Science.gov

Sample records for valine leucine isoleucine

  1. A NMR experiment for simultaneous correlations of valine and leucine/isoleucine methyls with carbonyl chemical shifts in proteins.

    PubMed

    Tugarinov, Vitali; Venditti, Vincenzo; Marius Clore, G

    2014-01-01

    A methyl-detected 'out-and-back' NMR experiment for obtaining simultaneous correlations of methyl resonances of valine and isoleucine/leucine residues with backbone carbonyl chemical shifts, SIM-HMCM(CGCBCA)CO, is described. The developed pulse-scheme serves the purpose of convenience in recording a single data set for all Ile(δ1), Leu(δ) and Val(γ) (ILV) methyl positions instead of acquiring two separate spectra selective for valine or leucine/isoleucine residues. The SIM-HMCM(CGCBCA)CO experiment can be used for ILV methyl assignments in moderately sized protein systems (up to ~100 kDa) where the backbone chemical shifts of (13)C(α), (13)Cβ and (13)CO are known from prior NMR studies and where some losses in sensitivity can be tolerated for the sake of an overall reduction in NMR acquisition time.

  2. Valine but not leucine or isoleucine supports neurotransmitter glutamate synthesis during synaptic activity in cultured cerebellar neurons.

    PubMed

    Bak, Lasse K; Johansen, Maja L; Schousboe, Arne; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    2012-09-01

    Synthesis of neuronal glutamate from α-ketoglutarate for neurotransmission necessitates an amino group nitrogen donor; however, it is not clear which amino acid(s) serves this role. Thus, the ability of the three branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), leucine, isoleucine, and valine, to act as amino group nitrogen donors for synthesis of vesicular neurotransmitter glutamate was investigated in cultured mouse cerebellar (primarily glutamatergic) neurons. The cultures were superfused in the presence of (15) N-labeled BCAAs, and synaptic activity was induced by pulses of N-methyl-D-aspartate (300 μM), which results in release of vesicular glutamate. At the end of the superfusion experiment, the vesicular pool of glutamate was released by treatment with α-latrotoxin (3 nM, 5 min). This experimental paradigm allows a separate analysis of the cytoplasmic and vesicular pools of glutamate. Amount and extent of (15) N labeling of intracellular amino acids plus vesicular glutamate were analyzed employing HPLC and LC-MS analysis. Only when [(15) N]valine served as precursor did the labeling of both cytoplasmic and vesicular glutamate increase after synaptic activity. In addition, only [(15) N]valine was able to maintain the amount of vesicular glutamate during synaptic activity. This indicates that, among the BCAAs, only valine supports the increased need for synthesis of vesicular glutamate. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Changes in plasma phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine, and valine are associated with significant changes in intracranial pressure and jugular venous oxygen saturation in patients with severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Vuille-Dit-Bille, Raphael N; Ha-Huy, Riem; Stover, John F

    2012-09-01

    Changes in plasma aromatic amino acids (AAA = phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine) and branched chain amino acids (BCAA = isoleucine, leucine, valine) levels possibly influencing intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral oxygen consumption (SjvO(2)) were investigated in 19 sedated patients up to 14 days following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Compared to 44 healthy volunteers, jugular venous plasma BCAA were significantly decreased by 35% (p < 0.001) while AAA were markedly increased in TBI patients by 19% (p < 0.001). The BCAA to AAA ratio was significantly decreased by 55% (p < 0.001) which persisted during the entire study period. Elevated plasma phenylalanine was associated with decreased ICP and increased SjvO(2), while higher plasma isoleucine and leucine levels were associated with increased ICP and higher plasma leucine and valine were linked to decreased SjvO(2). The amount of enterally administered amino acids was associated with significantly increased plasma levels with the exception of phenylalanine. Contrary to the initial assumption that elevated AAA and decreased BCAA levels are detrimental, increased plasma phenylalanine levels were associated with beneficial signs in terms of decreased ICP and reduced cerebral oxygen consumption reflected by increased SjvO(2); concomitantly, elevated plasma isoleucine and leucine levels were associated with increased ICP while leucine and valine were associated with decreased SjvO(2) following severe TBI, respectively. The impact of enteral nutrition on this observed pattern must be examined prospectively to determine if higher amounts of phenylalanine should be administered to promote beneficial effects on brain metabolism and if normalization of plasma BCAA levels is without cerebral side effects.

  4. Cloning of Bordetella pertussis putative outer protein D (BopD) and Leucin/Isoleucine/Valin binding protein (LivJ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öztürk, Burcu Emine Tefon

    2017-04-01

    Whooping cough also known as pertussis is a contagious acute upper respiratory disease primarily caused by Bordetella pertussis. It is known that this disease may be fatal especially in infants and recently, the number of pertussis cases has been increased. Despite the fact that there are numbers of acellular vaccines on the market, the current acellular vaccine compositions are inadequate for providing sustainable immunity and avoiding subclinical disease cases. Hence, exploring novel proteins with high immune protective capacities is essential to enhance the clinical efficacy of current vaccines. In this study, genes of selected immunogenic proteins via -omics studies, namely Putative outer protein D (BopD) and Leucin/Isoleucine/Valin Binding Protein (LivJ) were first cloned into pGEM-T Easy vector and transformed to into E. coli DH5α cells and then cloned into the expression vector pET-28a(+) and transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3) cells to express the proteins.

  5. Specific 13C labeling of leucine, valine and isoleucine methyl groups for unambiguous detection of long-range restraints in protein solid-state NMR studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasshuber, Hannes Klaus; Demers, Jean-Philippe; Chevelkov, Veniamin; Giller, Karin; Becker, Stefan; Lange, Adam

    2015-03-01

    Here we present an isotopic labeling strategy to easily obtain unambiguous long-range distance restraints in protein solid-state NMR studies. The method is based on the inclusion of two biosynthetic precursors in the bacterial growth medium, α-ketoisovalerate and α-ketobutyrate, leading to the production of leucine, valine and isoleucine residues that are exclusively 13C labeled on methyl groups. The resulting spectral simplification facilitates the collection of distance restraints, the verification of carbon chemical shift assignments and the measurement of methyl group dynamics. This approach is demonstrated on the type-three secretion system needle of Shigella flexneri, where 49 methyl-methyl and methyl-nitrogen distance restraints including 10 unambiguous long-range distance restraints could be collected. By combining this labeling scheme with ultra-fast MAS and proton detection, the assignment of methyl proton chemical shifts was achieved.

  6. Specific 13C labeling of leucine, valine and isoleucine methyl groups for unambiguous detection of long-range restraints in protein solid-state NMR studies.

    PubMed

    Fasshuber, Hannes Klaus; Demers, Jean-Philippe; Chevelkov, Veniamin; Giller, Karin; Becker, Stefan; Lange, Adam

    2015-03-01

    Here we present an isotopic labeling strategy to easily obtain unambiguous long-range distance restraints in protein solid-state NMR studies. The method is based on the inclusion of two biosynthetic precursors in the bacterial growth medium, α-ketoisovalerate and α-ketobutyrate, leading to the production of leucine, valine and isoleucine residues that are exclusively (13)C labeled on methyl groups. The resulting spectral simplification facilitates the collection of distance restraints, the verification of carbon chemical shift assignments and the measurement of methyl group dynamics. This approach is demonstrated on the type-three secretion system needle of Shigella flexneri, where 49 methyl-methyl and methyl-nitrogen distance restraints including 10 unambiguous long-range distance restraints could be collected. By combining this labeling scheme with ultra-fast MAS and proton detection, the assignment of methyl proton chemical shifts was achieved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Enzymes of the Isoleucine-Valine Pathway in Acinetobacter

    PubMed Central

    Twarog, Robert

    1972-01-01

    Regulation of four of the enzymes required for isoleucine and valine biosynthesis in Acinetobacter was studied. A three- to fourfold derepression of acetohydroxyacid synthetase was routinely observed in two different wild-type strains when grown in minimal medium relative to cells grown in minimal medium supplemented with leucine, valine, and isoleucine. A similar degree of synthetase derepression was observed in appropriately grown isoleucine or leucine auxotrophs. No significant derepression of threonine deaminase or transaminase B occurred in either wild-type or mutant cells grown under a variety of conditions. Three amino acid analogues were tested with wild-type cells; except for a two- to threefold derepression of dihydroxyacid dehydrase when high concentrations of aminobutyric acid were added to the medium, essentially the same results were obtained. Experiments showed that threonine deaminase is subject to feedback inhibition by isoleucine and that valine reverses this inhibition. Cooperative effects in threonine deaminase were demonstrated with crude extracts. The data indicate that the synthesis of isoleucine and valine in Acinetobacter is regulated by repression control of acetohydroxyacid synthetase and feedback inhibition of threonine deaminase and acetohydroxyacid synthetase. PMID:4669215

  8. Clusters of isoleucine, leucine, and valine side chains define cores of stability in high-energy states of globular proteins: Sequence determinants of structure and stability.

    PubMed

    Kathuria, Sagar V; Chan, Yvonne H; Nobrega, R Paul; Özen, Ayşegül; Matthews, C Robert

    2016-03-01

    Measurements of protection against exchange of main chain amide hydrogens (NH) with solvent hydrogens in globular proteins have provided remarkable insights into the structures of rare high-energy states that populate their folding free-energy surfaces. Lacking, however, has been a unifying theory that rationalizes these high-energy states in terms of the structures and sequences of their resident proteins. The Branched Aliphatic Side Chain (BASiC) hypothesis has been developed to explain the observed patterns of protection in a pair of TIM barrel proteins. This hypothesis supposes that the side chains of isoleucine, leucine, and valine (ILV) residues often form large hydrophobic clusters that very effectively impede the penetration of water to their underlying hydrogen bond networks and, thereby, enhance the protection against solvent exchange. The linkage between the secondary and tertiary structures enables these ILV clusters to serve as cores of stability in high-energy partially folded states. Statistically significant correlations between the locations of large ILV clusters in native conformations and strong protection against exchange for a variety of motifs reported in the literature support the generality of the BASiC hypothesis. The results also illustrate the necessity to elaborate this simple hypothesis to account for the roles of adjacent hydrocarbon moieties in defining stability cores of partially folded states along folding reaction coordinates. © 2015 The Protein Society.

  9. Simultaneous determination of leucine, isoleucine and valine in Beagle dog plasma by HPLC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Xie, Huiru; Chen, Xu; Jiang, Xuehua; Wang, Ling

    2015-10-10

    Leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile) and valine (Val) are three branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), which have been widely used as dietary supplements for professional athletes and patients with liver failure or catabolic diseases. To date, no pharmacokinetic studies of BCAAs in vivo useful for the assessment of clinical effect following daily intake has been reported. Thus in this study, an HPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of Leu, Ile and Val in Beagle dog plasma using homoarginine as the internal standard was developed and validated in terms of specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, and stability. This assay method was then applied to a pharmacokinetic study of BCAAs in dogs following oral administration of 0.25 g/kg and 0.50 g/kg BCAAs. The HPLC-MS/MS method was found to be sensitive and reproducible for quantification of BCAAs in dog plasma and successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study. All these BCAAs were well absorbed with a substantial increase in the plasma concentration after a baseline modification. No statistical significance was identified in different gender group and no drug accumulation was observed following multiple doses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Maintenance valine, isoleucine, and tryptophan requirements for poultry.

    PubMed

    de Lima, M B; Sakomura, N K; Dorigam, J C P; da Silva, E P; Ferreira, N T; Fernandes, J B K

    2016-04-01

    Poultry maintenance requirements for valine, isoleucine, and tryptophan were measured by nitrogen balance using different unit systems. The nitrogen balance trial lasted 5 d with 48 h of fasting (with roosters receiving only water+sucrose) and the last 72 h for feeding and excreta collection. Forty grams of each diet first-limiting in valine, isoleucine, or tryptophan was fed by tube each day (3 d) to give a range of intakes from 0 to 101, 0 to 119, and 0 to 34 mg/kg BW d of valine, isoleucine, and tryptophan, respectively. A nitrogen-free diet containing energy, vitamins, and minerals, meeting the rooster requirements, was offered ad libitum during these three d. To confirm that the amino acids studied were limiting, a treatment was added with a control diet formulated by adding 0.24 g/kg of L-valine, 0.21 g/kg of L-isoleucine, and 0.10 g/kg of L-tryptophan to the diets with lower amino acid level. Excreta were collected during the last 3 d of the balance period and the nitrogen content of the excreta was analyzed. For each amino acid, a linear regression between nitrogen retention (NR) and amino acid intake was performed. The equations from linear regression were: NR=-98.6 (±10.1)+2.4 (±0.2)×Val, NR=-46.9 (±7.1)+2.3 (±0.1)×Ile, NR=-39.5 (±7.7)+7.3 (±0.4)×Trp; where Val, Ile, and Trp are the intakes of valine, isoleucine, and tryptophan in mg/kg body weight per d, respectively. The valine, isoleucine, and tryptophan required to maintain the body at zero NR were calculated to be 41, 20, and 5 mg/kg body weight per d, respectively. For the system unit mg per kg of metabolic weight, the intake of valine, isoleucine, and tryptophan was 59, 32, and 9, respectively. Considering the degree of maturity of the animal and body protein content (BPm (0.73)×u), the amounts of valine, isoleucine, and tryptophan required for maintenance were calculated to be 247, 134, and 37 mg per unit of maintenance protein (BPm (0.73)×u) per d. Maintenance requirement is more

  11. ISOLEUCINE AND VALINE METABOLISM IN ESCHERICHIA COLI XI. K-12

    PubMed Central

    Leavitt, Richard I.; Umbarger, H. E.

    1962-01-01

    Leavitt, Richard I. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass.) and H. E. Umbarger. Isoleucine and valine metabolism in Escherichia coli. XI. Valine inhibition of the growth of Escherichia coli strain K-12. J. Bacteriol. 83:624–630. 1962.—The inhibition of the growth of Escherichia coli strain K-12 by valine was shown to be due to the sensitivity of the acetohydroxybutyrate-forming system to valine. It was demonstrated that both E. coli strain W, a strain whose growth is unaffected by valine, and a valine-resistant mutant of strain K-12 have acetolactate- and acetohydroxybutyrate-forming systems which are less sensitive to valine than that of strain K-12. It was further shown that α-aminobutyrate accumulates in the culture fluid of the valine-sensitive strain when incubated in the presence of valine. The levels of valine in the “free amino acid pool” were examined and found to be related to the differences in valine sensitivity of the acetolactate-forming systems of the three strains. PMID:14463257

  12. Suppression of Endogenous Glucose Production by Isoleucine and Valine and Impact of Diet Composition.

    PubMed

    Arrieta-Cruz, Isabel; Su, Ya; Gutiérrez-Juárez, Roger

    2016-02-15

    Leucine has been shown to acutely inhibit hepatic glucose production in rodents by a mechanism requiring its metabolism to acetyl-CoA in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH). In the early stages, all branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are metabolized by a shared set of enzymes to produce a ketoacid, which is later metabolized to acetyl-CoA. Consequently, isoleucine and valine may also modulate glucose metabolism. To examine this possibility we performed intrahypothalamic infusions of isoleucine or valine in rats and assessed whole body glucose kinetics under basal conditions and during euglycemic pancreatic clamps. Furthermore, because high fat diet (HFD) consumption is known to interfere with central glucoregulation, we also asked whether the action of BCAAs was affected by HFD. We fed rats a lard-rich diet for a short interval and examined their response to central leucine. The results showed that both isoleucine and valine individually lowered blood glucose by decreasing liver glucose production. Furthermore, the action of the BCAA leucine was markedly attenuated by HFD feeding. We conclude that all three BCAAs centrally modulate glucose metabolism in the liver and that their action is disrupted by HFD-induced insulin resistance.

  13. Suppression of Endogenous Glucose Production by Isoleucine and Valine and Impact of Diet Composition

    PubMed Central

    Arrieta-Cruz, Isabel; Su, Ya; Gutiérrez-Juárez, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Leucine has been shown to acutely inhibit hepatic glucose production in rodents by a mechanism requiring its metabolism to acetyl-CoA in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH). In the early stages, all branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are metabolized by a shared set of enzymes to produce a ketoacid, which is later metabolized to acetyl-CoA. Consequently, isoleucine and valine may also modulate glucose metabolism. To examine this possibility we performed intrahypothalamic infusions of isoleucine or valine in rats and assessed whole body glucose kinetics under basal conditions and during euglycemic pancreatic clamps. Furthermore, because high fat diet (HFD) consumption is known to interfere with central glucoregulation, we also asked whether the action of BCAAs was affected by HFD. We fed rats a lard-rich diet for a short interval and examined their response to central leucine. The results showed that both isoleucine and valine individually lowered blood glucose by decreasing liver glucose production. Furthermore, the action of the BCAA leucine was markedly attenuated by HFD feeding. We conclude that all three BCAAs centrally modulate glucose metabolism in the liver and that their action is disrupted by HFD-induced insulin resistance. PMID:26891318

  14. 3-Hydroxyisobutyrate Dehydrogenase Is Involved in Both, Valine and Isoleucine Degradation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Schertl, Peter; Danne, Lennart; Braun, Hans-Peter

    2017-09-01

    In plants, amino acid catabolism is especially relevant in metabolic stress situations (e.g. limited carbohydrate availability during extended darkness). Under these conditions, amino acids are used as alternative substrates for respiration. Complete oxidation of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine (Ile), and valine (Val) in the mitochondria efficiently allows the formation of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation. However, the metabolic pathways for BCAA breakdown are largely unknown so far in plants. A systematic search for Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) genes encoding proteins resembling enzymes involved in BCAA catabolism in animals, fungi, and bacteria as well as proteomic analyses of mitochondrial fractions from Arabidopsis allowed the identification of a putative 3-hydroxyisobutyrate dehydrogenase, AtHDH1 (At4g20930), involved in Val degradation. Systematic substrate screening analyses revealed that the protein uses 3-hydroxyisobutyrate but additionally 3-hydroxypropionate as substrates. This points to a role of the enzyme not only in Val but possibly also in Ile metabolism. At4g20930 knockdown plants were characterized to test this conclusion. Root toxicity assays revealed increased root growth inhibition of the mutants if cultivated in the presence of Val or Ile but not in the presence of leucine. We conclude that AtHDH1 has a dual role in BCAA metabolism in plants. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Specific formation of negative ions from leucine and isoleucine molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papp, Peter; Shchukin, Pavel; Matejčík, Štefan

    2010-01-01

    Dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to gas phase leucine (Leu) and isoleucine (Ile) molecules was studied using experimental and quantum-chemical methods. The relative partial cross sections for DEA have been measured using crossed electron/molecular beams technique. Supporting ab initio calculations of the structure, energies of neutral molecules, fragments, and negative ions have been carried out at G3MP2 and B3LYP levels in order to interpret the experimental data. Leu and Ile exhibit several common features. The negative ionic fragments from both molecules are formed in the electron energy range from 0 to approximately 14 eV via three resonances (1.2, 5.5, and 8 eV). The relative partial cross sections for DEA Leu and Ile are very similar. The dominant negative ions formed were closed shell negative ions (M-H)- (m/z=130) formed preferentially via low electron energy resonance of 1.23 eV. Additional negative ions with m/z=115, 114, 113, 112, 84, 82, 74, 45, 26, and 17 have been detected.

  16. Repression of branched-chain amino acid synthesis in Staphylococcus aureus is mediated by isoleucine via CodY, and by a leucine-rich attenuator peptide.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Julienne C; King, Alyssa N; Grigg, Jason C; Sheldon, Jessica R; Edgell, David R; Murphy, Michael E P; Brinsmade, Shaun R; Heinrichs, David E

    2018-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus requires branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; isoleucine, leucine, valine) for protein synthesis, branched-chain fatty acid synthesis, and environmental adaptation by responding to their availability via the global transcriptional regulator CodY. The importance of BCAAs for S. aureus physiology necessitates that it either synthesize them or scavenge them from the environment. Indeed S. aureus uses specialized transporters to scavenge BCAAs, however, its ability to synthesize them has remained conflicted by reports that it is auxotrophic for leucine and valine despite carrying an intact BCAA biosynthetic operon. In revisiting these findings, we have observed that S. aureus can engage in leucine and valine synthesis, but the level of BCAA synthesis is dependent on the BCAA it is deprived of, leading us to hypothesize that each BCAA differentially regulates the biosynthetic operon. Here we show that two mechanisms of transcriptional repression regulate the level of endogenous BCAA biosynthesis in response to specific BCAA availability. We identify a trans-acting mechanism involving isoleucine-dependent repression by the global transcriptional regulator CodY and a cis-acting leucine-responsive attenuator, uncovering how S. aureus regulates endogenous biosynthesis in response to exogenous BCAA availability. Moreover, given that isoleucine can dominate CodY-dependent regulation of BCAA biosynthesis, and that CodY is a global regulator of metabolism and virulence in S. aureus, we extend the importance of isoleucine availability for CodY-dependent regulation of other metabolic and virulence genes. These data resolve the previous conflicting observations regarding BCAA biosynthesis, and reveal the environmental signals that not only induce BCAA biosynthesis, but that could also have broader consequences on S. aureus environmental adaptation and virulence via CodY.

  17. Incorporation of [h]leucine and [h]valine into protein of freshwater bacteria: field applications.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, N O

    1992-11-01

    Incorporation of leucine and valine into proteins of freshwater bacteria as a measure of bacterial production was tested in two eutrophic Danish lakes and was related to bacterial production measured by thymidine incorporation. In a depth profile (0 to 8 m) in Frederiksborg Castle Lake, incorporation of 100 nM leucine and valine gave similar rates of protein production. In terms of carbon, this production was about 50% lower than incorporation of 10 nM thymidine. In another depth profile in the same lake, incorporations of 10 nM valine and 100 nM leucine were identical, but differed from incorporations of 10 nM leucine and 100 nM valine. Bacterial carbon production calculated from incorporations of 10 nM thymidine and 10 nM leucine was similar, whereas 10 nM valine and 100 nM leucine and valine indicated an up to 2.4-fold-higher rate of carbon production. In a diel study in Lake Bagsvaerd, incorporation of 100 nM leucine and valine indicated a similar protein production, but the calculated carbon production was about 1.9-fold higher than the production based on uptake of 10 nM thymidine. Different diel changes in incorporation of the two amino acids and in incorporation of thymidine were observed. In both lakes, concentrations of naturally occurring leucine and valine were <5 nM in most samples. This means that the specific activity of a H isotope added at a concentration of 100 nM usually was diluted a maximum of 5%. Net assimilation of natural free amino acids in the lakes sustained 8 to 69% of the net bacterial carbon requirement, estimated from incorporation of leucine, valine, or thymidine. The present results indicate that incorporation of leucine and valine permits realistic measurements of bacterial production in freshwater environments.

  18. Role of BkdR, a Transcriptional Activator of the SigL-Dependent Isoleucine and Valine Degradation Pathway in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Debarbouille, Michel; Gardan, Rozenn; Arnaud, Maryvonne; Rapoport, George

    1999-01-01

    A new gene, bkdR (formerly called yqiR), encoding a regulator with a central (catalytic) domain was found in Bacillus subtilis. This gene controls the utilization of isoleucine and valine as sole nitrogen sources. Seven genes, previously called yqiS, yqiT, yqiU, yqiV, bfmBAA, bfmBAB, and bfmBB and now referred to as ptb, bcd, buk, lpd, bkdA1, bkdA2, and bkdB, are located downstream from the bkdR gene in B. subtilis. The products of these genes are similar to phosphate butyryl coenzyme A transferase, leucine dehydrogenase, butyrate kinase, and four components of the branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase complex: E3 (dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase), E1α (dehydrogenase), E1β (decarboxylase), and E2 (dihydrolipoamide acyltransferase). Isoleucine and valine utilization was abolished in bcd and bkdR null mutants of B. subtilis. The seven genes appear to be organized as an operon, bkd, transcribed from a −12, −24 promoter. The expression of the bkd operon was induced by the presence of isoleucine or valine in the growth medium and depended upon the presence of the sigma factor SigL, a member of the sigma 54 family. Transcription of this operon was abolished in strains containing a null mutation in the regulatory gene bkdR. Deletion analysis showed that upstream activating sequences are involved in the expression of the bkd operon and are probably the target of bkdR. Transcription of the bkd operon is also negatively controlled by CodY, a global regulator of gene expression in response to nutritional conditions. PMID:10094682

  19. An EThcD-Based Method for Discrimination of Leucine and Isoleucine Residues in Tryptic Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhokhov, Sergey S.; Kovalyov, Sergey V.; Samgina, Tatiana Yu.; Lebedev, Albert T.

    2017-08-01

    An EThcD-based approach for the reliable discrimination of isomeric leucine and isoleucine residues in peptide de novo sequencing procedure has been proposed. A multistage fragmentation of peptide ions was performed with Orbitrap Elite mass spectrometer in electrospray ionization mode. At the first stage, z-ions were produced by ETD or ETcaD fragmentation of doubly or triply charged peptide precursor ions. These primary ions were further fragmented by HCD with broad-band ion isolation, and the resulting w-ions showed different mass for leucine and isoleucine residues. The procedure did not require manual isolation of specific z-ions prior to HCD stage. Forty-three tryptic peptides (3 to 27 residues) obtained by trypsinolysis of human serum albumin (HSA) and gp188 protein were analyzed. To demonstrate a proper solution for radical site migration problem, three non-tryptic peptides were also analyzed. A total of 93 leucine and isoleucine residues were considered and 83 of them were correctly identified. The developed approach can be a reasonable substitution for additional Edman degradation procedure, which is still used in peptide sequencing for leucine and isoleucine discrimination.

  20. Amino acid metabolism in the human fetus at term: leucine, valine, and methionine kinetics.

    PubMed

    van den Akker, Chris H P; Schierbeek, Henk; Minderman, Gardi; Vermes, Andras; Schoonderwaldt, Ernst M; Duvekot, Johannes J; Steegers, Eric A P; van Goudoever, Johannes B

    2011-12-01

    Human fetal metabolism is largely unexplored. Understanding how a healthy fetus achieves its fast growth rates could eventually play a pivotal role in improving future nutritional strategies for premature infants. To quantify specific fetal amino acid kinetics, eight healthy pregnant women received before elective cesarean section at term, continuous stable isotope infusions of the essential amino acids [1-13C,15N]leucine, [U-13C5]valine, and [1-13C]methionine. Umbilical blood was collected after birth and analyzed for enrichments and concentrations using mass spectrometry techniques. Fetuses showed considerable leucine, valine, and methionine uptake and high turnover rates. α-Ketoisocaproate, but not α-ketoisovalerate (the leucine and valine ketoacids, respectively), was transported at net rate from the fetus to the placenta. Especially, leucine and valine data suggested high oxidation rates, up to half of net uptake. This was supported by relatively low α-ketoisocaproate reamination rates to leucine. Our data suggest high protein breakdown and synthesis rates, comparable with, or even slightly higher than in premature infants. The relatively large uptakes of total leucine and valine carbon also suggest high fetal oxidation rates of these essential branched chain amino acids.

  1. The response of weaned piglets to dietary valine and leucine.

    PubMed

    Meyer, F; Jansen van Rensburg, C; Gous, R M

    2017-08-01

    Valine (Val) is considered to be the fifth-limiting amino acid in a maize-soyabean meal diet for pigs. Excess leucine (Leu) levels often occur in commercial diets, which may attenuate the effect of Val deficiency because of an increased oxidation of Val. The objective of the present experiment was to determine the effect of increasing concentrations of Leu on the response of young piglets to dietary Val. In all, 75 Large White×Landrace entire male pigs, 44 days of age and with a mean starting weight of 13.5 kg, were used. Three of these were sacrificed at the start to determine their mean initial chemical composition. A summit feed first limiting in Val was serially diluted with a non-protein diluent to produce a series of five digestible Val concentrations of 11.9, 10.1, 8.3, 6.6 and 4.8 g/kg, with a sixth treatment being added to test that the feeds were limiting in Val. Three identical Val series, each with six levels of Val, were supplemented with increasing amounts of Leu (23, 45 and 67 g/kg), thus 18 treatments in total. All pigs were killed at the end of the trial after 18 days for analysis of water, protein, lipid and ash in the carcass. The levels of Val and Leu and their interaction significantly influenced all the measurements taken in the trial. Daily gain in liveweight, water and protein, and feed conversion efficiency all increased with dietary Val content, whereas feed intake decreased as both Val and Leu contents increased. The deleterious effect of increased Leu on feed intake and growth was more marked at lower levels of Val. Supplementing the feed with the lowest Val content with additional Val largely overcame the effect of excess Leu. The efficiency of utilisation of Val for protein growth was unaffected by the level of Leu in the feed, the primary response to excess Leu being a reduction in feed intake. An intake of around 9 g Val/day yielded maximal protein growth during the period from 44 to 62 days of age in pigs of the genotype used in

  2. Independent valine and leucine isotope labeling in Escherichia coli protein overexpression systems.

    PubMed

    Lichtenecker, Roman J; Weinhäupl, Katharina; Reuther, Lukas; Schörghuber, Julia; Schmid, Walther; Konrat, Robert

    2013-11-01

    The addition of labeled α-ketoisovalerate to the growth medium of a protein-expressing host organism has evolved into a versatile tool to achieve concomitant incorporation of specific isotopes into valine- and leucine- residues. The resulting target proteins represent excellent probes for protein NMR analysis. However, as the sidechain resonances of these residues emerge in a narrow spectral range, signal overlap represents a severe limitation in the case of high-molecular-weight NMR probes. We present a protocol to eliminate leucine labeling by supplying the medium with unlabeled α-ketoisocaproate. The resulting spectra of a model protein exclusively feature valine signals of increased intensity, confirming the method to be a first example of independent valine and leucine labeling employing α-ketoacid precursor compounds.

