance at Labour and Delivery" (CPG No. 89; update in press, 2009). (III-A) 14. The health care provider should have rehearsed a plan of action and should be prepared to act promptly in the rare circumstance of a trapped after-coming head or irreducible nuchal arms: symphysiotomy or emergency abdominal rescue can be life saving. (III-B) 15. Total breech extraction is inappropriate for term singleton breech delivery. (II-2A) 16. Effective maternal pushing efforts are essential to safe delivery and should be encouraged. (II-1A) 17

  15. Current obstetrical practice and umbilical cord prolapse.

    PubMed

    Usta, I M; Mercer, B M; Sibai, B M

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of current obstetrical practice to the occurrence and complications of umbilical cord prolapse. Maternal and neonatal charts of 87 pregnancies complicated by true umbilical cord prolapse during a 5-year period were reviewed. Twin gestation and noncephalic presentations were common features (14 and 41%, respectively). Eighty-nine percent (77) of infants were delivered by cesarean section of which 29% were classical and 88% were primary. The mean gestational age at delivery was 34.0 +/- 6.0 weeks, and the mean birth weight was 2318 +/- 1159 g. Obstetrical intervention preceded 41 (47%) cases (the obstetrical intervention group): amniotomy (9), scalp electrode application (4), intrauterine pressure catheter insertion (6), attempted external cephalic version (7), expectant management of preterm premature rupture of membranes (14), manual rotation of the fetal head (1), and amnioreduction (1). There were 11 perinatal deaths. Thirty-three percent of the infants (32) had a 5-min Apgar score < 7 and 34% had a cord pH < 7.20. Neonatal seizures, intracerebral hemorrhage, necrotizing enterocolitis, hyaline membrane disease, persistent fetal circulation, sepsis, assisted ventilation, and perinatal mortality were comparable in the "obstetrical intervention" and "no-intervention" groups. Most of the neonatal complications occurred in infants < 32 weeks' gestation. We conclude that obstetrical intervention contributes to 47% of umbilical cord prolapse cases; however, it does not increase the associated perinatal morbidity and mortality.

  16. Colonic prolapse after intersphincteric resection for very low rectal cancer: a report of 12 cases.

    PubMed

    Chau, A; Frasson, M; Debove, C; Maggiori, L; Panis, Y

    2016-10-01

    There are no published data concerning management of patients with exteriorized colonic prolapse (CP) after intersphincteric rectal resection (ISR) and side-to-end coloanal manual anastomosis (CAA) for very low rectal cancer. The aim of the present study was to report our experience in 12 consecutive cases of CP following ISR with CAA. From 2006 to 2014, all patients with very low rectal cancer who developed CP after ISR and CAA were reviewed. Demographic and surgical data, prolapse symptoms and treatment were recorded. Postoperative morbidity, functional outcomes and results after prolapse surgery were recorded. Twelve out of 143 patients (8 %) who underwent ISR with side-to-end CAA for low rectal cancer presented CP: 7/107 ISR (7 %) with partial resection of the internal anal sphincter (IAS) and 5/36 ISR (14 %) with subtotal or total resection of the IAS (NS). CP was diagnosed after a median of 6 months (range 2-72 months) after ISR. All patients with CP suffered from pain and fecal incontinence. Median Wexner fecal incontinence score before surgery was 16.5 (range 12-20). Three patients refused reoperation. Nine patients underwent transanal surgery with prolapse resection (including colonic stump and side-to-end anastomosis) and new end-to-end CAA (with posterior myorraphy in 4 cases). After a median follow-up of 30 months (range 8-87 months), 3/9 patients (33 %) had CP recurrence: One with very poor function was treated by abdominoperineal resection and definitive stoma. The 2 others were successfully reoperated on transanally. Median Wexner fecal incontinence score after CP surgery was 9 (range 0-20). No CP recurrence was noted for the 6 other patients, and function improved in all cases. Thus, at the end of follow-up, 8/9 patients (89 %) had no recurrence after surgery. We believe surgery must be attempted in these patients who develop CP after ISR with CAA for very low rectal cancer in order to improve function and symptoms. A transanal approach

  17. Vaginal hysterectomy, an outpatient procedure.

    PubMed

    Engh, Marie Ellström; Hauso, Wenche

    2012-11-01

    To report our experience of treating women undergoing vaginal hysterectomy in an outpatient setting and to identify risk factors for hospital admission and women dissatisfied with care. Prospective observational report. department of obstetrics and gynecology, university hospital in Norway. 150 women who underwent vaginal hysterectomy at the outpatient clinic from February 2009 to April 2010. Perioperative data were collected prospectively and case notes were searched for complications. On the first postoperative day all women were contacted by telephone by a nurse. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to monitor pain and nausea during the stay at the outpatient clinic and the day after surgery. VAS was also used to specify the women's degree of satisfaction with care the day after surgery. The number of women who could be discharged from the outpatient unit and had a satisfaction score of ≥7 the day after surgery. Of the 150 women, 84% could be discharged after a mean observation period of 276 min (SD ± 80 min). The mean satisfaction score was 9.0, SD ± 1.4, and 92.6% of the women reported ≥7 points in the satisfaction score. No women with serious complications were sent home. Using a multivariable logistic regression model only pain at discharge was found as significant (p= 0.009) for admittance to hospital. Vaginal hysterectomy is a feasible outpatient procedure and the majority of women were satisfied with the care they received. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  18. Day case stapled anopexy for the treatment of haemorrhoids and rectal mucosal prolapse.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo Grau, L A; Heredia Budó, A; Llorca Cardeñosa, S; Carbonell Roure, J; Estrada Ferrer, O; García Torralbo, E; Suñol Sala, X

    2012-06-01

    Stapled anopexy (SA) gives better early postoperative results than classical haemorrhoidectomy. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that SA is a safe and effective procedure for the treatment of haemorrhoids and rectal mucose prolapse in a day-case surgery programme. From January 2000 to December 2008, 297 SA procedures were performed; 230 (77.4%) were performed in the Day Surgery Unit (DSU). Third- and fourth-degree haemorrhoids, second-degree haemorrhoids with no response to conservative treatment and several cases of rectal prolapse were included. The mean age of the patients in the series was 48.1 years (range 21-85). Preoperative preparation included phosphate enemas and antibiotic prophylaxis. Patients were operated on mainly under spinal anaesthesia. Day-case rate, postoperative pain (measured by a visual analogic scale, 1-10), admissions, re-admissions, early postoperative situation and recurrence were evaluated in the study. The overall DSU rate was 78%, with a progressive increase from 46% to 99% in 2008. One hundred and eighty-five patients (80%) had pain scores under 2; no patient had a pain score over 7. Eighteen (8%) patients required admission on the day of surgery. Late admission was needed for 3 (3%) patients. Thirty-three patients reported their situation as excellent, 174 as good, 20 as acceptable and three as bad when they answered a phone questionnaire 24 h after surgery. Overall, 20 (9%) patients had recurrence of symptoms. SA is a safe and effective procedure for prolapsing haemorrhoids in the day case setting. The recurrence rate is higher than that observed in classical haemorrhoidectomy. Most patients can be managed as day-cases. © 2011 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2011 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  19. Supracervical hysterectomy - the vaginal route.

    PubMed

    Wilczyński, Miłosz; Cieślak, Jarosław; Malinowski, Andrzej

    2014-06-01

    Removal of the cervix during hysterectomy is not mandatory. There has been no irrefutable evidence so far that total hysterectomy is more beneficial to patients in terms of pelvic organ function. The procedure that leaves the cervix intact is called a subtotal hysterectomy. Traditional approaches to this surgery include laparoscopic and abdominal routes. Vaginal total hysterectomy has been proven to present many advantages over the other approaches. Therefore, it seems that this route should also be applied in the case of subtotal hysterectomy. We present 9 cases of patients who underwent subtotal hysterectomy performed through the vagina for benign gynecological diseases.

  20. [Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing procedure for prolapse and hemorrhoids with Milligan-Morgan hemorrhoidectomy in the treatment of prolapsed hemorrhoids].

    PubMed

    He, Ping; Chen, Hongliang

    2015-12-01

    To compare the safety and efficacy of procedure for prolapse and hemorrhoids (PPH) with Milligan-Morgan hemorrhoidectomy (MMH) in the treatment of prolapsed hemorrhoids. All the randomized controlled trials (RCT) comparing PPH with MMH in the treatment of prolapsed hemorrhoids published between January 1998 and January 2015 were retrieved from PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CBM, CNKI, Wangfang, VIP databases. Hand search was applied in Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Chinese Journal of Coloproctology and Journal of Colorectal and Anal Surgery from the library of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Associated reference documents in enrolled trials were reviewed. The methodological quality of enrolled trials was evaluated according to the Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions. Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.3 software. Sixteen RCTs recruiting 1411 patients were identified. Among them, 702 patients underwent PPH, and other 709 patients MMH. Meta-analysis showed that as compared to MMH, PPH had shorter operating time(WMD=-12.34, 95% CI:-17.87 to -6.80, P=0.000], shorter hospital stay (WMD=-1.48, 95% CI: -1.81 to -1.14, P=0.000) and shorter time to recover normal activity (WMD=-14.11, 95% CI: -24.51 to -3.70, P=0.008). Patients in PPH group experienced less pain at postoperative 24 h, postoperative 1 week and the first postoperative bowel movement (all P<0.01). PPH was more ascendant in terms of the requirement for analgesics(P<0.01). PPH group had higher ratio of wound-healing 2 weeks after surgery (RR=0.19, 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.51, P=0.001), lower ratio of postoperative anal stenosis (RR=0.39, 95% CI: 0.15 to 0.99, P=0.050) and lower ratio of anal incontinence (RR=0.62, 95% CI: 0.38 to 1.01, P=0.050), but higher ratio of recurrent disease after 1 year (RR=2.54, 95% CI: 1.21 to 5.31, P=0.010). No significant differences in ratios of postoperative bleeding, urinary retention, and postoperative morbidity of

  1. Family history associated with pelvic organ prolapse in young women.

    PubMed

    Alcalay, Menachem; Stav, Kobi; Eisenberg, Vered H

    2015-12-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) among young women is a relatively rare disorder with a unique clinical background. The objective of our study was to investigate the relative risk factors for POP and the relationship between family history and POP development in young women. In a retrospective longitudinal study we investigated 26 young patients (age <45 years) who underwent POP surgery and compared them to a control group of 26 patients (age >55 years) who underwent similar surgery and were matched with regard to parity. All women were interviewed for family history of POP, POP surgery among first-degree relatives, and hernia repair. Family history of POP was five times more prevalent among women in the study group than in the control group (46 % vs. 8 %, P < 0.01). Moreover, POP surgery among the first-degree relatives was significantly more prevalent in the study group (23.1 % vs. 3.8 %, p < 0.05). The prevalence of a family history of POP in more than one first-degree relative (11.5 % vs. 3.84 %, p = 0.3) and the family history of hernia repair among first-degree relatives (11.5 % vs. 15.4 %) did not differ between the groups. A family history of POP is significantly more common in younger affected women than in older affected women. We suggest that future genetic studies should concentrate on this specific population.

  2. Vaginitis: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Faro, S

    1996-01-01

    The various conditions that give rise to vaginitis include specific and nonspecific entities, such as candidiasis, trichomoniasis, bacterial vaginosis, group B streptococcal vaginitis, purulent vaginitis, volvodynia, and vestibulitis. The patient with chronic vaginitis usually develops this condition because of a misdiagnosis. It is critical that patients who have chronic vaginitis be thoroughly evaluated to determine if there is a specific etiology and whether their condition is recurrent or persistent, or is a reinfection. This also must include obtaining a detailed history, beginning with the patient's best recollection of when she felt perfectly normal. The physician must have an understanding of a healthy vaginal ecosystem and what mechanisms are in place to maintain the equilibrium. The vaginal ecosystem is a complex system of micro-organisms interacting with host factors to maintain its equilibrium. The endogenous microflora consists of a variety of bacteria, which include aerobic, facultative and obligate anaerobic bacteria. These organisms exist in a commensal, synergistic or antagonistic relationship. Therefore, it is important to understand what factors control the delicate equilibrium of the vaginal ecosystem, and which factors, both endogenous and exogenous, can disrupt this system. It is also important for the physician to understand that when a patient has symptoms of vaginitis it is not always due to an infectious etiology. There are situations in which an inflammatory reaction occurs but the specific etiology may not be determined. Thus, it is important that the physician not rush through the history or the examination.

  3. Vaginal foreign bodies.

    PubMed

    Stricker, T; Navratil, F; Sennhauser, F H

    2004-04-01

    To evaluate the clinical features and outcome in girls with a vaginal foreign body. Retrospective review of medical records of 35 girls with a vaginal foreign body seen in an outpatient clinic for paediatric and adolescent gynaecology between 1980 and 2000. The ages ranged from 2.6 to 9.2 years. The most common symptom was blood-stained vaginal discharge/vaginal bleeding (49%). Duration of symptoms varied from 1 day to 2 years. Fifty-four percent of the patients recalled insertion of the foreign object, usually by the girl herself. All but three patients (91%) either recalled insertion of the foreign object and/or had vaginal bleeding or blood-stained or foul-smelling vaginal discharge, and/or visualization or palpation of the foreign body in physical examination. Symptoms resolved after removal of the foreign body followed by a single irrigation with Providon-Iod (Betadine). In the majority of patients a carefully obtained history and physical examination suggest the diagnosis of a vaginal foreign object. The leading symptoms are vaginal bleeding and blood-stained or foul smelling vaginal discharge. Removal of the foreign object followed by a single irrigation with Providon-Iod is the definitive treatment and does not require additional measures.

  4. Clothing factors and vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Heidrich, F E; Berg, A O; Bergman, J J

    1984-10-01

    Associations of clothing factors and vulvovaginal symptoms, signs, and microbiology were sought in 203 women seeking care at a university family medicine clinic. Clothing factors studied were use of panty hose, underwear for sleep, cotton lining panels, and pants vs skirts. Women wearing and not wearing panty hose had similar rates of vaginitis symptoms and signs, but yeast vaginitis was about three times more common among wearers. Relationships of other clothing factors to vaginitis were not found. Nonspecific vaginitis was not found to be related to clothing.

  5. Evaluation and Management of Vaginitis

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Phyllis L; Felsenstein, Donna; Friedman, Robert H

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate recent advances in our understanding of the clinical relevance, diagnosis, and treatment of vaginal infections, and to determine an efficient and effective method of evaluating this clinical problem in the outpatient setting. DATA SOURCES Relevant papers on vaginitis limited to the English language obtained through a MEDLINE search for the years 1985 to 1997 were reviewed. DATA SYNTHESIS Techniques that enable the identification of the various strains of candida have helped lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of recurrent candida infection. From this information a rationale for the treatment of recurrent disease can be developed. Bacterial vaginosis has been associated with complications, including upper genital tract infection, preterm delivery, and wound infection. Women undergoing pelvic surgery, procedures in pregnancy, or pregnant women at risk of preterm delivery should be evaluated for bacterial vaginosis to decrease the rate of complications associated with this condition. New, more standardized criteria for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis may improve diagnostic consistency among clinicians and comparability of study results. Use of topical therapies in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis are effective and associated with fewer side effects than systemic medication. Trichomonas vaginalis, although decreasing in incidence, has been associated with upper genital tract infection. Therapy of T. vaginalis infection has been complicated by an increasing incidence of resistance to metronidazole. CONCLUSIONS Vaginitis is a common medical problem in women that is associated with significant morbidity and previously unrecognized complications. Research in recent years has improved diagnostic tools as well as treatment modalities for all forms of vaginitis. PMID:9613891

  6. Mitral valve prolapse and Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thacoor, Amitabh

    2017-07-01

    Marfan syndrome is a multisystemic genetic condition affecting connective tissue. It carries a reduced life expectancy, largely dependent on cardiovascular complications. More common cardiac manifestations such as aortic dissection and aortic valve incompetence have been widely documented in the literature. Mitral valve prolapse (MVP), however, has remained poorly documented. This article aims at exploring the existing literature on the pathophysiology and diagnosis of MVP in patients with Marfan syndrome, defining its current management and outlining the future developments surrounding it. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Pelvic floor muscle training for secondary prevention of pelvic organ prolapse (PREVPROL): a multicentre randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Suzanne; Glazener, Cathryn; McClurg, Doreen; Macarthur, Christine; Elders, Andrew; Herbison, Peter; Wilson, Don; Toozs-Hobson, Philip; Hemming, Christine; Hay-Smith, Jean; Collins, Marissa; Dickson, Sylvia; Logan, Janet

    2017-01-28

    Pelvic floor muscle training can reduce prolapse severity and symptoms in women seeking treatment. We aimed to assess whether this intervention could also be effective in secondary prevention of prolapse and the need for future treatment. We did this multicentre, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial at three centres in New Zealand and the UK. Women from a longitudinal study of pelvic floor function after childbirth were potentially eligible for inclusion. Women of any age who had stage 1-3 prolapse, but had not sought treatment, were randomly assigned (1:1), via remote computer allocation, to receive either one-to-one pelvic floor muscle training (five physiotherapy appointments over 16 weeks, and annual review) plus Pilates-based pelvic floor muscle training classes and a DVD for home use (intervention group), or a prolapse lifestyle advice leaflet (control group). Randomisation was minimised by centre, parity (three or less vs more than three deliveries), prolapse stage (above the hymen vs at or beyond the hymen), and delivery method (any vaginal vs all caesarean sections). Women and intervention physiotherapists could not be masked to group allocation, but allocation was masked from data entry researchers and from the trial statistician until after database lock. The primary outcome was self-reported prolapse symptoms (Pelvic Organ Prolapse Symptom Score [POP-SS]) at 2 years. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01171846. Between Dec 21, 2008, and Feb 24, 2010, in New Zealand, and Oct 27, 2010, and Sept 5, 2011, in the UK, we randomly assigned 414 women to the intervention group (n=207) or the control group (n=207). One participant in each group was excluded after randomisation, leaving 412 women for analysis. At baseline, 399 (97%) women had prolapse above or at the level of the hymen. The mean POP-SS score at 2 years was 3·2 (SD 3·4) in the intervention group versus 4·2 (SD 4·4) in the

  8. Mental health screening in women with severe pelvic organ prolapse, chronic fourth-degree obstetric tear and genital tract fistula in western Uganda.

    PubMed

    Krause, Hannah G; Hall, Barbara A; Ng, Shu-Kay; Natukunda, Harriet; Singasi, Isaac; Goh, Judith T W

    2017-06-01

    High levels of mental health dysfunction have been identified in women with genital tract fistula. The aim of this study was to use the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) to screen women in western Uganda with severe pelvic organ prolapse, chronic fourth-degree obstetric tear and genital tract fistula for risk of mental health dysfunction. Women undergoing surgery for severe pelvic organ prolapse, chronic fourth-degree obstetric tear, and genital tract fistula were interviewed using the GHQ-28 to screen for the risk of mental health dysfunction. A total of 125 women completed the GHQ-28, including 22 with pelvic organ prolapse, 47 with fourth-degree obstetric tear, 21 with genital tract fistula, and 35 controls. Nearly all women with these serious gynaecological conditions were positive for the risk of mental health dysfunction. In the domain assessing symptoms of severe depression, women with fourth-degree obstetric tear and genital tract fistula scored higher than women with pelvic organ prolapse. A significant risk of mental health dysfunction was identified in women with severe pelvic organ prolapse and chronic fourth-degree obstetric tear. These rates are similar to the high rates of mental health dysfunction in women with genital tract fistula. Identification and management of mental health dysfunction in women with these conditions should be a priority.

  9. Vaginal toxic shock reaction triggering desquamative inflammatory vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Nigel; Edlind, Thomas D; Schlievert, Patrick M; Nyirjesy, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to report 2 cases of desquamative inflammatory vaginitis associated with toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1)-producing Staphylococcus aureus strains. Case report of 2 patients, 1 with an acute and 1 with a chronic presentation, diagnosed with desquamative inflammatory vaginitis on the basis of clinical findings and wet mount microscopy. Pretreatment and posttreatment vaginal bacterial and yeast cultures were obtained. Pretreatment vaginal bacterial cultures from both patients grew TSST-1-producing S. aureus. Subsequent vaginal bacterial culture results after oral antibiotic therapy were negative. Desquamative inflammatory vaginitis may be triggered through TSST-1-mediated vaginal toxic shock reaction.

  10. Laparoscopic Supracervical Hysterectomy With Transcervical Morcellation and Sacrocervicopexy: Initial Experience With a Novel Surgical Approach to Uterovaginal Prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblatt, Peter L.; Apostolis, Costas A.; Hacker, Michele R.; DiSciullo, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of a new laparoscopic technique for the treatment of uterovaginal prolapse using a transcervical access port to minimize the laparoscopic incision. From February 2008 through August 2010, symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse in 43 patients was evaluated and surgically treated using this novel procedure. Preoperative assessment included pelvic examination, the pelvic organ prolapse quantification scoring system (POP-Q), and complex urodynamic testing with prolapse reduction to evaluate for symptomatic or occult stress urinary incontinence. The surgical procedure consisted of laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy with transcervical morcellation and laparoscopic sacrocervicopexy with anterior and posterior mesh extension. Concomitant procedures were performed as indicated. All procedures were completed laparoscopically using only 5-mm abdominal port sites, with no intraoperative complications. Patients were followed up postoperatively for pelvic examination and POP-Q at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months. The median (interquartile range) preoperative POP-Q values for point Aa was 0 (−1.0 to 1.0), and for point C was −1.0 (−3.0 to 2.0). Postoperatively, median points Aa and C were significantly improved at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months (all p < .001). One patient was found to have a mesh/suture exposure from the sacrocervicopexy, which was managed conservatively without surgery. We conclude that laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy with transcervical morcellation and laparoscopic sacrocervicopexy is a safe and feasible surgical approach to treatment of uterovaginal prolapse, with excellent anatomic results at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months. Potential advantages of the procedure include minimizing laparoscopic port site size, decreasing the rate of mesh exposure compared with other published data, and reducing the rate of postoperative cyclic bleeding in

  11. Vaginal para-urethral myxoid leiomyoma: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Costantini, Elisabetta; Cochetti, Giovanni; Porena, Massimo

    2008-08-01

    Vaginal leiomyoma is a rare solid tumour of unknown aetiology, which usually develops in women between the ages of 35 and 50. As it presents with a wide range of symptoms, diagnosis is based on histological findings. Here we present the case of a 27-year-old white woman with a painless vaginal mass associated with dyspareunia, dysmenorrhea and foul-smelling vaginal discharge. She underwent surgery by vaginal route, and the histological findings confirmed a myxoid leiomyoma. After 17 months, the patient was disease-free, and symptoms disappeared. Vaginal leiomyomas are rare, local recurrence and transformation into sarcoma are rare, and complete surgical excision as soon as possible is recommended.

  12. Real-time measurement of the vaginal pressure profile using an optical-fiber-based instrumented speculum.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Luke A; Gargett, Caroline E; Young, Natharnia; Rosamilia, Anna; Vashi, Aditya V; Werkmeister, Jerome A; Papageorgiou, Anthony W; Arkwright, John W

    2016-12-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) occurs when changes to the pelvic organ support structures cause descent or herniation of the pelvic organs into the vagina. Clinical evaluation of POP is a series of manual measurements known as the pelvic organ prolapse quantification (POP-Q) score. However, it fails to identify the mechanism causing POP and relies on the skills of the practitioner. We report on a modified vaginal speculum incorporating a double-helix fiber-Bragg grating structure for distributed pressure measurements along the length of the vagina and include preliminary data in an ovine model of prolapse. Vaginal pressure profiles were recorded at 10 Hz as the speculum was dilated incrementally up to 20 mm. At 10-mm dilation, nulliparous sheep showed higher mean pressures ( 102 ± 46 ?? mmHg ) than parous sheep ( 39 ± 23 ?? mmHg ) ( P = 0.02 ), attributable largely to the proximal (cervical) end of the vagina. In addition to overall pressure variations, we observed a difference in the distribution of pressure that related to POP-Q measurements adapted for the ovine anatomy, showing increased tissue laxity in the upper anterior vagina for parous ewes. We demonstrate the utility of the fiber-optic instrumented speculum for rapid distributed measurement of vaginal support.

  13. Real-time measurement of the vaginal pressure profile using an optical-fiber-based instrumented speculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkinson, Luke A.; Gargett, Caroline E.; Young, Natharnia; Rosamilia, Anna; Vashi, Aditya V.; Werkmeister, Jerome A.; Papageorgiou, Anthony W.; Arkwright, John W.

    2016-12-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) occurs when changes to the pelvic organ support structures cause descent or herniation of the pelvic organs into the vagina. Clinical evaluation of POP is a series of manual measurements known as the pelvic organ prolapse quantification (POP-Q) score. However, it fails to identify the mechanism causing POP and relies on the skills of the practitioner. We report on a modified vaginal speculum incorporating a double-helix fiber-Bragg grating structure for distributed pressure measurements along the length of the vagina and include preliminary data in an ovine model of prolapse. Vaginal pressure profiles were recorded at 10 Hz as the speculum was dilated incrementally up to 20 mm. At 10-mm dilation, nulliparous sheep showed higher mean pressures (102±46 mmHg) than parous sheep (39±23 mmHg) (P=0.02), attributable largely to the proximal (cervical) end of the vagina. In addition to overall pressure variations, we observed a difference in the distribution of pressure that related to POP-Q measurements adapted for the ovine anatomy, showing increased tissue laxity in the upper anterior vagina for parous ewes. We demonstrate the utility of the fiber-optic instrumented speculum for rapid distributed measurement of vaginal support.

  14. Vaginal drug distribution modeling.

    PubMed

    Katz, David F; Yuan, Andrew; Gao, Yajing

    2015-09-15

    This review presents and applies fundamental mass transport theory describing the diffusion and convection driven mass transport of drugs to the vaginal environment. It considers sources of variability in the predictions of the models. It illustrates use of model predictions of microbicide drug concentration distribution (pharmacokinetics) to gain insights about drug effectiveness in preventing HIV infection (pharmacodynamics). The modeling compares vaginal drug distributions after different gel dosage regimens, and it evaluates consequences of changes in gel viscosity due to aging. It compares vaginal mucosal concentration distributions of drugs delivered by gels vs. intravaginal rings. Finally, the modeling approach is used to compare vaginal drug distributions across species with differing vaginal dimensions. Deterministic models of drug mass transport into and throughout the vaginal environment can provide critical insights about the mechanisms and determinants of such transport. This knowledge, and the methodology that obtains it, can be applied and translated to multiple applications, involving the scientific underpinnings of vaginal drug distribution and the performance evaluation and design of products, and their dosage regimens, that achieve it. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Reduction of uterine prolapse in a sow by laparotomy.

    PubMed

    Raleigh, P J

    1977-01-29

    In the past, total uterine prolapse in the sow has been regarded as a grave condition because manipulative reposition through the vulva and vagina is extremely difficult, if not impossible, and amputation is merely a salvage procedure with a mortality rate approaching 100 percent. Laparotomy as a means of facilitating reduction of the prolapse in the sow appears to have been overlooked although it is a standard procedure in dogs and cats. This report describes a case of uterine prolapse in a sow successfully treated by laparotomy.

  16. Vaginal Cancer—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Two-thirds of vaginal cancer cases are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). Vaccines that protect against infection with HPV may reduce the risk of vaginal cancer. When found early, vaginal cancer can often be cured. Start here to find information on vaginal cancer treatment and research.

