Science.gov

Sample records for validating transport areas

  1. Validation, Proof-of-Concept, and Postaudit of the Groundwater Flow and Transport Model of the Project Shoal Area

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed Hassan

    2004-09-01

    The groundwater flow and radionuclide transport model characterizing the Shoal underground nuclear test has been accepted by the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. According to the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) between DOE and the State of Nevada, the next steps in the closure process for the site are then model validation (or postaudit), the proof-of-concept, and the long-term monitoring stage. This report addresses the development of the validation strategy for the Shoal model, needed for preparing the subsurface Corrective Action Decision Document-Corrective Action Plan and the development of the proof-of-concept tools needed during the five-yearmore » monitoring/validation period. The approach builds on a previous model, but is adapted and modified to the site-specific conditions and challenges of the Shoal site.« less

  2. Planning for transportation in rural areas

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this document, Planning for Transportation in Rural Areas, is to provide a resource to rural planners, city and county engineers, stakeholders, local officials, and other decision-makers involved with developing rural transportation pl...

  3. Validation metrics for turbulent plasma transport

    DOE PAGES

    Holland, C.

    2016-06-22

    Developing accurate models of plasma dynamics is essential for confident predictive modeling of current and future fusion devices. In modern computer science and engineering, formal verification and validation processes are used to assess model accuracy and establish confidence in the predictive capabilities of a given model. This paper provides an overview of the key guiding principles and best practices for the development of validation metrics, illustrated using examples from investigations of turbulent transport in magnetically confined plasmas. Particular emphasis is given to the importance of uncertainty quantification and its inclusion within the metrics, and the need for utilizing synthetic diagnosticsmore » to enable quantitatively meaningful comparisons between simulation and experiment. As a starting point, the structure of commonly used global transport model metrics and their limitations is reviewed. An alternate approach is then presented, which focuses upon comparisons of predicted local fluxes, fluctuations, and equilibrium gradients against observation. Furthermore, the utility of metrics based upon these comparisons is demonstrated by applying them to gyrokinetic predictions of turbulent transport in a variety of discharges performed on the DIII-D tokamak, as part of a multi-year transport model validation activity.« less

  4. Validation metrics for turbulent plasma transport

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, C., E-mail: chholland@ucsd.edu

    Developing accurate models of plasma dynamics is essential for confident predictive modeling of current and future fusion devices. In modern computer science and engineering, formal verification and validation processes are used to assess model accuracy and establish confidence in the predictive capabilities of a given model. This paper provides an overview of the key guiding principles and best practices for the development of validation metrics, illustrated using examples from investigations of turbulent transport in magnetically confined plasmas. Particular emphasis is given to the importance of uncertainty quantification and its inclusion within the metrics, and the need for utilizing synthetic diagnosticsmore » to enable quantitatively meaningful comparisons between simulation and experiment. As a starting point, the structure of commonly used global transport model metrics and their limitations is reviewed. An alternate approach is then presented, which focuses upon comparisons of predicted local fluxes, fluctuations, and equilibrium gradients against observation. The utility of metrics based upon these comparisons is demonstrated by applying them to gyrokinetic predictions of turbulent transport in a variety of discharges performed on the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)], as part of a multi-year transport model validation activity.« less

  5. Validation metrics for turbulent plasma transport

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, C.

    Developing accurate models of plasma dynamics is essential for confident predictive modeling of current and future fusion devices. In modern computer science and engineering, formal verification and validation processes are used to assess model accuracy and establish confidence in the predictive capabilities of a given model. This paper provides an overview of the key guiding principles and best practices for the development of validation metrics, illustrated using examples from investigations of turbulent transport in magnetically confined plasmas. Particular emphasis is given to the importance of uncertainty quantification and its inclusion within the metrics, and the need for utilizing synthetic diagnosticsmore » to enable quantitatively meaningful comparisons between simulation and experiment. As a starting point, the structure of commonly used global transport model metrics and their limitations is reviewed. An alternate approach is then presented, which focuses upon comparisons of predicted local fluxes, fluctuations, and equilibrium gradients against observation. Furthermore, the utility of metrics based upon these comparisons is demonstrated by applying them to gyrokinetic predictions of turbulent transport in a variety of discharges performed on the DIII-D tokamak, as part of a multi-year transport model validation activity.« less

  6. Chicago Area Transportation Study (CATS): Methodological Overview

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1994-04-01

    This report contains a methodological discussion of the Chicago Area : Transportation Study (CATS) 1990 Household Travel Survey. It was prepared to : assist those who are working with the Household Travel Survey database. This : report concentrates o...

  7. Updating the transportation plans in Virginia's small urban areas.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1987-01-01

    The Transportation Planning Division (TPD) of the Virginia Department of Transportation is responsible for developing transportation plans for areas in the state having a population greater than 3,500. Although transportation forecasting procedures f...

  8. Supersonic transport grid generation, validation, and optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aaronson, Philip G.

    1995-01-01

    The ever present demand for reduced flight times has renewed interest in High Speed Civil Transports (HSCT). The need for an HSCT becomes especially apparent when the long distance, over-sea, high growth Pacific rim routes are considered. Crucial to any successful HSCT design are minimal environmental impact and economic viability. Vital is the transport's aerodynamic efficiency, ultimately effecting both the environmental impact and the operating cost. Optimization, including numerical optimization, coupled with the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technology, has and will offer a significant improvement beyond traditional methods.

  9. 77 FR 42354 - Designation of Transportation Management Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Federal Highway Administration Designation of Transportation Management Areas AGENCIES: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), Federal Highway... Management Areas (TMAs). The FTA and FHWA are taking this action in compliance with the agencies' authorizing...

  10. Year 2015 transportation plan : Huntsville Area Transportation Study

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-04-01

    The Year 2015 Transportation Plan is an intermodal plan that considers all modes of the existing transportation system, identifies needs, provides policy direction and defines the goals for planning and : project development in the Huntsville urban a...

  11. Metropolitan area transportation planning for healthy communities

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-09-26

    Appendix D of the "Implementation of the National Intelligent Transportation Systems Program", a report forwarded to Congress according to Section 6054(c) of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA).

  12. Essentials for sustainable urban transport in Brazil's large metropolitan areas.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes four main pillars for sound development and long-term sustainability of the urban transport sector in large metropolitan areas, and suggests how they can be introduced. These pillars are: a) a Regional Transport Coordination Comm...

  13. Tidewater metropolitan area transportation survey study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ficht, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    Results of a survey conducted in southeastern Virginia to identify public opinion regarding requirements for future public transportation are analyzed. The effects of age and income level on attitudes concerning city living and no importance of various characteristics described for urban transportation systems are identified.

  14. Functional Intersection Area -- Oregon Department of Transportation

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-01-01

    This discussion paper addresses the concepts involved in defining the functional area of an intersection. The elements which comprise the upstream functional area are identified; dimensions of the upstream area exclusive of queue storage, are given f...

  15. A validated pediatric transport survey: how is your team performing?

    PubMed

    McPherson, Mona L; Jefferson, Larry S; Graf, Jeanine M

    2008-01-01

    Understanding referring practitioners' satisfaction with pediatric transport services is useful for quality improvement. Formal survey methodology was applied to develop a pediatric transport satisfaction survey. Large metropolitan area in the Southwestern United States. A four-stage process was used to create a 20-item pediatric transport satisfaction survey. The final survey was analyzed for test-retest and internal consistency reliability, and surveys were mailed to a large practitioner base. The survey encompassed three domains: patient care, accessing the transport system, and communication. Test-retest and internal consistency reliability were good (final Cronbach alpha coefficient of 0.88.) Of the 229 providers responding, 69% were local (<60 miles), and 31% were served by our long distance transport team (>60 miles). Respondents reported that physicians selected the transport team in 82% of cases, whereas 9% reported that the charge nurse decided. Transport team selection was based on: (1) ease of initiation, (2) fastest arrival, (3) presence of a physician on the team, (4) stabilization time at the referring facility, and (5) team providing best follow-up. Satisfaction with our transport service was high, with a median survey score of 83 (interquartile [IQ] range, 74-92). Physicians and nurses reported equal satisfaction. Survey design methodology was successfully applied to assess satisfaction with pediatric transport. This transport survey offers a reliable measurement of providers' satisfaction with transport services.

  16. Evaluation of the ADOT small area transportation studies and planning assistance for rural areas programs.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-03-01

    The Planning Assistance for Rural Areas (PARA) program, sponsored by the Arizona Department of Transportations : (ADOT) Multimodal Planning Division (MPD), dedicates funding and staff to conduct multimodal transportation planning : studies for loc...

  17. Linking transportation and air quality planning : implementation of the transportation conformity regulations in 15 nonattainment areas

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-07-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 require far-reaching efforts under the "transportation conformity" regulations to assure that transportation investments in nonattainment and maintenance areas are consistent with state commitments to meet ...

  18. Bay Area transportation : state of the system 2002

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-12-01

    The Metropolitan Transportation Commission (MTC) and Caltrans District 4 have engaged in a collaborative effort to assemble key facts and performance indicators of interest to Bay Area commuters and other travelers. The publication of this report, Ba...

  19. Sediment transport in the area of the Sopot pier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przyborska, Anna; Jakacki, Jaromir; Andrzejewski, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Coastal sediment transport is a natural process that appears when energy of waves is sufficient for moving solid particles from the bottom. Sediment transport rate depends on the median diameter of local sand and it is compatible with the direction of wave propagation. Also it is natural, that any protruded from the beach construction disturbs continuity of beach transport caused by waves. The Sopot pier has been built over 100 years ago and it is the longest wooden pier on the Baltic Sea coast, it is about half kilometre long. The pier is located at the end of the Monte Casino street and it is one of the biggest attractions of the city as well as in the country. In the past and now we have observed the disturbed sediment transport in the area of the Sopot pier. But during recent years, this process has gained greater momentum. The beach at the Sopot pier has been growing by several meters. All indicates that the cause of the observed phenomenon is the marina. The marina structure which is in some distance from the shore, has been acting as a powerful, emerged breakwater boundary. As a tool the sediment transport model was implemented for Sopot pier area. The implemented numerical forecasting sediment transport model in the area of the Sopot pier reflects well the deposit growth rate for the archived data from 2010 to 2015. On the basis of differences in bathymetry data provided by the Maritime office and the analysis the model results the average deposits in accumulation in the pear area was determined to be about 16,000 m3 / year for the assumed area of analysis, the model have shown similar result. The analysis suggests that strong winds generating significant waves as well as meaningful sediment transport dominate in the autumn and winter. You cannot, however, rule out strong waves in summer. Under moderate waves the sediment transport is insignificant. The most intense movement of the sediment is observed in the vicinity of the shoreline, it disappears with

  20. Occurrence of select perfluoroalkyl substances at U.S. Air Force aqueous film-forming foam release sites other than fire-training areas: Field-validation of critical fate and transport properties.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R Hunter; Long, G Cornell; Porter, Ronald C; Anderson, Janet K

    2016-05-01

    The use of aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) to extinguish hydrocarbon-based fires is recognized as a significant source of environmental poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Although the occurrence of select PFASs in soil and groundwater at former fire-training areas (FTAs) at military installations operable since 1970 has been consistently confirmed, studies reporting the occurrence of PFASs at other AFFF-impacted sites (e.g. emergency response locations, AFFF lagoons, hangar-related AFFF storage tanks and pipelines, and fire station testing and maintenance areas) are largely missing from the literature. Further, studies have mostly focused on a single site (i.e., FTAs at military installations) and, thus, lack a comparison of sites with diverse AFFF release history. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to evaluate select PFAS occurrence at non-FTA sites on active U.S. Air Force installations with historic AFFF use of varying magnitude. Concentrations of fifteen perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), an important PFOS precursor, were measured from several hundred samples among multiple media (i.e., surface soil, subsurface soil, sediment, surface water, and groundwater) collected from forty AFFF-impacted sites across ten installations between March and September 2014, representing one of the most comprehensive datasets on environmental PFAS occurrence to date. Differences in detection frequencies and observed concentrations due to AFFF release volume are presented along with rigorous data analyses that quantitatively demonstrate phase-dependent (i.e., solid-phase vs aqueous-phase) differences in the chemical signature as a function of carbon chain-length and in situ PFOS (and to a slightly lesser extent PFHxS) formation, presumably due to precursor biotransformation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Validation of Heavy Ion Transport Capabilities in PHITS

    SciTech Connect

    Ronningen, Reginald M.

    The performance of the Monte Carlo code system PHITS is validated for heavy ion transport capabilities by performing simulations and comparing results against experimental data from heavy ion reactions of benchmark quality. These data are from measurements of secondary neutron production cross sections in reactions of Xe at 400 MeV/u with lithium and lead targets, measurements of neutrons outside of thick concrete and iron shields, and measurements of isotope yields produced in the fragmentation of a 140 MeV/u 48Ca beam on a beryllium target and on a tantalum target. A practical example that tests magnetic field capabilities is shown formore » a simulated 48Ca beam at 500 MeV/u striking a lithium target to produce the rare isotope 44Si, with ion transport through a fragmentation-reaction magnetic pre-separator. The results of this study show that PHITS performs reliably for the simulation of radiation fields that is necessary for designing safe, reliable and cost effective future high-powered heavy-ion accelerators in rare isotope beam facilities.« less

  2. The Initial Atmospheric Transport (IAT) Code: Description and Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, Charles W.; Bartel, Timothy James

    The Initial Atmospheric Transport (IAT) computer code was developed at Sandia National Laboratories as part of their nuclear launch accident consequences analysis suite of computer codes. The purpose of IAT is to predict the initial puff/plume rise resulting from either a solid rocket propellant or liquid rocket fuel fire. The code generates initial conditions for subsequent atmospheric transport calculations. The Initial Atmospheric Transfer (IAT) code has been compared to two data sets which are appropriate to the design space of space launch accident analyses. The primary model uncertainties are the entrainment coefficients for the extended Taylor model. The Titan 34Dmore » accident (1986) was used to calibrate these entrainment settings for a prototypic liquid propellant accident while the recent Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL, or simply APL) large propellant block tests (2012) were used to calibrate the entrainment settings for prototypic solid propellant accidents. North American Meteorology (NAM )formatted weather data profiles are used by IAT to determine the local buoyancy force balance. The IAT comparisons for the APL solid propellant tests illustrate the sensitivity of the plume elevation to the weather profiles; that is, the weather profile is a dominant factor in determining the plume elevation. The IAT code performed remarkably well and is considered validated for neutral weather conditions.« less

  3. Preliminary validation of leaf area index sensor in Huailai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Erli; Li, Xiuhong; Liu, Qiang; Dou, Baocheng; Chang, Chongyan; Niu, Hailin; Lin, Xingwen; Zhang, Jialin

    2015-12-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is a key variable in many land surface models that involve energy and mass exchange between vegetation and the environment. In recent years, extracting vegetation structure parameters from digital photography becomes a widely used indirect method to estimate LAI for its simplicity and ease of use. A Leaf Area Index Sensor (LAIS) system was developed to continuously monitor the growth of crops in several sampling points in Huailai, China. The system applies 3G/WIFI communication technology to remotely collect crop photos in real-time. Then the crop photos are automatically processed and LAI is estimated based on the improved leaf area index of Lang and Xiang (LAILX) algorithm in LAIS. The objective of this study is to primarily verify the LAI estimated from LAIS (Lphoto) through comparing them with the destructive green LAI (Ldest). Ldest was measured across the growing season ntil maximum canopy development while plants are still green. The preliminary verification shows that Lphoto corresponds well with the Ldest (R2=0.975). In general, LAI could be accurately estimated with LAIS and its LAI shows high consistency compared with the destructive green LAI. The continuous LAI measurement obtained from LAIS could be used for the validation of remote sensing LAI products.

  4. HZETRN radiation transport validation using balloon-based experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, James E.; Norman, Ryan B.; Blattnig, Steve R.

    2018-05-01

    The deterministic radiation transport code HZETRN (High charge (Z) and Energy TRaNsport) was developed by NASA to study the effects of cosmic radiation on astronauts and instrumentation shielded by various materials. This work presents an analysis of computed differential flux from HZETRN compared with measurement data from three balloon-based experiments over a range of atmospheric depths, particle types, and energies. Model uncertainties were quantified using an interval-based validation metric that takes into account measurement uncertainty both in the flux and the energy at which it was measured. Average uncertainty metrics were computed for the entire dataset as well as subsets of the measurements (by experiment, particle type, energy, etc.) to reveal any specific trends of systematic over- or under-prediction by HZETRN. The distribution of individual model uncertainties was also investigated to study the range and dispersion of errors beyond just single scalar and interval metrics. The differential fluxes from HZETRN were generally well-correlated with balloon-based measurements; the median relative model difference across the entire dataset was determined to be 30%. The distribution of model uncertainties, however, revealed that the range of errors was relatively broad, with approximately 30% of the uncertainties exceeding ± 40%. The distribution also indicated that HZETRN systematically under-predicts the measurement dataset as a whole, with approximately 80% of the relative uncertainties having negative values. Instances of systematic bias for subsets of the data were also observed, including a significant underestimation of alpha particles and protons for energies below 2.5 GeV/u. Muons were found to be systematically over-predicted at atmospheric depths deeper than 50 g/cm2 but under-predicted for shallower depths. Furthermore, a systematic under-prediction of alpha particles and protons was observed below the geomagnetic cutoff, suggesting that

  5. Evacuation areas for transportation accidents involving propellant tank pressure bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siewert, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    Evacuation areas are defined for those transportation accidents where volatile chemical propellant tanks are exposed to fire in the wreckage and eventually explode with consequent risks from fragments in surrounding populated areas. An evacuation area with a minimum radius of 600 m (2000 ft) is recommended to limit the statistical probability of fatality to one in 100 such accidents. The result was made possible by the derivation of a distribution function of distances reached by fragments from bursting chemical car tanks. Data concerning fragments was obtained from reports or tank car pressure bursts between 1958 and 1971.

  6. TRANSPORT PLANNING MODEL FOR WIDE AREA RECYCLING SYSTEM OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE PLASTIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Yasuhiro; Kawamura, Hisashi; Koizumi, Akira; Mogi, Satoshi

    To date, the majority of industrial waste plastic generated in an urban city has been processed into landfill. However, it is now necessary to actively utilize that plastic as a useful resource to create a recycling society with a low environment influence. In order to construct a reasonable recycling system, it is necessary to address the "transportation problem," which means determining how much industrial waste plastic is to be transported to what location. With the goal of eliminating landfill processing, this study considers a transport planning model for industrial waste plastic applying linear programming. The results of running optimized calculations under given scenarios clarified not only the possibilities for recycle processing in the Metropolitan area, but also the validity of wide area recycling system.

  7. Excess surface area in bioelectrochemical systems causes ion transport limitations.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Timothy D; Babauta, Jerome T; Davenport, Emily K; Renslow, Ryan S; Beyenal, Haluk

    2015-05-01

    We investigated ion transport limitations on 3D graphite felt electrodes by growing Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms with advection to eliminate external mass transfer limitations. We characterized ion transport limitations by: (i) showing that serially increasing NaCl concentration up to 200 mM increased current linearly up to a total of +273% vs. 0 mM NaCl under advective conditions; (ii) growing the biofilm with a starting concentration of 200 mM NaCl, which led to a maximum current increase of 400% vs. current generation without NaCl, and (iii) showing that un-colonized surface area remained even after steady-state current was reached. After accounting for iR effects, we confirmed that the excess surface area existed despite a non-zero overpotential. The fact that the biofilm was constrained from colonizing and producing further current under these conditions confirmed the biofilms under study here were ion transport-limited. Our work demonstrates that the use of high surface area electrodes may not increase current density when the system design allows ion transport limitations to become dominant. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The NASA role in major areas of human concern: Transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    After introducing some of the general factors that have affected progress in the transportation area, NASA program elements are examined to illustrate relevant points of contact. Interpretive steps are taken throughout the statement to show a few of the more important ways people's lives have been affected as a result of the work of NASA and other organizations functioning in this area. The principal documents used and interviews conducted are identified after the conclusion of this statement. This statement, it should be noted, is incomplete in many respects, primarily because it reflects only a small number of the technical, economic, and social forces affecting American life. Taken as a summary statement, however, it hopefully will provide a useful basis for better understanding NASA's role in the national attempt to upgrade the quality of transportation services.

  9. Economics and terminal area environmental impact of STOL transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, E. C.

    1973-01-01

    The impact of short takeoff and landing aircraft in meeting the needs of short haul transportation systems is analyzed. The objectives of the short haul system are evaluated on the basis of the following criteria: (1) service to the passenger, (2) economic viability, and (3) terminal area environment conditions caused by community noise, ground and air decongestion, and air pollution. Data are presented in the forms of tables, charts, and graphs. An itemization of the conclusions reached after the preliminary investigation is included.

  10. Modeling interfacial area transport in multi-fluid systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee

    1996-11-01

    Many typical chemical engineering operations are multi-fluid systems. They are carried out in distillation columns (vapor/liquid), liquid-liquid contactors (liquid/liquid) and other similar devices. An important parameter is interfacial area concentration, which determines the rate of interfluid heat, mass and momentum transfer and ultimately, the overall performance of the equipment. In many cases, the models for determining interfacial area concentration are empirical and can only describe the cases for which there is experimental data. In an effort to understand multiphase reactors and the mixing process better, a multi-fluid model has been developed as part of a research effort to calculate interfacialmore » area transport in several different types of in-line static mixers. For this work, the ensemble-averaged property conservation equations have been derived for each fluid and for the mixture. These equations were then combined to derive a transport equation for the interfacial area concentration. The final, one-dimensional model was compared to interfacial area concentration data from two sizes of Kenics in-line mixer, two sizes of concurrent jet and a Tee mixer. In all cases, the calculated and experimental data compared well with the highest scatter being with the Tee mixer comparison.« less

  11. Transportation fuel research and development : statistically validated codes and standards

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-08-28

    The recent establishment of the National University Transportation Center at MST under the "Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users," expands the research and education activities to include alternative tr...

  12. 49 CFR 1560.105 - Denial of transport or sterile area access; designation for enhanced screening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Denial of transport or sterile area access... Matching § 1560.105 Denial of transport or sterile area access; designation for enhanced screening. (a...-traveling individuals, including denial of transport or sterile area access or designation for enhanced...

  13. Mathematical Model Formulation And Validation Of Water And Solute Transport In Whole Hamster Pancreatic Islets

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Charles T.; Critser, John K.

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of cryopreservation protocols for cells and tissues requires accurate models of heat and mass transport. Model selection often depends on the configuration of the tissue. Here, a mathematical and conceptual model of water and solute transport for whole hamster pancreatic islets has been developed and experimentally validated incorporating fundamental biophysical data from previous studies on individual hamster islet cells while retaining whole-islet structural information. It describes coupled transport of water and solutes through the islet by three methods: intracellularly, intercellularly, and in combination. In particular we use domain decomposition techniques to couple a transmembrane flux model with an interstitial mass transfer model. The only significant undetermined variable is the cellular surface area which is in contact with the intercellularly transported solutes, Ais. The model was validated and Ais determined using a 3 × 3 factorial experimental design blocked for experimental day. Whole islet physical experiments were compared with model predictions at three temperatures, three perfusing solutions, and three islet size groups. A mean of 4.4 islets were compared at each of the 27 experimental conditions and found to correlate with a coefficient of determination of 0.87 ± 0.06 (mean ± S.D.). Only the treatment variable of perfusing solution was found to be significant (p < 0.05). We have devised a model that retains much of the intrinsic geometric configuration of the system, and thus fewer laboratory experiments are needed to determine model parameters and thus to develop new optimized cryopreservation protocols. Additionally, extensions to ovarian follicles and other concentric tissue structures may be made. PMID:24950195

  14. Mathematical model formulation and validation of water and solute transport in whole hamster pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Benson, James D; Benson, Charles T; Critser, John K

    2014-08-01

    Optimization of cryopreservation protocols for cells and tissues requires accurate models of heat and mass transport. Model selection often depends on the configuration of the tissue. Here, a mathematical and conceptual model of water and solute transport for whole hamster pancreatic islets has been developed and experimentally validated incorporating fundamental biophysical data from previous studies on individual hamster islet cells while retaining whole-islet structural information. It describes coupled transport of water and solutes through the islet by three methods: intracellularly, intercellularly, and in combination. In particular we use domain decomposition techniques to couple a transmembrane flux model with an interstitial mass transfer model. The only significant undetermined variable is the cellular surface area which is in contact with the intercellularly transported solutes, Ais. The model was validated and Ais determined using a 3×3 factorial experimental design blocked for experimental day. Whole islet physical experiments were compared with model predictions at three temperatures, three perfusing solutions, and three islet size groups. A mean of 4.4 islets were compared at each of the 27 experimental conditions and found to correlate with a coefficient of determination of 0.87±0.06 (mean ± SD). Only the treatment variable of perfusing solution was found to be significant (p<0.05). We have devised a model that retains much of the intrinsic geometric configuration of the system, and thus fewer laboratory experiments are needed to determine model parameters and thus to develop new optimized cryopreservation protocols. Additionally, extensions to ovarian follicles and other concentric tissue structures may be made. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Integrated Land - Use , Transportation and Environmental Modeling : Validation Case Studies

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-08-01

    For decades the transportation-planning research community has acknowledged the interactions between the evolution of our transportation systems and our land-use, and the need to unify the practices of land-use forecasting and travel-demand modeling ...

  16. Critical review of expert system validation in transportation

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-01-01

    Expert system validationthat is, testing systems to ascertain whether they achieve acceptable performance levelshas with few exceptions been ad hoc, informal, and of dubious value. Very few efforts have been made in this regard in the transport...

  17. Linking transportation and air quality planning implementation of the transportation conformity regulations in 15 nonattainment areas : executive summary

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-03-01

    Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1980 requires far reaching efforts under the "transportation conformity" regulations to assure that transportation investments in non-attainment and maintenance areas are consistent with state commitments to meet na...

  18. FFY 2012-2015 transportation improvement program for the Dubuque, Iowa, Illinois and Wisconsin urbanized area.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-08-18

    "A Transportation Improvement Program (TIP) is the Dubuque Metropolitan Area : Transportation Study (DMATS) 4- year financial implementation program listing of : transportation improvement projects eligible for Federal funding. It is DMATS : transpor...

  19. Planning for intelligent transportation systems in small urban areas.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-01-01

    Intelligent transportation systems (ITS) has been a primary program focus of the U.S. Department of Transportation since its origination in the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991. The federal ITS program funded early deployment ...

  20. Tampa Bay Area Integrated Transportation Information System, Final Report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1993-09-01

    THE FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENTERED INTO A CONTRACT WITH THE UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA ON BEHALF OF THE CENTER FOR URBAN TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH (CUTR) TO DEVELOP AN ACTION PLAN FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF AN INTEGRATED TRANSPORTATION IN...

  1. Development and Validation of a New Fallout Transport Method Using Variable Spectral Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Arthur Thomas

    A new method has been developed to incorporate variable winds into fallout transport calculations. The method uses spectral coefficients derived by the National Meteorological Center. Wind vector components are computed with the coefficients along the trajectories of falling particles. Spectral winds are used in the two-step method to compute dose rate on the ground, downwind of a nuclear cloud. First, the hotline is located by computing trajectories of particles from an initial, stabilized cloud, through spectral winds, to the ground. The connection of particle landing points is the hotline. Second, dose rate on and around the hotline is computed by analytically smearing the falling cloud's activity along the ground. The feasibility of using specgtral winds for fallout particle transport was validated by computing Mount St. Helens ashfall locations and comparing calculations to fallout data. In addition, an ashfall equation was derived for computing volcanic ash mass/area on the ground. Ashfall data and the ashfall equation were used to back-calculate an aggregated particle size distribution for the Mount St. Helens eruption cloud. Further validation was performed by comparing computed and actual trajectories of a high explosive dust cloud (DIRECT COURSE). Using an error propagation formula, it was determined that uncertainties in spectral wind components produce less than four percent of the total dose rate variance. In summary, this research demonstrated the feasibility of using spectral coefficients for fallout transport calculations, developed a two-step smearing model to treat variable winds, and showed that uncertainties in spectral winds do not contribute significantly to the error in computed dose rate.

  2. Preliminary Validation of the Small Aircraft Transportation System Higher Volume Operations (SATS HVO) Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Daniel; Consiglio, Maria; Murdoch, Jennifer; Adams, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    This document provides a preliminary validation of the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept for normal conditions. Initial results reveal that the concept provides reduced air traffic delays when compared to current operations without increasing pilot workload. Characteristic to the SATS HVO concept is the establishment of a newly defined area of flight operations called a Self-Controlled Area (SCA) which would be activated by air traffic control (ATC) around designated non-towered, non-radar airports. During periods of poor visibility, SATS pilots would take responsibility for separation assurance between their aircraft and other similarly equipped aircraft in the SCA. Using onboard equipment and simple instrument flight procedures, they would then be better able to approach and land at the airport or depart from it. This concept would also require a new, ground-based automation system, typically located at the airport that would provide appropriate sequencing information to the arriving aircraft. Further validation of the SATS HVO concept is required and is the subject of ongoing research and subsequent publications.

  3. Predictions of one-group interfacial area transport in TRACE

    SciTech Connect

    Worosz, T.; Talley, J. D.; Kim, S.

    In current nuclear reactor system analysis codes utilizing the two-fluid model, flow regime dependent correlations are used to specify the interfacial area concentration (a i). This approach does not capture the continuous evolution of the interfacial structures, and thus, it can pose issues near the transition boundaries. Consequently, a pilot version of the system analysis code TRACE is being developed that employs the interfacial area transport equation (IATE). In this approach, dynamic estimation of a i is provided through mechanistic models for bubble coalescence and breakup. The implementation of the adiabatic, one-group IATE into TRACE is assessed against experimental datamore » from 50 air-water, two-phase flow conditions in pipes ranging in inner diameter from 2.54 to 20.32 cm for both vertical co-current upward and downward flows. Predictions of pressure, void fraction, bubble velocity, and a i data are made. TRACE employing the conventional flow regime-based approach is found to underestimate a i and can only predict linear trends since the calculation is governed by the pressure. Furthermore, trends opposite to that of the data are predicted for some conditions. In contrast, TRACE with the one-group IATE demonstrates a significant improvement in predicting the experimental data with an average disagreement of {+-} 13%. Additionally, TRACE with the one-group IATE is capable of predicting nonlinear axial development of a, by accounting for various bubble interaction mechanisms, such as coalescence and disintegration. (authors)« less

  4. Scheduled intercity transportation : rural service areas in the United States

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-06-01

    To identify how many of the countrys 82.4 million rural residents are within the reasonable coverage radius of at least one intercity transportation facility, in 2003 the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) undertook a geospatial analysis us...

  5. Dust transportation in bounday layers on complex areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karelsky, Kirill; Petrosyan, Arakel

    2017-04-01

    This presentation is aimed at creating and realization of new physical model of impurity transfer (solid particles and heavy gases) in areas with non-flat and/or nonstationary boundaries. The main idea of suggested method is to use non-viscous equations for solid particles transport modeling in the vicinity of complex boundary. In viscous atmosphere with as small as one likes coefficient of molecular viscosity, the non-slip boundary condition on solid surface must be observed. This postulates the reduction of velocity to zero at a solid surface. It is unconditionally in this case Prandtle hypothesis must be observed: for rather wide range of conditions in the surface neighboring layers energy dissipation of atmosphere flows is comparable by magnitude with manifestation of inertia forces. That is why according to Prandtle hypothesis in atmosphere movement characterizing by a high Reynolds number the boundary layer is forming near a planet surface, within which the required transition from zero velocities at the surface to magnitudes at the external boundary of the layer that are quite close to ones in ideal atmosphere flow. In that layer fast velocity gradients cause viscous effects to be comparable in magnitude with inertia forces influence. For conditions considered essential changes of hydrodynamic fields near solid boundary caused not only by nonslip condition but also by a various relief of surface: mountains, street canyons, individual buildings. Transport of solid particles, their ascent and precipitation also result in dramatic changes of meteorological fields. As dynamic processes of solid particles transfer accompanying the flow past of complex relief surface by wind flows is of our main interest we are to use equations of non-viscous hydrodynamic. We should put up with on the one hand idea of high wind gradients in the boundary layer and on the other hand disregard of molecular viscosity in two-phase atmosphere equations. We deal with describing high

  6. Nearshore Tsunami Inundation Model Validation: Toward Sediment Transport Applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apotsos, Alex; Buckley, Mark; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Jaffe, Bruce; Vatvani, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    Model predictions from a numerical model, Delft3D, based on the nonlinear shallow water equations are compared with analytical results and laboratory observations from seven tsunami-like benchmark experiments, and with field observations from the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. The model accurately predicts the magnitude and timing of the measured water levels and flow velocities, as well as the magnitude of the maximum inundation distance and run-up, for both breaking and non-breaking waves. The shock-capturing numerical scheme employed describes well the total decrease in wave height due to breaking, but does not reproduce the observed shoaling near the break point. The maximum water levels observed onshore near Kuala Meurisi, Sumatra, following the 26 December 2004 tsunami are well predicted given the uncertainty in the model setup. The good agreement between the model predictions and the analytical results and observations demonstrates that the numerical solution and wetting and drying methods employed are appropriate for modeling tsunami inundation for breaking and non-breaking long waves. Extension of the model to include sediment transport may be appropriate for long, non-breaking tsunami waves. Using available sediment transport formulations, the sediment deposit thickness at Kuala Meurisi is predicted generally within a factor of 2.

  7. Validation Metrics for Improving Our Understanding of Turbulent Transport - Moving Beyond Proof by Pretty Picture and Loud Assertion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, C.

    2013-10-01

    Developing validated models of plasma dynamics is essential for confident predictive modeling of current and future fusion devices. This tutorial will present an overview of the key guiding principles and practices for state-of-the-art validation studies, illustrated using examples from investigations of turbulent transport in magnetically confined plasmas. The primary focus of the talk will be the development of quantiatve validation metrics, which are essential for moving beyond qualitative and subjective assessments of model performance and fidelity. Particular emphasis and discussion is given to (i) the need for utilizing synthetic diagnostics to enable quantitatively meaningful comparisons between simulation and experiment, and (ii) the importance of robust uncertainty quantification and its inclusion within the metrics. To illustrate these concepts, we first review the structure and key insights gained from commonly used ``global'' transport model metrics (e.g. predictions of incremental stored energy or radially-averaged temperature), as well as their limitations. Building upon these results, a new form of turbulent transport metrics is then proposed, which focuses upon comparisons of predicted local gradients and fluctuation characteristics against observation. We demonstrate the utility of these metrics by applying them to simulations and modeling of a newly developed ``validation database'' derived from the results of a systematic, multi-year turbulent transport validation campaign on the DIII-D tokamak, in which comprehensive profile and fluctuation measurements have been obtained from a wide variety of heating and confinement scenarios. Finally, we discuss extensions of these metrics and their underlying design concepts to other areas of plasma confinement research, including both magnetohydrodynamic stability and integrated scenario modeling. Supported by the US DOE under DE-FG02-07ER54917 and DE-FC02-08ER54977.

  8. A multi-modal approach to economic development in the metropolitan area transportation planning process

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-08-06

    This white paper provides a review of research and current practices of integrating economic development goals in metropolitan area transportation planning. The information presented is intended to serve as a technical resource for transportation pla...

  9. Process Modeling and Validation for Metal Big Area Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Simunovic, Srdjan; Nycz, Andrzej; Noakes, Mark W.

    Metal Big Area Additive Manufacturing (mBAAM) is a new additive manufacturing (AM) technology based on the metal arc welding. A continuously fed metal wire is melted by an electric arc that forms between the wire and the substrate, and deposited in the form of a bead of molten metal along the predetermined path. Objects are manufactured one layer at a time starting from the base plate. The final properties of the manufactured object are dependent on its geometry and the metal deposition path, in addition to depending on the basic welding process parameters. Computational modeling can be used to acceleratemore » the development of the mBAAM technology as well as a design and optimization tool for the actual manufacturing process. We have developed a finite element method simulation framework for mBAAM using the new features of software ABAQUS. The computational simulation of material deposition with heat transfer is performed first, followed by the structural analysis based on the temperature history for predicting the final deformation and stress state. In this formulation, we assume that two physics phenomena are coupled in only one direction, i.e. the temperatures are driving the deformation and internal stresses, but their feedback on the temperatures is negligible. The experiment instrumentation (measurement types, sensor types, sensor locations, sensor placements, measurement intervals) and the measurements are presented. The temperatures and distortions from the simulations show good correlation with experimental measurements. Ongoing modeling work is also briefly discussed.« less

  10. Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area Transportation Feasibility Study

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-07-31

    Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area is a popular Bureau of Land Management natural area located near Las Vegas, Nevada. Red Rock Canyon experiences heavy congestion on its Scenic Drive and associated parking areas, due to high volumes of visit...

  11. Metal Big Area Additive Manufacturing: Process Modeling and Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Simunovic, Srdjan; Nycz, Andrzej; Noakes, Mark W

    Metal Big Area Additive Manufacturing (mBAAM) is a new additive manufacturing (AM) technology for printing large-scale 3D objects. mBAAM is based on the gas metal arc welding process and uses a continuous feed of welding wire to manufacture an object. An electric arc forms between the wire and the substrate, which melts the wire and deposits a bead of molten metal along the predetermined path. In general, the welding process parameters and local conditions determine the shape of the deposited bead. The sequence of the bead deposition and the corresponding thermal history of the manufactured object determine the long rangemore » effects, such as thermal-induced distortions and residual stresses. Therefore, the resulting performance or final properties of the manufactured object are dependent on its geometry and the deposition path, in addition to depending on the basic welding process parameters. Physical testing is critical for gaining the necessary knowledge for quality prints, but traversing the process parameter space in order to develop an optimized build strategy for each new design is impractical by pure experimental means. Computational modeling and optimization may accelerate development of a build process strategy and saves time and resources. Because computational modeling provides these opportunities, we have developed a physics-based Finite Element Method (FEM) simulation framework and numerical models to support the mBAAM process s development and design. In this paper, we performed a sequentially coupled heat transfer and stress analysis for predicting the final deformation of a small rectangular structure printed using the mild steel welding wire. Using the new simulation technologies, material was progressively added into the FEM simulation as the arc weld traversed the build path. In the sequentially coupled heat transfer and stress analysis, the heat transfer was performed to calculate the temperature evolution, which was used in a stress

  12. Transport properties in nontwist area-preserving maps

    DOE PAGES

    Szezech Jr., J. D.; Caldas, I. L.; Lopes, S. R.; ...

    2009-10-23

    Nontwist systems, common in the dynamical descriptions of fluids and plasmas, possess a shearless curve with a concomitant transport barrier that eliminates or reduces chaotic transport, even after its breakdown. In order to investigate the transport properties of nontwist systems, we analyze the barrier escape time and barrier transmissivity for the standard nontwist map, a paradigm of such systems. We interpret the sensitive dependence of these quantities upon map parameters by investigating chaotic orbit stickiness and the associated role played by the dominant crossing of stable and unstable manifolds.

  13. Some considerations for air transportation analysis to non-urban areas.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, S. D.

    1973-01-01

    Review of some of the problems associated with air transportation to and from nonurban areas. While a significant proportion of public transportation needs of nonurban areas are met by aircraft, there are indications that improvement in air transportation service are called for and would be rewarded by increased patronage. However, subsidized local service carriers are attracted by large aircraft operation, and there is a tendency to discontinue service to low density areas. Prospects and potential means for reversing this trend are discussed.

  14. 22 CFR 51.64 - Special validation of passports for travel to restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Special validation of passports for travel to restricted areas. 51.64 Section 51.64 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Denial, Revocation, and Restriction of Passports § 51.64 Special validation of passports for...

  15. 22 CFR 51.64 - Special validation of passports for travel to restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Special validation of passports for travel to restricted areas. 51.64 Section 51.64 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Denial, Revocation, and Restriction of Passports § 51.64 Special validation of passports for...

  16. 22 CFR 51.64 - Special validation of passports for travel to restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Special validation of passports for travel to restricted areas. 51.64 Section 51.64 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Denial, Revocation, and Restriction of Passports § 51.64 Special validation of passports for...

  17. 22 CFR 51.64 - Special validation of passports for travel to restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special validation of passports for travel to restricted areas. 51.64 Section 51.64 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Denial, Revocation, and Restriction of Passports § 51.64 Special validation of passports for...

  18. 22 CFR 51.64 - Special validation of passports for travel to restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Special validation of passports for travel to restricted areas. 51.64 Section 51.64 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Denial, Revocation, and Restriction of Passports § 51.64 Special validation of passports for...

  19. Development of One-Group and Two-Group Interfacial Area Transport Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, M.; Kim, S.

    A dynamic approach employing the interfacial area transport equation is presented to replace the static flow regime dependent correlations for the interfacial area concentration. The current study derives the transport equations for the bubble number, volume, and interfacial area concentration. Accounting for the substantial differences in the transport phenomena of various sizes of bubbles, both one-group and two-group interfacial area transport equations are developed along with the necessary constitutive relations. The framework for the complicated source and sink terms in the two-group transport equation is also presented by identifying the major intragroup and intergroup bubble interaction mechanisms. In view ofmore » evaluating the theoretical model, the one-group interfacial area transport equation is benchmarked based on the available data obtained in a wide range of air-water bubbly flow in round tubes of various diameters. In general, the results show good agreement within the measurement error of {+-}10%.« less

  20. XML and Bibliographic Data: The TVS (Transport, Validation and Services) Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Carvalho, Joaquim; Cordeiro, Maria Ines

    This paper discusses the role of XML in library information systems at three major levels: as are presentation language that enables the transport of bibliographic data in a way that is technologically independent and universally understood across systems and domains; as a language that enables the specification of complex validation rules…

  1. Stark County Area Transportation Study - Transportation Improvement Program 1997-2000

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-05-01

    The Transportation Improvement Program (TIP) is the schedule of highway and transit improvements recommended for implementation within the next four years. It is, therefore, the end product of the transportation planning process. The TIP originates f...

  2. Assessment of sedentary behaviors and transport-related activities by questionnaire: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Mensah, Keitly; Maire, Aurélia; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Dugas, Julien; Charreire, Hélène; Weber, Christiane; Simon, Chantal; Nazare, Julie-Anne

    2016-08-09

    Comprehensive assessment of sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA), including transport-related activities (TRA), is required to design innovative PA promotion strategies. There are few validated instruments that simultaneously assess the different components of human movement according to their context of practice (e.g. work, transport, leisure). We examined test-retest reliability and validity of the Sedentary, Transportation and Activity Questionnaire (STAQ), a newly developed questionnaire dedicated to assessing context-specific SB, TRA and PA. Ninety six subjects (51 women) kept a contextualized activity-logbook and wore a hip accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X + (TM)) for a 7-day or 14-day period, at the end of which they completed the STAQ. Activity-energy expenditure was measured in a subgroup of 45 subjects using the double labeled water (DLW) method. Test-retest reliability was assessed using intra-class-coefficients (ICC) in a subgroup of 32 subjects who filled the questionnaire twice one month apart. Accelerometry was annotated using the logbook to obtain total and context-specific objective estimates of SB. Spearman correlations, Bland-Altman plots and ICC were used to analyze validity with logbook, accelerometry and DLW data validity criteria. Test-retest reliability was fair for total sitting time (ICC = 0.52), good to excellent for work sitting time (ICC = 0.71), transport-related walking (ICC = 0.61) and car use (ICC = 0.67), and leisure screen-related SB (ICC = 0.64-0.79), but poor for total sitting time during leisure and transport-related contexts. For validity, compared to accelerometry, significant correlations were found for STAQ estimates of total (r = 0.54) and context-specific sitting times with stronger correlations for work sitting time (r = 0.88), and screen times (TV/DVD viewing: r = 0.46; other screens: r = 0.42) than for transport (r = 0.35) or leisure-related sitting-times (r

  3. Validation of the Activities of Community Transportation model for individuals with cognitive impairments.

    PubMed

    Sohlberg, McKay Moore; Fickas, Stephen; Lemoncello, Rik; Hung, Pei-Fang

    2009-01-01

    To develop a theoretical, functional model of community navigation for individuals with cognitive impairments: the Activities of Community Transportation (ACTs). Iterative design using qualitative methods (i.e. document review, focus groups and observations). Four agencies providing travel training to adults with cognitive impairments in the USA participated in the validation study. A thorough document review and series of focus groups led to the development of a comprehensive model (ACTs Wheels) delineating the requisite steps and skills for community navigation. The model was validated and updated based on observations of 395 actual trips by travellers with navigational challenges from the four participating agencies. Results revealed that the 'ACTs Wheel' models were complete and comprehensive. The 'ACTs Wheels' represent a comprehensive model of the steps needed to navigate to destinations using paratransit and fixed-route public transportation systems for travellers with cognitive impairments. Suggestions are made for future investigations of community transportation for this population.

  4. Point-to-Point! Validation of the Small Aircraft Transportation System Higher Volume Operations Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Daniel M.

    2006-01-01

    Described is the research process that NASA researchers used to validate the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept. The four phase building-block validation and verification process included multiple elements ranging from formal analysis of HVO procedures to flight test, to full-system architecture prototype that was successfully shown to the public at the June 2005 SATS Technical Demonstration in Danville, VA. Presented are significant results of each of the four research phases that extend early results presented at ICAS 2004. HVO study results have been incorporated into the development of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS) vision and offer a validated concept to provide a significant portion of the 3X capacity improvement sought after in the United States National Airspace System (NAS).

  5. 23 CFR 450.320 - Congestion management process in transportation management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Congestion management process in transportation... Programming § 450.320 Congestion management process in transportation management areas. (a) The transportation planning process in a TMA shall address congestion management through a process that provides for safe and...

  6. 23 CFR 450.320 - Congestion management process in transportation management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Congestion management process in transportation... Programming § 450.320 Congestion management process in transportation management areas. (a) The transportation planning process in a TMA shall address congestion management through a process that provides for safe and...

  7. 23 CFR 450.320 - Congestion management process in transportation management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Congestion management process in transportation... Programming § 450.320 Congestion management process in transportation management areas. (a) The transportation planning process in a TMA shall address congestion management through a process that provides for safe and...

  8. Model Validation of an RSRM Transporter Through Full-scale Operational and Modal Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brillhart, Ralph; Davis, Joshua; Allred, Bradley

    2009-01-01

    The Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) segments, which are part of the current Space Shuttle system and will provide the first stage of the Ares launch vehicle, must be transported from their manufacturing facility in Promontory, Utah, to a railhead in Corinne, Utah. This approximately 25-mile trip on secondary paved roads is accomplished using a special transporter system which lifts and conveys each individual segment. ATK Launch Systems (ATK) has recently obtained a new set of these transporters from Scheuerle, a company in Germany. The transporter is a 96-wheel, dual tractor vehicle that supports the payload via a hydraulic suspension. Since this system is a different design than was previously used, computer modeling with validation via test is required to ensure that the environment to which the segment is exposed is not too severe for this space-critical hardware. Accurate prediction of the loads imparted to the rocket motor is essential in order to prevent damage to the segment. To develop and validate a finite element model capable of such accurate predictions, ATA Engineering, Inc., teamed with ATK to perform a modal survey of the transport system, including a forward RSRM segment. A set of electrodynamic shakers was placed around the transporter at locations capable of exciting the transporter vehicle dynamics. Forces from the shakers with varying phase combinations were applied using sinusoidal sweep excitation. The relative phase of the shaker forcing functions was adjusted to match the shape characteristics of each of several target modes, thereby customizing each sweep run for exciting a particular mode. The resulting frequency response functions (FRF) from this series of sine sweeps allowed identification of all target modes and other higher-order modes, allowing good comparison to the finite element model. Furthermore, the survey-derived modal frequencies were correlated with peak frequencies observed during road-going operating tests. This

  9. Adding faculty in transportation areas : research progress on geomaterials and non-destructive sensor technology.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-08-01

    This funding was provided to help departments build up their faculty in the transportation field over the next years. Broad areas will : be considered as listed in the UTC mission or other areas that relate to State Departments of Transportation and ...

  10. Health and safety at work in the transport industry (TRANS-18): factorial structure, reliability and validity.

    PubMed

    Boada-Grau, Joan; Sánchez-García, José-Carlos; Prizmic-Kuzmica, Aldo-Javier; Vigil-Colet, Andreu

    2012-03-01

    In this article, we study the psychometric properties of a short scale (TRANS-18) which was designed to detect safe behaviors (personal and vehicle-related) and psychophysiological disorders. 244 drivers participated in the study, including drivers of freight transport vehicles (regular, dangerous and special), cranes, and passenger transport (regular transport and chartered coaches), ambulances and taxis. After carrying out an exploratory factor analysis of the scale, the findings show a structure comprised of three factors related to psychophysiological disorders, and to both personal and vehicle-related safety behaviors. Furthermore, these three factors had adequate reliability and all three also showed validity with regard to burnout, fatigue and job tension. In short, this scale may be ideally suited for adequately identifying the safety behaviors and safety problems of transport drivers. Future research could use the TRANS-18 as a screening tool in combination with other instruments.

  11. Experimental validation of a coupled neutron-photon inverse radiation transport solver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattingly, John; Mitchell, Dean J.; Harding, Lee T.

    2011-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed an inverse radiation transport solver that applies nonlinear regression to coupled neutron-photon deterministic transport models. The inverse solver uses nonlinear regression to fit a radiation transport model to gamma spectrometry and neutron multiplicity counting measurements. The subject of this paper is the experimental validation of that solver. This paper describes a series of experiments conducted with a 4.5 kg sphere of α-phase, weapons-grade plutonium. The source was measured bare and reflected by high-density polyethylene (HDPE) spherical shells with total thicknesses between 1.27 and 15.24 cm. Neutron and photon emissions from the source were measured using three instruments: a gross neutron counter, a portable neutron multiplicity counter, and a high-resolution gamma spectrometer. These measurements were used as input to the inverse radiation transport solver to evaluate the solver's ability to correctly infer the configuration of the source from its measured radiation signatures.

  12. Mapping landslide source and transport areas in VHR images with Object-Based Analysis and Support Vector Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heleno, Sandra; Matias, Magda; Pina, Pedro

    2015-04-01

    Visual interpretation of satellite imagery remains extremely demanding in terms of resources and time, especially when dealing with numerous multi-scale landslides affecting wide areas, such as is the case of rainfall-induced shallow landslides. Applying automated methods can contribute to more efficient landslide mapping and updating of existing inventories, and in recent years the number and variety of approaches is rapidly increasing. Very High Resolution (VHR) images, acquired by space-borne sensors with sub-metric precision, such as Ikonos, Quickbird, Geoeye and Worldview, are increasingly being considered as the best option for landslide mapping, but these new levels of spatial detail also present new challenges to state of the art image analysis tools, asking for automated methods specifically suited to map landslide events on VHR optical images. In this work we develop and test a methodology for semi-automatic landslide recognition and mapping of landslide source and transport areas. The method combines object-based image analysis and a Support Vector Machine supervised learning algorithm, and was tested using a GeoEye-1 multispectral image, sensed 3 days after a damaging landslide event in Madeira Island, together with a pre-event LiDAR DEM. Our approach has proved successful in the recognition of landslides on a 15 Km2-wide study area, with 81 out of 85 landslides detected in its validation regions. The classifier also showed reasonable performance (false positive rate 60% and false positive rate below 36% in both validation regions) in the internal mapping of landslide source and transport areas, in particular in the sunnier east-facing slopes. In the less illuminated areas the classifier is still able to accurately map the source areas, but performs poorly in the mapping of landslide transport areas.

  13. Predicting Nitrate Transport under Future Climate Scenarios beneath the Nebraska Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Akbariyeh, S.; Gomez Peña, C. A.; Bartlet-Hunt, S.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the impacts of future climate change on soil hydrological processes and solute transport is crucial to develop appropriate strategies to minimize adverse impacts of agricultural activities on groundwater quality. The goal of this work is to evaluate the direct effects of climate change on the fate and transport of nitrate beneath a center-pivot irrigated corn field in Nebraska Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) site. Future groundwater recharge rate and actual evapotranspiration rate were predicted based on an inverse modeling approach using climate data generated by Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model under the RCP 8.5 scenario, which was downscaled from global CCSM4 model to a resolution of 24 by 24 km2. A groundwater flow model was first calibrated based on historical groundwater table measurement and was then applied to predict future groundwater table in the period 2057-2060. Finally, predicted future groundwater recharge rate, actual evapotranspiration rate, and groundwater level, together with future precipitation data from WRF, were used in a three-dimensional (3D) model, which was validated based on rich historic data set collected from 1993-1996, to predict nitrate concentration in soil and groundwater from the year 2057 to 2060. Future groundwater recharge was found to be decreasing in the study area compared to average groundwater recharge data from the literature. Correspondingly, groundwater elevation was predicted to decrease (1 to 2 ft) over the five years of simulation. Predicted higher transpiration data from climate model resulted in lower infiltration of nitrate concentration in subsurface within the root zone.

  14. Predicting Nitrate Transport under Future Climate Scenarios beneath the Nebraska Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Akbariyeh, S.; Gomez Peña, C. A.; Bartlet-Hunt, S.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the impacts of future climate change on soil hydrological processes and solute transport is crucial to develop appropriate strategies to minimize adverse impacts of agricultural activities on groundwater quality. The goal of this work is to evaluate the direct effects of climate change on the fate and transport of nitrate beneath a center-pivot irrigated corn field in Nebraska Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) site. Future groundwater recharge rate and actual evapotranspiration rate were predicted based on an inverse modeling approach using climate data generated by Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model under the RCP 8.5 scenario, which was downscaled from global CCSM4 model to a resolution of 24 by 24 km2. A groundwater flow model was first calibrated based on historical groundwater table measurement and was then applied to predict future groundwater table in the period 2057-2060. Finally, predicted future groundwater recharge rate, actual evapotranspiration rate, and groundwater level, together with future precipitation data from WRF, were used in a three-dimensional (3D) model, which was validated based on rich historic data set collected from 1993-1996, to predict nitrate concentration in soil and groundwater from the year 2057 to 2060. Future groundwater recharge was found to be decreasing in the study area compared to average groundwater recharge data from the literature. Correspondingly, groundwater elevation was predicted to decrease (1 to 2 ft) over the five years of simulation. Predicted higher transpiration data from climate model resulted in lower infiltration of nitrate concentration in subsurface within the root zone.

  15. Study of aircraft in intraurban transportation systems, San Francisco Bay area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The nine-county San Francisco Bay area is examined in two time periods (1975-1980 and 1985-1990) as a scenario for analyzing the characteristics of an intraurban, commuter-oriented aircraft transportation system. Aircraft have dominated the long-haul passenger market for some time, but efforts to penetrate the very-short-haul intraurban market have met with only token success. Yet, the characteristics of an aircraft transportation system, speed and flexibility, are very much needed to solve the transportation ills of our major urban areas. The aircraft intraurban system is a technically feasible alternative to ground transportation systems. Although requiring some subsidy, it becomes socially viable where substantial commuter traffic exists at ranges of 10 to 15 mi or more and where topographic features constrain ground travel. The general problem areas of community noise, air traffic congestion, ground transportation interface, pollution, and safety appear to have workable solutions.

  16. Reliability and validity of the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ) for assessing physical activity behaviour.

    PubMed

    Adams, Emma J; Goad, Mary; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Bull, Fiona C; Cooper, Ashley R; Ogilvie, David

    2014-01-01

    No current validated survey instrument allows a comprehensive assessment of both physical activity and travel behaviours for use in interdisciplinary research on walking and cycling. This study reports on the test-retest reliability and validity of physical activity measures in the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ). The TPAQ assesses time spent in different domains of physical activity and using different modes of transport for five journey purposes. Test-retest reliability of eight physical activity summary variables was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and Kappa scores for continuous and categorical variables respectively. In a separate study, the validity of three survey-reported physical activity summary variables was assessed by computing Spearman correlation coefficients using accelerometer-derived reference measures. The Bland-Altman technique was used to determine the absolute validity of survey-reported time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). In the reliability study, ICC for time spent in different domains of physical activity ranged from fair to substantial for walking for transport (ICC = 0.59), cycling for transport (ICC = 0.61), walking for recreation (ICC = 0.48), cycling for recreation (ICC = 0.35), moderate leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.47), vigorous leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.63), and total physical activity (ICC = 0.56). The proportion of participants estimated to meet physical activity guidelines showed acceptable reliability (k = 0.60). In the validity study, comparison of survey-reported and accelerometer-derived time spent in physical activity showed strong agreement for vigorous physical activity (r = 0.72, p<0.001), fair but non-significant agreement for moderate physical activity (r = 0.24, p = 0.09) and fair agreement for MVPA (r = 0.27, p = 0.05). Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean overestimation of

  17. Reliability and Validity of the Transport and Physical Activity Questionnaire (TPAQ) for Assessing Physical Activity Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Emma J.; Goad, Mary; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Bull, Fiona C.; Cooper, Ashley R.; Ogilvie, David

    2014-01-01

    Background No current validated survey instrument allows a comprehensive assessment of both physical activity and travel behaviours for use in interdisciplinary research on walking and cycling. This study reports on the test-retest reliability and validity of physical activity measures in the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ). Methods The TPAQ assesses time spent in different domains of physical activity and using different modes of transport for five journey purposes. Test-retest reliability of eight physical activity summary variables was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and Kappa scores for continuous and categorical variables respectively. In a separate study, the validity of three survey-reported physical activity summary variables was assessed by computing Spearman correlation coefficients using accelerometer-derived reference measures. The Bland-Altman technique was used to determine the absolute validity of survey-reported time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Results In the reliability study, ICC for time spent in different domains of physical activity ranged from fair to substantial for walking for transport (ICC = 0.59), cycling for transport (ICC = 0.61), walking for recreation (ICC = 0.48), cycling for recreation (ICC = 0.35), moderate leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.47), vigorous leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.63), and total physical activity (ICC = 0.56). The proportion of participants estimated to meet physical activity guidelines showed acceptable reliability (k = 0.60). In the validity study, comparison of survey-reported and accelerometer-derived time spent in physical activity showed strong agreement for vigorous physical activity (r = 0.72, p<0.001), fair but non-significant agreement for moderate physical activity (r = 0.24, p = 0.09) and fair agreement for MVPA (r = 0.27, p = 0.05). Bland-Altman analysis

  18. Computationally efficient confidence intervals for cross-validated area under the ROC curve estimates.

    PubMed

    LeDell, Erin; Petersen, Maya; van der Laan, Mark

    In binary classification problems, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) is commonly used to evaluate the performance of a prediction model. Often, it is combined with cross-validation in order to assess how the results will generalize to an independent data set. In order to evaluate the quality of an estimate for cross-validated AUC, we obtain an estimate of its variance. For massive data sets, the process of generating a single performance estimate can be computationally expensive. Additionally, when using a complex prediction method, the process of cross-validating a predictive model on even a relatively small data set can still require a large amount of computation time. Thus, in many practical settings, the bootstrap is a computationally intractable approach to variance estimation. As an alternative to the bootstrap, we demonstrate a computationally efficient influence curve based approach to obtaining a variance estimate for cross-validated AUC.

  19. Computationally efficient confidence intervals for cross-validated area under the ROC curve estimates

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Maya; van der Laan, Mark

    2015-01-01

    In binary classification problems, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) is commonly used to evaluate the performance of a prediction model. Often, it is combined with cross-validation in order to assess how the results will generalize to an independent data set. In order to evaluate the quality of an estimate for cross-validated AUC, we obtain an estimate of its variance. For massive data sets, the process of generating a single performance estimate can be computationally expensive. Additionally, when using a complex prediction method, the process of cross-validating a predictive model on even a relatively small data set can still require a large amount of computation time. Thus, in many practical settings, the bootstrap is a computationally intractable approach to variance estimation. As an alternative to the bootstrap, we demonstrate a computationally efficient influence curve based approach to obtaining a variance estimate for cross-validated AUC. PMID:26279737

  20. Physical modelling of the transport of biogenic emissions in and above a finite forest area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrun, S.; Leitl, B.; Schatzmann, M.

    2003-04-01

    model validation purposes. According to the needs of the other project partners, future investigations in wind tunnel will be performed to determine the origin of the emissions received at the specified locations during field campaigns, and to assess their transit time. Some systematic measurements will then be performed to determine the vertical fluxes above the forest area, responsible for the vertical transport of the biogenic emissions.

  1. 78 FR 19586 - Grants for Transportation of Veterans in Highly Rural Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... travel to VA medical centers, and to otherwise assist in providing transportation services in connection... travel to VA medical centers, and to otherwise assist in providing transportation in connection with the... grant funds are to be used to ``assist veterans in highly rural areas to travel to Department of...

  2. Metropolitan Transportation Commission, San Francisco Bay area : developing regional objectives and performance measures to improve system operations

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-04-01

    The Metropolitan Transportation Commission (MTC) uses an objectives-driven, performance-based approach in its transportation planning for the San Francisco Bay Area. This approach focuses attention on transportation investments of highest priority. T...

  3. Survey and analysis of special transportation for the elderly and handicapped in Virginia's urbanized areas.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1979-01-01

    This report is a summary and analysis, where applicable, of those activities in Virginia's urbanized areas which have been undertaken through the planning process to address the transportation needs of elderly and handicapped persons. For each urbani...

  4. Development of Predictive Wake Vortex Transport Model for Terminal Area Wake Vortex Avoidance

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1976-05-01

    The wake vortex transport program has been expanded to include viscous effects and the influence of initial roll-up, atmospheric turbulence, and wind shear on the persistence and motion of wake vortices in terminal areas. Analysis of wake characteris...

  5. Planning through Partnerships : Alternative Transportation at Boston Harbor Islands National Park Area

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2004-07-31

    This case study tells the story of a successful and collaborative transportation planning process at Boston Harbor Islands National Park Area (Boston Harbor Islands). By using an innovative approach to planning, Boston Harbor Islands has been able to...

  6. Recommended aquifer grid resolution for E-Area PA revision transport simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Flach, G.

    This memorandum addresses portions of Section 3.5.2 of SRNL (2016) by recommending horizontal and vertical grid resolution for aquifer transport, in preparation for the next E-Area Performance Assessment (WSRC 2008) revision.

  7. Transportation Management Area Planning Certification Review Primer: Revised January 18, 2018

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2018-01-18

    This primer outlines key concepts and expectations of a Transportation Management Area (TMA) Planning Certification Review. Reflecting on the collective experiences of past Certification Reviews, this includes references to relevant laws and regulati...

  8. Electron Temperature Fluctuation Measurements and Transport Model Validation at Alcator C-Mod

    SciTech Connect

    White, Anne

    The tokamak is a type of toroidal device used to confine a fusion plasma using large magnetic fields. Tokamaks and stellarators the leading devices for confining plasmas for fusion, and the capability to predict performance in these magnetically confined plasmas is essential for developing a sustainable fusion energy source. The magnetic configuration of tokamaks and stellarators does not exist in Nature, yet, the fundamental processes governing transport in fusion plasmas are universal – turbulence and instabilities, driven by inhomogeneity and asymmetry in the plasma, conspire to transport heat and particles across magnetic field lines and can play critical roles inmore » impurity confinement and generation of intrinsic rotation. Turbulence exists in all plasmas, and in neutral fluids as well. The study of turbulence is essential to developing a fundamental understanding of the nature of the fourth state of matter, plasmas. Experimental studies of turbulence in tokamaks date back to early scattering observations from the late 1970s. Since that time, great advances in turbulence diagnostics have been made, all of which have significantly enhanced our knowledge and understanding of turbulence in tokamaks. Through comparisons with advanced gyrokinetic theory and turbulent-transport models a great deal of evidence exists to implicate turbulent-driven transport as an important mechanism determining transport in all channels: heat, particle and momentum However, prediction and control of turbulent-driven transport remains elusive. Key to development of predictive transport models for magnetically confined fusion plasmas is validation of the nonlinear gyrokinetic transport model, which describes transport due to turbulence. Validation of gyrokinetic codes must include detailed and quantitative comparisons with measured turbulence characteristics, in addition to comparisons with inferred transport levels and equilibrium profiles. For this reason, advanced plasma

  9. Hydrodynamic and Sediment Transport Modelling of Suralaya Coastal Area, Cilegon, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fattah, A. H.; Suntoyo; Damerianne, H. A.; Wahyudi

    2018-03-01

    The coastal zone of Suralaya is located in the district Pulomerak, Cilegon City, Province Banten. This region is a part of the Sunda Strait region that is very important area to support the ongoing activities such as, industries, power plant, ports, and tourism. However, those various activities will certainly give effect to the surrounding environment. To determine the environmental conditions of Suralaya Coast, it is necessary to study the hydrodynamics analysis and sediment transport modelling including the analysis of currents patterns. Tidal elevation observation was conducted for 15 days used to validate the water elevation simulation results, in which a good agreement between the observed data and the model result was obtained with the error value of 1.6%. The dominant current direction is from northeast in west season, while in the east season predominant current direction is from northwest with a speed average current 12,44 cm/s. The dominant wave direction is from the west. The average temperature is at 27°C and the bottom sediment dominant form is fine sand.

  10. Validating long-term satellite-derived disturbance products: the case of burned areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschetti, L.; Roy, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    The potential research, policy and management applications of satellite products place a high priority on providing statements about their accuracy. A number of NASA, ESA and EU funded global and continental burned area products have been developed using coarse spatial resolution satellite data, and have the potential to become part of a long-term fire Climate Data Record. These products have usually been validated by comparison with reference burned area maps derived by visual interpretation of Landsat or similar spatial resolution data selected on an ad hoc basis. More optimally, a design-based validation method should be adopted that is characterized by the selection of reference data via a probability sampling that can subsequently be used to compute accuracy metrics, taking into account the sampling probability. Design based techniques have been used for annual land cover and land cover change product validation, but have not been widely used for burned area products, or for the validation of global products that are highly variable in time and space (e.g. snow, floods or other non-permanent phenomena). This has been due to the challenge of designing an appropriate sampling strategy, and to the cost of collecting independent reference data. We propose a tri-dimensional sampling grid that allows for probability sampling of Landsat data in time and in space. To sample the globe in the spatial domain with non-overlapping sampling units, the Thiessen Scene Area (TSA) tessellation of the Landsat WRS path/rows is used. The TSA grid is then combined with the 16-day Landsat acquisition calendar to provide tri-dimensonal elements (voxels). This allows the implementation of a sampling design where not only the location but also the time interval of the reference data is explicitly drawn by probability sampling. The proposed sampling design is a stratified random sampling, with two-level stratification of the voxels based on biomes and fire activity (Figure 1). The novel

  11. Study of aircraft in intraurban transportation systems, San Francisco Bay area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The nine-county San Francisco Bay area is examined in two time periods (1975-1980 and 1985-1990) as a scenario for analyzing the characteristics of an intraurban, commuter-oriented aircraft transportation system. Aircraft have dominated the long-haul passenger market for some time, but efforts to penetrate the very-short-haul intraurban market have met with only token success. Yet, the characteristics of an aircraft transportation system-speed and flexibility-are very much needed to solve the transportation ills of our major urban areas. This study attempts to determine if the aircraft can contribute toward solving the transportation problems of major metropolitan areas and be economically viable in such an environment.