  3. NMR analyses of the conformations of L-isoleucine and L-valine bound to Escherichia coli isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase

    SciTech Connect

    Kohda, D.; Kawai, G.; Yokoyama, S.

    1987-10-06

    The 400-MHz /sup 1/H NMR spectra of L-isoleucine and L-valine were measured in the presence of Escherichia coli isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase (IleRS). Because of chemical exchange of L-isoleucine or L-valine between the free state and the IleRS-bound state, a transferred nuclear Overhauser effect (TRNOE) was observed among proton resonances of L-isoleucine or L-valine. However, in the presence of isoleucyl adenylate tightly bound to the amino acid activation site of IleRS, no TRNOE for L-isoleucine or L-valine was observed. This indicates that the observed TRNOE is due to the interaction of L-isoleucine or L-valine with the amino acid activation site of IleRS.more » The conformations of these amino acids in the amino acid activation site of IleRS were determined by the analyses of time dependences of TRNOEs and TRNOE action spectra. The IleRS-bound L-isoleucine takes the gauche/sup +/ form about the C/sub ..cap alpha../-C/sub ..beta../ bond and the trans form about the C/sub ..beta../-C/sub ..gamma../sub 1// bond. The IleRS-bound L-valine takes the guache/sup -/ form about the C/sub ..cap alpha../-C/sub ..beta../ bond. Thus, the conformation of the IleRS-bound L-valine is the same as that of IleRS-bound L-isoleucine except for the delta-methyl group. The side chain of L-isoleucine or L-valine lies in an aliphatic hydrophobic pocket of the active site of IleRS. Such hydrophobic interaction with IleRS is more significant for L-isoleucine than for L-valine. The TRNOE analysis is useful for studying the amino acid discrimination mechanism of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases.« less

  4. Intragastric administration of leucine or isoleucine lowers the blood glucose response to a mixed-nutrient drink by different mechanisms in healthy, lean volunteers.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Sina S; Fitzgerald, Penelope Ce; Schober, Gudrun; Steinert, Robert E; Horowitz, Michael; Feinle-Bisset, Christine

    2016-11-01

    The branched-chain amino acids leucine and isoleucine lower blood glucose after oral glucose ingestion, and the intraduodenal infusion of leucine decreases energy intake in healthy, lean men. We investigated the effects of the intragastric administration of leucine and isoleucine on the gastric emptying of, and blood glucose responses to, a physiologic mixed-macronutrient drink and subsequent energy intake. In 2 separate studies, 12 healthy, lean subjects received on 3 separate occasions an intragastric infusion of 5 g leucine (leucine-5g) or an intragastric infusion of 10 g leucine (leucine-10g), an intragastric infusion of 5 g isoleucine (isoleucine-5g) or an intragastric infusion of 10 g isoleucine (isoleucine-10g), or a control. Fifteen minutes later, subjects consumed a mixed-nutrient drink (400 kcal, 56 g carbohydrates, 15 g protein, and 12 g fat), and gastric emptying ( 13 C-acetate breath test) and blood glucose, plasma insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and cholecystokinin (leucine study only) were measured for 60 min. Immediately afterward, energy intake from a cold, buffet-style meal was assessed. Compared with the control, leucine-10g decreased the blood glucose area under the curve (AUC) (P < 0.05) and tended to reduce peak blood glucose (P = 0.07), whereas effects of leucine-5g were NS. Leucine-10g, but not leucine-5g, increased plasma insulin and C-peptide AUCs (P < 0.01 for both), but neither dose affected glucagon, GLP-1, GIP, cholecystokinin, gastric emptying, or energy intake. Compared with the control, isoleucine-10g reduced the blood glucose AUC and peak blood glucose (P < 0.01), whereas effects of isoleucine-5g were NS. Neither load affected insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, GLP-1, or GIP. Isoleucine-10g, but not isoleucine-5g, slowed gastric emptying (P < 0.05), but gastric emptying was not correlated with the blood glucose AUC. Isoleucine did not affect energy intake

  5. Metabolic Engineering of Valine- and Isoleucine-Derived Glucosinolates in Arabidopsis Expressing CYP79D2 from Cassava

    PubMed Central

    Mikkelsen, Michael Dalgaard; Halkier, Barbara Ann

    2003-01-01

    Glucosinolates are amino acid-derived natural products that, upon hydrolysis, typically release isothiocyanates with a wide range of biological activities. Glucosinolates play a role in plant defense as attractants and deterrents against herbivores and pathogens. A key step in glucosinolate biosynthesis is the conversion of amino acids to the corresponding aldoximes, which is catalyzed by cytochromes P450 belonging to the CYP79 family. Expression of CYP79D2 from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.) in Arabidopsis resulted in the production of valine (Val)- and isoleucine-derived glucosinolates not normally found in this ecotype. The transgenic lines showed no morphological phenotype, and the level of endogenous glucosinolates was not affected. The novel glucosinolates were shown to constitute up to 35% of the total glucosinolate content in mature rosette leaves and up to 48% in old leaves. Furthermore, at increased concentrations of these glucosinolates, the proportion of Val-derived glucosinolates decreased. As the isothiocyanates produced from the Val- and isoleucine-derived glucosinolates are volatile, metabolically engineered plants producing these glucosinolates have acquired novel properties with great potential for improvement of resistance to herbivorous insects and for biofumigation. PMID:12586901

  6. An isoleucine to leucine mutation that switches the cofactor requirement of the EcoRV restriction endonuclease from magnesium to manganese.

    PubMed

    Vipond, I B; Moon, B J; Halford, S E

    1996-02-13

    The EcoRV restriction endonuclease cleaves DNA at its recognition sequence more readily with Mg2+ as the cofactor than with Mn2+ but, at noncognate sequences that differ from the EcoRV site by one base pair, Mn2+ gives higher rates than Mg2+. A mutant of EcoRV, in which an isoleucine near the active site was replaced by leucine, showed the opposite behavior. It had low activity with Mg2+, but, in the presence of Mn2+ ions, it cleaved the recognition site faster than wild-type EcoRV with either Mn2+ or Mg2+. The mutant was also more specific for the recognition sequence than the native enzyme: the noncognate DNA cleavages by wild-type EcoRV and Mn2+ were not detected with the mutant. Further mutagenesis showed that the protein required the same acidic residues at its active site as wild-type EcoRV. The Ile-->Leu mutation seems to perturb the configuration of the metal-binding ligands at the active site so that the protein has virtually no affinity for Mg2+ yet it can still bind Mn2+ ions, though the latter only occurs when the protein is at the recognition site. This contrasts to wild-type EcoRV, where Mn2+ ions bind readily to complexes with either cognate and noncognate DNA and only Mg2+ shows the discrimination between the complexes. The structural perturbation is a specific consequence of leucine in place of isoleucine, since mutants with valine or alanine were similar to wild-type EcoRV.

  7. First observation of N-acetyl leucine and N-acetyl isoleucine in diabetic patient hair and quantitative analysis by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Min, Jun Zhe; Tomiyasu, Yuki; Morotomi, Takashi; Jiang, Ying-Zi; Li, Gao; Shi, Qing; Yu, Hai-Fu; Inoue, Koichi; Todoroki, Kenichiro; Toyo'oka, Toshimasa

    2015-04-15

    Type 2 diabetes patients (DP) have significantly higher plasma levels of valine, leucine, isoleucine and alanine than the controls. Specific amino acids may acutely and chronically regulate insulin secretion from the pancreatic β-cells. We recently identified a metabolic signature of N-acetyl leucine (Ac-Leu) that strongly predicts diabetes development in mice hair. The Ac-Leu appears to be a potential biomarker candidate related to diabetes. However, the determination of Ac-Leu in human hair has not been reported. We measured the Ac-Leu, and its structure is similar to N-acetyl isoleucine (Ac-Ile) in human hair by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). The developed method was applied to the determination of Ac-Leu and Ac-Ile in the hair of healthy volunteers (HV) and DP. Ac-Leu, Ac-Ile and N-acetyl norleucine (Ac-Nle, IS) were extracted from human hair samples by a micropulverized extraction procedure, then separated on a C18 column by isocratic elution of acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid in water:0.1% formic acid (14:86, vol./vol.). MRM using the fragmentation transitions of m/z 174.1→86.1 in the positive ESI mode was performed to quantify the N-acetyl leucine, N-acetyl isoleucine and IS. Ac-Leu, Ac-Ile and Ac-Nle in the human hair samples were completely separated by isocratic elution of a 5.0 min duration wash program using a reversed-phase column, and sensitively detected by LC-MS/MS in the ESI(+) MRM mode. The amounts of Ac-Leu and Ac-Ile in the hairs of HV and DP were determined. When comparing the concentrations between DP and those from HV, a statistically significant correlation was observed for the Ac-Leu (p<0.001) and Ac-Ile (p<0.01). The proposed method is useful for the determination of Ac-Leu and Ac-Ile in the hairs of DP and HV. Human hair may serve as a noninvasive biosample for the diagnosis of diabetes. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  8. Valine/isoleucine variants drive selective pressure in the VP1 sequence of EV-A71 enteroviruses.

    PubMed

    Duy, Nghia Ngu; Huong, Le Thi Thanh; Ravel, Patrice; Huong, Le Thi Song; Dwivedi, Ankit; Sessions, October Michael; Hou, Yan'An; Chua, Robert; Kister, Guilhem; Afelt, Aneta; Moulia, Catherine; Gubler, Duane J; Thiem, Vu Dinh; Thanh, Nguyen Thi Hien; Devaux, Christian; Duong, Tran Nhu; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Cornillot, Emmanuel; Gavotte, Laurent; Frutos, Roger

    2017-05-08

    In 2011-2012, Northern Vietnam experienced its first large scale hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) epidemic. In 2011, a major HFMD epidemic was also reported in South Vietnam with fatal cases. This 2011-2012 outbreak was the first one to occur in North Vietnam providing grounds to study the etiology, origin and dynamic of the disease. We report here the analysis of the VP1 gene of strains isolated throughout North Vietnam during the 2011-2012 outbreak and before. The VP1 gene of 106 EV-A71 isolates from North Vietnam and 2 from Central Vietnam were sequenced. Sequence alignments were analyzed at the nucleic acid and protein level. Gene polymorphism was also analyzed. A Factorial Correspondence Analysis was performed to correlate amino acid mutations with clinical parameters. The sequences were distributed into four phylogenetic clusters. Three clusters corresponded to the subgenogroup C4 and the last one corresponded to the subgenogroup C5. Each cluster displayed different polymorphism characteristics. Proteins were highly conserved but three sites bearing only Isoleucine (I) or Valine (V) were characterized. The isoleucine/valine variability matched the clusters. Spatiotemporal analysis of the I/V variants showed that all variants which emerged in 2011 and then in 2012 were not the same but were all present in the region prior to the 2011-2012 outbreak. Some correlation was found between certain I/V variants and ethnicity and severity. The 2011-2012 outbreak was not caused by an exogenous strain coming from South Vietnam or elsewhere but by strains already present and circulating at low level in North Vietnam. However, what triggered the outbreak remains unclear. A selective pressure is applied on I/V variants which matches the genetic clusters. I/V variants were shown on other viruses to correlate with pathogenicity. This should be investigated in EV-A71. I/V variants are an easy and efficient way to survey and identify circulating EV-A71 strains.

  9. Single Amino Acid Alteration between Valine and Isoleucine Determines the Distinct Pyrabactin Selectivity by PYL1 and PYL2*

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xiaoqiu; Yin, Ping; Hao, Qi; Yan, Chuangye; Wang, Jiawei; Yan, Nieng

    2010-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is one of the most important phytohormones in plant. PYL proteins were identified to be ABA receptors in Arabidopsis thaliana. Despite the remarkably high degree of sequence similarity, PYL1 and PYL2 exhibit distinct responses toward pyrabactin, an ABA agonist. PYL1 inhibits protein phosphatase type 2C upon binding of pyrabactin. In contrast, PYL2 appears relatively insensitive to this compound. The crystal structure of pyrabactin-bound PYL1 revealed that most of the PYL1 residues involved in pyrabactin binding are conserved, hence failing to explain the selectivity of pyrabactin for PYL1 over PYL2. To understand the molecular basis of pyrabactin selectivity, we determined the crystal structure of PYL2 in complex with pyrabactin at 1.64 Å resolution. Structural comparison and biochemical analyses demonstrated that one single amino acid alteration between a corresponding valine and isoleucine determines the distinct pyrabactin selectivity by PYL1 and PYL2. These characterizations provide an important clue to dissecting the redundancy of PYL proteins. PMID:20630864

  10. Biochemical features of genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with valine-to-isoleucine substitution at codon 180 on the prion protein gene.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yoko; Sanjo, Nobuo; Hizume, Masaki; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Ohgami, Tetsuya; Satoh, Katsuya; Hamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Yamada, Masahito; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Yokota, Takanori

    2018-02-19

    Valine-to-isoleucine substitution at codon 180 of the prion protein gene is only observed in patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and accounts for approximately half of all cases of genetic prion disease in Japan. In the present study, we investigated the biochemical characteristics of valine-to-isoleucine substitution at codon 180 in the prion protein gene, using samples obtained from the autopsied brains of seven patients with genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease exhibiting this mutation (diagnoses confirmed via neuropathological examination). Among these patients, we observed an absence of diglycosylated and monoglycosylated forms of PrP res at codon 181. Our findings further indicated that the abnormal prion proteins were composed of at least three components, although smaller carboxyl-terminal fragments were predominant. Western blot analyses revealed large amounts of PrP res in the cerebral neocortices, where neuropathological examination revealed marked spongiosis. Relatively smaller amounts of PrP res were detected in the hippocampus, where milder spongiosis was observed, than in the cerebral neocortex. These findings indicate that abnormal prion proteins in the neocortex are associated with severe toxicity, resulting in severe spongiosis. Our findings further indicate that the valine-to-isoleucine substitution is not a polymorphism, but rather an authentic pathogenic mutation associated with specific biochemical characteristics that differ from those observed in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Beneficial effects of l-leucine and l-valine on arrhythmias, hemodynamics and myocardial morphology in rats.

    PubMed

    Mitręga, Katarzyna; Zorniak, Michał; Varghese, Benoy; Lange, Dariusz; Nożynski, Jerzy; Porc, Maurycy; Białka, Szymon; Krzemiński, Tadeusz F

    2011-09-01

    Branched chain amino acids (BCAA) have been shown to have a general protective effect on the heart in different animal models as well as in humans. However, so far no attempt has been made to specifically elucidate their influence on arrhythmias. Our study was performed to evaluate whether an infusion of either l-leucine or l-valine in a dose of 1mgkg(-1)h(-1) 10min before a 7-min period of left anterior descending artery occlusion followed by 15min of reperfusion, had an effect on arrhythmias measured during the reperfusion phase in the ischemia- and reperfusion-induced arrhythmias model in rats in vivo. The effect of the infusion of these substances on mean arterial blood pressure was monitored throughout the experiment. Both of the tested amino acids exhibited significant antiarrhythmic properties. l-Leucine reduced the duration of ventricular fibrillation (P<0.05) and l-valine decreased the duration of ventricular fibrillation (P<0.001) and ventricular tachycardia (P<0.05). The two amino acids were generally hypotensive. l-Valine lowered blood pressure in all phases of the experiment (P<0.05) while l-leucine lowered this parameter mainly towards the end of occlusion and reperfusion (P<0.05). In addition, 30min infusion of the amino acids in the used dose did not produce any apparent adverse histological changes that were remarkably different from control. In summary, the results of our study suggest that l-leucine and l-valine in the dose that was used attenuates arrhythmias and are hypotensive in their influence. Our findings lend support to the many ongoing investigations into the benefit of the application of l-leucine and l-valine in cardiology like their addition to cardioplegic solutions. 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of deuterated leucine, valine, and lysine in the measurement of human apolipoprotein A-I and B-100 kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenstein, A.H.; Cohn, J.S.; Hachey, D.L.

    1990-09-01

    The production rates of apolipoprotein (apo)B-100 in very low density lipoprotein and in low density lipoprotein and apolipoprotein A-I in high density lipoprotein were determined using a primed-constant infusion of (5,5,5,-2H3)leucine, (4,4,4,-2H3)valine, and (6,6-2H2,1,2-13C2)lysine. The three stable isotope-labeled amino acids were administered simultaneously to determine whether absolute production rates calculated using a stochastic model were independent of the tracer species utilized. Three normolipidemic adult males were studied in the constantly fed state over a 15-h period. The absolute production rates of very low density lipoprotein apoB-100 were 11.4 +/- 5.8 (leucine), 11.2 +/- 6.8 (valine), and 11.1 +/- 5.4 (lysine)more » mg per kg per day (mean +/- SDM). The absolute production rates for low density lipoprotein apoB-100 were 8.0 +/- 4.7 (leucine), 7.5 +/- 3.8 (valine), and 7.5 +/- 4.2 (lysine) mg per kg per day. The absolute production rates for high density lipoprotein apoA-I were 9.7 +/- 0.2 (leucine), 9.4 +/- 1.7 (valine), and 9.1 +/- 1.3 (lysine) mg per kg per day. There were no statistically significant differences in absolute synthetic rates of the three apolipoproteins when the plateau isotopic enrichment values of very low density lipoprotein apoB-100 were used to define the isotopic enrichment of the intracellular precursor pool. Our data indicate that deuterated leucine, valine, or lysine provided similar results when used for the determination of apoA-I and apoB-100 absolute production rates within plasma lipoproteins as part of a primed-constant infusion protocol.« less

  13. Isoleucine/leucine2 is essential for chemoattractant activity of beta-defensin Defb14 through chemokine receptor 6.

    PubMed

    Tyrrell, Christine; De Cecco, Martin; Reynolds, Natalie L; Kilanowski, Fiona; Campopiano, Dominic; Barran, Perdita; Macmillan, Derek; Dorin, Julia R

    2010-03-01

    Beta-defensins are both antimicrobial and able to chemoattract various immune cells including immature dendritic cells and CD4 T cells through CCR6. They are short, cationic peptides with a highly conserved six-cysteine motif. It has been shown that only the fifth cysteine is critical for chemoattraction of cells expressing CCR6. In order to identify other residues essential for functional interaction with CCR6 we used a library of peptide deletion derivatives based on Defb14. Loss of the initial two amino acids from the Defb14-1C(V) derivative destroys its ability to chemoattract cells expressing CCR6. As the second amino acid is an evolutionarily conserved leucine, we make full-length Defb14-1C(V) peptides with substitution of the leucine(2) for glycine (L2G), lysine (L2K) or isoleucine (L2I). Defb14-1C(V) L2G and L2K and are unable to chemoattract CCR6 expressing cells but the semi-conservative change L2I has activity. By circular dichroism spectroscopy we can see no evidence for a significant change in secondary structure as a consequence of these substitutions and so cannot attribute loss of chemotactic activity with disruption of the N-terminal helix. We conclude that isoleucine/leucine in the N-terminal alpha-helix region of this beta-defensin is essential for CCR6-mediated chemotaxis. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental evaluation of the effect of a modified port-location mode on the performance of a three-zone simulated moving-bed process for the separation of valine and isoleucine.

    PubMed

    Park, Chanhun; Nam, Hee-Geun; Kim, Pung-Ho; Mun, Sungyong

    2014-06-01

    The removal of isoleucine from valine has been a key issue in the stage of valine crystallization, which is the final step in the valine production process in industry. To address this issue, a three-zone simulated moving-bed (SMB) process for the separation of valine and isoleucine has been developed previously. However, the previous process, which was based on a classical port-location mode, had some limitations in throughput and valine product concentration. In this study, a three-zone SMB process based on a modified port-location mode was applied to the separation of valine and isoleucine for the purpose of making a marked improvement in throughput and valine product concentration. Computer simulations and a lab-scale process experiment showed that the modified three-zone SMB for valine separation led to >65% higher throughput and >160% higher valine concentration compared to the previous three-zone SMB for the same separation. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Branched-chain amino acid interactions with reference to amino acid requirements in adult men: Valine metabolism at different leucine intakes

    SciTech Connect

    Pelletier, V.; Marks, L.; Wagner, D.A.

    1991-08-01

    The authors explored whether the oxidation of valine and by implication the physiological requirement for this amino acid are affected by changes in leucine intake over a physiological range. Six young adult men received, in random order, four L-amino acid-based diets for 5 d supplying either 20 or 10 mg valine.kg body wt-1.d-1, each in combination with 80 or 40 mg leucine.kg-1.d-1. On day 6 subjects were studied with an 8-h continuous intravenous infusion of (1-13C)valine (and (2H3)leucine) to determine valine oxidation in the fasted state (first 3 h) and fed state (last 5 h). Valine oxidation in the fastedmore » state was similar among all diets but was lower (P less than 0.05) in the fed state for the 10 vs 20 mg valine.kg-1.d-1 intake. Leucine intake did not affect valine oxidation. Mean daily valine balance approximated +1.3 mg.kg-1.d-1 for the 20-mg intake and -1.6 mg.kg-1.d-1 for the 10-mg intake. These findings support our previously suggested mean valine requirement estimate of approximately 20 mg.kg-1.d-1.« less

  16. Leucine acts as a nutrient signal to stimulate protein synthesis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The postprandial rise in amino acids and insulin independently stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of piglets. Leucine is an important mediator of the response to amino acids. We have shown that the postprandial rise in leucine, but not isoleucine or valine, acutely stimulates muscle pro...

  17. Effect of different concentrations of dl-isoleucine, dl-valine, and dl-alanine on growth and sporulation in Fusarium oxysporum f. udum (Butl.) Sn. et H.

    PubMed

    Prasad, M; Chaudhary, S K

    1977-01-01

    D1-alanine and dl-valine, when added as an extra nitrogen for fortifying the already present inorganic nitrogen source, actually acted as growth retardant for F. oxysporum f. udum (Butl.) Sn. et H. Sporulation of microconidia was indifferently affected by these two amino acids. DI-valine stimulated microconidial formation in young cultures only. In both young and old cultures the lowest concentration of dl-valine depressed macronidial sporulation. In old cultures the lowest concentration of valine stimulated chlamydospore differentiation rapidly, higher concentrations being less effective. D1-alanine, as an additional nitrogen source, depressed both macro- and microconidal sporulation. It did not even invigorate chlamydospore formation. D1-isoleucine, on the other hand, belongs to the category of growth promoters and profuse and stimulative sporulators of macro- and microconidia. This pathogen needs very specific and preferential doses of the three amino acids, if these are used as a booster in addition to the already present nitrogen source. The response, both in terms of mycelial growth and sporulation of the three spore forms, was also conditioned by the age of the culture.

  18. A Single Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Is Required For Catabolism Of Isoleucine, Valine And Short-Chain Fatty Acids In Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Maggio-Hall, Lori A.; Lyne, Paul; Wolff, Jon A.; Keller, Nancy P.

    2010-01-01

    An acyl-CoA dehydrogenase has been identified as part of the mitochondrial β-oxidation pathway in the ascomycete fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Disruption of the scdA gene prevented use of butyric acid (C4) and hexanoic acid (C6) as carbon sources and reduced cellular butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase activity by 7.5-fold. While the mutant strain exhibited wild-type levels of growth on erucic acid (C22:1) and oleic acid (C18:1), some reduction in growth was observed with myristic acid (C14). The ΔscdA mutation was found to be epistatic to a mutation downstream in the β-oxidation pathway (disruption of enoyl-CoA hydratase). The ΔscdA mutant was also unable to use isoleucine or valine as a carbon source. Transcription of scdA was observed in the presence of either fatty acids or amino acids. When the mutant was grown in medium containing either isoleucine or valine, organic acid analysis of culture supernatants showed accumulation of 2-oxo acid intermediates of branched chain amino acid catabolism, suggesting feedback inhibition of the upstream branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase. PMID:17656140

  19. Production of L-valine from metabolically engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Hailing; Quinn, Peter J

    2018-05-01

    L-Valine is one of the three branched-chain amino acids (valine, leucine, and isoleucine) essential for animal health and important in metabolism; therefore, it is widely added in the products of food, medicine, and feed. L-Valine is predominantly produced through microbial fermentation, and the production efficiency largely depends on the quality of microorganisms. In recent years, continuing efforts have been made in revealing the mechanisms and regulation of L-valine biosynthesis in Corynebacterium glutamicum, the most utilitarian bacterium for amino acid production. Metabolic engineering based on the metabolic biosynthesis and regulation of L-valine provides an effective alternative to the traditional breeding for strain development. Industrially competitive L-valine-producing C. glutamicum strains have been constructed by genetically defined metabolic engineering. This article reviews the global metabolic and regulatory networks responsible for L-valine biosynthesis, the molecular mechanisms of regulation, and the strategies employed in C. glutamicum strain engineering.

  20. Triennial growth symposium: Leucine acts as a nutrient signal to stimulate protein synthesis in neonatal pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The postprandial increases in AA and insulin independently stimulate protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of piglets. Leucine is an important mediator of the response to AA. We have shown that the postprandial increase in leucine, but not isoleucine or valine, acutely stimulates muscle protein synth...

  1. A Quantitative Tool to Distinguish Isobaric Leucine and Isoleucine Residues for Mass Spectrometry-Based De Novo Monoclonal Antibody Sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poston, Chloe N.; Higgs, Richard E.; You, Jinsam; Gelfanova, Valentina; Hale, John E.; Knierman, Michael D.; Siegel, Robert; Gutierrez, Jesus A.

    2014-07-01

    De novo sequencing by mass spectrometry (MS) allows for the determination of the complete amino acid (AA) sequence of a given protein based on the mass difference of detected ions from MS/MS fragmentation spectra. The technique relies on obtaining specific masses that can be attributed to characteristic theoretical masses of AAs. A major limitation of de novo sequencing by MS is the inability to distinguish between the isobaric residues leucine (Leu) and isoleucine (Ile). Incorrect identification of Ile as Leu or vice versa often results in loss of activity in recombinant antibodies. This functional ambiguity is commonly resolved with costly and time-consuming AA mutation and peptide sequencing experiments. Here, we describe a set of orthogonal biochemical protocols, which experimentally determine the identity of Ile or Leu residues in monoclonal antibodies (mAb) based on the selectivity that leucine aminopeptidase shows for n-terminal Leu residues and the cleavage preference for Leu by chymotrypsin. The resulting observations are combined with germline frequencies and incorporated into a logistic regression model, called Predictor for Xle Sites (PXleS) to provide a statistical likelihood for the identity of Leu at an ambiguous site. We demonstrate that PXleS can generate a probability for an Xle site in mAbs with 96% accuracy. The implementation of PXleS precludes the expression of several possible sequences and, therefore, reduces the overall time and resources required to go from spectra generation to a biologically active sequence for a mAb when an Ile or Leu residue is in question.

  2. A quantitative tool to distinguish isobaric leucine and isoleucine residues for mass spectrometry-based de novo monoclonal antibody sequencing.

    PubMed

    Poston, Chloe N; Higgs, Richard E; You, Jinsam; Gelfanova, Valentina; Hale, John E; Knierman, Michael D; Siegel, Robert; Gutierrez, Jesus A

    2014-07-01

    De novo sequencing by mass spectrometry (MS) allows for the determination of the complete amino acid (AA) sequence of a given protein based on the mass difference of detected ions from MS/MS fragmentation spectra. The technique relies on obtaining specific masses that can be attributed to characteristic theoretical masses of AAs. A major limitation of de novo sequencing by MS is the inability to distinguish between the isobaric residues leucine (Leu) and isoleucine (Ile). Incorrect identification of Ile as Leu or vice versa often results in loss of activity in recombinant antibodies. This functional ambiguity is commonly resolved with costly and time-consuming AA mutation and peptide sequencing experiments. Here, we describe a set of orthogonal biochemical protocols, which experimentally determine the identity of Ile or Leu residues in monoclonal antibodies (mAb) based on the selectivity that leucine aminopeptidase shows for n-terminal Leu residues and the cleavage preference for Leu by chymotrypsin. The resulting observations are combined with germline frequencies and incorporated into a logistic regression model, called Predictor for Xle Sites (PXleS) to provide a statistical likelihood for the identity of Leu at an ambiguous site. We demonstrate that PXleS can generate a probability for an Xle site in mAbs with 96% accuracy. The implementation of PXleS precludes the expression of several possible sequences and, therefore, reduces the overall time and resources required to go from spectra generation to a biologically active sequence for a mAb when an Ile or Leu residue is in question.

  3. Global Expression Profiling and Physiological Characterization of Corynebacterium glutamicum Grown in the Presence of l-Valine

    PubMed Central

    Lange, C.; Rittmann, D.; Wendisch, V. F.; Bott, M.; Sahm, H.