  17. Validation of the traditional Chinese version of the prolapse quality of life questionnaire (P-QOL) in a Mandarin-speaking Taiwanese population.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Fei-Chi; Chu, Li-Ching; Kung, Fu-Tsai; Huang, Kuan-Hui

    2016-10-01

    To validate the traditional Chinese translated version of the prolapse quality of life questionnaire (P-QOL). The P-QOL questionnaire was translated into traditional Chinese characters and administered to women recruited from gynecologic outpatient clinics of Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. After the test-retest reliability and internal consistency were established in a pilot study, all participants completed the P-QOL questionnaire and were examined in the lithotomy position using the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification System (POP-Q). The construct validity was assessed by comparing symptom scores and quality-of-life domain scores between symptomatic and asymptomatic women. Of the 244 women recruited, 159 were symptomatic for pelvic organ prolapse, and 85 were asymptomatic. The test-retest reliability confirmed a significant positive monotonic correlation between the total scores of each domain (n = 30, Spearman's rho was from 0.411 to 0.888, p < 0.05 of all). All items achieved a Cronbach α > 0.80 showing good internal consistency. Among the 18 symptom questions, the scores differed significantly between symptomatic and asymptomatic women for 12/18 symptom questions. These 12 questions referred to the prolapse/vaginal symptoms. All the quality of life domains differed significantly (p < 0.05) between symptomatic and asymptomatic women except for the domain of sleep/energy (p = 0.108). The traditional Chinese language version of the P-QOL is a reliable instrument for the assessment of symptom severity and impact on quality of life in women with pelvic organ prolapse. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Pelvic floor symptoms and severity of pelvic organ prolapse in women seeking care for pelvic floor problems.

    PubMed

    Espuña-Pons, Montserrat; Fillol, Manuel; Pascual, María A; Rebollo, Pablo; Mora, Ana M

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate whether POP severity is related to lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and symptoms of sexual difficulties, when evaluated with validated questionnaires. Multicentric cross-sectional study of 521 women seeking care for PFD in 35 specialized urogynecological clinics. Patients answered the EPIQ to detect symptoms of PFD. The severity of urinary incontinence and the OAB symptoms were measured by ICIQ-UI SF and BSAQ. POP anatomic severity was measured by the anatomic stage of each compartment, determined in pelvic examination in accordance with the IUGA-ICS terminology. A maximum POP stage (M-POP-S) was assigned to each patient: Group A, patients with no POP (stage 0-I); group B, M-POP-S stage II; and group C, M-POP-S stage III-IV. Pelvic examination demonstrated anatomic POP in 224 patients (stage from II to IV). 288 women (56.25%) were classified in group A (no prolapse); 102 (19.92%) group B (stage II); and 122 (28.83%) group C (stage III-IV). Several associations were found between studied variables and M-POP-S (age<55 years, menopause, number of vaginal deliveries, symptom of vaginal bulge, feeling of a bulge makes it difficult to have sexual relations, symptoms of stress urinary incontinence, nocturia and voiding difficulties), but the only variables independently associated were age, symptom of vaginal bulge and difficulty in having sexual relations due to feeling of a bulge. In patients seeking care for PFD, LUTS are not independently associated to the prolapse stage. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. [Morphogenesis of vaginal aplasia. Therapeutic deductions].

    PubMed

    Minh, H N; Smadja, A; Belaisch, J

    1985-01-01

    On the basis of the studies of the embryogenesis of the vagina, the authors consider that malformations classically described as being partial aplasia should not be separated from the total absence of the vagina. The important feature is the association of a functioning or non functioning uterus with the absence of the vagina. They believe that it is incorrect to describe the pouch of menstrual retention associated with a functioning uterus as "haematocolpos" and that is not justified to describe the cup-shaped vestibular depression as "hemi-vagina". According to the authors, although vaginal aplasia with a functioning uterus forming a pouch of menstrual retention constitutes an absolute indication for surgery, surgery is not justified in cases of vaginal aplasia with a non functioning uterus. If Frank's method fails in these cases, the patient or the couple should be referred to a sexologist, as women with this anomaly retain a perfect femininity, although unable to conceive.

  20. Vaginal delivery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... slowly. Get plenty of rest. You can start sexual activity around 6 weeks after delivery, if the discharge or lochia has stopped. Women who breastfeed may have a lower sex drive than normal, along with vaginal dryness and pain ...

  1. Stages of Vaginal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... stage of the cancer being treated. External and internal radiation therapy are used to treat vaginal cancer, and may also be used as palliative therapy to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life . Chemotherapy Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment ...

  2. Vaginitis - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    Vulvovaginitis - self-care; Yeast infections - vaginitis ... Creams or suppositories are used to treat yeast infections in the vagina. You can buy most of them without a prescription at drug stores, some grocery stores, and other stores. Treating yourself ...

  3. Vaginal Yeast Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... for sure if yogurt with Lactobacillus or other probiotics can prevent or treat vaginal yeast infections. If ... Chen, H., et al. (2013). Impact of eating probiotic yogurt on colonization by Candida species of the ...

  4. Review of Vaginitis

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Adisruption of the dynamic equilibrium of the healthy vagina may have significant sequelae, leading to chronic or serious conditions. Therefore, all cases of vaginitis should be accurately diagnosed and appropriately treated. PMID:18475337

  5. Vaginal Yeast Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... may feel more comfortable if you wear breathable cotton underwear and clothes and avoid vaginal sprays and ... help avoid them, follow your doctor's advice, wear cotton underwear, and try to wear loose-fitting clothes. ...

  6. Vaginal dryness alternative treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... JE, Murray MT, eds. Textbook of Natural Medicine . 4th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2013: ... Vaginal dryness. In: Rakel D, ed. Integrative Medicine . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 59.

  7. Evaluation of vaginal complaints.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Matthew R; Klink, Kathleen; Cohrssen, Andreas

    2004-03-17

    Vaginal symptoms are one of the most common reasons for gynecological consultation. Clinicians have traditionally diagnosed vaginal candidiasis, bacterial vaginosis, and vaginal trichomoniasis using some combination of physical examination, pH, the wet mount, and the whiff test. To evaluate the role of the clinical examination and determine the positive and negative likelihood ratios (LRs) for the diagnosis of vaginal candidiasis, bacterial vaginosis, and vaginal trichomoniasis. Using a structured literature review, we abstracted information on sensitivity and specificity for symptoms, signs, and office laboratory procedures. We chose published (1966 to April 2003) articles that appeared in the MEDLINE database and were indexed under the combined search terms of diagnosis with vaginitis, vaginal discharge, candidiasis, bacterial vaginosis, and trichomoniasis. Included studies of symptomatic premenopausal women seen in primary care settings. Tests were evaluated only if they would provide diagnostic information during the office visit and were compared with an acceptable criterion standard. All 3 authors extracted the data and computed sensitivity and specificity from each article independently. The absence of standard definitions for symptoms and signs made it impossible to combine results across studies. Symptoms alone do not allow clinicians to distinguish confidently between the causes of vaginitis. However, a patient's lack of itching makes candidiasis less likely (range of LRs, 0.18 [95% confidence interval [CI], 0.05-0.70] to 0.79 [95% CI, 0.72-0.87]) and lack of perceived odor makes bacterial vaginosis unlikely (LR, 0.07 [95% CI, 0.01-0.51]). Similarly, physical examination signs are limited in their diagnostic power. The presence of inflammatory signs is associated with candidiasis (range of LRs, 2.1 [95% CI, 1.5-2.8] to 8.4 [95% CI, 2.3-31]). Presence of a "high cheese" odor on examination is predictive of bacterial vaginosis (LR, 3.2 [95% CI, 2

  8. Patient characteristics associated with treatment choice for pelvic organ prolapse and urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Stephanie A; Davidson, Emily R W; Bretschneider, C Emi; Liberty, Abigail L; Geller, Elizabeth J

    2016-05-01

    Women with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and stress urinary incontinence (SUI) frequently undergo more than one treatment prior to settling on their final strategy. We hypothesize that women who are younger, with worse POP and SUI symptoms will desire and choose surgical treatment. A retrospective cohort study was performed over 1 year identifying new patients presenting with POP and/or SUI at a university hospital. Our aim was to determine patient desire for either surgical or conservative treatment, as well as the actual treatment chosen and received after the first visit and 1 year later. To identify predictors of choice, baseline demographic characteristics were obtained. Of the 203 women who met the inclusion criteria, 44.3 % (90/203) desired surgery and 55.7 % (113/203) desired conservative treatment at their first visit. Women who desired surgery were more likely to be younger (p = 0.003), sexually active (p = 0.001), have more advanced prolapse (p = 0.006), and have more bothersome symptoms (p = 0.05). Of the women who desired surgery at their first visit, 12.2 % (11/90) actually chose conservative treatment. These women were less likely to be insured (p = 0.01). By 1 year, of the women who initially desired and subsequently chose conservative treatment, 26.5 % (30/113) had undergone surgery. The women who changed from conservative to surgical treatment were more likely to be younger (p = 0.01), non-White (p = 0.03), and sexually active (p = 0.04). In this study, younger, sexually active women were more likely to either opt for surgery initially or to change their treatment plan from conservative to surgical.

  9. Giant primary vaginal calculus secondary to vesicovaginal fistula with partial vaginal outlet obstruction in a 12-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shushang; Ge, Rong; Zhu, Lingfeng; Yang, Shunliang; Wu, Weizhen; Yang, Yin; Tan, Jianming

    2011-10-01

    A vesicovaginal fistula with vagina obstruction associated with vaginal calculi is an extremely rare medical condition. We report a giant primary vaginal calculus resulting from vesicovaginal fistula with partial vaginal outlet obstruction secondary to perineum trauma and surgery in a 12-year-old girl. Episiotomy was performed and the adhesive labia minora was split. After the removal of a giant calculus in the vagina, approximately 8 cm in diameter, the fistula tract was completely excised, followed by the repair of the vesicovagina fistula and the vagina. The patient was symptom-free at 6-month follow-up examination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Robot-Assisted Ventral Mesh Rectopexy for Rectal Prolapse: A 5-Year Experience at a Tertiary Referral Center.

    PubMed

    van Iersel, Jan J; Formijne Jonkers, Hendrik A; Paulides, Tim J C; Verheijen, Paul M; Draaisma, Werner A; Consten, Esther C J; Broeders, Ivo A M J

    2017-11-01

    Laparoscopic ventral mesh rectopexy is being increasingly performed internationally to treat rectal prolapse syndromes. Robotic assistance appears advantageous for this procedure, but literature regarding robot-assisted ventral mesh rectopexy is limited. The primary objective of this study was to assess the safety and effectiveness of robot-assisted ventral mesh rectopexy in the largest consecutive series of patients to date. This study is a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of prospectively collected data. The study was conducted in a tertiary referral center. All of the patients undergoing robot-assisted ventral mesh rectopexy for rectal prolapse syndromes between 2010 and 2015 were evaluated. Preoperative and postoperative (mesh and nonmesh) morbidity and functional outcome were analyzed. The actuarial recurrence rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. A total of 258 patients underwent robot-assisted ventral mesh rectopexy (mean ± SD follow-up = 23.5 ± 21.8 mo; range, 0.2 - 65.1 mo). There were no conversions and only 5 intraoperative complications (1.9%). Mortality (0.4%) and major (1.9%) and minor (<30 d) early morbidity (7.0%) were acceptably low. Only 1 (1.3%) mesh-related complication (asymptomatic vaginal mesh erosion) was observed. A significant improvement in obstructed defecation (78.6%) and fecal incontinence (63.7%) were achieved for patients (both p < 0.0005). At final follow-up, a new onset of fecal incontinence and obstructed defecation was induced or worsened in 3.9% and 0.4%. The actuarial 5-year external rectal prolapse and internal rectal prolapse recurrence rates were 12.9% and 10.4%. This was a retrospective study including patients with minimal follow-up. No validated scores were used to assess function. The study was monocentric, and there was no control group. Robot-assisted ventral mesh rectopexy is a safe and effective technique to treat rectal prolapse syndromes, providing an acceptable recurrence rate and good

  11. Conceptual framework for patient-important treatment outcomes for pelvic organ prolapse.

    PubMed

    Sung, Vivian W; Rogers, Rebecca G; Barber, Matthew D; Clark, Melissa A

    2014-04-01

    To develop a comprehensive conceptual framework representing the most important outcomes for women seeking treatment for pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Twenty-five women with POP were recruited and participated in four semi-structured focus groups to refine and assess the content validity of a conceptual framework representing patient-important outcomes for POP. Specifically, the focus groups addressed the following three aims: (1) to evaluate the content and appropriateness of domains in our framework; (2) to identify gaps in the framework; and (3) to determine the relative importance of our framework domains from the patient perspective. Sessions were transcribed, coded, and qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed using analytic induction and deductive analysis to identify themes and domains relevant to women with POP. Our focus groups confirmed the importance of vaginal bulge symptoms (discomfort, bother, and adaptation), and the overarching domains and subdomains of physical (physical function and participation), social (social function, relationships, and sexual function), and mental health (emotional distress, preoccupation, and body image). Patients ranked outcomes in the following order of importance: (1) the resolution of vaginal bulge symptoms, (2) improvement in physical function; (3) improvement in sexual function; (4) improvement in body image perception; and (5) improvement in social function. We developed a conceptual framework for patient important outcomes of women seeking treatment for POP. This framework can improve the transparency and interpretation of POP study findings from the patient perspective. Vaginal bulge and its associated discomfort are most important for the definition of POP treatment success from the patient perspective. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Postpartum pelvic floor muscle training and pelvic organ prolapse--a randomized trial of primiparous women.

    PubMed

    Bø, Kari; Hilde, Gunvor; Stær-Jensen, Jette; Siafarikas, Franziska; Tennfjord, Merete Kolberg; Engh, Marie Ellstrøm

    2015-01-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a common and distressing condition. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) on prevention and treatment of symptoms and signs of POP in primiparous postpartum women. This was a parallel group assessor blind randomized controlled trial. One hundred seventy-five primiparous postpartum women, mean age 29.8 years (standard deviation 4.1), stratified on major levator ani defects or no defect diagnosed by 3-/4-dimensional ultrasound, participated in a 4-month PFMT starting at 6-8 weeks' postpartum or control. All participants had thorough individual instruction and assessment of ability to perform correct pelvic floor muscle contractions. The PFMT group followed a supervised, weekly group training program and performed 3 sets of 8-12 daily maximal contractions at home. Main outcome was POP stage II or greater assessed by POP quantification and bladder neck position assessed by 3-/4- dimensional transperineal ultrasonography. Secondary outcome was symptoms of vaginal bulge using International Consultation on Incontinence Vaginal Symptoms questionnaire. Ninety-six percent of the intervention group adhered to ≥80% of both group and home training sessions. At postintervention, there was no significant risk difference in POP (rational ratio, 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 0.55-4.75), bladder neck position or symptoms of vaginal bulging. No effect was found of postpartum PFMT on POP in primiparous women. More randomized controlled trials are needed before strong conclusions can be drawn on the effect of PFMT on POP in the particular population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Pelvic Organ Support in Animals with Partial Loss of Fibulin-5 in the Vaginal Wall

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Haolin; Balgobin, Sunil; Montoya, T. Ignacio; Yanagisawa, Hiromi; Word, R. Ann

    2016-01-01

    Compromise of elastic fiber integrity in connective tissues of the pelvic floor is most likely acquired through aging, childbirth-associated injury, and genetic susceptibility. Mouse models of pelvic organ prolapse demonstrate systemic deficiencies in proteins that affect elastogenesis. Prolapse, however, does not occur until several months after birth and is thereby acquired with age or after parturition. To determine the impact of compromised levels of fibulin-5 (Fbln5) during adulthood on pelvic organ support after parturition and elastase-induced injury, tissue-specific conditional knockout (cKO) mice were generated in which doxycycline (dox) treatment results in deletion of Fbln5 in cells that utilize the smooth muscle α actin promoter-driven reverse tetracycline transactivator and tetracycline responsive element-Cre recombinase (i.e., Fbln5f/f/SMA++-rtTA/Cre+, cKO). Fbln5 was decreased significantly in the vagina of cKO mice compared with dox-treated wild type or controls (Fbln5f/f/SMA++-rtTA/Cre-/-). In controls, perineal body length (PBL) and bulge increased significantly after delivery but declined to baseline values within 6–8 weeks. Although overt prolapse did not occur in cKO animals, these transient increases in PBL postpartum were amplified and, unlike controls, parturition-induced increases in PBL (and bulge) did not recover to baseline but remained significantly increased for 12 wks. This lack of recovery from parturition was associated with increased MMP-9 and nondetectable levels of Fbln5 in the postpartum vagina. This predisposition to prolapse was accentuated by injection of elastase into the vaginal wall in which overt prolapse occurred in cKO animals, but rarely in controls. Taken together, our model system in which Fbln5 is conditionally knock-downed in stromal cells of the pelvic floor results in animals that undergo normal elastogenesis during development but lose Fbln5 as adults. The results indicate that vaginal fibulin-5 during

  14. Pelvic Organ Support in Animals with Partial Loss of Fibulin-5 in the Vaginal Wall.

    PubMed

    Chin, Kathleen; Wieslander, Cecilia; Shi, Haolin; Balgobin, Sunil; Montoya, T Ignacio; Yanagisawa, Hiromi; Word, R Ann

    2016-01-01

    Compromise of elastic fiber integrity in connective tissues of the pelvic floor is most likely acquired through aging, childbirth-associated injury, and genetic susceptibility. Mouse models of pelvic organ prolapse demonstrate systemic deficiencies in proteins that affect elastogenesis. Prolapse, however, does not occur until several months after birth and is thereby acquired with age or after parturition. To determine the impact of compromised levels of fibulin-5 (Fbln5) during adulthood on pelvic organ support after parturition and elastase-induced injury, tissue-specific conditional knockout (cKO) mice were generated in which doxycycline (dox) treatment results in deletion of Fbln5 in cells that utilize the smooth muscle α actin promoter-driven reverse tetracycline transactivator and tetracycline responsive element-Cre recombinase (i.e., Fbln5f/f/SMA++-rtTA/Cre+, cKO). Fbln5 was decreased significantly in the vagina of cKO mice compared with dox-treated wild type or controls (Fbln5f/f/SMA++-rtTA/Cre-/-). In controls, perineal body length (PBL) and bulge increased significantly after delivery but declined to baseline values within 6-8 weeks. Although overt prolapse did not occur in cKO animals, these transient increases in PBL postpartum were amplified and, unlike controls, parturition-induced increases in PBL (and bulge) did not recover to baseline but remained significantly increased for 12 wks. This lack of recovery from parturition was associated with increased MMP-9 and nondetectable levels of Fbln5 in the postpartum vagina. This predisposition to prolapse was accentuated by injection of elastase into the vaginal wall in which overt prolapse occurred in cKO animals, but rarely in controls. Taken together, our model system in which Fbln5 is conditionally knock-downed in stromal cells of the pelvic floor results in animals that undergo normal elastogenesis during development but lose Fbln5 as adults. The results indicate that vaginal fibulin-5 during

  15. Validation of the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Vaginal Symptoms (ICIQ-VS) in two south- Asian languages.

    PubMed

    Ekanayake, Chanil D; Pathmeswaran, Arunasalam; Herath, Rasika P; Perera, H Suharshi S; Patabendige, Malitha; Wijesinghe, Prasantha S

    2017-12-01

    The multifaceted nature of pelvic floor disorders means that a systematic evaluation is required for optimal treatment outcome. It is also generally acknowledged that a valid tool is necessary to objectively assess symptoms reported by affected women. The International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Vaginal Symptoms (ICIQ-VS) questionnaire was translated to Sinhala and Tamil and a validation study carried out among women attending gynecology clinics at North Colombo Teaching Hospital, Ragama, and the district general hospitals Mannar and Vavuniya. Content validity was assessed by the level of missing answers, which was < 4% and 2% for each item in Sinhala and Tamil, respectively. Construct validity was assessed by the ability of the questionnaire to differentiate between patients and controls. Both differentiated patients from controls on vaginal symptoms score (VSS) (p < 0.001), sexual symptoms score (SSS) (p < 0.01), and quality of life (QoL) (p < 0.001). There was a strong positive correlation between Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) scores and VSS (Sinhala r s  = 0.64, p < 0.001, Tamil r s  = 0.65, p < 0.001), and QoL (Sinhala r s  = 0.49, p < 0.001, Tamil r s  = 0.60, p < 0.001). Internal consistency as assessed using Cronbach's coefficient alpha: 0.78 (0.76-0.78) and 0.83 (0.80-0.84) in Sinhala and Tamil, respectively. Test-retest reliability was assessed by weighted kappa scores (Sinhala 0.58-0.88 and Tamil 0.76-0.90). Both questionnaires were sensitive to change and showed that VSS and QoL improved following surgery (Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test p < 0.001). The validated Sinhala and Tamil translations of ICIQ-VS will be useful for assessing vaginal and sexual symptoms among women speaking Sinhala and Tamil.

  16. 'Cupid and Psyche': a novel technique for robotic hysterosacropexy in the treatment of pelvic organ prolapse.

    PubMed

    Dal Moro, Fabrizio; Calpista, Arturo; Mancini, Mariangela

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of any surgical repair of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is to restore pelvic anatomy, preserving urinary, intestinal and sexual functions while avoiding complications. We present a novel robotic approach to hysterosacropexy (HSP) in the treatment of POP. In our technique (named 'Cupid and Psyche', recalling as it does the famous sculpture by Canova), the two branches of the MESH encircle the uterus from behind, lifting and supporting it.The aim of this technique is to resolve POP, minimizing the risk of vaginal erosion: the posterior 'embrace' of the uterus limits the direct contact of the mesh with the vagina, thus reducing any risk of erosion/extrusion at this level. We performed 10 cases of robotic HSP. All procedures are completed robotically. Median operative time (skin-to-skin) is 125 min [interquartile range (IQR) 85-145], including port placement, robot docking and console time. We have never had any cases of intraoperative or postoperative complications.With regard to short-term follow-up, analysis of outcomes is limited; in any case, we have never had any cases of MESH erosion or other complications, and no sexually active woman complained of dyspareunia. Maintaining sufficient motility of the vagina is another advantage of 'Cupid and Psyche', avoiding as it does any negative effects on patients' later sexual activity, granting more natural motility of both uterus and vagina but resolving the prolapse.Further prospective studies comparing the long-term functional outcomes of the various HSP techniques are needed to confirm these findings.

  17. Physical activity and pelvic floor muscle training in patients with pelvic organ prolapse: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ouchi, Mifuka; Kato, Kumiko; Gotoh, Momokazu; Suzuki, Shigeyuki

    2017-12-01

    The details of the physical activity in patients with mild to moderate pelvic organ prolapse (Pmoderate pelvic organ prolapse (POP) remain under-studied. The purpose of the present study was to investigate objective physical activity levels and the changes in pelvic floor muscle(PFM) strength, symptoms and quality of life (QOL) between before and after PFM training (PFMT) in patients with POP. In a prospective pilot study, 29 patients with stage II or III POP completed approximately 16 weeks of PFMT. A reliable activity monitor was used to measure physical activity parameters including step counts, activity and total calories expended, and duration at each intensity level. Maximum vaginal squeeze pressure, POP symptoms and QOL were assessed. Changes in these outcome measures were compared before and after PFMT. The step counts per day (mean ± SD) of women with POP was 7,272.9 ± 3,091.7 before PFMT and 7,553.4 ± 2,831.0 after PFMT. There was no significant change between before and PFMT. PFM strength was significantly increased after PFMT. POP-related symptoms including stress urinary incontinence, frequency, postmicturition dribble and interference with emptying the bowels were significantly improved. The QOL scores for general health, physical limitations, emotion, and severity measures were significantly improved after PFMT. Although PFMT changed PFM strength symptoms, and QOL, there were no changes for any physical activity parameters before and after PFMT. This is probably because the physical activity levels in patients with mild to moderate POP were almost same as in age-matched healthy women.

  18. Laparoscopic ventral rectopexy is effective for solitary rectal ulcer syndrome when associated with rectal prolapse.

    PubMed

    Evans, C; Ong, E; Jones, O M; Cunningham, C; Lindsey, I

    2014-03-01

    Solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS) is uncommon and its management is controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of patients with SRUS who underwent laparoscopic ventral rectopexy (LVR). A review was performed of a prospective database at the Oxford Pelvic Floor Centre to identify patients between 2004 and 2012 with a histological diagnosis of SRUS. All were initially treated conservatively and surgical treatment was indicated only for patients with significant symptoms after failed conservative management. The primary end-point was healing of the ulcer. Secondary end-points included changes in the Wexner Constipation Score and Faecal Incontinence Severity Index (FISI). Thirty-six patients with SRUS were identified (31 women), with a median age of 44 (15–81) years. The commonest symptoms were rectal bleeding (75%) and obstructed defaecation (64%). The underlying anatomical diagnosis was internal rectal prolapse (n = 20), external rectal prolapse (n = 14) or anismus (n = 2). Twenty-nine patients underwent LVR and one a stapled transanal rectal resection (STARR) procedure. Nine (30%) required a further operation, six required posterior STARR for persistent SRUS and two a per-anal stricturoplasty for a narrowing at the healed SRUS site. Healing of the SRU was seen in 27 (90%) of the 30 patients and was associated with significant improvements in Wexner and FISI scores at a 3-year follow-up. Almost all cases of SRUS in the present series were associated with rectal prolapse. LVR resulted in successful healing of the SRUS with good function in almost all patients, but a significant number will require further surgery such as STARR for persistent obstructed defaecation.

  19. Uterine preservation in pelvic organ prolapse using robot assisted laparoscopic sacrohysteropexy: quality of life and technique.

    PubMed

    Mourik, Sarah L; Martens, Jolise E; Aktas, Mustafa

    2012-11-01

    Measuring quality of life of women with disorders of the pelvic floor is crucial when evaluating a therapy. The aim of this study is to profile health related quality of life of women with pelvic organ prolapse who are treated with robot assisted laparoscopic sacrohysteropexy (RALS). We also compare the operative characteristics and learning curve in this study with the current literature and describe the surgical technique. A prospective cohort study in a teaching hospital in The Netherlands. Fifty women with uterovaginal prolapse were treated with RALS. This study presents the largest cohort in Europe treated by RALS to date. Quality of life was assessed pre- and post-operatively using the UDI/IIQ validated self-questionnaire designed for Dutch-speaking patients. Clinical and operative data were prospectively collected up to 29 months. RALS was performed with preservation of the uterus. Statistical analysis of categorical data was performed with the paired T-test. Descriptive statistics were computed with the use of standard methods for means, median and proportions. Before operation, overall wellbeing was scored at 67.7% and after surgery this improved to 82.1% (p=0.03). Feelings of nervousness, frustration and embarrassment reduced significantly. Sexual functioning improved, but not significantly. The mean operative time was 223 (103-340) min. Operative time decreased significantly with gained experience and became comparable to the operative time for abdominal sacrocolpopexy and classic laparoscopy. Average blood loss was less than 50 ml and patients had a mean hospital stay of 2 days. Of all women, 95.2% were very satisfied with the result after RALS. Health related quality of life improves significantly after RALS. There are high rates of patient satisfaction. RALS proves to be a safe and effective treatment of pelvic organ prolapse. Operative time is comparable to abdominal sacrocolpopexy and classic laparoscopy in the current literature. Copyright © 2012

  20. Vaginal Cancer—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Vaginal cancer is often squamous cell carcinoma. Other types of vaginal cancer are adenocarcinoma, melanoma, and sarcoma. Infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) causes most vaginal cancer. Find evidence-based information on vaginal cancer treatment and research.