  12. Life cycle studies of the hexose transporter of Plasmodium species and genetic validation of their essentiality.

    PubMed

    Slavic, Ksenija; Straschil, Ursula; Reininger, Luc; Doerig, Christian; Morin, Christophe; Tewari, Rita; Krishna, Sanjeev

    2010-03-01

    A Plasmodium falciparum hexose transporter (PfHT) has previously been shown to be a facilitative glucose and fructose transporter. Its expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes and the use of a glucose analogue inhibitor permitted chemical validation of PfHT as a novel drug target. Following recent re-annotations of the P. falciparum genome, other putative sugar transporters have been identified. To investigate further if PfHT is the key supplier of hexose to P. falciparum and to extend studies to different stages of Plasmodium spp., we functionally analysed the hexose transporters of both the human parasite P. falciparum and the rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei using gene targeting strategies. We show here the essential function of pfht for the erythrocytic parasite growth as it was not possible to knockout pfht unless the gene was complemented by an episomal construct. Also, we show that parasites are rescued from the toxic effect of a glucose analogue inhibitor when pfht is overexpressed in these transfectants. We found that the rodent malaria parasite orthologue, P. berghei hexose transporter (PbHT) gene, was similarly refractory to knockout attempts. However, using a single cross-over transfection strategy, we generated transgenic P. berghei parasites expressing a PbHT-GFP fusion protein suggesting that locus is amenable for gene targeting. Analysis of pbht-gfp transgenic parasites showed that PbHT is constitutively expressed through all the stages in the mosquito host in addition to asexual stages. These results provide genetic support for prioritizing PfHT as a target for novel antimalarials that can inhibit glucose uptake and kill parasites, as well as unveiling the expression of this hexose transporter in mosquito stages of the parasite, where it is also likely to be critical for survival.

  13. Life cycle studies of the hexose transporter of Plasmodium species and genetic validation of their essentiality

    PubMed Central

    Slavic, Ksenija; Straschil, Ursula; Reininger, Luc; Doerig, Christian; Morin, Christophe; Tewari, Rita; Krishna, Sanjeev

    2010-01-01

    A Plasmodium falciparumhexose transporter (PfHT) has previously been shown to be a facilitative glucose and fructose transporter. Its expression in Xenopus laevisoocytes and the use of a glucose analogue inhibitor permitted chemical validation of PfHT as a novel drug target. Following recent re-annotations of the P. falciparum genome, other putative sugar transporters have been identified. To investigate further if PfHT is the key supplier of hexose to P. falciparum and to extend studies to different stages of Plasmodium spp., we functionally analysed the hexose transporters of both the human parasite P. falciparum and the rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei using gene targeting strategies. We show here the essential function of pfht for the erythrocytic parasite growth as it was not possible to knockout pfht unless the gene was complemented by an episomal construct. Also, we show that parasites are rescued from the toxic effect of a glucose analogue inhibitor when pfht is overexpressed in these transfectants. We found that the rodent malaria parasite orthologue, P. berghei hexose transporter (PbHT) gene, was similarly refractory to knockout attempts. However, using a single cross-over transfection strategy, we generated transgenic P. berghei parasites expressing a PbHT–GFP fusion protein suggesting that locus is amenable for gene targeting. Analysis of pbht-gfp transgenic parasites showed that PbHT is constitutively expressed through all the stages in the mosquito host in addition to asexual stages. These results provide genetic support for prioritizing PfHT as a target for novel antimalarials that can inhibit glucose uptake and kill parasites, as well as unveiling the expression of this hexose transporter in mosquito stages of the parasite, where it is also likely to be critical for survival. PMID:20132450

  14. Development and validation of a GEANT4 radiation transport code for CT dosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Carver, DE; Kost, SD; Fernald, MJ; Lewis, KG; Fraser, ND; Pickens, DR; Price, RR; Stabin, MG

    2014-01-01

    We have created a radiation transport code using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo toolkit to simulate pediatric patients undergoing CT examinations. The focus of this paper is to validate our simulation with real-world physical dosimetry measurements using two independent techniques. Exposure measurements were made with a standard 100-mm CT pencil ionization chamber, and absorbed doses were also measured using optically stimulated luminescent (OSL) dosimeters. Measurements were made in air, a standard 16-cm acrylic head phantom, and a standard 32-cm acrylic body phantom. Physical dose measurements determined from the ionization chamber in air for 100 and 120 kVp beam energies were used to derive photon-fluence calibration factors. Both ion chamber and OSL measurement results provide useful comparisons in the validation of our Monte Carlo simulations. We found that simulated and measured CTDI values were within an overall average of 6% of each other. PMID:25706135

  15. Development and validation of a GEANT4 radiation transport code for CT dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Carver, D E; Kost, S D; Fernald, M J; Lewis, K G; Fraser, N D; Pickens, D R; Price, R R; Stabin, M G

    2015-04-01

    The authors have created a radiation transport code using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo toolkit to simulate pediatric patients undergoing CT examinations. The focus of this paper is to validate their simulation with real-world physical dosimetry measurements using two independent techniques. Exposure measurements were made with a standard 100-mm CT pencil ionization chamber, and absorbed doses were also measured using optically stimulated luminescent (OSL) dosimeters. Measurements were made in air with a standard 16-cm acrylic head phantom and with a standard 32-cm acrylic body phantom. Physical dose measurements determined from the ionization chamber in air for 100 and 120 kVp beam energies were used to derive photon-fluence calibration factors. Both ion chamber and OSL measurement results provide useful comparisons in the validation of the Monte Carlo simulations. It was found that simulated and measured CTDI values were within an overall average of 6% of each other.

  16. Initial transport validation studies using NSTX-U L-mode plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttenfelder, Walter; Battaglia, D.; Bell, R. E.; Boyer, M. D.; Crocker, N.; Diallo, A.; Ferraro, N.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Kaye, S. M.; Leblanc, B. P.; Liu, D.; Menard, J. E.; Mueller, D.; Myer, C.; Podesta, M.; Raman, R.; Ren, Y.; Sabbagh, S.; Smith, D.

    2016-10-01

    A variety of stationary L-mode plasmas have been successfully developed in NSTX-U for physics validation studies. The plasmas span a range of density (1-4 ×1019 m-3) , plasma current (0.65-1.0 MA), and neutral beam heating power (<=4 MW), taking advantage of new, more tangential neutral beam sources to vary rotation profiles. Transport analysis (TRANSP) and turbulence measurements (BES, reflectometry) of these plasmas will be illustrated and compared with initial microstability and transport predictions. In particular, the normalized beta of these L-modes range between βN = 1-2, providing a valuable bridge in parameter space between (i) H-modes at comparable beta in conventional tokamaks (R/a 3, βN 2), where transport models have been largely developed and tested, and (ii) low-aspect-ratio H-modes at higher beta (R/a 1.5-1.7, βN 5), where transport models are less tested and challenged by stronger electromagnetic and equilibrium effects. This work is supported by US DOE contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  17. Comprehensive Validation of an Intermittency Transport Model for Transitional Low-Pressure Turbine Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suzen, Y. B.; Huang, P. G.

    2005-01-01

    A transport equation for the intermittency factor is employed to predict transitional flows under the effects of pressure gradients, freestream turbulence intensities, Reynolds number variations, flow separation and reattachment. and unsteady wake-blade interactions representing diverse operating conditions encountered in low-pressure turbines. The intermittent behaviour of the transitional flows is taken into account and incorporated into computations by modifying the eddy viscosity, Mu(sub t), with the intermittency factor, gamma. Turbulent quantities are predicted by using Menter's two-equation turbulence model (SST). The onset location of transition is obtained from correlations based on boundary-layer momentum thickness, acceleration parameter, and turbulence intensity. The intermittency factor is obtained from a transport model which can produce both the experimentally observed streamwise variation of intermittency and a realistic profile in the cross stream direction. The intermittency transport model is tested and validated against several well documented low pressure turbine experiments ranging from flat plate cases to unsteady wake-blade interaction experiments. Overall, good agreement between the experimental data and computational results is obtained illustrating the predicting capabilities of the model and the current intermittency transport modelling approach for transitional flow simulations.

  18. Design and validation of a microfluidic device for blood-brain barrier monitoring and transport studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugolini, Giovanni Stefano; Occhetta, Paola; Saccani, Alessandra; Re, Francesca; Krol, Silke; Rasponi, Marco; Redaelli, Alberto

    2018-04-01

    In vitro blood-brain barrier models are highly relevant for drug screening and drug development studies, due to the challenging task of understanding the transport mechanism of drug molecules through the blood-brain barrier towards the brain tissue. In this respect, microfluidics holds potential for providing microsystems that require low amounts of cells and reagent and can be potentially multiplexed for increasing the ease and throughput of the drug screening process. We here describe the design, development and validation of a microfluidic device for endothelial blood-brain barrier cell transport studies. The device comprises of two microstructured layers (top culture chamber and bottom collection chamber) sandwiching a porous membrane for the cell culture. Microstructured layers include two pairs of physical electrodes, embedded into the device layers by geometrically defined guiding channels with computationally optimized positions. These electrodes allow the use of commercial electrical measurement systems for monitoring trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER). We employed the designed device for performing preliminary assessment of endothelial barrier formation with murine brain endothelial cells (Br-bEnd5). Results demonstrate that cellular junctional complexes effectively form in the cultures (expression of VE-Cadherin and ZO-1) and that the TEER monitoring systems effectively detects an increase of resistance of the cultured cell layers indicative of tight junction formation. Finally, we validate the use of the described microsystem for drug transport studies demonstrating that Br-bEnd5 cells significantly hinder the transport of molecules (40 kDa and 4 kDa dextran) from the top culture chamber to the bottom collection chamber.

  19. Experimental study on interfacial area transport in downward two-phase flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guanyi

    In view of the importance of two group interfacial area transport equations and lack of corresponding accurate downward flow database that can reveal two group interfacial area transport, a systematic database for adiabatic, air-water, vertically downward two-phase flow in a round pipe with inner diameter of 25.4 mm was collected to gain an insight of interfacial structure and provide benchmarking data for two-group interfacial area transport models. A four-sensor conductivity probe was used to measure the local two phase flow parameters and data was collected with data sampling frequency much higher than conventional data sampling frequency to ensure the accuracy. Axial development of local flow parameter profiles including void fraction, interfacial area concentration, and Sauter mean diameter were presented. Drastic inter-group transfer of void fraction and interfacial area was observed at bubbly to slug transition flow. And the wall peaked interfacial area concentration profiles were observed in churn-turbulent flow. The importance of local data about these phenomenon on flow structure prediction and interfacial area transport equation benchmark was analyzed. Bedsides, in order to investigate the effect of inlet conditions, all experiments were repeated after installing the flow straightening facility, and the results were briefly analyzed. In order to check the accuracy of current data, the experiment results were cross-checked with rotameter measurement as well as drift-flux model prediction, the averaged error is less than 15%. Current models for two-group interfacial area transport equation were evaluated using these data. The results show that two-group interfacial area transport equations with current models can predict most flow conditions with error less than 20%, except some bubbly to slug transition flow conditions and some churn-turbulent flow conditions. The disagreement between models and experiments could result from underestimate of inter

  20. Validation of the MODIS Collection 6 MCD64 Global Burned Area Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschetti, L.; Roy, D. P.; Giglio, L.; Stehman, S. V.; Humber, M. L.; Sathyachandran, S. K.; Zubkova, M.; Melchiorre, A.; Huang, H.; Huo, L. Z.

    2017-12-01

    The research, policy and management applications of satellite products place a high priority on rigorously assessing their accuracy. A number of NASA, ESA and EU funded global and continental burned area products have been developed using coarse spatial resolution satellite data, and have the potential to become part of a long-term fire Essential Climate Variable. These products have usually been validated by comparison with reference burned area maps derived by visual interpretation of Landsat or similar spatial resolution data selected on an ad hoc basis. More optimally, a design-based validation method should be adopted, characterized by the selection of reference data via probability sampling. Design based techniques have been used for annual land cover and land cover change product validation, but have not been widely used for burned area products, or for other products that are highly variable in time and space (e.g. snow, floods, other non-permanent phenomena). This has been due to the challenge of designing an appropriate sampling strategy, and to the cost and limited availability of independent reference data. This paper describes the validation procedure adopted for the latest Collection 6 version of the MODIS Global Burned Area product (MCD64, Giglio et al, 2009). We used a tri-dimensional sampling grid that allows for probability sampling of Landsat data in time and in space (Boschetti et al, 2016). To sample the globe in the spatial domain with non-overlapping sampling units, the Thiessen Scene Area (TSA) tessellation of the Landsat WRS path/rows is used. The TSA grid is then combined with the 16-day Landsat acquisition calendar to provide tri-dimensonal elements (voxels). This allows the implementation of a sampling design where not only the location but also the time interval of the reference data is explicitly drawn through stratified random sampling. The novel sampling approach was used for the selection of a reference dataset consisting of 700

  1. Transportation Observations, Considerations, and Recommendations for Sawtooth National Recreation Area Provided by the Interagency Transportation Assistance Group (TAG) Ketchum, ID August 19-21, 2008.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-08-19

    A field investigation of the current transportation infrastructure and issues affecting the Sawtooth National Recreation Area (NRA) by the interagency Transportation Assistance Group (TAG) was conducted August 19-21, 2008, on behalf of the U.S. Depar...

  2. Numerical model validation using experimental data: Application of the area metric on a Francis runner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatenet, Q.; Tahan, A.; Gagnon, M.; Chamberland-Lauzon, J.

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays, engineers are able to solve complex equations thanks to the increase of computing capacity. Thus, finite elements software is widely used, especially in the field of mechanics to predict part behavior such as strain, stress and natural frequency. However, it can be difficult to determine how a model might be right or wrong, or whether a model is better than another one. Nevertheless, during the design phase, it is very important to estimate how the hydroelectric turbine blades will behave according to the stress to which it is subjected. Indeed, the static and dynamic stress levels will influence the blade's fatigue resistance and thus its lifetime, which is a significant feature. In the industry, engineers generally use either graphic representation, hypothesis tests such as the Student test, or linear regressions in order to compare experimental to estimated data from the numerical model. Due to the variability in personal interpretation (reproducibility), graphical validation is not considered objective. For an objective assessment, it is essential to use a robust validation metric to measure the conformity of predictions against data. We propose to use the area metric in the case of a turbine blade that meets the key points of the ASME Standards and produces a quantitative measure of agreement between simulations and empirical data. This validation metric excludes any belief and criterion of accepting a model which increases robustness. The present work is aimed at applying a validation method, according to ASME V&V 10 recommendations. Firstly, the area metric is applied on the case of a real Francis runner whose geometry and boundaries conditions are complex. Secondly, the area metric will be compared to classical regression methods to evaluate the performance of the method. Finally, we will discuss the use of the area metric as a tool to correct simulations.

  3. Validation of spatiodemographic estimates produced through data fusion of small area census records and household microdata

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Amy N.; Nagle, Nicholas N.

    Techniques such as Iterative Proportional Fitting have been previously suggested as a means to generate new data with the demographic granularity of individual surveys and the spatial granularity of small area tabulations of censuses and surveys. This article explores internal and external validation approaches for synthetic, small area, household- and individual-level microdata using a case study for Bangladesh. Using data from the Bangladesh Census 2011 and the Demographic and Health Survey, we produce estimates of infant mortality rate and other household attributes for small areas using a variation of an iterative proportional fitting method called P-MEDM. We conduct an internalmore » validation to determine: whether the model accurately recreates the spatial variation of the input data, how each of the variables performed overall, and how the estimates compare to the published population totals. We conduct an external validation by comparing the estimates with indicators from the 2009 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) for Bangladesh to benchmark how well the estimates compared to a known dataset which was not used in the original model. The results indicate that the estimation process is viable for regions that are better represented in the microdata sample, but also revealed the possibility of strong overfitting in sparsely sampled sub-populations.« less

  4. Validation of spatiodemographic estimates produced through data fusion of small area census records and household microdata

    DOE PAGES

    Rose, Amy N.; Nagle, Nicholas N.

    2016-08-01

    Techniques such as Iterative Proportional Fitting have been previously suggested as a means to generate new data with the demographic granularity of individual surveys and the spatial granularity of small area tabulations of censuses and surveys. This article explores internal and external validation approaches for synthetic, small area, household- and individual-level microdata using a case study for Bangladesh. Using data from the Bangladesh Census 2011 and the Demographic and Health Survey, we produce estimates of infant mortality rate and other household attributes for small areas using a variation of an iterative proportional fitting method called P-MEDM. We conduct an internalmore » validation to determine: whether the model accurately recreates the spatial variation of the input data, how each of the variables performed overall, and how the estimates compare to the published population totals. We conduct an external validation by comparing the estimates with indicators from the 2009 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) for Bangladesh to benchmark how well the estimates compared to a known dataset which was not used in the original model. The results indicate that the estimation process is viable for regions that are better represented in the microdata sample, but also revealed the possibility of strong overfitting in sparsely sampled sub-populations.« less

  5. On the validity of effective formulations for transport through heterogeneous porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Dreuzy, Jean-Raynald; Carrera, Jesus

    2016-04-01

    Geological heterogeneity enhances spreading of solutes and causes transport to be anomalous (i.e., non-Fickian), with much less mixing than suggested by dispersion. This implies that modeling transport requires adopting either stochastic approaches that model heterogeneity explicitly or effective transport formulations that acknowledge the effects of heterogeneity. A number of such formulations have been developed and tested as upscaled representations of enhanced spreading. However, their ability to represent mixing has not been formally tested, which is required for proper reproduction of chemical reactions and which motivates our work. We propose that, for an effective transport formulation to be considered a valid representation of transport through heterogeneous porous media (HPM), it should honor mean advection, mixing and spreading. It should also be flexible enough to be applicable to real problems. We test the capacity of the multi-rate mass transfer (MRMT) model to reproduce mixing observed in HPM, as represented by the classical multi-Gaussian log-permeability field with a Gaussian correlation pattern. Non-dispersive mixing comes from heterogeneity structures in the concentration fields that are not captured by macrodispersion. These fine structures limit mixing initially, but eventually enhance it. Numerical results show that, relative to HPM, MRMT models display a much stronger memory of initial conditions on mixing than on dispersion because of the sensitivity of the mixing state to the actual values of concentration. Because MRMT does not restitute the local concentration structures, it induces smaller non-dispersive mixing than HPM. However long-lived trapping in the immobile zones may sustain the deviation from dispersive mixing over much longer times. While spreading can be well captured by MRMT models, in general non-dispersive mixing cannot.

  6. On the validity of effective formulations for transport through heterogeneous porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Dreuzy, J.-R.; Carrera, J.

    2015-11-01

    Geological heterogeneity enhances spreading of solutes, and causes transport to be anomalous (i.e., non-Fickian), with much less mixing than suggested by dispersion. This implies that modeling transport requires adopting either stochastic approaches that model heterogeneity explicitly or effective transport formulations that acknowledge the effects of heterogeneity. A number of such formulations have been developed and tested as upscaled representations of enhanced spreading. However, their ability to represent mixing has not been formally tested, which is required for proper reproduction of chemical reactions and which motivates our work. We propose that, for an effective transport formulation to be considered a valid representation of transport through Heterogeneous Porous Media (HPM), it should honor mean advection, mixing and spreading. It should also be flexible enough to be applicable to real problems. We test the capacity of the Multi-Rate Mass Transfer (MRMT) to reproduce mixing observed in HPM, as represented by the classical multi-Gaussian log-permeability field with a Gaussian correlation pattern. Non-dispersive mixing comes from heterogeneity structures in the concentration fields that are not captured by macrodispersion. These fine structures limit mixing initially, but eventually enhance it. Numerical results show that, relative to HPM, MRMT models display a much stronger memory of initial conditions on mixing than on dispersion because of the sensitivity of the mixing state to the actual values of concentration. Because MRMT does not restitute the local concentration structures, it induces smaller non-dispersive mixing than HPM. However long-lived trapping in the immobile zones may sustain the deviation from dispersive mixing over much longer times. While spreading can be well captured by MRMT models, non-dispersive mixing cannot.

  7. Transport pathway and source area for Artemisia pollen in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xiaoxin; Li, Yiyin; Sun, Xu; Meng, Ling; Wang, Xiaoke

    2017-12-01

    Artemisia pollen is an important allergen responsible for allergic rhinitis in Beijing, China. To explore the transport pathways and source areas of Artemisia pollen, we used Burkard 7-day traps to monitor daily pollen concentrations in 2016 in an urban and suburban locality. Backward trajectories of 24- and 96-h and their cluster analysis were performed to identify transport pathways of Artemisia pollen using the HYSPLIT model on 0.5° × 0.5° GADS meteorological data. The potential source contribution function (PSCF) and concentration weighted trajectory (CWT) were calculated to further identify the major potential source areas at local, regional, and long-range scales. Our results showed significant differences in Artemisia pollen concentration between urban and suburban areas, attributed to differences in plant distribution and altitude of the sampling locality. Such differences arisen from both pollen emission and air mass movements, hence pollen dispersal. At local or regional scales, source area of northwestern parts of Beijing City, Hebei Province and northern and northwestern parts of Inner Mongolia influenced the major transport pathways of Artemisia pollen. Transport pathway at a long-range scale and its corresponding source area extended to northwestern parts of Mongolia. The regional-scale transport affected by wind and altitude is more profound for Artemisia pollen at the suburban than at the urban station.

  8. (In)validity of the constant field and constant currents assumptions in theories of ion transport.

    PubMed Central

    Syganow, A; von Kitzing, E

    1999-01-01

    Constant electric fields and constant ion currents are often considered in theories of ion transport. Therefore, it is important to understand the validity of these helpful concepts. The constant field assumption requires that the charge density of permeant ions and flexible polar groups is virtually voltage independent. We present analytic relations that indicate the conditions under which the constant field approximation applies. Barrier models are frequently fitted to experimental current-voltage curves to describe ion transport. These models are based on three fundamental characteristics: a constant electric field, negligible concerted motions of ions inside the channel (an ion can enter only an empty site), and concentration-independent energy profiles. An analysis of those fundamental assumptions of barrier models shows that those approximations require large barriers because the electrostatic interaction is strong and has a long range. In the constant currents assumption, the current of each permeating ion species is considered to be constant throughout the channel; thus ion pairing is explicitly ignored. In inhomogeneous steady-state systems, the association rate constant determines the strength of ion pairing. Among permeable ions, however, the ion association rate constants are not small, according to modern diffusion-limited reaction rate theories. A mathematical formulation of a constant currents condition indicates that ion pairing very likely has an effect but does not dominate ion transport. PMID:9929480

  9. Quantitative determination and sampling of azathioprine residues for cleaning validation in production area.

    PubMed

    Fazio, Tatiana Tatit; Singh, Anil Kumar; Kedor-Hackmann, Erika Rosa Maria; Santoro, Maria Inês Rocha Miritello

    2007-03-12

    Cleaning validation is an integral part of current good manufacturing practices in any pharmaceutical industry. Nowadays, azathioprine and several other pharmacologically potent pharmaceuticals are manufactured in same production area. Carefully designed cleaning validation and its evaluation can ensure that residues of azathioprine will not carry over and cross contaminate the subsequent product. The aim of this study was to validate simple analytical method for verification of residual azathioprine in equipments used in the production area and to confirm efficiency of cleaning procedure. The HPLC method was validated on a LC system using Nova-Pak C18 (3.9 mm x 150 mm, 4 microm) and methanol-water-acetic acid (20:80:1, v/v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). UV detection was made at 280 nm. The calibration curve was linear over a concentration range from 2.0 to 22.0 microg mL(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9998. The detection limit (DL) and quantitation limit (QL) were 0.09 and 0.29 microg mL(-1), respectively. The intra-day and inter-day precision expressed as relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) were below 2.0%. The mean recovery of method was 99.19%. The mean extraction-recovery from manufacturing equipments was 83.5%. The developed UV spectrophotometric method could only be used as limit method to qualify or reject cleaning procedure in production area. Nevertheless, the simplicity of spectrophotometric method makes it useful for routine analysis of azathioprine residues on cleaned surface and as an alternative to proposed HPLC method.

  10. Transportation noise and exposed population of an urban area in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Ko, Joon Hee; Chang, Seo Il; Kim, Minho; Holt, James B; Seong, Jeong C

    2011-02-01

    Using noise prediction models, we explored the transportation noise levels of Youngdeungpo-gu, an urbanized area of Seoul Metropolitan City in the Republic of Korea. In addition, we estimated the population exposed to transportation noise levels and determined how many people are vulnerable to noise levels that would cause serious annoyance and sleep disturbance. Compared with the World Health Organization [WHO] recommended levels, the daytime and nighttime transportation noise levels were still high enough to have the two psychosocial effects on people when considering the recommended levels of the World Health Organization (WHO; 55 decibels [dB[A

  11. Towards sustainable transportation: identification of the spatial configuration of rental housing area using space syntax method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwanuddin, Irfan; Andoni, Heri; Nurdini, Allis

    2018-05-01

    The emergence of several higher education infrastructures in Bandung city caused the significant increase of inhabitants in the certain region. This resulting in the fast growth of rental housing, while the region’s structure itself is mostly organic and having some cul-de-sac areas. This kind of structure is considered as unideal for a residential area in the context of public transportation accessibility. Based on that, this study aimed to identify the structure of a rental housing complex in Bandung regarding its accessibility for public transport, using space syntax method. There were three main findings revealed from this study. The most segregated area was also the least integrated. There was a significant range of spatial hierarchy between the shallowest and the deepest area. There was an only small area in the case study that considered as accessible regarding the distance to public transport. This condition may lead to certain urban problems such as traffic congestion or excessive fossil fuel usage. These findings could act as a suggestion to the government for policy regarding the regulation for rental housing areas in order to minimize the growth rate of private vehicle possession so as to support the development of sustainable transportation of a city.

  12. Validation of the USGS Landsat Burned Area Essential Climate Variable (BAECV) across the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vanderhoof, Melanie; Fairaux, Nicole; Beal, Yen-Ju G.; Hawbaker, Todd J.

    2017-01-01

    The Landsat Burned Area Essential Climate Variable (BAECV), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), capitalizes on the long temporal availability of Landsat imagery to identify burned areas across the conterminous United States (CONUS) (1984–2015). Adequate validation of such products is critical for their proper usage and interpretation. Validation of coarse-resolution products often relies on independent data derived from moderate-resolution sensors (e.g., Landsat). Validation of Landsat products, in turn, is challenging because there is no corresponding source of high-resolution, multispectral imagery that has been systematically collected in space and time over the entire temporal extent of the Landsat archive. Because of this, comparison between high-resolution images and Landsat science products can help increase user's confidence in the Landsat science products, but may not, alone, be adequate. In this paper, we demonstrate an approach to systematically validate the Landsat-derived BAECV product. Burned area extent was mapped for Landsat image pairs using a manually trained semi-automated algorithm that was manually edited across 28 path/rows and five different years (1988, 1993, 1998, 2003, 2008). Three datasets were independently developed by three analysts and the datasets were integrated on a pixel by pixel basis in which at least one to all three analysts were required to agree a pixel was burned. We found that errors within our Landsat reference dataset could be minimized by using the rendition of the dataset in which pixels were mapped as burned if at least two of the three analysts agreed. BAECV errors of omission and commission for the detection of burned pixels averaged 42% and 33%, respectively for CONUS across all five validation years. Errors of omission and commission were lowest across the western CONUS, for example in the shrub and scrublands of the Arid West (31% and 24%, respectively), and highest in the grasslands and

  13. Reliability, Validity, and Sensitivity to Change Overtime of the Modified Melasma Area and Severity Index Score.

    PubMed

    Abou-Taleb, Doaa A E; Ibrahim, Ahmed K; Youssef, Eman M K; Moubasher, Alaa E A

    2017-02-01

    The new modified Melasma Area and Severity Index (mMASI) score, the recently used outcome measure for melasma, has not been tested to determine its sensitivity to change in melasma. To determine the reliability, validity, and sensitivity to change overtime of the mMASI score in assessment of the severity of melasma. Pearson correlation, Cronbach alpha, and intraclass correlation coefficient were calculated to assess the reliability of the mMASI score. Validity of the mMASI scale was carried out using Spearman correlation between mMASI total score (before and after treatment), clinical data, and patient's responses. The mMASI score showed excellent reliability and good validity for assessment of the severity of melasma. The authors also determined that the mMASI score demonstrated sensitivity to change over time. An excellent degree of agreement between the mMSAI and MASI scores was revealed. The mMASI score is reliable, valid, and responsive to change in the assessment of severity of melasma. Moreover, the mMASI score was found to be easier to learn and perform and simpler in calculation compared with the MASI score. Overall, the mMASI score can effectively replace the MASI score.

  14. Measuring the Sensitivity and Construct Validity of 6 Utility Instruments in 7 Disease Areas.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Jeff; Iezzi, Angelo; Khan, Munir A; Chen, Gang; Maxwell, Aimee

    2016-02-01

    Health services that affect quality of life (QoL) are increasingly evaluated using cost utility analyses (CUA). These commonly employ one of a small number of multiattribute utility instruments (MAUI) to assess the effects of the health service on utility. However, the MAUI differ significantly, and the choice of instrument may alter the outcome of an evaluation. The present article has 2 objectives: 1) to compare the results of 3 measures of the sensitivity of 6 MAUI and the results of 6 tests of construct validity in 7 disease areas and 2) to rank the MAUI by each of the test results in each disease area and by an overall composite index constructed from the tests. Patients and the general public were administered a battery of instruments, which included the 6 MAUI, disease-specific QoL instruments (DSI), and 6 other comparator instruments. In each disease area, instrument sensitivity was measured 3 ways: by the unadjusted mean difference in utility between public and patient groups, by the value of the effect size, and by the correlation between MAUI and DSI scores. Content and convergent validity were tested by comparison of MAUI utilities and scores from the 6 comparator instruments. These included 2 measures of health state preferences, measures of subjective well-being and capabilities, and generic measures of physical and mental QoL derived from the SF-36. The apparent sensitivity of instruments varied significantly with the measurement method and by disease area. Validation test results varied with the comparator instruments. Notwithstanding this variability, the 15D, AQoL-8D, and the SF-6D generally achieved better test results than the QWB and EQ-5D-5L. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Underground Test Area Subproject Phase I Data Analysis Task. Volume VII - Tritium Transport Model Documentation Package

    SciTech Connect

    None

    Volume VII of the documentation for the Phase I Data Analysis Task performed in support of the current Regional Flow Model, Transport Model, and Risk Assessment for the Nevada Test Site Underground Test Area Subproject contains the tritium transport model documentation. Because of the size and complexity of the model area, a considerable quantity of data was collected and analyzed in support of the modeling efforts. The data analysis task was consequently broken into eight subtasks, and descriptions of each subtask's activities are contained in one of the eight volumes that comprise the Phase I Data Analysis Documentation.

  16. Validation of a coupled core-transport, pedestal-structure, current-profile and equilibrium model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meneghini, O.

    2015-11-01

    The first workflow capable of predicting the self-consistent solution to the coupled core-transport, pedestal structure, and equilibrium problems from first-principles and its experimental tests are presented. Validation with DIII-D discharges in high confinement regimes shows that the workflow is capable of robustly predicting the kinetic profiles from on axis to the separatrix and matching the experimental measurements to within their uncertainty, with no prior knowledge of the pedestal height nor of any measurement of the temperature or pressure. Self-consistent coupling has proven to be essential to match the experimental results, and capture the non-linear physics that governs the core and pedestal solutions. In particular, clear stabilization of the pedestal peeling ballooning instabilities by the global Shafranov shift and destabilization by additional edge bootstrap current, and subsequent effect on the core plasma profiles, have been clearly observed and documented. In our model, self-consistency is achieved by iterating between the TGYRO core transport solver (with NEO and TGLF for neoclassical and turbulent flux), and the pedestal structure predicted by the EPED model. A self-consistent equilibrium is calculated by EFIT, while the ONETWO transport package evolves the current profile and calculates the particle and energy sources. The capabilities of such workflow are shown to be critical for the design of future experiments such as ITER and FNSF, which operate in a regime where the equilibrium, the pedestal, and the core transport problems are strongly coupled, and for which none of these quantities can be assumed to be known. Self-consistent core-pedestal predictions for ITER, as well as initial optimizations, will be presented. Supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-SC0012652.

  17. Experimental validation of convection-diffusion discretisation scheme employed for computational modelling of biological mass transport

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The finite volume solver Fluent (Lebanon, NH, USA) is a computational fluid dynamics software employed to analyse biological mass-transport in the vasculature. A principal consideration for computational modelling of blood-side mass-transport is convection-diffusion discretisation scheme selection. Due to numerous discretisation schemes available when developing a mass-transport numerical model, the results obtained should either be validated against benchmark theoretical solutions or experimentally obtained results. Methods An idealised aneurysm model was selected for the experimental and computational mass-transport analysis of species concentration due to its well-defined recirculation region within the aneurysmal sac, allowing species concentration to vary slowly with time. The experimental results were obtained from fluid samples extracted from a glass aneurysm model, using the direct spectrophometric concentration measurement technique. The computational analysis was conducted using the four convection-diffusion discretisation schemes available to the Fluent user, including the First-Order Upwind, the Power Law, the Second-Order Upwind and the Quadratic Upstream Interpolation for Convective Kinetics (QUICK) schemes. The fluid has a diffusivity of 3.125 × 10-10 m2/s in water, resulting in a Peclet number of 2,560,000, indicating strongly convection-dominated flow. Results The discretisation scheme applied to the solution of the convection-diffusion equation, for blood-side mass-transport within the vasculature, has a significant influence on the resultant species concentration field. The First-Order Upwind and the Power Law schemes produce similar results. The Second-Order Upwind and QUICK schemes also correlate well but differ considerably from the concentration contour plots of the First-Order Upwind and Power Law schemes. The computational results were then compared to the experimental findings. An average error of 140% and 116% was demonstrated

  18. CSI Index Of Customer's Satisfaction Applied In The Area Of Public Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poliaková, Adela

    2015-06-01

    In Western countries, the new visions are applied in quality control for an integrated public transport system. Public transport puts the customer at the centre of our decision making in achieving customer satisfaction with provided service. Sustainable surveys are kept among customers. A lot of companies are collecting huge databases containing over 30,000 voices of customers, which demonstrates the current satisfaction levels across the public transport service. Customer satisfaction with a provided service is a difficult task. In this service, the quality criteria are not clearly defined, and it is therefore difficult to define customer satisfaction. The paper introduces a possibility of CSI index application in conditions of the Slovak Republic transport area.

  19. Modeling and analysis needs and resources for small metropolitan area transportation planning : report on a peer exchange.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-09-01

    A peer exchange on Modeling and Analysis Needs and Resources for Small Metropolitan Area Transportation Planning was convened on August 28 and 29, 2011, to explore the state of transportation modeling and analysis practice in communities with populat...

  20. Gateway National Recreational Area - Sandy Hook Unit : automated fee entrance plaza and intelligent transportation system technical requirements

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-01-01

    The Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (Volpe Center) is providing technical : support to Sandy Hook, a unit of the Gateway National Recreation Area, in the planning and : concept development for possible Intelligent Transportation Systems ...

  1. Transportation Services in Rural Areas. January 1979-December 1988. Quick Bibliography Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Caille John, Patricia, Comp.

    This bibliography contains 137 entries of English-language materials available from the National Agricultural Library's (NAL) AGRICOLA database. Each of the bibliography's 137 entries pertains to some aspect of transportation services in rural areas. Each entry, including books, reports, studies, and so forth, offers bibliographical information…

  2. Development of Public Rail Track Transport in Nord-Western Area of Bratislava

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koštial, Matej; Schlosser, Tibor; Schlosser, Peter

    2017-10-01

    The article deals with the development plans and possibilities of the Bratislava north-west expansion direction. Its focus is on the sites in the Lamačská Brána area - Bory and CENTROP - which with their size of approximately 817 hectares are owned by two major developers. The article describes variants of possible rail transport system extension, as it is classified as the cordial system of public transport by the Bratislava urban planning documentation. The traffic service proposal deals with the new traffic infrastructure on given future and realised locations and generates input for the traffic planning itself, which will define the build intensity restriction using the traffic model. Particular variants of the rail transport in given area are proposed to be the primary tool for future area development possibility. Along with the urban tram with narrow gauge of 1000 mm defined in urban planning documentation, the area service is considered by the introduced standard gauge (1435 mm) tram-train track connected to the international railway link. This track is intended to be a part of the integrated suburban public transport system aiming to access the satellite town Stupava inside the Bratislava city agglomeration.

  3. Numerical convergence and validation of the DIMP inverse particle transport model

    DOE PAGES

    Nelson, Noel; Azmy, Yousry

    2017-09-01

    The data integration with modeled predictions (DIMP) model is a promising inverse radiation transport method for solving the special nuclear material (SNM) holdup problem. Unlike previous methods, DIMP is a completely passive nondestructive assay technique that requires no initial assumptions regarding the source distribution or active measurement time. DIMP predicts the most probable source location and distribution through Bayesian inference and quasi-Newtonian optimization of predicted detector re-sponses (using the adjoint transport solution) with measured responses. DIMP performs well with for-ward hemispherical collimation and unshielded measurements, but several considerations are required when using narrow-view collimated detectors. DIMP converged well to themore » correct source distribution as the number of synthetic responses increased. DIMP also performed well for the first experimental validation exercise after applying a collimation factor, and sufficiently reducing the source search vol-ume's extent to prevent the optimizer from getting stuck in local minima. DIMP's simple point detector response function (DRF) is being improved to address coplanar false positive/negative responses, and an angular DRF is being considered for integration with the next version of DIMP to account for highly collimated responses. Overall, DIMP shows promise for solving the SNM holdup inverse problem, especially once an improved optimization algorithm is implemented.« less

  4. Non-local electron transport validation using 2D DRACO simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Duc; Chenhall, Jeff; Moll, Eli; Prochaska, Alex; Moses, Gregory; Delettrez, Jacques; Collins, Tim

    2012-10-01

    Comparison of 2D DRACO simulations, using a modified versionfootnotetextprivate communications with M. Marinak and G. Zimmerman, LLNL. of the Schurtz, Nicolai and Busquet (SNB) algorithmfootnotetextSchurtz, Nicolai and Busquet, ``A nonlocal electron conduction model for multidimensional radiation hydrodynamics codes,'' Phys. Plasmas 7, 4238(2000). for non-local electron transport, with direct drive shock timing experimentsfootnotetextT. Boehly, et. al., ``Multiple spherically converging shock waves in liquid deuterium,'' Phys. Plasmas 18, 092706(2011). and with the Goncharov non-local modelfootnotetextV. Goncharov, et. al., ``Early stage of implosion in inertial confinement fusion: Shock timing and perturbation evolution,'' Phys. Plasmas 13, 012702(2006). in 1D LILAC will be presented. Addition of an improved SNB non-local electron transport algorithm in DRACO allows direct drive simulations with no need for an electron conduction flux limiter. Validation with shock timing experiments that mimic the laser pulse profile of direct drive ignition targets gives a higher confidence level in the predictive capability of the DRACO code. This research was supported by the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics.

  5. Silicon nanoporous membranes as a rigorous platform for validation of biomolecular transport models

    PubMed Central

    Feinberg, Benjamin J.; Hsiao, Jeff C.; Park, Jaehyun; Zydney, Andrew L.; Fissell, William H.; Roy, Shuvo

    2017-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), a technology that resulted from significant innovation in semiconductor fabrication, have recently been applied to the development of silicon nanopore membranes (SNM). In contrast to membranes fabricated from polymeric materials, SNM exhibit slit-shaped pores, monodisperse pore size, constant surface porosity, zero pore overlap, and sub-micron thickness. This development in membrane fabrication is applied herein for the validation of the XDLVO (extended Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek) theory of membrane transport within the context of hemofiltration. In this work, the XDLVO model has been derived for the unique slit pore structure of SNM. Beta-2-microglobulin (B2M), a clinically relevant “middle molecular weight” solute in kidney disease, is highlighted in this study as the solute of interest. In order to determine interaction parameters within the XDLVO model for B2M and SNM, goniometric measurements were conducted, yielding a Hamaker constant of 4.61× 10−21 J and an acid-base Gibbs free energy at contact of 41 mJ/m2. The XDLVO model was combined with existing models for membrane sieving, with predictions of the refined model in good agreement with experimental data. Furthermore, the results show a significant difference between the XDLVO model and the simpler steric predictions typically applied in membrane transport. The refined model can be used as a tool to tailor membrane chemistry and maximize sieving or rejection of different biomolecules. PMID:28936029

  6. Validation of a multi-layer Green's function code for ion beam transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Steven; Tweed, John; Tripathi, Ram; Badavi, Francis F.; Miller, Jack; Zeitlin, Cary; Heilbronn, Lawrence

    To meet the challenge of future deep space programs, an accurate and efficient engineering code for analyzing the shielding requirements against high-energy galactic heavy radiations is needed. In consequence, a new version of the HZETRN code capable of simulating high charge and energy (HZE) ions with either laboratory or space boundary conditions is currently under development. The new code, GRNTRN, is based on a Green's function approach to the solution of Boltzmann's transport equation and like its predecessor is deterministic in nature. The computational model consists of the lowest order asymptotic approximation followed by a Neumann series expansion with non-perturbative corrections. The physical description includes energy loss with straggling, nuclear attenuation, nuclear fragmentation with energy dispersion and down shift. Code validation in the laboratory environment is addressed by showing that GRNTRN accurately predicts energy loss spectra as measured by solid-state detectors in ion beam experiments with multi-layer targets. In order to validate the code with space boundary conditions, measured particle fluences are propagated through several thicknesses of shielding using both GRNTRN and the current version of HZETRN. The excellent agreement obtained indicates that GRNTRN accurately models the propagation of HZE ions in the space environment as well as in laboratory settings and also provides verification of the HZETRN propagator.

  7. Integrating Materials, Manufacturing, Design and Validation for Sustainability in Future Transport Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, M. A.; Murphy, A.; Butterfield, J.; McCool, R.; Fleck, R.

    2011-05-01

    The predictive methods currently used for material specification, component design and the development of manufacturing processes, need to evolve beyond the current `metal centric' state of the art, if advanced composites are to realise their potential in delivering sustainable transport solutions. There are however, significant technical challenges associated with this process. Deteriorating environmental, political, economic and social conditions across the globe have resulted in unprecedented pressures to improve the operational efficiency of the manufacturing sector generally and to change perceptions regarding the environmental credentials of transport systems in particular. There is a need to apply new technologies and develop new capabilities to ensure commercial sustainability in the face of twenty first century economic and climatic conditions as well as transport market demands. A major technology gap exists between design, analysis and manufacturing processes in both the OEMs, and the smaller companies that make up the SME based supply chain. As regulatory requirements align with environmental needs, manufacturers are increasingly responsible for the broader lifecycle aspects of vehicle performance. These include not only manufacture and supply but disposal and re-use or re-cycling. In order to make advances in the reduction of emissions coupled with improved economic efficiency through the provision of advanced lightweight vehicles, four key challenges are identified as follows: Material systems, Manufacturing systems, Integrated design methods using digital manufacturing tools and Validation systems. This paper presents a project which has been designed to address these four key issues, using at its core, a digital framework for the creation and management of key parameters related to the lifecycle performance of thermoplastic composite parts and structures. It aims to provide capability for the proposition, definition, evaluation and demonstration of

  8. Sterility and Safety Validation for Transport Packaging of Organs and Tissues.

    PubMed

    Cobos, M; Trunzo, L; Vogt, M V; Romero, O; Anessi, C; Pachado, J; Ciávaro, M N; Horak, C; Bacqué, M C

    2018-03-01

    The bags used in the transport of organs and tissues must be sterile, nontoxic, pyrogen free, and must serve as a barrier throughout their useful life. The goal of this study was to show the sterility, safety, and functionality of the bags subjected to irradiation, through validated procedures and techniques. The selected sterilization method was the use of gamma radiation. The sterilization dose was determined based on validated standards for the sterilization of medical products, ISO 11137-2: 2013 and ISO/TS 13004: 2013, using the Verification Dose Maximum method on samples belonging to 3 manufacturing lots. The ISO 10993-5: 2009 standard was used in the cytotoxicity tests, by means of extracts test and quantitative technique of MTT, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide. The tests to determine the expiration date of the kit were performed by ASTM F1980, accelerated aging, and ASTM D3078 to evaluate hermeticity. The irradiation dose validated to reach the required sterility safety level was 22.5 kGy. The constituent materials and the sterilization method do not generated cellular toxicity, and the product was not modified during the simulated time of 5 years. Sterilization by irradiation is a method that leaves no residue, does not harm the properties of the material because it is conducted in cold, and as the sterilizing agent, the energy absorbed by the product is highly penetrating and can be treated in its final packaging, with no risk of postcontamination. It is for this reason that it is prioritized over other methods of sterilization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A Generalization Strategy for Discrete Area Feature by Using Stroke Grouping and Polarization Transportation Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao; Burghardt, Dirk

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a new strategy for the generalization of discrete area features by using stroke grouping method and polarization transportation selection. The mentioned stroke is constructed on derive of the refined proximity graph of area features, and the refinement is under the control of four constraints to meet different grouping requirements. The area features which belong to the same stroke are detected into the same group. The stroke-based strategy decomposes the generalization process into two sub-processes by judging whether the area features related to strokes or not. For the area features which belong to the same one stroke, they normally present a linear like pat-tern, and in order to preserve this kind of pattern, typification is chosen as the operator to implement the generalization work. For the remaining area features which are not related by strokes, they are still distributed randomly and discretely, and the selection is chosen to conduct the generalization operation. For the purpose of retaining their original distribution characteristic, a Polarization Transportation (PT) method is introduced to implement the selection operation. Buildings and lakes are selected as the representatives of artificial area feature and natural area feature respectively to take the experiments. The generalized results indicate that by adopting this proposed strategy, the original distribution characteristics of building and lake data can be preserved, and the visual perception is pre-served as before.

  10. Design and validation of a wind tunnel system for odour sampling on liquid area sources.

    PubMed

    Capelli, L; Sironi, S; Del Rosso, R; Céntola, P

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the methods adopted for the design and the experimental validation of a wind tunnel, a sampling system suitable for the collection of gaseous samples on passive area sources, which allows to simulate wind action on the surface to be monitored. The first step of the work was the study of the air velocity profiles. The second step of the work consisted in the validation of the sampling system. For this purpose, the odour concentration of some air samples collected by means of the wind tunnel was measured by dynamic olfactometry. The results of the air velocity measurements show that the wind tunnel design features enabled the achievement of a uniform and homogeneous air flow through the hood. Moreover, the laboratory tests showed a very good correspondence between the odour concentration values measured at the wind tunnel outlet and the odour concentration values predicted by the application of a specific volatilization model, based on the Prandtl boundary layer theory. The agreement between experimental and theoretical trends demonstrate that the studied wind tunnel represents a suitable sampling system for the simulation of specific odour emission rates from liquid area sources without outward flow.

  11. Assessing Temporal Stability for Coarse Scale Satellite Moisture Validation in the Maqu Area, Tibet

    PubMed Central

    Bhatti, Haris Akram; Rientjes, Tom; Verhoef, Wouter; Yaseen, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates if the temporal stability concept is applicable to a time series of satellite soil moisture images so to extend the common procedure of satellite image validation. The area of study is the Maqu area, which is located in the northeastern part of the Tibetan plateau. The network serves validation purposes of coarse scale (25–50 km) satellite soil moisture products and comprises 20 stations with probes installed at depths of 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 cm. The study period is 2009. The temporal stability concept is applied to all five depths of the soil moisture measuring network and to a time series of satellite-based moisture products from the Advance Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E). The in-situ network is also assessed by Pearsons's correlation analysis. Assessments by the temporal stability concept proved to be useful and results suggest that probe measurements at 10 cm depth best match to the satellite observations. The Mean Relative Difference plot for satellite pixels shows that a RMSM pixel can be identified but in our case this pixel does not overlay any in-situ station. Also, the RMSM pixel does not overlay any of the Representative Mean Soil Moisture (RMSM) stations of the five probe depths. Pearson's correlation analysis on in-situ measurements suggests that moisture patterns over time are more persistent than over space. Since this study presents first results on the application of the temporal stability concept to a series of satellite images, we recommend further tests to become more conclusive on effectiveness to broaden the procedure of satellite validation. PMID:23959237

  12. Validation of walk score for estimating neighborhood walkability: an analysis of four US metropolitan areas.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Dustin T; Aldstadt, Jared; Whalen, John; Melly, Steven J; Gortmaker, Steven L

    2011-11-01

    Neighborhood walkability can influence physical activity. We evaluated the validity of Walk Score(®) for assessing neighborhood walkability based on GIS (objective) indicators of neighborhood walkability with addresses from four US metropolitan areas with several street network buffer distances (i.e., 400-, 800-, and 1,600-meters). Address data come from the YMCA-Harvard After School Food and Fitness Project, an obesity prevention intervention involving children aged 5-11 years and their families participating in YMCA-administered, after-school programs located in four geographically diverse metropolitan areas in the US (n = 733). GIS data were used to measure multiple objective indicators of neighborhood walkability. Walk Scores were also obtained for the participant's residential addresses. Spearman correlations between Walk Scores and the GIS neighborhood walkability indicators were calculated as well as Spearman correlations accounting for spatial autocorrelation. There were many significant moderate correlations between Walk Scores and the GIS neighborhood walkability indicators such as density of retail destinations and intersection density (p < 0.05). The magnitude varied by the GIS indicator of neighborhood walkability. Correlations generally became stronger with a larger spatial scale, and there were some geographic differences. Walk Score(®) is free and publicly available for public health researchers and practitioners. Results from our study suggest that Walk Score(®) is a valid measure of estimating certain aspects of neighborhood walkability, particularly at the 1600-meter buffer. As such, our study confirms and extends the generalizability of previous findings demonstrating that Walk Score is a valid measure of estimating neighborhood walkability in multiple geographic locations and at multiple spatial scales.

  13. Use of Physio-Hydrological Units for SMOS Validation at the Valencia Anchor Station Study Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millán-Scheiding, C.; Antolín, C.; Marco, J.; Soriano, M. P.; Torre, E.; Requena, F.; Carbó, E.; Cano, A.; Lopez-Baeza, E.

    2009-04-01

    The SMOS space mission will soil moisture over the continents and ocean surface salinity with the sufficient resolution to be used in global climate change studies. With the aim of validating SMOS land data and products at the Valencia Anchor Station site (VAS) in a Mediterranean Ecosystem area of Spain, we have designed a sample methodology using a subdivision of the landscape in environmental units related to the spatial variability of soil moisture (Millán-Scheiding, 2006; Lopez-Baeza, et al. 2008). These physio-hydrological units are heterogeneously structured entities which present a certain degree of internal uniformity of hydrological parameters. The units are delimited by integrating areas with the same physio-morphology, soil type, vegetation, geology and topography (Flugel, et al 2003; Millán-Scheiding et al, 2007). Each of these units presented over the same pedological characteristics, vegetation cover, and landscape position should have a certain degree of internal uniformity in its hydrological parameters and therefore similar soil moisture (SM). The main assumption for each unit is that the dynamical variation of the hydrological parameters within one unit should be minimum compared to the dynamics of another unit. This methodology will hopefully provide an effective sampling design consisting of a reduced number of measuring points, sparsely distributed over the area, or alternatively, using SM validation networks where each sampling point is located where it is representative of the mean soil moisture of a complete unit area. The Experimental Plan for the SMOS Validation Rehearsal Campaign at the VAS area of April-May 2008 used this environmental subdivision in the selection and sampling of over 21.000 soil moisture points in a control area of 10 x 10 km2. The ground measurements were carried out during 4 nights corresponding to a drying out period of the soil. The sampling consisted of 700 plots with 4 volumetric SM cylinders and 7 Delta-T Theta

  14. Advanced subsonic long-haul transport terminal area compatibility study. Volume 1: Compatibility assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An analysis was made to identify airplane research and technology necessary to ensure advanced transport aircraft the capability of accommodating forecast traffic without adverse impact on airport communities. Projections were made of the delay, noise, and emissions impact of future aircraft fleets on typical large urban airport. Design requirements, based on these projections, were developed for an advanced technology, long-haul, subsonic transport. A baseline aircraft was modified to fulfill the design requirements for terminal area compatibility. Technical and economic comparisons were made between these and other aircraft configured to support the study.

  15. One-group interfacial area transport in vertical air-water bubbly flow

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Q.; Kim, S.; Ishii, M.

    In the two-fluid model for two-phase flows, interfacial area concentration is one of the most important closure relations that should be obtained from careful mechanistic modeling. The objective of this study is to develop a one-group interfacial area transport equation together with the modeling of the source and sink terms due to bubble breakage and coalescence. For bubble coalescence, two mechanisms are considered to be dominant in vertical two-phase bubbly flow. These are the random collisions between bubbles due to turbulence in the flow field, and the wake entrainment process due to the relative motion of the bubbles in themore » wake region of a seeding bubble. For bubble breakup, the impact of turbulent eddies is considered. These phenomena are modeled individually, resulting in a one-group interfacial area concentration transport equation with certain parameters to be determined from experimental data. Compared to the measured axial distribution of the interfacial area concentration under various flow conditions, these parameters are obtained for the reduced one-group, one-dimensional transport equation. The results indicate that the proposed models for bubble breakup and coalescence are appropriate.« less

  16. Transportation Observations, Considerations, and Recommendations for Spring Mountains National Recreation Area Provided by the Interagency Transportation Assistance Group (TAG) /Alternative Transportation in Parks and Public Lands (ATPPL) Program Las Vega

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-12-04

    A field investigation of the current transportation infrastructure and operations at Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest (H-TNF): Spring Mountains National Recreation Area (SMNRA or NRA) by the inter-agency Transportation Assistance Group (TAG) was cond...

  17. Transportation Observations, Considerations, and Recommendations for Yaquina Head Outstanding Natural Area Provided by the Interagency Transportation Assistance Group (TAG) /Alternative Transportation in Parks and Public Lands (ATPPL) Program Newport, Or

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-10-16

    A field investigation of the current transportation infrastructure and issues at Yaquina Head Outstanding Natural Area by the interagency Transportation Assistance Group (TAG) was conducted October 16-17, 2007, on behalf of the Bureau of Land Managem...

  18. Transportation observations, considerations, and recommendations for Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area. Provided by the Interagency Transportation Assistance Group (TAG) /Alternative Transportation in Parks and Public Lands (ATPPL) Program

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-12-04

    A field investigation of the current transportation infrastructure and operations at Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area by the inter-agency Transportation Assistance Group (TAG) was conducted December 4-8, 2006, on behalf of the Bureau of Lan...

  19. Superparamagnetic microbead transport induced by a magnetic field on large-area magnetic antidot arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouk, Minae; Beach, Geoffrey S. D.

    2017-12-01

    A method is presented for directed transport of superparamagnetic microbeads (SPBs) on magnetic antidot patterned substrates by applying a rotating elliptical magnetic field. We find a critical frequency for transport, beyond which the bead dynamics transitions from stepwise locomotion to local oscillation. We also find that the out-of-plane (HOOP) and in-plane (HIP) field magnitudes play crucial roles in triggering bead motion. Namely, we find threshold values in HOOP and HIP that depend on bead size, which can be used to independently and remotely address specific bead populations in a multi-bead mixture. These behaviors are explained in terms of the dynamic potential energy lansdscapes computed from micromagnetic simulations of the substrate magnetization configuration. Finally, we show that large-area magnetic patterns suitable for particle transport and sorting can be fabricated through a self-assembly lithography technique, which provides a simple, cost-effective means to integrate magnetic actuation into microfluidic systems.

  20. Development and validation of a lead emission inventory for the Greater Cairo area

    PubMed Central

    Safar, Zeinab; Labib, Mounir W.; Gertler, Alan W.

    2013-01-01

    Studies that investigate the environmental health risks to Cairo residents invariably conclude that lead is one of the area’s major health hazards. The Cairo Air Improvement Project (CAIP), which was implemented by a team led by Chemonics International, funded by USAID in partnership with the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA), started developing a lead emission inventory for the greater Cairo (GC) area in 1998. The inventory contains a list by major source of the annual lead emissions in the GC area. Uses of the inventory and associated database include developing effective regulatory and control strategies, assessing emissions trends, and conducting modeling exercises. This paper describes the development of the current lead emissions inventory (1999–2010), along with an approach to develop site specific emission factors and measurements to validate the inventory. This paper discusses the major sources of lead in the GC area, which include lead smelters, Mazout (heavy fuel oil) combustion, lead manufacturing batteries factories, copper foundries, and cement factories. Included will be the trend in the lead emissions inventory with regard to the production capacity of each source category. In addition, the lead ambient measurements from 1999 through 2010 are described and compared with the results of Source Attribution Studies (SAS) conducted in 1999, 2002, and 2010. Due to EEAA/CAIP efforts, a remarkable decrease in more than 90% in lead emissions was attained for 2007. PMID:25685523

  1. Identifying areas with vitamin A deficiency: the validity of a semiquantitative food frequency method.

    PubMed

    Sloan, N L; Rosen, D; de la Paz, T; Arita, M; Temalilwa, C; Solomons, N W

    1997-02-01

    The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency has traditionally been assessed through xerophthalmia or biochemical surveys. The cost and complexity of implementing these methods limits the ability of nonresearch organizations to identify vitamin A deficiency. This study examined the validity of a simple, inexpensive food frequency method to identify areas with a high prevalence of vitamin A deficiency. The validity of the method was tested in 15 communities, 5 each from the Philippines, Guatemala, and Tanzania. Serum retinol concentrations of less than 20 micrograms/dL defined vitamin A deficiency. Weighted measures of vitamin A intake six or fewer times per week and unweighted measures of consumption of animal sources of vitamin A four or fewer times per week correctly classified seven of eight communities as having a high prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (i.e., 15% or more preschool-aged children in the community had the deficiency) (sensitivity = 87.5%) and four of seven communities as having a low prevalence (specificity = 57.1%). This method correctly classified the vitamin A deficiency status of 73.3% of the communities but demonstrated a high false-positive rate (42.9%).

  2. Validation of intracranial area as a surrogate measure of intracranial volume when using clinical MRI.

    PubMed

    Nandigam, R N Kaveer; Chen, Yu-Wei; Gurol, Mahmut E; Rosand, Jonathan; Greenberg, Steven M; Smith, Eric E

    2007-01-01

    We sought to determine whether mid-sagittal intracranial area (ICA) is a valid surrogate of intracranial volume (ICV) when using retrospective data with relatively thick (6-7 mm) sagittal slices. Data were retrospectively analyzed from 47 subjects who had two MRI scans taken at least nine months apart. Twenty-three subjects had manual segmentation of ICV on the T2-weighted sequence for comparison. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for intraobserver, interobserver, and intraobserver scan-rescan comparisons were 0.96, 0.97 and 0.95. Pearson correlation coefficients between ICV and ICA, averaging the cumulative 1, 2, 3, and 4 most midline slices, were 0.89, 0.94, 0.93, and 0.95. There was a significant marginal increase in explained variance of ICV by measuring two, rather than one, slices (P= 0.001). These data suggest that ICA, even measured without high-resolution imaging, is a reasonable substitute for ICV.

  3. Correlating Humidity-Dependent Ionically Conductive Surface Area with Transport Phenomena in Proton-Exchange Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    He, Qinggang; Kusoglu, Ahmet; Lucas, Ivan T.

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this effort was to correlate the local surface ionic conductance of a Nafion? 212 proton-exchange membrane with its bulk and interfacial transport properties as a function of water content. Both macroscopic and microscopic proton conductivities were investigated at different relative humidity levels, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and current-sensing atomic force microscopy (CSAFM). We were able to identify small ion-conducting domains that grew with humidity at the surface of the membrane. Numerical analysis of the surface ionic conductance images recorded at various relative humidity levels helped determine the fractional area of ion-conducting active sites. A simple square-root relationshipmore » between the fractional conducting area and observed interfacial mass-transport resistance was established. Furthermore, the relationship between the bulk ionic conductivity and surface ionic conductance pattern of the Nafion? membrane was examined.« less

  4. Dust transport model validation using satellite- and ground-based methods in the southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahler, Anna-Britt; Thome, Kurt; Yin, Dazhong; Sprigg, William A.

    2006-08-01

    Dust is known to aggravate respiratory diseases. This is an issue in the desert southwestern United States, where windblown dust events are common. The Public Health Applications in Remote Sensing (PHAiRS) project aims to address this problem by using remote-sensing products to assist in public health decision support. As part of PHAiRS, a model for simulating desert dust cycles, the Dust Regional Atmospheric Modeling (DREAM) system is employed to forecast dust events in the southwestern US. Thus far, DREAM has been validated in the southwestern US only in the lower part of the atmosphere by comparison with measurement and analysis products from surface synoptic, surface Meteorological Aerodrome Report (METAR), and upper-air radiosonde. This study examines the validity of the DREAM algorithm dust load prediction in the desert southwestern United States by comparison with satellite-based MODIS level 2 and MODIS Deep Blue aerosol products, and ground-based observations from the AERONET network of sunphotometers. Results indicate that there are difficulties obtaining MODIS L2 aerosol optical thickness (AOT) data in the desert southwest due to low AOT algorithm performance over areas with high surface reflectances. MODIS Deep Blue aerosol products show improvement, but the temporal and vertical resolution of MODIS data limit its utility for DREAM evaluation. AERONET AOT data show low correlation to DREAM dust load predictions. The potential contribution of space- or ground-based lidar to the PHAiRS project is also examined.

  5. Transport of fluid and solutes in the body II. Model validation and implications.

    PubMed

    Gyenge, C C; Bowen, B D; Reed, R K; Bert, J L

    1999-09-01

    A mathematical model of short-term whole body fluid, protein, and ion distribution and transport developed earlier [see companion paper: C. C. Gyenge, B. D. Bowen, R. K. Reed, and J. L. Bert. Am. J. Physiol. 277 (Heart Circ. Physiol. 46): H1215-H1227, 1999] is validated using experimental data available in the literature. The model was tested against data measured for the following three types of experimental infusions: 1) hyperosmolar saline solutions with an osmolarity in the range of 2,000-2,400 mosmol/l, 2) saline solutions with an osmolarity of approximately 270 mosmol/l and composition comparable with Ringer solution, and 3) an isosmotic NaCl solution with an osmolarity of approximately 300 mosmol/l. Good agreement between the model predictions and the experimental data was obtained with respect to the trends and magnitudes of fluid shifts between the intra- and extracellular compartments, extracellular ion and protein contents, and hematocrit values. The model is also able to yield information about inaccessible or difficult-to-measure system variables such as intracellular ion contents, cellular volumes, and fluid fluxes across the vascular capillary membrane, data that can be used to help interpret the behavior of the system.

  6. Numerical Demonstration of Massive Sediment Transport and Cs Recontamination by River Flooding in Fukushima Costal Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machida, Masahiko; Yamada, Susumu; Itakura, Mitsuhiro; Okumura, Masahiko; Kitamura, Akihiro

    2014-05-01

    Radioactive Cs recontamination brought about by deposition of silt and clay on river beds has been a central issue of environmental recovery problems in Fukushima prefecture after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident. In fact, the river-side sediment monitored by using remote controlled helicopters and direct sampling measurements has been confirmed to be highly contaminated compared to the other areas, which just naturally decay. Such contamination transportation is especially remarkable in a few rivers in coastal areas of Fukushima prefecture, because their water and sediment are supplied from the highly contaminated area along the northwest direction from FDNPPs. Thus, we numerically study the sediment transportation in rivers by using 2D river simulation framework named iRIC developed by Shimizu et al. Consequently, we find that flood brought about by typhoon is mainly required for the massive transport and the sediment deposition in the flood plain is efficiently promoted by plants naturally grown on the plain. In this presentation, we reveal when and where the sediment deposition occurs in the event of floods through direct numerical simulations. We believe that the results are suggestive for the next planning issue related with decontamination in highly-contaminated evacuated districts.

  7. Effect of contact area on electron transport through graphene-metal interface.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongmei; Kondo, Hisashi; Ohno, Takahisa

    2013-08-21

    We perform first-principles investigations of electron transport in armchair graphene nanoribbons adsorbed on Cu(111) and Ni(111) surfaces with various contact areas. We find that the contact area between metals and graphene has different influences on the conductance. The Cu-graphene system shows an increase in differential conductance for more contact area at a low bias voltage, primarily originating from the shift of transmission peaks relative to the Fermi energy. As the bias increases, there is an irregular change of conductance, including a weak negative differential conductance for more contact area. In contrast, the conductance of the Ni-graphene junction is monotonically enhanced with increasing overlap area. The minority spin which shows a broad transmission is responsible for the conductance increase of Ni-graphene. These behaviors can be attributed to different mechanisms of the interfacial electron transport: Charge transfer between graphene and Cu largely dominates the transmission enhancement of Cu-graphene, whereas hybridization between graphene and Ni states plays a more important role in the transmission enhancement of Ni-graphene. The different behaviors of transmission increase correlate with not only the strength of the graphene-metal interaction but also the location of metal d states.