    2003-01-01

    Addition of l-valine (50 to 200 mM) to glucose minimal medium had no effect on the growth of wild-type Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 but inhibited the growth of the derived valine production strain VAL1 [13032 ΔilvA ΔpanBC(pJC1ilvBNCD)] in a concentration-dependent manner. In order to explore this strain-specific valine effect, genomewide expression profiling was performed using DNA microarrays, which showed that valine caused an increased ilvBN mRNA level in VAL1 but not in the wild type. This unexpected result was confirmed by an increased cellular level of the ilvB protein product, i.e., the large subunit of acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS), and by an increased AHAS activity of valine-treated VAL1 cells. The conclusion that valine caused the limitation of another branched-chain amino acid was confirmed by showing that high concentrations of l-isoleucine could relieve the valine effect on VAL1 whereas l-leucine had the same effect as valine. The valine-caused isoleucine limitation was supported by the finding that the inhibitory valine effect was linked to the ilvA deletion that results in isoleucine auxotrophy. Taken together, these results implied that the valine effect is caused by competition for uptake of isoleucine by the carrier BrnQ, which transports all branched-chained amino acids. Indeed, valine inhibition could also be relieved by supplementing VAL1 with the dipeptide isoleucyl-isoleucine, which is taken up by a dipeptide transport system rather than by BrnQ. Interestingly, addition of external valine stimulated valine production by VAL1. This effect is most probably due to a reduced carbon usage for biomass production and to the increased expression of ilvBN, indicating that AHAS activity may still be a limiting factor for valine production in the VAL1 strain. PMID:12732517

  4. Host perception of jasmonates promotes infection by Fusarium oxysporum formae speciales that produce isoleucine- and leucine-conjugated jasmonates

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Stephanie J.; Yoon, Alexander J.; Faull, Kym F.; Diener, Andrew C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Three pathogenic forms, or formae speciales, of Fusarium oxysporum infect the roots of Arabidopsis thaliana belowground, instigating symptoms of wilt disease in leaves aboveground. In prior reports, Arabidopsis mutants that are deficient in the biosynthesis of abscisic acid or salicylic acid or insensitive to ethylene or jasmonates exhibit more or less wilt disease than wild type, implicating the involvement of hormones in the normal host response to F. oxysporum. Our analysis of hormone-related mutants finds no evidence that endogenous hormones contribute to infection in roots. Mutants that are deficient in abscisic acid and insensitive to ethylene have no less infection than wild type, though they exhibit less disease. Whether a mutant that is insensitive to jasmonates affects infection depends on which forma specialis is infecting roots. Insensitivity to jasmonates suppresses infection by F. oxysporum forma specialis conglutinans and F. oxysporum forma specialis matthioli, which produce isoleucine- and leucine-conjugated jasmonate (JA-Ile/Leu) in culture filtrates; whereas, insensitivity to jasmonates has no effect on infection by F. oxysporum forma specialis raphani, which produces no detectable JA-Ile/Leu. Furthermore, insensitivity to jasmonates has no effect on wilt disease of tomato, and the tomato pathogen F. oxysporum forma specialis lycopersici produces no detectable jasmonates. Thus, some but not all F. oxysporum pathogens appear to utilize jasmonates as effectors, promoting infection in roots and/or development of symptoms in shoots. Only when infection of roots is promoted by jasmonates is wilt disease enhanced in a mutant deficient in salicylic acid biosynthesis. PMID:24387225

  5. Interactive effects of dietary leucine and isoleucine on growth, blood parameters, and amino acid profile of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liping; Han, Yuzhe; Jiang, Zhiqiang; Sun, Menglei; Si, Bin; Chen, Fei; Bao, Ning

    2017-10-01

    A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to assess the interactions of dietary leucine (Leu) and isoleucine (Ile) on Japanese flounder. Fish of 2.69 ± 0.04 g were fed experimental diets containing two levels of Leu (2.58 and 5.08% of diet) combined with three levels of Ile (1.44, 2.21, and 4.44% of diet), respectively. After the feeding trial, growth, proximate composition, muscle total amino acid profile, blood parameters, mucus lysozyme activity, and stress tolerance to freshwater were measured. Statistically significant (P < 0.05) interactive effects of Leu and Ile were found on growth parameters (final body weight, body weight gain, and special growth rate) of Japanese flounder. Antagonism was discovered in high dietary Leu groups, while stimulatory effects were obtained for increased dietary Ile in low Leu groups. Interactive effects of these two branched-chain amino acids were also found on hepatosomatic index of test fish. In addition, crude lipid content of fish whole body was significantly altered by various diets, with antagonism observed in low dietary Leu groups. Interactive effects also existed in muscle amino acid profiles for low fish meal diets, but no interactive impacts were observed on blood parameters. Furthermore, lysozyme activities and freshwater stress were significantly affected by different diets. And antagonism was found on lysozyme activities in low Leu groups. Moreover, high Leu and high Ile levels of diet significantly altered freshwater stress tolerance of Japanese flounder. These findings suggested that dietary Leu and Ile can effect interactively, and fish fed with diets containing 2.58% Leu with 4.44% Ile and 5.08% Leu with 1.44% Ile showed better growth performance.

  6. Host perception of jasmonates promotes infection by Fusarium oxysporum formae speciales that produce isoleucine- and leucine-conjugated jasmonates.

    PubMed

    Cole, Stephanie J; Yoon, Alexander J; Faull, Kym F; Diener, Andrew C

    2014-08-01

    Three pathogenic forms, or formae speciales (f. spp.), of Fusarium oxysporum infect the roots of Arabidopsis thaliana below ground, instigating symptoms of wilt disease in leaves above ground. In previous reports, Arabidopsis mutants that are deficient in the biosynthesis of abscisic acid or salicylic acid or insensitive to ethylene or jasmonates exhibited either more or less wilt disease, than the wild-type, implicating the involvement of hormones in the normal host response to F. oxysporum. Our analysis of hormone-related mutants finds no evidence that endogenous hormones contribute to infection in roots. Mutants that are deficient in abscisic acid and insensitive to ethylene show no less infection than the wild-type, although they exhibit less disease. Whether a mutant that is insensitive to jasmonates affects infection depends on which forma specialis (f. sp.) is infecting the roots. Insensitivity to jasmonates suppresses infection by F. oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans and F. oxysporum f. sp. matthioli, which produce isoleucine- and leucine-conjugated jasmonate (JA-Ile/Leu), respectively, in culture filtrates, whereas insensitivity to jasmonates has no effect on infection by F. oxysporum f. sp. raphani, which produces no detectable JA-Ile/Leu. Furthermore, insensitivity to jasmonates has no effect on wilt disease of tomato, and the tomato pathogen F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici produces no detectable jasmonates. Thus, some, but not all, F. oxysporum pathogens appear to utilize jasmonates as effectors, promoting infection in roots and/or the development of symptoms in shoots. Only when the infection of roots is promoted by jasmonates is wilt disease enhanced in a mutant deficient in salicylic acid biosynthesis. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  7. Enteral leucine and protein synthesis in skeletal and cardiac muscle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There are three members of the Branch Chain Amino Acids: leucine, isoleucine, and valine. As essential amino acids, these amino acids have important functions which include a primary role in protein structure and metabolism. It is intriguing that the requirement for BCAA in humans comprise about 40–...

  8. Decreased agonist sensitivity of human GABA(A) receptors by an amino acid variant, isoleucine to valine, in the alpha1 subunit.

    PubMed

    Westh-Hansen, S E; Rasmussen, P B; Hastrup, S; Nabekura, J; Noguchi, K; Akaike, N; Witt, M R; Nielsen, M

    1997-06-25

    Recombinant human GABA(A) receptors were investigated in vitro by coexpression of cDNAs coding for alpha1, beta2, and gamma2 subunits in the baculovirus/Sf-9 insect cell system. We report that a single amino acid exchange (isoleucine 121 to valine 121) in the N-terminal, extracellular part of the alpha1 subunit induces a marked decrease in agonist GABA(A) receptor ligand sensitivity. The potency of muscimol and GABA to inhibit the binding of the GABA(A) receptor antagonist [3H]SR 95531 (2-(3-carboxypropyl)-3-amino-6-(4-methoxyphenyl)pyridazinium bromide) was higher in receptor complexes of alpha1(ile 121) beta2gamma2 than in those of alpha1(val 121) beta2gamma2 (IC50 values were 32-fold and 26-fold lower for muscimol and GABA, respectively). The apparent affinity of the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline methiodide to inhibit the binding of [3H]SR 95531 did not differ between the two receptor complex variants. Electrophysiological measurements of GABA induced whole-cell Cl- currents showed a ten-fold decrease in the GABA(A) receptor sensitivity of alpha1 (val 121) beta2gamma2 as compared to alpha1(ile 121) beta2gamma2 receptor complexes. Thus, a relatively small change in the primary structure of the alpha1 subunit leads to a decrease selective for GABA(A) receptor sensitivity to agonist ligands, since no changes were observed in a GABA(A) receptor antagonist affinity and benzodiazepine receptor binding.

  9. Induced Phenotypic Resistance to Valine in Mycobacterium pellegrino

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Istvan; Szentirmai, A.; Zsadanyi, J.

    1967-01-01

    Valine coordinately increases the levels of three of the enzymes participating in the biosynthesis of isoleucine and valine in Mycobacterium pellegrino. The amount of valine required for end-product induction depends on the condition of the cells. Isoleucine inhibits the effect of valine. Acetohydroxy acid synthetase, the enzyme catalyzing the first common step in the biosynthesis of valine and isoleucine, is inhibited by valine. The induction effect of valine appears to be due to its ability to inhibit the activity of this enzyme, thus causing isoleucine deficiency, which in turn leads to derepression. This conclusion is supported by the fact that valine, under certain conditions, inhibits growth. PMID:6051357

  10. Influence of the valine zipper region on the structure and aggregation of the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain of activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5).

    PubMed

    Ciaccio, Natalie A; Reynolds, T Steele; Middaugh, C Russell; Laurence, Jennifer S

    2012-11-05

    Protein aggregation is a major problem for biopharmaceuticals. While the control of aggregation is critically important for the future of protein pharmaceuticals, mechanisms of aggregate assembly, particularly the role that structure plays, are still poorly understood. Increasing evidence indicates that partially folded intermediates critically influence the aggregation pathway. We have previously reported the use of the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain of activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5) as a partially folded model system to investigate protein aggregation. This domain contains three regions with differing structural propensity: a N-terminal polybasic region, a central helical leucine zipper region, and a C-terminal extended valine zipper region. Additionally, a centrally positioned cysteine residue readily forms an intermolecular disulfide bond that reduces aggregation. Computational analysis of ATF5 predicts that the valine zipper region facilitates self-association. Here we test this hypothesis using a truncated mutant lacking the C-terminal valine zipper region. We compare the structure and aggregation of this mutant to the wild-type (WT) form under both reducing and nonreducing conditions. Our data indicate that removal of this region results in a loss of α-helical structure in the leucine zipper and a change in the mechanism of self-association. The mutant form displays increased association at low temperature but improved resistance to thermally induced aggregation.

  11. The Influence of 8-Weeks of Whey Protein and Leucine Supplementation on Physical and Cognitive Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    used various combinations of valine, leucine and isoleucine . Additionally, previous studies examining the effect of BCAA supplementation on...High Cholesterol (>200 mg/dL) Y N -- High Blood Pressure Y N -- Diabetes Y N - Are you currently taking any medications? Y N

  12. Racemic synthesis and solid phase peptide synthesis application of the chimeric valine/leucine derivative 2-amino-3,3,4-trimethyl-pentanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Pelà, M; Del Zoppo, L; Allegri, L; Marzola, E; Ruzza, C; Calo, G; Perissutti, E; Frecentese, F; Salvadori, S; Guerrini, R

    2014-07-01

    The synthesis of non natural amino acid 2-amino-3,3,4-trimethyl-pentanoic acid (Ipv) ready for solid phase peptide synthesis has been developed. Copper (I) chloride Michael addition, followed by a Curtius rearrangement are the key steps for the lpv synthesis. The racemic valine/leucine chimeric amino acid was then successfully inserted in position 5 of neuropeptide S (NPS) and the diastereomeric mixture separated by reverse phase HPLC. The two diastereomeric NPS derivatives were tested for intracellular calcium mobilization using HEK293 cells stably expressing the mouse NPS receptor where they behaved as partial agonist and pure antagonist.

  13. Application of Raman spectroscopy in type 2 diabetes screening in blood using leucine and isoleucine amino-acids as biomarkers and in comparative anti-diabetic drugs efficacy studies.

    PubMed

    Birech, Zephania; Mwangi, Peter Waweru; Bukachi, Fredrick; Mandela, Keith Makori

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes is an irreversible condition characterized by elevated blood glucose levels. Currently, there are no predictive biomarkers for this disease and the existing ones such as hemoglobin A1c and fasting blood glucose are used only when diabetes symptoms are noticed. The objective of this work was first to explore the potential of leucine and isoleucine amino acids as diabetes type 2 biomarkers using their Raman spectroscopic signatures. Secondly, we wanted to explore whether Raman spectroscopy can be applied in comparative efficacy studies between commercially available anti-diabetic drug pioglitazone and the locally used anti-diabetic herbal extract Momordica spinosa (Gilg.)Chiov. Sprague Dawley (SD) rat's blood was used and were pipetted onto Raman substrates prepared from conductive silver paste smeared glass slides. Prominent Raman bands associated with glucose (926, 1302, 1125 cm-1), leucine (1106, 1248, 1302, 1395 cm-1) and isolecucine (1108, 1248, 1437 and 1585 cm-1) were observed. The Raman bands centered at 1125 cm-1, 1395 cm-1 and 1437 cm-1 associated respectively to glucose, leucine and isoleucine were chosen as biomarker Raman peaks for diabetes type 2. These Raman bands displayed decreased intensities in blood from diabetic SD rats administered antidiabetic drugs pioglitazone and herbal extract Momordica spinosa (Gilg.)Chiov. The intensity decrease indicated reduced concentration levels of the respective biomarker molecules: glucose (1125 cm-1), leucine (1395 cm-1) and isoleucine (1437 cm-1) in blood. The results displayed the power and potential of Raman spectroscopy in rapid (10 seconds) diabetes and pre-diabetes screening in blood (human or rat's) with not only glucose acting as a biomarker but also leucine and isoleucine amino-acids where intensities of respectively assigned bands act as references. It also showed that using Raman spectroscopic signatures of the chosen biomarkers, the method can be an alternative for performing comparative

  14. Application of Raman spectroscopy in type 2 diabetes screening in blood using leucine and isoleucine amino-acids as biomarkers and in comparative anti-diabetic drugs efficacy studies

    PubMed Central

    Mwangi, Peter Waweru; Bukachi, Fredrick; Mandela, Keith Makori

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes is an irreversible condition characterized by elevated blood glucose levels. Currently, there are no predictive biomarkers for this disease and the existing ones such as hemoglobin A1c and fasting blood glucose are used only when diabetes symptoms are noticed. The objective of this work was first to explore the potential of leucine and isoleucine amino acids as diabetes type 2 biomarkers using their Raman spectroscopic signatures. Secondly, we wanted to explore whether Raman spectroscopy can be applied in comparative efficacy studies between commercially available anti-diabetic drug pioglitazone and the locally used anti-diabetic herbal extract Momordica spinosa (Gilg.)Chiov. Sprague Dawley (SD) rat’s blood was used and were pipetted onto Raman substrates prepared from conductive silver paste smeared glass slides. Prominent Raman bands associated with glucose (926, 1302, 1125 cm−1), leucine (1106, 1248, 1302, 1395 cm−1) and isolecucine (1108, 1248, 1437 and 1585 cm−1) were observed. The Raman bands centered at 1125 cm−1, 1395 cm−1 and 1437 cm−1 associated respectively to glucose, leucine and isoleucine were chosen as biomarker Raman peaks for diabetes type 2. These Raman bands displayed decreased intensities in blood from diabetic SD rats administered antidiabetic drugs pioglitazone and herbal extract Momordica spinosa (Gilg.)Chiov. The intensity decrease indicated reduced concentration levels of the respective biomarker molecules: glucose (1125 cm−1), leucine (1395 cm−1) and isoleucine (1437 cm−1) in blood. The results displayed the power and potential of Raman spectroscopy in rapid (10 seconds) diabetes and pre-diabetes screening in blood (human or rat’s) with not only glucose acting as a biomarker but also leucine and isoleucine amino-acids where intensities of respectively assigned bands act as references. It also showed that using Raman spectroscopic signatures of the chosen biomarkers, the method can be an alternative for

  15. Leucine and alpha-Ketoisocaproic acid, but not norleucine, stimulate skeletal muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The branched-chain amino acid, leucine, acts as a nutrient signal to stimulate protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of young pigs. However, the chemical structure responsible for this effect has not been identified. We have shown that the other branched-chain amino acids, isoleucine and valine, are ...

  16. Cellular immune response to β2-glycoprotein-I valine/leucine247 phenotypes in Mexican patients with primary antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Álvarez, Carlos A; Hernández-Ramírez, Diego F; Martinez-Castillo, Araceli; Pascual Ramos, Virginia; Cabiedes, Javier; Ortega, Alicia; Cabral, Antonio R

    2017-02-01

    Homozygote genotype V 247 of the β 2 -glycoprotein-I (β 2 GP-I) gene has been associated with anti-β 2 GP-I and thrombosis in patients with primary anti-phospholipid syndrome APS (PAPS). However, the cellular immune response to β 2 GP-I 247 has been little studied. To evaluate the immune cellular proliferation in response to native and non-native β 2 GP-I 247 valine/leucine phenotype from Mexican patients with PAPS. We studied 10 patients with PAPS and 10 healthy control subjects (HC). The polymorphism at position 247 of the β 2 GP-I gene was determined by PCR-RFLP and the corresponding β 2 GP-I protein was subsequently purified from normal human plasma by affinity chromatography. PBMC purified from patients and controls were stimulated with β 2 GP-I under native and in non native (reduced) conditions. We also determined the anti-β 2 GP-I production in vitro by B cell clones (EBV) generated in cocultures experiments. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was studied to determine the structural differences between the β 2 GP-I 247 valine/leucine isoforms. Cytokine profile (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, TNFα, INFγ) was evaluated in culture supernatants. PAPS and healthy control PBMCs had a higher proliferative response when stimulated with β 2 GP-I under reduced cultures conditions compared to non-denatured conditions. PBMCs response from PAPS patients was higher. We observed more cell proliferation in response to β 2 GP-I 247 valine/leucine or valine isoforms in non-native conditions. In contrast, this response was not significant against β 2 GP-I 247 leucine. These findings were T CD4 + -dependent. Similar results were obtained with B cell clones derived from PAPS patients, which showed more pronounced proliferation in non native conditions and higher against β 2 GP-I 247 valine. No differences were found in anti-β 2 GP-I production, but high levels of IL-6 in vitro were identified. The structural analysis of both β 2 GP-I 247 isoforms by DSC showed a major

  17. Theoretical study of the gas-phase structures of sodiated and cesiated leucine and isoleucine: zwitterionic structure disfavored in kinetic method experiments.

    PubMed

    Rozman, Marko

    2005-10-01

    The most stable charge-solvated (CS) and zwitterionic (ZW) structures of sodiated and cesiated leucine and isoleucine were studied by density functional theory methods. According to the Boltzmann distribution in gas phase, both forms of LeuNa+ and IleNa+ exist, but in LeuCs+ and IleCs+, the ZW forms are dominant. Results for the sodiated compounds are consistent with the relationship found between decrease in relative stability of CS versus ZW form and aliphatic amino acid side chain length. The observed degeneracy in energy for IleNa+ conformers is at odds with kinetic method results. Additional calculations showed that kinetic method structural determinations for IleNa+ do not reflect relative order of populations in the lowest energy conformers. Since complexation of cationized amino acids into ion-bound dimers disfavors ZW structure by approximately 8 kJ mol(-1), it is suggested that for energy close conformers of sodium-cationized amino acids, the kinetic method may not be reliable for structural determinations. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. EThcD Discrimination of Isomeric Leucine/Isoleucine Residues in Sequencing of the Intact Skin Frog Peptides with Intramolecular Disulfide Bond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samgina, Tatiana Yu; Kovalev, Sergey V.; Tolpina, Miriam D.; Trebse, Polonca; Torkar, Gregor; Lebedev, Albert T.

    2018-05-01

    Our scientific interests involve de novo sequencing of non-tryptic natural amphibian skin peptides including those with intramolecular S-S bond by means of exclusively mass spectrometry. Reliable discrimination of the isomeric leucine/isoleucine residues during peptide sequencing by means of mass spectrometry represents a bottleneck in the workflow for complete automation of the primary structure elucidation of these compounds. MS3 is capable of solving the problem. Earlier we demonstrated the advanced efficiency of ETD-HCD method to discriminate Leu/Ile in individual peptides by consecutive application of ETD to the polyprotonated peptides followed by HCD applied to the manually selected primary z-ions with the targeted isomeric residues at their N-termini and registration of the characteristic w-ions. Later this approach was extended to deal with several (4-7) broad band mass ranges, without special isolation of the primary z-ions. The present paper demonstrates an advanced version of this method when EThcD is applied in the whole mass range to a complex mixture of natural non-tryptic peptides without their separation and intermediate isolation of the targeted z-ions. The proposed EThcD method showed over 81% efficiency for the large natural peptides with intact disulfide ring, while the interfering process of radical site migration is suppressed. Due to higher speed and sensitivity, the proposed EThcD approach facilitates the analytical procedure and allows for the automation of the entire experiment and data processing. Moreover, in some cases it gives a chance to establish the nature of the residues in the intact intramolecular disulfide loops. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. EThcD Discrimination of Isomeric Leucine/Isoleucine Residues in Sequencing of the Intact Skin Frog Peptides with Intramolecular Disulfide Bond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samgina, Tatiana Yu; Kovalev, Sergey V.; Tolpina, Miriam D.; Trebse, Polonca; Torkar, Gregor; Lebedev, Albert T.

    2018-01-01

    Our scientific interests involve de novo sequencing of non-tryptic natural amphibian skin peptides including those with intramolecular S-S bond by means of exclusively mass spectrometry. Reliable discrimination of the isomeric leucine/isoleucine residues during peptide sequencing by means of mass spectrometry represents a bottleneck in the workflow for complete automation of the primary structure elucidation of these compounds. MS3 is capable of solving the problem. Earlier we demonstrated the advanced efficiency of ETD-HCD method to discriminate Leu/Ile in individual peptides by consecutive application of ETD to the polyprotonated peptides followed by HCD applied to the manually selected primary z-ions with the targeted isomeric residues at their N-termini and registration of the characteristic w-ions. Later this approach was extended to deal with several (4-7) broad band mass ranges, without special isolation of the primary z-ions. The present paper demonstrates an advanced version of this method when EThcD is applied in the whole mass range to a complex mixture of natural non-tryptic peptides without their separation and intermediate isolation of the targeted z-ions. The proposed EThcD method showed over 81% efficiency for the large natural peptides with intact disulfide ring, while the interfering process of radical site migration is suppressed. Due to higher speed and sensitivity, the proposed EThcD approach facilitates the analytical procedure and allows for the automation of the entire experiment and data processing. Moreover, in some cases it gives a chance to establish the nature of the residues in the intact intramolecular disulfide loops.

  20. EThcD Discrimination of Isomeric Leucine/Isoleucine Residues in Sequencing of the Intact Skin Frog Peptides with Intramolecular Disulfide Bond.

    PubMed

    Samgina, Tatiana Yu; Kovalev, Sergey V; Tolpina, Miriam D; Trebse, Polonca; Torkar, Gregor; Lebedev, Albert T

    2018-05-01

    Our scientific interests involve de novo sequencing of non-tryptic natural amphibian skin peptides including those with intramolecular S-S bond by means of exclusively mass spectrometry. Reliable discrimination of the isomeric leucine/isoleucine residues during peptide sequencing by means of mass spectrometry represents a bottleneck in the workflow for complete automation of the primary structure elucidation of these compounds. MS 3 is capable of solving the problem. Earlier we demonstrated the advanced efficiency of ETD-HCD method to discriminate Leu/Ile in individual peptides by consecutive application of ETD to the polyprotonated peptides followed by HCD applied to the manually selected primary z-ions with the targeted isomeric residues at their N-termini and registration of the characteristic w-ions. Later this approach was extended to deal with several (4-7) broad band mass ranges, without special isolation of the primary z-ions. The present paper demonstrates an advanced version of this method when EThcD is applied in the whole mass range to a complex mixture of natural non-tryptic peptides without their separation and intermediate isolation of the targeted z-ions. The proposed EThcD method showed over 81% efficiency for the large natural peptides with intact disulfide ring, while the interfering process of radical site migration is suppressed. Due to higher speed and sensitivity, the proposed EThcD approach facilitates the analytical procedure and allows for the automation of the entire experiment and data processing. Moreover, in some cases it gives a chance to establish the nature of the residues in the intact intramolecular disulfide loops. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  1. Examining the critical roles of human CB2 receptor residues Valine 3.32 (113) and Leucine 5.41 (192) in ligand recognition and downstream signaling activities.

    PubMed

    Alqarni, Mohammed; Myint, Kyaw Zeyar; Tong, Qin; Yang, Peng; Bartlow, Patrick; Wang, Lirong; Feng, Rentian; Xie, Xiang-Qun

    2014-09-26

    We performed molecular modeling and docking to predict a putative binding pocket and associated ligand-receptor interactions for human cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2). Our data showed that two hydrophobic residues came in close contact with three structurally distinct CB2 ligands: CP-55,940, SR144528 and XIE95-26. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments and subsequent functional assays implicated the roles of Valine residue at position 3.32 (V113) and Leucine residue at position 5.41 (L192) in the ligand binding function and downstream signaling activities of the CB2 receptor. Four different point mutations were introduced to the wild type CB2 receptor: V113E, V113L, L192S and L192A. Our results showed that mutation of Val113 with a Glutamic acid and Leu192 with a Serine led to the complete loss of CB2 ligand binding as well as downstream signaling activities. Substitution of these residues with those that have similar hydrophobic side chains such as Leucine (V113L) and Alanine (L192A), however, allowed CB2 to retain both its ligand binding and signaling functions. Our modeling results validated by competition binding and site-directed mutagenesis experiments suggest that residues V113 and L192 play important roles in ligand binding and downstream signaling transduction of the CB2 receptor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evidence for isoleucine as a positive effector of the ilvBN operon in Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Davidson, J P; Wilson, D J

    1991-08-15

    Concerted efforts were directed towards understanding the control of acetohydroxy acid synthase (AHAS) in the gyrB mutant hisU1820 of Salmonella typhimurium. A media shift from valine to valine plus isoleucine causes a dramatic 4 to 5 fold burst of AHAS valine sensitive activity which appears to be dependent on translation. DJ19, an isolated valine sensitive derivative of the gyrB mutant, maintains a dramatic increase in AHAS valine sensitive activity upon the addition of isoleucine to valine supplemented cultures, suggesting that the isoleucine effect is specific for valine sensitive AHAS. Evidence supports isoleucine as a positive effector on valine sensitive AHAS expression and that the gyrB mutation accentuates the isoleucine effect.

  3. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding: an ammoniagenic and catabolic event due to the total absence of isoleucine in the haemoglobin molecule.

    PubMed

    Olde Damink, S W; Dejong, C H; Deutz, N E; van Berlo, C L; Soeters, P B

    1999-06-01

    Upper gastrointestinal bleeding causes increased urea concentrations in patients with normal liver function and high ammonia concentrations in patients with impaired liver function. This ammoniagenesis may precipitate encephalopathy. The haemoglobin molecule is unique because it lacks the essential amino acid isoleucine and has high amounts of leucine and valine. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding therefore presents the gut with protein of very low biologic value, which may be the stimulus to induce a cascade of events culminating in net catabolism. This may influence the function of rapidly dividing cells and short half-life proteins. We hypothesize that, following a variceal bleed in a cirrhotic patient, the lack of isoleucine in blood protein is the cause of the exaggerated ammoniagenesis and catabolism. We propose that intravenous administration of isoleucine may serve as a simple therapeutic that transforms blood protein in a balanced protein, resulting in only a short-lived rise in ammonia and urea production, and preventing interference with protein synthesis.