  1. Tissue response to collagen containing polypropylene meshes in an ovine vaginal repair model.

    PubMed

    Darzi, Saeedeh; Urbankova, Iva; Su, Kai; White, Jacinta; Lo, Camden; Alexander, David; Werkmeister, Jerome A; Gargett, Caroline E; Deprest, Jan

    2016-07-15

    percent area at the mesh interface was greatest around the PP-ACM mesh at 60days (P<0.05). By 180days the total mature and immature collagen fibres at the interface of the mesh filaments resembled that of native tissue. In particular, these results suggest that both meshes containing collagen evoke different types of tissue responses at different times during the healing response yet both ultimately lead to physiological tissue formation approaching that of normal tissue. Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is the descent of the pelvic organs to the vagina. POP affects more than 25% of all women and the lifetime risk of undergoing POP surgery is 19%. Although synthetic polypropylene (PP) meshes have improved the outcome of the surgical treatment for POP, there was an unacceptable rate of adverse events including mesh exposure and contracture. It is hypothesized that coating the PP meshes with collagen would provide a protective effect by preventing severe mesh adhesions to the wound, resulting in a better controlled initial inflammatory response, and diminished risk of exposure. In this study we assessed the effect of two collagen-containing PP meshes on the long-term vaginal tissue response using new techniques to quantify these tissue responses. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Aerobic vaginitis in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Donders, Ggg; Bellen, G; Rezeberga, D

    2011-09-01

    Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is an alteration in vaginal bacterial flora that differs from bacterial vaginosis (BV). AV is characterised by an abnormal vaginal microflora accompanied by an increased localised inflammatory reaction and immune response, as opposed to the suppressed immune response that is characteristic of BV. Given the increased local production of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6 and IL-8 associated with AV during pregnancy, not surprisingly AV is associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery, chorioamnionitis and funisitis of the fetus. There is no consensus on the optimal treatment for AV in pregnant or non-pregnant women, but a broader spectrum drug such as clindamycin is preferred above metronidazole to prevent infection-related preterm birth. The exact role of AV in pregnancy, the potential benefit of screening, and the use of newer local antibiotics, disinfectants, probiotics and immune modulators need further study. © 2011 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2011 RCOG.

  3. General Information about Vaginal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Vaginal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Vaginal Cancer Go to Health Professional Version ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  4. Vaginal itching and discharge - child

    MedlinePlus

    ... vulvae; Itching - vaginal area; Vulvar itching; Yeast infection - child ... To prevent and treat vaginal irritation, your child should: Avoid colored or perfumed toilet tissue and bubble bath. Use plain, unscented soap. Limit bath time to 15 minutes or less. Ask ...

  5. Vaginal bleeding in late pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000627.htm Vaginal bleeding in late pregnancy To use the sharing ... JavaScript. One out of 10 women will have vaginal bleeding during their 3rd trimester. At times, it ...

  6. Assessment of female sexual function among women with pelvic organ prolapse or urinary incontinence via an Arabic validated short-form sexual questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Shaaban, Mohamed M; Abdelwahab, Hassan A; Ahmed, Magdy R; Shalaby, Essam

    2014-01-01

    To assess female sexual function among women with pelvic organ prolapse or urinary incontinence via an Arabic, validated, short-form sexual questionnaire (PISQ-12). The present study was conducted among women attending Suez Canal University Hospital, Ismailia, Egypt, between September 2009 and August 2011. In the pilot study, 42 women completed the final version of the Arabic PISQ-12 at recruitment and then 2 weeks later, and the data were compared to evaluate reliability and internal consistency. The formal comparative study included 154 premenopausal sexually active women: 80 control women, and 74 women with some degree of pelvic prolapse with or without stress incontinence. All participants had a vaginal examination and completed the questionnaire. The main outcome measures were the mean questionnaire scores within its 3 domains (behavioral, physical, and partner-related). The test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the Arabic PISQ-12 were excellent. Validity was approved by an expert panel. The case group had a significantly lower mean total questionnaire score (31.07 ± 4.2 vs 34.7 ± 6.2; P<0.05) but a higher partner-related score (9.0 ± 2.4 vs 8.4 ± 2.5; P<0.05). The Arabic version of PISQ-12 was shown to be an effective and objective method of evaluating sexual function among patients with pelvic organ prolapse. © 2013.

  7. Transverse Vaginal Septum With Secondary Infertility: A Rare Case.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Hafeez; Trehan, Nikita; Singh, Shuchita; Goyal, Meenakshi

    2016-01-01

    To demonstrate the technique of laparoscopic vaginal reconstruction in a rare case of mid-vaginal septum with secondary infertility. A step-by-step explanation of the technique using videos and pictures (Canadian Task Force classification IV). Transverse vaginal septum is a rare condition, with an incidence of only 1 in 30,000 women. It is usually a congenital mullerian fusion defect; few cases of acquired septum have been reported. Roughly 40% of cases occur in the mid-vagina. Transverse vaginal septum typically presents with primary amenorrhea and hematocolpos. The goal of surgery is to create a patent vagina with restoration of fertility. The laparoscopic approach has proven superiority over the open technique. Laproscopic vaginal reconstruction was performed in a 24 year female with transverse vaginal septum. Dissection was done laproscopically up to mid vagina. Incision was given on vagina excising the septum followed by reconstruction. The laparoscopic approach to vaginal reconstruction avoids the abdominal incision, with its associated pain and possible adhesion formation. It also provides a better view for dissection. In this patient, a patent vagina was created in a single operation, with no postoperative dyspareunia, and fertility was restored. Copyright © 2016 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Massive prolapsed haemorrhoids managed by ablation and correction in a poor resourced area

    PubMed Central

    Weledji, Elroy Patrick; Enow Orock, George; Aminde, Leopold

    2013-01-01

    More recently some patients with rectal mucosal prolapse and obstructive defaecation have been treated with the procedure for prolapse and haemorrhoids. We report a case of symptomatic chronic circumferentially prolapsed haemorrhoids that had several failed attempts at surgical repair. This was finally managed by ablation and correction of the associated rectal mucosal prolapse by a modified ‘Delorme's procedure akin to a stapled anopexy. PMID:24968428

  9. Rectal prolapse in a free-ranging mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei): clinical presentation and surgical management.

    PubMed

    Kalema-Zikusoka, G; Lowenstine, L

    2001-12-01

    A juvenile female mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei) of the Mubare tourist group in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda, developed a severe, complete rectal prolapse that did not spontaneously resolve. Eight months prior, a juvenile female mountain gorilla of the Mubare group developed a mild, complete rectal prolapse that resolved spontaneously within 24 hr. Field guides reported that spontaneously resolving prolapses had been seen previously in two other juveniles, one of which was from the Mubare group. The tissue became increasingly necrotic and maggot infested over the course of 1 wk. Surgical intervention involved amputation of the affected rectal tissues and suturing the viable portion to the anal sphincter muscle with simple interrupted absorbable sutures. The surgery was performed in the field in accordance with Uganda Wildlife Authority policies. Antibiotics and anthelmintics were administered systemically, and the gorilla returned to the group. The gorilla appeared to recover fully after 3 wk. Histology of the resected rectal tissue confirmed intense inflammation and necrosis with myiasis but did not reveal an underlying etiology.

  10. Sigmoid-vaginal fistula during bevacizumab treatment diagnosed by fistulography.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, C; Takada, S; Kasuga, A; Shinya, K; Watanabe, M; Kano, H; Takayama, T

    2016-12-01

    There have been several reports describing rectovaginal fistula development after bevacizumab treatment, and these fistulas were diagnosed by CT scan or colonoscopy. We report a case of sigmoid-vaginal fistula diagnosed by fistulography. The case is a 53-year-old woman who was treated for chronic myelogenous leukaemia and gynaecological cancers 8 years previously. At 52 years of age, she was diagnosed with colon cancer and had a partial colectomy performed. One year after surgery, colon cancer recurred, and she was treated with anticancer agents, including bevacizumab. During chemotherapy, she complained of a foul smelling discharge from the vagina. Fistulography revealed a sigmoid-vaginal fistula. This is the first report of vaginal fistulography performed on a patient who was treated with bevacizumab. Fistulography may be useful for detecting sigmoid-vaginal fistula. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Effects of hydration on mitral valve prolapse.

    PubMed

    Lax, D; Eicher, M; Goldberg, S J

    1993-08-01

    We investigated the effect of hydration on mitral valve prolapse (MVP). Ten subjects with documented diagnosis of MVP were studied before and after oral hydration with 1 L of fluid. Increased weight and cardiac output were present after hydration. Results showed that all 10 subjects with diagnosis of MVP before hydration continued to have MVP after hydration; however, subtle changes were detected, especially on auscultation. Seven of 9 subjects (with cardiac examination recorded before and after hydration) had auscultatory findings of MVP before hydration. No detectable auscultatory change after hydration was present in one subject; in six subjects a loss of either a click or a murmur was detected after hydration. All subjects had echocardiographically detected MVP before hydration; evidence of MVP on two-dimensional or M-mode examination persisted after hydration in all 10 subjects. Minor changes in the echocardiographic examination (M-mode n = 2, Doppler n = 1) were detected in three subjects. Thus we found that hydration of subjects with MVP did not alter the overall diagnosis; however, changes occurred, especially on auscultation. This suggests that alterations in hydration may affect auscultatory expression of MVP and could explain, in part, the variable auscultatory findings in patients with MVP.

  12. Prospective, randomized trial comparing diathermy excision and diathermy coagulation for symptomatic, prolapsed hemorrhoids.

    PubMed

    Quah, H M; Seow-Choen, F

    2004-03-01

    This study was designed to compare diathermy excision and diathermy coagulation in the treatment of symptomatic prolapsed piles. Forty-five consecutive patients were randomly assigned to diathermy excision hemorrhoidectomy (Group A, n = 25) and diathermy coagulation (Group B, n = 20) under general anesthesia. The median duration of surgery was ten minutes for both groups. There was no statistical difference in the severity of postoperative pain at rest between the two groups, but Group A patients felt less pain during defecation on the third postoperative day (median, 5 (interquartile range, 3-7) vs. 8 (4-9); P = 0.04) and on the sixth postoperative day (median, 5 (interquartile range, 2-6) vs. 9 (5-10); P = 0.02). There was, however, no statistical difference in postoperative oral analgesics use and patients' satisfaction scores between the two groups. Complication rates were similar except that diathermy coagulation tended to leave some residual skin components of external hemorrhoid especially in very large prolapsed piles. Group A patients resumed work earlier (mean, 12 (range, 4-20) vs. 17 (11-21) days); however, this was not statistically significant ( P = 0.1). Diathermy coagulation of hemorrhoids is a simple technique and may be considered in suitable cases.

  13. Vaginal Toxic Shock Reaction Triggering Desquamative Inflammatory Vaginitis

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Nigel; Edlind, Thomas D.; Schlievert, Patrick M.; Nyirjesy, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Objective To report two cases of desquamative inflammatory vaginitis (DIV) associated with toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1)-producing Staphylococcus aureus strains. Materials and Methods Case report of two patients, one with an acute and one with a chronic presentation, diagnosed with DIV on the basis of clinical findings and wet mount microscopy. Pre- and posttreatment vaginal bacterial and yeast cultures were obtained. Results Pretreatment vaginal bacterial cultures from both patients grew TSST-1-producing S. aureus. Subsequent vaginal bacterial cultures following oral antibiotic therapy were negative. Conclusions DIV may be triggered through TSST-1-mediated vaginal toxic shock reaction. PMID:23222054

  14. Successful resolution of a preputial prolapse in an alpaca using medical therapy

    PubMed Central

    Koziol, Jennifer H.; Edmondson, Misty A.; Wolfe, Dwight F.; Bayne, Jenna E.

    2015-01-01

    A 2-year-old intact male alpaca was presented for a post-breeding preputial prolapse of 5 days duration. The internal lamina of the prepuce was prolapsed approximately 6 cm and the exposed preputial epithelium was edematous and necrotic. Following 7 days of medical treatment, resolution of the preputial prolapse was achieved. PMID:26130840

  15. Textile properties of synthetic prolapse mesh in response to uniaxial loading.

    PubMed

    Barone, William R; Moalli, Pamela A; Abramowitch, Steven D

    2016-09-01

    % (P < .05). On loading to 10 N of force, nearly all mesh products that were tested were found to have porosities that approached 0% and 0 pores with diameters >1 mm. In this study, it was shown that the pore size of current prolapse meshes dramatically decreases in response to mechanical loading. These findings suggest that prolapse meshes, which are more likely to experience tensile forces in vivo relative to hernia repair meshes, have pores that are unfavorable for tissue integration after surgical tensioning and/or loading in urogynecologic surgeries. Such decreases in pore geometry support the hypothesis that regional increases in the concentration of mesh leads to an enhanced local foreign body response. Although pore deformation in transvaginal meshes requires further characterization, the findings presented here provide a mechanical understanding that can be used to recognize potential areas of concern for complex mesh geometries. Understanding mesh mechanics in response to surgical and in vivo loading conditions may provide improved design criteria for mesh and a refinement of surgical techniques, ultimately leading to better patient outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Non-specific vaginitis or vaginitis of undetermined aetiology.

    PubMed

    Faro, S; Phillips, L E

    1987-01-01

    Vaginitis is a complex syndrome that is probably the most common outpatient disease seen by the gynaecologist. The specific aetiologies of vaginitis are many. One of the most common entities, however, is "non-specific vaginitis" which can be subdivided into: Gardnerella vaginitis, anaerobic vaginosis, and vaginitis of undetermined aetiology. The role of Gardnerella as a causative agent for vaginitis has been studied in depth but its specific role remains controversial. Anaerobic vaginosis can be diagnosed by noting on microscopic examination the presence of clue cells, free-floating bacteria and numerous white blood cells (WBC's). Culturing an aliquot of the vaginal discharge reveals a high number of anaerobes. In addition, this condition responds to antibiotics effective against anaerobes, e.g., metronidazole. Vaginitis of undetermined aetiology is more complex and is characterized by a purulent vaginal discharge, a pH of 4.0-4.6, numerous WBC's, and a high concentration of bacteria. The microbiology of this vaginitis includes many facultative Gram-negative rods and Gram-positive cocci. Anaerobes may be present but do not make up a large component of the endogenous microflora. This condition does not respond to the usual antibiotic therapies employed in treating bacterial vaginitis. Since this condition appears to be primarily an inflammatory reaction, it may be responsive to topical antiinflammatory agents such as benzydamine.

  17. Analysis of Vaginal Cell Populations during Experimental Vaginal Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Fidel, Paul L.; Luo, Wei; Steele, Chad; Chabain, Joseph; Baker, Marc; Wormley, Floyd

    1999-01-01

    Studies with an estrogen-dependent murine model of vaginal candidiasis suggest that local cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is more important than systemic CMI for protection against vaginitis. The present study, however, showed that, compared to uninfected mice, little to no change in the percentage or types of vaginal T cells occurred during a primary vaginal infection or during a secondary vaginal infection where partial protection was observed. Furthermore, depletion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) had no effect on infection in the presence or absence of pseudoestrus. These results indicate a lack of demonstrable effects by systemic CMI or PMN against vaginitis and suggest that if local T cells are important, they are functioning without showing significant increases in numbers within the vaginal mucosa during infection. PMID:10338532

  18. Utilization of apical vaginal support procedures at time of inpatient hysterectomy performed for benign conditions: a national estimate.

    PubMed

    Ross, Whitney Trotter; Meister, Melanie R; Shepherd, Jonathan P; Olsen, Margaret A; Lowder, Jerry L

    2017-10-01

    Apical vaginal support is considered the keystone of pelvic organ support. Level I evidence supports reestablishment of apical support at time of hysterectomy, regardless of whether the hysterectomy is performed for prolapse. National rates of apical support procedure performance at time of inpatient hysterectomy have not been well described. We sought to estimate trends and factors associated with use of apical support procedures at time of inpatient hysterectomy for benign indications in a large national database. The National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample was used to identify hysterectomies performed from 2004 through 2013 for benign indications. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes were used to select both procedures and diagnoses. The primary outcome was performance of an apical support procedure at time of hysterectomy. Descriptive and multivariable analyses were performed. There were 3,509,230 inpatient hysterectomies performed for benign disease from 2004 through 2013. In both nonprolapse and prolapse groups, there was a significant decrease in total number of annual hysterectomies performed over the study period (P < .0001). There were 2,790,652 (79.5%) hysterectomies performed without a diagnosis of prolapse, and an apical support procedure was performed in only 85,879 (3.1%). There was a significant decrease in the proportion of hysterectomies with concurrent apical support procedure (high of 4.0% in 2004 to 2.5% in 2013, P < .0001). In the multivariable logistic regression model, increasing age, hospital type (urban teaching), hospital bed size (large and medium), and hysterectomy type (vaginal and laparoscopically assisted vaginal) were associated with performance of an apical support procedure. During the study period, 718,578 (20.5%) inpatient hysterectomies were performed for prolapse diagnoses and 266,743 (37.1%) included an apical support procedure. There was a significant increase in the proportion

  19. Prolapse of inverted ileal loops through a patent vitellointestinal duct

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Ashish; Agarwal, Nitin; Singh, Poonam; Dhaneria, Mamta

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a prolapsed patent vitellointestinal duct (PVID) in a 2-month-old girl child who presented with sudden increase in size of a polypoidal lesion into a large, ‘Y’-shaped reddish, prolapsing lesion, discharging gaseous and faecal matter at her umbilicus. The lesion was diagnosed as a prolapse of inverted ileal loops through the PVID. The child had no associated congenital anomalies. A transumbilical exploration was performed, followed by wedge resection and anastomosis. The child tolerated the procedure well and the postoperative course was uneventful. If the omphalomesenteric duct fails to obliterate a range of congenital defects related to the umbilicus, it can become clinically apparent. Meckel's diverticulum is the commonest of these defects but is most often asymptomatic. PVID is the most common symptomatic anomaly of the patent omphalomesenteric duct and requires prompt surgical correction to avoid complications. PMID:26494719

  20. Prolapse of inverted ileal loops through a patent vitellointestinal duct.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Ashish; Agarwal, Nitin; Singh, Poonam; Dhaneria, Mamta

    2015-10-22

    We report a case of a prolapsed patent vitellointestinal duct (PVID) in a 2-month-old girl child who presented with sudden increase in size of a polypoidal lesion into a large, 'Y'-shaped reddish, prolapsing lesion, discharging gaseous and faecal matter at her umbilicus. The lesion was diagnosed as a prolapse of inverted ileal loops through the PVID. The child had no associated congenital anomalies. A transumbilical exploration was performed, followed by wedge resection and anastomosis. The child tolerated the procedure well and the postoperative course was uneventful. If the omphalomesenteric duct fails to obliterate a range of congenital defects related to the umbilicus, it can become clinically apparent. Meckel's diverticulum is the commonest of these defects but is most often asymptomatic. PVID is the most common symptomatic anomaly of the patent omphalomesenteric duct and requires prompt surgical correction to avoid complications. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  1. Failed Operative Vaginal Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, James M.; Leveno, Kenneth J.; Hauth, John C.; Landon, Mark B.; Gilbert, Sharon; Spong, Catherine Y.; Varner, Michael W.; Caritis, Steve N.; Meis, Paul; Wapner, Ronald J.; Sorokin, Yoram; Miodovnik, Menachem; O'Sullivan, Mary J.; Sibai, Baha M.; Langer, Oded; Gabbe, Steven G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare maternal and neonatal outcomes in women undergoing a second stage cesarean after a trial of operative vaginal delivery with women undergoing a second stage cesarean without such an attempt. Methods This study is a secondary analysis of the women who underwent second stage cesarean. .The maternal outcomes examined included blood transfusion, endometritis, wound complication, anesthesia use, and maternal death. Infant outcomes examined included umbilical artery pH < 7.0, Apgar of 3 or less at 5 minutes, seizures within 24 hours of birth, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), stillbirth, skull fracture, and neonatal death. Results Of 3189 women who underwent second stage cesarean, operative vaginal delivery was attempted in 640. Labor characteristics were similar in the two groups with the exception of the admission to delivery time and cesarean indication. Those with an attempted operative vaginal delivery were more likely to undergo cesarean delivery for a non-reassuring fetal heart rate tracing (18.0% vs 13.9%, p=.01), have a wound complication (2.7% vs 1.0%; OR 2.65 95% CI 1.43–4.91), and require general anesthesia (8.0% vs 4.1%, OR 2.05 95% CI 1.44–2.91). Neonatal outcomes including umbilical artery pH less than 7.0, Apgar at or below 3 at 5 minutes, and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy were more common for those with an attempted operative vaginal delivery. This was not significant when cases with a non-reassuring fetal heart rate tracing were removed. Conclusion Cesarean delivery after an attempt at operative vaginal delivery was not associated with adverse neonatal outcomes in the absence of a non-reassuring fetal heart rate tracing. PMID:20168101

  2. Menopause and the vaginal microbiome.

    PubMed

    Muhleisen, Alicia L; Herbst-Kralovetz, Melissa M

    2016-09-01

    For over a century it has been well documented that bacteria in the vagina maintain vaginal homeostasis, and that an imbalance or dysbiosis may be associated with poor reproductive and gynecologic health outcomes. Vaginal microbiota are of particular significance to postmenopausal women and may have a profound effect on vulvovaginal atrophy, vaginal dryness, sexual health and overall quality of life. As molecular-based techniques have evolved, our understanding of the diversity and complexity of this bacterial community has expanded. The objective of this review is to compare the changes that have been identified in the vaginal microbiota of menopausal women, outline alterations in the microbiome associated with specific menopausal symptoms, and define how hormone replacement therapy impacts the vaginal microbiome and menopausal symptoms; it concludes by considering the potential of probiotics to reinstate vaginal homeostasis following menopause. This review details the studies that support the role of Lactobacillus species in maintaining vaginal homeostasis and how the vaginal microbiome structure in postmenopausal women changes with decreasing levels of circulating estrogen. In addition, the associated transformations in the microanatomical features of the vaginal epithelium that can lead to vaginal symptoms associated with menopause are described. Furthermore, hormone replacement therapy directly influences the dominance of Lactobacillus in the microbiota and can resolve vaginal symptoms. Oral and vaginal probiotics hold great promise and initial studies complement the findings of previous research efforts concerning menopause and the vaginal microbiome; however, additional trials are required to determine the efficacy of bacterial therapeutics to modulate or restore vaginal homeostasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Vaginal health in contraceptive vaginal ring users - A review.

    PubMed

    Lete, Iñaki; Cuesta, María C; Marín, Juan M; Guerra, Sandra

    2013-08-01

    To provide an overview of the available data from clinical studies of vaginal conditions in women who use a vaginal ring as a contraceptive. A systematic review of the literature. Millions of women have already used the ethylene vinyl acetate vaginal ring that releases ethinylestradiol and etonogestrel for contraception. Because of its small size, more than four out of five women using the ring report that they do not feel it, even during sexual intercourse. No colposcopic or cytological changes have been observed in users, although approximately 10% have increased vaginal discharge. While in vitro studies have shown adhesion of Candida yeasts to the vaginal ring surface, clinical studies have not demonstrated a greater incidence of Candida infections compared to users of equivalent oral contraceptives. Some clinical studies suggest a lower incidence of bacterial vaginosis. No interaction exists between concomitant use of the vaginal ring and other drugs or products for vaginal use. The use of a contraceptive vaginal ring does not alter the vaginal ecosystem and therefore does not substantially affect vaginal health.

  4. DETERIORATION IN BIOMECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THE VAGINA FOLLOWING IMPLANTATION OF A HIGH STIFFNESS PROLAPSE MESH

    PubMed Central

    Feola, Andrew; Abramowitch, Steven; Jallah, Zegbeh; Stein, Suzan; Barone, William; Palcsey, Stacy; Moalli, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Objective Define the impact of prolapse mesh on the biomechanical properties of the vagina by comparing the prototype Gynemesh PS (Ethicon, Somerville, NJ) to 2 new generation lower stiffness meshes, SmartMesh (Coloplast, Minneapolis, MN) and UltraPro (Ethicon). Design A study employing a non-human primate model Setting University of Pittsburgh Population 45 parous rhesus macaques Methods Meshes were implanted via sacrocolpexy after hysterectomy and compared to Sham. Because its stiffness is highly directional UltraPro was implanted in two directions: UltraPro Perpendicular (less stiff) and UltraPro Parallel (more stiff), with the indicated direction referring to the blue orientation lines. The mesh-vaginal complex (MVC) was excised en toto after 3 months. Main Outcome Measures Active mechanical properties were quantified as contractile force generated in the presence of 120 mM KCl. Passive mechanical properties (a tissues ability to resist an applied force) were measured using a multi-axial protocol. Results Vaginal contractility decreased 80% following implantation with the Gynemesh PS (p=0.001), 48% after SmartMesh (p=0.001), 68% after UltraPro parallel (p=0.001) and was highly variable after UltraPro perpendicular (p =0.16). The tissue contribution to the passive mechanical behavior of the MVC was drastically reduced for Gynemesh PS (p=0.003) but not SmartMesh (p=0.9) or UltraPro independent of the direction of implantation (p=0.68 and p=0.66, respectively). Conclusions Deterioration of the mechanical properties of the vagina was highest following implantation with the stiffest mesh, Gynemesh PS. Such a decrease associated with implantation of a device of increased stiffness is consistent with findings from other systems employing prostheses for support. PMID:23240801

  5. Deterioration in biomechanical properties of the vagina following implantation of a high-stiffness prolapse mesh.

    PubMed

    Feola, A; Abramowitch, S; Jallah, Z; Stein, S; Barone, W; Palcsey, S; Moalli, P

    2013-01-01

    To define the impact of prolapse mesh on the biomechanical properties of the vagina by comparing the prototype Gynemesh PS (Ethicon) to two new-generation lower stiffness meshes, SmartMesh (Coloplast) and UltraPro (Ethicon). A study employing a nonhuman primate model. University of Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Forty-five parous rhesus macaques. Meshes were implanted via sacrocolpopexy after hysterectomy and compared with sham. Because its stiffness is highly directional, UltraPro was implanted in two directions: UltraPro Perpendicular (less stiff) and UltraPro Parallel (more stiff), with the indicated direction referring to the position of the blue orientation lines relative to the longitudinal axis of the vagina. The mesh-vaginal complex (MVC) was excised in toto after 3 months. Active mechanical properties were quantified as the contractile force generated in the presence of 120 mmol/l KCl. Passive mechanical properties (a tissue's ability to resist an applied force) were measured using a multiaxial protocol. Vaginal contractility decreased by 80% following implantation with the Gynemesh PS (P = 0.001), 48% after SmartMesh (P = 0.001), 68% after UltraPro Parallel (P = 0.001) and was highly variable after UltraPro Perpendicular (P = 0.16). The tissue contribution to the passive mechanical behaviour of the MVC was drastically reduced for Gynemesh PS (P = 0.003), but not for SmartMesh (P = 0.9) or UltraPro independent of the direction of implantation (P = 0.68 and P = 0.66, respectively). Deterioration of the mechanical properties of the vagina was highest following implantation with the stiffest mesh, Gynemesh PS. Such a decrease associated with implantation of a device of increased stiffness is consistent with findings from other systems employing prostheses for support. © 2013 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2013 RCOG.