  8. Synopsis of hydrologic data collected by waste management for characterization of unsaturated transport at Area G

    SciTech Connect

    Vold, E.

    1998-03-01

    Data which have been collected by Los Alamos National Laboratory waste management for the hydrologic characterization of the subsurface at the low level radioactive waste disposal facility, Area G, are reported and discussed briefly. The data includes Unsaturated Flow Apparatus measurements of the unsaturated conductivity in samples from borehole G-5. Analysis compares these values to the predictions from van Genuchten estimates, and the implications for transport and data matching are discussed, especially at the location of the Vapor Phase Notch (VPN). There, evaporation drives a significant vapor flux and the liquid flux cannot be measured accurately by the UFA device.more » Data also include hydrologic characterization of samples from borehole G-5, Area G surface soils, Los Alamos (Cerros de Rio) basalt, Tsankawi and Cerro-Toledo layers, the Vapor Phase Notch (VPN), and additional new samples from the uppermost tuff layer at Area G. Hydraulic properties from these sample groups can be used to supplement the existing data base. The data in this report can be used to improve the accuracy and reduce the uncertainty in future computational modeling of the unsaturated transport at Area G. This report supports the maintenance plan for the Area G Performance Assessment.« less

  9. Adding faculty in transportation areas - year 2 & 3 : research progress on behavior and design of concrete structures.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-05-01

    The NUTC provides funds to help departments build up their faculty in the transportation field over the next five years. Broad : areas will be considered as listed in the UTC mission or other areas that relate to State Departments of Transportation a...

  10. Characterization of the Hanford 300 area burial grounds. Task IV. Biological transport

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzner, R.E.; Gano, K.A.; Rickard, W.H.

    The characteristics of radioactive waste burial sites at the 300 area burial grounds on the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, southeastern Washington were studied. The potential vectors of radionuclide transport studied were vegetation and animals. The overall results showed a low potential for uptake and transport of radionuclides from the 300 area sites. However, additional methods to control physical and biological mechanisms may contribute to the effectiveness of waste burial practices. From the results, the Biological Transport task recommended field studies which include reduction of soil erosion and addition of biobarriers to plants and animals. Vegetation plays a major rolemore » in reducing soil erosion, and thereby maintaining the backfill over the burial sites. Of the several species found on the 300 area sites, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) appears to be the most desirable as a cover. Besides retarding erosion, it has a shallow root system (does not easily penetrate buried material); it has a low affinity for radionuclide uptake; and its tissues are not easily blown away. Small mammals (specifically, mice) appear to have the most potential for radionuclide exposure and uptake. Small mammals were live-trapped within 10 x 10-meter trap grids. Each animal trapped was surgically implanted with a thermoluminescent dosimeter. When the animal was recaptured, the dosimeter was removed and read for exposure. Exposures were reported in milli-Roentgens. The most consistently trapped small mammals were the Great Basin pocket mouse (Perognathus parvus) and the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus). Results from the dosimeter readings showed that some of those animals had higher than background exposures. Biobarriers to animals could be considered as a mechanism to reduce the potential for radionuclide transport.« less

  11. Source areas and long-range transport of pollen from continental land to Tenerife (Canary Islands).

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Rebeca; Belmonte, Jordina; Avila, Anna; Alarcón, Marta; Cuevas, Emilio; Alonso-Pérez, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    The Canary Islands, due to their geographical position, constitute an adequate site for the study of long-range pollen transport from the surrounding land masses. In this study, we analyzed airborne pollen counts at two sites: Santa Cruz de Tenerife (SCO), at sea level corresponding to the marine boundary layer (MBL), and Izaña at 2,367 m.a.s.l. corresponding to the free troposphere (FT), for the years 2006 and 2007. We used three approaches to describe pollen transport: (1) a classification of provenances with an ANOVA test to describe pollen count differences between sectors; (2) a study of special events of high pollen concentrations, taking into consideration the corresponding meteorological synoptic pattern responsible for transport and back trajectories; and (3) a source-receptor model applied to a selection of the pollen taxa to show pollen source areas. Our results indicate several extra-regional pollen transport episodes to Tenerife. The main provenances were: (1) the Mediterranean region, especially the southern Iberian Peninsula and Morocco, through the trade winds in the MBL. These episodes were characterized by the presence of pollen from trees (Casuarina, Olea, Quercus perennial and deciduous types) mixed with pollen from herbs (Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae and Poaceae wild type). (2) The Saharan sector, through transport at the MBL level carrying pollen principally from herbs (Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Poaceae wild type) and, in one case, Casuarina pollen, uplifted to the free troposphere. And (3) the Sahel, characterized by low pollen concentrations of Arecaceae, Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Poaceae wild type in sporadic episodes. This research shows that sporadic events of long-range pollen transport need to be taken into consideration in Tenerife as possible responsible agents in respiratory allergy episodes. In particular, it is estimated that 89-97% of annual counts of the highly allergenous Olea

  12. Source areas and long-range transport of pollen from continental land to Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izquierdo, Rebeca; Belmonte, Jordina; Avila, Anna; Alarcón, Marta; Cuevas, Emilio; Alonso-Pérez, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    The Canary Islands, due to their geographical position, constitute an adequate site for the study of long-range pollen transport from the surrounding land masses. In this study, we analyzed airborne pollen counts at two sites: Santa Cruz de Tenerife (SCO), at sea level corresponding to the marine boundary layer (MBL), and Izaña at 2,367 m.a.s.l. corresponding to the free troposphere (FT), for the years 2006 and 2007. We used three approaches to describe pollen transport: (1) a classification of provenances with an ANOVA test to describe pollen count differences between sectors; (2) a study of special events of high pollen concentrations, taking into consideration the corresponding meteorological synoptic pattern responsible for transport and back trajectories; and (3) a source-receptor model applied to a selection of the pollen taxa to show pollen source areas. Our results indicate several extra-regional pollen transport episodes to Tenerife. The main provenances were: (1) the Mediterranean region, especially the southern Iberian Peninsula and Morocco, through the trade winds in the MBL. These episodes were characterized by the presence of pollen from trees ( Casuarina, Olea, Quercus perennial and deciduous types) mixed with pollen from herbs ( Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae and Poaceae wild type). (2) The Saharan sector, through transport at the MBL level carrying pollen principally from herbs (Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Poaceae wild type) and, in one case, Casuarina pollen, uplifted to the free troposphere. And (3) the Sahel, characterized by low pollen concentrations of Arecaceae, Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Cyperaceae and Poaceae wild type in sporadic episodes. This research shows that sporadic events of long-range pollen transport need to be taken into consideration in Tenerife as possible responsible agents in respiratory allergy episodes. In particular, it is estimated that 89-97% of annual counts of the highly allergenous Olea

  13. Accessible Transportation, Geographic Elevation, and Masticatory Ability Among Elderly Residents of a Rural Area.

    PubMed

    Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Tominaga, Kazumichi; Takeda, Miwako; Sundquist, Kristina; Nabika, Toru

    2015-06-26

    Given that public transportation networks are often worse in rural areas than in urban areas, rural residents who do not drive can find it difficult to access health-promoting goods, services, and resources related to masticatory ability. Moreover, geographical location, assessed by elevation, could modify this association. The aim of this study was to test whether the association between access to transportation and masticatory ability varied by elevation. Data were collected from a cross-sectional study conducted in Mizuho and Iwami counties, Japan. Objective masticatory ability was evaluated using a test gummy jelly and elevation was estimated by the geographic information systems according to the participant's address. After excluding subjects with missing data, 672 subjects (Mizuho = 401 and Iwami = 271) were analyzed. After adjustment for potential confounders, being a driver was not significantly associated with masticatory ability among elderly people living at low elevation (≤313 m) in Mizuho county. However, after the same adjustment, being a driver remained significantly associated with increased masticatory ability among elderly at high elevations. Similar findings were observed in Iwami county. Accessible transportation was significantly associated with increased mastication ability in elderly people living at high elevations, but not in those living at low elevations.

  14. Validity and clinical impact of glucose transporter 1 expression in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    GabAllah, Ghada M. K.; El-din Habib, Mona Salah; Soliman, Shimaa El-Shafey; Kasemy, Zienab A.; Gohar, Suzy F.

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aim: There is no doubt that colorectal cancer (CRC) poses a major threat to public health worldwide, and despite improvement in managements, prognosis still remains an irritating question with no definite answer. Being a fundamental player in cancer metabolism, glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) could be utilized as a prognostic biomarker that could fuel development of new treatment strategies. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of GLUT1 expression as a prognostic biomarker and to elucidate to what extent it is immersed in poor clinical outcome among CRC patients. Patients and Methods: GLUT1 expression in peripheral blood specimens was analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in 47 CRC patients and 20 healthy controls. Results: There was significantly elevated GLUT1 expression in peripheral blood of CRC patients than in controls (P < 0.001). The cutoff value of 0.605 provided 98% sensitivity and 100% specificity. There were significantly higher values of GLUT1 expression in patients under 50 years (P = 0.003), performance status 2 (P = 0.009), stage IV (P < 0.001), and presence of metastasis (P < 0.001). GLUT1 expression showed nonsignificant association with overall survival (P = 0.068), while tumor stage (P = 0.01) and metastasis (P = 0.009) were significantly associated with lower overall survival. Conclusion: GLUT1 is sensitive and specific marker for CRC. It is overexpressed in young age patients, poor performance status, and stage IV patients. Although this was not statistically significant, GLUT 1 showed higher expression level in patients with lesser survival. PMID:29205188

  15. Preliminary Checklist for Reporting Observational Studies in Sports Areas: Content Validity.

    PubMed

    Chacón-Moscoso, Salvador; Sanduvete-Chaves, Susana; Anguera, M Teresa; Losada, José L; Portell, Mariona; Lozano-Lozano, José A

    2018-01-01

    Observational studies are based on systematic observation, understood as an organized recording and quantification of behavior in its natural context. Applied to the specific area of sports, observational studies present advantages when comparing studies based on other designs, such as the flexibility for adapting to different contexts and the possibility of using non-standardized instruments as well as a high degree of development in specific software and data analysis. Although the importance and usefulness of sports-related observational studies have been widely shown, there is no checklist to report these studies. Consequently, authors do not have a guide to follow in order to include all of the important elements in an observational study in sports areas, and reviewers do not have a reference tool for assessing this type of work. To resolve these issues, this article aims to develop a checklist to measure the quality of sports-related observational studies based on a content validity study. The participants were 22 judges with at least 3 years of experience in observational studies, sports areas, and methodology. They evaluated a list of 60 items systematically selected and classified into 12 dimensions. They were asked to score four aspects of each item on 5-point Likert scales to measure the following dimensions: representativeness, relevance, utility, and feasibility. The judges also had an open-format section for comments. The Osterlind index was calculated for each item and for each of the four aspects. Items were considered appropriate when obtaining a score of at least 0.5 in the four assessed aspects. After considering these inclusion criteria and all of the open-format comments, the resultant checklist consisted of 54 items grouped into the same initial 12 dimensions. Finally, we highlight the strengths of this work. We also present its main limitation: the need to apply the resultant checklist to obtain data and, thus, increase quality indicators of

  16. Preliminary Checklist for Reporting Observational Studies in Sports Areas: Content Validity

    PubMed Central

    Chacón-Moscoso, Salvador; Sanduvete-Chaves, Susana; Anguera, M. Teresa; Losada, José L.; Portell, Mariona; Lozano-Lozano, José A.

    2018-01-01

    Observational studies are based on systematic observation, understood as an organized recording and quantification of behavior in its natural context. Applied to the specific area of sports, observational studies present advantages when comparing studies based on other designs, such as the flexibility for adapting to different contexts and the possibility of using non-standardized instruments as well as a high degree of development in specific software and data analysis. Although the importance and usefulness of sports-related observational studies have been widely shown, there is no checklist to report these studies. Consequently, authors do not have a guide to follow in order to include all of the important elements in an observational study in sports areas, and reviewers do not have a reference tool for assessing this type of work. To resolve these issues, this article aims to develop a checklist to measure the quality of sports-related observational studies based on a content validity study. The participants were 22 judges with at least 3 years of experience in observational studies, sports areas, and methodology. They evaluated a list of 60 items systematically selected and classified into 12 dimensions. They were asked to score four aspects of each item on 5-point Likert scales to measure the following dimensions: representativeness, relevance, utility, and feasibility. The judges also had an open-format section for comments. The Osterlind index was calculated for each item and for each of the four aspects. Items were considered appropriate when obtaining a score of at least 0.5 in the four assessed aspects. After considering these inclusion criteria and all of the open-format comments, the resultant checklist consisted of 54 items grouped into the same initial 12 dimensions. Finally, we highlight the strengths of this work. We also present its main limitation: the need to apply the resultant checklist to obtain data and, thus, increase quality indicators of

  17. Inter-machine validation study of neoclassical transport modelling in medium- to high-density stellarator-heliotron plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinklage, A.; Yokoyama, M.; Tanaka, K.; Velasco, J. L.; López-Bruna, D.; Beidler, C. D.; Satake, S.; Ascasíbar, E.; Arévalo, J.; Baldzuhn, J.; Feng, Y.; Gates, D.; Geiger, J.; Ida, K.; Isaev, M.; Jakubowski, M.; López-Fraguas, A.; Maaßberg, H.; Miyazawa, J.; Morisaki, T.; Murakami, S.; Pablant, N.; Kobayashi, S.; Seki, R.; Suzuki, C.; Suzuki, Y.; Turkin, Yu.; Wakasa, A.; Wolf, R.; Yamada, H.; Yoshinuma, M.; LHD Exp. Group; TJ-II Team; W7-AS Team

    2013-06-01

    A comparative study of energy transport for medium- to high-density discharges in the stellarator-heliotrons TJ-II, W7-AS and LHD is carried out. The specific discharge parameters are chosen to apply a recently concluded benchmarking study of neoclassical (NC) transport coefficients (Beidler et al 2011 Nucl. Fusion 51 076001) to perform this validation study. In contrast to previous experiments at low densities for which electron transport was predominant (Yokoyama et al 2007 Nucl. Fusion 47 1213), the current discharges also exhibit significant ion energy transport. As it affects the energy transport in 3D devices, the ambipolar radial electric field is addressed as well. For the discharges described, ion-root conditions, i.e. a small negative radial electric field were found. The energy transport in the peripheral region cannot be explained by NC theory. Within a ‘core region’(r/a < 1/2 ˜ 2/3), the predicted NC energy fluxes comply with experimental findings for W7-AS. For TJ-II, compliance in the core region is found for the particle transport and the electron energy transport. For the specific LHD discharges, the core energy transport complied with NC theory except for the electron energy transport in the inward-shifted magnetic configuration. The NC radial electric field tends to agree with experimental results for all devices but is measured to be more negative in the core of both LHD and TJ-II. As a general observation, the energy confinement time approaches the gyro-Bohm-type confinement scaling ISS04 (Yamada et al 2005 Nucl. Fusion 45 1684). This work is carried out within the International Stellarator-Heliotron Profile Database (www.ipp.mpg.de/ISS and http://ishpdb.nifs.ac.jp/index.html).

  18. Validation of Leaf Area Index measurements based on the Wireless Sensor Network platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Q.; Li, X.; Liu, Q.

    2017-12-01

    The leaf area index (LAI) is one of the important parameters for estimating plant canopy function, which has significance for agricultural analysis such as crop yield estimation and disease evaluation. The quick and accurate access to acquire crop LAI is particularly vital. In the study, LAI measurement of corn crops is mainly through three kinds of methods: the leaf length and width method (LAILLW), the instruments indirect measurement method (LAII) and the leaf area index sensor method(LAIS). Among them, LAI value obtained from LAILLW can be regarded as approximate true value. LAI-2200,the current widespread LAI canopy analyzer,is used in LAII. LAIS based on wireless sensor network can realize the automatic acquisition of crop images,simplifying the data collection work,while the other two methods need person to carry out field measurements.Through the comparison of LAIS and other two methods, the validity and reliability of LAIS observation system is verified. It is found that LAI trend changes are similar in three methods, and the rate of change of LAI has an increase with time in the first two months of corn growth when LAIS costs less manpower, energy and time. LAI derived from LAIS is more accurate than LAII in the early growth stage,due to the small blade especially under the strong light. Besides, LAI processed from a false color image with near infrared information is much closer to the true value than true color picture after the corn growth period up to one and half months.

  19. Hydrodynamic and transport responses to land reclamation in different areas of semi-enclosed subtropical bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ye; Chui, Ting Fong May

    2017-07-01

    Many coastal areas worldwide have been reclaimed to meet the increasing land demand. Understanding the effects of land reclamation on the hydrodynamics and transport processes of a semi-enclosed bay is therefore of significance. From a case study of Deep Bay (DB) in China and referring to idealized bay models, the effects of two types of land reclamation, one that narrows the bay mouth and another that reduces the water area inside the bay, were examined in this study. Simulation results of idealized models show that the current velocity at the bay mouth and the incoming tidal energy flux are negatively correlated with the width of bay mouth, as the tidal prism remains almost constant when the bay mouth width reduces. The bay mouth width reduction would also increase the tidal energy dissipation inside of the bay due to friction increase. In DB, a 30% reduction in the mouth width increased the bay mouth current velocity by up to 5% and the total incoming energy flux by 18%. The narrowed bay mouth also substantially changed the bay's vertical structure of salinity, increasing the stratification strength by 1.7×10-4 s-2. For reductions in the water surface area in the head of the bay, results from idealized bay simulations show that the current velocity throughout the bay, the incoming tidal energy flux, and salinity at the inner bay all decrease with water area reduction. Reclaiming 14% of area in DB, the current velocity reduced by 9% at the bay mouth, but increased in the middle and inner parts. The incoming tidal energy flux also increased as the coastline became more streamlined after reclamation, and the salinity at inner bay decreased. Both reclamation types have substantially altered the water and salt transport processes and increased the water exchange ability of the bay with the adjacent sea.

  20. A critical source area phosphorus index with topographic transport factors using high resolution LiDAR digital elevation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Ian; Murphy, Paul; Fenton, Owen; Shine, Oliver; Mellander, Per-Erik; Dunlop, Paul; Jordan, Phil

    2015-04-01

    A new phosphorus index (PI) tool is presented which aims to improve the identification of critical source areas (CSAs) of phosphorus (P) losses from agricultural land to surface waters. In a novel approach, the PI incorporates topographic indices rather than watercourse proximity as proxies for runoff risk, to account for the dominant control of topography on runoff-generating areas and P transport pathways. Runoff propensity and hydrological connectivity are modelled using the Topographic Wetness Index (TWI) and Network Index (NI) respectively, utilising high resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) to capture the influence of micro-topographic features on runoff pathways. Additionally, the PI attempts to improve risk estimates of particulate P losses by incorporating an erosion factor that accounts for fine-scale topographic variability within fields. Erosion risk is modelled using the Unit Stream Power Erosion Deposition (USPED) model, which integrates DEM-derived upslope contributing area and Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) factors. The PI was developed using field, sub-field and sub-catchment scale datasets of P source, mobilisation and transport factors, for four intensive agricultural catchments in Ireland representing different agri-environmental conditions. Datasets included soil test P concentrations, degree of P saturation, soil attributes, land use, artificial subsurface drainage locations, and 2 m resolution LiDAR DEMs resampled from 0.25 m resolution data. All factor datasets were integrated within a Geographical Information System (GIS) and rasterised to 2 m resolution. For each factor, values were categorised and assigned relative risk scores which ranked P loss potential. Total risk scores were calculated for each grid cell using a component formulation, which summed the products of weighted factor risk scores for runoff and erosion pathways. Results showed that the new PI was able to predict

  1. Spatio-Temporal Modelling of Dust Transport over Surface Mining Areas and Neighbouring Residential Zones.

    PubMed

    Matejicek, Lubos; Janour, Zbynek; Benes, Ludek; Bodnar, Tomas; Gulikova, Eva

    2008-06-06

    Projects focusing on spatio-temporal modelling of the living environment need to manage a wide range of terrain measurements, existing spatial data, time series, results of spatial analysis and inputs/outputs from numerical simulations. Thus, GISs are often used to manage data from remote sensors, to provide advanced spatial analysis and to integrate numerical models. In order to demonstrate the integration of spatial data, time series and methods in the framework of the GIS, we present a case study focused on the modelling of dust transport over a surface coal mining area, exploring spatial data from 3D laser scanners, GPS measurements, aerial images, time series of meteorological observations, inputs/outputs form numerical models and existing geographic resources. To achieve this, digital terrain models, layers including GPS thematic mapping, and scenes with simulation of wind flows are created to visualize and interpret coal dust transport over the mine area and a neighbouring residential zone. A temporary coal storage and sorting site, located near the residential zone, is one of the dominant sources of emissions. Using numerical simulations, the possible effects of wind flows are observed over the surface, modified by natural objects and man-made obstacles. The coal dust drifts with the wind in the direction of the residential zone and is partially deposited in this area. The simultaneous display of the digital map layers together with the location of the dominant emission source, wind flows and protected areas enables a risk assessment of the dust deposition in the area of interest to be performed. In order to obtain a more accurate simulation of wind flows over the temporary storage and sorting site, 3D laser scanning and GPS thematic mapping are used to create a more detailed digital terrain model. Thus, visualization of wind flows over the area of interest combined with 3D map layers enables the exploration of the processes of coal dust deposition at a

  2. Spatio-Temporal Modelling of Dust Transport over Surface Mining Areas and Neighbouring Residential Zones

    PubMed Central

    Matejicek, Lubos; Janour, Zbynek; Benes, Ludek; Bodnar, Tomas; Gulikova, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Projects focusing on spatio-temporal modelling of the living environment need to manage a wide range of terrain measurements, existing spatial data, time series, results of spatial analysis and inputs/outputs from numerical simulations. Thus, GISs are often used to manage data from remote sensors, to provide advanced spatial analysis and to integrate numerical models. In order to demonstrate the integration of spatial data, time series and methods in the framework of the GIS, we present a case study focused on the modelling of dust transport over a surface coal mining area, exploring spatial data from 3D laser scanners, GPS measurements, aerial images, time series of meteorological observations, inputs/outputs form numerical models and existing geographic resources. To achieve this, digital terrain models, layers including GPS thematic mapping, and scenes with simulation of wind flows are created to visualize and interpret coal dust transport over the mine area and a neighbouring residential zone. A temporary coal storage and sorting site, located near the residential zone, is one of the dominant sources of emissions. Using numerical simulations, the possible effects of wind flows are observed over the surface, modified by natural objects and man-made obstacles. The coal dust drifts with the wind in the direction of the residential zone and is partially deposited in this area. The simultaneous display of the digital map layers together with the location of the dominant emission source, wind flows and protected areas enables a risk assessment of the dust deposition in the area of interest to be performed. In order to obtain a more accurate simulation of wind flows over the temporary storage and sorting site, 3D laser scanning and GPS thematic mapping are used to create a more detailed digital terrain model. Thus, visualization of wind flows over the area of interest combined with 3D map layers enables the exploration of the processes of coal dust deposition at a

  3. Validation of the thermal transport model used for ITER startup scenario predictions with DIII-D experimental data

    DOE PAGES

    Casper, T. A.; Meyer, W. H.; Jackson, G. L.; ...

    2010-12-08

    We are exploring characteristics of ITER startup scenarios in similarity experiments conducted on the DIII-D Tokamak. In these experiments, we have validated scenarios for the ITER current ramp up to full current and developed methods to control the plasma parameters to achieve stability. Predictive simulations of ITER startup using 2D free-boundary equilibrium and 1D transport codes rely on accurate estimates of the electron and ion temperature profiles that determine the electrical conductivity and pressure profiles during the current rise. Here we present results of validation studies that apply the transport model used by the ITER team to DIII-D discharge evolutionmore » and comparisons with data from our similarity experiments.« less

  4. Characteristics of residential areas and transportational walking among frail and non-frail Dutch elderly: does the size of the area matter?

    PubMed

    Etman, Astrid; Kamphuis, Carlijn B M; Prins, Richard G; Burdorf, Alex; Pierik, Frank H; van Lenthe, Frank J

    2014-03-04

    A residential area supportive for walking may facilitate elderly to live longer independently. However, current evidence on area characteristics potentially important for walking among older persons is mixed. This study hypothesized that the importance of area characteristics for transportational walking depends on the size of the area characteristics measured, and older person's frailty level. The study population consisted of 408 Dutch community-dwelling persons aged 65 years and older participating in the Elderly And their Neighborhood (ELANE) study in 2011-2012. Characteristics (aesthetics, functional features, safety, and destinations) of areas surrounding participants' residences ranging from a buffer of 400 meters up to 1600 meters (based on walking path networks) were linked with self-reported transportational walking using linear regression analyses. In addition, interaction effects between frailty level and area characteristics were tested. An increase in functional features (e.g. presence of sidewalks and benches) within a 400 meter buffer, in aesthetics (e.g. absence of litter and graffiti) within 800 and 1200 meter buffers, and an increase of one destination per buffer of 400 and 800 meters were associated with more transportational walking, up to 2.89 minutes per two weeks (CI 1.07-7.32; p < 0.05). No differences were found between frail and non-frail elderly. Better functional and aesthetic features, and more destinations in the residential area of community-dwelling older persons were associated with more transportational walking. The importance of area characteristics for transportational walking differs by area size, but not by frailty level. Neighbourhood improvements may increase transportational walking among older persons, thereby contributing to living longer independently.

  5. Reliability and Validity of Ultrasound Cross Sectional Area Measurements for Long-Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Jessica M.; Martin, David S.; Cunningham, David; Matz, Timothy; Caine, Timothy; Hackney, Kyle J.; Arzeno, Natalia; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2010-01-01

    Limb muscle atrophy and the accompanying decline in function can adversely affect the performance of astronauts during mission-related activities and upon re-ambulation in a gravitational environment. Previous characterization of space flight-induced muscle atrophy has been performed using pre and post flight magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition to being costly and time consuming, MRI is an impractical methodology for assessing in-flight changes in muscle size. Given the mobility of ultrasound (US) equipment, it may be more feasible to evaluate changes in muscle size using this technique. PURPOSE: To examine the reliability and validity of using a customized template to acquire panoramic ultrasound (US) images for determining quadriceps and gastrocnemius anatomical cross sectional area (CSA). METHODS: Vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF), medial gastrocnemius (MG), and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) CSA were assessed in 10 healthy individuals (36+/-2 yrs) using US and MRI. Panoramic US images were acquired by 2 sonographers using a customized template placed on the thigh and calf and analyzed by the same 2 sonographers (CX50 Philips). MRI images of the leg were acquired while subjects were supine in a 1.5T scanner (Signa Horizon LX, General Electric) and were analyzed by 3 trained investigators. The average of the 2 US and 3 MRI values were used for validity analysis. RESULTS: High inter-experimenter reliability was found for both the US template and MRI analysis as coefficients of variation across muscles ranged from 2.4 to 4.1% and 2.8 to 3.8%, respectively. Significant correlations were found between US and MRI CSA measures (VL, r = 0.85; RF, r = 0.60; MG, r = 0.86; LG, r = 0.73; p < 0.05). Furthermore, the standard error of measurement between US and MRI ranged from 0.91 to 2.09 sq cm with high limits of agreement analyzed by Bland-Altman plots. However, there were significant differences between absolute values of MRI and US for all muscles

  6. A study of sediment transport and erosion in the Fourchon area of south Louisiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Self, R. P.

    1973-01-01

    Aerial photography in the form of color infrared and color positive transparencies were used as aids in evaluating the rate and effect of erosion and sediment transport in Bay Champagne, a coastal marshland of Louisiana. Problems were found in the aerial photography method used. Vegetational differences do not always reflect sediment differences. Only areas containing different soils and sediments are easily defined with aerial photography. The shoreline erosion rate is 75 to 100 ft/yr. Areas which are undergoing erosion shift due to changes in wave refraction. In canals and channels with strong currents, erosion also occurs at a rapid rate. It is recommended that drainage patterns be studied carefully before breaches are made as man-made breaches could reverse drainage.

  7. Atmospheric transport of pesticides in the Sacramento, California, metropolitan area, 1996-1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Majewski, Michael S.; Baston, David S.

    2002-01-01

    Weekly composite, bulk air was sampled with respect to wind speed and direction from January 1996 through December 1997 in one urban and two agricultural locations in Sacramento County, California. The sampling sites were located along a north-south transect, the dominant directions of the prevailing winds. The samples were analyzed for a variety of current-use pesticides, including dormant orchard spray insecticides and rice herbicides. A variety of pesticides were detected throughout the year, predominantly chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and trifluralin. The data obtained during the winter and spring suggest that some pesticides used in agricultural areas become airborne and may be transported into the urban area. Confirmation of this drift is difficult, however, because these three predominant pesticides, as well as other detected pesticides, also are heavily used in the urban environment. The spring data clearly show that molinate and thiobencarb, two herbicides used only in rice production, do drift into the urban environment.

  8. [Mercury Transport from Glacier to Runoff in Typical Inland Glacial Area in the Tibetan Plateau].

    PubMed

    Sun, Xue-jun; Wang, Kang; Guo, Jun-ming; Kang, Shi-chang; Zhang, Guo-shuai; Huang, Jie; Cong, Zhi-yuan; Zhang, Qiang-gong

    2016-02-15

    To investigate the transport of mercury from glacier to runoff in typical inland glacial area in the Tibetan Plateau, we selected Zhadang glacier and Qugaqie river Basin located in the Nyainqentanglha Range region and collected samples from snow pit, glacier melt-water and Qugaqie river water during 15th August to 9'h September 2011. Mercury speciation and concentrations were determined and their distribution and controlling factors in different environmental compartments were analyzed. The results showed that the average THg concentrations were (3.79 +/- 5.12) ng x L(-1), (1.06 +/- 0.77) ng x L(-1) and (1.02 +/- 0.24) ng x L(-1) for glacier snow, glacier melt-water and Qugaqie river water, respectively, all of which were at the global background levels. Particulate-bound mercury accounted for large proportion of mercury in all environmental matrices, while mercury in glacial melt-water was controlled by total suspended particle, and mercury in Qugaqie river water co-varied with runoff. With the increase of temperature, glacier melted and released water as well as mercury into glacier-fed river. Total mercury concentrations in glacier melt water, upstream and downstream peaked at 14:00, 16:00 and after 20:00, respectively, reflecting the process of mercury release from glacier and its subsequent transport in the glacier fed river. The transport of riverine mercury was controlled by multiple factors. Under the context of climate change, glacier ablation and the increasing runoff will play increasingly important roles in mercury release and transport.

  9. Connecting source aggregating areas with distributive regions via Optimal Transportation theory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzoni, S.; Putti, M.

    2016-12-01

    We study the application of Optimal Transport (OT) theory to the transfer of water and sediments from a distributed aggregating source to a distributing area connected by a erodible hillslope. Starting from the Monge-Kantorovich equations, We derive a global energy functional that nonlinearly combines the cost of constructing the drainage network over the entire domain and the cost of water and sediment transportation through the network. It can be shown that the minimization of this functional is equivalent to the infinite time solution of a system of diffusion partial differential equations coupled with transient ordinary differential equations, that closely resemble the classical conservation laws of water and sediments mass and momentum. We present several numerical simulations applied to realstic test cases. For example, the solution of the proposed model forms network configurations that share strong similiratities with rill channels formed on an hillslope. At a larger scale, we obtain promising results in simulating the network patterns that ensure a progressive and continuous transition from a drainage drainage area to a distributive receiving region.

  10. Airborne Quercus pollen in SW Spain: Identifying favourable conditions for atmospheric transport and potential source areas.

    PubMed

    Maya-Manzano, José María; Fernández-Rodríguez, Santiago; Smith, Matt; Tormo-Molina, Rafael; Reynolds, Andrew M; Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada; Gonzalo-Garijo, Ángela; Sadyś, Magdalena

    2016-11-15

    The pollen grains of Quercus spp. (oak trees) are allergenic. This study investigates airborne Quercus pollen in SW Spain with the aim identifying favourable conditions for atmospheric transport and potential sources areas. Two types of Quercus distribution maps were produced. Airborne Quercus pollen concentrations were measured at three sites located in the Extremadura region (SW Spain) for 3 consecutive years. The seasonal occurrence of Quercus pollen in the air was investigated, as well as days with pollen concentrations ≥80Pm(-3). The distance that Quercus pollen can be transported in appreciable numbers was calculated using clusters of back trajectories representing the air mass movement above the source areas (oak woodlands), and by using a state-of-the-art dispersion model. The two main potential sources of Quercus airborne pollen captured in SW Spain are Q. ilex subsp. ballota and Q. suber. The minimum distances between aerobiological stations and Quercus woodlands have been estimated as: 40km (Plasencia), 66km (Don Benito), 62km (Zafra) from the context of this study. Daily mean Quercus pollen concentration can exceed 1,700Pm(-3), levels reached not less than 24 days in a single year. High Quercus pollen concentration were mostly associated with moderate wind speed events (6-10ms(-1)), whereas that a high wind speed (16-20ms(-1)) seems to be associated with low concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Summer variability of Saharan dust transport events in mountain areas north and south of Po basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landi, Tony C.; Marinoni, Angela; Cristofanelli, Paolo; Putero, Davide; Duchi, Rocco; Alborghetti, Marcello; Bonafè, Ubaldo; Calzolari, Francescopiero; Pietro Verza, Gian; Bonasoni, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    Mineral dust intrusions from northern African desert regions have a strong impact on the Mediterranean areas and Italian peninsula as they can cause an anomalous increase of aerosol concentrations in the tropospheric column and often an increase of particulate matter at ground level. The estimate of Saharan dust contribution to aerosols concentrations is therefore a key issue in air quality assessment and policy formulation, since can cause air quality exceedances of the PM10 daily limits (50 μg m-3) set by the European Union (EU/2008/50). This study presents a first identification and characterization of Saharan dust outbreaks observed during summer season at two high mountain stations located both South (Mt. Cimone, 2165 m asl) and North (Rifugio Guasti, Stelvio National Park, 3285 m asl) of Po valley. An estimation of their impact on PM10 concentrations in both sites, and in urban and rural areas of the Po basin is provided. Joining specific measurements (ground and satellite based) and numerical modeling, an investigation into the vertical structure of dust load will be presented. Actually, methodologies conceived for distinguishing dust outbreaks transported above the boundary layer without any impact at the ground level from those causing deposition are currently still lacking. Basically, the approach proposed in this work includes a deep analysis of in-situ measurements starting from long-term observation of Saharan dust carried out at the Mt. Cimone and more recent measurements performed in the framework of SHARE Stelvio Project, as well as the usage of ad hoc model chain (meteorological processor, chemical transport model, and aerosols optical properties calculation) to describe emission, transport and deposition dynamics of mineral dust that - in summertime - often affect the North Italy.

  12. Fungicides transport in runoff from vineyard plot and catchment: contribution of non-target areas.

    PubMed

    Lefrancq, Marie; Payraudeau, Sylvain; García Verdú, Antonio Joaquín; Maillard, Elodie; Millet, Maurice; Imfeld, Gwenaël

    2014-04-01

    Surface runoff and erosion during the course of rainfall events are major processes of pesticides transport from agricultural land to aquatic ecosystem. These processes are generally evaluated either at the plot or the catchment scale. Here, we compared at both scales the transport and partitioning in runoff water of two widely used fungicides, i.e., kresoxim-methyl (KM) and cyazofamid (CY). The objective was to evaluate the relationship between fungicides runoff from the plot and from the vineyard catchment. The results show that seasonal exports for KM and CY at the catchment were larger than those obtained at the plot. This underlines that non-target areas within the catchment largely contribute to the overall load of runoff-associated fungicides. Estimations show that 85 and 62 % of the loads observed for KM and CY at the catchment outlet cannot be explained by the vineyard plots. However, the partitioning of KM and CY between three fractions, i.e., the suspended solids (>0.7 μm) and two dissolved fractions (i.e., between 0.22 and 0.7 µm and <0.22 µm) in runoff water was similar at both scales. KM was predominantly detected below 0.22 μm, whereas CY was mainly detected in the fraction between 0.22 and 0.7 μm. Although KM and CY have similar physicochemical properties and are expected to behave similarly, our results show that their partitioning between two fractions of the dissolved phase differs largely. It is concluded that combined observations of pesticide runoff at both the catchment and the plot scales enable to evaluate the sources areas of pesticide off-site transport.

  13. Monitoring boreal forest leaf area index across a Siberian burn chronosequence: a MODIS validation study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, X.; Vierling, Lee; Deering, D.; Conley, A.

    2005-01-01

    Landscapes containing differing amounts of ecological disturbance provide an excellent opportunity to validate and better understand the emerging Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) vegetation products. Four sites, including 1‐year post‐fire coniferous, 13‐year post‐fire deciduous, 24‐year post‐fire deciduous, and >100 year old post‐fire coniferous forests, were selected to serve as a post‐fire chronosequence in the central Siberian region of Krasnoyarsk (57.3°N, 91.6°E) with which to study the MODIS leaf area index (LAI) and vegetation index (VI) products. The collection 4 MODIS LAI product correctly represented the summer site phenologies, but significantly underestimated the LAI value of the >100 year old coniferous forest during the November to April time period. Landsat 7‐derived enhanced vegetation index (EVI) performed better than normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to separate the deciduous and conifer forests, and both indices contained significant correlation with field‐derived LAI values at coniferous forest sites (r 2 = 0.61 and r 2 = 0.69, respectively). The reduced simple ratio (RSR) markedly improved LAI prediction from satellite measurements (r 2 = 0.89) relative to NDVI and EVI. LAI estimates derived from ETM+ images were scaled up to evaluate the 1 km resolution MODIS LAI product; from this analysis MODIS LAI overestimated values in the low LAI deciduous forests (where LAI<5) and underestimated values in the high LAI conifer forests (where LAI>6). Our results indicate that further research on the MODIS LAI product is warranted to better understand and improve remote LAI quantification in disturbed forest landscapes over the course of the year.

  14. Validation and evaluation of common large-area display set (CLADS) performance specification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermann, David J.; Gorenflo, Ronald L.

    1998-09-01

    Battelle is under contract with Warner Robins Air Logistics Center to design a Common Large Area Display Set (CLADS) for use in multiple Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence (C4I) applications that currently use 19- inch Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs). Battelle engineers have built and fully tested pre-production prototypes of the CLADS design for AWACS, and are completing pre-production prototype displays for three other platforms simultaneously. With the CLADS design, any display technology that can be packaged to meet the form, fit, and function requirements defined by the Common Large Area Display Head Assembly (CLADHA) performance specification is a candidate for CLADS applications. This technology independent feature reduced the risk of CLADS development, permits life long technology insertion upgrades without unnecessary redesign, and addresses many of the obsolescence problems associated with COTS technology-based acquisition. Performance and environmental testing were performed on the AWACS CLADS and continues on other platforms as a part of the performance specification validation process. A simulator assessment and flight assessment were successfully completed for the AWACS CLADS, and lessons learned from these assessments are being incorporated into the performance specifications. Draft CLADS specifications were released to potential display integrators and manufacturers for review in 1997, and the final version of the performance specifications are scheduled to be released to display integrators and manufacturers in May, 1998. Initial USAF applications include replacements for the E-3 AWACS color monitor assembly, E-8 Joint STARS graphics display unit, and ABCCC airborne color display. Initial U.S. Navy applications include the E-2C ACIS display. For these applications, reliability and maintainability are key objectives. The common design will reduce the cost of operation and maintenance by an estimated 3.3M per year on E-3 AWACS

  15. Adding faculty in transportation areas - year 2 and 3 : research progress on seismic fragility assessment of bridge structures

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-02-01

    The NUTC provides funds to help departments build up their faculty in the transportation field over the next five years. Broadareas will be considered as listed in the UTC mission or other areas that relate to State Departments of Transportation and ...

  16. Management and analysis of Michigan intelligent transportation systems center data with application to the Detroit area I-75 corridor.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-02-01

    An understanding of traffic flow in time and space is fundamental to the development of : strategies for the efficient use of the existing transportation infrastructure in large : metropolitan areas. Thus, this project involved developing the methods...

  17. Evaluation of the Specialized, Volunteer Transportation Program of the Area IV Agency on Aging and Community Service

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1987-08-01

    This report contains an evaluation of a specialized volunteer, rural : transportation program implemented in April of 1986. The Area IV Agency on : Aging and Community Services received a grant from the Urban Mass Transit : Administration for this pr...

  18. Assessment of Colorado Department of Transportation rest areas for sustainability improvements and highway corridors and facilities for alternative energy use

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-03-01

    The research project focused on two sustainability based elements associated with the Colorado Department of Transportation : (CDOT) Maintenance operations, namely rest areas and right-of-way (ROW) utilization. For the first element, a sustainability...

  19. Ammonia emissions, transport, and deposition downwind of agricultural areas at local to regional scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zondlo, Mark; Pan, Da; Golston, Levi; Sun, Kang; Tao, Lei

    2016-04-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emissions from agricultural areas show extreme spatiotemporal variations, yet agricultural emissions dominate the global NH3 budget and ammoniated aerosols are a dominant component of unhealthy fine particulate matter. The emissions of NH3 and their deposition near and downwind of agricultural areas is complex. As part of a multi-year field intensive along the Colorado Front Range (including the NASA DISCOVER-AQ and NSF FRAPPE field experiments), we have examined temporal emissions of NH3 from feedlots, regional transport of ammonia and ammoniated aerosols from the plains to relatively pristine regions in Rocky Mountain National Park, and dry deposition and re-emission of grassland NH3 in the park. Eddy covariance measurements at feedlots and natural grasslands in the mountains were conducted with newly-developed open-path, eddy covariance laser-based sensors for NH3 (0.7 ng NH3/m2/s detection limit at 10 Hz). These measurements were coupled with other NH3/NHx measurements from mobile laboratories, aircraft, and satellite to examine the transport of NH3 from agricultural areas to cleaner regions downwind. At the farm level, eddy covariance NH3 fluxes showed a strong diurnal component correlated with temperature regardless of the season but with higher absolute emissions in summer than winter. While farm-to-farm variability (N=62 feedlots) was high, similar diurnal trends were observed at all sites regardless of individual farm type (dairy, beef, sheep, poultry, pig). Deposition at scales of several km showed relatively small deposition (10% loss) based upon NH3/CH4 tracer correlations, though the NH3 concentrations were so elevated (up to ppmv) that these losses should not be neglected when considering near-farm deposition. Ammonia was efficiently transported at least 150 km during upslope events to the Colorado Front Range (ele. 3000-4000 m) based upon aircraft, mobile laboratory, and model measurements. The gas phase lifetime of NH3 was estimated to

  20. Geohydrology and contamination at the Michigan Department of Transportation maintenance garage area, Kalamazoo County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lynch, E.A.; Huffman, G.C.

    1996-01-01

    A leaking underground storage tank was removed from the Michigan Department of Transportation maintenance garage area in Kalamazoo County., Mich., in 1985. The tank had been leaking unleaded gasoline. Although a remediation system was operational at the site for several years after the tank was removed, ground-water samples collected from monitoring wells in the area consistently showed high concentrations of benzene, toluene. ethylbenzene, and xylenes--indicators of the presence of gasoline. The U.S. Geological Survey did a study in cooperation with the Michigan Department of Transportation, to define the geology, hydrology, and occurrence of gasoline contamination in the maintenance garage area. The aquifer affected by gasoline contamination is an unconfined glaci'a.l sand and gravel aquifer. The average depth to water in the study area is about 74.7 feet. Water-level fluctuations are small; maximum fluctuation was slightly more than 1 foot during August 1993-August 1994. Hydraulic conductivities based on aquifer-test data collected for the study and estimated by use of the Cooper-Jacob method of solution ranged from 130 to 144 feet per day. Ground water is moving in an east-southeasterly direction at a rate of about I foot per day. Leakage from perforated pipes leading from the underground storage tanks to the pump station was identified as a second source of gasoline contamination to saturated and unsaturated zones. The existence of this previously unknown second source is part of the reason that previous remediation efforts were ineffective. Residual contaminants in the unsaturated zone are expected to continue to move to the water table with recharge, except in a small area covered by asphalt at the land surface. The gasoline plume from the perforated pipe source has merged with that from the leaking underground storage tank, and the combined plume in the saturated zone is estimated to cover an area of 30,000 square feet. The combined plume is in the upper 20

  1. 22 CFR 51.63 - Passports invalid for travel into or through restricted areas; prohibition on passports valid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Passports invalid for travel into or through restricted areas; prohibition on passports valid only for travel to Israel. 51.63 Section 51.63 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Denial, Revocation, and Restriction of...

  2. 22 CFR 51.63 - Passports invalid for travel into or through restricted areas; prohibition on passports valid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Passports invalid for travel into or through restricted areas; prohibition on passports valid only for travel to Israel. 51.63 Section 51.63 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Denial, Revocation, and Restriction of...

  3. 22 CFR 51.63 - Passports invalid for travel into or through restricted areas; prohibition on passports valid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Passports invalid for travel into or through restricted areas; prohibition on passports valid only for travel to Israel. 51.63 Section 51.63 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Denial, Revocation, and Restriction of...

  4. 22 CFR 51.63 - Passports invalid for travel into or through restricted areas; prohibition on passports valid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Passports invalid for travel into or through restricted areas; prohibition on passports valid only for travel to Israel. 51.63 Section 51.63 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Denial, Revocation, and Restriction of...

  5. 22 CFR 51.63 - Passports invalid for travel into or through restricted areas; prohibition on passports valid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Passports invalid for travel into or through restricted areas; prohibition on passports valid only for travel to Israel. 51.63 Section 51.63 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS PASSPORTS Denial, Revocation, and Restriction of...

  6. Validity of the Fine Motor Area of the 12-Month Ages and Stages Questionnaire in Infants Following Major Surgery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Cally; Wallen, Margaret; Walker, Karen; Bundy, Anita; Rolinson, Rachel; Badawi, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    The Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) are parent-report screening tools to identify infants at risk of developmental difficulties. The purpose of this study was to examine validity and internal reliability of the fine motor developmental area of the ASQ, 2nd edition (ASQ2-FM) for screening 12-month-old infants following major surgery. The…

  7. Transportation Analysis and Feasibility Study : Sabino Canyon Recreation Area, Coronado National Forest

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-02-28

    The goal of this report is to identify potential transportation solutions to issues that have been identified : at Sabino Canyon. Examples of future transportation systems are provided to show a variety of future : transportation conditions within th...

  8. Hampton Roads, Virginia eight-hour ozone maintenance area transportation conformity analysis : 2030 long range transportation plan and FY 09-12 transportation improvement program, draft report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-05-01

    This report presents the regional conformity analysis and recommendation for a finding : of conformity for the Hampton Roads 2030 Long Range Transportation Plan (LRTP, or : "Plan") and associated Fiscal Year (FY) 2009-2012 Transportation Improvement ...

  9. Hampton Roads, Virginia eight-hour ozone maintenance area transportation conformity analysis : 2030 long range transportation plan and FY 09-12 transportation improvement program, draft executive summary.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-05-01

    This report presents the regional conformity analysis and recommendation for a finding of conformity for the Hampton Roads 2030 Long Range Transportation Plan (LRTP, or "Plan") and associated Fiscal Year (FY) 2009-2012 Transportation Improvement Prog...

  10. Traffic data collection for transportation planning in the Dallas-Fort Worth area. Interim research report, January 1994-July 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Perkinson, D.G.; Dresser, G.B.

    1995-07-01

    The Texas Transportation Institute (TTI), under a contract with the Dallas District of the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT), provided traffic data for the North Central Texas Council of Governments (NCTOG) for their transportation planning in the Dallas-Fort Worth area. This effort included volume counts, vehicle classification counts, and speed data for 23 urban corridors in the area. In addition, external station volume counts were collected for 32 external stations, and journey travel time data were collected for nine activity centers.

  11. Stated choice for transportation demand management models : using a disaggregate truth set to study predictive validity

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-01-01

    Discrete choice models have expanded the ability of transportation planners to forecast future trends. Where new services or policies are proposed, the stated-choice approach can provide an objective basis for forecasts. Stated-choice models are subj...

  12. PREDICTING SUBSURFACE CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT AND TRANSFORMATION: CONSIDERATIONS FOR MODEL SELECTION AND FIELD VALIDATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Predicting subsurface contaminant transport and transformation requires mathematical models based on a variety of physical, chemical, and biological processes. The mathematical model is an attempt to quantitatively describe observed processes in order to permit systematic forecas...

  13. Active transportation and demand management (ATDM) trajectory-level validation state of the practice review.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-04-15

    This state of the practice review is a literature and industry review of existing vehicle trajectory datasets, vehicle trajectory collection methods, and traffic simulation model validation techniques. This report has the following four sections and ...

  14. Mathematical Modeling and Experimental Validation of Nanoemulsion-Based Drug Transport across Cellular Barriers.

    PubMed

    Kadakia, Ekta; Shah, Lipa; Amiji, Mansoor M

    2017-07-01

    Nanoemulsions have shown potential in delivering drug across epithelial and endothelial cell barriers, which express efflux transporters. However, their transport mechanisms are not entirely understood. Our goal was to investigate the cellular permeability of nanoemulsion-encapsulated drugs and apply mathematical modeling to elucidate transport mechanisms and sensitive nanoemulsion attributes. Transport studies were performed in Caco-2 cells, using fish oil nanoemulsions and a model substrate, rhodamine-123. Permeability data was modeled using a semi-mechanistic approach, capturing the following cellular processes: endocytotic uptake of the nanoemulsion, release of rhodamine-123 from the nanoemulsion, efflux and passive permeability of rhodamine-123 in aqueous solution. Nanoemulsions not only improved the permeability of rhodamine-123, but were also less sensitive to efflux transporters. The model captured bidirectional permeability results and identified sensitive processes, such as the release of the nanoemulsion-encapsulated drug and cellular uptake of the nanoemulsion. Mathematical description of cellular processes, improved our understanding of transport mechanisms, such as nanoemulsions don't inhibit efflux to improve drug permeability. Instead, their endocytotic uptake, results in higher intracellular drug concentrations, thereby increasing the concentration gradient and transcellular permeability across biological barriers. Modeling results indicated optimizing nanoemulsion attributes like the droplet size and intracellular drug release rate, may further improve drug permeability.

  15. Developing a model law restricting the transporting of passengers in the cargo areas of pickup trucks.

    PubMed

    Christoffel, T; Agran, P; Winn, D; Anderson, C; Del Valle, C

    2000-01-01

    Pickup trucks have become increasingly popular in the United States, accounting for about one in five vehicles involved in fatal motor-vehicle crashes. A critical factor in these deaths is the practice of carrying passengers in truck cargo areas, which are not designed for this purpose. Each year approximately 200 deaths occur to occupants riding in the back of pickup trucks. Over half the states have laws dealing with preventable injury problem, but these laws vary widely and most are too limited to be effective. We have reviewed existing laws, as well as crash injury data, and we have developed and recommend a model bill. The bill focuses on intended use, restricting passengers to only those portions of a vehicle designed for human transport. We have also conducted and report on a survey of legislative sponsors of pickup truck legislation.

  16. Graphene oxide hole transport layers for large area, high efficiency organic solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Chris T. G.; Rhodes, Rhys W.; Beliatis, Michail J.

    2014-08-18

    Graphene oxide (GO) is becoming increasingly popular for organic electronic applications. We present large active area (0.64 cm{sup 2}), solution processable, poly[[9-(1-octylnonyl)-9H-carbazole-2,7-diyl]-2,5-thiophenediyl-2,1, 3-benzothiadiazole-4,7-diyl-2,5-thiophenediyl]:[6,6]-Phenyl C{sub 71} butyric acid methyl ester (PCDTBT:PC{sub 70}BM) organic photovoltaic (OPV) solar cells, incorporating GO hole transport layers (HTL). The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of ∼5% is the highest reported for OPV using this architecture. A comparative study of solution-processable devices has been undertaken to benchmark GO OPV performance with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) HTL devices, confirming the viability of GO devices, with comparable PCEs, suitable as high chemical and thermal stability replacements for PEDOT:PSS in OPV.

  17. Two-Fluid Models and Interfacial Area Transport in Microgravity Condition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishii, Mamoru; Sun, Xiao-Dong; Vasavada, Shilp

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to develop a two-fluid model formulation with interfacial area transport equation applicable for microgravity conditions. The new model is expected to make a leapfrog improvement by furnishing the constitutive relations for the interfacial interaction terms with the interfacial area transport equation, which can dynamically model the changes of the interfacial structures. In the first year of this three-year project supported by the U.S. NASA, Office of Biological and Physics Research, the primary focus is to design and construct a ground-based, microgravity two-phase flow simulation facility, in which two immiscible fluids with close density will be used. In predicting the two-phase flow behaviors in any two-phase flow system, the interfacial transfer terms are among the most essential factors in the modeling. These interfacial transfer terms in a two-fluid model specify the rate of phase change, momentum exchange, and energy transfer at the interface between the two phases. For the two-phase flow under the microgravity condition, the stability of the fluid particle interface and the interfacial structures are quite different from those under normal gravity condition. The flow structure may not reach an equilibrium condition and the two fluids may be loosely coupled such that the inertia terms of each fluid should be considered separately by use of the two-fluid model. Previous studies indicated that, unless phase-interaction terms are accurately modeled in the two-fluid model, the complex modeling does not necessarily warrant an accurate solution.

  18. Residence times of groundwater and nitrate transport in coastal aquifer systems: Daweijia area, northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Han, Dongmei; Cao, Guoliang; McCallum, James; Song, Xianfang

    2015-12-15

    Groundwater within the coastal aquifer systems of the Daweijia area in northeastern China is characterized by a large of variations (33-521mg/L) in NO3(-) concentrations. Elevated nitrate concentrations, in addition to seawater intrusion in the Daweijia well field, both attributable to anthropogenic activities, may impact future water-management practices. Chemical and stable isotopic (δ(18)O, δ(2)H) analysis, (3)H and CFCs methods were applied to provide a better understanding of the relationship between the distribution of groundwater mean residence time (MRT) and nitrate transport, and to identify sources of nitrate concentrations in the complex coastal aquifer systems. There is a relatively narrow range of isotopic composition (ranging from -8.5 to -7.0‰) in most groundwater. Generally higher tritium contents observed in the wet season relative to the dry season may result from rapid groundwater circulation in response to the rainfall through the preferential flow paths. In the well field, the relatively increased nitrate concentrations of groundwater, accompanied by the higher tritium contents in the wet season, indicate the nitrate pollution can be attributed to domestic wastes. The binary exponential and piston-flow mixing model (BEP) yielded feasible age distributions based on the conceptual model. The good inverse relationship between groundwater MRTs (92-467years) and the NO3(-) concentrations in the shallow Quaternary aquifers indicates that elevated nitrate concentrations are attributable to more recent recharge for shallow groundwater. However, there is no significant relationship between the MRTs (8-411years) and the NO3(-) concentrations existing in the carbonate aquifer system, due to the complex hydrogeological conditions, groundwater age distributions and the range of contaminant source areas. Nitrate in the groundwater system without denitrification effects could accumulate and be transported for tens of years, through the complex carbonate

  19. Transport and retention of phosphorus in surface water in an urban slum area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyenje, P. M.; Meijer, L. M. G.; Foppen, J. W.; Kulabako, R.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2013-08-01

    The transport of excessive phosphorus (P) discharged from unsewered informal settlements (slums) due to poor on-site sanitation is largely unknown. Hence, we investigated the processes governing P transport in a 28 km2 slum-dominated catchment in Kampala, Uganda. During high runoff events and a period of base flow, we collected hourly water samples (over 24 h) from a primary channel draining the catchment and from a small size tertiary channel draining one of the contributing slum areas (0.5 km2). Samples were analyzed for orthophosphate (PO4-P), particulate P (PP), total P (TP) and selected hydro-chemical parameters. Channel bed and suspended sediments were collected to determine their sorption potential, geo-available metals and dominant P forms. We found that P inputs in the catchment originated mainly from domestic wastewater as evidenced by high concentrations of Cl (36-144 mg L-1), HCO3 and other cations in the channels. Most P discharged during low flow conditions was particulate implying that much of it was retained in bed sediments. Retained P was mostly bound to Ca and Fe/Al oxides. Hence, we inferred that mineral precipitation and adsorption to Ca-minerals were the dominant P retention processes. Bed sediments were P-saturated and showed a tendency to release P to discharging waters. P released was likely due to Ca-bound P because of the strong correlation between Ca and total P in sediments (r2 = 0.9). High flows exhibited a strong flush of PP and SS implying that part of P retained was frequently flushed out of the catchment by surface erosion and resuspension of bed sediment. Our findings suggest that P accumulated in the channel bed during low flows and then was slowly released into surface water. Hence, it will likely take some time, even with improved wastewater management practices, before P loads to downstream areas can be significantly reduced.

  20. Seasonal variability of suspended sediment transport in the Seine river catchment area (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, Christine; Baati, Selma; Ayrault, Sophie; Bonte, Philippe; Evrard, Olivier; Kissel, Catherine

    2010-05-01

    This study consists in an innovative application of environmental physico-chemical techniques on fluvial sediments with the aim to trace the seasonal changes in suspended sediment transport of the complex Seine river catchment area in northern France. The aim of this project is to develop a detailed understanding for the discrimination of naturally triggered and anthropogenic induced processes and their temporal changes with weather conditions. With a focus on the heavy metal fraction, we determine the regional distribution of the suspended material and search for environmental fingerprints demonstrating the influence of fluvial transport mechanisms, changes in concentration related to discharge variations or different sediment sources, and in-situ alteration caused by variations in the geochemical conditions (oxy-redox, pH, Eh, etc.). To achieve these goals, we apply a combination of straightforward rock magnetic hysteresis measurements (performed using an AGM2900 at the LSCE) and advanced scanning electron microscopy analyses (SEM). This interdisciplinary approach allows refining the detailed analysis of sediment trap samples, originating from Tessier et al. (2003), as recently shown by Franke et al. (2009). In our preliminary results, we observe a general increase in magnetic concentrations from summer to winter conditions, coupled with a magneto-mineralogic change to rather reduced metallic mineral phases. However, each riversection of the Seine system shows its specific trend line depending on the regional initial input, weathering conditions, drainage area and potential pollution sources. A systematic analysis of the detailed results will allow highlighting the climatic/seasonal influence on the metallic particle assembly. Keywords: Seine river system, environmental magnetism, suspended particulate matter, anthropogenic and natural input, magnetic hysteresis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM),, heavy metal pollution, seasonal variability References: Franke

  1. Do Not Forget About Public Transportation: Analysis of the Association of Active Transportation to School Among Washington, DC Area Children With Parental Perceived Built Environment Measures.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jennifer D; Rodkey, Lindsey; Ray, Rashawn; Saelens, Brian E

    2018-03-23

    Although the active transportation (AT) indicator received an F grade on the 2016 US Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth, this AT assessment excluded public transportation. An objective of the Built Environment and Active Play Study was to assess youth AT, including public transportation, among Washington, DC area children in relation to parental perceptions of neighborhood built environment (BE) variables. Questionnaires were mailed to 2000 parents of children aged 7-12 years. AT to school (ATS) was assessed with the question: "In an average school week, how many days does your child use each of the following ways to get to and from school? (a) Walk; (b) Bike; (c) Car; (d) Bus or Metro." Parental perceived BE data were obtained through questionnaire items, and logistic regression was conducted to determine if BE variables were associated with youth ATS. The sample included 144 children (50% female; average age 9.7 years; 56.3% white; 23.7% African American; 10.4% Asian American). Over 30% used ATS-public transportation 5 days per week, and nearly 13% used ATS-walking daily. Parental perceived BE variables significantly predicted youth ATS-walking and ATS-public transportation. ATS-public transportation is common among Washington, DC area youth, and parental perceptions of BE can significantly predict ATS.

  2. Validation/Calibration of SMOS L2 Soil Moisture in Crop Area, Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Huizhen; Jiang, Lingmei; Yang, Na; Lu, Zheng

    2016-08-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) is the worldwide satellite dedicated to retrieve soil moisture information at the global scale, with a high temporal resolution, and from space borne L-band 2-D interferometry radiometer. Product validation for the accuracy of data and utilization is a crucial step. At present, the validation work carried out in China was mainly concentrated in the Tibetan Plateau. The study of this paper mainly focused on the validation of SMOS L2 soil moisture data products in the north of Henan province plain region. This region is in front of Taihang Mountains. Results from the average-average and node- site comparison show that the correlation coefficients (R) between 0.20 and 0.40, also the existence of dry bias mainly concentrated in the 0.07 0.11m3m-3. Finally, this paper analysed the influence factors on the quality of SMOS soil moisture products.

  3. Functional Validation of ABCA3 as a Miltefosine Transporter in Human Macrophages: IMPACT ON INTRACELLULAR SURVIVAL OF LEISHMANIA (VIANNIA) PANAMENSIS.

    PubMed

    Dohmen, Luuk C T; Navas, Adriana; Vargas, Deninson Alejandro; Gregory, David J; Kip, Anke; Dorlo, Thomas P C; Gomez, Maria Adelaida

    2016-04-29

    Within its mammalian host, Leishmania resides and replicates as an intracellular parasite. The direct activity of antileishmanials must therefore depend on intracellular drug transport, metabolism, and accumulation within the host cell. In this study, we explored the role of human macrophage transporters in the intracellular accumulation and antileishmanial activity of miltefosine (MLF), the only oral drug available for the treatment of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Membrane transporter gene expression in primary human macrophages infected in vitro with Leishmania Viannia panamensis and exposed to MLF showed modulation of ABC and solute liquid carrier transporters gene transcripts. Among these, ABCA3, a lipid transporter, was significantly induced after exposure to MLF, and this induction was confirmed in primary macrophages from CL patients. Functional validation of MLF as a substrate for ABCA3 was performed by shRNA gene knockdown (KD) in THP-1 monocytes. Intracellular accumulation of radiolabeled MLF was significantly higher in ABCA3(KD) macrophages. ABCA3(KD) resulted in increased cytotoxicity induced by MLF exposure. ABCA3 gene expression inversely correlated with intracellular MLF content in primary macrophages from CL patients. ABCA3(KD) reduced parasite survival during macrophage infection with an L. V. panamensis strain exhibiting low in vitro susceptibility to MLF. Confocal microscopy showed ABCA3 to be located in the cell membrane of resting macrophages and in intracellular compartments in L. V. panamensis-infected cells. These results provide evidence of ABCA3 as an MLF efflux transporter in human macrophages and support its role in the direct antileishmanial effect of this alkylphosphocholine drug. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Parameters estimation for reactive transport: A way to test the validity of a reactive model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Mohit; Cheikh Anta Ndiaye, Mame; Carrayrou, Jérôme

    The chemical parameters used in reactive transport models are not known accurately due to the complexity and the heterogeneous conditions of a real domain. We will present an efficient algorithm in order to estimate the chemical parameters using Monte-Carlo method. Monte-Carlo methods are very robust for the optimisation of the highly non-linear mathematical model describing reactive transport. Reactive transport of tributyltin (TBT) through natural quartz sand at seven different pHs is taken as the test case. Our algorithm will be used to estimate the chemical parameters of the sorption of TBT onto the natural quartz sand. By testing and comparing three models of surface complexation, we show that the proposed adsorption model cannot explain the experimental data.

  5. Sediment transport in forested head water catchments - Calibration and validation of a soil erosion and landscape evolution model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, G. R.; Webb, A. A.; Turner, L.

    2017-11-01

    Sediment transport and soil erosion can be determined by a variety of field and modelling approaches. Computer based soil erosion and landscape evolution models (LEMs) offer the potential to be reliable assessment and prediction tools. An advantage of such models is that they provide both erosion and deposition patterns as well as total catchment sediment output. However, before use, like all models they require calibration and validation. In recent years LEMs have been used for a variety of both natural and disturbed landscape assessment. However, these models have not been evaluated for their reliability in steep forested catchments. Here, the SIBERIA LEM is calibrated and evaluated for its reliability for two steep forested catchments in south-eastern Australia. The model is independently calibrated using two methods. Firstly, hydrology and sediment transport parameters are inferred from catchment geomorphology and soil properties and secondly from catchment sediment transport and discharge data. The results demonstrate that both calibration methods provide similar parameters and reliable modelled sediment transport output. A sensitivity study of the input parameters demonstrates the model's sensitivity to correct parameterisation and also how the model could be used to assess potential timber harvesting as well as the removal of vegetation by fire.

  6. Sediment Transport and Slope Stability of Ship Shoal Borrow Areas for Coastal Restoration of Louisiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.; Xu, K.; Bentley, S. J.; Li, C.; Miner, M. D.; Wilson, C.; Xue, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Sandy barrier islands along Louisiana coast are degrading rapidly due to both natural and anthropogenic factors. Ship Shoal is one of the largest offshore sand resources, and has been used as a borrow area for Caminada Headland Restoration Project. Our knowledge of sediment transport and infilling processes in this new sandy and dynamic borrow area is rather limited. High resolution sub-bottom seismic data, side scan sonar images, multi-beam bathymetry and laser sediment grain size data were used to study seafloor morphological evolution and pit wall stability in response to both physical and geological processes. The multi-beam bathymetry and seismic profiling inside the pit showed that disequilibrium conditions led to rapid infilling in the pits at the beginning, but this process slowed down after the pit slope became stable and topography became smooth. We hypothesize that the erosion of the adjacent seabed sediment by energetic waves and longshore currents, the supply of suspended sediment from the rivers, and the erodible materials produced by local mass wasting on pit walls are three main types of infilling sediments. Compared with mud-capped dredge pits, this sandy dredge pit seems to have more gentle slopes on pit walls, which might be controlled by the angle of repose. Infilling sediment seems to be dominantly sandy, with some mud patches on bathymetric depressions. This study helps us better understand the impacts of mining sediment for coastal restoration and improves sand resource management efforts.

  7. Validating the performance of correlated fission multiplicity implementation in radiation transport codes with subcritical neutron multiplication benchmark experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Arthur, Jennifer; Bahran, Rian; Hutchinson, Jesson; ...

