Fields, Aaron M; Richards, Todd A; Felton, Jason A; Felton, Shaili K; Bayer, Erin Z; Ibrahim, Ikhlass N; Kaye, Alan David
This study was undertaken to investigate pulmonary vascular response to valerian (Valeriana officinalis) in the feline pulmonary vasculature under constant flow conditions. In separate experiments, the effects of NG-L-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NIO), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, glibenclamide, an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium (K+) channel blocker, meclofenamate, a nonselective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, bicuculline, a GABA(A) receptor antagonist, and saclofen, a GABA(B) antagonist, were investigated on pulmonary arterial responses to various agonists in the feline pulmonary vascular bed. These agonists included valerian, muscimol, a GABA(A) agonist, SKF-97541 a GABA(B) agonist, acetylcholine (ACh), and bradykinin, both inducers of nitric oxide synthase, arachidonic acid, a COX substrate, and pinacidil, an ATP-sensitive K+ channel activator, during increased tone conditions induced by the thromboxane A2 mimic, U46619. Laboratory investigation. Mongrel cats of either gender. Injections of the abovementioned agonists and antagonists were given. Baseline pulmonary tone, responses to the agonists, and responses to the agonists after injections of antagonists were all measured via a pulmonary catheter transducer and recorded. Valerian root extract is a potent smooth muscle dilator in the feline pulmonary vascular bed. The vasodilatory effects of valerian root extract were unchanged after the administration of L-NIO, glibenclamide, and meclofenamate. These effects were ablated, however, by both saclofen and bicuculline. The ability of saclofen and bicuculline to modulate the dilatory effects of valerian root extract was not statistically different. The vasodilatory effects of valerian root extract are mediated by a nonselective GABA mechanism.
Lefebvre, Tania; Foster, Brian C; Drouin, Cathy E; Krantis, Anthony; Livesey, John F; Jordan, Scott A
Valerian root ( Valeriana officinalis L.) has been used since antiquity as a medicinal herb. Recent studies have found that certain herbal products used concomitantly with conventional therapeutic products can markedly affect drug disposition. The in vitro effect of aliquots from 14 commercially available single-entity and blended products containing valerian root on cytochrome P450 CYP3A4-mediated metabolism and P-glycoprotein transport has been determined with aqueous, ethanol and acetonitrile extracts. Hydroxyvalerenic acid, acetoxyvalerenic acid and valerenic acid content was analyzed and wide variation was found between samples and compared to the concentrations noted on the product labels. Valerian extracts from the products tested also exhibited a marked capacity to inhibit cytochrome P450 3A4-mediated metabolism and P-glycoprotein transport based upon the ATPase assay. There is wide variation between commercially available samples of valerian root. The findings from this study suggest that valerian root may have an initial inhibitory effect when taken with therapeutic products. Further work is warranted to determine whether valerian root can affect other CYP450 isozymes and how the results of this in vitro investigation can be extrapolated to in vivo situations.
Behboodi Moghadam, Zahra; Rezaei, Elham; Shirood Gholami, Roghaieh; Kheirkhah, Masomeh; Haghani, Hamid
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a common disorder. Due to the knowledge lack of the precise etiology of this syndrome, different treatment methods are recommended, one of them is the use of medicinal herbs. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Valerian ( xié cǎo) root extract on the intensity of PMS symptoms. In this double-blind clinical trial, 100 female students of Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon Branch, Mazandaran Province, Iran, with PMS were randomly divided into groups receiving Valerian (scientific name: Valeriana officinalis) and placebo in 2013. The participants received 2 pills daily in the last seven days of their menstrual cycle for 3 cycles and recorded their symptoms. The data collection tools included demographic information questionnaire, daily symptom severity questionnaire, and a provisional diagnosis of premenstrual syndrome questionnaire. Data were compared previous, one, two, and three cycles after student's intervention using and analyzed by independent t-test, paired t-test, chi-squared test, and repeated measures ANOVA in SPSS 16. A significant difference was seen in mean emotional, behavioral and physical premenstrual symptom severity in the intervention group before and after the intervention (P < 0.001). However, this difference was not statistically significant in the control group. The results of this study showed that Valerian root extract may reduce emotional, physical, and behavioral symptoms of premenstrual syndrome.
Chow, Nicholas K; Fretz, Michael; Hamburger, Matthias; Butterweck, Veronika
Valeriana officinalis L. is a popular herbal treatment for mild sleep disorders. Clinical and non-clinical studies found contradictory results for valerian extracts and single constituents regarding the influence on sleep parameters. It was the aim of this study to investigate the sedative effects of a valerian root extract. Therefore, locomotor activity and core body temperature were recorded in male mice using radiotelemetry. A 70 % ethanolic extract prepared from the roots of V. officinalis (s. l.) and some of its single constituents, valerenic acid, linarin, and apigenin, were tested for effects on locomotion and body temperature over 180 minutes after oral administration. The extract was tested in a dose range of 250-1000 mg/kg, and only a dose of 1000 mg/kg valerian extract showed a mild short-term sedative effect with reduced locomotor activity between 66-78 min minutes after administration. Paradoxically, an increased activity was observed after 150 minutes after gavage. A dose of 1 mg/kg valerenic acid produced an intermittent stimulation of activity. However, a mild short-term sedative effect was found for linarin at 12 mg/kg and apigenin at 1.5 mg/kg. Considering the cumulative locomotor activity over the observation period of 180 min, it is concluded that neither the extract nor one of the compounds had considerable sedative effects. More precisely, the observed short-term changes in activity pattern indicate that valerian extract as well as the flavonoids linarin and apigenin are rather effective to reduce sleep latency than to act as a sleep-maintaining agent. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Hromádková, Z; Ebringerová, A; Valachovic, P
The insoluble plant residues, obtained after preparation of medicinal tinctures from the roots of valerian (Valeriana officinalis L.) by classical and ultrasound-assisted extraction with aqueous ethanol in a pilot plant, were subsequently treated with hot water to isolate the accessible polysaccharide cell wall components. At almost equal amounts of the hot-water extractable material, the yields of the recovered polysaccharides were lower in the ultrasonical experiment. This is due to the fact that a part of accessible polysaccharides were already solubilised by the aqueous ethanol and recoverable from the medicinal tincture. Therefore, the net yield of extracted polysaccharides was enhanced in the ultrasonical procedure. This fact as well as the sugar composition and structural features of the isolated polysaccharides suggest that ultrasonication have attacked the integrity of cell walls, released and degraded its most accessible polysaccharides (pectic polysaccharides and starch) and increased also the extractibility of its less accessible components--xylan, mannan and glucan. The water-soluble polysaccharide fractions from both the conventional and ultrasonical experiments exhibit significant immunostimulatory activities in mitogenic and comitogenic thymocyte tests.
Skórska, Czesława; Sitkowska, Jolanta; Krysińska-Traczyk, Ewa; Cholewa, Grazyna; Dutkiewicz, Jacek
The aim of this study was to determine the levels of microorganisms, dust and endotoxin in the air during various stages of valerian (Valeriana officinalis) roots processing by herb farmers and to examine the species composition of airborne microflora. Air samples were collected on glass fibre filters by use of personal samplers on 15 farms owned by valerian cultivating farmers, located in Lublin province (eastern Poland). The concentrations of total viable microorganisms (bacteria + fungi) in the air showed a marked variability and were within a range of 0.95-7,966.6 x 10(3) cfu/m (3). Though median was relatively low (10.75 x 10(3) cfu/m (3)), on 4 farms the concentrations exceeded the level of 10(5) cfu/m (3) and on 1 farm the level of 10(6) cfu/m (3). During the processing of valerian roots, distinct changes could be observed in the composition of airborne microflora. In the first stages of processing, the freshly dug and washed roots until shaking in the drying room, the most numerous were Gram-negative bacteria of the family Pseudomonadaceae (mostly Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas chlororaphis and Pseudomonas fluorescens). After drying, the dominant organisms were thermo-resistant endospore-forming bacilli (Bacillus spp.) and fungi, among which prevailed Aspergillus fumigatus. Altogether, 29 species or genera of bacteria and 19 species or genera of fungi were identified in the farm air during valerian processing, of these, 10 and 12 species or genera respectively were reported as having allergenic and/or immunotoxic properties. The concentrations of airborne dust and endotoxin on the examined farms were very large and ranged from 10.0-776.7 mg/m (3), and from 0.15-24,448.2 microg/m (3), respectively (medians 198.3 mg/m (3) and 40.48 microg/m (3)). In conclusion, farmers cultivating valerian could be exposed during processing of valerian roots to large concentrations of airborne microorganisms, dust and endotoxin posing a risk of work
Adel Pilerood, Shirin; Prakash, Jamuna
The nutritional composition and antioxidant activity (in aqueose and solvent extracts) of two medicinal plants of Iranian origin Borage (Echium amoenum) and Valerian (Valerian officinalis) used as tea were determined. Samples were analyzed for antioxidant components viz. polyphenols, vitamin C, β carotene, flavonoids, anthocyanins and tannins. Antioxidant assays such as free radical scavenging activity, reducing power and total antioxidant activity were carried out for ethanol, methanol, acetone, 80% methanol and 80% ethanolic extracts. In borage highest and least activity was observed in water and acetone extract respectively in all assays. In Valerian, 80% methanolic extract showed highest activity in reducing power and free radical scavenging activity assay. Total polyphenols in borage and valerian were 1,220 and 500 mg in ethanolic extracts and 25 and 130 mg in acetonic extracts respectively. Total carotenoids and vitamin C contents were 31.6 and 133.69 mg and 51.2 and 44.87 mg for borage and valerian respectively. Highest amount of tannins were extracted in 80% methanolic extract. It can be concluded that borage and valerian exhibited antioxidant activity in all extracts. The antioxidant activity could be attributed to their polyphenol and tannin and flavonoids contents. In all assays borage showed higher activity than valerian.
Bent, Stephen; Padula, Amy; Moore, Dan; Patterson, Michael; Mehling, Wolf
Insomnia affects approximately one-third of the adult population and contributes to increased rates of absenteeism, health care use, and social disability. Extracts of the roots of valerian (Valeriana officinalis) are widely used for inducing sleep and improving sleep quality. A systematic review of randomized, placebo-controlled trials of valerian for improving sleep quality is presented. An extensive literature search identified 16 eligible studies examining a total of 1093 patients. Most studies had significant methodologic problems, and the valerian doses, preparations, and length of treatment varied considerably. A dichotomous outcome of sleep quality (improved or not) was reported by 6 studies and showed a statistically significant benefit (relative risk of improved sleep = 1.8, 95% confidence interval, 1.2-2.9), but there was evidence of publication bias in this summary measure. The available evidence suggests that valerian might improve sleep quality without producing side effects. Future studies should assess a range of doses of standardized preparations of valerian and include standard measures of sleep quality and safety.
Bent, Stephen; Padula, Amy; Moore, Dan; Patterson, Michael; Mehling, Wolf
Insomnia affects approximately one-third of the adult population and contributes to increased rates of absenteeism, health care use, and social disability. Extracts of the roots of valerian (Valeriana officinalis) are widely used for inducing sleep and improving sleep quality. A systematic review of randomized, placebo-controlled trials of valerian for improving sleep quality is presented. An extensive literature search identified 16 eligible studies examining a total of 1093 patients. Most studies had significant methodologic problems, and the valerian doses, preparations, and length of treatment varied considerably. A dichotomous outcome of sleep quality (improved or not) was reported by 6 studies and showed a statistically significant benefit (relative risk of improved sleep = 1.8, 95% confidence interval, 1.2-2.9), but there was evidence of publication bias in this summary measure. The available evidence suggests that valerian might improve sleep quality without producing side effects. Future studies should assess a range of doses of standardized preparations of valerian and include standard measures of sleep quality and safety. PMID:17145239
Sichardt, K; Vissiennon, Z; Koetter, U; Brattström, A; Nieber, K
Valeriana officinalis (valerian) is used traditionally as a mild sedative. Research into valerian is sparse, and studies differ greatly with respect to design, measures and preparations used. This study compares the action of a methanol (M-E), ethanol (E-E) and an extract macerated with ethylacetate (EA-E) from roots of valerian (Valeriana officinalis L., Valerianaceae) on postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) in cortical neurons. Intracellular recordings were performed in rat brain slice preparations containing pyramidal cells of the cingulate cortex. PSPs were induced by electrical field stimulation. The M-E induced strong inhibition in the concentration range 0.1-15 mg/mL, whereas the E-E (1-10 mg/mL) did not influence significantly the PSPs. The maximum inhibition induced by the M-E was completely antagonized by 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX, 0.1 microm), an antagonist on the adenosine A(1) receptor. Contrary to the M-E, the EA-E (10 mg/mL) induced an increase of the PSPs, which was completely blocked by the GABA(A) receptor antagonist picrotoxin (100 microm). The data suggest that activation of adenosine A(1) and GABA(A) receptors is mediated by different components within the valerian extract. The two mechanisms may contribute independently to the sleep-inducing effect of valerian.
Simmen, Urs; Saladin, Caroline; Kaufmann, Priska; Poddar, Manisha; Wallimann, Christine; Schaffner, Willi
The two herbal extracts valerian (Valeriana officinalis L.) and St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) were studied for their metabolic changes upon incubation with freshly prepared rat hepatocytes and subsequently analysed phytochemically as well as pharmacologically in vitro. Quantitative HPLC analysis of valerian extracts revealed considerable metabolic activities with regard to sesquiterpenes and iridoids. The amount of acetoxyvalerenic acid decreased 9-fold, while that of hydroxyvalerenic acid correspondingly increased 9-fold due to O-deacetylation. The valepotriates didrovaltrate, isovaltrate and valtrate decreased 2-, 18- and 16-fold, respectively. However, the binding affinities of the incubated extracts to the benzodiazepine and picrotoxin binding site of the GABA (A) receptor were quite similar to those of the non-incubated extracts. Neither valerenic acids nor valepotriates exhibited any significant effect on the two binding sites when tested as single compounds. Therefore, either other constituents represent the active ones or multiple compounds are necessary for the observed inhibitory and allosteric effects at the GABA (A) receptor. Extracts of St. John's wort were less potently metabolised than valerian. The amount of pseudohypericin and the main flavonoids (hyperoside, rutin, isoquercitrin, quercitrin, quercetin and I3,II8-biapigenin) slightly decreased during the 4-h incubation period. Both the antagonist effect at the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) type 1 receptor and the binding inhibition at the 5-HT transporter were attenuated during the metabolic treatment. The reduced antagonist effect correlates with the decreasing amount of pseudohypericin known to be a CRF (1) receptor antagonist. In conclusion, the incubation of plant extracts with freshly prepared rat hepatocytes represents a useful approach to study the pharmacological action of metabolised plant extracts. The consistent pharmacological activity of both valerian and St. John
Murphy, K; Kubin, Z J; Shepherd, J N; Ettinger, R H
Valerian root (Valeriana officinalis) is a popular and widely available herbal supplement, primarily used to treat insomnia and anxiety. Until recently, its mechanism of action has remained unknown. Neurobiological research has begun to show that the herb, with its active valerenic acid, interacts with the GABA(A)-ergic system, a mechanism of action similar to the benzodiazepine drugs. This series of experiments sought to corroborate these findings with behavioral measures, compare them to the benzodiazepine diazepam, and to analyze the chemical composition of Valeriana officinalis. Rats were administered either ethanol (1 ml/kg), diazepam (1mg/kg), valerian root extract (3 ml/kg), valerenic acid (3mg/kg), or a solution of valerenic acid and exogenous GABA (75 microg/kg and 3.6 microg/kg, respectively) and assessed for the number of entries and time spent on the open arms of an elevated plus maze. Results showed that there was a significant reduction in anxious behavior when valerian extract or valerenic acid exposed subjects were compared to the ethanol control group. The evidence supports Valeriana officinalis as a potential alternative to the traditional anxiolytics as measured by the elevated plus maze. (c) 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Boyadzhiev, L; Kancheva, D; Gourdon, C; Metcheva, D
Extraction of valerenic acids (valerenic, acetoxyvalerenic and hydroxyvalerenic) from dry ground rhizomes of valerian (Valeriana officinalis L.) was studied. The effect of ethanol concentration in the solvent, extraction temperature and drug particle size on extraction kinetics were investigated and the optimum values of these process parameters were determined for the case of intensively stirred two-phase dispersion. It was found that increased processing temperature favors extraction kinetics, but provokes moderate degradation of valerenic acids.
Donath, F; Quispe, S; Diefenbach, K; Maurer, A; Fietze, I; Roots, I
A carefully designed study assessed the short-term (single dose) and long-term (14 days with multiple dosage) effects of a valerian extract on both objective and subjective sleep parameters. The investigation was performed as a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Sixteen patients (4 male, 12 female) with previously established psychophysiological insomnia (ICSD-code 1.A.1.), and with a median age of 49 (range: 22 to 55), were included in the study. The main inclusion criteria were reported primary insomnia according to ICSD criteria, which was confirmed by polysomnographic recording, and the absence of acute diseases. During the study, the patients underwent 8 polysomnographic recordings: i.e., 2 recordings (baseline and study night) at each time point at which the short and long-term effects of placebo and valerian were tested. The target variable of the study was sleep efficiency. Other parameters describing objective sleep structure were the usual features of sleep-stage analysis, based on the rules of Rechtschaffen and Kales (1968), and the arousal index (scored according to ASDA criteria, 1992) as a sleep microstructure parameter. Subjective parameters such as sleep quality, morning feeling, daytime performance, subjectively perceived duration of sleep latency, and sleep period time were assessed by means of questionnaires. After a single dose of valerian, no effects on sleep structure and subjective sleep assessment were observed. After multiple-dose treatment, sleep efficiency showed a significant increase for both the placebo and the valerian condition in comparison with baseline polysomnography. We confirmed significant differences between valerian and placebo for parameters describing slow-wave sleep. In comparison with the placebo, slow-wave sleep latency was reduced after administration of valerian (21.3 vs. 13.5 min respectively, p<0.05). The SWS percentage of time in bed (TIB) was increased after long-term valerian
Trauner, Gabriele; Khom, Sophia; Baburin, Igor; Benedek, Birgit; Hering, Steffen; Kopp, Brigitte
Valeriana Officinalis L . is a traditionally used sleep remedy, however, the mechanism of action and the substances responsible for its sedative and sleep-enhancing properties are not fully understood. As we previously identified valerenic acid as a subunit-specific allosteric modulator of GABAA receptors, we now investigated the relation between modulation of GABAA receptors by Valerian extracts of different polarity and the content of sesquiterpenic acids (valerenic acid, acetoxyvalerenic acid). All extracts were analysed by HPLC concerning the content of sesquiterpenic acids. GABAA receptors composed of alpha 1, beta 2 and gamma 2S subunits were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and the modulation of chloride currents through GABAA receptors (IGABA) by Valerian extracts was investigated using the two-microelectrode voltage clamp technique. Apolar extracts induced a significant enhancement of IGABA, whereas polar extracts showed no effect. These results were confirmed by fractionating a highly active ethyl acetate extract: again fractions with high contents of valerenic acid exhibited strong receptor activation. In addition, removal of sesquiterpenic acids from the ethyl acetate extract led to a loss of I (GABA) enhancement. In conclusion, our data show that the extent of GABAA receptor modulation by Valerian extracts is related to the content of valerenic acid.
Lacher, Svenja K; Mayer, Ralf; Sichardt, Kathrin; Nieber, Karen; Müller, Christa E
A series of extracts of valerian roots (Valeriana officinalis L.) was prepared with solvents of different polarity. Polar as well as nonpolar extracts were found to interact with adenosine A(1) receptors. While polar extracts activated A(1) receptors (partial agonistic activity), nonpolar extracts showed antagonistic or inverse agonistic activity at A(1) receptors, as demonstrated by GTPgammaS binding assays at human recombinant A(1) receptors stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Guided by radioligand binding assays, fractionation of a lipophilic petroleum ether:diethyl ether (1:1) extract led to the isolation of isovaltrate, which was characterized as a potent, highly efficacious inverse agonist at adenosine A(1) receptors (K(i) rat A(1): 2.05 microM). In experiments at rat brain slices measuring post-synaptic potentials (PSPs) in cortical neurons, isovaltrate at least partly reversed the reduction in the PSPs induced by the adenosine A(1) receptor agonist N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA). Isovaltrate may serve as a new lead structure for the development of inverse agonists at adenosine A(1) receptors. The common use of hydrophilic, but not lipophilic valerian extracts as mild sleep-inducing agents is consistent with the opposite actions of hydrophilic and lipophilic extracts on adenosine receptors.
Hassani, Soghra; Alipour, Abbas; Darvishi Khezri, Hadi; Firouzian, Abolfazl; Emami Zeydi, Amir; Gholipour Baradari, Afshin; Ghafari, Rahman; Habibi, Wali-Allah; Tahmasebi, Homeyra; Alipour, Fatemeh; Ebrahim Zadeh, Pooneh
We hypothesized that valerian root might prevent cognitive dysfunction in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery patients through stimulating serotonin receptors and anti-inflammatory activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Valeriana officinalis root extract on prevention of early postoperative cognitive dysfunction after on-pump CABG surgery. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 61 patients, aged between 30 and 70 years, scheduled for elective CABG surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), were recruited into the study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups who received either one valerian capsule containing 530 mg of valerian root extract (1,060 mg/daily) or placebo capsule each 12 h for 8 weeks, respectively. For all patients, cognitive brain function was evaluated before the surgery and at 10-day and 2-month follow-up by Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) test. Mean MMSE score decreased from 27.03 ± 2.02 in the preoperative period to 26.52 ± 1.82 at the 10th day and then increased to 27.45 ± 1.36 at the 60th day in the valerian group. Conversely, its variation was reduced significantly after 60 days in the placebo group, 27.37 ± 1.87 at the baseline to 24 ± 1.91 at the 10th day, and consequently slightly increased to 24.83 ± 1.66 at the 60th day. Valerian prophylaxis reduced odds of cognitive dysfunction compared to placebo group (OR = 0.108, 95 % CI 0.022-0.545). We concluded that, based on this study, the cognitive state of patients in the valerian group was better than that in the placebo group after CABG; therefore, it seems that the use of V. officinalis root extract may prevent early postoperative cognitive dysfunction after on-pump CABG surgery.
Kelber, Olaf; Nieber, Karen; Kraft, Karin
In recent popular publications as well as in widely used information websites directed to cancer patients, valerian is claimed to have a potential of adverse interactions with anticancer drugs. This questions its use as a safe replacement for, for example, benzodiazepines. A review on the interaction potential of preparations from valerian root (Valeriana officinalis L. root) was therefore conducted. A data base search and search in a clinical drug interaction data base were conducted. Thereafter, a systematic assessment of publications was performed. Seven in vitro studies on six CYP 450 isoenzymes, on p-glycoprotein, and on two UGT isoenzymes were identified. However, the methodological assessment of these studies did not support their suitability for the prediction of clinically relevant interactions. In addition, clinical studies on various valerian preparations did not reveal any relevant interaction potential concerning CYP 1A2, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4. Available animal and human pharmacodynamic studies did not verify any interaction potential. The interaction potential of valerian preparations therefore seems to be low and thereby without clinical relevance. We conclude that there is no specific evidence questioning their safety, also in cancer patients.
Nieber, Karen; Kraft, Karin
In recent popular publications as well as in widely used information websites directed to cancer patients, valerian is claimed to have a potential of adverse interactions with anticancer drugs. This questions its use as a safe replacement for, for example, benzodiazepines. A review on the interaction potential of preparations from valerian root (Valeriana officinalis L. root) was therefore conducted. A data base search and search in a clinical drug interaction data base were conducted. Thereafter, a systematic assessment of publications was performed. Seven in vitro studies on six CYP 450 isoenzymes, on p-glycoprotein, and on two UGT isoenzymes were identified. However, the methodological assessment of these studies did not support their suitability for the prediction of clinically relevant interactions. In addition, clinical studies on various valerian preparations did not reveal any relevant interaction potential concerning CYP 1A2, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4. Available animal and human pharmacodynamic studies did not verify any interaction potential. The interaction potential of valerian preparations therefore seems to be low and thereby without clinical relevance. We conclude that there is no specific evidence questioning their safety, also in cancer patients. PMID:25093031
Nunes, Ana; Sousa, Marlene
Anxiety disorders and sleep problems are common in the general population and are a cause of frequent consultations in primary care. These problems have significant impact on quality of life and functionality of individuals. The extracts of valerian root have been widely used for a long time by the population and physicians, for their sedative effects, hypnotic and anxiolytic. It is therefore urgent to know what are the benefits and the risks of using this substance for the treatment of anxiety and sleep disorders. To investigate the efficacy and safety of valerian for the treatment of anxiety and sleep disorders. A research was carried out for clinical practice guidelines, systematic reviews (SR), meta-analysis (MA) and randomized controlled trials (RCT) in Pubmed, sites of evidence-based medicine and Índex das Revistas Médicas Portuguesas using the MeSH terms valerian, anxiety and sleep disorders, and respective DeCS, analyzing articles in English, Spanish, French or Portuguese, published between January 2000 and March 31, 2010. We also reviewed references of relevant articles. We used the Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT) from American Family Physician to evaluate the level of evidence and assigning the strength of a recommendation. We found 173 articles of which four were selected which met the inclusion criteria: a meta-analysis, a SR and a RCT concerning the use of valerian in sleep disorders, and an SR on the use of valerian in anxiety disorders. The evidence is insufficient regarding the efficacy of valerian in the treatment of anxiety disorders (SOR A). There seems to be some evidence of the effectiveness of valerian for treating insomnia, which is limited by the quality of existing studies (SOR B). Valerian root is well tolerated and safe, with infrequent and benign side effects (SOR A). The evidence is currently insufficient to recommend the use of valerian for the treatment of anxiety disorders. The evidence in insomnia is limited by the
Gutierrez, Sandra; Ang-Lee, Michael K; Walker, Diana J; Zacny, James P
Valerian is the common name given to the genus Valeriana, an odiferous, herbaceous perennial plant widely distributed in the temperate regions of Asia, Europe, and North America. It is among the most widely used herbal medicines in the world. Numerous clinical studies have demonstrated valerian's ability to improve sleep; however, to the best of our knowledge, no study has systematically assessed subjective and psychomotor/cognitive effects of valerian in young healthy adults across a range of doses. In the present study, we sought to determine whether valerian extract (Valeriana officinalis) altered mood and/or impaired psychomotor/cognitive performance in young healthy volunteers. We examined the effects of valerian extract (600, 1200, and 1800 mg) and 10 mg diazepam (positive control) compared to placebo in 10 young healthy volunteers. Dependent measures included subjective and psychomotor variables. The valerian extract had no significant effects on any of the dependent measures. Diazepam, though, produced subjective effects as measured by four different rating scales, and impaired psychomotor/cognitive performance. The data suggest that acute administration of valerian does not have mood-altering or psychomotor/cognitive effects in young healthy volunteers.
... safe for use by most healthy adults for short periods of time. No information is available about the long-term safety of valerian or its safety in children younger than age 3, pregnant women, or nursing mothers. Few side effects have been reported in studies of valerian. Those ...
Pyle, Bryan W; Tran, Hue T; Pickel, Benjamin; Haslam, Tegan M; Gao, Zhizeng; MacNevin, Gillian; Vederas, John C; Kim, Soo-Un; Ro, Dae-Kyun
Valerian (Valeriana officinalis) is a popular medicinal plant in North America and Europe. Its root extract is commonly used as a mild sedative and anxiolytic. Among dozens of chemical constituents (e.g. alkaloids, iridoids, flavonoids, and terpenoids) found in valerian root, valerena-4,7(11)-diene and valerenic acid (C15 sesquiterpenoid) have been suggested as the active ingredients responsible for the sedative effect. However, the biosynthesis of the valerena-4,7(11)-diene hydrocarbon skeleton in valerian remains unknown to date. To identify the responsible terpene synthase, next-generation sequencing (Roche 454 pyrosequencing) was used to generate ∼ 1 million transcript reads from valerian root. From the assembled transcripts, two sesquiterpene synthases were identified (VoTPS1 and VoTPS2), both of which showed predominant expression patterns in root. Transgenic yeast expressing VoTPS1 and VoTPS2 produced germacrene C/germacrene D and valerena-4,7(11)-diene, respectively, as major terpene products. Purified VoTPS1 and VoTPS2 recombinant enzymes confirmed these activities in vitro, with competent kinetic properties (K(m) of ∼ 10 μm and k(cat) of 0.01 s(-1) for both enzymes). The structure of the valerena-4,7(11)-diene produced from the yeast expressing VoTPS2 was further substantiated by (13) C-NMR and GC-MS in comparison with the synthetic standard. This study demonstrates an integrative approach involving next-generation sequencing and metabolically engineered microbes to expand our knowledge of terpenoid diversity in medicinal plants. © 2012 The Authors Journal compilation © 2012 FEBS.
Valeriana officinalis extract and its main component, valerenic acid, ameliorate D-galactose-induced reductions in memory, cell proliferation, and neuroblast differentiation by reducing corticosterone levels and lipid peroxidation.
Nam, Sung Min; Choi, Jung Hoon; Yoo, Dae Young; Kim, Woosuk; Jung, Hyo Young; Kim, Jong Whi; Kang, Soo-Yong; Park, Jaeil; Kim, Dong-Woo; Kim, Wan Jae; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Hwang, In Koo
Valeriana officinalis is used in herbal medicine of many cultures as mild sedatives and tranquilizers. In this study, we investigated the effects of extract from valerian root extracts and its major component, valerenic acid on memory function, cell proliferation, neuroblast differentiation, serum corticosterone, and lipid peroxidation in adult and aged mice. For the aging model, D-galactose (100 mg/kg) was administered subcutaneously to 6-week-old male mice for 10 weeks. At 13 weeks of age, valerian root extracts (100 mg/kg) or valerenic acid (340 μg/kg) was administered orally to control and D-galactose-treated mice for 3 weeks. The dosage of valerenic acid (340 μg/kg), which is the active ingredient of valerian root extract, was determined by the content of valerenic acid in valerian root extract (3.401±0.066 mg/g) measured by HPLC. The administration of valerian root extract and valerenic acid significantly improved the preferential exploration of new objects in novel object recognition test and the escape latency, swimming speeds, platform crossings, and spatial preference for the target quadrant in Morris water maze test compared to the D-galactose-treated mice. Cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation were significantly decreased, while serum corticosterone level and lipid peroxidation in hippocampus were significantly increased in the D-galactose-treated group compared to that in the control group. The administration of valerian root extract significantly ameliorated these changes in the dentate gyrus of both control and D-galactose-treated groups. In addition, valerenic acid also mitigated the D-galactose-induced reduction of these changes. These results indicate that valerian root extract and valerenic acid enhance cognitive function, promote cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation, and reduce serum corticosterone and lipid peroxidation in aged mice. © 2013.
Dietz, Birgit M; Mahady, Gail B; Pauli, Guido F; Farnsworth, Norman R
Insomnia is the most frequently encountered sleep complaint worldwide. While many prescription drugs are used to treat insomnia, extracts of valerian (Valeriana officinalis L., Valerianaceae) are also used for the treatment of insomnia and restlessness. To determine novel mechanisms of action, radioligand binding studies were performed with valerian extracts (100% methanol, 50% methanol, dichloromethane [DCM], and petroleum ether [PE]) at the melatonin, glutamate, and GABA(A) receptors, and 8 serotonin receptor subtypes. Both DCM and PE extracts had strong binding affinity to the 5-HT(5a) receptor, but only weak binding affinity to the 5-HT(2b) and the serotonin transporter. Subsequent binding studies focused on the 5-HT(5a) receptor due to the distribution of this receptor in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the brain, which is implicated in the sleep-wake cycle. The PE extract inhibited [(3)H]lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) binding to the human 5-HT(5a) receptor (86% at 50 microg/ml) and the DCM extract inhibited LSD binding by 51%. Generation of an IC(50) curve for the PE extract produced a biphasic curve, thus GTP shift experiments were also performed. In the absence of GTP, the competition curve was biphasic (two affinity sites) with an IC(50) of 15.7 ng/ml for the high-affinity state and 27.7 microg/ml for the low-affinity state. The addition of GTP (100 microM) resulted in a right-hand shift of the binding curve with an IC(50) of 11.4 microg/ml. Valerenic acid, the active constituent of both extracts, had an IC(50) of 17.2 microM. These results indicate that valerian and valerenic acid are new partial agonists of the 5-HT(5a) receptor.
Dietz, Birgit M.; Mahady, Gail B.; Pauli, Guido F.; Farnsworth, Norman R.
Insomnia is the most frequently encountered sleep complaint worldwide. While many prescription drugs are used to treat insomnia, extracts of valerian (Valeriana officinalis L., Valerianaceae) are also used for the treatment of insomnia and restlessness. To determine novel mechanisms of action, radioligand binding studies were performed with valerian extracts (100% methanol, 50% methanol, dichloromethane [DCM], and petroleum ether [PE]) at the melatonin, glutamate, and GABAA receptors, and 8 serotonin receptor subtypes. Both DCM and PE extracts had strong binding affinity to the 5-HT5a receptor, but only weak binding affinity to the 5-HT2b and the serotonin transporter. Subsequent binding studies focused on the 5-HT5a receptor due to the distribution of this receptor in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the brain, which is implicated in the sleep–wake cycle. The PE extract inhibited [3H]lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) binding to the human 5-HT5a receptor (86% at 50 μg/ml) and the DCM extract inhibited LSD binding by 51%. Generation of an IC50 curve for the PE extract produced a biphasic curve, thus GTP shift experiments were also performed. In the absence of GTP, the competition curve was biphasic (two affinity sites) with an IC50 of 15.7 ng/ml for the high-affinity state and 27.7 μg/ml for the low-affinity state. The addition of GTP (100 AM) resulted in a right-hand shift of the binding curve with an IC50 of 11.4 μg/ml. Valerenic acid, the active constituent of both extracts, had an IC50 of 17.2 AM. These results indicate that valerian and valerenic acid are new partial agonists of the 5-HT5a receptor. PMID:15921820
Skórska, Czesława; Golec, Marcin; Mackiewicz, Barbara; Góra, Anna; Dutkiewicz, Jacek
The aim of the present study was to determine the health status of farmers cultivating valerian (Valeriana officinalis L.) and occupationally exposed to dust from this plant. A group of 75 valerian growing farmers were examined. As a reference group, 50 urban dwellers, not exposed to any kind of organic dust were examined. All people were interviewed for the presence of work-related symptoms and subjected to physical and spirometric examinations. Skin prick tests were conducted with 4 microbial antigens associated with organic dust and 3 herbal extracts, precipitin tests with 12 microbial antigens and 4 herbal extracts and tests for specific inhibition of leukocyte migration with 4 microbial antigens. 30.7 % of the valerian farmers reported occurrence of work-related symptoms. No significant differences were found between the spirometric values in the group of valerian farmers and the reference group. Valerian farmers showed a low frequency of positive skin reactions to all tested antigens (0-4.0 %), not significantly greater compared to reference group. The frequency of positive precipitin reactions to the antigen of Gram-negative bacterium Pantoea agglomerans was very high in valerian farmers (45.5 %) with 3-fold concentrated sera and significantly greater compared to the reference group (p < 0.001). The positive precipitin response of valerian farmers to other microbial and herbal antigens was much lower or absent and did not show any difference compared to reference group. In the test for specific inhibition of leukocyte migration, the highest frequencies of positive reactions in valerian farmers were noted with Pantoea agglomerans and Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula (15.0 % each), in both cases significantly greater compared to reference group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the farmers growing valerian showed a moderate frequency of work-related symptoms and low reactivity to most microbial and herbal allergens. They exhibited an increased immunologic response to
Taibi, Diana M; Bourguignon, Cheryl; Gill Taylor, Ann
To present a pilot study of valerian to explore issues of feasibility and efficacy in studies of sedative herbs for arthritis-related sleep disturbance. Fifteen persons with arthritis and mild sleep disturbance were randomized to receive 600 mg valerian (Valeriana officinalis, n = 7) or placebo (n = 8) for five nights. Protocol adherence (dosing and data collection) was high. Allocation concealment was successful using a novel approach for matching the placebo on the distinctive odor of valerian. Nonsignificant differences between the groups were found on all sleep outcomes, measured by daily diaries and wrist actigraphy. The study methods were feasible, except for recruitment issues (addressed in the discussion), and may guide the testing of other sedative herbs for persons with arthritis. Although efficacy outcomes were inconclusive due to the small sample size of this study, recent evidence from larger trials of valerian also does not support its efficacy.
Ortiz, José G; Rassi, Nicole; Maldonado, Patricia M; González-Cabrera, Silvia; Ramos, Igmeris
Valeriana officinalis extracts are used in folkloric medicine for their sedative, hypnotic and tranquilizer effects. Using [3H]flunitrazepam binding as an indicator, the interactions of commercial Valerian extracts with GABA(A) receptors were examined. There was considerable fluctuation among the different extracts, some mildly enhanced [3H]flunitrazepam binding, others had no effect and others had inhibitory effects, independent of standardization by valerenic acid. Central depression can also be accomplished by a reduction of excitatory transmission. Valerian extracts had modest inhibitory effects on [3H]MK-801 binding, an indicator of NMDA-Valerian interactions. Spectral analyses (UV region) did not show marked differences among the different extracts. The inhibitory effects of one of the extracts on [3H]flunitrazepam binding was somewhat stable, while on [3H]MK-801 binding the inhibitory effects were lost within months. These results suggest that particular care should be taken in analysing and interpreting results from commercial Valerian preparations. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Rezvani, Mohammad Ebrahim; Roohbakhsh, Ali; Allahtavakoli, Mohammad; Shamsizadeh, Ali
Valeriana officinalis L. (valerian) root extract has been used as an antiepileptic herbal medicine in Iran. In the present study the effect of valerian extracts on an experimental model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) was evaluated. Moreover, the involvement of adenosine system in the actions of aqueous extract of valerian was evaluated. Bipolar stimulating and monopolar recording electrodes were implanted stereotaxically in the right basolateral amygdala of male Sprague-Dawley rats. After kindling, the effect of aqueous (200, 500 and 800 mg/kg; intraperitoneal) and petroleum ether (PE; 50 and 100mg/kg; intraperitoneal) extracts of valerian and CPT (selective A(1) receptor antagonist; 10 and 20 microM; intracerebroventricular) on afterdischarge duration (ADD), duration of stage 5 seizure (S5D) and latency to the onset of bilateral forelimb clonuses (S4L) were measured. The effect of CPT (10 microM) on the response of aqueous extract of valerian (500 mg/kg) was also determined. The results showed that aqueous extract of valerian had anticonvulsant effect. However, PE extract and CPT (20 microM) had proconvulsant effect. Administration of CPT (10 microM) before the administration of aqueous extract decreased the anticonvulsant effect of valerian. The results showed significant anticonvulsant effect for aqueous but not PE extract of valerian. Moreover, CPT as a selective adenosine A(1) receptor antagonist decreased the anticonvulsant effect of valerian aqueous extract. Therefore, we concluded that part of anticonvulsant effect of valerian probably is mediated through activation of adenosine system. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vissiennon, Z; Sichardt, K; Koetter, U; Brattström, A; Nieber, K
In this study we evaluated the adenosine A1 receptor-mediated effect of valerian extract (Ze 911) on postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) in pyramidal cells of the rat cingulate cortex in a slice preparation. We first observed that N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA, 0.01 - 10 microM), an adenosine A1 receptor agonist, inhibited PSPs in a concentration-dependent manner. The CPA (10 microM)-induced inhibition was antagonized by 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX, 0.1 microM), an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist. Ze 911 concentration dependently (0.1 - 15 mg/mL) inhibited PSPs in the presence of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist 1,3,7-trimethyl-8-(3-chlorostyryl)xanthine (CSC, 0.2 microM) and adenosine deaminase (1 U/mL). The maximal inhibition induced by 10 mg/mL was completely antagonised by DPCPX (0.1 microM), an A1 receptor blocker. The data suggest that activation of adenosine A1 receptors is involved in the pharmacological effects of the valerian extract Ze 911.
Torres-Hernández, Bianca A; Del Valle-Mojica, Lisa M; Ortíz, José G
Anticonvulsant properties have been attributed to extracts of the herbal medicine Valeriana officinalis. Our aims were to examine the anticonvulsant properties of valerenic acid and valerian extracts and to determine whether valerian preparations interact with the activity of other anti-epileptic drugs (phenytoin or clonazepam). To achieve these goals, we validated the adult zebrafish, Danio rerio, as an animal model for studying anticonvulsant drugs. All drug treatments were administered by immersion in water containing the drug. For assays of anticonvulsant activity, zebrafish were pretreated with: anti-epileptic drugs, valerenic acid, aqueous or ethanolic valerian extracts, or mixtures (phenytoin or clonazepam with valerenic acid or valerian extracts). Seizures were then induced with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). A behavioral scale was developed for scoring PTZ-induced seizures in adult zebrafish. The seizure latency was evaluated for all pretreatments and control, untreated fish. Valerenic acid and both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of valerian root were also evaluated for their ability to improve survival after pentylenetetrazole-challenge. The assay was validated by comparison with well-studied anticonvulsant drugs (phenytoin, clonazepam, gabapentin and valproate). One-way ANOVA followed by Tukey post-hoc test was performed, using a p < 0.05 level of significance. All treatments were compared with the untreated animals and with the other pretreatments. After exposure to pentylenetetrazole, zebrafish exhibited a series of stereotypical behaviors prior to the appearance of clonic-like movements--convulsions. Both valerenic acid and valerian extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) significantly extended the latency period to the onset of seizure (convulsion) in adult zebrafish. The ethanolic valerian extract was a more potent anticonvulsant than the aqueous extract. Valerenic acid and both valerian extracts interacted synergistically with clonazepam to extended the
Taibi, Diana M; Vitiello, Michael V; Barsness, Suzanne; Elmer, Gary W; Anderson, Gail D; Landis, Carol A
To test the effects of nightly valerian (Valeriana officinalis) extract to improve sleep of older women with insomnia. Participants in this phase 2 randomized, double-blind, crossover controlled trial were 16 older women (mean age=69.4+/-8.1 years) with insomnia. Participants took 300 mg of concentrated valerian extract or placebo 30 min before bedtime for 2 weeks. Sleep was assessed in the laboratory by self-report and polysomnography (PSG) at baseline and again at the beginning and end of each treatment phase (total of nine nights in the laboratory) and at home by daily sleep logs and actigraphy. There were no statistically significant differences between valerian and placebo after a single dose or after 2 weeks of nightly dosing on any measure of sleep latency, wake after sleep onset (WASO), sleep efficiency, and self-rated sleep quality. In comparing each treatment to baseline in separate comparisons, WASO significantly increased (+17.7+/-25.6 min, p=.02) after 2 weeks of nightly valerian, but not after placebo (+6.8+/-26.4 min, NS). Side effects were minor and did not differ significantly between valerian and placebo. Valerian did not improve sleep in this sample of older women with insomnia. Findings from this study add to the scientific evidence that does not support use of valerian in the clinical management of insomnia.
Modabbernia, Amirhossein; Akhondzadeh, Shahin
Many cultures have developed folk herbal remedies to treat symptoms of mental illness. An evidence-based view is now being developed for some of these so-called alternative herbal treatments. This article discusses clinically relevant scientific information on medicinal extracts of 4 herbs: saffron, passionflower, valerian, and sage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Taibi, Diana M.; Vitiello, Michael V.; Barsness, Suzanne; Elmer, Gary W.; Anderson, Gail D.; Landis, Carol A.
Objective To test the effects of nightly valerian (Valeriana officinalis) extract to improve sleep of older women with insomnia. Methods Participants in this phase 2 randomized, double-blind, cross-over controlled trial were 16 older women (mean age = 69.4 ± 8.1 years) with insomnia. Participants took 300 mg of concentrated valerian extract or placebo 30 minutes before bedtime for two weeks. Sleep was assessed in the laboratory by self-report and polysomnography (PSG) at baseline and again at the beginning and end of each treatment phase (total of 9 nights in the laboratory) and at home by daily sleep logs and actigraphy. Results There were no statistically significant differences between valerian and placebo after a single dose or after two weeks of nightly dosing on any measure of sleep latency, wake after sleep onset (WASO), sleep efficiency, and self-rated sleep quality. In comparing each treatment to baseline in separate comparisons, WASO significantly increased (+17.7 ± 25.6 min, p=.02) after two weeks of nightly valerian, but not after placebo (+6.8 ± 26.4 min, NS). Side effects were minor and did not differ significantly between valerian and placebo. Conclusion Valerian did not improve sleep in this sample of older women with insomnia. Findings from this study add to the scientific evidence that does not support use of valerian in the clinical management of insomnia. PMID:18482867
Salter, Shanah; Brownie, Sonya
To evaluate the efficacy of valerian and hops in the treatment of primary insomnia. The AMED and MEDLINE databases were searched for primary sources of literature published between 1950 and 2009, using keywords: herbal medicine, medicinal plants, herbal, Valeriana officinalis, valerian, Humulus lupulus, hops, sleep, insomnia. Studies were included if they evaluated the efficacy of valerian or hops in improving primary insomnia in adults: sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Twelve of these found that the use of valerian, on its own, or in combination with hops, is associated with improvements in some sleep parameters (eg. sleep latency and quality of sleep). However, these results need to be interpreted cautiously as there were significant differences in design between the studies. Further randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trials are needed before such herbal treatments can be confidently recommended for the treatment of primary insomnia.
Kakehashi, Anna; Kato, Ayumi; Ishii, Naomi; Wei, Min; Morimura, Keiichirou; Fukushima, Shoji; Wanibuchi, Hideki
Valerian is widely used as a traditional medicine to improve the quality of sleep due to interaction of several active components with the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor (GABA(A)R) system. Recently, activation of GABA signaling in stem cells has been reported to suppress cell cycle progression in vivo. Furthermore, possible inhibitory effects of GABA(A)R agonists on hepatocarcinogenesis have been reported. The present study was performed to investigate modulating effects of Valerian on hepatocarcinogenesis using a medium-term rat liver bioassay. Male F344 rats were treated with one of the most powerful Valerian species (Valeriana sitchensis) at doses of 0, 50, 500 and 5000 ppm in their drinking water after initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis with diethylnitrosamine (DEN). Formation of glutathione S-transferase placental form positive (GST-P+) foci was significantly inhibited by Valerian at all applied doses compared with DEN initiation control rats. Generation of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine in the rat liver was significantly suppressed by all doses of Valerian, likely due to suppression of Nrf2, CYP7A1 and induction of catalase expression. Cell proliferation was significantly inhibited, while apoptosis was induced in areas of GST-P+ foci of Valerian groups associated with suppression of c-myc, Mafb, cyclin D1 and induction of p21Waf1/Cip1, p53 and Bax mRNA expression. Interestingly, expression of the GABA(A)R alpha 1 subunit was observed in GST-P+ foci of DEN control rats, with significant elevation associated with Valerian treatment. These results indicate that Valerian exhibits inhibitory effects on rat hepatocarcinogenesis by inhibiting oxidative DNA damage, suppressing cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis in GST-P+ foci by activating GABA(A)R-mediated signaling. PMID:25419570
Mahmoudian, Alireza; Rajaei, Ziba; Haghir, Hossein; Banihashemian, Shahaboldin; Hami, Javad
The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of valerian (Valeriana officinalis) consumption in pregnancy on cortical volume and the levels of zinc and copper, two essential elements that affect brain development and function, in the brain tissues of mouse fetuses. Pregnant female mice were treated with either saline or 1.2 g/kg body weight valerian extract intraperitoneally daily on gestation days (GD) 7 to 17. On GD 20, mice were sacrificed and their fetuses were collected. Fetal brains were dissected, weighed and processed for histological analysis. The volume of cerebral cortex was estimated by the Cavalieri principle. The levels of zinc and copper in the brain tissues were measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results indicated that valerian consumption in pregnancy had no significant effect on brain weight, cerebral cortex volume and copper level in fetal brain. However,it significantly decreased the level of zinc in the brain (P<0.05). Using valerian during midgestation do not have an adverse effect on cerebral cortex; however,it caused a significant decrease in zinc level in the fetal brain. This suggests that valerian use should be limited during pregnancy.
Kava and valerian are herbal remedies that are claimed to have anxiolytic and sedative properties respectively, without dependence potential or any appreciable side effects. In this pilot study, 24 patients suffering from stress-induced insomnia were treated for 6 weeks with kava (LI-150), 120 mg daily. This was followed by a 2-week 'wash-out' period off treatment, and then, five patients having dropped out, 19 received valerian (LI-156), 600 mg daily, for another 6 weeks. Then there was a further 2-week period off treatment, and a final 6 weeks of treatment of these 19 patients with the two compounds combined (kava + valerian). Stress was measured in three areas: social, personal and life events; insomnia in three areas also: time to fall asleep, hours slept and waking mood. Total stress severity was significantly relieved by both compounds individually (p < 0.01), with no significant differences between them; and there was also improvement with the combination, significant in the case of insomnia (p < 0.05). On direct questioning, 16 patients (67%) reported no side effects on kava, 10 (53%) on valerian and 10 (53%) on the combination. The 'commonest' effect was vivid dreams with kava + valerian (4 cases (21%)) and with valerian alone (3 cases (16%)), followed by gastric discomfort and dizziness with kava (3 cases each (3 %)). These results are considered to be extremely promising but further studies may be required to determine the relative roles of the two compounds for such indications. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Malva, João O; Santos, Sandra; Macedo, Tice
Valeriana officinalis have been used in traditional medicine for its sedative, hypnotic, and anticonvulsant effects. There are several reports in the literature supporting a GABAergic mechanism of action for valerian. The rationale of the present work is based on the concept that by decreasing neuronal network excitability valerian consumption may contribute to neuroprotection. The aim of our investigation was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of V. officinalis against the toxicity induced by amyloid beta peptide 25-35 Abeta(25-35). Cultured rat hippocampal neurons were exposed to Abeta(25-35) (25 microM) for 24-48 h, after which morphological and biochemical properties were evaluated. The neuronal injury evoked by Abeta, which includes a decrease in cell reducing capacity and associated neuronal degeneration, was prevented by valerian extract. Analysis of intracellular free calcium (Ca(2+)i) indicated that the neuroprotective mechanisms may involve the inhibition of excess influx of Ca2+ following neuronal injury. Moreover, membrane peroxidation in rat hippocampal synaptosomes was evaluated, and our data indicate that valerian extract partially inhibited ascorbate/iron-induced peroxidation. In conclusion we show evidence that the signalling pathways involving Ca(2+)i and the redox state of the cells may play a central role in the neuroprotective properties of V. officinalis extract against Abeta toxicity. The novelty of the findings of the present work, indicating neuroprotective properties of valerian against Abeta toxicity may, at the long-term, contribute to introduction of a new relevant use of valerian alcoholic extract to prevent neuronal degeneration in aging or neurodegenerative disorders.
Thomas, Kelan; Canedo, Joanne; Perry, Paul J; Doroudgar, Shadi; Lopes, Ingrid; Chuang, Hannah Mae; Bohnert, Kimberly
The availability of herbal medicines over-the-counter (OTC) has increased the use of natural products for self-treatment. Valerian has been used to effectively treat generalized anxiety disorder and insomnia. Studies suggest that valerenic acid may increase gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) modulation in the brain. Benzodiazepines have a similar mechanism of action and have been linked to an increased risk of hospitalizations due to traffic accidents. Despite the risk of somnolence, the safety of driving while under the influence of valerian remains unknown. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of a one-time valerian 1600mg dose on subjective sedation effects, standardized field sobriety testing (SFST) and driving simulator performance parameters. The study design was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over trial. For each session, participants received either a dose of valerian or placebo. The outcome measures included a simple visual reaction test (SVRT), subjective sleepiness scales, SFST performance scores, and driving simulator performance parameters. There were no significant differences in the SVRT or sleepiness scales between placebo and valerian exposures, but the study may have been underpowered. SFST total and individual test failure rates were not significantly different between the two exposures. The driving simulator performance parameters were equivalent between the two exposure conditions. A one-time valerian 1600mg dose, often used to treat insomnia, does not appear to impair driving simulator performance after acute ingestion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hattesohl, Miguel; Feistel, Björn; Sievers, Hartwig; Lehnfeld, Romanus; Hegger, Mirjam; Winterhoff, Hilke
Extracts of Valeriana officinalis L. s.l. are used for treating mild sleep disorders and nervous tension. Despite intensive research efforts, the pharmacological actions accounting for the clinical efficacy of valerian remain unclear. Thus, it was the aim of this study to evaluate CNS-related effects of different valerian extracts using behavioral paradigms (mice and rats). Following oral administration two commercially available preparations (extraction solvents: 45% methanol m/m and 70% ethanol v/v), a 35% ethanolic v/v extract and a refined extract derived from it (patented special extract phytofin Valerian 368) were tested for sedative (locomotor activity, ether-induced anaesthesia) and anxiolytic (elevated plus maze) activity. Using the forced swimming and the horizontal wire test the latter two extracts were additionally tested for antidepressant and myorelaxant properties. Up to maximum dosages of 500 or 1000 mg/kg bw none of the valerian extracts displayed sedative effects. Neither spontaneous activity was reduced nor the duration of ether-induced narcosis was prolonged. In contrast, results obtained in the elevated plus maze test revealed a pronounced anxiolytic effect of the 45% methanolic and 35% ethanolic extract as well as of phyotofin Valerian 368 in a dose range of 100-500 mg/kg bw. Additionally and different from its primary extract (35% ethanolic extract) phytofin Valerian 368 showed antidepressant activity in the forced swimming test after subacute treatment. Myorelaxant effects were not observed in dosages up to 1000 mg/kg bw. Due to these findings it is proposed that not sedative but anxiolytic and antidepressant activity, which was elaborated particularly in the special extract phytofin Valerian 368, considerably contribute to the sleep-enhancing properties of valerian.
Penzkofer, Michael; Baron, Andrea; Naumann, Annette; Krähmer, Andrea; Schulz, Hartwig; Heuberger, Heidi
The essential oil is an important compound of the root and rhizome of medicinally used valerian ( Valeriana officinalis L. s.l.), with a stated minimum content in the European pharmacopoeia. The essential oil is located in droplets, of which the position and distribution in the total root cross-section of different valerian varieties, root thicknesses and root horizons are determined in this study using an adapted fluorescence-microscopy and automatic imaging analysis method. The study was initiated by the following facts:A probable negative correlation between essential oil content and root thickness in selected single plants (elites), observed during the breeding of coarsely rooted valerian with high oil content.Higher essential oil content after careful hand-harvest and processing of the roots. In preliminary tests, the existence of oil containing droplets in the outer and inner regions of the valerian roots was confirmed by histological techniques and light-microscopy, as well as Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Based on this, fluorescence-microscopy followed by image analysis of entire root cross-sections, showed that a large number of oil droplets (on average 43% of total oil droplets) are located close to the root surface. The remaining oil droplets are located in the inner regions (parenchyma) and showed varying density gradients from the inner to the outer regions depending on genotype, root thickness and harvesting depth. Fluorescence-microscopy is suitable to evaluate prevalence and distribution of essential oil droplets of valerian in entire root cross-sections. The oil droplet density gradient varies among genotypes. Genotypes with a linear rather than an exponential increase of oil droplet density from the inner to the outer parenchyma can be chosen for better stability during post-harvest processing. The negative correlation of essential oil content and root thickness as observed in our breeding material can be counteracted through a
Occhiuto, Francesco; Pino, Annalisa; Palumbo, Dora Rita; Samperi, Stefania; De Pasquale, Rita; Sturlese, Emanuele; Circosta, Clara
This study investigated the relaxing effects of Valeriana officinalis L. (Valerianaceae) on human uterine muscle. The major uses of this species in Europe are as a sedative and an anxiolytic; it is also used as a spasmolytic to treat gastrointestinal spasm. We evaluated two valerian extracts (ethanolic and aqueous) in comparison with a natural mixture of valepotriates and nifedipine on spontaneous and agonist-induced contractions in non-pregnant human myometrium in vitro. Qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis was used to correlate the chemical composition of extracts with their spasmolytic effects. Myometrial strips were obtained from hysterectomy specimens of premenopausal women. Longitudinal muscle strips were mounted vertically in tissue baths under physiological conditions to record their isometric contraction. The responses of cumulative concentrations of valerian extracts on spontaneous contractions in the presence and absence of the beta-adrenoceptor blocker atenolol or the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indometacin, and on agonist-induced contractions, were investigated. Valerian extracts and valepotriates inhibited uterine contractility in a concentration-dependent manner. Pretreatment with either atenolol or indometacin did not affect the uterine responses to valerian extracts. Valerian extract reduced the maximal contractile response induced by acetylcholine, phenylephrine and histamine independent of the stimulus. Valerian extracts may have direct inhibitory effects on the contractility of the human uterus and this justifies the traditional use of this plant in the treatment of uterine cramping associated with dysmenorrhoea.
Anderson, Gail D; Elmer, Gary W; Taibi, Diana M; Vitiello, Michael V; Kantor, Eric; Kalhorn, Thomas F; Howald, William N; Barsness, Suzanne; Landis, Carol A
Insomnia is a commonly reported clinical problem with as many as 50% of older adults reporting difficulty in falling and/or remaining asleep. Valerian (Valeriana officinalis) is a commonly used herb that has been advocated for promoting sleep. Valerenic acid is used as a marker for quantitative analysis of valerian products with evidence of pharmacological activity relevant to the hypnotic effects of valerian. The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of valerenic acid in a group of elderly women after receiving a single nightly valerian dose and after 2 weeks of valerian dosing. There was not a statistically significant difference in the average peak concentration (C(max)), time to maximum concentration (T(max)) area under the time curve (AUC), elimination half-life (T(1/2)) and oral clearance after a single dose compared with multiple dosing. There was considerable inter- and intra-subject variability in the pharmacokinetic parameters. C(max) and AUC deceased and T(1/2) increased with increased body weight. The variability between the capsules was extremely low: 2.2%, 1.4% and 1.4%, for hydroxyvalerenic acid, acetoxyvalerenic acid and valerenic acid, respectively. In conclusion, large variability in the pharmacokinetics of valerenic acid may contribute to the inconsistencies in the effect of valerian as a sleep aid. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Donovan, Jennifer L; DeVane, C Lindsay; Chavin, Kenneth D; Wang, Jun-Sheng; Gibson, Bryan B; Gefroh, Holly A; Markowitz, John S
Valerian (Valeriana officinalis) is a popular dietary supplement. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of a valerian extract on the activity of the drug-metabolizing enzymes cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) and 3A4. Probe drugs dextromethorphan (30 mg; CYP2D6 activity) and alprazolam (2 mg; CYP3A4 activity) were administered orally to healthy volunteers (n = 12) at baseline and again after exposure to two 500-mg valerian tablets (1000 mg) nightly for 14 days. The valerian supplement contained a total valerenic acid content of 5.51 mg/tablet. Dextromethorphan to dextorphan metabolic ratios (DMRs) and alprazolam pharmacokinetics were determined at baseline and after valerian treatment. The DMR was 0.214 +/- 0.025 at baseline and 0.254 +/- 0.026 after valerian supplementation (p > 0.05). For alprazolam, the maximum concentration in plasma was significantly increased after treatment with valerian (25 +/- 7 ng/ml versus 31 +/- 8 ng/ml; p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in other pharmacokinetic parameters at baseline and after valerian exposure (all p values > or = 0.05; time to reach maximum concentration in plasma, 3.0 +/- 3.2 versus 3.1 +/- 2.1 h; area under the plasma concentration versus time curve, 471 +/- 183 versus 539 +/- 240 hx ng x ml(-1); half-life of elimination, 13.5 +/- 4.3 versus 12.2 +/- 5.6 h). Our results indicate that although a modest increase was observed in the alprazolam Cmax, typical doses of valerian are unlikely to produce clinically significant effects on the disposition of medications dependent on the CYP2D6 or CYP3A4 pathways of metabolism.
Jenabi, Ensiyeh; Shobeiri, Fatemeh; Hazavehei, Seyyed Mohammad Mahdi; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah
Valerian is one of the most widely used herbal supplements and a phytoestrogenic herb. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Valerian on the severity and frequency of hot flashes. This triple-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted during a three-month period in Hamadan, Iran, in 60 postmenopausal women aged 45-55 years. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups- either placebo or Valerian. An oral Valerian 530 mg capsule was given twice per day for two months. An oral placebo 530 mg capsule (starch) was similarly administered. The severity and frequency of hot flashes were determined by the Kupperman index, before the intervention, one month after, and two months after initiation of the intervention. The severity of hot flashes in the Valerian group was significantly lower than that in the placebo group at one (p = .048) and two months (p = .020) after initiation of the intervention. Compared with the placebo group, the mean frequency of hot flashes was significantly reduced two months after initiating the use of Valerian (p = .033). Health-care providers should consider Valerian to be effective for menopausal women with hot flashes.
Kava and valerian are herbal remedies, claimed to have anxiolytic and sedative properties respectively, without dependence potential or any appreciable side-effects. In this pilot study, 24 patients suffering from stress-induced insomnia were treated for 6 weeks with kava 120 mg daily. This was followed by 2 weeks off treatment and then, 5 having dropped out, 19 received valerian 600 mg daily for another 6 weeks. Stress was measured in three areas: social, personal and life-events; insomnia in three areas also: time to fall asleep, hours slept and waking mood. Total stress severity was significantly relieved by both compounds (p < 0.01) with no significant differences between them; as was also insomnia (p < 0.01). The proportion of patients with no side-effects was 58% with each drug respectively and the 'commonest' effect was vivid dreams with valerian (16%), followed by dizziness with kava (12% ). These compounds may be useful in the treatment of stress and insomnia but further studies are required to determine their relative roles for such indications. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bliwise, Donald L.; Ansari, Farzaneh Pour
Study Objective: Many people use dietary supplements or herbal products to help them sleep. We analyzed the associations between melatonin use and insomnia and between valerian use and insomnia in a representative sample of the United States population. Design and Participants: The data reported upon here were collected in the 2002 Alternative Health/Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Supplement to the National Health Interview Survey. This was a survey of 31,044 personal interviews that constituted an age-representative and socioeconomically representative sample of the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States. Results: Of the survey sample, 5.9% used valerian and 5.2% used melatonin. Of those using valerian, 29.9% endorsed insomnia as 1 reason for CAM use, and, of melatonin users, 27.5% endorsed insomnia as 1 reason for CAM use. Relatively greater use occurred in individuals under age 60 years. The decision to use such substances was made in consultation with a health care provider less than half of the time. Conclusions: Large segments of the United States population used valerian or melatonin for insomnia within the year preceding the survey, and usage typically fell outside the purview of the health care system. Citation: Bliwise DL; Ansari FP. Insomnia associated with valerian and melatonin usage in the 2002 National Health Interview Survey. SLEEP 2007;30(7):881-884. PMID:17682659
Fernández-San-Martín, Maria Isabel; Masa-Font, Roser; Palacios-Soler, Laura; Sancho-Gómez, Pilar; Calbó-Caldentey, Cristina; Flores-Mateo, Gemma
Insomnia is an often seen primary health care problem. Valerian might be an alternative treatment with fewer secondary effects. The aim of this study is to evaluate its effectiveness on insomnia through a meta-analysis of published literature. Search for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of Valerian preparations compared with a placebo on Medline, the Cochrane Library, Embase and Biosis. sleep-quality improvement (SQ, yes/no), sleep-quality improvement quantified through visual analogical scales (SQS) and the latency time (LT) in minutes until getting to sleep. Three meta-analyses were carried out using inverse-variance weighted random effects models. Heterogeneity was determined with the Q-statistic and was explored through a sub-groups analysis. Publication bias was evaluated using the funnel plot. Eighteen RCTs were selected; eight had a score of 5 on Jadad's scale. The mean differences in LT between the Valerian and placebo treatment groups was 0.70 min (95% CI, -3.44 to 4.83); the standardized mean differences between the groups measured with SQS was -0.02 (95% CI, -0.35 to 0.31); treatment with Valerian showed a relative risk of SQ of 1.37 (95% CI, 1.05-1.78) compared with the placebo group. There was heterogeneity in the three meta-analyses, but it diminished in the sub groups analysis. No publication bias was detected. The qualitative dichotomous results suggest that valerian would be effective for a subjective improvement of insomnia, although its effectiveness has not been demonstrated with quantitative or objective measurements. We recommend future investigations oriented toward improving insomnia with other more promising treatments. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Oxman, Andrew D.; Flottorp, Signe; Håvelsrud, Kari; Fretheim, Atle; Odgaard-Jensen, Jan; Austvoll-Dahlgren, Astrid; Carling, Cheryl; Pallesen, Ståle; Bjorvatn, Bjørn
Background This trial was conducted as part of a project that aims to enhance public understanding and use of research in decisions about healthcare by enabling viewers to participate in research and to follow the process, through television reports and on the web. Valerian is an herbal over-the-counter drug that is widely used for insomnia. Systematic reviews have found inconsistent and inconclusive results about its effects. Methods Participants were recruited through a weekly nationally televised health program in Norway. Enrolment and data collection were over the Internet. 405 participants who were 18 to 75 years old and had insomnia completed a two week diary-keeping run-in period without treatment and were randomised and mailed valerian or placebo tablets for two weeks. All participants and investigators were blind to treatment until after the analysis was completed. Findings For the primary outcome of a minimally important improvement in self-reported sleep quality (≥0.5 units on a 7 point scale), the difference between the valerian group (29%) and the placebo group (21%) was not statistically significant (difference 7.5%; 95% CI-0.9 to 15.9; p = 0.08). On the global self-assessment question at the end of the treatment period 5.5% (95% CI 0.2 to 10.8) more participants in the valerian group perceived their sleep as better or much better (p = 0.04). There were similar trends favouring the valerian group for night awakenings (difference = 6.0%, 95% CI-0.5 to 12.5) and sleep duration (difference = 7.5%, 95% CI-1.0 to 16.1). There were no serious adverse events and no important or statistically significant differences in minor adverse events. Interpretation Based on this and previous studies, valerian appears to be safe, but with modest beneficial effects at most on insomnia compared to placebo. The combined use of television and the Internet in randomised trials offers opportunities to answer questions about the effects of health care
Del Valle-Mojica, Lisa M; Ayala-Marín, Yoshira M; Ortiz-Sanchez, Carmen M; Torres-Hernández, Bianca A; Abdalla-Mukhaimer, Safa; Ortiz, José G
Although GABA neurotransmission has been suggested as a mechanism for Valeriana officinalis effects, CNS depression can also be evoked by inhibition of ionotropic (iGluR) and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR). In this study, we examined if aqueous valerian extract interacted with glutamatergic receptors. Freshly prepared aqueous valerian extract was incubated with rat cortical synaptic membranes in presence of 20 nM [(3)H]Glutamate. Aqueous valerian extract increased [(3)H]Glutamate binding from 1 × 10(-7) to 1 × 10(-3) mg/mL. In the presence of (2S,1'S,2'S)-2-(Carboxycyclopropyl)glycine (LCCG-I) and (2S,2'R,3'R)-2-(2',3'-Dicarboxycyclopropyl)glycine (DCG-IV), Group II mGluR agents, valerian extract markedly decreased [(3)H]Glutamate binding, while (2S)-2-amino-3-(3,5-dioxo-1,2,4-oxadiazolidin-2-yl) propanoic acid) (quisqualic acid, QA), Group I mGluR agonist, increased [(3)H]Glutamate binding. At 0.05 mg/mL aqueous valerian extract specifically interacted with kainic acid NMDA and AMPA receptors. Valerenic acid, a marker compound for Valeriana officinalis, increased the [(3)H]Glutamate binding after 1.6 × 10(-2) mg/mL, and at 0.008 mg/mL it interacted only with QA (Group I mGluR). The selective interactions of valerian extract and valerenic acid with Group I and Group II mGluR may represent an alternative explanation for the anxiolytic properties of this plant.