  6. Recurrent pelvic organ prolapse: International Urogynecological Association Research and Development Committee opinion.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Sharif; Duckett, Jonathan; Rizk, Diaa; Sorinola, Olanrewaju; Kammerer-Doak, Dorothy; Contreras-Ortiz, Oscar; Al-Mandeel, Hazem; Svabik, Kamil; Parekh, Mitesh; Phillips, Christian

    2016-11-01

    This committee opinion paper summarizes available evidence about recurrent pelvic organ prolapse (POP) to provide guidance on management. A working subcommittee from the International Urogynecological Association (IUGA) Research and Development Committee was formed. The literature regarding recurrent POP was reviewed and summarized by individual members of the subcommittee. Recommendations were graded according to the 2009 Oxford Levels of Evidence. The summary was reviewed by the Committee. There is no agreed definition for recurrent POP and evidence in relation to its evaluation and management is limited. The assessment of recurrent POP should entail looking for possible reason(s) for failure, including persistent and/or new risk factors, detection of all pelvic floor defects and checking for complications of previous surgery. The management requires individual evaluation of the risks and benefits of different options and appropriate patient counseling. There is an urgent need for an agreed definition and further research into all aspects of recurrent POP.

  7. Vaginal Microbiomes Associated With Aerobic Vaginitis and Bacterial Vaginosis.

    PubMed

    Kaambo, Evelyn; Africa, Charlene; Chambuso, Ramadhani; Passmore, Jo-Ann Shelley

    2018-01-01

    A healthy vaginal microbiota is considered to be significant for maintaining vaginal health and preventing infections. However, certain vaginal bacterial commensal species serve an important first line of defense of the body. Any disruption of this microbial barrier might result in a number of urogenital conditions including aerobic vaginitis (AV) and bacterial vaginosis (BV). The health of the vagina is closely associated with inhabitant microbiota. Furthermore, these microbes maintain a low vaginal pH, prevent the acquisition of pathogens, stimulate or moderate the local innate immune system, and further protect against complications during pregnancies. Therefore, this review will focus on vaginal microbial "health" in the lower reproductive tract of women and on the physiological characteristics that determine the well-being of reproductive health. In addition, we explore the distinct versus shared characteristics of BV and AV, which are commonly associated with increased risk for preterm delivery.

  8. Vaginal Microbiomes Associated With Aerobic Vaginitis and Bacterial Vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Kaambo, Evelyn; Africa, Charlene; Chambuso, Ramadhani; Passmore, Jo-Ann Shelley

    2018-01-01

    A healthy vaginal microbiota is considered to be significant for maintaining vaginal health and preventing infections. However, certain vaginal bacterial commensal species serve an important first line of defense of the body. Any disruption of this microbial barrier might result in a number of urogenital conditions including aerobic vaginitis (AV) and bacterial vaginosis (BV). The health of the vagina is closely associated with inhabitant microbiota. Furthermore, these microbes maintain a low vaginal pH, prevent the acquisition of pathogens, stimulate or moderate the local innate immune system, and further protect against complications during pregnancies. Therefore, this review will focus on vaginal microbial “health” in the lower reproductive tract of women and on the physiological characteristics that determine the well-being of reproductive health. In addition, we explore the distinct versus shared characteristics of BV and AV, which are commonly associated with increased risk for preterm delivery. PMID:29632854

  9. Quantitative analyses of variability in normal vaginal shape and dimension on MR images

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jiajia; Betschart, Cornelia; Ashton-Miller, James A.; DeLancey, John O. L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis We present a technique for quantifying inter-individual variability in normal vaginal shape, axis, and dimension, and report findings in healthy women. Methods Eighty women (age: 28~70 years) with normal pelvic organ support underwent supine, multi-planar proton-density MRI. Vaginal width was assessed at five evenly-spaced locations, and vaginal axis, length, and surface area were quantified via ImageJ and MATLAB. Results The mid-sagittal plane angles, relative to the horizontal, of three vaginal axes were 90± 11, 72± 21, and 41± 22° (caudal to cranial, p < 0.001). The mean (± SD) vaginal widths were 17± 5, 24± 4, 30± 7, 41± 9, and 45± 12 mm at the five locations (caudal to cranial, p < 0.001). Mid-sagittal lengths for anterior and posterior vaginal walls were 63± 9 and 98 ± 18 mm respectively. The vaginal surface area was 72 ± 21 cm2 (range: 34 ~ 164 cm2). The coefficient of determination between any demographic variable and any vaginal dimension did not exceed 0.16. Conclusions Large variations in normal vaginal shape, axis, and dimensions were not explained by body size or other demographic variables. This variation has implications for reconstructive surgery, intravaginal and surgical product design, and vaginal drug delivery. PMID:26811115

  10. Vaginal microbicides and teenagers.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Richard E; Rosenthal, Susan L

    2003-10-01

    Sexually active teens are at significant risk from sexually transmitted infections and girls and women bear the greatest burden of these infections. New methods, such as vaginal microbicides, would provide female controlled options. Microbicides are currently in development and thus it is timely to discuss the progress made and factors that may influence acceptability for teens. Microbicide development presents many challenges, and several different potential mechanisms of action are being explored. There is interest in these products from women and men, and specific preferences are being investigated. Adolescents, due to reproductive system immaturity, developing cognitive abilities and the psychosocial context of their relationships, present a special set of challenges in efforts to foster microbicide use. Vaginal microbicides are on the horizon. Further study into teen issues is required to develop successful strategies for marketing and encouraging adolescent use of microbicides.

  11. Multiparous Ewe as a Model for Teaching Vaginal Hysterectomy Techniques.

    PubMed

    Kerbage, Yohan; Cosson, Michel; Hubert, Thomas; Giraudet, Géraldine

    2017-12-01

    Despite being linked to improving patient outcomes and limiting costs, the use of vaginal hysterectomy is on the wane. Although a combination of reasons might explain this trend, one cause is a lack of practical training. An appropriate teaching model must therefore be devised. Currently, only low-fidelity simulators exist. Ewes provide an appropriate model for pelvic anatomy and are well-suited for testing vaginal mesh properties. This article sets out a vaginal hysterectomy procedure for use as an education and training model. A multiparous ewe was the model. Surgery was performed under general anesthesia. The ewe was in a lithotomy position resembling that assumed by women on the operating table. Two vaginal hysterectomies were performed on two ewes, following every step precisely as if the model were human. Each surgical step of vaginal hysterectomy performed on the ewe and on a woman were compared side by side. We identified that all surgical steps were particularly similar. The main limitations of this model are costs ($500/procedure), logistic problems (housing large animals), and public opposition to animal training models. The ewe appears to be an appropriate model for teaching and training of vaginal hysterectomy.

  12. Assessment of the psychometric properties of the Short-Form Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire (PISQ-12) following surgical placement of Prolift+M: a transvaginal partially absorbable mesh system for the treatment of pelvic organ prolapse.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sanjoy; Mohandas, Anita; Coyne, Karin; Gelhorn, Heather; Gauld, Judi; Sikirica, Vanja; Milani, Alfredo L

    2012-04-01

    Impairment of sexual function is a significant problem among women suffering from pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Because anatomical measures of POP do not always correspond with patients' subjective reports of their condition, patient-reported outcome measures may provide additional valuable information regarding the experiences of women who have undergone surgery. The Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire (PISQ-12) is a validated, widely used condition-specific questionnaire focused on sexual function among patients with POP or urinary incontinence. This study aims to report sexual function outcomes as measured by PISQ-12 and to evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the questionnaire following surgical mesh implant for the treatment of POP. The PISQ-12 was used to measure sexual function, while a set of other measures, namely, Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification, Patient Global Impression of Change, Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory, Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire, and Surgical Satisfaction Questionnaire, was used for validation. Data for the study were collected from a prospective multicenter, single-arm study of surgical POP repair via the transvaginal placement of a partially absorbable mesh system. For baseline, month 3, and month 12 following POP surgery, several psychometric properties of the PISQ-12 were evaluated, including internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha), concurrent validity, discriminant validity, and responsiveness. As measured by the PISQ-12 questionnaire, statistically significant improvements were observed in the composite summary score as well as all three subscale scores at 1 year. The PISQ-12 generally demonstrated good psychometric properties including internal consistency reliability, validity, and responsiveness. The PISQ-12 items had good distributional properties at baseline, with substantial ceiling effects at follow-up visits reflecting improvements experienced by the patients. The PISQ-12 is a valid

  13. Cystocele and rectal prolapse in a female dog

    PubMed Central

    Besalti, Omer; Ergin, Irem

    2012-01-01

    A case of cystocele and prolapsed rectum is reported. The urinary bladder and rectum were repositioned and fixed by cystopexy, colposuspension, and colopexy concurrently. There was no recurrence after 3 months. This is the first report to describe cystocele in a young female dog never having been pregnant. PMID:23729830

  14. Perineal colostomy prolapse: a novel application of mesh sacral pexy.

    PubMed

    Landen, S; Ursaru, D; Delugeau, V; Landen, C

    2018-01-01

    Full thickness colonic prolapse following pseudocontinent perineal colostomy has not been previously reported. Possible contributing factors include a large skin aperture at the site of the perineal stoma, the absence of anal sphincters and mesorectal attachments and the presence of a perineal hernia. A novel application of sacral pexy combined with perineal hernia repair using two prosthetic meshes is described.

  15. Rescue cerclage when foetal membranes prolapse into the vagina.

    PubMed

    Bayrak, Mehmet; Gul, Ahmet; Goynumer, Gokhan

    2017-05-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of rescue cerclage in patients with a dilated cervix and prolapsed foetal membranes. Thirty-five patients presenting with cervical dilatation and prolapsed foetal membranes were included in the study. A McDonald cerclage was placed in 27 patients. The duration of pregnancy prolongation and the number of deliveries after 28 weeks were evaluated. The median prolongation of pregnancy after cerclage placement differed significantly between the cerclage and bed-rest groups (64 days versus 13.5 days). Of the 27 patients who had cerclage, 17 (63%) delivered after 28 weeks of gestation, whereas all patients in the bed-rest group delivered before 28 weeks of gestation. The take-home baby rate was 63% in the cerclage group. When pregnancies were complicated by cervical dilatation with membrane prolapse into the vagina, placement of a McDonald cerclage in appropriately selected patients can be a beneficial therapeutic option. Impact statement Although the effectiveness and safety of rescue cerclage is controversial, our study provides strong support for the notion that cervical cerclage accompanied by long-term broad-spectrum antibiotics improves the perinatal outcomes in singleton gestations with membrane prolapsed into the vagina. Further prospective randomised trial is required to prove these findings.

  16. Trends in Hysteropexy and Apical Support for Uterovaginal Prolapse in the United States from 2002 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Annetta M; Raker, Christina; Sung, Vivian W

    Our objective was to describe trends in hysteropexy and apical support for uterovaginal prolapse (UVP) from 2002 to 2012 in the United States. We identified patient and hospital variables associated with hysteropexy and apical support. We used the Nationwide Inpatient Sample and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes to identify a population of women 18 years or older with UVP undergoing pelvic organ prolapse surgery from January 1, 2002, to December 31, 2012. Procedures were categorized as (1) hysteropexy, (2) obliterative with uterine preservation, (3) hysterectomy with apical support, (4) hysterectomy without apical support, and (5) other reconstruction without apical support. Categories were dichotomized into those with and without apical support. We used survey weights to obtain nationally representative estimates; χ and linear and logistic regression compared procedure groups. An estimated 815,184 hospital discharges of pelvic organ prolapse procedures for UVP occurred from 2002 to 2012. During this time, hysteropexies increased from 1.81% to 5.00% (P < 0.0001). From 2002 to 2012, hysterectomies with apical support increased (10.07% to 32.51%, P < 0.0001), hysterectomy without apical support decreased (27.14% to 17.12%, P < 0.0001), and reconstruction without apical support decreased (59.07% to 40.48%, P < 0.0001). In most recent years 2011 to 2012, 60% of women with UVP underwent inpatient surgery without an apical procedure. Age 52 years or older, Medicare payment, Northeast region, and urban teaching hospitals were associated with increased odds of apical support for UVP (P < 0.001 for all). Hysteropexy significantly increased in the United States from 2002 to 2012, although the overall proportion remains low. While hysterectomy without apical support is decreasing, approximately 60% of inpatient procedures performed for UVP do not address the apex.

  17. Robotic artificial chordal replacement for repair of mitral valve prolapse.

    PubMed

    Brunsting, Louis A; Rankin, J Scott; Braly, Kimberly C; Binford, Robert S

    2009-07-01

    Artificial chordal replacement (ACR) has emerged as a superior method of mitral valve repair with excellent early and late efficacy. It is also ideal to combine with robotic techniques for correction of mitral prolapse, and this article presents a current method of robotic Gore-Tex ACR. Patients with isolated posterior leaflet prolapse are approached with the fourth-generation DaVinci robotic system and endoaortic balloon occlusion. A pledgetted anchor stitch is placed in a papillary muscle, and a 2-o Gore-Tex suture is passed through the anchor pledget. After full annuloplasty ring placement, the Gore-Tex suture is woven into the prolapsing segment and positioned temporarily with robotic forceps. Chordal length is then "adjusted" by lengthening or shortening the temporary knot over 1-cm increments as the valve is tested by injection of cold saline into the ventricle. After achieving good leaflet position and valve competence, the chord is tied permanently. The "adjustable" ACR procedure preserves leaflet surface area and produces a competent valve in the majority of patients. Postoperative transesophageal echo shows a large surface area of coaptation. Patient recovery is facilitated by the minimally invasive approach, while long-term stability of similar open ACR techniques have been excellent with a 2% to 3% failure rate over 10 years of follow-up. Robotic Gore-Tex ACR without leaflet resection is a reproducible procedure that simplifies mitral repair for prolapse. The outcomes observed in early robotic applications have been excellent. It is suggested that most patients with simple prolapse might validly be approached in this manner.

  18. Novel three-dimensional autologous tissue-engineered vaginal tissues using the self-assembly technique.

    PubMed

    Orabi, Hazem; Saba, Ingrid; Rousseau, Alexandre; Bolduc, Stéphane

    2017-02-01

    Many diseases necessitate the substitution of vaginal tissues. Current replacement therapies are associated with many complications. In this study, we aimed to create bioengineered neovaginas with the self-assembly technique using autologous vaginal epithelial (VE) and vaginal stromal (VS) cells without the use of exogenous materials and to document the survival and incorporation of these grafts into the tissues of nude female mice. Epithelial and stromal cells were isolated from vaginal biopsies. Stromal cells were driven to form collagen sheets, 3 of which were superimposed to form vaginal stromas. VE cells were seeded on top of these stromas and allowed to mature in an air-liquid interface. The vaginal equivalents were implanted subcutaneously in female nude mice, which were sacrificed after 1 and 2 weeks after surgery. The in vitro and animal-retrieved equivalents were assessed using histologic, functional, and mechanical evaluations. Vaginal equivalents could be handled easily. VE cells formed a well-differentiated epithelial layer with a continuous basement membrane. The equivalent matrix was composed of collagen I and III and elastin. The epithelium, basement membrane, and stroma were comparable to those of native vaginal tissues. The implanted equivalents formed mature vaginal epithelium and matrix that were integrated into the mice tissues. Using the self-assembly technique, in vitro vaginal tissues were created with many functional and biological similarities to native vagina without any foreign material. They formed functional vaginal tissues after in vivo animal implantation. It is appropriate for vaginal substitution and disease modeling for infectious studies, vaginal applicants, and drug testing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Successful vaginal birth after caesarean section in patient with Ehler-Danlos syndrome type 2.

    PubMed

    Maraj, Hemant; Mohajer, Michelle; Bhattacharjee, Deepannita

    2011-12-01

    We present the case of a 31-year-old woman with Ehler-Danlos syndrome (EDS) type 2. She had a previous caesarean section and went on to have an uncomplicated vaginal birth in her last pregnancy. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a successful vaginal birth after caesarean section in a patient with EDS. EDS is a multisystem disorder involving a genetic defect in collagen and connective-tissue synthesis and structure. It is a heterogeneous group of 11 different inherited disorders. Obstetric complications in these patients include miscarriages, stillbirths, premature rupture of the membranes, preterm labour, uterine prolapse, uterine rupture and severe postpartum haemorrhage. There has been much controversy over the appropriate mode of delivery. Abdominal deliveries are complicated by delayed wound healing and increased perioperative blood loss. Vaginal deliveries may be complicated by tissue friability causing extensive perineal tears, pelvic floor and bladder lesions. Our case highlights that in specific, controlled situations it is possible to have a vaginal delivery even after previous caesarean section in patients with EDS.

  20. Successful vaginal birth after caesarean section in patient with Ehler-Danlos syndrome type 2

    PubMed Central

    Maraj, Hemant; Mohajer, Michelle; Bhattacharjee, Deepannita

    2011-01-01

    We present the case of a 31-year-old woman with Ehler-Danlos syndrome (EDS) type 2. She had a previous caesarean section and went on to have an uncomplicated vaginal birth in her last pregnancy. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a successful vaginal birth after caesarean section in a patient with EDS. EDS is a multisystem disorder involving a genetic defect in collagen and connective-tissue synthesis and structure. It is a heterogeneous group of 11 different inherited disorders. Obstetric complications in these patients include miscarriages, stillbirths, premature rupture of the membranes, preterm labour, uterine prolapse, uterine rupture and severe postpartum haemorrhage. There has been much controversy over the appropriate mode of delivery. Abdominal deliveries are complicated by delayed wound healing and increased perioperative blood loss. Vaginal deliveries may be complicated by tissue friability causing extensive perineal tears, pelvic floor and bladder lesions. Our case highlights that in specific, controlled situations it is possible to have a vaginal delivery even after previous caesarean section in patients with EDS. PMID:27579117

  1. Newly developed vaginal atrophy symptoms II and vaginal pH: a better correlation in vaginal atrophy?

    PubMed

    Tuntiviriyapun, P; Panyakhamlerd, K; Triratanachat, S; Chatsuwan, T; Chaikittisilpa, S; Jaisamrarn, U; Taechakraichana, N

    2015-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation among symptoms, signs, and the number of lactobacilli in postmenopausal vaginal atrophy. The secondary objective was to develop a new parameter to improve the correlation. A cross-sectional descriptive study. Naturally postmenopausal women aged 45-70 years with at least one clinical symptom of vaginal atrophy of moderate to severe intensity were included in this study. All of the objective parameters (vaginal atrophy score, vaginal pH, the number of lactobacilli, vaginal maturation index, and vaginal maturation value) were evaluated and correlated with vaginal atrophy symptoms. A new parameter of vaginal atrophy, vaginal atrophy symptoms II, was developed and consists of the two most bothersome symptoms (vaginal dryness and dyspareunia). Vaginal atrophy symptoms II was analyzed for correlation with the objective parameters. A total of 132 naturally postmenopausal women were recruited for analysis. Vaginal pH was the only objective parameter found to have a weak correlation with vaginal atrophy symptoms (r = 0.273, p = 0.002). The newly developed vaginal atrophy symptoms II parameter showed moderate correlation with vaginal pH (r = 0.356, p < 0.001) and a weak correlation with the vaginal atrophy score (r = 0.230, p < 0.001). History of sexual intercourse within 3 months was associated with a better correlation between vaginal atrophy symptoms and the objective parameters. Vaginal pH was significantly correlated with vaginal atrophy symptoms. The newly developed vaginal atrophy symptoms II was associated with a better correlation. The vaginal atrophy symptoms II and vaginal pH may be better tools for clinical evaluation and future study of the vaginal ecosystem.

  2. Evaluation and management of complications from synthetic mesh after pelvic reconstructive surgery: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Sara; Unger, Cecile A; Evans, Janelle M; Jallad, Karl; Mishra, Kevita; Karram, Mickey M; Iglesia, Cheryl B; Rardin, Charles R; Barber, Matthew D

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the evaluation and management of synthetic mesh-related complications after surgery for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and/or pelvic organ prolapse (POP). We conducted a multicenter, retrospective analysis of women who attended 4 US tertiary referral centers for evaluation of mesh-related complications after surgery for SUI and/or POP from January 2006 to December 2010. Demographic, clinical, and surgical data were abstracted from the medical record, and complications were classified according to the Expanded Accordion Severity Classification. Three hundred forty-seven patients sought management of synthetic mesh-related complications over the study period. Index surgeries were performed for the following indications: SUI (sling only), 49.9%; POP (transvaginal mesh [TVM] or sacrocolpopexy only), 25.6%; and SUI + POP (sling + TVM or sacrocolpopexy), 24.2%. Median time to evaluation was 5.8 months (range, 0-65.2). Thirty percent of the patients had dyspareunia; 42.7% of the patients had mesh erosion; and 34.6% of the patients had pelvic pain. Seventy-seven percent of the patients had a grade 3 or 4 (severe) complication. Patients with TVM or sacrocolpopexy were more likely to have mesh erosion and vaginal symptoms compared with sling only. The median number of treatments for mesh complications was 2 (range, 1-9); 60% of the women required ≥2 interventions. Initial treatment intervention was surgical for 49% of subjects. Of those treatments that initially were managed nonsurgically, 59.3% went on to surgical intervention. Most of the women who seek management of synthetic mesh complication after POP or SUI surgery have severe complications that require surgical intervention; a significant proportion require >1 surgical procedure. The pattern of complaints differs by index procedure. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinical features and surgical procedures of congenital vaginal atresia-A retrospective study of 67 patients.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhihong; Zhang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Ningzhi; Xiao, Hong; Liu, Yongying; Liu, Jiandong; Chen, Lili; Li, Liang; Zhang, Linlin; Zhang, Youguo

    2017-10-01

    To explore the characteristics of congenital vaginal atresia, further improve its classification, and therefore help the clinical diagnosis and treatment of congenital vaginal atresia. This was a retrospective study of 67 patients with congenital vaginal atresia (from March 1984 to March 2015). Clinical and surgical characteristics were analyzed. For lower vaginal atresia, 25 patients successfully underwent vaginoplasty at the lower portion of the vagina. For complete vagina atresia, 25 patients with type i cervical atresia were treated with artificial vaginoplasty+tracheloplasty, and all showed no dysmenorrhea within six months after surgery. Four patients with type ii cervical atresia and two patients with type iii cervical atresia successfully underwent hysterectomy+artificialvaginoplasty. Two patients with type iv cervical atresia underwent combined abdominoperineal artificial vaginoplasty+tracheloplasty. One patient with upper vaginal atresia successfully underwent hysterectomy via the narrow segment of the cervix. Three patients with top vaginal atresia had no dysmenorrhea after transvaginaltracheloplasty. This study suggests two new categories of vaginal atresia (upper vaginal atresia and top vaginal atresia), which could be used as a reference for treatment of this condition. Appropriate treatments were performed using a personalized approach and satisfactory results were achieved. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Heterogeneity of Vaginal Microbial Communities within Individuals▿ #

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Kyung; Thomas, Susan M.; Ho, Mengfei; Sharma, Shobha; Reich, Claudia I.; Frank, Jeremy A.; Yeater, Kathleen M.; Biggs, Diana R.; Nakamura, Noriko; Stumpf, Rebecca; Leigh, Steven R.; Tapping, Richard I.; Blanke, Steven R.; Slauch, James M.; Gaskins, H. Rex; Weisbaum, Jon S.; Olsen, Gary J.; Hoyer, Lois L.; Wilson, Brenda A.

    2009-01-01

    Recent culture-independent studies have revealed that a healthy vaginal ecosystem harbors a surprisingly complex assemblage of microorganisms. However, the spatial distribution and composition of vaginal microbial populations have not been investigated using molecular methods. Here, we evaluated site-specific microbial composition within the vaginal ecosystem and examined the influence of sampling technique in detection of the vaginal microbiota. 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were prepared from samples obtained from different locations (cervix, fornix, outer vaginal canal) and by different methods (swabbing, scraping, lavaging) from the vaginal tracts of eight clinically healthy, asymptomatic women. The data reveal that the vaginal microbiota is not homogenous throughout the vaginal tract but differs significantly within an individual with regard to anatomical site and sampling method used. Thus, this study illuminates the complex structure of the vaginal ecosystem and calls for the consideration of microenvironments when sampling vaginal microbiota as a clinical predictor of vaginal health. PMID:19158255

  5. Impact of parity on ewe vaginal mechanical properties relative to the nonhuman primate and rodent.

    PubMed

    Knight, Katrina M; Moalli, Pamela A; Nolfi, Alexis; Palcsey, Stacy; Barone, William R; Abramowitch, Steven D

    2016-08-01

    Parity is the leading risk factor for the development of pelvic organ prolapse. To assess the impact of pregnancy and delivery on vaginal tissue, researchers commonly use nonhuman primate (NHP) and rodent models. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ewe as an alternative model by investigating the impact of parity on the ewe vaginal mechanical properties and collagen structure. Mechanical properties of 15 nulliparous and parous ewe vaginas were determined via uniaxial tensile tests. Collagen content was determined by hydroxyproline assay and collagen fiber thickness was analyzed using picrosirius red staining. Outcome measures were compared using Independent samples t or Mann-Whitney U tests. ANOVA (Gabriel's pairwise post-hoc test) or the Welch Alternative for the F-ratio (Games Howell post-hoc test) was used to compare data with previously published NHP and rodent data. Vaginal tissue from the nulliparous ewe had a higher tangent modulus and tensile strength compared with the parous ewe (p < 0.025). The parous ewe vagina elongated 42 % more than the nulliparous ewe vagina (p = 0.015). No significant differences were observed in collagen structure among ewe vaginas. The tangent modulus of the nulliparous ewe vagina was not different from that of the NHP or rodent (p = 0.290). Additionally, the tangent moduli of the parous ewe and NHP vaginas did not differ (p = 0.773). Parity has a negative impact on the mechanical properties of the ewe vagina, as also observed in the NHP. The ewe may serve as an alternative model for studying parity and ultimately prolapse development.

  6. Impact of parity on ewe vaginal mechanical properties relative to the nonhuman primate and rodent

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Katrina M.; Moalli, Pamela A.; Nolfi, Alexis; Palcsey, Stacy; Barone, William R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis Parity is the leading risk factor for the development of pelvic organ prolapse. To assess the impact of pregnancy and delivery on vaginal tissue, researchers commonly use nonhuman primate (NHP) and rodent models. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ewe as an alternative model by investigating the impact of parity on the ewe vaginal mechanical properties and collagen structure. Methods Mechanical properties of 15 nulliparous and parous ewe vaginas were determined via uniaxial tensile tests. Collagen content was determined by hydroxyproline assay and collagen fiber thickness was analyzed using picrosirius red staining. Outcome measures were compared using Independent samples t or Mann–Whitney U tests. ANOVA (Gabriel’s pairwise post-hoc test) or the Welch Alternative for the F-ratio (Games Howell post-hoc test) was used to compare data with previously published NHP and rodent data. Results Vaginal tissue from the nulliparous ewe had a higher tangent modulus and tensile strength compared with the parous ewe (p < 0.025). The parous ewe vagina elongated 42 % more than the nulliparous ewe vagina (p = 0.015). No significant differences were observed in collagen structure among ewe vaginas. The tangent modulus of the nulliparous ewe vagina was not different from that of the NHP or rodent (p = 0.290). Additionally, the tangent moduli of the parous ewe and NHP vaginas did not differ (p = 0.773). Conclusions Parity has a negative impact on the mechanical properties of the ewe vagina, as also observed in the NHP. The ewe may serve as an alternative model for studying parity and ultimately prolapse development. PMID:26872644

  7. Uterine prolapse with associated rupture in a Podengo bitch.

    PubMed

    Payan-Carreira, R; Albuquerque, C; Abreu, H; Maltez, L

    2012-08-01

    A case of uterine prolapse coexisting with uterine horn rupture in a 3-year-old Portuguese Podengo bitch, which is an uncommon occurrence, is described. The female was presented with a history of recent parturition, with delivery of four healthy puppies that were normally tended and nursed. The situation developed after an uneventfully pregnancy, and no direct causative factor was identified. The duration of the prolapse was unknown, but considered to be recent because of the swollen reddish appearance of the tubular everted mass. No foetus was found in the uterus or the abdominal cavity. The female was presented in good physical condition, without signs of shock or haemorrhage. During surgical treatment, the uterus was replaced to its normal position followed by ovary-hysterectomy at 12 h from admittance. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Does fibromyalgia influence symptom bother from pelvic organ prolapse?