  4. Feedback-Resistant Acetohydroxy Acid Synthase Increases Valine Production in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Elišáková, Veronika; Pátek, Miroslav; Holátko, Jiří; Nešvera, Jan; Leyval, Damien; Goergen, Jean-Louis; Delaunay, Stéphane

    2005-01-01

    Acetohydroxy acid synthase (AHAS), which catalyzes the key reactions in the biosynthesis pathways of branched-chain amino acids (valine, isoleucine, and leucine), is regulated by the end products of these pathways. The whole Corynebacterium glutamicum ilvBNC operon, coding for acetohydroxy acid synthase (ilvBN) and aceto hydroxy acid isomeroreductase (ilvC), was cloned in the newly constructed Escherichia coli-C. glutamicum shuttle vector pECKA (5.4 kb, Kmr). By using site-directed mutagenesis, one to three amino acid alterations (mutations M8, M11, and M13) were introduced into the small (regulatory) AHAS subunit encoded by ilvN. The activity of AHAS and its inhibition by valine, isoleucine, and leucine were measured in strains carrying the ilvBNC operon with mutations on the plasmid or the ilvNM13 mutation within the chromosome. The enzyme containing the M13 mutation was feedback resistant to all three amino acids. Different combinations of branched-chain amino acids did not inhibit wild-type AHAS to a greater extent than was measured in the presence of 5 mM valine alone (about 57%). We infer from these results that there is a single binding (allosteric) site for all three amino acids in the enzyme molecule. The strains carrying the ilvNM13 mutation in the chromosome produced more valine than their wild-type counterparts. The plasmid-free C. glutamicum ΔilvA ΔpanB ilvNM13 strain formed 90 mM valine within 48 h of cultivation in minimal medium. The same strain harboring the plasmid pECKAilvBNC produced as much as 130 mM valine under the same conditions. PMID:15640189

  5. Disruptions in valine degradation affect seed development and germination in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Gipson, Andrew B; Morton, Kyla J; Rhee, Rachel J; Simo, Szabolcs; Clayton, Jack A; Perrett, Morgan E; Binkley, Christiana G; Jensen, Erika L; Oakes, Dana L; Rouhier, Matthew F; Rouhier, Kerry A

    2017-06-01

    We have functionally characterized the role of two putative mitochondrial enzymes in valine degradation using insertional mutants. Prior to this study, the relationship between branched-chain amino acid degradation (named for leucine, valine and isoleucine) and seed development was limited to leucine catabolism. Using a reverse genetics approach, we show that disruptions in the mitochondrial valine degradation pathway affect seed development and germination in Arabidopsis thaliana. A null mutant of 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA hydrolase (CHY4, At4g31810) resulted in an embryo lethal phenotype, while a null mutant of methylmalonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (MMSD, At2g14170) resulted in seeds with wrinkled coats, decreased storage reserves, elevated valine and leucine, and reduced germination rates. These data highlight the unique contributions CHY4 and MMSD make to the overall growth and viability of plants. It also increases our knowledge of the role branched-chain amino acid catabolism plays in seed development and amino acid homeostasis. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Identification, Purification, and Characterization of a Novel Amino Acid Racemase, Isoleucine 2-Epimerase, from Lactobacillus Species

    PubMed Central

    Mutaguchi, Yuta; Ohmori, Taketo; Wakamatsu, Taisuke; Doi, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of d-leucine, d-allo-isoleucine, and d-valine was observed in the growth medium of a lactic acid bacterium, Lactobacillus otakiensis JCM 15040, and the racemase responsible was purified from the cells and identified. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified enzyme was GKLDKASKLI, which is consistent with that of a putative γ-aminobutyrate aminotransferase from Lactobacillus buchneri. The putative γ-aminobutyrate aminotransferase gene from L. buchneri JCM 1115 was expressed in recombinant Escherichia coli and then purified to homogeneity. The enzyme catalyzed the racemization of a broad spectrum of nonpolar amino acids. In particular, it catalyzed at high rates the epimerization of l-isoleucine to d-allo-isoleucine and d-allo-isoleucine to l-isoleucine. In contrast, the enzyme showed no γ-aminobutyrate aminotransferase activity. The relative molecular masses of the subunit and native enzyme were estimated to be about 49 kDa and 200 kDa, respectively, indicating that the enzyme was composed of four subunits of equal molecular masses. The Km and Vmax values of the enzyme for l-isoleucine were 5.00 mM and 153 μmol·min−1·mg−1, respectively, and those for d-allo-isoleucine were 13.2 mM and 286 μmol·min−1·mg−1, respectively. Hydroxylamine and other inhibitors of pyridoxal 5′-phosphate-dependent enzymes completely blocked the enzyme activity, indicating the enzyme requires pyridoxal 5′-phosphate as a coenzyme. This is the first evidence of an amino acid racemase that specifically catalyzes racemization of nonpolar amino acids at the C-2 position. PMID:24039265

  7. Incorporation of leucine into phospholipids of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, R D; Salyers, A A

    1981-01-01

    L-[4,5-3H]- or L-[U-14C]leucine was incorporated by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron into acid-precipitable material even when the bacteria were treated with concentrations of tetracycline high enough to prevent growth. Similar results were obtained when L-[2,3,4-3H]valine or L-[4,5-3H]isoleucine was used instead of leucine. In bacteria which had been treated with tetracycline, the acid-precipitable label was not solubilized by treatment with protease, lysozyme, or deoxyribonuclease. However, virtually all of the label was extractable with chloroform-methanol, indicating that the label had been incorporated into membrane lipids. Since L-[1-14C]leucine was not incorporated into lipids, leucine was probably decarboxylated before incorporation. When a chloroform extract from bacteria which had been labeled with both [32P]phosphate and [3H]leucine was resolved into component phospholipids by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography, 3H was incorporated into all of the phospholipids. When these phospholipids were deacylated, the 3H from leucine was associated with released fatty acids rather than with the head groups. Thus, it appears that B. thetaiotaomicron can utilize leucine and similar amino acids not only by incorporating them into protein but also by incorporating portions of these amino acids into membrane phospholipids. PMID:7462155

  8. Enhancement of L-valine production in Bacillus licheniformis by blocking three branched pathways.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chengwen; Huo, Yanli; Qi, Gaofu; Wei, Xuetuan; Wang, Qin; Chen, Shouwen

    2015-06-01

    Bacillus licheniformis WX-02 is used for the production of many valuable chemicals. Here, we have sought to improve L-valine production by blocking the metabolic pathways related to branched-chain amino acids. The synthesis genes of L-leucine (leuA) and L-isoleucine (ilvA) were deleted to obtain mutant strains. L-Valine yields of WX-02ΔleuA and WX-02ΔilvA reached 33.2 and 21.1 mmol/l, respectively, which are 22 and 14 times higher than the wild-type WX-02 (1.53 mmol/l). After further deletion of L-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldh) from WX-02ΔleuA, the productivity reached 0.47 mmol/l h, an increase of 19 %. We provide a possibility to over-produce L-valine using genetically-modified B. licheniformis using remodeling of the biosynthetic pathway to L-valine.

  9. Metabolism of valine and 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate by the isolated perfused rat kidney.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, R H; Harper, A E

    1984-01-01

    Metabolism of branched-chain amino and 2-oxo acids was studied in the isolated perfused kidney. Significant amounts of 2-oxo acids were released by perfused kidney with all concentrations of amino acids tested (0.1-1.0 mM each), despite the high activity of branched-chain 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase in kidney. As perfusate valine concentration was increased from 0.2 to 1.0 mM, [1-14C]valine transamination (2-oxo acid oxidized + released) increased roughly linearly; [1-14C]valine oxidation, however, increased exponentially. Increasing perfusate concentration of 3-methyl-2-oxo[1-14C]butanoate from 0 to 1.0 mM resulted in a linear increase in the rate of its oxidation and a rise in perfusate valine concentration; at the same time significant decreases occurred in perfusate isoleucine and leucine concentrations, with corresponding increases in rates of release of their respective 2-oxo acids. Comparison of rates of oxidation of [1-14C]valine and 3-methyl-2-oxo[1-14C]butanoate suggests that 2-oxo acid arising from [1-14C]valine transamination has freer access to the 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase than has the 2-oxo acid from the perfusate. The observations indicate that, when branched-chain amino and 2-oxo acids are present in perfusate at near-physiological concentrations, rates of transamination of the amino and 2-oxo acids by isolated perfused kidney are greater than rates of oxidation. PMID:6508752

  10. Friedelin Synthase from Maytenus ilicifolia: Leucine 482 Plays an Essential Role in the Production of the Most Rearranged Pentacyclic Triterpene

    PubMed Central

    Souza-Moreira, Tatiana M.; Alves, Thaís B.; Pinheiro, Karina A.; Felippe, Lidiane G.; De Lima, Gustavo M. A.; Watanabe, Tatiana F.; Barbosa, Cristina C.; Santos, Vânia A. F. F. M.; Lopes, Norberto P.; Valentini, Sandro R.; Guido, Rafael V. C.; Furlan, Maysa; Zanelli, Cleslei F.

    2016-01-01

    Among the biologically active triterpenes, friedelin has the most-rearranged structure produced by the oxidosqualene cyclases and is the only one containing a cetonic group. In this study, we cloned and functionally characterized friedelin synthase and one cycloartenol synthase from Maytenus ilicifolia (Celastraceae). The complete coding sequences of these 2 genes were cloned from leaf mRNA, and their functions were characterized by heterologous expression in yeast. The cycloartenol synthase sequence is very similar to other known OSCs of this type (approximately 80% identity), although the M. ilicifolia friedelin synthase amino acid sequence is more related to β-amyrin synthases (65–74% identity), which is similar to the friedelin synthase cloned from Kalanchoe daigremontiana. Multiple sequence alignments demonstrated the presence of a leucine residue two positions upstream of the friedelin synthase Asp-Cys-Thr-Ala-Glu (DCTAE) active site motif, while the vast majority of OSCs identified so far have a valine or isoleucine residue at the same position. The substitution of the leucine residue with valine, threonine or isoleucine in M. ilicifolia friedelin synthase interfered with substrate recognition and lead to the production of different pentacyclic triterpenes. Hence, our data indicate a key role for the leucine residue in the structure and function of this oxidosqualene cyclase. PMID:27874020

  11. Friedelin Synthase from Maytenus ilicifolia: Leucine 482 Plays an Essential Role in the Production of the Most Rearranged Pentacyclic Triterpene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza-Moreira, Tatiana M.; Alves, Thaís B.; Pinheiro, Karina A.; Felippe, Lidiane G.; de Lima, Gustavo M. A.; Watanabe, Tatiana F.; Barbosa, Cristina C.; Santos, Vânia A. F. F. M.; Lopes, Norberto P.; Valentini, Sandro R.; Guido, Rafael V. C.; Furlan, Maysa; Zanelli, Cleslei F.

    2016-11-01

    Among the biologically active triterpenes, friedelin has the most-rearranged structure produced by the oxidosqualene cyclases and is the only one containing a cetonic group. In this study, we cloned and functionally characterized friedelin synthase and one cycloartenol synthase from Maytenus ilicifolia (Celastraceae). The complete coding sequences of these 2 genes were cloned from leaf mRNA, and their functions were characterized by heterologous expression in yeast. The cycloartenol synthase sequence is very similar to other known OSCs of this type (approximately 80% identity), although the M. ilicifolia friedelin synthase amino acid sequence is more related to β-amyrin synthases (65-74% identity), which is similar to the friedelin synthase cloned from Kalanchoe daigremontiana. Multiple sequence alignments demonstrated the presence of a leucine residue two positions upstream of the friedelin synthase Asp-Cys-Thr-Ala-Glu (DCTAE) active site motif, while the vast majority of OSCs identified so far have a valine or isoleucine residue at the same position. The substitution of the leucine residue with valine, threonine or isoleucine in M. ilicifolia friedelin synthase interfered with substrate recognition and lead to the production of different pentacyclic triterpenes. Hence, our data indicate a key role for the leucine residue in the structure and function of this oxidosqualene cyclase.

  12. Effect of Starvation on the Turnover and Metabolic Response to Leucine

    PubMed Central

    Sherwin, Robert S.

    1978-01-01

    l-Leucine was administered as a primed continuous 3-4-h infusion in nonobese and obese subjects in the postabsorptive state and for 12 h in obese subjects after a 3-day and 4-wk fast. In nonobese and obese subjects studied in the post-absorptive state, the leucine infusion resulted in a 150-200% rise in plasma leucine above preinfusion levels, a small decrease in plasma glucose, and unchanged levels of plasma insulin and glucagon and blood ketones. Plasma isoleucine (60-70%) and valine (35-40%) declined to a greater extent than other amino acids (P < 0.001). After 3 days and 4 wk of fasting, equimolar infusions of leucine resulted in two- to threefold greater increments in plasma leucine as compared to post-absorptive subjects, a 30-40% decline in other plasma amino acids, and a 25-30% decrease in negative nitrogen balance. Urinary excretion of 3-methylhistidine was however, unchanged. Plasma glucose which declined in 3-day fasted subjects after leucine administration, surprisingly rose by 20 mg/100 ml after 4 wk of fasting. The rise in blood glucose occurred in the absence of changes in plasma glucagon and insulin and in the face of a 15% decline in endogenous glucose production (as measured by infusion of [3-3H]glucose). On the other hand, fractional glucose utilization fell by 30% (P < 0.001), thereby accounting for hyperglycemia. The estimated metabolic clearance rate of leucine fell by 48% after 3 days of fasting whereas the plasma delivery rate of leucine was unchanged, thereby accounting for a 40% rise in plasma leucine during early starvation. After a 4-wk fast, the estimated metabolic clearance rate of leucine declined further to 59% below base line. Plasma leucine nevertheless fell to postabsorptive levels as the plasma delivery rate of leucine decreased 65% below postabsorptive values. Conclusions: (a) Infusion of exogenous leucine in prolonged fasting results in a decline in plasma levels of other amino acids, improvement in nitrogen balance and

  13. Alterations in protein and amino acid metabolism in rats fed a branched-chain amino acid- or leucine-enriched diet during postprandial and postabsorptive states.

    PubMed

    Holecek, Milan; Siman, Pavel; Vodenicarovova, Melita; Kandar, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Many people believe in favourable effects of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; valine, leucine, and isoleucine), especially leucine, on muscle protein balance and consume BCAAs for many years. We determined the effects of the chronic intake of a BCAA- or leucine-enriched diet on protein and amino acid metabolism in fed and postabsorptive states. Rats were fed a standard diet, a diet with a high content of valine, leucine, and isoleucine (HVLID), or a high content of leucine (HLD) for 2 months. Half of the animals in each group were sacrificed in the fed state on the last day, and the other half were sacrificed after overnight fast. Protein synthesis was assessed using the flooding dose method (L-[3,4,5-(3)H]phenylalanine), proteolysis on the basis of chymotrypsin-like activity (CHTLA) of proteasome and cathepsin B and L activities. Chronic intake of HVLID or HLD enhanced plasma levels of urea, alanine and glutamine. HVLID also increased levels of all three BCAA and branched-chain keto acids (BCKA), HLD increased leucine, ketoisocaproate and alanine aminotransferase and decreased valine, ketovaline, isoleucine, ketoisoleucine, and LDL cholesterol. Tissue weight and protein content were lower in extensor digitorum longus muscles in the HLD group and higher in kidneys in the HVLID and HLD groups. Muscle protein synthesis in postprandial state was higher in the HVLID group, and CHTLA was lower in muscles of the HVLID and HLD groups compared to controls. Overnight starvation enhanced alanine aminotransferase activity in muscles, and decreased protein synthesis in gastrocnemius (in HVLID group) and extensor digitorum longus (in HLD group) muscles more than in controls. Effect of HVLID and HLD on CHTLA in muscles in postabsorptive state was insignificant. The results failed to demonstrate positive effects of the chronic consumption of a BCAA-enriched diet on protein balance in skeletal muscle and indicate rather negative effects from a leucine-enriched diet. The primary

  14. Increasing the availability of threonine, isoleucine, valine, and leucine relative to lysine while maintaining an ideal ratio of lysine:methionine alters mammary cellular metabolites, mammalian target of rapamycin signaling, and gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Dong, X; Zhou, Z; Wang, L; Saremi, B; Helmbrecht, A; Wang, Z; Loor, J J

    2018-06-01

    Amino acids not only serve as precursors for protein synthesis but also function as signaling molecules that can regulate the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Methionine and Lys are the most-limiting AA for milk production and a ratio of ∼3:1 Lys:Met in the metabolizable protein has been determined to be ideal. Besides Met and Lys, recent studies have evaluated Ile, Leu, Val, and Thr as potentially limiting for milk protein synthesis. The objective of this experiment was to determine if varying the ratio of Lys:Thr, Lys:Ile, Lys:Val, and Lys:Leu while maintaining an ideal ratio of Lys:Met and fixed ratio of other essential AA (IPAA) elicits changes in intracellular metabolites, gene transcription related to protein synthesis, and phosphorylation status of mTOR pathway proteins. Immortalized bovine mammary epithelial cell line (MAC-T) cells were incubated for 12 h (n = 5 replicates/treatment) with IPAA (2.9:1 Lys:Met; 1.8:1 Lys:Thr; 2.38:1 Lys:His; 1.23:1 Lys:Val; 1.45:1 Lys:Ile; 0.85:1 Lys:Leu; 2.08:1 Lys:Arg) or IPAA supplemented with Thr, Ile, Val, and Leu to achieve a Lys:Thr 1.3:1 (LT1.3), Lys:Ile 1.29:1 (LI1.29), Lys:Val 1.12:1 (LV1.12), or Lys:Leu 0.78:1 (LL0.78). Compared with IPAA, metabolomics via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that increases in availability of Thr, Ile, Val, and Leu led to greater concentrations of essential AA (Leu, Ile, Thr), nonessential AA (Gly, Glu, Gln, Ser, Pro, Asp), and various metabolites including uric acid, phosphoric acid, N-acetylglutamic acid, and intermediates of glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Compared with other treatments, LV1.12 led to greater phosphorylation status of serine/threonine kinase B (Akt), mTORC1, and ribosomal protein S6 and lower phosphorylation of α subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2. In addition, LV1.12 upregulated abundance of CSN2 and both the abundance and promoter methylation of CSN1S1. Although LI1.29 led to the second highest response in mTORC1 phosphorylation status, it resulted in the lowest phosphorylation of Akt and eEF2 and mRNA abundance of CSN2 and various AA transporters (SLC7A5, SLC36A1, SLC38A2, SLC38A9, SLC43A1). Overall, data indicate that an increase in Val at an ideal ratio of Lys:Met could further enhance milk protein synthesis by altering intracellular concentrations of essential AA and metabolites that could play a regulatory role, increasing phosphorylation status of mTORC1 and key signaling proteins, and upregulation of AA transporters. The Authors. Published by FASS Inc. and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

  15. Export of l-Isoleucine from Corynebacterium glutamicum: a Two-Gene-Encoded Member of a New Translocator Family

    PubMed Central

    Kennerknecht, Nicole; Sahm, Hermann; Yen, Ming-Ren; Pátek, Miroslav; Saier, Jr., Milton H.; Eggeling, Lothar

    2002-01-01

    Bacteria possess amino acid export systems, and Corynebacterium glutamicum excretes l-isoleucine in a process dependent on the proton motive force. In order to identify the system responsible for l-isoleucine export, we have used transposon mutagenesis to isolate mutants of C. glutamicum sensitive to the peptide isoleucyl-isoleucine. In one such mutant, strong peptide sensitivity resulted from insertion into a gene designated brnF encoding a hydrophobic protein predicted to possess seven transmembrane spanning helices. brnE is located downstream of brnF and encodes a second hydrophobic protein with four putative membrane-spanning helices. A mutant deleted of both genes no longer exports l-isoleucine, whereas an overexpressing strain exports this amino acid at an increased rate. BrnF and BrnE together are also required for the export of l-leucine and l-valine. BrnFE is thus a two-component export permease specific for aliphatic hydrophobic amino acids. Upstream of brnFE and transcribed divergently is an Lrp-like regulatory gene required for active export. Searches for homologues of BrnFE show that this type of exporter is widespread in prokaryotes but lacking in eukaryotes and that both gene products which together comprise the members of a novel family, the LIV-E family, generally map together within a single operon. Comparisons of the BrnF and BrnE phylogenetic trees show that gene duplication events in the early bacterial lineage gave rise to multiple paralogues that have been retained in α-proteobacteria but not in other prokaryotes analyzed. PMID:12081967

  16. Influence of a flooding dose of valine on key indicators of metabolic status in the growing pig.

    PubMed

    Libao-Mercado, A J; Columbus, D; de Lange, C F M

    2015-02-01

    A key concern with the flooding dose technique for measuring protein synthesis is that a large dose of amino acid (AA) can potentially change the animals' hormonal and nutritional status, which in turn can influence protein synthesis. Among stable isotope tracers, 1-[(13)C]-valine is the preferred AA for measuring protein synthesis in gut tissue and mucins. A study was conducted to determine the impact of a flooding dose of valine on the metabolic status of pigs. Six barrows [16.5 kg body weight (BW)] were randomly assigned to intravenous infusions of either 150 mM valine (1.5 mmol/kg BW) or physiological saline, following a crossover design. Blood samples were taken 10 min prior to infusion, at the end of infusion, at 10-min intervals for 60 min post-infusion, and at 90 and 120 min post-infusion. Plasma concentrations of insulin, glucose, AA, urea nitrogen and packed cell volume (PCV) were measured. Infusion of valine increased plasma valine concentrations (4129 vs. 582 μM; P < 0.05) but had no influence on PCV (26.4% vs. 27.2%) and plasma concentrations of glucose (6.0 vs. 5.8 mM) and insulin (8.2 vs. 8.5 μU/ml; P > 0.10). Plasma urea nitrogen concentration was reduced with valine infusion (8.5 vs. 7.8 mg/dl; P < 0.05). A flooding dose of valine had no impact on plasma concentrations of AA, and specifically branched-chain AA such as leucine (240 vs. 231 μM) and isoleucine (310 vs. 331 μM; P > 0.10). There was, however, a slight increase in the plasma concentrations of threonine (224 vs. 263 μM; P < 0.05) and a tendency towards reduced glycine (1387 vs. 1313 μM; P < 0.10). The results indicate that a flooding dose of valine does not cause a substantial change in the metabolic status of growing pigs and is therefore suitable for measuring protein synthesis rates. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Leucine-rich diet alters the 1H-NMR based metabolomic profile without changing the Walker-256 tumour mass in rats.

    PubMed

    Viana, Laís Rosa; Canevarolo, Rafael; Luiz, Anna Caroline Perina; Soares, Raquel Frias; Lubaczeuski, Camila; Zeri, Ana Carolina de Mattos; Gomes-Marcondes, Maria Cristina Cintra

    2016-10-03

    Cachexia is one of the most important causes of cancer-related death. Supplementation with branched-chain amino acids, particularly leucine, has been used to minimise loss of muscle tissue, although few studies have examined the effect of this type of nutritional supplementation on the metabolism of the tumour-bearing host. Therefore, the present study evaluated whether a leucine-rich diet affects metabolomic derangements in serum and tumour tissues in tumour-bearing Walker-256 rats (providing an experimental model of cachexia). After 21 days feeding Wistar female rats a leucine-rich diet, distributed in L-leucine and LW-leucine Walker-256 tumour-bearing groups, we examined the metabolomic profile of serum and tumour tissue samples and compared them with samples from tumour-bearing rats fed a normal protein diet (C - control; W - tumour-bearing groups). We utilised 1 H-NMR as a means to study the serum and tumour metabolomic profile, tumour proliferation and tumour protein synthesis pathway. Among the 58 serum metabolites examined, we found that 12 were altered in the tumour-bearing group, reflecting an increase in activity of some metabolic pathways related to energy production, which diverted many nutrients toward tumour growth. Despite displaying increased tumour cell activity (i.e., higher Ki-67 and mTOR expression), there were no differences in tumour mass associated with changes in 23 metabolites (resulting from valine, leucine and isoleucine synthesis and degradation, and from the synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies) in the leucine-tumour group. This result suggests that the majority of nutrients were used for host maintenance. A leucine rich-diet, largely used to prevent skeletal muscle loss, did not affect Walker 256 tumour growth and led to metabolomic alterations that may partially explain the positive effects of leucine for the whole tumour-bearing host.

  18. Effects of Valine on Protein Synthesis and Turnover in Pseudomonas saccharophila under “Nongratuitous” Inducing Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Young, H. L.; Klein, H. P.

    1967-01-01

    Under “nongratuitous” inducing conditions, in Pseudomonas saccharophila, d-and l-valine and l-isoleucine inhibit net protein synthesis. At a concentration of 0.5 μmole or greater of valine per mg of bacterial protein, net protein synthesis declined approximately 70%. The inhibitory effect of valine is proportional to the exogenous valine concentration. Studies of 14C amino acid incorporation and 14C amino acid release from prelabeled cells indicate that valine stimulates protein turnover. PMID:6025429

  19. Functional mapping and implications of substrate specificity of the yeast high-affinity leucine permease Bap2.

    PubMed

    Usami, Yuki; Uemura, Satsohi; Mochizuki, Takahiro; Morita, Asami; Shishido, Fumi; Inokuchi, Jin-ichi; Abe, Fumiyoshi

    2014-07-01

    Leucine is a major amino acid in nutrients and proteins and is also an important precursor of higher alcohols during brewing. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, leucine uptake is mediated by multiple amino acid permeases, including the high-affinity leucine permease Bap2. Although BAP2 transcription has been extensively analyzed, the mechanisms by which a substrate is recognized and moves through the permease remain unknown. Recently, we determined 15 amino acid residues required for Tat2-mediated tryptophan import. Here we introduced homologous mutations into Bap2 amino acid residues and showed that 7 residues played a role in leucine import. Residues I109/G110/T111 and E305 were located within the putative α-helix break in TMD1 and TMD6, respectively, according to the structurally homologous Escherichia coli arginine/agmatine antiporter AdiC. Upon leucine binding, these α-helix breaks were assumed to mediate a conformational transition in Bap2 from an outward-open to a substrate-binding occluded state. Residues Y336 (TMD7) and Y181 (TMD3) were located near I109 and E305, respectively. Bap2-mediated leucine import was inhibited by some amino acids according to the following order of severity: phenylalanine, leucine>isoleucine>methionine, tyrosine>valine>tryptophan; histidine and asparagine had no effect. Moreover, this order of severity clearly coincided with the logP values (octanol-water partition coefficients) of all amino acids except tryptophan. This result suggests that the substrate partition efficiency to the buried Bap2 binding pocket is the primary determinant of substrate specificity rather than structural amino acid side chain recognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Increased dependence of leucine in posttraumatic sepsis: leucine/tyrosine clearance ratio as an indicator of hepatic impairment in septic multiple organ failure syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pittiruti, M; Siegel, J H; Sganga, G; Coleman, B; Wiles, C E; Belzberg, H; Wedel, S; Placko, R

    1985-09-01

    The body clearance of 10 plasma amino acids (AA) was determined from the rate of compared muscle-released AA and AA administered by infusion of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) compared to their estimated extracellular (ECW) pool in patients with multiple trauma with (n = 10) or without (n = 16) sepsis at 8-hour intervals. In both nonseptic and septic trauma, increasing TPN increased the mean clearance rate of all infused AA. When the individual AA clearance rates were normalized by the total AA infusion rate, regression-covariance analysis revealed that patients with sepsis had relatively impaired clearances of alanine (p less than 0.01) and methionine, proline, phenylalanine, and tyrosine p less than 0.05 for all). In contrast, the clearances of branched-chain AA (BCAA) valine and isoleucine were maintained, and the clearance of leucine was higher (p less than 0.05) in trauma patients with sepsis than in those without. At any AA infusion rate, compared with surviving patients with sepsis (p less than 0.05), patients who developed fatal multiple organ failure syndrome (MOFS) showed increased clearances of all BCAA with further impaired clearance of tyrosine. The clearance ratio of leucine/tyrosine was increased in MOFS at any AA infusion rate (p less than 0.0001), was an indicator of severity, and, if persistent, was a manifestation of a fatal outcome. Because tyrosine metabolism occurs almost entirely in the liver while leucine can be utilized by viscera and muscle, these data suggest early and progressive septic impairment of the pattern of hepatic uptake and oxidation of AA with a greater body dependence on BCAA, especially leucine, as septic MOFS develops.

  1. Toxicity of leucine-containing peptides in Escherichia coli caused by circumvention of leucine transport regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Tavori, H; Kimmel, Y; Barak, Z

    1981-01-01

    A variety of leucine-containing peptides (LCP), Phe-Leu, Gly-Leu, Pro-Leu, Ala-Leu, Ala-Leu-Lys, Leu-Phe-Ala, Leu-Leu-Leu, and Leu-Gly-Gly, inhibited the growth of a prototrophic strain of Escherichia coli K-12 at concentrations between 0.05 and 0.28 mM. Toxicity requires normal uptake of peptides. When peptide transport was impaired by mutations, strains became resistant to the respective LCP. Inhibition of growth occurred immediately after the addition of LCP, and was relieved when 0.4 mM isoleucine was added. The presence of Gly-Leu in the medium correlated with the inhibition of growth, and the bacteria began to grow at the normal rate 70 min after Gly-Leu became undetectable. Disappearance of the peptide corresponded with the appearance of free leucine and glycine in the medium. The concentration of leucine inside the LCP-treated bacteria was higher than that in the leucine-treated and the control cultures. We suggest that entry of LCP into the cells via peptide transport systems circumvents the regulation of leucine transport, thereby causing abnormality high concentrations of leucine inside the cells. This accumulation of leucine interferes with the biosynthesis of isoleucine and inhibits the growth of the bacteria. Images PMID:7012134

  2. Metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC13869 for L-valine production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng; Li, Yanyan; Hu, Jinyu; Dong, Xunyan; Wang, Xiaoyuan

    2015-05-01

    In this study, an L-valine-producing strain was developed from Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC13869 through deletion of the three genes aceE, alaT and ilvA combined with the overexpression of six genes ilvB, ilvN, ilvC, lrp1, brnF and brnE. Overexpression of lrp1 alone increased L-valine production by 16-fold. Deletion of the aceE, alaT and ilvA increased L-valine production by 44-fold. Overexpression of the six genes ilvB, ilvN, ilvC, lrp1, brnE and brnF in the triple deletion mutant WCC003 further increased L-valine production. The strain WCC003/pJYW-4-ilvBNC1-lrp1-brnFE produced 243mM L-valine in flask cultivation and 437mM (51g/L) L-valine in fed-batch fermentation and lacked detectable amino-acid byproduct such as l-alanine and l-isoleucine that are usually found in the fermentation of L-valine-producing C. glutamicum. Copyright © 2015 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Specific labeling and assignment strategies of valine methyl groups for NMR studies of high molecular weight proteins.