    2018-06-14

    Historically, radiation transport codes have uncorrelated fission emissions. In reality, the particles emitted by both spontaneous and induced fissions are correlated in time, energy, angle, and multiplicity. This work validates the performance of various current Monte Carlo codes that take into account the underlying correlated physics of fission neutrons, specifically neutron multiplicity distributions. The performance of 4 Monte Carlo codes - MCNP®6.2, MCNP®6.2/FREYA, MCNP®6.2/CGMF, and PoliMi - was assessed using neutron multiplicity benchmark experiments. In addition, MCNP®6.2 simulations were run using JEFF-3.2 and JENDL-4.0, rather than ENDF/B-VII.1, data for 239Pu and 240Pu. The sensitive benchmark parameters that in this workmore » represent the performance of each correlated fission multiplicity Monte Carlo code include the singles rate, the doubles rate, leakage multiplication, and Feynman histograms. Although it is difficult to determine which radiation transport code shows the best overall performance in simulating subcritical neutron multiplication inference benchmark measurements, it is clear that correlations exist between the underlying nuclear data utilized by (or generated by) the various codes, and the correlated neutron observables of interest. This could prove useful in nuclear data validation and evaluation applications, in which a particular moment of the neutron multiplicity distribution is of more interest than the other moments. It is also quite clear that, because transport is handled by MCNP®6.2 in 3 of the 4 codes, with the 4th code (PoliMi) being based on an older version of MCNP®, the differences in correlated neutron observables of interest are most likely due to the treatment of fission event generation in each of the different codes, as opposed to the radiation transport.« less

  8. Validating the energy transport modeling of the DIII-D and EAST ramp up experiments using TSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li; Guo, Yong; Chan, Vincent; Mao, Shifeng; Wang, Yifeng; Pan, Chengkang; Luo, Zhengping; Zhao, Hailin; Ye, Minyou

    2017-06-01

    The confidence in ramp up scenario design of the China fusion engineering test reactor (CFETR) can be significantly enhanced using validated transport models to predict the current profile and temperature profile. In the tokamak simulation code (TSC), two semi-empirical energy transport models (the Coppi-Tang (CT) and BGB model) and three theory-based models (the GLF23, MMM95 and CDBM model) are investigated on the CFETR relevant ramp up discharges, including three DIII-D ITER-like ramp up discharges and one EAST ohmic discharge. For the DIII-D discharges, all the transport models yield dynamic {{\\ell}\\text{i}} within +/- 0.15 deviations except for some time points where the experimental fluctuation is very strong. All the models agree with the experimental {β\\text{p}} except that the CT model strongly overestimates {β\\text{p}} in the first half of ramp up phase. When applying the CT, CDBM and GLF23 model to estimate the internal flux, they show maximum deviations of more than 10% because of inaccuracies in the temperature profile predictions, while the BGB model performs best on the internal flux. Although all the models fall short in reproducing the dynamic {{\\ell}\\text{i}} evolution for the EAST tokamak, the result of the BGB model is the closest to the experimental {{\\ell}\\text{i}} . Based on these comparisons, we conclude that the BGB model is the most consistent among these models for simulating CFETR ohmic ramp-up. The CT model with improvement for better simulation of the temperature profiles in the first half of ramp up phase will also be attractive. For the MMM95, GLF23 and CDBM model, better prediction of the edge temperature will improve the confidence for CFETR L-mode simulation. Conclusive validation of any transport model will require extensive future investigation covering a larger variety discharges.

  9. Validating the performance of correlated fission multiplicity implementation in radiation transport codes with subcritical neutron multiplication benchmark experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, Jennifer; Bahran, Rian; Hutchinson, Jesson

    Historically, radiation transport codes have uncorrelated fission emissions. In reality, the particles emitted by both spontaneous and induced fissions are correlated in time, energy, angle, and multiplicity. This work validates the performance of various current Monte Carlo codes that take into account the underlying correlated physics of fission neutrons, specifically neutron multiplicity distributions. The performance of 4 Monte Carlo codes - MCNP®6.2, MCNP®6.2/FREYA, MCNP®6.2/CGMF, and PoliMi - was assessed using neutron multiplicity benchmark experiments. In addition, MCNP®6.2 simulations were run using JEFF-3.2 and JENDL-4.0, rather than ENDF/B-VII.1, data for 239Pu and 240Pu. The sensitive benchmark parameters that in this workmore » represent the performance of each correlated fission multiplicity Monte Carlo code include the singles rate, the doubles rate, leakage multiplication, and Feynman histograms. Although it is difficult to determine which radiation transport code shows the best overall performance in simulating subcritical neutron multiplication inference benchmark measurements, it is clear that correlations exist between the underlying nuclear data utilized by (or generated by) the various codes, and the correlated neutron observables of interest. This could prove useful in nuclear data validation and evaluation applications, in which a particular moment of the neutron multiplicity distribution is of more interest than the other moments. It is also quite clear that, because transport is handled by MCNP®6.2 in 3 of the 4 codes, with the 4th code (PoliMi) being based on an older version of MCNP®, the differences in correlated neutron observables of interest are most likely due to the treatment of fission event generation in each of the different codes, as opposed to the radiation transport.« less

  10. On the validity of travel-time based nonlinear bioreactive transport models in steady-state flow.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Prat, Alicia; Lu, Chuanhe; Finkel, Michael; Cirpka, Olaf A

    2015-01-01

    Travel-time based models simplify the description of reactive transport by replacing the spatial coordinates with the groundwater travel time, posing a quasi one-dimensional (1-D) problem and potentially rendering the determination of multidimensional parameter fields unnecessary. While the approach is exact for strictly advective transport in steady-state flow if the reactive properties of the porous medium are uniform, its validity is unclear when local-scale mixing affects the reactive behavior. We compare a two-dimensional (2-D), spatially explicit, bioreactive, advective-dispersive transport model, considered as "virtual truth", with three 1-D travel-time based models which differ in the conceptualization of longitudinal dispersion: (i) neglecting dispersive mixing altogether, (ii) introducing a local-scale longitudinal dispersivity constant in time and space, and (iii) using an effective longitudinal dispersivity that increases linearly with distance. The reactive system considers biodegradation of dissolved organic carbon, which is introduced into a hydraulically heterogeneous domain together with oxygen and nitrate. Aerobic and denitrifying bacteria use the energy of the microbial transformations for growth. We analyze six scenarios differing in the variance of log-hydraulic conductivity and in the inflow boundary conditions (constant versus time-varying concentration). The concentrations of the 1-D models are mapped to the 2-D domain by means of the kinematic (for case i), and mean groundwater age (for cases ii & iii), respectively. The comparison between concentrations of the "virtual truth" and the 1-D approaches indicates extremely good agreement when using an effective, linearly increasing longitudinal dispersivity in the majority of the scenarios, while the other two 1-D approaches reproduce at least the concentration tendencies well. At late times, all 1-D models give valid approximations of two-dimensional transport. We conclude that the

  11. Validation of Rehabilitation Counseling Accreditation and Certification Knowledge Areas: Methodology and Initial Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szymanski, Edna Mora; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Conducted ongoing study to validate and update knowledge standards for rehabilitation counseling accreditation and certification, using descriptive, ex post facto, and time-series designs and three sampling frames. Findings from 1,025 counselors who renewed their certification in 1991 revealed that 52 of 55 knowledge standards were rated as at…

  12. A factor confirmation and convergent validity of the “areas of worklife scale” (AWS) to Spanish translation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Perceived incongruity between the individual and the job on work-life areas such as workload, control, reward, fairness, community and values have implications for the dimensions of burnout syndrome. The “Areas of Work-life Scale” (AWS) is a practical instrument to measure employees´ perceptions of their work environments. AIMS: Validate a Spanish translation of the AWS, and it relationship with Masclach Burnout Inventory dimensions. Methods The study was conducted in three medium-sized hospitals and seven rural and urban Primary Care centres (N = 871) in Spain. The “Maslach Burnout Inventory General Survey” (MBI-GS) and AWS were applied. We developed a complete psychometric analysis of its reliability, and validity. Results Data on the reliability supported a good internal consistency (Cronbach α between .71, and .85). Construct validity was confirmed by a six factor model of the AWS as a good measure of work environments (χ2(352) = 806.21, p < 0.001; χ2/df = 2.29; CFI = 0.935, RMSEA = 0.039); concurrent validity was analysed for its relationship with other measures (opposing dimensions to burnout, and MBI), and each correlation between dimensions and sub-dimensions were statistically significant; as well, predictive validity, by a series of Multiple Regression Analysis examined the resulting patterns of the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) confirms the relationship between the work-life areas and burnout dimensions. Conclusions Leiter and Maslach’s AWS has been an important instrument in exploring several work-life factors that contribute to burnout. This scale can now be used to assess the quality of work-life in order to design and assess the need for intervention programs in Spanish-speaking countries. PMID:23596987

  13. Virus in Groundwater: Characterization of transport mechanisms and impacts on an agricultural area in Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamazo, P. A.; Colina, R.; Victoria, M.; Alvareda, E.; Burutaran, L.; Ramos, J.; Lopez, F.; Soler, J.

    2014-12-01

    In many areas of Uruguay groundwater is the only source of water for human consumption and for industrial-agricultural economic activities. Traditionally considered as a safe source, due to the "natural filter" that occurs in porous media, groundwater is commonly used without any treatment. The Uruguayan law requires bacteriological analysis for most water uses, but virological analyses are not mentioned in the legislation. In the Salto district, where groundwater is used for human consumption and for agricultural activities, bacterial contamination has been detected in several wells but no viruses analysis have been performed. The Republic University (UDELAR), with the support of the National Agency for Research and Innovation (ANII), is studying the incidence of virus in groundwater on an intensive agriculture area of the Salto district. In this area water is pumped from the "Salto Aquifer", a free sedimentary aquifer. Below this sedimentary deposit is the "Arapey" basaltic formation, which is also exploited for water productions on its fractured zones. A screening campaign has been performed searching for bacterial and viral contamination. Total and fecal coliforms have been found on several wells and Rotavirus and Adenovirus have been detected. A subgroup of the screening wells has been selected for an annual survey. On this subgroup, besides bacteria and viruses analysis, a standard physical and chemical characterization was performed. Results show a significant seasonal variation on microbiological contamination. In addition to field studies, rotavirus circulation experiments on columns are being performed. The objective of this experiments is to determinate the parameters that control virus transport in porous media. The results of the study are expected to provide an insight into the impacts of groundwater on Salto's viral gastroenterocolitis outbreaks.

  14. Coupled CFD and Particle Vortex Transport Method: Wing Performance and Wake Validations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-26

    the PVTM analysis. The results obtained using the coupled RANS/PVTM analysis compare well with experimental data , in particular the pressure...searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments...is validated against wind tunnel test data . Comparisons with measured pressure distribution, loadings, and vortex parameters, and the corresponding

  15. 1992 census of transportation, communications, and utilities : geographic area series summary

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-03-01

    The 1992 Census of Transportation, Communications, and Utilities for the first time collected data for the communications, electric, gas, and sanitary service industries. In addition, the 1992 census expanded coverage of transportation industries to ...

  16. FATE AND TRANSPORT OF PETROLEUM RELEASED FROM UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS in Areas of Karst Topography

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study determines the transport and ultimate fate of petroleum products within a region of karst geomorphology. The paper entails a complete literature review, including references that pertain to contaminant transport within karst aquifers

  17. Abilene Metropolitan Area Transportation Improvement Program Fiscal Years 1996-1998

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-11-30

    This document contains a prioritized list of surface transportation improvement : projects which are expected to begin in the next three years. These projects are : planned to develop, improve, and maintain an integrated transportation system : for t...

  18. Improving intermodal connectivity in rural areas to enhance transportation efficiency : a case study.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2011-05-01

    Congested roadways in Texas metropolitan centers are important arteries for transporting : agricultural commodities into domestic and international markets. Truck transportation of these : commodities contributes to the observed congestion and del...

  19. Organizing for intelligent transportation systems : case study of emergency operations in San Francisco Bay area

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-01-01

    Computer-integrated transportation (CIT) is envisioned as an integrated network of public and private transportation organizations, each with unique responsibilities but working toward a common mission of facilitating travel across all modes of trans...

  20. [Transport and sources of runoff pollution from urban area with combined sewer system].

    PubMed

    Li, Li-Qing; Yin, Cheng-Qing

    2009-02-15

    Sampling and monitoring of runoff and sewage water in Wuhan urban area with combined sewer system were carried out during the period from 2003 to 2006, to study the transport and sources of runoff pollution at the catchment scale coupled with environmental geochemistry method. The results showed a change in quality between the runoff entering the sewer network and the combined storm water flow at the sewer's outlet. A significant increase was observed in the concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), COD, TN, and TP, and in the proportion of COD linked to particles. During the runoff production and transport, the concentrations of TSS and COD increased from 18.7 mg/L and 37.0 mg/L in roof runoff, to 225.3 mg/L and 176.5 mg/L in street runoff, and to 449.7 mg/L and 359.9 mg/L in combined storm water flow, respectively. The proportion of COD linked to particles was increased by 18%. In addition, the total phosphorus (P) and iron (Fe) contents in urban ground dust, storm drain sediment, sewage sewer sediment and combined sewer sediment were measured to identify the potential sources of suspended solids in the combined flow. The urban ground dust andstorm drain sediment wererich in Fe, whereas the sewage sewer sediment was rich in P. The P/Fe ratios in these groups were significantly distinct and able to differentiate them. A calculation of the two storm events based on the P/Fe rations showed that 56% +/- 26% of suspended solids in combined flow came from urban ground and storm drain. The rest wer e originated from the sewage sewer sediments which deposited in combined sewer on the dry weather days and were eroded on the wet weather days. The combined sewer network not only acts as a transport system, but also constitutes a physicochemical reactor that degrades the quality of urban water. Reducing the in-sewer pollution stocks would effectively control urban runoff pollution.

  1. Field validation of Burned Area Reflectance Classification (BARC) products for post fire assessment

    Treesearch

    Andrew T. Hudak; Peter R. Robichaud; Jeffery B. Evans; Jess Clark; Keith Lannom; Penelope Morgan; Carter Stone

    2004-01-01

    The USFS Remote Sensing Applications Center (RSAC) and the USGS EROS Data Center (EDC) produce Burned Area Reflectance Classification (BARC) maps for use by Burned Area Emergency Rehabilitation (BAER) teams in rapid response to wildfires. BAER teams desire maps indicative of soil burn severity, but photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic vegetation also influences the...

  2. Intercomparison and validation of MODIS and GLASS leaf area index (LAI) products over mountain areas: A case study in southwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Huaan; Li, Ainong; Bian, Jinhu; Nan, Xi; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Zhengjian; Yin, Gaofei

    2017-03-01

    The validation study of leaf area index (LAI) products over rugged surfaces not only gives additional insights into data quality of LAI products, but deepens understanding of uncertainties regarding land surface process models depended on LAI data over complex terrain. This study evaluated the performance of MODIS and GLASS LAI products using the intercomparison and direct validation methods over southwestern China. The spatio-temporal consistencies, such as the spatial distributions of LAI products and their statistical relationship as a function of topographic indices, time, and vegetation types, respectively, were investigated through intercomparison between MODIS and GLASS products during the period 2011-2013. The accuracies and change ranges of these two products were evaluated against available LAI reference maps over 10 sampling regions which standed for typical vegetation types and topographic gradients in southwestern China. The results show that GLASS LAI exhibits higher percentage of good quality data (i.e. successful retrievals) and smoother temporal profiles than MODIS LAI. The percentage of successful retrievals for MODIS and GLASS is vulnerable to topographic indices, especially to relief amplitude. Besides, the two products do not capture seasonal dynamics of crop, especially in spring over heterogeneously hilly regions. The yearly mean LAI differences between MODIS and GLASS are within ±0.5 for 64.70% of the total retrieval pixels over southwestern China. The spatial distribution of mean differences and temporal profiles of these two products are inclined to be dominated by vegetation types other than topographic indices. The spatial and temporal consistency of these two products is good over most area of grasses/cereal crops; however, it is poor for evergreen broadleaf forest. MODIS presents more reliable change range of LAI than GLASS through comparison with fine resolution reference maps over most of sampling regions. The accuracies of direct

  3. TRANSPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation outline: transport principles, effective solubility; gasoline composition; and field examples (plume diving).
    Presentation conclusions: MTBE transport follows from - phyiscal and chemical properties and hydrology. Field examples show: MTBE plumes > benzene plu...

  4. CFD Simulation and Experimental Validation of Fluid Flow and Particle Transport in a Model of Alveolated Airways

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Baoshun; Ruwet, Vincent; Corieri, Patricia; Theunissen, Raf; Riethmuller, Michel; Darquenne, Chantal

    2009-01-01

    Accurate modeling of air flow and aerosol transport in the alveolated airways is essential for quantitative predictions of pulmonary aerosol deposition. However, experimental validation of such modeling studies has been scarce. The objective of this study is to validate CFD predictions of flow field and particle trajectory with experiments within a scaled-up model of alveolated airways. Steady flow (Re = 0.13) of silicone oil was captured by particle image velocimetry (PIV), and the trajectories of 0.5 mm and 1.2 mm spherical iron beads (representing 0.7 to 14.6 μm aerosol in vivo) were obtained by particle tracking velocimetry (PTV). At twelve selected cross sections, the velocity profiles obtained by CFD matched well with those by PIV (within 1.7% on average). The CFD predicted trajectories also matched well with PTV experiments. These results showed that air flow and aerosol transport in models of human alveolated airways can be simulated by CFD techniques with reasonable accuracy. PMID:20161301

  5. CFD Simulation and Experimental Validation of Fluid Flow and Particle Transport in a Model of Alveolated Airways.

    PubMed

    Ma, Baoshun; Ruwet, Vincent; Corieri, Patricia; Theunissen, Raf; Riethmuller, Michel; Darquenne, Chantal

    2009-05-01

    Accurate modeling of air flow and aerosol transport in the alveolated airways is essential for quantitative predictions of pulmonary aerosol deposition. However, experimental validation of such modeling studies has been scarce. The objective of this study is to validate CFD predictions of flow field and particle trajectory with experiments within a scaled-up model of alveolated airways. Steady flow (Re = 0.13) of silicone oil was captured by particle image velocimetry (PIV), and the trajectories of 0.5 mm and 1.2 mm spherical iron beads (representing 0.7 to 14.6 mum aerosol in vivo) were obtained by particle tracking velocimetry (PTV). At twelve selected cross sections, the velocity profiles obtained by CFD matched well with those by PIV (within 1.7% on average). The CFD predicted trajectories also matched well with PTV experiments. These results showed that air flow and aerosol transport in models of human alveolated airways can be simulated by CFD techniques with reasonable accuracy.

  6. Partial validation of the Dutch model for emission and transport of nutrients (STONE).

    PubMed

    Overbeek, G B; Tiktak, A; Beusen, A H; van Puijenbroek, P J

    2001-11-17

    The Netherlands has to cope with large losses of N and P to groundwater and surface water. Agriculture is the dominant source of these nutrients, particularly with reference to nutrient excretion due to intensive animal husbandry in combination with fertilizer use. The Dutch government has recently launched a stricter eutrophication abatement policy to comply with the EC nitrate directive. The Dutch consensus model for N and P emission to groundwater and surface water (STONE) has been developed to evaluate the environmental benefits of abatement plans. Due to the possibly severe socioeconomic consequences of eutrophication abatement plans, it is of utmost importance that the model is thoroughly validated. Because STONE is applied on a nationwide scale, the model validation has also been carried out on this scale. For this purpose the model outputs were compared with lumped results from monitoring networks in the upper groundwater and in surface waters. About 13,000 recent point source observations of nitrate in the upper groundwater were available, along with several hundreds of observations showing N and P in local surface water systems. Comparison of observations from the different spatial scales available showed the issue of scale to be important. Scale issues will be addressed in the next stages of the validation study.

  7. Verification and Validation: High Charge and Energy (HZE) Transport Codes and Future Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Tripathi, Ram K.; Mertens, Christopher J.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Clowdsley, Martha S.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Tweed, John; Heinbockel, John H.; Walker, Steven A.; Nealy, John E.

    2005-01-01

    In the present paper, we give the formalism for further developing a fully three-dimensional HZETRN code using marching procedures but also development of a new Green's function code is discussed. The final Green's function code is capable of not only validation in the space environment but also in ground based laboratories with directed beams of ions of specific energy and characterized with detailed diagnostic particle spectrometer devices. Special emphasis is given to verification of the computational procedures and validation of the resultant computational model using laboratory and spaceflight measurements. Due to historical requirements, two parallel development paths for computational model implementation using marching procedures and Green s function techniques are followed. A new version of the HZETRN code capable of simulating HZE ions with either laboratory or space boundary conditions is under development. Validation of computational models at this time is particularly important for President Bush s Initiative to develop infrastructure for human exploration with first target demonstration of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) in low Earth orbit in 2008.

  8. Transport of pollutants and sediment in the area of the Wave Hub (Celtic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, Georgy; Huntley, David

    2010-05-01

    consequences. This paper presents some preliminary modelling results of a baseline study focussed on hind-cast and now-cast simulation of the 3D structure of temperature, salinity and current velocity in the area immediately adjacent to the location of the Wave Hub. Of the range of available 3D numerical models for shelf sea hydrodynamics, we have selected the Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory Coastal Modelling System (POLCOMS). The POLCOMS has successfully been used in a number of coastal/shelf sea regions to simulate circulation of coastal waters. Modelling is carried out in the region of approximately 200x 200 km with the variable vertical resolution typically less than 2 m. Such parameters allow resololution of the formation of coastal density fronts both within and outside the wave shadow zone, expected to be of the order of tens of kilometres. The meteorological parameters are obtained from the publicly available NCEP re-analyses data base. These parameters include components of the wind velocity and the surface heat fluxes, air pressure at sea level; temperature and humidity in the low troposphere; precipitation and cloudiness. In this study, the transport of pollution is simulated by a number of passive drifters located at a certain depth at a number of locations including the central point of the Wave Hub. Sediment transport is modelled using the Engelund-Hansen algorithm taking the current velocities produced by the POLCOMS as an input parameter. The Celtic sea is a tidally dominated region, and the modelling is run both in full-forcing and in tide-only modes in order to assess effects of density fronts on the residual (tidally averaged) circulation pattern. The results show that the pollution pathways are very sensitive to the formation of temperature fronts. In some cases the passive traces move in nearly opposite directions when the effect of temperature fronts is disregarded. Sediment transport is highly non-uniform spatially with some four areas along the

  9. Transport properties of soil particles in Sakiyamawan-Amitoriwan nature conservation area, Iriomote Island, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimokawa, Shinya; Murakami, Tomokazu; Kohno, Hiroyoshi; Mizutani, Akira

    2017-12-01

    The actual states of soil particle transport in and exchange between the Sakiyama and Amitori bays, Iriomote Island, Japan, were investigated using atmosphere-ocean-river observations and numerical simulations. The results show that in summer in both bays large particles (≥15 μm) do not move from the vicinity of the river mouths. Small particles, however, do move to the respective east sides of the bays. In winter in both the bays, large particles move towards the center of the bays from the vicinity of the river mouths, whereas small particles move to the respective west sides of the bays. Furthermore, soil particles move mainly from the Sakiyama to the Amitori bay in summer, but this direction is reversed in winter. These features are explainable mainly by seasonal differences in wind speed and direction, but the combination among seasonal differences in wind speed and direction, the wind-driven current and the topography is also important for them. The results are useful for assessing soil particle impact on coastal marine ecosystems, such as those containing reef-building coral and Enhalus acoroides, and their effective conservation in the natural conservation areas of the Sakiyama and Amitori bays.

  10. Size-dependent validation of MODIS MCD64A1 burned area over six vegetation types in boreal Eurasia: Large underestimation in croplands.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chunmao; Kobayashi, Hideki; Kanaya, Yugo; Saito, Masahiko

    2017-07-05

    Pollutants emitted from wildfires in boreal Eurasia can be transported to the Arctic, and their subsequent deposition could accelerate global warming. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) MCD64A1 burned area product is the basis of fire emission products. However, uncertainties due to the "moderate resolution" (500 m) characteristic of the MODIS sensor could be introduced. Here, we present a size-dependent validation of MCD64A1 with reference to higher resolution (better than 30 m) satellite products (Landsat 7 ETM+, RapidEye, WorldView-2, and GeoEye-1) for six ecotypes over 12 regions of boreal Eurasia. We considered the 2012 boreal Eurasia burning season when severe wildfires occurred and when Arctic sea ice extent was historically low. Among the six ecotypes, we found MCD64A1 burned areas comprised only 13% of the reference products in croplands because of inadequate detection of small fires (<100 ha). Our results indicate that over all ecotypes, the actual burned area in boreal Eurasia (15,256 km 2 ) could have been ~16% greater than suggested by MCD64A1 (13,187 km 2 ) when applying the correction factors proposed in this study. This implies the effects of wildfire emissions in boreal Eurasia on Arctic warming could be greater than currently estimated.

  11. Validation of design procedure and performance modeling of a heat and fluid transport field experiment in the unsaturated zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nir, A.; Doughty, C.; Tsang, C. F.

    Validation methods which developed in the context of deterministic concepts of past generations often cannot be directly applied to environmental problems, which may be characterized by limited reproducibility of results and highly complex models. Instead, validation is interpreted here as a series of activities, including both theoretical and experimental tests, designed to enhance our confidence in the capability of a proposed model to describe some aspect of reality. We examine the validation process applied to a project concerned with heat and fluid transport in porous media, in which mathematical modeling, simulation, and results of field experiments are evaluated in order to determine the feasibility of a system for seasonal thermal energy storage in shallow unsaturated soils. Technical details of the field experiments are not included, but appear in previous publications. Validation activities are divided into three stages. The first stage, carried out prior to the field experiments, is concerned with modeling the relevant physical processes, optimization of the heat-exchanger configuration and the shape of the storage volume, and multi-year simulation. Subjects requiring further theoretical and experimental study are identified at this stage. The second stage encompasses the planning and evaluation of the initial field experiment. Simulations are made to determine the experimental time scale and optimal sensor locations. Soil thermal parameters and temperature boundary conditions are estimated using an inverse method. Then results of the experiment are compared with model predictions using different parameter values and modeling approximations. In the third stage, results of an experiment performed under different boundary conditions are compared to predictions made by the models developed in the second stage. Various aspects of this theoretical and experimental field study are described as examples of the verification and validation procedure. There is no

  12. Estimation of Secondary Compounds Concentrations Contributed by Biogenic VOC With Chemical Transport Model in the Central Area of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, K.; Kanemaru, A.; Okumura, M.; Tohno, S.

    2008-12-01

    Biogenic VOC (BVOC) has comparably large contribution to generation of secondary air pollutants, such as photochemical oxidant or urban aerosol. In this study a BVOC emission inventory in the Kansai area, which is located in the central part of Japan, based on the field observation was developed. Some validations of the inventory were conducted by estimating the concentration distribution of oxidants with this developed and an existing BVOC emission inventory in Kansai area by meteorological model MM5 and atmospheric chemical transport model CMAQ. In the development of BVOC emission, the vegetation map by the Biodiversity Center of Japan which had been arranged as basic information on natural environmental preservation in a regional standard mesh (the third mesh) in 1999 was used. In this study isoprene and the mono-terpene were taken up as BVOC. Quercus crispula and Quercus serrata were selected as the source of isoprene, and Cryptomeria japonica, Chamaecyparis obtuse, Quercus phillyraeoides, Pinus densiflora, and Pinus thunbergii were selected as sources of mono-terpene. The parameter of the basic emission rate included in the model was decided by arranging the result of the observation in Kansai Research Center of Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute in each season. This emission flux from each species were calculated by G93 model by Guenther et al. and meteorological fields for the model, such as temperatures and sunlight intensities, were renewed hour by hour, therefore, this emission inventory has a high time resolution according to the season and time. In calculating meteorological fields, meteorological model MM5 Ver.3.7 was conducted in Japanese standard mesh in the selected five days of April, July, and October in 2004, and January 2005 respectively, and taking out the result of wind velocities and temperatures for substituting to the G93 model. Then atmospheric chemical transport model CMAQ Ver.4.6 with the emission inventories and

  13. Modified ground-truthing: an accurate and cost-effective food environment validation method for town and rural areas.

    PubMed

    Caspi, Caitlin Eicher; Friebur, Robin

    2016-03-17

    A major concern in food environment research is the lack of accuracy in commercial business listings of food stores, which are convenient and commonly used. Accuracy concerns may be particularly pronounced in rural areas. Ground-truthing or on-site verification has been deemed the necessary standard to validate business listings, but researchers perceive this process to be costly and time-consuming. This study calculated the accuracy and cost of ground-truthing three town/rural areas in Minnesota, USA (an area of 564 miles, or 908 km), and simulated a modified validation process to increase efficiency without comprising accuracy. For traditional ground-truthing, all streets in the study area were driven, while the route and geographic coordinates of food stores were recorded. The process required 1510 miles (2430 km) of driving and 114 staff hours. The ground-truthed list of stores was compared with commercial business listings, which had an average positive predictive value (PPV) of 0.57 and sensitivity of 0.62 across the three sites. Using observations from the field, a modified process was proposed in which only the streets located within central commercial clusters (the 1/8 mile or 200 m buffer around any cluster of 2 stores) would be validated. Modified ground-truthing would have yielded an estimated PPV of 1.00 and sensitivity of 0.95, and would have resulted in a reduction in approximately 88 % of the mileage costs. We conclude that ground-truthing is necessary in town/rural settings. The modified ground-truthing process, with excellent accuracy at a fraction of the costs, suggests a new standard and warrants further evaluation.

  14. Evaluation of a Three-Dimensional Chemical Transport Model (PMCAMx) in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsimpidi, A. P.; Karydis, V. A.; Zavala, M.; Lei, W.; Molina, L. T.; Pandis, S. N.

    2007-05-01

    Atmospheric aerosols have adverse effects on human health, contribute to the visibility reduction and influence the energy balance of the planet. A three-dimensional chemical transport model (PMCAMx) (Gaydos et al., 2007) is used to simulate the particular matter (PM) mass composition distribution in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). PMCAMx uses the framework of CAMx (ENVIRON, 2002) modelling the processes of horizontal and vertical advection, horizontal and vertical dispersion, wet and dry deposition, and gas-phase chemistry. In addition to the above, PMCAMx includes three detailed aerosol modules: inorganic aerosol growth (Gaydos et al., 2003; Koo et al., 2003a), aqueous-phase chemistry (Fahey and Pandis, 2001), and secondary organic aerosol formation and growth (Koo et al., 2004). The aerosol thermodynamic model ISORROPIA has been improved as it now simulates explicitly the chemistry of Ca, Mg, and K salts and is linked to PMCAMx. The hybrid approach (Koo et al., 2003b) for modelling aerosol dynamics is applied in order to accurately simulate the inorganic components in coarse mode. This approach assumes that the smallest particles are in equilibrium while the condensation/evaporation equation is solved for the larger ones. The new CMU organic aerosol model, which is based on the splitting of the organic aerosol volatility range in discrete bins, is also used. The model predictions are evaluated against the PM and vapour concentration measurements from the MCMA-2003 Campaign (Molina et al., 2007). References Gaydos, T., Pinder, R., Koo, B., Fahey, Κ., Yarwood, G., and Pandis, S. N., (2007). Development and application of a three-dimensional Chemical Transport Model, PMCAMx. Atmospheric Environment, in press. ENVIRON (2002). User's guide to the comprehensive air quality model with extensions (CAMx). Version 3.10. Report prepared by ENVIRON International corporation, Novato, CA Gaydos, T., Koo, B., and Pandis, S. N., (2003). Development and application of

  15. Supermarket access, transport mode and BMI: the potential for urban design and planning policy across socio-economic areas.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Maureen; Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Badland, Hannah; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2017-12-01

    To investigate dietary intake, BMI and supermarket access at varying geographic scales and transport modes across areas of socio-economic disadvantage, and to evaluate the implementation of an urban planning policy that provides guidance on spatial access to supermarkets. Cross-sectional study used generalised estimating equations to investigate associations between supermarket density and proximity, vegetable and fruit intake and BMI at five geographic scales representing distances people travel to purchase food by varying transport modes. A stratified analysis by area-level disadvantage was conducted to detect optimal distances to supermarkets across socio-economic areas. Spatial distribution of supermarket and transport access was analysed using a geographic information system. Melbourne, Australia. Adults (n 3128) from twelve local government areas (LGA) across Melbourne. Supermarket access was protective of BMI for participants in high disadvantaged areas within 800 m (P=0·040) and 1000 m (P=0·032) road network buffers around the household but not for participants in less disadvantaged areas. In urban growth area LGA, only 26 % of dwellings were within 1 km of a supermarket, far less than 80-90 % of dwellings suggested in the local urban planning policy. Low public transport access compounded disadvantage. Rapid urbanisation is a global health challenge linked to increases in dietary risk factors and BMI. Our findings highlight the importance of identifying the most appropriate geographic scale to inform urban planning policy for optimal health outcomes across socio-economic strata. Urban planning policy implementation in disadvantaged areas within cities has potential for reducing health inequities.

  16. Phase III (final) evaluation report : national evaluation of the FY01 earmark, area transportation authority of North Central Pennsylvania--regional GIS/ITS initiative.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-08-31

    This report presents the results of the United States Department of Transportation evaluation of a federally funded earmark project implemented by the Area Transportation Authority of North Central Pennsylvania (ATA). The project implemented a suite ...

  17. Size-dependent validation of MODIS MCD64A1 burned area over six vegetation types in boreal Eurasia: Large underestimation in croplands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, C.; Kobayashi, H.; Kanaya, Y.; Saito, M.

    2017-12-01

    Pollutants emitted from wildfires in boreal Eurasia can be transported to the Arctic, and their subsequent deposition could accelerate global warming. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) MCD64A1 burned area product is used widely for global mapping of burned areas in conjunction with products such as the Global Fire Emission Database version 4, which can estimate pollutant emissions. However, uncertainties due to the "moderate resolution" (500 m) characteristic of the MODIS sensor could be introduced. Here, we present a size-dependent validation of MCD64A1 with reference to higher resolution (better than 30 m) satellite products (Landsat 7 ETM+, RapidEye, WorldView-2, and GeoEye-1) for six ecotypes over 12 regions of boreal Eurasia. We considered the 2012 boreal Eurasia burning season when severe wildfires occurred and when Arctic sea ice extent was historically low. Among the six ecotypes, we found MCD64A1 burned areas comprised only 13% of the reference products in croplands because of inadequate detection of small fires (<100 ha). Our results indicate that over all ecotypes, the actual burned area in boreal Eurasia (15,256 km2) could have been 16% greater than suggested by MCD64A1 (13,187 km2). We suggest applying correction factors of 0.5-8.2 when using emission rates based on MCD64A1 burned areas in chemistry and climate models of the studied regions. This implies the effects of wildfire emissions in boreal Eurasia on Arctic warming could be greater than currently estimated.

  18. Opacity and transport measurements reveal that dilute plasma models of sonoluminescence are not valid.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Shahzad; Kappus, Brian; Weninger, Keith; Putterman, Seth

    2012-03-09

    A strong interaction between a nanosecond laser and a 70 μm radius sonoluminescing plasma is achieved. The overall response of the system results in a factor of 2 increase in temperature as determined by its spectrum. Images of the interaction reveal that light energy is absorbed and trapped in a region smaller than the sonoluminescence emitting region of the bubble for over 100 ns. We interpret this opacity and transport measurement as demonstrating that sonoluminescencing bubbles can be 1000 times more opaque than what follows from the Saha equation of statistical mechanics in the ideal plasma limit. To address this discrepancy, we suggest that the effects of strong Coulomb interactions are an essential component of a first principles theory of sonoluminescence.

  19. Opacity and Transport Measurements Reveal That Dilute Plasma Models of Sonoluminescence Are Not Valid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalid, Shahzad; Kappus, Brian; Weninger, Keith; Putterman, Seth

    2012-03-01

    A strong interaction between a nanosecond laser and a 70 μm radius sonoluminescing plasma is achieved. The overall response of the system results in a factor of 2 increase in temperature as determined by its spectrum. Images of the interaction reveal that light energy is absorbed and trapped in a region smaller than the sonoluminescence emitting region of the bubble for over 100 ns. We interpret this opacity and transport measurement as demonstrating that sonoluminescencing bubbles can be 1000 times more opaque than what follows from the Saha equation of statistical mechanics in the ideal plasma limit. To address this discrepancy, we suggest that the effects of strong Coulomb interactions are an essential component of a first principles theory of sonoluminescence.

  20. Validity of Maxwell equal area law for black holes conformally coupled to scalar fields in {AdS}_5 spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Yan-Gang; Xu, Zhen-Ming

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the P{-}V criticality and the Maxwell equal area law for a five-dimensional spherically symmetric AdS black hole with a scalar hair in the absence of and in the presence of a Maxwell field, respectively. Especially in the charged case, we give the exact P{-}V critical values. More importantly, we analyze the validity and invalidity of the Maxwell equal area law for the AdS hairy black hole in the scenarios without and with charges, respectively. Within the scope of validity of the Maxwell equal area law, we point out that there exists a representative van der Waals-type oscillation in the P{-}V diagram. This oscillating part, which indicates the phase transition from a small black hole to a large one, can be replaced by an isobar. The small and large black holes have the same Gibbs free energy. We also give the distribution of the critical points in the parameter space both without and with charges, and we obtain for the uncharged case the fitting formula of the co-existence curve. Meanwhile, the latent heat is calculated, which gives the energy released or absorbed between the small and large black hole phases in the isothermal-isobaric procedure.

  1. Validation of a computerized algorithm to quantify fetal heart rate deceleration area.

    PubMed

    Gyllencreutz, Erika; Lu, Ke; Lindecrantz, Kaj; Lindqvist, Pelle G; Nordstrom, Lennart; Holzmann, Malin; Abtahi, Farhad

    2018-05-16

    Reliability in visual cardiotocography interpretation is unsatisfying, which has led to development of computerized cardiotocography. Computerized analysis is well established for antenatal fetal surveillance, but has yet not performed sufficiently during labor. We aimed to investigate the capacity of a new computerized algorithm compared to visual assessment in identifying intrapartum fetal heart rate baseline and decelerations. Three-hundred-and-twelve intrapartum cardiotocography tracings with variable decelerations were analysed by the computerized algorithm and visually examined by two observers, blinded to each other and the computer analysis. The width, depth and area of each deceleration was measured. Four cases (>100 variable decelerations) were subject to in-depth detailed analysis. The outcome measures were bias in seconds (width), beats per minute (depth), and beats (area) between computer and observers by using Bland-Altman analysis. Interobserver reliability was determined by calculating intraclass correlation and Spearman rank analysis. The analysis (312 cases) showed excellent intraclass correlation (0.89-0.95) and very strong Spearman correlation (0.82-0.91). The detailed analysis of > 100 decelerations in 4 cases revealed low bias between the computer and the two observers; width 1.4 and 1.4 seconds, depth 5.1 and 0.7 beats per minute, and area 0.1 and -1.7 beats. This was comparable to the bias between the two observers; 0.3 seconds (width), 4.4 beats per minute (depth), and 1.7 beats (area). The intraclass correlation was excellent (0.90-0.98). A novel computerized algorithm for intrapartum cardiotocography analysis is as accurate as gold standard visual assessment with high correlation and low bias. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. 23 CFR 450.320 - Congestion management process in transportation management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and... facilities eligible for funding under title 23 U.S.C. and title 49 U.S.C. Chapter 53 through the use of... strategies, or combinations of strategies, are some examples of what should be appropriately considered for...

  3. Idea Project Final Report, An Improved Metropolitan Area Transportation System (Imats)

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-01-20

    THIS INVESTIGATION WAS COMPLETED AS PART OF THE ITS-IDEA PROGRAM, WHICH IS ONE OF THREE IDEA PROGRAMS MANAGED BY THE TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD (TRB) TO FOSTER INNOVATIONS IN SURFACE TRANSPORTATION. IT FOCUSES ON PRODUCTS AND RESULTS FOR THE DEVEL...

  4. High-Area-Ratio Rocket Nozzle at High Combustion Chamber Pressure: Experimental and Analytical Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jankovsky, Robert S.; Smith, Timothy D.; Pavli, Albert J.

    1999-01-01

    Experimental data were obtained on an optimally contoured nozzle with an area ratio of 1025:1 and on a truncated version of this nozzle with an area ratio of 440:1. The nozzles were tested with gaseous hydrogen and liquid oxygen propellants at combustion chamber pressures of 1800 to 2400 psia and mixture ratios of 3.89 to 6.15. This report compares the experimental performance, heat transfer, and boundary layer total pressure measurements with theoretical predictions of the current Joint Army, Navy, NASA, Air Force (JANNAF) developed methodology. This methodology makes use of the Two-Dimensional Kinetics (TDK) nozzle performance code. Comparisons of the TDK-predicted performance to experimentally attained thrust performance indicated that both the vacuum thrust coefficient and the vacuum specific impulse values were approximately 2.0-percent higher than the turbulent prediction for the 1025:1 configurations, and approximately 0.25-percent higher than the turbulent prediction for the 440:1 configuration. Nozzle wall temperatures were measured on the outside of a thin-walled heat sink nozzle during the test fittings. Nozzle heat fluxes were calculated front the time histories of these temperatures and compared with predictions made with the TDK code. The heat flux values were overpredicted for all cases. The results range from nearly 100 percent at an area ratio of 50 to only approximately 3 percent at an area ratio of 975. Values of the integral of the heat flux as a function of nozzle surface area were also calculated. Comparisons of the experiment with analyses of the heat flux and the heat rate per axial length also show that the experimental values were lower than the predicted value. Three boundary layer rakes mounted on the nozzle exit were used for boundary layer measurements. This arrangement allowed total pressure measurements to be obtained at 14 different distances from the nozzle wall. A comparison of boundary layer total pressure profiles and analytical

  5. Initial Validation of Robotic Operations for In-Space Assembly of a Large Solar Electric Propulsion Transport Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komendera, Erik E.; Dorsey, John T.

    2017-01-01

    Developing a capability for the assembly of large space structures has the potential to increase the capabilities and performance of future space missions and spacecraft while reducing their cost. One such application is a megawatt-class solar electric propulsion (SEP) tug, representing a critical transportation ability for the NASA lunar, Mars, and solar system exploration missions. A series of robotic assembly experiments were recently completed at Langley Research Center (LaRC) that demonstrate most of the assembly steps for the SEP tug concept. The assembly experiments used a core set of robotic capabilities: long-reach manipulation and dexterous manipulation. This paper describes cross-cutting capabilities and technologies for in-space assembly (ISA), applies the ISA approach to a SEP tug, describes the design and development of two assembly demonstration concepts, and summarizes results of two sets of assembly experiments that validate the SEP tug assembly steps.

  6. Transport of dense pollutants: nonlinear random walk modeling and experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoia, A.; Latrille, C.; Cartalade, A.

    2009-04-01

    Non-Fickian transport is widespread in radionuclides and/or chemical species migration, which is key in the context of nuclear waste disposal: the contaminant spread might grow nonlinearly in time, the resulting concentration profiles displaying a non-Gaussian behavior [1]. An important source of such anomalous features is the collective motion of pollutants due to reciprocal interactions. Migration of concentrated particles usually displays these nonlinear phenomena: indeed, the motion of a single contaminant parcel depends on the density of the fluid nearby, which in turn is affected by the number of such parcels at a given position. High density gradients are encountered when either the contaminant itself is strongly concentrated at the source, or the plume flows through regions that are rich in salt; this latter case might become a major concern for radioactive waste disposal near salt domes: even modest density differences with respect to the resident fluid might sensibly affect the contaminant dynamics [2-4]. We propose a model for the concentration-dependent dynamics of a dense contaminant plume through a porous material and we explore its qualitative behavior by resorting to Monte Carlo simulation. We start by considering a vertical column filled with fully saturated and uniformly packed sand. The injected contaminant can be conceptually represented as an ensemble of fluid parcels, whose force balance is then rewritten in nonlinear stochastic Langevin form. This equation can be directly integrated by particle tracking simulation. Nonlinearities arise from the fact that both advection and dispersion of the contaminant plume are concentration-dependent, so that microscopic particles trajectories are correlated via the density field: flow and transport are coupled. The strength of nonlinear terms is controlled by a parameter ε that is proportional to the molar concentration Cmol [mol/L] of the injected solution. When Cmol is weak, ε → 0 and standard

  7. Modeling Aeolian Transport of Contaminated Sediments at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Technical Area 54, Area G: Sensitivities to Succession, Disturbance, and Future Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Whicker, Jeffrey J.; Kirchner, Thomas B.; Breshears, David D.

    2012-03-27

    The Technical Area 54 (TA-54) Area G disposal facility is used for the disposal of radioactive waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1 (DOE, 2001) requires that radioactive waste be managed in a manner that protects public health and safety and the environment. In compliance with that requirement, DOE field sites must prepare and maintain site-specific radiological performance assessments for facilities that receive waste after September 26, 1988. Sites are also required to conduct composite analyses for facilities that receive waste after this date; these analyses account for the cumulative impacts of allmore » waste that has been (and will be) disposed of at the facilities and other sources of radioactive material that may interact with these facilities. LANL issued Revision 4 of the Area G performance assessment and composite analysis in 2008. In support of those analyses, vertical and horizontal sediment flux data were collected at two analog sites, each with different dominant vegetation characteristics, and used to estimate rates of vertical resuspension and wind erosion for Area G. The results of that investigation indicated that there was no net loss of soil at the disposal site due to wind erosion, and suggested minimal impacts of wind on the long-term performance of the facility. However, that study did not evaluate the potential for contaminant transport caused by the horizontal movement of soil particles over long time frames. Since that time, additional field data have been collected to estimate wind threshold velocities for initiating sediment transport due to saltation and rates of sediment transport once those thresholds are reached. Data such as these have been used in the development of the Vegetation Modified Transport (VMTran) model. This model is designed to estimate patterns and long-term rates of contaminant redistribution caused by winds at the site, taking into account the impacts of

  8. Recovery and validation of historical sediment quality data from coastal and estuarine areas: An integrated approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manheim, F.T.; Buchholtz ten Brink, Marilyn R.; Mecray, E.L.

    1998-01-01

    A comprehensive database of sediment chemistry and environmental parameters has been compiled for Boston Harbor and Massachusetts Bay. This work illustrates methodologies for rescuing and validating sediment data from heterogeneous historical sources. It greatly expands spatial and temporal data coverage of estuarine and coastal sediments. The database contains about 3500 samples containing inorganic chemical, organic, texture and other environmental data dating from 1955 to 1994. Cooperation with local and federal agencies as well as universities was essential in locating and screening documents for the database. More than 80% of references utilized came from sources with limited distribution (gray literature). Task sharing was facilitated by a comprehensive and clearly defined data dictionary for sediments. It also served as a data entry template and flat file format for data processing and as a basis for interpretation and graphical illustration. Standard QA/QC protocols are usually inapplicable to historical sediment data. In this work outliers and data quality problems were identified by batch screening techniques that also provide visualizations of data relationships and geochemical affinities. No data were excluded, but qualifying comments warn users of problem data. For Boston Harbor, the proportion of irreparable or seriously questioned data was remarkably small (<5%), although concentration values for metals and organic contaminants spanned 3 orders of magnitude for many elements or compounds. Data from the historical database provide alternatives to dated cores for measuring changes in surficial sediment contamination level with time. The data indicate that spatial inhomogeneity in harbor environments can be large with respect to sediment-hosted contaminants. Boston Inner Harbor surficial sediments showed decreases in concentrations of Cu, Hg, and Zn of 40 to 60% over a 17-year period.A comprehensive database of sediment chemistry and environmental

  9. Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Area of Interest (AOI) 6: Develop and Validate Aeroelastic Codes for Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Kevin D.; Liu, Jong-Shang; Murthy, Durbha V.; Kruse, Marlin J.; James, Darrell

    1999-01-01

    for use in aeroelastic code validation.

  10. Acoustic Prediction Methodology and Test Validation for an Efficient Low-Noise Hybrid Wing Body Subsonic Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawai, Ronald T. (Compiler)

    2011-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to: (1) Develop a hybrid wing body subsonic transport configuration with noise prediction methods to meet the circa 2007 NASA Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) N+2 noise goal of -52 dB cum relative to FAR 36 Stage 3 (-42 dB cum re: Stage 4) while achieving a -25% fuel burned compared to current transports (re :B737/B767); (2) Develop improved noise prediction methods for ANOPP2 for use in predicting FAR 36 noise; (3) Design and fabricate a wind tunnel model for testing in the LaRC 14 x 22 ft low speed wind tunnel to validate noise predictions and determine low speed aero characteristics for an efficient low noise Hybrid Wing Body configuration. A medium wide body cargo freighter was selected to represent a logical need for an initial operational capability in the 2020 time frame. The Efficient Low Noise Hybrid Wing Body (ELNHWB) configuration N2A-EXTE was evolved meeting the circa 2007 NRA N+2 fuel burn and noise goals. The noise estimates were made using improvements in jet noise shielding and noise shielding prediction methods developed by UC Irvine and MIT. From this the Quiet Ultra Integrated Efficient Test Research Aircraft #1 (QUIET-R1) 5.8% wind tunnel model was designed and fabricated.

  11. Validations of Coupled CSD/CFD and Particle Vortex Transport Method for Rotorcraft Applications: Hover, Transition, and High Speed Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anusonti-Inthra, Phuriwat

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents validations of a novel rotorcraft analysis that coupled Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Computational Structural Dynamics (CSD), and Particle Vortex Transport Method (PVTM) methodologies. The CSD with associated vehicle trim analysis is used to calculate blade deformations and trim parameters. The near body CFD analysis is employed to provide detailed near body flow field information which is used to obtain high-fidelity blade aerodynamic loadings. The far field wake dominated region is simulated using the PVTM analysis which provides accurate prediction of the evolution of the rotor wake released from the near body CFD domains. A loose coupling methodology between the CSD and CFD/PVTM modules are used with appropriate information exchange amongst the CSD/CFD/PVTM modules. The coupled CSD/CFD/PVTM methodology is used to simulate various rotorcraft flight conditions (i.e. hover, transition, and high speed flights), and the results are compared with several sets of experimental data. For the hover condition, the results are compared with hover data for the HART II rotor tested at DLR Institute of Flight Systems, Germany. For the forward flight conditions, the results are validated with the UH-60A flight test data.

  12. Development and Validation of a Data-Based Food Frequency Questionnaire for Adults in Eastern Rural Area of Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Yanagisawa, Ayumi; Sudo, Noriko; Amitani, Yukiko; Caballero, Yuko; Sekiyama, Makiko; Mukamugema, Christine; Matsuoka, Takuya; Imanishi, Hiroaki; Sasaki, Takayo; Matsuda, Hirotaka

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and evaluate the validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for rural Rwandans. Since our FFQ was developed to assess malnutrition, it measured energy, protein, vitamin A, and iron intakes only. We collected 260 weighed food records (WFRs) from a total of 162 Rwandans. Based on the WFR data, we developed a tentative FFQ and examined the food list by percent contribution to energy and nutrient intakes. To assess the validity, nutrient intakes estimated from the FFQ were compared with those calculated from three-day WFRs by correlation coefficient and cross-classification for 17 adults. Cumulative contributions of the 18-item FFQ to the total intakes of energy and nutrients reached nearly 100%. Crude and energy-adjusted correlation coefficients ranged from −0.09 (vitamin A) to 0.58 (protein) and from −0.19 (vitamin A) to 0.68 (iron), respectively. About 50%–60% of the participants were classified into the same tertile. Our FFQ provided acceptable validity for energy and iron intakes and could rank Rwandan adults in eastern rural area correctly according to their energy and iron intakes. PMID:27429558

  13. Reduction of CO2 emission from transportation activities in the area of Pasar Besar in Malang City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sari, K. E.; Sulistyo, D. E.; Utomo, D. M.

    2017-06-01

    The number of vehicles increases every year. Where vehicles are the largest contributor to air pollution up to 70%-80%, while 20%-30% caused by industrial activities. The increasing number of vehicles which perform movements will result in more emissions of vehicles in the free air of the city. Traffic is also influenced by the presence of land use. One of the types of land use that have considerable influence against the movement of traffic is trade. Along with the development of transport activities in the area of Pasar Besar Malang city (the Biggest Traditional Market in Malang), it will cause problems such as traffic jam and air pollution. Therefore, the need for proper handling of the problem of traffic jam and air pollution in the area of Pasar Besar that is to identify the performance of road traffic around area of Pasar Besar and calculate the quantity of CO2 emissions based on the footprint of transport on the area of Pasar Besar. Where is produced that level of service roads on its way around area of Pasar Besar have an average value between LOS A and B, while the quantity of CO2 emissions is based on the footprint of transport on area of Pasar Besar that is amounting to 4,551.42 tons/year. The magnitude of the emissions have exceeded the standard of composition in the air so that the need for recommendations. Recommendations in this research is in the form of simulated users of private vehicle redirects to public transportation based on the level of willingness to switch by the users of private vehicles. The selected simulation that is the second of four simulations with the output of emissions amounting to 3,952.91 tons/year in which can reduce emissions amounting to 598.51 tons/year or approximately 13.15%.

  14. Sediment transport and erosion in the Fourchon area of Lafourche parish. [south Louisiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehurst, C. A.; Self, R. P.

    1974-01-01

    NASA aerial photography in the form of color infrared and color positive transparencies is used as an aid in evaluating the rate and effect of erosion and sediment transport in Bay Champagne Louisiana.

  15. Review of the transportation planning process in the Chicago metropolitan area

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to help agencies: Become familiar with the Costing Asset Protection for Transportation Agencies (CAPTA) Methodology. Learn how to use CAPTool to implement the CAPTA Methodology. Understand CAPTool results, and...

  16. Generating Vegetation Leaf Area Index Earth System Data Record from Multiple Sensors. Part 2; Implementation, Analysis and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganguly, Sangram; Samanta, Arindam; Schull, Mitchell A.; Shabanov, Nikolay V.; Milesi, Cristina; Nemani, Ramajrushna R,; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Myneni, Ranga B.

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation of a new global monthly leaf area index (LAI) data set for the period July 1981 to December 2006 derived from AVHRR Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data is described. The physically based algorithm is detailed in the first of the two part series. Here, the implementation, production and evaluation of the data set are described. The data set is evaluated both by direct comparisons to ground data and indirectly through inter-comparisons with similar data sets. This indirect validation showed satisfactory agreement with existing LAI products, importantly MODIS, at a range of spatial scales, and significant correlations with key climate variables in areas where temperature and precipitation limit plant growth. The data set successfully reproduced well-documented spatio-temporal trends and inter-annual variations in vegetation activity in the northern latitudes and semi-arid tropics. Comparison with plot scale field measurements over homogeneous vegetation patches indicated a 7% underestimation when all major vegetation types are taken into account. The error in mean values obtained from distributions of AVHRR LAI and high-resolution field LAI maps for different biomes is within 0.5 LAI for six out of the ten selected sites. These validation exercises though limited by the amount of field data, and thus less than comprehensive, indicated satisfactory agreement between the LAI product and field measurements. Overall, the intercomparison with short-term LAI data sets, evaluation of long term trends with known variations in climate variables, and validation with field measurements together build confidence in the utility of this new 26 year LAI record for long term vegetation monitoring and modeling studies.

  17. Validation of Walk Score® for Estimating Neighborhood Walkability: An Analysis of Four US Metropolitan Areas

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Dustin T.; Aldstadt, Jared; Whalen, John; Melly, Steven J.; Gortmaker, Steven L.

    2011-01-01

    Neighborhood walkability can influence physical activity. We evaluated the validity of Walk Score® for assessing neighborhood walkability based on GIS (objective) indicators of neighborhood walkability with addresses from four US metropolitan areas with several street network buffer distances (i.e., 400-, 800-, and 1,600-meters). Address data come from the YMCA-Harvard After School Food and Fitness Project, an obesity prevention intervention involving children aged 5–11 years and their families participating in YMCA-administered, after-school programs located in four geographically diverse metropolitan areas in the US (n = 733). GIS data were used to measure multiple objective indicators of neighborhood walkability. Walk Scores were also obtained for the participant’s residential addresses. Spearman correlations between Walk Scores and the GIS neighborhood walkability indicators were calculated as well as Spearman correlations accounting for spatial autocorrelation. There were many significant moderate correlations between Walk Scores and the GIS neighborhood walkability indicators such as density of retail destinations and intersection density (p < 0.05). The magnitude varied by the GIS indicator of neighborhood walkability. Correlations generally became stronger with a larger spatial scale, and there were some geographic differences. Walk Score® is free and publicly available for public health researchers and practitioners. Results from our study suggest that Walk Score® is a valid measure of estimating certain aspects of neighborhood walkability, particularly at the 1600-meter buffer. As such, our study confirms and extends the generalizability of previous findings demonstrating that Walk Score is a valid measure of estimating neighborhood walkability in multiple geographic locations and at multiple spatial scales. PMID:22163200

  18. Transport and solubility of Hetero-disperse dry deposition particulate matter subject to urban source area rainfall-runoff processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, G.; Sansalone, J.

    2010-03-01

    SummaryWith respect to hydrologic processes, the impervious pavement interface significantly alters relationships between rainfall and runoff. Commensurate with alteration of hydrologic processes the pavement also facilitates transport and solubility of dry deposition particulate matter (PM) in runoff. This study examines dry depositional flux rates, granulometric modification by runoff transport, as well as generation of total dissolved solids (TDS), alkalinity and conductivity in source area runoff resulting from PM solubility. PM is collected from a paved source area transportation corridor (I-10) in Baton Rouge, Louisiana encompassing 17 dry deposition and 8 runoff events. The mass-based granulometric particle size distribution (PSD) is measured and modeled through a cumulative gamma function, while PM surface area distributions across the PSD follow a log-normal distribution. Dry deposition flux rates are modeled as separate first-order exponential functions of previous dry hours (PDH) for PM and suspended, settleable and sediment fractions. When trans-located from dry deposition into runoff, PSDs are modified, with a d50m decreasing from 331 to 14 μm after transport and 60 min of settling. Solubility experiments as a function of pH, contact time and particle size using source area rainfall generate constitutive models to reproduce pH, alkalinity, TDS and alkalinity for historical events. Equilibrium pH, alkalinity and TDS are strongly influenced by particle size and contact times. The constitutive leaching models are combined with measured PSDs from a series of rainfall-runoff events to demonstrate that the model results replicate alkalinity and TDS in runoff from the subject watershed. Results illustrate the granulometry of dry deposition PM, modification of PSDs along the drainage pathway, and the role of PM solubility for generation of TDS, alkalinity and conductivity in urban source area rainfall-runoff.

  19. Validation of Ocean Color Satellite Data Products in Under Sampled Marine Areas. Chapter 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramaniam, Ajit; Hood, Raleigh R.; Brown, Christopher W.; Carpenter, Edward J.; Capone, Douglas G.

    2001-01-01

    The planktonic marine cyanobacterium, Trichodesmium sp., is broadly distributed throughout the oligotrophic marine tropical and sub-tropical oceans. Trichodesmium, which typically occurs in macroscopic bundles or colonies, is noteworthy for its ability to form large surface aggregations and to fix dinitrogen gas. The latter is important because primary production supported by N2 fixation can result in a net export of carbon from the surface waters to deep ocean and may therefore play a significant role in the global carbon cycle. However, information on the distribution and density of Trichodesmium from shipboard measurements through the oligotrophic oceans is very sparse. Such estimates are required to quantitatively estimate total global rates of N2 fixation. As a result current global rate estimates are highly uncertain. Thus in order to understand the broader biogeochemical importance of Trichodesmium and N2 fixation in the oceans, we need better methods to estimate the global temporal and spatial variability of this organism. One approach that holds great promise is satellite remote sensing. Satellite ocean color sensors are ideal instruments for estimating global phytoplankton biomass, especially that due to episodic blooms, because they provide relatively high frequency synoptic information over large areas. Trichodesmium has a combination of specific ultrastructural and biochemical features that lend themselves to identification of this organism by remote sensing. Specifically, these features are high backscatter due to the presence of gas vesicles, and absorption and fluorescence of phycoerythrin. The resulting optical signature is relatively unique and should be detectable with satellite ocean color sensors such as the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS).

  20. Validating the operational bias and hypothesis of universal exponent in landslide frequency-area distribution.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jr-Chuan; Lee, Tsung-Yu; Teng, Tse-Yang; Chen, Yi-Chin; Huang, Cho-Ying; Lee, Cheing-Tung

    2014-01-01

    The exponent decay in landslide frequency-area distribution is widely used for assessing the consequences of landslides and with some studies arguing that the slope of the exponent decay is universal and independent of mechanisms and environmental settings. However, the documented exponent slopes are diverse and hence data processing is hypothesized for this inconsistency. An elaborated statistical experiment and two actual landslide inventories were used here to demonstrate the influences of the data processing on the determination of the exponent. Seven categories with different landslide numbers were generated from the predefined inverse-gamma distribution and then analyzed by three data processing procedures (logarithmic binning, LB, normalized logarithmic binning, NLB and cumulative distribution function, CDF). Five different bin widths were also considered while applying LB and NLB. Following that, the maximum likelihood estimation was used to estimate the exponent slopes. The results showed that the exponents estimated by CDF were unbiased while LB and NLB performed poorly. Two binning-based methods led to considerable biases that increased with the increase of landslide number and bin width. The standard deviations of the estimated exponents were dependent not just on the landslide number but also on binning method and bin width. Both extremely few and plentiful landslide numbers reduced the confidence of the estimated exponents, which could be attributed to limited landslide numbers and considerable operational bias, respectively. The diverse documented exponents in literature should therefore be adjusted accordingly. Our study strongly suggests that the considerable bias due to data processing and the data quality should be constrained in order to advance the understanding of landslide processes.

  1. Validating the Operational Bias and Hypothesis of Universal Exponent in Landslide Frequency-Area Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jr-Chuan; Lee, Tsung-Yu; Teng, Tse-Yang; Chen, Yi-Chin; Huang, Cho-Ying; Lee, Cheing-Tung

    2014-01-01

    The exponent decay in landslide frequency-area distribution is widely used for assessing the consequences of landslides and with some studies arguing that the slope of the exponent decay is universal and independent of mechanisms and environmental settings. However, the documented exponent slopes are diverse and hence data processing is hypothesized for this inconsistency. An elaborated statistical experiment and two actual landslide inventories were used here to demonstrate the influences of the data processing on the determination of the exponent. Seven categories with different landslide numbers were generated from the predefined inverse-gamma distribution and then analyzed by three data processing procedures (logarithmic binning, LB, normalized logarithmic binning, NLB and cumulative distribution function, CDF). Five different bin widths were also considered while applying LB and NLB. Following that, the maximum likelihood estimation was used to estimate the exponent slopes. The results showed that the exponents estimated by CDF were unbiased while LB and NLB performed poorly. Two binning-based methods led to considerable biases that increased with the increase of landslide number and bin width. The standard deviations of the estimated exponents were dependent not just on the landslide number but also on binning method and bin width. Both extremely few and plentiful landslide numbers reduced the confidence of the estimated exponents, which could be attributed to limited landslide numbers and considerable operational bias, respectively. The diverse documented exponents in literature should therefore be adjusted accordingly. Our study strongly suggests that the considerable bias due to data processing and the data quality should be constrained in order to advance the understanding of landslide processes. PMID:24852019

  2. Factors associated with physical inactivity in transportation in Brazilian adults living in a low socioeconomic area.

    PubMed

    Sa, Thiago Herick; Salvador, Emanuel Péricles; Florindo, Alex Antonio

    2013-08-01

    Physical inactivity in transportation is negatively related to many health outcomes. However, little is known about the correlates of this condition among people living in regions of low socioeconomic level. Cross-sectional study aimed to assess factors associated with physical inactivity in transportation among adults in the Eastern Zone of São Paulo, Brazil. Home-based interviews were conducted between May 2007 and January 2008 on a probabilistic sample of the adult population (≥18 years), totaling 368 men and 522 women. Factors associated with physical inactivity in transportation (less than 10 minutes per week of walking or cycling) were assessed using multivariate Poisson regression with hierarchical selection of variables. Physical inactivity in transportation was associated with the presence of vehicles in the household in men (PR = 2.96) and women (PR = 2.42), with linear trend for both sexes (P < .001 and P = .004, respectively), even after adjusting for age, schooling level and chronic diseases (this last factor, only among women). Presence of vehicles in the household was associated positively with physical inactivity in transportation, both for men and for women. This should be taken into consideration in drawing up public policies for promoting physical activity.

  3. Replacing car trips by increasing bike and public transport in the greater Barcelona metropolitan area: a health impact assessment study.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Rueda, D; de Nazelle, A; Teixidó, O; Nieuwenhuijsen, M J

    2012-11-15

    Estimate the health risks and benefits of mode shifts from car to cycling and public transport in the metropolitan area of Barcelona, Spain. We conducted a health impact assessment (HIA), creating 8 different scenarios on the replacement of short and long car trips, by public transport or/and bike. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality and change in life expectancy related to two different assessments: A) the exposure of travellers to physical activity, air pollution to particulate matter <2.5 μm (PM2.5), and road traffic fatality; and B) the exposure of general population to PM2.5, modelling by Barcelona Air-Dispersion Model. The secondary outcome was a change in emissions of carbon dioxide. The annual health impact of a shift of 40% of the car trips, starting and ending in Barcelona City, to cycling (n=141,690) would be for the travellers who shift modes 1.15 additional deaths from air pollution, 0.17 additional deaths from road traffic fatality and 67.46 deaths avoided from physical activity resulting in a total of 66.12 deaths avoided. Fewer deaths would be avoided annually if half of the replaced trips were shifted to public transport (43.76 deaths). The annual health impact in the Barcelona City general population (n=1,630,494) of the 40% reduction in car trips would be 10.03 deaths avoided due to the reduction of 0.64% in exposure to PM2.5. The deaths (including travellers and general population) avoided in Barcelona City therefore would be 76.15 annually. Further health benefits would be obtained with a shift of 40% of the car trips from the Greater Barcelona Metropolitan which either start or end in Barcelona City to public transport (40.15 deaths avoided) or public transport and cycling (98.50 deaths avoided).The carbon dioxide reduction for shifting from car to other modes of transport (bike and public transport) in Barcelona metropolitan area was estimated to be 203,251t/CO₂ emissions per year. Interventions to reduce car use and

  4. Gateway National Recreation Area, Jamaica Bay Unit alternative transportation feasibility study

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-07-31

    The National Park Service Gateway National Recreation Area (GATE) was created to provide convenient access to outdoor recreation in the National Park System for residents and visitors to the New York City (NYC) area. The Volpe Center completed a numb...