    PubMed

    Adams, Kerrie; Osmundsen, Blake; Gregory, W Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Determine if women with fibromyalgia report increased bother from pelvic organ prolapse compared with women without fibromyalgia. We performed a cross-sectional study of women with symptomatic prolapse on consultation with a private urogynecology practice within a 46-month period. After matching for age, women with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia were compared with a reference group of women without fibromyalgia. Demographic, POPQ examination, medical history, and pelvic floor symptom data (PFDI, PFIQ, and PISQ-12) were collected. Our primary outcome was to compare the mean Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI) scores of women with and without fibromyalgia. The prevalence of fibromyalgia in women evaluated for initial urogynecology consultation during the study period was 114 out of 1,113 (7%). Women with fibromyalgia reported significantly higher symptom bother scores related to pelvic organ prolapse, defecatory dysfunction, urinary symptoms, and sexual function: PFDI (p = 0.005), PFIQ (p=0.010), and PISQ (p=0.018). Women with fibromyalgia were found to have a higher BMI (p=0.008) and were more likely to report a history of sexual abuse, OR 3.1 (95 % CI 1.3, 7.9), and have levator myalgia on examination, OR 3.8 (95% CI 1.5, 9.1). In a linear regression analysis, levator myalgia was found to be the significant factor associated with pelvic floor symptom bother. In women with symptomatic prolapse, fibromyalgia is associated with an increased risk of levator myalgia and 50% more symptom bother from pelvic floor disorders.

  9. Vaginal biological and sexual health--the unmet needs.

    PubMed

    Graziottin, A

    2015-01-01

    The vagina is a most neglected organ. It is usually clinically considered with a minimalistic view, as a 'connecting tube' for a number of physiologic functions: passage of menstrual blood, intercourse, natural conception and delivery. Unmet needs include, but are not limited to, respect of vaginal physiologic biofilms; diagnosis and care of the optimal tone of the levator ani, which surrounds and partly support it; care of its anatomic integrity at and after delivery and at pelvic/vaginal surgery; care of long-term consequences of pelvic radiotherapy; long-term care of the atrophic changes it will undergo after the menopause, unless appropriate, at least local, estrogen therapy is used; appreciation and respect of its erotic meaning, as a loving, receptive, 'bonding' organ for the couple. The vaginal erotic value is key as a non-visible powerful center of femininity and sexuality, deeply and secretly attractive in terms of taste, scent (together with the vulva), touch and proprioception. The most welcoming when lubrication, softness and vaginal orgasm award the woman and the partner with the best of pleasures. Prevention of sexual/vaginal abuse is a very neglected unmet need, as well. Who cares?

  10. Episiotomy for vaginal birth

    PubMed Central

    Carroli, Guillermo; Mignini, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    Background Episiotomy is done to prevent severe perineal tears, but its routine use has been questioned. The relative effects of midline compared with midlateral episiotomy are unclear. Objectives The objective of this review was to assess the effects of restrictive use of episiotomy compared with routine episiotomy during vaginal birth. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (March 2008). Selection criteria Randomized trials comparing restrictive use of episiotomy with routine use of episiotomy; restrictive use of mediolateral episiotomy versus routine mediolateral episiotomy; restrictive use of midline episiotomy versus routine midline episiotomy; and use of midline episiotomy versus mediolateral episiotomy. Data collection and analysis The two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted the data. Main results We included eight studies (5541 women). In the routine episiotomy group, 75.15% (2035/2708) of women had episiotomies, while the rate in the restrictive episiotomy group was 28.40% (776/2733). Compared with routine use, restrictive episiotomy resulted in less severe perineal trauma (relative risk (RR) 0.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49 to 0.91), less suturing (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.81) and fewer healing complications (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.85). Restrictive episiotomy was associated with more anterior perineal trauma (RR 1.84, 95% CI 1.61 to 2.10). There was no difference in severe vaginal/perineal trauma (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.18); dyspareunia (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.16); urinary incontinence (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.20) or several pain measures. Results for restrictive versus routine mediolateral versus midline episiotomy were similar to the overall comparison. Authors’ conclusions Restrictive episiotomy policies appear to have a number of benefits compared to policies based on routine episiotomy. There is less posterior perineal trauma, less suturing and

  11. The 12-month effects of structured lifestyle advice and pelvic floor muscle training for pelvic organ prolapse.

    PubMed

    Due, Ulla; Brostrøm, Søren; Lose, Gunnar

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated the 12-month effects of adding pelvic floor muscle training to a lifestyle advice program in women with symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse stage II-III and the number of women who had sought further treatment. This study was a 12-month follow up of a randomized controlled trial comparing a structured lifestyle advice program alone (lifestyle group) or in combination with pelvic floor muscle training (training and lifestyle group). Both programs consisted of six separate group sessions within 12 weeks. Data were available from 83 (76%) of the 109 originally included women. At the 12-month follow up, 34/83 (41%) had not sought further treatment, 13/43 (30%) in the lifestyle group and 21/40 (52%) in the training and lifestyle group, and these could be included for analysis. The lifestyle group had significantly improved bladder symptoms compared with baseline on single-item analysis (p = 0.01). The training and lifestyle group had significantly improved pelvic organ prolapse symptoms on single-item analysis (p = 0.02) and of bowel-related quality of life (p = 0.04). No significant between-group differences were found in the symptom and quality of life scores. All together 49 women (59%) had sought further treatment, 70% in the lifestyle group, and 48% in the training and lifestyle group (p = 0.05). Twenty-six in the lifestyle group, and 15 in the training and lifestyle group had sought conservative treatment. Four women in each group had received surgery. More severe anterior prolapse and more bladder symptoms at the 3-month follow up were significantly associated with having sought further treatment in both groups. At 12-month follow up, the effects of adding pelvic floor muscle training to a structured lifestyle advice program were limited. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. Bioengineering a vaginal replacement using a small biopsy of autologous tissue.

    PubMed

    Dorin, Ryan P; Atala, Anthony; Defilippo, Roger E

    2011-01-01

    Many congenital and acquired diseases result in the absence of a normal vagina. Patients with these conditions often require reconstructive surgery to achieve satisfactory cosmesis and physiological function, and a variety of materials have been used as tissue sources. Currently employed graft materials such as collagen scaffolds and small intestine are not ideal in that they fail to mimic the physiology of normal vaginal tissue. Engineering of true vaginal tissue from a small biopsy of autologous vagina should produce a superior graft material for vaginal reconstruction. This review describes our current experience with the engineering of such tissue and its use for vaginal reconstruction in animal models. Our successful construction and implantation of neovaginas through tissue engineering techniques demonstrates the feasibility of similar endeavors in human patients. Additionally, the use of pluripotent stem cells instead of autologous tissue could provide an "off-the-shelf" tissue source for vaginal reconstruction.

  13. Vaginal oxytetracycline concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Thin, R N; Al Rawi, Z H; Simmons, P D; Treharne, J; Tabaqchali, S

    1979-01-01

    Although tetracycline preparations are widely used in departments of genitourinary medicine, or sexually transmitted diseases clinics, little is known of the concentrations of these preparations in genital secretions. For this reason a microbiological method was used for estimating oxytetracycline concentrations in vaginal secretions. These concentrations varied from 0.6 to 6.5 microgram/ml in 19 women who had had sexual contact with a man with non-specific urethritis and who were taking oxytetracycline dihydrate 250 mg four times daily. They were well in excess of the minimum inhibitory concentration of oxytetracycline (0.2 microgram/ml) for the strains of Chlamydia trachomatis isolated from the patients with positive culture results. Thus, oxytetracycline 250 mg four times daily appears to be a satisfactory regimen for the treatment of chlamydial genital infection in women. PMID:509190

  14. Rectorrhagia and vaginal discharge caused by a vaginal foreign body--a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Shiryazdi, S M; Heiranizadeh, N; Soltani, H R

    2013-06-01

    An 8-year-old girl was taken to an outpatient clinic of surgery suffering from rectorrhagia and purulent, smelly vaginal discharge. Colonoscopy and biopsy were done before referring and sulfasalazine regime was administrated for probable colitis. The surgeon performed a rigid rectosigmoidoscopy under general anesthesia and no positive evidence was found. Having examined the hymen, it was found to be intact but a purulent discharge was observed. After drying the discharge, a black foreign body was seen in the bottom of the vagina and brought out by a fine forceps. It was a toy's wheel. The patient and her mother both denied foreign body abusing history. It was recommended she go for a psychological consultation. Generally speaking, all young patients suffering from vaginal or rectal bleeding with or without discharge should have their vagina checked for a foreign body. What is recommended in such cases is to undergo sonography or plain radiography before considering invasive or non-invasive procedures for evaluating anal and sigmoid abnormalities. Last but not least, a vaginal irrigation, precise examination of hymen, and posterior fossa can prove very useful for detecting simple vaginal bodies that can lead to various vaginal, rectal and abdominal complications. Copyright © 2013 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Extracellular matrix regenerative graft attenuates the negative impact of polypropylene prolapse mesh on vagina in rhesus macaque.

    PubMed

    Liang, Rui; Knight, Katrina; Barone, William; Powers, Robert W; Nolfi, Alexis; Palcsey, Stacy; Abramowitch, Steven; Moalli, Pamela A

    2017-02-01

    The use of wide pore lightweight polypropylene mesh to improve anatomical outcomes in the surgical repair of prolapse has been hampered by mesh complications. One of the prototype prolapse meshes has been found to negatively impact the vagina by inducing a decrease in smooth muscle volume and contractility and the degradation of key structural proteins (collagen and elastin), resulting in vaginal degeneration. Recently, bioscaffolds derived from extracellular matrix have been used to mediate tissue regeneration and have been widely adopted in tissue engineering applications. Here we aimed to: (1) define whether augmentation of a polypropylene prolapse mesh with an extracellular matrix regenerative graft in a primate sacrocolpopexy model could mitigate the degenerative changes; and (2) determine the impact of the extracellular matrix graft on vagina when implanted alone. A polypropylene-extracellular matrix composite graft (n = 9) and a 6-layered extracellular matrix graft alone (n = 8) were implanted in 17 middle-aged parous rhesus macaques via sacrocolpopexy and compared to historical data obtained from sham (n = 12) and the polypropylene mesh (n = 12) implanted by the same method. Vaginal function was measured in passive (ball-burst test) and active (smooth muscle contractility) mechanical tests. Vaginal histomorphologic/biochemical assessments included hematoxylin-eosin and trichrome staining, immunofluorescent labeling of α-smooth muscle actin and apoptotic cells, measurement of total collagen, collagen subtypes (ratio III/I), mature elastin, and sulfated glycosaminoglycans. Statistical analyses included 1-way analysis of variance, Kruskal-Wallis, and appropriate post-hoc tests. The host inflammatory response in the composite mesh-implanted vagina was reduced compared to that following implantation with the polypropylene mesh alone. The increase in apoptotic cells observed with the polypropylene mesh was blunted in the composite (overall P < .001). Passive

  16. Extracellular matrix regenerative graft attenuates the negative impact of polypropylene prolapse mesh on vagina in rhesus macaque

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Rui; Knight, Katrina; Barone, William; Powers, Robert W.; Nolfi, Alexis; Palcsey, Stacy; Abramowitch, Steven; Moalli, Pamela A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The use of wide pore lightweight polypropylene mesh to improve anatomical outcomes in the surgical repair of prolapse has been hampered by mesh complications. One of the prototype prolapse meshes has been found to negatively impact the vagina by inducing a decrease in smooth muscle volume and contractility and the degradation of key structural proteins (collagen and elastin), resulting in vaginal degeneration. Recently, bioscaffolds derived from extracellular matrix have been used to mediate tissue regeneration and have been widely adopted in tissue engineering applications. OBJECTIVE Here we aimed to: (1) define whether augmentation of a polypropylene prolapse mesh with an extracellular matrix regenerative graft in a primate sacrocolpopexy model could mitigate the degenerative changes; and (2) determine the impact of the extracellular matrix graft on vagina when implanted alone. STUDY DESIGN A polypropylene-extracellular matrix composite graft (n = 9) and a 6-layered extracellular matrix graft alone (n = 8) were implanted in 17 middle-aged parous rhesus macaques via sacrocolpopexy and compared to historical data obtained from sham (n = 12) and the polypropylene mesh (n = 12) implanted by the same method. Vaginal function was measured in passive (ball-burst test) and active (smooth muscle contractility) mechanical tests. Vaginal histomorphologic/ biochemical assessments included hematoxylin-eosin and trichrome staining, immunofluorescent labeling of α-smooth muscle actin and apoptotic cells, measurement of total collagen, collagen subtypes (ratio III/ I), mature elastin, and sulfated glycosaminoglycans. Statistical analyses included 1-way analysis of variance, Kruskal-Wallis, and appropriate posthoc tests. RESULTS The host inflammatory response in the composite mesh-implanted vagina was reduced compared to that following implantation with the polypropylene mesh alone. The increase in apoptotic cells observed with the polypropylene mesh was blunted in

  17. Laboratory diagnosis of vaginal infections.

    PubMed

    Metzger, G D

    1998-01-01

    Vaginal discomfort and/or odor are a common complaint in primary care visits by female patients. This is especially true among sexually active women of childbearing age. Because treatment varies depending upon which syndrome is present, effective treatment depends upon accurate diagnosis. The microscopic exams for diagnosing vaginal complaints are most frequently done in primary care sites. Because of this, few clinical laboratory scientists (CLSs) have the opportunity to become familiar with microscopy on this specimen type. In addition, literature on the subject is only gradually becoming available. This paper will attempt to briefly review the clinical and microscopic features of the common syndromes associated with vaginal discomfort.

  18. [The use of synthetic mesh implants in surgical treatment of pelvic organ prolapse].

    PubMed

    Pastorčáková, M; Huser, M; Belkov, A I; Ventruba, P

    2014-04-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) surgical treatment went through major changes thanks to availability and wider expansion of mesh implants (MI). This work is focused on critical analysis of outcomes of these surgical procedures and recommendation prescription for their uses in application pelvic surgery. There was made analysis of published outcomes and experience with MI use in POP surgical treatment. OUTCOMES were analysed separately for each pelvic bottom section. Main criteria were surgical complications and treatment effectivity based on objective measurable parameters and subjective patients evaluation. There are formalized suitable indications and conditions for individual pelvic bottom sections for safe MI use in reconstructive POP surgery. On the basis of objective data authors also define specific situations when MI use doesn't bring any benefit and it is not recommended. Mesh implants have their definite place in POP surgical treatment. Implants with right indication and right surgical technique in comparison with classic surgical procedures have significantly lower recurrence risk with comparable or higher surgical complication rate.

  19. Treatment of patients with a congenital transversal vaginal septum or a partial aplasia of the vagina. The vaginal pull-through versus the push-through technique.

    PubMed

    van Bijsterveldt, Chantal; Willemsen, Wim

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the different modalities of congenital obstructing vaginal malformations and the evaluation of techniques to solve the problem. A retrospective study. The University Hospital Nijmegen, the Netherlands. The medical records of 18 patients with congenital obstructive malformations of the vagina operated on by one gynecologist were retrospectively reviewed. The conditions were classified in three groups: group I with one uterus and vagina and with a transverse vaginal septum, group II with a partial vaginal agenesis and group III with a double genital system and a septum with occlusion of one vagina. Operating technique used, mold treatment after surgery, menstruation outflow, the possibility of having intercourse and the need for additional surgery. 18 patients were evaluated. Of 10 patients in group I, 8 patients were treated with the pull-through technique and 2 patients with the push-through technique. Four of the patients with a pull-through operation did not get mold treatment; of these patients, 3 needed repeat surgery because of the tendency for constriction. Of 4 patients in group II, 1 patient was treated with the pull-through technique and 3 with the push-through technique. The patient with the pull-through technique needed repeat surgery because of constriction. There was no mold treatment after the first procedure. Group III were 4 patients all treated with the pull-through technique. None of them received mold treatment, and none of these patients needed repeat surgery. The push-through method is a good surgical technique for the patients in whom problems of constriction after surgery are expected and for patients with difficulties during surgery. Mold treatment is recommended after surgery in patients with a thick transversal vaginal septum or a partial vaginal aplasia.

  20. Vaginal versus Robotic Hysterectomy for Commonly Cited Relative Contraindications to Vaginal Hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Jennifer J; Occhino, John A; Weaver, Amy L; McGree, Michaela E; Gebhart, John B

    To compare outcomes of vaginal hysterectomy (VH) and robotic-assisted hysterectomy (RH) among women with conditions perceived as contraindications to VH (uterine size ≥ 12 weeks' gestation, no vaginal parity, prior cesarean delivery, and obesity). Retrospective chart review (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). Tertiary US medical center. Women with VH or RH. Women with conditions perceived as contraindications affecting surgical choice were excluded. VH or RH for benign uterine disease at our institution during 2009 through 2013. Among women with the perceived contraindications, a logistic regression model was fit to compare each binary outcome between VH and RH. Models were weighted using inverse probability of treatment weights derived from propensity scores to adjust for covariate imbalance between procedures. The cohort had 692 VHs and 472 RHs. Among 160 women with uterine size ≥ 12 weeks' gestation, RH patients were less likely to have uterine debulking (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], .37; 95% confidence interval [CI], .15-.95]) than VH patients and more likely to have accordion grade ≥ 2 postoperative complications (aOR, 7.20; 95% CI, 1.46-35.42) and readmission (aOR, 15.55; 95% CI. .85-285.20). Among 272 women with prior cesarean section, RH patients were more likely to have grade ≥ 2 postoperative complications (aOR, 2.85; 95% CI, 1.29-6.30). No outcomes were significantly different between surgical routes among women with no vaginal parity or obesity. Mean operative time was significantly longer for RH. VH is a surgical option for patients with the conditions perceived as contraindications for vaginal surgery evaluated herein. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Gynecologic Laparoscopists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Health Problems in Pregnancy Vaginal Bleeding Browse the Encyclopedia A. ...

  2. Vaginal eroticism: a replication study.

    PubMed

    Alzate, H

    1985-12-01

    Vaginal eroticism was investigated in a group of 27 coitally experienced volunteers by means of systematic digital stimulation of both vaginal walls. Erogenous zones were found in all subjects, mainly located on the upper anterior wall and the lower posterior one. An orgasmic response was elicited by stimulation of these zones in 89% of the subjects. This study supports previous findings regarding vaginal eroticism. It does not support the existence of the discrete anatomical structure called the Grafenberg spot. It supports the contention that there are two distinct types of female orgasm, vaginally evoked and clitorally evoked. It also supports the finding that some women expel a fluid through the urethra at the time of orgasm. In this particular case the fluid was chemically indistinguishable from urine.

  3. Treatment Option Overview (Vaginal Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... stage of the cancer being treated. External and internal radiation therapy are used to treat vaginal cancer, and may also be used as palliative therapy to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life . Chemotherapy Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment ...

  4. Drugs Approved for Vaginal Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to prevent vaginal cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  5. Desquamative inflammatory vaginitis. A review.

    PubMed Central

    Oates, J K; Rowen, D

    1990-01-01

    Desquamative inflammatory vaginitis is an uncommon cause of an intractable vaginitis often accompanied by serious dyspareunia, which can occur at any stage of reproductive life and after the menopause. The cytological changes are identical with those seen in atrophic vaginitis yet the disorder often occurs in the presence of apparently normal ovarian function. Vaginal synechiae and stenosis develop in an appreciable number of patients. Treatment is unsatisfactory though there is some response to either local or systemic steroid therapy. The literature is reviewed and the association of some cases with lichen planus of the mouth and genitals discussed. Its causation and natural history remain largely unknown and there is as yet, insufficient evidence to regard it as a single entity. It is likely that the incidence of the disorder is underestimated. PMID:2202657

  6. The Efficiency and Safety of Tension-Free Vaginal Tape (TVT) Abbrevo Procedure Versus TVT Exact in the Normal Weight and Overweight Patients Affected by Stress Urinary Incontinence.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi; Luo, Deyi; Yang, Lu; Wei, Xin; Tang, Cai; Chen, Mei; Shen, Hong; Wei, Qiang

    2017-12-01

    To compare the efficacy between 2 different slings in normal weight and overweight women. Of 426 women, 220 (119 normal weight and 101 overweight) accepted the tension-free vaginal tape Abbrevo (TVT-A) and 206 (114 normal weight and 92 overweight) accepted the TVT Exact (TVT-E) procedure. Data collected contained the subjective efficiency, objective efficiency International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF), Incontinence Quality of Life Questionnaire (I-QOL), Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire-Short Form (PFIQ-7), Urogenital Distress Inventory-Short Form (UDI-6), and Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire-Short Form (PISQ)-12 at 36 months after surgery. In the normal weight patients, the subjectively and objectively cured rates were all high in both TVT-A and TVE-E (94.12% and 95.61% in objective result; 92.44% and 94.74% in subjective result). In addition, the score of I-QOL, PFIQ-7, and UDI-6 have significantly changed (P <.00001 in each one). In the overweight patients, the subjective and objective efficiency were better in TVT-E than TVT-A. Moreover, the score of I-QOL, PFIQ-7, and UDI-6 of overweight women have significantly changed only in the TVT-E (P <.00001 in each one), whereas both procedures have no effect on the score of PISQ-12 (P = .063 and P = .180 for TVT-A and TVT-E, respectively). The TVT-E might be a better choice for the overweight patient than TVT-A. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Tension-free vaginal tape for treatment of pure urodynamic stress urinary incontinence: efficacy and adverse effects at 17-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Braga, Andrea; Caccia, Giorgio; Sorice, Paola; Cantaluppi, Simona; Coluccia, Anna Chiara; Di Dedda, Maria Carmela; Regusci, Luca; Ghezzi, Fabio; Uccella, Stefano; Serati, Maurizio

    2018-07-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of retropubic tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) 17 years after implantation for the treatment of female pure stress urinary incontinence (SUI). A prospective study was conducted in two urogynaecological units in two countries. All consecutive women with urodynamically proven pure SUI treated by TVT were included. Patients with mixed incontinence and/or anatomical evidence of pelvic organ prolapse were excluded. Data regarding subjective outcomes (International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form, Patient Global Impression of Improvement, and patient satisfaction scores), objective cure (stress test) rates, and adverse events were collected during follow-up. Univariable analysis was performed to investigate outcomes. A total of 52 women underwent TVT implantation. At 17-year follow-up, 46 women (88.4%) were available for the evaluation. We did not find any significant change in surgical outcomes during this time. At 17 years after surgery, 41 of 46 women (89.1%) declared themselves cured (P = 0.98). Similarly, at 17-year evaluation, 42 of 46 women (91.4%) were objectively cured. No significant deterioration in objective cure rates was observed over time (P for trend 0.50). The univariate analysis did not find any risk factor statistically associated with the recurrence of SUI. Of the 46 women, 15 (32.6%) reported the onset of de novo overactive bladder at 17-year follow-up. No other late complications were reported. The 17-year results of this study showed that TVT is a highly effective and safe option for the treatment of SUI. © 2018 The Authors BJU International © 2018 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The effect of age and medical comorbidities on in vitro myoblast expansion in women with and without pelvic organ prolapse.

    PubMed

    Price, Danielle Markle; Lane, Felicia L; Craig, Jocelyn B; Nistor, Gabriel; Motakef, Saba; Pham, Quynh-Ahn; Keirstead, Hans

    2014-01-01

    This is an observational study is designed to assess the influence of age, prolapse and medical co-morbidities on myogenic stem cells growth in-vitro. A biopsy of the rectus abdominus muscle was obtained during surgery in patients with and without pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Nuclei number and fiber count were correlated with patient's age, presence of POP, and medical comorbidities. Efficiency of expansion of myogenic stem cells in vitro was calculated. The percentage of Pax7-, MyoD-, and desmin-positive cells was correlated with age, POP status, and medical comorbidities. A total of 17 specimens were obtained; 13 specimens were available for histologic analysis. There was no correlation between patient's age, POP status or medical comorbidities and nuclei or fiber count, growth rate, or the percentage of Pax7- and MyoD-positive cells. Patients with 2 to 4 medical comorbidities were noted to have a significantly lower percentage of desmin-positive cells. Specimens with a higher nuclear count had significantly better cellular expansion. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis or Wilcoxon rank sum statistics. Multiple medical comorbidities but not patient's age or POP status influenced in vitro myogenic stem cell growth. These data suggest that patients with advancing age or POP may be acceptable autologous donors if treatment of urinary or anal incontinence requires myoblast transplantation.

  9. Conventional fascial technique versus mesh repair for advanced pelvic organ prolapse: Analysis of recurrences in treated and untreated compartments.

    PubMed

    Damiani, G R; Riva, D; Pellegrino, A; Gaetani, M; Tafuri, S; Turoli, D; Croce, P; Loverro, G

    2016-01-01

    117 women with severe pelvic organ prolapse (POP; stage > 2) were enrolled to elucidate a 24-month outcome of POP surgery, using conventional or mesh repair with 3 techniques. 59 patients underwent conventional repair and 58 underwent mesh repair. Two types of mesh were used: a trocar-guided transobturator polypropylene (Avaulta, Bard Inc.) and a porcine dermis mesh (Pelvisoft, Bard Inc.). Women with recurrences, who underwent previous unsuccessful conventional repair, were randomised. Primary outcome was the evaluation of anatomic failures (prolapse stage > 1) in treated and untreated compartments. Anatomic failure was observed in 11 of 58 patients (19%; CI 8.9-29) in the mesh group and in 16 of 59 patients (27.1%; p value = 0.3) in the conventional group. 9 of 11 failures in the mesh group (15.5%; CI 6.2-24.8) were observed in the untreated compartment (de novo recurrences), 14.3% in Pelvisoft and 16.7% in Avaulta arm, while only 1 recurrence in the untreated compartment (1.7%) was observed in the conventional group (odds ratio 10.6, p = 0.03).