    PubMed

    Mas, Guillaume; Crublet, Elodie; Hamelin, Olivier; Gans, Pierre; Boisbouvier, Jérôme

    2013-11-01

    The specific protonation of valine and leucine methyl groups in proteins is typically achieved by overexpressing proteins in M9/D2O medium supplemented with either labeled α-ketoisovalerate for the labeling of the four prochiral methyl groups or with 2-acetolactate for the stereospecific labeling of the valine and leucine side chains. However, when these labeling schemes are applied to large protein assemblies, significant overlap between the correlations of the valine and leucine methyl groups occurs, hampering the analysis of 2D methyl-TROSY spectra. Analysis of the leucine and valine biosynthesis pathways revealed that the incorporation of labeled precursors in the leucine pathway can be inhibited by the addition of exogenous l-leucine-d10. We exploited this property to label stereospecifically the pro-R and pro-S methyl groups of valine with minimal scrambling to the leucine residues. This new labeling protocol was applied to the 468 kDa homododecameric peptidase TET2 to decrease the complexity of its NMR spectra. All of the pro-S valine methyl resonances of TET2 were assigned by combining mutagenesis with this innovative labeling approach. The assignments were transferred to the pro-R groups using an optimally labeled sample and a set of triple resonance experiments. This improved labeling scheme enables us to overcome the main limitation of overcrowding in the NMR spectra of prochiral methyl groups, which is a prerequisite for the site-specific measurement of the structural and dynamic parameters or for the study of interactions in very large protein assemblies.

  4. Leucine supplementation of a chronically restricted protein and energy diet enhances mTOR pathway activation but not muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs.

    PubMed

    Manjarín, Rodrigo; Columbus, Daniel A; Suryawan, Agus; Nguyen, Hanh V; Hernandez-García, Adriana D; Hoang, Nguyet-Minh; Fiorotto, Marta L; Davis, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Suboptimal nutrient intake represents a limiting factor for growth and long-term survival of low-birth weight infants. The objective of this study was to determine if in neonates who can consume only 70 % of their protein and energy requirements for 8 days, enteral leucine supplementation will upregulate the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in skeletal muscle, leading to an increase in protein synthesis and muscle anabolism. Nineteen 4-day-old piglets were fed by gastric tube 1 of 3 diets, containing (kg body weight(-1) · day(-1)) 16 g protein and 190 kcal (CON), 10.9 g protein and 132 kcal (R), or 10.8 g protein + 0.2 % leucine and 136 kcal (RL) at 4-h intervals for 8 days. On day 8, plasma AA and insulin levels were measured during 6 post-feeding intervals, and muscle protein synthesis rate and mTOR signaling proteins were determined at 120 min post-feeding. At 120 min, leucine was highest in RL (P < 0.001), whereas insulin, isoleucine and valine were lower in RL and R compared to CON (P < 0.001). Compared to RL and R, the CON diet increased (P < 0.01) body weight, protein synthesis, phosphorylation of S6 kinase (p-S6K1) and 4E-binding protein (p-4EBP1), and activation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4 complex (eIF4E · eIF4G). RL increased (P ≤ 0.01) p-S6K1, p-4EBP1 and eIF4E · eIF4G compared to R. In conclusion, when protein and energy intakes are restricted for 8 days, leucine supplementation increases muscle mTOR activation, but does not improve body weight gain or enhance skeletal muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs.

  5. Phase Transition in Biopolymer Hydrogels Based on Glycine (g), Valine (v), Proline (p), and Isoleucine (i)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jonghwi; Urry, Dan W.; Macosko, Christopher W.

    2000-03-01

    Selectively modified elastic protein-based polymers demonstrate diverse energy conversions by means of the control of a phase transition resulting from the sensitivity to stimuli of the hydrophobic association. Among these polymers, poly(GVGVP), poly(GVGIP) and analogues of poly(GVGVP) containing carboxylic acid or amino functional groups as side chains were cross-linked and their swelling behavior was studied. Regardless of cross-linking method, reversible phase transitions can be observed in the swelling of all cross-linked polymers by changing temperature and pH, where relevant. Decreased cross-link density leads to increased swelling ratio as the transition becomes more pronounced. Fibers, chemically cross-linked after formation, exhibit anisotropic dimensional changes on changing the temperature. Gamma-irradiation cross-linked poly(GVGVP) exhibited a more distinct phase transition than modified poly(GVGVP) with ion pairs between side chains, which were partially converted to amide cross-links.

  6. Effects of Leucine Supplementation and Serum Withdrawal on Branched-Chain Amino Acid Pathway Gene and Protein Expression in Mouse Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Vivar, Juan C.; Knight, Megan S.; Pointer, Mildred A.; Gwathmey, Judith K.; Ghosh, Sujoy

    2014-01-01

    The essential branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), leucine, valine and isoleucine, are traditionally associated with skeletal muscle growth and maintenance, energy production, and generation of neurotransmitter and gluconeogenic precursors. Recent evidence from human and animal model studies has established an additional link between BCAA levels and obesity. However, details of the mechanism of regulation of BCAA metabolism during adipogenesis are largely unknown. We interrogated whether the expression of genes and proteins involved in BCAA metabolism are sensitive to the adipocyte differentiation process, and responsive to nutrient stress from starvation or BCAA excess. Murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated to adipocytes under control conditions and under conditions of L-leucine supplementation or serum withdrawal. RNA and proteins were isolated at days 0, 4 and 10 of differentiation to represent pre-differentiation, early differentiation and late differentiation stages. Expression of 16 BCAA metabolism genes was quantified by quantitative real-time PCR. Expression of the protein levels of branched-chain amino acid transaminase 2 (Bcat2) and branched-chain alpha keto acid dehydrogenase (Bckdha) was quantified by immunoblotting. Under control conditions, all genes displayed induction of gene expression during early adipogenesis (Day 4) compared to Day 0. Leucine supplementation resulted in an induction of Bcat2 and Bckdha genes during early and late differentiation. Western blot analysis demonstrated condition-specific concordance between gene and protein expression. Serum withdrawal resulted in undetectable Bcat2 and Bckdha protein levels at all timepoints. These results demonstrate that the expression of genes related to BCAA metabolism are regulated during adipocyte differentiation and influenced by nutrient levels. These results provide additional insights on how BCAA metabolism is associated with adipose tissue function and extends our understanding of

  7. Amyloid β (1-40) Toxicity Depends on the Molecular Contact between Phenylalanine 19 and Leucine 34.

    PubMed

    Korn, Alexander; McLennan, Steffane; Adler, Juliane; Krueger, Martin; Surendran, Dayana; Maiti, Sudipta; Huster, Daniel

    2018-04-18

    The formation of the hydrophobic contact between phenylalanine 19 (F19) and leucine 34 (L34) of amyloid β (1-40) (Aβ(1-40)) is known to be an important step in the fibrillation of Aβ(1-40) peptides. Mutations of this putatively early molecular contact were shown to strongly influence the toxicity of Aβ(1-40) ( Das et al. ( 2015 ) ACS Chem. Neurosci. 6 , 1290 - 1295 ). Any mutation of residue F19 completely abolished the toxicity of Aβ(1-40), suggesting that a proper F19-L34 contact is crucial also for the formation of transient oligomers. In this work, we investigate a series of isomeric substitutions of L34, namely, d-leucine, isoleucine, and valine, to study further details of this molecular contact. These replacements represent very minor alterations in the Aβ(1-40) structure posing the question how these alterations challenge the fibrillation kinetics, structure, dynamics, and toxicity of the Aβ(1-40) aggregates. Our work involves kinetic studies using thioflavin T, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction for the analysis of the fibril morphology, and nuclear magnetic resonance experiments for local structure and molecular dynamics investigations. Combined with cell toxicity assays of the mutated Aβ(1-40) peptides, the physicochemical and biological importance of the early folding contact between F19 and L34 in Aβ(1-40) is underlined. This implies that the F19-L34 contact influences a broad range of different processes including the initiation of fibrillation, oligomer stability, fibril elongation, local fibril structure, and dynamics and cellular toxicity. These processes do not only cover a broad range of diverse mechanisms, but also proved to be highly sensitive to minor modulations of this crucial contact. Furthermore, our work shows that the contact is not simply mediated by general hydrophobic interactions, but also depends on stereospecific mechanisms.

  8. Characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis l-Isoleucine Dioxygenase for Production of Useful Amino Acids▿†

    PubMed Central

    Hibi, Makoto; Kawashima, Takashi; Kodera, Tomohiro; Smirnov, Sergey V.; Sokolov, Pavel M.; Sugiyama, Masakazu; Shimizu, Sakayu; Yokozeki, Kenzo; Ogawa, Jun

    2011-01-01

    We determined the enzymatic characteristics of an industrially important biocatalyst, α-ketoglutarate-dependent l-isoleucine dioxygenase (IDO), which was found to be the enzyme responsible for the generation of (2S,3R,4S)-4-hydroxyisoleucine in Bacillus thuringiensis 2e2. Depending on the amino acid used as the substrate, IDO catalyzed three different types of oxidation reactions: hydroxylation, dehydrogenation, and sulfoxidation. IDO stereoselectively hydroxylated several hydrophobic aliphatic l-amino acids, as well as l-isoleucine, and produced (S)-3-hydroxy-l-allo-isoleucine, 4-hydroxy-l-leucine, (S)-4-hydroxy-l-norvaline, 4-hydroxy-l-norleucine, and 5-hydroxy-l-norleucine. The IDO reaction product of l-isoleucine, (2S,3R,4S)-4-hydroxyisoleucine, was again reacted with IDO and dehydrogenated into (2S,3R)-2-amino-3-methyl-4-ketopentanoate, which is also a metabolite found in B. thuringiensis 2e2. Interestingly, IDO catalyzed the sulfoxidation of some sulfur-containing l-amino acids and generated l-methionine sulfoxide and l-ethionine sulfoxide. Consequently, the effective production of various modified amino acids would be possible using IDO as the biocatalyst. PMID:21821743

  9. Improvement of the Redox Balance Increases l-Valine Production by Corynebacterium glutamicum under Oxygen Deprivation Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Satoshi; Uematsu, Kimio; Natsuma, Yumi; Suda, Masako; Hiraga, Kazumi; Jojima, Toru; Inui, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    Production of l-valine under oxygen deprivation conditions by Corynebacterium glutamicum lacking the lactate dehydrogenase gene ldhA and overexpressing the l-valine biosynthesis genes ilvBNCDE was repressed. This was attributed to imbalanced cofactor production and consumption in the overall l-valine synthesis pathway: two moles of NADH was generated and two moles of NADPH was consumed per mole of l-valine produced from one mole of glucose. In order to solve this cofactor imbalance, the coenzyme requirement for l-valine synthesis was converted from NADPH to NADH via modification of acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase encoded by ilvC and introduction of Lysinibacillus sphaericus leucine dehydrogenase in place of endogenous transaminase B, encoded by ilvE. The intracellular NADH/NAD+ ratio significantly decreased, and glucose consumption and l-valine production drastically improved. Moreover, l-valine yield increased and succinate formation decreased concomitantly with the decreased intracellular redox state. These observations suggest that the intracellular NADH/NAD+ ratio, i.e., reoxidation of NADH, is the primary rate-limiting factor for l-valine production under oxygen deprivation conditions. The l-valine productivity and yield were even better and by-products derived from pyruvate further decreased as a result of a feedback resistance-inducing mutation in the acetohydroxy acid synthase encoded by ilvBN. The resultant strain produced 1,470 mM l-valine after 24 h with a yield of 0.63 mol mol of glucose−1, and the l-valine productivity reached 1,940 mM after 48 h. PMID:22138982

  10. Improvement of the redox balance increases L-valine production by Corynebacterium glutamicum under oxygen deprivation conditions.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Satoshi; Uematsu, Kimio; Natsuma, Yumi; Suda, Masako; Hiraga, Kazumi; Jojima, Toru; Inui, Masayuki; Yukawa, Hideaki

    2012-02-01

    Production of L-valine under oxygen deprivation conditions by Corynebacterium glutamicum lacking the lactate dehydrogenase gene ldhA and overexpressing the L-valine biosynthesis genes ilvBNCDE was repressed. This was attributed to imbalanced cofactor production and consumption in the overall L-valine synthesis pathway: two moles of NADH was generated and two moles of NADPH was consumed per mole of L-valine produced from one mole of glucose. In order to solve this cofactor imbalance, the coenzyme requirement for L-valine synthesis was converted from NADPH to NADH via modification of acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase encoded by ilvC and introduction of Lysinibacillus sphaericus leucine dehydrogenase in place of endogenous transaminase B, encoded by ilvE. The intracellular NADH/NAD(+) ratio significantly decreased, and glucose consumption and L-valine production drastically improved. Moreover, L-valine yield increased and succinate formation decreased concomitantly with the decreased intracellular redox state. These observations suggest that the intracellular NADH/NAD(+) ratio, i.e., reoxidation of NADH, is the primary rate-limiting factor for L-valine production under oxygen deprivation conditions. The L-valine productivity and yield were even better and by-products derived from pyruvate further decreased as a result of a feedback resistance-inducing mutation in the acetohydroxy acid synthase encoded by ilvBN. The resultant strain produced 1,470 mM L-valine after 24 h with a yield of 0.63 mol mol of glucose(-1), and the L-valine productivity reached 1,940 mM after 48 h.

  11. Leucine aminopeptidase - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003617.htm Leucine aminopeptidase - urine To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Leucine aminopeptidase is a type of protein called an ...

  12. Leucine aminopeptidase blood test

    MedlinePlus

    Serum leucine aminopeptidase; LAP - serum ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) - blood. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier ...

  13. Simultaneous detection of valine and lactate using MEGA-PRESS editing in pyogenic brain abscess.

    PubMed

    Lange, Thomas; Ko, Cheng-Wen; Lai, Ping-Hong; Dacko, Michael; Tsai, Shang-Yueh; Buechert, Martin

    2016-12-01

    Valine and lactate have been recognized as important metabolic markers to diagnose brain abscess by means of MRS. However, in vivo unambiguous detection and quantification is hampered by macromolecular contamination. In this work, MEGA-PRESS difference editing of valine and lactate is proposed. The method is validated in vitro and applied for quantitative in vivo experiments in one healthy subject and two brain abscess patients. It is demonstrated that with this technique the overlapping lipid signal can be reduced by more than an order of magnitude and thus the robustness of valine and lactate detection in vivo can be enhanced. Quantification of the two abscess MEGA-PRESS spectra yielded valine/lactate concentration ratios of 0.10 and 0.27. These ratios agreed with the concentration ratios determined from concomitantly acquired short-T E PRESS data and were in line with literature values. The quantification accuracy of lactate (as measured with Cramér-Rao lower bounds in LCModel processing) was better for MEGA-PRESS than for short-T E PRESS in all acquired in vivo datasets. The Cramér-Rao lower bounds of valine were only better for MEGA-PRESS in one of the two abscess cases, while in the other case coediting of isoleucine confounded the quantification in the MEGA-PRESS analysis. MEGA-PRESS and short-T E PRESS should be combined for unambiguous quantification of amino acids in abscess measurements. Simultaneous valine/lactate MEGA-PRESS editing might benefit the distinction of brain abscesses from tumors, and further categorization of bacteria with reasonable sensitivity and specificity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. 21 CFR 582.5381 - Isoleucine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Isoleucine. 582.5381 Section 582.5381 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5381 - Isoleucine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Isoleucine. 582.5381 Section 582.5381 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5381 - Isoleucine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Isoleucine. 582.5381 Section 582.5381 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5381 - Isoleucine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Isoleucine. 582.5381 Section 582.5381 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5381 - Isoleucine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Isoleucine. 582.5381 Section 582.5381 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  19. Linking Central Metabolism with Increased Pathway Flux: l-Valine Accumulation by Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Radmacher, Eva; Vaitsikova, Adela; Burger, Udo; Krumbach, Karin; Sahm, Hermann; Eggeling, Lothar

    2002-01-01

    Mutants of Corynebacterium glutamicum were made and enzymatically characterized to clone ilvD and ilvE, which encode dihydroxy acid dehydratase and transaminase B, respectively. These genes of the branched-chain amino acid synthesis were overexpressed together with ilvBN (which encodes acetohydroxy acid synthase) and ilvC (which encodes isomeroreductase) in the wild type, which does not excrete l-valine, to result in an accumulation of this amino acid to a concentration of 42 mM. Since l-valine originates from two pyruvate molecules, this illustrates the comparatively easy accessibility of the central metabolite pyruvate. The same genes, ilvBNCD, overexpressed in an ilvA deletion mutant which is unable to synthesize l-isoleucine increased the concentration of this amino acid to 58 mM. A further dramatic increase was obtained when panBC was deleted, making the resulting mutant auxotrophic for d-pantothenate. When the resulting strain, C. glutamicum 13032ΔilvAΔpanBC with ilvBNCD overexpressed, was grown under limiting conditions it accumulated 91 mM l-valine. This is attributed to a reduced coenzyme A availability and therefore reduced flux of pyruvate via pyruvate dehydrogenase enabling its increased drain-off via the l-valine biosynthesis pathway. PMID:11976094

  20. Biosynthesis of higher alcohol flavour compounds by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: impact of oxygen availability and responses to glucose pulse in minimal growth medium with leucine as sole nitrogen source.

    PubMed

    Espinosa Vidal, Esteban; de Morais, Marcos Antonio; François, Jean Marie; de Billerbeck, Gustavo M

    2015-01-01

    Higher alcohol formation by yeast is of great interest in the field of fermented beverages. Among them, medium-chain alcohols impact greatly the final flavour profile of alcoholic beverages, even at low concentrations. It is widely accepted that amino acid metabolism in yeasts directly influences higher alcohol formation, especially the catabolism of aromatic and branched-chain amino acids. However, it is not clear how the availability of oxygen and glucose metabolism influence the final higher alcohol levels in fermented beverages. Here, using an industrial Brazilian cachaça strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we investigated the effect of oxygen limitation and glucose pulse on the accumulation of higher alcohol compounds in batch cultures, with glucose (20 g/l) and leucine (9.8 g/l) as the carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. Fermentative metabolites and CO2 /O2 balance were analysed in order to correlate the results with physiological data. Our results show that the accumulation of isoamyl alcohol by yeast is independent of oxygen availability in the medium, depending mainly on leucine, α-keto-acids and/or NADH pools. High-availability leucine experiments showed a novel and unexpected accumulation of isobutanol, active amyl alcohol and 2-phenylethanol, which could be attributed to de novo biosynthesis of valine, isoleucine and phenylalanine and subsequent outflow of these pathways. In carbon-exhausted conditions, our results also describe, for the first time, the metabolization of isoamyl alcohol, isobutanol, active amyl alcohol but not of 2-phenylethanol, by yeast strains in stationary phase, suggesting a role for these higher alcohols as carbon source for cell maintenance and/or redox homeostasis during this physiological phase. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum for high-yield L-valine production under oxygen deprivation conditions.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Satoshi; Suda, Masako; Uematsu, Kimio; Natsuma, Yumi; Hiraga, Kazumi; Jojima, Toru; Inui, Masayuki; Yukawa, Hideaki

    2013-02-01

    We previously demonstrated efficient L-valine production by metabolically engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum under oxygen deprivation. To achieve the high productivity, a NADH/NADPH cofactor imbalance during the synthesis of l-valine was overcome by engineering NAD-preferring mutant acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase (AHAIR) and using NAD-specific leucine dehydrogenase from Lysinibacillus sphaericus. Lactate as a by-product was largely eliminated by disrupting the lactate dehydrogenase gene ldhA. Nonetheless, a few other by-products, particularly succinate, were still produced and acted to suppress the L-valine yield. Eliminating these by-products therefore was deemed key to improving theL-valine yield. By additionally disrupting the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene ppc, succinate production was effectively suppressed, but both glucose consumption and L-valine production dropped considerably due to the severely elevated intracellular NADH/NAD(+) ratio. In contrast, this perturbed intracellular redox state was more than compensated for by deletion of three genes associated with NADH-producing acetate synthesis and overexpression of five glycolytic genes, including gapA, encoding NADH-inhibited glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Inserting feedback-resistant mutant acetohydroxy acid synthase and NAD-preferring mutant AHAIR in the chromosome resulted in higher L-valine yield and productivity. Deleting the alanine transaminase gene avtA suppressed alanine production. The resultant strain produced 1,280 mM L-valine at a yield of 88% mol mol of glucose(-1) after 24 h under oxygen deprivation, a vastly improved yield over our previous best.

  2. Engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum for High-Yield l-Valine Production under Oxygen Deprivation Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Satoshi; Suda, Masako; Uematsu, Kimio; Natsuma, Yumi; Hiraga, Kazumi; Jojima, Toru; Inui, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    We previously demonstrated efficient l-valine production by metabolically engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum under oxygen deprivation. To achieve the high productivity, a NADH/NADPH cofactor imbalance during the synthesis of l-valine was overcome by engineering NAD-preferring mutant acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase (AHAIR) and using NAD-specific leucine dehydrogenase from Lysinibacillus sphaericus. Lactate as a by-product was largely eliminated by disrupting the lactate dehydrogenase gene ldhA. Nonetheless, a few other by-products, particularly succinate, were still produced and acted to suppress the l-valine yield. Eliminating these by-products therefore was deemed key to improving the l-valine yield. By additionally disrupting the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene ppc, succinate production was effectively suppressed, but both glucose consumption and l-valine production dropped considerably due to the severely elevated intracellular NADH/NAD+ ratio. In contrast, this perturbed intracellular redox state was more than compensated for by deletion of three genes associated with NADH-producing acetate synthesis and overexpression of five glycolytic genes, including gapA, encoding NADH-inhibited glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Inserting feedback-resistant mutant acetohydroxy acid synthase and NAD-preferring mutant AHAIR in the chromosome resulted in higher l-valine yield and productivity. Deleting the alanine transaminase gene avtA suppressed alanine production. The resultant strain produced 1,280 mM l-valine at a yield of 88% mol mol of glucose−1 after 24 h under oxygen deprivation, a vastly improved yield over our previous best. PMID:23241971

  3. Cyclo(valine-valine) inhibits Vibrio cholerae virulence gene expression.

    PubMed

    Vikram, Amit; Ante, Vanessa M; Bina, X Renee; Zhu, Qin; Liu, Xinyu; Bina, James E

    2014-06-01

    Vibrio cholerae has been shown to produce a cyclic dipeptide, cyclo(phenylalanine-proline) (cFP), that functions to repress virulence factor production. The objective of this study was to determine if heterologous cyclic dipeptides could repress V. cholerae virulence factor production. To that end, three synthetic cyclic dipeptides that differed in their side chains from cFP were assayed for virulence inhibitory activity in V. cholerae. The results revealed that cyclo(valine-valine) (cVV) inhibited virulence factor production by a ToxR-dependent process that resulted in the repression of the virulence regulator aphA. cVV-dependent repression of aphA was found to be independent of known aphA regulatory genes. The results demonstrated that V. cholerae was able to respond to exogenous cyclic dipeptides and implicated the hydrophobic amino acid side chains on both arms of the cyclo dipeptide scaffold as structural requirements for inhibitory activity. The results further suggest that cyclic dipeptides have potential as therapeutics for cholera treatment. © 2014 The Authors.

  4. Influence of valine and other amino acids on total diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione levels during fermentation of brewer's wort.

    PubMed

    Krogerus, Kristoffer; Gibson, Brian R

    2013-08-01

    Undesirable butter-tasting vicinal diketones are produced as by-products of valine and isoleucine biosynthesis during wort fermentation. One promising method of decreasing diacetyl production is through control of wort valine content since valine is involved in feedback inhibition of enzymes controlling the formation of diacetyl precursors. Here, the influence of valine supplementation, wort amino acid profile and free amino nitrogen content on diacetyl formation during wort fermentation with the lager yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus was investigated. Valine supplementation (100 to 300 mg L(-1)) resulted in decreased maximum diacetyl concentrations (up to 37 % lower) and diacetyl concentrations at the end of fermentation (up to 33 % lower) in all trials. Composition of the amino acid spectrum of the wort also had an impact on diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione production during fermentation. No direct correlation between the wort amino acid concentrations and diacetyl production was found, but rather a negative correlation between the uptake rate of valine (and also other branched-chain amino acids) and diacetyl production. Fermentation performance and yeast growth were unaffected by supplementations. Amino acid addition had a minor effect on higher alcohol and ester composition, suggesting that high levels of supplementation could affect the flavour profile of the beer. Modifying amino acid profile of wort, especially with respect to valine and the other branched-chain amino acids, may be an effective way of decreasing the amount of diacetyl formed during fermentation.

  5. D-valine as an indicator for metabolic changes in L-valine

    SciTech Connect

    Faulhaber, P.; Bartlett, R.; Lathrop, K.A.

    1985-05-01

    Racemic C-11-carboxyl labeled amino acids are easily prepared and have been proven useful as pancreatic imaging agents in humans. The authors are continuing an investigation of the biokinetics and metabolism of one of these, C-11 labeled valine using the D-enantiomer to measure tissue distribution of ''unchanged'' valine and comparing it to L-valine. Mice were injected IV with D-, L-, or D,L-valine, and data collected for various tissues, exhaled CO/sub 2/ and urine at intervals between 1 and 150 min. The % injected activity (IA) per organ for D-valine was multiplied by the ratio of the % retained activity (RA) formore » L-valine to % RA for D-valine. This value is assumed to represent ''unchanged'' L-valine; it was subtracted from the measured % IA for L-valine to give metabolized C-11. Greatest differences are an increasing excess of --15% for small intestine (SI) and an increasing deficit of --15% for muscle at 120 min. Muscle is apparently an active site for incorporation of C-11 from L-valine into other molecules which are then concentrated in the SI. Some tissues were homogenized in chloroform-methanol (2:1), mixed with a small amount of water, centrifuged, and the 3 resulting layers assayed for C-11. In the liver, for example, at 15 and 45 min there was no activity in the chloroform layer for D-, or L-valine. The aqueous layer contained 18% sample activity (SA) at 15 min and 10% SA at 45 min for L-valine, and --78% SA at both times for D-valine; the tissue layer contained 82% SA and 91% SA, for L-valine, and --22% SA for D-valine at both times. Use of enantiomers in this way gives the possibility of quantitating isolated metabolic processes.« less

  6. Isolation and characterization of L-valine-degrading Candida maltosa DLPU-zpb for D-valine preparation from DL-valine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, C H; Xin, W T; Chen, M; Bi, Y; Gao, Z Q; Zhang, J

    2015-11-01

    To develop a practical process for D-valine preparation from DL-valine, L-valine was used as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen in basal minimal medium to isolate L-valine-degrading micro-organisms. A yeast strain DLPU-zpb was obtained, which showed asymmetric degrading activity against DL-valine. Based on the morphology, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and 26S rDNA D1/D2 domain sequence, strain DLPU-zpb was identified as Candida maltosa. The cells of this strain were used as a biocatalyst for eliminating the L-isomer from DL-valine. The L-isomer was completely degraded within 72 h under the conditions of 30°C, pH control at 6·0, 200 rev min(-1) and 50 g l(-1) DL-valine. The strain DLPU-zpb degraded L-valine effectively but not D-valine, and thus D-valine could be easily isolated from the resultant reaction mixture, which provides a new method for D-valine preparation from DL-valine. D-valine is an important raw material for medicines and its demand is increasing year by year. Several approaches for D-valine preparation have been reported, but none of them are likely to provide product at low cost. A newly isolated L-valine-degrading yeast strain Candida maltosa DLPU-zpb was described, which showed asymmetric degrading activity against DL-valine. Thus, a new and practical process for D-valine preparation from DL-valine could be developed. This is the first report of the asymmetric degrading ability of C. maltosa against DL-valine and D-valine preparation from DL-valine. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Effects of dietary excesses of branched-chain amino acids on the metabolism and tissue composition of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hughes, S.G.; Rumsey, G.L.; Nesheim, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    1. Excesses of either leucine, isoleucine or valine were fed in separate experiments to determine if the branched-chain amino acid antagonism reported in other animals occur in trout (Salvelinus namaycush).2. Parameters measured include growth rate, feed utilization efficiency, plasma and muscle-free amino acids, carcass composition and branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase.3. Dietary excesses of leucine or isoleucine caused an increase in the valine requirement.4. The inability of leucine and isoleucine supplementations to ameliorate the effects of excess dietary valine are interpreted as a valine toxicity rather than an antagonism.

  8. l-Leucine acts as a potential agent in reducing body temperature at hatching and affords thermotolerance in broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Han, Guofeng; Yang, Hui; Bahry, Mohammad A; Tran, Phuong V; Do, Phong H; Ikeda, Hiromi; Furuse, Mitsuhiro; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S

    2017-02-01

    Thermal manipulation (TM) of incubation temperature causes metabolic alterations and contributes to improving thermotolerance in chicks post hatching. However, there has been no report on amino acid metabolism during TM and the part it plays in thermotolerance. In this study, we therefore first analyzed free amino acid concentrations in the embryonic brain and liver during TM (38.6°C, 6h/d during embryonic day (ED) 10 to ED 18). It was found that leucine (Leu), phenylalanine and lysine were significantly decreased in the embryonic brain and liver. We then chose l-Leu and other branched-chain amino acids (l-isoleucine (L-Ile) and l-valine (l-Val)) for in ovo injection on ED 7 to reveal their roles in thermoregulation, growth, food intake and thermotolerance in chicks. It was found that in ovo injection of l-Leu, but not of l-Ileu or l-Val, caused a significant decline in body temperature at hatching and increased food intake and body weight gain in broiler chicks. Interestingly, in ovo injection of l-Leu resulted in the acquisition of thermotolerance under high ambient temperature (35±1°C for 180min) in comparison with the control thermoneutral temperature (28±1°C for 180min). These results indicate that the free amino acid concentrations during embryogenesis were altered by TM. l-Leu administration in eggs caused a reduction in body temperature at hatching, and afforded thermotolerance in heat-exposed young chicks, further suggesting that l-Leu may be one of the key metabolic factors involved in controlling body temperature in embryos, as well as in producing thermotolerance after hatching. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Metabolism of β-valine via a CoA-dependent ammonia lyase pathway.