  5. External Validation of Contact Surface Area as a Predictor of Postoperative Renal Function in Patients Undergoing Partial Nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Haifler, Miki; Ristau, Benjamin T; Higgins, Andrew M; Smaldone, Marc C; Kutikov, Alexander; Zisman, Amnon; Uzzo, Robert G

    2017-09-20

    We sought to externally validate a mathematical formula for tumor contact surface area as a predictor of postoperative renal function in patients undergoing partial nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma. We queried a prospectively maintained kidney cancer database for patients who underwent partial nephrectomy between 2014 and 2016. Contact surface area was calculated using data obtained from preoperative cross-sectional imaging. The correlation between contact surface area and perioperative variables was examined. The correlation between postoperative renal functional outcomes, contact surface area and the R.E.N.A.L. (radius, exophytic/endophytic properties, nearness of tumor to collecting system or sinus, anterior/posterior, location relative to polar lines and tumor touches main renal artery or vein) nephrometry score was also assessed. A total of 257 patients who underwent partial nephrectomy had sufficient data to enter the study. Median contact surface area was 14.5 cm 2 (IQR 6.2-36) and the median nephrometry score was 9 (IQR 7-10). Spearman correlation analysis showed that contact surface area correlated with estimated blood loss (r s = 0.42, p <0.001), length of stay (r s = 0.18, p = 0.005), and percent and absolute change in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (r s = -0.77 and -0.78, respectively, each p <0.001). On multivariable analysis contact surface area and nephrometry score were independent predictors of the absolute change in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (each p <0.001). ROC curve analysis revealed that contact surface area was a better predictor of a greater than 20% postoperative decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate compared with the nephrometry score (AUC 0.94 vs 0.80). Contact surface area correlated with the change in postoperative renal function after partial nephrectomy. It can be used in conjunction with the nephrometry score to counsel patients about the risk of renal functional decline after partial

  6. Role of solute-transport models in the analysis of groundwater salinity problems in agricultural areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konikow, Leonard F.

    1981-01-01

    Undesirable salinity increases occur in both groundwater and surface water and are commonly related to agricultural practices. Groundwater recharge from precipitation or irrigation will transport and disperse residual salts concentrated by evapotranspiration, salts leached from soil and aquifer materials, as well as some dissolved fertilizers and pesticides. Where stream salinity is affected by agricultural practices, the increases in salt load usually are attributable mostly to a groundwater component of flow. Thus, efforts to predict, manage, or control stream salinity increases should consider the role of groundwater in salt transport. Two examples of groundwater salinity problems in Colorado, U.S.A., illustrate that a model which simulates accurately the transport and dispersion of solutes in flowing groundwater can be (1) a valuable investigative tool to help understand the processes and parameters controlling the movement and fate of the salt, and (2) a valuable management tool for predicting responses and optimizing the development and use of the total water resource. ?? 1981.

  7. Leaf area compounds height-related hydraulic costs of water transport in Oregon White Oak trees.

    Treesearch

    N. Phillips; B. J. Bond; N. G. McDowell; Michael G. Ryan; A. Schauer

    2003-01-01

    The ratio of leaf to sapwood area generally decreases with tree size, presumably to moderate hydraulic costs of tree height. This study assessed consequences of tree size and leaf area on water flux in Quercus garryana Dougl. ex. Hook (Oregon White Oak), a species in which leaf to sapwood area ratio increases with tree size. We tested hypotheses that...

  8. Demonstration of enhanced human service transportation models: phase 1 - system development and design : the purchase area regional travel management coordination center (TMCC).

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-03-23

    This report provides a comprehensive review of the policy, operational, and : technical design and development of the Purchase Area Transportation Management Coordination Center (TMCC) for : western Kentucky. The Purchase Area TMCC will facilitate si...

  9. Sixth Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Conference: Exposition Topical Areas 1-6. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Bhim (Compiler)

    2002-01-01

    The Sixth Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Conference provides the scientific community the opportunity to view the current scope of the Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Program, current research opportunities, and plans for the near future. The conference focuses not only on fundamental research but also on applications of this knowledge towards enabling future space exploration missions. A whole session dedicated to biological fluid physics shows increased emphasis that the program has placed on interdisciplinary research. The conference includes invited plenary talks, technical paper presentations, poster presentations, and exhibits. This CP (conference proceeding) is a compilation of the abstracts, presentations, and posters presented at the conference.

  10. The western Mediterranean Sea: An area for a regional validation for TOPEX/Poseidon and a field for geophysical and oceanographic studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlier, Francois; Balmino, G.; Boucher, Claude; Willis, P.; Biancale, R.; Menard, Yves; Vincent, P.; Bethoux, J. P.; Exertier, P.; Pierron, F.

    1991-01-01

    The research project has two kinds of objectives. The first is focused on the regional validation of the altimeter, orbit, and mean sea surface; it will be performed in close cooperation with the local validation performed at Lampedusa/Lampione (Italy). The second deals with the geophysical and oceanographic research of interest in this area.

  11. [Reliability and validity of Professional Quality of Life Scale among government staff in earthquake - stricken areas in China].

    PubMed

    Dang, Weimin; Cheng, Wenhong; Ma, Hong; Lin, Jin; Wu, Baoming; Ma, Ning; Wang, Rongke; Xu, Junting; Zhou, Tianhang; Yu, Xin

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the reliability and validity of Professional Quality of Life Scale (ProQOL-30, 4th version, 30 items) among government staff in the Wenchuan earthquake-stricken areas A total of 1,175 members of government staff in the Wenchuan earthquake-stricken areas were selected by convenience sampling and required to complete the ProQOL and Self-Reporting Questionnair (SRQ). The reliability and validity of the scale was evaluated by correlation analysis, t-test, and confirmatory factor analysis. Item-total correlation coefficients of the three subscales were 0.590 - 0.752, 0.389 - 0.603, and 0.340 - 0.647, respectively (P<0.05), and the average coefficients were 0.672, 0.482, and 0.555 respectively (P<0.05). The Cronbach's α coefficients of the three subscales were 0.864, 0.569, and 0.742 respectively, and the split-half reliabilities were 0.829, 0.490, and 0.677, respectively. P value was 0.88 in thE chi-square test of confirmatory factor analysis model. Goodness-of-fit indices of ProQOL-30 included GFI=0.895 NFI=0.856, CFI=0.895, RMSEA=0.063, and AGFI=0.912. For the ProQOL-28 as an optimized version o ProQOL-30, the Cronbach's a coefficients for burnout and trauma/compassion fatigue increased to 0.616 and 0.757, respectively. P value was 0.91 in the chi-square test of confirmatory factor analysis model test. Goodness-of-fit indices of ProQOL-28 were GFI =0.913, AGFI =0.924, NFI =0.900, CFI =0.913, and RMSEA =0.031 CONCLUSION: ProQOL-28 has good reliability and validity among government staff in the earthquake-stricker areas in China.

  12. Sediment transport patterns in the San Francisco Bay Coastal System from cross-validation of bedform asymmetry and modeled residual flux

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.; Elias, Edwin P.L.; Dartnell, Peter; Barnard, P.L.; Jaffee, B.E.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    The morphology of ~ 45,000 bedforms from 13 multibeam bathymetry surveys was used as a proxy for identifying net bedload sediment transport directions and pathways throughout the San Francisco Bay estuary and adjacent outer coast. The spatially-averaged shape asymmetry of the bedforms reveals distinct pathways of ebb and flood transport. Additionally, the region-wide, ebb-oriented asymmetry of 5% suggests net seaward-directed transport within the estuarine-coastal system, with significant seaward asymmetry at the mouth of San Francisco Bay (11%), through the northern reaches of the Bay (7–8%), and among the largest bedforms (21% for λ > 50 m). This general indication for the net transport of sand to the open coast strongly suggests that anthropogenic removal of sediment from the estuary, particularly along clearly defined seaward transport pathways, will limit the supply of sand to chronically eroding, open-coast beaches. The bedform asymmetry measurements significantly agree (up to ~ 76%) with modeled annual residual transport directions derived from a hydrodynamically-calibrated numerical model, and the orientation of adjacent, flow-sculpted seafloor features such as mega-flute structures, providing a comprehensive validation of the technique. The methods described in this paper to determine well-defined, cross-validated sediment transport pathways can be applied to estuarine-coastal systems globally where bedforms are present. The results can inform and improve regional sediment management practices to more efficiently utilize often limited sediment resources and mitigate current and future sediment supply-related impacts.

  13. Sediment transport patterns in the San Francisco Bay Coastal System from cross-validation of bedform asymmetry and modeled residual flux

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.; Elias, Edwin P.L.; Dartnell, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The morphology of ~ 45,000 bedforms from 13 multibeam bathymetry surveys was used as a proxy for identifying net bedload sediment transport directions and pathways throughout the San Francisco Bay estuary and adjacent outer coast. The spatially-averaged shape asymmetry of the bedforms reveals distinct pathways of ebb and flood transport. Additionally, the region-wide, ebb-oriented asymmetry of 5% suggests net seaward-directed transport within the estuarine-coastal system, with significant seaward asymmetry at the mouth of San Francisco Bay (11%), through the northern reaches of the Bay (7-8%), and among the largest bedforms (21% for λ > 50 m). This general indication for the net transport of sand to the open coast strongly suggests that anthropogenic removal of sediment from the estuary, particularly along clearly defined seaward transport pathways, will limit the supply of sand to chronically eroding, open-coast beaches. The bedform asymmetry measurements significantly agree (up to ~ 76%) with modeled annual residual transport directions derived from a hydrodynamically-calibrated numerical model, and the orientation of adjacent, flow-sculpted seafloor features such as mega-flute structures, providing a comprehensive validation of the technique. The methods described in this paper to determine well-defined, cross-validated sediment transport pathways can be applied to estuarine-coastal systems globally where bedforms are present. The results can inform and improve regional sediment management practices to more efficiently utilize often limited sediment resources and mitigate current and future sediment supply-related impacts.

  14. Development of solute transport models in YMPYRÄ framework to simulate solute migration in military shooting and training areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warsta, L.; Karvonen, T.

    2017-12-01

    There are currently 25 shooting and training areas in Finland managed by The Finnish Defence Forces (FDF), where military activities can cause contamination of open waters and groundwater reservoirs. In the YMPYRÄ project, a computer software framework is being developed that combines existing open environmental data and proprietary information collected by FDF with computational models to investigate current and prevent future environmental problems. A data centric philosophy is followed in the development of the system, i.e. the models are updated and extended to handle available data from different areas. The results generated by the models are summarized as easily understandable flow and risk maps that can be opened in GIS programs and used in environmental assessments by experts. Substances investigated with the system include explosives and metals such as lead, and both surface and groundwater dominated areas can be simulated. The YMPYRÄ framework is composed of a three dimensional soil and groundwater flow model, several solute transport models and an uncertainty assessment system. Solute transport models in the framework include particle based, stream tube and finite volume based approaches. The models can be used to simulate solute dissolution from source area, transport in the unsaturated layers to groundwater and finally migration in groundwater to water extraction wells and springs. The models can be used to simulate advection, dispersion, equilibrium adsorption on soil particles, solubility and dissolution from solute phase and dendritic solute decay chains. Correct numerical solutions were confirmed by comparing results to analytical 1D and 2D solutions and by comparing the numerical solutions to each other. The particle based and stream tube type solute transport models were useful as they could complement the traditional finite volume based approach which in certain circumstances produced numerical dispersion due to piecewise solution of the

  15. SU-E-T-791: Validation of a Determinant Based Photon Transport Solver in Dose Perturbed By Diverse Media

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, H; Tome, W; Yaparpalvi, R

    Purpose: To validate a determinant based photon transport solver in dose imparted within different transition zone between different medium. Methods: Thickness (.2cm,.5cm, 1cm, 3cm) from various materials (Air - density=0.0012g/cm3, Cork-0.19g/cm3, Lung-0.26g/cm3, Bone-1.85g/cm3, Aluminum (Al)-2.7g/cm3, Titanium (Ti)-4.42g/cm3, Iron (Fe)-8g/cm3) were sandwiched by 10cm solid water. 6MV were used to study the calculation difference between a superposition photon beam model (AAA) and the determinant based Boltzmann photon transport solver (XB) at the upstream (I) and downstream boarder (II) of the medium, within the medium (III), and at far distance downstream away from medium (IV). Calculation was validated with available thickness ofmore » Air, Cork, Lung, Al, Ti and Fe. Results are presented as the ratio of the dose at the point with medium perturbation to the same point dose without perturbation. Results: Zone I showed different backscatter enhancement from high-density materials within the 5mm of the upstream border. AAA showed no backscatter at all, XB showed good agreement beyond 1mm upstream (1.18 vs 1.14, 1.09 vs 1.10, and 1.04 vs 1.05 for Fe, Ti, and Fe, respectively). Zone II showed a re-buildup after exiting high-density medium and Air but no build up for density close to water in both of the measurement and XB. AAA yielded the opposite results in Zone II. XB and AAA showed in Zone III very different absorption in high density medium and the Air. XB and measurement had high concordance regarding photon attenuation in Zone IV. AAA showed less agreement especially when the medium was Air or Fe. Conclusion: XB compared well with measurement in regions 1mm away from the interface. Planning using XB should be beneficial for External Beam Planning in situations with large air cavity, very low lung density, compact bone, and any kind of metal implant.« less

  16. Interfacial area transport of steam-water two-phase flow in a vertical annulus at elevated pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozar, Basar

    Analysis of accident scenarios in nuclear reactors are done by using codes such as TRACE and RELAP5. Large oscillations in the core void fraction are observed in calculations of advanced passive light water reactors (ALWRs), especially during the low pressure long-term cooling phase. These oscillations are attributed to be numerical in nature and served to limit the accuracy as well as the credibility of the calculations. One of the root causes of these unphysical oscillations is determined to be flow regime transitions caused by the usage of static flow regime maps. The interfacial area transport equation was proposed earlier in order to address these issues. Previous research successfully developed the foundation of the interfacial area transport equation and the experimental techniques needed for the measurement of interfacial area, bubble diameters and velocities. In the past, an extensive database has been then generated for adiabatic air-water conditions in vertical upward and downward bubbly-churn turbulent flows in pipes. Using this database, mechanistic models for the creation (bubble breakup) and destruction (bubble coalescence) of interfacial area have been developed for the bubblyslug flow regime transition. However, none of these studies investigated the effect of phase change. To address this need, a heated annular test section was designed and constructed. The design relied on a three level scaling approach: geometric scaling; hydrodynamic scaling; thermal scaling. The test section consisted of a heated and unheated section in order to study the sub-cooled boiling and bulk condensation/flashing and evaporation phenomena, respectively. Steam-water two-phase flow tests were conducted under sub-cooled boiling conditions in the heated section and with sub-cooled/super-heated bulk liquid in the unheated section. The modeling of interfacial area transport equation with phase change effects was introduced and discussed. Constitutive relations, which took

  17. Validation of cold chain shipping environment for transport of allografts as part of a human tissue bank returns policy.

    PubMed

    Rooney, P; Eagle, M J; Kearney, J N

    2015-12-01

    Human tissue is shipped to surgeons in the UK in either a freeze-dried or frozen state. To ensure quality and safety of the tissue, frozen tissue must be shipped in insulated containers such that tissue is maintained at an appropriate temperature. UK Blood Transfusion Service regulations state "Transportation systems must be validated to show maintenance of the required storage temperature" and also state that frozen, non-cryopreserved tissue "must be transported… at -20 °C or lower" (Guidelines for the Blood Transfusion Services in the United Kingdom, 8th Edn. 2013). To maintain an expiry date for frozen tissue longer than 6 months, the tissue must be maintained at a temperature of -40 °C or below. The objective of this study was to evaluate and validate the capability of a commercially available insulated polystyrene carton (XPL10), packed with dry ice, to maintain tissue temperature below -40 °C. Tissue temperature of a single frozen femoral head or a single frozen Achilles tendon, was recorded over a 4-day period at 37 °C, inside a XPL10 carton with dry ice as refrigerant. The data demonstrate that at 37 °C, the XPL10 carton with 9.5 kg of dry ice maintained femoral head and tendon tissue temperature below -55 °C for at least 48 h; tissue temperature did not rise above -40 °C until at least 70 h. Data also indicated that at a storage temperature lower than 37 °C, tissue temperature was maintained for longer periods.

  18. CFD MODELING OF FINE SCALE FLOW AND TRANSPORT IN THE HOUSTON METROPOLITAN AREA, TEXAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fine scale modeling of flows and air quality in Houston, Texas is being performed; the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling is being applied to investigate the influence of morphologic structures on the within-grid transport and dispersion of sources in grid models ...

  19. Review of the transportation planning process in the Kansas City metropolitan area

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-01-01

    In 2010 the FHWA Office of Operations, Office of Transportation Management (HOTM) commissioned the development of a white paper, Data Capture and Management: Needs and Gaps in the Operation and Coordination of U.S. DOT Data Capture and Management Pro...

  20. 75 FR 27857 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Transport Airplane and Engine Issue Area-New Task

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... (autopilot) and performance and handling qualities in icing conditions to improve transport airplane... the existing Avionics Systems Harmonization Working Group. The Task ARAC is initially tasked with... working group will be expected to provide a report that addresses the following low speed alerting...

  1. 75 FR 16902 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Transport Airplane and Engine Issue Area-New Task

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ..., stall warning standards were enhanced). However, as a result of several recent loss-of-control accidents... Transport Airplane and Engine Issues, under the existing Avionics Systems Harmonization Working Group. The... existing stall warning requirements. The working group will be expected to provide a report that addresses...

  2. Cluster Analysis of Atmospheric Dynamics and Pollution Transport in a Coastal Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Anton; Dmitriev, Egor; Maksimovich, Elena; Delbarre, Hervé; Augustin, Patrick; Gengembre, Cyril; Fourmentin, Marc; Locoge, Nadine

    2016-11-01

    Summertime atmospheric dynamics in the coastal zone of the industrialized Dunkerque agglomeration in northern France was characterized by a cluster analysis of back trajectories in the context of pollution transport. The MESO-NH atmospheric model was used to simulate the local dynamics at multiple scales with horizontal resolution down to 500 m, and for the online calculation of the Lagrangian backward trajectories with 30-min temporal resolution. Airmass transport was performed along six principal pathways obtained by the weighted k-means clustering technique. Four of these centroids corresponded to a range of wind speeds over the English Channel: two for wind directions from the north-east and two from the south-west. Another pathway corresponded to a south-westerly continental transport. The backward trajectories of the largest and most dispersed sixth cluster contained low wind speeds, including sea-breeze circulations. Based on analyses of meteorological data and pollution measurements, the principal atmospheric pathways were related to local air-contamination events. Continuous air quality and meteorological data were collected during the Benzene-Toluene-Ethylbenzene-Xylene 2006 campaign. The sites of the pollution measurements served as the endpoints for the backward trajectories. Pollutant transport pathways corresponding to the highest air contamination were defined.

  3. Combined effects of compact cevelopment, transportation investments, and road user pricing on vehicle miles traveled in urbanized areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ewing, Reid; Hamidi, Shima; Gallivan, Frank; Nelson, Arthur C.; Grace, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Vehicle miles traveled (VMT) is the primary determinant of traffic congestion, vehicle crashes, greenhouse gas emissions, and other effects of transportation. Two previous studies have sought to explain VMT levels in urbanized areas. This study updates and expands on previous work with more recent data, additional metrics, and structural equation modeling (SEM) to explain VMT levels in 315 urbanized areas. According to SEM, population, income, and gasoline prices are primary exogenous drivers of VMT. Development density is a primary endogenous driver. Urbanized areas with more freeway capacity are significantly less dense and have significantly higher VMT per capita. Areas with more transit service coverage and service frequency have higher development densities and per capita transit use, which leads to lower VMT per capita. The indirect effect of transit on VMT through land use, the so-called land use multiplier, is more than three times greater than the direct effect through transit ridership.

  4. Comparison of Methods for Estimating Prevalence of Chronic Diseases and Health Behaviors for Small Geographic Areas: Boston Validation Study, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Holt, James B.; Zhang, Xingyou; Lu, Hua; Shah, Snehal N.; Dooley, Daniel P.; Matthews, Kevin A.; Croft, Janet B.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Local health authorities need small-area estimates for prevalence of chronic diseases and health behaviors for multiple purposes. We generated city-level and census-tract–level prevalence estimates of 27 measures for the 500 largest US cities. Methods To validate the methodology, we constructed multilevel logistic regressions to predict 10 selected health indicators among adults aged 18 years or older by using 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data; we applied their predicted probabilities to census population data to generate city-level, neighborhood-level, and zip-code–level estimates for the city of Boston, Massachusetts. Results By comparing the predicted estimates with their corresponding direct estimates from a locally administered survey (Boston BRFSS 2010 and 2013), we found that our model-based estimates for most of the selected health indicators at the city level were close to the direct estimates from the local survey. We also found strong correlation between the model-based estimates and direct survey estimates at neighborhood and zip code levels for most indicators. Conclusion Findings suggest that our model-based estimates are reliable and valid at the city level for certain health outcomes. Local health authorities can use the neighborhood-level estimates if high quality local health survey data are not otherwise available. PMID:29049020

  5. Validity of the fine motor area of the 12-month ages and stages questionnaire in infants following major surgery.

    PubMed

    Smith, Cally; Wallen, Margaret; Walker, Karen; Bundy, Anita; Rolinson, Rachel; Badawi, Nadia

    2012-08-01

    The Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) are parent-report screening tools to identify infants at risk of developmental difficulties. The purpose of this study was to examine validity and internal reliability of the fine motor developmental area of the ASQ, 2nd edition (ASQ2-FM) for screening 12-month-old infants following major surgery. The ASQ2-FM was completed by caregivers of 74 infants who had cardiac surgery in the first 90 days of life, 104 infants who had noncardiac surgery in the first 90 days of life, and a control group of 154 infants. The Rasch item response analysis revealed that the ASQ2-FM had poor ability to discriminate among levels of fine motor ability. Sensitivity was poor (20%) and specificity was good (98%) when compared with the scores for the fine motor subscale of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. The ASQ2-FM under-identified infants at risk for fine motor delay; internal reliability and construct validity do not support use as a screening tool of fine motor development of infants aged 12 months who have undergone major surgery.

  6. Transportation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Ports. Logistics Today, Vol.46. Issue 9. 43. Maloni, Michael ., Jackson , Eric. (2005, Spring). North American Container Port Capacity: A...Literature Review. Transportation Journal, Spring 2005. 16-36. Maloni, Michael ., Jackson , Eric. (2005, Summer). North American Container Port Capacity: An

  7. A multi-sensor burned area algorithm for crop residue burning in northwestern India: validation and sources of error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T.; Marlier, M. E.; Karambelas, A. N.; Jain, M.; DeFries, R. S.

    2017-12-01

    A leading source of outdoor emissions in northwestern India comes from crop residue burning after the annual monsoon (kharif) and winter (rabi) crop harvests. Agricultural burned area, from which agricultural fire emissions are often derived, can be poorly quantified due to the mismatch between moderate-resolution satellite sensors and the relatively small size and short burn period of the fires. Many previous studies use the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED), which is based on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) burned area product MCD64A1, as an outdoor fires emissions dataset. Correction factors with MODIS active fire detections have previously attempted to account for small fires. We present a new burned area classification algorithm that leverages more frequent MODIS observations (500 m x 500 m) with higher spatial resolution Landsat (30 m x 30 m) observations. Our approach is based on two-tailed Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) thresholds, abbreviated as ModL2T NBR, and results in an estimated 104 ± 55% higher burned area than GFEDv4.1s (version 4, MCD64A1 + small fires correction) in northwestern India during the 2003-2014 winter (October to November) burning seasons. Regional transport of winter fire emissions affect approximately 63 million people downwind. The general increase in burned area (+37% from 2003-2007 to 2008-2014) over the study period also correlates with increased mechanization (+58% in combine harvester usage from 2001-2002 to 2011-2012). Further, we find strong correlation between ModL2T NBR-derived burned area and results of an independent survey (r = 0.68) and previous studies (r = 0.92). Sources of error arise from small median landholding sizes (1-3 ha), heterogeneous spatial distribution of two dominant burning practices (partial and whole field), coarse spatio-temporal satellite resolution, cloud and haze cover, and limited Landsat scene availability. The burned area estimates of this study can be used to build

  8. Advanced transportation system studies. Technical area 2: Heavy lift launch vehicle development. Volume 2; Technical Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Sections 10 to 13 of the Advanced Transportation System Studies final report are included in this volume. Section 10 contains a copy of an executive summary that was prepared by Lockheed Space Operations Company (LSOC) to document their support to the TA-2 contract during the first-year period of performance of the contract, May 1992 through May 1993. LSOC participated on the TA-2 contract as part of the concurrent engineering launch system definition team, and provided outstanding heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) ground operations requirements and concept assessments for Lockheed Missiles and Space Company (LMSC) through an intercompany work transfer as well as providing specific HLLV ground operations assessments at the direction of NASA KSC through KSC funding that was routed to the TA-2 contract. Section 11 contains a copy of a vehicle-independent, launch system health management requirements assessment. The purpose of the assessment was to define both health management requirements and the associated interfaces between a generic advanced transportation system launch vehicle and all related elements of the entire transportation system, including the ground segment. Section 12 presents the major TA-2 presentations provided to summarize the significant results and conclusions that were developed over the course of the contract. Finally, Section 13 presents the design and assessment report on the first lunar outpost heavy lift launch vehicle.

  9. An area-level model of vehicle-pedestrian injury collisions with implications for land use and transportation planning.

    PubMed

    Wier, Megan; Weintraub, June; Humphreys, Elizabeth H; Seto, Edmund; Bhatia, Rajiv

    2009-01-01

    There is growing awareness among urban planning, public health, and transportation professionals that design decisions and investments that promote walking can be beneficial for human and ecological health. Planners need practical tools to consider the impact of development on pedestrian safety, a key requirement for the promotion of walking. Simple bivariate models have been used to predict changes in vehicle-pedestrian injury collisions based on changes in traffic volume. We describe the development of a multivariate, area-level regression model of vehicle-pedestrian injury collisions based on environmental and population data in 176 San Francisco, California census tracts. Predictor variables examined included street, land use, and population characteristics, including commute behaviors. The final model explained approximately 72% of the systematic variation in census-tract vehicle-pedestrian injury collisions and included measures of traffic volume, arterial streets without transit, land area, proportion of land area zoned for neighborhood commercial and residential-neighborhood commercial uses, employee and resident populations, proportion of people living in poverty and proportion aged 65 and older. We have begun to apply this model to predict area-level change in vehicle-pedestrian injury collisions associated with land use development and transportation planning decisions.

  10. Transportation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    increasing the economic competitive advantage the US holds throughout the world. Deregulation in the early 1980s allowed the freight rail industry to...productivity; however, productivity gains realized from deregulation and logistic improvements may now have reached their limits. If so, the transportation...associated with railroad deregulation has created a situation where freight rail today has little if any excess capacity. As positive economic

  11. Validation of Simplified Urban-Canopy Aerodynamic Parametrizations Using a Numerical Simulation of an Actual Downtown Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, N.; Afshari, Afshin; Norford, L.

    2018-07-01

    A steady-state Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stoke computational fluid dynamics (CFD) investigation of boundary-layer flow over a major portion of downtown Abu Dhabi is conducted. The results are used to derive the shear stress and characterize the logarithmic region for eight sub-domains, where the sub-domains overlap and are overlaid in the streamwise direction. They are characterized by a high frontal area index initially, which decreases significantly beyond the fifth sub-domain. The plan area index is relatively stable throughout the domain. For each sub-domain, the estimated local roughness length and displacement height derived from CFD results are compared to prevalent empirical formulations. We further validate and tune a mixing-length model proposed by Coceal and Belcher (Q J R Meteorol Soc 130:1349-1372, 2004). Finally, the in-canopy wind-speed attenuation is analysed as a function of fetch. It is shown that, while there is some room for improvement in Macdonald's empirical formulations (Boundary-Layer Meteorol 97:25-45, 2000), Coceal and Belcher's mixing model in combination with the resolution method of Di Sabatino et al. (Boundary-Layer Meteorol 127:131-151, 2008) can provide a robust estimation of the average wind speed in the logarithmic region. Within the roughness sublayer, a properly parametrized Cionco exponential model is shown to be quite accurate.

  12. Advanced subsonic long-haul transport terminal area compatibility study. Volume 2: Research and technology recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The Terminal Area Compatibility (TAC) study is briefly summarized for background information. The most important research items for the areas of noise congestion, and emissions are identified. Other key research areas are also discussed. The 50 recommended research items are categorized by flight phase, technology, and compatibility benefits. The relationship of the TAC recommendations to the previous ATT recommendations is discussed. The bulk of the document contains the 50 recommended research items. For each item, the potential payoff, state of readiness, recommended action and estimated cost and schedule are given.

  13. Internal consistency, concurrent validity, and discriminant validity of a measure of public support for policies for active living in transportation (PAL-T) in a population-based sample of adults.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Daniel; Gauvin, Lise; Fournier, Michel; Kestens, Yan; Daniel, Mark; Morency, Patrick; Drouin, Louis

    2012-04-01

    Active living is a broad conceptualization of physical activity that incorporates domains of exercise; recreational, household, and occupational activities; and active transportation. Policy makers develop and implement a variety of transportation policies that can influence choices about how to travel from one location to another. In making such decisions, policy makers act in part in response to public opinion or support for proposed policies. Measures of the public's support for policies aimed at promoting active transportation can inform researchers and policy makers. This study examined the internal consistency, and concurrent and discriminant validity of a newly developed measure of the public's support for policies for active living in transportation (PAL-T). A series of 17 items representing potential policies for promoting active transportation was generated. Two samples of participants (n = 2,001 and n = 2,502) from Montreal, Canada, were recruited via random digit dialling. Analyses were conducted on the combined data set (n = 4,503). Participants were aged 18 through 94 years (58% female). The concurrent and discriminant validity of the PAL-T was assessed by examining relationships with physical activity and smoking. To explore the usability of the PAL-T, predicted scale scores were compared to the summed values of responses. Results showed that the internal consistency of the PAL-T was 0.70. Multilevel regression demonstrated no relationship between the PAL-T and smoking status (p > 0.05) but significant relationships with utilitarian walking (p < 0.05) and cycling (p < 0.01) for at least 30 minutes on 5 days/week. The PAL-T has acceptable internal consistency and good concurrent and discriminant validity. Measuring public opinion can inform policy makers and support advocacy efforts aimed at making built environments more suitable for active transportation while allowing researchers to examine the antecedents and

  14. A method for defining down-wind evacuation areas for transportation accidents involving toxic propellant spills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siewert, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    Evacuation areas for accidental spills of toxic propellants along rail and highway shipping routes are defined to help local authorities reduce risks to people from excessive vapor concentrations. These criteria along with other emergency information are shown in propellant spill cards. The evacuation areas are based on current best estimates of propellant evaporation rates from various areas of spill puddles. These rates are used together with a continuous point-source, bi-normal model of plume dispersion. The rate at which the toxic plume disperses is based on a neutral atmospheric condition. This condition, which results in slow plume dispersion, represents the widest range of weather parameters which could occur during the day and nighttime periods. Evacuation areas are defined by the ground level boundaries of the plume within which the concentrations exceed the toxic Threshold Limit Value (TLV) or in some cases the Emergency Exposure Limit (EEL).

  15. External impacts of an intraurban air transportation system in the San Francisco Bay area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, J. Y.; Gebman, J. R.; Kirkwood, T. F.; Mcclure, P. T.; Stucker, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    The effects are studied of an intraurban V/STOL commuter system on the economic, social, and physical environment of the San Francisco Bay Area. The Bay Area was chosen mainly for a case study; the real intent of the analysis is to develop methods by which the effects of such a system could be evaluated for any community. Aspects of the community life affected include: income and employment, benefits and costs, noise, air pollution, and road congestion.

  16. Measuring accessibility of sustainable transportation using space syntax in Bojonggede area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryawinata, B. A.; Mariana, Y.; Wijaksono, S.

    2017-12-01

    Changes in the physical structure of regional space as a result of the increase of planned and unplanned settlements in the Bojonggede area have an impact on the road network pattern system. Changes in road network patterns will have an impact on the permeability of the area. Permeability measures the extent to which road network patterns provide an option in traveling. If the permeability increases the travel distance decreases and the route of travel choice increases, permeability like this can create an easy access system and physically integrated. This study aims to identify the relationship of physical characteristics of residential area and road network pattern to the level of space permeability in Bojonggede area. By conducting this research can be a reference for the arrangement of circulation, accessibility, and land use in the vicinity of Bojonggede. This research uses quantitative method and space syntax method to see global integration and local integration on the region which become the parameter of permeability level. The results showed that the level of permeability globally and locally high in Bojonggede physical area is the physical characteristics of the area that has a grid pattern of road network grid.

  17. The FTA Method And A Possibility Of Its Application In The Area Of Road Freight Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poliaková, Adela

    2015-06-01

    The Fault Tree process utilizes logic diagrams to portray and analyse potentially hazardous events. Three basic symbols (logic gates) are adequate for diagramming any fault tree. However, additional recently developed symbols can be used to reduce the time and effort required for analysis. A fault tree is a graphical representation of the relationship between certain specific events and the ultimate undesired event (2). This paper deals to method of Fault Tree Analysis basic description and provides a practical view on possibility of application by quality improvement in road freight transport company.

  18. Environmental genotoxicity assessment along the transport routes of chemical munitions leading to the dumping areas in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Baršienė, Janina; Butrimavičienė, Laura; Grygiel, Włodzimierz; Stunžėnas, Virmantas; Valskienė, Roberta; Greiciūnaitė, Janina; Stankevičiūtė, Milda

    2016-02-15

    The frequencies of micronuclei (MN), nuclear buds (NB) and nuclear buds on filament (NBf) were examined in 660 specimens of herring (Clupea harengus) collected in 2009-2014 at 65 study stations located mainly along the chemical munition transport routes in the Baltic Sea. The frequency of nuclear abnormalities was strongly increased in herring caught at four stations located close to chemical munition dumping sites, or CWAs - substances (chemical warfare agents) in sediments. Significant increase of MN, NB and NBf was observed in fish caught November 2010-2013 compared to 2009. The most significantly increased genotoxicity responses were recorded in fish caught at stations along CW (chemical weapons) transport routes, close to the Bornholm CW dumping area, in zones with CWAs in sediments and with oil-gas platforms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Validation of a structured questionnaire for COPD and prevalence of COPD in rural area of Mysore: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Mahesh, P A; Jayaraj, B S; Prahlad, S T; Chaya, S K; Prabhakar, A K; Agarwal, A N; Jindal, S K

    2009-07-01

    The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is increasing in India and there is a need to study the prevalence of COPD, particularly in the rural areas, which may be most affected due to their lifestyle. FIRST STAGE: Validation of the questionnaire-105 consecutive patients underwent administration of the structured questionnaire and spirometry was used as a gold standard for the diagnosis of COPD. Second stage: Adults above 40 years (n = 900) in two villages of Mysore district were administered with the validated questionnaire, Knowledge and Attitude questionnaire and Fagerstorm questionnaire, to assess nicotine dependency. The questionnaire was found to have a sensitivity of 62.5% and specificity of 87.6% to diagnose COPD. Of the total 900 adults surveyed (Males: 453, Females: 447), the total prevalence of COPD was 7.1%. Males had a higher prevalence (11.1%) compared to females (4.5%). The prevalence of smoking was very high among men at 71.9% and all the women were nonsmokers. The prevalence of COPD was 14.7% in smokers, 19.3% had mild to moderate nicotine dependency and 12.8% were highly dependent. Of the women exposed to regular biomass fuels, the prevalence of COPD was 3.9%, which increased to 4.8% on addition of regular passive smoking. In smoking, male gender and age were significantly associated with COPD (P < 0.05). The structured questionnaire is a useful tool for the screening of COPD in field studies. Smoking and biomass fuel exposure are important risk factors for COPD.

  20. Searching for Thermal Anomalies on Icy Satellites: Step 1- Validation of the Three Dimensional Volatile-Transport (VT3D)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Gary G.; Howett, Carly J. A.; Young, Leslie A.; Spencer, John R.

    2015-11-01

    In the last few decades, thermal data from the Galileo and Cassini spacecraft have detected various anomalies on Jovian and Saturnian satellites, including the thermally anomalous “PacMan” regions on Mimas and Tethys and the Pwyll anomaly on Europa (Howett et al. 2011, Howett et al. 2012, Spencer et al. 1999). Yet, the peculiarities of some of these anomalies, like the weak detection of the “PacMan” anomalies on Rhea and Dione and the low thermal inertia values of the widespread anomalies on equatorial Europa, are subjects for on-going research (Howett et al. 2014, Rathbun et al. 2010). Further, analysis and review of all the data both Galileo and Cassini took of these worlds will provide information of the thermal inertia and albedos of their surfaces, perhaps highlighting potential targets of interest for future Jovian and Saturnian system missions. Many previous works have used a thermophysical model for airless planets developed by Spencer (1990). However, the Three Dimensional Volatile-Transport (VT3D) model proposed by Young (2012) is able to predict surface temperatures in significantly faster computation time, incorporating seasonal and diurnal insolation variations. This work is the first step in an ongoing investigation, which will use VT3D’s capabilities to reanalyze Galileo and Cassini data. VT3D, which has already been used to analyze volatile transport on Pluto, is validated by comparing its results to that of the Spencer thermal model. We will also present our initial results using VT3D to reanalyze the thermophysical properties of the PacMan anomaly previous discovered on Mimas by Howett et al. (2011), using temperature constraints of diurnal data from Cassini/CIRS. VT3D is expected to be an efficient tool in identifying new thermal anomalies in future Saturnian and Jovian missions.Bibliography:C.J.A. Howett et al. (2011), Icarus 216, 221.C.J.A. Howett et al. (2012), Icarus 221, 1084.C.J.A. Howett et al. (2014), Icarus 241, 239.J

  1. Validation and application of a two-dimensional model to simulate soil salt transport under mulched drip irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Huiqing; Zhao, Chengyi; Sheng, Yu; Chen, Yan; Shi, Jianchu; Li, Baoguo

    2017-04-01

    Water shortage and soil salinization increasingly become the main constraints for sustainable development of agriculture in Southern Xinjiang, China. Mulched drip irrigation, as a high-efficient water-saving irrigation method, has been widely applied in Southern Xinjiang for cotton production. In order to analyze the reasonability of describing the three-dimensional soil water and salt transport processes under mulched drip irrigation with a relatively simple two-dimensional model, a field experiment was conducted from 2007 to 2015 at Aksu of Southern Xinjiang, and soil water and salt transport processes were simulated through the three-dimensional and two-dimensional models based on COMSOL. Obvious differences were found between three-dimensional and two-dimensional simulations for soil water flow within the early 12 h of irrigation event and for soil salt transport in the area within 15 cm away from drip tubes during the whole irrigation event. The soil water and salt contents simulated by the two-dimensional model, however, agreed well with the mean values between two adjacent emitters simulated by the three-dimensional model, and also coincided with the measurements as corresponding RMSE less than 0.037 cm3 cm-3 and 1.80 g kg-1, indicating that the two-dimensional model was reliable for field irrigation management. Subsequently, the two-dimensional model was applied to simulate the dynamics of soil salinity for five numerical situations and for a widely adopted irrigation pattern in Southern Xinjiang (about 350 mm through mulched drip irrigation during growing season of cotton and total 400 mm through flooding irrigations before sowing and after harvesting). The simulation results indicated that the contribution of transpiration to salt accumulation in root layer was about 75% under mulched drip irrigation. Moreover, flooding irrigations before sowing and after harvesting were of great importance for salt leaching of arable layer, especially in bare strip where

  2. Experimental validation of damping properties and solar pressure effects on flexible, high area-to-mass ratio debris model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Channumsin, Sittiporn; Ceriotti, Matteo; Radice, Gianmarco; Watson, Ian

    2017-09-01

    Multilayer insulation (MLI) is a recently-discovered type of debris originating from delamination of aging spacecraft; it is mostly detected near the geosynchronous orbit (GEO). Observation data indicates that these objects are characterised by high reflectivity, high area-to-mass ratio (HAMR), fast rotation, high sensitivity to perturbations (especially solar radiation pressure) and change of area-to-mass ratio (AMR) over time. As a result, traditional models (e.g. cannonball) are unsuitable to represent and predict this debris' orbital evolution. Previous work by the authors effectively modelled the flexible debris by means of multibody dynamics to improve the prediction accuracy. The orbit evolution with the flexible model resulted significantly different from using the rigid model. This paper aims to present a methodology to determine the dynamic properties of thin membranes with the purpose to validate the deformation characteristics of the flexible model. A high-vacuum chamber (10-4 mbar) to significantly decrease air friction, inside which a thin membrane is hinged at one end but free at the other provides the experimental setup. A free motion test is used to determine the damping characteristics and natural frequency of the thin membrane via logarithmic decrement and frequency response. The membrane can swing freely in the chamber and the motion is tracked by a static, optical camera, and a Kalman filter technique is implemented in the tracking algorithm to reduce noise and increase the tracking accuracy of the oscillating motion. Then, the effect of solar radiation pressure on the thin membrane is investigated: a high power spotlight (500-2000 W) is used to illuminate the sample and any displacement of the membrane is measured by means of a high-resolution laser sensor. Analytic methods from the natural frequency response and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) including multibody simulations of both experimental setups are used for the validation of the

  3. Better-Than-Visual Technologies for Next Generation Air Transportation System Terminal Maneuvering Area Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Jones, Denise R.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Williams, Steve P.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Ellis, Kyle E.; Rehfeld, Sherri A.

    2011-01-01

    A consortium of industry, academia and government agencies are devising new concepts for future U.S. aviation operations under the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Many key capabilities are being identified to enable NextGen, including the concept of Equivalent Visual Operations (EVO) replicating the capacity and safety of today's visual flight rules (VFR) in all-weather conditions. NASA is striving to develop the technologies and knowledge to enable EVO and to extend EVO towards a Better-Than-Visual (BTV) operational concept. The BTV operational concept uses an electronic means to provide sufficient visual references of the external world and other required flight references on flight deck displays that enable VFR-like operational tempos and maintain and improve the safety of VFR while using VFR-like procedures in all-weather conditions. NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) research on technologies to enable the concept of BTV is described.

  4. Sediment Transport from Urban, Urbanizing, and Rural Areas in Johnson County, Kansas, 2006-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Casey J.

    2013-01-01

    1. Studies have commonly illustrated that erosion and sediment transport from construction sites is extensive, typically 10-100X that of background levels. 2. However, to our knowledge, the affects of construction and urbanization have rarely been assessed (1) since erosion and sediment controls have been required at construction sites, and (2) at watershed (5-65 mi2) scales. This is primarily because of difficulty characterizing sediment loads in small basins. Studies (such as that illustrated from Timble, 1999) illustrated how large changes in surface erosion may not result in substantive changes in downstream sediment loads (b/c of sediment deposition on land-surfaces, floodplains, and in stream channels). 3. Improved technology (in-situ turbidity) sensors provide a good application b/c they provide an independent surrogate of sediment concentration that is more accurate at estimating sediment concentrations and loads that instantaneous streamflow.

  5. Transportation costs for forest products from the Puget Sound area and Alaska to Pacific Rim markets.

    Treesearch

    Harold W. Wisdom

    1990-01-01

    Ocean freight rates to Pacific Rim markets for softwood logs, cants, and wood pulp from Alaska were compared with rates from the Puget Sound area by using analysis of covariance and analysis of variance techniques. The results did not support the hypothesis that lower freight rates for Alaska result from shorter shipping distances. In many cases, ocean freight rates...

  6. Science and Technology of Rural Transport System. Teaching of Science and Technology in Rural Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagaraj, D. N.; Satheesh, H. L.

    Most science curriculum innovations seem to have their origins and emphases in urban intellectual concerns and their content generally caters to university bound students. The reason for the failure of rural students in science subjects may be the lack of relevancy of the program to the needs of individuals living in rural areas. Chapter 1…

  7. Contributions of regional and intercontinental transport to surface ozone in the Tokyo area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshitomi, M.; Wild, O.; Akimoto, H.

    2011-08-01

    Japan lies downwind of the Asian continent and for much of the year air quality is directly influenced by emissions of ozone precursors over these heavily-populated and rapidly-industrializing regions. This study examines the extent to which oxidant transport from regional and distant anthropogenic sources influences air quality in Japan in springtime, when these contributions are largest. We find that European and North American contributions to surface ozone over Japan in spring are persistent, averaging 3.5±1.1 ppb and 2.8±0.5 ppb respectively, and are greatest in cold continental outflow conditions following the passage of cold fronts. Contributions from China are larger, 4.0±2.8 ppb, and more variable, as expected for a closer source region, and are generally highest near cold fronts preceding the influence of more distant sources. The stratosphere provides a varying but ever-present background of ozone of about 11.2±2.5 ppb during spring. Local sources over Japan and Korea have a relatively small impact on mean ozone, 2.4±7.6 ppb, but this masks a strong diurnal signal, and local sources clearly dominate during episodes of high daytime ozone. By examining the meteorological mechanisms that favour transport from different source regions, we demonstrate that while maximum foreign influence generally does not occur at the same time as the greatest buildup of oxidants from local sources, it retains a significant influence under these conditions. It is thus clear that while meteorological boundaries provide some protection from foreign influence during oxidant outbreaks in Tokyo, these distant sources still make a substantial contribution to exceedance of the Japanese ozone air quality standard in springtime.

  8. Validation of MIL-F-9490D. General Specification for Flight Control System for Piloted Military Aircraft. Volume III. C-5A Heavy Logistics Transport Validation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-04-01

    U* AFFDL-TR-77-7 0 VOLUME III " 󈧦 VALIDATION OF MIL-F-9490D - GENERAL SPECIFICATION FOR FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM "FOR PILOTED MILITARY AIRCRAFT VOLUME...ý A1O 1 C I\\.FFBL Ti(-77-7. Vol. III f Validatio~n of UL-P-9-490D#,*. General Spacificatior "~inal 1’l -_t e for Flight ContrsA Zyn’om for Piloted...cation MIL-F-9490D (USAF), "Flight Control Systems - Design, Installation and Test of Piloted Aircraft, General Specifications for," dated 6 June 1975, by

  9. Exploring the Role of Online ‘Ojek’ In Public Transport Trips: Case of Jakarta Metropolitan Area Rail Users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saffan, A. F.; Rizki, M.

    2018-05-01

    The invention of information technology shapes people’s lives in the city, including the recent invention of online motorcycle taxi service. Known as ‘ojek’, it offers a reliable means of tactical commuting in dealing with traffic congestion in Greater Jakarta. Moreover, recent development in the online system improves the punctuality and reliability of ojek services. The emergence disrupts the transport landscape, resulting in commuters’ dependency to this transport mode. However, academic sources are insufficient to answer the policy debate among planners and policy maker regarding this issue. This paper probes the role of online ojek in Jakarta Metropolitan Area Rail users’ trip from their perspective, especially for the first mile and the last mile of their trip. The intensive commuter survey is currently being done at selected stations to gain information of their first mile and last mile trip diary. Discriminant analysis will be exercised to explain that to some extent online ojek is able to work to fill the gap produced due to minimum proper pedestrian facilities and a lack of public transport connection.

  10. Health Cobenefits and Transportation-Related Reductions in Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the San Francisco Bay Area

    PubMed Central

    Woodcock, James; Co, Sean; Ostro, Bart; Fanai, Amir; Fairley, David

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We quantified health benefits of transportation strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE). Methods. Statistics on travel patterns and injuries, physical activity, fine particulate matter, and GHGE in the San Francisco Bay Area, California, were input to a model that calculated the health impacts of walking and bicycling short distances usually traveled by car or driving low-emission automobiles. We measured the change in disease burden in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) based on dose–response relationships and the distributions of physical activity, particulate matter, and traffic injuries. Results: Increasing median daily walking and bicycling from 4 to 22 minutes reduced the burden of cardiovascular disease and diabetes by 14% (32 466 DALYs), increased the traffic injury burden by 39% (5907 DALYS), and decreased GHGE by 14%. Low-carbon driving reduced GHGE by 33.5% and cardiorespiratory disease burden by less than 1%. Conclusions: Increased physical activity associated with active transport could generate a large net improvement in population health. Measures would be needed to minimize pedestrian and bicyclist injuries. Together, active transport and low-carbon driving could achieve GHGE reductions sufficient for California to meet legislative mandates. PMID:23409903

  11. Occurrence and transport of selected constituents in streams near the Stibnite mining area, Central Idaho, 2012–14

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Etheridge, Alexandra B.

    2015-12-07

    Ninety-eight percent of the estimated total mercury load transported downstream of the study area is attributable to Sugar Creek. A maximum concentration of 26 micrograms per liter was measured in Sugar Creek during May 2013 when snowmelt runoff occurred during a single peak in the hydrograph. Monitoring and modeling results indicate sediment and sediment-associated constituent concentrations and loads increase along Meadow Creek, likely because of the inflow of the East Fork of Meadow Creek, and decrease between sites 3 and 4 because the Glory Hole is trapping sediments. Sugar Creek (site 5) accounted for most of the sediment and sediment-associated constituent loading leaving the study area because loads from the East Fork of Meadow Creek remained trapped in the Glory Hole. Additionally, total mercury was detected at all five streamflow-gaging stations, and sampled mercury concentrations exceeded Idaho ambient water-quality criteria at all five streamflow-gaging stations.

  12. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project: Test act system validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The primary objective of the Test Active Control Technology (ACT) System laboratory tests was to verify and validate the system concept, hardware, and software. The initial lab tests were open loop hardware tests of the Test ACT System as designed and built. During the course of the testing, minor problems were uncovered and corrected. Major software tests were run. The initial software testing was also open loop. These tests examined pitch control laws, wing load alleviation, signal selection/fault detection (SSFD), and output management. The Test ACT System was modified to interface with the direct drive valve (DDV) modules. The initial testing identified problem areas with DDV nonlinearities, valve friction induced limit cycling, DDV control loop instability, and channel command mismatch. The other DDV issue investigated was the ability to detect and isolate failures. Some simple schemes for failure detection were tested but were not completely satisfactory. The Test ACT System architecture continues to appear promising for ACT/FBW applications in systems that must be immune to worst case generic digital faults, and be able to tolerate two sequential nongeneric faults with no reduction in performance. The challenge in such an implementation would be to keep the analog element sufficiently simple to achieve the necessary reliability.

  13. Catalyzed CO.sub.2-transport membrane on high surface area inorganic support

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Wei

    2014-05-06

    Disclosed are membranes and methods for making the same, which membranes provide improved permeability, stability, and cost-effective manufacturability, for separating CO.sub.2 from gas streams such as flue gas streams. High CO.sub.2 permeation flux is achieved by immobilizing an ultra-thin, optionally catalyzed fluid layer onto a meso-porous modification layer on a thin, porous inorganic substrate such as a porous metallic substrate. The CO.sub.2-selective liquid fluid blocks non-selective pores, and allows for selective absorption of CO.sub.2 from gas mixtures such as flue gas mixtures and subsequent transport to the permeation side of the membrane. Carbon dioxide permeance levels are in the order of 1.0.times.10.sup.-6 mol/(m.sup.2sPa) or better. Methods for making such membranes allow commercial scale membrane manufacturing at highly cost-effective rates when compared to conventional commercial-scale CO.sub.2 separation processes and equipment for the same and such membranes are operable on an industrial use scale.

  14. Robust active noise control in the loadmaster area of a military transport aircraft.

    PubMed

    Kochan, Kay; Sachau, Delf; Breitbach, Harald

    2011-05-01

    The active noise control (ANC) method is based on the superposition of a disturbance noise field with a second anti-noise field using loudspeakers and error microphones. This method can be used to reduce the noise level inside the cabin of a propeller aircraft. However, during the design process of the ANC system, extensive measurements of transfer functions are necessary to optimize the loudspeaker and microphone positions. Sometimes, the transducer positions have to be tailored according to the optimization results to achieve a sufficient noise reduction. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a controller design method for such narrow band ANC systems. The method can be seen as an extension of common transducer placement optimization procedures. In the presented method, individual weighting parameters for the loudspeakers and microphones are used. With this procedure, the tailoring of the transducer positions is replaced by adjustment of controller parameters. Moreover, the ANC system will be robust because of the fact that the uncertainties are considered during the optimization of the controller parameters. The paper describes the necessary theoretic background for the method and demonstrates the efficiency in an acoustical mock-up of a military transport aircraft.

  15. Transportation Observations, Considerations, and Recommendations for Land Between The Lakes National Recreation Area : Provided by the Interagency Transportation Assistance Group (TAG) Golden Pond, KY July 22-25, 2008.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-07-22

    A field investigation of the current transportation infrastructure and issues at Land Between The Lakes National Recreation Area (LBL) by the interagency Transportation Assistance Group (TAG) was conducted July 22-25, 2008, on behalf of the U.S. Depa...

  16. Relationships between electron transport system (ETS) activity and particulate organic matter features in three areas of the Ross Sea (Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misic, C.; Covazzi Harriague, A.; Giglio, F.; La Ferla, R.; Rappazzo, A. C.; Azzaro, M.

    2017-11-01

    Electron transport system activity (ETSa) and particulate organic matter (POM) concentrations and composition were measured in three areas of the continental shelf of the Ross Sea during summer 2014, in the framework of the Ross Sea Mesoscale Experiment (ROME) project. We aimed at testing whether in the epipelagic layer (0-200 m) ETS showed different activity depending on the geographical position and on the different hydrological structures that characterised each area, as eddy and fronts, and whether the ETSa of the microplanktonic fraction depended on POM quantitative and qualitative features. ETSa showed differences between the three areas, but within each of them the different hydrological conditions did not influence significantly the respiration activity. ETSa displayed significant correlations with POM, especially in the offshore areas characterised by residual ice influence and by a mesoscale eddy structure. In these zones ETSa was enhanced by good trophic value of POM, i.e. showing dominance of proteins and PON over structural carbohydrates and POC, respectively. The role of the phytoplanktonic fraction in ETSa was higher in the eddy-influenced area, that showed significantly higher chlorophyll-a concentrations. On the other hand, in the area placed coastward, the relationships between ETSa and POM changed. High ETSa were found in the subsurface layer and down to 100 m depth and were related to more refractory POM, whose utilization would require higher energy. Different ETSa-POM relationships were consistent with the anomalous phytoplanktonic bloom detected in the coastward area, characterised by Phaeocystis. Thus, the anomalies of the primary producers are reflected by changes in POM respiration and potential C utilization.

  17. (210)Pb as a tracer of soil erosion, sediment source area identification and particle transport in the terrestrial environment.

    PubMed

    Matisoff, Gerald

    2014-12-01

    Although (137)Cs has been used extensively to study soil erosion and particle transport in the terrestrial environment, there has been much less work using excess or unsupported (210)Pb ((210)Pbxs) to study the same processes. Furthermore, since (137)Cs activities in soils are decreasing because of radioactive decay, some locations have an added complication due to the addition of Chernobyl-derived (137)Cs, and the activities of (137)Cs in the southern hemisphere are low, there is a need to develop techniques that use (210)Pbxs to provide estimates of rates of soil erosion and particle transport. This paper reviews the current status of (210)Pbxs methods to quantify soil erosion rates, to identify and partition suspended sediment source areas, and to determine the transport rates of particles in the terrestrial landscape. Soil erosion rates determined using (210)Pbxs are based on the unsupported (210)Pb ((210)Pbxs) inventory in the soil, the depth distribution of (210)Pbxs, and a mass balance calibration ('conversion model') that relates the soil inventory to the erosion rate using a 'reference site' at which neither soil erosion nor soil deposition has occurred. In this paper several different models are presented to illustrate the effects of different model assumptions such as the timing, depth and rates of the surface soil mixing on the calculated erosion rates. The suitability of model assumptions, including estimates of the depositional flux of (210)Pbxs to the soil surface and the post-depositional mobility of (210)Pb are also discussed. (210)Pb can be used as one tracer to permit sediment source area identification. This sediment 'fingerprinting' has been extended far beyond using (210)Pb as a single radioisotope to include numerous radioactive and stable tracers and has been applied to identifying the source areas of suspended sediment based on underlying rock type, land use (roads, stream banks, channel beds, cultivated or uncultivated lands, pasture lands

  18. Transport of nitrogen in a treated-wastewater plume to coastal discharge areas, Ashumet Valley, Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbaro, Jeffrey R.; Walter, Donald A.; LeBlanc, Denis R.

    2013-01-01

    Land disposal of treated wastewater from a treatment plant on the Massachusetts Military Reservation in operation from 1936 to 1995 has created a plume of contaminated groundwater that is migrating toward coastal discharge areas in the town of Falmouth, Massachusetts. To develop a better understanding of the potential impact of the treated-wastewater plume on coastal discharge areas, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment, evaluated the fate of nitrogen (N) in the plume. Groundwater samples from two large sampling events in 1994 and 2007 were used to map the size and location of the plume, calculate the masses of nitrate-N and ammonium-N, evaluate changes in mass since cessation of disposal in 1995, and create a gridded dataset suitable for use in nitrogen-transport simulations. In 2007, the treated-wastewater plume was about 1,200 meters (m) wide, 30 m thick, and 7,700 m long and contained approximately 87,000 kilograms (kg) nitrate-N and 31,600 kg total ammonium-N. An analysis of previous studies and data from 1994 and 2007 sampling events suggests that most of biologically reactive nitrogen in the plume in 2007 will be transported to coastal discharge areas as either nitrate or ammonium with relatively little transformation to an environmentally nonreactive end product such as nitrogen gas. Nitrogen-transport simulations were conducted with a previously calibrated regional three-dimensional MODFLOW groundwater flow model. Mass-loaded particle tracking was used to simulate the advective transport of nitrogen to discharge areas (or receptors) along the coast. In the simulations, nonreactive transport (no mass loss in the aquifer) was assumed, providing an upper-end estimate of nitrogen loads to receptors. Simulations indicate that approximately 95 percent of the nitrate-N and 99 percent of the ammonium-N in the wastewater plume will eventually discharge to the Coonamessett River, Backus River, Green

  19. Factors Associated With Incidence of "?Inappropriate"? Ambulance Transport in Rural Areas in Cases of Moderate to Severe Head Injury in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poltavski, Dmitri; Muus, Kyle

    2005-01-01

    Context: Ambulance transport of pediatric trauma patients to designated trauma centers in cases of moderate and severe injury is not always performed, which has been shown to result in poor treatment outcomes. Determination of factors involved in inappropriate patient transport, especially in rural areas, remains an important avenue of research.…

  20. Factors Associated with Incidence of "Inappropriate" Ambulance Transport in Rural Areas in Cases of Moderate to Severe Head Injury in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poltavski, Dmitri; Muus, Kyle

    2005-01-01

    Context: Ambulance transport of pediatric trauma patients to designated trauma centers in cases of moderate and severe injury is not always performed, which has been shown to result in poor treatment outcomes. Determination of factors involved in inappropriate patient transport, especially in rural areas, remains an important avenue of research.…

  1. Implementation of safety signage to ease transportation system in disaster prone area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikneswaran, M.; Raffiee, Rabiatul Adawiyah Ahmad; Yusof, Mohammed Alias; Yahya, Muhamad Azani; Subramaniam, S. Ananthan; Loong, Wong Wai; Othman, Maidiana; Galerial, Jessica

    2018-02-01

    The research is conducted to study the exact need of the signage at disaster prone area. The smart signage is needed to increase the safety, reduce the search and rescue time and finally will ease the help to arrive at the relieve center in any condition at any time without interruption. Signage implementation for disaster relief centers is still a foreign matter in Malaysia. The level of preparedness to the natural disaster mainly flood among our citizens is inadequate. Here the signage which usually used as a tool to help and protect the health and safety of the road users, employees and work place visitors. For many years, the signage has played its part miraculously to provide vivid information to the users in whatever condition. The signage also could be used as an indicator or information provider for the natural disaster victims to move to a safer place on time. Sometimes, the victims would not have sufficient time to safe themselves due to lack of information and time. Thus, it can be concluded that the signage at disaster prone area is vital.

  2. Bacterial contamination on touch surfaces in the public transport system and in public areas of a hospital in London.

    PubMed

    Otter, J A; French, G L

    2009-12-01

    To investigate bacterial contamination on hand-touch surfaces in the public transport system and in public areas of a hospital in central London. Dipslides were used to sample 118 hand-touch surfaces in buses, trains, stations, hotels and public areas of a hospital in central London. Total aerobic counts were determined, and Staphylococcus aureus isolates were identified and characterized. Bacteria were cultured from 112 (95%) of sites at a median concentration of 12 CFU cm(-2). Methicillin-susceptible Staph. aureus (MSSA) was cultured from nine (8%) of sites; no sites grew methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus (MRSA). Hand-touch sites in London are frequently contaminated with bacteria and can harbour MSSA, but none of the sites tested were contaminated with MRSA. Hand-touch sites can become contaminated with staphylococci and may be fomites for the transmission of bacteria between humans. Such sites could provide a reservoir for community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) in high prevalence areas but were not present in London, a geographical area with a low incidence of CA-MRSA.

  3. Intelligent transportation system (ITS) study for the Buffalo and Niagara Falls metropolitan area, Erie and Niagara Counties, New York : functional requirements, working paper #4

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-06-18

    This paper is the fourth in a series that together will comprise an Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) Study for the Buffalo / Niagara Falls region. This document presents the market packages for the deployment of the Buffalo/Niagara Falls area ...

  4. State Fiscal Year 1997-2000 State Transportation Improvement Program (STIP) Cleveland/Akron/Lorain Moderate Ozone Nonattainment Area Air Quality Conformity Documentation

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-06-01

    This document, which is a portion of the Ohio 1997-2000 State Transportation Improvement Program (STIP), describes the conformity determination for the former eight county Cleveland/Akron/Lorain (CAL) Moderate Ozone Nonattainment Area, which includes...

  5. Acuros CTS: A fast, linear Boltzmann transport equation solver for computed tomography scatter - Part I: Core algorithms and validation.

    PubMed

    Maslowski, Alexander; Wang, Adam; Sun, Mingshan; Wareing, Todd; Davis, Ian; Star-Lack, Josh

    2018-05-01

    To describe Acuros ® CTS, a new software tool for rapidly and accurately estimating scatter in x-ray projection images by deterministically solving the linear Boltzmann transport equation (LBTE). The LBTE describes the behavior of particles as they interact with an object across spatial, energy, and directional (propagation) domains. Acuros CTS deterministically solves the LBTE by modeling photon transport associated with an x-ray projection in three main steps: (a) Ray tracing photons from the x-ray source into the object where they experience their first scattering event and form scattering sources. (b) Propagating photons from their first scattering sources across the object in all directions to form second scattering sources, then repeating this process until all high-order scattering sources are computed using the source iteration method. (c) Ray-tracing photons from scattering sources within the object to the detector, accounting for the detector's energy and anti-scatter grid responses. To make this process computationally tractable, a combination of analytical and discrete methods is applied. The three domains are discretized using the Linear Discontinuous Finite Elements, Multigroup, and Discrete Ordinates methods, respectively, which confer the ability to maintain the accuracy of a continuous solution. Furthermore, through the implementation in CUDA, we sought to exploit the parallel computing capabilities of graphics processing units (GPUs) to achieve the speeds required for clinical utilization. Acuros CTS was validated against Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations using two digital phantoms: (a) a water phantom containing lung, air, and bone inserts (WLAB phantom) and (b) a pelvis phantom derived from a clinical CT dataset. For these studies, we modeled the TrueBeam ® (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) kV imaging system with a source energy of 125 kVp. The imager comprised a 600 μm-thick Cesium Iodide (CsI) scintillator and a 10:1 one

  6. Oceanographic Setting Dominates Methane Transport Through the Water Column in the Shallow Area West of Prins Karls Forland, Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silyakova, A.; Jansson, P.; Serov, P.; Graves, C. A.; Niemann, H.; Grundger, F.; Ferre, B.; Mienert, J.

    2016-02-01

    The area west of Prins Karls Forland (PKF, West Spitsbergen) in the Arctic Ocean, restricted to 90 m water depth, is known for a large amount of shallow active gas flares. Gas flares are streams of bubbles that contain mostly methane, which is a potent greenhouse gas. The important questions for many areas with discovered gas flares are: Does this gas reach the atmosphere? What controls the vertical and horizontal distribution of dissolved methane away from the source on the seafloor? Is all dissolved methane detected above gas flares released from those flares or does it partially originate from other areas (eg. Storfjorden, or area of deeper flares on the PKF slope)? The present study is based on two repeated oceanographic surveys conducted in the summers of 2014 and 2015. During the surveys, we sampled 64 CTD stations in a grid above a 30 x 15 km area with active methane flares. Vertical profiles of temperature (T) and salinity (S), as well as TS diagrams indicate very different oceanographic settings during the two surveys. Warm and saline Atlantic waters originating from the West Spitsbergen Current prevailed during the 2014 campaign. In 2015, in contrast, waters were distinctly less saline and cooler. These waters originate from the East-Spitsbergen current that flows northwards over the shelf from the Barents Sea around the southern tip of Spitsbergen. The water mass was furthermore influenced by local sources from the fjords. In both years, we observed strong vertical gradients in the distribution of dissolved methane in the water column above gas flares, with only 4% methane concentrations at the sea surface when compared to bottom waters. However, the circulation of the dominant water masses mainly controlled the horizontal distribution of methane in the water column in the specific year. We discuss oceanographic processes and mechanisms responsible for methane transport and transformation in the study area. This study is funded by CAGE (Centre for Arctic

  7. Intelligent transportation system (ITS) study for the Buffalo and Niagara Falls metropolitan area, Erie and Niagara Counties, New York : transportation systems and deficiencies, working paper #1

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-06-18

    This document has been prepared as part of the New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) Buffalo and Niagara Falls Intelligent Transportation Systems Study. The primary objective of this working paper is to define and document transportati...