Del Valle-Mojica, Lisa M.; Ayala-Marín, Yoshira M.; Ortiz-Sanchez, Carmen M.; Torres-Hernández, Bianca A.; Abdalla-Mukhaimer, Safa; Ortiz, José G.
Although GABA neurotransmission has been suggested as a mechanism for Valeriana officinalis effects, CNS depression can also be evoked by inhibition of ionotropic (iGluR) and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR). In this study, we examined if aqueous valerian extract interacted with glutamatergic receptors. Freshly prepared aqueous valerian extract was incubated with rat cortical synaptic membranes in presence of 20 nM [3H]Glutamate. Aqueous valerian extract increased [3H]Glutamate binding from 1 × 10−7 to 1 × 10−3 mg/mL. In the presence of (2S,1′S,2′S)-2-(Carboxycyclopropyl)glycine (LCCG-I) and (2S,2′R,3′R)-2-(2′,3′-Dicarboxycyclopropyl)glycine (DCG-IV), Group II mGluR agents, valerian extract markedly decreased [3H]Glutamate binding, while (2S)-2-amino-3-(3,5-dioxo-1,2,4-oxadiazolidin-2-yl) propanoic acid) (quisqualic acid, QA), Group I mGluR agonist, increased [3H]Glutamate binding. At 0.05 mg/mL aqueous valerian extract specifically interacted with kainic acid NMDA and AMPA receptors. Valerenic acid, a marker compound for Valeriana officinalis, increased the [3H]Glutamate binding after 1.6 × 10−2 mg/mL, and at 0.008 mg/mL it interacted only with QA (Group I mGluR). The selective interactions of valerian extract and valerenic acid with Group I and Group II mGluR may represent an alternative explanation for the anxiolytic properties of this plant. PMID:21584239
Li, Kun; Guo, Xiu-wu; Guo, Yin-shan; Li, Cheng-xiang; Xie, Hong-gang; Hu, Xi-xi; Zhang, Li-heng; Sun, Ying-ni
Taking the tissue-cultured seedlings of grape cultivar Red Globe as test objects, this paper examined the effects of their root aqueous extracts on seedling's growth, with the allelochemicals identified by LC-MS. The results showed that 0.02 g x ml(-1) (air-dried root mass in aqueous extracts volume; the same below), 0.1 g x ml(-1), and 0.2 g x ml(-1) of the aqueous extracts inhibited the growth of the seedlings significantly, and the inhibition effect increased with increasing concentration of the extracts. The identified allelochemicals of the extracts included p-hydroxybenzoic acid, salicylic acid, phenylpropionic acid, and coumaric acid. Pot experiment showed that different concentration (0.1, 1, and 10 mmol x L(-1)) salicylic acid and phenylpropionic acid inhibited the seedling' s growth remarkably. With the increasing concentration of the two acids, the plant height, stem diameter, shoot- and root fresh mass, leaf net photosynthetic rate and starch content, and root activity of the seedlings decreased, while the leaf soluble sugar and MDA contents increased. No obvious change pattern was observed in leaf protein content.
Herbal extracts targeting at the brain remain a continuous challenge to pharmacology. Usually, a number of different animal tests have to be performed in order to find a potential clinical use. Due to manifold possibly active ingredients biochemical approaches are difficult. A more holistic approach using a neurophysiological technique has been developed earlier in order to characterise synthetic drugs. Stereotactic implantation of four semi-microelectrodes into frontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum and reticular formation of rats allowed continuous wireless monitoring of field potentials (EEG) before and after drug intake. After frequency analysis (Fast Fourier Transformation) electric power was calculated for 6 ranges (delta, theta, alpha1, alpha2, beta1 and beta2). Data from 14 synthetic drugs - tested earlier and representative for different clinical indications - were taken for construction of discriminant functions showing the projection of the frequency patterns in a six-dimensional graph. Quantitative analysis of the EEG frequency pattern from the depth of the brain succeeded in discrimination of drug effects according to their known clinical indication (Dimpfel and Schober, 2003). Extracts from Valerian root, Ginkgo leaves, Paullinia seed, Hop strobile, Rhodiola rosea root and Sideritis scardica herb were tested now under identical conditions. Classification of these extracts based on the matrix from synthetic drugs revealed that Valerian root and hop induced a pattern reminiscent of physiological sleep. Ginkgo and Paullinia appeared in close neighbourhood of stimulatory drugs like caffeine or to an analgesic profile (tramadol). Rhodiola and Sideritis developed similar frequency patterns comparable to a psychostimulant drug (methylphenidate) as well to an antidepressive drug (paroxetine). © 2013 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Circosta, Clara; De Pasquale, Rita; Samperi, Stefania; Pino, Annalisa; Occhiuto, Francesco
The anticoronaryspastic and antibronchospastic activities of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Valeriana officinalis L. roots were investigated in anaesthetized guinea-pigs and the results were correlated with the qualitative/quantitative chemical composition of the extracts in order to account for some of the common uses of this plant. The protective effects of orally administered ethanolic and aqueous extracts (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) were evaluated against pitressin-induced coronary spasm and pressor response in guinea-pigs and were compared with those of nifedipine. Furthermore, the protective effects against histamine-induced and Oleaceae antigen challenge-induced bronchospasm were evaluated. Finally, the two valerian extracts were analytically characterized by qualitative and quantitative chromatographic analysis. The results showed that the two valeriana extracts possessed significant anticoronaryspastic, antihypertensive and antibronchospastic properties. These were similar to those exhibited by nifedipine and are due to the structural features of the active principles they contain. This study justifies the traditional use of this plant in the treatment of some respiratory and cardiovascular disorders.
Nell, Monika; Wawrosch, Christoph; Steinkellner, Siegrid; Vierheilig, Horst; Kopp, Brigitte; Lössl, Andreas; Franz, Chlodwig; Novak, Johannes; Zitterl-Eglseer, Karin
In some medicinal plants a specific plant-fungus association, known as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, increases the levels of secondary plant metabolites and/or plant growth. In this study, the effects of three different AM treatments on biomass and sesquiterpenic acid concentrations in two IN VITRO propagated genotypes of valerian ( VALERIANA OFFICINALIS L., Valerianaceae) were investigated. Valerenic, acetoxyvalerenic and hydroxyvalerenic acid levels were analyzed in the rhizome and in two root fractions. Two of the AM treatments significantly increased the levels of sesquiterpenic acids in the underground parts of valerian. These treatments, however, influenced the biomass of rhizomes and roots negatively. Therefore this observed increase was not accompanied by an increase in yield of sesquiterpenic acids per plant. Furthermore, one of the two genotypes had remarkably high hydroxyvalerenic acid contents and can be regarded as a hydroxyvalerenic acid chemotype. Copyright Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.
Douglas, Ruth H.; Muldowney, Ciaran A.; Mohamed, Rabab; Keohane, Fiona; Shanahan, Catherine; Walsh, John J.; Kavanagh, Pierce V.
Several valerian-containing products sold in pharmacies were evaluated to verify the presence of Valeriana officinalis by identifying the presence of valerenic acid found only in species of Valeriana. The content of valerenic acid was found to vary considerably in the products analyzed, thus emphasizing the importance of standardizing herbal…
Teoh, Peik Lin; Cheng, Angelina Ying Fang; Liau, Monica; Lem, Fui Fui; Kaling, Grace P; Chua, Fern Nie; Cheong, Bo Eng
Clinacanthus nutans Lindau (Acanthaceae) is a medicinal plant that has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antimicrobial and antivenom activities. In Malaysia, it has been widely claimed to be effective in various cancer treatments but scientific evidence is lacking. This study investigates the chemical constituents, anti-proliferative, and apoptotic properties of C. nutans root extracts. The roots were subjected to solvent extraction using methanol and ethyl acetate. The anti-proliferative effects of root extracts were tested at the concentrations of 10 to 50 μg/mL on MCF-7 and HeLa by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay for 72 h. Morphological changes were observed under light microscope. Pro-apoptotic effects of root extracts were examined using flow cytometric analysis and RT-PCR. The chemical compositions of root extracts were detected using GC-MS. The proliferation of MCF-7 cells was inhibited with the IC 50 values of 35 and 30 μg/mL, respectively, for methanol and ethyl acetate root extracts. The average inhibition of HeLa cells was ∼25%. Induction of apoptosis in MCF-7 was supported by chromatin condensation, down-regulation of BCL2 and unaltered expression of BAX. However, only ethyl acetate extract caused the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. GC-MS analysis revealed the roots extracts were rich with terpenoids and phytosterols. The results demonstrated that root extracts promote apoptosis by suppressing BCL2 via mitochondria-dependent or independent manner. The identified compounds might work solely or cooperatively in regulating apoptosis. However, further studies are required to address this.
El Chaar, Edgar; Oshman, Sarah; Fallah Abed, Pooria
Clinicians have many treatment techniques from which to choose when extracting a failing tooth and replacing it with an implant-supported restoration and when successful management of an extraction socket during the course of tooth replacement is necessary to achieve predictable and esthetic outcomes. This article presents a straightforward, yet thorough, classification for extraction sockets of single-rooted teeth and provides guidance to clinicians in the selection of appropriate and predictable treatment. The presented classification of extraction sockets for single-rooted teeth focuses on the topography of the extraction socket, while the protocol for treatment of each socket type factors in the shape of the remaining bone, the biotype, and the location of the socket whether it be in the mandible or maxilla. This system is based on the biologic foundations of wound healing and can help guide clinicians to successful treatment outcomes.
Joshi, Apurva; Sengar, Nidhi; Prasad, Satyendra K; Goel, Raj Kumar; Singh, Akanksha; Hemalatha, Siva
The present investigation is an attempt to scientifically validate the traditional use of the roots of the plant Albizzia lebbeck in Ayurvedic system of medicine for curing wounds. The study included phytochemical standardization of the ethanol root extract of A. lebbeck, which was further subjected to oral acute toxicity study. Wound-healing activity of the ethanol root extract was evaluated using incision and excision wound models. Biochemical parameters such as hydroxyproline, hexuronic acid, hexosamine, and antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and free radical parameters including lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide were evaluated on the 10th post-wounding day following dead space method. For confirmation of activity, histopathology of the wounds and granulation tissues from excision and dead space wound model were performed. The study also included assessment of antibacterial activity of ethanol root extract against strains implicated in wound infection. The ethanol root extract was found to be highly rich in flavonoids, saponins, phenols, and tannins, while the amount of rutin was found to be 4.66 % w/w. It significantly increased the wound breaking strength showing a ceiling effect at 500 mg/kg p. o. The ethanol root extract at 500 mg/kg p. o. depicted an optimum wound contraction on the 18th day, while complete wound contraction was observed at the 22nd post wound day. It also demonstrated a significant increase in dry tissue weight, total protein, hydroxyproline, hexosamine, hexuronic acid, superoxide dismutase, and reduced glutathione levels, whereas a decrease in the levels of lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide was also observed with a potential antibacterial activity. Histopathological studies revealed a normal epithelization and fibrosis which was evidenced through an increase in collagen density. Thus, the study scientifically validated the wound-healing activity of the ethanol root extract along with a potential
Bol, Sebastiaan; Caspers, Jana; Buckingham, Lauren; Anderson-Shelton, Gail Denise; Ridgway, Carrie; Buffington, C A Tony; Schulz, Stefan; Bunnik, Evelien M
Olfactory stimulation is an often overlooked method of environmental enrichment for cats in captivity. The best known example of olfactory enrichment is the use of catnip, a plant that can cause an apparently euphoric reaction in domestic cats and most of the Pantherinae. It has long been known that some domestic cats and most tigers do not respond to catnip. Although many anecdotes exist of other plants with similar effects, data are lacking about the number of cats that respond to these plants, and if cats that do not respond to catnip respond to any of them. Furthermore, much is still unknown about which chemicals in these plants cause this response. We tested catnip, silver vine, Tatarian honeysuckle and valerian root on 100 domestic cats and observed their response. Each cat was offered all four plant materials and a control, multiple times. Catnip and silver vine also were offered to nine tigers. The plant materials were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry to quantify concentrations of compounds believed to exert stimulating effects on cats. Nearly all domestic cats responded positively to olfactory enrichment. In agreement with previous studies, one out of every three cats did not respond to catnip. Almost 80% of the domestic cats responded to silver vine and about 50% to Tatarian honeysuckle and valerian root. Although cats predominantly responded to fruit galls of the silver vine plant, some also responded positively to its wood. Of the cats that did not respond to catnip, almost 75% did respond to silver vine and about one out of three to Tatarian honeysuckle. Unlike domestic cats, tigers were either not interested in silver vine or responded disapprovingly. The amount of nepetalactone was highest in catnip and only present at marginal levels in the other plants. Silver vine contained the highest concentrations of all other compounds tested. Olfactory enrichment for cats may have great potential. Silver vine powder from dried
Hou, Bo; Wang, Wencheng; Gao, Hui; Cai, Shanglang; Wang, Chunbo
Objective To identify potential genes that may be involved in lipid metabolism in rats after treatment with aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L (burdock). Methods Rats were randomly divided into six groups: (i) control (standard diet); (ii) model group (high-fat diet only); (iii) high-fat diet and low-dose aqueous burdock root extract (2 g/kg); (iv) high-fat diet and moderate-dose aqueous burdock root extract (4 g/kg); (v) high-fat diet and high-dose aqueous burdock root extract (8 g/kg); and (vi) a positive control group exposed to a high-fat diet and simvastatin (10 mg/kg). Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis was performed to find the potential candidate genes involved in the modulation of blood lipids by treatment with aqueous burdock root extract. Results Burdock root extract reduced body weight and cholesterol levels in rats. KEGG analysis revealed 113 genes that were involved in metabolic pathways. Of these, 27 potential genes associated with blood lipid metabolism were identified. Conclusions Aqueous extract of burdock root reduced body weight and cholesterol in rats, possibly by modulating the differential expression of genes.
Kuźma, Łukasz; Wysokińska, Halina; Sikora, Joanna; Olszewska, Paulina; Mikiciuk-Olasik, Elżbieta; Szymański, Paweł
Taxodione, an abietane diterpenoid, was isolated from Salvia austriaca transformed roots grown in in vitro conditions. The compound is known to have antibacterial, cytotoxic and anti-tumour properties. This study evaluates the ability of pure taxodione and extracts obtained from the S. austriaca hairy roots and roots from field-grown plants to inhibit human acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase. Both extracts were found to have similar actions against acetylcholinesterase. The IC50 for extracts from transformed and untransformed roots were 142.5 and 139.5 µg ml(-1), respectively. The highest activity towards human acetylcholinesterase was demonstrated by taxodione (IC50 = 54.84 µg ml(-1)). With respect to BChE inhibition, the root extracts demonstrated stronger activity (IC50 = 23.6 µg ml(-1): field-grown plants and 41.6 µg ml(-1): transformed roots) than taxodione (IC50 = 195.9 µg ml(-1)). Taxodione showed significant cytotoxicity against A549 cell line (IC50 = 9.1 µg ml(-1)), whereas the activities for the extracts from S. austriaca roots of field-grown plants (IC50 = 75.7 µg ml(-1)) and hairy roots (IC50 = 86.2 µg ml(-1)) were lower. Computer modelling suggests that taxodione should not demonstrate cardiotoxic or genotoxic activity. It also indicates that taxodione should demonstrate very rapid transport from the body with very good blood-brain barrier penetration, but with no cumulative effect on the human body. The obtained results indicate that taxodione is a safe compound and may be used for further investigations in pharmacological activities. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Rentz, Jeremy A; Alvarez, Pedro J J; Schnoor, Jerald L
The phenanthrene-degrading activity (PDA) of Pseudomonas putida ATCC 17484 was repressed after incubation with plant root extracts of oat (Avena sativa), osage orange (Maclura pomifera), hybrid willow (Salix alba x matsudana), kou (Cordia subcordata) and milo (Thespesia populnea) and plant root exudates of oat (Avena sativa) and hybrid poplar (Populus deltoides x nigra DN34). Total organic carbon content of root extracts ranged from 103 to 395 mg l(-1). Characterization of root extracts identified acetate (not detectable to 8.0 mg l(-1)), amino acids (1.7-17.3 mg l(-1)) and glucose (1.6-14.0 mg l(-1)), indicating a complex mixture of substrates. Repression was also observed after exposure to potential root-derived substrates, including organic acids, glucose (carbohydrate) and glutamate (amino acid). Carbon source regulation (e.g. catabolite repression) was apparently responsible for the observed repression of P. putida PDA by root extracts. However, we showed that P. putida grows on root extracts and exudates as sole carbon and energy sources. Enhanced growth on root products may compensate for partial repression, because larger microbial populations are conducive to faster degradation rates. This would explain the commonly reported increase in phenanthrene removal in the rhizosphere.
Chipiti, Talent; Ibrahim, Mohammed Auwal; Koorbanally, Neil Anthony; Islam, Md Shahidul
The antioxidative activities of the ethanol and aqueous extracts of the leaf and root samples of Albizia antunesiana were determined across a series of four in vitro models. The results showed that all the extracts had reducing power (Fe(3+)- Fe2+), DPPH, hydroxyl and nitric oxide radical scavenging abilities. The ethanol root extract had more potent antioxidant power in all the experimental models and possesses a higher total phenol content of 216.6 +/- 6.7 mg/g. The GC-MS analysis of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of the roots and leaves indicated that several aromatic phenolic compounds, a coumarin and some common triterpenoids were present in these extracts. Data from this study suggest that the leaves and roots of Albizia antunesiana possessed antioxidative activities that varied depending on the solvents.
Bogacz, Anna; Mrozikiewicz, Przemyslaw M; Karasiewicz, Monika; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Majchrzycki, Marian; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L; Ozarowski, Marcin; Grzeskowiak, Edmund
Valeriana officinalis is one of the most popular medicinal plants commonly used as a sedative and sleep aid. It is suggested that its pharmacologically active compounds derived from the root may modulate the CYP3A4 gene expression by activation of pregnane X receptor (PXR) or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and lead to pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of valerian on the expression level of CYP3A1 (homologue to human CYP3A4) as well as nuclear receptors PXR, CAR, RXR, GR, and HNF-4α. Male Wistar rats were given standardized valerian extract (300 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 3 and 10 days. The expression in liver tissue was analyzed by using real-time PCR. Our result showed a decrease of CYP3A1 expression level by 35% (P = 0.248) and 37% (P < 0.001), respectively. Moreover, Valeriana exhibited statistically significant reduction in RXR (approximately 28%) only after 3-day treatment. We also demonstrated a decrease in the amount HNF-4α by 22% (P = 0.005) and 32% (P = 0.012), respectively. In case of CAR, the increase of expression level by 46% (P = 0.023) was noted. These findings suggest that Valeriana officinalis extract can decrease the CYP3A4 expression and therefore may lead to interactions with synthetic drugs metabolized by this enzyme.
Mrozikiewicz, Przemyslaw M.; Karasiewicz, Monika; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L.; Ozarowski, Marcin; Grzeskowiak, Edmund
Valeriana officinalis is one of the most popular medicinal plants commonly used as a sedative and sleep aid. It is suggested that its pharmacologically active compounds derived from the root may modulate the CYP3A4 gene expression by activation of pregnane X receptor (PXR) or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and lead to pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of valerian on the expression level of CYP3A1 (homologue to human CYP3A4) as well as nuclear receptors PXR, CAR, RXR, GR, and HNF-4α. Male Wistar rats were given standardized valerian extract (300 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 3 and 10 days. The expression in liver tissue was analyzed by using real-time PCR. Our result showed a decrease of CYP3A1 expression level by 35% (P = 0.248) and 37% (P < 0.001), respectively. Moreover, Valeriana exhibited statistically significant reduction in RXR (approximately 28%) only after 3-day treatment. We also demonstrated a decrease in the amount HNF-4α by 22% (P = 0.005) and 32% (P = 0.012), respectively. In case of CAR, the increase of expression level by 46% (P = 0.023) was noted. These findings suggest that Valeriana officinalis extract can decrease the CYP3A4 expression and therefore may lead to interactions with synthetic drugs metabolized by this enzyme. PMID:25302309
Karami, Zohreh; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; Mirzaee, Habib Allah; Khomeiri, Morteza; Mahoonak, Alireza Sadeghi; Aydani, Emad
In present study, response surface methodology was used to optimize extraction condition of phenolic compounds from licorice root by microwave application. Investigated factors were solvent (ethanol 80 %, methanol 80 % and water), liquid/solid ratio (10:1-25:1) and time (2-6 min). Experiments were designed according to the central composite rotatable design. The results showed that extraction conditions had significant effect on the extraction yield of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacities. Optimal condition in microwave assisted method were ethanol 80 % as solvent, extraction time of 5-6 min and liquid/solid ratio of 12.7/1. Results were compared with those obtained by soxhlet extraction. In soxhlet extraction, Optimum conditions were extraction time of 6 h for ethanol 80 % as solvent. Value of phenolic compounds and extraction yield of licorice root in microwave assisted (MAE), and soxhlet were 47.47 mg/g and 16.38 %, 41.709 mg/g and 14.49 %, respectively. These results implied that MAE was more efficient extracting method than soxhlet.
Benbassat, Niko; Kostova, Bistra; Nikolova, Irina; Rachev, Dimitar
Lozenges (tablets intended to be dissolved slowly in the mouth) were evaluated as delivery system for polysaccharides extract from Althaea officinalis L. (marshmallow) root. The aim of investigation was to improve of the efficacy of convenient preparations for the treatment of irritated oropharyngeal mucosa and associated dry irritable cough. The formulations studied were prepared with water extract of roots of Althaea officinalis L. The polysaccharides extract was obtained by ultrasonification. Acute oral toxicity (LD 50 p.o.) of the obtained extract was estimated in mice. Four models of lozenges based on different excipients were formulated. The characteristics of the preparations: resistance to crushing, friability testing, disintegration time and drug release properties were evaluated.
Nguyen, Khanh; Sparks, Jean; Omoruyi, Felix
Ligusticum porteri roots have been traditionally used in folk medicine, but the scientific basis is unclear. To investigate the cytotoxicity, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects of L. porteri root extract on human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells and H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative damaged HL-60 cells. HL-60 cells were incubated with different concentrations of root extract, and cells were harvested for viability assays on day 3 and 7. Cytokine levels (interferon-gamma [IFN-γ], interleukin-2 [IL-2], and interleukin-10 [IL-10]) and antioxidant indexes (malondialdehyde [MDA], reduced glutathione [GSH], superoxide dismutase [SOD], and catalase [CAT]) in H 2 O 2 -induced-stressed HL-60 were measured after 2 days. The viability of HL-60 challenged with H 2 O 2 declined by 42% compared to unstressed cells. After 7 days of incubation with 200 or 400 μg/mL L. porteri , the viability of HL-60 cells was two-fold higher than the control. Stressed HL-60 cells treated with 100, 200, and 400 μg/mL L. porteri reduced the lipid peroxidation by 12%-13%. We noted an increase in GSH levels, SOD and CAT activities in stressed HL-60 supplemented with 400 μg/mL root extract. Treatment with 400 μg/mL L. porteri significantly ( P < 0.05) increased IFN-γ and IL-2 in H 2 O 2 -challenged cells. Our data do not support the use of the extract as an antiproliferation and differentiation therapy for acute promyelocytic leukemia. The protective function of L. porteri root extract against oxidative stress could occur through increasing GSH and higher expression of antioxidant enzymes. Findings from this study may not support the use of Ligusticum porteri root extract as an antiproliferation and differentiation therapy for acute promyelocytic leukemiaOur data suggest that L. porteri root extract may be a potential antioxidant with protective effect against the oxidation of reduced glutathione (GSH)Treatment with L. porteri root extract may be effective in preventing oxidative damage
Alarcon-Aguilar, F J; Calzada-Bermejo, F; Hernandez-Galicia, E; Ruiz-Angeles, C; Roman-Ramos, R
Ibervillea sonorae's root, or "wareque" (Cucurbitaceae), is widely used in Mexican traditional medicine for the control of diabetes mellitus. In the present study, the hypoglycemic effects produced by the acute and chronic administration of various extracts of Ibervillea sonorae were investigated. Both the traditional preparation (aqueous decoction) and the raw extract (juice) from the root resulted in significant reductions of glycemia in healthy mice after intraperitoneal administration at a dose of 600 mg/kg. Additionally, ground dried root was used to obtain a dichloromethane (DCM) extract and a methanol (MeOH) extract. The DCM extract induced a clear reduction of glycemia in healthy (P < 0.05) and in alloxan-diabetic mice. The intraperitoneally administered DCM extract caused a severe hypoglycemia that produced lethality in all the treated animals when doses of 300 and 600 mg/kg body weight were used. Since the DCM extract showed a marked hypoglycemic activity, it was administered daily per os to alloxan diabetic rats, employing corn oil and tolbutamide as controls. After 41 days of DCM extract administration at a dose of 300 mg/kg/day, diabetic rats showed improvement in glycemia, body weight, triglycerides, and GPT in comparison with the diabetic control group. Total cholesterol, GOT, and uric acid blood levels were not affected.
Background Arctium lappa, known as burdock, is widely used in popular medicine for hypertension, gout, hepatitis and other inflammatory disorders. Pharmacological studies indicated that burdock roots have hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, free radical scavenging and antiproliferative activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate total phenolic content, radical scavenging activity by DPPH and in vitro antiproliferative activity of different A. lappa root extracts. Methods Hot and room temperature dichloromethanic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts; hydroethanolic and total aqueous extract of A. lappa roots were investigated regarding radical scavenging activity by DPPH, total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau method and antiproliferative in vitro activity was evaluated in human cancer cell lines. The hydroethanolic extract analyzed by high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy. Results Higher radical scavenging activity was found for the hydroethanolic extract. The higher phenolic contents were found for the dichloromethane, obtained both by Soxhlet and maceration extraction and hydroethanolic extracts. The HRESI-MS demonstrated the presence of arctigenin, quercetin, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid compounds, which were identified by comparison with previous data. The dichloromethane extracts were the only extracts that exhibited activity against cancer cell lines, especially for K562, MCF-7 and 786-0 cell lines. Conclusions The hydroethanolic extracts exhibited the strongest free radical scavenging activity, while the highest phenolic content was observed in Soxhlet extraction. Moreover, the dichloromethanic extracts showed selective antiproliferative activity against K562, MCF-7 and 786-0 human cancer cell lines. PMID:21429215
Predes, Fabricia S; Ruiz, Ana L T G; Carvalho, João E; Foglio, Mary A; Dolder, Heidi
Arctium lappa, known as burdock, is widely used in popular medicine for hypertension, gout, hepatitis and other inflammatory disorders. Pharmacological studies indicated that burdock roots have hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, free radical scavenging and antiproliferative activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate total phenolic content, radical scavenging activity by DPPH and in vitro antiproliferative activity of different A. lappa root extracts. Hot and room temperature dichloromethanic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts; hydroethanolic and total aqueous extract of A. lappa roots were investigated regarding radical scavenging activity by DPPH, total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau method and antiproliferative in vitro activity was evaluated in human cancer cell lines. The hydroethanolic extract analyzed by high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy. Higher radical scavenging activity was found for the hydroethanolic extract. The higher phenolic contents were found for the dichloromethane, obtained both by Soxhlet and maceration extraction and hydroethanolic extracts. The HRESI-MS demonstrated the presence of arctigenin, quercetin, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid compounds, which were identified by comparison with previous data. The dichloromethane extracts were the only extracts that exhibited activity against cancer cell lines, especially for K562, MCF-7 and 786-0 cell lines. The hydroethanolic extracts exhibited the strongest free radical scavenging activity, while the highest phenolic content was observed in Soxhlet extraction. Moreover, the dichloromethanic extracts showed selective antiproliferative activity against K562, MCF-7 and 786-0 human cancer cell lines. © 2011 Predes et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Thusoo, Sakshima; Gupta, Sahil; Sudan, Rasleen; Kour, Jaspreet; Bhagat, Sahil; Hussain, Rashid; Bhagat, Madhulika
Valeriana jatamansi is an indigenous medicinal plant used in the treatment of a number of diseases. In the present study, chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by GC-MS. Seven major components were identified in Valeriana jatamansi essential oil, namely, β-vatirenene, β-patchoulene, dehydroaromadendrene, β-gurjunene, patchoulic alcohol, β-guaiene, and α-muurolene. Methanolic, aqueous, and chloroform extracts of Valeriana jatamansi roots were also prepared and analyzed for their polyphenols and flavonoid content. Antioxidant activity of essential oil and different extracts of Valeriana jatamansi roots was determined by DPPH radical scavenging and chelation power assay. A linear correlation has been obtained by comparing the antioxidant activity and polyphenols and flavonoid content of the extracts. Results indicated that antioxidant activity of methanolic extract could be attributed to the presence of rich amount of polyphenols and flavonoid. Essential oil of Valeriana jatamansi roots showed moderate antioxidant activity.
Barton, Debra L.; Atherton, Pamela J.; Bauer, Brent A.; Moore, Dennis F.; Mattar, Bassam I.; LaVasseur, Beth I.; Rowland, Kendrith M.; Zon, Robin T.; LeLindqwister, Nguyet A.; Nagargoje, Gauri G.; Morgenthaler, Timothy I.; Sloan, Jeff A.; Loprinzi, Charles L.
Background Sleep disorders are a substantial problem for cancer survivors, with prevalence estimates ranging from 23 to 61%. Although numerous prescription hypnotics are available, few are approved for long-term use or have demonstrated benefit in this circumstance. Hypnotics may have unwanted side effects, are costly, and cancer survivors often wish to avoid prescription drugs. New options with limited side effects are needed. The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the efficacy of a valerian officinalis supplement for sleep in people with cancer who were undergoing cancer treatment. Methods Participants were randomized to receive 450 mg of valerian or placebo orally 1 hour before bedtime for 8 weeks. The primary endpoint was area under the curve (AUC) of the overall Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Secondary outcomes included the Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire, the Brief Fatigue Inventory and the Profile of Mood States. Toxicity was evaluated with both self reported numeric analogue scale questions and the Common Criteria Terminology Criteria (CTCAE) version 3.0. Questionnaires were completed at baseline, 4, and 8 weeks. Results A total of 227 patients were randomized onto this study between 3/19/2004 and 3/9/2007, with 119 being evaluable for the primary endpoint. The AUC over the 8 weeks for valerian was 51.4 (SD = 16) while for placebo it was 49.7 (SD = 15) with a p-value of 0.6957. A supplemental, exploratory analysis revealed that several fatigue endpoints, as measured by the BFI and POMS, were significantly better for those taking valerian over placebo. Participants also reported less trouble with sleep and less drowsiness on valerian than placebo. There were no significant differences in toxicities as measured by self report or the CTCAE v3 except for mild alkaline phosphatase increases, which were slightly more common in the placebo group. Conclusions This study failed to provide data to support the hypothesis that valerian, 450 mg, at
The use of Valeriana officinalis (Valerian) in improving sleep in patients who are undergoing treatment for cancer: a phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study (NCCTG Trial, N01C5).
Barton, Debra L; Atherton, Pamela J; Bauer, Brent A; Moore, Dennis F; Mattar, Bassam I; Lavasseur, Beth I; Rowland, Kendrith M; Zon, Robin T; Lelindqwister, Nguyet A; Nagargoje, Gauri G; Morgenthaler, Timothy I; Sloan, Jeff A; Loprinzi, Charles L
Sleep disorders are a substantial problem for cancer survivors, with prevalence estimates ranging from 23% to 61%. Although numerous prescription hypnotics are available, few are approved for long-term use or have demonstrated benefit in this circumstance. Hypnotics may have unwanted side effects and are costly, and cancer survivors often wish to avoid prescription drugs. New options with limited side effects are needed. The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the efficacy of a Valerian officinalis supplement for sleep in people with cancer who were undergoing cancer treatment. Participants were randomized to receive 450 mg of valerian-or placebo orally 1 hour before bedtime for 8 weeks. The primary end point was area under the curve (AUC) of the overall Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Secondary outcomes included the Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire, the Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI), and the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Toxicity was evaluated with both self-reported numeric analogue scale questions and the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 3.0. Questionnaires were completed at baseline and at 4 and 8 weeks. A total of 227 patients were randomized into this study between March 19, 2004, and March 9, 2007, with 119 being evaluable for the primary end point. The AUC over the 8 weeks for valerian was 51.4 (SD = 16), while that for placebo was 49.7 (SD = 15), with a P value of 0.6957. A supplemental, exploratory analysis revealed that several fatigue end points, as measured by the BFI and POMS, were significantly better for those taking valerian over placebo. Participants also reported less trouble with sleep and less drowsiness on valerian than placebo. There were no significant differences in toxicities as measured by self-report or the CTCAE except for mild alkaline phosphatase increases, which were slightly more common in the placebo group. This study failed to provide data to support the hypothesis that valerian
Khan, Rasool; Saif, Abdullah Qasem; Quradha, Mohammed Mansour; Ali, Jawad; Rauf, Abdur; Khan, Ajmal
Cyphostemma digitatum stem and roots extracts were investigated for antioxidant, antimicrobial, urease inhibition potential and phytochemical analysis. Phytochemical screening of the roots and stem extract revealed the presence of secondary metabolites including flavonoids, alkaloids, coumarins, saponins, terpenoids, tannins, carbohydrates/reducing sugars and phenolic compounds. The methanolic extracts of the roots displayed highest antioxidant activity (93.518%) against DPPH while the crude methanolic extract of the stem showed highest antioxidant activity (66.163%) at 100 μg/mL concentration. The methanolic extracts of both stem and roots were moderately active or even found to be less active against the selected bacterial and fungal strains (Tables S2 and S3). The roots extract (methanol) showed significant urease enzyme inhibition activity (IC50 = 41.2 ± 0.66; 0.2 mg/mL) while the stem extract was found moderately active (IC50 = 401.1 ± 0.58; 0.2 mg/mL) against thiourea (IC50 = 21.011; 0.2 mg/mL).
Sivaraman, Thulasi; Sreedevi, N. S.; Meenatchisundaram, S.; Vadivelan, R.
OBJECTIVES: Snakebites are a significant and severe global health problem. Till date, anti-snake venom serum is the only beneficial remedy existing on treating the snakebite victims. As antivenom was reported to induce early or late adverse reactions to human beings, snake venom neutralizing potential for Cyclea peltata root extract was tested for the present research by ex vivo and in vivo approaches on Naja naja toxin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ex vivo evaluation of venom toxicity and neutralization assays was carried out. The root extracts from C. peltata were used to evaluate the Ex vivo neutralization tests such as acetylcholinesterase, protease, direct hemolysis assay, phospholipase activity, and procoagulant activity. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis from root extracts of C. peltata was done to investigate the bioactive compounds. RESULTS: The in vivo calculation of venom toxicity (LD50) of N. naja venom remained to be 0.301 μg. C. peltata root extracts were efficiently deactivated the venom lethality, and effective dose (ED50) remained to be 7.24 mg/3LD50 of N. naja venom. C. peltata root extract was found effective in counteracting all the lethal effects of venom. GC-MS analysis of the plant extract revealed the presence of antivenom compounds such as tetradecanoic and octadecadienoic acid which have neutralizing properties on N. naja venom. CONCLUSION: The result from the ex vivo and in vivo analysis indicates that C. peltata plant root extract possesses significant compounds such as tetradecanoic acid hexadecanoic acid, heptadecanoic acid, and octadecadienoic acid which can counteract the toxins present in N. naja. PMID:29326487
Sivaraman, Thulasi; Sreedevi, N S; Meenatchisundaram, S; Vadivelan, R
Snakebites are a significant and severe global health problem. Till date, anti-snake venom serum is the only beneficial remedy existing on treating the snakebite victims. As antivenom was reported to induce early or late adverse reactions to human beings, snake venom neutralizing potential for Cyclea peltata root extract was tested for the present research by ex vivo and in vivo approaches on Naja naja toxin. Ex vivo evaluation of venom toxicity and neutralization assays was carried out. The root extracts from C. peltata were used to evaluate the Ex vivo neutralization tests such as acetylcholinesterase, protease, direct hemolysis assay, phospholipase activity, and procoagulant activity. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis from root extracts of C. peltata was done to investigate the bioactive compounds. The in vivo calculation of venom toxicity (LD 50 ) of N. naja venom remained to be 0.301 μg. C. peltata root extracts were efficiently deactivated the venom lethality, and effective dose (ED 50 ) remained to be 7.24 mg/3LD 50 of N. naja venom. C. peltata root extract was found effective in counteracting all the lethal effects of venom. GC-MS analysis of the plant extract revealed the presence of antivenom compounds such as tetradecanoic and octadecadienoic acid which have neutralizing properties on N. naja venom. The result from the ex vivo and in vivo analysis indicates that C. peltata plant root extract possesses significant compounds such as tetradecanoic acid hexadecanoic acid, heptadecanoic acid, and octadecadienoic acid which can counteract the toxins present in N. naja .
Park, Ho-Won; Choi, Kyu-Duck; Shin, Il-Shik
The antimicrobial activity of isothiocyanates (ITCs) extracted from horseradish root was investigated against oral microorganisms: 6 strains of facultative anaerobic bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus casei, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans; one strain of yeast, Candida albicans, and 3 strains of anaerobic bacteria, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella nigrescens, and Clostridium perfringens. The ITCs extracted from horseradish root showed antimicrobial activity against all oral microorganisms by the paper disk method. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the ITCs extracted from horseradish root ranged from 1.25 to 5.00 mg/ml against 6 strains of facultative anaerobic bacteria and one strain of yeast, and 4.17 to 16.67 mg/ml against 3 strains of anaerobic bacteria. The ITCs extracted from horseradish root showed the strongest antimicrobial activity, with a MBC of 1.25 mg/ml, against C. albicans among facultative microorganisms, and 4.17 mg/ml against F. nucleatum among anaerobic bacteria. These results suggest that the ITCs extracted from horseradish root may be a candidate for use as an antimicrobial agent against oral microorganisms.
Quoc, Le Pham Tan; Muoi, Nguyen Van
The aim of this study was to determine the best extraction conditions for total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (AC) of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. root using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). The raw material used was Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. root powder. Five factors such as solvent type, solvent concentrations, solvent/material ratio, extraction time and microwave power were studied; TPC and AC values were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and DPPH free radical scavenging activity measurement, respectively. In addition, studies involved assaying the HPLC test of extracts and SEM of samples. Optimal results pointed to acetone as the solvent, acetone concentration of 60%, solvent/material ratio of 40/1 (v/w), extraction time of 5 mins and microwave power of 127 W. TPC and AC obtained were approximates 44.3 ±0.13 mg GAE/g DW and 341.26 ±1.54 μmol TE/g DW, respectively. The effect of microwaving on the cell destruction of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. root was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Some phenolic compounds were determined by the HPLC method, for instance, gallic acid, catechin and resveratrol. These factors significantly affected TPC and AC. We can use acetone as a solvent with microwave-assisted extraction to achieve the best result.
Momin, Mohammad Abdul Motalib; Bellah, Sm Faysal; Rahman, Sarder Mohammad Raussel; Rahman, Ahmed Ayedur; Murshid, Gazi Mohammad Monjur; Emran, Talha Bin
To investigate the phytochemical screening (group determination) and selected pharmacological activities (antioxidant, antimicrobial and analgesic activity) of the plant Sida cordifolia Linn (S. cordifolia). Eighty percent concentrated ethanol extract of the roots was used. To identify the chemical constituents of plant extract standard procedures were followed. In phytochemical screening the crude extract was tested for the presence of different chemical groups like reducing sugar, tannins, saponins, steroids, flavonoids, gums, alkaloids and glycosides. The antioxidant property of ethanolic extract of S. cordifolia was assessed by DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Analgesic activity of the extract was tested using the model of acetic acid induced writhing in mice. Diclofenac sodium is used as reference standard drug for the analgesic activity test. Antibacterial activity of plant extract was carried out using disc diffusion method with five pathogenic bacteria comparison with kanamycin as a standard. Phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract of the roots of S. cordifolia indicated the presence of reducing sugar, alkaloids, steroids and saponins. In DPPH scavenging assay the IC50 value was found to be 50 μg/mL which was not comparable to the standard ascorbic acid. The crude extract produced 44.30% inhibition of writhing at the dose of 500 mg/kg body weight which is statistically significant (P>0.001). The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract of the roots of S. cordifolia showed no antimicrobial activity against five types of microorganisms. The experiment was conducted only with five species of bacteria as test species, which do not at all indicate the total inactivity against micro-organisms. The obtained results provide a support for the use of this plant in traditional medicine but further pharmacological studies are required. Copyright © 2014 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights
Momin, Mohammad Abdul Motalib; Bellah, Sm Faysal; Rahman, Sarder Mohammad Raussel; Rahman, Ahmed Ayedur; Murshid, Gazi Mohammad Monjur; Emran, Talha Bin
Objective To investigate the phytochemical screening (group determination) and selected pharmacological activities (antioxidant, antimicrobial and analgesic activity) of the plant Sida cordifolia Linn (S. cordifolia). Methods Eighty percent concentrated ethanol extract of the roots was used. To identify the chemical constituents of plant extract standard procedures were followed. In phytochemical screening the crude extract was tested for the presence of different chemical groups like reducing sugar, tannins, saponins, steroids, flavonoids, gums, alkaloids and glycosides. The antioxidant property of ethanolic extract of S. cordifolia was assessed by DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Analgesic activity of the extract was tested using the model of acetic acid induced writhing in mice. Diclofenac sodium is used as reference standard drug for the analgesic activity test. Antibacterial activity of plant extract was carried out using disc diffusion method with five pathogenic bacteria comparison with kanamycin as a standard. Results Phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract of the roots of S. cordifolia indicated the presence of reducing sugar, alkaloids, steroids and saponins. In DPPH scavenging assay the IC50 value was found to be 50 µg/mL which was not comparable to the standard ascorbic acid. The crude extract produced 44.30% inhibition of writhing at the dose of 500 mg/kg body weight which is statistically significant (P>0.001). The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract of the roots of S. cordifolia showed no antimicrobial activity against five types of microorganisms. The experiment was conducted only with five species of bacteria as test species, which do not at all indicate the total inactivity against micro-organisms. Conclusions The obtained results provide a support for the use of this plant in traditional medicine but further pharmacological studies are required. PMID:24144125
Okokon, Jude Efiom; Antia, Bassey Sunday; Azare, Bala Adamu; Okokon, Patience Jude
Objective: Zea mays root decoction that has been traditionally used for the treatment of malaria by various tribes in Nigeria, was evaluated for antimalarial potential against malaria parasites using in vivo and in vitro models. Materials and Methods: The root extract of Zea mays was investigated for antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei in mice using rodent malaria models; suppressive, prophylactic and curative tests and in vitro antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine-sensitive (Pf 3D7) and resistant (Pf INDO) strains of Plasmodium falciparum using SYBR green assay method. Median lethal dose and cytotoxic activity against HeLa and HEKS cells were assessed and phytochemical screening was also carried out using standard procedures. Results: The LD50 value of root extract was found to be 474.34 mg/kg. The crude extract (45-135 mg/kg, p.o) showed significant (p<0.05-0.001) antimalarial activity against P. berghei infection in suppressive, prophylactic and curative tests with a prolonged survival time. The crude extract also showed moderate activity against both chloroquine-sensitive (Pf 3D7) and resistant (Pf INDO) strains of P. falciparum with an IC50 value of 71.62±3.38 μg/ml (for Pf 3D7) and 63.76±4.12 μg/ml (for Pf INDO). The crude extract was not cytotoxic to the two cell lines tested with TC50 of >100 μg/ml against both HeLa and HEKS cell lines. Conclusion: These results suggest that the root extract of Zea mays possesses antimalarial activity against both chloroquine-sensitive and resistant malaria and these data justify its use in ethnomedicine to treat malaria infections. PMID:28748174
Okokon, Jude Efiom; Antia, Bassey Sunday; Azare, Bala Adamu; Okokon, Patience Jude
Zea mays root decoction that has been traditionally used for the treatment of malaria by various tribes in Nigeria, was evaluated for antimalarial potential against malaria parasites using in vivo and in vitro models. The root extract of Zea mays was investigated for antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei in mice using rodent malaria models; suppressive, prophylactic and curative tests and in vitro antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine-sensitive (Pf 3D7) and resistant (Pf INDO) strains of Plasmodium falciparum using SYBR green assay method. Median lethal dose and cytotoxic activity against HeLa and HEKS cells were assessed and phytochemical screening was also carried out using standard procedures. The LD 50 value of root extract was found to be 474.34 mg/kg. The crude extract (45-135 mg/kg, p.o) showed significant (p<0.05-0.001) antimalarial activity against P. berghei infection in suppressive, prophylactic and curative tests with a prolonged survival time. The crude extract also showed moderate activity against both chloroquine-sensitive (Pf 3D7) and resistant (Pf INDO) strains of P. falciparum with an IC 50 value of 71.62±3.38 μg/ml (for Pf 3D7) and 63.76±4.12 μg/ml (for Pf INDO). The crude extract was not cytotoxic to the two cell lines tested with TC 50 of >100 μg/ml against both HeLa and HEKS cell lines. These results suggest that the root extract of Zea mays possesses antimalarial activity against both chloroquine-sensitive and resistant malaria and these data justify its use in ethnomedicine to treat malaria infections.
Kabir, Md Golam; Rahman, Md Monsor; Ahmed, Nazim Uddin; Fakruddin, Md; Islam, Saiful; Mazumdar, Reaz Mohammad
This study was subjected to investigate different pharmacological properties of ethanol extract of Solena amplexicaulis root. The extract contains flavonoid, alkaloid, saponin and steroid compounds. The extract exhibited excellent antioxidant activity in DPPH radical scavenging activity. The extract also showed potent activity in brine shrimp lethality bioassay. The LC50 value was found to 44.677 μg/ml. The extract showed better anti-bacterial activity against gram-negative bacteria. In antifungal assay, the maximum 79.31% of anti-mycotic activity was observed against Aspergillus ochraceus while minimum 44.2% against Rhizopus oryzae. MIC value ranged between 1500-3000 μg/ml. The extract was found moderately toxic with a 24-hr LD50 value of 81.47 mg/kg in Swiss albino mice. The degree of inhibition by the ethanolic extract of the root was found less than that of standard analgesic drug diclofenac sodium. The extract also showed moderate anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity and anti-diabetic property. Reducing power of the extract was comparable with standard ascorbic acid. Moderate in vitro thrombolytic activity, lipid peroxidation inhibition property, metal chelating ability and stress-protective activity was also observed. Ethanol extract of Solena amplexicaulis root can be valuable for treatment of different diseases.
Kumar, Vishnu; Mahdi, Farzana; Khanna, Ashok Kumar; Singh, Ranjana; Chander, Ramesh; Saxena, Jitendra Kumar; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Singh, Raj Kumar
The antidyslipidemic activity of Hibiscus rosa sinensis (Malvaceae) root extract has been studied in alloxan induced diabetic rats. In this model, oral administration of root extract (500 mg/kg bw. p.o.) for 15 days resulted in significant decreased in the levels of blood glucose, plasma lipids and reactivated post heparin lipoprotein lipase activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Furthermore, the root extract (50-500 μg) when tested for its antioxidant activity, inhibited the generation of super oxide anions and hydroxyl radicals, in both enzymic and non enzymic systems in vitro. The results of the present study demonstrated antidyslipidemic and antioxidant activities in root extract of H. rosa sinensis which could be used in prevention of diabetic-dyslipidemia and related complications.
Singh, Priyanka; Kim, Yeon Ju; Wang, Chao; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; El-Agamy Farh, Mohamed; Yang, Deok Chun
In the present study, we report a green methodology for the synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles, using the root extract of the herbal medicinal plant Korean red ginseng. The silver and gold nanoparticles were synthesized within 1 h and 10 min respectively. The nanoparticles generated were not aggregated, and remained stable for a long time, which suggests the nature of nanoparticles. The phytochemicals and ginsenosides present in the root extract assist in reducing and stabilizing the synthesized nanoparticles. The red ginseng root extract-generated silver nanoparticles exhibit antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganisms including Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Candida albicans. In addition, the silver nanoparticles exhibit biofilm degrading activity against S. aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Thus, the present study opens up a new possibility of synthesizing silver and gold nanoparticles in a green and rapid manner using Korean red ginseng root extract, and explores their biomedical applications.
Abbott, D.; Sparks, D.; Herzberg, C.; Mooney, W.; Nikishin, A.; Zhang, Y.-S.
We use two different methods to estimate the total amount of continental crust that was extracted by the end of the Archean and the Proterozoic. The first method uses the sum of the seismic thickness of the crust, the eroded thickness of the crust, and the trapped melt within the lithospheric root to estimate the total crustal volume. This summation method yields an average equivalent thickness of Archean crust of 49 ?? 6 km and an average equivalent thickness of Proterozoic crust of 48 ?? 9 km. Between 7 and 9% of this crust never reached the surface, but remained within the continental root as congealed, iron-rich komatiitic melt. The second method uses experimental models of melting, mantle xenolith compositions, and corrected lithospheric thickness to estimate the amount of crust extracted through time. This melt column method reveals that the average equivalent thickness of Archean crust was 65 ?? 6 km. and the average equivalent thickness of Early Proterozoic crust was 60 ?? 7 km. It is likely that some of this crust remained trapped within the lithospheric root. The discrepancy between the two estimates is attributed to uncertainties in estimates of the amount of trapped, congealed melt, overall crustal erosion, and crustal recycling. Overall, we find that between 29 and 45% of continental crust was extracted by the end of the Archean, most likely by 2.7 Ga. Between 51 and 79% of continental crust was extracted by the end of the Early Proterozoic, most likely by 1.8-2.0 Ga. Our results are most consistent with geochemical models that call upon moderate amounts of recycling of early extracted continental crust coupled with continuing crustal growth (e.g. McLennan, S.M., Taylor, S.R., 1982. Geochemical constraints on the growth of the continental crust. Journal of Geology, 90, 347-361; Veizer, J., Jansen, S.L., 1985. Basement and sedimentary recycling - 2: time dimension to global tectonics. Journal of Geology 93(6), 625-643). Trapped, congealed, iron
Chandrashekar, BS; Prabhakara, S; Mohan, T; Shabeer, D; Bhandare, Basavaraj; Nalini, M; Sharmila, PS; Meghana, DL; Reddy, Basanth Kumar; Hanumantha Rao, HM; Sahajananda, H; Anbazhagan, K
OBJECTIVES: Rubia cordifolia L. (RC) is a well-known and highly valuable medicinal plant in the Ayurvedic system. The present study involves evaluating antioxidant and cardioprotective property of RC root extract. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The characterization of RC root extract was carried out using standard phytochemical and biochemical analysis. The functional groups were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and phytotherapeutic compounds were identified using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS). Cardioprotective activity of RC root extract was investigated against cyclophosphamide (CP; 100 mg/kg, i.p)-induced cardiotoxicity in male albino Wistar rats. RC (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, p.o) or silymarin (100 mg/kg, p.o) was administered immediately after CP on the 1st day and the next consecutive 10 days. Biochemical and histopathological analysis was performed to observe the cardioprotective effects of RC root extract. RESULTS: Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of secondary metabolites that include alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, and anthraquinones in RC root extract. FTIR analysis revealed the presence of several functional groups. Based on HR-MS analysis, eight major phytotherapeutic compounds were identified in methanol root extract of RC. Biochemical analysis in CP-induced rat model administered with RC extract revealed significantly enhanced levels of antioxidant markers such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione S-transferase. Histopathological study showed that the rat model treated with the root extract had reduced the cardiac injury. CONCLUSION: Our results have shown that the RC extract contains various antioxidant compounds with cardioprotective effect. Treatment with RC root extract could significantly protect CP-induced rats from cardiac tissue injury by restoring the antioxidant markers. PMID:29861523
Pakseresht, Siroos; Boostani, Hatam; Sayyah, Mehdi
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a common neuropsychiatric condition. Many herbs with psychotropic effects exist which can have fewer side effects compared to more conventional medications. Valeriana Officinalis L. is a well-known medicinal plant with a long history of usage in the world with an effect on GABA. This plant is reported to be safe on humans. Our objective in this study was to compare the efficacy of the extract of Valeriana Officinalis L. with placebo in the treatment of OCD. The study was an 8-week pilot double-blind randomized trial. Thirty-one adult outpatients who met the DSM-IV-TR criteria for OCD based on the structured clinical interview participated in the trial. In this double-blind and randomized trial, patients were randomly assigned to receive either capsule of the extract (765 mg/day) or placebo (30 mg/day) for 8 weeks. The results showed significant difference between the extract and placebo in the end of treatment (P=0.000). Somnolence was the only significant difference between the two groups in terms of observed side effects (P=0.02). The results suggest that Valeriana Officinalis L. has some antiobsessive and compulsive effects. However, further studies are needed to confirm these findings. Psychiatrists often find that many patients cannot tolerate the side effects of psychiatry medicine Valeriana Officinalis L. is a well-known medicinal plant with a long history of usage in world with effect on GABA.The results showed significant difference between the extract and placebo in the treatment of OCD. There was also no significant difference between the two groups in terms of observed side effects.
Faizi, Shaheen; Sumbul, Saima; Versiani, Muhammed Ali; Saleem, Rubeena; Sana, Aisha; Siddiqui, Hira
Objective To explore the phytochemical constituents from petroleum ether and dichloromethane extracts of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) roots using GC/GC-MS. Methods A total of 5.11 kg fresh and undried crushed root of M. oleifera were cut into small pieces and extracted with petroleum ether and dichloromethane (20 L each) at room temperature for 2 d. The concentrated extracts were subjected to their GC-MS analysis. Results The GC-MS analysis of the petroleum ether and dichloromethane extracts of M. oleifera roots, which showed promising biological activities, has resulted in the identification 102 compounds. These constituents belong to 15 classes of compounds including hydrocarbons, fatty acids, esters, alcohols, isothiocyanate, thiocyanate, pyrazine, aromatics, alkamides, cyanides, steroids, halocompounds, urea and N-hydroxyimine derivatives, unsaturated alkenamides, alkyne and indole. GC/GC-MS studies on petroleum ether extract of the roots revealed that it contained 39 compounds, belonging to nine classes. Cyclooctasulfur S8 has been isolated as a pure compound from the extract. The major compounds identified from petroleum ether extract were trans-13-docosene (37.9%), nonacosane (32.6%), cycloartenol (28.6%) nonadecanoic acid (13.9%) and cyclooctasulfur S8 (13.9%). Dichloromethane extract of the roots was composed of 63 compounds of which nasimizinol (58.8%) along with oleic acid (46.5%), N-benzyl-N-(7-cyanato heptanamide (38.3%), N-benzyl-N-(1-chlorononyl) amide (30.3%), bis [3-benzyl prop-2-ene]-1-one (19.5%) and N, N-dibenzyl-2-ene pent 1, 5-diamide (11.6%) were the main constituents. Conclusions This study helps to predict the formula and structure of active molecules which can be used as drugs. This result also enhances the traditional usage of M. oleifera which possesses a number of bioactive compounds. PMID:25183335
Gardner, Stephanie F.; Hubbard, Martha A.; Williams, D. Keith; Gentry, W. Brooks; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Shah., Amit
Objectives Phytochemical-mediated modulation of cytochrome P-450 activity may underlie many herb-drug interactions. Single time-point, phenotypic metabolic ratios were used to determine whether long-term supplementation of goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis), black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa), kava kava (Piper methysticum), or valerian (Valeriana officinalis) extracts affected CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, or CYP3A4/5 activity. Methods Twelve healthy volunteers (6 females) were randomly assigned to receive goldenseal, black cohosh, kava kava, or valerian for 28 days. For each subject, a 30-day washout period was interposed between each supplementation phase. Probe drug cocktails of midazolam and caffeine, followed 24 hours later by chlorzoxazone and debrisoquine were administered before (baseline) and at the end of supplementation. Pre- and post-supplementation phenotypic trait measurements were determined for CYP3A4/5, CYP1A2, CYP2E1, and CYP2D6 using 1-hydroxymidazolam/midazolam serum ratios (1-hour sample), paraxanthine/caffeine serum ratios (6-hour sample), 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone/chlorzoxazone serum ratios (2-hour sample), and debrisoquine urinary recovery ratios (8-hour collection), respectively. The content of purported “active” phytochemicals was determined for each supplement. Results Comparisons of pre- and post-supplementation phenotypic ratio means revealed significant inhibition (~40%) of CYP2D6 (difference = −0.228; 95% CI = −0.268 to −0.188) and CYP3A4/5 (difference = −1.501; 95% CI = −1.840 to −1.163) activity for goldenseal. Kava produced significant reductions (~40%) in CYP2E1 only (difference = −0.192; 95% CI = −0.325 to −0.060). Black cohosh also exhibited statistically significant inhibition of CYP2D6 (difference = −0.046; 95% CI = −0.085 to −0.007), but the magnitude of the effect (~7%) did not appear clinically relevant. No significant changes in phenotypic ratios were observed for valerian. Conclusions Botanical
Ratnasooriya, W D; Jayakody, J R A C; Premakumara, G A S
The root extract of Salacia reticulata Wight (family: Celastraceae) is used in Sri Lanka by traditional practitioners as a herbal therapy for glycemic control even during pregnancy. It is recognized that some clinically used antidiabetic drugs have harmful effects on pregnancy but the effects of the S. reticulata root extract on reproductive outcome is unknown and deserves examination. We determined the effects of the S. reticulata root extract on the reproductive outcome of Wistar rats (250-260 g) when administered orally (10 g/kg) during early (days 1-7) and mid- (days 7-14) pregnancy. The root extract significantly (P<0.05) enhanced post-implantation losses (control vs treatment: early pregnancy, 4.7 2.4 vs 49.3 13%; mid-pregnancy, 4.7 2.4 vs 41.7 16.1%). Gestational length was unaltered but the pups born had a low birth weight (P<0.05) (early pregnancy, 6.8 0.1 vs 5.3 0.1 g; mid-pregnancy, 6.8 0.1 vs 5.0 0.1 g) and low birth index (P<0.05) (early pregnancy, 95.2 2.4 vs 50.7 12.9%; mid-pregnancy, 95.2 2.4 vs 58.3 16.1%), fetal survival ratio (P<0.05) (early pregnancy, 95.2 2.4 vs 50.7 12.9; mid-pregnancy, 95.2 2.4 vs 58.3 16.1), and viability index (P<0.05) (early pregnancy, 94.9 2.6 vs 49.5 12.5%; mid-pregnancy, 94.9 2.6 vs 57.1 16.1%). However, the root extract was non-teratogenic. We conclude that the S. reticulata root extract can be hazardous to successful pregnancy in women and should not be used in pregnancy complicated by diabetes.
Ito, Yusai; Onobori, Kenichi; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Kawamura, Yoko
Tigloylshikonin, a new shikonin derivative esterified with tiglic acid ((E)-2-methylbut-2-enoic acid), was isolated as a minor pigment from a food colorant "Shikon color," a commercial root extract from Lithospermum erythrorhizon SIEBOLD et ZUCCARINI. The structure of tigloylshikonin was elucidated using (1)H, (13)C, the difference nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE), and 2D NMR techniques. Its stereochemistry was determined by chiral-phase HPLC analysis. Tigloylshikonin was also found in the roots of L. erythrorhizon, which indicated that this new shikonin derivative is a typical component of naphthoquinone pigments in the roots of L. erythrorhizon.
Tang, Kun; Li, Ming; Dong, Shan; Li, Yun-qi; Huang, Jie-wen; Li, Long-ming
To study the allelopathy effects of aquatic extracts from rhizospheric soil on the rooting and growth of stem cutting in Pogostemon cablin, and to reveal its mechanism initially. The changes of rhizogenesis characteristics and physic-biochemical during cutting seedlings were observed when using different concentration of aquatic extracts from rhizospheric soil. Aquatic extracts from rhizospheric soil had significant inhibitory effects on rooting rate, root number, root length, root activity, growth rate of cutting with increasing concentrations of tissue extracts; The chlorophyll content of cutting seedlings were decreased, but content of MDA were increased, and activities of POD, PPO and IAAO in cutting seedlings were affected. Aquatic extracts from rhizospheric soil of Pogostemon cablin have varying degrees of inhibitory effects on the normal rooting and growth of stem cuttings.
Halder, Babli; Singh, Shruti; Thakur, Suman S.
In Ayurveda, Withania somnifera is commonly known as Ashwagandha, its roots are specifically used in medicinal and clinical applications. It possesses numerous therapeutic actions which include anti-inflammatory, sedative, hypnotic and narcotic. Extracts from this plant have been reported for its anticancer properties. In this study we evaluated for the first time, the cytotoxic effect of Withania root extract on human malignant melanoma A375 cells. The crude extract of Withania was tested for cytotoxicity against A375 cells by MTT assay. Cell morphology of treated A375 cells was visualized through phase contrast as well as fluorescence microscopy. Agarose gel electrophoresis was used to check DNA fragmentation of the crude extract treated cells. Crude extract of Withania root has the potency to reduce viable cell count in dose as well as time dependent manner. Morphological change of the A375 cells was also observed in treated groups in comparison to untreated or vehicle treated control. Apoptotic body and nuclear blebbing were observed in DAPI stained treated cells under fluorescence microscope. A ladder of fragmented DNA was noticed in treated cells. Thus it might be said that the crude water extract of Withania somnifera has potent cytotoxic effect on human malignant melanoma A375 cells. PMID:26334881
Gurley, Bill J; Gardner, Stephanie F; Hubbard, Martha A; Williams, D Keith; Gentry, W Brooks; Khan, Ikhlas A; Shah, Amit
Phytochemical-mediated modulation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity may underlie many herb-drug interactions. Single-time point phenotypic metabolic ratios were used to determine whether long-term supplementation of goldenseal ( Hydrastis canadensis ), black cohosh ( Cimicifuga racemosa ), kava kava ( Piper methysticum ), or valerian ( Valeriana officinalis ) extracts affected CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, or CYP3A4/5 activity. Twelve healthy volunteers (6 women) were randomly assigned to receive goldenseal, black cohosh, kava kava, or valerian for 28 days. For each subject, a 30-day washout period was interposed between each supplementation phase. Probe drug cocktails of midazolam and caffeine, followed 24 hours later by chlorzoxazone and debrisoquin (INN, debrisoquine), were administered before (baseline) and at the end of supplementation. Presupplementation and postsupplementation phenotypic trait measurements were determined for CYP3A4/5, CYP1A2, CYP2E1, and CYP2D6 by use of 1-hydroxymidazolam/midazolam serum ratios (1-hour sample), paraxanthine/caffeine serum ratios (6-hour sample), 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone/chlorzoxazone serum ratios (2-hour sample), and debrisoquin urinary recovery ratios (8-hour collection), respectively. The content of purported "active" phytochemicals was determined for each supplement. Comparisons of presupplementation and postsupplementation phenotypic ratio means revealed significant inhibition (approximately 40%) of CYP2D6 (difference, -0.228; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.268 to -0.188) and CYP3A4/5 (difference, -1.501; 95% CI, -1.840 to -1.163) activity for goldenseal. Kava produced significant reductions (approximately 40%) in CYP2E1 only (difference, -0.192; 95% CI, -0.325 to -0.060). Black cohosh also exhibited statistically significant inhibition of CYP2D6 (difference, -0.046; 95% CI, -0.085 to -0.007), but the magnitude of the effect (approximately 7%) did not appear to be clinically relevant. No significant changes in phenotypic
Xie, Qian; Bedran-Russo, Ana Karina; Wu, Christine D
Grape seed extract (GSE) contains proanthocyanidins (PA), which has been reported to strengthen collagen-based tissues by increasing collagen cross-links. We used an in vitro pH-cycling model to evaluate the effect of GSE on the remineralization of artificial root caries. Sound human teeth fragments obtained from the cervical portion of the root were stored in a demineralization solution for 96 h at 37 degrees C to induce artificial root caries lesions. The fragments were then divided into three treatment groups including: 6.5% GSE, 1,000 ppm fluoride (NaF), and a control (no treatment). The demineralized samples were pH-cycled through treatment solutions, acidic buffer and neutral buffer for 8 days at 6 cycles per day. The samples were subsequently evaluated using a microhardness tester, polarized light microscopy (PLM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Fisher's tests (p<0.05). GSE and fluoride significantly increased the microhardness of the lesions (p<0.05) when compared to a control group. PLM data revealed a significantly thicker mineral precipitation band on the surface layer of the GSE-treated lesions when compared to the other groups (p>0.05), which was confirmed by CLSM. We concluded that grape seed extract positively affects the demineralization and/or remineralization processes of artificial root caries lesions, most likely through a different mechanism than that of fluoride. Grape seed extract may be a promising natural agent for non-invasive root caries therapy.