    PubMed

    Otzen, Marleen; Crismaru, Ciprian G; Postema, Christiaan P; Wijma, Hein J; Heberling, Matthew M; Szymanski, Wiktor; de Wildeman, Stefaan; Janssen, Dick B

    2015-11-01

    Pseudomonas species strain SBV1 can rapidly grow on medium containing β-valine as a sole nitrogen source. The tertiary amine feature of β-valine prevents direct deamination reactions catalyzed by aminotransferases, amino acid dehydrogenases, and amino acid oxidases. However, lyase- or aminomutase-mediated conversions would be possible. To identify enzymes involved in the degradation of β-valine, a PsSBV1 gene library was prepared and used to complement the β-valine growth deficiency of a closely related Pseudomonas strain. This resulted in the identification of a gene encoding β-valinyl-coenzyme A ligase (BvaA) and two genes encoding β-valinyl-CoA ammonia lyases (BvaB1 and BvaB2). The BvaA protein demonstrated high sequence identity to several known phenylacetate CoA ligases. Purified BvaA enzyme did not convert phenyl acetic acid but was able to activate β-valine in an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)- and CoA-dependent manner. The substrate range of the enzyme appears to be narrow, converting only β-valine and to a lesser extent, 3-aminobutyrate and β-alanine. Characterization of BvaB1 and BvaB2 revealed that both enzymes were able to deaminate β-valinyl-CoA to produce 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA, a common intermediate in the leucine degradation pathway. Interestingly, BvaB1 and BvaB2 demonstrated no significant sequence identity to known CoA-dependent ammonia lyases, suggesting they belong to a new family of enzymes. BLAST searches revealed that BvaB1 and BvaB2 show high sequence identity to each other and to several enoyl-CoA hydratases, a class of enzymes that catalyze a similar reaction with water instead of amine as the leaving group.

  10. Mutations Causing Slow-Channel Myasthenia Reveal That a Valine Ring in the Channel Pore of Muscle AChR is Optimized for Stabilizing Channel Gating.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin-Ming; Okuno, Tatsuya; Milone, Margherita; Otsuka, Kenji; Takahashi, Koji; Komaki, Hirofumi; Giles, Elizabeth; Ohno, Kinji; Engel, Andrew G

    2016-10-01

    We identify two novel mutations in acetylcholine receptor (AChR) causing a slow-channel congenital myasthenia syndrome (CMS) in three unrelated patients (Pts). Pt 1 harbors a heterozygous βV266A mutation (p.Val289Ala) in the second transmembrane domain (M2) of the AChR β subunit (CHRNB1). Pts 2 and 3 carry the same mutation at an equivalent site in the ε subunit (CHRNE), εV265A (p.Val285Ala). The mutant residues are conserved across all AChR subunits of all species and are components of a valine ring in the channel pore, which is positioned four residues above the leucine ring. Both βV266A and εV265A reduce the amino acid size and lengthen the channel opening bursts by fourfold by enhancing gating efficiency by approximately 30-fold. Substitution of alanine for valine at the corresponding position in the δ and α subunit prolongs the burst duration four- and eightfold, respectively. Replacing valine at ε codon 265 either by a still smaller glycine or by a larger leucine also lengthens the burst duration. Our analysis reveals that each valine in the valine ring contributes to channel kinetics equally, and the valine ring has been optimized in the course of evolution to govern channel gating. © 2016 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  11. Mutations causing slow-channel myasthenia reveal that a valine ring in the channel pore of muscle AChR is optimized for stabilizing channel gating

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xin-Ming; Okuno, Tatsuya; Milone, Margherita; Otsuka, Kenji; Takahashi, Koji; Komaki, Hirofumi; Giles, Elizabeth; Ohno, Kinji; Engel, Andrew G.

    2016-01-01

    We identify two novel mutations in acetylcholine receptor (AChR) causing a slow-channel congenital myasthenia syndrome (CMS) in three unrelated patients (Pts). Pt 1 harbors a heterozygous βV266A mutation (p.Val289Ala) in the second transmembrane domain (M2) of the AChR β subunit (CHRNB1). Pts 2 and 3 carry the same mutation at an equivalent site in the ε subunit (CHRNE), εV265A (p.Val285Ala). The mutant residues are conserved across all AChR subunits of all species and are components of a valine ring in the channel pore which is positioned four residues above the leucine ring. Both βV266A and εV265A reduce the amino acid size and lengthen the channel opening bursts by 4.0-fold by enhancing gating efficiency by approximately 30-fold. Substitution of alanine for valine at the corresponding position in the δ and α subunit prolongs the burst duration 4- and 8-fold, respectively. Replacing valine at ε codon 265 either by a still smaller glycine or by a larger leucine also lengthens the burst duration. Our analysis reveals that each valine in the valine ring contributes to channel kinetics equally, and the valine ring has been optimized in the course of evolution to govern channel gating. PMID:27375219

  12. Valine starvation leads to a hungry niche

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, R. Grant; Daley, George Q.

    2017-01-01

    The haematopoietic stem cells that rejuvenate blood depend on a dietary source of the amino acid valine — a finding that has been exploited to reduce the toxicity of bone-marrow transplantation in mice. PMID:27974805

  13. Leucine and isoleucine reduce protein degradation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) primary myoblast cultures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Myogenic precursor cells were isolated from rainbow trout skeletal muscle and incubated in media containing 10% fetal bovine serum for 7 days, thereby differentiating into myoblasts. Rates of protein degradation were determined in response to minimal essential media (MEM) of various amino acid (AA)...

  14. Continuous recovery of valine in a model mixture of amino acids and salt from Corynebacterium bacteria fermentation using a simulated moving bed chromatography.

    PubMed

    Park, Chanhun; Nam, Hee-Geun; Jo, Se-Hee; Wang, Nien-Hwa Linda; Mun, Sungyong

    2016-02-26

    The economical efficiency of valine production in related industries is largely affected by the performance of a valine separation process, in which valine is to be separated from leucine, alanine, and ammonium sulfate. Such separation is currently handled by a batch-mode hybrid process based on ion-exchange and crystallization schemes. To make a substantial improvement in the economical efficiency of an industrial valine production, such a batch-mode process based on two different separation schemes needs to be converted into a continuous-mode separation process based on a single separation scheme. To address this issue, a simulated moving bed (SMB) technology was applied in this study to the development of a continuous-mode valine-separation chromatographic process with uniformity in adsorbent and liquid phases. It was first found that a Chromalite-PCG600C resin could be eligible for the adsorbent of such process, particularly in an industrial scale. The intrinsic parameters of each component on the Chromalite-PCG600C adsorbent were determined and then utilized in selecting a proper set of configurations for SMB units, columns, and ports, under which the SMB operating parameters were optimized with a genetic algorithm. Finally, the optimized SMB based on the selected configurations was tested experimentally, which confirmed its effectiveness in continuous separation of valine from leucine, alanine, ammonium sulfate with high purity, high yield, high throughput, and high valine product concentration. It is thus expected that the developed SMB process in this study will be able to serve as one of the trustworthy ways of improving the economical efficiency of an industrial valine production process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Kinetic Behavior of Leucine and Other Amino Acids Modulating Cognitive Performance via mTOR Pathway

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-02

    is a potential target for modulation with leucine (or other therapeutic agents), to maintain/enhance normal functioning under stress conditions. Such... functioning under stress conditions. Such an effect has potential for optimizing warfighter cognitive performance under high demand conditions. The... Isoleucine L1 Essential Neutral Non-polar Branched chain Lysine Basic Y+ Essential Basic Polar Proline L1? Neutral Non-polar Aromatic Asparagine Neutral

  16. Characteristics of a leucine aminoacyl transfer RNA synthetase from Tritrichomonas augusta.

    PubMed

    Horner, J; Champney, W S; Samuels, R

    1991-04-01

    This study has investigated the characteristics of a leucine aminoacyl transfer RNA synthetase enzyme from Tritrichomonas augusta. Differential centrifugation and DEAE-cellulose column chromatography were used for partial enzyme purification. The column purification increased the synthetase activity 125-fold over the unfractionated cell extract. The conditions for maximum [3H] leucine charging were 37 degrees C for 20 min, with protein at 180 micrograms ml-1 using yeast leucine tRNA as an acceptor. The optimal reaction conditions were 14 mM-Mg acetate, 3 mM-ATP, 3 mM-spermidine and 5.5 mM-putrescine. Acceptor activity with T. augusta transfer RNA was 8-fold higher than with yeast transfer RNA and 25-fold higher than with Escherichia coli transfer RNA. The partially purified enzyme fraction had comparable changing activities for both leucine and valine.

  17. Reaction of dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids with valine and hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuewei; Wang, Shuguang; Xia, Qingsu; Gamboa da Costa, Gonçalo; Doerge, Daniel R; Cai, Lining; Fu, Peter P

    2014-10-20

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing plants are probably the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids exert toxicity through metabolism to dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids that bind to cellular protein and DNA, leading to hepatotoxicity, genotoxicity, and tumorigenicity. To date, it is not clear how dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids bind to cellular constituents, including amino acids and proteins, resulting in toxicity. Metabolism of carcinogenic monocrotaline, riddelliine, and heliotrine produces dehydromonocrotaline, dehyroriddelliine, and dehydroheliotrine, respectively, as primary reactive metabolites. In this study, we report that reaction of dehydromonocrotaline with valine generated four highly unstable 6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP)-derived valine (DHP-valine) adducts. For structural elucidation, DHP-valine adducts were derivatized with phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC) to DHP-valine-PITC products. After HPLC separation, their structures were characterized by mass spectrometry, UV-visible spectrophotometry, (1)H NMR, and (1)H-(1)H COSY NMR spectral analysis. Two DHP-valine-PITC adducts, designated as DHP-valine-PITC-1 and DHP-valine-PITC-3, had the amino group of valine linked to the C7 position of the necine base, and the other two DHP-valine-PITC products, DHP-valine-PITC-2 and DHP-valine-PITC-4, linked to the C9 position of the necine base. DHP-valine-PITC-1 was interconvertible with DHP-valine-PITC-3, and DHP-valine-PITC-2 was interconvertible with DHP-valine-PITC-4. Reaction of dehydroriddelliine and dehydroheliotrine with valine provided similar results. However, reaction of valine and dehydroretronecine (DHR) under similar experimental conditions did not produce DHP-valine adducts. Reaction of dehydromonocrotaline with rat hemoglobin followed by derivatization with PITC also generated the same four DHP-valine-PITC adducts. This represents the first full structural elucidation of

  18. Elucidation of an Alternate Isoleucine Biosynthesis Pathway in Geobacter sulfurreducens▿

    PubMed Central

    Risso, Carla; Van Dien, Stephen J.; Orloff, Amber; Lovley, Derek R.; Coppi, Maddalena V.

    2008-01-01

    The central metabolic model for Geobacter sulfurreducens included a single pathway for the biosynthesis of isoleucine that was analogous to that of Escherichia coli, in which the isoleucine precursor 2-oxobutanoate is generated from threonine. 13C labeling studies performed in G. sulfurreducens indicated that this pathway accounted for a minor fraction of isoleucine biosynthesis and that the majority of isoleucine was instead derived from acetyl-coenzyme A and pyruvate, possibly via the citramalate pathway. Genes encoding citramalate synthase (GSU1798), which catalyzes the first dedicated step in the citramalate pathway, and threonine ammonia-lyase (GSU0486), which catalyzes the conversion of threonine to 2-oxobutanoate, were identified and knocked out. Mutants lacking both of these enzymes were auxotrophs for isoleucine, whereas single mutants were capable of growth in the absence of isoleucine. Biochemical characterization of the single mutants revealed deficiencies in citramalate synthase and threonine ammonia-lyase activity. Thus, in G. sulfurreducens, 2-oxobutanoate can be synthesized either from citramalate or threonine, with the former being the main pathway for isoleucine biosynthesis. The citramalate synthase of G. sulfurreducens constitutes the first characterized member of a phylogenetically distinct clade of citramalate synthases, which contains representatives from a wide variety of microorganisms. PMID:18245290

  19. Valine radiolysis by MeV ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Silveira, Enio

    2016-07-01

    Valine, (CH3)2 CHCH (NH2) COOH, is a protein amino acid that has been identified in extraterrestrial environments and in the Murchison meteorite [1]. The knowledge of half-lives of small organic molecules under ionizing radiation is important for the setup of models describing the spread out of prebiotics across the Solar System or the Galaxy. We have investigated typical effects of MeV cosmic ray ions on prebiotic molecules in laboratory by impinging ions produced by the PUC-Rio Van de Graaff accelerator. Pure valine films, deposited by evaporation on KBr substrates, were irradiated by H ^{+}, He ^{+} and N ^{+} ion beams, from 0.5 to 1.5 MeV and up to a fluence of 10 ^{15} projectiles/cm ^{2}. The sample temperature was varied from 10 K to 300 K. The irradiation was interrupted several times for Mid-FTIR analysis of the sample. The main findings are: 1- The column density of the valine decreases exponentially with fluence. 2- In some cases, a second exponential appears in the beginning of irradiation; this feature has been attributed to sample compaction by the ion beam [2]. 3- Destruction cross sections of valine are in the 10 ^{-15} cm ^{2} range, while compaction cross sections are in the 10 ^{-14} cm ^{2} range. 4- Destruction cross section increases with the stopping power of the beam and also with the sample temperature. 5- Surprisingly, during the radiolysis of valine, just CO _{2} is seen by as a daughter molecule formed in the bulk. 6- After long beam fluence, also a CO peak appears in the infrared spectrum; this species is however interpreted as a fragment of the formed CO2 molecules. 7- Considering the flux ratio between laboratory experiments and actual galactic cosmic rays, half-life of valine is predicted for ISM conditions [3]. This work on pure valine is the first measurement of a series. New experiments are planned for determining cross sections of valine dissolved in H _{2}O or CO _{2}, inspired by the study performed for glycine [4]. [1] P

  20. High Leucine Diets Stimulate Cerebral Branched-Chain Amino Acid Degradation and Modify Serotonin and Ketone Body Concentrations in a Pig Model

    PubMed Central

    Wessels, Anna G.; Kluge, Holger; Hirche, Frank; Kiowski, Andreas; Schutkowski, Alexandra; Corrent, Etienne; Bartelt, Jörg; König, Bettina; Stangl, Gabriele I.

    2016-01-01

    In addition to its role as an essential protein component, leucine (Leu) displays several other metabolic functions such as activation of protein synthesis. This property makes it an interesting amino acid for the therapy of human muscle atrophy and for livestock production. However, Leu can stimulate its own degradation via the branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDH). To examine the response of several tissues to excessive Leu, pigs were fed diets containing two- (L2) and four-fold (L4) higher Leu contents than the recommended amount (control). We found that the L4 diet led to a pronounced increase in BCKDH activity in the brain (2.5-fold, P < 0.05), liver (1.8-fold, P < 0.05) and cardiac muscle (1.7-fold, P < 0.05), whereas we found no changes in enzyme activity in the pancreas, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue and intestinal mucosa. The L2 diet had only weak effects on BCKDH activity. Both high Leu diets reduced the concentrations of free valine and isoleucine in nearly all tissues. In the brain, high Leu diets modified the amount of tryptophan available: for serotonin synthesis. Compared to the controls, pigs treated with the high Leu diets consumed less food, showed increased plasma concentrations of 3-hydroxybutyrate and reduced levels of circulating serotonin. In conclusion, excessive Leu can stimulate BCKDH activity in several tissues, including the brain. Changes in cerebral tryptophan, along with the changes in amino acid-derived metabolites in the plasma may limit the use of high Leu diets to treat muscle atrophy or to increase muscle growth. PMID:26930301

  1. Leucine Promotes the Growth of Fetal Pigs by Increasing Protein Synthesis through the mTOR Signaling Pathway in Longissimus Dorsi Muscle at Late Gestation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao-Xian; Chen, Fang; Zhang, Wen-Fei; Zhang, Shi-Hai; Shi, Kui; Song, Han-Qing; Wang, Yi-Jiang; Kim, Sung Woo; Guan, Wu-Tai

    2018-04-18

    Leucine (Leu) plays an important role in protein synthesis and metabolism. The present study tested whether Leu supplementation in the diet for sows during late pregnancy could improve piglet birth weight, and it also investigated the possible underlying mechanism. Two hundred sows at day 70 of pregnancy were selected and assigned to four groups fed with following four diets until farrowing, respectively: corn and soybean meal-based diet group (CON), CON + 0.40% Leu, CON + 0.80% Leu, and CON + 1.20% Leu. We found that supplementing with 0.80% Leu significantly increased mean piglet birth weight ( P < 0.05). Supplementation with 0.40, 0.80, and 1.20% Leu increased the plasma concentration of Leu, while decreasing the plasma concentrations of valine (Val) and isoleucine (Ile) in both farrowing sows and newborn piglets ( P < 0.05). The protein expressions of amino acid transporters (including LAT1, SNAT1, SNAT2, 4F2hc, and rBAT) in duodenum, jejunum, ileum, longissimus dorsi muscle of newborn piglets, and placenta of sows showed a difference among the CON group and Leu supplemented groups. Expressions of p-mTOR, p-4E-BP1, and p-S6K1 in longissimus dorsi muscle were also enhanced in each of the supplemental Leu groups compared to CON ( P < 0.05). Collectively, these results indicated that 0.40-0.80% Leu supplementation during late gestation enhanced birth weight of fetal pigs by increasing protein synthesis through modulation of the plasma amino acids profile, amino acid transporters expression, and mTOR signaling pathway.

  2. Selection of the simplest RNA that binds isoleucine

    PubMed Central

    LOZUPONE, CATHERINE; CHANGAYIL, SHANKAR; MAJERFELD, IRENE; YARUS, MICHAEL

    2003-01-01

    We have identified the simplest RNA binding site for isoleucine using selection-amplification (SELEX), by shrinking the size of the randomized region until affinity selection is extinguished. Such a protocol can be useful because selection does not necessarily make the simplest active motif most prominent, as is often assumed. We find an isoleucine binding site that behaves exactly as predicted for the site that requires fewest nucleotides. This UAUU motif (16 highly conserved positions; 27 total), is also the most abundant site in successful selections on short random tracts. The UAUU site, now isolated independently at least 63 times, is a small asymmetric internal loop. Conserved loop sequences include isoleucine codon and anticodon triplets, whose nucleotides are required for amino acid binding. This reproducible association between isoleucine and its coding sequences supports the idea that the genetic code is, at least in part, a stereochemical residue of the most easily isolated RNA–amino acid binding structures. PMID:14561881

  3. Reinvestigation of growth of 'L-valine zinc sulphate' crystal.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R; Jyai, Rita N

    2014-01-01

    A reinvestigation of the growth of l-valine zinc sulphate crystal is reported. The slow evaporation of an aqueous solution containing l-valine and zinc sulphate heptahydrate results in the fractional crystallization of l-valine and not the organic inorganic hybrid nonlinear optical l-valine zinc sulphate crystal, as reported by Puhal Raj and Ramachandra Raja (2012). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. 21 CFR 582.5925 - Valine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Valine. 582.5925 Section 582.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5925 - Valine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Valine. 582.5925 Section 582.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5925 - Valine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Valine. 582.5925 Section 582.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5925 - Valine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Valine. 582.5925 Section 582.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5925 - Valine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Valine. 582.5925 Section 582.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1...

  9. (L)-Valine production with minimization of by-products' synthesis in Corynebacterium glutamicum and Brevibacterium flavum.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiaohu; Chen, Xinde; Zhang, Yue; Qian, He; Zhang, Weiguo

    2012-12-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC13032 and Brevibacterium flavum JV16 were engineered for L-valine production by over-expressing ilvEBN ( r ) C genes at 31 °C in 72 h fermentation. Different strategies were carried out to reduce the by-products' accumulation in L-valine fermentation and also to increase the availability of precursor for L-valine biosynthesis. The native promoter of ilvA of C. glutamicum was replaced with a weak promoter MPilvA (P-ilvAM1CG) to reduce the biosynthetic rate of L-isoleucine. Effect of different relative dissolved oxygen on L-valine production and by-products' formation was recorded, indicating that 15 % saturation may be the most appropriate relative dissolved oxygen for L-valine fermentation with almost no L-lactic acid and L-glutamate formed. To minimize L-alanine accumulation, alaT and/or avtA was inactivated in C. glutamicum and B. flavum, respectively. Compared to high concentration of L-alanine accumulated by alaT inactivated strains harboring ilvEBN ( r ) C genes, L-alanine concentration was reduced to 0.18 g/L by C. glutamicum ATCC13032MPilvA△avtA pDXW-8-ilvEBN ( r ) C, and 0.22 g/L by B. flavum JV16avtA::Cm pDXW-8-ilvEBN ( r ) C. Meanwhile, L-valine production and conversion efficiency were enhanced to 31.15 g/L and 0.173 g/g by C. glutamicum ATCC13032MPilvA△avtA pDXW-8-ilvEBN ( r ) C, 38.82 g/L and 0.252 g/g by B. flavum JV16avtA::Cm pDXW-8-ilvEBN ( r ) C. This study provides combined strategies to improve L-valine yield by minimization of by-products' production.

  10. Application and microbial preparation of D-valine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming; Shi, Chao; Zhao, Jing; Gao, Ziqing; Zhang, Chunzhi

    2016-10-01

    D-Valine is an important organic chiral source and has extensive industrial application, which is used as intermediate for the synthesis of agricultural pesticides, semi-synthetic veterinary antibiotics and pharmaceutical drugs. Its derivatives have shown great activity in clinical use, such as penicillamine for the treatment of immune-deficiency diseases, and actinomycin D for antitumor therapy. Fluvalinate, a pyrethroid pesticide made from D-valine, is a broad-spectrum insecticide with low mammalian toxicity. Valnemulin, a semi-synthetic pleuromutilin derivative synthesized from D-valine, is an antibiotic for animals. Moreover, D-valine is also used in cell culture for selectively inhibiting fibroblasts proliferation. Due to its widespread application, D-valine is gaining more and more attention and some approaches for D-valine preparation have been investigated. In comparison with other approaches, microbial preparation of D-valine is more competitive and promising because of its high stereo selectivity, mild reaction conditions and environmental friendly process. So far, microbial preparation of D-valine can be mainly classified into three categories: microbial asymmetric degradation of DL-valine, microbial stereoselective hydrolysis of N-acyl-DL-valine by D-aminoacylase, and microbial specific hydrolysis of DL-5-isopropylhydantoin by D-hydantoinase coupled with D-carbamoylase. In this paper, the industrial application of D-valine and its microbial preparation are reviewed.

  11. A novel l-isoleucine-4′-dioxygenase and l-isoleucine dihydroxylation cascade in Pantoea ananatis

    PubMed Central

    Smirnov, Sergey V; Sokolov, Pavel M; Kotlyarova, Veronika A; Samsonova, Natalya N; Kodera, Tomohiro; Sugiyama, Masakazu; Torii, Takayoshi; Hibi, Makoto; Shimizu, Sakayu; Yokozeki, Kenzo; Ogawa, Jun

    2013-01-01

    A unique operon structure has been identified in the genomes of several plant- and insect-associated bacteria. The distinguishing feature of this operon is the presence of tandem hilA and hilB genes encoding dioxygenases belonging to the PF13640 and PF10014 (BsmA) Pfam families, respectively. The genes encoding HilA and HilB from Pantoea ananatis AJ13355 were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The culturing of E. coli cells expressing hilA (E. coli-HilA) or both hilA and hilB (E. coli-HilAB) in the presence of l-isoleucine resulted in the conversion of l-isoleucine into two novel biogenic compounds: l-4′-isoleucine and l-4,4′-dihydroxyisoleucine, respectively. In parallel, two novel enzymatic activities were detected in the crude cell lysates of the E. coli-HilA and E. coli-HilAB strains: l-isoleucine, 2-oxoglutarate: oxygen oxidoreductase (4′-hydroxylating) (HilA) and l-4′-hydroxyisoleucine, 2-oxoglutarate: oxygen oxidoreductase (4-hydroxylating) (HilB), respectively. Two hypotheses regarding the physiological significance of C-4(4′)-hydroxylation of l-isoleucine in bacteria are also discussed. According to first hypothesis, the l-isoleucine dihydroxylation cascade is involved in synthesis of dipeptide antibiotic in P. ananatis. Another unifying hypothesis is that the C-4(4′)-hydroxylation of l-isoleucine in bacteria could result in the synthesis of signal molecules belonging to two classes: 2(5H)-furanones and analogs of N-acyl homoserine lactone. PMID:23554367

  12. Isoleucine epimerization ages of the dwarf elephants of Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belluomini, Giorgio; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    1985-07-01

    The isoleucine epimerization reaction has been used to date tooth enamel from dwarf elephants collected from the Sicilian caves of Spinagallo and Puntali. Elephant teeth from the Isernia la Pineta deposit in central Italy, dated at ˜700 ka by potassium-argon (K-Ar) and paleomagnetics, were used for calibration of the isoleucine epimerization rate. The ages determined for the dwarf elephants found at the Spinagallo Cave are considerably older than the more robust dwarf species found at the Puntali Cave. These dates suggest that more than one invasion of continental elephants have taken place on Sicily. The subsequent isolation of the continental species has apparently produced varying stages of dwarfism.

  13. Depleting dietary valine permits nonmyeloablative mouse hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Taya, Yuki; Ota, Yasunori; Wilkinson, Adam C; Kanazawa, Ayano; Watarai, Hiroshi; Kasai, Masataka; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Yamazaki, Satoshi

    2016-12-02

    A specialized bone marrow microenvironment (niche) regulates hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal and commitment. For successful donor-HSC engraftment, the niche must be emptied via myeloablative irradiation or chemotherapy. However, myeloablation can cause severe complications and even mortality. Here we report that the essential amino acid valine is indispensable for the proliferation and maintenance of HSCs. Both mouse and human HSCs failed to proliferate when cultured in valine-depleted conditions. In mice fed a valine-restricted diet, HSC frequency fell dramatically within 1 week. Furthermore, dietary valine restriction emptied the mouse bone marrow niche and afforded donor-HSC engraftment without chemoirradiative myeloablation. These findings indicate a critical role for valine in HSC maintenance and suggest that dietary valine restriction may reduce iatrogenic complications in HSC transplantation. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Validation of isoleucine utilization targets in Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Istvan, Eva S.; Dharia, Neekesh V.; Bopp, Selina E.; Gluzman, Ilya; Winzeler, Elizabeth A.; Goldberg, Daniel E.

    2011-01-01

    Intraerythrocytic malaria parasites can obtain nearly their entire amino acid requirement by degrading host cell hemoglobin. The sole exception is isoleucine, which is not present in adult human hemoglobin and must be obtained exogenously. We evaluated two compounds for their potential to interfere with isoleucine utilization. Mupirocin, a clinically used antibacterial, kills Plasmodium falciparum parasites at nanomolar concentrations. Thiaisoleucine, an isoleucine analog, also has antimalarial activity. To identify targets of the two compounds, we selected parasites resistant to either mupirocin or thiaisoleucine. Mutants were analyzed by genome-wide high-density tiling microarrays, DNA sequencing, and copy number variation analysis. The genomes of three independent mupirocin-resistant parasite clones had all acquired either amplifications encompassing or SNPs within the chromosomally encoded organellar (apicoplast) isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase. Thiaisoleucine-resistant parasites had a mutation in the cytoplasmic isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase. The role of this mutation in thiaisoleucine resistance was confirmed by allelic replacement. This approach is generally useful for elucidation of new targets in P. falciparum. Our study shows that isoleucine utilization is an essential pathway that can be targeted for antimalarial drug development. PMID:21205898

  15. Leucine modulation of mitochondrial mass and oxygen consumption in skeletal muscle cells and adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaocun; Zemel, Michael B

    2009-01-01

    Background The effects of dairy on energy metabolism appear to be mediated, in part, by leucine and calcium which regulate both adipocyte and skeletal muscle energy metabolism. We recently demonstrated that leucine and calcitriol regulate fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle cells in vitro, with leucine promoting and calcitriol suppressing fatty acid oxidation. Moreover, leucine coordinately regulated adipocyte lipid metabolism to promote flux of lipid to skeletal muscle and regulate metabolic flexibility. We have now investigated the role of mitochondrial biogenesis in mediating these effects. Methods We tested the effect of leucine, calcitriol and calcium in regulation of mitochondrial mass using a fluorescence method and tested mitochondrial biogenesis regulatory genes as well mitochondrial component genes using real-time PCR. We also evaluated the effect of leucine on oxygen consumption with a modified perfusion system. Results Leucine (0.5 mM) increased mitochondrial mass by 30% and 53% in C2C12 myocytes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes, respectively, while calcitriol (10 nM) decreased mitochondrial abundance by 37% and 27% (p < 0.02). Leucine also stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis genes SIRT-1, PGC-1α and NRF-1 as well as mitochondrial component genes UCP3, COX, and NADH expression by 3–5 fold in C2C12 cells (p < 0.003). Adipocyte-conditioned medium reduced mitochondrial abundance (p < 0.001) and decreased UCP3 but increased PGC-1α expression in myocytes, suggesting a feedback stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis. Similar data were observed in C2C12 myocytes co-cultured with adipocytes, with co-culture markedly suppressing mitochondrial abundance (p < 0.02). Leucine stimulated oxygen consumption in both C2C12 cells and adipocytes compared with either control or valine-treated cells. Transfection of C2C12 myocytes with SIRT-1 siRNA resulted in parallel suppression of SIRT-1 expression and leucine-induced stimulation of PGC-1α and NRF-1, indicating that SIRT

  16. A leucine repeat motif in AbiA is required for resistance of Lactococcus lactis to phages representing three species.