  8. Seabird satellite tracking validates the use of latitudinal isoscapes to depict predators' foraging areas in the Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Audrey; Lecomte, Vincent J; Weimerskirch, Henri; Richard, Pierre; Cherel, Yves

    2010-12-15

    Stable isotopes are increasingly being used to trace wildlife movements. A fundamental prerequisite of animal isotopic tracking is a good knowledge of spatial isotopic variations in the environment. Few accessible reference maps of the isotopic landscape ("isoscapes") are available for marine predators. Here, we validate for the first time an isotopic gradient for higher trophic levels by using a unique combination of a large number of satellite-tracks and subsequent blood plasma isotopic signatures from a wide-ranging oceanic predator. The plasma δ(13)C and δ(15)N values of wandering albatrosses (n = 45) were highly and positively correlated to the Southern Ocean latitudes at which the satellite-tracked individuals foraged. The well-defined latitudinal baseline carbon isoscapes in the Southern Ocean is thus reflected in the tissue of consumers, but with a positive shift due to the cumulative effect of a slight (13)C-enrichment at each trophic level. The data allowed us to estimate the carbon isotopic position of the main oceanic fronts in the area, and thus to delineate robust isoscapes of the main foraging zones for top predators. The plasma δ(13)C and δ(15)N values were positively and linearly correlated, thus suggesting that latitudinal isoscapes also occur for δ(15)N at the base of the food web in oceanic waters of the Southern Ocean. The combination of device deployments with sampling of relevant tissues for isotopic analysis appears to be a powerful tool for investigating consumers' isoscapes at various spatio-temporal scales. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Advanced transportation system studies, technical area 3. Alternate propulsion subsystem concepts: J-2S restart study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilja, John; Levack, Daniel

    1993-04-01

    The objectives were to assess what design changes would be required to remit late production of the J-2S engine for use as a large high energy upper stage engine. The study assessed design changes required to perform per the J-2S model specification, manufacturing changes required due to obsolescence or improvements in state-of-the-practice, availability issues for supplier provided items, and provided cost and schedule estimates for this configuration. The confidence that J-2S production could be reinitiated within reasonable costs and schedules was provided. No significant technical issues were identified in either the producibility study or in the review of previous technical data. Areas of potential cost reduction were identified which could be quantified to a greater extent with further manufacturing planning. The proposed schedule can be met with no foreseeable impacts. The results of the study provided the necessary foundation for the detailed manufacturing and test plans and non-recurring and recurring cost estimates that are needed to complete the effort to reinitiate production of the J-2S engine system.

  10. Canal Transportation, Unprepared Areas, and Dentin Removal after Preparation with BT-RaCe and ProTaper Next Systems.

    PubMed

    Brasil, Sabrina C; Marceliano-Alves, Marília F; Marques, Márcia L; Grillo, João P; Lacerda, Mariane F L S; Alves, Flávio R F; Siqueira, José F; Provenzano, José C

    2017-10-01

    This study compared the shaping ability of ProTaper Next (Dentsply Sirona, Tulsa, OK) and BT-RaCe (FKG Dentaire, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland) instrument systems in the mesial canals of mandibular molars using micro-computed tomographic (micro-CT) imaging. A total of 17 type IV mesial roots of extracted first mandibular molars were scanned using micro-CT imaging before and after root canal preparation with the 2 instrument systems. Both systems were used in the same root but alternating the mesial canals from root to root. The following parameters were analyzed: root canal volume, surface area, unprepared surface areas, transportation, canal/root width ratio, and preparation time. There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 systems for all evaluated parameters (P > .05). The unprepared surface areas for the full canal length and the apical 5-mm segment were 33% and 14% for BT-RaCe and 31% and 14% for ProTaper Next, respectively. After preparation, all root canals had a diameter that was not larger than 35% of the root diameter at the coronal and middle segments. The 2 systems showed no differences in any of the evaluated shaping parameters. None of the tested systems put the roots at risk of fracture because of excessive dentin removal. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Surface Lagrangian transport in the Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea) from drifters, HF radar and models: implications for fishery and Marine Protected Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffa, Annalisa; Carlson, Daniel; Berta, Maristella; Sciascia, Roberta; Corgnati, Lorenzo; Mantovani, Carlo; Fredji, Erick; Magaldi, Marcello; Zambianchi, Enrico; Poulain, Pierre Marie; Russo, Aniello; Carniel, Sandro

    2017-04-01

    Surface transport in the Adriatic Sea is investigated using data from historic drifter data, HF radar and virtual particles computed from a numerical model. Alongshore coastal currents and cyclonic gyres are the primary circulation features that connect regions in the Adriatic Sea. Their strength is highly dependent on the wind, with Southeasterly Sirocco winds driving eastward cross-Adriatic transport from the Italian coasts and Northwesterly Mistral winds enhancing east-to-west transport. Results from the analysis show that Cross-Adriatic connection percentages were higher for east-to-west transport, with westward (eastward) transport observed mostly in the northern (southern) arms of the central and southern gyres. These pathways of patterns influence the connection between Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) and between spawning and nursery areas for small pelagic fish. Percentage connections between MPAs are computed, showing that while the highest percentages occur through boundary currents, significant percentages also occur through cross-gyre transport, suggesting the concept of cell-based ecosystems. The nursery area of the Manfredonia Gulf has limited retention properties, and eggs and larvae are likely to reach the Gulf mostly from remote spawning areas through current transport

  12. Uncertainty Analysis in the Creation of a Fine-Resolution Leaf Area Index (LAI) Reference Map for Validation of Moderate Resolution LAI Products

    EPA Science Inventory

    The validation process for a moderate resolution leaf area index (LAI) product (i.e., MODIS) involves the creation of a high spatial resolution LAI reference map (Lai-RM), which when scaled to the moderate LAI resolution (i.e., >1 km) allows for comparison and analysis with this ...

  13. Simulated environmental transport distances of Lepeophtheirus salmonis in Loch Linnhe, Scotland, for informing aquaculture area management structures.

    PubMed

    Salama, N K G; Murray, A G; Rabe, B

    2016-04-01

    In the majority of salmon farming countries, production occurs in zones where practices are coordinated to manage disease agents such as Lepeophtheirus salmonis. To inform the structure of zones in specific systems, models have been developed accounting for parasite biology and system hydrodynamics. These models provide individual system farm relationships, and as such, it may be beneficial to produce more generalized principles for informing structures. Here, we use six different forcing scenarios to provide simulations from a previously described model of the Loch Linnhe system, Scotland, to assess the maximum dispersal distance of lice particles released from 12 sites transported over 19 day. Results indicate that the median distance travelled is 6.1 km from release site with <2.5% transported beyond 15 km, which occurs from particles originating from half of the release sites, with an absolute simulated distance of 36 km observed. This provides information suggesting that the disease management areas developed for infectious salmon anaemia control may also have properties appropriate for salmon lice management in Scottish coastal waters. Additionally, general numerical descriptors of the simulated relative lice abundance reduction with increased distance from release location are proposed. © 2015 Crown copyright. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Development and validation of a critical gradient energetic particle driven Alfven eigenmode transport model for DIII-D tilted neutral beam experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waltz, R. E.; Bass, E. M.; Heidbrink, W. W.; VanZeeland, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    Recent experiments with the DIII-D tilted neutral beam injection (NBI) varying the beam energetic particle (EP) source profiles have provided strong evidence that unstable Alfven eigenmodes (AE) drive stiff EP transport at a critical EP density gradient [Heidbrink et al 2013 Nucl. Fusion 53 093006]. Here the critical gradient is identified by the local AE growth rate being equal to the local ITG/TEM growth rate at the same low toroidal mode number. The growth rates are taken from the gyrokinetic code GYRO. Simulation show that the slowing down beam-like EP distribution has a slightly lower critical gradient than the Maxwellian. The ALPHA EP density transport code [Waltz and Bass 2014 Nucl. Fusion 54 104006], used to validate the model, combines the low-n stiff EP critical density gradient AE mid-core transport with the Angioni et al (2009 Nucl. Fusion 49 055013) energy independent high-n ITG/TEM density transport model controling the central core EP density profile. For the on-axis NBI heated DIII-D shot 146102, while the net loss to the edge is small, about half the birth fast ions are transported from the central core r/a  <  0.5 and the central density is about half the slowing down density. These results are in good agreement with experimental fast ion pressure profiles inferred from MSE constrained EFIT equilibria.

  15. Development and validation of a critical gradient energetic particle driven Alfven eigenmode transport model for DIII-D tilted neutral beam experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Waltz, Ronald E.; Bass, Eric M.; Heidbrink, William W.; ...

    2015-10-30

    Recent experiments with the DIII-D tilted neutral beam injection (NBI) varying the beam energetic particle (EP) source profiles have provided strong evidence that unstable Alfven eigenmodes (AE) drive stiff EP transport at a critical EP density gradient. Here the critical gradient is identified by the local AE growth rate being equal to the local ITG/TEM growth rate at the same low toroidal mode number. The growth rates are taken from the gyrokinetic code GYRO. Simulation show that the slowing down beam-like EP distribution has a slightly lower critical gradient than the Maxwellian. The ALPHA EP density transport code, used tomore » validate the model, combines the low-n stiff EP critical density gradient AE mid-core transport with the energy independent high-n ITG/TEM density transport model controling the central core EP density profile. For the on-axis NBI heated DIII-D shot 146102, while the net loss to the edge is small, about half the birth fast ions are transported from the central core r/a < 0.5 and the central density is about half the slowing down density. Lastly, these results are in good agreement with experimental fast ion pressure profiles inferred from MSE constrained EFIT equilibria.« less

  16. Validating commercial remote sensing and spatial information (CRS&SI) technologies for streamlining environmental and planning processes in transportation projects.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-03-01

    Transportation corridor-planning processes are well understood, and consensus exists among practitioners : about common practices for stages and tasks included in traditional EIS approaches. However, traditional approaches do : not typically employ f...

  17. An isotopic view of water and nitrate transport through the vadose zone in Oregon's southern Willamette Valley's Groundwater Management Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, J. R.; Pearlstein, S.; Hutchins, S.; Faulkner, B. R.; Rugh, W.; Willard, K.; Coulombe, R.; Compton, J.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater nitrate contamination affects thousands of households in Oregon's southern Willamette Valley and many more across the USA. The southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area (GWMA) was established in 2004 due to nitrate levels in the groundwater exceeding the human health standard of 10 mg nitrate-N L-1. Much of the nitrogen (N) inputs to the GWMA comes from agricultural fertilizers, and thus efforts to reduce N inputs to groundwater are focused upon improving N management. However, the effectiveness of these improvements on groundwater quality is unclear because of the complexity of nutrient transport through the vadose zone and long groundwater residence times. Our objective was to focus on vadose zone transport and understand the dynamics and timing of N and water movement below the rooting zone in relation to N management and water inputs. Stable isotopes are a powerful tool for tracking water movement, and understanding N transformations. In partnership with local farmers and state agencies, we established lysimeters and groundwater wells in multiple agricultural fields in the GWMA, and have monitored nitrate, nitrate isotopes, and water isotopes weekly for multiple years. Our results indicate that vadose zone transport is highly complex, and the residence time of water collected in lysimeters was much longer than expected. While input precipitation water isotopes were highly variable over time, lysimeter water isotopes were surprisingly consistent, more closely resembling long-term precipitation isotope means rather than recent precipitation isotopic signatures. However, some particularly large precipitation events with unique isotopic signatures revealed high spatial variability in transport, with some lysimeters showing greater proportions of recent precipitation inputs than others. In one installation where we have groundwater wells and lysimeters at multiple depths, nitrate/nitrite concentrations decreased with depth. N concentrations

  18. Can MODIS Data Calibrate and Validate Coastal Sediment Transport Models? Rapid Prototyping Using 250 m Data and the ECOMSED Model for Lake Pontchartrain, LA USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Richard L.; Georgiou, Ioannis; Glorioso, Mark V.; McCorquodale, J. Alex; Crowder, Keely

    2006-01-01

    Field measurements from small boats and sparse arrays of instrumented buoys often do not provide sufficient data to capture the dynamic nature of biogeophysical parameters in may coastal aquatic environments. Several investigators have shown the MODIS 250 m images can provide daily synoptic views of suspended sediment concentration in coastal waters to determine sediment transport and fate. However, the use of MODIS for coastal environments can be limited due to a lack of cloud-free images. Sediment transport models are not constrained by sky conditions but often suffer from a lack of in situ observations for model calibration or validation. We demonstrate here the utility of MODIS 250 m to calibrate (set model parameters), validate output, and set or reset initial conditions of a hydrodynamic and sediment transport model (ECOMSED) developed for Lake Pontchartrain, LA USA. We present our approach in the context of how to quickly assess of 'prototype' an application of NASA data to support environmental managers and decision makers. The combination of daily MODIS imagery and model simulations offer a more robust monitoring and prediction system of suspended sediments than available from either system alone.

  19. Growth kinetics and mass transport mechanisms of GaN columns by selective area metal organic vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xue; Hartmann, Jana; Mandl, Martin; Sadat Mohajerani, Matin; Wehmann, Hergo-H.; Strassburg, Martin; Waag, Andreas

    2014-04-01

    Three-dimensional GaN columns recently have attracted a lot of attention as the potential basis for core-shell light emitting diodes for future solid state lighting. In this study, the fundamental insights into growth kinetics and mass transport mechanisms of N-polar GaN columns during selective area metal organic vapor phase epitaxy on patterned SiOx/sapphire templates are systematically investigated using various pitch of apertures, growth time, and silane flow. Species impingement fluxes on the top surface of columns Jtop and on their sidewall Jsw, as well as, the diffusion flux from the substrate Jsub contribute to the growth of the GaN columns. The vertical and lateral growth rates devoted by Jtop, Jsw and Jsub are estimated quantitatively. The diffusion length of species on the SiOx mask surface λsub as well as on the sidewall surfaces of the 3D columns λsw are determined. The influences of silane on the growth kinetics are discussed. A growth model is developed for this selective area metal organic vapor phase epitaxy processing.

  20. Validity, efficacy and reliability of 3 nutritional screening tools regarding the nutritional assessment in different social and health areas.

    PubMed

    Castro-Vega, Iciar; Veses Martín, Silvia; Cantero Llorca, Juana; Barrios Marta, Cristina; Bañuls, Celia; Hernández-Mijares, Antonio

    2018-03-09

    Nutritional screening allows for the detection of nutritional risk. Validated tools should be implemented, and their usefulness should be contrasted with a gold standard. The aim of this study is to discover the validity, efficacy and reliability of 3 nutritional screening tools in relation to complete nutritional assessment. A sub-analysis of a cross-sectional and descriptive study on the prevalence of disease-related malnutrition. The sample was selected from outpatients, hospitalized and institutionalized patients. MUST, MNAsf and MST screening were employed. A nutritional assessment of all the patients was undertaken. The SENPE-SEDOM consensus was used for the diagnosis. In the outpatients, both MUST and MNAsf have a similar validity in relation to the nutritional assessment (AUC 0.871 and 0.883, respectively). In the institutionalized patients, the MUST screening method is the one that shows the greatest validity (AUC 0.815), whereas in the hospitalized patients, the most valid methods are both MUST and MST (AUC 0.868 and 0.853, respectively). It is essential to use nutritional screening to invest the available resources wisely. Based on our results, MUST is the most suitable screening method in hospitalized and institutionalized patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of a road transport emission inventory for Greece and the Greater Athens Area: effects of important parameters.

    PubMed

    Fameli, K M; Assimakopoulos, V D

    2015-02-01

    Traffic is considered one of the major polluting sectors and as a consequence a significant cause for the measured exceedances of ambient air quality limit values mainly in urban areas. The Greater Athens Area (located in Attica), the most populated area in Greece, faces severe air pollution problems due to the combination of high road traffic emissions, complex topography and local meteorological conditions. Even though several efforts were made to construct traffic emission inventories for Greece and Attica, still there is not a spatially and temporally resolved one, based on data from relevant authorities and organisations. The present work aims to estimate road emissions in Greece and Attica based on the top down approach. The programme COPERT 4 was used to calculate the annual total emissions from the road transport sector for the period 2006-2010 and an emission inventory for Greece and Attica was developed with high spatial (6 × 6 km(2) for Greece and 2 × 2 km(2) for Attica) and temporal (1-hour) resolutions. The results revealed that about 40% of national CO₂, CO, VOC and NMVOC values and 30% of NOx and particles are emitted in Attica. The fuel consumption and the subsequent reduction of annual mileage driven in combination with the import of new engine anti-pollution technologies affected CO₂, CO, VOC and NMVOC emissions. The major part of CO (56.53%) and CO₂ (66.15%) emissions was due to passenger cars (2010), while heavy duty vehicles (HDVs) were connected with NOx, PM₂.₅ and PM₁₀ emissions with 51.27%, 43.97% and 38.13% respectively (2010). The fleet composition, the penetration of diesel fuelled cars, the increase of urban average speed and the fleet renewal are among the most effective parameters towards the emission reduction strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A New Scheme for Considering Soil Water-Heat Transport Coupling Based on Community Land Model: Model Description and Preliminary Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chenghai; Yang, Kai

    2018-04-01

    Land surface models (LSMs) have developed significantly over the past few decades, with the result that most LSMs can generally reproduce the characteristics of the land surface. However, LSMs fail to reproduce some details of soil water and heat transport during seasonal transition periods because they neglect the effects of interactions between water movement and heat transfer in the soil. Such effects are critical for a complete understanding of water-heat transport within a soil thermohydraulic regime. In this study, a fully coupled water-heat transport scheme (FCS) is incorporated into the Community Land Model (version 4.5) to replaces its original isothermal scheme, which is more complete in theory. Observational data from five sites are used to validate the performance of the FCS. The simulation results at both single-point and global scale show that the FCS improved the simulation of soil moisture and temperature. FCS better reproduced the characteristics of drier and colder surface layers in arid regions by considering the diffusion of soil water vapor, which is a nonnegligible process in soil, especially for soil surface layers, while its effects in cold regions are generally inverse. It also accounted for the sensible heat fluxes caused by liquid water flow, which can contribute to heat transfer in both surface and deep layers. The FCS affects the estimation of surface sensible heat (SH) and latent heat (LH) and provides the details of soil heat and water transportation, which benefits to understand the inner physical process of soil water-heat migration.

  3. Strategic deployment plan : intelligent transportation system (ITS) : early deployment study, Kansas City metropolitan bi-state area

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-01-01

    Intelligent transportation systems (ITS) are systems that utilize advanced technologies, including computer, communications and process control technologies, to improve the efficiency and safety of the transportation system. These systems encompass a...

  4. Field-scale moisture estimates using COSMOS sensors: a validation study with temporary networks and leaf-area-indices

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Cosmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System (COSMOS) is a new and innovative method for estimating surface and near surface soil moisture at large (~700 m) scales. This system accounts for liquid water within its measurement volume. Many of the sites used in the early validation of the system had...

  5. Development and validation of standard area diagrams as assessment aids for estimating the severity of citrus canker on unripe oranges

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Canker (caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri) is an important disease of citrus in Brazil and elsewhere in the world, and can cause severe disease on the fruit. The severity of citrus canker of fruit must often be estimated visually. The objective of this research was to construct and validate s...

  6. The Study Skills Questionnaire (SSQUES): Preliminary Validation of a Measure for Assessing Students' Perceived Areas of Weakness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCombs, Barbara L.; Dobrovolny, Jacqueline L.

    The potential reliability and construct and predictive validity of a 30-item Study Skills Questionnaire (SSQUES) was evaluated for its ability to: (1) predict student performance in a self-paced, individualized, or computer-managed instructional environment, and (2) identify students needing some type of study skills remediation. The study was…

  7. Graphical approach to assess the soil fertility evaluation model validity for rice (case study: southern area of Merapi Mountain, Indonesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julianto, E. A.; Suntoro, W. A.; Dewi, W. S.; Partoyo

    2018-03-01

    Climate change has been reported to exacerbate land resources degradation including soil fertility decline. The appropriate validity use on soil fertility evaluation could reduce the risk of climate change effect on plant cultivation. This study aims to assess the validity of a Soil Fertility Evaluation Model using a graphical approach. The models evaluated were the Indonesian Soil Research Center (PPT) version model, the FAO Unesco version model, and the Kyuma version model. Each model was then correlated with rice production (dry grain weight/GKP). The goodness of fit of each model can be tested to evaluate the quality and validity of a model, as well as the regression coefficient (R2). This research used the Eviews 9 programme by a graphical approach. The results obtained three curves, namely actual, fitted, and residual curves. If the actual and fitted curves are widely apart or irregular, this means that the quality of the model is not good, or there are many other factors that are still not included in the model (large residual) and conversely. Indeed, if the actual and fitted curves show exactly the same shape, it means that all factors have already been included in the model. Modification of the standard soil fertility evaluation models can improve the quality and validity of a model.

  8. System-Level Experimental Validations for Supersonic Commercial Transport Aircraft Entering Service in the 2018-2020 Time Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magee, Todd E.; Wilcox, Peter A.; Fugal, Spencer R.; Acheson, Kurt E.; Adamson, Eric E.; Bidwell, Alicia L.; Shaw, Stephen G.

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the work conducted by The Boeing Company under American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) and NASA funding to experimentally validate the conceptual design of a supersonic airliner feasible for entry into service in the 2018 to 2020 timeframe (NASA N+2 generation). The report discusses the design, analysis and development of a low-boom concept that meets aggressive sonic boom and performance goals for a cruise Mach number of 1.8. The design is achieved through integrated multidisciplinary optimization tools. The report also describes the detailed design and fabrication of both sonic boom and performance wind tunnel models of the low-boom concept. Additionally, a description of the detailed validation wind tunnel testing that was performed with the wind tunnel models is provided along with validation comparisons with pretest Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Finally, the report describes the evaluation of existing NASA sonic boom pressure rail measurement instrumentation and a detailed description of new sonic boom measurement instrumentation that was constructed for the validation wind tunnel testing.

  9. Evaluation of ground-water flow and solute transport in the Lompoc area, Santa Barbara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bright, Daniel J.; Nash, David B.; Martin, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the Lompoc area, especially in the Lompoc plain, is only marginally acceptable for most uses. Demand for ground water has increased for municipal use since the late 1950's and has continued to be high for irrigation on the Lompoc plain, the principal agricultural area in the Santa Ynez River basin. As use has increased, the quality of ground water has deteriorated in some areas of the Lompoc plain. The dissolved-solids concentration in the main zone of the upper aquifer beneath most of the central and western plains has increased from less than 1,000 milligrams per liter in the 1940's to greater than 2,000 milligrams per liter in the 1960's. Dissolved- solids concentration have remained relatively constant since the 1960's. A three-dimensional finite-difference model was used to simulate ground-water flow in the Lompoc area and a two-dimensional finite-element model was used to simulate solute transport to gain a better understanding of the ground-water system and to evaluate the effects of proposed management plans for the ground-water basin. The aquifer system was simulated in the flow model as four horizontal layers. In the area of the Lompoc plain, the layers represent the shallow, middle, and main zones of the upper aquifer, and the lower aquifer. For the Lompoc upland and Lompoc terrace, the four layers represent the lower aquifer. The solute transport model was used to simulate dissolved-solids transport in the main zone of the upper aquifer beneath the Lompoc plain. The flow and solute-transport models were calibrated to transient conditions for 1941-88. A steady-state simulation was made to provide initial conditions for the transient-state simulation by using long-term average (1941-88) recharge rates. Model- simulated hydraulic heads generally were within 5 feet of measured heads in the main zone for transient conditions. Model-simulated dissolved- solids concentrations for the main zone generally differed less than 200milligrams

  10. Permeability, porosity, and mineral surface area changes in basalt cores induced by reactive transport of CO2-rich brine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhmann, Andrew J.; Tutolo, Benjamin M.; Bagley, Brian C.; Mildner, David F. R.; Seyfried, William E.; Saar, Martin O.

    2017-03-01

    Four reactive flow-through laboratory experiments (two each at 0.1 mL/min and 0.01 mL/min flow rates) at 150°C and 150 bar (15 MPa) are conducted on intact basalt cores to assess changes in porosity, permeability, and surface area caused by CO2-rich fluid-rock interaction. Permeability decreases slightly during the lower flow rate experiments and increases during the higher flow rate experiments. At the higher flow rate, core permeability increases by more than one order of magnitude in one experiment and less than a factor of two in the other due to differences in preexisting flow path structure. X-ray computed tomography (XRCT) scans of pre- and post-experiment cores identify both mineral dissolution and secondary mineralization, with a net decrease in XRCT porosity of ˜0.7%-0.8% for the larger pores in all four cores. (Ultra) small-angle neutron scattering ((U)SANS) data sets indicate an increase in both (U)SANS porosity and specific surface area (SSA) over the ˜1 nm to 10 µm scale range in post-experiment basalt samples, with differences due to flow rate and reaction time. Net porosity increases from summing porosity changes from XRCT and (U)SANS analyses are consistent with core mass decreases. (U)SANS data suggest an overall preservation of the pore structure with no change in mineral surface roughness from reaction, and the pore structure is unique in comparison to previously published basalt analyses. Together, these data sets illustrate changes in physical parameters that arise due to fluid-basalt interaction in relatively low pH environments with elevated CO2 concentration, with significant implications for flow, transport, and reaction through geologic formations.

  11. [Design and validation of a questionnaire to assess dietary behavior in Mexican students in the area of health].

    PubMed

    Márquez-Sandoval, Yolanda Fabiola; Salazar-Ruiz, Erika Nohemi; Macedo-Ojeda, Gabriela; Altamirano-Martínez, Macedo-Ojeda; Bernal-Orozco, María Fernanda; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Vizmanos-Lamotte, Barbara

    2014-07-01

    The dietary behavior (DB) establishes the relationship between the human being and foods and has an influence on nutrient intake and, therefore, it contributes to the health or disease status of a population, even among college students. There exit some validated instruments to assess food and nutrients intake, but there are very few assessing DB. To design and validate a questionnaire to assess DB in Mexican college students. According to the literature and Reasoned Theory, a questionnaire assessing DB was designed. Its logic and content validity was determined by expert assessment. It was applied on two occasions with a 4-week interval to 333 students from the University of Guadalajara coursing the sixth semester of Medicine or Nutrition. The reproducibility was assessed by means of the interclass correlation coefficient. The construct validity and the internal consistency were calculated by Rasch analysis, for both the difficulty of the items and the subjects' capability. The questionnaire finally included 31 questions with multiple choice answers. The interclass correlation coefficient of the instrument was 0.76. The Cronbach alpha was 0.50 for the subjects' capability and 0.98 for the internal consistency of the items. 87.1% of the subjects and 89.8% of the items had INFIT and OUTFIT values within acceptable limits. The present questionnaire has the potentiality of measuring at low cost and in a practical way aspects related with DB in college student with the aim of establishing or following-up corrective or preventive actions. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  12. Neighbourhood walkability, leisure-time and transport-related physical activity in a mixed urban-rural area.

    PubMed

    de Sa, Eric; Ardern, Chris I

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To develop a walkability index specific to mixed rural/suburban areas, and to explore the relationship between walkability scores and leisure time physical activity. Methods. Respondents were geocoded with 500 m and 1,000 m buffer zones around each address. A walkability index was derived from intersections, residential density, and land-use mix according to built environment measures. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to quantify the association between the index and physical activity levels. Analyses used cross-sectional data from the 2007-2008 Canadian Community Health Survey (n = 1158; ≥18 y). Results. Respondents living in highly walkable 500 m buffer zones (upper quartiles of the walkability index) were more likely to walk or cycle for leisure than those living in low-walkable buffer zones (quartile 1). When a 1,000 m buffer zone was applied, respondents in more walkable neighbourhoods were more likely to walk or cycle for both leisure-time and transport-related purposes. Conclusion. Developing a walkability index can assist in exploring the associations between measures of the built environment and physical activity to prioritize neighborhood change.

  13. Advanced Transportation System Studies Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Development Contract. Volume 2; Technical Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Transportation System Studies (ATSS) Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Development contract was to provide advanced launch vehicle concept definition and analysis to assist NASA in the identification of future launch vehicle requirements. Contracted analysis activities included vehicle sizing and performance analysis, subsystem concept definition, propulsion subsystem definition (foreign and domestic), ground operations and facilities analysis, and life cycle cost estimation. This document is Volume 2 of the final report for the contract. It provides documentation of selected technical results from various TA-2 analysis activities, including a detailed narrative description of the SSTO concept assessment results, a user's guide for the associated SSTO sizing tools, an SSTO turnaround assessment report, an executive summary of the ground operations assessments performed during the first year of the contract, a configuration-independent vehicle health management system requirements report, a copy of all major TA-2 contract presentations, a copy of the FLO launch vehicle final report, and references to Pratt & Whitney's TA-2 sponsored final reports regarding the identification of Russian main propulsion technologies.

  14. Ozone: transport from an urban area and effects on infection of soybean and wild strawberry by bacterial plant pathogens

    SciTech Connect

    Laurence, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    Preliminary analysis of meteorological and ozone monitoring data indicate that ozone precursors, and at certain times, ozone can be transported to rural areas up to 75 kilometers from Minneapolis-St. Paul. Oxidant type symptoms have been observed on plants following these occurrences. Pseudomonas glycinea infection of Chippewa 64 soybeans was inhibited by exposure to high concentrations (490 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/, 4 hours) of ozone. In primary leaves, the inhibition lasted as long as non-fumigated leaves were susceptible to the bacterium. Inhibition of infection occured in both primary and trifoliolate leaves which had been exposed. Inhibition of infection occurrred in expanded trifoliolate leavesmore » which were exposed to ozone before expansion. At low concentrations of ozone (157 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/, 4 hours) similar trends were observed. Wild strawberry was sensitive to ozone at concentrations of 294 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ (15 pphm) for 2 hours. Infection of wild strawberry by X. fragariae was inhibited when plants were exposed to high concentrations (392 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/, 3 hours) of ozone. Exposure to low concentrations (157 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/, 3 hours) did not result in consistent inhibition of infection.« less

  15. The ESA SMOS Validation Rehearsal Campaign at the Valencia Anchor Station Area in the Framework of the SMOS Cal/Val AO Project no. 3252

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Baeza, E.

    2009-04-01

    Since 2001, the Valencia Anchor Station is currently being prepared for the validation of SMOS land products. The site has recently been selected by the Mission as a core validation site, mainly due to the reasonable homogeneous characteristics of the area which make it appropriate to undertake the validation of SMOS Level 2 land products during the Mission Commissioning Phase, before attempting more complex areas. Close to SMOS launch, ESA defined and designed the SMOS Validation Rehearsal Campaign Plan with the purpose of repeating the Commissioning Phase execution with all centers, all tools, all participants, all structures, all data available, assuming that all tools and structures are ready and trying to produce as close as possible the post-launch conditions. The aim was to test the readiness, the ensemble coordination and the speed of operations to be able to avoid as far as possible any unexpected deficiencies of the plan and procedure during the real Commissioning Phase campaigns. For the rehearsal activity which successfully took place in April 2008, a control area of 10 x 10 km2 was chosen at the Valencia Anchor Station study area where a network of ground soil moisture measuring stations is being set up based on the definition of homogeneous physio-hydrological units, attending to climatic, soil type, lithology, geology, elevation, slope and vegetation cover conditions. These stations are linked via a wireless communication system to a master post accessible via internet. Complementary to the ground measurements, flight operations were performed over the control area using the Helsinki University of Technology TKK Short Skyvan research aircraft. The payload for the campaign consisted of the following instruments: (i) L-band radiometer EMIRAD (Technical University of Denmark, TUD), (ii) HUT-2D L-band imaging interferometric radiometer (TKK), (iii) PARIS GPS reflectrometry system (Institute for Space Studies of Catalonia, IEEC), (iv) IR sensor (Finnish

  16. A combined model for Sediment TRansport In Coastal Hazard Events (GeoClaw-STRICHE): Theoretical formulation and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, H.; Weiss, R.

    2016-12-01

    GeoClaw-STRICHE is designed for simulating the physical impacts of tsunami as it relates to erosion, transport and deposition. GeoClaw-STRICHE comprises GeoClaw for the hydrodynamics and the sediment transport model we refer to as STRICHE, which includes an advection diffusion equation as well as bed-updating. Multiple grain sizes and sediment layers are added into GeoClaw-STRICHE to simulate grain-size distribution and add the capability to develop grain-size trends from bottom to the top of a simulated deposit as well as along the inundation. Unlike previous models based on empirical equations or sediment concentration gradient, the standard Van Leer method is applied to calculate sediment flux. We tested and verified GeoClaw-STRICHE with flume experiment by Johnson et al. (2016) and data from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in Kuala Meurisi as published in Apotsos et al. (2011). The comparison with experimental data shows GeoClaw-STRICHE's capability to simulate sediment thickness and grain-size distribution in experimental conditions, which builds confidence that sediment transport is correctly predicted by this model. The comparison with the data from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami reveals that the pattern of sediment thickness is well predicted and is of similar quality, if not better than the established computational models such as Delft3D.

  17. Evaluation and Validation of a TCAT Model to Describe Non-Dilute Flow and Species Transport in Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigand, T. M.; Harrison, E.; Miller, C. T.

    2017-12-01

    A thermodynamically constrained averaging theory (TCAT) model has been developed to simulate non-dilute flow and species transport in porous media. This model has the advantages of a firm connection between the microscale, or pore scale, and the macroscale; a thermodynamically consistent basis; the explicit inclusion of dissipative terms that arise from spatial gradients in pressure and chemical activity; and the ability to describe both high and low concentration displacement. The TCAT model has previously been shown to provide excellent agreement for a set of laboratory data and outperformed existing macroscale models that have been used for non-dilute flow and transport. The examined experimental dataset consisted of stable brine displacements for a large range of fluid properties. This dataset however only examined one type of porous media and had a fixed flow rate for all experiments. In this work, the TCAT model is applied to a dataset that consists of two different porous media types, constant head and flow rate conditions, varying resident fluid concentrations, and internal probes that measured the pressure and salt mass fraction. Parameter estimation is performed on a subset of the experimental data for the TCAT model as well as other existing non-dilute flow and transport models. The optimized parameters are then used for forward simulations and the accuracy of the models is compared.

  18. Validation of a microdose probe drug cocktail for clinical drug interaction assessments for drug transporters and CYP3A.

    PubMed

    Prueksaritanont, T; Tatosian, D A; Chu, X; Railkar, R; Evers, R; Chavez-Eng, C; Lutz, R; Zeng, W; Yabut, J; Chan, G H; Cai, X; Latham, A H; Hehman, J; Stypinski, D; Brejda, J; Zhou, C; Thornton, B; Bateman, K P; Fraser, I; Stoch, S A

    2017-04-01

    A microdose cocktail containing midazolam, dabigatran etexilate, pitavastatin, rosuvastatin, and atorvastatin has been established to allow simultaneous assessment of a perpetrator impact on the most common drug metabolizing enzyme, cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A, and the major transporters organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATP)1B, breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), and MDR1 P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The clinical utility of these microdose cocktail probe substrates was qualified by conducting clinical drug interaction studies with three inhibitors with different in vitro inhibitory profiles (rifampin, itraconazole, and clarithromycin). Generally, the pharmacokinetic profiles of the probe substrates, in the absence and presence of the inhibitors, were comparable to their reported corresponding pharmacological doses, and/or in agreement with theoretical expectations. The exception was dabigatran, which resulted in an approximately twofold higher magnitude for microdose compared to conventional dosing, and, thus, can be used to flag a worst-case scenario for P-gp. Broader application of the microdose cocktail will facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of the roles of drug transporters in drug disposition and drug interactions. © 2016 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  19. An environment-dependent semi-empirical tight binding model suitable for electron transport in bulk metals, metal alloys, metallic interfaces, and metallic nanostructures. I. Model and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegde, Ganesh; Povolotskyi, Michael; Kubis, Tillmann; Boykin, Timothy; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2014-03-01

    Semi-empirical Tight Binding (TB) is known to be a scalable and accurate atomistic representation for electron transport for realistically extended nano-scaled semiconductor devices that might contain millions of atoms. In this paper, an environment-aware and transferable TB model suitable for electronic structure and transport simulations in technologically relevant metals, metallic alloys, metal nanostructures, and metallic interface systems are described. Part I of this paper describes the development and validation of the new TB model. The new model incorporates intra-atomic diagonal and off-diagonal elements for implicit self-consistency and greater transferability across bonding environments. The dependence of the on-site energies on strain has been obtained by appealing to the Moments Theorem that links closed electron paths in the system to energy moments of angular momentum resolved local density of states obtained ab initio. The model matches self-consistent density functional theory electronic structure results for bulk face centered cubic metals with and without strain, metallic alloys, metallic interfaces, and metallic nanostructures with high accuracy and can be used in predictive electronic structure and transport problems in metallic systems at realistically extended length scales.

  20. In silico analysis and experimental validation of azelastine hydrochloride (N4) targeting sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP) in HBV therapy.

    PubMed

    Fu, L-L; Liu, J; Chen, Y; Wang, F-T; Wen, X; Liu, H-Q; Wang, M-Y; Ouyang, L; Huang, J; Bao, J-K; Wei, Y-Q

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP) exerting its function with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and its targeted candidate compounds, in HBV therapy. Identification of NTCP as a novel HBV target for screening candidate small molecules, was used by phylogenetic analysis, network construction, molecular modelling, molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. In vitro virological examination, q-PCR, western blotting and cytotoxicity studies were used for validating efficacy of the candidate compound. We used the phylogenetic analysis of NTCP and constructed its protein-protein network. Also, we screened compounds from Drugbank and ZINC, among which five were validated for their authentication in HepG 2.2.15 cells. Then, we selected compound N4 (azelastine hydrochloride) as the most potent of them. This showed good inhibitory activity against HBsAg (IC50 = 7.5 μm) and HBeAg (IC50 = 3.7 μm), as well as high SI value (SI = 4.68). Further MD simulation results supported good interaction between compound N4 and NTCP. In silico analysis and experimental validation together demonstrated that compound N4 can target NTCP in HepG2.2.15 cells, which may shed light on exploring it as a potential anti-HBV drug. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. System-Level Experimental Validations for Supersonic Commercial Transport Aircraft Entering Service in the 2018-2020 Time Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magee, Todd E.; Fugal, Spencer R.; Fink, Lawrence E.; Adamson, Eric E.; Shaw, Stephen G.

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the work conducted under NASA funding for the Boeing N+2 Supersonic Experimental Validation project to experimentally validate the conceptual design of a supersonic airliner feasible for entry into service in the 2018 -to 2020 timeframe (NASA N+2 generation). The primary goal of the project was to develop a low-boom configuration optimized for minimum sonic boom signature (65 to 70 PLdB). This was a very aggressive goal that could be achieved only through integrated multidisciplinary optimization tools validated in relevant ground and, later, flight environments. The project was split into two phases. Phase I of the project covered the detailed aerodynamic design of a low boom airliner as well as the wind tunnel tests to validate that design (ref. 1). This report covers Phase II of the project, which continued the design methodology development of Phase I with a focus on the propulsion integration aspects as well as the testing involved to validate those designs. One of the major airplane configuration features of the Boeing N+2 low boom design was the overwing nacelle. The location of the nacelle allowed for a minimal effect on the boom signature, however, it added a level of difficulty to designing an inlet with acceptable performance in the overwing flow field. Using the Phase I work as the starting point, the goals of the Phase 2 project were to design and verify inlet performance while maintaining a low-boom signature. The Phase II project was successful in meeting all contract objectives. New modular nacelles were built for the larger Performance Model along with a propulsion rig with an electrically-actuated mass flow plug. Two new mounting struts were built for the smaller Boom Model, along with new nacelles. Propulsion integration testing was performed using an instrumented fan face and a mass flow plug, while boom signatures were measured using a wall-mounted pressure rail. A side study of testing in different wind tunnels was

  2. Determining the Scope of Collection Development and Research Assistance for Cross-Disciplinary Areas: A Case Study of Two Contrasting Areas, Nanotechnology and Transportation Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Jeanine M.; Han, Lee D.; Colon-Aguirre, Monica

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the extent of cross-disciplinarity in nanotechnology and transportation engineering research. Researchers in these two fields were determined from the web sites of the U.S. News and World Report top 100 schools in civil engineering and materials science. Web of Science searches for 2006 and 2007 articles were obtained and the…

  3. Numerical simulations of the transport and diffusion during the 1991 Winter Validation Study along the front range in Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fast, J. D.; Osteen, B. L.

    An important aspect of the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program is the development and evaluation of numerical models that predict transport and diffusion of pollutants in complex terrain. Operational mesoscale modeling of the transport of pollutants in complex terrain will become increasingly practical as computational costs decrease and additional data from high-resolution remote sensing instrumentation networks become available during the 1990s. Four-dimensional data assimilation (4DDA) techniques are receiving a great deal of attention recently not only to improve the initial conditions of mesoscale forecast models, but to create high-quality four-dimensional mesoscale analysis fields that can be used as input to air-quality models. In this study, a four-dimensional data assimilation technique based on Newtonian relaxation is incorporated into the Colorado State University (CSU) Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) and evaluated using data taken from one experiment of the 1991 ASCOT field study along the front range of the Rockies in Colorado. The main objective of this study is to compare the observed surface concentrations with those predicted by a Lagrangian particle dispersion model and to demonstrate the effect of data assimilation on the simulated plume. In contrast to previous studies in which the smallest horizontal grid spacing was 10 km (Stauffer and Seaman, 1991) and 8 km (Yamada and Hermi, 1991), data assimilation is applied in this study to domains with a horizontal grid spacing as small as 1 km.

  4. Impacts of the North American Free Trade Agreement on transportation in the border areas of the United States : with emphasis on the California-Mexico border

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-08-01

    This report identifies impacts of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on transportation in the U.S. border areas. Emphasis is on the California-Baja California border zone. Focus is on the identification of recommendations to the Californ...

  5. Impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement on transportation in the border areas of the United States : with emphasis on the California-Mexico border

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-08-01

    This report identifies impacts of the North ?American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on transportation in the U.S. border areas. Emphasis is on the California-Baja California border zone. Focus is on the identification of recommendations to the Califor...

  6. Virtual reality as a human factors design analysis tool: Macro-ergonomic application validation and assessment of the Space Station Freedom payload control area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, Joseph P.

    1994-01-01

    A virtual reality (VR) Applications Program has been under development at MSFC since 1989. Its objectives are to develop, assess, validate, and utilize VR in hardware development, operations development and support, missions operations training, and science training. A variety of activities are under way within many of these areas. One ongoing macro-ergonomic application of VR relates to the design of the Space Station Freedom Payload Control Area (PCA), the control room from which onboard payload operations are managed. Several preliminary conceptual PCA layouts have been developed and modeled in VR. Various managers and potential end users have virtually 'entered' these rooms and provided valuable feedback. Before VR can be used with confidence in a particular application, it must be validated, or calibrated, for that class of applications. Two associated validation studies for macro-ergonomic applications are under way to help characterize possible distortions of filtering of relevant perceptions in a virtual world. In both studies, existing control rooms and their 'virtual counterparts will be empirically compared using distance and heading estimations to objects and subjective assessments. Approaches and findings of the PCA activities and details of the studies are presented.

  7. Remote sensing and GIS-based landslide hazard analysis and cross-validation using multivariate logistic regression model on three test areas in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Biswajeet

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents the results of the cross-validation of a multivariate logistic regression model using remote sensing data and GIS for landslide hazard analysis on the Penang, Cameron, and Selangor areas in Malaysia. Landslide locations in the study areas were identified by interpreting aerial photographs and satellite images, supported by field surveys. SPOT 5 and Landsat TM satellite imagery were used to map landcover and vegetation index, respectively. Maps of topography, soil type, lineaments and land cover were constructed from the spatial datasets. Ten factors which influence landslide occurrence, i.e., slope, aspect, curvature, distance from drainage, lithology, distance from lineaments, soil type, landcover, rainfall precipitation, and normalized difference vegetation index (ndvi), were extracted from the spatial database and the logistic regression coefficient of each factor was computed. Then the landslide hazard was analysed using the multivariate logistic regression coefficients derived not only from the data for the respective area but also using the logistic regression coefficients calculated from each of the other two areas (nine hazard maps in all) as a cross-validation of the model. For verification of the model, the results of the analyses were then compared with the field-verified landslide locations. Among the three cases of the application of logistic regression coefficient in the same study area, the case of Selangor based on the Selangor logistic regression coefficients showed the highest accuracy (94%), where as Penang based on the Penang coefficients showed the lowest accuracy (86%). Similarly, among the six cases from the cross application of logistic regression coefficient in other two areas, the case of Selangor based on logistic coefficient of Cameron showed highest (90%) prediction accuracy where as the case of Penang based on the Selangor logistic regression coefficients showed the lowest accuracy (79%). Qualitatively, the cross

  8. Validation of drinking water disinfection by-product exposure assessment for rural areas in the National Children's Study.

    PubMed

    Binkley, Teresa L; Thiex, Natalie W; Specker, Bonny L

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to provide evidence to evaluate the proposed National Children's Study (NCS) protocol for household water sampling in rural study areas. Day-to-day variability in total trihalomethane (TTHM) concentrations in community water supplies (CWS) in rural areas was determined, and the correlation between TTHM concentrations from household taps and CWS monitoring reports was evaluated. Daily water samples were collected from 7 households serviced by 7 different CWS for 15 days. Coefficients of variation for TTHM concentration over 15 days ranged from 8% to 20% depending on the household. Correlations were tested between TTHM household concentrations and the closest date- and location-matched CWS monitoring reports for the 15-day mean (R=0.85, P<0.01). To simulate the NCS-proposed protocol, correlations were tested for 30 additional NCS household samples (polynomial fit: R=0.74, P=0.04). CWS reported TTHM concentrations >50 μg/l corresponded to measured NCS household concentrations ranging from 2 to 60 μg/l. TTHM concentrations were higher in CWS than NCS samples (11.2±3.2 μg/l, mean difference±SE, P<0.01). These results show that in rural areas there is high variability within households and poor correlation at higher concentrations, suggesting that TTHM concentrations from CWS monitoring reports are not an accurate measure of exposure in the household.

  9. Validation of a simple distributed sediment delivery approach in selected sub-basins of the River Inn catchment area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Lucas; Kittlaus, Steffen; Scherer, Ulrike

    2015-04-01

    For large areas without highly detailed data the empirical Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) is widely used to quantify soil loss. The problem though is usually the quantification of actual sediment influx into the rivers. As the USLE provides long-term mean soil loss rates, it is often combined with spatially lumped models to estimate the sediment delivery ratio (SDR). But it gets difficult with spatially lumped approaches in large catchment areas where the geographical properties have a wide variance. In this study we developed a simple but spatially distributed approach to quantify the sediment delivery ratio by considering the characteristics of the flow paths in the catchments. The sediment delivery ratio was determined using an empirical approach considering the slope, morphology and land use properties along the flow path as an estimation of travel time of the eroded particles. The model was tested against suspended solids measurements in selected sub-basins of the River Inn catchment area in Germany and Austria, ranging from the high alpine south to the Molasse basin in the northern part.

  10. Technical Note: Validation of two methods to determine contact area between breast and compression paddle in mammography.

    PubMed

    Branderhorst, Woutjan; de Groot, Jerry E; van Lier, Monique G J T B; Highnam, Ralph P; den Heeten, Gerard J; Grimbergen, Cornelis A

    2017-08-01

    To assess the accuracy of two methods of determining the contact area between the compression paddle and the breast in mammography. An accurate method to determine the contact area is essential to accurately calculate the average compression pressure applied by the paddle. For a set of 300 breast compressions, we measured the contact areas between breast and paddle, both capacitively using a transparent foil with indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coating attached to the paddle, and retrospectively from the obtained mammograms using image processing software (Volpara Enterprise, algorithm version 1.5.2). A gold standard was obtained from video images of the compressed breast. During each compression, the breast was illuminated from the sides in order to create a dark shadow on the video image where the breast was in contact with the compression paddle. We manually segmented the shadows captured at the time of x-ray exposure and measured their areas. We found a strong correlation between the manual segmentations and the capacitive measurements [r = 0.989, 95% CI (0.987, 0.992)] and between the manual segmentations and the image processing software [r = 0.978, 95% CI (0.972, 0.982)]. Bland-Altman analysis showed a bias of -0.0038 dm 2 for the capacitive measurement (SD 0.0658, 95% limits of agreement [-0.1329, 0.1252]) and -0.0035 dm 2 for the image processing software [SD 0.0962, 95% limits of agreement (-0.1921, 0.1850)]. The size of the contact area between the paddle and the breast can be determined accurately and precisely, both in real-time using the capacitive method, and retrospectively using image processing software. This result is beneficial for scientific research, data analysis and quality control systems that depend on one of these two methods for determining the average pressure on the breast during mammographic compression. © 2017 Sigmascreening B.V. Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  11. Validity of active fault identification through magnetic anomalous using earthquake mechanism, microgravity and topography structure analysis in Cisolok area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setyonegoro, Wiko; Kurniawan, Telly; Ahadi, Suaidi; Rohadi, Supriyanto; Hardy, Thomas; Prayogo, Angga S.

    2017-07-01

    Research was conducted to determine the value of the magnetic anomalies to identify anomalous value standard fault, down or up with the type of Meratus trending northeast-southwest Cisolok, Sukabumi. Data collection was performed by setting the measurement grid at intervals of 5 meters distance measurement using a Precision Proton Magnetometer (PPM) -GSM-19T. To identification the active fault using magnetic is needed another parameter. The purpose of this study is to identification active fault using magnetic Anomaly in related with subsurface structure through the validation analysis of earthquake mechanism, microgravity and with Topography Structure in Java Island. Qualitative interpretation is done by analyzing the residual anomaly that has been reduced to the pole while the quantitative interpretation is done by analyzing the pattern of residual anomalies through computation. The results of quantitative interpretation, an anomalous value reduction to the pole magnetic field is at -700 nT to 700 nT while the results of the qualitative interpretation of the modeling of the path AA', BB' and CC' shows the magnetic anomaly at coordinates liquefaction resources with a value of 1028.04, 1416.21, - 1565, -1686.91. The measurement results obtained in Cisolok magnetic anomalies that indicate a high content of alumina (Al) and iron (Fe) which be identified appears through the fault gap towards the northeast through Rajamandala Lembang Fault related to the mechanism in the form of a normal fault with slip rate of 2 mm / year.

  12. Regional concept for transportation operations fosters planning for operations in the Tucson metropolitan area : operation-focused planning for operations

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-04-01

    The Tucson metropolitan region embarked on developing a regional concept for transportation operations (RCTO) in 2005 as part of a Federal Highway Administration demonstration initiative to advance regional collaboration for operations. The RCTO is a...

  13. PIPELINES, TRANSMISSION LINES, AND MISCELLANEOUS TRANSPORTATION FEATURES DIGITAL LINE GRAPHS FOR THE MID-ATLANTIC INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT (MAIA) STUDY AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set is a geographic information system (GIS) coverage of pipelines, transmission lines, and miscellaneous transportation features for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment (MAIA) Project region. The coverage was p...

  14. Optical design of the National Ignition Facility main laser and switchyard/target area beam transport systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, John L.; English, R. Edward, Jr.; Korniski, Ronald J.; Rodgers, J. Michael

    1999-07-01

    The optical design of the main laser and transport mirror sections of the National Ignition Facility are described. For the main laser the configuration, layout constraints, multiple beam arrangement, pinhole layout and beam paths, clear aperture budget, ray trace models, alignment constraints, lens designs, wavefront performance, and pupil aberrations are discussed. For the transport mirror system the layout, alignment controls and clear aperture budget are described.

  15. Tests of transferability and validation of disaggregate behavioral demand models for evaluating the energy conservation potential of alternative transportation policies in nine US cities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1977-04-01

    A transportation policy analysis methodology described in Guidelines for Travel Demand Analyses of Program Measures to Promote Carpools, Vanpools, and Public Transportation, November, 1976 (EAPA 4:1921) is demonstrated. The results reported build upon the two levels of analysis capabilities (a fully calibrated and operational computer package based on a set of disaggregate travel demand models that were estimated on a random sample of urban travelers and a manual procedure or sketch planning pivot-point version of the above methodology) and have undertaken to accomplish the following objectives: transferability, testing the manual approach on actual applications, and validating the method. The firstmore » objective was investigated by examining and comparing disaggregate models that were estimated in 7 US cities by eight different organizations. The next two objectives were investigated using separate case studies: the Washington, DC, Shirley Highway preferential transit and carpool lanes; the Portland, Oregon, Banfield Highway Expressway preferential transit and carpool lanes; the Los Angeles, Santa Monica Freeway preferential Diamond Lane and ramp metering facilities for transit and carpools; the Minneapolis, express bus on metered freeway project; and the Portland, Oregon, carpool matching and promotion programs for the general public and for employer-based groups. Principal findings are summarized and results consolidated. (MCW)« less

  16. Validation of the MCNP6 electron-photon transport algorithm: multiple-scattering of 13- and 20-MeV electrons in thin foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, David A.; Hughes, H. Grady

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a validation test comparing angular distributions from an electron multiple-scattering experiment with those generated using the MCNP6 Monte Carlo code system. In this experiment, a 13- and 20-MeV electron pencil beam is deflected by thin foils with atomic numbers from 4 to 79. To determine the angular distribution, the fluence is measured down range of the scattering foil at various radii orthogonal to the beam line. The characteristic angle (the angle for which the max of the distribution is reduced by 1/e) is then determined from the angular distribution and compared with experiment. Multiple scattering foils tested herein include beryllium, carbon, aluminum, copper, and gold. For the default electron-photon transport settings, the calculated characteristic angle was statistically distinguishable from measurement and generally broader than the measured distributions. The average relative difference ranged from 5.8% to 12.2% over all of the foils, source energies, and physics settings tested. This validation illuminated a deficiency in the computation of the underlying angular distributions that is well understood. As a result, code enhancements were made to stabilize the angular distributions in the presence of very small substeps. However, the enhancement only marginally improved results indicating that additional algorithmic details should be studied.

  17. Literature review for Texas Department of Transportation Research Project 0-4695: Guidance for design in areas of extreme bed-load mobility, Edwards Plateau, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heitmuller, Franklin T.; Asquith, William H.; Fang, Xing; Thompson, David B.; Wang, Keh-Han

    2005-01-01

    A review of the literature addressing sediment transport in gravel-bed river systems and structures designed to control bed-load mobility is provided as part of Texas Department of Transportation research project 0–4695: Guidance for Design in Areas of Extreme Bed-Load Mobility. The study area comprises the western half of the Edwards Plateau in central Texas. Three primary foci of the literature review are journal articles, edited volumes, and government publications. Major themes within the body of literature include deterministic sediment transport theory and equations, development of methods to measure and analyze fluvial sediment, applications and development of theory in natural channels and flume experiments, and recommendations for river management and structural design. The literature review provides an outline and foundation for the research project to characterize extreme bed-load mobility in rivers and streams across the study area. The literature review also provides a basis upon which potential modifications to low-water stream-crossing design in the study area can be made.

  18. Protective Behaviour of Citizens to Transport Accidents Involving Hazardous Materials: A Discrete Choice Experiment Applied to Populated Areas nearby Waterways

    PubMed Central

    de Bekker-Grob, Esther W.; Bergstra, Arnold D.; Bliemer, Michiel C. J.; Trijssenaar-Buhre, Inge J. M.; Burdorf, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Background To improve the information for and preparation of citizens at risk to hazardous material transport accidents, a first important step is to determine how different characteristics of hazardous material transport accidents will influence citizens’ protective behaviour. However, quantitative studies investigating citizens’ protective behaviour in case of hazardous material transport accidents are scarce. Methods A discrete choice experiment was conducted among subjects (19–64 years) living in the direct vicinity of a large waterway. Scenarios were described by three transport accident characteristics: odour perception, smoke/vapour perception, and the proportion of people in the environment that were leaving at their own discretion. Subjects were asked to consider each scenario as realistic and to choose the alternative that was most appealing to them: staying, seeking shelter, or escaping. A panel error component model was used to quantify how different transport accident characteristics influenced subjects’ protective behaviour. Results The response was 44% (881/1,994). The predicted probability that a subject would stay ranged from 1% in case of a severe looking accident till 62% in case of a mild looking accident. All three transport accident characteristics proved to influence protective behaviour. Particularly a perception of strong ammonia or mercaptan odours and visible smoke/vapour close to citizens had the strongest positive influence on escaping. In general, ‘escaping’ was more preferred than ‘seeking shelter’, although stated preference heterogeneity among subjects for these protective behaviour options was substantial. Males were less willing to seek shelter than females, whereas elderly people were more willing to escape than younger people. Conclusion Various characteristics of transport accident involving hazardous materials influence subjects’ protective behaviour. The preference heterogeneity shows that information needs

  19. Heat and mass transport during microwave heating of mashed potato in domestic oven--model development, validation, and sensitivity analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiajia; Pitchai, Krishnamoorthy; Birla, Sohan; Negahban, Mehrdad; Jones, David; Subbiah, Jeyamkondan

    2014-10-01

    A 3-dimensional finite-element model coupling electromagnetics and heat and mass transfer was developed to understand the interactions between the microwaves and fresh mashed potato in a 500 mL tray. The model was validated by performing heating of mashed potato from 25 °C on a rotating turntable in a microwave oven, rated at 1200 W, for 3 min. The simulated spatial temperature profiles on the top and bottom layer of the mashed potato showed similar hot and cold spots when compared to the thermal images acquired by an infrared camera. Transient temperature profiles at 6 locations collected by fiber-optic sensors showed good agreement with predicted results, with the root mean square error ranging from 1.6 to 11.7 °C. The predicted total moisture loss matched well with the observed result. Several input parameters, such as the evaporation rate constant, the intrinsic permeability of water and gas, and the diffusion coefficient of water and gas, are not readily available for mashed potato, and they cannot be easily measured experimentally. Reported values for raw potato were used as baseline values. A sensitivity analysis of these input parameters on the temperature profiles and the total moisture loss was evaluated by changing the baseline values to their 10% and 1000%. The sensitivity analysis showed that the gas diffusion coefficient, intrinsic water permeability, and the evaporation rate constant greatly influenced the predicted temperature and total moisture loss, while the intrinsic gas permeability and the water diffusion coefficient had little influence. This model can be used by the food product developers to understand microwave heating of food products spatially and temporally. This tool will allow food product developers to design food package systems that would heat more uniformly in various microwave ovens. The sensitivity analysis of this study will help us determine the most significant parameters that need to be measured accurately for reliable

  20. Validation of cooling effect of insulated containers for the shipment of corneal tissue and recommendations for transport.

    PubMed

    Miller, Thomas D; Maxwell, Andrew J; Lindquist, Thomas D; Requard, Jake

    2013-01-01

    To determine the cooling effect of generic insulated shipping containers in ambient and high-temperature environments. Twenty-seven shipping containers were packed with wet ice according to industry standards. The ice in each container was weighed. Ambient temperatures were recorded by data loggers affixed to the exterior. Internal temperatures were recorded by data loggers packed inside the containers, for as long as the data loggers remained at ≤8°C. The cooling effect, or minutes per gram of ice a data logger maintained a temperature of ≤8°C, was calculated using linear regression; 8 similar containers were subjected to elevated summer temperatures. Small, medium, and large containers held mean masses of wet ice of 685, 1929, and 4439 g, respectively. The linear regression equation for grams of ice to duration of time at ≤8°C was y = 0.1994x + 385.13 for small containers, y = 0.1854x + 1273.3 for medium, and y = 0.5892x + 1410.3 for large containers, resulting in a cooling effect of 25.1 hours for small, 58.9 hours for medium, and 85.7 hours for large containers at ambient temperature. The duration of cooling effect in the summer profile group was consistent with that of the ambient temperature group. All of the container sizes successfully maintained proper cooling when packed with the appropriate grams of wet ice for the needed time interval. This study validates current practice for the shipment of corneal tissue in inexpensive, generic containers that can maintain effective cooling for the duration required for local, national, and international shipment.

  1. Executive summary: Benefit-cost evaluation of an intra-regional air service in the Bay Area and a technology assessment of transportation system investments. [regional planning for the San Francisco Bay area of California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haefner, L. E.

    1978-01-01

    The benefits and costs that would result from an intra-regional air service operation in the San Francisco Bay area were determined by utilizing an iterative statistical decision model to evaluate combinations of commuter airport sites and surface transportation facilities in conjunction with service by a given commuter aircraft type in light of area regional growth alternatives and peak and off-peak regional travel patterns. The model evaluates such transportation option with respect to criteria of airline profitability, public acceptance, and public and private non-user costs. In so doing, it incorporates information on modal split, peak and off-peak use of the air commuter fleet, terminal and airport costs, development costs and uses of land in proximity to the airport sites, regional population shifts, and induced zonal shifts in travel demand. The model is multimodal in its analytic capability, and performs exhaustive sensitivity analysis.

  2. Discovery and Validation of Pyridoxic Acid and Homovanillic Acid as Novel Endogenous Plasma Biomarkers of Organic Anion Transporter (OAT) 1 and OAT3 in Cynomolgus Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hong; Nelson, David M; Oliveira, Regina V; Zhang, Yueping; Mcnaney, Colleen A; Gu, Xiaomei; Chen, Weiqi; Su, Ching; Reily, Michael D; Shipkova, Petia A; Gan, Jinping; Lai, Yurong; Marathe, Punit; Humphreys, W Griffith

    2018-02-01

    Perturbation of organic anion transporter (OAT) 1- and OAT3-mediated transport can alter the exposure, efficacy, and safety of drugs. Although there have been reports of the endogenous biomarkers for OAT1/3, none of these have all of the characteristics required for a clinical useful biomarker. Cynomolgus monkeys were treated with intravenous probenecid (PROB) at a dose of 40 mg/kg in this study. As expected, PROB increased the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of coadministered furosemide, a known substrate of OAT1 and OAT3, by 4.1-fold, consistent with the values reported in humans (3.1- to 3.7-fold). Of the 233 plasma metabolites analyzed using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based metabolomics method, 29 metabolites, including pyridoxic acid (PDA) and homovanillic acid (HVA), were significantly increased after either 1 or 3 hours in plasma from the monkeys pretreated with PROB compared with the treated animals. The plasma of animals was then subjected to targeted LC-MS/MS analysis, which confirmed that the PDA and HVA AUCs increased by approximately 2- to 3-fold by PROB pretreatments. PROB also increased the plasma concentrations of hexadecanedioic acid (HDA) and tetradecanedioic acid (TDA), although the increases were not statistically significant. Moreover, transporter profiling assessed using stable cell lines constitutively expressing transporters demonstrated that PDA and HVA are substrates for human OAT1, OAT3, OAT2 (HVA), and OAT4 (PDA), but not OCT2, MATE1, MATE2K, OATP1B1, OATP1B3, and sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide. Collectively, these findings suggest that PDA and HVA might serve as blood-based endogenous probes of cynomolgus monkey OAT1 and OAT3, and investigation of PDA and HVA as circulating endogenous biomarkers of human OAT1 and OAT3 function is warranted. Copyright © 2018 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  3. INTERDISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Monte—Carlo Simulation of Multiple-Molecular-Motor Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zi-Qing; Wang, Guo-Dong; Shen, Wei-Bo

    2010-10-01

    Multimotor transport is studied by Monte-Carlo simulation with consideration of motor detachment from the filament. Our work shows, in the case of low load, the velocity of multi-motor system can decrease or increase with increasing motor numbers depending on the single motor force-velocity curve. The stall force and run-length reduced greatly compared to other models. Especially in the case of low ATP concentrations, the stall force of multi motor transport even smaller than the single motor's stall force.

  4. Hydrogeological Analysis and Groundwater Flow for C-Reactor Area with Contaminant Transport for C-Reactor Seepage Basins (CRSB) and C-Area Burning/Rubble Pit (CBRP)

    SciTech Connect

    FLACH, GREGORYP.

    1999-12-01

    A groundwater flow model encompassing approximately 4 mi2 within C Reactor area has been developed. The objectives and goals of the C Reactor Area groundwater model are to: Provide a common hydrogeologic and groundwater flow modeling framework for C Area that can be easily updated as additional field data is collected from waste site investigations. Provide a baseline groundwater flow model for use in subsequent flow and transport simulations for remedial/feasibility studies for C Area waste sites. Provide baseline transport simulations for CBRP and CRSB that reconstruct historical contaminant distributions and simulate future plume migration from each waste unit. Providemore » a working groundwater flow model for particle tracking and analysis to guide subsequent field characterization activities. The model incorporates historical and current field characterization data up through spring 1999. The model simulates groundwater flow within the area bounded to the west and north by Fourmile Branch, to the south by Caster Creek, and to the east by a line between Fourmile Branch and the headwaters of Caster Creek. Vertically the model extends from ground surface to the top of the Gordon aquifer. The chosen areal grid is 14,600 by 13,200 feet with a resolution of 200 feet. The model accurately reproduces groundwater flow directions from the CBRP and CRSB, and matches targets for hydraulic head, recharge and baseflow within calibration goals. The hydrogeologic model reflects aquifer heterogeneity as derived from CPT lithologic data.« less

  5. Defining the most probable location of the parahippocampal place area using cortex-based alignment and cross-validation.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Kevin S; Barnett, Michael A; Witthoft, Nathan; Golarai, Golijeh; Stigliani, Anthony; Kay, Kendrick N; Gomez, Jesse; Natu, Vaidehi S; Amunts, Katrin; Zilles, Karl; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2018-04-15

    The parahippocampal place area (PPA) is a widely studied high-level visual region in the human brain involved in place and scene processing. The goal of the present study was to identify the most probable location of place-selective voxels in medial ventral temporal cortex. To achieve this goal, we first used cortex-based alignment (CBA) to create a probabilistic place-selective region of interest (ROI) from one group of 12 participants. We then tested how well this ROI could predict place selectivity in each hemisphere within a new group of 12 participants. Our results reveal that a probabilistic ROI (pROI) generated from one group of 12 participants accurately predicts the location and functional selectivity in individual brains from a new group of 12 participants, despite between subject variability in the exact location of place-selective voxels relative to the folding of parahippocampal cortex. Additionally, the prediction accuracy of our pROI is significantly higher than that achieved by volume-based Talairach alignment. Comparing the location of the pROI of the PPA relative to published data from over 500 participants, including data from the Human Connectome Project, shows a striking convergence of the predicted location of the PPA and the cortical location of voxels exhibiting the highest place selectivity across studies using various methods and stimuli. Specifically, the most predictive anatomical location of voxels exhibiting the highest place selectivity in medial ventral temporal cortex is the junction of the collateral and anterior lingual sulci. Methodologically, we make this pROI freely available (vpnl.stanford.edu/PlaceSelectivity), which provides a means to accurately identify a functional region from anatomical MRI data when fMRI data are not available (for example, in patient populations). Theoretically, we consider different anatomical and functional factors that may contribute to the consistent anatomical location of place selectivity

  6. Mapping the spatiotemporal evolution of solute transport in articular cartilage explants reveals how cartilage recovers fluid within the contact area during sliding.