Mihailovic, Vladimir; Matic, Sanja; Mišic, Danijela; Solujic, Slavica; Stanic, Snežana; Katanic, Jelena; Mladenovic, Milan; Stankovic, Nevena
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antigenotoxic activities of chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions obtained from Gentiana asclepiadea L. roots methanolic extract. The main secondary metabolites sweroside, swertiamarin and gentiopicrine were quantified in G. asclepiadea root extracts using HPLC-DAD analysis. Amount of total phenols, flavonoids, flavonols and gallotannins was also determined. The antigenotoxic potential of extracts from roots of G. asclepiadea was assessed using the standard in vivo procedure for the detection of sex linked recessive lethal mutations in Drosophila melanogaster males treated with ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). The results showed that the most abundant secoiridoid in G. asclepiadea roots was gentiopicrine and its content in the n-butanol fraction (442.89 mg/g) was the highest. Among all extracts, ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest antioxidant activity, as well as total phenolics (146.64 GAE/g), flavonoids (44.62 RUE/g), flavonols (22.71 RUE/g) and gallotannins (0.99 mg GAE/g) content. All the fractions showed antioxidant activity using in vitro model systems and the results have been correlated with total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and gallotannins content. In addition to antioxidant activity, G. asclepiadea root extract fractions possess an antigenotoxic effect against DNA damage induced by alkylation with EMS. The antioxidant activity exhibited by G. asclepiadea depended on the phenolic compounds content of the tested extracts, while there was no significant difference in the antigenotoxic potential between fractions. PMID:26622219
Ceschini, Livônios; Campos, Elida Geralda
We investigated the effect of Cochlospermum regium (Mart & Schrank) Pilger aqueous root extract on Chinese hamster ovarian (CHO)-K1 cells. The extract significantly decreased proliferation of CHO-K1 cells (EC(50)=1.5mg/mL). Apoptosis induction was analysed by fluorescent microscopy. Cell cultures treated with Cochlospermum regium extract for 4h contained 13.6% apoptotic cells after 24h (investigated by fluorescent DNA-microscopy with acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining). Characteristic chromatin condensation and fragmentation, verified by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, was observed in the cells after treatment with Cochlospermum regium extract. The results confirm the toxicity of Cochlospermum regium root extract to immortal, non-tumorigenic mammalian cells in vitro.
Dhiman, Indu; Bilheux, Hassina Z.; DeCarlo, Keito F.
Root-specific responses to stress are not well-known, and have been largely based on indirect measurements of bulk soil water extraction, which limits mechanistic modeling of root function. Here, we used neutron radiography to examine in situ root-soil water dynamics of a previously droughted black cottonwood ( Populus trichocarpa) seedling, contrasting water uptake by younger, thinner or older, thicker parts of the fine root system. The smaller diameter roots had greater water uptake capacity per unit surface area than the larger diameter roots, but they had less total surface area leading to less total water extraction; rates ranged from 0.0027 –more » 0.0116 g cm -2 hr -1. The finest most-active roots were not visible in the radiographs, indicating the need to include destructive sampling. Analysis based on bulk soil hydraulic properties indicated substantial redistribution of water via saturated/unsaturated flow, capillary wicking, and root hydraulic redistribution across the layers - suggesting water uptake dynamics following an infiltration event may be more complex than approximated by common soil hydraulic or root surface area modeling approaches. Lastly, our results highlight the need for continued exploration of root-trait specific water uptake rates in situ, and impacts of roots on soil hydraulic properties – both critical components for mechanistic modeling of root function.« less
Dhiman, Indu; Bilheux, Hassina Z.; DeCarlo, Keito F.; ...
Root-specific responses to stress are not well-known, and have been largely based on indirect measurements of bulk soil water extraction, which limits mechanistic modeling of root function. Here, we used neutron radiography to examine in situ root-soil water dynamics of a previously droughted black cottonwood ( Populus trichocarpa) seedling, contrasting water uptake by younger, thinner or older, thicker parts of the fine root system. The smaller diameter roots had greater water uptake capacity per unit surface area than the larger diameter roots, but they had less total surface area leading to less total water extraction; rates ranged from 0.0027 –more » 0.0116 g cm -2 hr -1. The finest most-active roots were not visible in the radiographs, indicating the need to include destructive sampling. Analysis based on bulk soil hydraulic properties indicated substantial redistribution of water via saturated/unsaturated flow, capillary wicking, and root hydraulic redistribution across the layers - suggesting water uptake dynamics following an infiltration event may be more complex than approximated by common soil hydraulic or root surface area modeling approaches. Lastly, our results highlight the need for continued exploration of root-trait specific water uptake rates in situ, and impacts of roots on soil hydraulic properties – both critical components for mechanistic modeling of root function.« less
Shanmugasundaram, P; Venkataraman, S
Hygrophila auriculata (K. Schum) Heine (syn. Asteracantha longifolia Nees, Acanthaceae) was widely used in the Indian systems of medicine for the treatment of various liver ailments. The hepatoprotective activity of the aqueous extract of the roots was studied on CCl(4)-induced liver toxicity in rats. The activity was assessed by monitoring the various liver function tests, viz. alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein and total bilirubin. Furthermore, hepatic tissues were subjected to histopathological studies. The root extract was also studied for its in vitro antioxidant activity using ferric thiocyanate (FTC) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) methods. The extract exhibited significant hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities.
Isaiah, Akpanabiatu Monday; Olawale, Otitoju; Effiong, Edet Emmanuel; Idongesit, Ndem Jessie; Fidelis, Uwah Anthony; Friday, Ufot Usenobong
Vitamin supplementation in Rauwolfia vomitoria root bark extract administration may interact and impact significantly on hematology of albino Wistar rats. In this investigation we studied vitamin E supplementation with Rauwolfia vomitoria root bark extract on the hematology of experimental animals. Forty two rats weighing 200 - 230 g were randomly selected into six groups of seven animals each. Group 1 animals serve as controls; group 2 received vitamin E (10 IU/kg body weight). Groups 3 and 4 were given the extract (150 and 300 mg/kg body weight) respectively. Groups 5 and 6 were given vitamin E (10 IU/kg body weight), the extract (150 and 300 mg/kg body weight) respectively. The extract and the vitamin were administered daily by oral intubation. Blood samples analyzed for hematological indices. Decrease in white blood cell count (WBC) was observed, indicating improved immunity of animals. Extract at 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight with and without vitamin E affected hemoglobin and packed cell volume. Rauwolfia vomitoria with or without vitamin E improved animal's immunity and enhances their hematology. Interaction of vitamin E with the extract affects medicinal therapeutics of this plant.
Kesavan, Rushendhiran; Potunuru, Uma Rani; Nastasijević, Branislav; T, Avaneesh; Joksić, Gordana; Dixit, Madhulika
Gentiana lutea belonging to the Gentianaceae family of flowering plants are routinely used in traditional Serbian medicine for their beneficial gastro-intestinal and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the study was to determine whether aqueous root extracts of Gentiana lutea consisting of gentiopicroside, gentisin, bellidifolin-8-O-glucoside, demethylbellidifolin-8-O-glucoside, isovitexin, swertiamarin and amarogentin prevents proliferation of aortic smooth muscle cells in response to PDGF-BB. Cell proliferation and cell cycle analysis were performed based on alamar blue assay and propidium iodide labeling respectively. In primary cultures of rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs), PDGF-BB (20 ng/ml) induced a two-fold increase in cell proliferation which was significantly blocked by the root extract (1 mg/ml). The root extract also prevented the S-phase entry of synchronized cells in response to PDGF. Furthermore, PDGF-BB induced ERK1/2 activation and consequent increase in cellular nitric oxide (NO) levels were also blocked by the extract. These effects of extract were due to blockade of PDGF-BB induced expression of iNOS, cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Docking analysis of the extract components on MEK1, the upstream ERK1/2 activating kinase using AutoDock4, indicated a likely binding of isovitexin to the inhibitor binding site of MEK1. Experiments performed with purified isovitexin demonstrated that it successfully blocks PDGF-induced ERK1/2 activation and proliferation of RASMCs in cell culture. Thus, Gentiana lutea can provide novel candidates for prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:23637826
Kesavan, Rushendhiran; Potunuru, Uma Rani; Nastasijević, Branislav; T, Avaneesh; Joksić, Gordana; Dixit, Madhulika
Gentiana lutea belonging to the Gentianaceae family of flowering plants are routinely used in traditional Serbian medicine for their beneficial gastro-intestinal and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the study was to determine whether aqueous root extracts of Gentiana lutea consisting of gentiopicroside, gentisin, bellidifolin-8-O-glucoside, demethylbellidifolin-8-O-glucoside, isovitexin, swertiamarin and amarogentin prevents proliferation of aortic smooth muscle cells in response to PDGF-BB. Cell proliferation and cell cycle analysis were performed based on alamar blue assay and propidium iodide labeling respectively. In primary cultures of rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs), PDGF-BB (20 ng/ml) induced a two-fold increase in cell proliferation which was significantly blocked by the root extract (1 mg/ml). The root extract also prevented the S-phase entry of synchronized cells in response to PDGF. Furthermore, PDGF-BB induced ERK1/2 activation and consequent increase in cellular nitric oxide (NO) levels were also blocked by the extract. These effects of extract were due to blockade of PDGF-BB induced expression of iNOS, cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Docking analysis of the extract components on MEK1, the upstream ERK1/2 activating kinase using AutoDock4, indicated a likely binding of isovitexin to the inhibitor binding site of MEK1. Experiments performed with purified isovitexin demonstrated that it successfully blocks PDGF-induced ERK1/2 activation and proliferation of RASMCs in cell culture. Thus, Gentiana lutea can provide novel candidates for prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis.
Chidambaram, Uma; Pachamuthu, Vanitha; Natarajan, Suganya; Elango, Bhakkiyalakshmi; Suriyanarayanan; Ramkumar, Kunga Mohan
To determine the phenolic content in Codariocalyx motorius root extract and to evaluate its antioxidant properties using various in vitro assay systems. The antioxidant activity was evaluated based on scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anions, nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite, reducing power and by inhibition of lipid peroxidation which was estimated in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The root extract of the Codariocalyx motorius (C. motorius) exhibited potent total antioxidant activity that increased with increasing amount of extract concentration, which was compared with standard drug such as quercetin, butylated hydroxytoluene, tocopherol at different concentrations. The different concentrations of the extracts showed inhibition on lipid peroxidation. In addition, the extracts had effective reducing power, free radical scavenging, super oxide anion scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging, lipid peroxidation, and total phenolic content depending on concentration. High correlation between total phenolic contents and scavenging potential of different reactive oxygen species (r(2)=0.831-0.978) indicated the polyphenols as the main antioxidants. Codariocalyx motorius (C. motorius) root possess the highly active antioxidant substance which can be used for the treatment of oxidative stress-related diseases. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kenny, O; Brunton, N P; Walsh, D; Hewage, C M; McLoughlin, P; Smyth, T J
Plant extracts have traditionally been used as sources of natural antimicrobial compounds, although in many cases, the compounds responsible for their antimicrobial efficacy have not been identified. In this study, crude and dialysed extracts from dandelion root (Taraxacum officinale) were evaluated for their antimicrobial properties against Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains. The methanol hydrophobic crude extract (DRE3) demonstrated the strongest inhibition of microbial growth against Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus and Bacillus cereus strains. Normal phase (NP) fractionation of DRE3 resulted in two fractions (NPF4 and NPF5) with enhanced antimicrobial activity. Further NP fractionation of NPF4 resulted in two fractions (NPF403 and NPF406) with increased antimicrobial activity. Further isolation and characterisation of compounds in NPF406 using liquid chromatography solid phase extraction nuclear magnetic resonance LC-SPE-NMR resulted in the identification of 9-hydroxyoctadecatrienoic acid and 9-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid, while the phenolic compounds vanillin, coniferaldehyde and p-methoxyphenylglyoxylic acid were also identified respectively. The molecular mass of these compounds was confirmed by LC mass spectroscopy (MS)/MS. In summary, the antimicrobial efficacy of dandelion root extracts demonstrated in this study support the use of dandelion root as a source of natural antimicrobial compounds. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
JianFeng, Cao; PengYing, Zhang; ChengWei, Xu; TaoTao, Huang; YunGui, Bai; KaoShan, Chen
Arctium lappa L. root has traditionally been recommended as an aphrodisiac agent. It is used to treat impotence and sterility in China, and Native Americans included the root in herbal preparations for women in labor. However, its use has not been scientifically validated. The present study therefore investigated the effects of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots on sexual behavior in normal male rats. Seventy-five albino male rats were randomly divided into five groups of 15 rats each. Rats in group 1 (control) were administered 10 mL/kg body weight distilled water (vehicle), group 2 received 60 mg/kg body weight sildenafil citrate (Viagra), while those in groups 3, 4, and 5 were given 300, 600, and 1,200 mg/kg body weight, respectively, of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots in the same volume. Female albino rats were made receptive by hormonal treatment. Sexual behavior parameters in male rats were monitored on days 3, 7 and 15 by pairing with receptive females (1:3). Male serum testosterone concentrations and potency were also determined. Oral administration of Arctium lappa L. roots extract at 600 and 1,200 mg/kg body weight significantly increased the frequencies of mount, intromission, and ejaculation frequency (p < 0.05). The latencies of mount and intromission were significantly reduced and ejaculation latency was prolonged. Administration of the extract also reduced the post-ejaculatory interval. The standard drug (Viagra) was more effective than the extract. The extract significantly increased the frequencies of all components of penile reflexes as well as serum testosterone levels, compared with the distilled water controls. The results of this study demonstrate that aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots enhances sexual behavior in male rats. The aphrodisiac effects of the plant extract may be related to the presence of flavonoids, saponins, lignans and alkaloids, acting via a multitude of central and peripheral mechanisms. These results
Background Arctium lappa L. root has traditionally been recommended as an aphrodisiac agent. It is used to treat impotence and sterility in China, and Native Americans included the root in herbal preparations for women in labor. However, its use has not been scientifically validated. The present study therefore investigated the effects of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots on sexual behavior in normal male rats. Methods Seventy-five albino male rats were randomly divided into five groups of 15 rats each. Rats in group 1 (control) were administered 10 mL⁄kg body weight distilled water (vehicle), group 2 received 60 mg/kg body weight sildenafil citrate (Viagra), while those in groups 3, 4, and 5 were given 300, 600, and 1,200 mg/kg body weight, respectively, of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots in the same volume. Female albino rats were made receptive by hormonal treatment. Sexual behavior parameters in male rats were monitored on days 3, 7 and 15 by pairing with receptive females (1:3). Male serum testosterone concentrations and potency were also determined. Results Oral administration of Arctium lappa L. roots extract at 600 and 1,200 mg/kg body weight significantly increased the frequencies of mount, intromission, and ejaculation frequency (p < 0.05). The latencies of mount and intromission were significantly reduced and ejaculation latency was prolonged. Administration of the extract also reduced the post-ejaculatory interval. The standard drug (Viagra) was more effective than the extract. The extract significantly increased the frequencies of all components of penile reflexes as well as serum testosterone levels, compared with the distilled water controls. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots enhances sexual behavior in male rats. The aphrodisiac effects of the plant extract may be related to the presence of flavonoids, saponins, lignans and alkaloids, acting via a multitude of central
Mohan, Shikha; Gupta, Damodar
The root of Inula racemosa is known for its antifungal, hypolipdemic and antimicrobial properties in traditional Indian Ayurvedic and Chinese system of medicine. The biological efficacy of Inula species is mainly due to the presence sesquiterpene lactone (Isoalantolactone and Alantolactone), which are reported to be inducers of Nrf2 antioxidant pathway. The investigation of properties and efficacy of root extracts of I. racemosa and their comparison was done with a view to find most efficacious extract for use at cellular level (both normal and transformed). In the present study different extracts of root of I. racemosa (aqueous, ethanolic, and 50% aqueous-ethanolic) were prepared and compared for their antioxidant potential, reducing capacity, polyphenol content and flavonoid content. Our investigations suggested that the aqueous extract possess highest antioxidant capacity and reducing potential. The polyphenol content was found to be highest in aqueous extract in comparison with other two extracts. However, all the three extracts showed less flavonoid content. Further, the preliminary phytochemical screening of all the extracts revealed the presence of terpenoids, phytosterols and glycosides. The TLC profile of ethanolic and 50% aqueous-ethanolic extracts showed the presence of alantolactone while aqueous extracts did not exhibit its strong presence. This warrants the need of more stringent techniques for characterization of aqueous extract in future. The in vitro cell based toxicity assays revealed that the aqueous extract was less toxic to kidneys cells while ethanolic extract was toxic to cells even at low concentrations. Hence, the current investigations showed better efficacy of the aqueous extract with respect to other extracts and found to be promising for its future application at in vitro levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Lichius, J J; Muth, C
Extracts of stinging nettle roots (Urtica dioica L. Urticaceae) are used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We established a BPH-model by directly implanting an urogenital sinus (UGS) into the ventral prostate gland of an adult mouse. Five differently prepared stinging nettle root extracts were tested in this model. The 20% methanolic extract was the most effective with a 51.4% inhibition of induced growth.
Ma, Tingting; Sun, Xiangyu; Tian, Chengrui; Luo, Jiyang; Zheng, Cuiping; Zhan, Jicheng
The extraction process of Sphallerocarpus gracilis root polysaccharides (SGRP) was optimized using response surface methodology with two methods [hot-water extraction (HWE) and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE)]. The antioxidant activities of SGRP were determined, and the structural features of the untreated materials (HWE residue and UAE residue) and the extracted polysaccharides were compared by scanning electron microscopy. Results showed that the optimal UAE conditions were extraction temperature of 81°C, extraction time of 1.7h, liquid-solid ratio of 17ml/g, ultrasonic power of 300W and three extraction cycles. The optimal HWE conditions were 93°C extraction temperature, 3.6h extraction time, 21ml/g liquid-solid ratio and three extraction cycles. UAE offered a higher extraction yield with a shorter time, lower temperature and a lower solvent consumption compared with HWE, and the extracted polysaccharides possessed a higher antioxidant capacity. Therefore, UAE could be used as an alternative to conventional HWE for SGRP extraction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Isaiah, Akpanabiatu Monday; Olawale, Otitoju; Effiong, Edet Emmanuel; Idongesit, Ndem Jessie; Fidelis, Uwah Anthony; Friday, Ufot Usenobong
Background: Vitamin supplementation in Rauwolfia vomitoria root bark extract administration may interact and impact significantly on hematology of albino Wistar rats. Aim: In this investigation we studied vitamin E supplementation with Rauwolfia vomitoria root bark extract on the hematology of experimental animals. Materials and Methods: Forty two rats weighing 200 – 230 g were randomly selected into six groups of seven animals each. Group 1 animals serve as controls; group 2 received vitamin E (10 IU/kg body weight). Groups 3 and 4 were given the extract (150 and 300 mg/kg body weight) respectively. Groups 5 and 6 were given vitamin E (10 IU/kg body weight), the extract (150 and 300 mg/kg body weight) respectively. The extract and the vitamin were administered daily by oral intubation. Blood samples analyzed for hematological indices. Results: Decrease in white blood cell count (WBC) was observed, indicating improved immunity of animals. Extract at 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight with and without vitamin E affected hemoglobin and packed cell volume. Conclusion: Rauwolfia vomitoria with or without vitamin E improved animal's immunity and enhances their hematology. Interaction of vitamin E with the extract affects medicinal therapeutics of this plant. PMID:22408754
Borzini, Letizia; Condò, Roberta; De Dominicis, Paolo; Casaglia, Adriano; Cerroni, Loredana
Background: There are various microorganisms related to intra and extra-radicular infections and many of these are involved in persistent infections. Bacterial elimination from the root canal is achieved by means of the mechanical action of instruments and irrigation as well as the antibacterial effects of the irrigating solutions. Enterococcus faecalis can frequently be isolated from root canals in cases of failed root canal treatments. Antimicrobial agents have often been developed and optimized for their activity against endodontic bacteria. An ideal root canal irrigant should be biocompatible, because of its close contact with the periodontal tissues during endodontic treatment. Sodium hypoclorite (NaOCl) is one of the most widely recommended and used endodontic irrigants but it is highly toxic to periapical tissues. Objectives: To analyze the literature on the chemotherapeutic agent and plant extracts studied as root canal irrigants. In particularly, the study is focused on their effect on Enterococcus faecalis. Method: Literature search was performed electronically in PubMed (PubMed Central, MEDLINE) for articles published in English from 1982 to April 2015. The searched keywords were “endodontic irrigants” and “Enterococcus faecalis” and “essential oil” and “plant extracts”. Results: Many of the studied chemotherapeutic agents and plant extracts have shown promising results in vitro. Conclusion: Some of the considered phytotherapic substances, could be a potential alternative to NaOCl for the biomechanical treatment of the endodontic space. PMID:28217184
Ebrahimzadeh, M A; Nabavi, S M; Nabavi, S F; Dehpour, A A
Ferula gummosa Boiss is native to central Asia. This plant has traditionally been used in the treatment of many diseases. The antihypoxic and antioxidant activities of Ferula gummosa roots were investigated. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical (DPPH), nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities, Fe2+ chelating ability, reducing power and hemoglobin-induced linoleic acid peroxidation were used to evaluate antioxidant activities. Antihemolytic activity was evaluated by H2O2 induced hemolysis in rat erythrocytes. The total amount of phenolic compounds was determined as gallic acid equivalents and total flavonoid contents were calculated as quercetin equivalents from a calibration curve. The extracts showed moderate antioxidant activity in some models. IC50 for DPPH radical-scavenging activity was 579.6 +/- 19.4 microg/ml. The extracts showed weak nitric oxide-scavenging activity between 0.1 and 1.6 mg ml(-1) but showed good Fe2+ chelating ability. IC50 was 895.5 +/- 24.1 microg/ml. The extract also exhibited low antioxidant activity in the linoleic acid model but were capable of scavenging hydrogen peroxide in a concentration dependent manner. Tested extract show moderate activity in H2O2 induced hemolysis in rat erythrocytes which was not comparable with vitamin C. F. gummosa Boiss root showed different level antioxidant and antihemolytic activities. Biological effects may be attributed, at least in part, to the presence of phenols and flavonoids in the extract.
Díaz, Andrea; Dini, Cecilia; Viña, Sonia Z; García, María A
The objective of this work was to fit together the starch extraction from Pachyrhizus ahipa roots and the recovery of the proteins present in these storage organs, making an improved use of this novel raw material. The replacement of water by buffer PO4(-3)/NaCl as solvent in the first extraction steps improved protein extraction without lowering the starch yield. The starches obtained from the traditional and the proposed methods exhibited some differences in appearance and technological and thermal properties, which were endorsed to the adjustment in the methodology of extraction rather than to the use of buffer as solvent. Thus, P. ahipa starch obtaining procedure could be coupled to protein extraction with a minimum change in the methodology. This innovation did not significantly shift the characteristics of the starch obtained and allowed to obtain a protein yield of 135.7mg BSA equivalent protein/100g of fresh roots. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
M. Hanis. A., H.; Majid, M. S. Abdul; Ridzuan, M. J. M.; Fahmi, I.
The tensile strength of a fibre extracted from "Belatlan Root" plant was investigated as potential reinforcement material in polymeric composites. Following retting process, the fibres were manually extracted from "Belatlan" root's plant. The fibres were treated with 5 % 10 %, 15 %, and 20 % sodium hydroxide (NaOH) wt. % concentration for 24 h. The single fibre tests were then performed in accordance with ASTM D3822-07 standard. The surfaces of the fibres prior and after the treatment were observed with a metallurgical Microscope MT8100 and the physical properties were recorded. Physically, in the post treatment, the fibre showed a decrease in diameter with increase in NaOH concentration The results from the mechanical testing indicates that samples subjected to 5 % NaOH treatment yielded the highest tensile strength and elastic modulus at 89.05 MPa ± 2.75 and 3.81 GPa ± 0.09 respectively compared to untreated fibres. This represents an increase of almost 72 % in tensile strength and 42 % for elastic modulus. The findings support the preliminary information for incorporating the "Belatlan Root" as possible reinforcing materials in composite structures.
Verma, Manjesh Kumar; Pandey, Ramesh Kumar; Khanna, Richa; Agarwal, Jyotsna
The choice of irrigating solution used in root canals of primary teeth is complicated by their complex morphology and paucity of associated literature. Propolis is a natural product that has gained interest in this context due to its antibacterial effectiveness against several endodontic pathogens. The present study was undertaken to assess the potential of water-soluble 25% propolis extract against microorganisms present in root canals of primary teeth during endodontic procedures. The child patients in the age group of 4-7 years with radiographic evidence of carious pulp exposure were included in the study. Definitive selection was done after gaining access into the pulp chamber and root canals of the selected teeth. The clinical and radiographic evidence of pathosis was ruled out for inclusion in the study. The selected teeth were divided into two groups randomly. In Group A 0.9% isotonic saline and in Group B 25% extract water-soluble propolis were used as irrigating solution, respectively. The bacterial samples were collected both pre- and post-irrigation and were transferred for microbial assay. STAISTISTICAL ANALYSIS: Wilcoxon matched signed rank test was used to compare the pre-and post-irrigation bacterial counts. Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the mean change (pre-post) in bacterial colony counts of groups in the study. Antimicrobial effectiveness of 25% water-soluble extract of propolis in the root canals of primary teeth was confirmed in the present study. The reduction in the mean bacterial colony counts of all the isolated bacteria was noticed higher in Group B than Group A. The results of the present study have confirmed that the antibacterial effectiveness of water-soluble extract of propolis in the root canals of primary teeth in vivo. Considering the low toxicity concerns and antibacterial effectiveness, water-soluble extract of 25% propolis can be advocated as a root canal irrigant in endodontic treatment of primary teeth.
Zhao, Feng-chun; Li, Hao; Chen, Liang-mian; Gao, Hui-min; Zhang, Qi-wei; Wang, Zhi-min; Wu, Pi-e
As a part of the project for the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2015 edition), the quality standard of Sophora flavescens root extract was investigated and established. According to the methods described in the Appendix of Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010 edition), the water and ash inspections were carried out. The marker components trifolirhizin, sophoraflavanone G, oxymatrine and oxysophocarpine in the samples were identified by qualitative TLC. The determination of oxymatrine, matrine, oxysophocarpine and sophocarpine was conducted by HPLC and the total flavonoids were measured by ultraviolet spectrophotometry, using sophoraflavanone G as reference substance. The results indicated the spots on the plate were clear with good resolution and the contents of oxymatrine, matrine, oxysophocarpine and sophocarpine in the 13 batches of the samples were 3.87% - 11.1%, 0.970% - 4.33%, 1.30% - 2.59% and 0.260% - 1.14%, respectively. The total flavoids in the 13 batches of the samples were 3.88% - 7.93%. In the study, the validated methods were reproducible and the established quality standard was feasible, which could be used for the quality control of S. flavescens root extract and related preparations.
Noufou, Ouédraogo; Anne-Emmanuelle, Hay; Claude W, Ouédraogo Jean; Richard, Sawadogo W; André, Tibiri; Marius, Lompo; Jean-baptiste, Nikiema; Jean, Koudou; Marie-Genevieve, Dijoux-Franca; Pierre, Guissou Innocent
Background: Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir. belonging to Fabacae familly is used as medicinal plant in Burkina Faso’s folk medicine. Roots of P. erinaceus are used to treat ulcer, stomach ache and inflammatory diseases. The objective of the present study was to carry out phytochemical composition of methanol (MeOH) and dichloromethane (DCM) extracts from Pterocarpus erinaceus roots, to isolate pure compounds, and to evaluate their pharmacological activities. Methods: Chromatographic fractionation led to the isolation of active components of the extracts. The structures were established by NMR analysis and comparison with data from literature. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using croton oil-induced edema of mice ear as well as the effect of extracts against lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidation was evaluated. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) methods were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the extracts. Results: Friedelin (1), 3a-hydroxyfriedelan-2-one (2), a-sophoradiol (3) and stigmasterol (4) were isolated from DCM extract and maltol-6-O-apiofuranoside-glucopyranoside (5) isolated from MeOH. DCM extract and friedelin, 3a-hydroxyfriedelan-2-one, a-sophoradiol showed a significant anti-inflammatory effect against ear edema. Friedelin (1), α-sophoradiol (3) and maltol-6-O-apiofuranoside-glucopyranoside (5) exhibited lipoxygenase inhibition. MeOH extract (100 μg/mL) inhibited lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidation activities at 45.1 ± 3% and 30.7 ± 0.5% respectively. MeOH extract, ethyl acetate fraction and butanol fraction exhibited antioxidant property with both two methods used. Conclusion: The results suggested that the extracts and compounds from roots of Pterocarpus erinaceus possessed local anti-inflammatory effect, antioxidant properties and inhibitor effect against lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidation activities. PMID:28480397
N, Tsevelmaa; B, Narangerel; O, Odgerel; D, Dariimaa; J, Batkhuu
The current treatment for human brucellosis requires a combination of antibiotics for long periods of time, and the reported incidence and prevalence of the disease vary widely in nomadic livestock of Mongolia. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the in vivo antibacterial activity of the C. mongolica root extract against B. melitensis. In this study, we used of 6 groups of mice (n = 5). Five groups of BALB/c mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with the M16 strain of B. melintensis, as follows: (i) one group was used for pretreatment monitoring; (ii) the control group was administered 2% Tween 80 and was used as the non-treatment group; and the other three groups were treated with one oral gavage per day for 21 days with (iii) doxycycline (2 mg/day), (iv) doxycycline (1 mg/day) with root extract (20 mg/day), and (v) C. mongolica root extract (20 mg/day). The one group that was kept non-infected was used as a healthy control group. This study demonstrated that daily treatment with doxycycline alone and in combination with C. mongolica root extract significantly reduced splenic infection at the end of treatment. However, the spleen index of both the doxycycline-treated and the combination-treated groups of mice decreased by approximately 50% compared to that of the healthy control mouse group. Treatment with the C. mongolica root extract resulted in a 1.47log reduction in splenic infection compared to the non-treatment group, and the spleen index of the C. mongolica-treated group of mice was the same as that of the normal mouse group. In all treatment groups, neutrophil phagocytic activity significantly decreased, and all treatment groups demonstrated splenic regeneration. The present study showed that the C. mongolica root extract may be useful in the treatment of brucellosis patients, in combination with doxycycline or other antibiotics, to reduce the toxicity of high-dosage antibiotics, to prevent the development of antibiotic resistance
Wang, Jian-Gang; Xiong, Cheng-Liang; Wang, Shu-Ying; Wu, Yin-Ping; Fu, Yin-Feng; Zhang, Zhao-Hui
To compare the anti-fertility effects of the four extracts from the roots of Rhynchosia volubilis Lour on male mice, that is, ethanolic extract, ethyl acetate extract, n-butanol extract and aqueous extract. Four extracts from the roots of Rhynchosia volubilis Lour (1%, 0.1 ml/10 g), were administered orally for 11 weeks to adult male mice. The fertility and testicular function of the mice were assessed by mating tests and analyses of sperm motility in cauda epididymides and biochemical and histological indexes in the blood samples and reproductive organs. The four extracts, especially aqueous extract, gradually decreased the pregnancy rate of the experimental mice from the 77th day of the treatment, with an obvious reduction in the number of spermatozoa. Morphological observation of the reproductive organs by light microscopy showed that the numbers of the secondary spermatocytes and spermatids were decreased in varied degrees, and the seminiferous tubules were disarranged, while the numbers and shapes of and spermatids were decreased in varied degrees, and the seminiferous tubules were disarranged, while the numbers and shapes of spermatogonia, Sertoli cells and Leydig cells remained unchanged. The four extracts from the roots of Rhynchosia volubilis Lour all have anti-fertility effects on male mice, and that of the aqueous extract is more obvious.
Lian, Bin; Souleimanov, Alfred; Zhou, Xiaomin; Smith, Donald L
Bradyrhizobium japonicum can form a N2-fixing symbiosis with compatible leguminous plants. It can also act as a plant-growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) for non-legume plants, possibly through production of lipo-chitooligosaccharides (LCOs), which should have the ability to induce disease resistance responses in plants. The objective of this work was to determine whether non-leguminous crop plants can induce LCO formation by B. japonicum cultures. Cultures treated with root extracts of soybean, corn, cotton or winter wheat were assayed for presence and level of LCO. Root extracts of soybean, corn and winter wheat all induced LCO production, with extracts of corn inducing the greatest amounts. Root washings of corn also induced LCO production, but less than the root extract. These results indicated that the stimulation of non-legume plant growth by B. japonicum could be through the production of LCOs, induced by materials excreted by the roots of non-legume plants.
Del Valle-Mojica, Lisa M; Ortíz, José G
Valerian extract is used in complementary and alternative medicine for its anxiolytic and sedative properties. Our previous research demonstrated valerian interactions with glutamate receptors. The purpose of this study was to determine if valerian anxiolytic properties are mediated by metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR) such as mGluR (1/5) (mGluR I) and mGluR (2/3) (mGluR II). Adult wild-type zebrafish (Danio rerio) prefer the black compartment and avoid the white compartment in the dark/light preference task. Zebrafish exposed to 1 mg/mL of valerian extract or 0.00117 mg/mL valerenic acid increased their residence time in the white side by 84.61 ± 6.55 % and 58.30 ± 8.97 %, respectively. LAP3 (mGluR I antagonist) and EGLU (mGluR II antagonist) significantly inhibited the effects of valerian and valerenic acid. These results demonstrated that valerian and valerenic acid have anxiolytic properties in the zebrafish. Moreover, the selective interaction of valerian with mGluR I and II represent an alternative explanation for the anxiolytic properties of this plant and support the role of mGluR in anxiety. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Asrie, Assefa Belay; Abdelwuhab, Mohammedbrhan; Shewamene, Zewdneh; Gelayee, Desalegn Asmelashe; Adinew, Getnet Mequanint; Birru, Eshetie Melese
An ethnobotanical study in Agew-Awi and Amhara peoples in northwest Ethiopia reported that Cordia africana is used traditionally in the treatment of liver disease, amebiasis, stomachache, and diarrhea. The root and root bark are reported to be used in the treatment of diarrhea. Therefore, this study was intended to evaluate the antidiarrheal effect of C. africana against castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice. The antidiarrheal effect of the plant was tested on castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice (23–25 g) of either sex. Number of diarrheic defecations, intestinal length traveled by the charcoal meal, and weight of intestinal fluid were taken as important parameters to evaluate the antidiarrheal activity of the plant extract. In preliminary phytochemical screening tests, the methanolic extract of C. africana was found to contain phenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, and saponins. Reduction in the number of diarrheic drops was observed in groups of mice that received 200 mg/kg (P<0.05) and 400 mg/kg (P<0.01) of the extract compared to the negative controls. The percent inhibition of intestinal fluid accumulation was 26.83%, 46.34%, and 53.66% at the doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the extract, respectively. Relative to the negative control group, the mean percent of intestinal length moved by the charcoal meal was decreased by 24.41%, 39.89%, and 51.66% in groups of mice given 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the plant extract, respectively. To iterate the finding, the root bark extract of C. africana was found to be effective in preventing castor oil-induced diarrhea and intestinal motility in a dose-dependent manner. This reveals that the plant material has promising antidiarrheal activity as it is claimed in traditional medical practice. PMID:27799833
Asrie, Assefa Belay; Abdelwuhab, Mohammedbrhan; Shewamene, Zewdneh; Gelayee, Desalegn Asmelashe; Adinew, Getnet Mequanint; Birru, Eshetie Melese
An ethnobotanical study in Agew-Awi and Amhara peoples in northwest Ethiopia reported that Cordia africana is used traditionally in the treatment of liver disease, amebiasis, stomachache, and diarrhea. The root and root bark are reported to be used in the treatment of diarrhea. Therefore, this study was intended to evaluate the antidiarrheal effect of C. africana against castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice. The antidiarrheal effect of the plant was tested on castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice (23-25 g) of either sex. Number of diarrheic defecations, intestinal length traveled by the charcoal meal, and weight of intestinal fluid were taken as important parameters to evaluate the antidiarrheal activity of the plant extract. In preliminary phytochemical screening tests, the methanolic extract of C. africana was found to contain phenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, and saponins. Reduction in the number of diarrheic drops was observed in groups of mice that received 200 mg/kg ( P <0.05) and 400 mg/kg ( P <0.01) of the extract compared to the negative controls. The percent inhibition of intestinal fluid accumulation was 26.83%, 46.34%, and 53.66% at the doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the extract, respectively. Relative to the negative control group, the mean percent of intestinal length moved by the charcoal meal was decreased by 24.41%, 39.89%, and 51.66% in groups of mice given 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the plant extract, respectively. To iterate the finding, the root bark extract of C. africana was found to be effective in preventing castor oil-induced diarrhea and intestinal motility in a dose-dependent manner. This reveals that the plant material has promising antidiarrheal activity as it is claimed in traditional medical practice.
Agbonon, A; Aklikokou, K; Kwashie, E-G; Gbéassor, M
Ethanolic extract of Pluchea ovalis roots inhibit acetylcholine-induced bronchoconstriction observed in asthma. To understand the mechanism of P. ovalis root extract on airway smooth muscle contraction, we investigated the anti-cholinergic effect of the ethanolic extract on isolated isolated tracheae of the Wistar rat. For this purpose, three experimental conditions of incubation were used: idomethacin, indomethacin+propranolol or indomethacin+propranolo+ promethazine. The extract was applied in all three conditions at 0.25 mg/ml for 10 minutes prior to cumulative doses of acetylcholine (10(-8) to 5.10(-4) g/ml). The extract reduced acetylcholine-induced contraction and could have an antagonistic effect on muscarinic receptors of the rat trachea.
Nartey, Edmund T; Ofosuhene, Mark; Kudzi, William; Agbale, Caleb M
Cassia sieberiana is a savannah tree with a wide phytotherapeutic application including the use of its roots in the management of various stomach disorders including gastric ulcer, stomach pains and indigestion. The aim of the study is to evaluate the antioxidant, gastric cytoprotective prostaglandins, secretory phospholipase A2, phytochemical and acute toxicity properties of Cassia sieberiana roots bark extract in a bid to justify its phytotherapeutic applications in gastric ulcer. Antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of the roots bark extract of Cassia sieberiana were assayed. Serum secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) concentration and activity and the formation of gastric mucosal prostaglandins E2 (PGE2) and I2 (PGI2) were also assessed. Comparisons between means were performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Students Standard Newman-Keuls post hoc analysis to determine statistical significance. P < 0.05 was considered significant. The extract was found to possess significant ferric reducing antioxidant power and can scavenge hydroxyl radicals. The extract also possesses DPPH scavenging activity, can chelate ferrous ion and a dose-dependent protective effect against lipid peroxidation and free radical generation. Prostaglandin studies showed that the roots bark extract dose dependently increased gastric mucosal PGE2 and PGI2 levels and also decreased serum sPLA2 activity. Phytochemical analyses suggest that the roots extract contains polyhydroxyl/phenolic substances. Acute toxicity test showed no sign of toxicity up to a dose level of 2000 mg/kg body weight p.o. C. sieberiana roots extract possesses significant antioxidant and gastric cytoprotective prostaglandin properties as well as serum secretory phospholipase A2 inhibitory activity which could be due to its content of polyhydroxy and/or phenolic substances. This may justify its use as an anti-ulcerogenic agent in traditional medicine in West Africa.
Pakrokh Ghavi, Peyman
Response surface methodology (RSM) with a central composite rotatable design (CCRD) based on five levels was employed to model and optimize four experimental operating conditions of extraction temperature (10-90 °C) and time (6-30 h), particle size (6-24 mm) and water to solid (W/S, 10-50) ratio, obtaining polysaccharides from Althaea officinalis roots with high yield and antioxidant activity. For each response, a second-order polynomial model with high R(2) values (> 0.966) was developed using multiple linear regression analysis. Results showed that the most significant (P < 0.05) extraction conditions that affect the yield and antioxidant activity of extracted polysaccharides were the main effect of extraction temperature and the interaction effect of the particle size and W/S ratio. The optimum conditions to maximize yield (10.80%) and antioxidant activity (84.09%) for polysaccharides extraction from A. officinalis roots were extraction temperature 60.90 °C, extraction time 12.01 h, particle size 12.0mm and W/S ratio of 40.0. The experimental values were found to be in agreement with those predicted, indicating the models suitability for optimizing the polysaccharides extraction conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Oelkers-Ax, Rieke; Leins, Anne; Parzer, Peter; Hillecke, Thomas; Bolay, Hans V; Fischer, Jochen; Bender, Stephan; Hermanns, Uta; Resch, Franz
Migraine is very common in school-aged children, but despite a number of pharmacological and non-pharmacological options for prophylaxis, randomized controlled evidence in children is small. Evidence-based prophylactic drugs may have considerable side effects. This study was to assess efficacy of a butterbur root extract (Petadolex) and music therapy in primary school children with migraine. Prospective, randomized, partly double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. Following a 8-week baseline patients were randomized and received either butterbur root extract (n=19), music therapy (n=20) or placebo (n=19) over 12 weeks. All participants received additionally headache education ("treatment as usual") from the baseline onwards. Reduction of headache frequency after treatment (8-week post-treatment) as well as 6 months later (8-week follow-up) was the efficacy variable. Data analysis of subjects completing the respective study phase showed that during post-treatment, only music therapy was superior to placebo (p=0.005), whereas in the follow-up period both music therapy and butterbur root extract were superior to placebo (p=0.018 and p=0.044, respectively). All groups showed a substantial reduction of attack frequency already during baseline. Butterbur root extract and music therapy might be superior to placebo and may represent promising treatment approaches in the prophylaxis of paediatric migraine.
Yakubu, Musa Toyin; Oyeyipo, Theo Oyetayo; Quadri, Ayodeji Luqman; Akanji, Musbau Adewumi
There is an age-long claim that the Musa paradisiaca root is used to manage reproductive dysfunction, most especially sexual dysfunction (as an aphrodisiac), but there are no data in the open scientific literature that have refuted or supported this claim and the effects of M. paradisiaca root on the testes. Therefore, this study was aimed at investigating the effect of oral administration of the aqueous extract of M. paradisiaca root on the testicular function parameters of male rat testes. Sexually matured male albino rats (138.67±5.29 g) were randomly assigned into four groups, A, B, C, and D, that respectively received 0.5 mL (3.6 mL/kg body weight) of distilled water and 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight of the extract, orally, once daily, for 14 days. The extract significantly increased (p<0.05) the testes-body weight ratio, total protein, sialic acid, glycogen, cholesterol, activities of alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyltransferase, acid phosphatase, and the concentration of testicular testosterone. In contrast, the extract decreased the concentrations of both luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormones in the serum of the animals. The results revealed that oral administration of M. paradisiaca root extract at doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight enhanced the testosterone-dependent normal functioning of the testes. Overall, the aqueous extract of M. paradisiaca stimulated the normal functioning of the testes and exhibited both androgenic and anabolic properties. The results may explain the rationale behind the folkloric beneficial effect of the plant in the management of reproductive dysfunction.
Liu, Haitao; Wang, Quanzhen; Liu, Yuyan; Chen, Guo; Cui, Jian
Solvent, impregnation time, sonication repetitions, and ultrasonic power were important factors in the process of ultrasound-assisted extraction from chicory (Cichorium intybus) root, while there were no studies about optimizing these 4 factors for extract yield, total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal activity of the extracts using orthogonal matrix design. The present research demonstrated that the solvent composition played a significant role in the improving extract yield, TPC, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities. The other 3 factors had inequable effect on different purposes, ultrasonic power could improve TPC and antioxidant activity, but long time of extraction lowered antioxidant activity. The TPC increased from 22.34 to 27.87 mg GAE (gallic acid equivalents)/100 g (dry extracts) with increasing solvent polarity. The half inhibition concentration (IC(50,) μg/mL) of the radical scavenging activity of the chicory extracts ranged from 281.00 to 983.33 μg/mL. The content of caffeoylquinic acids of root extract, which was extracted by the optimal combination was 0.104%. Several extracts displayed antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus subtilis, and Salmonella typhi, while Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus sp. resisted against all the extracts. Combination of 70% ethanol v/v, 24-h impregnation time, 3 sonication rounds, and 300-W ultrasonic input power was found to be the optimal combination for the chicory extract yield, TPC, antioxidant activity, and antibacterial activity. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®
García-Carrasco, Belén; Fernandez-Dacosta, Raquel; Dávalos, Alberto; Ordovás, José M.; Rodriguez-Casado, Arantxa
Adipose tissue dysfunction constitutes a primary defect in obesity and might link this disease to severe chronic health problems. We aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of three extracts from Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) as well as their effects on mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes concerning intracellular lipid accumulation and cytotoxicity, this would give indications regarding therapeutic interest of dandelion as potential anti-obesity candidate. Antioxidant activities of extracts from dandelion roots and leaves were evaluated in vitro using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhyorazyl (DPPH) and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) methods at the concentration range used in cellular assays (300–600 µg/mL). The influence of the extracts on mature 3T3-L1 adipocyte viability was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Lipid content was determined by Oil-red-O staining. The extracts showed effective antioxidant activity correlating with total flavonoid and polyphenol contents. However, the functionality level was weakly associated with the antioxidant activity. Further, our data demonstrated that mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes reduced in size and number when incubated with the extracts, which suggests a significant increase in lipolysis activity. Particularly, leaf extract and crude powdered root of dandelion reduced triglyceride accumulation in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes to a greater extent that the extract from the root. Our study shows anti-lipogenic effects of dandelion extracts on adipocytes as well as radical scavenging and reducing activity. Importantly, along with previous results indicating that cell populations cultivated in the presence of the dandelion extracts decrease in 3T3-L1 adipogenesis capacity, these results suggests that these extracts might represent a treatment option for obesity-related diseases by affecting different processes during the adipocyte life cycle. PMID:29083390
Ajiboye, Taofeek O; Nurudeen, Quadri O; Yakubu, Musa T
The phytochemical constituents of the aqueous root extract of Lecaniodiscus cupanioides Planch. Ex Bth. and its aphrodisiac activity on male rat sexual behavior and reproductive hormones in paroxetine-induced sexual dysfunction were evaluated. The extract was screened for the presence of phytochemicals. The extract (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight) and the reference herbal drug PowmaxM (7.14 mg/kg body weight) were administered orally to paroxetine-induced sexually impaired male rats, once daily for 5 days, and their sexual behavior parameters were monitored and computed. The serum hormones (testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone) were determined at the end of treatment period. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, anthraquinones, phenolics, saponins, and tannins. Mount frequency (MF), intromission frequency (IF), ejaculatory frequency (EF), and testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone concentrations were reduced significantly (p<0.05) in paroxetine-treated rats. Administration of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight of the aqueous root extract of L. cupanioides significantly (p<0.05) reversed the paroxetine-mediated alterations in MF, IF, EF, mount latency (ML), intromission latency (IL), ejaculatory latency (EL), postejaculatory interval (PEI), and testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone concentrations dose-dependently. The reversal of the male sexual behavior parameters by the extract compared well (p<0.05) with the PowmaxM-treated animals. Data obtained from this study revealed that the aqueous root extract of L. cupanioides restored sexual competence in sexually impaired rats possibly by increasing sexual drive through enhanced reproductive hormones concentration, particularly testosterone, thus supporting the folkloric claim of the plant for the management of sexual disorder in males.
Valeriana officinalis root extract suppresses physical stress by electric shock and psychological stress by nociceptive stimulation-evoked responses by decreasing the ratio of monoamine neurotransmitters to their metabolites.
Jung, Hyo Young; Yoo, Dae Young; Kim, Woosuk; Nam, Sung Min; Kim, Jong Whi; Choi, Jung Hoon; Kwak, Youn-Gil; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Hwang, In Koo
In this study, we investigate the effects of valerian root extracts (VE) on physical and psychological stress responses by utilizing a communication box. Eight-week-old ICR mice received oral administration of VE (100 mg/kg/0.5 ml) or equal volume of distilled water in every day for 3 weeks prior to being subjected to physical or psychological stress for 3 days, which are induced by communication box developed for physical electric shock and psychological stress by nociceptive stimulation-evoked responses. The stress condition was assessed by forced swimming test and serum corticosterone levels. In addition, norepinephrine (NE), serotonin (5-HT), and their metabolites such as 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol sulfate (MHPG-SO4) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were measured in the hippocampus and amygdala at 1 h after final stress condition, respectively. Immobility time and corticosterone levels were significantly increased in both the physical and psychological stress groups compared to the control group. The administration of VE significantly reduced these parameters in both the physical and psychological stress groups. In addition, compared to the control group, physical and psychological stress groups showed significantly increased levels of MHPG-SO4 and 5-HIAA in the hippocampus and amygdala, respectively. The administration of VE significantly suppressed the increase of MHPG-SO4 and 5-HIAA in the two stress groups. These results suggest that VE can suppress physical and psychological stress responses by modulating the changes in 5-HT and NE turnover in the hippocampus and amygdala.
Ganga Rao, B.; Umamaheswara Rao, P.; Sambasiva Rao, E.; Mallikarjuna Rao, T.; Praneeth. D, V. S.
Objective To assess the in-vitro antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory activity of orally administered different extracts (Hydro-alcoholic, methanolic, ethyl acetate and hexane) of Rauvolfia tetraphylla (R. tetraphylla) root bark in Carrageenan induced acute inflammation in rats. Methods In-vitro antibacterial activity was evaluated for extracts against four Gram positive and four Gram negative bacteria by using cylinder plate assay. Hydro-alcoholic extract (70% v/v ethanol) at 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg doses and methanolic, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts at doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg were tested for anti-inflammatory activity in Carrageenan induced rat paw oedema model and paw thickness was measured every one hour up to 6 hrs. Results All extracts of R. tetraphylla root bark showed good zone of inhibition against tested bacterial strains. In Carrageenan induced inflammation model, hydro-alcoholic and methanolic extract of R. tetraphylla root bark at three different doses produced significant (P<0.001) reduction when compared to vehicle treated control group and hexane, ethyl acetate extracts. Conclusions In the present study extracts of R. tetraphylla root bark shows good in-vitro antibacterial activity and in-vivo anti-inflammatory activity in rats. PMID:23569853
Ganga Rao, B; Umamaheswara Rao, P; Sambasiva Rao, E; Mallikarjuna Rao, T; Praneeth D, V S
To assess the in-vitro antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory activity of orally administered different extracts (Hydro-alcoholic, methanolic, ethyl acetate and hexane) of Rauvolfia tetraphylla (R. tetraphylla) root bark in Carrageenan induced acute inflammation in rats. In-vitro antibacterial activity was evaluated for extracts against four Gram positive and four Gram negative bacteria by using cylinder plate assay. Hydro-alcoholic extract (70% v/v ethanol) at 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg doses and methanolic, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts at doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg were tested for anti-inflammatory activity in Carrageenan induced rat paw oedema model and paw thickness was measured every one hour up to 6 hrs. All extracts of R. tetraphylla root bark showed good zone of inhibition against tested bacterial strains. In Carrageenan induced inflammation model, hydro-alcoholic and methanolic extract of R. tetraphylla root bark at three different doses produced significant (P<0.001) reduction when compared to vehicle treated control group and hexane, ethyl acetate extracts. In the present study extracts of R. tetraphylla root bark shows good in-vitro antibacterial activity and in-vivo anti-inflammatory activity in rats.
Gul, Waseem; Gul, Shahbaz W; Chandra, Suman; Lata, Hemant; Ibrahim, Elsayed A; ElSohly, Mahmoud A
A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry single-laboratory validation was performed for the detection and quantification of the 10 major cannabinoids of cannabis, namely, (-)- trans -Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, cannabigerol, cannabichromene, tetrahydrocannabivarian, cannabinol, (-)- trans -Δ 8 -tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiolic acid, cannabigerolic acid, and Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A, in the root extract of Cannabis sativa . Acetonitrile : methanol (80 : 20, v/v) was used for extraction; d 3 -cannabidiol and d 3 - tetrahydrocannabinol were used as the internal standards. All 10 cannabinoids showed a good regression relationship with r 2 > 0.99. The validated method is simple, sensitive, and reproducible and is therefore suitable for the detection and quantification of these cannabinoids in extracts of cannabis roots. To our knowledge, this is the first report for the quantification of cannabinoids in cannabis roots. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Bertolde, F Z; Almeida, A-A F; Silva, F A C; Oliveira, T M; Pirovani, C P
Theobroma cacao is a woody and recalcitrant plant with a very high level of interfering compounds. Standard protocols for protein extraction were proposed for various types of samples, but the presence of interfering compounds in many samples prevented the isolation of proteins suitable for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). An efficient method to extract root proteins for 2-DE was established to overcome these problems. The main features of this protocol are: i) precipitation with trichloroacetic acid/acetone overnight to prepare the acetone dry powder (ADP), ii) several additional steps of sonication in the ADP preparation and extractions with dense sodium dodecyl sulfate and phenol, and iii) adding two stages of phenol extractions. Proteins were extracted from roots using this new protocol (Method B) and a protocol described in the literature for T. cacao leaves and meristems (Method A). Using these methods, we obtained a protein yield of about 0.7 and 2.5 mg per 1.0 g lyophilized root, and a total of 60 and 400 spots could be separated, respectively. Through Method B, it was possible to isolate high-quality protein and a high yield of roots from T. cacao for high-quality 2-DE gels. To demonstrate the quality of the extracted proteins from roots of T. cacao using Method B, several protein spots were cut from the 2-DE gels, analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry, and identified. Method B was further tested on Citrus roots, with a protein yield of about 2.7 mg per 1.0 g lyophilized root and 800 detected spots.
SL, Shruthi; PS, Vaibhavi; VH, Pushpa; AM, Satish; Sibgatullah, Mohammad
Introducation Diuretics are the drugs which increase the urine output. This property is useful in various pathological conditions of fluid overload. The presently available diuretics have lot of adverse effects. Our study has evaluated the diuretic activity of ethanolic root extract of Mimosa pudica as an alternative/new drug which may induce diuresis. Aim To evaluate the diuretic activity of ethanolic root extract of Mimosa pudicaa in albino rats. Materials and Methods Ethanolic root extract of Mimosa pudica (EEMP) was prepared using soxhlet’s apparatus. Albino rats were divided into 5 groups of 6 rats each. Group-I (Control) received distilled water 25ml/kg orally. Group-II (Standard) received Furosemide 20mg/kg orally. Group-III received EEMP 100 mg/kg, Group-IV received EEMP 200 mg/kg and Group-V received EEMP 400 mg/kg. The urine samples were collected for all the groups upto 5 hours after dosing and urine volume was measured. Urine was analysed for electrolytes (Na+, K+ and Cl-). ANOVA, Dunnet’s test and p-values were measured and data was analysed. Results EEMP exhibited significant diuretic activity by increasing urine volume and also by enhancing elimination of Sodium (Na+), Potassium (K+) and Chloride (Cl-) at doses of 100 and 200mg/kg. Conclusion EEMP possesses significant diuretic activity and has a beneficial role in volume overload conditions. PMID:26870704
Amakura, Yoshiaki; Yoshimura, Morio; Morimoto, Sara; Yoshida, Takashi; Tada, Atsuko; Ito, Yusai; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Naoki; Akiyama, Hiroshi
Gentian root extract is used as a bitter food additive in Japan. We investigated the constituents of this extract to acquire the chemical data needed for standardized specifications. Fourteen known compounds were isolated in addition to a mixture of gentisin and isogentisin: anofinic acid, 2-methoxyanofinic acid, furan-2-carboxylic acid, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, isovitexin, gentiopicroside, loganic acid, sweroside, vanillic acid, gentisin 7-O-primeveroside, isogentisin 3-O-primeveroside, 6'-O-glucosylgentiopicroside, and swertiajaposide D. Moreover, a new compound, loganic acid 7-(2'-hydroxy-3'-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl)benzoate (1), was also isolated. HPLC was used to analyze gentiopicroside and amarogentin, defined as the main constituents of gentian root extract in the List of Existing Food Additives in Japan.
Yoo, Dae Young; Jung, Hyo Young; Nam, Sung Min; Kim, Jong Whi; Choi, Jung Hoon; Kwak, Youn-Gil; Yoo, Miyoung; Lee, Sanghee; Yoon, Yeo Sung
Abstract As a medicinal plant, the roots of Valeriana officinalis have been used as a sedative and tranquilizer. In the present study, we evaluated the neuroprotective effects of valerian root extracts (VE) on the hippocampal CA1 region of gerbils after 5 min of transient cerebral ischemia. Gerbils were administered VE orally once a day for 3 weeks, subjected to ischemia/reperfusion injury, and continued on VE for 3 weeks. The administration of 100 mg/kg VE (VE100 group) significantly reduced the ischemia-induced spontaneous motor hyperactivity 1 day after ischemia/reperfusion. Four days after ischemia/reperfusion, animals treated with VE showed abundant cresyl violet-positive neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region when compared to the vehicle or 25 mg/kg VE-treated groups. In addition, the VE treatment markedly decreased microglial activation in the hippocampal CA1 region 4 days after ischemia. Compared to the other groups, the VE100 group showed the lowest level of lipid peroxidation during the first 24 h after ischemia/reperfusion. In summary, the findings in this study suggest that pretreatment with VE has protective effects against ischemic injury in the hippocampal pyramidal neurons by decreasing microglial activation and lipid peroxidation. PMID:25785762
Yoo, Dae Young; Jung, Hyo Young; Nam, Sung Min; Kim, Jong Whi; Choi, Jung Hoon; Kwak, Youn-Gil; Yoo, Miyoung; Lee, Sanghee; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Hwang, In Koo
As a medicinal plant, the roots of Valeriana officinalis have been used as a sedative and tranquilizer. In the present study, we evaluated the neuroprotective effects of valerian root extracts (VE) on the hippocampal CA1 region of gerbils after 5 min of transient cerebral ischemia. Gerbils were administered VE orally once a day for 3 weeks, subjected to ischemia/reperfusion injury, and continued on VE for 3 weeks. The administration of 100 mg/kg VE (VE100 group) significantly reduced the ischemia-induced spontaneous motor hyperactivity 1 day after ischemia/reperfusion. Four days after ischemia/reperfusion, animals treated with VE showed abundant cresyl violet-positive neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region when compared to the vehicle or 25 mg/kg VE-treated groups. In addition, the VE treatment markedly decreased microglial activation in the hippocampal CA1 region 4 days after ischemia. Compared to the other groups, the VE100 group showed the lowest level of lipid peroxidation during the first 24 h after ischemia/reperfusion. In summary, the findings in this study suggest that pretreatment with VE has protective effects against ischemic injury in the hippocampal pyramidal neurons by decreasing microglial activation and lipid peroxidation.
Seegers, Christel L C; Tepper, Pieter G; Setroikromo, Rita; Quax, Wim J
Deoxypodophyllotoxin is present in the roots of Anthriscus sylvestris . This compound is cytotoxic on its own, but it can also be converted into podophyllotoxin, which is in high demand as a precursor for the important anticancer drugs etoposide and teniposide. In this study, deoxypodophyllotoxin is extracted from A. sylvestris roots by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. The process is simple and scalable. The supercritical carbon dioxide method extracts 75 - 80% of the total deoxypodophyllotoxin content, which is comparable to a single extraction by traditional Soxhlet. However, less polar components are extracted. The activity of the supercritical carbon dioxide extract containing deoxypodophyllotoxin was assessed by demonstrating that the extract arrests A549 and HeLa cells in the G 2 /M phase of the cell cycle. We conclude that biologically active deoxypodophyllotoxin can be extracted from A. sylvestris by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. The method is solvent free and more sustainable compared to traditional methods. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Nematicidal activity of plant essential oils and components from coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils against pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus).
Kim, Junheon; Seo, Sun-Mi; Lee, Sang-Gil; Shin, Sang-Chul; Park, Il-Kwon
Commercial essential oils from 28 plant species were tested for their nematicidal activities against the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Good nematicidal activity against B. xylophilus was achieved with essential oils of coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii). Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of 26, 11, and 4 major compounds from coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) oils, respectively. Compounds from each plant essential oil were tested individually for their nematicidal activities against the pine wood nematode. Among the compounds, benzaldehyde, trans-cinnamyl alcohol, cis-asarone, octanal, nonanal, decanal, trans-2-decenal, undecanal, dodecanal, decanol, and trans-2-decen-1-ol showed strong nematicidal activity. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential nematicides against the pine wood nematode.
Zhang, Hongxia; Al-Juhaimi, Fahad Y.; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din Ahmed
Asparagus officinalis are perennial plants that require re-planting every 10–20 years. The roots are traditionally mulched in the soil or treated as waste. The A. officinalis roots (AR) contain valuable bioactive compounds that may have some health benefiting properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the total polyphenol and flavonoid contents (TPC and TFC, respectively) and antioxidant (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) and Ferric Reducing/Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assays) activities of New Zealand AR extract. The antioxidant activity decreased with a longer extraction time. PMID:29617287
Samuel, Anbu Jeba Sunilson John; Mohan, Syam; Chellappan, Dinesh Kumar; Kalusalingam, Anandarajagopal; Ariamuthu, Saraswathi
The roots of Hibiscus vitifolius Linn. (Malvaceae) is used for the treatment of jaundice in the folklore system of medicine in India. This study is an attempt to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of the roots of Hibiscus vitifolius against anti-tubercular drug induced hepatotoxicity. Hepatotoxicity was induced in albino rats of either sex by oral administration of a combination of three anti-tubercular drugs. Petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of roots of Hibiscus vitifolius (400mg/kg/day) were evaluated for their possible hepatoprotective potential. All the extracts were found to be safe up to a dose of 2000mg/kg. Among the four extracts studied, oral administration of methanol extract of Hibiscus vitifolius at 400mg/kg showed significant difference in all the parameters when compared to control. There was a significant (P<0.001) reduction in the levels of serum aspartate amino transaminase, alanine amino transferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, total and direct bilirubin, where as an increase was found in the levels of total cholesterol, total protein and albumin. Liver homogenate studies showed a significant increase in the levels of total protein, phospholipids and glycogen, and a reduction in the levels of total lipids, triglycerides, and cholesterol against control animals. In the tissue anti-oxidant studies, we found a significant increase in the levels of catalase and superoxide dismutase, whereas there was marked reduction in the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, as compared to control. Histology of liver sections of the animals treated with the extracts showed significant reduction of necrosis and fatty formation when compared with control specimens. These findings suggest that the root extracts of Hibiscus vitifolius have potent hepatoprotective activity, thereby justifying its ethnopharmacological claim. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tao, Yuqiang; Zhang, Shuzhen; Wang, Zijian; Christie, Peter
Triolein-embedded cellulose acetate membrane (TECAM) was buried in 15 field-contaminated soils in parallel with the cultivation of wheat to predict bioavailability of naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene to wheat roots, and the method was compared with chemical extraction methods. Although a good linear relationship was found between PAH concentrations in chemical extractants and wheat roots, the percentage of PAH in soil removed by chemical extraction was much higher than the corresponding percentage removed by wheat roots. In contrast to chemical extraction, a nearly 1:1 relationship was found between the amount of each PAH taken up by TECAMs and wheat roots (r(2) = 0.798-0.925, P < 0.01). Furthermore, the uptake of PAHs by TECAMs and wheat roots had the same pathway of passive transport via the soil solution. Moreover, TECAM caused minimal disturbance to the soil and was easy to deploy. Therefore, TECAM is believed to be a useful tool to predict bioavailability of PAHs to wheat roots grown in contaminated soils.
Meng, Li-Li; Huang, Chu-Sheng; Liu, Hong-Xing; Chen, Xi-Hui
To study the chemical constituents of ethyl acetate extract from the roots of Actinidia chrysantha. Chromatographic methods were used to isolate the compounds from ethyl acetate extract from the roots of Actinidia chrysantha and chemical and spectral methods were used to elucidate the structures of the isolated compounds. Five compounds were identified as stigmast-3, 6-dione (I), beta-sitosterol (II), ursolicacid (III), beta-daucosterol (IV), 2alpha, 3beta, 23-triol-12-en-28-ursolic acid (V). Those compounds are obtained from the plant for the first time.
Sharma, Jyoti; Goyal, Pradeep K
Cancer has emerged as a major health problem globally as a consequence to the increased longevity of the population, changing the environment and life style. Chemoprevention is a new and promising strategy for reducing cancer burden. Recently, some natural products have been identified for their chemopreventive activity to reduce the cancer incidence. Ginseng is known for its potential to treat various ailments in human beings. The present study was designed to explore the anticancer and antioxidative potential of Panax ginseng against chemical-induced skin carcinogenesis in mammals. Skin tumors were induced in Swiss albino mice by a single topical application of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (100 μg/100 μL acetone) and, 2 wks later, promoted by repeated applications of croton oil (thrice in a wk in 1% acetone) till the end of the experiment (i.e., 16 wk). Hydroalcoholic ginseng root extract at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight/d was orally administered at the peri-initiation, postinitiation, and peri-post-initiation stages. Ginseng root extract treatment caused a significant reduction in tumor incidence, cumulative number of tumors, tumor yield, and tumor burden, as compared to the 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-croton oil-treated control group. Further, biochemical assays revealed a significant enhancement in the levels of reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, vitamin C, and total proteins but a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation levels in both the liver and skin with ginseng root extract treatment, as compared to carcinogen-treated control group. These results suggest that P. ginseng has the potential to become a pivotal chemopreventive agent that can reduce cancer in mammals.
Vadez, V; Rao, J S; Bhatnagar-Mathur, P; Sharma, K K
Water deficit is a major yield-limiting factor for many crops, and improving the root system has been proposed as a promising breeding strategy, although not in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). The present work was carried out mainly to assess how root traits are influenced under water stress in groundnut, whether transgenics can alter root traits, and whether putative changes lead to water extraction differences. Several transgenic events, transformed with DREB1A driven by the rd29 promoter, along with wild-type JL24, were tested in a lysimeter system that mimics field conditions under both water stress (WS) and well-watered (WW) conditions. The WS treatment increased the maximum rooting depth, although the increase was limited to about 20% in JL24, compared to 50% in RD11. The root dry weight followed a similar trend. Consequently, the root dry weight and length density of transgenics was higher in layers below 100-cm depth (Exp. 1) and below 30 cm (Exp. 2). The root diameter was unchanged under WS treatment, except a slight increase in the 60-90-cm layer. The root diameter increased below 60 cm in both treatments. In the WW treatment, total water extraction of RD33 was higher than in JL24 and other transgenic events, and somewhat lower in RD11 than in JL24. In the WS treatment, water extraction of RD2, RD11 and RD33 was higher than in JL24. These water extraction differences were mostly apparent in the initial 21 days after treatment imposition and were well related to root length density in the 30-60-cm layer (R(2) = 0.68), but not to average root length density. In conclusion, water stress promotes rooting growth more strongly in transgenic events than in the wild type, especially in deep soil layers, and this leads to increased water extraction. This opens an avenue for tapping these characteristics toward the improvement of drought adaptation in deep soil conditions, and toward a better understanding of genes involved in rooting in groundnut. © 2012
Kwon, Moonhyuk; Cochrane, Stephen A; Vederas, John C; Ro, Dae-Kyun
Drimenol, a sesquiterpene alcohol, and its derivatives display diverse bio-activities in nature. However, a drimenol synthase gene has yet to be identified. We identified a new sesquiterpene synthase cDNA (VoTPS3) in valerian plant (Valeriana officinalis). Purification and NMR analyses of the VoTPS3-produced terpene, and characterization of the VoTPS3 enzyme confirmed that VoTPS3 synthesizes (-)-drimenol. In feeding assays, possible reaction intermediates, farnesol and drimenyl diphosphate, could not be converted to drimenol, suggesting that the intermediate remains tightly bound to VoTPS3 during catalysis. A mechanistic consideration of (-)-drimenol synthesis suggests that drimenol synthase is likely to use a protonation-initiated cyclization, which is rare for sesquiterpene synthases. VoTPS3 can be used to produce (-)-drimenol, from which useful drimane-type terpenes can be synthesized. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hirano, T; Homma, M; Oka, K
The effects of organic-solvent extracts of Urtica dioica (Urticaceae) on the Na+,K(+)-ATPase of the tissue of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) were investigated. The membrane Na+,K(+)-ATPase fraction was prepared from a patient with BPH by a differential centrifugation of the tissue homogenate. The enzyme activity was inhibited by 10(-4)-10(-5) M of ouabain. The hexane extract, the ether extract, the ethyl acetate extract, and the butanol extract of the roots caused 27.6-81.5% inhibition of the enzyme activity at 0.1 mg/ml. In addition, a column extraction of stinging nettle roots using benzene as an eluent afforded efficient enzyme inhibiting activity. Steroidal components in stinging nettle roots, such as stigmast-4-en-3-one, stigmasterol, and campesterol inhibited the enzyme activity by 23.0-67.0% at concentrations ranging from 10(-3)-10(-6) M. These results suggest that some hydrophobic constituents such as steroids in the stinging nettle roots inhibited the membrane Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity of the prostate, which may subsequently suppress prostate-cell metabolism and growth.