    PubMed

    Dinsmore, P K; O'Sullivan, D J; Klaenhammer, T R

    1998-05-28

    The abiA gene encodes an abortive bacteriophage infection mechanism that can protect Lactococcus species from infection by a variety of bacteriophages including three unrelated phage species. Five heptad leucine repeats suggestive of a leucine zipper motif were identified between residues 232 and 266 in the predicted amino acid sequence of the AbiA protein. The biological role of residues in the repeats was investigated by incorporating amino acid substitutions via site-directed mutagenesis. Each mutant was tested for phage resistance against three phages, phi 31, sk1, and c2, belonging to species P335, 936, and c2, respectively. The five residues that comprise the heptad repeats were designated L234, L242, A249, L256, and L263. Three single conservative mutations of leucine to valine in positions L235, L242, and L263 and a double mutation of two leucines (L235 and L242) to valines did not affect AbiA activity on any phages tested. Non-conservative single substitutions of charged amino acids for three of the leucines (L235, L242, and L256) virtually eliminated AbiA activity on all phages tested. Substitution of the alanine residue in the third repeat (A249) with a charged residue did not affect AbiA activity. Replacement of L242 with an alanine elimination phage resistance against phi 31, but partial resistance to sk1 and c2 remained. Two single proline substitutions for leucines L242 and L263 virtually eliminated AbiA activity against all phages, indicating that the predicted alpha-helical structure of this region is important. Mutations in an adjacent region of basic amino acids had various effects on phage resistance, suggesting that these basic residues are also important for AbiA activity. This directed mutagenesis analysis of AbiA indicated that the leucine repeat structure is essential for conferring phage resistance against three species of lactococcal bacteriophages.

  17. Thermometric MIP sensor for fructosyl valine.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, Rajagopal; Katterle, Martin; Warsinke, Axel; Möhwald, Helmuth; Scheller, Frieder W

    2008-02-28

    Interactions of molecularly imprinted polymers containing phenyl boronic acid residues with fructosyl valine, fructose and pinacol, respectively are analysed in aqueous solution (pH 11.4) by using a flow calorimeter. The reversible formation of (two) cyclic boronic acid diesters per fructosyl molecule generates a 40-fold higher exothermic signal as compared to the control polymer. Whereas binding of pinacol to either the MIP or the control polymer generates a very small endothermic signal reflecting a negligible contribution of the esterification to the overall process. An "apparent imprinting factor" of 41 is found which exceeds the respective value of batch binding procedures by a factor of 30. Furthermore, the MIP sensor was used to characterise the crossreactivity. The influence of shape selective molecular recognition is discussed.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of new polyamides derived from alanine and valine derivatives

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many efforts have been recently devoted to design, investigate and synthesize biocompatible, biodegradable polymers for applications in medicine for either the fabrication of biodegradable devices or as drug delivery systems. Many of them consist of condensation of polymers having incorporated peptide linkages susceptible to enzymatic cleavage. Polyamides (PAs) containing α-amino acid residues such as L-leucine, L-alanine and L-phenylalanine have been reported as biodegradable materials. Furthermore, polyamides (PAs) derived from C10 and C14 dicarboxylic acids and amide-diamines derived from 1,6-hexanediamine or 1,12-dodecanediamine and L-phenylalanine, L-valyl-L-phenylalanine or L-phenylalanyl-L-valine residues have been reported as biocompatible polymers. We have previously described the synthesis and thermal properties of a new type of polyamides-containing amino acids based on eight new symmetric meta-oriented protected diamines derived from coupling of amino acids namely; Fomc-glycine, Fmoc-alanine, Fomc-valine and Fomc-leucine with m-phenylene diamine or 2,6-diaminopyridine. Results revealed that incorporation of pyridine onto the polymeric backbone of all series decreases the thermal stability. Here we describe another family of polyamides based on benzene dicarboxylic acid, pyridine dicarboxylic acid, and α-amino acid linked to benzidine and 4,4′-oxydianiline to study the effect of the dicarboxylic acid as well as the amino acids on the nature and thermal stability of the polymers. Results We report here the preparation of a new type of polyamides based on benzene dicarboxylic acid, pyridine dicarboxylic acid, and α-amino acid linked to benzidine and 4,4′-oxydianiline to study the effect of the dicarboxylic acid as well as the amino acids on the nature and thermal stability of polymers. The thermal properties of the polymers were evaluated by different techniques. Results revealed that structure-thermal property correlation based on

  19. Physical and Flavor Characteristics, Fatty Acid Profile, Antioxidant Status and Nrf2-Dependent Antioxidant Enzyme Gene Expression Changes in Young Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) Fillets Fed Dietary Valine.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jian-Bo; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary valine on the physical and flavor characteristics, fatty acid (FA) profile, antioxidant status and Nrf2-dependent antioxidant enzyme gene expression in the muscle of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed increasing levels of valine (4.3, 8.0, 10.6, 13.1, 16.9 and 19.1 g/kg) for 8 weeks. Compared with the control group, the group fed valine showed improved physical characteristics of fish fillets (increased relative shear force, hydroxyproline, protein and lipid levels and decreased cathepsin B and L activities, as well as cooking loss, were observed). Moreover, valine improved the flavor of young grass carp fillets by increasing the amino acid (AA) concentration in fish muscle (increased aspartic acid, threonine, glutamine, cystine, methionine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, lysine, histidine, arginine and valine concentrations were observed). Additionally, optimal valine supplementation increased the potential health benefits to humans by decreasing the saturated FA (C15:0 and C16:0) concentration and increasing the unsaturated FA (monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs), such as C16:1, C18:1c+t and C20:1, and polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs), such as C18:3n-3, C20:2 and C22:6) concentration. In addition, the reduced glutathione (GSH) content and the activities of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), catalase (CAT) and Selenium-dependent glutathione peroxydase (Se-GPx) increased under valine supplementation (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the SOD1, CAT and Se-GPx mRNA levels increased with dietary valine levels, possibly due to the up-regulation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), target of rapamycin (TOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and the down-regulation of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) in muscle (P < 0.05). In conclusion, valine improved the physical and flavor characteristics, FA profile, and antioxidant status and regulated the expression of the antioxidant enzyme genes Nrf2, Keap1, TOR

  20. Physical and Flavor Characteristics, Fatty Acid Profile, Antioxidant Status and Nrf2-Dependent Antioxidant Enzyme Gene Expression Changes in Young Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) Fillets Fed Dietary Valine

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary valine on the physical and flavor characteristics, fatty acid (FA) profile, antioxidant status and Nrf2-dependent antioxidant enzyme gene expression in the muscle of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed increasing levels of valine (4.3, 8.0, 10.6, 13.1, 16.9 and 19.1 g/kg) for 8 weeks. Compared with the control group, the group fed valine showed improved physical characteristics of fish fillets (increased relative shear force, hydroxyproline, protein and lipid levels and decreased cathepsin B and L activities, as well as cooking loss, were observed). Moreover, valine improved the flavor of young grass carp fillets by increasing the amino acid (AA) concentration in fish muscle (increased aspartic acid, threonine, glutamine, cystine, methionine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, lysine, histidine, arginine and valine concentrations were observed). Additionally, optimal valine supplementation increased the potential health benefits to humans by decreasing the saturated FA (C15:0 and C16:0) concentration and increasing the unsaturated FA (monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs), such as C16:1, C18:1c+t and C20:1, and polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs), such as C18:3n-3, C20:2 and C22:6) concentration. In addition, the reduced glutathione (GSH) content and the activities of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), catalase (CAT) and Selenium-dependent glutathione peroxydase (Se-GPx) increased under valine supplementation (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the SOD1, CAT and Se-GPx mRNA levels increased with dietary valine levels, possibly due to the up-regulation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), target of rapamycin (TOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and the down-regulation of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) in muscle (P < 0.05). In conclusion, valine improved the physical and flavor characteristics, FA profile, and antioxidant status and regulated the expression of the antioxidant enzyme genes Nrf2, Keap1, TOR

  1. Plasma amino acids and metabolic profiling of dairy cows in response to a bolus duodenal infusion of leucine

    PubMed Central

    von Soosten, Dirk; Meyer, Ulrich; Kluess, Jeannette; Dänicke, Sven; Saremi, Behnam; Sauerwein, Helga

    2017-01-01

    Leucine (Leu), one of the three branch chain amino acids, acts as a signaling molecule in the regulation of overall amino acid (AA) and protein metabolism. Leucine is also considered to be a potent stimulus for the secretion of insulin from pancreatice β-cells. Our objective was to study the effects of a duodenal bolus infusion of Leu on insulin and glucagon secretion, on plasma AA concentrations, and to do a metabolomic profiling of dairy cows as compared to infusions with either glucose or saline. Six duodenum-fistulated Holstein cows were studied in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 periods of 7 days, in which the treatments were applied at the end of each period. The treatments were duodenal bolus infusions of Leu (DIL; 0.15 g/kg body weight), glucose (DIG; at Leu equimolar dosage) or saline (SAL). On the day of infusion, the treatments were duodenally infused after 5 h of fasting. Blood samples were collected at -15, 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 75, 90, 120, 180, 210, 240 and 300 min relative to the start of infusion. Blood plasma was assayed for concentrations of insulin, glucagon, glucose and AA. The metabolome was also characterized in selected plasma samples (i.e. from 0, 50, and 120 min relative to the infusion). Body weight, feed intake, milk yield and milk composition were recorded throughout the experiment. The Leu infusion resulted in significant increases of Leu in plasma reaching 20 and 15-fold greater values than that in DIG and SAL, respectively. The elevation of plasma Leu concentrations after the infusion led to a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the plasma concentrations of isoleucine, valine, glycine, and alanine. In addition, the mean concentrations of lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, taurine, threonine, and asparagine across all time-points in plasma of DIL cows were reduced (P<0.05) compared with the other groups. In contrast to the working hypothesis about an insulinotropic effect of Leu, the circulating

  2. Plasma amino acids and metabolic profiling of dairy cows in response to a bolus duodenal infusion of leucine.

    PubMed

    Sadri, Hassan; von Soosten, Dirk; Meyer, Ulrich; Kluess, Jeannette; Dänicke, Sven; Saremi, Behnam; Sauerwein, Helga

    2017-01-01

    Leucine (Leu), one of the three branch chain amino acids, acts as a signaling molecule in the regulation of overall amino acid (AA) and protein metabolism. Leucine is also considered to be a potent stimulus for the secretion of insulin from pancreatice β-cells. Our objective was to study the effects of a duodenal bolus infusion of Leu on insulin and glucagon secretion, on plasma AA concentrations, and to do a metabolomic profiling of dairy cows as compared to infusions with either glucose or saline. Six duodenum-fistulated Holstein cows were studied in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 periods of 7 days, in which the treatments were applied at the end of each period. The treatments were duodenal bolus infusions of Leu (DIL; 0.15 g/kg body weight), glucose (DIG; at Leu equimolar dosage) or saline (SAL). On the day of infusion, the treatments were duodenally infused after 5 h of fasting. Blood samples were collected at -15, 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 75, 90, 120, 180, 210, 240 and 300 min relative to the start of infusion. Blood plasma was assayed for concentrations of insulin, glucagon, glucose and AA. The metabolome was also characterized in selected plasma samples (i.e. from 0, 50, and 120 min relative to the infusion). Body weight, feed intake, milk yield and milk composition were recorded throughout the experiment. The Leu infusion resulted in significant increases of Leu in plasma reaching 20 and 15-fold greater values than that in DIG and SAL, respectively. The elevation of plasma Leu concentrations after the infusion led to a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the plasma concentrations of isoleucine, valine, glycine, and alanine. In addition, the mean concentrations of lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, taurine, threonine, and asparagine across all time-points in plasma of DIL cows were reduced (P<0.05) compared with the other groups. In contrast to the working hypothesis about an insulinotropic effect of Leu, the circulating

  3. Optical Properties of TGS Crystal with L-Valine Admixture

    SciTech Connect

    Stadnyk, V. Yo., E-mail: vasylstadnyk@ukr.net; Romanyuk, N. A.; Kiryk, Yu. I.

    2010-11-15

    The thermal expansion and temperature and the spectral dependences of the refractive indices and birefringence of triglycine sulphate (TGS) crystals with a 5% L-valine admixture have been investigated. It is established that the introduction of L-valine weakens the temperature dependence of the refractive indices and the birefringence and thermal expansion of TGS crystals. The parameters of the Sellmeier formula, refractions, and electronic polarizabilities are calculated. The changes observed may be related to the increase in hardness of admixture-containing crystals, the decrease in the spontaneous polarization, the replacement of the refraction components of the valine bond, or the spontaneous electro-optic effect.

  4. Vibrational spectroscopic studies of Isoleucine by quantum chemical calculations.

    PubMed

    Moorthi, P P; Gunasekaran, S; Ramkumaar, G R

    2014-04-24

    In this work, we reported a combined experimental and theoretical study on molecular structure, vibrational spectra and NBO analysis of Isoleucine (2-Amino-3-methylpentanoic acid). The optimized molecular structure, vibrational frequencies, corresponding vibrational assignments, thermodynamics properties, NBO analyses, NMR chemical shifts and ultraviolet-visible spectral interpretation of Isoleucine have been studied by performing MP2 and DFT/cc-pVDZ level of theory. The FTIR, FT-Raman spectra were recorded in the region 4000-400 cm(-1) and 3500-50 cm(-1) respectively. The UV-visible absorption spectra of the compound were recorded in the range of 200-800 nm. Computational calculations at MP2 and B3LYP level with basis set of cc-pVDZ is employed in complete assignments of Isoleucine molecule on the basis of the potential energy distribution (PED) of the vibrational modes, calculated using VEDA-4 program. The calculated wavenumbers are compared with the experimental values. The difference between the observed and calculated wavenumber values of most of the fundamentals is very small. (13)C and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method and compared with experimental results. The formation of hydrogen bond was investigated in terms of the charge density by the NBO calculations. Based on the UV spectra and TD-DFT calculations, the electronic structure and the assignments of the absorption bands were carried out. Besides, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) were investigated using theoretical calculations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Isoleucine Biosynthesis in Leptospira interrogans Serotype lai Strain 56601 Proceeds via a Threonine-Independent Pathway† ‡

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hai; Zhang, Yuzhen; Guo, Xiaokui; Ren, Shuangxi; Staempfli, Andreas A.; Chiao, Juishen; Jiang, Weihong; Zhao, Guoping

    2004-01-01

    Three leuA-like protein-coding sequences were identified in Leptospira interrogans. One of these, the cimA gene, was shown to encode citramalate synthase (EC 4.1.3.-). The other two encoded α-isopropylmalate synthase (EC 4.1.3.12). Expressed in Escherichia coli, the citramalate synthase was purified and characterized. Although its activity was relatively low, it was strictly specific for pyruvate as the keto acid substrate. Unlike the citramalate synthase of the thermophile Methanococcus jannaschii, the L. interrogans enzyme is temperature sensitive but exhibits a much lower Km (0.04 mM) for pyruvate. The reaction product was characterized as (R)-citramalate, and the proposed β-methyl-d-malate pathway was further confirmed by demonstrating that citraconate was the substrate for the following reaction. This alternative pathway for isoleucine biosynthesis from pyruvate was analyzed both in vitro by assays of leptospiral isopropylmalate isomerase (EC 4.2.1.33) and β-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.85) in E. coli extracts bearing the corresponding clones and in vivo by complementation of E. coli ilvA, leuC/D, and leuB mutants. Thus, the existence of a leucine-like pathway for isoleucine biosynthesis in L. interrogans under physiological conditions was unequivocally proven. Significant variations in either the enzymatic activities or mRNA levels of the cimA and leuA genes were detected in L. interrogans grown on minimal medium supplemented with different levels of the corresponding amino acids or in cells grown on serum-containing rich medium. The similarity of this metabolic pathway in leptospires and archaea is consistent with the evolutionarily primitive status of the eubacterial spirochetes. PMID:15292141

  6. Antihypertensive and cardioprotective effects of the dipeptide isoleucine-tryptophan and whey protein hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Martin, M; Kopaliani, I; Jannasch, A; Mund, C; Todorov, V; Henle, T; Deussen, A

    2015-12-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are treatment of choice in hypertensive patients. Clinically used inhibitors exhibit a structural similarity to naturally occurring peptides. This study evaluated antihypertensive and cardioprotective effects of ACE-inhibiting peptides derived from food proteins in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Isoleucine-tryptophan (in vitro IC50 for ACE = 0.7 μm), a whey protein hydrolysate containing an augmented fraction of isoleucine-tryptophan, or captopril was given to spontaneously hypertensive rats (n = 60) over 14 weeks. Two further groups, receiving either no supplement (Placebo) or intact whey protein, served as controls. Systolic blood pressure age-dependently increased in the Placebo group, whereas the blood pressure rise was effectively blunted by isoleucine-tryptophan, whey protein hydrolysate and captopril (-42 ± 3, -38 ± 5, -55 ± 4 mm Hg vs. Placebo). At study end, myocardial mass was lower in isoleucine-tryptophan and captopril groups but only partially in the hydrolysate group. Coronary flow reserve (1 μm adenosine) was improved in isoleucine-tryptophan and captopril groups. Plasma ACE activity was significantly decreased in isoleucine-tryptophan, hydrolysate and captopril groups, but in aortic tissue only after isoleucine-tryptophan or captopril treatment. This was associated with lowered expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2. Following isoleucine-tryptophan and captopril treatments, gene expression of renin was significantly increased indicating an active feedback within renin-angiotensin system. Whey protein hydrolysate and isoleucine-tryptophan powerfully inhibit plasma ACE resulting in antihypertensive effects. Moreover, isoleucine-tryptophan blunts tissue ACE activity, reduces matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity and improves coronary flow reserve. Thus, whey protein hydrolysate and particularly isoleucine-tryptophan may serve as innovative food additives with the goal of attenuating

  7. Transfer coefficients for L-valine and the rate of incorporation of L-(1-/sup 14/C) valine into proteins in normal adult rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Kirikae, M.; Diksic, M.; Yamamoto, Y.L.

    1988-08-01

    An autoradiographic method for the measurement of the rate of valine incorporation into brain proteins is described. The transfer coefficients for valine into and out of the brain and the rate of valine incorporation into normal rat brain proteins are given. The valine incorporation and the transfer constants of valine between different biological compartments are provided for 14 gray matter and 2 white matter structures of an adult rat brain. The rate of valine incorporation varies between 0.52 +/- 0.19 nmol/g/min in white matter and 1.94 +/- 0.47 in inferior colliculus (gray matter). Generally, the rate of valine incorporation ismore » about three to four times higher in the gray matter than in the white matter structures.« less

  8. Abiotic formation of valine peptides under conditions of high temperature and high pressure.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Yoshihiro; Otake, Tsubasa; Ishiguro, Takato; Nakazawa, Hiromoto; Kakegawa, Takeshi

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the oligomerization of solid valine and the stabilities of valine and valine peptides under conditions of high temperature (150-200 °C) and high pressure (50-150 MPa). Experiments were performed under non-aqueous condition in order to promote dehydration reaction. After prolonged exposure of monomeric valine to elevated temperatures and pressures, the products were analyzed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry comparing their retention times and masses. We identified linear peptides that ranged in size from dimer to hexamer, as well as a cyclic dimer. Previous studies that attempted abiotic oligomerization of valine in the absence of a catalyst have never reported valine peptides larger than a dimer. Increased reaction temperature increased the dissociative decomposition of valine and valine peptides to products such as glycine, β-alanine, ammonia, and amines by processes such as deamination, decarboxylation, and cracking. The amount of residual valine and peptide yields was greater at higher pressures at a given temperature, pressure, and reaction time. This suggests that dissociative decomposition of valine and valine peptides is reduced by pressure. Our findings are relevant to the investigation of diagenetic processes in prebiotic marine sediments where similar pressures occur under water-poor conditions. These findings also suggest that amino acids, such as valine, could have been polymerized to peptides in deep prebiotic marine sediments within a few hundred million years.

  9. Comparative Physiological Studies of the Yeast and Mycelial Forms of Histoplasma capsulatum: Uptake and Incorporation of l-Leucine

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rishab K.; Howard, Dexter H.

    1971-01-01

    l-Leucine entered the cells of both morphological forms of Histoplasma capsulatum by a permease-like system at low external concentrations of substrate. However, at levels greater than 5 × 10−5m l-leucine, the amino acid entered the cells both through a simple diffusion-like process and the permease-like system. The rate of the amino acid diffusion into yeast and mycelial forms appeared to be the same, whereas the initial rate of accumulation through the permease-like system was 5 to 10 times faster in the mycelial phase than it was in the yeast phase. The Michaelis constants were 2.2 × 10−5m in yeast phase and 2 × 10−5m in mycelial phase cells. Transport of l-leucine at an external concentration of 10−5m showed all of the characteristics of a system of active transport, which was dependent on temperature and pH. Displacement or removal of the α-amino group, or modification of the α-carboxyl group abolished amino acid uptake. The process was competitively inhibited by neutral aliphatic side-chain amino acids (inhibition constants ranged from 1.5 × 10−5 to 6.2 × 10−5m). Neutral aromatic side-chain amino acids and the d-isomers of leucine and valine did not inhibit l-leucine uptake. These data were interpreted to mean that the l-leucine transport system is stereospecific and is highly specific for neutral aliphatic side-chain amino acids. Incorporation of l-leucine into macromolecules occurred at almost the same rate in both morphological forms of the fungus. The mycelial phase but not the yeast phase showed a slight initial lag in incorporation. In both morphological forms the intracellular pool of l-leucine was of limited capacity, and the total uptake of the amino acid was a function of intracellular pool size. The initial rate of l-leucine uptake was independent of the level of intracellular pool. Both morphological forms deaminated and degraded only a minor fraction of the accumulated leucine. PMID:4323295

  10. Leucine and valine supplementation of low-protein diets for broiler chickens from 21 to 42 days of age.

    PubMed

    Ospina-Rojas, I C; Murakami, A E; Duarte, C R A; Nascimento, G R; Garcia, E R M; Sakamoto, M I; Nunes, R V

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the requirements and interactions between the standardized ileal digestible (SID) Leu and Val levels in low-protein diets, and their effects on performance, serum characteristics, carcass yield and diameter of muscle fibers of broiler chickens from d 21 to 42 posthatch. A total of 1,500 21-day-old Cobb 500 male broiler chickens were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 5 × 5 factorial arrangement for a total of 25 treatments with 3 replicates of 20 birds each. Treatments consisted of 5 SID Leu levels (1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, or 1.8%) and 5 SID Val levels (0.52, 0.67, 0.82, 0.97, or 1.12%). At 42 d of age, there was interaction (P < 0.05) between the SID levels of Leu and Val on feed intake and weight gain. There was a quadratic effect (P < 0.05) of Leu and Val levels on feed conversion, with minimal point estimated at the levels of 1.19 and 0.86%, respectively. Dietary Leu supplementation reduced linearly (P < 0.05) serum concentrations of triglycerides and β-hydroxybutyrate. Dietary Leu increased (P ≤ 0.05) the fiber diameters of the pectoralis major muscle and breast yield at the levels of 1.24 and 1.13%, respectively, while the thigh yield was improved with the level of 0.71% Val. Abdominal fat decreased linearly (P < 0.05) with increasing levels of dietary Leu and Val. The SID Leu and Val levels needed to optimize weight gain and feed conversion in low-CP diets for broiler chickens from d 21 to 42 posthatch were estimated at 1.15 and 0.86%, and 1.19 and 0.86%, respectively. The supplementation of Leu and Val can reduce the abdominal fat deposition in birds fed low-CP diets during the grower phase. Leu and Val interactions can influence the performance but not the serum characteristics, carcass yield and diameter of muscle fibers of broilers fed low-protein diets. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the dietary Leu content to estimate the ideal level of Val in low-CP diets for optimum broiler performance. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Hypothalamic Leucine Metabolism Regulates Liver Glucose Production

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ya; Lam, Tony K.T.; He, Wu; Pocai, Alessandro; Bryan, Joseph; Aguilar-Bryan, Lydia; Gutiérrez-Juárez, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Amino acids profoundly affect insulin action and glucose metabolism in mammals. Here, we investigated the role of the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH), a key center involved in nutrient-dependent metabolic regulation. Specifically, we tested the novel hypothesis that the metabolism of leucine within the MBH couples the central sensing of leucine with the control of glucose production by the liver. We performed either central (MBH) or systemic infusions of leucine in Sprague-Dawley male rats during basal pancreatic insulin clamps in combination with various pharmacological and molecular interventions designed to modulate leucine metabolism in the MBH. We also examined the role of hypothalamic ATP-sensitive K+ channels (KATP channels) in the effects of leucine. Enhancing the metabolism of leucine acutely in the MBH lowered blood glucose through a biochemical network that was insensitive to rapamycin but strictly dependent on the hypothalamic metabolism of leucine to α-ketoisocaproic acid and, further, insensitive to acetyl- and malonyl-CoA. Functional KATP channels were also required. Importantly, molecular attenuation of this central sensing mechanism in rats conferred susceptibility to developing hyperglycemia. We postulate that the metabolic sensing of leucine in the MBH is a previously unrecognized mechanism for the regulation of hepatic glucose production required to maintain glucose homeostasis. PMID:22187376

  12. Leucine Affects α-Amylase Synthesis through PI3K/Akt-mTOR Signaling Pathways in Pancreatic Acinar Cells of Dairy Calves.

    PubMed

    Guo, Long; Liang, Ziqi; Zheng, Chen; Liu, Baolong; Yin, Qingyan; Cao, Yangchun; Yao, Junhu

    2018-05-23

    Dietary nutrient utilization, particularly starch, is potentially limited by digestion in dairy cow small intestine because of shortage of α-amylase. Leucine acts as an effective signal molecular in the mTOR signaling pathway, which regulates a series of biological processes, especially protein synthesis. It has been reported that leucine could affect α-amylase synthesis and secretion in ruminant pancreas, but mechanisms have not been elaborated. In this study, pancreatic acinar (PA) cells were used as a model to determine the cellular signal of leucine influence on α-amylase synthesis. PA cells were isolated from newborn Holstein dairy bull calves and cultured in Dulbecco's modifed Eagle's medium/nutrient mixture F12 liquid media containing four leucine treatments (0, 0.23, 0.45, and 0.90 mM, respectively), following α-amylase activity, zymogen granule, and signal pathway factor expression detection. Rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of mTOR, was also applied to PA cells. Results showed that leucine increased ( p < 0.05) synthesis of α-amylase as well as phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, mTOR, and S6K1 while reduced ( p < 0.05) GCN2 expression. Inhibition of mTOR signaling downregulated the α-amylase synthesis. In addition, the extracellular leucine dosage significantly influenced intracellular metabolism of isoleucine ( p < 0.05). Overall, leucine regulates α-amylase synthesis through promoting the PI3K/Akt-mTOR pathway and reducing the GCN2 pathway in PA cells of dairy calves. These pathways form the signaling network that controls the protein synthesis and metabolism. It would be of great interest in future studies to explore the function of leucine in ruminant nutrition.

  13. Fragmentation of a valine molecule by electron impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vukstich, V. S.; Romanova, L. G.; Megela, I. G.; Papp, A. V.; Snegurskii, A. V.

    2017-05-01

    The formation of ion products of single and dissociative ionization of a valine molecule (C5H11NO2) by high-energy (11.5 MeV) and low-energy (below 150 eV) electrons has been investigated by mass spectrometry. Mass spectra of this molecule and near-threshold functions of yield of its ion fragments, for which the magnitudes of occurrence energies are determined, have been obtained. The analysis of the changes in mass spectra of valine molecules irradiated with doses of 5 and 20 kGy in comparison with those for unirradiated molecules shows that high-energy irradiation changes irreversibly the structure of some of the initial molecules.

  14. Effects of running the Bostom Marathon on plasma concentrations of large neutral amino acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conlay, L. A.; Wurtman, R. J.; Lopez G-Coviella, I.; Blusztajn, J. K.; Vacanti, C. A.; Logue, M.; During, M.; Caballero, B.; Maher, T. J.; Evoniuk, G.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma large neutral amino acid concentrations were measured in thirty-seven subjects before and after completing the Boston Marathon. Concentrations of tyrosine, phenylalanine, and methionine increased, as did their 'plasma ratios' (i.e., the ratio of each amino acid's concentration to the summed plasma concentrations of the other large neutral amino acids which compete with it for brain uptake). No changes were noted in the plasma concentrations of tryptophan, leucine, isoleucine, nor valine; however, the 'plasma ratios' of valine, leucine, and isoleucine all decreased. These changes in plasma amino acid patterns may influence neurotransmitter synthesis.