    PubMed

    Graham, Brian T; Moore, Axel C; Burris, David L; Price, Christopher

    2018-04-11

    The interstitial fluid within articular cartilage shields the matrix from mechanical stresses, reduces friction and wear, enables biochemical processes, and transports solutes into and out of the avascular extracellular matrix. The balanced competition between fluid exudation and recovery under load is thus critical to the mechanical and biological functions of the tissue. We recently discovered that sliding alone can induce rapid solute transport into buried cartilage contact areas via a phenomenon termed tribological rehydration. In this study, we use in situ confocal microscopy measurements to track the spatiotemporal propagation of a small neutral solute into the buried contact area to clarify the fluid mechanics underlying the tribological rehydration phenomenon. Sliding experiments were interrupted by periodic static loading to enable scanning of the entire contact area. Spatiotemporal patterns of solute transport combined with tribological data suggested pressure driven flow through the extracellular matrix from the contact periphery rather than into the surface via a fluid film. Interestingly, these testing interruptions also revealed dynamic, repeatable and history-independent fluid loss and recovery processes consistent with those observed in vivo. Unlike the migrating contact area, which preserves hydration by moving faster than interstitial fluid can flow, our results demonstrate that the stationary contact area can maintain and actively recover hydration through a dynamic competition between load-induced exudation and sliding-induced recovery. The results demonstrate that sliding contributes to the recovery of fluid and solutes by cartilage within the contact area while clarifying the means by which it occurs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of Dual Mode Systems in an Urban Area : Volume 4A. Program Documentation of the Transportation Economic Analysis Model.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1973-12-01

    Various forms of Dual Mode Transportation were analyzed in order to assess the economic viability of the Dual Mode concept. A Dual Mode vehicle is one which operates under manual control on a streee network for some portionof its trip, and operates u...

  8. Three dimensional numerical modeling of flow and pollutant transport in a flooding area of 2008 US Midwest Flood

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper presents the development and application of a three-dimensional numerical model for simulating the flow field and pollutant transport in a flood zone near the confluence of the Mississippi River and Iowa River in Oakville, Iowa. Due to a levee breaching along the Iowa River during the US ...

  9. Career Education Program: Geneva Area City Schools. [Kindergarten Units: The School, The Farm, The Family, and Transportation].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geneva Area City Schools, OH.

    Four curriculum units for use at the kindergarten level focus on: (1) school jobs and the school community; (2) farming jobs and lifestyle; (3) family jobs at home and outside the home; and (4) transportation jobs and its industry. Objectives linking the units emphasize increasing students' awareness of and appreciation for each unit's jobs. The…

  10. 78 FR 72753 - Notice of Funds Availability for Grants for Transportation of Veterans in Highly Rural Areas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... June 9, 2013 through September 9, 2013, 4 p.m. eastern standard time. The NOFA includes eligibility and... services to travel to VA and non-VA facilities and otherwise assist in providing transportation services in connection with the provision of VA medical care. To allow applicants more time to complete the application...

  11. Clay mineralogy and source-to-sink transport processes of Changjiang River sediments in the estuarine and inner shelf areas of the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yifei; Zou, Xinqing; Gao, Jianhua; Wang, Chenglong; Li, Yali; Yao, Yulong; Zhao, Wancang; Xu, Min

    2018-02-01

    We examined the source-to-sink sediment transport processes from the Changjiang River to the estuarine coastal shelf area by analyzing the clay mineral assemblages in suspended sediment samples from the Changjiang River catchment and surface samples from the estuarine coastal shelf area following the impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) in 2003. The results indicate that the clay mineral compositions throughout the study area are dominated by illite, with less abundant kaolinite and chlorite and scarce smectite. The clay minerals display distinct differences in the tributaries and exhibit obvious changes in the trunk stream compared with the periods before 2003, and the source of sediment has largely shifted to the mid- to lower reaches of the river after 2003. Spatially, the clay mineral assemblages in the estuarine area define two compositionally distinct provinces. Province I covers the mud area of the Changjiang River estuary and the Zhe-Min coastal region, where sediment is primarily supplied by the Changjiang River. Province II includes part of the Changjiang River estuary and the southeastern portion of the study area, where the sediment is composed of terrestrial material from the Changjiang River and re-suspended material from the Huanghe River carried by the Jiangsu coastal current. Moreover, the other smaller rivers in China (including the Oujiang and Minjiang rivers of mainland China and the rivers of West Taiwan) also contribut sediments to the estuarine and inner shelf areas. In general, the clay mineral assemblages in the Changjiang River estuarine area are have mainly been controlled by sediment supplied from upstream of the Changjiang River tributaries. However, since the completion of the TGD in 2003, the mid- to downstream tributaries have become the main source of sediments from the Changjiang catchment into the East China Sea. These analyses further demonstrate that the coastal currents and the decrease in the sediment load of the river

  12. Approach for delineation of contributing areas and zones of transport to selected public-supply wells using a regional ground-water flow model, Palm Beach County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Renken, R.A.; Patterson, R.D.; Orzol, L.L.; Dixon, Joann

    2001-01-01

    Rapid urban development and population growth in Palm Beach County, Florida, have been accompanied with the need for additional freshwater withdrawals from the surficial aquifer system. To maintain water quality, County officials protect capture areas and determine zones of transport of municipal supply wells. A multistep process was used to help automate the delineation of wellhead protection areas. A modular ground-water flow model (MODFLOW) Telescopic Mesh Refinement program (MODTMR) was used to construct an embedded flow model and combined with particle tracking to delineate zones of transport to supply wells; model output was coupled with a geographic information system. An embedded flow MODFLOW model was constructed using input and output file data from a preexisting three-dimensional, calibrated model of the surficial aquifer system. Three graphical user interfaces for use with the geographic information software, ArcView, were developed to enhance the telescopic mesh refinement process. These interfaces include AvMODTMR for use with MODTMR; AvHDRD to build MODFLOW river and drain input files from dynamically segmented linear (canals) data sets; and AvWELL Refiner, an interface designed to examine and convert well coverage spatial data layers to a MODFLOW Well package input file. MODPATH (the U.S. Geological Survey particle-tracking postprocessing program) and MODTOOLS (the set of U.S. Geological Survey computer programs to translate MODFLOW and MODPATH output to a geographic information system) were used to map zones of transport. A steady-state, five-layer model of the Boca Raton area was created using the telescopic mesh refinement process and calibrated to average conditions during January 1989 to June 1990. A sensitivity analysis of various model parameters indicates that the model is most sensitive to changes in recharge rates, hydraulic conductivity for layer 1, and leakance for layers 3 and 4 (Biscayne aquifer). Recharge (58 percent); river (canal

  13. 2008 Transportation Research Projects at Work Making a Difference : Four Areas of Transportation Research by the Iowa Department of Transportation, Research and Technology Bureau [SD .WMV (320x240/29fps/11.3 MB)

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-01-01

    Highlights of four projects by the Iowa Department of Transportation, Research and Technology Bureau: 1) Precast Bridge Approach (Pavements), 2) Teen Driver (Safety), 3) Winter Maintenance, and 4) Structural Health Monitoring (Bridges and structures)...

  14. SU-F-18C-09: Assessment of OSL Dosimeter Technology in the Validation of a Monte Carlo Radiation Transport Code for CT Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Carver, D; Kost, S; Pickens, D

    Purpose: To assess the utility of optically stimulated luminescent (OSL) dosimeter technology in calibrating and validating a Monte Carlo radiation transport code for computed tomography (CT). Methods: Exposure data were taken using both a standard CT 100-mm pencil ionization chamber and a series of 150-mm OSL CT dosimeters. Measurements were made at system isocenter in air as well as in standard 16-cm (head) and 32-cm (body) CTDI phantoms at isocenter and at the 12 o'clock positions. Scans were performed on a Philips Brilliance 64 CT scanner for 100 and 120 kVp at 300 mAs with a nominal beam width ofmore » 40 mm. A radiation transport code to simulate the CT scanner conditions was developed using the GEANT4 physics toolkit. The imaging geometry and associated parameters were simulated for each ionization chamber and phantom combination. Simulated absorbed doses were compared to both CTDI{sub 100} values determined from the ion chamber and to CTDI{sub 100} values reported from the OSLs. The dose profiles from each simulation were also compared to the physical OSL dose profiles. Results: CTDI{sub 100} values reported by the ion chamber and OSLs are generally in good agreement (average percent difference of 9%), and provide a suitable way to calibrate doses obtained from simulation to real absorbed doses. Simulated and real CTDI{sub 100} values agree to within 10% or less, and the simulated dose profiles also predict the physical profiles reported by the OSLs. Conclusion: Ionization chambers are generally considered the standard for absolute dose measurements. However, OSL dosimeters may also serve as a useful tool with the significant benefit of also assessing the radiation dose profile. This may offer an advantage to those developing simulations for assessing radiation dosimetry such as verification of spatial dose distribution and beam width.« less

  15. Validated UPLC-MS/MS method for determination of moclobemide in human brain cell supernatant and its application to bidirectional transport study.

    PubMed

    Li-Bo, Dai; Miao, Yan; Huan-De, Li; Ping-Fei, Fang; Feng, Wang; Yang, Deng

    2013-09-01

    A simple and sensitive analytical method based on ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) has been developed for determination of moclobemide in human brain cell monolayer as an in vitro model of blood-brain barrier. Brucine was employed as the internal standard. Moclobemide and internal standard were extracted from cell supernatant by ethyl acetate after alkalinizing with sodium hydroxide. The UPLC separation was performed on an Acquity UPLC(TM) BEH C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm, Waters, USA) with a mobile phase consisting of methanol-water (29.5:70.5, v/v); the water in the mobile phase contained 0.05% ammonium acetate and 0.1% formic acid. Detection of the analytes was achieved using positive ion electrospray via multiple reaction monitoring mode. The mass transitions were m/z 269.16 → 182.01 for moclobemide and m/z 395.24 → 324.15 for brucine. The extraction recovery was 83.0-83.4% and the lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) was 1.0 ng/mL for moclobemide. The method was validated from LLOQ to 1980 ng/mL with a coefficient of determination greater than 0.999. Intra- and inter-day accuracies of the method at three concentrations ranged from 89.1 to 100.9% for moclobemide with precision of 1.1-9.6%. This validated method was successfully applied to bidirectional transport study of moclobemide blood-brain barrier permeability. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Worldwide Marine Transportation Network: Efficiency and Container Throughput

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Wei-Bing; Guo, Long; Li, Wei; Cai, Xu

    2009-11-01

    Through empirical analysis of the global structure of the Worldwide Marine Transportation Network (WMTN), we find that the WMTN, a small-world network, exhibits an exponential-like degree distribution. We hereby investigate the efficiency of the WMTN by employing a simple definition. Compared with many other transportation networks, the WMTN possesses relatively low efficiency. Furthermore, by exploring the relationship between the topological structure and the container throughput, we find that strong correlations exist among the container throughout the degree and the clustering coefficient. Also, considering the navigational process that a ship travels in a real shipping line, we obtain that the weight of a seaport is proportional to the total probability contributed by all the passing shipping lines.

  17. Validation of the MODIS MOD21 and MOD11 land surface temperature and emissivity products in an arid area of Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Yang, Y.; Yongming, D.; Cao, B.; Qinhuo, L.

    2017-12-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is a key parameter for hydrological, meteorological, climatological and environmental studies. During the past decades, many efforts have been devoted to the establishment of methodology for retrieving the LST from remote sensing data and significant progress has been achieved. Many operational LST products have been generated using different remote sensing data. MODIS LST product (MOD11) is one of the most commonly used LST products, which is produced using a generalized split-window algorithm. Many validation studies have showed that MOD11 LST product agrees well with ground measurements over vegetated and inland water surfaces, however, large negative biases of up to 5 K are present over arid regions. In addition, land surface emissivity of MOD11 are estimated by assigning fixed emissivities according to a land cover classification dataset, which may introduce large errors to the LST product due to misclassification of the land cover. Therefore, a new MODIS LSE&E product (MOD21) is developed based on the temperature emissivity separation (TES) algorithm, and the water vapor scaling (WVS) method has also been incorporated into the MODIS TES algorithm for improving the accuracy of the atmospheric correction. The MOD21 product will be released with MODIS collection 6 Tier-2 land products in 2017. Due to the MOD21 products are not available right now, the MODTES algorithm was implemented including the TES and WVS methods as detailed in the MOD21 Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document. The MOD21 and MOD11 C6 LST products are validated using ground measurements and ASTER LST products collected in an arid area of Northwest China during the Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER) experiment. In addition, lab emissivity spectra of four sand dunes in the Northwest China are also used to validate the MOD21 and MOD11 emissivity products.

  18. Evidence for the Continuous Latent Structure of Mania in the Epidemiologic Catchment Area from Multiple Latent Structure and Construct Validation Methodologies

    PubMed Central

    Prisciandaro, James J.; Roberts, John E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although psychiatric diagnostic systems have conceptualized mania as a discrete phenomenon, appropriate latent structure investigations testing this conceptualization are lacking. In contrast to these diagnostic systems, several influential theories of mania have suggested a continuous conceptualization. The present study examined whether mania has a continuous or discrete latent structure using a comprehensive approach including taxometric, information-theoretic latent distribution modeling (ITLDM), and predictive validity methodologies in the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) study. Methods Eight dichotomous manic symptom items were submitted to a variety of latent structural analyses; including factor analyses, taxometric procedures, and ITLDM; in 10,105 ECA community participants. Additionally, a variety of continuous and discrete models of mania were compared in terms of their relative abilities to predict outcomes (i.e., health service utilization, internalizing and externalizing disorders, and suicidal behavior). Results Taxometric and ITLDM analyses consistently supported a continuous conceptualization of mania. In ITLDM analyses, a continuous model of mania demonstrated 6:52:1 odds over the best fitting latent class model of mania. Factor analyses suggested that the continuous structure of mania was best represented by a single latent factor. Predictive validity analyses demonstrated a consistent superior ability of continuous models of mania relative to discrete models. Conclusions The present study provided three independent lines of support for a continuous conceptualization of mania. The implications of a continuous model of mania are discussed. PMID:20507671

  19. The Importance of Measurement Errors for Deriving Accurate Reference Leaf Area Index Maps for Validation of Moderate-Resolution Satellite LAI Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Dong; Yang, Wenze; Tan, Bin; Rautiainen, Miina; Zhang, Ping; Hu, Jiannan; Shabanov, Nikolay V.; Linder, Sune; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Myneni, Ranga B.

    2006-01-01

    The validation of moderate-resolution satellite leaf area index (LAI) products such as those operationally generated from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor data requires reference LAI maps developed from field LAI measurements and fine-resolution satellite data. Errors in field measurements and satellite data determine the accuracy of the reference LAI maps. This paper describes a method by which reference maps of known accuracy can be generated with knowledge of errors in fine-resolution satellite data. The method is demonstrated with data from an international field campaign in a boreal coniferous forest in northern Sweden, and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus images. The reference LAI map thus generated is used to assess modifications to the MODIS LAI/fPAR algorithm recently implemented to derive the next generation of the MODIS LAI/fPAR product for this important biome type.

  20. The guinea-pig expresses functional CYP2C and P-glycoprotein: further validation of its usefulness in drug biotransformation/transport studies.

    PubMed

    Hasibu, Ibrahim; Patoine, Dany; Pilote, Sylvie; Drolet, Benoit; Simard, Chantale

    2015-04-01

    The guinea-pig is an excellent animal model for studying cardiopulmonary physiology/pharmacology. Interestingly, it also possesses a number of drug-metabolizing enzymes found in humans, such as CYP1A, CYP2D and CYP3A. To evaluate the hypothesis that the guinea-pig also expresses a functional CYP2C drug-metabolizing enzyme and the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) drug transporter in various tissues. cDNAs encoding CYP2C and P-gp were obtained from guinea-pig liver or small intestine and sequenced. Western blotting was performed to confirm the expression of CYP2C and P-gp. The functional enzymatic activity of guinea-pig CYP2C was evaluated with microsomal preparations using diclofenac and tolbutamide as specific drug substrates in HPLC analyses. To further study both P-gp and CYP2C functional activities, the guinea-pig ABCB1/MDR1 and CYP2C genes were cloned. The recombinant plasmids were then transfected in HEK293 (human embryonic kidney) cells and either calcein-acetoxymethyl ester (AM) accumulation assays or 14,15-EET/DHET formation experiments were performed to evaluate either P-gp transport activity or CYP2C epoxygenase activity, respectively. The guinea-pig tissue distribution of P-gp was studied by Western blotting. Functional expression of CYP2C was demonstrated in guinea-pig liver microsomal preparations. CYP2C-mediated biotransformation of diclofenac and tolbutamide were shown. Expression of P-gp protein was detected in guinea-pig liver and small intestine. Functional activity of guinea-pig P-gp was demonstrated in ABCB1/MDR1-transfected cells. GP-CYP2C-transfected cells also showed functional epoxygenase activity. The guinea-pig expresses functional CYP2C and P-gp, thus suggesting its usefulness for further validating data obtained with other animal models in drug biotransformation/transport studies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Effect of blood sampling schedule and method of calculating the area under the curve on validity and precision of glycaemic index values.

    PubMed

    Wolever, Thomas M S

    2004-02-01

    To evaluate the suitability for glycaemic index (GI) calculations of using blood sampling schedules and methods of calculating area under the curve (AUC) different from those recommended, the GI values of five foods were determined by recommended methods (capillary blood glucose measured seven times over 2.0 h) in forty-seven normal subjects and different calculations performed on the same data set. The AUC was calculated in four ways: incremental AUC (iAUC; recommended method), iAUC above the minimum blood glucose value (AUCmin), net AUC (netAUC) and iAUC including area only before the glycaemic response curve cuts the baseline (AUCcut). In addition, iAUC was calculated using four different sets of less than seven blood samples. GI values were derived using each AUC calculation. The mean GI values of the foods varied significantly according to the method of calculating GI. The standard deviation of GI values calculating using iAUC (20.4), was lower than six of the seven other methods, and significantly less (P<0.05) than that using netAUC (24.0). To be a valid index of food glycaemic response independent of subject characteristics, GI values in subjects should not be related to their AUC after oral glucose. However, calculating GI using AUCmin or less than seven blood samples resulted in significant (P<0.05) relationships between GI and mean AUC. It is concluded that, in subjects without diabetes, the recommended blood sampling schedule and method of AUC calculation yields more valid and/or more precise GI values than the seven other methods tested here. The only method whose results agreed reasonably well with the recommended method (ie. within +/-5 %) was AUCcut.

  2. Trend analysis of Trichinella in a red fox population from a low endemic area using a validated artificial digestion and sequential sieving technique.

    PubMed

    Franssen, Frits; Deksne, Gunita; Esíte, Zanda; Havelaar, Arie; Swart, Arno; van der Giessen, Joke

    2014-11-28

    Freezing of fox carcasses to minimize professional hazard of infection with Echinococcus multilocularis is recommended in endemic areas, but this could influence the detection of Trichinella larvae in the same host species. A method based on artificial digestion of frozen fox muscle, combined with larva isolation by a sequential sieving method (SSM), was validated using naturally infected foxes from Latvia. The validated SSM was used to detect dead Trichinella muscle larvae (ML) in frozen muscle samples of 369 red foxes from the Netherlands, of which one fox was positive (0.067 larvae per gram). This result was compared with historical Trichinella findings in Dutch red foxes. Molecular analysis using 5S PCR showed that both T. britovi and T. nativa were present in the Latvian foxes, without mixed infections. Of 96 non-frozen T. britovi ML, 94% was successfully sequenced, whereas this was the case for only 8.3% of 72 frozen T. britovi ML. The single Trichinella sp. larva that was recovered from the positive Dutch fox did not yield PCR product, probably due to severe freeze-damage. In conclusion, the SSM presented in this study is a fast and effective method to detect dead Trichinella larvae in frozen meat. We showed that the Trichinella prevalence in Dutch red fox was 0.27% (95% CI 0.065-1.5%), in contrast to 3.9% in the same study area fifteen years ago. Moreover, this study demonstrated that the efficacy of 5S PCR for identification of Trichinella britovi single larvae from frozen meat is not more than 8.3%.

  3. Application of a watershed model (HSPF) for evaluating sources and transport of pathogen indicators in the Chino Basin drainage area, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hevesi, Joseph A.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Church, Clinton D.; Mendez, Gregory O.

    2011-01-01

    A watershed model using Hydrologic Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF) was developed for the urbanized Chino Basin in southern California to simulate the transport of pathogen indicator bacteria, evaluate the flow-component and land-use contributions to bacteria contamination and water-quality degradation throughout the basin, and develop a better understanding of the potential effects of climate and land-use change on water quality. The calibration of the model for indicator bacteria was supported by historical data collected before this study and by samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from targeted land-use areas during storms in water-year 2004. The model was successfully calibrated for streamflow at 5 gage locations representing the Chino Creek and Mill Creek drainages. Although representing pathogens as dissolved constituents limits the model's ability to simulate the transport of pathogen indicator bacteria, the bacteria concentrations measured over the period 1998-2004 were well represented by the simulated concentrations for most locations. Hourly concentrations were more difficult to predict because of high variability in measured bacteria concentrations. In general, model simulations indicated that the residential and commercial land uses were the dominant sources for most of the pathogen indicator bacteria during low streamflows. However, simulations indicated that land used for intensive livestock (dairies and feedlots) and mixed agriculture contributed the most bacteria during storms. The calibrated model was used to evaluate how various land use, air temperature, and precipitation scenarios would affect flow and transport of bacteria. Results indicated that snow pack formation and melt were sensitive to changes in air temperature in the northern, mountainous part of the Chino Basin, causing the timing and magnitude of streamflow to shift in the natural drainages and impact the urbanized areas of the central Chino Basin. The relation between

  4. [Use of private motor vehicle transportation for taking children to school in São Paulo Metropolitan Area, Brazil, 1997-2012].

    PubMed

    Sá, Thiago Hérick de; Rezende, Leandro Fórnias Machado de; Rabacow, Fabiana Maluf; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2016-05-31

    São Paulo Metropolitan Area, Brazil, showed an increase from 1997 to 2007 in the use of private motor vehicles for taking children to school, with potential harm to their health. The aim of this study was to extend the analysis of this trend until 2012 and discuss possible strategies to increase the proportion of children who walk, cycle, or use public transportation to get to school. Analysis of the data from the Mobility Survey of 2012 indicate not only the continuation but also an accelerated increase in the use of private motorized transportation for schoolchildren aged 6 to 11 years. The effect of initiatives to promote walking will only be properly understood with adequate monitoring of daily commuting to school and the evaluation of their impact on the population's health. A package of policies and programs specifically targeted to the promotion and protection of walking, cycling, and use of public transport by schoolchildren is indispensable for guaranteeing their right to travel safely, independently, and actively in São Paulo Metropolitan Area.

  5. Implications and concerns of deep-seated disposal of hydrocarbon exploration produced water using three-dimensional contaminant transport model in Bhit Area, Dadu District of Southern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Akhter, Gulraiz; Ashraf, Arshad; Fryar, Alan

    2010-11-01

    A three-dimensional contaminant transport model has been developed to simulate and monitor the migration of disposal of hydrocarbon exploration produced water in Injection well at 2,100 m depth in the Upper Cretaceous Pab sandstone, Bhit area in Dadu district of Southern Pakistan. The regional stratigraphic and structural geological framework of the area, landform characteristics, meteorological parameters, and hydrogeological milieu have been used in the model to generate the initial simulation of steady-state flow condition in the underlying aquifer's layers. The geometry of the shallow and deep-seated characteristics of the geological formations was obtained from the drilling data, electrical resistivity sounding surveys, and geophysical well-logging information. The modeling process comprised of steady-state simulation and transient simulation of the prolific groundwater system of contamination transport after 1, 10, 30 years of injection. The contaminant transport was evaluated from the bottom of the injection well, and its short- and long-term effects were determined on aquifer system lying in varying hydrogeological and geological conditions.

  6. Validation of a mapping and prediction model for human fasciolosis transmission in Andean very high altitude endemic areas using remote sensing data.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, M V; Malone, J B; Mas-Coma, S

    2001-04-27

    The present paper aims to validate the usefulness of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) obtained by satellite remote sensing for the development of local maps of risk and for prediction of human fasciolosis in the Northern Bolivian Altiplano. The endemic area, which is located at very high altitudes (3800-4100 m) between Lake Titicaca and the valley of the city of La Paz, presents the highest prevalences and intensities of fasciolosis known in humans. NDVI images of 1.1 km resolution from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensor on board the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) series of environmental satellites appear to provide adequate information for a study area such as that of the Northern Bolivian Altiplano. The predictive value of the remotely sensed map based on NDVI data appears to be better than that from forecast indices based only on climatic data. A close correspondence was observed between real ranges of human fasciolosis prevalence at 13 localities of known prevalence rates and the predicted ranges of fasciolosis prevalence using NDVI maps. However, results based on NDVI map data predicted zones as risk areas where, in fact, field studies have demonstrated the absence of lymnaeid populations during snail surveys, corroborated by the absence of the parasite in humans and livestock. NDVI data maps represent a useful data component in long-term efforts to develop a comprehensive geographical information system control program model that accurately fits real epidemiological and transmission situations of human fasciolosis in high altitude endemic areas in Andean countries.

  7. An Isotopic view of water and nitrogen transport through the vadose zone in Oregon's southern Willamette Valley's Groundwater Management Area

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/MethodsGroundwater nitrate contamination affects thousands of households in Oregon's southern Willamette Valley and many more across the Pacific Northwest. The southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area (SWV GWMA) was established in 2004 due to nit...

  8. User's manual for the Noise 1 area computer program for transportation noise prediction : report under project entitled "area computer model for transportation noise prediction : phase 1 : adaptation of MICNOISE".

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1975-01-01

    It was found that the coordinates of the highways required for Noise 1 could be supplied on punched cards by the Photogrammetry Section of the Department. In preparing data for contour plotting, it was found advisable to divide the area into sectors,...

  9. Iron oxide - clay composite vectors on long-distance transport of arsenic and toxic metals in mining-affected areas.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Gonzalez, Miguel A; Villalobos, Mario; Marco, Jose Francisco; Garcia-Guinea, Javier; Bolea, Eduardo; Laborda, Francisco; Garrido, Fernando

    2018-04-01

    Mine wastes from abandoned exploitations are sources of high concentrations of hazardous metal(oid)s. Although these contaminants can be attenuated by sorbing to secondary minerals, in this work we identified a mechanism for long-distance dispersion of arsenic and metals through their association to mobile colloids. We characterize the colloids and their sorbed contaminants using spectrometric and physicochemical fractionation techniques. Mechanical action through erosion may release and transport high concentrations of colloid-associated metal(oid)s towards nearby stream waters, promoting their dispersion from the contamination source. Poorly crystalline ferrihydrite acts as the principal As-sorbing mineral, but in this study we find that this nanomineral does not mobilize As independently, rather, it is transported as surface coatings bound to mineral particles, perhaps through electrostatic biding interactions due to opposing surface charges at acidic to circumneutral pH values. This association is very stable and effective in carrying along metal(oid)s in concentrations above regulatory levels. The unlimited source of toxic elements in mine residues causes ongoing, decades-long mobilization of toxic elements into stream waters. The ferrihydrite-clay colloidal composites and their high mobility limit the attenuating role that iron oxides alone show through adsorption of metal(oid)s and their immobilization in situ. This may have important implications for the potential bioavailability of these contaminants, as well as for the use of this water for human consumption. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Accessing health care in a rural area: an evaluation of a voluntary medical transport scheme in the English Midlands.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, K B; Lewis, G J

    2000-12-01

    In recent years notions of self-help and voluntarism have emerged as key elements in the delivery of services in rural England. This paper explores these themes by reference to 'Rural Wheels', a voluntary medical transport scheme in rural Northamptonshire, introduced to overcome the closure of branch surgeries and to provide access to a new medical centre. By focusing upon the organisation and operations of the scheme, the paper highlights the important role it plays in the welfare of rural residents, particularly elderly women. Yet, because effectively it is run by a small core group, the paper raises questions not just about the viability of this scheme but also about the increasing commitment of central government to the voluntary sector as a means of delivering health care to rural people.

  11. ITS strategic deployment plan : Nashville area intelligent transportation systems early deployment study. Technical memorandum no. 8, Final report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-03-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a Strategic Plan for deployment of ITS technologies within the Nashville Metro Area and to create a long-term coalition of ITS stakeholders, with the objective of expanding the implementation of ITS technologies ...

  12. ROAD CLASS 5 TRANSPORTATION DIGITAL LINE GRAPHS FOR THE MID-ATLANTIC INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT (MAIA) STUDY AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set is a geographic information system (GIS) coverage of the trails, footbridges, and perimeters of parking areas (Class 5 Roads) for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment (MAIA) Project region. The coverage was p...

  13. Results of Transport Canada's September 2004 survey of seat belt use in rural areas of the country

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-05-01

    Rural Canada was defined as towns with a population of fewer than 10,000 but more than : 1,000 that are located outside any census metropolitan area or census agglomeration1. : The survey targeted all occupants of light-duty vehicles which include pa...

  14. Results of Transport Canada's September 2009 survey of seat belt use in rural areas of the country

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-04-01

    Rural Canada was defined as towns with a population of fewer than 10,000 but more than : 1,000 that are located outside any census metropolitan area or census agglomeration1. : The survey targeted all occupants of light-duty vehicles, which include p...

  15. Results of Transport Canada's September 2006 survey of seat belt use in rural areas of the country

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-04-01

    Rural Canada was defined as towns with a population of fewer than 10,000 but more than : 1,000 that are located outside any census metropolitan area or census agglomeration1. : The survey targeted all occupants of light-duty vehicles, which include p...

  16. 76 FR 5199 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Recreation Area Management Plan, a Comprehensive Transportation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... involved in the planning process: Renewable energy, lands and realty, minerals management, outdoor... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLNVS00000 L19200000.PH0000 LRSNCI530800 241A; 10-08807; MO 4500012623; TAS: 14X1109] Notice of Intent To Prepare a Recreation Area Management...

  17. Characterizing the influence of transportation infrastructure on Emergency Medical Services (EMS) in urban area-A case study of Seoul, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jungwoo; You, Myoungsoon; Yoon, Yoonjin

    2017-01-01

    In highly urbanized area where traffic condition fluctuates constantly, transportation infrastructure is one of the major contributing factors to Emergency Medical Service (EMS) availability and patient outcome. In this paper, we assess the impact of traffic fluctuation to the EMS first response availability in urban area, by evaluating the k-minute coverage under 21 traffic scenarios. The set of traffic scenarios represents the time-of-day and day-of-week effects, and is generated by combining road link speed information from multiple historical speed databases. In addition to the k-minute area coverage calculation, the k-minute population coverage is also evaluated for every 100m by 100m grid that partitions the case study area of Seoul, South Korea. In the baseline case of traveling at the speed limit, both the area and population coverage reached nearly 100% when compared to the five-minute travel time national target. Employing the proposed LoST (Loss of Serviceability due to Traffic) index, which measures coverage reduction in percentage compared to the baseline case, we find that the citywide average LoST for area and population coverage are similar at 34.2% and 33.8%. However, district-wise analysis reveals that such reduction varies significantly by district, and the magnitude of area and population coverage reduction is not always proportional. We conclude that the effect of traffic variation is significant to successful urban EMS first response performance, and regional variation is evident among local districts. Complexity in the urban environment requires a more adaptive approach in public health resource management and EMS performance target determination.

  18. Does transport time help explain the high trauma mortality rates in rural areas? New and traditional predictors assessed by new and traditional statistical methods

    PubMed Central

    Røislien, Jo; Lossius, Hans Morten; Kristiansen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background Trauma is a leading global cause of death. Trauma mortality rates are higher in rural areas, constituting a challenge for quality and equality in trauma care. The aim of the study was to explore population density and transport time to hospital care as possible predictors of geographical differences in mortality rates, and to what extent choice of statistical method might affect the analytical results and accompanying clinical conclusions. Methods Using data from the Norwegian Cause of Death registry, deaths from external causes 1998–2007 were analysed. Norway consists of 434 municipalities, and municipality population density and travel time to hospital care were entered as predictors of municipality mortality rates in univariate and multiple regression models of increasing model complexity. We fitted linear regression models with continuous and categorised predictors, as well as piecewise linear and generalised additive models (GAMs). Models were compared using Akaike's information criterion (AIC). Results Population density was an independent predictor of trauma mortality rates, while the contribution of transport time to hospital care was highly dependent on choice of statistical model. A multiple GAM or piecewise linear model was superior, and similar, in terms of AIC. However, while transport time was statistically significant in multiple models with piecewise linear or categorised predictors, it was not in GAM or standard linear regression. Conclusions Population density is an independent predictor of trauma mortality rates. The added explanatory value of transport time to hospital care is marginal and model-dependent, highlighting the importance of exploring several statistical models when studying complex associations in observational data. PMID:25972600

  19. High-level nuclear waste transport and storage assessment of potential impacts on tourism in the Las Vegas area. Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    The literature review and empirical analyses presented in this report were undertaken, for the most part, between August and October 1983. They are not comprehensive. No primary data were gathered, nor were any formal surveys conducted. Additionally, because construction of a repository at Yucca Mountain, if that site is selected for a repository, is not scheduled to begin until 1993, engineering design and planned physical appearance of the repository are very preliminary. Therefore, specific design features or visual appearance were not addressed in the analyses. Finally, because actual transportation routes have not been designated, impacts on tourism generated specifically bymore » transportation activities are not considered separately. Chapter 2 briefly discusses possible means by which a repository could impact tourism in the Las Vegas area. Chapter 3 presents a review of previous research on alternative methods for predicting the response of people to potential hazards. A review of several published studies where these methods have been applied to facilities and activities associated with radioactive materials is included in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 contains five case studies of tourism impacts associated with past events that were perceived by the public to represent safety hazards. These perceptions of safety hazards were evidenced by news media coverage. These case studies were conducted specifically for this report. Conclusions of this preliminary analysis regarding the potential impact on tourism in the Las Vegas area of a repository at Yucca Mountain are in Chapter 5. Recommendations for further research are contained in Chapter 6.« less

  20. In Vitro Validation of Real-Time Three-Dimensional Color Doppler Echocardiography for Direct Measurement of Proximal Isovelocity Surface Area in Mitral Regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Little, Stephen H.; Igo, Stephen R.; Pirat, Bahar; McCulloch, Marti; Hartley, Craig J.; Nosé, Yukihiko; Zoghbi, William A.

    2012-01-01

    The 2-dimensional (2D) color Doppler (2D-CD) proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) method assumes a hemispheric flow convergence zone to estimate transvalvular flow. Recently developed 3-dimensional (3D)-CD can directly visualize PISA shape and surface area without geometric assumptions. To validate a novel method to directly measure PISA using real-time 3D-CD echocardiography, a circulatory loop with an ultrasound imaging chamber was created to model mitral regurgitation (MR). Thirty-two different regurgitant flow conditions were tested using symmetric and asymmetric flow orifices. Three-dimensional–PISA was reconstructed from a hand-held real-time 3D-CD data set. Regurgitant volume was derived using both 2D-CD and 3D-CD PISA methods, and each was compared against a flowmeter standard. The circulatory loop achieved regurgitant volume within the clinical range of MR (11 to 84 ml). Three-dimensional–PISA geometry reflected the 2D geometry of the regurgitant orifice. Correlation between the 2D-PISA method regurgitant volume and actual regurgitant volume was significant (r2 = 0.47, p <0.001). Mean 2D-PISA regurgitant volume underestimate was 19.1 ± 25 ml (2 SDs). For the 3D-PISA method, correlation with actual regurgitant volume was significant (r2 = 0.92, p <0.001), with a mean regurgitant volume underestimate of 2.7 ± 10 ml (2 SDs). The 3D-PISA method showed less regurgitant volume underestimation for all orifice shapes and regurgitant volumes tested. In conclusion, in an in vitro model of MR, 3D-CD was used to directly measure PISA without geometric assumption. Compared with conventional 2D-PISA, regurgitant volume was more accurate when derived from 3D-PISA across symmetric and asymmetric orifices within a broad range of hemodynamic flow conditions. PMID:17493476

  1. Validating Domains of Patient Contextual Factors Essential to Preventing Contextual Errors: A Qualitative Study Conducted at Chicago Area Veterans Health Administration Sites.

    PubMed

    Binns-Calvey, Amy E; Malhiot, Alex; Kostovich, Carol T; LaVela, Sherri L; Stroupe, Kevin; Gerber, Ben S; Burkhart, Lisa; Weiner, Saul J; Weaver, Frances M

    2017-09-01

    "Patient context" indicates patient circumstances and characteristics or states that are essential to address when planning patient care. Specific patient "contextual factors," if overlooked, result in an inappropriate plan of care, a medical error termed a "contextual error." The myriad contextual factors that constitute patient context have been grouped into broad domains to create a taxonomy of challenges to consider when planning care. This study sought to validate a previously identified list of contextual domains. This qualitative study used directed content analysis. In 2014, 19 Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) providers (84% female) and 49 patients (86% male) from two VA medical centers and four outpatient clinics in the Chicago area participated in semistructured interviews and focus groups. Topics included patient-specific, community, and resource-related factors that affect patients' abilities to manage their care. Transcripts were analyzed with a previously identified list of contextual domains as a framework. Analysis of responses revealed that patients and providers identified the same 10 domains previously published, plus 3 additional ones. Based on comments made by patients and providers, the authors created a revised list of 12 domains from themes that emerged. Six pertain to patient circumstances such as access to care and financial situation, and 6 to patient characteristics/states including skills, abilities, and knowledge. Contextual factors in patients' lives may be essential to address for effective care planning. The rubric developed can serve as a "contextual differential" for clinicians to consider when addressing challenges patients face when planning their care.

  2. Calibration and validation of a one-dimensional complex marine biogeochemical flux model in different areas of the northern Adriatic shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vichi, M.; Oddo, P.; Zavatarelli, M.; Coluccelli, A.; Coppini, G.; Celio, M.; Fonda Umani, S.; Pinardi, N.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we show results from numerical simulations carried out with a complex biogeochemical fluxes model coupled with a one-dimensional high-resolution hydrodynamical model and implemented at three different locations of the northern Adriatic shelf. One location is directly affected by the Po River influence, one has more open-sea characteristics and one is located in the Gulf of Trieste with an intermediate behavior; emphasis is put on the comparison with observations and on the functioning of the northern Adriatic ecosystem in the three areas. The work has been performed in a climatological context and has to be considered as preliminary to the development of three-dimensional numerical simulations. Biogeochemical model parameterizations have been ameliorated with a detailed description of bacterial substrate utilization associated with the quality of the dissolved organic matter (DOM), in order to improve the models capability in capturing the observed DOM dynamics in the basin. The coupled model has been calibrated and validated at the three locations by means of climatological data sets. Results show satisfactory model behavior in simulating local seasonal dynamics in the limit of the available boundary conditions and the one-dimensional implementation. Comparisons with available measurements of primary and bacterial production and bacterial abundances have been performed in all locations. Model simulated rates and bacterial dynamics are in the same order of magnitude of observations and show a qualitatively correct time evolution. The importance of temperature as a factor controlling bacteria efficiency is investigated with sensitivity experiments on the model parameterizations.

  3. Annual subsurface transport of a red tide dinoflagellate to its bloom area: Water circulation patterns and organism distributions in the Chesapeake Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, M.A.; Seliger, H.H.

    1978-03-01

    An annual, long range, subsurface transport of Prorocentrum mariae-lebouriae, from the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay to its bloom area in the upper bay, a distance of 240 km, is described and completely documented. Prorocentrum in surface outflowing waters at the mouth of the bay is recruited in late winter into more dense inflowing coastal waters. Strong stratification produced by late winter--early spring surface runoff results in the development of a stable pycnocline. Prorocentrum, now in northward-flowing bottom waters, is retained in these bottom waters. It accumulates in a subsurface concentration maximum below the pycnocline and is transported northward tomore » reach its bloom area in the Patapsco River and north of the Bay Bridge by late spring. The rapidly decreasing depth of the upper bay causes the pycnocline to rise, mixing the previously light-limited Prorocentrum and its nutrient-rich bottom waters to the surface, where rapid growth ensues. Once the dinoflagellate is in surface waters, positive phototaxis, combined with both wind- and tide-driven surface convergences, produce dense surface patches or red tides. Prorocentrum is effectively retained in the bay until late winter by sequential inoculation into the tributary estuaries on the western shore, which exchange relatively slowly with bay waters. By late winter the annual cycle is complete. Prorocentrum is again in surface waters at the mouth of the bay where it is reintroduced into northward-flowing bottom waters. The mechanisms described provide a key to understanding the origins of subsurface chlorophyll maxima and the delivery of toxic dinoflagellates to coastal bloom areas.« less

  4. Validity of Indian Diabetes Risk Score and its association with body mass index and glycosylated hemoglobin for screening of diabetes in and around areas of Lucknow

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mohammad Mustufa; Sonkar, Gyanendra Kumar; Alam, Roshan; Mehrotra, Sudhir; Khan, M. Salman; Kumar, Ajay; Sonkar, Satyendra Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The present study aimed to assess the validity of Indian Diabetes Risk Score (IDRS) and its association with body mass index (BMI) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) for screening of diabetes and obesity. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was designed, and samples were randomly enrolled from Lucknow and its adjoining areas. Totally, 405 subjects were included in the study. We used diabetes risk factors (age, waist circumference, physical activity, and family history of diabetes) for screening of diabetes and abdominal obesity (AO) and BMI for screening of general obesity. HbA1c was used for confirming the diabetes patients in this population. Statistical analysis was applied to all data using SPSS software (version 20.0). P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: All 405 subjects were assessed for diabetic risk factors, BMI, and glycated hemoglobin. Of these, 56.3% subjects were aged ≥50 years. 1° and 2° AO was found in 47.9% and 40% subjects, respectively. About 27.1% subjects were found to have sedentary lifestyle, and 72.6% were found to have no family history of diabetes. According to IDRS, 272 subjects (67.2%) were found at high risk of diabetes (score ≥60). Based on BMI calculation, 198 subjects were obese, of which 79.3% were found at high risk for diabetes. A significant association was found between subjects with higher risk score and BMI (P < 0.001). Assessment of HbA1c showed that 97 (23.9%) were prediabetic and 204 (50.4%) were diabetic, of which 63.9% and 77%, respectively was at high risk for diabetes as per IDRS. A significant association was found between subjects with higher risk score and HbA1c (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Our study fully supports the validity of IDRS, as it can be used as a cost-effective tool for primary mass screening of diabetes. Moreover, its combination with BMI value and HbA1c can be used for strict monitoring for diabetes and obesity at primary health care centers to reduce the early

  5. Influence of transport from urban sources and domestic biomass combustion on the air quality of a mountain area.

    PubMed

    Petracchini, Francesco; Romagnoli, Paola; Paciucci, Lucia; Vichi, Francesca; Imperiali, Andrea; Paolini, Valerio; Liotta, Flavia; Cecinato, Angelo

    2017-02-01

    The environmental influence of biomass burning for civil uses was investigated through the determination of several air toxicants in the town of Leonessa and its surroundings, in the mountain region of central Italy. Attention was focussed on PM 10 , polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and regulated gaseous pollutants (nitrogen dioxide, ozone and benzene). Two in-field campaigns were carried out during the summer 2012 and the winter 2013. Contemporarily, air quality was monitored in Rome and other localities of Lazio region. In the summer, all pollutants, with the exception of ozone, were more abundant in Rome. On the other hand, in the winter, PAH concentration was higher in Leonessa (15.8 vs. 7.0 ng/m 3 ), while PM 10 was less concentrated (22 vs. 34 μg/m 3 ). Due to lack of other important sources and to limited impact of vehicle traffic, biomass burning was identified as the major PAH source in Leonessa during the winter. This hypothesis was confirmed by PAH molecular signature of PM 10 (i.e. concentration diagnostic ratios and 206 ion mass trace in the chromatograms). A similar phenomenon (i.e. airborne particulate levels similar to those of the capital city but higher PAH loads) was observed in other locations of the province, suggesting that uncontrolled biomass burning contributed to pollution across the Rome metropolitan area.

  6. Discharge and nutrient transport between lakes in a hydrologically complex area of Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, 2010-2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Wakeman, Eric; Maki, Ryan P.

    2016-01-01

    An acoustic Doppler velocity meter (ADVM) was deployed in the narrows between Namakan and Kabetogama Lakes in Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, from November 3, 2010, through October 3, 2012. The ADVM can account for wind, seiche, and changing flow direction in hydrologically complex areas. The objectives were to (1) estimate discharge and document the direction of water flow, (2) assess whether specific conductance can be used to determine flow direction, and (3) document nutrient and chlorophyll a concentrations at the narrows. The discharge direction through the narrows was seasonal. Water generally flowed out of Kabetogama Lake and into Namakan Lake throughout the ice-covered season. During spring, water flow was generally from Namakan Lake to Kabetogama Lake. During the summer and fall, the water flowed in both directions, affected in part by wind. Water flowed into Namakan Lake 70% of water year 2011 and 56% of water year 2012. Nutrient and chlorophyll a concentrations were highest during the summer months when water-flow direction was unpredictable. The use of an ADVM was effective for assessing flow direction and provided flow direction under ice. The results indicated the eutrophic Kabetogama Lake may have a negative effect on the more pristine Namakan Lake. The results also provide data on the effects of the current water-level management plan and may help determine if adjustments are necessary to help protect the aquatic ecosystem of Voyageurs National Park.

  7. Validation of sparse sampling strategies to estimate cyclosporine A area under the concentration-time curve using either a specific radioimmunoassay or high-performance liquid chromatography method.

    PubMed

    Koristkova, Blanka; Grundmann, Milan; Brozmanova, Hana; Perinova, Ilona; Safarcik, Kristian

    2010-10-01

    Area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) has been advocated as a better parameter to monitor cyclosporine A than trough concentrations. Up to now, more than 100 equations to estimate AUC using a limited sampling strategy have been published, but not all have been validated. Eight equations for AUC0-12h and two for AUC0-8h were validated. Concentrations of cyclosporine A were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and a specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) method. Forty male renal transplant patients were included in the study. Blood samples were taken predose and at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 5, 8, and 12 hours after the morning dose when the patient was in steady state. The percentage prediction error (%pe) was used for an assessment of the performance of the equations. Mean %pe less than ± 15% and absolute %pe less than 30% in 95% of predictions were considered to be acceptable. Other possibilities such as %pe less than 25%, 20%, and 15% were also tested. Eight equations for AUC0-12h met the requirements using both assays, six in the HPLC set only and four in the RIA set only. The highest precision was obtained with AUC0-12h = 123.792 + 1.165*C1h + 3.021*C3h + 7.33*C8h proposed by de Mattos et al. The mean %pe was 1% ± 8% (-16 to 19) for HPLC (values given as mean ± standard deviation [range]) and -1 ± 5 (-17 to 10) for RIA. Mean absolute %pe was 7 ± 5 (0.0 to 19) for HPLC and 4 ± 4 (0.0 to 17) for RIA. For clinical use, the most suitable equation was AUC0-12h = 363.078 + 8.77*C1h + 3.07*C3h proposed by Wacke et al, which produced the second lowest %pe and used two sampling points in the period of 1 to 3 hours after dose. The mean %pe was -7 ± 10 (-25 to 25) for HPLC and 2.3 ± 6 (-10 to 17) for RIA. Mean absolute %pe was 10 ± 7 (0.4 to 25) for HPLC and 5 ± 4 (0.0 to 17) for RIA. The equation: AUC0-8h = 55.37 + 2.89*C0h + 1.08*C1h0.9*C2h + 2.23*C3h proposed by Foradori et al met the criteria with 95% of prediction with absolute %pe less than

  8. Validation of an HPLC method for the determination of urinary and plasma levels of N1-methylnicotinamide, an endogenous marker of renal cationic transport and plasma flow.

    PubMed

    Musfeld, C; Biollaz, J; Bélaz, N; Kesselring, U W; Decosterd, L A

    2001-01-01

    N1-Methylnicotinamide (NMN) is an endogenous cationic metabolite of nicotinamide (niacine, vitamine PP) whose renal clearance reflects both the capacity of the renal tubular transport system to secrete organic cations and renal plasma flow. NMN is present in human plasma and urine at the 1-117-ng ml(-1) and 0.5-25-microg ml(-1) concentration range, respectively, and its level depends notably on pathophysiological (age, renal or hepatic diseases) conditions. We report the optimization and validation of an HPLC method for the measurement of endogenous NMN in biological fluids after derivatization into a fluorescent compound. Plasma is first deproteinized with TCA 20% and the urine diluted 1:10 with HCI 10(-4) M prior to the derivatization procedure, which includes a condensation reaction of NMN with acetophenone in NaOH at 0 degrees C, followed by dehydration in formic acid and subsequent formation of the fluorescent 1,6-naphthyridine derivatives after heating samples in a boiling water bath. The synthetic homologous derivative N1-ethylnicotinamide (NEN) reacts similarly and is added as internal standard into the biological fluid. The reaction mixture is subjected to reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography on a Nucleosil 100-C18 column using a mobile phase (acetonitrile 22%, triethylamine 0.5%, 0.01 M sodium heptanesulfonate adjusted to pH 3.2), delivered isocratically at a flow rate of 1 ml min(-1), NMN and NEN are detected at 7.8 and 10 min by spectrofluorimetry with excitation and emission wavelengths set at 366 and 418 nm, respectively. The addition-calibration method is used with plasma and urine pools. Calibration curves (using the internal standard method) are linear (r2 > 0.997) at concentrations up to 109 ng ml(-1) and 15.7 microg ml(-1) in plasma and urine, respectively. Both intra- and inter-assay precision of plasma control samples at 10, 50 and 90 ng ml(-1) were lower than 3.3% and concentrations not deviating more than 2.7% from their

  9. An overview of the PM10 pollution problem, in the Metropolitan Area of Athens, Greece. Assessment of controlling factors and potential impact of long range transport.

    PubMed

    Grivas, G; Chaloulakou, A; Kassomenos, P

    2008-01-15

    The present study analyzes PM(10) concentration data collected by the Greek air quality monitoring network at 8 sites over the Greater Athens Area, for the period of 2001-2004. The primary objectives were to assess the degree of compliance with the EU-legislated air quality standard for PM(10) and also provide an overall statistical examination of the factors controlling the seasonal and spatial variation of concentrations, over the wider urban agglomeration. Daily concentrations, averaged over the whole study period, ranged between 32.3 and 60.9 microg m(-3). The four-year average concentration of PM(10) at five sites exceeded the annual limit value of 40 microg m(-3), while most of the sites surpassed the allowed percentage of exceedances of the daily limit value (50 microg m(-3)), for each of the four years. The seasonal variation of PM(10) levels was not found to be uniform across the eight sites, with average cold-period concentrations being higher at four of them and warm period concentrations being significantly higher at three sites, which also displayed recurring annual variation of monthly concentrations. Concentration levels displayed moderate spatial heterogeneity. Nevertheless significant inter-site correlations were observed (ranging between 0.55 and 085). The determination of the spatial correlation levels relied mainly on site types rather than on inter-site distances. Monitoring sites were classified accordingly using cluster analysis in two groups presenting distinct spatiotemporal variation and affected by different particle formation processes. The group including urban sites was mainly affected by primary, combustion-related processes and especially vehicular traffic, as it was also deduced through the examination of the diurnal distribution of particulate levels and through factor analysis. On the contrary, suburban background sites seemed more affected by particle transport from more polluted neighboring areas and secondary particle formation

  10. [Rainfall intensity effects on nutrients transport in surface runoff from farmlands in gentle slope hilly area of Taihu Lake Basin].

    PubMed

    Li, Rui-ling; Zhang, Yong-chun; Liu, Zhuang; Zeng, Yuan; Li, Wei-xin; Zhang, Hong-ling

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the effect of rainfall on agricultural nonpoint source pollution, watershed scale experiments were conducted to study the characteristics of nutrients in surface runoff under different rainfall intensities from farmlands in gentle slope hilly areas around Taihu Lake. Rainfall intensity significantly affected N and P concentrations in runoff. Rainfall intensity was positively related to TP, PO4(3-) -P and NH4+ -N event mean concentrations(EMC). However, this study have found the EMC of TN and NO3- -N to be positively related to rainfall intensity under light rain and negatively related to rainfall intensity under heavy rain. TN and TP site mean amounts (SMA) in runoff were positively related to rainfall intensity and were 1.91, 311.83, 127.65, 731.69 g/hm2 and 0.04, 7.77, 2.99, 32.02 g/hm2 with rainfall applied under light rain, moderate rain, heavy rain and rainstorm respectively. N in runoff was mainly NO3- -N and NH4+ -N and was primarily in dissolved form from Meilin soils. Dissolved P (DP) was the dominant form of TP under light rain, but particulate P (PP) mass loss increased with the increase of rainfall intensity and to be the dominant form when the rainfall intensity reaches rainstorm. Single relationships were used to describe the dependence of TN and TP mass losses in runoff on rainfall, maximum rainfall intensity, average rainfall intensity and rainfall duration respectively. The results showed a significant positive correlation between TN mass loss and rainfall, maximum rainfall intensity respectively (p < 0.01) and also TP mass loss and rainfall, maximum rainfall intensity respectively (p < 0.01).

  11. Reaction-Based Reactive Transport Modeling of Iron Reduction and Uranium Immobilization at Area 2 of the NABIR Field Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Burgos, W.D.

    2009-09-02

    This report summarizes research conducted in conjunction with a project entitled “Reaction-Based Reactive Transport Modeling of Iron Reduction and Uranium Immobilization at Area 2 of the NABIR Field Research Center”, which was funded through the Integrative Studies Element of the former NABIR Program (now the Environmental Remediation Sciences Program) within the Office of Biological and Environmental Research. Dr. William Burgos (The Pennsylvania State University) was the overall PI/PD for the project, which included Brian Dempsey (Penn State), Gour-Tsyh (George) Yeh (Central Florida University), and Eric Roden (formerly at The University of Alabama, now at the University of Wisconsin) as separately-fundedmore » co-PIs. The project focused on development of a mechanistic understanding and quantitative models of coupled Fe(III)/U(VI) reduction in FRC Area 2 sediments. The work builds on our previous studies of microbial Fe(III) and U(VI) reduction, and was directly aligned with the Scheibe et al. ORNL FRC Field Project at Area 2.« less

  12. Extending the validation of multi-mode model for anomalous transport to high beta poloidal tokamak scenario in DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankin, A. Y.; Kritz, A. H.; Rafiq, T.; Garofalo, A. M.; Holod, I.; Weiland, J.

    2018-05-01

    The Multi-Mode Model (MMM7.1) for anomalous transport is tested in predictive modeling of temperature profiles of a high beta poloidal DIII-D discharge. This new H-mode plasma regime, with high beta poloidal and high bootstrap currents, has been studied in DIII-D tokamak discharges [A. Garofalo et al., Nucl. Fusion 55, 123025 (2015)]. The role of instabilities that can drive the anomalous transport described by MMM7.1 is investigated. The temperature profiles for a high beta poloidal DIII-D discharge are computed using the NCLASS model for the neoclassical transport and the Weiland and Electron Temperature Gradient (ETG) components of the MMM7.1 model for the anomalous transport. The neoclassical transport is found to be the main contributor to the ion thermal transport in the plasma core. The contributions from the ion temperature gradient driven modes are found to be important only outside of the internal transport barrier. The magnitudes of the predicted temperature profiles are found to be in a reasonable agreement with experimental profiles. The simulation results approximately reproduce the internal transport barrier in the ion temperature profile but not in the electron temperature profile due to a weak dependence of the ETG driven transport on the Shafranov shift in the ETG component of MMM7.1. Possible effects that can contribute to stabilization of these modes, for example, effects associated with the large beta poloidal such as the Shafranov shift stabilization in the MMM7.1 model, are discussed. It is demonstrated that the E × B flow shear has a relatively small effect in the formation of the internal transport barrier in the high beta poloidal DIII-D discharge 154406. The Shafranov shift (alpha stabilization) and small or reversed magnetic shear profiles are found to be the primary reasons for quenched anomalous transport in this discharge.

  13. A novel method to measure mitral valve area in patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis using three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography: Feasibility and validation.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud Elsayed, Hani M; Hassan, Mohamed; Nagy, Michael; Amin, Alaaeldin; Elguindy, Ahmed; Wagdy, Kerolos; Yacoub, Magdi

    2018-03-01

    Neither two- nor three-dimensional (3D) planimetry of the mitral valve (MV) orifice takes the mitral commissures into account. Thus, if the commissures are not completely fused, the MV orifice will not be planar, and MV area (MVA) will be underestimated. The study aimed to validate a novel method for measurement of the MVA using a software that traces the MV orifice including the commissures. The study included 30 patients undergoing percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty for severe rheumatic mitral stenosis. All performed 3D transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) immediately before the procedure. MVA was measured using the mitral valve navigation (MVN) software of the Philips Q-Lab 10.2 in a diastolic frame with maximum diastolic opening of the MV. Regular 3D planimetry of the MV orifice was also performed. Before balloon dilation, the MVA was calculated invasively using the Gorlin's formula. No significant difference was detected between MVN-derived MVA and Gorlin-derived MVA (0.98 cm 2 vs. 1.0 cm 2 , P = .33). A statistically significant difference was detected between Planimetry-derived MVA and Gorlin-derived MVA (0.8 cm 2 vs. 1.0 cm 2 , P < .001). There were significant linear correlations between MVN-derived MVA and Gorlin-derived MVA (r = .84, P < .001). Using Bland-Altman analysis, Gorlin-derived MVA showed better and relatively narrower limits of agreement with MVN-derived MVA than planimetry-derived MVA. Measurement of the MVA using the MVN method is feasible and is more correlated to the invasively measured MVA than the 3D planimetry method. This is the most accurate method of measuring the MVA that takes MV commissures into account. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Adjoint of the global Eulerian-Lagrangian coupled atmospheric transport model (A-GELCA v1.0): development and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belikov, Dmitry A.; Maksyutov, Shamil; Yaremchuk, Alexey; Ganshin, Alexander; Kaminski, Thomas; Blessing, Simon; Sasakawa, Motoki; Gomez-Pelaez, Angel J.; Starchenko, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    We present the development of the Adjoint of the Global Eulerian-Lagrangian Coupled Atmospheric (A-GELCA) model that consists of the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) model as an Eulerian three-dimensional transport model (TM), and FLEXPART (FLEXible PARTicle dispersion model) as the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM). The forward tangent linear and adjoint components of the Eulerian model were constructed directly from the original NIES TM code using an automatic differentiation tool known as TAF (Transformation of Algorithms in Fortran; http://www.FastOpt.com, with additional manual pre- and post-processing aimed at improving transparency and clarity of the code and optimizing the performance of the computing, including MPI (Message Passing Interface). The Lagrangian component did not require any code modification, as LPDMs are self-adjoint and track a significant number of particles backward in time in order to calculate the sensitivity of the observations to the neighboring emission areas. The constructed Eulerian adjoint was coupled with the Lagrangian component at a time boundary in the global domain. The simulations presented in this work were performed using the A-GELCA model in forward and adjoint modes. The forward simulation shows that the coupled model improves reproduction of the seasonal cycle and short-term variability of CO2. Mean bias and standard deviation for five of the six Siberian sites considered decrease roughly by 1 ppm when using the coupled model. The adjoint of the Eulerian model was shown, through several numerical tests, to be very accurate (within machine epsilon with mismatch around to ±6 e-14) compared to direct forward sensitivity calculations. The developed adjoint of the coupled model combines the flux conservation and stability of an Eulerian discrete adjoint formulation with the flexibility, accuracy, and high resolution of a Lagrangian backward trajectory formulation. A-GELCA will be incorporated

  15. Behaviour of Quercus pollen in the air, determination of its sources and transport through the atmosphere of Mexico City and conurbated areas.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Ezquerro, M C; Martinez-Lopez, B; Guerrero-Guerra, C; López-Espinosa, E D; Cabos-Narvaez, W D

    2018-06-15

    Pollen allergies have a remarkable clinical impact all over world. Quercus pollen is the main allergen in many parts of world. Due to the health impacts caused by exposure to oak pollen, the objectives of this study are to characterise the aerobiological behaviour of Quercus pollen and to determine its potential sources as well as their transport through the atmosphere of Mexico City and surrounding areas between January 2012 and June 2015. Airborne Quercus pollen monitoring was carried out simultaneously in five zones of Mexico City. The percentage of Quercus pollen of the total pollen collected from the air showed that the highest concentration was recorded in 2014, followed by 2012. The annual seasonal variation indicated that flowering and pollen emission into the atmosphere began between February and March. The maximum concentration of Quercus pollen was reached at Cuajimalpa. In 2012, the amount of pollen grains was distributed in March and April uniformly, whilst in 2014, the largest amount of pollen was concentrated in March. In 2012 and 2014 (years with the highest pollen concentrations), corresponding intraday variations were quite similar, with a low relative maximum in the morning and the highest concentrations in the evening. The largest values were recorded in 2014, and two processes can explain these. In the afternoon, pollen from secondary forest is carried by southwesterly converging winds, increasing the pollen concentration in Cuajimalpa. In the evening, there is an additional pollen contribution from primary forest via transport by NW winds.

  16. Development and Validation of a Two-Tier Instrument to Examine Understanding of Internal Transport in Plants and the Human Circulatory System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jing-Ru

    2004-01-01

    This study is intended to develop an assessment instrument to investigate students' understandings about internal transport in plants and human circulatory system. A refined process of a two-tier diagnostic test was used to develop the instrument. Finally, three versions of the Internal Transport in Plants and the Human Circulatory System test…

  17. System-Scale Model of Aquifer, Vadose Zone, and River Interactions for the Hanford 300 Area - Application to Uranium Reactive Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Rockhold, Mark L.; Bacon, Diana H.; Freedman, Vicky L.

    2013-10-01

    This report represents a synthesis and integration of basic and applied research into a system-scale model of the Hanford 300 Area groundwater uranium plume, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Richland Operations (DOE-RL) office. The report integrates research findings and data from DOE Office of Science (DOE-SC), Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM), and DOE-RL projects, and from the site remediation and closure contractor, Washington Closure Hanford, LLC (WCH). The three-dimensional, system-scale model addresses water flow and reactive transport of uranium for the coupled vadose zone, unconfined aquifer, and Columbia River shoreline of the Hanford 300 Area. The system-scale modelmore » of the 300 Area was developed to be a decision-support tool to evaluate processes of the total system affecting the groundwater uranium plume. The model can also be used to address “what if” questions regarding different remediation endpoints, and to assist in design and evaluation of field remediation efforts. For example, the proposed cleanup plan for the Hanford 300 Area includes removal, treatment, and disposal of contaminated sediments from known waste sites, enhanced attenuation of uranium hot spots in the vadose and periodically rewetted zone, and continued monitoring of groundwater with institutional controls. Illustrative simulations of polyphosphate infiltration were performed to demonstrate the ability of the system-scale model to address these types of questions. The use of this model in conjunction with continued field monitoring is expected to provide a rigorous basis for developing operational strategies for field remediation and for defining defensible remediation endpoints.« less

  18. Developing Sediment Transport and Dredging Prediction Model of Ohio River at Olmsted Locks and Dams Area using HEC-RAS (1D/2D)By Ganesh Raj Ghimire1 and Bruce A. Devantier 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghimire, G. R.

    2015-12-01

    Sediment deposition is a serious issue in the construction and operation of large reservoir and inland navigation projects in the United States and around the world. Olmsted Locks and Dams in the Ohio River navigation system is facing similar challenges of huge sediment deposition during the ongoing in-wet construction methodology since 1993. HEC-RAS 5.0 integrated with ArcGIS, will be used to yield unsteady 2D hydrodynamic model of Ohio River at Olmsted area. Velocity, suspended sediment, bed sediment and hydrographic survey data acquired from public archives of USGS and USACE Louisville District will be input into the model. Calibration and validation of model will be performed against the measured stage, flow and velocity data. It will be subjected to completely unsteady 1D sediment transport modeling new to HEC-RAS 5.0 which incorporates sediment load and bed gradation via a DSS file, commercial dredging and BSTEM model. Sediment model will be calibrated to replicate the historical bed volume changes. Excavated cross-sections at Olmsted area will also be used to predict the sediment volume trapped inside the ditch over the period between excavations and placement of dam shells at site. Model will attempt to replicate historical dredging volume data and compare with the deposition volume from simulation model to formulate the dredging prediction model. Hence, the results of this research will generate a model that can form a basis for scheduling the dredging event prior to the placement of off-shore cast shells replacing the current as and when required approach of dredging plan. 1 Graduate Student, Department of Civil Engineering, Southern Illinois University Carbondale Carbondale, Illinois, 62901-6603 2 Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Southern Illinois University Carbondale Carbondale, Illinois, 62901-6603

  19. Quantification of myocardial area at risk in the absence of collateral flow: the validation of angiographic scores by myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Palomares, José F; Alonso, Albert; Martí, Gerard; Aguadé-Bruix, Santiago; González-Alujas, M T; Romero-Farina, Guillermo; Candell-Riera, Jaume; García del Blanco, Bruno; Evangelista, Artur; García-Dorado, David

    2013-02-01

    Our study aimed to compare the area at risk (AAR) determined by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation (BARI) and modified Alberta Provincial Project for Outcome Assessment in Coronary Heart Disease (APPROACH) angiographic scores in the setting of patients undergoing coronary angioplasty for either unstable angina or an STEMI. Radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging prior to reperfusion has classically been the most widely practised technique for assessing the AAR and has been successfully used to compare the efficacy of various reperfusion strategies in patients with an ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The BARI and modified APPROACH scores are angiographic methods widely used to provide a rapid estimation of the AAR; however, they have not been directly validated with myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Fifty-five patients with no previous myocardial infarction who underwent coronary angioplasty for single-vessel disease (unstable angina: n = 25 or an STEMI: n = 30) with no evidence of collaterals (Rentrop Collateral Score <2) were included in a prospective study. In STEMI patients, the (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin was injected prior to opening of the occluded vessel and, in patients with unstable angina after 10-15 seconds of balloon inflation. Acquisition was performed with a dual-head gammacamera with a low-energy and high-resolution collimator. A total of 60 projections were acquired using a non-circular orbit. No attenuation or scatter correction was used. Maximal contours of hypoperfusion regions corresponding to each coronary artery occlusion were delineated over a polar map of 17 segments and compared with the estimated AAR determined by two experienced interventional cardiologists using both angiographic scores. Mean AAR percentage in SPECT was 35.0 (10.0%-56.0%). A high correlation was found between BARI and APPROACH scores (r = 0.9, P

  20. Air pollution in the Benelux/Rhine-Ruhr area: Numerical simulations with a multi-scale regional chemistry-transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Memmesheimer, M.; Jakobs, H. J.; Wurzler, S.; Friese, E.; Piekorz, G.; Ebel, A.