Zhang, Shouqin; Chen, Ruizhan; Wu, Hua; Wang, Changzheng
A new method of ultrahigh pressure extraction (UPE) was used to extract the ginsenosides from Panax quinquefolium L. (American ginseng) root at room temperature. Several solvents, including water, ethanol, methanol, and n-butanol were used in the UPE. The ginsenosides were quantified by a HPLC equipped with UV-vis detector. The results showed that ethanol is the most efficient solvent among the used ones. Compared with other methods, i.e., Soxhlet extraction, heat reflux extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and supercritical CO2 extraction, the UPE has the highest extraction yield in the shortest time. The extraction yield of 0.861% ginsenoside-Rc in 2 min was achieved by the UPE, while the yields of 0.284% and 0.661% were obtained in several hours by supercritical CO2 extraction and the heat reflux extraction, respectively.
Bithell, Sean L.; Tran-Nguyen, Lucy T. T.; Hearnden, Mark N.; Hartley, Diana M.
Understanding the root distribution of trees by soil coring is time-consuming as it requires the separation of roots from soil and classification of roots into particular size classes. This labour-intensive process can limit sample throughput and therefore sampling intensity. We investigated the use of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) on soil DNA extractions to determine live fine root DNA density (RDD, mg DNA m−2) for mango (Mangifera indica) trees. The specificity of the qPCR was tested against DNA extracted from 10 mango cultivars and 14 weed species. All mango cultivars and no weeds were detected. Mango DNA was successfully quantified from control soil spiked with mango roots and weed species. The DNA yield of mango root sections stored in moist soil at 23–28 °C declined after 15 days to low concentrations as roots decayed, indicating that dead root materials in moist soil would not cause false-positive results. To separate large roots from samples, a root separation method for field samples was used to target the root fragments remaining in sieved (minimum 2 mm aperture) soil for RDD comparisons. Using this method we compared the seasonal RDD values of fine roots for five mango rootstock cultivars in a field trial. The mean cultivar DNA yields by depth from root fragments in the sieved soil samples had the strongest relationship (adjusted multiple R2 = 0.9307, P < 0.001) with the dry matter (g m−2) of fine (diameter <0.64 mm) roots removed from the soil by sieving. This method provides a species-specific and rapid means of comparing the distribution and concentration of live fine roots of trees in orchards using soil samples up to 500 g. PMID:25552675
A rapid method for extracting DNA from intact, single root tips using a Xanthine solution was developed to handle very large numbers of analyses of ectomycorrhizas. By using an extraction without grinding we have attempted to bias the extraction towards the fungal DNA in the man...
Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Ewald, Philipp; Yasui, Yoshiaki; Yokokawa, Haruka; Wagner, Anika E.; Matsugo, Seiichi; Winterhalter, Peter; Rimbach, Gerald
Dietary stilbenoids are receiving increasing attention due to their potential health benefits. However, most studies concerning the bioactivity of stilbenoids were conducted with pure compounds, for example, resveratrol. The aim of this study was to characterize a complex root extract of Vitis vinifera in terms of its free radical scavenging and cellular antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analyses of the root extract of Vitis vinifera identified seven stilbenoids including two monomeric (resveratrol and piceatannol), two dimeric (trans-ɛ-viniferin and ampelopsin A), one trimeric (miyabenol C), and two tetrameric (r-2-viniferin = vitisin A and r-viniferin = vitisin B) compounds which may mediate its biological activity. Electron spin resonance and spin trapping experiments indicate that the root extract scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, galvinoxyl, and superoxide free radicals. On a cellular level it was observed that the root extract of Vitis vinifera protects against hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage and induces Nrf2 and its target genes heme oxygenase-1 and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Furthermore, the root extract could induce the antiatherogenic hepatic enzyme paraoxonase 1 and downregulate proinflammatory gene expression (interleukin 1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase) in macrophages. Collectively our data suggest that the root extract of Vitis vinifera exhibits free radical scavenging as well as cellular antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:26788254
Campisi, Agata; Bonfanti, Roberta; Raciti, Giuseppina; Amodeo, Andrea; Mastrojeni, Silvana; Ragusa, Salvatore; Iauk, Liliana
Berberis aetnensis C. Presl (Berberidaceae) is a bushy-spiny shrub common on Mount Etna (Sicily). We demonstrated that the alkaloid extract of roots of B. aetnensis C. Presl contains prevalently berberine and berbamine, possesses antimicrobial properties, and was able to counteract the upregulation evoked by glutamate of tissue transglutaminase in primary rat astroglial cell cultures. Until now, there are no reports regarding antioxidant properties of B. aetnensis C. Presl collected in Sicily. Air-dried, powdered roots of B. aetnensis C. Presl were extracted, identified, and quantified by HPLC. We assessed in cellular free system its effect on superoxide anion, radicals scavenging activity of antioxidants against free radicals like the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, and the inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity. In primary rat astroglial cell cultures, exposed to glutamate, we evaluated the effect of the extract on glutathione levels and on intracellular production of reactive oxygen species generated by glutamate. The alkaloid extract of B. aetnensis C. Presl inhibited superoxide anion, restored to control values, the decrease of GSH levels, and the production of reactive oxygen species. Potent antioxidant activities of the alkaloid extract of roots of B. aetnensis C. Presl may be one of the mechanisms by which the extract is effective against health disorders associated to oxidative stress. PMID:25177720
Campisi, Agata; Acquaviva, Rosaria; Bonfanti, Roberta; Raciti, Giuseppina; Amodeo, Andrea; Mastrojeni, Silvana; Ragusa, Salvatore; Iauk, Liliana
Berberis aetnensis C. Presl (Berberidaceae) is a bushy-spiny shrub common on Mount Etna (Sicily). We demonstrated that the alkaloid extract of roots of B. aetnensis C. Presl contains prevalently berberine and berbamine, possesses antimicrobial properties, and was able to counteract the upregulation evoked by glutamate of tissue transglutaminase in primary rat astroglial cell cultures. Until now, there are no reports regarding antioxidant properties of B. aetnensis C. Presl collected in Sicily. Air-dried, powdered roots of B. aetnensis C. Presl were extracted, identified, and quantified by HPLC. We assessed in cellular free system its effect on superoxide anion, radicals scavenging activity of antioxidants against free radicals like the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, and the inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity. In primary rat astroglial cell cultures, exposed to glutamate, we evaluated the effect of the extract on glutathione levels and on intracellular production of reactive oxygen species generated by glutamate. The alkaloid extract of B. aetnensis C. Presl inhibited superoxide anion, restored to control values, the decrease of GSH levels, and the production of reactive oxygen species. Potent antioxidant activities of the alkaloid extract of roots of B. aetnensis C. Presl may be one of the mechanisms by which the extract is effective against health disorders associated to oxidative stress.
Ricigliano, Vincent; Kumar, Santosh; Kinison, Scott; Brooks, Christopher; Nybo, S Eric; Chappell, Joe; Howarth, Dianella G
The medicinal properties of Valerian (Valeriana officinalis) root preparations are attributed to the anxiolytic sesquiterpenoid valerenic acid and its biosynthetic precursors valerenal and valerenadiene, as well as the anti-inflammatory sesquiterpenoid β-caryophyllene. In order to study and engineer the biosynthesis of these pharmacologically active metabolites, a binary vector co-transformation system was developed for V. officinalis hairy roots. The relative expression levels and jasmonate-inducibility of a number of genes associated with sesquiterpenoid metabolism were profiled in roots: farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (VoFPS), valerendiene synthase (VoVDS), germacrene C synthase (VoGCS), and a cytochrome P450 (CYP71D442) putatively associated with terpene metabolism based on sequence homology. Recombinant hairy root lines overexpressing VoFPS or VoVDS were generated and compared to control cultures. Overexpression of the VoFPS cDNA increased levels of the corresponding transcript 4- to 8-fold and sesquiterpene hydrocarbon accumulation by 1.5- to 4-fold. Overexpression of the VoVDS cDNA increased the corresponding transcript levels 5- to 9-fold and markedly increased yields of the oxygenated sesquiterpenoids valerenic acid and valerenal. Our findings suggest that the availability of cytoplasmic farnesyl diphosphate and valerenadiene are potential bottlenecks in Valeriana-specific sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis, which is also subject to regulation by methyl jasmonate elicitation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Del Valle-Mojica, Lisa M; Cordero-Hernández, José M; González-Medina, Giselle; Ramos-Vélez, Igmeris; Berríos-Cartagena, Nairimer; Torres-Hernández, Bianca A; Ortíz, José G
The effects of two valerian extracts (aqueous and hydroalcoholic) were investigated through [(3)H]Glutamate ([(3)H]Glu) and [(3)H]Fluorowillardine ([(3)H]FW) receptor binding assays using rat synaptic membranes in presence of different receptor ligands. In addition, the extract stability was monitored spectrophotometrically. Both extracts demonstrated interaction with ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs). However, the extracts displayed considerable differences in receptor selectivity. The hydroalcoholic extract selectively interacted with quisqualic acid (QA), group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) ligand, while the aqueous extract did not alter the binding of QA. The stability of the extracts was examined during several weeks. Freshly prepared extract inhibited 38-60% of [(3)H]FW binding (AMPA). After 10 days, the aqueous extract inhibited 85% of [(3)H]FW binding while the hydroalcoholic extract markedly potentiated (200%) [(3)H]FW binding to AMPA receptors. Thus, our results showed that factors such as extraction solvent and extract stability determine the selectivity for glutamate receptor (GluR) interactions.
Zhao, Y J; Wang, S W; Liu, Y; Wang, Y
To explore a new method for rapid extracting and rebuilding three-dimensional (3D) digital root model of vivo tooth from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) data based on the anatomical characteristics of periodontal ligament, and to evaluate the extraction accuracy of the method. In the study, 15 extracted teeth (11 with single root, 4 with double roots) were collected from oral clinic and 3D digital root models of each tooth were obtained by 3D dental scanner with a high accuracy 0.02 mm in STL format. CBCT data for each patient were acquired before tooth extraction, DICOM data with a voxel size 0.3 mm were input to Mimics 18.0 software. Segmentation, Morphology operations, Boolean operations and Smart expanded function in Mimics software were used to edit teeth, bone and periodontal ligament threshold mask, and root threshold mask were automatically acquired after a series of mask operations. 3D digital root models were extracted in STL format finally. 3D morphology deviation between the extracted root models and corresponding vivo root models were compared in Geomagic Studio 2012 software. The 3D size errors in long axis, bucco-lingual direction and mesio-distal direction were also calculated. The average value of the 3D morphology deviation for 15 roots by calculating Root Mean Square (RMS) value was 0.22 mm, the average size errors in the mesio-distal direction, the bucco-lingual direction and the long axis were 0.46 mm, 0.36 mm and -0.68 mm separately. The average time of this new method for extracting single root was about 2-3 min. It could meet the accuracy requirement of the root 3D reconstruction fororal clinical use. This study established a new method for rapid extracting 3D root model of vivo tooth from CBCT data. It could simplify the traditional manual operation and improve the efficiency and automation of single root extraction. The strategy of this method for complete dentition extraction needs further research.
Yoshino, Koichi; Ito, Koji; Kuroda, Masahiko; Sugihara, Naoki
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, by gender, of vertical root fracture (VRF) as the main reason for the extraction of permanent teeth in dental clinics in Tokyo. Participating dentists were requested to provide information about extractions of permanent teeth they had performed from 1 January 2013 to 30 June 2013. The main reasons for extraction were categorized as follows: VRF, caries (horizontal root fracture included), periodontal disease and others. At a total of 24 clinics, 736 teeth were extracted from 626 patients during the 6-month period. A total of 233 teeth were extracted by VRF (31.7%), and 93.6% of these were endodontically treated teeth. Among non-vital extracted teeth, 82.1% (179/218) had cast posts or screw posts. The percentage of extraction due to VRF was 29.4% in males and 34.7% in females. In females, the percentage of extractions due to VRF (34.7%) was higher than for periodontal disease (28.1%). In males, the percentage of extractions due to VRF increased with age (p < 0.05). The tooth types with the highest percentage of extractions due to VRF were the upper canine (46.7%), lower second premolar (48.0%) and lower first molar (50.0%) in males and the upper first premolar (43.3%), upper second premolar (44.4%), lower second premolar (53.8%) and lower first molar (54.5%) in females. These results indicate that we need to pay more attention to maintaining vital teeth while being aware of the particular tooth types in which VRF most frequently occurs.
Muthukumaran, V.; Ezhilmaran, D.
An authentication protocolis the type of computer communication protocol or cryptography protocol specifically designed for transfer of authentication data between two entities. We have planned a two new entity authentication scheme on the basis of root extraction problem near-ring in this article. We suggest that this problem is suitably difficult to serve as a cryptographic assumption over the platform of near-ring N. The security issues also discussed.
Alam, M I; Gomes, A
The methanolic root extracts of Vitex negundo Linn. and Emblica officinalis Gaertn. were explored for the first time for antisnake venom activity. The plant (V. negundo and E. officinalis) extracts significantly antagonized the Vipera russellii and Naja kaouthia venom induced lethal activity both in in vitro and in vivo studies. V. russellii venom-induced haemorrhage, coagulant, defibrinogenating and inflammatory activity was significantly neutralized by both plant extracts. No precipitating bands were observed between the plant extract and snake venom. The above observations confirmed that the plant extracts possess potent snake venom neutralizing capacity and need further investigation.
Sahreen, Sumaira; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Khan, Rahmat Ali; Hadda, Taibi Ben
Being a part of Chinese as well as ayurdic herbal system, roots of Rumex hastatus D. Don (RH) is highly medicinal, used to regulated blood pressure. It is also reported that the plant is diuretic, laxative, tonic, used against microbial skin diseases, bilious complaints and jaundice. The present study is conducted to evaluate phytochemical, antimicrobial, antitumor and cytotoxic activities of extract obtained from R. hastatus roots. RH roots were powdered and extracted with methanol to get crude extract. Crude extract was further fractioned on the basis of increasing polarity, with n-hexane (HRR), chloroform (CRR), ethyl acetate (ERR), n-butanol (BRR) and residual aqueous fraction (ARR). Methanol extract and its derived fractions were subjected to phytochemical screening and assayed for antibacterial activities via agar well diffusion method. Antifungal activities were checked through agar tube dilution method whereas potato disc assay was employed for the determination of antitumor activity. On the other hand cytotoxic activities were conducted using brine shrimps procedures. The results obtained from phytochemical analysis indicate the presence of alkaloids, anthraquinones, flavonoids and saponins in all the fractions. Most of the plant fractions showed substantial antimicrobial activities, which is in accordance with the spacious use of tested plant samples in primary healthcare center. Fractions of R. hastatus roots for cytotoxicity were tested as an effective cytotoxic was found as BRR > MRR > CRR > ARR > ERR > HRR. Ranking order of fractions of R. hastatus roots for effective antitumor screening was found as MRR > BRR > ARR > CRR > ERR > HRR. These results showed that R. hastatus appeared as an important source for the discovery of new antimicrobial drugs and antitumor agents; verify its traditional uses and its exploitation as therapeutic agent.
Savić, Vesna Lj; Nikolić, Vesna D; Arsić, Ivana A; Stanojević, Ljiljana P; Najman, Stevo J; Stojanović, Sanja; Mladenović-Ranisavljević, Ivana I
This study investigates the biological activity of pure allantoin (PA) and aqueous extract of the comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) root (AECR) standardized to the allantoin content. Cell viability and proliferation of epithelial (MDCK) and fibroblastic (L929) cell line were studied by using MTT test. Anti-irritant potential was determined by measuring electrical capacitance, erythema index (EI) and transepidermal water loss of artificially irritated skin of young healthy volunteers, 3 and 7 days after application of creams and gels with PA or AECR. Pure allantoin showed mild inhibitory effect on proliferation of both cell lines at concentrations 40 and 100 µg/ml, but more pronounced on MDCK cells. Aqueous extract of the comfrey root effect on cell proliferation in concentrations higher than 40 µg/ml was significantly stimulatory for L929 but inhibitory for MDCK cells. Pharmaceutical preparations that contained AECR showed better anti-irritant potential compared with PA. Creams showed better effect on hydration and EI compared with the gels that contained the same components. Our results indicate that the biological activity of the comfrey root extract cannot be attributed only to allantoin but is also likely the result of the interaction of different compounds present in AECR. Topical preparations that contain comfrey extract may have a great application in the treatment of skin irritation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Herz, Corinna; Tran, Hoai Thi Thu; Márton, Melinda-Rita; Maul, Ronald; Baldermann, Susanne; Schreiner, Monika; Lamy, Evelyn
Horseradish ( Armoracia rusticana ) is a perennial crop and its root is used in condiments. Traditionally, horseradish root is used to treat bacterial infections of the respiratory tract and urinary bladder. The antiphlogistic activity, determined in activated primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), was evaluated for an aqueous extract and its subfractions, separated by HPLC. Compound analysis was done by UHPLC-QToF/MS and GC-MS. The aqueous extract concentration-dependently inhibited the anti-inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in terms of TNF- α release at ≥37 μ g/mL. Further, the cyclooxygenase as well as lipoxygenase pathway was blocked by the extract as demonstrated by inhibition of COX-2 protein expression and PGE 2 synthesis at ≥4 μ g/mL and leukotriene LTB4 release. Mechanistic studies revealed that inhibition of ERK1/2 and c-Jun activation preceded COX-2 suppression upon plant extract treatment in the presence of LPS. Chemical analysis identified target compounds with a medium polarity as relevant for the observed bioactivity. Importantly, allyl isothiocyanate, which is quite well known for its anti-inflammatory capacity and as the principal pungent constituent in horseradish roots, was not relevant for the observations. The results suggest that horseradish root exerts an antiphlogistic activity in human immune cells by regulation of the COX and LOX pathway via MAPK signalling.
Herz, Corinna; Tran, Hoai Thi Thu; Márton, Melinda-Rita; Maul, Ronald; Schreiner, Monika
Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) is a perennial crop and its root is used in condiments. Traditionally, horseradish root is used to treat bacterial infections of the respiratory tract and urinary bladder. The antiphlogistic activity, determined in activated primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), was evaluated for an aqueous extract and its subfractions, separated by HPLC. Compound analysis was done by UHPLC-QToF/MS and GC-MS. The aqueous extract concentration-dependently inhibited the anti-inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in terms of TNF-α release at ≥37 μg/mL. Further, the cyclooxygenase as well as lipoxygenase pathway was blocked by the extract as demonstrated by inhibition of COX-2 protein expression and PGE2 synthesis at ≥4 μg/mL and leukotriene LTB4 release. Mechanistic studies revealed that inhibition of ERK1/2 and c-Jun activation preceded COX-2 suppression upon plant extract treatment in the presence of LPS. Chemical analysis identified target compounds with a medium polarity as relevant for the observed bioactivity. Importantly, allyl isothiocyanate, which is quite well known for its anti-inflammatory capacity and as the principal pungent constituent in horseradish roots, was not relevant for the observations. The results suggest that horseradish root exerts an antiphlogistic activity in human immune cells by regulation of the COX and LOX pathway via MAPK signalling. PMID:28182113
KHAZAL, KAMEL F.; SAMUEL, TEMESGEN; HILL, DONALD L.; GRUBBS, CLINTON J.
The chemopreventive activity of an extract of Withania somnifera (WS) roots was examined in female Sprague-Dawley rats that received the mammary carcinogen methylnitrosourea (MNU). The dose of the extract, administered by gavage, was 150 mg/kg body weight daily for 155 days after injection of MNU. Rats in the treated group (N=15) had an average of 3.47 tumors, and rats in the control group (N=15) had 4.53, a reduction of 23%. The average weights of tumors were 4.98 g for rats in the treated group and 6.30 g for the controls, a difference of 21%. Labeling indices for Ki67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) markers in cancers of the treated group were 42% and 38% lower, respectively, than those of the corresponding indices for the control group. These results indicate that the root extract significantly reduced the rate of cell division in the mammary tumors. PMID:23564793
Jia, Xuejing; Zhang, Chao; Hu, Jie; He, Muxue; Bao, Jiaolin; Wang, Kai; Li, Peng; Chen, Meiwan; Wan, Jianbo; Su, Huanxing; Zhang, Qingwen; He, Chengwei
Box-Behnken design (BBD), one of the most common response surface methodology (RSM) methods, was used to optimize the experimental conditions for ultrasound-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from Rhynchosia minima root (PRM). The antioxidant abilities and anticancer activity of purified polysaccharide fractions were also measured. The results showed that optimal extraction parameters were as follows: ultrasound exposure time, 21 min; ratio of water to material, 46 mL/g; ultrasound extraction temperature, 63 °C. Under these conditions, the maximum yield of PRM was 16.95%±0.07%. Furthermore, the main monosaccharides of purified fractions were Ara and Gal. PRM3 and PRM5 exhibited remarkable DPPH radical scavenging activities and reducing power in vitro. PRM3 showed strong inhibitory activities on the growth of MCF-7 cells in vitro. The above results indicate that polysaccharides from R. minima root have the potential to be developed as natural antioxidants and anticancer ingredients for the food and pharmaceutical industries.
Girish, K S; Mohanakumari, H P; Nagaraju, S; Vishwanath, B S; Kemparaju, K
The aqueous root extract of Mimosa pudica dose dependently inhibited the hyaluronidase and protease activities of Indian snakes (Naja naja, Vipera russelii and Echis carinatus) venom. Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V.
Sharma, Veena; Sharma, Sadhana; Pracheta
The in vivo protective role of hydro-methanolic root extract of Withania somnifera (WS) was evaluated in alleviating lead nitrate (LN)-induced toxicity in male Swiss albino mice by measuring hematoserological profiles. The lead-treated (20 mg/kg body wt, p.o.) albino mice (25-30 g) concurrently received the root extract (200 and 500 mg/kg body wt, p.o.) once daily for the duration of six weeks. Animals exposed to LN showed significant (P < 0.001) decline in haemoglobin content, red blood cell count, white blood cell count, packed cell volume and insignificant decrease in mean corpuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin content, while mean corpuscular volume and platelet count were increased. A significant elevation (P < 0.001) in serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase and total cholesterol were also observed, when compared with control mice. Thus, the study demonstrated that the concurrent daily administration of root extract of WS protected the adverse effects of LN intoxication in mice.
Barik, Rakesh; Jain, Sanjay; Qwatra, Deep; Joshi, Amit; Tripathi, Girraj Sharan; Goyal, Ravi
Objective: To evaluate the antidiabetic activity of aqueous extract of roots of Ichnocarpus frutescens in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type-II diabetes in rats. Materials and Methods: Streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type-II diabetic rats (n = 6) were administered aqueous root extract (250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) of Ichnocarpus frutescens or vehicle (gum acacia solution) or standard drug glibenclamide (0.25 mg/kg) for 15 days. Blood samples were collected by retro-orbital puncture and were analyzed for serum glucose on days 0, 5, 10, and 15 by using glucose oxidase-peroxidase reactive strips and a glucometer. For oral glucose tolerance test, glucose (2 g/kg, p.o.) was administered to nondiabetic control rats and the rats treated with glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, p.o.) and aqueous root extract of Ichnocarpus frutescens. The serum glucose levels were analyzed at 0, 30, 60, and 120 min after drug administration. The effect of the extract on the body weight of the diabetic rats was also observed. Results: The aqueous root extract of Ichnocarpus frutescens (250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) induced significant reduction (P < 0.05) of fasting blood glucose levels in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type-II diabetic rats on the 10th and 15th days. In the oral glucose tolerance test, the extract increased the glucose tolerance. It also brought about an increase in the body weight of diabetic rats. Conclusion: It is concluded that Ichnocarpus frutescens has significant antidiabetic activity as it lowers the fasting blood sugar level in diabetic rats and increases the glucose tolerance. PMID:21264156
Barik, Rakesh; Jain, Sanjay; Qwatra, Deep; Joshi, Amit; Tripathi, Girraj Sharan; Goyal, Ravi
To evaluate the antidiabetic activity of aqueous extract of roots of Ichnocarpus frutescens in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type-II diabetes in rats. Streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type-II diabetic rats (n = 6) were administered aqueous root extract (250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) of Ichnocarpus frutescens or vehicle (gum acacia solution) or standard drug glibenclamide (0.25 mg/kg) for 15 days. Blood samples were collected by retro-orbital puncture and were analyzed for serum glucose on days 0, 5, 10, and 15 by using glucose oxidase-peroxidase reactive strips and a glucometer. For oral glucose tolerance test, glucose (2 g/kg, p.o.) was administered to nondiabetic control rats and the rats treated with glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, p.o.) and aqueous root extract of Ichnocarpus frutescens. The serum glucose levels were analyzed at 0, 30, 60, and 120 min after drug administration. The effect of the extract on the body weight of the diabetic rats was also observed. The aqueous root extract of Ichnocarpus frutescens (250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) induced significant reduction (P < 0.05) of fasting blood glucose levels in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type-II diabetic rats on the 10(th) and 15(th) days. In the oral glucose tolerance test, the extract increased the glucose tolerance. It also brought about an increase in the body weight of diabetic rats. It is concluded that Ichnocarpus frutescens has significant antidiabetic activity as it lowers the fasting blood sugar level in diabetic rats and increases the glucose tolerance.
Sitarek, Przemysław; Skała, Ewa; Toma, Monika; Wielanek, Marzena; Szemraj, Janusz; Skorski, Tomasz; Białas, Adam J; Sakowicz, Tomasz; Kowalczyk, Tomasz; Radek, Maciej; Wysokińska, Halina; Śliwiński, Tomasz
This study determines the influence of transformed root (TR) extract of Leonurus sibiricus L. on various grades (I-III) of human glioma cells derived from patients. This plant occurs in southern Asia and Siberia and is widely used as a medicinal plant with various biological activities. Chromatographic profile of TR extract have revealed the presence of various polyphenolic compounds (4-hydroxybenzoic acid, gentisic acid, vanilic acid, 1,3-dicaffeoylquinic acid, α-resorcylic acid). We found TR root extract to have antiproliferative activity on glioma cells after 24 h of treatment. TR root extract induces apoptosis on various grades (I-III) of human glioma cells by the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) along with concurrent loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, enhanced S and G2/M phases of the cell cycle, and altered mRNA levels of Bax, Bcl-2, p53, Cas-3, Cas-8 and Cas-9 factors involved in apoptosis. This work for the first time demonstrate that TR extract from L. sibiricus root has the potential to activate apoptosis in grade I-III human glioma cells through the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways.
Tayade, A B; Dhar, P; Sharma, M; Chauhan, R S; Chaurasia, O P; Srivastava, R B
Our aim was to assess the antioxidant capacities and phenolic constituents of methanol and aqueous extracts of Rhodiola imbricata Edgew. root from Trans-Himalayan cold desert of Ladakh. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging capacity of the root extracts increased in a dose-dependent manner (up to 0.1 mg/mL) and root extract concentrations required for 50% inhibition of radical scavenging effect (IC50 ) were recorded as 0.013 and 0.014 mg/mL (for DPPH) and 0.016 and 0.017 mg/mL (for ABTS) for methanol and aqueous extracts, respectively. The total antioxidant power of the extract was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total polyphenol and phenolic acid content of methanol and aqueous extracts were 112.24, 59.06, 39.02, and 16.95 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of extract, respectively. Total flavonoid and flavonol contents were estimated to be 30.2, 17.67, 20.68, and 7.38 mg quercetin equivalent/g of extract, respectively. In all antioxidant capacity assays, the methanol extract exhibited significantly higher antioxidant capacity than that of aqueous extract due to the presence of significantly higher amount of vital phytoconstitiuents, viz. polyphenol, phenolic acid, and flavonol. GC/MS analysis showed that phytosterols, alkyl halide, phenols, and fatty acid esters were major phytochemical clusters. On the other hand, monoterpenes, fatty acids, tocopherols, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and ethers were found to be present in comparatively less amount in the methanol extract. Hence, our study signifies that this high-altitude medicinal herb could be used as the natural source of antioxidants and supports its use in traditional system of medicine to ameliorate oxidative stress and high-altitude maladies. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®
Torres-Hernández, Bianca A; Colón, Luis R; Rosa-Falero, Coral; Torrado, Aranza; Miscalichi, Nahira; Ortíz, José G; González-Sepúlveda, Lorena; Pérez-Ríos, Naydi; Suárez-Pérez, Erick; Bradsher, John N; Behra, Martine
Ethnopharmacology has documented hundreds of psychoactive plants awaiting exploitation for drug discovery. A robust and inexpensive in vivo system allowing systematic screening would be critical to exploiting this knowledge. The objective of this study was to establish a cheap and accurate screening method which can be used for testing psychoactive efficacy of complex mixtures of unknown composition, like plant crude extracts. We used automated recording of zebrafish larval swimming behavior during light vs. dark periods which we reproducibly altered with an anxiogenic compound, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). First, we reversed this PTZ-altered swimming by co-treatment with a well-defined synthetic anxiolytic drug, valproic acid (VPA). Next, we aimed at reversing it by adding crude root extracts of Valeriana officinalis (Val) from which VPA was originally derived. Finally, we assessed how expression of neural activity-regulated genes (c-fos, npas4a, and bdnf) known to be upregulated by PTZ treatment was affected in the presence of Val. Both VPA and Val significantly reversed the PTZ-altered swimming behaviors. Noticeably, Val at higher doses was affecting swimming independently of the presence of PTZ. A strong regulation of all three neural-activity genes was observed in Val-treated larvae which fully supported the behavioral results. We demonstrated in a combined behavioral-molecular approach the strong psychoactivity of a natural extract of unknown composition made from V. officinalis. Our results highlight the efficacy and sensitivity of such an approach, therefore offering a novel in vivo screening system amenable to high-throughput testing of promising ethnobotanical candidates.
Anosa, George Nnamdi; Okoro, O Josephine
The study was designed to evaluate the anticoccidial activity of the methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca root in chickens. The chickens were divided into six groups of 12 chickens each. Each chicken in five groups was infected with 8,000 infective coccidia (Eimeria tenella) oocysts at day 28 of age while one group served as uninfected control. At day 7 post-infection, two chickens remaining in each group were sacrificed for postmortem examination to confirm coccidiosis. Also at day 7 post-infection, each chicken in four infected groups was given graded doses (250, 500 and 1,000 mg/kg b.w.) of the extract or amprolium (conventional drug). Two groups (an infected and uninfected group) did not receive treatment. Parameters used to assess progress of infection and response to treatment included clinical signs typical of coccidiosis, oocyst count per gramme of faeces (OPG) and packed cell volume (PCV). Treatment of previously infected chickens with M. paradisiaca root extract resulted in a progressive decrease in severity of observed clinical signs, marked reductions in OPG and a gradual increase in PCV. In each case, the changes were dose dependent. There was no significant difference in mean OPG and mean PCV of the extract (at 1,000 mg/kg b.w.) and amprolium-treated groups at termination of the study (at day 50 of age). In the acute toxicity study, the extract was found to be non-toxic to the chickens even at the highest dose of 4,000 mg/kg b.w. The results of this study demonstrated that the extract has anticoccidial activity in a dose-dependent manner and at a dosage of 1,000 mg/kg b.w. had similar efficacy with amprolium in the treatment of chicken coccidiosis.
Alani, Behrang; Zare, Mohammad; Noureddini, Mahdi
The smooth muscle contractions of the tracheobronchial airways are mediated through the balance of adrenergic, cholinergic and peptidergic nervous mechanisms. This research was designed to determine the bronchodilatory and B-adrenergic effects of methanolic and aqueous extracts of root Althaea on the isolated tracheobronchial smooth muscle of the rat. In this experimental study, 116 tracheobronchial sections (5 mm) from 58 healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were dissected and divided into 23 groups. The effect of methanolic and aqueous extracts of the root Althaea was assayed at different concentrations (0.2, 0.6, 2.6, 6.6, 14.6 μg/ml) and epinephrine (5 μm) in the presence and absence of propranolol (1 μM) under one g tension based on the isometric method. This assay was recorded in an organ bath containing Krebs-Henseleit solution for tracheobronchial smooth muscle contractions using potassium chloride (KCl) (60 mM) induction. Epinephrine (5 μm) alone and root methanolic and aqueous extract concentrations (0.6-14.6 μg/ml) reduced tracheobronchial smooth muscle contractions induced using KCl (60 mM) in a dose dependent manner. Propranolol inhibited the antispasmodic effect of epinephrine on tracheobronchial smooth muscle contractions, but could not reduce the antispasmodic effect of the root extract concentrations. The methanolic and aqueous extracts of Althaea root inhibited the tracheobronchial smooth muscle contractions of rats in a dose dependent manner, but B-adrenergic receptors do not appear to engage in this process. Understanding the mechanism of this process can be useful in the treatment of pulmonary obstructive diseases like asthma.
Tayade, Amol B.; Dhar, Priyanka; Kumar, Jatinder; Sharma, Manu; Chauhan, Rajinder S.; Chaurasia, Om P.; Srivastava, Ravi B.
Rhodiola imbricata Edgew. (Rose root or Arctic root or Golden root or Shrolo), belonging to the family Crassulaceae, is an important food crop and medicinal plant in the Indian trans-Himalayan cold desert. Chemometric profile of the n-hexane, chloroform, dichloroethane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and 60% ethanol root extracts of R. imbricata were performed by hyphenated gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) technique. GC/MS analysis was carried out using Thermo Finnigan PolarisQ Ion Trap GC/MS MS system comprising of an AS2000 liquid autosampler. Interpretation on mass spectrum of GC/MS was done using the NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Database, with NIST MS search program v.2.0g. Chemometric profile of root extracts revealed the presence of 63 phyto-chemotypes, among them, 1-pentacosanol; stigmast-5-en-3-ol, (3β,24S); 1-teracosanol; 1-henteracontanol; 17-pentatriacontene; 13-tetradecen-1-ol acetate; methyl tri-butyl ammonium chloride; bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate; 7,8-dimethylbenzocyclooctene; ethyl linoleate; 3-methoxy-5-methylphenol; hexadecanoic acid; camphor; 1,3-dimethoxybenzene; thujone; 1,3-benzenediol, 5-pentadecyl; benzenemethanol, 3-hydroxy, 5-methoxy; cholest-4-ene-3,6-dione; dodecanoic acid, 3-hydroxy; octadecane, 1-chloro; ethanone, 1-(4-hydroxyphenyl); α-tocopherol; ascaridole; campesterol; 1-dotriacontane; heptadecane, 9-hexyl were found to be present in major amount. Eventually, in the present study we have found phytosterols, terpenoids, fatty acids, fatty acid esters, alkyl halides, phenols, alcohols, ethers, alkanes, and alkenes as the major group of phyto-chemotypes in the different root extracts of R. imbricata. All these compounds identified by GC/MS analysis were further investigated for their biological activities and it was found that they possess a diverse range of positive pharmacological actions. In future, isolation of individual phyto-chemotypes and subjecting them to biological activity will definitely prove fruitful results in
Rejón-Orantes, J C; Suaréz, D P Perdomo; Rejón-Rodríguez, A; Hernández, S Hernández; Liévano, O E García; Rodríguez, D López; de la Mora, M Pérez
In this work, we study whether aqueous extracts from the roots of Mimosa albida Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd, a plant known in the Highlands of Chiapas, Mexico as "Lotóm chíx" are endowed with both antinociceptive and anxiolytic effects. ICR mice were systemically treated with aqueous extracts from Mimosa albida and the reference compounds (diazepam, dipyrone and/or fentanyl) and their behavior was evaluated in several behavioral tests. Administration of aqueous extracts from the roots of Mimosa albida resulted in a reduction of the nociception elicited in mice by both the hot plate (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg; i.p.) and the acetic acid-induced writhing (25 and 50 mg/kg; i.p.) tests. No effects were however observed both in the elevated plus-maze and hole board test (3.2, 12.5 and 25 mg/kg; i.p.). In contrast, both locomotion (open field test) and motor coordination (rotarod test) were affected at doses (50, 100 y 200 mg/kg; i.p.) higher than those having antinociceptive effects. These data suggest that in mice the systemic administration of low doses of aqueous extracts from the roots of Mimosa albida results in antinociceptive effects in several models of pain through mechanisms that do not involve the opioid system pathway. These results support the ethnopharmacological use of Mimosa albida in popular medicine. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sobeh, Mansour; Mahmoud, Mona F; Abdelfattah, Mohamed A O; El-Beshbishy, Hesham A; El-Shazly, Assem M; Wink, Michael
Liver diseases and diabetes are serious health disorders associated with oxidative stress and ageing. Some plant polyphenols can lower the risk of these diseases. We investigated the phytochemical profiling of a root extract from Ximenia americana var. caffra using HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS. The antioxidant activities in vitro were investigated. The hepatoprotective activities were studied in rat models with d-galactosamine (d-GaIN)-induced hepatotoxicity and the antidiabetic activities in STZ-diabetic rats were also investigated. HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS was used to identify plant phenolics. The antioxidant activities in vitro were determined using DPPH and FRAP assays. The in vivo hepatoprotective activities were determined for d-GaIN-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. We determined the liver markers alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), liver peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione content (GSH), albumin and total bilirubin concentration. The histopathological changes in rat liver were also studied. The antidiabetic activities were also investigated in STZ-diabetic rats and serum glucose, serum insulin hormone, and lipid peroxides were determined. The root extract is rich in tannins with 20 compounds including a series of stereoisomers of (epi)catechin, (epi)catechin-(epi)catechin, (epi)catechin-(epi)catechin-(epi)catechin, and their galloyl esters. Promising antioxidant potential was observed in vitro in DPPH assay with EC 50 of 6.5 µg extract / 26 µg raw material and in FRAP assay with 19.54 mM FeSO 4 compared with ascorbic acid (EC 50 of 2.92 µg/ml) and quercetin (FeSO 4 24.04 mM/mg), respectively. Significant reduction of serologic enzymatic markers and hepatic oxidative stress markers such as ALT, AST, MDA, GGT, and total bilirubin, as well as elevation of GSH and albumin were observed in rats with d-galactosamine-induced liver damage treated with the extract. These findings agree
Malik, Wajeeha; Ahmed, Dildar; Izhar, Sania
Objective: Carissa opaca is a medicinal plant with rich folkloric applications. The present research was conducted to explore the tyrosinase inhibitory potential of aqueous decoction (AD) and methanolic extract (ME) of roots of C. opaca and its fractions in various solvents and their phytochemical analysis. Materials and Methods: AD of the dried powdered roots of C. opaca was prepared by boiling in water. ME was prepared by cold maceration. Its fractions were obtained in solvents of increasing polarity, i.e., hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water. The biomass left after extraction with methanol was boiled in water to get its decoction Biomass aqueous decoction (BAD). Tyrosinase inhibitory activities of the samples were studied according to a reported method. Chemical compounds in the samples were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results: The AD, BAD, and ME and its fractions displayed remarkable tyrosinase inhibitory activity. The IC50 of AD was 23.33 μg/mL as compared to 15.80 μg/mL of the standard arbutin and that of BAD was 21.24 μg/mL. The IC50 of ME was 34.76 μg/mL while that of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanolic, and aqueous fractions was 21.0, 44.73, 43.40, 27.66, and 25.06 μg/mL, respectively. The hexane fraction was thus most potent followed by aqueous fraction. By phytochemical analysis, campesterol, stigmasterol, gamma-sitosterol, alpha-amyrin, 9,19-cyclolanostan-3-ol, 24-methylene-,(3 β)-, lupeol, lup-20(29)-en-3-one, lup-20(29)-en-3-ol, acetate,(3 β)-, 2(1H) naphthalenone, 3,5,6,7,8,8a-hexahydro-4,8a-dimethyl-6-(1-methylethenyl)-, and 2,3,3-trimethyl-2-(3-methylbuta-1,3-dienyl)-6-methylenecyclohexanone were identified in the extracts by GC-MS. Other compounds included fatty acids and their esters. Some of these compounds are being first time reported here from this plant. Conclusions: The roots extracts exhibited considerable tyrosinase inhibitory activities, alluding to a possible
Schwab, S M; Menge, J A; Leonard, R T
A comparison was made of water-soluble root exudates and extracts of Sorghum vulgare Pers. grown under two levels of P nutrition. An increase in P nutrition significantly decreased the concentration of carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, and amino acids in exudates, and decreased the concentration of carboxylic acids in extracts. Higher P did not affect the relative proportions of specific carboxylic acids and had little effect on proportions of specific amino acids in both extracts and exudates. Phosphorus amendment resulted in an increase in the relative proportion of arabinose and a decrease in the proportion of fructose in exudates, but did not have a large effect on the proportion of individual sugars in extracts. The proportions of specific carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, and amino acids varied between exudates and extracts. Therefore, the quantity and composition of root extracts may not be a reliable predictor of the availability of substrate for symbiotic vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Comparisons of the rate of leakage of compounds from roots with the growth rate of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi suggest that the fungus must either be capable of using a variety of organic substrates for growth, or be capable of inducing a much higher rate of movement of specific organic compounds across root cell membranes than occurs through passive exudation as measured in this study.
Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S; Almalki, Esam; Mansour, Lamjed; Al-Quarishy, Saleh
It has been known that Arak, Salvadora persica, has a number of medicinal properties. We tried to investigate in vitro scolicidal effect of root extracts of this plant against protoscolices from hydatid cysts of Echinococcus granulosus. Protoscolices were aseptically collected from sheep livers containing hydatid cysts. S. persica root extract was used in 10, 30, and 50 mg/ml concentration for 10, 20, and 30 min. The viability of protoscolices was ascertained by 0.1% eosin staining. Scolicidal activity of S. persica extract at a concentration of 10 mg/ml was 36.3%, 50.3%, and 70.8% after 10, 20, and 30 min of exposure, respectively. The scolicidal effect of this extract at a concentration of 30 mg/ml was 52.9%, 86.7%, and 100% after 10, 20, and 30 min of exposure, respectively. S. persica extract at a concentration of 50 mg/ml, meanwhile, killed 81.4%, 100%, and 100% of protoscolices after 10, 20, and 30 min, respectively. Also, the cytotoxic potential of S. persica was assessed on human liver cells (HepG2) using trypan blue exclusion test. No cytotoxic effect was observed on HepG2 cell line. The present study confirmed for the first time that the ethanolic extract of S. persica has high scolicidal power in vitro. However, in vivo effect of this material remains to be studied for treatment of echinococcosis in humans and herbivorous animals.
Akiyama, H; Nose, M; Ohtsuki, N; Hisaka, S; Takiguchi, H; Tada, A; Sugimoto, N; Fuchino, H; Inui, T; Kawano, N; Hayashi, S; Hishida, A; Kudo, T; Sugiyama, K; Abe, Y; Mutsuga, M; Kawahara, N; Yoshimatsu, K
Glycyrrhiza uralensis roots used in this study were produced using novel cultivation systems, including artificial hydroponics and artificial hydroponic-field hybrid cultivation. The equivalency between G. uralensis root extracts produced by hydroponics and/or hybrid cultivation and a commercial Glycyrrhiza crude drug were evaluated for both safety and efficacy, and there were no significant differences in terms of mutagenicity on the Ames tests. The levels of cadmium and mercury in both hydroponic roots and crude drugs were less than the limit of quantitation. Arsenic levels were lower in all hydroponic roots than in the crude drug, whereas mean lead levels in the crude drug were not significantly different from those in the hydroponically cultivated G. uralensis roots. Both hydroponic and hybrid-cultivated root extracts showed antiallergic activities against contact hypersensitivity that were similar to those of the crude drug extracts. These study results suggest that hydroponic and hybrid-cultivated roots are equivalent in safety and efficacy to those of commercial crude drugs. Further studies are necessary before the roots are applicable as replacements for the currently available commercial crude drugs produced from wild plant resources.
Saleh-E-In, Md Moshfekus; Sultana, Nasim; Hossain, Md Nur; Hasan, Sayeema; Islam, Md Rabiul
Anethum sowa L. is widely used as an important spice and traditional medicinal plants to treat various ailments. On the basis of scientific ethnobotanical information, this study was undertaken to evaluate the antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of the crude extracts of Anethum sowa L. roots as well as to identify the classes of phytochemicals by chemical tests. The antioxidant potential of the extracts was ascertained with the stable organic free radical (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl). The agar well diffusion method was used to determine the susceptibility of bacterial and fungal strains of the crude extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) were determined by the microdilution test. Cytotoxic activities were screened using brine shrimps (Artemia salina) lethality assay. Finally, phytochemicals were profiled using standard procedures. A preliminary phytochemical screening of the different crude extracts by methanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform showed the presence of secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, alkaloids, saponin, cardiac glycosides and tannins while cyanogenetic glycosides were not detected. The methanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts displayed high antioxidant activity (IC 50 = 13.08 ± 0.03, 33.48 ± 0.16 and 36.42 ± 0.41 μg/mL, respectively) in the DPPH assay comparable to that of the standard ascorbic acid and BHT (IC 50 = 3.74 ± 0.05 and 11.84 ± 0.29 μg/mL). The cytotoxic activity of the crude ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts possessed excellent activity (LC 50 = 5.03 ± 0.08, 5.23 ± 0.11 and 17.22 ± 0.14 μg/mL, respectively) against brine shrimp larvae after 24 h of treatment and compared with standard vincristine sulphate (LC 50 = 0.46 ± 0.05 μg/mL). The extracts also showed good antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria when compared with two standard
Konan, Koffi Marcel; Mamyrbekova-Bekro, Janat Akhanovna; Bakalara, Norbert; Virieux, David; Pirat, Jean-Luc; Bekro, Yves-Alain
The n-butanol extract of the roots of Glyphaea brevis was analysed. HPLC analysis suggested the presence of phenolic compounds like protocatechuic acid (PCA). The extract showed moderate cytotoxic activity against C6 glioma cells (EC50 > 1 mg/ml).
Kowsalya, R.; Kaliaperumal, Jagatheesh; Vaishnavi, M.; Namasivayam, Elangovan
Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common cancers and a lethal disease. In view of the limited treatment and a grave prognosis of liver cancer, preventive control has been emphasized. Materials and Methods: The methanolic extract of roots of Cynodon dactylon was screened for its hepato-protective activity in diethyl nitrosamine (DEN) induced liver cancer in Swiss albino mice. The plant extract at a dose of 50 mg/kg was administered orally once a week, up to 30 days after DEN administration. The animals were sacrificed; blood sample and liver tissue were collected and used for enzyme assay such as, asparatate amino transferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). The liver marker enzymes AST and ALT produced significant results in the protective action. Results: The antioxidant enzyme assay results concerning the improved activity of GPx, GST and CAT. These results concluded that enhanced levels of antioxidant enzyme and reduced amount of serum amino transaminase, which are suggested to be the major mechanisms of C. dactylon root extract in protecting the mice from hepatocarcinoma induced by DEN. These biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of liver sections. Conclusion: The methanolic extract of C. dactylon possesses significant anticancer properties PMID:25992348
Kowsalya, R; Kaliaperumal, Jagatheesh; Vaishnavi, M; Namasivayam, Elangovan
Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common cancers and a lethal disease. In view of the limited treatment and a grave prognosis of liver cancer, preventive control has been emphasized. The methanolic extract of roots of Cynodon dactylon was screened for its hepato-protective activity in diethyl nitrosamine (DEN) induced liver cancer in Swiss albino mice. The plant extract at a dose of 50 mg/kg was administered orally once a week, up to 30 days after DEN administration. The animals were sacrificed; blood sample and liver tissue were collected and used for enzyme assay such as, asparatate amino transferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). The liver marker enzymes AST and ALT produced significant results in the protective action. The antioxidant enzyme assay results concerning the improved activity of GPx, GST and CAT. These results concluded that enhanced levels of antioxidant enzyme and reduced amount of serum amino transaminase, which are suggested to be the major mechanisms of C. dactylon root extract in protecting the mice from hepatocarcinoma induced by DEN. These biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of liver sections. The methanolic extract of C. dactylon possesses significant anticancer properties.
Del Valle-Mojica, Lisa M.; Cordero-Hernández, José M.; González-Medina, Giselle; Ramos-Vélez, Igmeris; Berríos-Cartagena, Nairimer; Torres-Hernández, Bianca A.; Ortíz, José G.
The effects of two valerian extracts (aqueous and hydroalcoholic) were investigated through [3H]Glutamate ([3H]Glu) and [3H]Fluorowillardine ([3H]FW) receptor binding assays using rat synaptic membranes in presence of different receptor ligands. In addition, the extract stability was monitored spectrophotometrically. Both extracts demonstrated interaction with ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs). However, the extracts displayed considerable differences in receptor selectivity. The hydroalcoholic extract selectively interacted with quisqualic acid (QA), group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) ligand, while the aqueous extract did not alter the binding of QA. The stability of the extracts was examined during several weeks. Freshly prepared extract inhibited 38–60% of [3H]FW binding (AMPA). After 10 days, the aqueous extract inhibited 85% of [3H]FW binding while the hydroalcoholic extract markedly potentiated (200%) [3H]FW binding to AMPA receptors. Thus, our results showed that factors such as extraction solvent and extract stability determine the selectivity for glutamate receptor (GluR) interactions. PMID:21151614
Konan, Koffi Marcel; Mamyrbekova-Bekro, Janat Akhanovna; Bakalara, Norbert; Virieux, David; Pirat, Jean-Luc; Bekro, Yves-Alain
The n-butanol extract of the roots of Glyphaea brevis was analysed. HPLC analysis suggested the presence of phenolic compounds like protocatechuic acid (PCA). The extract showed moderate cytotoxic activity against C6 glioma cells (EC50 > 1 mg/ml). PMID:24634849
Karakaya, Songül; Gözcü, Sefa; Güvenalp, Zühal; Özbek, Hilal; Yuca, Hafize; Dursunoğlu, Benan; Kazaz, Cavit; Kılıç, Ceyda Sibel
Ferulago (Apiaceae) species have been used since ancient times for the treatment of intestinal worms, hemorrhoids, and as a tonic, digestive, aphrodisiac, or sedative, as well as in salads or as a spice due to their special odors. This study reports the α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of dichloromethane extract and bioactive compounds isolated from Ferulago bracteata Boiss. & Hausskn. roots. The isolated compounds obtained from dichloromethane extract of Ferulago bracteata roots through bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation process were evaluated for their in vitro α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities at 5000-400 µg/mL concentrations. Compound structures were elucidated by detailed analyses (NMR and MS). A new coumarin, peucedanol-2'-benzoate (1), along with nine known ones, osthole (2), imperatorin (3), bergapten (4), prantschimgin (5), grandivitinol (6), suberosin (7), xanthotoxin (8), felamidin (9), umbelliferone (10), and a sterol mixture consisted of stigmasterol (11), β-sitosterol (12) was isolated from the roots of F. bracteata. Felamidin and suberosin showed significant α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC 50 0.42 and 0.89 mg/mL, respectively) when compared to the reference standard acarbose (IC 50 4.95 mg/mL). However, none of the tested extracts were found to be active on α-amylase inhibition. The present study demonstrated that among the compounds isolated from CH 2 Cl 2 fraction of F. bracteata roots, coumarins were determined as the main chemical constituents of this fraction. This is the first report on isolation and characterization of the bioactive compounds from root extracts of F. bracteata and on their α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities.
Background Extraction of a broken tooth root is often a traumatic experience for both the practitioner and the patient. To extract broken roots, generally invasive approaches as open window surgeries or mucoperiosteal flap and/or removal of buccal bone are performed. Presentation of the hypothesis Expandable micro-motor bur (EMB) is a hypothetical design of a dental instrument proposed for removal of broken teeth roots that cannot be extracted by the routine closed methods and in which common instrumentations cannot afford to accomplish. Implication of EMB would introduce a new technique in removal of broken teeth roots in which surgical trauma is minimized and so post-extraction disorders. It would eliminate surgical invasion to the surrounding tissues; and also it would eliminate profound hand forces by the practitioner, consequently reduces stress for both the practitioner and the patient. It would eliminate high risk aftermaths such as operative morbidity (due to bone loss), maxillary sinus exposure and probable need for additional surgery as are indicative of some conventional open access approaches. Testing the hypothesis Further studies are needed to confirm its effect in clinical cases. The effectiveness of EMB should be verified firstly by animal experiments. The likelihood of its negative influence on nearby vascular and nerve system should be well evaluated. Implications of the hypothesis Implication of EMB would be of interest to both patients and the surgeon due to the following main achievements: a) no need for mucoperiosteal flap, hence preservation of soft tissue, b) no need for osteotomy, hence retention of buccal bone, c) less risk of sinus exposure, d) minimum chance of post operative infections due to eliminated surgeries in soft tissues and bones and e) in terms of esthetics, it will have a special meaning for immediate placement of dental implants. EMB’s structural components include Bur head, Spacers and Bur base. A micro motor would power
Owoyele, Bamidele V; Oyewole, Aboyeji L; Alimi, Modupe L; Sanni, Shukurat A; Oyeleke, Sabitiu A
This study was designed to provide information about the antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects of Corchorus olitorius root. Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into six groups of five animals each; the control and reference groups were administered normal saline (10 mL/kg) and indomethacin (5 mg/kg), respectively, whereas the remaining four groups were administered aqueous extract of C. olitorius at doses of 25, 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg, respectively. Pyrexia was induced by injecting 10 mL/kg of 20% (w/v) brewer's yeast suspension into the dorsum of rats, whereas inflammation was induced through an injection of 0.1% carrageenan into the right hind paw of each rat and through a subcutaneous implantation of a 30-g sterilized cotton pellet into the groin of each rat. The results showed that C. olitorius root extract (p<0.05) decreased the elevated temperature after brewer's yeast injection compared with the 17 h (pre-drug) temperature. In the inflammatory tests, the paw sizes and granuloma weights in the test groups were significantly (p<0.05) decreased compared with the control group. Corchorus olitorius root is another good source of phytomedicine that can be used effectively to treat inflammation and pyrexia that accompany some diseases.
Konrad, L; Müller, H H; Lenz, C; Laubinger, H; Aumüller, G; Lichius, J J
In the present study the activity of a 20% methanolic extract of stinging nettle roots (Urtica dioica L., Urticaceae) on the proliferative activity of human prostatic epithelial (LNCaP) and stromal (hPCPs) cells was evaluated using a colorimetric assay. A concentration-dependent and significant (p < 0.05) antiproliferative effect of the extract was observed only on LNCaP cells during 7 days, whereas stromal cell growth remained unaltered. The inhibition was time-dependent with the maximum of growth reduction (30%) at a concentration of 1.0E-6 mg/ml on day 5 compared to the untreated control. On day 4 and 6, the reduction in proliferation of LNCaP cells showed the minimal effective dose at 1.0E-9 mg/ml. No cytotoxic effect of ME-20 on cell proliferation was observed. The antiproliferative effect of ME-20 of stinging nettle roots observed both in an in vivo model and in an in vitro system clearly indicates a biologically relevant effect of compounds present in the extract.
Suresh, Niraj; Stephens, Sean A; Adams, Lexor; Beck, Anthon N; McKinney, Adriana L; Varga, Tamas
Plant roots play a critical role in plant-soil-microbe interactions that occur in the rhizosphere, as well as processes with important implications to climate change and crop management. Quantitative size information on roots in their native environment is invaluable for studying root growth and environmental processes involving plants. X-ray computed tomography (XCT) has been demonstrated to be an effective tool for in situ root scanning and analysis. We aimed to develop a costless and efficient tool that approximates the surface and volume of the root regardless of its shape from three-dimensional (3D) tomography data. The root structure of a Prairie dropseed (Sporobolus heterolepis) specimen was imaged using XCT. The root was reconstructed, and the primary root structure was extracted from the data using a combination of licensed and open-source software. An isosurface polygonal mesh was then created for ease of analysis. We have developed the standalone application imeshJ, generated in MATLAB(1), to calculate root volume and surface area from the mesh. The outputs of imeshJ are surface area (in mm(2)) and the volume (in mm(3)). The process, utilizing a unique combination of tools from imaging to quantitative root analysis, is described. A combination of XCT and open-source software proved to be a powerful combination to noninvasively image plant root samples, segment root data, and extract quantitative information from the 3D data. This methodology of processing 3D data should be applicable to other material/sample systems where there is connectivity between components of similar X-ray attenuation and difficulties arise with segmentation.
Sows are culled at a high rate from breeding herds due to musclo-skeletal problems and lameness. Research in our laboratory has shown that even first-parity sows have significant amounts of osteochondritic lesions of their articular cartilage. Glusoamine chondroitin and ginger root extract have both...
Simonetti, Giovanna; Tocci, Noemi; Valletta, Alessio; Brasili, Elisa; D'Auria, Felicia Diodata; Idoux, Alicia; Pasqua, Gabriella
Xanthone-rich extracts from Hypericum perforatum root cultures grown in a Mist Bioreactor as antifungal agents against Malassezia furfur. Extracts of Hypericum perforatum roots grown in a bioreactor showed activity against planktonic cells and biofilm of Malassezia furfur. Dried biomass, obtained from roots grown under controlled conditions in a ROOTec mist bioreactor, has been extracted with solvents of increasing polarity (i.e. chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol). The methanolic fraction was the richest in xanthones (2.86 ± 0.43 mg g(-1) DW) as revealed by HPLC. The minimal inhibitory concentration of the methanol extract against M. furfur planktonic cells was 16 μg mL(-1). The inhibition percentage of biofilm formation, at a concentration of 16 μg mL(-1), ranged from 14% to 39%. The results show that H. perforatum root extracts could be used as new antifungal agents in the treatment of Malassezia infections.
Tocci, Noemi; Simonetti, Giovanna; D'Auria, Felicia Diodata; Panella, Simona; Palamara, Anna Teresa; Valletta, Alessio; Pasqua, Gabriella
Hypericum perforatum is a well-known medicinal plant which contains a wide variety of metabolites, including xanthones, which have a wide range of biological properties, including antifungal activity. In the present study, we evaluated the capability of roots regenerated from calli of H. perforatum subsp. angustifolium to produce xanthones. Root biomass was positively correlated with the indole-3-butyric acid concentration, whereas a concentration of 1 mg l(-1) was the most suitable for the development of roots. High auxin concentrations also inhibited xanthone accumulation. Xanthones were produced in large amounts, with a very stable trend throughout the culture period. When the roots were treated with chitosan, the xanthone content dramatically increased, peaking after 7 days. Chitosan also induced a release of these metabolites into the culture. The maximum accumulation (14.26 ± 0.62 mg g(-1) dry weight [DW]) and release (2.64 ± 0.13 mg g(-1) DW) of xanthones were recorded 7 days after treatment. The most represented xanthones were isolated, purified, and spectroscopically characterized. Antifungal activity of the total root extracts was tested against a broad panel of human fungal pathogen strains (30 Candida species, 12 Cryptococcus neoformans, and 16 dermatophytes); this activity significantly increased when using chitosan. Extracts obtained after 7 days of chitosan treatment showed high antifungal activity (mean minimum inhibitory concentration of 83.4, 39.1, and 114 μg ml(-1) against Candida spp., C. neoformans, and dermatophytes, respectively). Our results suggest that root cultures can be considered as a potential tool for large-scale production of extracts with stable quantities of xanthones.
Ojo, Oluwafemi Adeleke; Ojo, Adebola Busola; Awoyinka, Olayinka; Ajiboye, Basiru Olaitan; Oyinloye, Babatunji Emmanuel; Osukoya, Olukemi Adetutu; Olayide, Israel Idowu; Ibitayo, Adejoke
In Africa, the fruit, leaf, seed and roots of Carica papaya Linn. are generally used to treat a variety of diseases such as malaria, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we evaluated the protective potentials of aqueous extract of C. papaya roots on arsenic-induced biochemical and genotoxic effects in Wistar rats. Rats were induced intraperitoneal with sodium arsenate (dissolved in distilled water at 3 mg/kg body weight) for 21 days and the animals were administered simultaneously with 200 mg/kg body weight vitamin C, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight of the C. papaya Linn. root aqueous extract once daily for three weeks. Results obtained reveals that activities of plasma 8-OHdG, serum lipids concentration, atherogenic index (AI), coronary artery index (CRI), aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin levels were elevated significantly ( p < 0.05) and catalase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, plasma hematological profile were progressively reduced ( p < 0.05) in arsenic-alone exposed rats. Significant increase in the quantity of chromosomal aberrations (CA), micronuclei (MN) frequency, oxidative damages in the bone marrow cells from arsenic alone rats was observed. Though, mitotic index scores in these cells were progressively reduced (p < 0.05). In animals administered with aqueous extract of C. papaya roots and vitamin C, the altered parameters were significantly recovered towards the levels observed in normal control rats. These results suggest that aqueous C. papaya roots preparations might have therapeutic potential as a supplement that can be applied in arsenic poisoning.
Luo, Feifei; Wang, Qian; Yin, Chunlin; Ge, Yinglu; Hu, Fenglin; Huang, Bo; Zhou, Hong; Bao, Guanhu; Wang, Bin; Lu, Ruili; Li, Zengzhi
Beauveria bassiana is a kind of world-wide entomopathogenic fungus and can also colonize plant rhizosphere. Previous researches showed differential expression of genes when entomopathogenic fungi are cultured in insect or plant materials. However, so far there is no report on metabolic alterations of B. bassiana in the environments of insect or plant. The purpose of this paper is to address this problem. Herein, we first provide the metabolomic analysis of B. bassiana cultured in insect pupae extracts (derived from Euproctis pseudoconspersa and Bombyx mori, EPP and BMP), plant root exudates (derived from asparagus and carrot, ARE and CRE), distilled water and minimal media (MM), respectively. Principal components analysis (PCA) shows that mycelia cultured in pupae extracts and root exudates are evidently separated and individually separated from MM, which indicates that fungus accommodates to insect and plant environments by different metabolic regulation mechanisms. Subsequently, orthogonal projection on latent structure-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) identifies differential metabolites in fungus under three environments relative to MM. Hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) is performed to cluster compounds based on biochemical relationships, showing that sphingolipids are increased in BMP but are decreased in EPP. This observation further implies that sphingolipid metabolism may be involved in the adaptation of fungus to different hosts. In the meantime, sphingolipids are significantly decreased in root exudates but they are not decreased in distilled water, suggesting that some components of the root exudates can suppress sphingolipid to down-regulate sphingolipid metabolism. Pathway analysis finds that fatty acid metabolism is maintained at high level but non-ribosomal peptides (NRP) synthesis is unaffected in mycelia cultured in pupae extracts. In contrast, fatty acid metabolism is not changed but NRP synthesis is high in mycelia cultured in root exudates
Oburai, Nethaji Lokeswar; Rao, V. Vaikunta; Bonath, Ram Babu Naik
Background: Complementing herbal drugs with conservative modern treatment could improve renal condition in canine chronic renal failure (CRF). Objective: In this study, clinical evaluation of Boerhavia diffusa root extract was carried out in CRF in dogs in comparison with standard enalapril. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 dogs of mixed breeds suffering from CRF from 1 to 2 months were divided into two groups (n = 10) and treated as follows: Group I - Enalapril at 0.5 mg/kg p.o. once daily for 90 days + amoxicillin and cloxacillin at 25 mg/kg i.m. once daily for 1-week; Group II - B. diffusa root extract at 500 mg p.o per dog daily for 90 days. Both groups were maintained on a supportive fluid therapy. The data were analyzed using paired t-test and one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's post-hoc test. Results: CRF caused a significant (P < 0.05) increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum creatinine, urea nitrogen, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, urinary protein, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and glutamyl transferase (GGT). A significant (P < 0.05) decrease in hemoglobin and total erythrocyte count (TEC) was also observed. Nephrosonography revealed indistinct corticomedullary junction, altered renal architecture, hyper-echoic cortex, medulla, and sunken kidneys. Both the treatments significantly (P < 0.05) reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure by day 30. Serum Creatinine, urea nitrogen, phosphorus, urinary protein, ALP, and GGT showed significant (P < 0.05) reduction by day 60 in both the treatments. However, potassium levels were normalized only by B. diffusa root extract treatment by day 30. Both the treatments failed to show a significant improvement in nephrosonographic picture even after 90 days posttreatment. Conclusion: In conclusion, the efficacy of B. diffusa root extract was comparable to standard enalapril treatment of CRF in dogs. PMID:26604549
Khallouki, Farid; Haubner, Roswitha; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Owen, Robert W
The root bark of Annona cuneata Oliv. is traditionally used in the Democratic Republic of Congo to treat several debilitating conditions, such as hernia, female sterility, sexual asthenia, and parasitic infections. However, little is known about the composition of the secondary plant substances, which may contribute to these traditional medicinal effects. We conducted an ethnobotanical study and then evaluated the composition of the secondary plant substances in extracts of the root bark by using spectroscopic methods. After delipidation, the root bark was lixiviated in methanol, and components in the extract were studied by gas chromatography-mass spectometry, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-electrospray ionization-MS and nano-electrospray ionization-MS-MS. These methods identified 13 secondary plant substances (almost exclusively phenolic compounds): p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (I), vanillin (II), tyrosol (III), 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (IV), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (V), vanillyl alcohol (VI), syringaldehyde (VII), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylethanol (VIII), vanillic acid (IX), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (X), syringic acid (XI), and ferulic acid (XII), along with the phytosterol squalene (XIII). In the HPLC-based hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase antioxidant assay system, the methanolic extract exhibited potent antioxidant capacity, with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 72 μL, equivalent to 1.38 mg/mL of raw extract. Thus, a methanol extract of A. cuneata Oliv. contained a range of polyphenolic compounds, which may be partly responsible for its known traditional medicinal effects. More detailed studies on the phytochemistry of this important plant species are therefore warranted.