  10. Large Urethro-Vesico-Vaginal Fistula due to a Vaginal Foreign Body in a 22-Year-Old Woman: Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    D'Elia, Carolina; Curti, Pierpaolo; Cerruto, Maria Angela; Monaco, Carmelo; Artibani, Walter

    2015-01-01

    In the non-industrialized countries of Africa and Asia obstetric fistulas are more frequently caused by prolonged labour, whereas in countries with developed healthcare systems they are generally the result of complications of gynaecological surgery or, rarely, benign pathologies like inflammation or foreign bodies. A 22-year-old woman was brought to the gynaecology clinic because of foul-smelling vaginal discharge. On pelvic examination a ring-like foreign body was impacted between the anterior and posterior vaginal wall. MRI scan confirmed the presence of a cylindrical foreign body in the vagina and the patient revealed that she had 'involuntarily' inserted a plastic bubble bath cap into the vagina. At surgery removal of the cap was difficult and at the end of the manoeuver evidence of a huge urethro-vesico-vaginal fistula occurred. The patient was discharged with bilateral ureteral stents and suprapubic catheter. After 3 months we performed an end-to-end anastomotic urethroplasty to repair the urethral avulsion and restored the bladder/trigonal and vaginal/cervical defects with 3 layers of sutures; 3 months later the patient had no complaints. Complex genital fistulas represent an extremely debilitating morbidity. In our case, a vaginal approach was successful, but the choice between an abdominal or vaginal approach depends on the surgeon's experience and training. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. A Simple Laparoscopic Procedure to Restore a Normal Vaginal Length After Colpohysterectomy With Large Upper Colpectomy for Cervical and/or Vaginal Neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Eric; Bresson, Lucie; Merlot, Benjamin; Puga, Marco; Kridelka, Frederic; Tsunoda, Audrey; Narducci, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Colpohysterectomy is sometimes associated with a large upper colpectomy resulting in a shortened vagina, potentially impacting sexual function. We report on a preliminary experience of a laparoscopic colpoplasty to restore a normal vaginal length. Patients with shortened vaginas after a laparoscopic colpohysterectomy were considered for a laparoscopic modified Davydov's procedure to create a new vaginal vault using the peritoneum of the rectum and bladder. From 2010 to 2014, 8 patients were offered this procedure, after informed preoperative consent. Indications were 2 extensive recurrent vaginal intraepithelial neoplasias grade 3 and 6 radical hysterectomies for cervical cancer. Mean vaginal length before surgery was 3.8 cm (standard deviation, 1.6). Median operative time was 50 minutes (range, 45-90). Blood loss was minimal (50-100 mL). No perioperative complications occurred. Median vaginal length at discharge was 11.3 cm (range, 9-13). Sexual intercourse could be resumed around 10 weeks after surgery. At a median follow-up of 33.8 months (range, 2.4-51.3), 6 patients remained sexually active but 2 had stopped. Although this experience is small, this laparoscopic modified Davydov's procedure seems to be an effective procedure, adaptable to each patient's anatomy. If the initial postoperative regular self-dilatation is carefully observed, vaginal patency is durably restored and enables normal sexual function. Copyright © 2016 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Vaginal rhinosporidiosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Jahan, S; Haque, M A; Nessa, F; Begum, A; Hasan, A H; Sen, S; Huq, M H

    2014-07-01

    The female genital tract is an extremely rare site for Rhinosporidiosis. Here we described a 13 year old girl who presented with a slow growing polypoid fleshy mass in the posterior vaginal wall near the orifice for 6 months with scanty bleeding from the mass. The girl was admitted to hospital with profuse watery vaginal discharge. Excision of the mass was followed by histopathological examination which confirmed the diagnosis Rhinosporidiosis.

  13. Recurrent vaginal discharge in children.

    PubMed

    McGreal, Sharon; Wood, Paul

    2013-08-01

    Childhood vaginal discharge remains a frequent reason for referral from primary to secondary care. The Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology (PAG) service at Kettering General Hospital was established in 1993 and provides a specialized service that meets the needs of children with gynaecological conditions. To investigate recurrent vaginal discharge noting symptomatology, defining pathogens, common and rarer causes, exploring management regimes, and any changes in practice over time. Retrospective review spanning 15 years identifying prepubertal children attending the outpatient PAG clinic with recurrent vaginal discharge. We reviewed the medical notes individually. 110 patients were identified; 85% were referred from primary care. The age distribution was bimodal at four and eight years. Thirty-five percent of our patients were discharged after the initial consultation. The commonest cause of discharge was vulvovaginitis (82%). Other important causes included suspected sexual abuse (5%), foreign body (3%), labial adhesions (3%), vaginal agenesis (2%). 35% of patients were admitted for vaginoscopy. Vaginal discharge is the most common gynecological symptom in prepubertal girls and can cause repeated clinical episodes. Vulvovaginitis is the most common cause and often responds to simple hygiene measures. Awareness of the less common causes of vaginal discharge is essential. Copyright © 2013 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Diagnosis and Therapy of Female Pelvic Organ Prolapse. Guideline of the DGGG, SGGG and OEGGG (S2e-Level, AWMF Registry Number 015/006, April 2016).

    PubMed

    Baeßler, K; Aigmüller, T; Albrich, S; Anthuber, C; Finas, D; Fink, T; Fünfgeld, C; Gabriel, B; Henscher, U; Hetzer, F H; Hübner, M; Junginger, B; Jundt, K; Kropshofer, S; Kuhn, A; Logé, L; Nauman, G; Peschers, U; Pfiffer, T; Schwandner, O; Strauss, A; Tunn, R; Viereck, V

    2016-12-01

    Aims: The aim was to establish an official interdisciplinary guideline, published and coordinated by the German Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics (DGGG). The guideline was developed for use in German-speaking countries. In addition to the Germany Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics, the guideline has also been approved by the Swiss Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics (SGGG) and the Austrian Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics (OEGGG). This is a guideline published and coordinated by the DGGG. The aim is to provide evidence-based recommendations obtained by evaluating the relevant literature for the diagnostic, conservative and surgical treatment of women with female pelvic organ prolapse with or without stress incontinence. Methods: We conducted a systematic review together with a synthesis of data and meta-analyses, where feasible. MEDLINE, Embase, Cinahl, Pedro and the Cochrane Register were searched for relevant articles. Reference lists were hand-searched, as were the abstracts of the Annual Meetings of the International Continence Society and the International Urogynecological Association. We included only abstracts of randomized controlled trials that were presented and discussed in podium sessions. We assessed original data on surgical procedures published since 2008 with a minimum follow-up time of at least 12 months. If the studies included descriptions of perioperative complications, this minimum follow-up period did not apply. Recommendations: The guideline encompasses recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of female pelvic organ prolapse. Recommendations for anterior, posterior and apical pelvic organ prolapse with or without concomitant stress urinary incontinence, uterine preservation options, and the pros and cons of mesh placements during surgery for pelvic organ prolapse are presented. The recommendations are based on an extensive and systematic review and evaluation of the current literature and include the experiences and specific

  15. Diagnosis and Therapy of Female Pelvic Organ Prolapse. Guideline of the DGGG, SGGG and OEGGG (S2e-Level, AWMF Registry Number 015/006, April 2016)

    PubMed Central

    Baeßler, K.; Aigmüller, T.; Albrich, S.; Anthuber, C.; Finas, D.; Fink, T.; Fünfgeld, C.; Gabriel, B.; Henscher, U.; Hetzer, F. H.; Hübner, M.; Junginger, B.; Jundt, K.; Kropshofer, S.; Kuhn, A.; Logé, L.; Nauman, G.; Peschers, U.; Pfiffer, T.; Schwandner, O.; Strauss, A.; Tunn, R.; Viereck, V.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The aim was to establish an official interdisciplinary guideline, published and coordinated by the German Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics (DGGG). The guideline was developed for use in German-speaking countries. In addition to the Germany Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics, the guideline has also been approved by the Swiss Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics (SGGG) and the Austrian Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics (OEGGG). This is a guideline published and coordinated by the DGGG. The aim is to provide evidence-based recommendations obtained by evaluating the relevant literature for the diagnostic, conservative and surgical treatment of women with female pelvic organ prolapse with or without stress incontinence. Methods: We conducted a systematic review together with a synthesis of data and meta-analyses, where feasible. MEDLINE, Embase, Cinahl, Pedro and the Cochrane Register were searched for relevant articles. Reference lists were hand-searched, as were the abstracts of the Annual Meetings of the International Continence Society and the International Urogynecological Association. We included only abstracts of randomized controlled trials that were presented and discussed in podium sessions. We assessed original data on surgical procedures published since 2008 with a minimum follow-up time of at least 12 months. If the studies included descriptions of perioperative complications, this minimum follow-up period did not apply. Recommendations: The guideline encompasses recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of female pelvic organ prolapse. Recommendations for anterior, posterior and apical pelvic organ prolapse with or without concomitant stress urinary incontinence, uterine preservation options, and the pros and cons of mesh placements during surgery for pelvic organ prolapse are presented. The recommendations are based on an extensive and systematic review and evaluation of the current literature and include the experiences and specific

  16. In vitro differentiation of endometrial regenerative cells into smooth muscle cells: Α potential approach for the management of pelvic organ prolapse.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiuhui; Kong, Xianchao; Liu, Dongzhe; Gao, Peng; Zhang, Yanhua; Li, Peiling; Liu, Meimei

    2016-07-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP), is a common condition in parous women. Synthetic mesh was once considered to be the standard of care; however, the use of synthetic mesh is limited by severe complications, thus creating a need for novel approaches. The application of cell-based therapy with stem cells may be an ideal alternative, and specifically for vaginal prolapse. Abnormalities in vaginal smooth muscle (SM) play a role in the pathogenesis of POP, indicating that smooth muscle cells (SMCs) may be a potential therapeutic target. Endometrial regenerative cells (ERCs) are an easily accessible, readily available source of adult stem cells. In the present study, ERCs were obtained from human menstrual blood, and phase contrast microscopy and flow cytometry were performed to characterize the morphology and phenotype of the ERCs. SMC differentiation was induced by a transforming growth factor β1-based medium, and the induction conditions were optimized. We defined the SMC characteristics of the induced cells with regard to morphology and marker expression using transmission electron microscopy, western blot analysis, immunocytofluorescence and RT-PCR. Examining the expression of the components of the Smad pathway and phosphorylated Smad2 and Smad3 by western blot analysis, RT-PCR and quantitative PCR demonstrated that the 'TGFBR2/ALK5/Smad2 and Smad3' pathway is involved, and both Smad2 and Smad3 participated in SMC differentiation. Taken together, these findings indicate that ERCs may be a promising cell source for cellular therapy aimed at modulating SM function in the vagina wall and pelvic floor in order to treat POP.

  17. Clinical observations on the treatment of prolapsing hemorrhoids with tissue selecting therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Yong; Zeng, Xian-Dong; Zhang, Tie-Hui; Zhu, Qi-Dong; Liu, De-Long; Qiao, Yun-Yu; Mu, Nan; Yin, Zhi-Tao

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare the effects and postoperative complications between tissue selecting therapy stapler (TST) and Milligan-Morgan hemorrhoidectomy (M-M). METHODS: Four hundred and eighty patients with severe prolapsing hemorrhoids, who were admitted to the Shenyang Coloproctology Hospital between 2009 and 2012, were randomly divided into observation (n = 240) and control (n = 240) groups. Hemorrhoidectomies were performed with TST in the observation group and with the M-M technique in the control group. The therapeutic effects, operation security, and postoperative complications in the two groups were compared. The immediate and long-term complications were assessed according to corresponding criteria. Pain was assessed on a visual analogue scale. The efficacy was assessed by specialized criteria. The follow-up was conducted one year after the operation. RESULTS: The total effective rates of the observation and control groups were 99.5% (217/218) and 98.6% (218/221) respectively; the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.322). Their were significant differences between observation and control groups in intraoperative blood loss (5.07 ± 1.14 vs 2.45 ± 0.57, P = 0.000), pain (12 h after the surgery: 5.08 ± 1.62 vs 7.19 ± 2.01, P = 0.000; at first dressing change: 2.64 ± 0.87 vs 4.34 ± 1.15, P = 0.000; first defecation: 3.91 ± 1.47 vs 5.63 ± 1.98, P = 0.001), urine retention (n = 22 vs n = 47, P = 0.001), anal pendant expansion after the surgery (2.35 ± 0.56 vs 5.16 ± 1.42, P = 0.000), operation time (18.3 ± 5.6 min vs 29.5 ± 8.2 min, P = 0.000), and the length of hospital stay (5.3 ± 0.6 d vs 11.4 ± 1.8 d, P = 0.000). Moreover TST showed significant reductions compared to M-M in the rates of long-term complications such as fecal incontinence (n = 3 vs n = 16, P = 0.003), difficult bowel movement (n = 1 vs n = 9, P = 0.011), intractable pain (n = 2 vs n = 12, P = 0.007), and anal discharge (n = 3 vs n = 23, P = 0.000). CONCLUSION: TST for

  18. Clinical observations on the treatment of prolapsing hemorrhoids with tissue selecting therapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Yong; Zeng, Xian-Dong; Zhang, Tie-Hui; Zhu, Qi-Dong; Liu, De-Long; Qiao, Yun-Yu; Mu, Nan; Yin, Zhi-Tao

    2015-02-28

    To compare the effects and postoperative complications between tissue selecting therapy stapler (TST) and Milligan-Morgan hemorrhoidectomy (M-M). Four hundred and eighty patients with severe prolapsing hemorrhoids, who were admitted to the Shenyang Coloproctology Hospital between 2009 and 2012, were randomly divided into observation (n=240) and control (n=240) groups. Hemorrhoidectomies were performed with TST in the observation group and with the M-M technique in the control group. The therapeutic effects, operation security, and postoperative complications in the two groups were compared. The immediate and long-term complications were assessed according to corresponding criteria. Pain was assessed on a visual analogue scale. The efficacy was assessed by specialized criteria. The follow-up was conducted one year after the operation. The total effective rates of the observation and control groups were 99.5% (217/218) and 98.6% (218/221) respectively; the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.322). Their were significant differences between observation and control groups in intraoperative blood loss (5.07±1.14 vs 2.45±0.57, P=0.000), pain (12 h after the surgery: 5.08±1.62 vs 7.19±2.01, P=0.000; at first dressing change: 2.64±0.87 vs 4.34±1.15, P=0.000; first defecation: 3.91±1.47 vs 5.63±1.98, P=0.001), urine retention (n=22 vs n=47, P=0.001), anal pendant expansion after the surgery (2.35±0.56 vs 5.16±1.42, P=0.000), operation time (18.3±5.6 min vs 29.5±8.2 min, P=0.000), and the length of hospital stay (5.3±0.6 d vs 11.4±1.8 d, P=0.000). Moreover TST showed significant reductions compared to M-M in the rates of long-term complications such as fecal incontinence (n=3 vs n=16, P=0.003), difficult bowel movement (n=1 vs n=9, P=0.011), intractable pain (n=2 vs n=12, P=0.007), and anal discharge (n=3 vs n=23, P=0.000). TST for severe prolapsing hemorrhoids is a satisfactory technique for more rapid recovery, lower complication rates, and

  19. [Operative vaginal deliveries training].

    PubMed

    Dupuis, O

    2008-12-01

    The appropriate use of forceps, vacuums or spatulas facilitates the rapid delivery of foetuses faced with life-threatening situations. It also makes possible the relief of certain cases of prolonged second-stage labor. In France, operative vaginal delivery (OVD) accounts for approximately 10% of all births. OVD training aims to optimize maternal, as well as neonatal safety. It should enable trainees to indicate or contraindicate an OVD safely, as well as to choose the appropriate instrument, use it correctly, and master quality control principles. Traditional OVD training is confronted with both spatial and time-related limitations. Spatial constraints involve both the teacher and trainee who only have limited visual access to the pelvic canal, and the head of the foetus; the time constraint occurs whenever the OVD occurs in an emergency setting. These limitations have been further aggravated by new constraints: decreasing time dedicated to training (European safety rules prohibit work the day after night duty), increasing litigation, and constraints imposed by society. Training by means of simulation removes such limitations making it possible to both avoid exposing pregnant women to the hazards of traditional training, and adapt the training to the skills of each trainee. OVD training should include forceps, vacuums and the use of spatulas. The OVD skills of obstetricians should be audited regularly on both a personal and a confidential level. Such audits could be based on a method using a simulator. Prospective studies comparing traditional and simulation-based training should be encouraged.

  20. Definition of a type of abnormal vaginal flora that is distinct from bacterial vaginosis: aerobic vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Donders, Gilbert G G; Vereecken, Annie; Bosmans, Eugene; Dekeersmaecker, Alfons; Salembier, Geert; Spitz, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    To define an entity of abnormal vaginal flora: aerobic vaginitis. Observational study. University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven, Belgium. 631 women attending for routine prenatal care or attending vaginitis clinic. Samples were taken for fresh wet mount microscopy of vaginal fluid, vaginal cultures and measurement of lactate, succinate and cytokine levels in vaginal fluid. Smears deficient in lactobacilli and positive for clue cells were considered to indicate a diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. Aerobic vaginitis was diagnosed if smears were deficient in lactobacilli, positive for cocci or coarse bacilli, positive for parabasal epithelial cells, and/or positive for vaginal leucocytes (plus their granular aspect). Genital complaints include red inflammation, yellow discharge, vaginal dyspareunia. Group B streptococci, escherichia coli, staphylococcus aureus and trichomonas vaginalis are frequently cultured. Vaginal lactate concentration is severely depressed in women with aerobic vaginitis, as in bacterial vaginosis, but vaginal succinate is not produced. Also in contrast to bacterial vaginosis, aerobic vaginitis produces a host immune response that leads to high production of interleukin-6, interleukin-1-beta and leukaemia inhibitory factor in the vaginal fluid. Aerobic vaginitis is associated with aerobic micro-organisms, mainly group B streptococci and E. coli. Its characteristics are different from those of bacterial vaginosis and elicit an important host response. The most severe form of aerobic vaginitis equals desquamative inflammatory vaginitis. In theory, aerobic vaginitis may be a better candidate than bacterial vaginosis as the cause of pregnancy complications, such as ascending chorioamnionitis, preterm rupture of the membranes and preterm delivery.

  1. Sexual dysfunction after colpectomy and vaginal reconstruction with a vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap.

    PubMed

    Løve, Uffe S; Sjøgren, Pia; Rasmussen, Peter; Laurberg, Søren; Christensen, Henrik K

    2013-02-01

    The use of the vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap in reconstruction after abdominoperineal resection or pelvic exenteration for neoplasia is well documented. However, functional outcomes after vaginal reconstruction, including sexual function, are poorly described. This study aimed to examine sexual function in women following extensive pelvic surgery with colpectomy and vaginal reconstruction with the use of a vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap. This study is a retrospective review of medical records in combination with patient questionnaires. Nonresponders were followed up with a second contact. This study was performed at a tertiary care university medical center (Colorectal Section, Department of Surgery P, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark) All women undergoing pelvic surgery and simultaneous vaginal reconstruction with the use of a vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap between 2004 and 2010 at our department were identified from a patient database. Thirty women who were alive at the time of identification were included in the study. Sexual function before and after surgery was evaluated by the use of the Sexual function Vaginal changes Questionnaire. The main outcome end point was whether the patient was sexually active after vaginal reconstruction. Twenty-six participants (87%) answered the questionnaire. Fifty percent of patients reported an active sex life before surgery. In general, patients reported an unchanged desire for both physical and sexual contact after surgery. However, only 2 patients (14%) reported being sexually active after surgery. This was a retrospective study with a heterogeneous cohort involving several types of cancers and surgical procedures. Factors other than vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap reconstruction itself may interfere with the sexual function. Extensive pelvic surgery with colpectomy leads to sexual dysfunction even when the vagina is reconstructed with a vertical rectus abdominis

  2. A comparison between stabilization exercises and pelvic floor muscle training in women with pelvic organ prolapse.

    PubMed

    Özengin, Nuriye; Ün Yıldırım, Necmiye; Duran, Bülent

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of stabilization exercises and pelvic floor muscle training in women with stage 1 and 2 pelvic organ prolapse. In a total 38 women with pelvic organ prolapse whose average age was 45.60 years, pelvic floor muscles were evaluated with electromyography, and prolapse with pelvic organ prolapse quantification system, and the quality of life with prolapse quality of life questionnaire. Afterwards, the subjects were divided into two groups; stabilization exercise group (n=19) and pelvic floor muscle training group (n=19). Stabilization exercise group were given training for 8 weeks, 3 times a week. Pelvic floor muscle training group were given eight-week home exercises. Each group was assessed before training and after eight weeks. An increase was found in the pelvic muscle activation response in the 2 groups (p≤0.05). There was no difference in EMG activity values between the groups (p>0.05). A difference was found in the values Aa, Ba and C in subjects of each group (p≤0.05), and the TVL, Ap, Bp and D values of subjects in pelvic floor muscle training group (p≤0.05) in the before and after pelvic organ prolapse quantification system assessment, however, no difference was found between the groups (p≤0.05). A positive difference was found in the effect of prolapse sub parameter in each of the two groups, and in general health perception sub parameter in subjects of stabilization exercise group (p<0.05) in the prolapse quality of life questionnaire. It was concluded that both training programs increased the pelvic floor muscle strength, provided a decline in prolapse stages. Stabilization exercise has increased general health perception unlike home training, thus, these exercises can be added to the treatment of women with prolapse.

  3. A comparison between stabilization exercises and pelvic floor muscle training in women with pelvic organ prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Özengin, Nuriye; Ün Yıldırım, Necmiye; Duran, Bülent

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of stabilization exercises and pelvic floor muscle training in women with stage 1 and 2 pelvic organ prolapse. Materials and Methods: In a total 38 women with pelvic organ prolapse whose average age was 45.60 years, pelvic floor muscles were evaluated with electromyography, and prolapse with pelvic organ prolapse quantification system, and the quality of life with prolapse quality of life questionnaire. Afterwards, the subjects were divided into two groups; stabilization exercise group (n=19) and pelvic floor muscle training group (n=19). Stabilization exercise group were given training for 8 weeks, 3 times a week. Pelvic floor muscle training group were given eight-week home exercises. Each group was assessed before training and after eight weeks. Results: An increase was found in the pelvic muscle activation response in the 2 groups (p≤0.05). There was no difference in EMG activity values between the groups (p>0.05). A difference was found in the values Aa, Ba and C in subjects of each group (p≤0.05), and the TVL, Ap, Bp and D values of subjects in pelvic floor muscle training group (p≤0.05) in the before and after pelvic organ prolapse quantification system assessment, however, no difference was found between the groups (p≤0.05). A positive difference was found in the effect of prolapse sub parameter in each of the two groups, and in general health perception sub parameter in subjects of stabilization exercise group (p<0.05) in the prolapse quality of life questionnaire. Conclusions: It was concluded that both training programs increased the pelvic floor muscle strength, provided a decline in prolapse stages. Stabilization exercise has increased general health perception unlike home training, thus, these exercises can be added to the treatment of women with prolapse. PMID:28913034

  4. Clitoral Reconstruction Using a Vaginal Graft After Female Genital Mutilation.

    PubMed

    Mañero, Ivan; Labanca, Trinidad

    2018-04-01

    Clitoral reconstruction after genital mutilation is a feasible and effective strategy to reduce clitoral pain, improve sexual pleasure, and restore vulvar appearance. We describe a novel surgical technique for clitorolabial reconstruction using a vaginal graft. We present a series of 32 consecutive women who underwent this procedure at Iván Mañero Clinic, Barcelona, Spain, and were prospectively followed. The total Female Sexual Function Index changed favorably from 16 before surgery to 29 after surgery (P<.05). Likewise, the Female Self-Image Genital Scale changed favorably from 11 to 23 (P<.05). Clitoral reconstruction after genital mutilation was associated with improved sexual function and genital aesthetic perception.

  5. Prolapse of all cardiac valves in Noonan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Otikunta, Adikesava Naidu; Subbareddy, Y V; Polamuri, Praneeth; Thakkar, Ashok

    2015-02-25

    Noonan syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder with genetically heterogeneous inheritance. The incidence of cardiac abnormalities is higher in patients with Noonan syndrome and approximately 80% patients with Noonan syndrome are reported to have cardiac abnormalities during their lifetimes. However, polyvalvular disease in Noonan syndrome is rare. In this case-report, we describe a case of a young man whose features were strongly suggestive of Noonan syndrome and who was diagnosed with prolapse of all four cardiac valves after 22 years of uneventful survival. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  6. Histological study on the effects of microablative fractional CO2 laser on atrophic vaginal tissue: an ex vivo study.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, Stefano; Leone Roberti Maggiore, Umberto; Athanasiou, Stavros; Origoni, Massimo; Candiani, Massimo; Calligaro, Alberto; Zerbinati, Nicola

    2015-08-01

    Microablative fractional CO2 laser has been proven to determine tissue remodeling with neoformation of collagen and elastic fibers on atrophic skin. The aim of our study is to evaluate the effects of microablative fractional CO2 laser on postmenopausal women with vulvovaginal atrophy using an ex vivo model. This is a prospective ex vivo cohort trial. Consecutive postmenopausal women with vulvovaginal atrophy managed with pelvic organ prolapse surgical operation were enrolled. After fascial plication, the redundant vaginal edge on one side was treated with CO2 laser (SmartXide2; DEKA Laser, Florence, Italy). Five different CO2 laser setup protocols were tested. The contralateral part of the vaginal wall was always used as control. Excessive vagina was trimmed and sent for histological evaluation to compare treated and nontreated tissues. Microscopic and ultrastructural aspects of the collagenic and elastic components of the matrix were studied, and a specific image analysis with computerized morphometry was performed. We also considered the fine cytological aspects of connective tissue proper cells, particularly fibroblasts. During the study period, five women were enrolled, and 10 vaginal specimens were finally retrieved. Four different settings of CO2 laser were compared. Protocols were tested twice each to confirm histological findings. Treatment protocols were compared according to histological findings, particularly in maximal depth and connective changes achieved. All procedures were uneventful for participants. This study shows that microablative fractional CO2 laser can produce a remodeling of vaginal connective tissue without causing damage to surrounding tissue.

  7. Clinical Characteristics of Aerobic Vaginitis and Its Association to Vaginal Candidiasis, Trichomonas Vaginitis and Bacterial Vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Jahic, Mahira; Mulavdic, Mirsada; Nurkic, Jasmina; Jahic, Elmir; Nurkic, Midhat

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim of the work: Examine clinical characteristics of aerobic vaginitis and mixed infection for the purpose of better diagnostic accuracy and treatment efficiency. Materials and methods: Prospective research has been conducted at Clinic for Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department for Microbiology and Pathology at Polyclinic for laboratory diagnostic and Gynecology and Obstetrics Department at Health Center Sapna. Examination included 100 examinees with the signs of vaginitis. Examination consisted of: anamnesis, clinical, gynecological and microbiological examination of vaginal smear. Results: The average age of the examinees was 32,62±2,6. Examining vaginal smears of the examinees with signs of vaginitis in 96% (N-96) different microorganisms have been isolated, while in 4% (N-4) findings were normal. AV has been found in 51% (N-51) of the examinees, Candida albicans in 17% (N-17), BV in 15% (N-15), Trichomonas vaginalis in 13% (N-13). In 21% (N-21) AV was diagnosed alone while associated with other agents in 30% (N-30). Most common causes of AV are E. coli (N-55) and E. faecalis (N-52). AV and Candida albicanis have been found in (13/30, 43%), Trichomonas vaginalis in (9/30, 30%) and BV (8/30, 26%). Vaginal secretion is in 70,05% (N-36) yellow coloured, red vagina wall is recorded in 31,13% (N-16) and pruritus in 72,54% (N-37). Increased pH value of vagina found in 94,10% (N-48). The average pH value of vaginal environment was 5,15±0,54 and in associated presence of AV and VVC, TV and BV was 5,29±0,56 which is higher value considering presence of AV alone but that is not statistically significant difference (p>0,05). Amino-odor test was positive in 29,94% (N-15) of associated infections. Lactobacilli are absent, while leukocytes are increased in 100% (N-51) of the examinees with AV. Conclusion: AV is vaginal infection similar to other vaginal infections. It is important to be careful while diagnosing because the treatment of AV differentiates from

  8. Clinical characteristics of aerobic vaginitis and its association to vaginal candidiasis, trichomonas vaginitis and bacterial vaginosis.