    2009-04-01

    The Rhine-Ruhr area is a strongly industrialized region with about 10 Million inhabitants. It is one of the regions in Europe, which has the characteristics of a megacity with respect to population density, traffic, industry and environmental issues. The main centre of European steel production and the biggest inland port of the world is located in Duisburg, one of the major cities in the Rhine-Ruhr area. Together with the nearby urban agglomerations in the Benelux area including Brussels, Amsterdam and in particular Rotterdam as one of the most important sea-harbours of the world together with Singapore and Shanghai, it forms one of the regions in Europe heavily loaded with air pollutants as ozone, NO2 and particulate matter. Ammonia emissions outside the urban agglomerations but within the domain are also on a quite high level due to intense agricultural usage in Benelux, North-Rhine-Westphalia and lower Saxony. Therefore this area acts also as an important source region for gaseous precursors contributing to the formation of secondary particles in the atmosphere. The Benelux/Rhine-Ruhr area therefore has been selected within the framework of the recently established FP7 research project CityZen as one hot spot for detailed investigations of the past and current status of air pollution and its future development on different spatial and temporal scales. Some examples from numerical simulations with the regional multi-scale chemistry transport model EURAD for Central Europe and the Rhine-Ruhr area will be presented. The model calculates the transport, chemical transformations and deposition of trace constituents in the troposphere from the surface up to about 16 km using MM5 as meteorological driver, the RACM-MIM gas-phase chemistry and MADE-SORGAM for the treatment of particulate matter. Horizontal grid sizes are in the range of 100 km down to 1 km for heavily polluted urbanized areas within Benelux/Rhine-Ruhr. The planetary boundary layer is resolved by 15

  1. Room-Temperature and Solution-Processable Cu-Doped Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles for Efficient Hole-Transport Layers of Flexible Large-Area Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    He, Qiqi; Yao, Kai; Wang, Xiaofeng; Xia, Xuefeng; Leng, Shifeng; Li, Fan

    2017-12-06

    Flexible perovskite solar cells (PSCs) using plastic substrates have become one of the most attractive points in the field of thin-film solar cells. Low-temperature and solution-processable nanoparticles (NPs) enable the fabrication of semiconductor thin films in a simple and low-cost approach to function as charge-selective layers in flexible PSCs. Here, we synthesized phase-pure p-type Cu-doped NiO x NPs with good electrical properties, which can be processed to smooth, pinhole-free, and efficient hole transport layers (HTLs) with large-area uniformity over a wide range of film thickness using a room-temperature solution-processing technique. Such a high-quality inorganic HTL allows for the fabrication of flexible PSCs with an active area >1 cm 2 , which have a power conversion efficiency over 15.01% without hysteresis. Moreover, the Cu/NiO x NP-based flexible devices also demonstrate excellent air stability and mechanical stability compared to their counterpart fabricated on the pristine NiO x films. This work will contribute to the evolution of upscaling flexible PSCs with a simple fabrication process and high device performances.

  2. Urban density and the metabolic reach of metropolitan areas: A panel analysis of per capita transportation emissions at the county-level.

    PubMed

    Ergas, Christina; Clement, Matthew; McGee, Julius

    2016-07-01

    We engage a tension in the urban environment literature that positions cities as both drivers of environmental destruction and loci of environmental protection. We argue that the traditional binary view of cities as either harmful or beneficial is too simplistic; we advance a more nuanced understanding of cities to study their internal and external metabolic effects in terms of carbon emissions from on-road transportation at the county-level across the continental United States between 2002 and 2007. First, utilizing satellite imagery from the National Land Cover Database, we create a novel measure of population density by quantifying the number of people per square mile of impervious surface area. Second, we develop a measure of metropolitan adjacency from the rural classifications datasets published by the USDA. In spatial regression models, we find that while higher density reduces emissions, counties that are geographically isolated from metropolitan areas actually have lower per capita emissions, all else equal. We elaborate on the conceptual, methodological, and practical implications of our study in the conclusion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of electrical imaging and distributed temperature sensing methods to characterize surface water–groundwater exchange regulating uranium transport at the Hanford 300 Area, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slater, Lee D.; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Mwakanyamale, Kisa; Versteeg, Roelof J.; Ward, Andy; Strickland, Christopher; Johnson, Carole D.; Lane, John W.

    2010-01-01

    We explored the use of continuous waterborne electrical imaging (CWEI), in conjunction with fiber‐optic distributed temperature sensor (FO‐DTS) monitoring, to improve the conceptual model for uranium transport within the Columbia River corridor at the Hanford 300 Area, Washington. We first inverted resistivity and induced polarization CWEI data sets for distributions of electrical resistivity and polarizability, from which the spatial complexity of the primary hydrogeologic units was reconstructed. Variations in the depth to the interface between the overlying coarse‐grained, high‐permeability Hanford Formation and the underlying finer‐grained, less permeable Ringold Formation, an important contact that limits vertical migration of contaminants, were resolved along ∼3 km of the river corridor centered on the 300 Area. Polarizability images were translated into lithologic images using established relationships between polarizability and surface area normalized to pore volume (Spor). The FO‐DTS data recorded along 1.5 km of cable with a 1 m spatial resolution and 5 min sampling interval revealed subreaches showing (1) temperature anomalies (relatively warm in winter and cool in summer) and (2) a strong correlation between temperature and river stage (negative in winter and positive in summer), both indicative of reaches of enhanced surface water–groundwater exchange. The FO‐DTS data sets confirm the hydrologic significance of the variability identified in the CWEI and reveal a pattern of highly focused exchange, concentrated at springs where the Hanford Formation is thickest. Our findings illustrate how the combination of CWEI and FO‐DTS technologies can characterize surface water–groundwater exchange in a complex, coupled river‐aquifer system.

  4. Transportation Observations, Considerations and Recommendations For the Tri-Canyons Area of the Salt Lake Ranger District Wasatch-Cache National Forest.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-12-31

    Field investigations of the current transportation infrastructure and operating systems : were conducted for the Tri-Canyons by the inter-agency Transportation Assistance Group : (TAG), on behalf of the U.S. Forest Service and local stakeholders. Thi...

  5. Intelligent transportation system (ITS) study for the Buffalo and Niagara Falls metropolitan area, Erie and Niagara Counties, New York : strategic plan, working paper #7

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-06-18

    This document has been prepared as part of the New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) Buffalo and Niagara Falls Intelligent Transportation System Study. This working paper utilizes input from the previous working papers to generate an o...

  6. Intelligent transportation system (ITS) study for the Buffalo and Niagara Falls metropolitan area, Erie and Niagara Counties, New York : final report, technical summary

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-06-18

    This document provides a technical summary for the seven working papers prepared for the New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) Buffalo and Niagara Falls Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) Study.

  7. Intelligent transportation system (ITS) study for the Buffalo and Niagara Falls metropolitan area, Erie and Niagara Counties, New York : final report, executive summary

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-06-18

    The primary goals of the Buffalo/Niagara Falls Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) study are to evaluate the transportation needs of the region, assess the ability of ITS to meet those needs and develop a Strategic Plan for ITS implementation.

  8. Intelligent transportation system (ITS) study for the Buffalo and Niagara Falls metropolitan area, Erie and Niagara Counties, New York : system architecture, working paper #5

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-06-18

    This document has been prepared as part of the New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) Buffalo and Niagara Falls Intelligent Transportation System Study. Working Paper #5 defines the conceptual system architecture that applies to the reg...

  9. High-speed civil transport issues and technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewett, Marle D.

    1992-01-01

    A strawman program plan is presented, consisting of technology developments and demonstrations required to support the construction of a high-speed civil transport. The plan includes a compilation of technology issues related to the development of a transport. The issues represent technical areas in which research and development are required to allow airframe manufacturers to pursue an HSCT development. The vast majority of technical issues presented require flight demonstrated and validated solutions before a transport development will be undertaken by the industry. The author believes that NASA is the agency best suited to address flight demonstration issues in a concentrated effort. The new Integrated Test Facility at NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility is considered ideally suited to the task of supporting ground validations of proof-of-concept and prototype system demonstrations before night demonstrations. An elaborate ground hardware-in-the-loop (iron bird) simulation supported in this facility provides a viable alternative to developing an expensive fill-scale prototype transport technology demonstrator. Drygen's SR-71 assets, modified appropriately, are a suitable test-bed for supporting flight demonstrations and validations of certain transport technology solutions. A subscale, manned or unmanned flight demonstrator is suitable for flight validation of transport technology solutions, if appropriate structural similarity relationships can be established. The author contends that developing a full-scale prototype transport technology demonstrator is the best alternative to ensuring that a positive decision to develop a transport is reached by the United States aerospace industry.

  10. Spatial-temporal variations, sources, and transport of airborne inhalable metals (PM10) in urban and rural areas of northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, X. S.; Ip, C. C. M.; Li, W.; Tao, S.; Li, X. D.

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric particle pollution is a serious environmental issue in China, especially the northern regions. Ambient air loadings (ng m-3), pollution sources and apportionment, and transport pathways of trace (Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn) and major (Al, Ca, Fe, and Mg) metals associated with inhalable particulate matters (PM10 aerosols) were characterized in urban, rural village, and rural field areas of seven cities (from inland in the west to the coast in the east: Wuwei, Yinchuan, Taiyuan, Beijing, Dezhou, Yantai, and Dalian) across northern China by taking one 72 h sample each site within a month for a whole year (April 2010 to March 2011). Ambient PM10 pollution in northern China is especially significant in the cold season (October-March) due to the combustion of coal for heating and dust storms in the winter and spring. Owing to variations in emission intensity and meteorological conditions, there is a trend of decrease in PM10 levels in cities from west to east. Both air PM10 and the associated metal loadings for urban and rural areas were comparable, showing that the current pattern of regional pollution in China differs from the decreasing urban-rural-background transect that is usual in other parts of the world. The average metal levels are Zn (276 ng m-3) ≫ Pb (93.7) ≫ Cu (54.9) ≫ Ni (9.37) > V (8.34) ≫ Cd (2.84) > Co (1.76). Judging from concentrations (mg kg-1), enrichment factors (EFs), a multivariate statistical analysis (principal component analysis, PCA), and a receptor model (absolute principal component scores-multiple linear regression analysis, APCS-MLR), the airborne trace metals (Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cd) in northern China were mainly anthropogenic, and mostly attributable to coal combustion and vehicle emissions with additional industrial sources. However, the Co was mostly of crustal origin, and the V and Ni were mainly from soil/dust in the western region and mostly from the petrochemical industry/oil combustion in the east. The

  11. Constraining CO2 tower measurements in an inhomogeneous area with anthropogenic emissions using a combination of car-mounted instrument campaigns, aircraft profiles, transport modeling and neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, A.; Rella, C.; Conley, S. A.; Goeckede, M.; Law, B. E.

    2013-12-01

    The NOAA CO2 observation network in Oregon has been enhanced by 3 new towers in 2012. The tallest tower in the network (270 m), located in Silverton in the Willamette Valley is affected by anthropogenic emissions from Oregon's busiest traffic routes and urban centers. In summer 2012, we conducted a measurement campaign using a car-mounted PICARRO CRDS CO2/CO analyzer. Over 3 days, the instrument was driven over 1000 miles throughout the northwestern portion of Oregon measuring the CO/ CO2 ratios on main highways, back roads in forests, agricultural sites, and Oregon's biggest urban centers. By geospatial analyses we obtained ratios of CO/ CO2 over distinct land cover types divided into 10 classes represented in the study area. Using the coupled WRF-STILT transport model we calculated the footprints of nearby CO/ CO2 observation towers for the corresponding days of mobile road measurements. Spatiotemporally assigned source areas in combination with the land use classification were then used to calculate specific ratios of CO (anthropogenic origins) and CO2 to separate the anthropogenic portion of CO2 from the mixing ratio time series measured at the tower in Silverton. The WRF modeled boundary layer heights used in out study showed some differences compared to the boundary layer heights derived from profile data of wind, temperature, and humidity measured with an airplane in August, September, and November 2012, repeatedly over 5 tower locations. A Bayesian Regularized Artificial Neural Network (BRANN) was used to correct the boundary layer height calculated with WRF with a temporal resolution of 20 minutes and a horizontal resolution of 4 km. For that purpose the BRANN was trained using height profile data from the flight campaigns and spatiotemporally corresponding meteorological data from WRF. Our analyses provide information needed to run inverse modeling of CO2 exchange in an area that is affected by sources that cannot easily be considered by biospheric models

  12. A field-validated model for in situ transport of polymer-stabilized nZVI and implications for subsurface injection.

    PubMed

    Krol, Magdalena M; Oleniuk, Andrew J; Kocur, Chris M; Sleep, Brent E; Bennett, Peter; Xiong, Zhong; O'Carroll, Denis M

    2013-07-02

    Nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI) particles have significant potential to remediate contaminated source zones. However, the transport of these particles through porous media is not well understood, especially at the field scale. This paper describes the simulation of a field injection of carboxylmethyl cellulose (CMC) stabilized nZVI using a 3D compositional simulator, modified to include colloidal filtration theory (CFT). The model includes composition dependent viscosity and spatially and temporally variable velocity, appropriate for the simulation of push-pull tests (PPTs) with CMC stabilized nZVI. Using only attachment efficiency as a fitting parameter, model results were in good agreement with field observations when spatially variable viscosity effects on collision efficiency were included in the transport modeling. This implies that CFT-modified transport equations can be used to simulate stabilized nZVI field transport. Model results show that an increase in solution viscosity, resulting from injection of CMC stabilized nZVI suspension, affects nZVI mobility by decreasing attachment as well as changing the hydraulics of the system. This effect is especially noticeable with intermittent pumping during PPTs. Results from this study suggest that careful consideration of nZVI suspension formulation is important for optimal delivery of nZVI which can be facilitated with the use of a compositional simulator.

  13. Streamlining Transportation Corridors Planning Processes and Validating the Application of Commercial Remote Sensing and Spatial Information (CRS-SI) Technologies for Environmental Impact Assessments

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-02-05

    The new US DOT RITA program has selected MSU for addressing corridor planning and environmental assessment in new and innovative ways that can be compared to traditional approaches. Our primary focus is on the application and validation of new and in...

  14. A computable phenotype for asthma case identification in adult and pediatric patients: External validation in the Chicago Area Patient-Outcomes Research Network (CAPriCORN).

    PubMed

    Afshar, Majid; Press, Valerie G; Robison, Rachel G; Kho, Abel N; Bandi, Sindhura; Biswas, Ashvini; Avila, Pedro C; Kumar, Harsha Vardhan Madan; Yu, Byung; Naureckas, Edward T; Nyenhuis, Sharmilee M; Codispoti, Christopher D

    2017-10-13

    Comprehensive, rapid, and accurate identification of patients with asthma for clinical care and engagement in research efforts is needed. The original development and validation of a computable phenotype for asthma case identification occurred at a single institution in Chicago and demonstrated excellent test characteristics. However, its application in a diverse payer mix, across different health systems and multiple electronic health record vendors, and in both children and adults was not examined. The objective of this study is to externally validate the computable phenotype across diverse Chicago institutions to accurately identify pediatric and adult patients with asthma. A cohort of 900 asthma and control patients was identified from the electronic health record between January 1, 2012 and November 30, 2014. Two physicians at each site independently reviewed the patient chart to annotate cases. The inter-observer reliability between the physician reviewers had a κ-coefficient of 0.95 (95% CI 0.93-0.97). The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value of the computable phenotype were all above 94% in the full cohort. The excellent positive and negative predictive values in this multi-center external validation study establish a useful tool to identify asthma cases in in the electronic health record for research and care. This computable phenotype could be used in large-scale comparative-effectiveness trials.

  15. Effects of long-range transported air pollution from vegetation fires on daily mortality and hospital admissions in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland.

    PubMed

    Kollanus, Virpi; Tiittanen, Pekka; Niemi, Jarkko V; Lanki, Timo

    2016-11-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) emissions from vegetation fires can be transported over long distances and may cause significant air pollution episodes far from the fires. However, epidemiological evidence on health effects of vegetation-fire originated air pollution is limited, particularly for mortality and cardiovascular outcomes. We examined association between short-term exposure to long-range transported PM 2.5 from vegetation fires and daily mortality due to non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory causes and daily hospital admissions due to cardiovascular and respiratory causes in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland. Days significantly affected by smoke from vegetation fires between 2001 and 2010 were identified using air quality measurements at an urban background and a regional background monitoring station, and modelled data on surface concentrations of vegetation-fire smoke. Associations between daily PM 2.5 concentration and health outcomes on i) smoke-affected days and ii) all other days (i.e. non-smoke days) were analysed using Poisson time series regression. All statistical models were adjusted for daily temperature and relative humidity, influenza, pollen, and public holidays. On smoke-affected days, 10µg/m 3 increase in PM 2.5 was associated with a borderline statistically significant increase in cardiovascular mortality among total population at a lag of three days (12.4%, 95% CI -0.2% to 26.5%), and among the elderly (≥65 years) following same-day exposure (13.8%, 95% CI -0.6% to 30.4%) and at a lag of three days (11.8%, 95% CI -2.2% to 27.7%). Smoke day PM 2.5 was not associated with non-accidental mortality or hospital admissions due to cardiovascular causes. However, there was an indication of a positive association with hospital admissions due to respiratory causes among the elderly, and admissions due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma among the total population. In contrast, on non-smoke days PM 2.5 was

  16. [A valid quality system for mental health care: from accountability and control in institutionalised settings to co-creation in small areas and a focus on community vital signs].

    PubMed

    van Os, J; Delespaul, P H

    In a given year, around 25% of the Dutch population may experience significant mental health problems, much more than the mental health service can attend to, given a maximum capacity of 6% of the population per year. Due to the lack of a public mental health system, there is fierce competition over who gets to receive care from mental health services and little control over how the level of needs can be matched with the appropriate intensity of care. As a result, resources are being wasted and both overtreatment and undertreatment are prevalent.
    AIM: To propose a valid quality system that benefits the mental health of the entire population and does not simply attend to the symptoms of a strategically selected group.
    METHOD: Literature review from an epidemiological and public mental health perspective.
    RESULTS: In our view, a valid quality system for mental health care needs to focus on two distinct areas. The first area involves the analysis of about 20 quantitative population parameters or 'Community Vital Signs' (care consumption, pharmaco-epidemiological indicators, mortality, somatic morbidity, social care, housing, work, benefits, involuntary admissions). This analysis will reveal regional variation in the mental health of the entire population rather than in the relatively small, selected group receiving mental health care. The second area to which attention needs to be directed comprises a system of simple qualitative visits to mental health care institutions based on 10 quality parameters that currently remain invisible; these parameters will measure the impact at local community level. The focus of these will be on a transition from accountability and control in large institutions to provision of care in small areas that was co-designed with users and other stakeholders.
    CONCLUSION: A valid quality system for mental health care is within reach, provided it is combined with a novel system of public mental health and transition of care

  17. Transportation Technology Plan.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1998-11-01

    These four initiatives are: Aviation Safety Research Alliance; Intelligent Vehicle Initiative; National Intelligent Transportation Infrastructure; Next Generation Global Air Transportation; The other seven partnerships represent areas that require a ...

  18. Three-dimensional color Doppler echocardiography for direct measurement of vena contracta area in mitral regurgitation: in vitro validation and clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Little, Stephen H; Pirat, Bahar; Kumar, Rahul; Igo, Stephen R; McCulloch, Marti; Hartley, Craig J; Xu, Jiaqiong; Zoghbi, William A

    2008-11-01

    Our goal was to prospectively compare the accuracy of real-time three-dimensional (3D) color Doppler vena contracta (VC) area and two-dimensional (2D) VC diameter in an in vitro model and in the clinical assessment of mitral regurgitation (MR) severity. Real-time 3D color Doppler allows direct measurement of VC area and may be more accurate for assessment of MR than the conventional VC diameter measurement by 2D color Doppler. Using a circulatory loop with an incorporated imaging chamber, various pulsatile flow rates of MR were driven through 4 differently sized orifices. In a clinical study of patients with at least mild MR, regurgitation severity was assessed quantitatively using Doppler-derived effective regurgitant orifice area (EROA), and semiquantitatively as recommended by the American Society of Echocardiography. We describe a step-by-step process to accurately identify the 3D-VC area and compare that measure against known orifice areas (in vitro study) and EROA (clinical study). In vitro, 3D-VC area demonstrated the strongest correlation with known orifice area (r = 0.92, p < 0.001), whereas 2D-VC diameter had a weak correlation with orifice area (r = 0.56, p = 0.01). In a clinical study of 61 patients, 3D-VC area correlated with Doppler-derived EROA (r = 0.85, p < 0.001); the relation was stronger than for 2D-VC diameter (r = 0.67, p < 0.001). The advantage of 3D-VC area over 2D-VC diameter was more pronounced in eccentric jets (r = 0.87, p < 0.001 vs. r = 0.6, p < 0.001, respectively) and in moderate-to-severe or severe MR (r = 0.80, p < 0.001 vs. r = 0.18, p = 0.4, respectively). Measurement of VC area is feasible with real-time 3D color Doppler and provides a simple parameter that accurately reflects MR severity, particularly in eccentric and clinically significant MR where geometric assumptions may be challenging.

  19. Contact area between femoral tunnel and interference screw in anatomic rectangular tunnel ACL reconstruction: a comparison of outside-in and trans-portal inside-out techniques.

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Kunihiko; Mae, Tatsuo; Tachibana, Yuta; Nakagawa, Shigeto; Shino, Konsei

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the femoral tunnel length, the femoral graft bending angle at the femoral tunnel aperture, and the contact area between the femoral tunnel wall and an interference screw used for fixation in anatomic rectangular tunnel anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ART ACLR). The study included 149 patients with primary ACL injury who underwent ART ACLR. Preoperatively, flexion angle of the index knee was checked under general anaesthesia. Those of less than 130° of passive flexion were assigned to the outside-in (OI) technique (78 patients), while the others to the trans-portal inside-out (TP) technique (71 patients). The patients underwent computed tomography with multiplanar reconstruction at 3-5 weeks post-operatively. Femoral tunnel length, graft bending angle, and contact ratio between the IFS and femoral tunnel were assessed. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The femoral tunnel length in the OI technique was significantly longer than that in the TP technique (P < 0.001). The femoral graft bending angle in the OI technique was significantly more acute than that in the TP technique (P < 0.001). The contact ratio in the OI technique was significantly larger than that in the TP technique at every point in the femoral tunnel (P < 0.001). The OI technique resulted in a more acute femoral graft bending angle, longer mean femoral tunnel length, and larger contact ratio than the TP technique after ART ACLR. Retrospective comparative study, Level III.

  20. Screening for suitable areas for Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage within the Brussels Capital Region, Belgium using coupled groundwater flow and heat transport modelling tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anibas, Christian; Kukral, Janik; Touhidul Mustafa, Syed Md; Huysmans, Marijke

    2017-04-01

    Urban areas have a great potential for shallow geothermal systems. Their energy demand is high, but currently they have only a limited potential to cover their own energy demand. The transition towards a low-carbon energy regime offers alternative sources of energy an increasing potential. Urban areas however pose special challenges for the successful exploitation of shallow geothermal energy. High building densities limit the available space for drillings and underground investigations. Urban heat island effects and underground structures influence the thermal field, groundwater pollution and competing water uses limit the available subsurface. To tackle these challenges in the Brussels Capital Region, Belgium two projects 'BruGeo' and the recently finished 'Prospective Research of Brussels project 2015-PRFB-228' address the investigation in urban geothermal systems. They aim to identify the key factors of the underground with respect to Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) installations like thermal properties, aquifer thicknesses, groundwater flow velocities and their heterogeneity. Combined numerical groundwater and heat transport models are applied for the assessment of both open and closed loop shallow geothermal systems. The Brussels Capital Region comprises of the Belgian Capital, the City of Brussels and 18 other municipalities covering 161 km2 with almost 1.2 million inhabitants. Beside the high population density the Brussels Capital Region has a pronounced topography and a relative complex geology. This is both a challenge and an opportunity for the exploitation of shallow geothermal energy. The most important shallow hydrogeological formation in the Brussels-Capital Region are the Brussels Sands with the Brussels Sands Aquifer. Scenarios where developed using criteria for the hydrogeological feasibility of ATES installations such as saturated aquifer thickness, groundwater flow velocity and the groundwater head below surface. The Brussels Sands

  1. Wet deposition monitoring and modelling in New Brunswick — An area dominated by wet deposition due to long-range transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Claude S.

    measured wet nitrate deposition at all monitoring stations. Wet deposition in New Brunswick is thus dominated by distant sources through long-range transport. The model estimated that the oil-fired Coleson Cove thermal generating station contributed between 7% and 16% to the seasonal wet sulphur deposition and less than 3% of the seasonal wet nitrogen deposition at monitoring stations in the Coleson Cove-Saint John area. The estimates for wet nitrogen deposition are limited by the NO χ emissions information which is considered less reliable than SO 2 emissions information.

  2. A comparative evaluation of the increase in root canal surface area and canal transportation in curved root canals by three rotary systems: A cone-beam computed tomographic study

    PubMed Central

    Prasanthi, Nalam NVD; Rambabu, Tanikonda; Sajjan, Girija S; Varma, K Madhu; Satish, R Kalyan; Padmaja, M

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to measure the increase in root canal surface area and canal transportation after biomechanical preparation at 1, 3, and 5 mm short of the apex with three different rotary systems in both continuous rotary and reciprocating rotary motions. Materials and Methods: Sixty freshly extracted human mandibular molars with mesial root canal curvatures between 20° and 30° were included in the study. Teeth were randomly distributed into three groups (n = 20). Biomechanical preparations were done in all the mesial canals. In Group 1, instrumentation was done with ProTaper universal rotary files, Group 2, with K3XF rotary files, and Group 3, with LSX rotary files. Each group was further subdivided into subgroups A and B (n = 10) where instrumentation was done by continuous rotary and reciprocating rotary techniques, respectively. Increase in root canal surface area and canal transportation was measured using the preoperative and postoperative cone-beam computed tomography scans. Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey pairwise multiple comparison tests. Results: Increase in root canal surface area was significantly more (P < 0.05) in ProTaper and K3XF groups when compared to LSX group. Canal transportation was significantly more (P < 0.05) in ProTaper group when compared to K3XF and LSX groups. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in increase of root canal surface area and canal transportation between continuous rotary and reciprocating rotary techniques for ProTaper Universal, K3XF and LSX groups. Conclusion: LSX rotary system showed minimal increase of root canal surface area and minimal canal transportation when compared to ProTaper and K3XF rotary systems. PMID:27656062

  3. Experimental validation of non-uniformity effect of the radial electric field on the edge transport barrier formation in JT-60U H-mode plasmas

    PubMed Central

    Kamiya, K.; Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.-I.

    2016-01-01

    The turbulent structure formation, where strongly-inhomogeneous turbulence and global electromagnetic fields are self-organized, is a fundamental mechanism that governs the evolution of high-temperature plasmas in the universe and laboratory (e.g., the generation of edge transport barrier (ETB) of the H-mode in the toroidal plasmas). The roles of inhomogeneities of radial electric field (Er) are known inevitable. In this mechanism, whether the first derivative of Er (shear) or the second derivative of Er (curvature) works most is decisive in determining the class of nontrivial solutions (which describe the barrier structure). Here we report the experimental identification of the essential role of the Er-curvature on the ETB formation, for the first time, based on the high-spatiotemporal resolution spectroscopic measurement. We found the decisive importance of Er-curvature on ETB formation during ELM-free phase, but there is only a low correlation with the Er-shear value at the peak of normalized ion temperature gradient. Furthermore, in the ELMing phase, the effect of curvature is also quantified in terms of the relationship between pedestal width and thickness of the layer of inhomogeneous Er. This is the fundamental basis to understand the structure of transport barriers in fusion plasmas. PMID:27480931

  4. Fate and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil and ground water at Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area, Tennessee and Kentucky, 2002-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Shannon D.; Ladd, David E.; Farmer, James

    2006-01-01

    In 2002 and 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), by agreement with the National Park Service (NPS), investigated the effects of oil and gas production operations on ground-water quality at Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area (BISO) with particular emphasis on the fate and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils and ground water. During a reconnaissance of ground-water-quality conditions, samples were collected from 24 different locations (17 springs, 5 water-supply wells, 1 small stream, and 1 spring-fed pond) in and near BISO. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) compounds were not detected in any of the water samples, indicating that no widespread contamination of ground-water resources by dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons probably exists at BISO. Additional water-quality samples were collected from three springs and two wells for more detailed analyses to obtain additional information on ambient water-quality conditions at BISO. Soil gas, soil, water, and crude oil samples were collected at three study sites in or near BISO where crude oil had been spilled or released (before 1993). Diesel range organics (DRO) were detected in soil samples from all three of the sites at concentrations greater than 2,000 milligrams per kilogram. Low concentrations (less than 10 micrograms per kilogram) of BTEX compounds were detected in lab-analyzed soil samples from two of the sites. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria counts in soil samples from the most contaminated areas of the sites were not greater than counts for soil samples from uncontaminated (background) sites. The elevated DRO concentrations, the presence of BTEX compounds, and the low number of -hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in contaminated soils indicate that biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soils at these sites is incomplete. Water samples collected from the three study sites were analyzed for BTEX and DRO. Ground-water samples were collected from three small springs at the

  5. Discriminatory validity of the Aspects of Wheelchair Mobility Test as demonstrated by a comparison of four wheelchair types designed for use in low-resource areas

    PubMed Central

    Hamm, Elisa; Wee, Joy

    2017-01-01

    Background Comparative effectiveness research on wheelchairs available in low-resource areas is needed to enable effective use of limited funds. Mobility on commonly encountered rolling environments is a key aspect of function. High variation in capacity among wheelchair users can mask changes in mobility because of wheelchair design. A repeated measures protocol in which the participants use one type of wheelchair and then another minimises the impact of individual variation. Objectives The Aspects of Wheelchair Mobility Test (AWMT) was designed to be used in repeated measures studies in low-resource areas. It measures the impact of different wheelchair types on physical performance in commonly encountered rolling environments and provides an opportunity for qualitative and quantitative participant response. This study sought to confirm the ability of the AWMT to discern differences in mobility because of wheelchair design. Method Participants were wheelchair users at a boarding school for students with disabilities in a low-resource area. Each participant completed timed tests on measured tracks on rough and smooth surfaces, in tight spaces and over curbs. Four types of wheelchairs designed for use in low-resource areas were included. Results The protocol demonstrated the ability to discriminate changes in mobility of individuals because of wheelchair type. Conclusion Comparative effectiveness studies with this protocol can enable beneficial change. This is illustrated by design alterations by wheelchair manufacturers in response to results. PMID:28936413

  6. VALIDATION OF A METHOD FOR ESTIMATING POLLUTION EMISSION RATES FROM AREA SOURCES USING OPEN-PATH FTIR SEPCTROSCOPY AND DISPERSION MODELING TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes a methodology developed to estimate emissions factors for a variety of different area sources in a rapid, accurate, and cost effective manner. he methodology involves using an open-path Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer to measure concentrations o...

  7. Intelligent transportation system (ITS) study for the Buffalo and Niagara Falls metropolitan area, Erie and Niagara Counties, New York : identification of institutional issues, working paper #2

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-06-18

    Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) utilize advanced technology components on a local as well as a regional basis. On a regional basis, as is the case in this study, funding, knowledge and operations resources are often pooled from many sources....

  8. IVHS And The Environment, New Models For Federal, State And Local Cooperation In The Application Of Advanced Transportation Systems For Environmental Improvements In Urban Areas, Executive Summary

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1994-09-01

    INTELLIGENT VEHICLE HIGHWAY SYSTEMS (IVHS) HAVE THE POTENTIAL TO SUBSTANTIALLY CHANGE TRANSPORTATION'S IMPACT ON URBAN AIR QUALITY AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS. WHETHER THIS IMPACT IS POSITIVE DEPENDS ON HOW THESE TECHNOLOGIES ARE DEPLOYED. THIS S...

  9. Developments and Validations of Fully Coupled CFD and Practical Vortex Transport Method for High-Fidelity Wake Modeling in Fixed and Rotary Wing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anusonti-Inthra, Phuriwat

    2010-01-01

    A novel Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) coupling framework using a conventional Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (BANS) solver to resolve the near-body flow field and a Particle-based Vorticity Transport Method (PVTM) to predict the evolution of the far field wake is developed, refined, and evaluated for fixed and rotary wing cases. For the rotary wing case, the RANS/PVTM modules are loosely coupled to a Computational Structural Dynamics (CSD) module that provides blade motion and vehicle trim information. The PVTM module is refined by the addition of vortex diffusion, stretching, and reorientation models as well as an efficient memory model. Results from the coupled framework are compared with several experimental data sets (a fixed-wing wind tunnel test and a rotary-wing hover test).

  10. Computationally efficient analysis of particle transport and deposition in a human whole-lung-airway model. Part I: Theory and model validation.

    PubMed

    Kolanjiyil, Arun V; Kleinstreuer, Clement

    2016-12-01

    Computational predictions of aerosol transport and deposition in the human respiratory tract can assist in evaluating detrimental or therapeutic health effects when inhaling toxic particles or administering drugs. However, the sheer complexity of the human lung, featuring a total of 16 million tubular airways, prohibits detailed computer simulations of the fluid-particle dynamics for the entire respiratory system. Thus, in order to obtain useful and efficient particle deposition results, an alternative modeling approach is necessary where the whole-lung geometry is approximated and physiological boundary conditions are implemented to simulate breathing. In Part I, the present new whole-lung-airway model (WLAM) represents the actual lung geometry via a basic 3-D mouth-to-trachea configuration while all subsequent airways are lumped together, i.e., reduced to an exponentially expanding 1-D conduit. The diameter for each generation of the 1-D extension can be obtained on a subject-specific basis from the calculated total volume which represents each generation of the individual. The alveolar volume was added based on the approximate number of alveoli per generation. A wall-displacement boundary condition was applied at the bottom surface of the first-generation WLAM, so that any breathing pattern due to the negative alveolar pressure can be reproduced. Specifically, different inhalation/exhalation scenarios (rest, exercise, etc.) were implemented by controlling the wall/mesh displacements to simulate realistic breathing cycles in the WLAM. Total and regional particle deposition results agree with experimental lung deposition results. The outcomes provide critical insight to and quantitative results of aerosol deposition in human whole-lung airways with modest computational resources. Hence, the WLAM can be used in analyzing human exposure to toxic particulate matter or it can assist in estimating pharmacological effects of administered drug-aerosols. As a practical

  11. Explicating Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    How we choose to use a term depends on what we want to do with it. If "validity" is to be used to support a score interpretation, validation would require an analysis of the plausibility of that interpretation. If validity is to be used to support score uses, validation would require an analysis of the appropriateness of the proposed…

  12. Influence of Intense secondary aerosol formation and long range transport on aerosol chemistry and properties in the Seoul Metropolitan Area during spring time: Results from KORUS-AQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Zhang, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Non-refractory submicrometer particulate matter (NR-PM1) was measured in the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), Korea, using an HR-ToF-AMS from April 14 to June 15, 2016, as a part of the KORUS-AQ campaign. The average concentration of PM1 was 22.1 µg m-3, which was composed of 44% organics, 20% SO4, 17% NO3, and 12 % NH4. Organics had an average O/C ratio of 0.49 and an average OM/OC ratio of 1.82. Four distinct sources of OA were identified via PMF analysis of the HR-ToF-AMS data: hydrocarbon like OA (HOA), cooking OA (COA),semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA) and a low volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA). Our results indicate that air quality in SMA during KORUS-AQ was influenced strongly by secondary aerosol formation with SO4, NO3, NH4, SV-OOA, and LV-OOA together accounting for 76% of the PM1 mass. Due to high temperature and elevated ozone concentrations, photochemical reactions during daytime promoted the formation of SV-OOA, LV-OOA and SO4. In addition, aqueous-phase or heterogeneous reactions likely promoted efficient formation of NO3 whereas gas-to-particle partitioning processes appeared to have enhanced nighttime SV-OOA and NO3 formation. From May 20 to May 23, LV-OOA was significantly enhanced and accounted for up to 41% of the PM1 mass. Since this intense LV-OOA formation event was associated with large enhancement of VOCs, high concentration of Ox , strong solar radiation, and stagnant conditions, it appeared to be related to local photochemical formation. We also have investigated the formation and evolution mechanisms of severe haze episodes. Unlike the cases observed in winter when haze episodes were mainly caused by intense local emissions coupled with stagnant meteorological conditions, the spring haze events observed in this study appeared to be attributed by both regional and local factors. For example, episodes of long range transport of plumes were followed by calm meteorology conditions, which promoted the formation and accumulation of local

  13. Validation of a semi-automatic protocol for the assessment of the tear meniscus central area based on open-source software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pena-Verdeal, Hugo; Garcia-Resua, Carlos; Yebra-Pimentel, Eva; Giraldez, Maria J.

    2017-08-01

    Purpose: Different lower tear meniscus parameters can be clinical assessed on dry eye diagnosis. The aim of this study was to propose and analyse the variability of a semi-automatic method for measuring lower tear meniscus central area (TMCA) by using open source software. Material and methods: On a group of 105 subjects, one video of the lower tear meniscus after fluorescein instillation was generated by a digital camera attached to a slit-lamp. A short light beam (3x5 mm) with moderate illumination in the central portion of the meniscus (6 o'clock) was used. Images were extracted from each video by a masked observer. By using an open source software based on Java (NIH ImageJ), a further observer measured in a masked and randomized order the TMCA in the short light beam illuminated area by two methods: (1) manual method, where TMCA images was "manually" measured; (2) semi-automatic method, where TMCA images were transformed in an 8-bit-binary image, then holes inside this shape were filled and on the isolated shape, the area size was obtained. Finally, both measurements, manual and semi-automatic, were compared. Results: Paired t-test showed no statistical difference between both techniques results (p = 0.102). Pearson correlation between techniques show a significant positive near to perfect correlation (r = 0.99; p < 0.001). Conclusions: This study showed a useful tool to objectively measure the frontal central area of the meniscus in photography by free open source software.

  14. Use of the Chinese (Taiwan) version of the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) among early adolescents in rural areas: reliability and validity study.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Fen; Wang, Shuu-Jiun; Juang, Kai-Dih; Fuh, Jong-Ling

    2009-08-01

    To assess the screening abilities of the Chinese (Taiwan) version of the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) for evaluating social phobia in an adolescent community sample. A total of 3,393 students (1,669 boys, 1,724 girls), aged 13-15, completed the SPIN questionnaire. A total of 144 students were enrolled for validity. The Mini-International-Neuropsychiatric-Interview-Kid (MINI-Kid) was used to establish Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV diagnosis. The mean SPIN total score of all subjects was 14.2 +/- 9.4, which was higher in girls than in boys (14.7 +/- 9.4 vs. 13.7 +/- 9.1; p < 0.01). The 7th graders had the highest SPIN total scores compared with the 8th and 9th graders (15.4 +/- 9.7 vs. 13.4 +/- 9.1 and 14.0 +/- 9.4; p < 0.001). Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.85) and test-retest reliability (r = 0.73) were both good. A cut-off score of 25 resulted in balanced sensitivity (80%) and specificity (77%). The Chinese (Taiwan) SPIN has good screening abilities. The cut-offs are different from those in other countries, and highlight the importance of culturally adapted cut-offs.

  15. Validating the use of intrinsic markers in body feathers to identify inter-individual differences in non-breeding areas of northern fulmars.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Lucy R; Meharg, Andrew A; van Franeker, Jan A; Graham, Isla M; Thompson, Paul M

    Many wildlife studies use chemical analyses to explore spatio-temporal variation in diet, migratory patterns and contaminant exposure. Intrinsic markers are particularly valuable for studying non-breeding marine predators, when direct methods of investigation are rarely feasible. However, any inferences regarding foraging ecology are dependent upon the time scale over which tissues such as feathers are formed. In this study, we validate the use of body feathers for studying non-breeding foraging patterns in a pelagic seabird, the northern fulmar. Analysis of carcasses of successfully breeding adult fulmars indicated that body feathers moulted between September and March, whereas analyses of carcasses and activity patterns suggested that wing feather and tail feather moult occurred during more restricted periods (September to October and September to January, respectively). By randomly sampling relevant body feathers, average values for individual birds were shown to be consistent. We also integrated chemical analyses of body feather with geolocation tracking data to demonstrate that analyses of δ 13 C and δ 15 N values successfully assigned 88 % of birds to one of two broad wintering regions used by breeding adult fulmars from a Scottish study colony. These data provide strong support for the use of body feathers as a tool for exploring non-breeding foraging patterns and diet in wide-ranging, pelagic seabirds.

  16. Deployment of sustainable fueling/charging systems at California highway safety roadside rest areas : a research report from the National Center for Sustainable Transportation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-12-01

    The objectives of this research were to study the feasibility of the deployment of renewable hydrogen fueling/DC fast charging stations at California Safety Roadside Rest Areas (SRRAs), not at service areas with commercial activity, and the integrati...

  17. March 10, 2006, Transportation Conformity Rule That Addresses Requirements for Project-level Conformity Determinations in PM2.5 and PM10 Nonattainment and Maintenance Areas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This final rule, published March 10, 2006, establishes requirements for project-level conformity determinations in particulate matter (PM) 2.5 nonattainment and maintenance areas, and revises existing requirements for projects in PM10 areas.

  18. ABA and GA3 increase carbon allocation in different organs of grapevine plants by inducing accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates in leaves, enhancement of phloem area and expression of sugar transporters.

    PubMed

    Murcia, Germán; Pontin, Mariela; Reinoso, Herminda; Baraldi, Rita; Bertazza, Gianpaolo; Gómez-Talquenca, Sebastián; Bottini, Rubén; Piccoli, Patricia N

    2016-03-01

    Grape quality for winemaking depends on sugar accumulation and metabolism in berries. Abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellins (GAs) have been reported to control sugar allocation in economically important crops, although the mechanisms involved are still unknown. The present study tested if ABA and gibberellin A3 (GA3) enhance carbon allocation in fruits of grapevines by modifying phloem loading, phloem area and expression of sugar transporters in leaves and berries. Pot-grown Vitis vinifera cv. Malbec plants were sprayed with ABA and GA3 solutions. The amount of soluble sugars in leaves and berries related to photosynthesis were examined at three points of berry growth: pre-veraison, full veraison and post-veraison. Starch levels and amylase activity in leaves, gene expression of sugar transporters in leaves and berries and phloem anatomy were examined at full veraison. Accumulation of glucose and fructose in berries was hastened in ABA-treated plants at the stage of full veraison, which was correlated with enhancement of Vitis vinifera HEXOSE TRANSPORTER 2 (VvHT2) and Vitis vinifera HEXOSE TRANSPORTER 6 (VvHT6) gene expression, increases of phloem area and sucrose content in leaves. On the other hand, GA3 increased the quantity of photoassimilates delivered to the stem thus increasing xylem growth. In conclusion, stimulation of sugar transport by ABA and GA3 to berries and stems, respectively, was due to build-up of non-structural carbohydrates in leaves, modifications in phloem tissue and modulation in gene expression of sugar transporters. © 2015 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  19. Validation of membrane vesicle-based breast cancer resistance protein and multidrug resistance protein 2 assays to assess drug transport and the potential for drug-drug interaction to support regulatory submissions.

    PubMed

    Elsby, Robert; Smith, Veronica; Fox, Lisa; Stresser, David; Butters, Caroline; Sharma, Pradeep; Surry, Dominic D

    2011-09-01

    Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2) can play a role in the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs, impacting on the potential for drug-drug interactions. This study has characterized insect cell- and mammalian cell-derived ABC-transporter-expressing membrane vesicle test systems and validated methodologies for evaluation of candidate drugs as substrates or inhibitors of BCRP or MRP2. Concentration-dependent uptake of BCRP ([³H]oestrone 3-sulfate, [³H]methotrexate, [³H]rosuvastatin) and MRP2 ([³H]oestradiol 17β-glucuronide, [³H]pravastatin, carboxydichlorofluorescein) substrates, and inhibitory potencies (IC₅₀) of BCRP (sulfasalazine, novobiocin, fumitremorgin C) and MRP2 (benzbromarone, MK-571, terfenadine) inhibitors were determined. The apparent K(m) for probes [³H]oestrone 3-sulfate and [³H]oestradiol 17β-glucuronide was determined in insect cell vesicles to be 7.4 ± 1.7 and 105 ± 8.3 µM, respectively. All other substrates exhibited significant uptake ratios. Positive control inhibitors sulfasalazine and benzbromarone gave IC₅₀ values of 0.74 ± 0.18 and 36 ± 6.1 µM, respectively. All other inhibitors exhibited concentration-dependent inhibition. There was no significant difference in parameters generated between test systems. On the basis of the validation results, acceptance criteria to identify substrates/inhibitors of BCRP and MRP2 were determined for insect cell vesicles. The approach builds on earlier validations to support drug registration and extends from those cell-based systems to encompass assay formats using membrane vesicles.

  20. Transportation planning performance measures : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2005-10-01

    Oregon transportation plans, including the statewide Oregon Transportation Plan, and current regional transportation plans for the Portland, Salem, Eugene, and Medford metropolitan areas, contain some policy areas that are not adequately addressed by...

  1. Development of a method to forecast freight demand arising from the final demand sector and examination of federal data to analyze transportation demand for local area through trips : final report for Alabama Department of Transportation, research project

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-06-04

    This report describes the research performed to develop a framework and a research : approach to achieve insight into two important components of freight transportation in : Alabama, and the U.S. The first objective is to develop the ability to proje...

  2. A mixture theory model of fluid and solute transport in the microvasculature of normal and malignant tissues. II: Factor sensitivity analysis, calibration, and validation.

    PubMed

    Schuff, M M; Gore, J P; Nauman, E A

    2013-12-01

    The treatment of cancerous tumors is dependent upon the delivery of therapeutics through the blood by means of the microcirculation. Differences in the vasculature of normal and malignant tissues have been recognized, but it is not fully understood how these differences affect transport and the applicability of existing mathematical models has been questioned at the microscale due to the complex rheology of blood and fluid exchange with the tissue. In addition to determining an appropriate set of governing equations it is necessary to specify appropriate model parameters based on physiological data. To this end, a two stage sensitivity analysis is described which makes it possible to determine the set of parameters most important to the model's calibration. In the first stage, the fluid flow equations are examined and a sensitivity analysis is used to evaluate the importance of 11 different model parameters. Of these, only four substantially influence the intravascular axial flow providing a tractable set that could be calibrated using red blood cell velocity data from the literature. The second stage also utilizes a sensitivity analysis to evaluate the importance of 14 model parameters on extravascular flux. Of these, six exhibit high sensitivity and are integrated into the model calibration using a response surface methodology and experimental intra- and extravascular accumulation data from the literature (Dreher et al. in J Natl Cancer Inst 98(5):335-344, 2006). The model exhibits good agreement with the experimental results for both the mean extravascular concentration and the penetration depth as a function of time for inert dextran over a wide range of molecular weights.

  3. Direct Measurement of Proximal Isovelocity Surface Area by Real-Time Three-Dimensional Color Doppler for Quantitation of Aortic Regurgitant Volume: An In Vitro Validation

    PubMed Central

    Pirat, Bahar; Little, Stephen H.; Igo, Stephen R.; McCulloch, Marti; Nosé, Yukihiko; Hartley, Craig J.; Zoghbi, William A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) method is useful in the quantitation of aortic regurgitation (AR). We hypothesized that actual measurement of PISA provided with real-time 3-dimensional (3D) color Doppler yields more accurate regurgitant volumes than those estimated by 2-dimensional (2D) color Doppler PISA. Methods We developed a pulsatile flow model for AR with an imaging chamber in which interchangeable regurgitant orifices with defined shapes and areas were incorporated. An ultrasonic flow meter was used to calculate the reference regurgitant volumes. A total of 29 different flow conditions for 5 orifices with different shapes were tested at a rate of 72 beats/min. 2D PISA was calculated as 2π r2, and 3D PISA was measured from 8 equidistant radial planes of the 3D PISA. Regurgitant volume was derived as PISA × aliasing velocity × time velocity integral of AR/peak AR velocity. Results Regurgitant volumes by flow meter ranged between 12.6 and 30.6 mL/beat (mean 21.4 ± 5.5 mL/beat). Regurgitant volumes estimated by 2D PISA correlated well with volumes measured by flow meter (r = 0.69); however, a significant underestimation was observed (y = 0.5x + 0.6). Correlation with flow meter volumes was stronger for 3D PISA-derived regurgitant volumes (r = 0.83); significantly less underestimation of regurgitant volumes was seen, with a regression line close to identity (y = 0.9x + 3.9). Conclusion Direct measurement of PISA is feasible, without geometric assumptions, using real-time 3D color Doppler. Calculation of aortic regurgitant volumes with 3D color Doppler using this methodology is more accurate than conventional 2D method with hemispheric PISA assumption. PMID:19168322

  4. Direct measurement of proximal isovelocity surface area by real-time three-dimensional color Doppler for quantitation of aortic regurgitant volume: an in vitro validation.

    PubMed

    Pirat, Bahar; Little, Stephen H; Igo, Stephen R; McCulloch, Marti; Nosé, Yukihiko; Hartley, Craig J; Zoghbi, William A

    2009-03-01

    The proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) method is useful in the quantitation of aortic regurgitation (AR). We hypothesized that actual measurement of PISA provided with real-time 3-dimensional (3D) color Doppler yields more accurate regurgitant volumes than those estimated by 2-dimensional (2D) color Doppler PISA. We developed a pulsatile flow model for AR with an imaging chamber in which interchangeable regurgitant orifices with defined shapes and areas were incorporated. An ultrasonic flow meter was used to calculate the reference regurgitant volumes. A total of 29 different flow conditions for 5 orifices with different shapes were tested at a rate of 72 beats/min. 2D PISA was calculated as 2pi r(2), and 3D PISA was measured from 8 equidistant radial planes of the 3D PISA. Regurgitant volume was derived as PISA x aliasing velocity x time velocity integral of AR/peak AR velocity. Regurgitant volumes by flow meter ranged between 12.6 and 30.6 mL/beat (mean 21.4 +/- 5.5 mL/beat). Regurgitant volumes estimated by 2D PISA correlated well with volumes measured by flow meter (r = 0.69); however, a significant underestimation was observed (y = 0.5x + 0.6). Correlation with flow meter volumes was stronger for 3D PISA-derived regurgitant volumes (r = 0.83); significantly less underestimation of regurgitant volumes was seen, with a regression line close to identity (y = 0.9x + 3.9). Direct measurement of PISA is feasible, without geometric assumptions, using real-time 3D color Doppler. Calculation of aortic regurgitant volumes with 3D color Doppler using this methodology is more accurate than conventional 2D method with hemispheric PISA assumption.

  5. 49 CFR 1522.103 - Requirements for validation firms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... firm's security program. (e) Change in information. (1) The validation firm must inform TSA, in a form... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for validation firms. 1522.103...-APPROVED VALIDATION FIRMS AND VALIDATORS TSA-Approved Validation Firms and Validators for the Certified...

  6. Intelligent transportation system (ITS) study for the Buffalo and Niagara Falls metropolitan area, Erie and Niagara Counties, New York : objectives, performance criteria & user service plan, working paper #3

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-06-18

    This paper is the third in a series that together will comprise an Intelligent Transportation System Study (ITS) for the Buffalo/Niagara Falls region. In this document, the problems identified in Working Paper #1 are critically reviewed to develop go...

  7. Lecture Notes on Criticality Safety Validation Using MCNP & Whisper

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Forrest B.; Rising, Michael Evan; Alwin, Jennifer Louise

    Training classes for nuclear criticality safety, MCNP documentation. The need for, and problems surrounding, validation of computer codes and data area considered first. Then some background for MCNP & Whisper is given--best practices for Monte Carlo criticality calculations, neutron spectra, S(α,β) thermal neutron scattering data, nuclear data sensitivities, covariance data, and correlation coefficients. Whisper is computational software designed to assist the nuclear criticality safety analyst with validation studies with the Monte Carlo radiation transport package MCNP. Whisper's methodology (benchmark selection – C k's, weights; extreme value theory – bias, bias uncertainty; MOS for nuclear data uncertainty – GLLS) and usagemore » are discussed.« less

  8. Predicting transporter-mediated drug interactions: Commentary on: "Pharmacokinetic evaluation of a drug transporter cocktail consisting of digoxin, furosemide, metformin and rosuvastatin" and "Validation of a microdose probe drug cocktail for clinical drug interaction assessments for drug transporters and CYP3A".

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Sparreboom, A

    2017-04-01

    Transporters, expressed in various tissues, govern the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs, and consequently their inherent safety and efficacy profiles. Drugs may interact with a transporter as a substrate and/or an inhibitor. Understanding transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions (DDIs), in addition to enzyme-mediated DDIs, is an integral part of risk assessment in drug development and regulatory review because the concomitant use of more than one medication in patients is common. © 2016 ASCPT.

  9. Rehearsal for Assessment of atmospheric optical Properties during biomass burning Events and Long-range transportation episodes at Metropolitan Area of São Paulo-Brazil (RAPEL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Fábio J. S.; Luis Guerrero-Rascado, Juan; Benavent-Oltra, Jose A.; Román, Roberto; Moreira, Gregori A.; Marques, Marcia T. A.; da Silva, Jonatan J.; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Artaxo, Paulo; Landulfo, Eduardo

    2018-04-01

    During the period of August-September 2016 an intensive campaign was carried out to assess aerosol properties in São Paulo-Brazil aiming to detect long-range aerosol transport events and to characterize the instrument regarding data quality. Aerosol optical properties retrieved by the GALION - LALINET SPU lidar station and collocated AERONET sunphotometer system are presented as extinction/ backscatter vertical profiles with microphysical products retrieved with GRASP inversion algorithm.

  10. Impact of climate change on acid mine drainage generation and contaminant transport in water ecosystems of semi-arid and arid mining areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anawar, Hossain Md.

    Disposal of untreated and treated mining wastes and tailings exerts a significant threat and hazard for environmental contamination including groundwater, surface water, wetlands, land, food chain and animals. In order to facilitate remediation techniques, it is important to understand the oxidation of sulfidic minerals, and the hydrolysis of the oxidation products that result in production of acid mine drainage (AMD), toxic metals, low pH, SO42- and Fe. This review has summarized the impacts of climate change on geochemical reactions, AMD generation, and water quality in semi-arid/arid mining environments. Besides this, the study included the effects of hydrological, seasonal and climate change on composition of AMD, contaminant transport in watersheds and restoration of mining sites. Different models have different types of limitations and benefits that control their adaptability and suitability of application in various mining environments. This review has made a comparative discussion of a few most potential and widely used reactive transport models that can be applied to simulate the effect of climate change on sulfide oxidation and AMD production from mining waste, and contaminant transport in surface and groundwater systems.

  11. Determining the contribution of long-range transport, regional and local source areas, to PM10 mass loading in Hessen, Germany using a novel multi-receptor based statistical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Saryu; Sinha, Baerbel

    2017-10-01

    This study uses two newly developed statistical source apportionment models, MuSAM and MuReSAM, to perform quantitative statistical source apportionment of PM10 at multiple receptor sites in South Hessen. MuSAM uses multi-site back trajectory data to quantify the contribution of long-range transport, while MuReSAM uses wind speed and direction as proxy for regional transport and quantifies the contribution of regional source areas. On average, between 7.8 and 9.1 μg/m3 of PM10 (∼50%) at receptor sites in South Hessen is contributed by long-range transport. The dominant source regions are Eastern, South Eastern, and Southern Europe. 32% of the PM10 at receptor sites in South Hessen is contributed by regional source areas (2.8-9.41 μg/m3). This fraction varies from <20% at remote sites to >40% for urban stations. Sources located within a 2 km radius around the receptor site are responsible for 7%-20% of the total PM10 mass (0.7-4.4 μg/m3). The perturbation study of the traffic flow due to the closing and reopening of the Schiersteiner Brücke revealed that the contribution of the bridge to PM10 mass loadings at two nearby receptor sites increased by approximately 120% after it reopened and became a bottleneck, although in absolute terms, the increase is small.

  12. An Isotopic View of Water and Nitrate Transport Through the Vadose Zone in Oregon’s Southern Willamette Valley’s Groundwater Management Area (S-GWMA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Groundwater nitrate contamination affects thousands of households in Oregon’s southern Willamette Valley and many more across the USA. The southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area (GWMA) was established in 2004 due to nitrate levels in the groundwater exceedi...

  13. Changing retail business models and the impact on CO2 emissions from transport : e-commerce deliveries in urban and rural areas.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2014-10-01

    While researchers have found relationships between passenger vehicle travel and smart growth development patterns, : similar relationships have not been extensively studied between urban form and goods movement trip making patterns. In : rural areas,...

  14. Fiscal Year 1997-2000 transportation improvement program : air quality analysis : air quality conformity determination documentation for the Franklin, Delaware, and Licking County maintenance area

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-04-01

    Under the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) Franklin, Delaware and Licking : Counties were designated a marginal nonattainment area for ozone. This : designation was based on 1988 air quality data which violated the NAAQS for : ozone. Since 1988 year t...

  15. Analysis of postfire hydrology, water quality, and sediment transport for selected streams in areas of the 2002 Hayman and Hinman fires, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a 5-year study in 2003 that focused on postfire stream-water quality and postfire sediment load in streams within the Hayman and Hinman fire study areas. This report compares water quality of selected streams receiving runoff from unburned areas and burned areas using concentrations and loads, and trend analysis, from seasonal data (approximately April–November) collected 2003–2007 at the Hayman fire study area, and data collected from 1999–2000 (prefire) and 2003 (postfire) at the Hinman fire study area. The water-quality data collected during this study include onsite measurements of streamflow, specific conductance, and turbidity, laboratory-determined pH, and concentrations of major ions, nutrients, organic carbon, trace elements, and suspended sediment. Postfire floods and effects on water quality of streams, lakes and reservoirs, drinking-water treatment, and the comparison of measured concentrations to applicable water quality standards also are discussed. Exceedances of Colorado water-quality standards in streams of both the Hayman and Hinman fire study areas only occurred for concentrations of five trace elements (not all trace-element exceedances occurred in every stream). Selected samples analyzed for total recoverable arsenic (fixed), dissolved copper (acute and chronic), total recoverable iron (chronic), dissolved manganese (acute, chronic, and fixed) and total recoverable mercury (chronic) exceeded Colorado aquatic-life standards.

  16. Validation of an assay for quantification of free normetanephrine, metanephrine and methoxytyramine in plasma by high performance liquid chromatography with coulometric detection: Comparison of peak-area vs. peak-height measurements.

    PubMed

    Nieć, Dawid; Kunicki, Paweł K

    2015-10-01

    Measurements of plasma concentrations of free normetanephrine (NMN), metanephrine (MN) and methoxytyramine (MTY) constitute the most diagnostically accurate screening test for pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. The aim of this article is to present the results from a validation of an analytical method utilizing high performance liquid chromatography with coulometric detection (HPLC-CD) for quantifying plasma free NMN, MN and MTY. Additionally, peak integration by height and area and the use of one calibration curve for all batches or individual calibration curve for each batch of samples was explored as to determine the optimal approach with regard to accuracy and precision. The method was validated using charcoal stripped plasma spiked with solutions of NMN, MN, MTY and internal standard (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylamine) with the exception of selectivity which was evaluated by analysis of real plasma samples. Calibration curve performance, accuracy, precision and recovery were determined following both peak-area and peak-height measurements and the obtained results were compared. The most accurate and precise method of calibration was evaluated by analyzing quality control samples at three concentration levels in 30 analytical runs. The detector response was linear over the entire tested concentration range from 10 to 2000pg/mL with R(2)≥0.9988. The LLOQ was 10pg/mL for each analyte of interest. To improve accuracy for measurements at low concentrations, a weighted (1/amount) linear regression model was employed, which resulted in inaccuracies of -2.48 to 9.78% and 0.22 to 7.81% following peak-area and peak-height integration, respectively. The imprecisions ranged from 1.07 to 15.45% and from 0.70 to 11.65% for peak-area and peak-height measurements, respectively. The optimal approach to calibration was the one utilizing an individual calibration curve for each batch of samples and peak-height measurements. It was characterized by inaccuracies ranging from -3

  17. MODAS Validation in Littoral Areas Using GRASP

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-30

    result (4 hr) is guiding new work on calculation efficiency. Figure 4. Near-optimal coordinated passive search plan against a complex transitor ... Transitor tracks form a river of roughly parallel potential paths. The two searcher tracks criss- cross this river like shoe lacings over much of

  18. Breast and cervical cancer screening among women in metropolitan areas of the United States by county-level commuting time to work and use of public transportation, 2004 and 2006.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Steven S; King, Jessica

    2010-03-19

    Commuting times and behaviors have been associated with a variety of chronic disease outcomes and health behaviors. We examined the relationships between ecologic measures of commuting time and use of public transportation in relation to breast and cervical cancer screening among women in U.S. metropolitan areas who participated in the 2004 and 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys. Self-reported county of residence was used to classify respondents as residents of metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs). Only BRFSS respondents who resided in the 39 MSAs with a population of > or = 1.5 million in 2007--representing a total of 337 counties--were included in this analysis. A total of 76,453 women aged > or = 40 years were included in analyses on mammography. Analyses on Pap testing were limited to women aged > or =18 years with no history of hysterectomy (n = 80,959). Area-based measures of socio-economic status (SES) were obtained by utilizing county-level information from the 2000 U.S. Census. With adjustment for age, no important associations were observed between receipt of a recent mammogram and either a county-level measure of commute time or residence in an area where more residents had access to a car. Similarly, women living in counties where at least four percent of the residents used public transportation were as likely to have had a recent mammogram or Pap test compared with women in areas where less than four percent of residents used public transportation. However, women living in counties where < 2% of residents had no access to a car were somewhat more likely to have had a Pap test in the past 3 years than women in areas where > or = 3% of the residents had no access to a car (87.3% versus 84.5%; p-value for test for trend < 0.01). In multivariate analysis, living in a county with a median commute time of at least 30 minutes was not significantly associated with having had a Pap test in the past 3 years (adjusted odds ratio (OR

  19. Breast and cervical cancer screening among women in metropolitan areas of the United States by county-level commuting time to work and use of public transportation, 2004 and 2006

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Commuting times and behaviors have been associated with a variety of chronic disease outcomes and health behaviors. We examined the relationships between ecologic measures of commuting time and use of public transportation in relation to breast and cervical cancer screening among women in U.S. metropolitan areas who participated in the 2004 and 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys. Methods Self-reported county of residence was used to classify respondents as residents of metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs). Only BRFSS respondents who resided in the 39 MSAs with a population of ≥ 1.5 million in 2007--representing a total of 337 counties--were included in this analysis. A total of 76,453 women aged ≥ 40 years were included in analyses on mammography. Analyses on Pap testing were limited to women aged ≥18 years with no history of hysterectomy (n = 80,959). Area-based measures of socio-economic status (SES) were obtained by utilizing county-level information from the 2000 U.S. Census. Results With adjustment for age, no important associations were observed between receipt of a recent mammogram and either a county-level measure of commute time or residence in an area where more residents had access to a car. Similarly, women living in counties where at least four percent of the residents used public transportation were as likely to have had a recent mammogram or Pap test compared with women in areas where less than four percent of residents used public transportation. However, women living in counties where < 2% of residents had no access to a car were somewhat more likely to have had a Pap test in the past 3 years than women in areas where ≥ 3% of the residents had no access to a car (87.3% versus 84.5%; p-value for test for trend < 0.01). In multivariate analysis, living in a county with a median commute time of at least 30 minutes was not significantly associated with having had a Pap test in the past 3 years (adjusted

  20. Shift Verification and Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Pandya, Tara M.; Evans, Thomas M.; Davidson, Gregory G

    2016-09-07

    This documentation outlines the verification and validation of Shift for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). Five main types of problems were used for validation: small criticality benchmark problems; full-core reactor benchmarks for light water reactors; fixed-source coupled neutron-photon dosimetry benchmarks; depletion/burnup benchmarks; and full-core reactor performance benchmarks. We compared Shift results to measured data and other simulated Monte Carlo radiation transport code results, and found very good agreement in a variety of comparison measures. These include prediction of critical eigenvalue, radial and axial pin power distributions, rod worth, leakage spectra, and nuclide inventories over amore » burn cycle. Based on this validation of Shift, we are confident in Shift to provide reference results for CASL benchmarking.« less