Tenci, Barbara; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Maresca, Mario; Micheli, Laura; Pieraccini, Giuseppe; Mulinacci, Nadia; Ghelardini, Carla
Lepidium meyenii (Walp.), commonly called maca, is an Andean crop belonging to the Brassicaceae family. Maca hypocotils are habitually consumed as customary food as well as traditional remedies for pathological conditions such as infertility. Moreover, the characterization of maca extracts revealed the presence of compounds that are able to modulate the nervous system. Aimed to evaluate the efficacy of L. meyenii in persistent pain, the present study analyzed the effects of a commercial root extract from maca in different animal models reproducing the most common causes of chronic painful pathologies. A qualitative characterization of this commercial extract by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry analyses allowed us to confirm the presence of some macamides known as bioactive constituents of this root and the absence of the main aromatic glucosinolates. The acute oral administration of maca extract is able to reduce mechanical hypersensitivity and postural unbalance induced by the intra-articular injection of monoiodoacetate and the chronic-constriction injury of the sciatic nerve. Furthermore, L. meyenii extract reverts pain threshold alterations evoked by oxaliplatin and paclitaxel. A good safety profile in mice and rats was shown. In conclusion, the present maca extract could be considered as a therapeutic opportunity to relieve articular and neuropathic pain.
Gordanian, B.; Behbahani, M.; Carapetian, J.; Fazilati, M.
The present study was carried out to investigate cytotoxic activity of flower, leaf, stem and root extracts of five Artemisia species against breast cancer cell line (MCF7) and human embryonic kidney normal cell line (HEK293). The studied Artemisia species were A. absinthium, A. vulgaris, A. incana, A. fragrans and A. spicigera. The cytotoxic activity was measured by MTT assay at different concentrations (62.5, 125, 250, 500 μg/ml). Among these five species, methanol extracts of flower, leaf, stem and root of A. absinthium and A. vulgaris exhibited considerable cytotoxic activity. The flower extracts of these two species were found to have higher cytotoxic effect on MCF7 cell with an IC50 value of 221.5 and >500 μg/ml, respectively. Leaf methanol extract of A. incana also showed cytotoxic activity. Cytotoxic activity of different extracts of A. absinthium, A. vulgaris and A. incana against MCF7 was 10%-40% more than HEK293 cells. Not only the extracts of A. spicigera and A. fragrans did not show any cytotoxic effect against both cell lines, but also increased the number of cells. This study revealed that A. absinthium and A. vulgaris may have a great potential to explore new anticancer drugs. PMID:25657777
Tacchini, Massimo; Spagnoletti, Antonella; Brighenti, Virginia; Prencipe, Francesco Pio; Benvenuti, Stefania; Sacchetti, Gianni; Pellati, Federica
The genus Echinacea (Asteraceae) includes species traditionally used in phytotherapy. Among them, Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Nutt. root extracts are characterized by a representative antiproliferative activity, due to the presence of acetylenic compounds. In this study, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was applied and compared with conventional Soxhlet extraction (SE) in order to obtain a bioactive extract highly rich in polyacetylenes and polyenes from E. pallida roots. The composition of the extracts was monitored by means of HPLC-UV/DAD and HPLC-ESI-MS n by using an Ascentis Express C 18 column (150mm×3.0mm I.D., 2.7μm, Supelco, Bellefonte, PA, USA) with a mobile phase composed of (A) water and (B) acetonitrile, under gradient elution. By keeping SFE time at the threshold of 1h (15min static and 45min dynamic for 1 cycle) with the oven temperature set at 40-45°C and 90bar of pressure, an overall extraction yield of 1.18-1.21% (w/w) was obtained, with a high selectivity for not oxidized lipophilic compounds. The biological activity of the extracts was evaluated against human non-small lung A549 and breast carcinoma MCF-7 cancer cell lines. The cytotoxic effect of the SFE extract was more pronounced towards the MCF-7 than the A549 cancer cells, with IC 50 values ranging from 21.01±2.89 to 31.11±2.l4μg/mL; cell viability was affected mainly between 24 and 48h of exposure. The results show the possibility of a new "green" approach to obtain extracts highly rich in genuine polyacetylenes and polyenes from E. pallida roots. The bioactivity evaluation confirmed the cytotoxicity of E. pallida extracts against the considered cancer cell lines, especially against MCF-7 cells, thus suggesting to represent a valuable tool for applicative purposes in cancer prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Prescott, Thomas A K; Ariño, Joaquín; Kite, Geoffrey C; Simmonds, Monique S J
The leaves of Jasminum humile are used to treat skin disorders in a way which resembles the use of modern topical anti-inflammatory drugs. Ethanolic extracts of the roots and leaves were shown to inhibit calcineurin which is a regulator of inflammatory gene expression. A novel yeast calcineurin reporter gene assay suitable for a 96 well plate format was developed to test for inhibition of calcineurin-dependent gene expression. Calmodulin/calcineurin phosphatase assays were then used to further elucidate the mode of action of the extracts. Jasminum humile root and leaf extract exhibited calcineurin inhibition activity that was shown to be mediated through a direct interaction with calcineurin enzyme. The activity is sufficient to block calcineurin-dependent gene expression in a yeast model. The activity of the plant supports its traditional use in the treatment of inflammatory skin disorders. The specially adapted yeast reporter assay was found to be a highly effective way of detecting calcineurin inhibitors in plant extracts. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ghafari, Fereshteh; Rajabi, Mohammad Reza; Mazoochi, Tahereh; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Nikzad, Hossein; Atlasi, Mohammad Ali; Taherian, Aliakbar
Objective: Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease and very common malignancy in women worldwide. The efficacy of chemotherapy as an important part of breast cancer treatment is limited due to its side effects. While pharmaceutical companies are looking for better chemicals, research on traditional medicines that generally have fewer side effects is quite interesting. In this study, apoptosis and necrosis effect of Arctium lappa and doxorubicin was compared in MCF7, and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. Materials and Methods: MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells were cultured in RPMI 1640 containing 10% FBS and 100 U/ml penicillin/streptomycin. MTT assay and an annexin V/propidium iodide (AV/PI) kit were used respectively to compare the survival rate and apoptotic effects of different concentrations of doxorubicin and Arctium lappa root extract on MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cells. Results: Arctium lappa root extract was able to reduce cell viability of the two cell lines in a dose and time dependent manner similar to doxorubicin. Flow cytometry results showed that similar to doxorubicin, Arctium Lappa root extract had a dose and time dependent apoptosis effect on both cell lines. 10µg/mL of Arctium lappa root extract and 5 µM of doxorubicin showed the highest anti-proliferative and apoptosis effect in MCF7 and MDA231 cells. Conclusion: The MCF7 (ER/PR-) and MDA-MB-231 (ER/PR+) cell lines represent two major breast cancer subtypes. The similar anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of Arctium lappa root extract and doxorubicin (which is a conventional chemotherapy drug) on two different breast cancer cell lines strongly suggests its anticancer effects and further studies. PMID:28441789
VALERA, Marcia Carneiro; MAEKAWA, Lilian Eiko; de OLIVEIRA, Luciane Dias; JORGE, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; SHYGEI, Érika; CARVALHO, Cláudio Antonio Talge
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of auxiliary chemical substances and natural extracts on Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis inoculated in root canals. Material and Methods: Seventy-two human tooth roots were contaminated with C. albicans and E. faecalis for 21 days. The groups were divided according to the auxiliary chemical substance into: G1) 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), G2) 2% chlorhexidine gel (CHX), G3) castor oil, G4) glycolic Aloe vera extract, G5) glycolic ginger extract, and G6) sterile saline (control). The samples of the root canal were collected at different intervals: confirmation collection, at 21 days after contamination; 1st collection, after instrumentation; and 2nd collection, seven days after instrumentation. Microbiological samples were grown in culture medium and incubated at 37º C for 48 hours. Results: The results were submitted to the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn (5%) statistical tests. NaOCl and CHX completely eliminated the microorganisms of the root canals. Castor oil and ginger significantly reduced the number of CFU of the tested bacteria. Reduction of CFU/mL at the 1st and 2nd collections for groups G1, G2, G3 and G4 was greater in comparison to groups G5 and G6. Conclusion: It was concluded that 2.5% sodium hypochlorite and 2% chlorhexidine gel were more effective in eliminating C. albicans and E. faecalis, followed by the castor oil and glycolic ginger extract. The Aloe vera extract showed no antimicrobial activity. PMID:23739849
Valera, Marcia Carneiro; Maekawa, Lilian Eiko; de Oliveira, Luciane Dias; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Shygei, Érika; Carvalho, Cláudio Antonio Talge
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of auxiliary chemical substances and natural extracts on Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis inoculated in root canals. Seventy-two human tooth roots were contaminated with C. albicans and E. faecalis for 21 days. The groups were divided according to the auxiliary chemical substance into: G1) 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), G2) 2% chlorhexidine gel (CHX), G3) castor oil, G4) glycolic Aloe vera extract, G5) glycolic ginger extract, and G6) sterile saline (control). The samples of the root canal were collected at different intervals: confirmation collection, at 21 days after contamination; 1st collection, after instrumentation; and 2nd collection, seven days after instrumentation. Microbiological samples were grown in culture medium and incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. The results were submitted to the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn (5%) statistical tests. NaOCl and CHX completely eliminated the microorganisms of the root canals. Castor oil and ginger significantly reduced the number of CFU of the tested bacteria. Reduction of CFU/mL at the 1st and 2nd collections for groups G1, G2, G3 and G4 was greater in comparison to groups G5 and G6. It was concluded that 2.5% sodium hypochlorite and 2% chlorhexidine gel were more effective in eliminating C. albicans and E. faecalis, followed by the castor oil and glycolic ginger extract. The Aloe vera extract showed no antimicrobial activity.
Vaganan, M Mayil; Sarumathi, S; Nandakumar, A; Ravi, I; Mustaffa, M M
Four protocols viz., the trichloroacetic acid-acetone (TCA), phenol-ammonium acetate (PAA), phenol/SDS-ammonium acetate (PSA) and trisbase-acetone (TBA) were evaluated with modifications for protein extraction from banana (Grand Naine) roots, considered as recalcitrant tissues for proteomic analysis. The two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) separated proteins were compared based on protein yield, number of resolved proteins, sum of spot quantity, average spot intensity and proteins resolved in 4-7 pI range. The PAA protocol yielded more proteins (0.89 mg/g of tissues) and protein spots (584) in 2-DE gel than TCA and other protocols. Also, the PAA protocol was superior in terms of sum of total spot quantity and average spot intensity than TCA and other protocols, suggesting phenol as extractant and ammonium acetate as precipitant of proteins were the most suitable for banana rooteomics analysis by 2-DE. In addition, 1:3 ratios of root tissue to extraction buffer and overnight protein precipitation were most efficient to obtain maximum protein yield.
KHAZAL, KAMEL F.; HILL, DONALD L.; GRUBBS, CLINTON J.
The cancer-preventive activity of an extract of Withania somnifera (WS) roots was examined in female transgenic (MMTV/Neu) mice that received a diet containing the extract (750 mg/kg of diet) for 10 months. Mice in the treated group (N=35) had an average of 1.66 mammary carcinomas, and mice in the control group (N=33) had 2.48, a reduction of 33%. The average weights of the carcinomas were 2.36 g for mice in the treated group and 2.63 g for the controls, a difference of 10%. Labeling indices for Ki67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen marker in mammary carcinomas of the treated group were 35% and 30% lower, respectively, than those of the corresponding control group. Expression of the chemokine was reduced by 50%. These results indicate that the root extract reduced the number of mammary carcinomas that developed and reduced the rate of cell division in the carcinomas. PMID:25368231
Yang, Dong; Xu, Jun-Hua; Shi, Ren-Jie
Wound healing is the main problem in the therapy of anal fistula (AF). Daphne genkwa root has been traditionally used as an agent to soak sutures in operation of AF patients, but its function in wound healing remains largely unclear. The aim of the present study was to illuminate mechanisms of D. genkwa root treatment on AF. In the present study, 60 AF patients after surgery were randomly divided into two groups, external applied with or without the D. genkwa extractive. Wound healing times were compared and granulation tissues were collected. In vitro , we constructed damaged human skin fibroblasts (HSFs) with the treatment of TNF-α (10 μg/ml). Cell Count Kit-8 (CCK-8) and flow cytometry analysis were used to determine the effects of D. genkwa root extractive on cell viability, cell cycle and apoptosis of damaged HSFs. Furthermore, protein levels of TGF-β, COL1A1, COL3A1, Timp-1 , matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 ( MMP-3 ) and MEK/ERK signalling pathways were investigated both in vivo and in vitro Results showed that D. genkwa root extractive greatly shortens the wound healing time in AF patients. In granulation tissues and HSFs, treatment with the extractive significantly elevated the expressions of COL1A1, COL3A1, Timp-1, c-fos and Cyclin D1 , while reduced the expression of MMP-3 Further detection presented that MEK/ERK signalling was activated after the stimulation of extractive in HSFs. Our study demonstrated that extractive from D. genkwa root could effectively improve wound healing in patients with AF via the up-regulation of fibroblast proliferation and expressions of COL1A1 and COL3A1 . © 2017 The Author(s).
Martins, Frederico Severino; Pascoa, Henrique; de Paula, José Realino; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso
Instruction: Despite the increased use of Brosimum gaudichaudii roots as raw material on medicine to treatment of vitiligo, there are not studies that showing the impact of unit operations on the quality and standardized of the extract of B. gaudichaudii. The quality of the herbal extract is essential to ensure the safety and efficacy of pharmaceutical product. Due the medical and commercial importance, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of the extraction method (ultrasound or percolation) on the quality of herbal extract and optimize the extraction of psoralen and 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) from B. gaudichaudii. Materials and Methods: The extraction recovery was evaluate by high-performance liquid chromatography (C8 reverse phase column and acetonitrile: Water 45:55 and flow rate 0.6 mL/min). The extraction was performed by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UEA) or percolation using a Box-Behnken design. Results: From both chemical markers (psoralen and bergapten), the optimal conditions for the UEA were an extraction time of 25 min, the mean particle size of 100 μm, and an ethanol: Water ratio of 55:45 (v/v). Conclusion: The extraction by percolation revealed that ethanol 55% was more efficient than ethanol 80% to extract psoralen and bergapten. PMID:25709236
Ghafari, Fereshteh; Rajabi, Mohammad Reza; Mazoochi, Tahereh; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Nikzad, Hossein; Atlasi, Mohammad Ali; Taherian, Aliakbar
Objective: Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease and very common malignancy in women worldwide. The efficacy of chemotherapy as an important part of breast cancer treatment is limited due to its side effects. While pharmaceutical companies are looking for better chemicals, research on traditional medicines that generally have fewer side effects is quite interesting. In this study, apoptosis and necrosis effect of Arctium lappa and doxorubicin was compared in MCF7, and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. Materials and Methods: MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells were cultured in RPMI 1640 containing 10% FBS and 100 U/ml penicillin/streptomycin. MTT assay and an annexin V/propidium iodide (AV/PI) kit were used respectively to compare the survival rate and apoptotic effects of different concentrations of doxorubicin and Arctium lappa root extract on MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cells. Results: Arctium lappa root extract was able to reduce cell viability of the two cell lines in a dose and time dependent manner similar to doxorubicin. Flow cytometry results showed that similar to doxorubicin, Arctium Lappa root extract had a dose and time dependent apoptosis effect on both cell lines. 10μg/mL of Arctium lappa root extract and 5 μM of doxorubicin showed the highest anti-proliferative and apoptosis effect in MCF7 and MDA231 cells. Conclusion: The MCF7 (ER/PR-) and MDA-MB-231 (ER/PR+) cell lines represent two major breast cancer subtypes. The similar anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of Arctium lappa root extract and doxorubicin (which is a conventional chemotherapy drug) on two different breast cancer cell lines strongly suggests its anticancer effects and further studies. Creative Commons Attribution License
He, Mingyan; Hou, Jiayun; Wang, Lingyan; Zheng, Minghuan; Fang, Tingting; Wang, Xiangdong; Xia, Jinglin
Actinidia chinensis Planch root extract (acRoots) is a traditional Chinese medicine with anti-tumor efficacy. To investigate the mechanisms responsible for this activity, we examined the effects of acRoots on cholesterol metabolism in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). mRNA chip analysis was used to identify the metabolic genes regulated by acRoots. The effects of acRoots on cholesterol synthesis and uptake were evaluated by measuring intracellular cholesterol levels and 3,3'-dioctadecylindocarbocyanine-labeled low-density lipoprotein (Dil-LDL) uptake. Expression of metabolic genes was analyzed using quantitative reverse transcription PCR, western blotting, and flow cytometry. acRoots reduced the viability of LM3 and HepG2 cells at 5 mg/mL and HL-7702 cells at 30 mg/mL. Gene expression profiling revealed that treatment with acRoots altered expression of genes involved in immune responses, inflammation, proliferation, cell cycle control, and metabolism. We also confirmed that acRoots enhances expression of PCSK9, which is important for cholesterol metabolism. This resulted in decreased LDL receptor expression, inhibition of LDL uptake by LM3 cells, decreased total intracellular cholesterol, and reduced proliferation. These effects were promoted by PCSK9 overexpression and rescued by PCSK9 knockdown. Our data demonstrate that acRoots is a novel anti-tumor agent that inhibits cholesterol metabolism though a PCSK9-mediated signaling pathway.
Ahmadi, Marzieh; Rad, Abolfazl Khajavi; Rajaei, Ziba; Hadjzadeh, Mousa-Al-Reza; Mohammadian, Nema; Tabasi, Nafiseh Sadat
Introduction: Alcea rosea L. is used in Asian folk medicine as a remedy for a wide range of ailments. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Alcea rosea roots on ethylene glycol-induced kidney calculi in rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, ethylene glycol (EG), curative and preventive groups. Control group received tap drinking water for 28 days. Ethylene glycol (EG), curative and preventive groups received 1% ethylene glycol for induction of calcium oxalate (CaOx) calculus formation; preventive and curative subjects also received the hydroalcoholic extract of Alcea rosea roots in drinking water at dose of 170 mg/kg, since day 0 or day 14, respectively. Urinary oxalate concentration was measured by spectrophotometer on days 0, 14 and 28. On day 28, the kidneys were removed and examined histopathologically under light microscopy for counting the calcium oxalate deposits in 50 microscopic fields. Results: In both preventive and curative protocols, treatment of rats with hydroalcoholic extract of Alcea rosea roots significantly reduced the number of kidney calcium oxalate deposits compared to ethylene glycol group. Administration of Alcea rosea extract also reduced the elevated urinary oxalate due to ethylene glycol. Conclusion: Alcea rosea showed a beneficial effect in preventing and eliminating calcium oxalate deposition in the rat kidney. This effect is possibly due to diuretic and anti-inflammatory effects or presence of mucilaginous polysaccharides in the plant. It may also be related to lowering of urinary concentration of stone-forming constituents. PMID:22701236
Masoko, P; Gololo, S S; Mokgotho, M P; Eloff, J N; Howard, R I; Mampuru, L J
Senna italica, a member of the Fabaceae family (subfamily Caesalpinaceae), is widely used traditionally to treat a number of disease conditions, such as sexually transmitted diseases and some forms of intestinal complications. The roots of Senna italica were collected from Zebediela subregion, Limpopo province (S.A), powdered and extracted with acetone by cold/shaking extraction method. The phytochemical composition of the extract was determined by thin layer chromatography (TLC). The chromatograms were visualised with vanillin-sulphuric acid and p-anisaldehyde reagents. The total phenolic content of the extract was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method and expressed as TAE/g dry weight. The extract was assayed for the in vitro anticancer activity using Jurkat T cells, antioxidant activity using DPPH assay and antibacterial activity by bioautographic method and the microtitre plate method. The acetone extract of the roots of Senna italica inhibited the growth of Jurkat T cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The extract also had free radical scavenging activity as well as reasonable antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with MICs ranging from 0,08 to 0.16 mg/ml in the same order as ampicillin the positive control. The biological activities observed in the acetone extract validated the ethnomedicinal use of Senna italica.
Zubrická, Daniela; Mišianiková, Anna; Henzelyová, Jana; Valletta, Alessio; De Angelis, Giulia; D'Auria, Felicia Diodata; Simonetti, Giovanna; Pasqua, Gabriella; Čellárová, Eva
Highest xanthone contents were found in Hypericum pulchrum and H. annulatum untransformed roots. The best anti- Candida activity was obtained for hairy roots extracts of H. tetrapterum clone 2 ATCC 15834. Extracts of root cultures, hairy roots and cell suspensions of selected Hypericum spp. were screened for the presence of xanthones and tested for their antifungal activity against Candida albicans strain ATCC 10231. At least one of the following xanthones, 5-methoxy-2-deprenylrheediaxanthone; 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone; 1,3,5,6-tetrahydroxyxanthone; paxanthone; kielcorin or mangiferin was identified in methanolic extracts of the untransformed root cultures. The highest total xanthone content, with five xanthones, was found in untransformed H. pulchrum and H. annulatum root cultures. Hairy roots and the controls of H. tetrapterum contained 1,7-dihydroxyxanthone, while hairy root cultures and the corresponding controls of H. tomentosum contained toxyloxanthone B, 1,3,6,7- and 1,3,5,6-tetrahydroxyxanthone. Two xanthones, cadensin G and paxanthone, were identified in cell suspension cultures of H. perforatum. Their content increased about two-fold following elicitation with salicylic acid. The anti-Candida activity of the obtained extracts ranged from MIC 64 to >256 µg ml(-1). Among the extracts of Hypericum untransformed roots, the best antifungal activity was obtained for extracts of H. annulatum grown under CD conditions. Extracts of hairy roots clones A4 and 7 ATCC15834 of H. tomentosum and clone 2 ATCC15834 of H. tetrapterum displayed inhibition of 90% of Candida growth with 256 μg ml(-1). Extracts from chitosan-elicitated cells did not show antifungal activity.
Nur Laily Kurniawati, Alfin; Aulanni'am; Srihardyastutie, Arie; Safitri, Anna
The aim of this research is to study antidiabetic activity of root extract of Ruellia tuberosa L on rats (Rattus novergicus) induced by multiple-low dose streptozotocin as animal diabetic models. The parameters investigated were blood glucose levels, free radicals (MDA, malondialdehyde) levels and hepatic histopathology. The main materials used were n-hexane root extracts from Ruellia tuberosa L. Three groups of rats, including control group (group I), diabetic group (group II), and therapy group with Ruellia tuberosa L (group III), were used. Streptozotocin was given at multiple-low dose of 20 mg/kg of body weight for 5 times in 5 consecutive days i.p. to rats in groups II and III. The Ruellia tuberosa L extracts were then given orally for group III in the dose of 250 mg/kg of body weight per day for 3 weeks. Results of the current work showed that root extract Ruellia tuberosa L had lowered blood glucose levels on rats in group III by 60.3%, from 299.7 ± 24.7 mg/dL up to 119.0 ± 26.6 mg/dL. Moreover, the antidiabetic activity of Ruellia tuberosa L extracts also deduced from decrease of MDA levels in group III, from 3.5 ± 0.3 μg/mL up to 1.7 ± 0.4 μg/mL. The recovery of hepatic organ from treatment group has also been proven from the its histology profiles stained with hematoxylin-eosin.
Gbadamosi, I T; Egunyomi, A
In spite of the therapeutic importance of Aristolochia bracteolata Linn. in Nigerian ethnomedicine, it is largely collected from the wild. Owing to the acclaimed potency of the plant and the difficulty in treating candidiasis, the anticandidal activity and in vitro propagation of the plant were investigated. Phytochemical screening and preparation of extracts of the roots were done using standard procedures. Clinical isolates of Candida albicans were screened against extracts and essential oil of Aristolochia bracteolata root using agar-well diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the ethanol extract was determined using broth dilution method. The nodal cuttings of A. bracteolata were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal media. A. bracteolata contained alkaloids, saponins and cardenolides. The water extract was inactive on all isolates. The ethanol extract (500 mg/ml) and essential oil (undiluted) exhibited anticandidal activity on 9 out of 10 isolates at 10(1) - 10(6) cfu/ml inoculums concentration. Green growth and callus formation were observed in explants cultured on MS basal media after 30 days. A. bracteolata could be a source of anticandidal phytomedicine and the in vitro propagation confirmed its sustainability as anticandidal agent.
Frøkiær, Hanne; Henningsen, Louise; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng; Weiss, Gudrun; Roller, Marc; Flanagan, John; Fromentin, Emilie; Ibarra, Alvin
Many foods and food components boost the immune system, but little data are available regarding the mechanisms by which they do. Bacterial strains have disparate effects in stimulating the immune system. Indendritic cells, the gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli upregulates proinflammatory cytokines, whereas gram-positive Lactobacillus acidophilus induces a robust interferon (IFN)-β response. The immune-modulating effects of astragalus root and elderberry fruit extracts were examined in bone marrow-derived murine dendritic cells that were stimulated with L. acidophilus or E. coli. IFN-β and other cytokines were measured by ELISA and RT-PCR. Endocytosis of fluorescence-labeled dextran and L. acidophilus in the presence of elderberry fruit or astragalus root extract was evaluated in dendritic cells. Our results show that both extracts enhanced L. acidophilus-induced IFN-β production and slightly decreased the proinflammatory response to E. coli. The enhanced IFN-β production was associated with upregulation of toll-like receptor 3 and to a varying degree, the cytokines IL-12, IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α. Both extracts increased endocytosis in immature dendritic cells, and only slightly influenced the viability of the cells. In conclusion, astragalus root and elderberry fruit extracts increase the IFN-β inducing activity of L. acidophilus in dendritic cells, suggesting that they may exert antiviral and immune-enhancing activity. PMID:23118903
Li, Kejuan; Lei, Zhongfang; Hu, Xuansheng; Sun, Shuang; Li, Shuhong; Zhang, Zhenya
Helicteres angustifolia L. (H. angustifolia L.) has been used as traditional medicine in the treatment of cancer in China and Laos. Its medical benefits, however, are still lacking of scientific evidence. Two extracts successively obtained from the root of H. angustifolia L., namely the aqueous root extract (ARE) and the ethanolic root extract (ERE), were used to evaluate the antioxidant and anticancer activities in vitro, and the antitumor efficacy of ARE was examined in vivo, respectively. ARE and ERE were extracted successively from H. angustifolia L. root with water and ethanol. In vitro antioxidant activities were assessed by radicals scavenging assay, ferrous chelating assay and reducing power assay. In vitro anticancer activities of ARE and ERE were evaluated by their cytotoxic effects against three human cancer cell lines. In addition, the anti-tumor activities of ARE in vivo were assessed by using Ht1080 (human fibrosarcoma cell line Ht1080) tumor xenografts mice. BALB/c nude mice were orally administrated with 200mg/kg/d of ARE. The tumor inhibition rate was determined on day 42 after treatment by using histopathology analysis of the tumor tissues. Furthermore, relevant biochemical parameters in blood were analyzed to monitor their cytotoxic effect. In vitro assays indicated that ARE possessed relatively higher antioxidant and anticancer activities than ERE, with IC50 values of 82.31 ± 9.62, 62.50 ± 6.99, and 127.49 ± 2.9 μg/mL against DLD-1, A549, and HepG2 cells, respectively. In vivo tumor inhibition experiments suggested that ARE possessed significant antitumor efficacy in BALB/c nude mice with a tumor inhibition rate of 49.83 ± 14.38% (p<0.05) and little toxicity was observed to the host. ARE from H. angustifolia L. possessed high antioxidant activities is active against liver cancer HepG2, lung cancer A549 and colon cancer DLD-1 cells in vitro and tumor xenografts bearing BALB/c nude mice in vivo. Further studies on elucidation of the
Bhattacharjee, Payel; Bhattacharyya, Debasish
The aqueous extract of the roots of Aristolochia indica is used as a decoction for the ailment of a number of diseases including snake bite treatment. Though the alcoholic extract of the different parts of the plant are well studied, information on the aqueous extract is limited. We have estimated aristolochic acid, different enzymes, enzyme inhibitors and anti-snake venom potency of its root extract. Reverse phase-HPLC was used to quantify aristolochic acid. Zymography, DQ-gelatin assay and atomic force microscopy were done to demonstrate gelatinase and collagenase activities of the extract. SDS-PAGE followed by MS/MS analysis revealed the identity of major protein components. Toxicity of the extract was estimated on animal model. Interaction of the extract with Russell's viper venom components was followed by Rayleigh scattering and enzyme assay. The aristolochic acid content of the root extract is 3.08 ± 1.88 × 10(-3)mg/ml. The extract possesses strong gelatinolytic, collagenase, peroxidase and nuclease activities together with l-amino acid oxidase and protease inhibitory potencies. Partial proteomic studies indicated presence of starch branching enzymes as major protein constituent of the extract. The extract did not show any acute and sub-chronic toxicity in animals at lower doses, but high dose causes liver and kidney damage. The extract elongated duration of survival of animals after application of Russell's viper venom. Considering the low aristolochic acid content of the extract, its consumption for a short time at moderate dose does not appear to cause serious toxicity. Strong inhibition of l-amino acid oxidase may give partial relief from snake bite after topical application of the extract. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sebbar, M; Bourzgui, F
The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of root resorption during and at the end of orthodontic treatment and to assess its relationship with age, sex and treatment with or without extractions. Our study included 82 patients (51 women and 31 men) aged between 6 and 38 years, who received orthodontic treatment. Evaluation of root resorption was performed on panoramics at the beginning and at the end of orthodontic treatment. All the teeth were observed. The degree of root resorption was increased respectively by the standards in four ordinal levels (4). Data analysis was performed by Epi Info 6.0. Root resorption was present in all the teeth and maxillary incisors are the most affected. The correlation between age and root resorption was significant (p = 0.008). Women were more affected by resorption (P = 0.002). Patients treated with extraction showed more root resorption (p = 0.12). Our results suggest that orthodontic treatment is involved in the development of root resorption. The most often teeth resorbed are maxillary incisors. Age, sex and orthodontic extractions can be considered as risk factors for root resorption.
Shao, Li; Bao, Mei-Hua; Ouyang, Dong-Sheng; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Huang, Wei-Hua
Volatile oil from the root bark of Oplopanax horridus is regarded to be responsible for the clinical uses of the title plant as a respiratory stimulant and expectorant. Therefore, a supercritical fluid extraction method was first employed to extract the volatile oil from the roots bark of O. horridus, which was subsequently analyzed by GC/MS. Forty-eight volatile compounds were identified by GC/MS analysis, including (S,E)-nerolidol (52.5%), τ-cadinol (21.6%) and S-falcarinol (3.6%). Accordingly, the volatile oil (100 g) was subjected to chromatographic separation and purification. As a result, the three compounds, (E)-nerolidol (2 g), τ-cadinol (62 mg) and S-falcarinol (21 mg), were isolated and purified from the volatile oil, the structures of which were unambiguously elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis including 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques.
Ren, Gang; Liu, Rong-hua; Shao, Feng; Huang, Hui-lian; Wen, Li-rong
To study the technology optimization for extraction and purification of total flavones from root bark of Artocarpus styracifolius. The optimum extraction conditions were investigated by the contents of the total flavones, using orthogonal test; Static adsorption capacity and desorption rate were employed as examine items for the screening of optimum macroporous resin and optimum technology for the purification of total flavones with selected macroporous were also investigated. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: using 60% alcohol of seven times than amounts of original material soaking 12 hours,extracting once with hot reflux method at 50 degrees C. HPD-500 type macroporous resin showed better adsorption and desorption property. The optimum purification conditions were as follows: the sample solution was prepared at the concentration of 50.0 mg/mL, subjected to HPD-500 type macroporous resin column chromatography with a load ratio of 22.0 mg total flavones per gram of resin. After standing for 1 hour, the column was eluted with 4 BV water before being eluted with 4 BV 80% alcohol. The purity of the product was 86.4%, which enhanced the content of total flavones by 533%. The optimum conditions for extraction and purification of total flavones from root bark of Artocarpus styractifolius are convenient and practical, and could be used as a reference for industrial production.
Dioscorea Villosa (Wild Yam) Root Extract is an extract of the rhizomes of the wild yam, D. villosa. A manufacturing process was described in which cut up and ground rhizomes are combined with an eluant (e.g., oleyl alcohol), the plant material precipitated with addition of a miscible solvent, washed, and redissolved in the original eluant. The extract contains glycoside and steroidal saponins (< or =0.4%), diosgenin (< or =3.5%), alkaloids, tannins, phytosterols, and starch. Levels of heavy metals, 1,4-dioxane, chloroform, methylene chloride, trichloroethylene, and benzene are reported to be below limits of detection. Although only one use was reported to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (in a body and hand preparation), industry reported uses in body and hand creams, lotions, powders, and sprays at a concentration of 0.00001% (equivalent to 0.000002% plant solids), and in moisturizing creams, lotions, powders, and sprays at concentrations up to 15% (equivalent to 0.5% plant solids). Preparations fromD. villosaare used in herbal medicine for treatment of a variety of ailments and by the pharmaceutical industry in the preparation of steroids. Using Dioscorea Villosa (Wild Yam) Root Extract prepared via a specified process, it is possible to produce a stable extract with a narrow range of diosgenin content. The extract produced using this methodology was tested in acute and short-term toxicity tests, dermal irritation tests, a sensitization test, an ocular irritation test, a rat uterotropic assay, and genotoxicity tests. An acute oral toxicity test produced hypoactivity, piloerection, and dyspnea and a death in 1 of 10 rats at 2 g/kg using the specified extract, but no toxicity in rats given 0.5 g/kg. A dermal toxicity test using the specified extract demonstrated no acute toxicity in rats. Both a 7-day local tolerance test and a 28-day dermal toxicity test in rats produced no significant adverse effects at the maximum tested concentration of 10%. A single
Eluwa, Mokutima A.; Udoaffah, Matilda T.; Vulley, Moses B. G.; Ekanem, Theresa B.; Akpantah, Amabe O.; Asuquo, Olaitan A.; Ekong, Moses B.
Background: Rauwolfia vomitoria, a tropical shrub, is a medicinal plant used in the treatment of a variety of ailments. It is popular to the locals because of its anti-hypertensive and sedative properties. Aim: This is to find the probable teratogenic effects of ethanolic leaf and root bark extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria on the morphological and histological features of the fetal heart. Material and Methods: Twenty five female rats weighing between 170-200g were used for this study. The rats were divided into five groups labeled A, B, C, D and E, with each group consisting of five rats. Pregnancy was induced by caging the female rats with sexually matured males. The presence of vaginal plug and tail structures in the vaginal smear the following morning confirmed coition, and it was regarded as day 0 of pregnancy. Group A was given sham treatment of distilled water. Group B and C received respectively 150mg/kg and 250mg/kg body weight doses of ethanolic leaf extract of Rauwolfia vomitoria, and those in groups D and E received respectively 150mg/kg and 250mg/kg body weight doses of ethanolic root bark extract of Rauwolfia vomitoria. These treatments were on days 7-11 of gestation (5 days) with the aid of an orogastric tube. On the day 20 of gestation, the rats were sacrificed and the fetuses examined for gross anomalies, preserved and latter process for histological studies. Results: There were no mortality in this study, and no obvious gross malformations in the fetuses. Histological observations of the fetal heart showed marked distortion of the cardiac muscle nuclei and myocardial fibers in the treated groups particularly those whose mothers received 250mg/kg of the extracts. These effects were more pronounced in the groups whose mothers received the root extract when compared with the control and the groups whose mothers received the leaf extract. Conclusion: This result suggests that high doses of ethanolic leaf and root extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria may be
Eluwa, Mokutima A; Udoaffah, Matilda T; Vulley, Moses B G; Ekanem, Theresa B; Akpantah, Amabe O; Asuquo, Olaitan A; Ekong, Moses B
Rauwolfia vomitoria, a tropical shrub, is a medicinal plant used in the treatment of a variety of ailments. It is popular to the locals because of its anti-hypertensive and sedative properties. This is to find the probable teratogenic effects of ethanolic leaf and root bark extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria on the morphological and histological features of the fetal heart. Twenty five female rats weighing between 170-200g were used for this study. The rats were divided into five groups labeled A, B, C, D and E, with each group consisting of five rats. Pregnancy was induced by caging the female rats with sexually matured males. The presence of vaginal plug and tail structures in the vaginal smear the following morning confirmed coition, and it was regarded as day 0 of pregnancy. Group A was given sham treatment of distilled water. Group B and C received respectively 150mg/kg and 250mg/kg body weight doses of ethanolic leaf extract of Rauwolfia vomitoria, and those in groups D and E received respectively 150mg/kg and 250mg/kg body weight doses of ethanolic root bark extract of Rauwolfia vomitoria. These treatments were on days 7-11 of gestation (5 days) with the aid of an orogastric tube. On the day 20 of gestation, the rats were sacrificed and the fetuses examined for gross anomalies, preserved and latter process for histological studies. There were no mortality in this study, and no obvious gross malformations in the fetuses. Histological observations of the fetal heart showed marked distortion of the cardiac muscle nuclei and myocardial fibers in the treated groups particularly those whose mothers received 250mg/kg of the extracts. These effects were more pronounced in the groups whose mothers received the root extract when compared with the control and the groups whose mothers received the leaf extract. This result suggests that high doses of ethanolic leaf and root extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria may be cardiotoxic to the developing rat's heart.
Lombardo-Earl, Galia; Roman-Ramos, Rubén; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Herrera-Ruiz, Maribel; Rosas-Salgado, Gabriela; Tortoriello, Jaime; Jiménez-Ferrer, Enrique
Sechium edule is traditionally used in Mexico as a therapeutic resource against renal diseases and to control high blood pressure. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the antihypertensive effect of the hydroalcoholic extract obtained from the roots of this plant, including its fractions and subfractions, on different hypertension models induced with angiotensin II (AG II). The hydroalcoholic extract was tested on an in vitro study of isolated aorta rings denuded of endothelial cells, using AG II as the agonist; this assay proved the vasorelaxant effect of this extract. Vagotomized rats were administered different doses of AG II as well as the Hydroalcoholic extract, which reduced blood pressure in 30 mmHg approximately; subsequently this extract was separated into two fractions (acetone and methanol) which were evaluated in the acute hypertension mouse model induced with AG II, where the acetone fraction was identified as the most effective one and was subsequently subfractioned using an open chromatographic column packed with silica gel. The subfractions were also evaluated in the acute hypertension model. Finally, the extract, fraction, and active subfraction were analyzed by MS-PDA-HPLC, identifying cinnamic derivative compounds like cinnamic acid methyl ester. PMID:24812568
Plackal Adimuriyil George, Blassan; Tynga, Ivan Mfouo
Plants and plant derived products exert chemopreventive effects on various cancer cell lines by the induction of cell death mechanisms. The effects of root acetone extract of Rubus fairholmianus (RFRA) on the proliferation of human colorectal cancer (Caco-2) cells have been investigated in this study. The extract led to a dose dependent decrease in both viability and proliferation and increased cytotoxicity using trypan blue exclusion, adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. The morphological features of the treated cells were supportive for the antiproliferative activity. The Annexin V/propidium iodide staining indicated that R. fairholmianus induced toxic effects in Caco-2 cells and the percentages of the early and late apoptotic population significantly increased when compared with control cells. Also we studied the apoptosis inducing ability of the extract by analysing caspase 3/7 activity and the induction of cell death via the effector caspases was confirmed; the activity increased in treated cells compared with control. Thus the present findings highlight that the R. fairholmianus root acetone extract exhibits antiproliferative activity on Caco-2 cells by the induction of apoptosis via caspase dependent pathway. PMID:26078938
Sassi, Ahlem Ben; Skhiri, Fethia Harzallah; Chraief, Imed; Bourgougnon, Nathalie; Hammami, Mohamed; Aouni, Mahjoub
The essential oils from the leaves, stems and roots of Chrysanthemum trifurcatum (Desf.) Batt. and Trab. var. macrocephalum (viv.) were obtained by hydrodistillation and their chemical compositions were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), in order to get insight into similarities and differences as to their active composition. A total of fifty compounds were identified, constituting 97.84%, 99.02% and 98.20% of total oil composition of the leaves, stems and roots, respectively. Monoterpene hydrocarbons were shown to be the main group of constituents of the leaves and stems parts in the ratio of 67.88% and 51.29%, respectively. But, the major group in the roots oil was found to be sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (70.30%). The main compounds in leaves oil were limonene (26.83%), γ-terpinene (19.68%), α-pinene (9.7%) and α-terpenyl acetate (7.16%). The stems oil, contains mainly limonene (32.91%), 4-terpenyl acetate (16.33%) and γ-terpinene (5.93%), whereas the main compounds in roots oil were α-calacorene (25.98%), α-cedrene (16.55%), β-bourbobene (14.91%), elemol (7.45%) and 2-hexenal (6.88%). The crude organic extracts of leaves, stems and roots, obtained by maceration with solvents of increasing polarity: petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol, contained tannins, flavonoids and alkaloids. Meanwhile, essential oils and organic extracts were tested for antibacterial activities against eight Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains, using a microdilution method. The oil and methanolic extact from C. trifurcatum leaves showed a great potential of antibacterial effect against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus epidermidis, with an IC50 range of 31.25-62.5 µg/ml.
Rentz, Jeremy A; Alvarez, Pedro J J; Schnoor, Jerald L
Benzo[a]pyrene, a high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) was removed from solution by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02 while growing on root products as a primary carbon and energy source. Plant root extracts of osage orange (Maclura pomifera), hybrid willow (Salix albaxmatsudana), or kou (Cordia subcordata), or plant root exudates of white mulberry (Morus alba) supported 15-20% benzo[a]pyrene removal over 24 h that was similar to a succinate grown culture and an unfed acetonitrile control. No differences were observed between the different root products tested. Mineralization of (14)C-7-benzo[a]pyrene by S. yanoikuyae JAR02 yielded 0.2 to 0.3% (14)CO(2) when grown with plant root products. Collectively, these observations were consistent with field observations of enhanced phytoremediation of HMW PAH and corroborated the hypothesis that co-metabolism may be a plant/microbe interaction important to rhizoremediation. However, degradation and mineralization was much less for root product-exposed cultures than salicylate-induced cultures, and suggested the rhizosphere may not be an optimal environment for HMW PAH degradation by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae JAR02.
Mandukhail, Saf-ur Rehman; Aziz, Nauman; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan
The objective of present study was to provide the pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of Morinda citrifolia Linn in dyslipidemia using the aqueous-ethanolic extracts of its fruits (Mc.Cr.F), leaves (Mc.Cr.L) and roots (Mc.Cr.R). Mc.Cr.F, Mc.Cr.L and Mc.Cr.R showed antidyslipidemic effects in both triton (WR-1339) and high fat diet-induced dyslipidemic rat models to variable extents. All three extracts caused reduction in total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in triton-induced dyslipidemia. In high fat diet-induced dyslipidemia all these extracts caused significant reduction in total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), atherogenic index and TC/HDL ratio. Mc.Cr.R extract also caused increase in high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). The Mc.Cr.L and Mc.Cr.R reduced gain in body weight with a reduction in daily diet consumption but Mc.Cr.F had no effect on body weight and daily diet consumption. These data indicate that the antidyslipidemic effect of the plant extracts was meditated through the inhibition of biosynthesis, absorption and secretion of lipids. This may be possibly due partly to the presence of antioxidant constituents in this plant. Therefore, this study rationalizes the medicinal use of Morinda citrifolia in dyslipidemia.
Pan, Min-Hsiung; Wu, Jia-Ching; Ho, Chi-Tang; Badmaev, Vladimir
Background Immunity and Longevity Methods A water extract of Curcuma longa (L.) [vern. Turmeric] roots (TurmericImmune™) standardized for a minimum 20 % of turmeric polysaccharides ukonan A, B, C and D was evaluated for its biological properties in in vitro tissue culture studies. Results The water extract of turmeric (TurP) exhibited induced-nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 macrophages. These results suggested the immunomodulatory effects of TurP. In addition, the polysaccharides up-regulated function of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) equally to the phenolic compound from turmeric, curcumin. Conclusions The ukonan family of polysaccharides may assist in promoting cellular immune responses, tissue repair and lifespan by enhancing immune response and telomere function.
Friedl, Roswitha; Moeslinger, Thomas; Kopp, Brigitte; Spieckermann, Paul Gerhard
In this study, we investigated the effect of Panax ginseng root aqueous extracts upon inducible nitric oxide synthesis in RAW 264.7 cells. Panax ginseng root extract has been used in the Asian world for centuries as a traditional herb to enhance physical strength and resistance and is becoming more and more popular in Europe and North America. Incubation of murine macrophages (RAW 264.7 cells) with increasing amounts of aqueous extracts of Panax ginseng (0.05 – 0.8 μg μl−1) showed a dose dependent stimulation of inducible nitric oxide synthesis. Polysaccharides isolated from Panax ginseng showed strong stimulation of inducible nitric oxide synthesis, whereas a triterpene-enriched fraction from an aqueous extract of Panax ginseng did not show any stimulation. Inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression was enhanced in a dose dependent manner as revealed by immunoblotting when cells were incubated with increasing amounts of Panax ginseng extract. This was associated with an incline in inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA-levels as determined by semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction and electromobility shift assay studies indicated enhanced nuclear factor-κB DNA binding activity. As nitric oxide plays an important role in immune function, Panax ginseng treatment could modulate several aspects of host defense mechanisms due to stimulation of the inducible nitric oxide synthase. PMID:11739242
Yu, H J; Jia, P; Lv, Z; Qiu, L X
The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the long-term clinical outcomes of mature third molar autotransplantation in surgically created sockets and fresh extraction sockets with regard to survival and functional success rates. A total of 65 third molars with completely formed roots were autotransplanted in 60 patients (average age 33.1 years). Thirty-six of the teeth were autotransplanted into surgically created sockets with or without guided bone regeneration (GBR; delayed autotransplantation), while 29 were autotransplanted into fresh extraction sockets (immediate autotransplantation; control group). All patients underwent annual clinical and radiographic examinations (average follow-up 9.9 years, range 7-13 years). The survival rates for the control, GBR, and no GBR groups were 93.1%, 95.2%, and 80.0%, respectively, with no significant differences among the groups. There were no statistically significant differences among the groups with regard to the frequency of inflammatory root resorption or root ankylosis. Age did not influence the clinical outcomes. These results suggest that the autotransplantation of third molars with completely formed roots is effective in both surgically created and fresh extraction sockets and provides a high long-term success rate if cases are selected and treated appropriately. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ganguly, Bhaskar; Umapathi, Vijaypillai; Rastogi, Sunil Kumar
Infectious Bursal Disease is a severe viral disease of chicken responsible for serious economic losses to poultry farmers. The causative agent, Infectious Bursal Disease virus, is inhibited by nitric oxide. Root extract of the Indian ginseng, Withania somnifera , inhibits Infectious Bursal Disease virus in vitro. Also, Withania somnifera root extract is known to induce nitric oxide production in vitro. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to determine if the inhibitory activity of Withania somnifera against Infectious Bursal Disease virus was based on the production of nitric oxide. We show that besides other mechanisms, the inhibition of Infectious Bursal Disease virus by Withania somnifera involves the production of nitric oxide. Our results also highlight the paradoxical role of nitric oxide in the pathogenesis of Infectious Bursal Disease.
The in vitro behaviors of infective juveniles (J2) of Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita were compared in the presence and absence of plant root extracts. In an agar plate attraction-retention assay, H. glycines was 15-fold more responsive to a chemical attractant (CaCl2; P < 0.05) than w...
Wu, Qian; Pagès, Loïc; Wu, Jie
Background and Aims Root diameter, especially apical diameter, plays an important role in root development and function. The variation in diameter between roots, and along roots, affects root structure and thus the root system’s overall foraging performance. However, the effect of diameter variation on root elongation, branching and topological connections has not been examined systematically in a population of high-order roots, nor along the roots, especially for mature plants grown in the field. Methods A method combining both excavation and analysis was applied to extract and quantify root architectural traits of adult, field-grown maize plants. The relationships between root diameter and other root architectural characteristics are analysed for two maize cultivars. Key Results The basal diameter of the lateral roots (orders 1–3) was highly variable. Basal diameter was partly determined by the diameter of the bearing segment. Basal diameter defined a potential root length, but the lengths of most roots fell far short of this. This was explained partly by differences in the pattern of diameter change along roots. Diameter tended to decrease along most roots, with the steepness of the gradient of decrease depending on basal diameter. The longest roots were those that maintained (or sometimes increased) their diameters during elongation. The branching density (cm–1) of laterals was also determined by the diameter of the bearing segment. However, the location of this bearing segment along the mother root was also involved – intermediate positions were associated with higher densities of laterals. Conclusions The method used here allows us to obtain very detailed records of the geometry and topology of a complex root system. Basal diameter and the pattern of diameter change along a root were associated with its final length. These relationships are especially useful in simulations of root elongation and branching in source–sink models. PMID:26744490
Wang, Ping; Niu, Guo-Yue; Fang, Yuan-Hao; Wu, Run-Jian; Yu, Jing-Jie; Yuan, Guo-Fu; Pozdniakov, Sergey P.; Scott, Russell L.
Widely distributed in arid and semiarid regions, phreatophytic roots extend into the saturated zone and extract water directly from groundwater. In this paper, we implemented a vegetation optimality model of root dynamics (VOM-ROOT) in the Noah land surface model with multiparameterization options (Noah-MP LSM) to model the extraction of groundwater through phreatophytic roots at a riparian site with a hyperarid climate (with precipitation of 35 mm/yr) in northwestern China. VOM-ROOT numerically describes the natural optimization of the root profile in response to changes in subsurface water conditions. The coupled Noah-MP/VOM-ROOT model substantially improves the simulation of surface energy and water fluxes, particularly during the growing season, compared to the prescribed static root profile in the default Noah-MP. In the coupled model, more roots are required to grow into the saturated zone to meet transpiration demand when the groundwater level declines over the growing season. The modeling results indicate that at the study site, the modeled annual transpiration is 472 mm, accounting for 92.3% of the total evapotranspiration. Direct root water uptake from the capillary fringe and groundwater, which is supplied by lateral groundwater flow, accounts for approximately 84% of the total transpiration. This study demonstrates the importance of implementing a dynamic root scheme in a land surface model for adequately simulating phreatophytic root water uptake and the associated latent heat flux.
Haghgoo, Roza; Mehran, Majid; Afshari, Elahe; Zadeh, Hamide Farajian; Ahmadvand, Motahare
The aims of the present study were to determine and compare the effects of different concentrations of Althaea officinalis extract, 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX), and penicillin on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus in vitro . The laboratory study was done, for a period of 8 weeks. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in the test tube, minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) in a plate culture medium, and growth inhibition zone diameter methods were used to compare the antibacterial effects of 0.2% CHX, penicillin, and different concentrations of A. officinalis root extract. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 24 using ANOVA and t -test analysis. The results showed A. officinalis root extract had antibacterial effect, but significant differences were in MIC and MBC against L. acidophilus and S. mutans with penicillin and 0.2% CHX mouthwash. In addition, the mean growth inhibition zones of all the concentrations of the plant extract were less than that of the positive control group ( P = 0.001). However, the difference in the maximum growth inhibition zone from that with the negative control group was significant. In addition, the antibacterial effect of the extract increased with an increase in its concentration. The extract exerted a greater antibacterial effect on S. mutans than on L. acidophilus . The plant polyphenols content is 3.7% which is equivalent to 29.93 g/ml. The root extract of A. officinalis exhibited antibacterial effects on S. mutans and L. acidophilus , but this effect was less than those of CHX mouthwash and penicillin. The antibacterial effect increased with an increase in the concentration of the extract.
Gomes, A; Saha, Archita; Chatterjee, Ipshita; Chakravarty, A K
We reported previously that the methanolic root extract of the Indian medicinal plant Pluchea indica Less. (Asteraceae) could neutralize viper venom-induced action [Alam, M.I., Auddy, B., Gomes, A., 1996. Viper venom neutralization by Indian medicinal plant (Hemidesmus indicus and P. indica) root extracts. Phytother. Res. 10, 58-61]. The present study reports the neutralization of viper and cobra venom by beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol isolated from the root extract of P. indica Less. (Asteraceae). The active fraction (containing the major compound beta-sitosterol and the minor compound stigmasterol) was isolated and purified by silica gel column chromatography and the structure was determined using spectroscopic analysis (EIMS, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR). Anti-snake venom activity was studied in experimental animals. The active fraction was found to significantly neutralize viper venom-induced lethal, hemorrhagic, defibrinogenation, edema and PLA(2) activity. Cobra venom-induced lethality, cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity, respiratory changes and PLA(2) activity were also antagonized by the active component. It potentiated commercial snake venom antiserum action against venom-induced lethality in male albino mice. The active fraction could antagonize venom-induced changes in lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase activity. This study suggests that beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol may play an important role, along with antiserum, in neutralizing snake venom-induced actions.
Dong, T T X; Zhao, K J; Huang, W Z; Leung, K W; Tsim, K W K
The root of Panax notoginseng (Radix Notoginseng, Sanqi) is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine, which is mainly cultivated in Wenshan of Yunnan China. The identified active constituents in Radix Notoginseng include saponin, ssavonoid and polysaccharide; however, the levels of these active constituents vary greatly with different extraction processes. This variation causes a serious problem in standardizing the herbal extract. By using HPLC and spectrophotometry, the contents of notoginsenoside R(1), ginsenoside R(g1), R(b1), R(d), and ssavonoids were determined in the extracts of Radix Notoginseng that were derived from different processes of extraction according to an orthogonal array experimental design having three variable parameters: nature of extraction solvent, extraction volume and extraction time. The nature of extraction solvent and extraction volume were two distinct factors in obtaining those active constituents, while the time of extraction was a subordinate factor. The optimized condition of extraction therefore is considered to be 20 volumes of water and extracted for 24 h. In good agreement with the amount of active constituents, the activity of anti-platelet aggregation was found to be the highest in the extract that contained a better yield of the active constituents. The current results provide an optimized extraction method for the quality control of Radix Notoginseng. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Shang, Hongmei; Zhou, Haizhu; Duan, Mengying; Li, Ran; Wu, Hongxin; Lou, Yujie
This study was designed to investigate the extraction conditions of polysaccharides from comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) root (CRPs) using response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of three variables including liquid-solid ratio, extraction time and extraction temperature on the extraction yield of CRPs were taken into consideration. Moreover, the effects of drying methods including hot air drying (HD), vacuum drying (VD) and freeze drying (FD) on the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of CRPs were evaluated. The optimal conditions to extract the polysaccharides were as follows: liquid-solid ratio (15mL/g), extraction time (74min), and extraction temperature (95°C), allowed a maximum polysaccharides yield of 22.87%. Different drying methods had significant effects on the physicochemical properties of CRPs such as the chemical composition (contents of total polysaccharides and uronic acid), relative viscosity, solubility and molecular weight. CRPs drying with FD method showed stronger reducing power and radical scavenging capacities against DPPH and ABTS radicals compared with CRPs drying with HD and VD methods. Therefore, freeze drying served as a good method for keeping the antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from comfrey root. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Background The objective of present study was to provide the pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of Morinda citrifolia Linn in dyslipidemia using the aqueous-ethanolic extracts of its fruits (Mc.Cr.F), leaves (Mc.Cr.L) and roots (Mc.Cr.R). Results Mc.Cr.F, Mc.Cr.L and Mc.Cr.R showed antidyslipidemic effects in both triton (WR-1339) and high fat diet-induced dyslipidemic rat models to variable extents. All three extracts caused reduction in total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in triton-induced dyslipidemia. In high fat diet-induced dyslipidemia all these extracts caused significant reduction in total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), atherogenic index and TC/HDL ratio. Mc.Cr.R extract also caused increase in high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). The Mc.Cr.L and Mc.Cr.R reduced gain in body weight with a reduction in daily diet consumption but Mc.Cr.F had no effect on body weight and daily diet consumption. Conclusions These data indicate that the antidyslipidemic effect of the plant extracts was meditated through the inhibition of biosynthesis, absorption and secretion of lipids. This may be possibly due partly to the presence of antioxidant constituents in this plant. Therefore, this study rationalizes the medicinal use of Morinda citrifolia in dyslipidemia. PMID:20727145
Ahangarpour, Akram; Heidari, Hamid; Oroojan, Ali Akbar; Mirzavandi, Farhang; Nasr Esfehani, Khalil; Dehghan Mohammadi, Zeinab
Arctium lappa (burdock), (A. lappa) root has hypoglycemic and antioxidative effects, and has been used for treatment of diabetes in tradition medicine. This study was conducted to evaluate the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic properties of A. lappa root extract on nicotinamide-streptozotocin (NA-STZ)-induced type2 diabetes in mice. In this investigation, 70 adult male NMRI mice (30-35g) randomly divided into 7 groups (n=10) as follow: 1-control, 2-type 2 diabetic mice, 3-diabetic mice that received glibenclamide (0.25 mg/kg) as an anti-diabetic drug, 4, 5, 6 and 7- diabetic and normal animals that were pre-treated with 200 and 300 mg/kg A. lappa root extract, respectively, for 28 days. Diabetes has been induced by intraperitoneal injection of NA and STZ. Finally, the blood sample was taken and insulin, glucose, SGOT, SGPT, alkaline phosphatase, leptin and lipid levels was evaluated. Induction of diabetes decreased the level of insulin, leptin and high density lipoprotein (HDL) and increased the level of other lipids, glucose, and hepatic enzymes significantly (p<0.05). Administration of both doses of the extract significantly decreased the level of triglyceride, very low density lipoprotein, glucose and alkaline phosphatase in diabetic mice (p<0.05). Insulin levels increased in animals treated with 200 mg/kg (p<0.05) and HDL and leptin levels increased in animals treated with 300 mg/kg of the extract (p<0.01). The results showed that A. lappa root extract, at specific doses, has an anti-diabetic effect through its hypolipidemic and insulinotropic properties. Hence, this plant extract may be beneficial in the treatment of diabetes.
Aliyu, Abubakar B; Ibrahim, Mohammed A; Musa, Aliyu M; Musa, Aisha O; Kiplimo, Joyce J; Oyewale, Adebayo O
Antioxidants activities from plants sources have attracted a wide range of interest across the world in recent times. This is due to growing concern for safe and alternative sources of antioxidants. The free radical scavenging activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), reducing power assay, total antioxidant capacity of the phosphomolybdenum method and the total phenolics content using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent were carried out on the acetone, n-butanol and methanol root extracts of Anchomanes difformis. The results of the total phenolics content expressed in mg/100 g of gallic acid equivalent (GAE) showed that the n-butanol extract has significantly (p < 0.05) higher phenolics content (381 +/- 1.13) than the methanol and acetone extracts. All the extracts displayed strong concentration dependent radical scavenging activity. It was also observed that the n-butanol extract showed higher activity of 70.87% and 78.59% at low concentrations of 31.25 microg/mL and 62.5 microg/mL, respectively, than methanol and acetone extracts. The results also showed that the n-butanol extract has strongest reducing ability which is comparable to that of gallic acid at all the concentrations tested. Phytochemical screening on the extracts revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, and tannins. The results suggest that n-butanol extract of the plant is very rich in antioxidant compounds worthy of further investigations.
David K. Weaver; Carl D. Wells; Florence V. Dunkel; Wolfgang Bertsch; Sharlene E. Sing; Shobha Sriharan
Experiments were conducted to determine speed of action and toxicities of extracts of Tagetes minuta L., a source of naturally occurring insecticidal compounds. LC50 values for male and female Mexican bean weevils, Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman), were determined for floral, foliar, and root extracts of T. minuta. The 24-h LC50 values ranged from 138 Î¼ g/cm2 for males...
Lobet, Guillaume; Pound, Michael P; Diener, Julien; Pradal, Christophe; Draye, Xavier; Godin, Christophe; Javaux, Mathieu; Leitner, Daniel; Meunier, Félicien; Nacry, Philippe; Pridmore, Tony P; Schnepf, Andrea
The number of image analysis tools supporting the extraction of architectural features of root systems has increased in recent years. These tools offer a handy set of complementary facilities, yet it is widely accepted that none of these software tools is able to extract in an efficient way the growing array of static and dynamic features for different types of images and species. We describe the Root System Markup Language (RSML), which has been designed to overcome two major challenges: (1) to enable portability of root architecture data between different software tools in an easy and interoperable manner, allowing seamless collaborative work; and (2) to provide a standard format upon which to base central repositories that will soon arise following the expanding worldwide root phenotyping effort. RSML follows the XML standard to store two- or three-dimensional image metadata, plant and root properties and geometries, continuous functions along individual root paths, and a suite of annotations at the image, plant, or root scale at one or several time points. Plant ontologies are used to describe botanical entities that are relevant at the scale of root system architecture. An XML schema describes the features and constraints of RSML, and open-source packages have been developed in several languages (R, Excel, Java, Python, and C#) to enable researchers to integrate RSML files into popular research workflow. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.
Kalachaveedu, Mangathayaru; Raghavan, Divya; Telapolu, Srivani; Kuruvilla, Sarah; Kedike, Balakrishna
The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled ' Phyto estrogenic effect of Inula racemosa Hook. f - A cardio protective root drug in traditional medicine, (Mangathayaru K, Divya R, Srivani T et al., 2018) . It describes the characterization details of the root extract and the compounds isolated from them that were shown to be phytoestrogenic in vivo and in vitro respectively.
Tan, Li-Hong; Zhang, Dan; Yu, Bao; Zhao, Sheng-Ping; Wang, Jian-Wei; Yao, Ling; Cao, Wei-Guo
Polysaccharide extraction from Dipsacus asperoides roots (DAP) was proved to possess strong antioxidant activities, including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-Azobis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activities, inhibiting β-carotene bleaching and strong reducing power. Cell assay demonstrated that the crude DAP possessed antioxidant activity and were effective against H2O2-induced L02 cells injury. Then, response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the ultrasonic extraction of DAP. The optimum variables given by central composite design (CCD) were as follows: ratio of water to raw material, 38.61mL/g; ultrasonic power, 308.68W; extraction time, 38.61min; and extraction temperature, 89°C. Under these conditions, the maximum yield of DAP obtained was 7.12±0.45%. Moreover, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis suggested that the monosaccharide compositions of DAP contained primarily mannose, ribose, glucose, galactose, xylose and arabinose, with a molar ratio of 0.22:0.48:2.29:0.34:1.39:1.41. The results of the present study showed that DAP could be considered as potential sources of natural antioxidants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sunwoo, Hoon H; Kim, Chong-Tai; Kim, Do-Yeon; Maeng, Jin-Soo; Cho, Chang-Won; Lee, Soo-Jeong
A combination of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and enzymatic hydrolysis (HHP-EH) was applied for the extraction of ginsenosides from fresh ginseng roots (Panax ginseng C.A. Myer). The highest yield of ginsenosides was obtained by using a mixture of three enzymes (Celluclast + Termamyl + Viscozyme) along with HHP (100 MPa, at 50 °C for 12 h) in comparison to control samples (no enzymes, atmosphere pressure, P < 0.05). Total ginsenosides increased by 184% while Rg1 + Rb1 increased by 273%. Application of these conditions significantly increased total ginsenosides by 49% and Rg1 + Rb1 by 103% compared to HHP treatment alone (P < 0.05). The effect of HHP on increased yield of ginsenosides is likely due in part, to acceleration of enzyme activity. Thus HHP-EH significantly improves the extraction of ginsenosides from fresh ginseng roots.
Kusuma, H. S.; Altway, A.; Mahfud, M.
In this study the extraction of essential oil from vetiver roots (Vetiveria zizanioides) has been carried out by using microwave hydrodistillation. In the extraction of vetiver oil using microwave hydrodistillation method is studied the effect of microwave power, feed to solvent (F/S) ratio and extraction time on the yield of vetiver oil. Besides, in this study can be seen that microwave hydrodistillation method offers important advantages over hydrodistillation, such as shorter extraction time (3 h vs. 24 h for hydrodistillation); better yields (0.49% vs. 0.46% for hydrodistillation); and environmental impact (energy cost is appreciably higher for performing hydrodistillation than that required for extraction using microwave hydrodistillation). Based on the analysis using GC-MS can be seen 19 components on vetiver oil that has been extracted using microwave hydrodistillation. In addition, GC-MS analysis showed that the main components of vetiver oil that has been extracted using microwave hydrodistillation method were β-Gurjunene (30.12%), α-Vetivone (20.12%), 4-(1-cyclohexenyl)-2-trimethylsilymethyl-1-buten-3-yne (13.52%) and δ-Selinene (7.27%).
Rashmi, Venkatasubbaiah; Sanjay, Konasur R
Consistent search of plants for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (SNPs) is an important arena in Nanomedicine. This study focuses on synthesis of SNPs using bioreduction of silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ) by aqueous root extract of Decalepis hamiltonii . The biosynthesis of SNPs was monitored by UV-vis analysis at absorbance maxima 432 nm. The fluorescence emission spectra of SNPs illustrated the broad emission peak 450-483 nm at different excitation wavelengths. The surface characteristics were studied by scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscopy, showed spherical shape of SNPs and dynamic light scattering analysis confirmed the average particle size 32.5 nm and the presence of metallic silver was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray. Face centred cubic structure with crystal size 33.3 nm was revealed by powder X-ray diffraction. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated the biomolecules involved in the reduction mainly polyols and phenols present in root extracts were found to be responsible for the synthesis of SNPs. The stability and charge on SNPs were revealed by zeta potential analysis. In addition, on therapeutic forum, the synthesised SNPs elicit antioxidant and antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus , Bacillus licheniformis , Escherichia coli , Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus .
Pai, Ar Vivekananda; Khosla, Manak
This case report illustrates determination of prognosis and immediate resection carried out, before completing the endodontic therapy, during the surgery employed for managing a nonperiodontal problem. This case showed external pressure resorption in the distobuccal root of maxillary second molar caused by the impingement of impacted third molar. Extraction of third molar was decided when healing was not seen, despite initiating endodontic therapy in second molar. Following elevation of flap and extraction of third molar, the poor prognosis due to severe bone loss around the resorbed root was evident. But due to strategic value of second molar, it was found beneficial to employ resection. Therefore, immediate resection was carried out in the same surgical field before the completion of endodontic therapy. This prevented the need for another surgical entry with its associated trauma to carry out resection separately later. Resection followed by the completion of endodontic therapy and full crown assisted in salvaging the remaining functional portion of the tooth and prevented the occurrence of distal extension with its potential drawbacks.