    PubMed

    Jahic, Mahira; Mulavdic, Mirsada; Nurkic, Jasmina; Jahic, Elmir; Nurkic, Midhat

    2013-12-01

    Examine clinical characteristics of aerobic vaginitis and mixed infection for the purpose of better diagnostic accuracy and treatment efficiency. Prospective research has been conducted at Clinic for Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department for Microbiology and Pathology at Polyclinic for laboratory diagnostic and Gynecology and Obstetrics Department at Health Center Sapna. Examination included 100 examinees with the signs of vaginitis. anamnesis, clinical, gynecological and microbiological examination of vaginal smear. The average age of the examinees was 32,62±2,6. Examining vaginal smears of the examinees with signs of vaginitis in 96% (N-96) different microorganisms have been isolated, while in 4% (N-4) findings were normal. AV has been found in 51% (N-51) of the examinees, Candida albicans in 17% (N-17), BV in 15% (N-15), Trichomonas vaginalis in 13% (N-13). In 21% (N-21) AV was diagnosed alone while associated with other agents in 30% (N-30). Most common causes of AV are E. coli (N-55) and E. faecalis (N-52). AV and Candida albicanis have been found in (13/30, 43%), Trichomonas vaginalis in (9/30, 30%) and BV (8/30, 26%). Vaginal secretion is in 70,05% (N-36) yellow coloured, red vagina wall is recorded in 31,13% (N-16) and pruritus in 72,54% (N-37). Increased pH value of vagina found in 94,10% (N-48). The average pH value of vaginal environment was 5,15±0,54 and in associated presence of AV and VVC, TV and BV was 5,29±0,56 which is higher value considering presence of AV alone but that is not statistically significant difference (p>0,05). Amino-odor test was positive in 29,94% (N-15) of associated infections. Lactobacilli are absent, while leukocytes are increased in 100% (N-51) of the examinees with AV. AV is vaginal infection similar to other vaginal infections. It is important to be careful while diagnosing because the treatment of AV differentiates from treatment of other vaginitis.

  9. Streptococcus agalactiae: a vaginal pathogen?

    PubMed

    Maniatis, A N; Palermos, J; Kantzanou, M; Maniatis, N A; Christodoulou, C; Legakis, N J

    1996-03-01

    The significance of Streptococcus agalactiae as an aetiological agent in vaginitis was evaluated. A total of 6226 samples from women who presented with vaginal symptoms was examined. The presence of >10 leucocytes/high-power field (h.p.f.) was taken to be the criterion of active infection. S. agalactiae was isolated from 10.1% of these samples. The isolation rates of other common pathogens such as Candida spp., Gardnerella vaginalis and Trichomonas spp. were 54.1%, 27.2% and 4.2%, respectively, in the same group of patients. In contrast, the isolation rates of these micro-organisms in the group of patients who had no infection (<10 leucocytes/h.p.f.) were 4.2%, 38.3%, 33% and 0.5%, respectively. In the majority of samples from which S. agalactiae was isolated, it was the sole pathogen isolated (83%) and its presence was associated with an inflammatory response in 80% of patients. Furthermore, the relative risk of vaginal infection with S. agalactiae (2.38) in patients with purulent vaginal discharge was greater than that of Candida spp. infection (1.41) and lower than that of Trichomonas spp. infection (8.32). These data suggest that S. agalactiae in symptomatic women with microscopic evidence of inflammation should be considered a causative agent of vaginitis.

  10. Defining normal apical vaginal support: a relook at the POSST study.

    PubMed

    Patnam, Radhika; Edenfield, Autumn; Swift, Steven

    2018-06-16

    The purpose of this study is to reanalyze data from the original 2005 Pelvic Organ Support Study (POSST) data set to define normal values for apical Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) points C and D and total vaginal length (TVL) in an asymptomatic population of women. In this retrospective observational data-set review, patient were >18 years presenting for annual gynecologic exams to six centers in the United States. Data included demographics, questions about prolapse symptoms, and POP-Q points. Means and standard deviations were determined for each POP-Q point in the total population. The data set comprised 1011 women; 59 were excluded because they met criteria for having POP or were missing data. This left 948 for study. Mean age of our study population was 42 ± 14 years, and 45.6% were white, 25.1% black, and 25.2% Hispanic. One hundred fifty-six had a prior hysterectomy. Mean values with standard deviations (SD) for POP-Q values are as following: point C (vaginal cuff) -7.3 ± 1.5 cm, point C (cervix) -5.9 ± 1.5, point D -8.7 cm ± 1.5 cm, TVL (no hysterectomy) 9.8 cm ± 1.3 cm, and TVL (hysterectomy) 8.9 cm ± 1.5 cm. This data suggests normal values for POP-Q apical points in a population of patient with annual gynecological exams.

  11. Misconceptions and Miscommunication among Women with Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Wieslander, Cecilia K.; Alas, Alexandriah; Dunivan, Gena C.; Sevilla, Claudia; Cichowski, Sara; Maliski, Sally; Eilber, Karyn; Rogers, Rebecca G.; Anger, Jennifer T.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis To better understand women’s experience with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) symptoms and to describe factors that prevent disease understanding among Spanish- and English speaking women. Methods Women with POP were recruited from female urology and urogynecology clinics in Los Angeles, California and Albuquerque, New Mexico. Eight focus groups were conducted, four in Spanish and four in English. Topics addressed patients’ emotional responses when noticing their prolapse, how they sought support, what verbal and written information was given, and their overall feelings of the process. Additionally, patients were asked about their experience with their treating physician. All interview transcripts were analyzed using Grounded Theory qualitative methods. Results Qualitative analysis yielded two preliminary themes: First, women had misconceptions about what POP was as well as its causes and treatments. Secondly, there was a great deal of miscommunication between patient and physician which led to decreased understanding about the diagnosis and treatment options. This included the fact that women were often overwhelmed with information which they did not understand. The concept emerged that there is a strong need for better methods to achieve disease and treatment understanding for women with POP. Conclusions Our data emphasize that women with POP have considerable misconceptions about their disease. In addition, there is miscommunication during the patient-physician interaction that leads to further confusion among Spanish and English speaking women. Spending more time explaining the diagnosis of POP, rather than focusing solely on treatment options, may reduce miscommunication and increase patient understanding. PMID:25516231

  12. Age and cellular context influence rectal prolapse formation in mice with caecal wall colorectal cancer xenografts.

    PubMed

    Tommelein, Joke; Gremonprez, Félix; Verset, Laurine; De Vlieghere, Elly; Wagemans, Glenn; Gespach, Christian; Boterberg, Tom; Demetter, Pieter; Ceelen, Wim; Bracke, Marc; De Wever, Olivier

    2016-11-15

    In patients with rectal prolapse is the prevalence of colorectal cancer increased, suggesting that a colorectal tumor may induce rectal prolapse. Establishment of tumor xenografts in immunodeficient mice after orthotopic inoculations of human colorectal cancer cells into the caecal wall is a widely used approach for the study of human colorectal cancer progression and preclinical evaluation of therapeutics. Remarkably, 70% of young mice carrying a COLO320DM caecal tumor showed symptoms of intussusception of the large bowel associated with intestinal lumen obstruction and rectal prolapse. The quantity of the COLO320DM bioluminescent signal of the first three weeks post-inoculation predicts prolapse in young mice. Rectal prolapse was not observed in adult mice carrying a COLO320DM caecal tumor or young mice carrying a HT29 caecal tumor. In contrast to HT29 tumors, which showed local invasion and metastasis, COLO320DM tumors demonstrated a non-invasive tumor with pushing borders without presence of metastasis. In conclusion, rectal prolapse can be linked to a non-invasive, space-occupying COLO320DM tumor in the gastrointestinal tract of young immunodeficient mice. These data reveal a model that can clarify the association of patients showing rectal prolapse with colorectal cancer.

  13. Body image perceptions in women with pelvic organ prolapse: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Lowder, Jerry L; Ghetti, Chiara; Nikolajski, Cara; Oliphant, Sallie S; Zyczynski, Halina M

    2011-05-01

    To describe perceptions of prolapse-specific body image in women with symptomatic prolapse. Women with symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse quantification stage ≥ II prolapse participated in semistructured focus groups or self-report questionnaire. Transcripts were independently reviewed and body image themes were identified and confirmed by consensus. Twenty-five women participated in focus groups and 27 in online questionnaires. Transcript analysis revealed 3 central themes and 25 body-image related subthemes. Women living with prolapse were more likely to feel self-conscious, isolated, "different," less feminine, and less attractive. Women often changed sexual intimacy practices because of embarrassment or discomfort, and many avoided intimacy all together. Prolapse greatly affected women's personal and professional activities causing some women to adjust routines or stop activities. Women reported loss of interest in activities, distraction while performing daily/work-related tasks, and embarrassment when asking for help with activities. Themes identified in this qualitative study demonstrate the profound effect of prolapse on a woman's body image. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Vaginitis: current microbiologic and clinical concepts.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, L V; Embil, J A

    1986-01-01

    Infectious vaginitis occurs when the normal vaginal flora is disrupted; it may arise when saprophytes overwhelm the host immune response, when pathogenic organisms are introduced into the vagina or when changes in substrate allow an imbalance of microorganisms to develop. Examples of these types of vaginitis include the presence of chronic fungal infection in women with an inadequate cellular immune response to the yeast, the introduction of trichomonads into vaginal epithelium that has a sufficient supply of glycogen, and the alteration in bacterial flora, normally dominated by Lactobacillus spp., and its metabolites that is characteristic of "nonspecific vaginitis". The authors review microbiologic and clinical aspects of the fungal, protozoal and bacterial infections, including the interactions of bacteria thought to produce nonspecific vaginitis, that are now recognized as causing vaginitis. Other causes of vaginitis are also discussed. PMID:3510698

  15. Vaginitis: current microbiologic and clinical concepts.

    PubMed

    Hill, L V; Embil, J A

    1986-02-15

    Infectious vaginitis occurs when the normal vaginal flora is disrupted; it may arise when saprophytes overwhelm the host immune response, when pathogenic organisms are introduced into the vagina or when changes in substrate allow an imbalance of microorganisms to develop. Examples of these types of vaginitis include the presence of chronic fungal infection in women with an inadequate cellular immune response to the yeast, the introduction of trichomonads into vaginal epithelium that has a sufficient supply of glycogen, and the alteration in bacterial flora, normally dominated by Lactobacillus spp., and its metabolites that is characteristic of "nonspecific vaginitis". The authors review microbiologic and clinical aspects of the fungal, protozoal and bacterial infections, including the interactions of bacteria thought to produce nonspecific vaginitis, that are now recognized as causing vaginitis. Other causes of vaginitis are also discussed.

  16. The effect of vaginal cream containing ginger in users of clotrimazole vaginal cream on vaginal candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Shabanian, Sheida; Khalili, Sima; Lorigooini, Zahra; Malekpour, Afsaneh; Heidari-Soureshjani, Saeid

    2017-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is one of the most common infections of the genital tract in women that causes many complications. Therefore, we examined the clinical effect of ginger cream along with clotrimazole compared to vaginal clotrimazole alone in this study. This double-blind clinical trial was conducted on 67 women admitted to the Gynecology Clinic of Hajar Hospital with vaginal candidiasis. The patients were divided randomly into two groups of 33 and 34 people. The diagnosis was made according to clinical symptoms, wet smear, and culture. Ginger-clotrimazole vaginal cream 1% and clotrimazole vaginal cream 1% were administered to groups 1 and 2, respectively, once a day for 7 days and therapeutic effects and symptoms were evaluated in readmission. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 22, t -test and Chi-square. The mean value of variables itching ( P > 0.05), burning ( P > 0.05), and cheesy secretion ( P < 0.05) in users of ginger-clotrimazole was less than the other group after the treatment. Recurrence in clotrimazole group was 48.5% and in ginger-clotrimazole group 51.2% during the 1-month follow-up with no significant difference. Study results showed that cream containing ginger and clotrimazole 1% was more effective and may be more useful than the clotrimazole to treat vaginal candidiasis.

  17. Premenarchal, recurrent vaginal discharge associated with an incomplete obstructing longitudinal vaginal septum.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Keith A; DeWitt, Jason

    2005-12-01

    To describe an unusual, premenarchal presentation of an obstructive vaginal anomaly. Case Report. University Medical Center. Premenarchal subject Vaginogram, vaginal septum resection. Vaginal septum resection with resolution of vaginal discharge. This case demonstrates some of the typical features of uterus didelphys bicollis with incomplete obstructing hemivagina, but had a unique presentation with premenarchal, recurrent vaginal discharge. Typically, patients with an obstructing mullerian anomaly present after menarche with pelvic pain and a mass. The vaginogram assists in the preoperative definition of abnormal anatomy which allows the surgeon to develop the most appropriate surgical approach. Resection of this incompletely obstructing vaginal septum resulted in resolution of the recurrent vaginal discharge.

  18. Evaluation of current synthetic mesh materials in pelvic organ prolapse repair.

    PubMed

    Kanagarajah, Prashanth; Ayyathurai, Rajinikanth; Gomez, Christopher

    2012-06-01

    With increasing use of synthetic material in pelvic organ prolapse repair, the reporting and incidence of associated complications also have increased. The role of synthetic mesh in pelvic organ prolapse repair remains controversial and it is a therapeutic dilemma whether to continue its use in patients with poor native tissues, despite the recent public safety notification provided by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. In this article, we review the biomaterials used in pelvic organ prolapse repair and discuss the outcomes and associated complications, paying emphasis to the benefits and the risks.

  19. A case of pelvic organ prolapse in the setting of cirrhotic ascites.

    PubMed

    Shah, Nima M; Ginzburg, Natasha; Whitmore, Kristene

    2016-01-01

    Ascites is commonly found in patients with liver cirrhosis. Although conservative therapy is often the ideal choice of care with these patients who also have symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse, this may fail and surgical methods may be needed. Literature is limited regarding surgical repair of prolapse in the setting of ascites. The authors present the surgical evaluation and management of a 63-year-old woman with recurrent ascites from liver cirrhosis who failed conservative therapy. With adequate multidisciplinary care and medical optimization, this patient underwent surgical therapy with resolution of her symptomatic prolapse and improved quality of life.

  20. Emergent presentation of decompensated mitral valve prolapse and atrial septal defect.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jessie; Das, Bijon

    2015-05-01

    Mitral valve prolapse is not commonly on the list of differential diagnosis when a patient presents in the emergency department (ED) in severe distress, presenting with non-specific features such as abdominal pain, tachycardia and dyspnea. A healthy 55-year-old man without significant past medical history arrived in the ED with a unique presentation of a primary mitral valve prolapse with an atrial septal defect uncommon in cardiology literature. Early recognition of mitral valve prolapse in high-risk patients for severe mitral regurgitation or patients with underlying cardiovascular abnormalities such as an atrial septal defect is crucial to prevent morbid outcomes such as sudden cardiac death.

  1. Consensus Statement of the European Urology Association and the European Urogynaecological Association on the Use of Implanted Materials for Treating Pelvic Organ Prolapse and Stress Urinary Incontinence.

    PubMed

    Chapple, Christopher R; Cruz, Francisco; Deffieux, Xavier; Milani, Alfredo L; Arlandis, Salvador; Artibani, Walter; Bauer, Ricarda M; Burkhard, Fiona; Cardozo, Linda; Castro-Diaz, David; Cornu, Jean Nicolas; Deprest, Jan; Gunnemann, Alfons; Gyhagen, Maria; Heesakkers, John; Koelbl, Heinz; MacNeil, Sheila; Naumann, Gert; Roovers, Jan-Paul W R; Salvatore, Stefano; Sievert, Karl-Dietrich; Tarcan, Tufan; Van der Aa, Frank; Montorsi, Francesco; Wirth, Manfred; Abdel-Fattah, Mohamed

    2017-09-01

    Surgical nonautologous meshes have been used for several decades to repair abdominal wall herniae. Implantable materials have been adopted for the treatment of female and male stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and female pelvic organ prolapse (POP). A consensus review of existing data based on published meta-analyses and reviews. This document summarises the deliberations of a consensus group meeting convened by the European Association of Urology (EAU) and the European Urogynecological Association, to explore the current evidence relating to the use of polypropylene (PP) materials used for the treatment of SUI and POP, with reference to the 2016 EAU guidelines (European Association of Urology 2016), the European Commission's SCENIHR report on the use of surgical meshes (SCENIHR 2015), other available high-quality evidence, guidelines, and national recommendations. Current data suggest that the use of nonautologous durable materials in surgery has well-established benefits but significant risks, which are specific to the condition and location they are used for. Various graft-related complications have been described-such as infection, chronic pain including dyspareunia, exposure in the vagina, shrinkage, erosion into other organs of xenografts, synthetic PP tapes (used in SUI), and meshes (used in POP)-which differ from the complications seen with abdominal herniae. When considering surgery for SUI, it is essential to evaluate the available options, which may include synthetic midurethral slings (MUSs) using PP tapes, bulking agents, colposuspension, and autologous sling surgery. The use of synthetic MUSs for surgical treatment of SUI in both male and female patients has good efficacy and acceptable morbidity. Synthetic mesh for POP should be used only in complex cases with recurrent prolapse in the same compartment and restricted to those surgeons with appropriate training who are working in multidisciplinary referral centres. Synthetic slings can be safely used

  2. [Transverse vaginal septum in the upper part of the vagina and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Bautista Gómez, Esperanza; Morales-García, Victor; Flores-Romero, Ana Luisa; Pizarro Osorno, Noel; Velásquez-Valdivia, Abner

    2012-07-01

    Transverse vaginal septum is a congenital Mullerian malformation resulting from a failure of the fusion or canalization of the urogenital sinus and the Müllerian ducts. It may cause hematocolpos, dyspareunia and infertility in adult patients. In some cases, it is associated with congenital malformations such as coarctation of the aorta or atrial septal defects. A case of a transverse vaginal septum identified during a vaginal check-up of a 39-week pregnant patient during labour is reported. A cesarean surgery was performed with no complications. Septal defect was diagnosed due to heart murmur. It was decided to treat the transverse vaginal septum as soon as the puerperium was over. The patient left the hospital after proper response to treatment.

  3. 21 CFR 884.3575 - Vaginal pessary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vaginal pessary. 884.3575 Section 884.3575 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... Vaginal pessary. (a) Identification. A vaginal pessary is a removable structure placed in the vagina to...

  4. 21 CFR 884.5920 - Vaginal insufflator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vaginal insufflator. 884.5920 Section 884.5920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5920 Vaginal insufflator. (a) Identification. A vaginal insufflator is a device used to treat...

  5. Preoperative vaginal preparation with baby shampoo compared with povidone-iodine before gynecologic procedures.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Linda A; Lathi, Ruth B; Crochet, Patrice; Nezhat, Camran

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the postoperative infection rates between patients receiving either povidone-iodine (PI) or baby shampoo vaginal preparations before gynecologic surgery. Cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). University referral center for gynecologic endoscopy. All patients underwent minimally invasive gynecologic surgery including hysteroscopy or laparoscopy. The agents used for vaginal preparation were either baby shampoo in a 1:1 dilution with sterile normal saline solution or PI 7.5% scrub solution. Charts were reviewed for evidence of infection within 30 days of surgery (symptoms of urinary tract infection, abdominal or vaginal wound infections, temperature > 100.4 degrees F, and fungal or bacterial vaginitis). A total of 249 cases were collected; 96 subjects underwent surgery before the change to baby shampoo and 153 subjects after. Both groups were well matched for the types of surgery performed, age, risk factors for postoperative infections, and the postoperative diagnosis. The infection rates were 14/96 (14.6%) with PI preparation versus 18/153 (11.8%) with baby shampoo (p = .52). Baby shampoo should be studied as an alternative to PI because it is a nonirritating, inexpensive mild detergent. This preliminary study suggests that baby shampoo is as effective as PI in preventing postoperative infection.

  6. Vaginal delivery of carboplatin-loaded thermosensitive hydrogel to prevent local cervical cancer recurrence in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue; Wang, Jin; Wu, Wenbin; Li, Hongjun

    2016-11-01

    Local tumor recurrence after cervical cancer surgery remains a clinical problem. Vaginal delivery of thermosensitive hydrogel may be suited to reduce tumor relapse rate with more efficacy and safety. A pilot study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of carboplatin-loaded poloxamer hydrogel to prevent local recurrence of cervical cancer after surgery. In vivo vaginal retention evaluation of 27% poloxamer hydrogel in mice was proven to be a suitable vaginal drug delivery formulation due to its low gelation temperature. A mimic orthotopic cervical/vaginal cancer recurrence model after surgery was established by injecting murine cervical cancer cell line U14 into the vaginal submucosa to simulate the residual tumor cells infiltrated in the surgical site, followed by drug administration 24 h later to interfere with the formation/recurrence of the tumor. By infusing fluorescein sodium-loaded hydrogel into the vagina of mice, a maximized accumulation of fluorescein sodium (Flu) in the vagina was achieved and few signals were observed in other organs. When used in the prevention of the cervical cancer formation/recurrence in mice, the carboplatin-loaded poloxamer hydrogel exhibited great efficacy and systemic safety. In conclusion, thermosensitive hydrogel presents a simple, practical approach for the local drug delivery via vagina against cervical cancer recurrence.

  7. Optical clearing of vaginal tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chun-Hung; Myers, Erinn M.; Kennelly, Michael J.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2017-02-01

    Near-IR laser energy in conjunction with applied tissue cooling is being investigated for thermal remodeling of endopelvic fascia during minimally invasive treatment of female stress urinary incontinence. Previous simulations of light transport, heat transfer, and tissue thermal damage have shown that a transvaginal approach is more feasible than a transurethral approach. However, undesirable thermal insult to vaginal wall was predicted. This study explores whether an optical clearing agent (OCA) can improve optical penetration depth and completely preserve vaginal wall during subsurface treatment of endopelvic fascia. Several OCA mixtures were tested, and 100% glycerol was found to be optimal. Optical transmission studies, optical coherence tomography, reflection spectroscopy, and computer simulations of thermal damage to tissue using glycerol were performed. The OCA produced a 61% increase in optical transmission through porcine vaginal wall at 37 °C after 30 min. Monte Carlo (MC) light transport, heat transfer, and Arrhenius integral thermal damage simulations were performed. MC model showed improved energy deposition in endopelvic fascia using OCA. Without OCA, 62, 37, and 1% of energy was deposited in vaginal wall, endopelvic fascia, and urethral wall, compared with 50, 49, and 1% with OCA. Use of OCA also yielded 0.5 mm increase in treatment depth, allowing potential thermal tissue remodeling at 3 mm depth.

  8. [Aerobic vaginitis--diagnostic problems and treatment].

    PubMed

    Romanik, Małgorzata; Wojciechowska-Wieja, Anna; Martirosian, Gayane

    2007-06-01

    The diagnostic criteria and treatment of aerobic vaginitis--AV--have been summarized in this review. An expansion of mixed aerobic microflora, especially Group B Streptococcus--GBS, Escherichia coli--E. coli, Enterococcus spp., and the development of inflammation of the vaginal mucous membrane due to a decreasing amount of Lactobacillus spp., have been observed in women with AV. Disruptions of the vaginal ecosystem during AV cause an increase in pH to >6, a decrease in lactates concentration and an increase in proinflammatory cytokines concentration in vaginal discharge. An optimal treatment scheme for AV, which includes antibacterial agents and simultaneously normalizes the vaginal ecosystem, has not been established until today.

  9. Effect of estrogen on molecular and functional characteristics of the rodent vaginal muscularis

    PubMed Central

    Basha, Maureen E.; Chang, Shaohua; Burrows, Lara J.; Lassmann, Jenny; Wein, Alan J.; Moreland, Robert S.; Chacko, Samuel K.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Vaginal atrophy is a consequence of menopause however little is known concerning the effect of a decrease in systemic estrogen on vaginal smooth muscle structure and function. As the incidence of pelvic floor disorders increases with age, it is important to determine if estrogen regulates the molecular composition and contractility of the vaginal muscularis. Aim The goal of this study was to determine the effect of estrogen on molecular and functional characteristics of the vaginal muscularis utilizing a rodent model of surgical menopause. Methods 3–4 month old Sprague Dawley rats underwent sham laparotomy (Sham, n=18) or ovariectomy (Ovx, n=39). Two weeks following surgery, animals received a subcutaneous osmotic pump containing vehicle (Sham, Ovx) or 17- β estradiol (Ovx). Animals were euthanized one week later and the proximal vagina was collected for analysis of contractile protein expression and in vitro studies of contractility. Measurements were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc analysis (α= 0.05). Main Outcome Measures Protein and mRNA transcript expression levels of contractile proteins, in vitro measurements of vaginal contractility Results Ovariectomy decreased the expression of carboxyl-terminal myosin heavy chain isoform SM1 and h-caldesmon and reduced the amplitude of contraction of the vaginal muscularis in response to KCl. Estradiol replacement reversed these changes. No differences were detected in the % vaginal muscularis, mRNA transcript expression of amino terminal MHC isoforms, l-caldesmon expression and maximal velocity of shortening. Conclusion Systemic estrogen replacement restores functional and molecular characteristics of the vaginal muscularis of ovariectomized rats. Our results indicate that menopause is associated with changes in the vaginal muscularis, which may contribute to the increased incidence of pelvic floor disorders with age. PMID:23438289

  10. Treatment of rectal prolapse in children with cow milk injection sclerotherapy: 30-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Zganjer, Mirko; Cizmic, Ante; Cigit, Irenej; Zupancic, Bozidar; Bumci, Igor; Popovic, Ljiljana; Kljenak, Antun

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the role and our experience of injection sclerotherapy with cow milk in the treatment of rectal prolapse in children. METHODS: In the last 30 years (1976-2006) we made 100 injections of sclerotherapy with cow milk in 86 children. In this study we included children who failed to respond to conservative treatment and we perform operative treatment. RESULTS: In our study we included 86 children and in all of the patients we perform cow milk injection sclerotherapy. In 95.3% (82 children) of patients sclerotherapy was successful. In 4 (4.7%) patients we had recurrent rectal prolapse where we performed operative treatment. Below 4 years we had 62 children (72%) and 24 older children (28%). In children who needed operative treatment we performed Thiersch operation and without any complications. CONCLUSION: Injection sclerotherapy with cow milk for treatment rectal prolapse in children is a simple and effective treatment for rectal prolapse with minimal complications. PMID:18205264

  11. [Rectal mucosal prolapse syndrome: study of cases. Hospital Daniel A Carrion, Lima, Peru, 2010-2013].

    PubMed

    Arévalo Suarez, Fernando; Cárdenas Vela, Irene; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Kriss; Pérez Narrea, María Teresa; Rodríguez Vargas, Omar; Montes Teves, Pedro; Monge Salgado, Eduardo

    2014-04-01

    to describe the clinical, endoscopic, and histological characteristics of rectal mucosal prolapse syndrome, formerly known as Solitary rectal ulcer, in patients from a general hospital. All patient diagnosed as rectal mucosal prolapse syndrome during 2010-2013 was selected; the medical history war reviewed and the histological slides were reevaluated by two pathologists. 17 cases of rectal mucosal prolapse syndrome were selected, the majority were males under 50 years, the most common clinical findings were rectal bleeding (82%) and constipation (65%), the endocopic findings were heterogeneous,: erythema (41%), ulcers (35%) and elevated lesions (29%). All cases presented fibromuscularhyperplasia in lamina propia and crypt distortion in the microscopic evaluation. In our study of rectal mucosal prolapse syndrome. The most common clinical findings were rectal bleeding and constipation. Erythematous mucosa was the most common endoscopic finding.

  12. Incidence of mitral valve prolapse in one hundred clinically stable newborn baby girls: an echocardiographic study.

    PubMed

    Chandraratna, P A; Vlahovich, G; Kong, Y; Wilson, D

    1979-09-01

    Clinical and echocardiographic examinations were performed on 100 clinically stable, newborn baby girls. Mitral valve prolapse was noted on the echocardiograms of seven babies. Three subjects had systolic clicks, two of whom had systolic murmurs following the click. The four other babies who had echocardiographic evidence of mitral valve prolapse had no abnormal auscultatory signs. Of the 93 babies without evidence of mitral prolapse, 91 had normal echocardiograms and auscultatory features; one was noted to have a murmur consistent with a ventricular septal defect, and another had an eccentric aortic valve on the echocardiogram which was suggestive of a bicuspid aortic valve. Serial studies on our group of subjects will yield useful information regarding the natural history of mitral valve prolapse.