Cele, Nkosinathi David; Sangweni, Nonhlakanipho Felicia; Lazarus, Geraldine Genevive; Singh, Moganavelli; Zharare, Godfrey Elijah; Opoku, Andy Rowland
The traditional use of medicinal plants in the management of sexual dysfunctions has a long history. This study investigated testicular dysfunction ameliorative effect of the methanolic roots extracts of Maytenus procumbens and Ozoroa paniculosa in a butanol-induced testicular dysfunction rat model. The rats in respective experimental groups were orally administered with the extract at 50 and 250 mg/kg bw, daily for 28 days. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was evaluated against HEK293, MCF-7, and HT29 cell lines. The extracts exhibited moderate (LC50 30.3–330.2 μg/mL) to weak (LC50 200.8–438.4 μg/mL) cytotoxicity level on the cancer and normal cells, respectively. While relatively lower serum testosterone levels and total sperm count along with decreased numbers of spermatogonia were noted in the untreated group, all these parameters were improved in the groups treated with the extracts at 250 mg/kg. Improved histomorphological changes of the testes were also observed when compared to the untreated group. While the extracts (at 250 mg/kg) increased serum reduced glutathione content and decreased malondialdehyde content, a relatively higher serum creatinine level was also observed in the treated animals group. The results indicate that the two plant extracts have potential to ameliorate testicular dysfunction. PMID:29348775
Scheibel, Paula Cabrini; Ramos, Adilson Luiz; Iwaki, Lilian Cristina Vessoni; Micheletti, Kelly Regina
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between initial alveolar bone density of upper central incisors (ABD-UI) and external apical root resorption (EARR) after 12 months of orthodontic movement in cases without extraction. METHODS: A total of 47 orthodontic patients 11 years old or older were submitted to periapical radiography of upper incisors prior to treatment (T1) and after 12 months of treatment (T2). ABD-UI and EARR were measured by means of densitometry. RESULTS: No statistically significant correlation was found between initial ABD-UI and EARR at T2 (r = 0.149; p = 0.157). CONCLUSION: Based on the present findings, alveolar density assessed through periapical radiography is not predictive of root resorption after 12 months of orthodontic treatment in cases without extraction. PMID:25715722
Pound, Michael P.; Pradal, Christophe; Draye, Xavier; Godin, Christophe; Leitner, Daniel; Meunier, Félicien; Pridmore, Tony P.; Schnepf, Andrea
The number of image analysis tools supporting the extraction of architectural features of root systems has increased in recent years. These tools offer a handy set of complementary facilities, yet it is widely accepted that none of these software tools is able to extract in an efficient way the growing array of static and dynamic features for different types of images and species. We describe the Root System Markup Language (RSML), which has been designed to overcome two major challenges: (1) to enable portability of root architecture data between different software tools in an easy and interoperable manner, allowing seamless collaborative work; and (2) to provide a standard format upon which to base central repositories that will soon arise following the expanding worldwide root phenotyping effort. RSML follows the XML standard to store two- or three-dimensional image metadata, plant and root properties and geometries, continuous functions along individual root paths, and a suite of annotations at the image, plant, or root scale at one or several time points. Plant ontologies are used to describe botanical entities that are relevant at the scale of root system architecture. An XML schema describes the features and constraints of RSML, and open-source packages have been developed in several languages (R, Excel, Java, Python, and C#) to enable researchers to integrate RSML files into popular research workflow. PMID:25614065
Yan, J.; Ghezzehei, T. A.
The rhizosphere is the region of soil that surrounds by individual plant roots. While its small volume and narrow region compared to bulk soil, the rhizosphere regulates numerous processes that determine physical structure, nutrient distribution, and biodiversity of soils. One of the most important and distinct functions of the rhizosphere is the capacity of roots to bridge and redistribute soil water from wet soil layers to drier layers. This process was identified and defined as hydraulic lift or hydraulic redistribution, a passive process driven by gradients in water potentials and it has attracted much research attention due to its important role in global water circulation and agriculture security. However, while previous studies mostly focused on the hydrological or physiological impacts of hydraulic redistribution, limited research has been conducted to elucidate its role in nutrient cycling and uptake. In this study, we aim to test the possibility of utilizing hydraulic redistribution to facilitate the nutrient movement and uptake from resource segregated zone. Our overarching hypothesis is that plants can extract nutrients from the drier but nutrient-rich regions by supplying sufficient amounts of water from the wet but nutrient-deficient regions. To test our hypothesis, we designed split-root systems of tomatoes with unequal supply of water and nutrients in different root compartments. More specifically, we transplanted tomato seedlings into sand or soil mediums, and grew them under conditions with alternate 12-h lightness and darkness. We continuously monitored the temperature, water and nutrient content of soils in these separated compartments. The above and below ground biomass were also quantified to evaluate the impacts on the plant growth. The results were compared to a control with evenly supply of water and nutrients to assess the plant growth, nutrient leaching and uptake without hydraulic redistribution.
Okolie, Ngozi Paulinus; Falodun, Abiodun; Davids, Oluseyi
The antioxidant properties of ethanolic root extract of pepper fruit (Donnetia tripetala), and its effect on lipid peroxidation of some fresh beef tissues during frozen storage were investigated. The antioxidant parameters were assessed using standard methods, while malondialdehyde levels of different fresh beef tissue sections treated with the extract prior to freezing, were estimated in a colorimetric reaction with thiobarbituric acid. The H2O2-scavenging ability of the extract was similar to that of ascorbic acid, with a maximum scavenging power of 55.61 ±4.98%, and an IC50 value of 86µg/ml. The extract exhibited a concentration-dependent ferric ion-reducing power, although this was significantly lower relative to that of the ascorbic acid (p < 0.05). The total phenolic content was 212.5 ± 0.002 mg/g, while the nitric oxide-scavenging ability was 64.33 ± 0.2% after 150 min. The capacity of the extract to inhibit lipid peroxidation in frozen heart muscle slices was significantly higher than that of vitamin C (p < 0 .05), but comparable to vitamins C and E in frozen testes and kidney slices. These results suggest that the root extract of D. tripetala is rich in antioxidants which can be applied to meat preservation during refrigerated storage.
Nguyen, Khanh; Sparks, Jean; Omoruyi, Felix O
Ligusticum porteri is a traditional Native American herb. The roots of L. porteri are traditionally used in the treatment of many diseases, however, its cytotoxicity, antioxidative and immune-modulatory effects need to be investigated. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the root extract at different doses on human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). The lymphocytes were incubated with different concentrations of the root extracts (0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 μg/mL) and harvested every 6 h for 2 d (P<0.05). The protective effect of the herb against oxidative damage was determined by inducing oxidative stress with the administration of 50 μmol/L of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). Treatments with L. porteri at 200 and 400 μg/mL increased the viability of PBLs. The deleterious effect of H 2 O 2 was ameliorated by 400 μg/mL L. porteri treatment. Addition of 400 μg/mL L. porteri reduced lipid peroxidation in stressed PBLs by 94% (P<0.05). Treatment with 400 μg/mL of L. porteri resulted in a 26.4% increase of reduced glutathione levels. Activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase increased by 17.5% and 55.2% respectively, when stressed PBLs were treated with 400 μg/mL L. porteri for 2 d (P<0.05). Treatment with 400 μg/mL L. porteri increased interferon-γ and interleukin-2 expressions in H 2 O 2 -challenged PBLs (P<0.05), however, the root extract did not cause a significant difference in interleukin-10 levels compared to the control (P>0.05). The findings suggest that L. porteri might be a potential immune-modulating agent involving protective effects against oxidative damage.
Kasangana, Pierre Betu; Haddad, Pierre Selim; Stevanovic, Tatjana
In order to evaluate the therapeutic potential of polyphenolic extracts from root bark of M. arboreus, we have determined the content of various polyphenols in aqueous and ethanol (EtOH) extract as well as two sub-fractions of the latter: ethyl acetate (EAc) and hexane (Hex). The total phenols, flavonoids, hydroxycinnamic acids and proanthocyanidins have been determined for all studied extracts/fractions by spectrophotometric methods. Both TP content (331.5 ± 2.5 mg GAE/g) and HCA content (201 ± 1.5 mg CAE/g) were determined to be the highest in EAc fraction of EtOH extract. All studied extracts were however determined to have a low content in flavonoids. The determination of antioxidant capacities of the studied extracts has also been performed by the following in vitro antioxidant tests: DPPH scavenging, phosphomolybdenum method and oxygen radical absorbance (ORACFl and ORACPRG) assay. The results of the DPPH free radical and ORACFl assays showed that there is no significant difference between the EAc fraction and Oligopin®, but the EAc fraction exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity as determined by the phosphomolybdenium method. In addition, the EtOH extract was determined to have the same antioxidant efficiency as the synthetic antioxidant BHT or commercial extract Oligopin® by phosphomolybdenum method. On the other hand, a positive correlation (r < 0.6) was found between different classes of polyphenols and the results of the phosphomolybdenum method, ORACFl as well as ORACPRG, except for the DPPH assay, for which a negative correlation was indicated (r < 0.62). Interestingly, it seems that the content in hydroxycinnamic acids played a big role in all assays with r < 0.9. According to the present study, EAc fraction and EtOH extract should be further studied for the potential use in the pharmaceutical and food industry. PMID:26783713
The infective juvenile (J2) stage of endoparasitic plant nematodes uses plant chemical signals, released from roots, to localize and infect hosts. We examined the behaviors of soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) and root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) J2s in the presence of root signa...
Jo, Kyungae; Jeon, SangDuk; Ahn, Chang-Won; Han, Sung Hee; Suh, Hyung Joo
We evaluated the sleep enhancement activity of the medicinal herbs valerian (Valeriana officinalis), jujube (Ziziphus jujube), lotus seed (Nelumbo nucifera), Gastrodia elata, Polygonatum sibiricum, and baekbokryung (Poria cocos), which can relieve insomnia in a Drosophila model. Locomotor activity was measured in the Drosophila model to evaluate the sleep activity of Korean medicinal herbs traditionally used as sleep aids. The group treated with lotus seed extract showed less nocturnal activity. Treatment with 10 or 20 mg/mL of P. sibiricum significantly reduced nocturnal activity compared to the control group (P<0.05). The activity and sleep bouts of fruit flies were significantly decreased by a high-dose treatment (10 mg/mL) of lotus or P. sibiricum extracts at night. Caffeine-treated Drosophila showed increased nocturnal activity and decreased total sleep time (P<0.05). Flies receiving the 10 mg-doses of lotus seed or P. sibiricum extract showed significantly different nocturnal locomotor activity and total sleep time compared to caffeine-treated Drosophila. Lotus seed and P. sibiricum extracts are attractive and valuable sleep-potentiating nutraceuticals. PMID:29333381
Abotsi, Wonder Kofi Mensah; Lamptey, Stanley Benjamin; Boakye-Gyasi, Eric; Woode, Eric
The root extract of Albizia zygia (DC.) J.F. Macbr. (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae) is traditionally used in the management of pain and fever. However, little scientific data exists in literature to support its use. The present study evaluated the anti-nociceptive and antipyretic properties of the hydroethanolic extract of the roots of Albizia zygia in animal models. The analgesic effects were investigated in chemical (acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing and formalin tests), thermal (tail-immersion test) and mechanical (carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia) pain models. Possible mechanisms of anti-nociception were also assessed with antagonists in the formalin test. The anti-pyretic effect was evaluated using the baker yeast-induced pyrexia model in young rats. The extract (30-300mg/kg, p.o.) and positive controls, diclofenac (3-30mg/kg, i.p.) and morphine (1-10mg/kg, i.p.), significantly (at least P<0.01) attenuated acetic acid-induced visceral pain, formalin- induced paw pain (both neurogenic and inflammatory), thermal pain as well as carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia in animals. The anti-nociceptive effect of the extract was reversed (at least P<0.05) by the pre-emptive administration of naloxone and atropine; the administration of theophylline, however, exhibited no significant (P>0.05) inhibition of anti-nociception. The extract (30-300mg/kg, p.o) and paracetamol (15-150mg/kg, p.o.) both reversed yeast-induced pyrexia in rats with ED 50 values of 48.59±2.59 and 26.19±1.33mg/kg respectively. The findings indicate that the extract possesses significant anti-nociceptive and antipyretic effects which justify its traditional use in the management of pain and fever. Also, anti-nociceptive effect of the extract involves opioidergic and muscarinic cholinergic mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Adamatzky, Andrew; Costello, Ben De Lacy
We discuss potential chemical substances responsible for attracting acellular slime mold Physarun polycephalum to valerian root. The contributes toward fundamental research into pheromones and chemo-attracts of primitive organisms such as slime molds. The results show that significant information could be gained about the action of compounds on higher organisms.
Abidov, M; Crendal, F; Grachev, S; Seifulla, R; Ziegenfuss, T
We studied the effects of oral treatment with extracts from Rhodiola rosea (50 mg/kg) and Rhodiola crenulata (50 mg/kg) roots on the duration of exhaustive swimming and ATP content in mitochondria of skeletal muscles in rats. Treatment with R. rosea extract significantly (by 24.6%) prolonged the duration of exhaustive swimming in comparison with control rats and rats treated with R. crenullata. R. rosea extract activated the synthesis or resynthesis of ATP in mitochondria and stimulated reparative energy processes after intense exercise. Experiments proved different pharmacological characteristics of R. rosea and R. crenulata: R. rosea is most effective for improving physical working capacity.
Rao, Ch V; Rawat, A K S; Singh, Anil P; Singh, Arpita; Verma, Neeraj
To evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of ethanolic (50%) extract of Ziziphus oenoplia (L.) Mill (Z. oenoplia) root against isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF) induced liver damage in animal models. Five groups of six rats each were selected for the study. Ethanolic extract at a dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg as well as silymarin (100 mg/kg) were administered orally once daily for 21 d in INH + RIF treated groups. The serum levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (SALP), and bilirubin were estimated along with activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, and hepatic melondialdehyde formation. Histopathological analysis was carried out to assess injury to the liver. The considerably elevated serum enzymatic activities of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin due to INH + RIF treatment were restored towards normal in a dose dependent manner after the treatment with ethanolic extract of Z. oenoplia roots. Meanwhile, the decreased activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase were also restored towards normal dose dependently. In addition, ethanolic extract also significantly prevented the elevation of hepatic melondialdehyde formation in the liver of INH + RIF intoxicated rats in a dose dependent manner. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. The results of this study strongly indicate that ethanolic extract of Z. oenoplia has a potent hepatoprotective action against INH + RIF induced hepatic damage in rats. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Xin Hui, Yau; Yi Peng, Teoh; Wei Wen, Liu; Zhong Xian, Ooi; Peck Loo, Kiew
Iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared from the reaction between the Zingiber officinale (ginger) root extracts and ferric chloride solution at 50°C for 2 h in mild stirring condition. The synthesized powder forms of nanoparticles were further characterized by using UV-Vis spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction spectrometry. UV-Vis analysis shows the absorption peak of iron oxide nanoparticles is appeared at 370 nm. The calculation of crystallite size from the XRD showed that the average particle size of iron oxide nanoparticles was 68.43 nm. Therefore, this eco-friendly technique is low cost and large scale nanoparticles synthesis to fulfill the demand of various applications.
Diuzheva, Alina; Carradori, Simone; Andruch, Vasil; Locatelli, Marcello; De Luca, Elisa; Tiecco, Matteo; Germani, Raimondo; Menghini, Luigi; Nocentini, Alessio; Gratteri, Paola; Campestre, Cristina
For the determination of harpagoside and the wide phenolic pattern in Harpagophytum procumbens root and its commercial food supplements, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME), ultrasound-assisted DLLME (UA-DLLME), and sugaring-out liquid-liquid extraction (SULLE) were tested and compared. In order to optimise the extraction efficiency, DLLME and UA-DLLME were performed in different solvents (water and aqueous solutions of glucose, β-cyclodextrin, (2-hydroxypropyl)-β-cyclodextrin, sodium chloride, natural deep eutectic solvent, and ionic liquid). The plant material was ground and sieved to obtain a uniform granulometry before extraction. Commercial food supplements, containing H. procumbens are commercially available in Italy. The most effective sodium chloride-aided-DLLME was then optimised and applied for analyses followed by HPLC-PDA. For comparison, microwave-assisted extraction was performed using the same solvents and the best results were obtained using 1% of β-cyclodextrin or 15% of sodium chloride. All commercial samples respected the European Pharmacopoeia monograph for this plant material, showing a harpagoside content ≥ 1.2%. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Ahmed, M. A.; Zarebanadkouki, M.; Kroener, E.; Kaestner, A.; Carminati, A.
Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important crop worldwide. Despite its importance, there is limited information on the function of different root segments and root types of maize in extracting water from soils. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate locations of root water uptake in maize. We used neutron radiography to: 1) image the spatial distribution of maize roots in soil and 2) trace the transport of injected deuterated water (D2O) in soil and roots. Maizes were grown in aluminum containers (40×38×1 cm) filled with a sandy soil. When the plants were 16 days old, we injected D2O into selected soil regions containing primary, seminal and lateral roots. The experiments were performed during the day (transpiring plants) and night (not transpiring plants). The transport of D2O into roots was simulated using a new convection-diffusion numerical model of D2O transport into roots. By fitting the observed D2O transport we quantified the diffusional permeability and the water uptake of the different root segments. The maize root architecture consisted of a primary root, 4-5 seminal roots and many lateral roots connected to the primary and seminal roots. Laterals emerged from the proximal 15 cm of the primary and seminal roots. Water uptake occurred primarily in lateral roots. Lateral roots had the highest diffusional permeability (9.4×10-7), which was around six times higher that the diffusional permeability of the old seminal segments (1.4×10-7), and two times higher than the diffusional permeability of the young seminal segments (4.7×10-7). The radial flow of D2O into the lateral (6.7×10-5 ) was much higher than in the young seminal roots (1.1×10-12). The radial flow of D2O into the old seminal was negligible. We concluded that the function of the primary and seminal roots was to collect water from the lateral roots and transport it to the shoot. A maize root system with lateral roots branching from deep primary and seminal roots would be
Nazari, A; Fanaei, H; Dehpour, A R; Hassanzadeh, G; Jafari, M; Salehi, M; Mohammadi, M
In the present study, the role of ethanol extract of root of Taraxacum Syriacum Boiss (TSBE) against hepatotoxicity caused by acetaminophen (APAP) was studied. The chemical composition of roots of Taraxacum Syriacum Boiss was analyzed by SPME-GC/MS method. Hepatocellular injuries induced by acetaminophen (APAP) were assessed by liver histology, serum aminotransferase activities, antioxidant enzymes activity and lipid peroxidation in liver tissue. TSBE was observed to exhibit hepatoprotective effect as demonstrated by significant decrease in serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) concentration, and by preventing liver histopathologic changes in rats with APAP hepatotoxicity. Administration of APAP, significantly increased, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and catalase (CAT) activity in liver tissue and pretreatment with TSBE returned these parameters to control group, moreover TSBE reduces APAP-induced hepatic Glutathione (GSH) depletion. Carvacrol (6.7 %) was the main polyphenolic compound of plant sample. Our results demonstrated hepatoprotective activity of TSBE in rat in vivo. We believe that the mechanism by which the extract was able to protect the liver from the oxidative stress generated by APAP is due to its antioxidant activity. These phenolic compounds of the extract act as antioxidants and free radical scavengers and reduce or inhibit the oxidative stress induced by APAP administration (Tab. 3, Fig. 3, Ref. 39).
Adamatzky, Andrew; Costello, Ben De Lacy
We discuss potential chemical substances responsible for attracting acellular slime mold Physarun polycephalum to valerian root. The contributes toward fundamental research into pheromones and chemo-attracts of primitive organisms such as slime molds. The results show that significant information could be gained about the action of compounds on higher organisms. PMID:22896798
Gerbino, Andrea; Russo, Daniela; Colella, Matilde; Procino, Giuseppe; Svelto, Maria; Milella, Luigi; Carmosino, Monica
Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Weber ex F.H.Wigg.) has been used for centuries as an ethnomedical remedy. Nonetheless, the extensive use of different kinds of dandelion extracts and preparations is based on empirical findings. Some of the tissue-specific effects reported for diverse dandelion extracts may result from their action on intracellular signaling cascades. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an ethanolic dandelion root extract (DRE) on Ca 2+ signaling in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. The cytotoxicity of increasing doses of crude DRE was determined by the Calcein viability assay. Fura-2 and the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based probe ERD1 were used to measure cytoplasmic and intraluminal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca 2+ levels, respectively. Furthermore, a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based probe was used to monitor phospholipase C (PLC) activation (pleckstrin homology [PH]-PLCδ-GFP). DRE (10-400 µg/mL) exposure, in the presence of external Ca 2+ , dose-dependently increased intracellular Ca 2+ levels. The DRE-induced Ca 2+ increase was significantly reduced in the absence of extracellular Ca 2+ . In addition, DRE caused a significant Ca 2+ release from the ER of intact cells and a concomitant translocation of PH-PLCδ-GFP. In conclusion, DRE directly activates both the release of Ca 2+ from internal stores and a significant Ca 2+ influx at the plasma membrane. The resulting high Ca 2+ levels within the cell seem to directly stimulate PLC activity.
Salazar, María Julieta; Rodriguez, Judith Hebelen; Cid, Carolina Vergara; Pignata, María Luisa
The principal impediment for Pb uptake by plants is the Casparian strip in roots. It prevents metals reaching the xylem, thereby hampering translocation to the aerial organs. In the root apices, young root cells have thin cell walls and the Casparian strip is not completely developed, which could facilitate Pb uptake by roots at these vulnerable points. However, as the phytotoxic effects of Pb reduce root growth and enhance suberization, entry of Pb into the plant is avoided. We propose that the application of root growth promotors could be an important complement in the phytoextraction of Pb from polluted soils, due to their effects on produced biomass, Pb toxicity, and root exudate production. A greenhouse experiment was carried on to evaluate the auxin application effect on the Pb uptake of Bidens pilosa and Tagetes minuta. These species were sensitive to auxins, but the phytotoxic effect of Pb was not reversed by this treatment. Root exudates capable of extracting Pb were produced only when the species were grown in highly polluted soils, indicating a behavioral response to Pb exposure which is desirable for phytoremediation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
López, Kelvin S E; Marques, André M; Moreira, Davyson DE L; Velozo, Leosvaldo S; Sudo, Roberto T; Zapata-Sudo, Gisele; Guimarães, Elsie F; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora C
Piperaceae species can be found worldwide in tropical and subtropical areas and many of them have been used for centuries in traditional folk medicine and in culinary. In Brazil, species of Piperaceae are commonly used in some communities as local anesthetic and analgesic. Countrified communities have known some species of the genus Ottonia as "anestesia" and it is a common habit of chewing leaves and roots of Ottonia species to relief toothache. The purpose of this study is to report our findings on new molecules entities obtained from the roots of Ottonia anisum Spreng, in which local anesthetic activity (sensory blockage) is demonstrated for the first time in vivo guinea pig model. Phytochemical investigation led to the isolation of three amides (pipercallosidine, piperine and valeramide) and in an enriched mixture of seven amides (valeramide, 4,5-dihydropiperlonguminine, N-isobutil-6-piperonil-2-hexenamide, piperovatine, dihydropipercallosidine, pipercallosidine and pipercallpsine). Our findings demonstrated the anesthetic potential for the methanolic extract from roots, its n-hexane partition and amides from O. anisum and it is in agreement with ethnobotanical survey.
Tousch, Didier; Bidel, Luc P R; Cazals, Guillaume; Ferrare, Karine; Leroy, Jeremy; Faucanié, Marie; Chevassus, Hugues; Tournier, Michel; Lajoix, Anne-Dominique; Azay-Milhau, Jacqueline
In the present study, we obtained a dried burdock root extract (DBRE) rich in caffeoylquinic acids derivatives. We performed the chemical characterization of DBRE and explored its antihyperglycemic potential in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Chemical analysis of DBRE using LC-MS and GC-MS revealed the presence of a great majority of dicaffeoylquinic acid derivatives (75.4%) of which 1,5-di-O-caffeoyl-4-O-maloylquinic acid represents 44% of the extract. In the in vitro experiments, DBRE is able to increase glucose uptake in cultured L6 myocytes and to decrease glucagon-induced glucose output from rat isolated hepatocytes together with a reduction of hepatic glucose 6-phosphatase activity. DBRE did not increase insulin secretion in the INS-1 pancreatic β-cell line. In vivo, DBRE improves glucose tolerance both after intraperitoneal and oral subchronic administration. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that DBRE constitutes an original set of caffeoylquinic acid derivatives displaying antihyperglycemic properties.
Numonov, Sodik; Edirs, Salamet; Bobakulov, Khayrulla; Qureshi, Muhammad Nasimullah; Bozorov, Khurshed; Sharopov, Farukh; Setzer, William N; Zhao, Haiqing; Habasi, Maidina; Sharofova, Mizhgona; Aisa, Haji Akber
The root of Geranium collinum Steph is known in Tajik traditional medicine for its hepatoprotective, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory therapeutic effects. The present study was conducted to evaluate of potential antidiabetic, antioxidant activities, total polyphenolic and flavonoid content from the different extracts (aqueous, aqueous-ethanolic) and individual compounds isolated of the root parts of G. collinum . The 50% aqueous-ethanolic extract possesses potent antidiabetic activity, with IC 50 values of 0.10 μg/mL and 0.09 μg/mL for the enzymes protein-tyrosine phosphatase (1B PTP-1B) and α-glucosidase, respectively. Phytochemical investigations of the 50% aqueous-ethanolic extract of G. collinum , led to the isolation of ten pure compounds identified as 3,3',4,4'-tetra- O -methylellagic acid ( 1 ), 3,3'-di- O -methylellagic acid ( 2 ), quercetin ( 3 ), caffeic acid ( 4 ), (+)-catechin ( 5 ), (-)-epicatechin ( 6 ), (-)-epigallocatechin ( 7 ), gallic acid ( 8 ), β-sitosterol-3- O -β-d-glucopyranoside ( 9 ), and corilagin ( 10 ). Their structures were determined based on 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectrometric analyses. Three isolated compounds exhibited strong inhibitory activity against PTP-1B, with IC 50 values below 0.9 μg/mL, more effective than the positive control (1.46 μg/mL). Molecular docking analysis suggests polyphenolic compounds such as corilagin, catechin and caffeic acid inhibit PTP-1B and β-sitosterol-3- O -β-d-gluco-pyranoside inhibits α-glucosidase. The experimental results suggest that the biological activity of G. collinum is related to its polyphenol contents. The results are also in agreement with computational investigations. Furthermore, the potent antidiabetic activity of the 50% aqueous-ethanolic extract from G. collinum shows promise for its future application in medicine. To the best of our knowledge, we hereby report, for the first time, the antidiabetic activity of G. collinum.
Khasnis, Sandhya Anand; Kidiyoor, Krishnamurthy Haridas; Patil, Anand Basavaraj; Kenganal, Smita Basavaraj
Vertical root fractures associated with endodontically treated teeth and less commonly in vital teeth represent one of the most difficult clinical problems to diagnose and treat. In as much as there are no specific symptoms, diagnosis can be difficult. Clinical detection of this condition by endodontists is becoming more frequent, where as it is rather underestimated by the general practitioners. Since, vertical root fractures almost exclusively involve endodontically treated teeth; it often becomes difficult to differentiate a tooth with this condition from an endodontically failed one or one with concomitant periodontal involvement. Also, a tooth diagnosed for vertical root fracture is usually extracted, though attempts to reunite fractured root have been done in various studies with varying success rates. Early detection of a fractured root and extraction of the tooth maintain the integrity of alveolar bone for placement of an implant. Cone beam computed tomography has been shown to be very accurate in this regard. This article focuses on the diagnostic and treatment strategies, and discusses about predisposing factors which can be useful in the prevention of vertical root fractures. PMID:24778502
Krylova, S G; Vymyatnina, Z K; Zueva, E P; Amosova, E N; Razina, T G; Litvinenko, V I
Gastroprotective effect of Cichorium intybus L. root extract is demonstrated on H. Shay's model of experimental ulcer in rats. The effect is attributed to the antisecretory activity of the plant and stimulation of defense barrier function of the gastric mucosa. The regulatory effect of the phytocomplex on seasonal characteristics of the gastric secretory and defense functions in dogs with Basov's fistula is detected.
Varado, N.; Braud, I.; Ross, P. J.
From the non iterative numerical method proposed by [Ross, P.J., 2003. Modeling soil water and solute transport—fast, simplified numerical solutions. Agronomy Journal 95, 1352-1361] for solving the 1D Richards' equation, an unsaturated zone module for large scale hydrological model is developed by the inclusion of a root extraction module and a formulation of interception. Two root water uptake modules, first proposed by [Lai, C.-T. and Katul, G., 2000. The dynamic role of rott-water uptake in coupling potential to actual transpiration. Adv. Water Res. 23: 427-439; Li, K.Y., De Jong, R. and Boisvert, J.B., 2001. An exponential root-water-uptake model with water stress compensation. J. Hydrol. 252: 189-204], were included as the sink term in the Richards' equation. They express root extraction as a linear function of potential transpiration and take into account water stress and compensation mechanism allowing water to be extracted in wetter layers. The vadose zone module is tested in a systematic way with synthetic data sets covering a wide range of soil characteristics, climate forcing, and vegetation cover. A detailed SVAT model providing an accurate solution of the coupled heat and water transfer in the soil and the surface energy balance is used as a reference. The accuracy of the numerical solution using only the SVAT soil module, and the loss of accuracy when using a potential evapotranspiration instead of solving the energy budget are both investigated. The vadose zone module is very accurate with errors of less than a few percent for cumulative transpiration. Soil evaporation is less accurately simulated as it leads to a systematic underestimation of soil evaporation amounts. The [Lai, C.-T. and Katul, G., 2000. The dynamic role of rott-water uptake in coupling potential to actual transpiration. Adv. Water Res. 23: 427-439] module is not adapted for sandy soils, due to a weakness in the compensation term formulation. When using a potential
Salinas, A.; Zaharescu, D. G.
A major driver of soil formation is the colonization and transformation of rock by plants and associated microbiota. In turn, substrate chemical composition can also influence the capacity for plant colonization and development. In order to better define these relationships, a mesocosm study was set up to analyze the effect mycorrhizal fungi, plant density and rock have on root development, and to determine the effect of root morphology on weathering and soil formation. We hypothesized that plant-plant and plant-fungi interactions have a stronger influence on root architecture and rock weathering than the substrate composition alone. Buffalo grass (Bouteloua dactyloides) was grown in a controlled environment in columns filled with either granular granite, schist, rhyolite or basalt. Each substrate was given two different treatments, including grass-microbes and grass-microbes-mycorrhizae and incubated for 120, 240, and 480 days. Columns were then extracted and analyzed for root morphology, fine fraction, and pore water major element content. Preliminary results showed that plants produced more biomass in rhyolite, followed by schist, basalt, and granite, indicating that substrate composition is an important driver of root development. In support of our hypothesis, mycorrhizae was a strong driver of root development by stimulating length growth, biomass production, and branching. However, average root length and branching also appeared to decrease in response to high plant density, though this trend was only present among roots with mycorrhizal fungi. Interestingly, fine fraction production was negatively correlated with average root thickness and volume. There is also slight evidence indicating that fine fraction production is more related to substrate composition than root morphology, though this data needs to be further analyzed. Our hope is that the results of this study can one day be applied to agricultural research in order to promote the production of crops
Russo, Daniela; Svelto, Maria; Carmosino, Monica
Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale Weber ex F.H.Wigg.) has been used for centuries as an ethnomedical remedy. Nonetheless, the extensive use of different kinds of dandelion extracts and preparations is based on empirical findings. Some of the tissue-specific effects reported for diverse dandelion extracts may result from their action on intracellular signaling cascades. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an ethanolic dandelion root extract (DRE) on Ca2+ signaling in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. The cytotoxicity of increasing doses of crude DRE was determined by the Calcein viability assay. Fura-2 and the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based probe ERD1 were used to measure cytoplasmic and intraluminal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ levels, respectively. Furthermore, a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based probe was used to monitor phospholipase C (PLC) activation (pleckstrin homology [PH]–PLCδ–GFP). DRE (10–400 µg/mL) exposure, in the presence of external Ca2+, dose-dependently increased intracellular Ca2+ levels. The DRE-induced Ca2+ increase was significantly reduced in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. In addition, DRE caused a significant Ca2+ release from the ER of intact cells and a concomitant translocation of PH–PLCδ–GFP. In conclusion, DRE directly activates both the release of Ca2+ from internal stores and a significant Ca2+ influx at the plasma membrane. The resulting high Ca2+ levels within the cell seem to directly stimulate PLC activity. PMID:29642457
Ozarowski, Marcin; Thiem, Barbara; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L.; Piasecka, Anna; Kachlicki, Piotr; Szulc, Michal; Kaminska, Ewa; Kujawski, Radoslaw; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Kujawska, Malgorzata; Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga; Budzianowski, Jaromir; Kędziora, Izabela; Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka; Czerny, Boguslaw; Bobkiewicz-Kozłowska, Teresa
Eryngium planum L. (EP) is as a rare medicinal plant with a lot of potentials as pharmaceutical crops. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of subchronic (28-fold) administration of a 70% ethanol extract of EP roots (200 mg/kg, p.o.) on behavioral and cognitive responses in Wistar rats linked with acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), and beta-secretase (BACE-1) mRNA levels and AChE and BuChE activities in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. On the last day of experiment, 30 min after the last dose of EP or Huperzine A (HU), scopolamine (SC) was given at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg b.w. intraperitoneally. The results of a passive avoidance test showed an improvement in long-term memory produced by the EP extract in both scopolamine-induced rats and control group. EP caused an insignificant inhibition of AChE and BuChE activities in the frontal cortex and the hippocampus. EP decreased mRNA AChE, BuChE, and BACE-1 levels, especially in the cortex. Our results suggest that the EP extract led to the improvement of the long-term memory in rats coupled with total saponin content. The mechanism of EP action is probably complicated, since HPLC-MS analysis showed 64 chemical compounds (phenolics, saponins) in the extract of EP roots. PMID:26483842
Safaralie, Asghar; Fatemi, Shohreh; Sefidkon, Fatemeh
The composition of essential oil extracted from Valeriana officinalis L. roots growing wild in Iran was studied by hydrodistillation and supercritical CO2 extraction. Forty-seven components representing 89.3% and 35 constituents varying from 86.1% to 95.1% of the oil obtained by hydrodistillation and supercritical CO2 were identified, respectively. The major components in the extracted oil from supercritical CO2 were isovaleric acid (18.7-41.8%), valerenic acid (8.2-11.8%), acetoxyvaleranone (5.6-9.6%), (Z)-valernyl acetate (4.5-6.5%), bornyl acetate (2.3-7.7%) and valerenol (3.7-5.2%), whereas by hydrodistillation were bornyl acetate (11.6%), valerenic acid (8.0%), (Z)-valernyl acetate (7.9%) and acetoxyvaleranone (7.6%). The analysis of the extracts was performed by capillary GC and GC/MS.
Sahebi, S; Khosravifar, N; Sedighshamsi, M; Motamedifar, M
The main purpose of a root canal treatment is to eliminate the bacteria and their products from the pulp space. Sodium hypochlorite has excellent antibacterial properties, but also some negative features. The aim of the present study is to compare the antimicrobial effect of Aloe Vera solution with sodium hypochlorite on E.faecalis in the root canals of human extracted teeth. Sixty human extracted single rooted teeth were selected for this in vitro study. The teeth recruited in this study had no cracks, internal resorption, external resorption and calcification. Enterococcus faecalis was injected in the root canals of all teeth. The teeth were then divided into three groups randomly. Each group consisted of 20 teeth that were all rinsed with one of the following solutions: sodium hypochlorite 2.5%, Aloe vera and normal saline. Subsequent to rinsing, root canals of all teeth were sampled. The samples were cultured and growth of the bacteria was assessed after 48 hours. The number of colonies of the bacteria was then counted. The difference between the inhibitory effect of Aloe vera and normal saline on E.faecalis was not significant according to independent t-test (p= 0.966). The inhibitory effect of sodium hypochlorite on E.faecalis was much greater than that of Aloe vera and normal saline (p< 0.001). Aloe vera solution is not recommended as a root canal irrigator, but future studies are suggested to investigate the antibacterial effect of Aloe vera with longer duration of exposure and as an intra canal medicament.
Introduction This study determined the amount and severity of EARR (external apical root resorption) after orthodontic treatment with self-ligating (SL) and conventional (Non-SL) brackets. Differences regarding rate of extraction cases, appointments and treatment time were evaluated. Material and methods 213 patients with a mean age of 12.4 ± 2.2 years were evaluated retrospectively. The treatments were performed with SL brackets (n = 139, Smartclip, 3 M Unitek, USA) or Non-SL brackets (n = 74, Victory Series, 3 M Unitek, USA). Measurements of the crown and root length of the incisors were taken using panoramic radiographs. Three-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed for an appliance effect. Results There was no difference between patients treated with Non-SL or SL brackets regarding the amount (in percentage) of EARR (Non-SL: 4.5 ± 6.6 vs. SL: 3.0 ± 5.6). Occurrence of severe EARR (sEARR) did also not differ between the two groups (Non-SL 0.5 vs. SL: 0.3). The percentage of patients with need of tooth extraction for treatment (Non SL: 8.1 vs. SL: 6.9) and the number of appointments (Non-SL: 12.4 ± 3.4 vs. SL: 13.9 ± 3.3) did not show any differences. The treatment time was shorter with Non-SL brackets (Non-SL: 18.1 ± 5.3 vs. SL: 20.7 ± 4.9 months). Conclusions This is the largest study showing that there is no difference in the amount of EARR, number of appointments and extraction rate between conventional and self-ligating brackets. For the first time we could demonstrate that occurrence of sEARR does not differ between the two types of brackets. PMID:24456620
Nguyen, Van Tang; Sakoff, Jennette A; Scarlett, Christopher J
Xao tam phan (Paramignya trimera (Oliv.) Guillaum) has been used as a medicinal plant for cancer prevention and treatment in recent years. The objective of this study was to determine the physicochemical, antioxidant, and cytotoxic properties of crude P. trimera root (PTR) extract and its fractions using MeOH as a solvent and microwave-assisted extraction as an advanced technique for preparation of the PTR extract. The results showed that the PTR extract had high contents of saponins, phenolics, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins (7731.05 mg escin equiv. (EE), 238.13 mg gallic acid equiv. (GAE), 81.49 mg rutin equiv., and 58.08 mg catechin equiv. (CE)/g dried extract, resp.). Antioxidant activity of PTR extract was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of four its fractions and ostruthin, a key bioactive compound in the P. trimera, while potent cytotoxic capacity of PTR extract on various cancer cell lines in terms of MiaPaCa-2 (pancreas), HT29 (colon), A2780 (ovarian), H460 (lung), A431 (skin), Du145 (prostate), BE2-C (neuroblastoma), MCF-7 (breast), MCF-10A (normal breast), and U87, SJ-G2, SMA (glioblastoma) was observed with GI 50 values ranging from 15 to 32 μg/ml. Cytotoxic potential on pancreatic cancer cells of PTR extract (100 - 200 μg/ml) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of its four fractions (50 μg/ml), ostruthin (20 μg/ml) and gemcitabine (50 nm), and being comparable to a saponin-enriched extract from quillajia bark, a commercial product. Based on the results achieved, we can conclude that the PTR extract is a potential source for application of in the nutraceutical, medical, and pharmaceutical industries. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.
Bais, Harsh Pal; Walker, Travis S; Kennan, Alan J; Stermitz, Frank R; Vivanco, Jorge M
Invasive plants are believed to succeed in part by secretion of allelochemicals, thus displacing competing plant species. Centaurea maculosa (spotted knapweed) provides a classic example of this process. We have previously reported that spotted knapweed roots secrete (+/-)-catechin and that (-)-catechin, but not (+)-catechin, is phytotoxic and hence may be a major contributor to C. maculosa's invasive behavior in the rhizosphere. In this communication, we explore both structure/activity relationships for flavonoid phytotoxicity and possible biosynthetic pathways for root production of (+/-)-catechin. Kaempferol and dihydroquercetin were shown to be phytotoxic, while quercetin was not. Kaempferol was converted to dihydroquercetin and (+/-)-catechin when treated with total root protein extracts from C. maculosa, but quercetin was not. This finding suggests an alteration in the standard flavonoid biosynthetic pathway in C. maculosa roots, whereby kaempferol is not a dead-end product but serves as a precursor to dihydroquercetin, which in turn leads to (+/-)-catechin production.
Sowndhararajan, Kandhasamy; Seo, Min; Kim, Minju; Kim, Heeyeon; Kim, Songmun
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of inhalation of essential oil (EO) and supercritical carbon dioxide extract (SC-CO 2 ) from the root of A. gigas on human electroencephalographic (EEG) activity. For this purpose, the EO was obtained from the root of A. gigas by steam distillation and SC-CO 2 was obtained at 50 °C and 400 bar for 1 h. The EEG readings were recorded using the QEEG-8 system from 8 electrode sites according to the International 10-20 system. In the EEG study, the absolute low beta (left temporal and left parietal) activity significantly increased during the inhalation of EO. In the case of SC-CO 2 inhalation, there was no significant change in absolute waves. The results revealed that the EO of A. gigas root produced significant changes in the absolute low beta activity and these changes may enhance the language learning abilities of human brain. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Tung, Bui Thanh; Thu, Dang Kim; Thu, Nguyen Thi Kim; Hai, Nguyen Thanh
Background Zingiber officinale Roscoe has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of neurological disorder. This study aimed to investigate the phenolic contents, antioxidant, acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE) inhibitory activities of different fraction of Z. officinale root grown in Vietnam. Methods The roots of Z. officinale are extracted with ethanol 96 % and fractionated with n-hexane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and butanol (BuOH) solvents. These fractions evaluated the antioxidant activity by 1,1-Diphenyl -2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and AChE inhibitory activity by Ellman's colorimetric method. Results Our data showed that the total phenolic content of EtOAc fraction was highest equivalents to 35.2±1.4 mg quercetin/g of fraction. Our data also demonstrated that EtOAc fraction had the strongest antioxidant activity with IC50 was 8.89±1.37 µg/mL and AChE inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 22.85±2.37 μg/mL in a dose-dependent manner, followed by BuOH fraction and the n-hexane fraction is the weakest. Detailed kinetic analysis indicated that EtOAc fraction was mixed inhibition type with Ki (representing the affinity of the enzyme and inhibitor) was 30.61±1.43 µg/mL. Conclusions Our results suggest that the EtOAc fraction of Z. officinale may be a promising source of AChE inhibitors for Alzheimer's disease.
Ettebong, Ette Okon; Nwafor, Paul Alozie; Ekpo, Memfin; Ajibesin, Kola Kayode
Several plants are used in herbal medicine for family planning. Carpolobia lutea is a medicinal plant in South Eastern Nigeria used for family planning. The study was designed to investigate the contraceptive, estrogenic and antiestrogenic potentials of the methanolic root extract of Carpolobia lutea in both rats and mice. The contraceptive effect of extract (7 - 21mg/kg) administered by intraperitoneal route for four days in divided doses was tested in mice and rats. Sexually-active males were introduced on day 5 at the ratio of 3F:1M and kept with these females till the end of the experiment. Investigations on the estrogenic and antiestrogenic property of the extract (7-21mg/kg) were done in immature rats that had undergone surgical removal of both ovaries. The effects of the extract (vaginal opening, vaginal cornification, uterine wet weight) were compared with 17-beta-estradiol (0.1µg/rat/day) as standard drug. Twenty-four hours later, the animals were sacrificed following the last dose and the weights of uterus, kidney, liver and small intestine were recorded. The extract prevented conception in both mice and rats for two gestational periods. Significant changes (p<0.05-0.001) were observed in the length and weight of pups relative to control. There were no abnormalities observed in the pups over thirty days. In ovariectomized immature young rats, the extract showed estrogenic effect (vaginal opening, vaginal cornification and increased uterine wet weight) in low doses while in high doses, it showed anti-estrogenic effect. These findings agree with the traditional use of Carpolobia lutea in the control of fertility. The contraceptive property of the extract may be associated with the direct effects of its chemical constituents.
Kundu, Anish; Mitra, Adinpunya
Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) are important for treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other neurological disorders. Search for potent and safe AChEIs from plant sources still continues. In the present work, we explored fragrant plant extracts that are traditionally used in flavoring foods, namely, Hemidesmus indicus and Vanilla planifolia, as possible sources for AChEI. Root and pod extracts of H. indicus and V. planifolia, respectively, produce fragrant phenolic compounds, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde (MBALD) and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde (vanillin). These methoxybenzaldehydes were shown to have inhibitory potential against acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Vanillin (IC50 = 0.037 mM) was detected as more efficient inhibitor than MBALD (IC50 = 0.047 mM). This finding was supported by kinetic analysis. Thus, plant-based food flavoring agents showed capacity in curing Alzheimer's disease and other neurological dysfunctions.
Ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal properties of Asparagus racemosus (Willd.) (Family: Asparagaceae) root extracts against filariasis (Culex quinquefasciatus), dengue (Aedes aegypti) and malaria (Anopheles stephensi) vector mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).
Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan
Several diseases are associated to the mosquito-human interaction. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. The present investigation was undertaken to study the ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal activities of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform and methanol extracts of root of Asparagus racemosus were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae). The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. The methanol extract of Asparagus racemosus against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi exerted 100% mortality (zero hatchability) at 375, 300 and 225 ppm, respectively. Control eggs showed 99-100% hatchability. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of root of Asparagus racemosus against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi with the LC50 and LC90 values were 115.13, 97.71 and 90.97 ppm and 210.96, 179.92, and 168.82 ppm, respectively. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h recovery period. The plant crude extracts showed dose-dependent mortality. At higher concentrations, the adult showed restless movement for some times with abnormal wagging and then died. Among the extracts tested, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in
Suman, T. Y.; Radhika Rajasree, S. R.; Ramkumar, R.; Rajthilak, C.; Perumal, P.
In the present work, we describe the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using an aqueous root extract of Morinda citrifolia. UV-vis spectroscopy, XRD, FTIR, FE-SEM, EDX and TEM were performed to characterize the formation of gold nanoparticles. The synthesized gold nanoparticles were characterized by a peak at 540 nm in the UV-vis spectrum. The XRD peaks at 38°, 44°, 64° and 77° can be indexed to the (1 1 1), (2 0 0), (2 2 0) and (3 1 1) Bragg's reflections of cubic structure of metallic gold, respectively. The FTIR result showed that extract containing protein might be responsible for the formation of the nanoparticles and may play an important role in the stabilization of the formed nanoparticles. FESEM images revealed that the particles were triangle and mostly spherical in shape. TEM images clearly revealed the size of the nanoparticles were 12.17-38.26 nm in size.
Suman, T Y; Rajasree, S R Radhika; Ramkumar, R; Rajthilak, C; Perumal, P
In the present work, we describe the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using an aqueous root extract of Morinda citrifolia. UV-vis spectroscopy, XRD, FTIR, FE-SEM, EDX and TEM were performed to characterize the formation of gold nanoparticles. The synthesized gold nanoparticles were characterized by a peak at 540 nm in the UV-vis spectrum. The XRD peaks at 38°, 44°, 64° and 77° can be indexed to the (111), (200), (220) and (311) Bragg's reflections of cubic structure of metallic gold, respectively. The FTIR result showed that extract containing protein might be responsible for the formation of the nanoparticles and may play an important role in the stabilization of the formed nanoparticles. FESEM images revealed that the particles were triangle and mostly spherical in shape. TEM images clearly revealed the size of the nanoparticles were 12.17-38.26 nm in size. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ripple subtract technique simplifies the logic circuitry required in a binary computing device to derive the square root of a number. Successively higher numbers are subtracted from a register containing the number out of which the square root is to be extracted. The last number subtracted will be the closest integer to the square root of the number.
Gaid, Mariam; Haas, Paul; Beuerle, Till; Scholl, Stephan; Beerhues, Ludger
Extracts of the medicinal plant Hypericum perforatum are used to treat depression and skin irritation. A major API is hyperforin, characterized by sensitivity to light, oxygen and temperature. Total synthesis of hyperforin is challenging and its content in field-grown plants is variable. We have established in vitro cultures of auxin-induced roots, which are capable of producing hyperforin, as indicated by HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS analyses. The extraction yield and the productivity upon use of petroleum ether after solvent screening were ∼5 mg/g DW and ∼50 mg/L culture after six weeks of cultivation. The root cultures also contained secohyperforin and lupulones, which were not yet detected in intact plants. In contrast, they lacked another class of typical H. perforatum constituents, hypericins, as indicated by the analysis of methanolic extracts. Hyperforins and lupulones were stabilized and enriched as dicyclohexylammonium salts. Upon up-scaling of biomass production and downstream processing, H. perforatum root cultures may provide an alternative platform for the preparation of medicinal extracts and the isolation of APIs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ben Miled, Hanène; Barka, Zaineb Ben; Hallègue, Dorsaf; Lahbib, Karima; Ladjimi, Mohamed; Tlili, Mounira; Sakly, Mohsen; Rhouma, Khémais Ben; Ksouri, Riadh; Tebourbi, Olfa
The present investigation aimed to study the antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effects of ethyl acetate extract of R. oxyacantha root cortex (RE) against DDT-induced liver injury in male rats. The RE exhibited high total phenolic, flavonoid and condensed tannins contents. The antioxidant activity in vitro systems showed a significant potent free radical scavenging activity of the extract. The HPLC finger print of R. oxyacantha active extract showed the presence of five phenolic compounds with higher amounts of catechol and gallic acid. The in vivo results showed that a single intraperitoneal administration of DDT enhanced levels of hepatic markers (ALT, AST and LDH) in serum of experimental animals. It also increased the oxidative stress markers resulting in increased levels of the lipid peroxidation with a significant induction of SOD and GPx, metallothioneins (MTs) and a concomitant decrease of non protein thiols (NPSH) in liver. However, pretreatment of rats with RE at a dose of 150 and 300mg/kg body weight significantly lowered serum transaminases and LDH in treated rats. A significant reduction in hepatic thiobarbituric reactive substances and a decrease in antioxidant enzymes activities and hepatic MTs levels by treatment with plant extract against DDT, were observed. These biochemical changes were consistent with histopathological observations, suggesting marked hepatoprotective effect of RE with the two doses used. These results strongly suggest that treatment with ethyl acetate extract normalizes various biochemical parameters and protects the liver against DDT-induced oxidative damage in rats and thus help in evaluation of traditional claim on this plant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Richter, Anika K; Frossard, Emmanuel; Brunner, Ivano
A common method to determine the vitality of fine root tissue is the measurement of respiratory activity with triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC). The colorless TTC is reduced to the red-colored triphenyl formazan (TF) as a result of the dehydrogenase activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. However, measurements with woody fine roots of adult Norway spruce and European beech trees showed that dead control roots had a high potential to react with TTC. High reactivity was found in boiled fine roots and the bark of coarse roots, but not in the boiled wood of coarse roots. By sequential extraction of dried and ground adult Norway spruce fine roots, reactivity with TTC was reduced by about 75% (water extraction), 93% (water/methanol extraction) and 94% (water/acetone extraction). The water extract reacted with TTC in the same way as polyphenols such as lignin, catechin and epicatechin. Boiling did not affect the extent to which fine roots of adult trees reduced TTC, whereas it greatly reduced TTC reduction by seedling roots. Application of the TTC test to roots of spruce seedlings subjected to increasing drought showed a progressive decrease in TTC reduction. The decrease in TTC reduction was paralleled by a reduction in O(2) consumption, thus supporting the conclusion that for roots with a low polyphenol content the TTC test provides a valid assessment of tissue vitality. Our results suggest, however, that the TTC test should not be applied to the fine roots of adult trees because of their high content of polyphenolic compounds whose reaction with TTC masks changes in TTC reduction due to changes in the respiratory capacity of the tissue.
Tandan, Monika; Hegde, Mithra N; Hegde, Priyadarshini
The aim was to determine the effect of four different intracanal medicaments on the apical seal of the root canal system in vitro. Fifty freshly extracted intact human permanent maxillary central incisors were collected, stored and disinfected. The root canals were prepared to a master apical size of number 50 using step back technique. Depending upon the intracanal medicament used, the teeth were divided randomly into five groups of 10 teeth each including one control group and four experimental groups. Group A: No intracanal medicament. Group B: Calcium hydroxide powder mixed with distilled water. Group C: Calcium hydroxide gutta percha points (calcium hydroxide points). Group D: 1% chlorhexidine gel (hexigel). Group E: Chlorhexidine gutta percha points (Roeko Activ Points). The medication was left in canals for 14 days. Following removal of the intracanal medicament, all the groups were obturated with lateral compaction technique. The apical leakage was then evaluated using dye extraction method with the help of a spectrophotometer. RESULTS were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-test, which showed statistically significant difference among the five groups tested. It can be concluded from this study that the control group showed least amount of leakage, whereas the 1% chlorhexidine gel group showed maximum amount of leakage. Apical leakage was observed with all the experimental groups with little variations in between them. Under the parameters of this study, it can be concluded that use of intracanal medicaments during endodontic treatment has a definite impact on the apical seal of the root canal system.
Wang, Zhi; Li, Ping; Wang, Chenjing; Jiang, Qixiao; Zhang, Lei; Cao, Yu; Zhong, Weizhen; Wang, Chunbo
This study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of Arctium lappa L. root extracts (AREs) from different extraction methods (aqueous, ethanol, chloroform and flavone) on atherosclerosis. Quails (Coturnix coturnix) were subjected to high fat diet, with or without one of the four different AREs or positive control simvastatin. Blood samples were collected before treatment, after 4.5 weeks or ten weeks to assess lipid profile (Levels of total cholesterol (TC), Triacylglycerol (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)). After ten weeks, the serum levels of nitric oxide (NO) as well as antioxidant and pro-oxidative status (Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)) were measured. Furthermore, aortas were collected after ten weeks treatment, aorta lipid contents (TC, TG and LDL) were assessed, and histology was used to confirm atherosclerotic changes. The results indicated that high fat diet significantly deteriorated lipid profile and antioxidant status in quail serum, while all the extracts significantly reverted the changes similar to simvastatin. Aorta lipid profile assessment revealed similar results. Histology on aortas from quails treated for ten weeks confirmed atherosclerotic changes in high fat diet group, while the extracts significantly alleviated the atherosclerotic changes similar to simvastatin. Among the different extracts, flavones fraction exerted best protective effects. Our data suggest that the protective effects of AREs were medicated via hypolipidemic and anti-oxidant effects. Underlying molecular mechanisms are under investigation.
Danjon, Frédéric; Caplan, Joshua S; Fortin, Mathieu; Meredieu, Céline
Root systems of woody plants generally display a strong relationship between the cross-sectional area or cross-sectional diameter (CSD) of a root and the dry weight of biomass (DWd) or root volume (Vd) that has grown (i.e., is descendent) from a point. Specification of this relationship allows one to quantify root architectural patterns and estimate the amount of material lost when root systems are extracted from the soil. However, specifications of this relationship generally do not account for the fact that root systems are comprised of multiple types of roots. We assessed whether the relationship between CSD and Vd varies as a function of root type. Additionally, we sought to identify a more accurate and time-efficient method for estimating missing root volume than is currently available. We used a database that described the 3D root architecture of Pinus pinaster root systems (5, 12, or 19 years) from a stand in southwest France. We determined the relationship between CSD and Vd for 10,000 root segments from intact root branches. Models were specified that did and did not account for root type. The relationships were then applied to the diameters of 11,000 broken root ends to estimate the volume of missing roots. CSD was nearly linearly related to the square root of Vd, but the slope of the curve varied greatly as a function of root type. Sinkers and deep roots tapered rapidly, as they were limited by available soil depth. Distal shallow roots tapered gradually, as they were less limited spatially. We estimated that younger trees lost an average of 17% of root volume when excavated, while older trees lost 4%. Missing volumes were smallest in the central parts of root systems and largest in distal shallow roots. The slopes of the curves for each root type are synthetic parameters that account for differentiation due to genetics, soil properties, or mechanical stimuli. Accounting for this differentiation is critical to estimating root loss accurately.
Danjon, Frédéric; Caplan, Joshua S.; Fortin, Mathieu; Meredieu, Céline
Root systems of woody plants generally display a strong relationship between the cross-sectional area or cross-sectional diameter (CSD) of a root and the dry weight of biomass (DWd) or root volume (Vd) that has grown (i.e., is descendent) from a point. Specification of this relationship allows one to quantify root architectural patterns and estimate the amount of material lost when root systems are extracted from the soil. However, specifications of this relationship generally do not account for the fact that root systems are comprised of multiple types of roots. We assessed whether the relationship between CSD and Vd varies as a function of root type. Additionally, we sought to identify a more accurate and time-efficient method for estimating missing root volume than is currently available. We used a database that described the 3D root architecture of Pinus pinaster root systems (5, 12, or 19 years) from a stand in southwest France. We determined the relationship between CSD and Vd for 10,000 root segments from intact root branches. Models were specified that did and did not account for root type. The relationships were then applied to the diameters of 11,000 broken root ends to estimate the volume of missing roots. CSD was nearly linearly related to the square root of Vd, but the slope of the curve varied greatly as a function of root type. Sinkers and deep roots tapered rapidly, as they were limited by available soil depth. Distal shallow roots tapered gradually, as they were less limited spatially. We estimated that younger trees lost an average of 17% of root volume when excavated, while older trees lost 4%. Missing volumes were smallest in the central parts of root systems and largest in distal shallow roots. The slopes of the curves for each root type are synthetic parameters that account for differentiation due to genetics, soil properties, or mechanical stimuli. Accounting for this differentiation is critical to estimating root loss accurately. PMID
Kannappan, Arunachalam; Gowrishankar, Shanmugaraj; Srinivasan, Ramanathan; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha; Ravi, Arumugam Veera
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a leading human pathogen responsible for causing chronic clinical manifestation worldwide. In addition to antibiotic resistance genes viz. mecA and vanA, biofilm formation plays a prominent role in the pathogenicity of S. aureus by enhancing its resistance to existing antibiotics. Considering the role of folk medicinal plants in the betterment of human health from the waves of multidrug resistant bacterial infections, the present study was intended to explore the effect of Vetiveria zizanioides root on the biofilm formation of MRSA and its clinical counterparts. V. zizanioides root extract (VREX) showed a concentration-dependent reduction in biofilm formation without hampering the cellular viability of the tested strains. Micrographs of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) portrayed the devastating impact of VREX on biofilm formation. In addition to antibiofilm activity, VREX suppresses the production of biofilm related phenotypes such as exopolysaccharide, slime and α-hemolysin toxin. Furthermore, variation in FT-IR spectra evidenced the difference in cellular factors of untreated and VREX treated samples. Result of mature biofilm disruption assay and down regulation of genes like fnbA, fnbB, clfA suggested that VREX targets these adhesin genes responsible for initial adherence. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of sesquiterpenes as a major constituent in VREX. Thus, the data of present study strengthen the ethnobotanical value of V. zizanioides and concludes that VREX contain bioactive molecules that have beneficial effect over the biofilm formation of MRSA and its clinical isolates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ahmed, Mutez Ali; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kaestner, Anders; Carminati, Andrea
Roots play a key role in water acquisition and are a significant component of plant adaptation to different environmental conditions. Although maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important crops worldwide, there is limited information on the function of different root segments and types in extracting water from soils. Aim of this study was to investigate the location of root water uptake in mature maize. We used neutron radiography to image the spatial distribution of maize roots and trace the transport of injected deuterated water (D2O) in soil and roots. Maize plants were grown in aluminum containers filled with a sandy soil that was kept homogeneously wet throughout the experiment. When the plants were five weeks-old, we injected D2O into selected soil regions. The transport of D2O was simulated using a diffusion-convection numerical model. By fitting the observed D2O transport we quantified the diffusion coefficient and the water uptake of the different root segments. The model was initially developed and tested with two weeks-old maize (Ahmed et. al. 2015), for which we found that water was mainly taken up by lateral roots and the water uptake of the seminal roots was negligible. Here, we used this method to measure root water uptake in a mature maize root system. The root architecture of five weeks-old maize consisted of primary and seminal roots with long laterals and crown (nodal) roots that emerged from the above ground part of the plant two weeks after planting. The crown roots were thicker than the seminal roots and had fewer and shorter laterals. Surprisingly, we found that the water was mainly taken up by the crown roots and their laterals, while the lateral roots of seminal roots, which were the main location of water uptake of younger plants, stopped to take up water. Interestingly, we also found that in contrast to the seminal roots, the crown roots were able to take up water also from their distal segments. We conclude that for the two weeks
Shiwani, Supriya; Singh, Naresh Kumar
The study elucidated carbohydrase inhibition, anti-cancerous, free radical scavenging properties and also investigated the DNA and protein protection abilities of methanolic root extract of Rumex crispus (RERC). For this purpose, pulverized roots of Rumex crispus was extracted in methanol (80% and absolute conc.) for 3 hrs for 60℃ and filtered and evaporated with vacuum rotary evaporator. RERC showed high phenolic content (211 µg/GAE equivalent) and strong 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging (IC50 = 42.86 (absolute methanol) and 36.91 µg/mL (80% methanolic extract)) and reduced power ability. Furthermore, RERC exhibited significant protective ability in H2O2/Fe3+/ascorbic acid-induced protein or DNA damage and percentage inhibition of the HT-29 cell growth rate following 80% methanolic RERC exposure at 400 µg/mL was observed to be highest (10.2% ± 1.03). Moreover, methanolic RERC inhibited α-glucosidase and amylase effectively and significantly (P < 0.05). Conclusively, RERC could be considered as potent carbohydrase inhibitor, anti-cancerous and anti-oxidant. PMID:23198017
Wang, Guey-Horng; Chen, Chih-Yu; Tsai, Teh-Hua; Chen, Ching-Kuo; Cheng, Chiu-Yu; Huang, Yi-Hsin; Hsieh, Min-Chi; Chung, Ying-Chien
Angelica dahurica root (ADR), which shows strong antioxidant activity, is used in Chinese medicine. This study evaluated the tyrosinase inhibitory and antioxidant activities of ADR extracts fermented by four different probiotic bacteria: Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium lactis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Lactobacillus brevis. The ADR was first extracted using distilled water, 70% ethanol, and ethyl acetate, and then fermented by probiotic bacteria. The physiological characteristics of these fermented extracts, namely the antityrosinase activity, antioxidant activity, phenolic composition, and phenolic content, were evaluated and compared with those of unfermented extracts. Results showed that the water extracts after fermentation by probiotic bacteria exhibited the most favorable physiological characteristics. Among the extracts fermented by these probiotic bacteria, L. acidophilus-fermented ADR extract showed the most favorable physiological characteristics. The optimal IC 50 values for antityrosinase activity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and reducing power for L. acidophilus-fermented ADR extract were 0.07 ± 0.03, 0.12 ± 0.01, and 0.68 ± 0.06 mg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, the physiological activities of fermented extracts were considerably higher than those of unfermented extracts. The tyrosinase inhibition and melanin content of B16F10 melanoma cells, and cytotoxicity effects of the fermented ADR extracts on B16F10 cells were also evaluated. We found that the L. acidophilus-fermented ADR extract at 1.5 mg/mL showed significant cellular antityrosinase activity with low melanin production in B16F10 cells and was noncytotoxic to B16F10 cells. Among all probiotic bacteria, water-extracted ADR fermented by L. acidophilus for 48 h was found to be the best skincare agent or antioxidant agent. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ajiwhen, I O; Bisong, S A
Carpolobia lutea, commonly called cattle stick or poor man's candle, is used by traditional herbalists in eastern Nigeria to treat 'madness'. It has a reported analgesic and anti-nociceptive effect. The effect of its ethanolic root extract on learning and memory was investigated. Thirty mice were divided into three groups of ten each. One group of mice served as the control and was given normal saline (p.o.) while the other two groups were given acute low dose (1500mg/kg, p.o.) and high dose (2500mg/kg, p.o.) (LD50 3338.83mg/kg). The effect of the extract on cognitive memory was investigated using the Novel Object recognition task (NORT) while the effect on visuospatial learning and memory was studied using the Morris Water maze (MWM). The results obtained in the NORT show that the index of habituation was significantly lower following acute treatment with a low dose of C. lutea extract compared to control. However, the index of habituation did not differ following treatment with a high dose of C. lutea compared to control but it was higher compared to the low dose. Following treatment with a low dose of the extract, the index of discrimination was significantly higher compared to control. The index of discrimination in the high dose treatment group did not differ from control, but it was lower compared to the low dose treatment. This indicated that there was improved cognitive memory only in the low dose treatment group. In the MWM there was no significant difference in swim latency during Acquisition and Reversal training. There also was no significant difference in quadrant duration during probe trial. The swim latency during the visible platform test showed that all mice used had good visual acuity. Therefore, the ethanolic extract of C. lutea root enhanced cognitive memory. However it did not affect visuospatial learning and memory.
Ovadje, Pamela; Ammar, Saleem; Guerrero, Jose-Antonio; Arnason, John Thor; Pandey, Siyaram
Dandelion extracts have been studied extensively in recent years for its anti-depressant and anti-inflammatory activity. Recent work from our lab, with in-vitro systems, shows the anti-cancer potential of an aqueous dandelion root extract (DRE) in several cancer cell models, with no toxicity to non-cancer cells. In this study, we examined the cancer cell-killing effectiveness of an aqueous DRE in colon cancer cell models. Aqueous DRE induced programmed cell death (PCD) selectively in > 95% of colon cancer cells, irrespective of their p53 status, by 48 hours of treatment. The anti-cancer efficacy of this extract was confirmed in in-vivo studies, as the oral administration of DRE retarded the growth of human colon xenograft models by more than 90%. We found the activation of multiple death pathways in cancer cells by DRE treatment, as revealed by gene expression analyses showing the expression of genes implicated in programmed cell death. Phytochemical analyses of the extract showed complex multi-component composition of the DRE, including some known bioactive phytochemicals such as α-amyrin, β-amyrin, lupeol and taraxasterol. This suggested that this natural extract could engage and effectively target multiple vulnerabilities of cancer cells. Therefore, DRE could be a non-toxic and effective anti-cancer alternative, instrumental for reducing the occurrence of cancer cells drug-resistance. PMID:27564258
Phuong, Nguyen Tran Xuan; Thy, Lu Thi Mong; Khang, Nguyen Luu Vinh; My, Huynh Thi Kieu; Tam, Nguyen Le Phuong; Hieu, Nguyen Huu
Panax notoginseng is distributed throughout the north and northwest of Vietnam, especially Ha Giang, Lao Cai, and Cao Bang provinces. The root of this plant contains ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rd, Rg3), flavonoids, polyacetylene, polysaccharides, amino acids, fatty acids, and peptides. In this study, the ratios of enzyme (Viscozyme, Termamyl, Cellulase), solvent of components, and time extraction were investigated. The results showed that the highest contents of Rb1 and Rg3 were achieved in the sample extracted with the ratio of enzymes V:C:T = 1:0:0, ethanol:water (60:40, v/v) as extracting solvent in 45 minutes. Then, conditions of high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector method to determine the content of ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg3 in the roots of Panax notoginseng were studied, including wavelength, mobile phase, and flow rate. The separation was subjected on a reversed-phase C18 column using acetonitrile (A) and water (B) as mobile phase. The gradient elution was set as follow: 0-10 min, 15-25% A; 10-20 min, 25-30% A; 20-40 min, 30-60% A; 40-60 min, 60-80% A; and 60-65 min back to 15% A before the next injection, at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min, and the wavelength was set at 202 nm. The linear range was from 298.59 to 696.72 µg/mL for Rb1 and from 8.19 to 19.10 µg/L for Rg3. The limits of detection for Rb1 and Rg3 obtained were 0.31 µg/mL and 0.33 µg/mL, respectively. The limits of quantification were 0.95 µg/mL and 1.01 µg/mL for Rb1 and Rg3, respectively. Consequently, the high performance liquid chromatography demonstrated the highly sensitive and accurate method for determination of Rb1 and Rg3 in Panax notoginseng.
Armentano, Maria Francesca; Bisaccia, Faustino; Miglionico, Rocchina; Russo, Daniela; Nolfi, Nicoletta; Carmosino, Monica; Andrade, Paula B.; Valentão, Patrícia; Diop, Moussoukhoye Sissokho
The main goal of this study was to characterize the in vitro antioxidant activity and the apoptotic potential of S. birrea methanolic root extract (MRE). Among four tested extracts, obtained with different solvents, MRE showed the highest content of polyphenols, flavonoids, and tannins together with antioxidant activities tested with superoxide, nitric oxide, ABTS, and beta-carotene bleaching assays. Moreover, the cytotoxic effect of MRE was evaluated on the hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2. In these cells, MRE treatment induced apoptosis and generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in dose-dependent manner. The cytotoxic effect promoted by MRE was prevented by pretreatment of HepG2 cells with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), suggesting that oxidative stress was pivotal in MRE-mediated cell death. Moreover, we showed that the MRE treatment induced the mitochondrial membrane depolarization and the cytochrome c release from mitochondria into the cytosol. It suggests that the apoptosis occurred in a mitochondrial-dependent pathway. Interestingly, MRE showed a sensibly lower cytotoxicity, associated with a low increase of ROS, in normal human dermal fibroblasts compared to HepG2 cells. It is suggested that the methanolic root extract of S. Birrea is able to selectively increase intracellular ROS levels in cancer cells, promoting cell death. PMID:26075245
Armentano, Maria Francesca; Bisaccia, Faustino; Miglionico, Rocchina; Russo, Daniela; Nolfi, Nicoletta; Carmosino, Monica; Andrade, Paula B; Valentão, Patrícia; Diop, Moussoukhoye Sissokho; Milella, Luigi
The main goal of this study was to characterize the in vitro antioxidant activity and the apoptotic potential of S. birrea methanolic root extract (MRE). Among four tested extracts, obtained with different solvents, MRE showed the highest content of polyphenols, flavonoids, and tannins together with antioxidant activities tested with superoxide, nitric oxide, ABTS, and beta-carotene bleaching assays. Moreover, the cytotoxic effect of MRE was evaluated on the hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2. In these cells, MRE treatment induced apoptosis and generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in dose-dependent manner. The cytotoxic effect promoted by MRE was prevented by pretreatment of HepG2 cells with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), suggesting that oxidative stress was pivotal in MRE-mediated cell death. Moreover, we showed that the MRE treatment induced the mitochondrial membrane depolarization and the cytochrome c release from mitochondria into the cytosol. It suggests that the apoptosis occurred in a mitochondrial-dependent pathway. Interestingly, MRE showed a sensibly lower cytotoxicity, associated with a low increase of ROS, in normal human dermal fibroblasts compared to HepG2 cells. It is suggested that the methanolic root extract of S. Birrea is able to selectively increase intracellular ROS levels in cancer cells, promoting cell death.
Sendker, Jandirk; Böker, Ines; Lengers, Isabelle; Brandt, Simone; Jose, Joachim; Stark, Timo; Hofmann, Thomas; Fink, Careen; Abdel-Aziz, Heba; Hensel, Andreas
Extract RE was obtained from the roots of Althaea officinalis in a yield of 8.1%, related to the dried plant material, by extraction with MeOH-H 2 O (1:1), followed by precipitation with EtOH to remove high molecular weight constituents. Phytochemical investigation of RE revealed the presence of N-phenylpropenoyl-l-amino acid amides 1-5, 8% glycine betaine 6, about 9% total amino acids with proline as the main compound, and about 61% mono- and oligomeric carbohydrates with sucrose as the main compound. Further fractionation revealed the presence of a hypolaetin diglycoside (12) and four hypolaetin glycosides (7-9 and 11) with O-sulfocarbohydrate moieties; additionally, 4'-O-methylisoscutellarein-8-O-β-d-(3″-O-sulfo)glucuronopyranoside (10) and the diglycosylated coumarin haploperoside D (13) were identified. The hypolaetin-O-sulfoglycosides 7-10 are new natural products. RE inhibited the enzymatic activity of surface-displayed human hyaluronidase-1 on Escherichia coli F470 cells with an IC 50 of 7.7 mg/mL. RE downregulated mRNA expression of hyal-1 in HaCaT keratinocytes at 125 and 250 μg/mL, respectively. These data contribute to a deeper phytochemical understanding of marshmallow root extracts and to the positive influence of extracts used for therapy of irritated and inflamed buccal tissue and cough.
Candido, Lafayette P; Varela, Rosa M; Torres, Ascensión; Molinillo, José M G; Gualtieri, Sonia C J; Macías, Francisco A
Despite the increase in recent decades in herbicide research on the potential of native plants, current knowledge is considered to be low. Very few studies have been carried out on the chemical profile or the biological activity of the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado) species. In the study reported here, the allelopathic activity of AcOEt and MeOH extracts of leaves, stems, and roots from Ocotea pulchella Nees was evaluated. The extracts were assayed on etiolated wheat coleoptiles. The AcOEt leaf extract was the most active and this was tested on standard target species (STS). Lycopersicon esculentum and Lactuca sativa were the most sensitive species in this test. A total of eleven compounds have been isolated and characterized. Compounds 1, 2, 4, and 6 have not been identified previously from O. pulchella and ocoteol (9) is reported for the first time in the literature. Eight compounds were tested on wheat coleoptile growth, and spathulenol, benzyl salicylate, and benzyl benzoate showed the highest activities. These compounds showed inhibitory activity on L. esculentum. The values obtained correspond to the activity exhibited by the extract and these compounds may therefore be responsible for the allelopathic activity shown by O. pulchella. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zürich.
Ezealisiji, K. M.; Noundou, X. S.; Ukwueze, S. E.
In recent time, various phytosynthetic methods have been employed for the fabrication of silver nanoparticles; these unique metal nanoparticles are used in several applications which include pharmaceuticals and material engineering. The current research reports a rapid and simple synthetic partway for silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using root bark aqueous extract of Annona muricata and the evaluation of its antimicrobial efficacy against pathogenic microorganisms. The root bark extract was treated with aqueous silver nitrate solution. Silver ions were reduced to silver atoms which on aggregation gave Silver nanoparticles; the biosynthesized AgNPs were characteristically spherical, discreet and stabilized by phytochemical entities and were characterized using ultraviolet visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and photon correlation microscopy. The aqueous plant extract-AgNPs suspension was subjected to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. TEM result for the average particle size is 22 ± 2 nm. The polydispersity index and zeta-potential were found to be 0.44 ± 0.02 and - 27.90 ± 0.01 mV, respectively (Zeta-Sizer). The antimicrobial evaluation result showed that the synthesized silver nanoparticles at different concentration were very active against the Gram-positive bacteria ( B. subtilis, S. aureous) and Gram-negative bacteria ( K. Pneumonia, E. Coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), P. aeruginosa being most susceptible to the anti microbial effect of the silver nanoparticles. Stable silver nanoparticles with antimicrobial activity were obtained through biosynthesis.
Yeo, Yun-Soo; Nybo, S. Eric; Chittiboyina, Amar G.; Weerasooriya, Aruna D.; Wang, Yan-Hong; Góngora-Castillo, Elsa; Vaillancourt, Brieanne; Buell, C. Robin; DellaPenna, Dean; Celiz, Mary Dawn; Jones, A. Daniel; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin; Ransom, Nick; Dudareva, Natalia; Shaaban, Khaled A.; Tibrewal, Nidhi; Chandra, Suman; Smillie, Troy; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Coates, Robert M.; Watt, David S.; Chappell, Joe
Valerian is an herbal preparation from the roots of Valeriana officinalis used as an anxiolytic and sedative and in the treatment of insomnia. The biological activities of valerian are attributed to valerenic acid and its putative biosynthetic precursor valerenadiene, sesquiterpenes, found in V. officinalis roots. These sesquiterpenes retain an isobutenyl side chain whose origin has been long recognized as enigmatic because a chemical rationalization for their biosynthesis has not been obvious. Using recently developed metabolomic and transcriptomic resources, we identified seven V. officinalis terpene synthase genes (VoTPSs), two that were functionally characterized as monoterpene synthases and three that preferred farnesyl diphosphate, the substrate for sesquiterpene synthases. The reaction products for two of the sesquiterpene synthases exhibiting root-specific expression were characterized by a combination of GC-MS and NMR in comparison to the terpenes accumulating in planta. VoTPS7 encodes for a synthase that biosynthesizes predominately germacrene C, whereas VoTPS1 catalyzes the conversion of farnesyl diphosphate to valerena-1,10-diene. Using a yeast expression system, specific labeled [13C]acetate, and NMR, we investigated the catalytic mechanism for VoTPS1 and provide evidence for the involvement of a caryophyllenyl carbocation, a cyclobutyl intermediate, in the biosynthesis of valerena-1,10-diene. We suggest a similar mechanism for the biosynthesis of several other biologically related isobutenyl-containing sesquiterpenes. PMID:23243312
Yeo, Yun-Soo; Nybo, S Eric; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Weerasooriya, Aruna D; Wang, Yan-Hong; Góngora-Castillo, Elsa; Vaillancourt, Brieanne; Buell, C Robin; DellaPenna, Dean; Celiz, Mary Dawn; Jones, A Daniel; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin; Ransom, Nick; Dudareva, Natalia; Shaaban, Khaled A; Tibrewal, Nidhi; Chandra, Suman; Smillie, Troy; Khan, Ikhlas A; Coates, Robert M; Watt, David S; Chappell, Joe
Valerian is an herbal preparation from the roots of Valeriana officinalis used as an anxiolytic and sedative and in the treatment of insomnia. The biological activities of valerian are attributed to valerenic acid and its putative biosynthetic precursor valerenadiene, sesquiterpenes, found in V. officinalis roots. These sesquiterpenes retain an isobutenyl side chain whose origin has been long recognized as enigmatic because a chemical rationalization for their biosynthesis has not been obvious. Using recently developed metabolomic and transcriptomic resources, we identified seven V. officinalis terpene synthase genes (VoTPSs), two that were functionally characterized as monoterpene synthases and three that preferred farnesyl diphosphate, the substrate for sesquiterpene synthases. The reaction products for two of the sesquiterpene synthases exhibiting root-specific expression were characterized by a combination of GC-MS and NMR in comparison to the terpenes accumulating in planta. VoTPS7 encodes for a synthase that biosynthesizes predominately germacrene C, whereas VoTPS1 catalyzes the conversion of farnesyl diphosphate to valerena-1,10-diene. Using a yeast expression system, specific labeled [(13)C]acetate, and NMR, we investigated the catalytic mechanism for VoTPS1 and provide evidence for the involvement of a caryophyllenyl carbocation, a cyclobutyl intermediate, in the biosynthesis of valerena-1,10-diene. We suggest a similar mechanism for the biosynthesis of several other biologically related isobutenyl-containing sesquiterpenes.
Negrel, Jonathan; Javelle, Francine; Morandi, Dominique; Lucchi, Géraldine
A Gram-negative bacterium able to grow using chlorogenic acid (5-caffeoylquinic acid) as sole carbon source has been isolated from the roots of tomato plants inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis. An intracellular esterase exhibiting very high affinity (K m = 2 μM) for chlorogenic acid has been extracted and purified by FPLC from the chlorogenate-grown cultures of this bacterium. The molecular mass of the purified esterase determined by SDS-PAGE was 61 kDa and its isoelectric point determined by chromatofocusing was 7.75. The esterase hydrolysed chlorogenic acid analogues (caffeoylshikimate, and the 4- and 3-caffeoylquinic acid isomers), feruloyl esterases substrates (methyl caffeate and methyl ferulate), and even caffeoyl-CoA in vitro but all of them were less active than chlorogenic acid, demonstrating that the esterase is a genuine chlorogenic acid esterase. It was also induced when the bacterial strain was cultured in the presence of hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, p-coumaric or ferulic acid) as sole carbon source, but not in the presence of simple phenolics such as catechol or protocatechuic acid, nor in the presence of organic acids such as succinic or quinic acids. The purified esterase was remarkably stable in the presence of methanol, rapid formation of methyl caffeate occurring when its activity was measured in aqueous solutions containing 10-60% methanol. Our results therefore show that this bacterial chlorogenase can catalyse the transesterification reaction previously detected during the methanolic extraction of chlorogenic acid from arbuscular mycorrhizal tomato roots. Data are presented suggesting that colonisation by Rhizophagus irregularis could increase chlorogenic acid exudation from tomato roots, especially in nutrient-deprived plants, and thus favour the growth of chlorogenate-metabolizing bacteria on the root surface or in the mycorhizosphere. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights
Jiao, Yu-jie; Wang, Ya-qi; Yuan, Ling
The tuberous roots of Aconitum carmichaeli are largely used in traditional Chinese medicine and widely grown in Jiangyou, Sichuan, China. During the growth process, this medicinal plant releases a large amount of allelochemicals into soil, which retard the growth and development of near and late crops. Therefore, a pure culture experiment was thus carried out by seed soaking to study the allelopathic effects of extracts from tuberous roots of A. carmichaeli (ETR) on the seed germination and young seedling growth of Lolium perenne, Trifolium repens, and Medicago sativa, the late pasture grasses after cultivation of A. carmichaeli. The results showed that three pasture grasses varied significantly in seed germination and young seedling growth in response to ETR concentrations. Seed germination of M. sativa was stimulated by low ERT concentration (0.01 x g(-1)), while all of pasture grass seeds germinated poorly in solution with 1.00 g x L(-1). Seed soaking with 1.00 g x L(-1) also inhibited significantly the growth of pasture young seedlings, with M. sativa showing the highest seedling height reduction of 42.05% in seeding height, followed by T. repens (40.21%) and L. perenne with about 11%. Cultivation of L. perenne could thus be beneficial to increase whole land productivity in A. carmichaeli-pasture grass cropping systems. In addition, hydrolysis of protein, starch, and inositol phosphates was blocked and free amino acids, soluble sugars and phosphorus were decreased in seeds by seed soaking with ETR, which could be one of the reason for the inhibition of seed germination. There was a significant reduction in root vigor, nitrate reductase, and chlorophyll after the seed treatment with ETR, indicating the suppression of nutrient uptake, nitrate assimilation, and photosynthesis by allelopathic chemicals in ETR, which could lead to the slow growth rate of pasture grass seedlings.
Gansser, D; Spiteller, G
A test system is described, which allows the search for compounds interfering with human sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) even in complex plant extracts. The method has been evaluated and applied to Urtica dioica root extracts. The lignan secoisolariciresinol (5) as well as a mixture of isomeric (11 E)-9,10,13-trihydroxy-11-octadecenoic and (10 E)-9,12,13-trihydroxy-10-octadecenoic acids (3 and 4, resp.) were demonstrated to reduce binding activity of human SHBG. Methylation of the mixture of 3 and 4 increased its activity about 10-fold.
Glynn, Kelly M; Anderson, Penny; Fast, David J; Koedam, James; Rebhun, John F; Velliquette, Rodney A
Glycation and advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) damage skin which is compounded by AGE-induced oxidative stress and inflammation. Lip and facial skin could be susceptible to glycation damage as they are chronically stressed. As Gromwell (Lithospermum erythrorhizon) root (GR) has an extensive traditional medicine history that includes providing multiple skin benefits, our objective was to determine if GR extract and its base naphthoquinone, shikonin, might protect skin by inhibiting glycation, increasing oxidative defenses, suppressing inflammatory responses, and offering ultraviolet (UV) absorptive potential in lip and facial cosmetic matrices. We show GR extract and shikonin dose-dependently inhibited glycation and enhanced oxidative defenses through nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) activation. Inflammatory targets, nuclear factor kappa light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), were suppressed by GR extract and shikonin. Glyoxalase 1 (GLO1) and glutathione synthesis genes were significantly upregulated by GR extract and shikonin. GR extract boosted higher wavelength UV absorption in select cosmetic matrices. Rationale for the use of GR extract and shikonin are supported by our research. By inhibiting glycation, modulating oxidative stress, suppressing inflammation, and UV-absorptive properties, GR extract and shikonin potentially offer multiple skin benefits. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Campos, Jaqueline F.; Espindola, Priscilla P. de Toledo; Torquato, Heron F. V.; Vital, Wagner D.; Justo, Giselle Z.; Silva, Denise B.; Carollo, Carlos A.; de Picoli Souza, Kely; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar J.; dos Santos, Edson L.
Phytochemical studies are seeking new alternatives to prevent or treat cancer, including different types of leukemias. Campomanesia adamantium, commonly known as guavira or guabiroba, exhibits pharmacological properties including antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiproliferative activities. Considering the anticancer potential of this plant species, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antileukemic activity and the chemical composition of aqueous extracts from the leaves (AECL) and roots (AECR) of C. adamantium and their possible mechanisms of action. The extracts were analyzed by LC-DAD-MS, and their constituents were identified based on the UV, MS, and MS/MS data. The AECL and AECR showed different chemical compositions, which were identified as main compounds glycosylated flavonols from AECL and ellagic acid and their derivatives from AECR. The cytotoxicity promoted by these extracts were evaluated using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and Jurkat leukemic cell line. The cell death profile was evaluated using annexin-V-FITC and propidium iodide labeling. Changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential, the activity of caspases, and intracellular calcium levels were assessed. The cell cycle profile was evaluated using propidium iodide. Both extracts caused concentration-dependent cytotoxicity only in Jurkat cells via late apoptosis. This activity was associated with loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential, activation of caspases-9 and -3, changes in intracellular calcium levels, and cell cycle arrest in S-phase. Therefore, the antileukemic activity of the AECL and AECR is mediated by mitochondrial dysfunction and intracellular messengers, which activate the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Hence, aqueous extracts of the leaves and roots of C. adamantium show therapeutic potential for use in the prevention and treatment of diseases associated the proliferation of tumor cell. PMID:28855870
da Silva, Raquel Raick P; da Silva, Bruno J M; Rodrigues, Ana Paula D; Farias, Luis Henrique S; da Silva, Milton N; Alves, Danila Teresa V; Bastos, Gilmara N T; do Nascimento, José Luiz M; Silva, Edilene O
Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by various species of the protozoan parasites of the Leishmania genus and transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies. The protozoa multiply in phagocytic cells, mainly macrophages, which play an important role defending the organism from pathogens. The most effective treatment for leishmaniasis is the chemotherapy and besides the high cost, these drugs are toxic and require a long period of treatment. Currently, some herbal products are considered an important alternative source of a new leishmanicidal agent, which includes the plant Physalis angulata, . We evaluated effects of an aqueous extract from roots of Physalis angulata (AEPa) on Leishmania proliferation, morphology and also determined whether physalins were present in the extract contributing to the knowledge of its pharmacological efficacy. Morphological alterations were determined by light microscopy, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Host cell viability was evaluated by MTT, and propidium iodide. AEPa were submitted in full HRESITOF analysis. AEPa promoted a dose-dependent reduction on promastigotes (IC50 = 39.5 μg/mL ± 5.1) and amastigotes (IC50 = 43.4 μg/mL ± 10.1) growth. This growth inhibition was associated with several morphological alterations observed in promastigote forms. No cytotoxic effect in mammalian cells was detected (IC50 > 4000 μg/mL). Furthemore, the presence of physalins A, B, D, E, F, G and H were described, for the first time, in the P. angulata root. Results demonstrate that AEPa effectively promotes antileishmanial activity with several important morphological alterations and has no cytotoxic effects on host cells.
Germanò, Maria Paola; Certo, Giovanna; D'Angelo, Valeria; Sanogo, Rokia; Malafronte, Nicola; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Rapisarda, Antonio
Entada africana roots are used in African traditional medicine for various diseases including inflammation. This application may be mediated through anti-angiogenic effects. Thus, in this study the anti-angiogenic activity of E. africana root extracts (n-hexane, chloroform, chloroform/methanol and methanol) was preliminarily evaluated by the quantitative determination of endogenous alkaline phosphatase in zebrafish embryos. A bioactivity-guided fractionation of chloroform/methanol extract yielded apigenin and robinetin as the main constituents from the most active fractions. In addition, a marked reduction on capillary formation was evidenced in chick chorioallantoic membrane after treatment with the active fractions or isolated compounds. Results obtained in this study suggest that the anti-angiogenic effects of E. africana root may account for its use in inflammatory diseases and other related pathological conditions.
Canlı, Kerem; Yetgin, Ali; Akata, Ilgaz; Altuner, Ergin Murat
It was previously shown that some parts of Aquilaria agallocha , which is commonly known as oud or oodh, such as roots have been used as a traditional medical herbal in different countries. In Turkey A. agallocha is one of the ingredients while preparing famous Mesir paste, which was invented as a medicinal paste and used from the Ottoman period to now at least for 500 years. The identification the in vitro antimicrobial activity of ethanol extract of A. agallocha roots is main purpose of this analysis. By using 17 bacteria and 1 fungi, which include Bacillus, Candida, Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Listeria, Pseudomonas, Salmonella and Staphylococcus genera, the activity of A. agallocha root extracts were analysed by the help of the disk diffusion method, that is one of the methods commonly used to determine antimicrobial activities. As a result of the study it was observed that ethanol extracts of A. agallocha roots have a clear antimicrobial activity against nearly all microorganism used in the study, but only two bacteria namely E. coli ATCC 25922 and S. typhimurium SL 1344. According to the disk diffusion test results it may be possible to propose that A. agallocha roots should have a medicinal uses especially against E. faecium , L. monocytogenes ATCC 7644, B. subtilis DSMZ 1971, C. albicans DSMZ 1386, S. epidermidis DSMZ 20044 and S. aureus ATCC 25923.
Galkovskyi, Taras; Mileyko, Yuriy; Bucksch, Alexander; Moore, Brad; Symonova, Olga; Price, Charles A; Topp, Christopher N; Iyer-Pascuzzi, Anjali S; Zurek, Paul R; Fang, Suqin; Harer, John; Benfey, Philip N; Weitz, Joshua S
Characterizing root system architecture (RSA) is essential to understanding the development and function of vascular plants. Identifying RSA-associated genes also represents an underexplored opportunity for crop improvement. Software tools are needed to accelerate the pace at which quantitative traits of RSA are estimated from images of root networks. We have developed GiA Roots (General Image Analysis of Roots), a semi-automated software tool designed specifically for the high-throughput analysis of root system images. GiA Roots includes user-assisted algorithms to distinguish root from background and a fully automated pipeline that extracts dozens of root system phenotypes. Quantitative information on each phenotype, along with intermediate steps for full reproducibility, is returned to the end-user for downstream analysis. GiA Roots has a GUI front end and a command-line interface for interweaving the software into large-scale workflows. GiA Roots can also be extended to estimate novel phenotypes specified by the end-user. We demonstrate the use of GiA Roots on a set of 2393 images of rice roots representing 12 genotypes from the species Oryza sativa. We validate trait measurements against prior analyses of this image set that demonstrated that RSA traits are likely heritable and associated with genotypic differences. Moreover, we demonstrate that GiA Roots is extensible and an end-user can add functionality so that GiA Roots can estimate novel RSA traits. In summary, we show that the software can function as an efficient tool as part of a workflow to move from large numbers of root images to downstream analysis.
Assessment of apical transportation caused by nickel-titanium rotary systems with full rotation and reciprocating movements using extracted teeth and resin blocks with simulated root canals: A comparative study.
Alrahabi, M; Zafar, M S
: We compared apical transportation in the WaveOne and ProTaper Next systems, which are rotary nickel-titanium systems with reciprocating and continuous rotation movements, respectively, using manual measurements obtained from resin blocks with simulated root canals and double digital radiographs of extracted teeth. : We used 30 resin blocks with simulated root canals and 30 extracted teeth for this study. The same endodontist performed root canal shaping using the WaveOne or ProTaper Next system. We assessed apical transportation by measuring the amounts (in mm) of material lost 1 mm from the apical foramen in the resin blocks and by using double digital radiography for the extracted teeth. Significant differences between groups were assessed using t-tests. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. : The amount of apical transportation differed significantly between the two systems when resin blocks were used for assessment (P < 0.05), but there were no significant differences when extracted teeth were used (P < 0.05). In the current study, there was no significant difference in apical transportation between natural teeth prepared using WaveOne and those prepared using ProTaper Next. However, significant differences were observed between the two systems with resin blocks. These findings indicate that the use of resin blocks is not an accurate method for apical transportation evaluation.
Alimi, Hichem; Mbarki, Sakhria; Barka, Zeineb B; Feriani, Anwer; Bouoni, Zouhour; Hfaeidh, Najla; Sakly, Mohsen; Tebourbi, Olfa; Rhouma, Khémais B
Rhus tripartitum (sumac) is an Anacardiaceae tree with a wide phytotherapeutic application including the use of its roots in the management of gastric ulcer. In the present study the Rhus tripartitum root barks extract (RTE) was phytochemical studied, in vitro tested for their potential antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and reducing power assay and in vivo evaluated for its ability to prevent ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats. The RTE was rich in phenolics, flavonoids, tannins and polysaccharide contents and exhibited a low but not weak in vitro antioxidant activity when compared with (+)-catechin. Pre-treatment with RTE at oral doses 50, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight was found to provide a dose-dependent protection against ethanol-induced ulcer by averting the deep ulcer lesions of the gastric epithelium, by reducing gastric juice and acid output, by enhancing gastric mucus production by preserving normal antioxidant enzymes activities, and inhibiting the lipid peroxidation. The antiulcerogenic activity of RTE might be due to a possible synergistic antioxidant and antisecretory effects.
Hryb, D J; Khan, M S; Romas, N A; Rosner, W
Extracts from the roots of the stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) are used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. The mechanisms underlying this treatment have not been elucidated. We set out to determine whether specific extracts from U. dioica had the ability to modulate the binding of sex hormone-binding globulin to its receptor on human prostatic membranes. Four substances contained in U. dioica were examined: an aqueous extract; an alcoholic extract; U. dioica agglutinin, and stigmasta-4-en-3-one. Of these, only the aqueous extract was active. It inhibited the binding of 125I-SHBG to its receptor. The inhibition was dose related, starting at about 0.6 mg/ml and completely inhibited binding at 10 mg/ml.
Sowndhararajan, Kandhasamy; Kim, Songmun
Angelica gigas Nakai is an important medicinal plant with health promoting properties that is used to treat many disorders. In traditional herbal medicine, the root of this plant is used to promote blood flow, to treat anemia, and is used as sedative or tonic agent. The root contains various bioactive metabolites; in particular, decursin and decursinol (pyranocoumarin type components) have been reported to possess various pharmacological properties. Recently, several in vitro and in vivo studies have reported that the crude extracts and isolated components from the root of A. gigas exhibited neuroprotective and cognitive enhancement effects. Neuronal damage or death is the most important factor for many neurodegenerative diseases. In addition, recent studies have clearly demonstrated the possible mechanisms behind the neuroprotective action of extracts/compounds from the root of A. gigas. In the present review, we summarized the neuroprotective and cognitive enhancement effects of extracts and individual compounds from A. gigas root. PMID:28452965
Sowndhararajan, Kandhasamy; Kim, Songmun
Angelica gigas Nakai is an important medicinal plant with health promoting properties that is used to treat many disorders. In traditional herbal medicine, the root of this plant is used to promote blood flow, to treat anemia, and is used as sedative or tonic agent. The root contains various bioactive metabolites; in particular, decursin and decursinol (pyranocoumarin type components) have been reported to possess various pharmacological properties. Recently, several in vitro and in vivo studies have reported that the crude extracts and isolated components from the root of A. gigas exhibited neuroprotective and cognitive enhancement effects. Neuronal damage or death is the most important factor for many neurodegenerative diseases. In addition, recent studies have clearly demonstrated the possible mechanisms behind the neuroprotective action of extracts/compounds from the root of A. gigas . In the present review, we summarized the neuroprotective and cognitive enhancement effects of extracts and individual compounds from A. gigas root.
Franco, Danilo Miralha; Silva, Eder Marques; Saldanha, Luiz Leonardo; Adachi, Sérgio Akira; Schley, Thayssa Rabelo; Rodrigues, Tatiane Maria; Dokkedal, Anne Ligia; Nogueira, Fabio Tebaldi Silveira; Rolim de Almeida, Luiz Fernando
Flavonoids are a class of distinct compounds produced by plant secondary metabolism that inhibit or promote plant development and have a relationship with auxin transport. We showed that, in terms of root development, Copaifera langsdorffii leaf extracts has an inhibitory effect on most flavonoid components compared with the application of exogenous flavonoids (glycosides and aglycones). These compounds alter the pattern of expression of the SHORT-ROOT and HD-ZIP III transcription factor gene family and cause morpho-physiological alterations in sorghum roots. In addition, to examine the flavonoid auxin interaction in stress, we correlated the responses with the effects of exogenous application of auxin and an auxin transport inhibitor. The results show that exogenous flavonoids inhibit primary root growth and increase the development of lateral roots. Exogenous flavonoids also change the pattern of expression of specific genes associated with root tissue differentiation. These findings indicate that flavonoid glycosides can influence the polar transport of auxin, leading to stress responses that depend on auxin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Azmi, Muhammad Bilal; Qureshi, Shamim A
The aim of the study was to evaluate the phytochemistry and the effect of methanolic root extract (MREt) of Rauwolfia serpentina on alloxan-induced diabetic Wister male mice. Mice were divided in control (distilled water at 1 mL/kg) and alloxan-induced diabetic mice which subdivided into diabetic (distilled water at 1 mL/kg), negative (0.05% dimethyl sulfoxide at 1 mL/kg), positive (glibenclamide at 5 mg/kg) controls, and three test groups (MREt at 10, 30, and 60 mg/kg). All treatments were given orally for 14 days. Qualitatively MREt showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, glycosides, cardiac glycosides, phlobatannins, resins, saponins, steroids, tannins, and triterpenoids, while quantitatively extract was rich in total phenols. The flavonoids, saponins and alkaloids were also determined in root powder. MREt found effective in improving the body weights, glucose and insulin levels, insulin/glucose ratio, glycosylated and total hemoglobin in test groups as compared to diabetic control. Similarly, significantly decreased levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-c), and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-c) cholesterols were found in test groups. Significant lipolysis with improved glycogenesis was also found in liver tissues of all test groups. ALT levels were found normal in all groups. Thus, MREt improves the glycemic, antiatherogenic, coronary risk, and cardioprotective indices in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.
Azmi, Muhammad Bilal; Qureshi, Shamim A.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the phytochemistry and the effect of methanolic root extract (MREt) of Rauwolfia serpentina on alloxan-induced diabetic Wister male mice. Mice were divided in control (distilled water at 1 mL/kg) and alloxan-induced diabetic mice which subdivided into diabetic (distilled water at 1 mL/kg), negative (0.05% dimethyl sulfoxide at 1 mL/kg), positive (glibenclamide at 5 mg/kg) controls, and three test groups (MREt at 10, 30, and 60 mg/kg). All treatments were given orally for 14 days. Qualitatively MREt showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, glycosides, cardiac glycosides, phlobatannins, resins, saponins, steroids, tannins, and triterpenoids, while quantitatively extract was rich in total phenols. The flavonoids, saponins and alkaloids were also determined in root powder. MREt found effective in improving the body weights, glucose and insulin levels, insulin/glucose ratio, glycosylated and total hemoglobin in test groups as compared to diabetic control. Similarly, significantly decreased levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-c), and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-c) cholesterols were found in test groups. Significant lipolysis with improved glycogenesis was also found in liver tissues of all test groups. ALT levels were found normal in all groups. Thus, MREt improves the glycemic, antiatherogenic, coronary risk, and cardioprotective indices in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. PMID:23365565
Gholap, S; Kar, A
The efficacy of Inula racemosa (root) and Gymnema sylvestre (leaf) extracts either alone or in combination was evaluated in the amelioration of corticosteroid-induced hyperglycaemia in mice. Simultaneously thyroid hormone levels were estimated by radio-immunoassay (RIA) in order to ascertain whether the effects are mediated through thyroid hormones or not. While the corticosteroid (dexamethasone) administration increased the serum glucose concentration, it decreased serum concentrations of the thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Administration of the two plant extracts either alone or in combination decreased the serum glucose concentration in dexamethasone induced hyperglycaemic animals. However, the administration of Inula racemosa and Gymnema sylvestre extracts in combination proved to be more effective than the individual extracts. These effects were comparable to a standard corticosteroid-inhibiting drug, ketoconazole. As no marked changes in thyroid hormone concentrations were observed by the administration of any of the plant extracts in dexamethasone treated animals, it is further suggested that these plant extracts may not prove to be effective in thyroid hormone mediated type II diabetes, but for steroid induced diabetes.
Ferrara, Giulia; Taschieri, Silvio; Corbella, Stefano; Ceci, Caterina; Del Fabbro, Massimo; Machtou, Pierre
The aim of the present study was to compare the shaping ability of two different nickel-titanium rotary files in the curved root canals of extracted human molar teeth. Thirty root canals of 17 extracted human molars teeth were randomly assigned to two experimental groups (n = 15): ProTaper Next and ProTaper Universal (PTU), on the basis of the rotary files system used. The final size of all apical foramina was 0.25 mm in diameter. Standardized digital radiographs were taken before and after instrumentation in both clinical and proximal views, with a size 10 K-file inserted into the canal for the determination of the angle of curvature and apical transportation. Preparation time and fractured or deformed instruments were also recorded. The unpaired Student's t-test was used to compare results. There was no significant difference between the two instruments with respect to canal straightening and apical transportation before and after instrumentation (P > 0.05). The use of both instruments resulted in a significant reduction in the angle of curvature after instrumentation (P < 0.05). Instrumentation time was significantly greater for PTU (P < 0.05). The ProTaper Universal and ProTaper Next systems performed similarly with regard to the straightening of curved root canals and apical transportation. ProTaper Next was significantly faster than ProTaper Universal. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Xu, Xiaohui; Liang, Tao; Wen, Qingwei; Lin, Xing; Tang, Jingzhi; Zuo, Qiaoyun; Tao, Liqun; Xuan, Feifei; Huang, Renbin
In Chinese culture, the roots of Averrhoa carambola L. have long been used for medical purposes due to their potent pharmaceutical activities, such as improving digestive function and treating diabetes. Recently, we prepared extracts of Averrhoa carambola L. root (EACR), which were isolated from Averrhoa carambola L. roots using ethanol or water. This study was designed to investigate the potential effects of EACR on streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic mice and to explore the underlying mechanism of these effects. Male mice were injected with STZ through the tail vein (120 mg/kg body weight) and were identified as a diabetic mouse model when the level of blood glucose was ≥11.1 mmol/L. Subsequently, the mice were administered EACR (150, 300, 600, 1200 mg/kg body weight/d) and metformin (320 mg/kg body weight/d) via intragastric gavage for three weeks. The results indicated that EACR significantly decreased the serum levels of blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs) and free fatty acids (FFAs), whereas the content of serum insulin was elevated. In addition, the expressions of apoptosis-related regulators (including caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9) and the apoptosis-induced protein Bax were markedly down-regulated by EACR, whereas the expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein was notably increased. Furthermore, EACR could protect the diabetic mice against the STZ-induced apoptosis of pancreatic β cells. Taken together, these findings indicate that EACR plays an effective hyperglycemic role that is associated with ameliorating metabolic functions and with inhibiting apoptosis in pancreas tissue. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Senol, F Sezer; Acikara, Ozlem Bahadir; Citoglu, Gulcin Saltan; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Dall' Acqua, Stefano; Ozgökce, Fevzi
Scorzonera L. species (Asteraceae) are edible and as medicinal plants are used for various purposed in folk medicine. The methanol extracts of the aerial parts and roots from 27 Scorzonera taxa were investigated for their possible neurobiological effects. Inhibitory potential of the Scorzonera species was tested against acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and tyrosinase (TYRO) at 100 µg mL(-1) using ELISA microtiter assay. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was tested with radical scavenging activity, metal-chelation capacity, ferric- (FRAP), and phosphomolibdenum-reducing antioxidant power (PRAP) assays. Chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, rutin, and scorzotomentosin-4-O-β-glucoside were also screened in the same manner. Total phenol and flavonoid quantification in the extracts were determined spectrophotometrically. The aerial parts of Scorzonera pisidica (40.25 ± 0.74%) and chlorogenic acid (46.97 ± 0.82%) displayed the highest TYRO inhibition, while the remaining samples showed only trivial inhibition against cholinesterases (2.08 ± 1.35%-25.32 ± 1.37%). The same extract of S. pisidica was revealed to be the most potent in scavenging of all three radicals and FRAP assay. Out of 27 taxa, S. pisidica, in particular, may deserve further investigation for its neuroprotective potential.
Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the patient- and treatment-related etiologic factors of external root resorption. Materials and Methods This study consisted of 163 patients who had completed orthodontic treatments and taken the pre- and post-treatment panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographs. The length of tooth was measured from the tooth apex to the incisal edge or cusp tip on the panoramic radiograph. Overbite and overjet were measured from the pre- and post-treatment lateral cephalometric radiographs. The root resorption of each tooth and the factors of malocclusion were analyzed with an analysis of variance. A paired t test was performed to compare the mean amount of root resorption between male and female, between extraction and non-extraction cases, and between surgery and non-surgery groups. Correlation coefficients were measured to assess the relationship between the amount of root resorption and the age in which the orthodontic treatment started, the degree of changes in overbite and overjet, and the duration of treatment. Results Maxillary central incisor was the most resorbed tooth, followed by the maxillary lateral incisor, the mandibular central incisor, and the mandibular lateral incisor. The history of tooth extraction was significantly associated with the root resorption. The duration of orthodontic treatment was positively correlated with the amount of root resorption. Conclusion These findings show that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in patients who need the treatment for a long period and with a pre-treatment extraction of teeth. PMID:21977469
Jung, Yun-Hoa; Cho, Bong-Hae
The purpose of this study was to examine the patient- and treatment-related etiologic factors of external root resorption. This study consisted of 163 patients who had completed orthodontic treatments and taken the pre- and post-treatment panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographs. The length of tooth was measured from the tooth apex to the incisal edge or cusp tip on the panoramic radiograph. Overbite and overjet were measured from the pre- and post-treatment lateral cephalometric radiographs. The root resorption of each tooth and the factors of malocclusion were analyzed with an analysis of variance. A paired t test was performed to compare the mean amount of root resorption between male and female, between extraction and non-extraction cases, and between surgery and non-surgery groups. Correlation coefficients were measured to assess the relationship between the amount of root resorption and the age in which the orthodontic treatment started, the degree of changes in overbite and overjet, and the duration of treatment. Maxillary central incisor was the most resorbed tooth, followed by the maxillary lateral incisor, the mandibular central incisor, and the mandibular lateral incisor. The history of tooth extraction was significantly associated with the root resorption. The duration of orthodontic treatment was positively correlated with the amount of root resorption. These findings show that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in patients who need the treatment for a long period and with a pre-treatment extraction of teeth.
Farag, Mohamed A.; Porzel, Andrea; Wessjohann, Ludger A.
Glycyrrhiza glabra, commonly known as licorice, is a popular herbal supplement used for the treatment of chronic inflammatory conditions and as sweetener in the food industry. This species contains a myriad of phytochemicals including the major saponin glycoside glycyrrhizin (G) of Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) aglycone. In this study, 2D-ROESY NMR technique was successfully applied for distinguishing 18α and 18β glycyrrhetinic acid (GA). ROESY spectra acquired from G. glabra, Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Glycyrrhiza inflata crude extracts revealed the presence of G in its β-form. Anti-inflammatory activity of four Glycyrrhiza species, G, glabra, G. uralensis, G. inflata, and G. echinata roots was assessed against COX-1 inhibition revealing that phenolics rather than glycyrrhizin are biologically active in this assay. G. inflata exhibits a strong cytotoxic effect against PC3 and HT29 cells lines, whereas other species are inactive. This study presents an effective NMR method for G isomer assignment in licorice extracts that does not require any preliminary chromatography or any other purification step. PMID:25685548
Fristad, I; Molven, O; Halse, A
To identify periapical changes in nonsurgically retreated root-filled teeth 20-27 years after root canal treatment. From an original material of 429 roots, retreated by undergraduate students in a teaching clinic, 112 roots in 70 individuals could be evaluated radiographically 20-27 years after treatment. The same roots had been studied 10-17 years earlier. The periapical condition was registered and compared by three observers in two series of intraoral radiographs taken 10-17 and 20-27 years after treatment. A retrospective analysis was performed to gain information about probable endodontic and nonendodontic reasons for extractions of lost roots, by evaluating their periapical status immediately after retreatment and at the 10-17-year follow-up. Favourable outcomes were observed in 11 roots that had radiolucencies at the 10-17-year follow-up. Eight of these roots had periapical pathosis preoperatively, five of them filled with surplus root filling material. The percentage of cases recorded as normal condition at the final follow-up was 95.5%, including five cases initially recorded with increased width of the apical periodontal space. Delayed healing as a result of surplus root filling material explained most of the cases with favourable outcome assessed many years after treatment. Twenty-eight roots were lost because of extraction during the observation period, 17 during the last 10 years. Based on status at previous follow-ups, endodontic failure seems to represent a minor reason for extraction in the material. Late periapical changes, with more successful cases, were recorded when a 10-17-year follow-up after root canal treatment was extended for another 10 years. Persistent asymptomatic periapical radiolucencies, especially those with overfill, should generally not be classified as failures, as many of them will heal after an extended observation period.
Maués, Caroline Pelagio Raick; do Nascimento, Rizomar Ramos; Vilella, Oswaldo de Vasconcellos
To assess the prevalence of severe external root resorption and its potential risk factors resulting from orthodontic treatment. A randomly selected sample was used. It comprised conventional periapical radiographs taken in the same radiology center for maxillary and mandibular incisors before and after active orthodontic treatment of 129 patients, males and females, treated by means of the Standard Edgewise technique. Two examiners measured and defined root resorption according to the index proposed by Levander et al. The degree of external apical root resorption was registered defining resorption in four degrees of severity. To assess intra and inter-rater reproducibility, kappa coefficient was used. Chi-square test was used to assess the relationship between the amount of root resorption and patient's sex, dental arch (maxillary or mandibular), treatment with or without extractions, treatment duration, root apex stage (open or closed), root shape, as well as overjet and overbite at treatment onset. Maxillary central incisors had the highest percentage of severe root resorption, followed by maxillary lateral incisors and mandibular lateral incisors. Out of 959 teeth, 28 (2.9%) presented severe root resorption. The following risk factors were observed: anterior maxillary teeth, overjet greater than or equal to 5 mm at treatment onset, treatment with extractions, prolonged therapy, and degree of apex formation at treatment onset. This study showed that care must be taken in orthodontic treatment involving extractions, great retraction of maxillary incisors, prolonged therapy, and/or completely formed apex at orthodontic treatment onset.
Li, Qian; Wu, Ye-Kuan; Yuan, Ling; Huang, Jian-Guo
An experiment was carried out to study the allelopathic effects of Coptis chinensis fibrous root extracts (CRE) on the germination and seedling growth of Vicia faba and Pisum sativum in order to alleviate the allelopathic effects and increase land productivity. The seeds of both garden pea (P. sativum) and broad been (V. faba) were germinated in CRE solution of various concentrations, the germination rate, seedling growth and related physiological indexes were measured. The result indicated that there were no significant effects of CRE in low concentrations on seed germination, including both the rate and index, and seed vitality and membrane permeability. With the increment of CRE concentrations, however, the high seed membrane permeability and germination inhibition were observed. For example, the germination rates were reduced by 23.4% (P. sativum) and 9.5% (V. faba), respectively, in CRE solution with 800 mg . L-1. Simultaneously, soluble sugars and the free amino acids in the seeds were lower than those in the control (without CRE) after soaking seeds in CRE solutions. In addition, the seedling growth and nitrate reductase activity were stimulated by CRE at low concentrations in contrast to high concentrations which behaved otherwise and inhibited the nutrient utilization in endosperm. Therefore, the large amount of allelochemicals released from the roots and remains of C. chinensis in soils could inhibit the seed germination and seedling growth of legumes, which may lead to decrease even fail crop yields after growing this medical plant.
As the prevalence of Rhizoctonia crown and root rot (RCRR) increases, more diseased sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) roots are destined for storage piles. To investigate the effect of RCRR on storage properties, roots with similar symptoms were grouped and extractable sucrose, invert sugar, and respirat...
Background The available drugs for diabetes, Insulin or Oral hypoglycemic agents have one or more side effects. Search for new antidiabetic drugs with minimal or no side effects from medicinal plants is a challenge according to WHO recommendations. In this aspect, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Piper longum root aqueous extract (PlrAqe) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in male Wister albino rats by intraperitoneal administration of STZ (50 mg/kg.b.w). Fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels were measured by glucose-oxidase & peroxidase reactive strips. Serum biochemical parameters such as glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were estimated. The activities of liver and kidney functional markers were measured. The statistical analysis of results was carried out using Student t-test and one-way analysis (ANOVA) followed by DMRT. Results During the short term study the aqueous extract at a dosage of 200 mg/kg.b.w was found to possess significant antidiabetic activity after 6 h of the treatment. The administration of aqueous extract at the same dose for 30 days in STZ induced diabetic rats resulted in a significant decrease in FBG levels with the corrections of diabetic dyslipidemia compared to untreated diabetic rats. There was a significant decrease in the activities of liver and renal functional markers in diabetic treated rats compared to untreated diabetic rats indicating the protective role of the aqueous extract against liver and kidney damage and its non-toxic property. Conclusions From the above results it is concluded that the plant extract is capable of managing hyperglycemia and complications of diabetes in STZ induced diabetic rats. Hence this plant may be considered as one of the potential sources
The roots of Merung (Coptosapelta tomentosa Valeton K. Heyne) are a group of shrubs usually found on the margins of secondary dryland forest. Empirically, local people have been using the roots of Merung for medical treatment. However, some researches show that the plant extract is used as a poisonous material applied on the tip of the arrow (dart). Based on the online literature study, there are less than 5 articles that provide information about the active compound of this root extract. This study aimed to give additional information more deeply about the content of active compound of Merung root extract in three fractions, n-hexane (nonpolar), ethyl acetate (semi polar) and methanol (polar). The extract was then analysed using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). GC-MS analysis of root extract in n-hexane showed there were 56 compounds, with the main compound being decanoic acid, methyl ester (peak 5, 10.13%), 11-Octadecenoic acid, methyl ester (peak 15, 10.43%) and 1H-Pyrazole, 3- (4-chlorophenyl) -4, 5-dihydro-1-phenyl (peak 43, 11.25%). Extracts in ethyl acetate fraction obtained 81 compounds. The largest component is Benzoic acid (peak 19, 22.40%), whereas in methanol there are 38 compounds, of which the main component is 2-Furancarboxaldehyde, 5-(hydroxyl methyl) (peak 29, 30.46%).
Tadiwos, Yohannes; Nedi, Teshome; Engidawork, Ephrem
Pain and inflammation are associated with the pathophysiology of various clinical conditions. Most analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs available in the market present a wide range of problems. The current study was aimed at investigating the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of 80% methanol extract of J. abyssinicum root. The analgesic activity was determined using tail-flick test and acetic acid induced writhing, whereas anti-inflammatory activity was determined by carrageenan induced paw edema and formalin induced pedal edema, carried out in vivo. The test group received three different doses of the extract (50mg/kg, 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg) orally. The positive control group received diclofenac (10mg/kg), aspirin (100mg/kg or 150mg/kg) or morphine (20mg/kg) orally. The negative control group received vehicle (2% Tween 80, 10ml/kg) orally. Furthermore, preliminary phytochemical screening was carried out. Oral administration of J. abbysinicum 80% methanol extract (at all doses) significantly (p<0.001) inhibit pain sensation in the pain models. Similarly, the extract demonstrated anti-inflammatory effect in the inflammation models in mice. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids, triterpenens and glycosides. The data obtained from the present study indicates that the extract possessed a significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity, upholding the folkloric use of the plant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Furusawa, Masahiro; Asai, Yasuhiro
The purpose of this study was to examine the apical foramen of root apices extracted during apicotomies. A total of 25 teeth extracted from 25 patients admitted to the Department of Conservative Dentistry at Tokyo Dental College's Chiba Hospital were used for the study. All patients were between 22 to 56 years of age at the time of the study, and each of the 25 cases was determined clinically on radiographs to be chronic apical suppurative periodontitis. Microsurgery was performed on all cases, and the extracted root apices were then observed using SEM. The results demonstrated a wide opening, greater than 350 microns as measured along the major axis, of the apical foramen in 80% of the cases. Various characteristics indicative of resorption were observed around the apical foramen. These features included those believed to have been caused by overinstrumentation during root canal treatment as well as irregularly shaped areas presumed to be apical lesions that had enlarged and eroded. We observed a high frequency of manifestations of cementum resorption surrounding the root apices of teeth with apical lesions. Furthermore, we concluded that in the majority of cases in the present study, due to the fact that the apical foramen exceeded normal opening dimensions as a result of overinstrumentation during root canal treatment or resorption around the root apex, prolongation of the lesions had occurred in response to direct contact of microbial infectious matter and tissues surrounding the root apex over a large area. The above finding suggested that, in cases in which the apical foramen is destroyed through overinstrumentation larger than #35 or in which the apical foramen opens up to dimensions greater than 350 microns due to pathologic resorption, surgical intervention may be indicated. On the other hand, in 64% of the cases, an accessory canal was observed in the root apical lesion. Based on this observation, the presence of an accessory canal in the root apex may
Hu, Xingxue; Wang, Dashan; Cui, Ting; Yao, Ruyong
Objective To evaluate the effect of semiconductor laser irradiation on root canal sealing after routine root canal therapy (RCT). Methods Sixty freshly extracted single-rooted human teeth were randomly divided into six groups (n = 10). The anatomic crowns were sectioned at the cementoenamel junction and the remaining roots were prepared endodontically with conventional RCT methods. Groups A and B were irradiated with semiconductor laser at 1W for 20 seconds; Groups C and D were ultrasonically rinsed for 60 seconds as positive control groups; Groups E and F without treatment of root canal prior to RCT as negative control groups. Root canal sealing of Groups A, C and E were evaluated by measurements of apical microleakage. The teeth from Groups B, D and F were sectioned, and the micro-structures were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). One way ANOVA and LSD-t test were used for statistical analysis (α = .05). Results The apical sealing of both the laser irradiated group and the ultrasonic irrigated group were significantly different from the control group (p<0.5). There was no significant difference between the laser irradiated group and the ultrasonic irrigated group (p>0.5). SEM observation showed that most of the dentinal tubules in the laser irradiation group melted, narrowed or closed, while most of the dentinal tubules in the ultrasonic irrigation group were filled with tooth paste. Conclusion The application of semiconductor laser prior to root canal obturation increases the apical sealing of the roots treated. PMID:28957407
Deters, Alexandra; Zippel, Janina; Hellenbrand, Nils; Pappai, Dirk; Possemeyer, Cathleen; Hensel, Andreas
Aqueous extracts from the roots of Althea officinalis L. (Malvaceae) are widely used for treatment of irritated mucosa. The clinical proven effects are related to the presence of bioadhesive and mucilaginous polysaccharides from the rhamnogalacturonan type, leading to the physical formation of mucin-like on top of the irritated tissues. No data are available if the extracts or the polysaccharides from these extract exert an active influence on mucosal or connective tissue cells, in order to initiated changes in cell physiology, useful for better tissue regeneration. In vitro investigations of aqueous A. officinalis extract AE and raw polysaccharides (RPS) on epithelial KB cells and primary dermal human fibroblasts (pNHF) using WST1 vitality test and BrdU proliferation ELISA. Gene expression analysis by microarray from KB cells. Internalisation studies of polysaccharides were performed by laser scanning microscopy. AE (1, 10 microg/mL) had stimulating effect on cell viability and proliferation of epithelial KB cells. RPS (1, 10 microg/mL) stimulated cell vitality of epithelial cells significantly without triggering the cells into higher proliferation status. Neither AE nor RPS had any effect on fibroblasts. FITC-labeled RPS was shown to be internalised into epithelial cells, but not into fibroblasts. FITC-RPS was shown to form bioadhesive layers on the cell surface of dermal fibroblasts. Microarray analysis indicated an up-regulation of genes related to cell adhesion proteins, growth regulators, extracellular matrix, cytokine release and apoptosis. Aqueous extracts and polysaccharides from the roots of A. officinalis are effective stimulators of cell physiology of epithelial cells which can prove the traditional use of Marshmallow preparations for treatment of irritated mucous membranes within tissue regeneration. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Leba, Louis-Jérôme; Brunschwig, Christel; Saout, Mona; Martial, Karine; Bereau, Didier; Robinson, Jean-Charles
Native palm trees fruit from the Amazonian rainforest, Oenocarpus bacaba and Oenocarpus bataua, are very often used in the diet of local communities, but the biological activities of their roots and leaflets remain poorly known. Total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity of root and leaflet extracts from Oenocarpus bacaba and Oenocarpus bataua were assessed by using different chemical assays, the oxygèn radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), the 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging capacity and the ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP). Cellular antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity were also measured in Normal Human Dermal Fibroblasts. The polyphenolic composition of Oenocarpus extracts was investigated by LC-MSn. Oenocarpus leaflet extracts were more antioxidant than root extracts, being at least as potent as Euterpe oleracea berries known as superfruit. Oenocarpus root extracts were characterized by hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeoylquinic and caffeoylshikimic acids), while leaflet extracts contained mainly caffeoylquinic acids and C-glycosyl flavones. These results suggest that leaflets of both Oenocarpus species could be valorized as a new non-cytotoxic source of antioxidants from Amazonia, containing hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids, in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic or agri-food industry. PMID:27355943
Maués, Caroline Pelagio Raick; do Nascimento, Rizomar Ramos; Vilella, Oswaldo de Vasconcellos
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of severe external root resorption and its potential risk factors resulting from orthodontic treatment. METHODS: A randomly selected sample was used. It comprised conventional periapical radiographs taken in the same radiology center for maxillary and mandibular incisors before and after active orthodontic treatment of 129 patients, males and females, treated by means of the Standard Edgewise technique. Two examiners measured and defined root resorption according to the index proposed by Levander et al. The degree of external apical root resorption was registered defining resorption in four degrees of severity. To assess intra and inter-rater reproducibility, kappa coefficient was used. Chi-square test was used to assess the relationship between the amount of root resorption and patient's sex, dental arch (maxillary or mandibular), treatment with or without extractions, treatment duration, root apex stage (open or closed), root shape, as well as overjet and overbite at treatment onset. RESULTS: Maxillary central incisors had the highest percentage of severe root resorption, followed by maxillary lateral incisors and mandibular lateral incisors. Out of 959 teeth, 28 (2.9%) presented severe root resorption. The following risk factors were observed: anterior maxillary teeth, overjet greater than or equal to 5 mm at treatment onset, treatment with extractions, prolonged therapy, and degree of apex formation at treatment onset. CONCLUSION: This study showed that care must be taken in orthodontic treatment involving extractions, great retraction of maxillary incisors, prolonged therapy, and/or completely formed apex at orthodontic treatment onset. PMID:25741825
Chan, Emmanuel; Dalci, Oyku; Petocz, Peter; Papadopoulou, Alexandra K; Darendeliler, M Ali
Studies have demonstrated the potential efficacy of micro-osteoperforations in accelerating tooth movement by amplifying the expression of inflammatory markers. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effects of micro-osteoperforations on orthodontic root resorption with microcomputed tomography. This prospective controlled clinical trial involved 20 subjects requiring extraction of the maxillary first premolars as part of their orthodontic treatment. A buccal tipping force of 150 g was applied to both premolars. Using the Propel appliance (Propel Orthodontics, San Jose, Calif), micro-osteoperforations were applied at a depth of 5 mm on the mesial and distal aspects in the midroot region of the experimental side of the first premolar root; the contralateral side served as the control. After 28 days, both premolars were extracted. The teeth were scanned under microcomputed tomography, and the volumes of root resorption craters were calculated and compared. Premolars treated with micro-osteoperforation exhibited significantly greater average total amounts of root resorption than did the control teeth (0.576 vs 0.406 mm 3 ). The total average volumetric root loss of premolars treated with micro-osteoperforation was 42% greater than that of the control teeth. This 28-day trial showed that micro-osteoperforations resulted in greater orthodontic root resorption. However, these results should be verified in patients who are undergoing full-length orthodontic treatment. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Navarrete, Andres; Avula, Bharathi; Choi, Young-Whan; Khan, Ikhlas A
The roots and rhizomes of various valeriana species are currently used as a sleeping aid or mild sedative. A liquid chromatography method has been developed that permits the analysis of chlorogenic acid, lignans, flavonoids, valerenic acids, and valpotrates in various valerian samples. The best results were obtained with a Phenomenex Luna C18(2) column using gradient elution with a mobile phase consisting of water and 0.05% phosphoric acid and 2-100% acetonitrile-methanol (1 + 1) with 0.05% phosphoric acid. The flow rate was 0.8 mL/min and ultraviolet detection was at 207, 225, 254, 280, and 325 nm. Different valerian species and commercial products showed remarkable quantitative variations. Chlorogenic acid (0.2-1.2%), 3 lignans, linarin (0.002-0.24%), and valepotriates were detected in all the valeriana species analyzed. Highest amounts of valerenic acids were detected in V. officinalis L., trace amounts in V. sitchensis, and none in the other species analyzed.
Elhaddaoui, Rajae; Qoraich, Halima Saadia; Bahije, Loubna; Zaoui, Fatima
Root resorption is one of the leading problems in orthodontic treatment. Most earlier studies have assessed the incidence and severity of root resorption following orthodontic treatment using fixed appliances as well as associated factors. However, few studies have assessed these parameters in the context of orthodontic treatment using thermoplastic splints or aligners. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the incidence and severity of root resorption following orthodontic treatment using aligners and associated factors. A comparative analysis was also made with fixed multi-bracket treatments. The data bases consulted were: Medline, Embase, EBSCO Host, Cochrane Library and Science Direct. Our search included meta-analyses, randomized and non-randomized controled trials, cohort studies and descriptive studies published before December 2015 and evidencing a connection with the incidence and severity of root resorption following orthodontic treatment using aligners alone or compared with fixed multi-bracket treatments. Among the 93 selected references, only 3 studies met our selection criteria. The incidence of root resorption ranged between 0 and 46%, of which 6% were severe cases. Relative to fixed multi-bracket non-extraction treatments to correct the same malocclusions, the incidence of resorption ranged between 2% and 50%, of which 22% were severe cases. In both techniques, the incidence of resorption was higher for the maxillary incisors and was not influenced by either age or sex. In malocclusion cases not requiring extractions, orthodontic aligner treatment is possibly associated with a lower incidence of resorption than fixed multi-bracket treatment. Further research encompassing extraction cases is needed to better assess the incidence and severity of root resorption following the use of these removable appliances. Copyright © 2016 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Chatterjee, S. J.; Ovadje, P.; Mousa, M.; Hamm, C.; Pandey, S.
Notoriously chemoresistant melanoma has become the most prevalent form of cancer for the 25–29 North American age demographic. Standard treatment after early detection involves surgical excision (recurrence is possible), and metastatic melanoma is refractory to immuno-, radio-, and most harmful chemotherapies. Various natural compounds have shown efficacy in killing different cancers, albeit not always specifically. In this study, we show that dandelion root extract (DRE) specifically and effectively induces apoptosis in human melanoma cells without inducing toxicity in noncancerous cells. Characteristic apoptotic morphology of nuclear condensation and phosphatidylserine flipping to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane of A375 human melanoma cells was observed within 48 hours. DRE-induced apoptosis activates caspase-8 in A375 cells early on, demonstrating employment of an extrinsic apoptotic pathway to kill A375 cells. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generated from DRE-treated isolated mitochondria indicates that natural compounds in DRE can also directly target mitochondria. Interestingly, the relatively resistant G361 human melanoma cell line responded to DRE when combined with the metabolism interfering antitype II diabetic drug metformin. Therefore, treatment with this common, yet potent extract of natural compounds has proven novel in specifically inducing apoptosis in chemoresistant melanoma, without toxicity to healthy cells. PMID:21234313
Fernandes, L M; Garcez, W S; Mantovani, M S; Figueiredo, P O; Fernandes, C A; Garcez, F R; Guterres, Z R
Roots of Galianthe thalictroides K. Schum. (Rubiaceae) are used in folk medicine in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, for treating and preventing cancer. To gain information about the genotoxicity of extracts (aqueous and EtOH), the CHCl₃ phase resulting from partition of the EtOH extract and the indole monoterpene alkaloid 1 obtained from this plant. The genotoxicity of 1 and extracts was evaluated in vivo through the Drosophila melanogaster wing Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test - SMART, while in vitro cytotoxic (MTT) and Comet assays were performed only with alkaloid 1. The results obtained with the SMART test indicated that the aqueous extract had no genotoxic activity. The EtOH extract was not genotoxic to ST descendants but genotoxic to HB ones. The CHCl₃ phase was genotoxic and cytotoxic. Alkaloid 1 showed significant mutational events with SMART, in the cytotoxicity assay (MTT), it showed a high cytotoxicity for human hepatoma cells (HepG2), whereas for the Comet assay, not showing genotoxic activity. The ethanol extract was shown to be genotoxic to HB descendants in the SMART assay, while the results obtained in this test for the monoterpene indole alkaloid 1 isolated from this extract. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brunschwig, Christel; Leba, Louis-Jérôme; Saout, Mona; Martial, Karine; Bereau, Didier; Robinson, Jean-Charles
Euterpe oleracea (açaí) is a palm tree well known for the high antioxidant activity of its berries used as dietary supplements. Little is known about the biological activity and the composition of its vegetative organs. The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of root and leaflet extracts of Euterpe oleracea (E. oleracea) and characterize their phytochemicals. E. oleracea roots and leaflets extracts were screened in different chemical antioxidant assays (DPPH—2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, FRAP—ferric feducing antioxidant power, and ORAC—oxygen radical absorbance capacity), in a DNA nicking assay and in a cellular antioxidant activity assay. Their polyphenolic profiles were determined by UV and LC-MS/MS. E. oleracea leaflets had higher antioxidant activity than E. oleracea berries, and leaflets of Oenocarpus bacaba and Oenocarpus bataua, as well as similar antioxidant activity to green tea. E. oleracea leaflet extracts were more complex than root extracts, with fourteen compounds, including caffeoylquinic acids and C-glycosyl derivatives of apigenin and luteolin. In the roots, six caffeoylquinic and caffeoylshikimic acids were identified. Qualitative compositions of E. oleracea, Oenocarpus bacaba and Oenocarpus bataua leaflets were quite similar, whereas the quantitative compositions were quite different. These results provide new prospects for the valorization of roots and leaflets of E. oleracea in the pharmaceutical, food or cosmetic industry, as they are currently by-products of the açaí industry. PMID:28036089
Brunschwig, Christel; Leba, Louis-Jérôme; Saout, Mona; Martial, Karine; Bereau, Didier; Robinson, Jean-Charles
Euterpe oleracea (açaí) is a palm tree well known for the high antioxidant activity of its berries used as dietary supplements. Little is known about the biological activity and the composition of its vegetative organs. The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity of root and leaflet extracts of Euterpe oleracea ( E . oleracea ) and characterize their phytochemicals. E . oleracea roots and leaflets extracts were screened in different chemical antioxidant assays (DPPH-2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, FRAP-ferric feducing antioxidant power, and ORAC-oxygen radical absorbance capacity), in a DNA nicking assay and in a cellular antioxidant activity assay. Their polyphenolic profiles were determined by UV and LC-MS/MS. E . oleracea leaflets had higher antioxidant activity than E . oleracea berries, and leaflets of Oenocarpus bacaba and Oenocarpus bataua , as well as similar antioxidant activity to green tea. E. oleracea leaflet extracts were more complex than root extracts, with fourteen compounds, including caffeoylquinic acids and C -glycosyl derivatives of apigenin and luteolin. In the roots, six caffeoylquinic and caffeoylshikimic acids were identified. Qualitative compositions of E. oleracea , Oenocarpus bacaba and Oenocarpus bataua leaflets were quite similar, whereas the quantitative compositions were quite different. These results provide new prospects for the valorization of roots and leaflets of E. oleracea in the pharmaceutical, food or cosmetic industry, as they are currently by-products of the açaí industry.