  13. Prediction of pelvic organ prolapse using an artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Christopher J; Swift, Steven; Johnson, Donna D; Almeida, Jonas S

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to test the ability of a feedforward artificial neural network (ANN) to differentiate patients who have pelvic organ prolapse (POP) from those who retain good pelvic organ support. Following institutional review board approval, patients with POP (n = 87) and controls with good pelvic organ support (n = 368) were identified from the urogynecology research database. Historical and clinical information was extracted from the database. Data analysis included the training of a feedforward ANN, variable selection, and external validation of the model with an independent data set. Twenty variables were used. The median-performing ANN model used a median of 3 (quartile 1:3 to quartile 3:5) variables and achieved an area under the receiver operator curve of 0.90 (external, independent validation set). Ninety percent sensitivity and 83% specificity were obtained in the external validation by ANN classification. Feedforward ANN modeling is applicable to the identification and prediction of POP.

  14. Laparoscopic drainage of hematocolpos: a new treatment option for the acute management of a transverse vaginal septum.

    PubMed

    Dennie, Joëlle; Pillay, Sunil; Watson, David; Grover, Sonia

    2010-10-01

    To describe a novel technique for the acute management of a transverse vaginal septum with hematocolpos. Retrospective case series. Secondary- and tertiary-care centers in Australia and New Zealand. Three patients with a transverse vaginal septum presenting with pain and a hematocolpos. Laparoscopic drainage of the hematocolpos. Pain relief until definitive resection of the transverse vaginal septum. All patients were free of pain after the procedure. Two patients had a second laparoscopic procedure to drain the hematocolpos which had reaccumulated while awaiting definitive surgery. All three patients have undergone resection of the septum. Laparoscopic drainage provides a novel approach to the acute management of a transverse vaginal septum, providing pain relief without compromising the success of definitive surgery which can be performed at a later date. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Asymptomatic "placental prolapse" with cervical funneling in a patient with complete placenta previa.

    PubMed

    Adekola, Henry; Lam-Rachlin, Jennifer; Bronshtein, Elena; Abramowicz, Jacques S

    2015-02-01

    We describe the transvaginal sonographic findings in a patient with complete placenta previa and increased risk of preterm birth owing to a prior history of mid-trimester pregnancy loss in whom we observed a short cervix and prolapse of the placenta and fetal membranes into the endocervical canal. We believe that this could lead to antepartum hemorrhage and mandate close observation when diagnosed. We introduced the term "placental prolapse" to describe our finding. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Atrial function as a guide to timing of intervention in mitral valve prolapse with mitral regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Ring, Liam; Rana, Bushra S; Wells, Francis C; Kydd, Anna C; Dutka, David P

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical utility of left atrial (LA) functional indexes in patients with mitral valve prolapse (MVP) and mitral regurgitation (MR). Timing of surgery for MVP remains challenging. We hypothesized that assessment of LA function may provide diagnostic utility in these patients. We studied 192 consecutive patients in sinus rhythm with MVP, classified into 3 groups: moderate or less MR (MOD group, n = 54); severe MR without surgical indication (SEV group, n = 52); and severe MR with ≥1 surgical indication (SURG group, n = 86). Comparison was made with 50 control patients. Using 2D speckle imaging, average peak contractile, conduit, and reservoir atrial strain was recorded. Using Simpson's method we recorded maximal left atrial volume (LAVmax) and minimal left atrial volume (LAVmin), from which the total left atrial emptying fraction (TLAEF) was derived: (LAVmax-LAVmin)/LAVmax × 100%. TLAEF was similar in the MOD and control groups (61% vs. 57%; p = NS), was reduced in the SEV group (55%; p < 0.001 vs. control group), and markedly lower in the SURG group (40%; p < 0.001 vs. other groups). Reservoir strain demonstrated a similar pattern. Contractile strain was similarly reduced in the MOD and SEV groups (MOD 15%; SEV 14%; p = NS; both p < 0.05 vs. control group 20%) and further reduced in the SURG group (8%; p < 0.001 vs. other groups). By multivariate analysis, TLAEF (odds ratio [OR]: 0.78; p < 0.001), reservoir strain (OR: 0.91; p = 0.028), and contractile strain (OR: 0.86; p = 0.021) were independent predictors of severe MR requiring surgery. Using receiver-operating characteristic analysis, TLAEF <50% demonstrated 91% sensitivity and 92% specificity for predicting MVP with surgical indication (area under the curve: 0.96; p < 0.001). We report the changes in left atrial function in humans with MVP and the relationship of LA dysfunction to clinical indications for mitral valve surgery. We propose that the

  17. Surgeon-tailored polypropylene mesh as a tension-free vaginal tape-obturator versus original TVT-O for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence: a long-term comparative study.

    PubMed

    ElSheemy, Mohammed S; Fathy, Hesham; Hussein, Hussein A; Elsergany, Ragheb; Hussein, Eman A

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the safety and efficacy of surgeon-tailored polypropylene mesh (STM) through tension-free vaginal tape-obturator (TVT-O) versus original TVT-O in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) aiming to decrease the cost of treatment. This is important in developing countries due to limited health care resources. A retrospective cohort study was done at the Urology and Gynecology Departments (dual-center), Cairo University from May 2007 to June 2010. Women evaluated by cough stress test, Stress and Urge Incontinence and Quality of Life Questionnaire (SUIQQ), maximum flow rate (Qmax), and abdominal leak point pressure (ALPP) with follow-up for at least 48 months were included. Patients with post-void residual urine > 100 ml, bladder capacity < 300 ml, or impaired compliance were excluded. The effect of different factors on outcome was compared between both groups pre- and postoperatively using the paired t, Wilcoxon signed rank, McNemar, chi-square, Fisher's exact, independent t, or Mann-Whitney tests. STM and TVT-O were inserted in 79 and 66 women, respectively. Intrinsic sphincter deficiency, ALPP, previous surgeries, associated urgency, urgency urinary incontinence (UUI), and prolapse were comparable in both groups. Operative duration was longer in STM by 10 min. No significant difference was found between both groups in complications (p = 0.462), cure (p = 0.654), and different indices of SUIQQ. In STM, 74 (93 %) were cured and 3 (4 %) improved, while SUI persisted in 2 (2 %) patients. In TVT-O, 59 (89 %) were cured and 4 (6 %) improved, while failure was detected in 3 (4 %) patients. The 5-year outcome is comparable between STM and TVT-O. Furthermore, STM is more economical due to our resterilizable modified helical passers and the cheap polypropylene mesh.

  18. Intestinal Perforation Following Ileoscopy Through a Prolapsed Stoma in an Pediatric Intestinal Transplant Recipient With an Unrecognized Parastomal Hernia

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Joanna; Hall, Theodore R.; Agopian, Vatche G.; Farmer, Douglas G.; Marcus, Elizabeth A.; Venick, Robert S.; Wozniak, Laura J.

    2016-01-01

    Ileoscopy with mucosal biopsy is fundamental in the management and surveillance of inflammatory bowel disease patients and intestinal transplant recipients. There is a paucity of data describing the risks of ileoscopy in the presence of a prolapsed stoma. Parastomal hernias are frequently associated with prolapsed stomas. We report the first case of perforation during ileoscopy in the setting of a prolapsed stoma and unrecognized parastomal hernia. Recognition of parastomal hernia associated with stoma prolapse is of paramount importance in patients undergoing ileoscopy as it may increase the risk of perforation. PMID:27807575

  19. Relationship of advanced glycation end products and their receptor to pelvic organ prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yisong; Huang, Jian; Hu, Changdong; Hua, Keqin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aims of this study are to detect levels of AGEs and RAGE and SNPs for RAGE in vaginal tissues of women with POP and rats in a repair location, and to explore the relationship between AGEs-RAGE pathway and POP. Methods: This study involved human vaginal tissues in fornix from 44 women with POP and 46 women without POP who were assigned to pelvic floor reconstruction or LAVH. The proteins of AGEs, collagen I, and RAGE were detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot with appropriate primary antibodies. The entire RAGE gene of 24 women with POP and 25 controls were sequenced, and SNPs within were detected. Then, sixty 8-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to abdominal defect were divided into three surgical pelvic floor reconstruction repair groups (n = 20/group): A, repair with non-absorable prolene mesh; B, repair with absorbable SIS mesh; and C, a no repair control group. 3, 9, 15, and 21 months after operation, rats were sacrificed and the expression of AGEs, RAGE and collagen I in the tissues of repair location were detected in the various experimental groups. Statistical analysis included comparison of means (Student’s t-test) and proportions (Chi-square test or Fisher test). Results: By both immunohistochemistry and Western blot, patients with POP showed higher protein expression of AGEs of POP than controls (P < 0.05). In contrast, the expression of collagen I was lower in POP patients than in the control group (P < 0.05). No differences in the expression of RAGE between the POP patients and controls were observed (P > 0.05). In POP patients, the expression of collagen I decreased particularly in patients ≥ 60 years old (P < 0.05), but there were no different in the expression of AGEs and RAGE dependent on age (P > 0.05). RAGE gene sequence variance analysis identified 18 variable loci, but only two of these were potential SNPs: rs184003 (1806), rs55640627 (2346) (P < 0.05). Both rs184003 and rs55640627 are both intronic

  20. Vaginal vault suspension during hysterectomy for benign indications: a prospective register study of agreement on terminology and surgical procedure.

    PubMed

    Bonde, Lisbeth; Noer, Mette Calundann; Møller, Lars Alling; Ottesen, Bent; Gimbel, Helga

    2017-07-01

    Several suspension methods are used to try to prevent pelvic organ prolapse (POP) after hysterectomy. We aimed to evaluate agreement on terminology and surgical procedure of these methods. We randomly chose 532 medical records of women with a history of hysterectomy from the Danish Hysterectomy and Hysteroscopy Database (DHHD). Additionally, we video-recorded 36 randomly chosen hysterectomies. The hysterectomies were registered in the DHHD. The material was categorized according to predefined suspension methods. Agreement compared suspension codes in DHHD (gynecologists' registrations) with medical records (gynecologists' descriptions) and with videos (reviewers' categorizations) respectively. Whether the vaginal vault was suspended (pooled suspension) or not (no suspension method + not described) was analyzed, in addition to each suspension method. Regarding medical records, agreement on terminology was good among patients undergoing pooled suspension in cases of hysterectomy via the abdominal and vaginal route (agreement 78.7, 92.3%). Regarding videos, agreement on surgical procedure was good among pooled suspension patients in cases of hysterectomy via the abdominal, laparoscopic, and vaginal routes (agreement 88.9, 97.8, 100%). Agreement on individual suspension methods differed regarding both medical records (agreement 0-90.1%) and videos (agreement 0-100%). Agreement on terminology and surgical procedure regarding suspension method was good in respect of pooled suspension. However, disagreement was observed when individual suspension methods and operative details were scrutinized. Better consensus of terminology and surgical procedure is warranted to enable further research aimed at preventing POP among women undergoing hysterectomy.

  1. The best option: Umbilical LESS radical nephrectomy with vaginal extraction.

    PubMed

    Andrés, G; García-Mediero, J M; García-Tello, A; Arance, I; Cabrera, P M; Angulo, J C

    2015-04-01

    Umbilical laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) surgery represents an excellent alternative to laparoscopic or robotic multiport surgery. LESS surgery offers faster recovery, less postoperative pain and optimal cosmetic results. The reusable nature of its instruments also has significant economic advantages. We present a 34-year-old patient with a solid mesorenal lesion measuring 8 cm in the left kidney treated with pure LESS radical nephrectomy assisted by vaginal extraction of the specimen. The umbilical approach using a single-site multichannel KeyPort (Richard Wolf GmbH, Knittlingen, Germany) with DuoRotate curved instruments allows for minimum crushing and fewer spatial conflicts. Its perfect umbilical adaptation provides a hermetic system. The instrument's double rotation provides considerable movement precision. Vaginal extraction avoids damage to the abdominal wall and the need for widening the umbilical incision. After the placement of the device and triangulation of the clips, we proceeded to operate on posterior parietal peritoneum. The descending colon was mobilized to access the retroperitoneum and dissect the renal hilum. Hem-o-lok clips were placed on the artery and vein, which were subsequently sectioned. The specimen was inserted into a laparoscopic bag. Under direct vision, we placed a 15-mm trocar through the bottom of the vaginal posterior fornix to facilitate the extraction of the bag's thread. The incision was widened with the fingers, and the specimen was extracted, closing the vagina from the perineum with visualization from the navel. Abdominal drainage was not employed. The surgical time was 180 min. The patient was discharged the following day without needing analgesia. A year later, the patient was disease-free and had no complications. Umbilical LESS radical nephrectomy with vaginal extraction is feasible in selected cases. The procedure is oncologically safe, avoids scars and facilitates early recovery. From a practical point of view

  2. Transthoracic echocardiography in patients undergoing mitral valve repair: comparison of new transthoracic 3D techniques to 2D transoesophageal echocardiography in the localization of mitral valve prolapse.

    PubMed

    Gripari, Paola; Mapelli, Massimo; Bellacosa, Ilaria; Piazzese, Concetta; Milo, Maria; Fusini, Laura; Muratori, Manuela; Ali, Sarah Ghulam; Tamborini, Gloria; Pepi, Mauro

    2018-02-26

    Successful mitral valve (MV) repair for degenerative mitral regurgitation (DMR) is mainly related to surgical expertise and MV anatomy. Although 2D echocardiography, specifically transoesophageal (TOE), provides precise information regarding MV anatomy, recent advancements in matrix technology meant a decisive step forward to the point where segmental MV analysis can be accurately performed from a noninvasive 3D transthoracic (TTE) approach. The aims of this study were: (a) to evaluate the feasibility and time required for real-time 3D TTE in a large consecutive cohort of patients with severe DMR in the assessment of MV anatomy; (b) to compare the accuracy of 3D TTE and 2D TOE versus surgical inspection in the recognition and localization of all components of the MV leaflets; (c) to establish the added diagnostic value of 3D colourDoppler examination to pure 3D morphologic evaluation. 149 consecutive patients with severe DMR underwent complete 3D TTE before surgery and 2D TOE in the operating room. Echocardiographic data obtained by the different techniques were compared with surgical inspection. 3D TTE was feasible in a relatively short time (8 ± 4 min), with good (49%) and optimal (33%) imaging quality in the majority of cases. 3D TTE had significant better overall accuracy compared to 2D TOE (93 and 91%, p < 0.05, respectively). 2D TOE was significantly more specific than 3D TTE in the identification of A3 prolapse (99 vs. 96%). The colourDoppler mode did not improve significantly the accuracy of 3D TTE, albeit it determined a better sensitivity in the detection of A2 prolapse if compared to 2D TOE (95 vs. 85%). 3D TTE with or without colourDoppler is a feasible and useful method in the analysis of MV prolapse; it allows a preoperative and noninvasive description of the pathology as accurate as the 2D TOE.

  3. Dinoprostone vaginal insert versus intravenous oxytocin to reduce postpartum blood loss following vaginal or cesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Ozalp, E; Tanir, H M; Sener, T

    2010-01-01

    To compare the impact of a dinoprostone vaginal insert and intravenous oxytocin in reducing blood loss of women undergoing vaginal or cesarean delivery. This study was conducted among term singleton pregnancies delivered vaginally or by elective cesarean section. In the vaginally delivered cases, active management of the third stage of labor was conducted. During cesarean delivery, 20 IU of intravenous oxytocin was administered. Women, who either delivered via the vaginal or abdominal route, were then randomly allocated to receive 10 mg vaginal dinoprostone insert for 12 hours (group I, n: 100) or intravenous oxytocin (group II, n: 100), respectively. Mean blood loss and need for additional uterotonics and postpartum hemoglobin and hematocrit levels at 24 and 36 hours after delivery did not differ between the two groups. Women allocated to the dinoprostone vaginal insert arm experienced more nausea and vomiting. Dinoprostone vaginal insert was as effective as intravenous oxytocin in the prevention of postpartum blood loss.

  4. [The mitral valve prolapse syndrome in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Malcić, I; Zavrsnik, J; Kancler, K; Kokol, P

    1998-01-01

    The authors studied the prevalence of mitral valve prolapse (MVP) in the group of 656 children and adolescents (329 males and 327 females), who were a representative sample (obtained with the Monte Carlo method of statistical trials) of all newborns in the city of Maribor, Republic of Slovenia, in the period of 18 years (1976-1992). The results were considered positive in children and adolescents who in addition to possible history (chest pain, palpitations, dizziness, loss of consciousness, headaches, perspiration), probable auscultatory finding (mezzosystolic click and late systolic murmur), and suspected phonocardiographic and ECG findings, also had a positive M-mode echocardiographic finding. The criteria for MVP on M-mode echocardiography were taken from the literature: descending of mitral cusp, either anterior or posterior, of at least 3 mm below the line connecting points C and D. Children and adolescents were divided into six age groups (infants, toddlers, preschool children, early school age, children in puberty, adolescents). Assuming MVP as a cause of cardiac arrhythmias, beside standard ECG we also performed holter ECG monitoring in 61 children and adolescents (29 with MVP, 32 without MVP). The results were tested with standard statistical tools (chi 2-test, Student t-test, 2 x 2 Fisher chi 2-test). MVP was found in 71 patients (10.8%, 32 males and 39 females). As regards age and sex we found lower prevalence of MVP in male children (9.7%) compared to female children (11.9%). The highest prevalence was found in early school age, more so in females (14.2 vs 13.7). The differences were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). In both sexes most frequent was endosystolic prolapse (males 59.3%, females 51.3%). Most commonly both cusps are involved in the prolapse (males 78.1%, females 66.7%). Most frequently measured descending of the cusps was 3-4.5 mm (males 56.2%, females 48.7%). Negative auscultatory finding (silent MVP) was detected in 47.8% of the

  5. Falling out: authoritative knowledge and women's experiences with pelvic organ prolapse.

    PubMed

    Low, Lisa Kane; Tumbarello, Julie A

    2012-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of pelvic organ prolapse, many women suffer in silence, lacking the language and opportunity to describe their condition. There are limited descriptions of women's experiences with pelvic organ prolapse in the literature. This qualitative study addressed the knowledge and experience of women with pelvic organ prolapse. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 13 women who had been previously diagnosed with pelvic organ prolapse. Transcripts of the interviews were reviewed and coded using a process of content analysis compared against the framework of authoritative knowledge, developed by Brigitte Jordan. By applying the concept of authoritative knowledge, we identified 3 themes of how women construct understanding about pelvic organ prolapse and how they demonstrate deference to the authoritative knowledge of medical providers. First, we found through women's narratives that authoritative knowledge was held by the health care provider and is considered consequential and legitimate by all participants. Second, women reported that the health care provider's authoritative knowledge was valued over personal, experiential knowledge. Finally, women described how they work with their health care providers to create a system of authoritative knowledge as they seek treatment for or discuss their condition. Throughout the narratives, women's experiences are not legitimized by the women or the medical community, perpetuating the "hidden" nature of these conditions. This analysis provides qualitative evidence of Jordan's authoritative knowledge: women and health care providers contribute to dimensions of authoritative knowledge surrounding pelvic organ prolapse. Despite what women experience, the health care provider's definition and understanding of pelvic organ prolapse is seen as legitimate and consequential. Because of their construction of their condition, and the power dynamic at play, women are silenced, and their expertise about their

  6. Falling Out: Authoritative Knowledge and Women’s Experience with Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Low, Lisa Kane; Tumbarello, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Despite the high prevalence of pelvic organ prolapse many women suffer in silence, lacking the language and opportunity to describe their condition. There are limited descriptions of women’s experiences with pelvic organ prolapse in the literature. This qualitative study addressed the knowledge and experience of women with pelvic organ prolapse. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 women who had been previously diagnosed with pelvic organ prolapse. Transcripts of the interviews were reviewed and coded using a process of content analysis compared against the framework of authoritative knowledge, developed by Bridgitte Jordan. Results By applying the concept of “authoritative knowledge,” we identified three themes of how women construct understanding about their pelvic organ prolapse and how they demonstrate deference to the authoritative knowledge of medical providers. First, we found through women’s narratives that authoritative knowledge was held by the health care provider and is considered consequential and legitimate by all participants. Second, women reported that the health care provider’s authoritative knowledge was valued over personal, experiential knowledge. Finally, women describe how they work with their health care providers to create a system of authoritative knowledge as they seek treatment for or discuss their condition. Throughout the narratives, women’s experiences are not well acknowledged by themselves or the medical community, perpetuating the “hidden” nature of these conditions. Discussion This analysis provides qualitative evidence of Jordan’s authoritative knowledge: women and health care providers contribute to dimensions of authoritative knowledge surrounding pelvic organ prolapse. Despite what women experience, the health care provider’s definition and understanding of pelvic organ prolapse is seen as legitimate and consequential. Because of their construction of their condition, and

  7. Vulvovaginitis and vaginal discharge in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Shannon, W.

    1975-01-01

    Ninety-four patients with vulvovaginitis and vaginal discharge were assessed clinically and had vaginal swabs taken in an effort to establish a definite diagnosis. A high incidence of fungous infection was found while there was a surprisingly low incidence of Trichomonal vaginitis. These findings vary markedly from recent surveys in other countries (Delaha et al. (1964); Gray and Barnes, 1965; Desai et al., 1966). PMID:1223281

  8. Correlation between Clinical Features and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Lumbar Disc Prolapse.

    PubMed

    Thapa, S S; Lakhey, R B; Sharma, P; Pokhrel, R K

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is routinely done for diagnosis of lumbar disc prolapse. Many abnormalities of disc are observed even in asymptomatic patient.This study was conducted tocorrelate these abnormalities observed on Magnetic resonance imaging and clinical features of lumbar disc prolapse. A This prospective analytical study includes 57 cases of lumbar disc prolapse presenting to Department of Orthopedics, Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital from March 2011 to August 2012. All patientshad Magnetic resonance imaging of lumbar spine and the findings regarding type, level and position of lumbar disc prolapse, any neural canal or foraminal compromise was recorded. These imaging findings were then correlated with clinical signs and symptoms. Chi-square test was used to find out p-value for correlation between clinical features and Magnetic resonance imaging findings using SPSS 17.0. This study included 57 patients, with mean age 36.8 years. Of them 41(71.9%) patients had radicular leg pain along specific dermatome. Magnetic resonance imaging showed 104 lumbar disc prolapselevel. Disc prolapse at L4-L5 and L5-S1 level constituted 85.5%.Magnetic resonance imaging findings of neural foramina compromise and nerve root compression were fairly correlated withclinical findings of radicular pain and neurological deficit. Clinical features and Magnetic resonance imaging findings of lumbar discprolasehad faircorrelation, but all imaging abnormalities do not have a clinical significance.

  9. Prolapsing Gastric Polyp Causing Intermittent Gastric Outlet Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Kosai, Nik Ritza; Gendeh, Hardip Singh; Norfaezan, Abdul Rashid; Razman, Jamin; Sutton, Paul Anthony; Das, Srijit

    2015-06-01

    Gastric polyps are often an incidental finding on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, with an incidence up to 5%. The majority of gastric polyps are asymptomatic, occurring secondary to inflammation. Prior reviews discussed Helicobacter pylori (H pylori)-associated singular gastric polyposis; however, we present a rare and unusual case of recurrent multiple benign gastric polyposis post H pylori eradication resulting in intermittent gastric outlet obstruction. A 70-year-old independent male, Chinese in ethnicity, with a background of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and a simple renal cyst presented with a combination of melena, anemia, and intermittent vomiting of partially digested food after meals. Initial gastroscopy was positive for H pylori; thus he was treated with H pylori eradication and proton pump inhibitors. Serial gastroscopy demonstrated multiple sessile gastric antral polyps, the largest measuring 4 cm. Histopathologic examination confirmed a benign hyperplastic lesion. Computed tomography identified a pyloric mass with absent surrounding infiltration or metastasis. A distal gastrectomy was performed, whereby multiple small pyloric polyps were found, the largest prolapsing into the pyloric opening, thus explaining the intermittent nature of gastric outlet obstruction. Such polyps often develop from gastric ulcers and, if left untreated, may undergo neoplasia to form malignant cells. A distal gastrectomy was an effective choice of treatment, taking into account the polyp size, quantity, and potential for malignancy as opposed to an endoscopic approach, which may not guarantee a complete removal of safer margins and depth. Therefore, surgical excision is favorable for multiple large gastric polyps with risk of malignancy.

  10. [Complications after procedure for prolapse and hemorrhoids for circular hemorrhoids].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jun; Ding, Jian-hua; Zhao, Ke; Zhang, Bin; Zhao, Yong; Tang, Hai-yan; Zhao, Yu-juan

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the perioperative and postoperative long-term complications of procedure for prolapse and hemorrhoids(PPH) for the treatment of circular internal hemorrhoids and circular mixed hemorrhoids. A retrospective study was performed in 2152 patients with circular internal hemorrhoids and circular mixed hemorrhoids eligible for PPH from January 2002 to December 2011. The perioperative and postoperative long-term complications were recorded and assessed. The median length of follow-up was 73 months. Perioperative complications and adverse events were reported including acute urinary retention(n=360, 16.7%) which was managed by temporary cathether indwelling, anastomotic bleeding(n=45, 2.1%) managed by surgical or endoscopic procedures, chronic anoperineal sustained pain(n=30, 1.4%) managed by local treatment or stapler removal, and thrombosed external hemorrhoid(n=28, 1.2%) managed by conservative treatment or resection. Long-term postoperative complications were reported including mild fecal incontinence(n=112, 6.3%), postoperative recurrence(n=82, 4.6%), anal distention and defecatory urgency(n=50, 2.8%), anastomotic stenosis(n=4, 0.2%). Postoperative recurrence developed in 82 patients(4.6%), 28 of whom were managed by repeat PPH and 54 by conservative treatment. PPH appears to be a safe technique for patients with circular internal hemorrhoids and circular mixed hemorrhoids.

  11. Prolapsing Gastric Polyp Causing Intermittent Gastric Outlet Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kosai, Nik Ritza; Gendeh, Hardip Singh; Norfaezan, Abdul Rashid; Razman, Jamin; Sutton, Paul Anthony; Das, Srijit

    2015-01-01

    Gastric polyps are often an incidental finding on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, with an incidence up to 5%. The majority of gastric polyps are asymptomatic, occurring secondary to inflammation. Prior reviews discussed Helicobacter pylori (H pylori)–associated singular gastric polyposis; however, we present a rare and unusual case of recurrent multiple benign gastric polyposis post H pylori eradication resulting in intermittent gastric outlet obstruction. A 70-year-old independent male, Chinese in ethnicity, with a background of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and a simple renal cyst presented with a combination of melena, anemia, and intermittent vomiting of partially digested food after meals. Initial gastroscopy was positive for H pylori; thus he was treated with H pylori eradication and proton pump inhibitors. Serial gastroscopy demonstrated multiple sessile gastric antral polyps, the largest measuring 4 cm. Histopathologic examination confirmed a benign hyperplastic lesion. Computed tomography identified a pyloric mass with absent surrounding infiltration or metastasis. A distal gastrectomy was performed, whereby multiple small pyloric polyps were found, the largest prolapsing into the pyloric opening, thus explaining the intermittent nature of gastric outlet obstruction. Such polyps often develop from gastric ulcers and, if l