Liu, Wei; Zhang, Su; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Fu, Yu-Jie; Ma, Wei; Zhang, Dong-Yang; Kong, Yu; Li, Xiao-Juan
Enrichment and separation of genistein and apigenin from extracts of pigeon pea roots were studied using eleven macroporous resins with different physical and chemical properties. ADS-5 resin showed the maximum effectiveness among the tested resins. The solute affinity towards ADS-5 resin at different temperatures was described in terms of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, and the equilibrium experimental data were well-fitted to the two isotherms. In order to optimize the operating parameters for separating genistein and apigenin, dynamic adsorption and desorption tests were carried out. After one run treatment with ADS-5 resin, the contents of genistein and apigenin in the product were 9.36-fold and 11.09-fold increased with recovery yields of 89.78% and 93.41%, respectively. The process achieved easy and effective enrichment and separation of genistein and apigenin by using ADS-5 resin, and it is a promising basis for large-scale preparation of genistein and apigenin from pigeon pea or other plants extracts. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lee, Yong-Hyeon; Seo, Dong-Hyun; Park, Ji-Hyung; Kabayama, Kazuya; Opitz, Joerg; Lee, Kwang Ho; Kim, Han-Sung; Kim, Tack-Joong
Muscle atrophy, a reduction of muscle mass, strength, and volume, results from reduced muscle use and plays a key role in various muscular diseases. In the microgravity environment of space especially, muscle atrophy is induced by muscle inactivity. Exposure to microgravity induces muscle atrophy through several biological effects, including associations with reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study used 3D-clinostat to investigate muscle atrophy caused by oxidative stress in vitro, and sciatic denervation was used to investigate muscle atrophy in vivo. We assessed the effect of Oenothera odorata root extract (EVP) on muscle atrophy. EVP helped recover cell viability in C2C12 myoblasts exposed to microgravity for 24 h and delayed muscle atrophy in sciatic denervated mice. However, the expressions of HSP70, SOD1, and ceramide in microgravity-exposed C2C12 myoblasts and in sciatic denervated mice were either decreased or completely inhibited. These results suggested that EVP can be expected to have a positive effect on muscle atrophy by disuse and microgravity. In addition, EVP helped characterize the antioxidant function in muscle atrophy. PMID:25945103
Lee, Yong-Hyeon; Seo, Dong-Hyun; Park, Ji-Hyung; Kabayama, Kazuya; Opitz, Joerg; Lee, Kwang Ho; Kim, Han-Sung; Kim, Tack-Joong
Muscle atrophy, a reduction of muscle mass, strength, and volume, results from reduced muscle use and plays a key role in various muscular diseases. In the microgravity environment of space especially, muscle atrophy is induced by muscle inactivity. Exposure to microgravity induces muscle atrophy through several biological effects, including associations with reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study used 3D-clinostat to investigate muscle atrophy caused by oxidative stress in vitro, and sciatic denervation was used to investigate muscle atrophy in vivo. We assessed the effect of Oenothera odorata root extract (EVP) on muscle atrophy. EVP helped recover cell viability in C2C12 myoblasts exposed to microgravity for 24 h and delayed muscle atrophy in sciatic denervated mice. However, the expressions of HSP70, SOD1, and ceramide in microgravity-exposed C2C12 myoblasts and in sciatic denervated mice were either decreased or completely inhibited. These results suggested that EVP can be expected to have a positive effect on muscle atrophy by disuse and microgravity. In addition, EVP helped characterize the antioxidant function in muscle atrophy.
Nagajyothi, P C; Cha, Sang Ju; Yang, In Jun; Sreekanth, T V M; Kim, Kwang Joong; Shin, Heung Mook
The exploitation of various plant materials for the green synthesis of nanoparticles is considered an eco-friendly technology because it does not involve toxic chemicals. In this study, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) were synthesized using the root extract of Polygala tenuifolia. Synthesized ZnO NPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR, TGA, TEM, SEM and EDX. Anti-inflammatory activity was investigated in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, whereas antioxidant activity was examined using a DPPH free radical assay. ZnO NPs demonstrated moderate antioxidant activity by scavenging 45.47% DPPH at 1mg/mL and revealed excellent anti-inflammatory activity by dose-dependently suppressing both mRNA and protein expressions of iNOS, COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Velliquette, Rodney A; Rajgopal, Arun; Rebhun, John; Glynn, Kelly
To examine specific molecular mechanisms involved in modulating hepatic lipogenesis and mitochondria biogenesis signals by Lithospermum erythrorhizon (gromwell) root extract. Stable cell lines with luciferase reporter constructs were generated to examine sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP1c) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 (PGC1) α promoter activity and estrogen-related receptor (ERR) α response element activity. Gene expression of SREBP1c, stearoyl coenzyme A desaturase 1, and PGC1α was measured by using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Lipogenesis was measured in human hepatoma cells with Nile red staining and flow cytometry. Phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) α was determined by using ELISA and Western blot. Gromwell root extract and its naphthoquinones dose-dependently repressed high glucose and liver X receptor α induction of SREBP1c promoter activity and gene expression. Hepatic lipogenesis was repressed, and PGC1α promoter and gene expression and ERRα response element activity were increased by gromwell root extract. Gromwell root extract, shikonin, and α-methyl-n-butyrylshikonin increased AMPKα phosphorylation, and inhibition of AMPK blunted the repression in SREBP1c promoter activity by gromwell root extract and its naphthoquinones. Data suggest that gromwell root extract and its naphthoquinones repress lipogenesis by increasing the phosphorylated state of AMPKα and stimulating mitochondrial biogenesis signals. © 2017 The Obesity Society.
Zhao, Ya; Lai, Xiao-Pin; Yao, Hai-Yan; Zhao, Ran; Wu, Yi-Na; Li, Geng
To investigate the effects of superfine comminution extraction technology of ginseng total saponins from Panax ginseng fibrous root, and to make sure the optimal extraction condition. Optimal condition of ginseng total saponins from Panax ginseng fibrous root was based on single factor experiment to study the effects of crushing degree, extraction time, alcohol concentration and extraction temperature on extraction rate. Response surface method was used to investigate three main factors such as superfine comminution time, extraction time and alcohol concentration. The relationship between content of ginseng total saponins in Panax ginseng fibrous root and three factors fitted second degree polynomial models. The optimal extraction condition was 9 min of superfine comminution time, 70% of alcohol, 50 degrees C of extraction temperature and 70 min of extraction time. Under the optimal condition, ginseng total saponins from Panax ginseng fibrous root was average 94. 81%, which was consistent with the predicted value. The optimization of technology is rapid, efficient, simple and stable.
Julkowska, Magdalena M; Hoefsloot, Huub C J; Mol, Selena; Feron, Richard; de Boer, Gert-Jan; Haring, Michel A; Testerink, Christa
The plant root is the first organ to encounter salinity stress, but the effect of salinity on root system architecture (RSA) remains elusive. Both the reduction in main root (MR) elongation and the redistribution of the root mass between MRs and lateral roots (LRs) are likely to play crucial roles in water extraction efficiency and ion exclusion. To establish which RSA parameters are responsive to salt stress, we performed a detailed time course experiment in which Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings were grown on agar plates under different salt stress conditions. We captured RSA dynamics with quadratic growth functions (root-fit) and summarized the salt-induced differences in RSA dynamics in three growth parameters: MR elongation, average LR elongation, and increase in number of LRs. In the ecotype Columbia-0 accession of Arabidopsis, salt stress affected MR elongation more severely than LR elongation and an increase in LRs, leading to a significantly altered RSA. By quantifying RSA dynamics of 31 different Arabidopsis accessions in control and mild salt stress conditions, different strategies for regulation of MR and LR meristems and root branching were revealed. Different RSA strategies partially correlated with natural variation in abscisic acid sensitivity and different Na(+)/K(+) ratios in shoots of seedlings grown under mild salt stress. Applying root-fit to describe the dynamics of RSA allowed us to uncover the natural diversity in root morphology and cluster it into four response types that otherwise would have been overlooked. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.
Mejia-Manzano, Luis Alberto; Barba-Dávila, Bertha A; Gutierrez-Uribe, Janet A; Escalante-Vázquez, Edgardo J; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio O
The aim of this research was to identify, extract and isolate pristimerin in leaves, stems and roots of the Mexican plant Mortonia greggii (Celastraceae). The principal objective was to determine the best laboratory experimental conditions for the extraction and isolation of this powerful natural anticancer agent from the root tissue. Six experimental factors in solid-liquid pristimerin extraction were analyzed: solvent systems, number of extractions, ratio of plant weight (g)/solvent volume (mL) used, time of extraction, temperature and agitation. A mathematical model was generated for pristimerin purity and yield. Ethanol, first extraction, 0.5 ratio of plant weight/solvent volume (g/mL), 0.5 h, 200 rpm and 49.7°C were optimal conditions for the extraction of this phytochemical. The degree of purification of pristimerin root extract was studied by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) using Sephadex LH-20 reaching fractions with purification indexes (PI) greater than 2 and recoveries of 28.3%. When fractions with purification indices higher than 1 and less than 2 were accumulated, the recovery of pristimerin increased by about 73.6%. By combining the optimum extracts and SEC purification protocols, an enriched fraction containing 245.6 mg pristimerin was obtained from 100 g of root bark, representing about 14.4%, w/w, pristimerin from the total solids presented in the fraction.
Brito, Samara A.; Rodrigues, Fabíola F. G.; Campos, Adriana R.; da Costa, José G. M.
Background: The use and investigation of natural products with antimicrobial activity from vegeral source have been reported by several researchers. Cajanus cajan (Fabaceae) is a multiple use specie mainly as human food. In popular medicine, diverse parts of the plant are used as sedative and to treat cough, hepatitis, and diabetes. Materials and Methods: This study shows the characterization of secondary metabolites present in ehtanolic extracts from leaves and roots of Cajanus cajan by phytochemical prospection. The evaluation of the antifungal activity was performed by the microdilution method, and from the subinhibitory concentrations (MIC 1/8) the modulatory activity of antifungical (fluconazole and ketoconazole) was analyzed by the direct contact assay against C. albicans ATCC40006, Candida krusei ATCC 6538 and Candida tropicalis ATCC 40042. Results: The results showed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, and alkaloids in both extracts as the clinically relevant antifungal activity. The modulatory potential is presented by the antifungal tested against yeasts. Conclusion: The extracts studied here have demonstrated to be a new therapeutic source to treat these microorganism-associated diseases. PMID:22701281
Brito, Samara A; Rodrigues, Fabíola F G; Campos, Adriana R; da Costa, José G M
The use and investigation of natural products with antimicrobial activity from vegeral source have been reported by several researchers. Cajanus cajan (Fabaceae) is a multiple use specie mainly as human food. In popular medicine, diverse parts of the plant are used as sedative and to treat cough, hepatitis, and diabetes. This study shows the characterization of secondary metabolites present in ehtanolic extracts from leaves and roots of Cajanus cajan by phytochemical prospection. The evaluation of the antifungal activity was performed by the microdilution method, and from the subinhibitory concentrations (MIC 1/8) the modulatory activity of antifungical (fluconazole and ketoconazole) was analyzed by the direct contact assay against C. albicans ATCC40006, Candida krusei ATCC 6538 and Candida tropicalis ATCC 40042. The results showed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, and alkaloids in both extracts as the clinically relevant antifungal activity. The modulatory potential is presented by the antifungal tested against yeasts. The extracts studied here have demonstrated to be a new therapeutic source to treat these microorganism-associated diseases.
Picanço, Gracemia Vasconcelos; de Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore; Cançado, Rodrigo Hermont; Valarelli, Fabricio Pinelli; Picanço, Paulo Roberto Barroso; Feijão, Camila Pontes
The aim of this study was to evaluate predisposing factors among patients who developed moderate or severe external root resorption (Malmgren's grades 3 and 4), on the maxillary incisors, during fixed orthodontic treatment in the permanent dentition. Ninety-nine patients who underwent orthodontic treatment with fixed edgewise appliances were selected. Patients were divided into two groups: G1 - 50 patients with no root resorption or presenting only apical irregularities (Malmgren's grades 0 and 1) at the end of the treatment, with mean initial age of 16.79 years and mean treatment time of 3.21 years; G2 - 49 patients presenting moderate or severe root resorption (Malmgren's grades 3 and 4) at the end of treatment on the maxillary incisors, with mean initial age of 19.92 years and mean treatment time of 3.98 years. Periapical radiographs and lateral cephalograms were evaluated. Factors that could influence the occurrence of severe root resorption were also recorded. Statistical analysis included chi-square tests, Fisher's exact test and independent t tests. The results demonstrated significant difference between the groups for the variables: Extractions, initial degree of root resorption, root length and crown/root ratio at the beginning, and cortical thickness of the alveolar bone. It can be concluded that: Presence of root resorption before the beginning of treatment, extractions, reduced root length, decreased crown/root ratio and thin alveolar bone represent risk factors for severe root resorption in maxillary incisors during orthodontic treatment.
Tanabe, Norio; Kuboyama, Tomoharu; Kazuma, Kohei; Konno, Katsuhiro; Tohda, Chihiro
Although axonal extension to reconstruct spinal tracts should be effective for restoring function after spinal cord injury (SCI), chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) levels increase at spinal cord lesion sites, and inhibit axonal regrowth. In this study, we found that the water extract of roots of Sophora flavescens extended the axons of mouse cortical neurons, even on a CSPG-coated surface. Consecutive oral administrations of S. flavescens extract to SCI mice for 31 days increased the density of 5-HT-positive axons at the lesion site and improved the motor function. Further, the active constituents in the S. flavescens extract were identified. The water and alkaloid fractions of the S. flavescens extract each exhibited axonal extension activity in vitro. LC/MS analysis revealed that these fractions mainly contain matrine and/or oxymatrine, which are well-known major compounds in S. flavescens. Matrine and oxymatrine promoted axonal extension on the CSPG-coated surface. This study is the first to demonstrate that S. flavescens extract, matrine, and oxymatrine enhance axonal growth in vitro, even on a CSPG-coated surface, and that S. flavescens extract improves motor function and increases axonal density in SCI mice. PMID:26834638
Tanabe, Norio; Kuboyama, Tomoharu; Kazuma, Kohei; Konno, Katsuhiro; Tohda, Chihiro
Although axonal extension to reconstruct spinal tracts should be effective for restoring function after spinal cord injury (SCI), chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) levels increase at spinal cord lesion sites, and inhibit axonal regrowth. In this study, we found that the water extract of roots of Sophora flavescens extended the axons of mouse cortical neurons, even on a CSPG-coated surface. Consecutive oral administrations of S. flavescens extract to SCI mice for 31 days increased the density of 5-HT-positive axons at the lesion site and improved the motor function. Further, the active constituents in the S. flavescens extract were identified. The water and alkaloid fractions of the S. flavescens extract each exhibited axonal extension activity in vitro. LC/MS analysis revealed that these fractions mainly contain matrine and/or oxymatrine, which are well-known major compounds in S. flavescens. Matrine and oxymatrine promoted axonal extension on the CSPG-coated surface. This study is the first to demonstrate that S. flavescens extract, matrine, and oxymatrine enhance axonal growth in vitro, even on a CSPG-coated surface, and that S. flavescens extract improves motor function and increases axonal density in SCI mice.
Akileshwari, Chandrasekhar; Muthenna, Puppala; Nastasijević, Branislav; Joksić, Gordana; Petrash, J Mark; Reddy, Geereddy Bhanuprakash
Accumulation of intracellular sorbitol due to increased aldose reductase (ALR2) activity has been implicated in the development of various secondary complications of diabetes. Thus, ALR2 inhibition could be an effective strategy in the prevention or delay of certain diabetic complications. Gentiana lutea grows naturally in the central and southern areas of Europe. Its roots are commonly consumed as a beverage in some European countries and are also known to have medicinal properties. The water, ethanol, methanol, and ether extracts of the roots of G. lutea were subjected to in vitro bioassay to evaluate their inhibitory activity on the ALR2. While the ether and methanol extracts showed greater inhibitory activities against both rat lens and human ALR2, the water and ethanol extracts showed moderate inhibitory activities. Moreover, the ether and methanol extracts of G. lutea roots significantly and dose-dependently inhibited sorbitol accumulation in human erythrocytes under high glucose conditions. Molecular docking studies with the constituents commonly present in the roots of G. lutea indicate that a secoiridoid glycoside, amarogentin, may be a potential inhibitor of ALR2. This is the first paper that shows G. lutea extracts exhibit inhibitory activity towards ALR2 and these results suggest that Gentiana or its constituents might be useful to prevent or treat diabetic complications.
Grogono, A L; Mayo, J A
This in vitro investigation determined the feasibility of using dentin adhesives to protect root surfaces against caries. The roots of 22 recently extracted human teeth were all painted with a protective lacquer leaving two unprotected small windows. On each specimen, one window (control) was left untreated and the other window (experimental) was treated using a dentin adhesive (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose). The roots were then immersed in an in vitro acetate/calcium/phosphate demineralization model at pH 4.3. After 70 days, the samples were removed and sectioned through the windows. The undecalcified ground sections were examined under transmitted and polarized light. Lesions characteristic of natural root caries were seen in the untreated control windows. No such lesions were apparent in the experimental windows. The results of this preliminary study suggest that dentin adhesives may provide protection against root caries.
Tan, Guangguo; Lou, Ziyang; Jing, Jing; Li, Wuhong; Zhu, Zhenyu; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Guoqing; Chai, Yifeng
Aconite roots are popularly used in herbal medicines in China. Many cases of accidental and intentional intoxication with this plant have been reported; some of these are fatal because the toxicity of aconitum is very high. It is thus important to detect and identify aconitum alkaloids in biofluids. In this work, an improved method employing LC-TOFMS with multivariate data analysis was developed for screening and analysis of major aconitum alkaloids and their metabolites in rat urine following oral administration of aconite roots extract. Thirty-four signals highlighted by multivariate statistical analyses including 24 parent components and 10 metabolites were screened out and further identified by adjustment of the fragmentor voltage to produce structure-relevant fragment ions. It is helpful for studying aconite roots in toxicology, pharmacology and forensic medicine. This work also confirmed that the metabolomic approach provides effective tools for screening multiple absorbed and metabolic components of Chinese herbal medicines in vivo. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Background Withania somnifera, also known as ashwagandha, is an important herb in ayurvedic and indigenous medical systems. The present study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of an 80% aqueous methanolic extract of W. somnifera roots (WSREt), fruits (WSFEt) and leaves (WSLEt). Methods Several assays were performed to determine the antioxidant properties of this herb including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), ferrous chelation and inhibition of β-carotene bleaching. Results The values for DPPH, FRAP, ferrous chelation and inhibition of β carotene bleaching for the three types of extracts ranged from 101.73-801.93 μg/ml, 2.26-3.29 mM Fe/kg, 0.22-0.65 mg/ml and 69.87-79.67%, respectively, indicating that W. somnifera, particularly the leaves, possesses significant antioxidant properties. The mean ascorbic acid content was 20.60-62.60 mg/100 g, and the mean anthocyanin content was 2.86-12.50 mg/100 g. Antibacterial activities were measured using the agar well diffusion method and five pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Citrobacter freundii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The leaf extracts displayed the highest activity against S. typhi (32.00 ± 0.75 mm zone of inhibition), whereas the lowest activity was against K. pneumoniae (19.00 ± 1.48 mm zone of inhibition). The lowest minimum inhibitory concentration value was 6.25 mg/ml, which was against S. typhi, followed by 12.5 mg/ml against E. coli. Conclusion In addition to its antioxidant properties, W. somnifera exhibited significant antibacterial activities against Gram-negative bacteria, particularly S. typhi. PMID:23039061
Kelber, Olaf; Wegener, Tankred; Steinhoff, Barbara; Staiger, Christiane; Wiesner, Jacqueline; Knöss, Werner; Kraft, Karin
An assessment of genotoxicity is a precondition for marketing authorization respectively registration of herbal medicinal products (HMPs), as well as for inclusion into the 'Community list of herbal substances, preparations and combinations thereof for use in traditional herbal medicinal products' established by the European Commission in accordance with Directive 2001/83/EC as amended, and based on proposals from the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC). In the 'Guideline on the assessment of genotoxicity of herbal substances/preparations' (EMEA/HMPC/107079/2007) HMPC has described a stepwise approach for genotoxicity testing, according to which the Ames test is a sufficient base for the assessment of genotoxicity in case of an unequivocally negative result. For reducing efforts for testing of individual herbal substances/preparations, HMPC has also developed the 'guideline on selection of test materials for genotoxicity testing for traditional herbal medicinal products/herbal medicinal products' (EMEA/HMPC/67644/2009) with the aim to allow testing of a standard range of test materials which could be considered representative of the commonly used preparations from a specific herbal drug according to a 'bracketing/matrixing' approach. The purpose of this paper is to provide data on the practical application of this bracketing and matrixing concept using the example of Valerianae radix, with the intention of facilitating its inclusion in the "Community list". Five extraction solvents, representing the extremes of the polarity range and including also mid-range extraction solvents, were used, covering the entire spectrum of phytochemical constituents of Valerianae radix, thereby including polar and non-polar constituents. Extracts were tested in the Ames test according to all relevant guidelines. Results were unequivocally negative for all extracts. A review of the literature showed that this result is in accordance with the available data, thus
Neumann, G.; Bott, S.; Ohler, M. A.; Mock, H.-P.; Lippmann, R.; Grosch, R.; Smalla, K.
Development and activity of plant roots exhibit high adaptive variability. Although it is well-documented, that physicochemical soil properties can strongly influence root morphology and root exudation, particularly under field conditions, a comparative assessment is complicated by the impact of additional factors, such as climate and cropping history. To overcome these limitations, in this study, field soils originating from an unique experimental plot system with three different soil types, which were stored at the same field site for 10 years and exposed to the same agricultural management practice, were used for an investigation on effects of soil type on root development and root exudation. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Tizian) was grown as a model plant under controlled environmental conditions in a minirhizotrone system equipped with root observation windows (rhizoboxes). Root exudates were collected by placing sorption filters onto the root surface followed by subsequent extraction and GC-MS profiling of the trapped compounds. Surprisingly, even in absence of external stress factors with known impact on root exudation, such as pH extremes, water and nutrient limitations/toxicities or soil structure effects (use of sieved soils), root growth characteristics (root length, fine root development) as well as profiles of root exudates were strongly influenced by the soil type used for plant cultivation. The results coincided well with differences in rhizosphere bacterial communities, detected in field-grown lettuce plants cultivated on the same soils (Schreiter et al., this issue). The findings suggest that the observed differences may be the result of plant interactions with the soil-specific microbiomes. PMID:24478764
Neumann, G; Bott, S; Ohler, M A; Mock, H-P; Lippmann, R; Grosch, R; Smalla, K
Development and activity of plant roots exhibit high adaptive variability. Although it is well-documented, that physicochemical soil properties can strongly influence root morphology and root exudation, particularly under field conditions, a comparative assessment is complicated by the impact of additional factors, such as climate and cropping history. To overcome these limitations, in this study, field soils originating from an unique experimental plot system with three different soil types, which were stored at the same field site for 10 years and exposed to the same agricultural management practice, were used for an investigation on effects of soil type on root development and root exudation. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Tizian) was grown as a model plant under controlled environmental conditions in a minirhizotrone system equipped with root observation windows (rhizoboxes). Root exudates were collected by placing sorption filters onto the root surface followed by subsequent extraction and GC-MS profiling of the trapped compounds. Surprisingly, even in absence of external stress factors with known impact on root exudation, such as pH extremes, water and nutrient limitations/toxicities or soil structure effects (use of sieved soils), root growth characteristics (root length, fine root development) as well as profiles of root exudates were strongly influenced by the soil type used for plant cultivation. The results coincided well with differences in rhizosphere bacterial communities, detected in field-grown lettuce plants cultivated on the same soils (Schreiter et al., this issue). The findings suggest that the observed differences may be the result of plant interactions with the soil-specific microbiomes.
Martins Júnior, Walter; De Rossi, Andiara; Samih Georges Abi Rached, Ricardo; Rossi, Marcos Antonio
In the present investigation, a scanning electron microscopy analysis was performed to evaluate the effects of the topical application of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) gel associated with Cetavlon (EDTAC) in removing the smear layer and exposing collagen fibers following root surface instrumentation. Twenty-eight teeth from adult humans, single rooted and scheduled for extraction due to periodontal reasons, were selected. Each tooth was submitted to manual (scaling and root planing) instrumentation alone or combined with ultrasonic instruments, with or without etching using a 24% EDTAC gel. Following extraction, specimens were processed and examined under a scanning electron microscope. A comparative morphological semi-quantitative analysis was performed; the intensity of the smear layer and the decalcification of cementum and dentinal surfaces were graded in 12 sets using an arbitrary scale ranging from 1 (area covered by a smear layer) to 4 (no smear layer). Root debridement with hand instruments alone or combined with ultrasonic instruments resulted in a similar smear layer covering the root surfaces. The smear layer was successfully removed from the surfaces treated with EDTAC, which exhibited numerous exposed dentinal tubules and collagen fibers. This study supports the hypothesis that manual instrumentation alone or instrumentation combined with ultrasonic instrumentation is unable to remove the smear layer, whereas the subsequent topical application of EDTAC gel effectively removes the smear layer, uncovers dentinal openings and exposes collagen fibers.
Chan, Enoch; Wong, Cynthia Ying-Kat; Wan, Chun-Wai; Kwok, Ching-Yee; Wu, Jian-Hong; Ng, Kar-Man; So, Chi-Hang; Au, Alice Lai-Shan; Poon, Christina Chui-Wa; Seto, Sai-Wang; Kwan, Yiu-Wa; Yu, Peter Hoi-Fu; Chan, Shun-Wan
In Chinese communities, regular consumption of Chinese-medicated diets (CMD) (usually in the form of soup) is a traditional practice to promote health and prevent disease development. The overall improvement of health conditions is believed to be correlated with the anti-oxidant potentials of these herbs. Huangqin, roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Lamiaceae), is one of the herbs commonly used in CMD. In this study, the anti-oxidant capacities of Huangqin extracts (water, ethanol and ether extracts) were evaluated and compared to commonly used CMD herbs, Heshouwu, roots of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb (Polygonaceae) and Renshen (or Ginseng), roots of Panax ginseng CA Meyer (Araliaceae). The anti-oxidant capacities were measured by using both cell-free assay [ferric reducing/anti-oxidant power (FRAP)] and biological methods [2,2'-azobis-(2-amidinopropane) (AAPH)-induced haemolysis assay and H(2)O(2)-induced cell damage on H9C2 cells]. Additionally, the total phenolic content was measured using Folin-Ciocalteu methods. Water extract of Huangqin has the highest anti-oxidant activities compared to the ethanol and ether extracts. A positive relationship between the anti-oxidant effects and total phenolic contents of extracts was demonstrated. This shows that Huangqin could be an effective dietary anti-oxidant that can be consumed regularly as a functional food for the prevention of oxidant/free radical-related diseases.
Effects of Hydro-alcoholic Extract from Arctium lappa L. (Burdock) Root on Gonadotropins, Testosterone, and Sperm Count and Viability in Male Mice with Nicotinamide/ Streptozotocin-Induced Type 2 Diabetes
AHANGARPOUR, Akram; OROOJAN, Ali Akbar; HEIDARI, Hamid; GHAEDI, Ehsan; TAHERKHANI, Reza
Background: Reproductive dysfunction is a complication of diabetes. Arctium lappa (burdock) root has hypoglycemic and antioxidative properties, which are traditionally used for treatment of impotence and sterility. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of its hydro alcoholic extract on gonadotropin, testosterone, and sperm parameters in nicotinamide/ streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Methods: In this experimental study, 56 adult male Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice (30–35 g) were randomly divided into seven groups: control, diabetes, diabetes + glibenclamide (0.25 mg/kg), diabetes + extract (200 or 300 mg/kg), and extract (200 or 300 mg/kg). Diabetes was induced with intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide (NA) and streptozotocin (STZ). Twenty-four hours after the last extract and drug administration, serum samples, testes, and cauda epididymis were removed immediately for experimental assessment. Results: Body weight, serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and testosterone levels, and sperm count (P < 0.05) and viability (P < 0.01) decreased in diabetic mice. Administration of glibenclamide significantly improved these reductions in diabetic animals (P < 0.05). However, the hydro alcoholic extract (300 mg/kg) enhanced sperm viability only in diabetic mice (P < 0.01). In addition, this dose of extract increased sperm count, LH, FSH, and testosterone in nondiabetic animals compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The results indicate that applied burdock root extract has anti-infertility effects in nondiabetic mice. Hence, this part of the A. lappa plant has an effect on the health of the reproductive system in order to improve diabetic conditions. PMID:26023292
Effects of Hydro-alcoholic Extract from Arctium lappa L. (Burdock) Root on Gonadotropins, Testosterone, and Sperm Count and Viability in Male Mice with Nicotinamide/ Streptozotocin-Induced Type 2 Diabetes.
Ahangarpour, Akram; Oroojan, Ali Akbar; Heidari, Hamid; Ghaedi, Ehsan; Taherkhani, Reza
Reproductive dysfunction is a complication of diabetes. Arctium lappa (burdock) root has hypoglycemic and antioxidative properties, which are traditionally used for treatment of impotence and sterility. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of its hydro alcoholic extract on gonadotropin, testosterone, and sperm parameters in nicotinamide/ streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. In this experimental study, 56 adult male Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice (30-35 g) were randomly divided into seven groups: control, diabetes, diabetes + glibenclamide (0.25 mg/kg), diabetes + extract (200 or 300 mg/kg), and extract (200 or 300 mg/kg). Diabetes was induced with intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide (NA) and streptozotocin (STZ). Twenty-four hours after the last extract and drug administration, serum samples, testes, and cauda epididymis were removed immediately for experimental assessment. Body weight, serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and testosterone levels, and sperm count (P < 0.05) and viability (P < 0.01) decreased in diabetic mice. Administration of glibenclamide significantly improved these reductions in diabetic animals (P < 0.05). However, the hydro alcoholic extract (300 mg/kg) enhanced sperm viability only in diabetic mice (P < 0.01). In addition, this dose of extract increased sperm count, LH, FSH, and testosterone in nondiabetic animals compared with the control group (P < 0.05). The results indicate that applied burdock root extract has anti-infertility effects in nondiabetic mice. Hence, this part of the A. lappa plant has an effect on the health of the reproductive system in order to improve diabetic conditions.
Malmea depressa is traditionally used in the Mayan communities of southeastern Mexico to treat type 2 diabetes. A root bark infusion is being taken throughout the day, between meals. The aim of this study was to determine whether an ethanolic extract of Malmea depressa would reduce hepatic glucose production by targeting gluconeogenesis. The effects of the plant extract on gluconeogenesis (in vivo) and the activity of GL-6-P (in vitro) were examined. The plant extract was analyzed by HPLC to confirm its phytochemical composition. The inhibition of gluconeogenesis was tested in vivo by performing a pyruvate tolerance test in n5-STZ after an 18-h fasting period. The extracts effect on glucose-6-phosphatase activity were assayed in vitro with intact rat liver microsomes. Using HPLC-DAD we confirmed that the phytochemical compositions of the tested extract were similar to those previously reported. We proved that the ethanolic extract of the root bark of Malmea depressa dose-dependently inhibits a glucose peak. Furthermore, the gluconeogenesis inhibition was confirmed in vitro using a pyruvate test. The results suggest that administration of Malmea depressa can improve glycemic control by blocking hepatic glucose production, especially in the fasting state. These data support its traditional use as an infusion consumed continually throughout the day. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Motokawa, Masahide; Sasamoto, Tomoko; Kaku, Masato; Kawata, Toshitsugu; Matsuda, Yayoi; Terao, Akiko; Tanne, Kazuo
The purpose of this study was to clarify the prevalence and degree of root resorption induced by orthodontic treatment in association with treatment factors. The files of 243 patients (72 males and 171 females) aged 9-51 years were randomly selected from subjects treated with multi-bracket appliances. The severity of root resorption was classified into five categories on radiographs taken before and after treatment. The subjects were divided into extraction (n = 113 patients, 2805 teeth) and non-extraction (n = 130 patients, 3616 teeth) groups and surgical (n = 56 patients, 1503 teeth) and non-surgical treatment (n = 187 patients, 4918 teeth) groups. These subjects were also divided into two or three groups based on the duration of multiloop edgewise archwire (MEAW) treatment, elastic use, and total treatment time: 0 month (T1; n = 184 patients, 4831 teeth), range 1-6 months (T2; n = 37 patients, 994 teeth), more than 6 months (T3; n = 22 patients, 596 teeth); range 0-6 months (n = 114 patients, 3016 teeth) more than 6 months (n = 129 patients, 3405 teeth); range 1-30 months (n = 148 patients, 3913 teeth) and more than 30 months (n = 95 patients, 2508 teeth). The prevalence of overall and severe root resorption evaluated by the number of subjects and teeth was compared with a chi-square test. A Student's t-test for unpaired data was used to determine any statistically significant differences. The prevalence of severe root resorption based on the number of teeth was significantly higher in the group with extractions (P < 0.01). Longer use of a MEAW appliance and elastics also produced a significantly higher prevalence of root resorption (P < 0.05). On the other hand, the prevalence of severe root resorption was not significantly different between the subjects treated with or without surgery, but there was a significant increase when treatment time was prolonged (P < 0.05). A significant difference was found in the amount of root movement of the upper central
Roca-Mézquita, Carolina; Graniel-Sabido, Manlio; Moo-Puc, Rosa E; Leon-Déniz, Lorena V; Gamboa-León, Rubí; Arjona-Ruiz, Carely; Tun-Garrido, Juan; Mirón-López, Gumersindo; Mena-Rejón, Gonzalo J
Chagas disease, amebiasis, giardiasis and trichomoniasis represent a serious health problem in Latin America. The drugs employed to treat these illnesses produce important side effects and resistant strains have appeared. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antiprotozoal activity of leaves, stem bark and root bark of Elaeodendron trichotomum , a celastraceus, that is used in Mexico as an anti-infective in febrile-type diseases. Dichloromethane and methanol extracts of leaves, bark and roots of Elaeodendron trichotomum were tested against Entamoeba histolytica , Giardia lamblia , Trichomonas vaginalis , and Trypanosoma cruzi . A quantitative HPLC analysis of pristimerin and tingenone was performed. The dichloromethane extract of roots was active against E. histolytica , G. lamblia , T. vaginalis , and T. cruzi , at IC50's of 0.80, 0.44, 0.46, and 2.68 μg/mL, respectively. The HPLC analysis revealed the presence of tingenone (3.84%) and pristimerin (0.14%). The dichloromethane extract of the roots bark showed significant activity against all screened protozoa.
Gonzales, G F; Ruiz, A; Gonzales, C; Villegas, L; Cordova, A
To determine the effect of oral administration of an aqueous extract from the roots of Lepidium meyenii (maca) on spermatogenesis in adult male rats. Male rats received an aqueous extract of the root (66.7 mg in one mL) twice a day for 14 consecutive days. Treatment with Lepidium meyenii resulted in an increase in the weights of testis and epididymis but not the seminal vesicle weight. The length and frequency of stages IX-XIV seminiferous tubules, where mitosis occurred, were increased and stages I-VI were reduced in rats treated with Lepidium meyenii. The Lepidium meyenii root invigorates spermatogenesis in male rats by acting on its initial stages (IX-XIV).
Mehmood, Ansar; Murtaza, Ghulam; Bhatti, Tariq Mahmood; Kausar, Rehana; Ahmed, Muhammad Jamil
Various biological methods are being recognized for the fabrication of silver nanoparticles, which are used in several fields. The phytosynthesis of nanoparticles came out as a cost effective and enviro-friendly approach. When root bark extract of Berberis lycium was treated with silver ions, they reduced to silver nanoparticles, which were spherical, crystalline, size ranged from 10-100nm and capped by biomolecules. Synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy (FTIR). The plant mediated synthesized silver nanoparticles showed pronounced antimicrobial activities against both Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebseilla pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis). The plant mediated process proved to be non-toxic and low cost contender as reducing agent for synthesizing stable silver nanoparticles.
Sumanth, Meera; Mustafa, S S
Ethanol extract of roots of Sida cordifolia was evaluated for antistress, adaptogenic activity using cold restraint stress and swim endurance in mice. Mice pretreated with extract of Sida cordifolia showed significant improvement in the swim duration and reduced the elevated WBC, blood glucose and plasma cortisone.
Sun, Stella Yue; Yeo, Woon Chee; Tay, Andrew Ban Guan; Tan, Donald Tiang Hwee; Tan, Danny Ben Poon
Osteoodontokeratoprosthesis (OOKP) surgery is used to restore vision in end-stage corneal disorders, where an autogenous tooth supporting an optical cylinder is implanted through the cornea under a buccal mucosal graft. The ideal tooth for OOKP is a healthy single-rooted permanent tooth with sufficient buccolingual/palatal root diameter to accommodate an optical cylinder. The aim of this study was to determine the buccolingual/palatal diameters of canine and premolar roots in Chinese, for selection of teeth for OOKP surgery. This was an anatomical study on root dimensions of extracted intact teeth. Extracted canine and premolar teeth (excluding maxillary first premolars) were collected and the buccolingual/palatal and mesiodistal diameters of the root at the cervical line and at 2-mm intervals below the cervical line were measured with Vernier calipers. Other measurements included total tooth length, crown buccolingual/palatal diameter, and root length. Mean and minimum buccolingual/palatal root diameters were compiled for each 2-mm interval. A total of 415 extracted teeth (198 male, 217 female) were collected and measured. Recorded dimensions of keratoprostheses in 55 previous OOKP surgeries were used to establish acceptable lamina dimensions to ascertain root size adequacy. Premolars in Chinese female patients were undersized in a small minority. Minimal dimensions of teeth were insufficient if at 6 mm root level, the buccolingual/palatal width was less than 5 mm, or the mesiodistal width was less than 3 mm. This was noted in female mandibular first premolars (5.6%), maxillary second premolars (4.5%), and mandibular second premolars (1.5%). Canines have adequate dimensions for OOKP surgery. However, premolars in Chinese females may be undersized in a small minority. Copyright 2017 Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology.
van Poppel, Pleun C. M.; Breedveld, Pauline; Abbink, Evertine J.; Roelofs, Hennie; van Heerde, Waander; Smits, Paul; Lin, Wenzhi; Tan, Aaitje H.; Russel, Frans G.; Donders, Rogier; Tack, Cees J.; Rongen, Gerard A.
Purpose Danshen is the dried root extract of the plant Salvia Miltiorrhiza and it is used as traditional Chinese medicinal herbal product to prevent and treat atherosclerosis. However, its efficacy has not been thoroughly investigated. This study evaluates the effect of Danshen on hyperlipidemia and hypertension, two well known risk factors for the development of atherosclerosis. Methods This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover study performed at a tertiary referral center. Participants were recruited by newspaper advertisement and randomized to treatment with Danshen (water-extract of the Salvia Miltiorrhiza root) or placebo for 4 consecutive weeks. There was a wash out period of 4 weeks. Of the 20 analysed participants, 11 received placebo first. Inclusion criteria were: age 40-70 years, hyperlipidemia and hypertension. At the end of each treatment period, plasma lipids were determined (primary outcome), 24 hours ambulant blood pressure measurement (ABPM) was performed, and vasodilator endothelial function was assessed in the forearm. Results LDL cholesterol levels were 3.82±0.14 mmol/l after Danshen and 3.52±0.16 mmol/l after placebo treatment (mean±SE; p<0.05 for treatment effect corrected for baseline). Danshen treatment had no effect on blood pressure (ABPM 138/84 after Danshen and 136/87 after placebo treatment). These results were further substantiated by the observation that Danshen had neither an effect on endothelial function nor on markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, glucose metabolism, hemostasis and blood viscosity. Conclusion Four weeks of treatment with Danshen (water-extract) slightly increased LDL-cholesterol without affecting a wide variety of other risk markers. These observations do not support the use of Danshen to prevent or treat atherosclerosis. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01563770 PMID:26192328
Simoneau, P; Louisy-Louis, N; Plenchette, C; Strullu, D G
Root-inducing transferred-DNA (Ri T-DNA)-transformed roots of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were in vitro inoculated with surface-sterilized vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal leek root pieces. About 1 week after inoculation, the infection of the transformed root culture by the fungal endophyte was confirmed by photonic microscopy. Total proteins were extracted from the mycorrhizal roots and analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Control gels were run with proteins extracted from noninoculated roots mixed with purified intraradical vesicles and extraradical hyphae. Comparison of the resulting patterns revealed the presence of two polypeptides with estimated apparent masses of 24 and 39 kDa that were detected only in infected roots. Polypeptides with similar migration parameters were not detected in roots challenged with spore extracts, suggesting that the accumulation of the polypeptides was directly linked to root colonization by the fungus rather than to induction by fungus-derived elicitors.
Simoneau, Philippe; Louisy-Louis, Nathalie; Plenchette, Christian; Strullu, Désiré Georges
Root-inducing transferred-DNA (Ri T-DNA)-transformed roots of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were in vitro inoculated with surface-sterilized vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal leek root pieces. About 1 week after inoculation, the infection of the transformed root culture by the fungal endophyte was confirmed by photonic microscopy. Total proteins were extracted from the mycorrhizal roots and analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Control gels were run with proteins extracted from noninoculated roots mixed with purified intraradical vesicles and extraradical hyphae. Comparison of the resulting patterns revealed the presence of two polypeptides with estimated apparent masses of 24 and 39 kDa that were detected only in infected roots. Polypeptides with similar migration parameters were not detected in roots challenged with spore extracts, suggesting that the accumulation of the polypeptides was directly linked to root colonization by the fungus rather than to induction by fungus-derived elicitors. Images PMID:16349273
Bournine, Lamine; Bensalem, Sihem; Wauters, Jean-Noël; Iguer-Ouada, Mokrane; Maiza-Benabdesselam, Fadila; Bedjou, Fatiha; Castronovo, Vincent; Bellahcène, Akeila; Tits, Monique; Frédérich, Michel
Glaucium flavum is used in Algerian folk medicine to remove warts (benign tumors). Its local appellations are Cheqiq el-asfar and Qarn el-djedyane. We have recently reported the anti-tumoral activity of Glaucium flavum root alkaloid extract against human cancer cells, in vitro and in vivo. The principal identified alkaloid in the extract was protopine. This study aims to determine which component(s) of Glaucium flavum root extract might possess potent antitumor activity on human cancer cells. Quantitative estimation of Glaucium flavum alkaloids was realized by HPLC-DAD. Glaucium flavum effect on human normal and cancer cell viability was determined using WST-1 assay. Quantification of alkaloids in Glaucium flavum revealed that the dried root part contained 0.84% of protopine and 0.07% of bocconoline (w/w), while the dried aerial part contained only 0.08% of protopine, glaucine as the main alkaloid, and no bocconoline. In vitro evaluation of the growth inhibitory activity on breast cancer and normal cells demonstrated that purified protopine did not reproduce the full cytotoxic activity of the alkaloid root extract on cancer cell lines. On the other hand, bocconoline inhibited strongly the viability of cancer cells with an IC50 of 7.8 µM and only a low cytotoxic effect was observed against normal human cells. Our results showed for the first time that protopine is the major root alkaloid of Glaucium flavum. Finally, we are the first to demonstrate a specific anticancer effect of Glaucium flavum root extract against breast cancer cells, which can be attributed, at least in part, to bocconoline.
Gilani, Anwarul Hassan; Mandukhail, Saf-ur-Rehman; Iqbal, Javeid; Yasinzai, Masoom; Aziz, Nauman; Khan, Aslam; Najeeb-ur-Rehman
Morinda citrifolia (Noni) is an edible plant with wide range of medicinal uses. It occurs exclusively in tropical climate zone from India through Southeast Asia and Australia to Eastern Polynesia and Hawaii. The objective of this study was to explore the possible mode(s) of action for its antispasmodic, vasodilator and cardio-suppressant effects to rationalize its medicinal use in gut and cardiovascular disorders. Isolated tissue preparations such as, rabbit jejunum, rat and rabbit aorta and guinea pig atria were used to test the antispasmodic and cardiovascular relaxant effects and the possible mode of action(s) of the 70% aqueous-ethanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia roots (Mc.Cr). The Mc.Cr produced a concentration-dependent relaxation of spontaneous and high K(+) induced contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum preparations. It also caused right ward shift in the concentration response curves of Ca(++), similar to that of verapamil. In guinea-pig right atria, Mc.Cr caused inhibition of both atrial force and rate of spontaneous contractions. In rabbit thoracic aortic preparations, Mc.Cr also suppressed contractions induced by phenylephrine (1.0 μM) in normal- Ca(++) and Ca(++)-free kreb solutions and by high K(+), similar to that of verapamil. In rat thoracic aortic preparations, Mc.Cr also relaxed the phenylephrine (1.0 μM)-induced contractions. The vasodilatory responses were not altered in the presence of L-NAME (0.1 mM) or atropine (1.0 μM) and removal of endothelium. These results suggest that the spasmolytic and vasodilator effects of Mc.Cr root extract are mediated possibly through blockade of voltage-dependent calcium channels and release of intracellular calcium, which may explain the medicinal use of Morinda citrifolia in diarrhea and hypertension. However, more detailed studies are required to assess the safety and efficacy of this plant.
Background Morinda citrifolia (Noni) is an edible plant with wide range of medicinal uses. It occurs exclusively in tropical climate zone from India through Southeast Asia and Australia to Eastern Polynesia and Hawaii. The objective of this study was to explore the possible mode(s) of action for its antispasmodic, vasodilator and cardio-suppressant effects to rationalize its medicinal use in gut and cardiovascular disorders. Methods Isolated tissue preparations such as, rabbit jejunum, rat and rabbit aorta and guinea pig atria were used to test the antispasmodic and cardiovascular relaxant effects and the possible mode of action(s) of the 70% aqueous-ethanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia roots (Mc.Cr). Results The Mc.Cr produced a concentration-dependent relaxation of spontaneous and high K+ induced contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum preparations. It also caused right ward shift in the concentration response curves of Ca++, similar to that of verapamil. In guinea-pig right atria, Mc.Cr caused inhibition of both atrial force and rate of spontaneous contractions. In rabbit thoracic aortic preparations, Mc.Cr also suppressed contractions induced by phenylephrine (1.0 μM) in normal- Ca++ and Ca++-free Kerb's solutions and by high K+, similar to that of verapamil. In rat thoracic aortic preparations, Mc.Cr also relaxed the phenylephrine (1.0 μM)-induced contractions. The vasodilatory responses were not altered in the presence of L-NAME (0.1 mM) or atropine (1.0 μM) and removal of endothelium. Conclusions These results suggest that the spasmolytic and vasodilator effects of Mc.Cr root extract are mediated possibly through blockade of voltage-dependent calcium channels and release of intracellular calcium, which may explain the medicinal use of Morinda citrifolia in diarrhea and hypertension. However, more detailed studies are required to assess the safety and efficacy of this plant. PMID:20070879
Maleki-Saghooni, Nahid; Karimi, Fatemeh Zahra; Behboodi Moghadam, Zahra; Mirzaii Najmabadi, Khadigeh
Objective: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is one of the most common problems among women of reproductive age. The popularity of complementary/alternative therapies has grown in recent years, and these treatments have been more commonly used by women (48.9%) than men (37.8%). The aim of this systematic review was to assess effectiveness and safety of Iranian herbal medicines for treatment of premenstrual syndrome. Methods: PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane, and Google Scholar were searched along with SID, Magiran and Irandoc up to Dec 2017. Inclusion criteria consist of Iranian, published, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) using Iranian herbal medicine for treatment of reproductive age women with PMS. Eventually Eighteen RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Results: Overall, studies have shown that Vitex agnuscastus, Hypericum perforatum, Matricaria chamomilla, saffron, Curcumin, Melissa officinalis, Zataria multiflora, Wheat Germ Extract, Echinophora platyloba, Foeniculum vulgare, Valerian root extract, Citrus sinensis, Zingiber officinale and Flax seed might alleviate symptoms of PMS. Conclusion: This research demonstrated efficacy and safety of Iranian herbal medicines in alleviating PMS. Therefore, herbal medicine can be regarded as an alternative treatment for women suffering from PMS. PMID:29632841
Rôças, Isabela N; Alves, Flávio R F; Santos, Adriana L; Rosado, Alexandre S; Siqueira, José F
Bacteria located in the apical root canal system potentially participate in the pathogenesis of apical periodontitis. Detection and identification of apical bacteria can be compromised because of limitations in conventional sampling and identification procedures. This study identified several bacterial taxa in the apical and middle/coronal segments of primarily infected root canal system by using pulverized root segments and a culture-independent molecular method. Seventeen extracted teeth with attached apical periodontitis lesions were sectioned to obtain 2 root fragments (apical and middle/coronal segments). Root fragments were cryogenically ground, and DNA was extracted from samples. After multiple displacement amplification, DNA from samples was used as template in a reverse-capture checkerboard hybridization assay targeting 28 bacterial taxa. Bacterial DNA was detected in all samples. The most prevalent taxa in the apical root canal system were Olsenella uli (76.5%), Prevotella baroniae (71%), Porphyromonas endodontalis (65%), Fusobacterium nucleatum (53%), and Tannerella forsythia (47%). O. uli, P. endodontalis, and Propionibacterium acnes were as frequently detected in apical samples as they were in middle/coronal samples. P. baroniae, T. forsythia, and F. nucleatum were found more frequently in the apical part of the canal as compared with matched coronal segments. Streptococcus species were more prevalent in middle/coronal samples. The median and mean of shared bacterial taxa between matched apical and middle/coronal segments were 27% and 41%, respectively. Several candidate endodontic pathogens were very prevalent in the apical root canal system. The apical microbiota was usually complex and differed in species composition when compared with the microbiota of middle/coronal samples from the same tooth. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Akileshwari, Chandrasekhar; Muthenna, Puppala; Nastasijević, Branislav; Joksić, Gordana; Petrash, J. Mark; Reddy, Geereddy Bhanuprakash
Accumulation of intracellular sorbitol due to increased aldose reductase (ALR2) activity has been implicated in the development of various secondary complications of diabetes. Thus, ALR2 inhibition could be an effective strategy in the prevention or delay of certain diabetic complications. Gentiana lutea grows naturally in the central and southern areas of Europe. Its roots are commonly consumed as a beverage in some European countries and are also known to have medicinal properties. The water, ethanol, methanol, and ether extracts of the roots of G. lutea were subjected to in vitro bioassay to evaluate their inhibitory activity on the ALR2. While the ether and methanol extracts showed greater inhibitory activities against both rat lens and human ALR2, the water and ethanol extracts showed moderate inhibitory activities. Moreover, the ether and methanol extracts of G. lutea roots significantly and dose-dependently inhibited sorbitol accumulation in human erythrocytes under high glucose conditions. Molecular docking studies with the constituents commonly present in the roots of G. lutea indicate that a secoiridoid glycoside, amarogentin, may be a potential inhibitor of ALR2. This is the first paper that shows G. lutea extracts exhibit inhibitory activity towards ALR2 and these results suggest that Gentiana or its constituents might be useful to prevent or treat diabetic complications. PMID:22844269
Sumanth, Meera; Mustafa, S. S.
Ethanol extract of roots of Sida cordifolia was evaluated for antistress, adaptogenic activity using cold restraint stress and swim endurance in mice. Mice pretreated with extract of Sida cordifolia showed significant improvement in the swim duration and reduced the elevated WBC, blood glucose and plasma cortisone. PMID:20490305
Suresh, Gopal; Gunasekar, Poosali Hariharan; Kokila, Dhanasegaran; Prabhu, Durai; Dinesh, Devadoss; Ravichandran, Nagaiya; Ramesh, Balasubramanian; Koodalingam, Arunagirinathan; Vijaiyan Siva, Ganesan
Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous root extract of Delphinium denudatum (Dd) by reduction of Ag+ ions from silver nitrate solution has been investigated. The synthesized DdAgNPs were characterized by using UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The prepared DdAgNPs showed maximum absorbance at 416 nm and particles were polydispersed in nature, spherical in shape and the size of the particle obtained was ⩽85 nm. The DdAgNPs exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Bacillus cereus NCIM 2106, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027. The DdAgNPs showed potent larvicidal activity against second instar larvae of dengue vector Aedes aegypti with a LC50 value of 9.6 ppm.
Sahu, Surajit; Ray, Koushik; Yogendra Kumar, M S; Gupta, Shilpa; Kauser, Hina; Kumar, Sanjeev; Mishra, Kshipra; Panjwani, Usha
The present study was performed to investigate the effects of Valeriana wallichi (VW) aqueous root extract on sleep-wake profile and level of brain monoamines on Sprague-Dawley rats. Electrodes and transmitters were implanted to record EEG and EMG in freely moving condition and the changes were recorded telemetrically after oral administration of VW in the doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight. Sleep latency was decreased and duration of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep was increased in a dose dependent manner. A significant decrease of sleep latency and duration of wakefulness were observed with VW at doses of 200 and 300 mg/kg. Duration of NREM sleep as well as duration of total sleep was increased significantly after treatment with VW at the doses of 200 and 300 mg/kg. VW also increased EEG slow wave activity during NREM sleep at the doses of 200 and 300 mg/kg. Level of norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), serotonin (5-HT) and hydroxy indole acetic acid (HIAA) were measured in frontal cortex and brain stem after VW treatment at the dose of 200mg/kg. NE and 5HT level were decreased significantly in both frontal cortex and brain stem. DA and HIAA level significantly decreased only in cortex. DOPAC level was not changed in any brain region studied. In conclusion it can be said that VW water extract has a sleep quality improving effect which may be dependent upon levels of monoamines in cortex and brainstem. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Curnow, Alison; Owen, Sara J.
As lifetime exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation has risen, the deleterious effects have also become more apparent. Numerous sunscreen and skincare products have therefore been developed to help reduce the occurrence of sunburn, photoageing, and skin carcinogenesis. This has stimulated research into identifying new natural sources of effective skin protecting compounds. Alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) was employed to assess aqueous extracts derived from soil or hydroponically glasshouse-grown roots of Althea officinalis (Marshmallow) and Astragalus membranaceus, compared with commercial, field-grown roots. Hydroponically grown root extracts from both plant species were found to significantly reduce UVA-induced DNA damage in cultured human lung and skin fibroblasts, although initial Astragalus experimentation detected some genotoxic effects, indicating that Althea root extracts may be better suited as potential constituents of dermatological formulations. Glasshouse-grown soil and hydroponic Althea root extracts afforded lung fibroblasts with statistically significant protection against UVA irradiation for a greater period of time than the commercial field-grown roots. No significant reduction in DNA damage was observed when total ultraviolet irradiation (including UVB) was employed (data not shown), indicating that the extracted phytochemicals predominantly protected against indirect UVA-induced oxidative stress. Althea phytochemical root extracts may therefore be useful components in dermatological formulations. PMID:26953144
Curnow, Alison; Owen, Sara J
As lifetime exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation has risen, the deleterious effects have also become more apparent. Numerous sunscreen and skincare products have therefore been developed to help reduce the occurrence of sunburn, photoageing, and skin carcinogenesis. This has stimulated research into identifying new natural sources of effective skin protecting compounds. Alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) was employed to assess aqueous extracts derived from soil or hydroponically glasshouse-grown roots of Althea officinalis (Marshmallow) and Astragalus membranaceus, compared with commercial, field-grown roots. Hydroponically grown root extracts from both plant species were found to significantly reduce UVA-induced DNA damage in cultured human lung and skin fibroblasts, although initial Astragalus experimentation detected some genotoxic effects, indicating that Althea root extracts may be better suited as potential constituents of dermatological formulations. Glasshouse-grown soil and hydroponic Althea root extracts afforded lung fibroblasts with statistically significant protection against UVA irradiation for a greater period of time than the commercial field-grown roots. No significant reduction in DNA damage was observed when total ultraviolet irradiation (including UVB) was employed (data not shown), indicating that the extracted phytochemicals predominantly protected against indirect UVA-induced oxidative stress. Althea phytochemical root extracts may therefore be useful components in dermatological formulations.
Previously, we observed that wild yam (Dioscorea villosa) root extract (WYRE) was able to activate GATA3 in human breast cancer cells targeting epigenome. This study aimed to 'nd out if dioscin (DS), a bioactive compound of WYRE, can modulate GATA3 functions and cellular invasion in human breast can...
Inaba, Kazunori; Murata, Kazuya; Naruto, Shunsuke; Matsuda, Hideaki
Successive oral administration (50 mg/kg) of a 50% ethanolic extract (HP-ext) of devil's claw, the secondary root of Harpagophytum procumbens, showed a significant anti-inflammatory effect in the rat adjuvant-induced chronic arthritis model. HP-ext dose-dependently suppressed the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of inflammatory cytokines [interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)] in mouse macrophage cells (RAW 264.7). Harpagoside, a major iridoid glycoside present in devil's claw, was found to be one of the active agents in HP-ext and inhibited the production of IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha by RAW 264.7.
Carminati, Andrea; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Ahmed, Mutez A.; Passioura, John
The flow of water into the roots and the (putative) presence of a large resistance at the root-soil interface have attracted the attention of plant and soil scientists for decades. Such resistance has been attributed to a partial contact between roots and soil, large gradients in soil matric potential around the roots, or accumulation of solutes at the root surface creating a negative osmotic potential. Our hypothesis is that roots are capable of altering the biophysical properties of the soil around the roots, the rhizosphere, facilitating root water uptake in dry soils. In particular, we expect that root hairs and mucilage optimally connect the roots to the soil maintaining the hydraulic continuity across the rhizosphere. Using a pressure chamber apparatus we measured the relation between transpiration rate and the water potential difference between soil and leaf xylem during drying cycles in barley mutants with and without root hairs. The samples were grown in well structured soils. At low soil moistures and high transpiration rates, large drops in water potential developed around the roots. These drops in water potential recovered very slowly, even after transpiration was severely decreased. The drops in water potential were much bigger in barley mutants without root hairs. These mutants failed to sustain high transpiration rates in dry conditions. To explain the nature of such drops in water potential across the rhizosphere we performed high resolution neutron tomography of the rhizosphere of the barleys with and without root hairs growing in the same soil described above. The tomograms suggested that the hydraulic contact between the soil structures was the highest resistance for the water flow in dry conditions. The tomograms also indicate that root hairs and mucilage improved the hydraulic contact between roots and soil structures. At high transpiration rates and low water contents, roots extracted water from the rhizosphere, while the bulk soil, due its
Corrêa, Heitor Simões Dutra; Pedro, Fabio Luis Miranda; Volpato, Luiz Evaristo Ricci; Pereira, Thiago Machado; Siebert Filho, Gilberto; Borges, Álvaro Henrique
Teeth are widely used samples in forensic human genetic identification due to their persistence and practical sampling and processing. Their processing, however, has changed very little in the last 20 years, usually including powdering or pulverization of the tooth. The objective of this study was to present demineralized root tips as DNA sources while, at the same time, not involving powdering the samples or expensive equipment for teeth processing. One to five teeth from each of 20 unidentified human bodies recovered from midwest Brazil were analyzed. Whole teeth were demineralized in EDTA solution with daily solution change. After a maximum of approximately seven days, the final millimeters of the root tip was excised. This portion of the sample was used for DNA extraction through a conventional organic protocol. DNA quantification and STR amplification were performed using commercial kits followed by capillary electrophoresis on 3130 or 3500 genetic analyzers. For 60% of the unidentified bodies (12 of 20), a full genetic profile was obtained from the extraction of the first root tip. By the end of the analyses, full genetic profiles were obtained for 85% of the individuals studied, of which 80% were positively identified. This alternative low-tech approach for postmortem teeth processing is capable of extracting DNA in sufficient quantity and quality for forensic casework, showing that root tips are viable nuclear DNA sources even after demineralization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Li, Yu-Cheng; Shen, Ji-Duo; Li, Yang-Yang; Huang, Qi
The leaves and roots of the Taraxacum officinale F. (Asteraceae) is widely used as traditional medicinal herb in Eastern Asian countries. In the present study, the antidepressant-like effects of the water extract of T. officinale (WETO) leaves and roots were investigated in mice using forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and open field test (OFT). Effects of acute (1-day) and chronic treatments (14-days) with WETO (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) on the behavioral changes in FST, TST and OFT, and the serum corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone concentration were assessed in mice. Chronic treatment (14-days) with WETO at the doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg significantly decreased the immobility time in both FST (92.6, 85.1 and 77.4 s) and TST (84.8, 72.1 and 56.9 s). Acute treatment (1-day) with WETO at a dose of 200 mg/kg also markedly decreased the immobility time in both FST (81.7 s) and TST (73.2 s). However, all treatments did not affect the locomotor activity in the OFT. Moreover, FST induced a significant increase in serum CRF (5.8 ng/ml), ACTH (104.7 pg/ml) and corticosterone levels (37.3 ng/ml). Chronic treatment (14-days) with WETO decreased the serum CRF (200 mg/kg: 3.9 ng/ml) and corticosterone (50 mg/kg: 29.9 ng/ml; 100 mg/kg: 22.5 ng/ml; 200 mg/kg: 19.8 ng/ml) levels. These results clearly demonstrated the antidepressant effects of WETO in animal models of behavioral despair and suggested the mechanism involved in the neuroendocrine system.
Nepstad, Daniel C.; Stone, Thomas A.; Davidson, Eric A.
Deforestation and logging degrade more forest in eastern and southern Amazonia than in any other region of the world. This forest alteration affects regional hydrology and the global carbon cycle, but our current understanding of these effects is limited by incomplete knowledge of tropical forest ecosystems. It is widely agreed that roots are concentrated near the soil surface in moist tropical forests, but this generalization incorrectly implies that deep roots are unimportant in water and C budgets. Our results indicate that half of the closed-canopy forests of Brazilian Amazonic occur where rainfall is highly seasonal, and these forests rely on deeply penetrating roots to extract soil water. Pasture vegetation extracts less water from deep soil than the forest it replaces, thus increasing rates of drainage and decreasing rates of evapotranspiration. Deep roots are also a source of modern carbon deep in the soil. The soils of the eastern Amazon contain more carbon below 1 m depth than is present in above-ground biomass. As much as 25 percent of this deep soil C could have annual to decadal turnover times and may be lost to the atmosphere following deforestation. We compared the importance of deep roots in a mature, evergreen forest with an adjacent man-made pasture, the most common type of vegetation on deforested land in Amazonia. The study site is near the town of Paragominas, in the Brazilian state of Para, with a seasonal rainfall pattern and deeply-weathered, kaolinitic soils that are typical for large portions of Amazonia. Root distribution, soil water extraction, and soil carbon dynamics were studied using deep auger holes and shafts in each ecosystem, and the phenology and water status of the leaf canopies were measured. We estimated the geographical distribution of deeply-rooting forests using satellite imagery, rainfall data, and field measurements.
Roca-Mézquita, Carolina; Graniel-Sabido, Manlio; Moo-Puc, Rosa E.; Leon-Déniz, Lorena V.; Gamboa-León, Rubí; Arjona-Ruiz, Carely; Tun-Garrido, Juan; Mirón-López, Gumersindo; Mena-Rejón, Gonzalo J.
Background: Chagas disease, amebiasis, giardiasis and trichomoniasis represent a serious health problem in Latin America. The drugs employed to treat these illnesses produce important side effects and resistant strains have appeared. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antiprotozoal activity of leaves, stem bark and root bark of Elaeodendron trichotomum, a celastraceus, that is used in Mexico as an anti-infective in febrile-type diseases. Materials and methods: Dichloromethane and methanol extracts of leaves, bark and roots of Elaeodendron trichotomum were tested against Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Trypanosoma cruzi. A quantitative HPLC analysis of pristimerin and tingenone was performed. Results: The dichloromethane extract of roots was active against E. histolytica, G. lamblia, T. vaginalis, and T. cruzi, at IC50’s of 0.80, 0.44, 0.46, and 2.68 μg/mL, respectively. The HPLC analysis revealed the presence of tingenone (3.84%) and pristimerin (0.14%). Conclusions: The dichloromethane extract of the roots bark showed significant activity against all screened protozoa. PMID:28852732
Ahmad, Feroz; Tabassum, Nahida
To carry out a preliminary phytochemical, acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of the roots of Paeonia officinalis (P. officinalis) L. Preliminary phytochemical investigation was done as per standard procedures. Acute oral toxicity study was conducted as per OECD 425 guidelines. The antihepatotoxic activity of aqueous extract of root of P. officinalis was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in rats. Aqueous extract of P. officinalis at the dose levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight was administered daily for 14 d in experimental animals. Liver injury was induced chemically, by CCl4 administration (1 mL/kg i.p.). The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters like aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP), total bilirubin and total protein (TP) along with histopathological studies. Phytochemical screening revealed that the roots of P. officinalis contain alkaloids, tannins, saponins, glycosides, carbohydrates, flavonoids, terpenes, steroids and proteins. The aqueous extract did not cause any mortality up to 2 000 mg/kg. In rats that had received the root extract at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg, the substantially elevated AST, ALT, SALP, total bilirubin levels were significantly lowered, respectively, in a dose dependent manner, along with CCl4 while TP levels were elevated in these groups. Histopathology revealed regeneration of the livers in extract treated groups while Silymarin treated rats were almost normal. The aqueous extract of P. officinalis is safe and possesses antihepatotoxic potential.
Srinivasan, R; Chandrasekar, M J N; Nanjan, M J; Suresh, B
The antioxidant properties of three successive extracts of Caesalpinia digyna Rottler root and the isolated compound, bergenin, were tested using standard in vitro and in vivo models. The amount of the total phenolic compounds present was also determined. The successive methanol extract of Caesalpinia digyna root (CDM) exhibited strong scavenging effect on 2,2-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical cation, hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide, hydroxyl radical and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. The free radical scavenging effect of CDM was comparable with that of reference antioxidants. The CDM having the highest content of phenolic compounds and strong free radical scavenging effect when administered orally to male albino rats at 100, 200 and 400mg/kg body weight for 7 days, prior to carbontetrachloride (CCl(4)) treatment, caused a significant increase in the levels of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and significant decrease in the levels of lipidperoxidation (LPO) in serum, liver and kidney in a dose dependent manner, when compared to CCl(4) treated control. These results clearly indicate the strong antioxidant property of Caesalpinia digyna root. The study provides a proof for the ethnomedical claims and reported biological activities. The plant has, therefore, very good therapeutic potential.
Bansal, Rashmi; Roy, Sonali; Chandra, Praveen; Gurtu, Anuraag; Pandey, Rahul
Trauma to the adjacent hard and soft tissue is the most common iatrogenic injury during extraction of the mandibular third molar. As every functional component of the dental arch is of prime importance in contemporary dental practice, the major concern must be in conserving the tooth and its structure as much as possible. The present case discusses the application of this conservative approach for management of iatrogenically damaged distal root of the mandibular second molar during extraction of impacted third molar, in which excessive guttering of alveolar bone and fractured apical third of distal root of 37 was observed radiographically. A conservative and noninvasive approach was successfully achieved to restore the damaged root by the bioactive material. Sealing of the remaining root with mineral trioxide aggregate allowed regeneration of soft and hard tissue around it.