  15. Racemization of Valine by Impact-Induced Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Yoshihiro; Takase, Atsushi; Sekine, Toshimori; Kakegawa, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Takamichi

    2018-03-01

    Homochirality plays an important role in all living organisms but its origin remains unclear. It also remains unclear whether such chiral molecules survived terrestrial heavy impact events. Impacts of extraterrestrial objects on early oceans were frequent and could have affected the chirality of oceanic amino acids when such amino acids accumulated during impacts. This study investigated the effects of shock-induced heating on enantiomeric change of valine with minerals such as olivine ([Mg0.9, Fe0.1]2SiO4), hematite (Fe2O3), and calcite (CaCO3). With a shock wave generated by an impact at 0.8 km/s, both d- and l-enriched valine were significantly decomposed and partially racemized under all experimental conditions. Different minerals had different shock impedances; therefore, they provided different P-T conditions for identical impacts. Furthermore, the high pH of calcite promoted the racemization of valine. The results indicate that in natural hypervelocity impacts, amino acids in shocked oceanic water would have decomposed completely, since impact velocity and the duration of shock compression and heating are typically greater in hypervelocity impact events than those in experiments. Even with the shock wave by the impact of small and decelerated projectiles in which amino acids survive, the shock heating may generate sufficient heat for significant racemization in shocked oceanic water. However, the duration of shock induced heating by small projectiles is limited and the population of such decelerated projectiles would be limited. Therefore, even though impacts of asteroids and meteorites were frequent on the prebiotic Earth, impact events would not have significantly changed the ee of proteinogenic amino acids accumulated in the entire ocean.

  16. L-Valine appended PLGA nanoparticles for oral insulin delivery.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ashish; Jain, Sanjay K

    2015-08-01

    Oral insulin delivery has been the major research issue, since many decades, due to several obvious advantages over other routes. However, this route poses several constraints for the delivery of peptides and proteins which are to be worked upon. The small intestine has been shown to be able to transport the L-forms of amino acids against a concentration gradient and that they compete for the mechanism concerned. So, L-valine was used as a ligand for carrier-mediated transport of insulin-loaded polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs). L-Valine-conjugated PLGA nanoparticles were prepared using double emulsion solvent evaporation method. The NPs and conjugated NPs were characterized for their size, drug entrapment efficiency, zeta potential, polydispersity index and in vitro insulin release. Ex vivo studies on intestine revealed that conjugated nanoparticles showed greater insulin uptake as compared to non-conjugated nanoparticles. In vivo studies were performed on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rabbits. Oral suspension of insulin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles reduced blood glucose level from 265.4 ± 8.5 to 246.6 ± 2.4 mg/dL within 4 h which further decreased to 198.7 ± 7.1 mg/dL value after 8 h. The ligand-conjugated formulation on oral administration produced hypoglycaemic effect (216.9 ± 1.9 mg/dL) within 4 h of administration, and the hypoglycaemic effect prolonged till 12 h of oral administration. Simultaneously, the insulin concentration in withdrawn samples was also assessed and found that profile of insulin level is in compliance with the blood glucose reduction profile. Hence, it is concluded that the L-valine-conjugated NPs bearing insulin are the promising carrier for the transportation of insulin across the intestine on oral administration.

  17. Valine needs in starting and growing Cobb (500) broilers.

    PubMed

    Tavernari, F C; Lelis, G R; Vieira, R A; Rostagno, H S; Albino, L F T; Oliveira Neto, A R

    2013-01-01

    Two independent experiments were conducted with male Cobb × Cobb 500 broilers to determine the optimal valine-to-digestible-lysine ratio for broiler development. We conducted a randomized block experiment with 7 treatments, each with 8 replicates of 25 starter birds (8 to 21 d of age) and 20 finisher (30 to 43 d of age) birds. To prevent any excess of digestible lysine, 93% of the recommended level of digestible lysine was used to evaluate the valine-to-lysine ratio. The utilized levels of dietary digestible lysine were 10.7 and 9.40 g/kg for the starting and growing phases, respectively. A control diet with 100% of the recommended level of lysine and an adequate valine-to-lysine ratio was also used. The feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and carcass parameters were evaluated. The treatments had no significant effect on the feed intakes or carcass parameters in the starter and finisher phases. However, during both of the studied phases, we observed a quadratic effect on weight gain and the feed conversion ratio. The broilers of both phases that were fed test diets with the lower valine-to-lysine (Val/Lys) ratio had poorer performance compared with those broilers fed control diets. However, when higher Val/Lys ratios were used for the starting and growing broilers that were fed test diets, the 2 groups had similar performance. During the starting phase, in broilers that were fed a higher Val/Lys ratio, weight gain, and the feed conversion ratio improved by 5.5% compared with broilers fed the basal diets. The broilers in the growing phase also had improved performance (by 7 to 8%) when the test diets had higher Val/Lys ratios. Based on the analysis of the starter phase data, we concluded that the optimal digestible Val/Lys ratio for Cobb × Cobb 500 broilers is 77%, whereas for birds in the finisher phase (30 to 43 d of age), a digestible Val/Lys ratio of 76% is suggested.

  18. Expression and GTP sensitivity of peptide histidine isoleucine high-affinity-binding sites in rat.

    PubMed

    Debaigt, Colin; Meunier, Annie-Claire; Goursaud, Stephanie; Montoni, Alicia; Pineau, Nicolas; Couvineau, Alain; Laburthe, Marc; Muller, Jean-Marc; Janet, Thierry

    2006-07-01

    High-affinity-binding sites for the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) analogs peptide histidine/isoleucine-amide (PHI)/carboxyterminal methionine instead of isoleucine (PHM) are expressed in numerous tissues in the body but the nature of their receptors remains to be elucidated. The data presented indicate that PHI discriminated a high-affinity guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP)-insensitive-binding subtype that represented the totality of the PHI-binding sites in newborn rat tissues but was differentially expressed in adult animals. The GTP-insensitive PHI/PHM-binding sites were also observed in CHO cells over expressing the VPAC2 but not the VPAC1 VIP receptor.

  19. The 15N-leucine single-injection method allows for determining endogenous losses and true digestibility of amino acids in cecectomized roosters

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Rujiu; Li, Jing; Soomro, Rab Nawaz; Wang, Fei; Feng, Yan; Yang, Xiaojun

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the influence of dietary protein content in poultry when using the 15N-leucine single-injection method to determine endogenous amino acid losses (EAALs) in poultry. Forty-eight cecectomized roosters (2.39 ± 0.23 kg) were randomly allocated to eight dietary treatments containing protein levels of 0, 3%, 6%, 9%, 12%, 15%, 18% and 21%. Each bird was precisely fed an experimental diet of 25 g/kg of body weight. After feeding, all roosters were subcutaneously injected with a 15N-leucine solution at a dose of 20 mg/kg of body weight. Blood was sampled 23 h after the injection, and excreta samples were continuously collected during the course of the 48-h experiment. The ratio of 15N-enrichment of leucine in crude mucin to free leucine in plasma ranged from 0.664 to 0.763 and remained relatively consistent (P > 0.05) across all treatments. The amino acid (AA) profiles of total endogenous AAs, except isoleucine, alanine, aspartic acid, cysteine, proline and serine, were not influenced (P > 0.05) by dietary protein contents. The predominant endogenous AAs in the excreta were glutamic acid, aspartic acid, threonine, serine and proline. The order of the relative proportions of these predominant AAs also remained relatively constant (P > 0.05). The endogenous losses of total AAs determined with the 15N-leucine single-injection method increased curvilinearly with the dietary protein contents. The true digestibility of most AAs and total AAs was independent of their respective dietary protein levels. Collectively, the 15N-leucine single-injection method is appropriate for determining EAALs and the true digestibility of AAs in poultry fed varying levels of protein-containing ingredients. PMID:29166671

  20. The 15N-leucine single-injection method allows for determining endogenous losses and true digestibility of amino acids in cecectomized roosters.

    PubMed

    Hu, Rujiu; Li, Jing; Soomro, Rab Nawaz; Wang, Fei; Feng, Yan; Yang, Xiaojun; Yao, Junhu

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the influence of dietary protein content in poultry when using the 15N-leucine single-injection method to determine endogenous amino acid losses (EAALs) in poultry. Forty-eight cecectomized roosters (2.39 ± 0.23 kg) were randomly allocated to eight dietary treatments containing protein levels of 0, 3%, 6%, 9%, 12%, 15%, 18% and 21%. Each bird was precisely fed an experimental diet of 25 g/kg of body weight. After feeding, all roosters were subcutaneously injected with a 15N-leucine solution at a dose of 20 mg/kg of body weight. Blood was sampled 23 h after the injection, and excreta samples were continuously collected during the course of the 48-h experiment. The ratio of 15N-enrichment of leucine in crude mucin to free leucine in plasma ranged from 0.664 to 0.763 and remained relatively consistent (P > 0.05) across all treatments. The amino acid (AA) profiles of total endogenous AAs, except isoleucine, alanine, aspartic acid, cysteine, proline and serine, were not influenced (P > 0.05) by dietary protein contents. The predominant endogenous AAs in the excreta were glutamic acid, aspartic acid, threonine, serine and proline. The order of the relative proportions of these predominant AAs also remained relatively constant (P > 0.05). The endogenous losses of total AAs determined with the 15N-leucine single-injection method increased curvilinearly with the dietary protein contents. The true digestibility of most AAs and total AAs was independent of their respective dietary protein levels. Collectively, the 15N-leucine single-injection method is appropriate for determining EAALs and the true digestibility of AAs in poultry fed varying levels of protein-containing ingredients.

  1. Valine entry into rat brain after diet-induced changes in plasma amino acids

    SciTech Connect

    Tews, J.K.; Greenwood, J.; Pratt, O.E.

    1987-01-01

    Passage of amino acids across the blood-brain barrier is assumed to be modified by amino acid composition of the blood. To gain a better understanding of the effects of protein intake on brain amino acid uptake, the authors examined associations among diet, plasma amino acid patterns, and the rate of entry of valine into the brain. Rats were fed diets containing 6, 18, or 50% casein before receiving one meal of a diet containing 0, 6, 18, or 50% casein. After 4-7 h, they were anesthetized and infused intravenously with (/sup 14/C)valine for 5 min before plasma and brain samplesmore » were taken for determination of radioactivity and content of individual amino acids. As protein content of the meal was increased from 0 to 50% casein, plasma and brain concentrations of valine and most other large neutral amino acid (LNAA) increased severalfold; also the ratio of (/sup 14/C)valine in brain to that in plasma decreased by >50%, and the rate of valine entry into the brain increased 3.5-fold. The increase in valine flux slowed as plasma levels of LNAA, competitors for valine transport, increased. The results were far more dependent on protein content of the final meal than on that of the adaptation diet; thus changes in protein intake, as reflected in altered plasma amino acid patterns, markedly altered valine entry into the brain.« less

  2. Enantiomeric resolution of p-toluenesulfonate of valine benzyl ester by preferential crystallizaion.

    PubMed

    Munegumi, Toratane; Wakatsuki, Aiko; Takahashi, Yutaro

    2012-02-01

    Preferential crystallization of amino acid derivatives by seeding a pure enantiomer into racemic amino acid solutions has been studied for many years. However, few examples of valine derivatives have been reported so far. Although there have been some reports using valine hydrogen chloride with preferential crystallization, it is difficult to obtain optical isomers for valine derivatives using preferential crystallization. In this study, repeated preferential crystallization of p-toluenesulfonate valine benzyl ester with a 20% e.e. in 2-propanol gave a 94% e.e. on sonication. Sonication accelerated crystallization rate, but there was not a big difference in e.e. between with and without sonication. However, this research demonstrates the first preferential crystallization of p-toluenesulfonate of valine benzyl esters with an acceleration of crystallization using sonication. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The metabolic role of isoleucine in detoxification of ammonia in cultured mouse neurons and astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Maja L; Bak, Lasse K; Schousboe, Arne; Iversen, Peter; Sørensen, Michael; Keiding, Susanne; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Gjedde, Albert; Ott, Peter; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    2007-06-01

    Cerebral hyperammonemia is a hallmark of hepatic encephalopathy, a debilitating condition arising secondary to liver disease. Pyruvate oxidation including tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolism has been suggested to be inhibited by hyperammonemia at the pyruvate and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase steps. Catabolism of the branched-chain amino acid isoleucine provides both acetyl-CoA and succinyl-CoA, thus by-passing both the pyruvate dehydrogenase and the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase steps. Potentially, this will enable the TCA cycle to work in the face of ammonium-induced inhibition. In addition, this will provide the alpha-ketoglutarate carbon skeleton for glutamate and glutamine synthesis by glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamine synthetase (astrocytes only), respectively, both reactions fixing ammonium. Cultured cerebellar neurons (primarily glutamatergic) or astrocytes were incubated in the presence of either [U-13C]glucose (2.5 mM) and isoleucine (1 mM) or [U-13C]isoleucine and glucose. Cell cultures were treated with an acute ammonium chloride load of 2 (astrocytes) or 5 mM (neurons and astrocytes) and incorporation of 13C-label into glutamate, aspartate, glutamine and alanine was determined employing mass spectrometry. Labeling from [U-13C]glucose in glutamate and aspartate increased as a result of ammonium-treatment in both neurons and astrocytes, suggesting that the TCA cycle was not inhibited. Labeling in alanine increased in neurons but not in astrocytes, indicating elevated glycolysis in neurons. For both neurons and astrocytes, labeling from [U-13C]isoleucine entered glutamate and aspartate albeit to a lower extent than from [U-13C]glucose. Labeling in glutamate and aspartate from [U-13C]isoleucine was decreased by ammonium treatment in neurons but not in astrocytes, the former probably reflecting increased metabolism of unlabeled glucose. In astrocytes, ammonia treatment resulted in glutamine production and release to the medium, partially

  4. 21 CFR 582.5406 - Leucine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Leucine. 582.5406 Section 582.5406 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5406 - Leucine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Leucine. 582.5406 Section 582.5406 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5406 - Leucine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Leucine. 582.5406 Section 582.5406 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5406 - Leucine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Leucine. 582.5406 Section 582.5406 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5406 - Leucine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leucine. 582.5406 Section 582.5406 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1460 - Leucine aminopeptidase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Systems § 862.1460 Leucine aminopeptidase test system. (a) Identification. A leucine aminopeptidase test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme leucine amino-peptidase in serum... diseases such as viral hepatitis and obstructive jaundice. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1460 - Leucine aminopeptidase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Systems § 862.1460 Leucine aminopeptidase test system. (a) Identification. A leucine aminopeptidase test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme leucine amino-peptidase in serum... diseases such as viral hepatitis and obstructive jaundice. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls...

  11. Regulation of valine and. alpha. -ketoisocaproate metabolism in rat kidney mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.H.; Harper, A.E.

    1988-10-01

    Activities of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) aminotransferase (BCAT) and {alpha}-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKD) were assayed in mitochondria isolated from kidneys of rats. Rates of transamination of valine and oxidation of keto acids {alpha}-ketoisocaproate (KIC) or {alpha}-ketoisovalerate (KIV) were estimated using radioactive tracers of the appropriate substrate from amounts of {sup 14}C-labeled products formed. Because of the high mitochondrial BCAT activity, an amino acceptor for BCAT, {alpha}-ketoglutarate ({alpha}-KG) or KIC, was added to the assay medium when valine was the substrate. Rates of valine transamination and subsequent oxidation of the KIV formed were determined with 0.5 mM {alpha}-KG as the aminomore » acceptor; these rates were 5- to 50-fold those without added {alpha}-KG. Rates of CO{sub 2} evolution from valine also increased when KIC was present; however, with KIC concentrations above 0.2 mM, rates of CO{sub 2} evolution from valine declined although rates of transamination continued to rise. When 0.05 mM KIC was added to the assay medium, oxidation of KIC was suppressed by inclusion of valine or glutamate in the medium. When valine was present KIC was not oxidized preferentially, presumably because it was also serving as an amino acceptor for BCAT. These results indicate that as the supply of amino acceptor, {alpha}-KG or KIC, is increased in mitochondria not only is the rate of valine transamination stimulated but also the rate of oxidation of the KIV formed from valine. Thus the rate of oxidation of BCAA can be controlled by factors that influence the rate and direction of BCAA transamination and, thereby, the supply of substrate for BCKD.« less

  12. L-valine, an antialgal amino acid from Streptomyces jiujiangensis JXJ 0074(T).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing-Huo; Chen, Wei; Li, Han-Quan; Yang, Jian-Yuan; Zha, Dai-Ming; Duan, Yan-Qing; N Hozzein, Wael; Xiao, Min; Gao, Rui; Li, Wen-Jun

    2016-05-01

    An antialgal compound was isolated from the cultured broth of Streptomyces jiujiangensis JXJ 0074(T) by using bioassay methods. Based on the data of (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, ESI-MS, and thin layer chromatography, the active compound was identified as L-valine, which showed antialgal activity mainly against Microcystis. L-valine exhibited greater antialgal activities than both L-lysine and copper sulfate (CuSO4) did on Microcystis aeruginosa lawn. However, M. aeruginosa recovered growth earlier with higher growth rate in L-valine treatment than in L-lysine treatment. L-valine dissipated completely within 2 days, much quicker than L-lysine (6 days), which resulted in the lysing of more than 80 % M. aeruginosa cells and the release of amount of intracellular microcystin-LR (MC-LR) within 2 days. As a resultant, the extracellular MC-LR content was more than twice of the control from day 1 to 5. Exposure to L-valine significantly promoted the synthesis of MC-LR. L-lysine also promoted the release and synthesis of MC-LR with much lesser efficiency than L-valine. L-valine could damage Microcystis severely, causing perforation and collapse of M. aeruginosa cells and decrease of the chlorophyll. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in L-valine-treated cells of M. aeruginosa initially increased with 32.94 ± 3.37 % higher than the control after 36 h and then decreased quickly. However, the increase rate of superoxide anion radical (O2 (-)) was much higher than that of SOD, which resulted in serious lipid peroxidation and accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA). To our knowledge, this is the first report showing L-valine active against cyanobacteria.

  13. Alteration in Circulating Metabolites During and After Heat Stress in the Conscious Rat: Potential Biomarkers of Exposure and Organ-specific Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-24

    redox crisis (Figure 2). γ-Glutamylated amino acids (including alanine, glutamine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and valine [Additional...Glutathione disulfide, oxidized (redox) Apoptosis, DNA damage, cell proliferation, survival, differentiation, metabolism; redox stress and/ or crisis ...mobilization of the muscle and/or brain energy reserves during energy crisis . Heat stress increased citrulline, decreased arginine, and increased urea in rat

  14. A proteomic network for symbiotic nitrogen fixation efficiency in Bradyrhizobium elkanii

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhizobia bacteroids colonize legumes and reduce N2 to NH3 in root nodules. The current model is that bacteroids avoid assimilating this NH3. Instead, the legume forms glutamine from it, the nitrogen of which is returned to the bacteroid as leucine, isoleucine, valine, dicarboxylates, and peptides. I...

  15. Metabolic reconstructions identify plant 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase that is crucial for branched-chain amino acid catabolism in mitochondria

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The proteinogenic branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine, and valine are essential nutrients for mammals. In plants, they double as alternative energy sources when carbohydrates become limiting, the catabolism of BCAAs providing electrons to the respiratory chain and intermediates...

  16. Isoleucine Deficiency in a Neonate Treated for Maple Syrup Urine Disease Masquerading as Acrodermatitis Enteropathica.

    PubMed

    Ross, Benjamin; Kumar, Manish; Srinivasan, Hema; Ekbote, Alka V

    2016-08-08

    Special diet with restricted branched-chain-amino-acids used for treating maple syrup urine disease can lead to specific amino acid deficiencies. We report a neonate who developed skin lesions due to isoleucine deficiency while using specialised formula. Feeds were supplemented with expressed breast milk. This caused biochemical and clinical improvement with resolution of skin lesions. Breast milk is a valuable and necessary adjunct to specialized formula in maple syrup urine disease to prevent specific amino acid deficiency in the neonatal period.

  17. Induction of β-defensins by l-isoleucine as novel immunotherapy in experimental murine tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Rivas-Santiago, C E; Rivas-Santiago, B; León, D A; Castañeda-Delgado, J; Hernández Pando, R

    2011-04-01

    Tuberculosis is a worldwide health problem, and multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively multidrug-resistant (XMDR) strains are rapidly emerging and threatening the control of this disease. These problems motivate the search for new treatment strategies. One potential strategy is immunotherapy using cationic anti-microbial peptides. The capacity of l-isoleucine to induce beta-defensin expression and its potential therapeutic efficiency were studied in a mouse model of progressive pulmonary tuberculosis. BALB/c mice were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv or with a MDR clinical isolate by the intratracheal route. After 60 days of infection, when disease was in its progressive phase, mice were treated with 250 µg of intratracheal l-isoleucine every 48 h. Bacillary loads were determined by colony-forming units, protein and cytokine gene expression were determined by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), respectively, and tissue damage was quantified by automated morphometry. Administration of l-isoleucine induced a significant increase of beta-defensins 3 and 4 which was associated with decreased bacillary loads and tissue damage. This was seen in animals infected with the antibiotic-sensitive strain H37Rv and with the MDR clinical isolate. Thus, induction of beta-defensins might be a potential therapy that can aid in the control of this significant infectious disease. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Immunology © 2011 British Society for Immunology.

  18. Induction of β-defensins by l-isoleucine as novel immunotherapy in experimental murine tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Rivas-Santiago, C E; Rivas-Santiago, B; León, D A; Castañeda-Delgado, J; Hernández Pando, R

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a worldwide health problem, and multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively multidrug-resistant (XMDR) strains are rapidly emerging and threatening the control of this disease. These problems motivate the search for new treatment strategies. One potential strategy is immunotherapy using cationic anti-microbial peptides. The capacity of l-isoleucine to induce beta-defensin expression and its potential therapeutic efficiency were studied in a mouse model of progressive pulmonary tuberculosis. BALB/c mice were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv or with a MDR clinical isolate by the intratracheal route. After 60 days of infection, when disease was in its progressive phase, mice were treated with 250 µg of intratracheal l-isoleucine every 48 h. Bacillary loads were determined by colony-forming units, protein and cytokine gene expression were determined by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription–quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT–qPCR), respectively, and tissue damage was quantified by automated morphometry. Administration of l-isoleucine induced a significant increase of beta-defensins 3 and 4 which was associated with decreased bacillary loads and tissue damage. This was seen in animals infected with the antibiotic-sensitive strain H37Rv and with the MDR clinical isolate. Thus, induction of beta-defensins might be a potential therapy that can aid in the control of this significant infectious disease. PMID:21235540

  19. Downstream change in leucine aminopeptidase activity and leucine assimilation by epilithic microbiota along the River Swale, northern England.

    PubMed

    Ainsworth, A M; Goulder, R

    2000-05-05

    Parallel determinations of epilithic extracellular leucine aminopeptidase activity and leucine assimilation were made at five sites along 112 km of the River Swale and also in two tributaries, the River Wiske and Cod Beck. Epilithic leucine aminopeptidase activity along the Swale increased with distance downstream; this increase was gradual, rather than stepwise in response to specific sewage-works outfalls. Epilithic leucine assimilation, in contrast, did not consistently increase along the river. Epilithic leucine aminopeptidase activity and leucine assimilation were both potentially controlled by epilithic microbial variables (bacterial abundance and chlorophyll a) while leucine aminopeptidase activity was also strongly related to water-quality variables, especially temperature, pH and conductivity. Epilithic leucine aminopeptidase activity and leucine assimilation were coupled, but the magnitude of aminopeptidase activity was always substantially greater than that of leucine assimilation. Arguments are presented, however, which suggest that this did not necessarily indicate the constant availability of excess leucine, and by inference amino-acid nitrogen, to epilithic bacteria. Values of epilithic leucine aminopeptidase activity and leucine assimilation, expressed relative to rates in overlying water, suggested that most activity and assimilation was epilithic rather than planktonic, although the planktonic contribution was proportionately greater at the deeper, more downstream, sites. In the tributaries, River Wiske and Cod Beck, values of epilithic leucine aminopeptidase activity and epilithic microbial abundance, as well as those of many water-quality variables, resembled values in the middle and lower Swale. Thus, these tributaries were essentially lowland, enriched watercourses being very different from the headstreams of the main river.

  20. Spectroscopic studies on sidewall carboxylic acid functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with valine.

    PubMed

    Deborah, M; Jawahar, A; Mathavan, T; Dhas, M Kumara; Benial, A Milton Franklin

    2015-03-15

    The valine functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTS) were prepared and characterized by using XRD, UV-Vis, FT-IR, EPR, SEM, and EDX, spectroscopic techniques. The enhanced XRD peak (002) intensity was observed for valine functionalized MWCNTs compared with oxidized MWCNTs, which is likely due to sample purification by acid washing. UV-Vis study shows the formation of valine functionalized MWCNTs. FT-IR study confirms the presence of functional groups of oxidized MWCNTs and valine functionalized MWCNTs. The ESR line shape analysis indicates that the observed EPR line shape is a Gaussian line shape. The g-values indicate that the systems are isotropic in nature. The morphology study was carried out for oxidized MWCNTs and valine functionalized MWCNTs by using SEM. The EDX spectra revealed that the high purity of oxidized MWCNTs and valine functionalized MWCNTs. The functionalization has been chosen because, functionalization of CNTs with amino acids makes them soluble and biocompatible. Thus, they have potential applications in the field of biosensors and targeted drug delivery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Spectroscopic studies on sidewall carboxylic acid functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with valine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deborah, M.; Jawahar, A.; Mathavan, T.; Dhas, M. Kumara; Benial, A. Milton Franklin

    2015-03-01

    The valine functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTS) were prepared and characterized by using XRD, UV-Vis, FT-IR, EPR, SEM, and EDX, spectroscopic techniques. The enhanced XRD peak (0 0 2) intensity was observed for valine functionalized MWCNTs compared with oxidized MWCNTs, which is likely due to sample purification by acid washing. UV-Vis study shows the formation of valine functionalized MWCNTs. FT-IR study confirms the presence of functional groups of oxidized MWCNTs and valine functionalized MWCNTs. The ESR line shape analysis indicates that the observed EPR line shape is a Gaussian line shape. The g-values indicate that the systems are isotropic in nature. The morphology study was carried out for oxidized MWCNTs and valine functionalized MWCNTs by using SEM. The EDX spectra revealed that the high purity of oxidized MWCNTs and valine functionalized MWCNTs. The functionalization has been chosen because, functionalization of CNTs with amino acids makes them soluble and biocompatible. Thus, they have potential applications in the field of biosensors and targeted drug delivery.

  2. Application of metabolic engineering for the biotechnological production of L-valine.

    PubMed

    Oldiges, Marco; Eikmanns, Bernhard J; Blombach, Bastian

    2014-07-01

    The branched chain amino acid L-valine is an essential nutrient for higher organisms, such as animals and humans. Besides the pharmaceutical application in parenteral nutrition and as synthon for the chemical synthesis of e.g. herbicides or anti-viral drugs, L-valine is now emerging into the feed market, and significant increase of sales and world production is expected. In accordance, well-known microbial production bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Corynebacterium glutamicum strains, have recently been metabolically engineered for efficient L-valine production under aerobic or anaerobic conditions, and the respective cultivation and production conditions have been optimized. This review summarizes the state of the art in L-valine biosynthesis and its regulation in E. coli and C. glutamicum with respect to optimal metabolic network for microbial L-valine production, genetic strain engineering and bioprocess development for L-valine production, and finally, it will shed light on emerging technologies that have the potential to accelerate strain and bioprocess engineering in the near future.

  3. Effects of Branched-chain Amino Acids on In vitro Ruminal Fermentation of Wheat Straw

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui Ling; Chen, Yong; Xu, Xiao Li; Yang, Yu Xia

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of three branched-chain amino acids (BCAA; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) on the in vitro ruminal fermentation of wheat straw using batch cultures of mixed ruminal microorganisms. BCAA were added to the buffered ruminal fluid at a concentration of 0, 2, 4, 7, or 10 mmol/L. After 72 h of anaerobic incubation, pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) in the ruminal fluid were determined. Dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradability were calculated after determining the DM and NDF in the original material and in the residue after incubation. The addition of valine, leucine, or isoleucine increased the total VFA yields (p≤0.001). However, the total VFA yields did not increase with the increase of BCAA supplement level. Total branched-chain VFA yields linearly increased as the supplemental amount of BCAA increased (p<0.001). The molar proportions of acetate and propionate decreased, whereas that of butyrate increased with the addition of valine and isoleucine (p<0.05). Moreover, the proportions of propionate and butyrate decreased (p<0.01) with the addition of leucine. Meanwhile, the molar proportions of isobutyrate were increased and linearly decreased (p<0.001) by valine and leucine, respectively. The addition of leucine or isoleucine resulted in a linear (p<0.001) increase in the molar proportions of isovalerate. The degradability of NDF achieved the maximum when valine or isoleucine was added at 2 mmol/L. The results suggest that low concentrations of BCAA (2 mmol/L) allow more efficient regulation of ruminal fermentation in vitro, as indicated by higher VFA yield and NDF degradability. Therefore, the optimum initial dose of BCAA for in vitro ruminal fermentation is 2 mmol/L. PMID:25049818

  4. Potent anti-seizure effects of D-leucine

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Adam L.; Santos, Polan; O’Riordan, Kenneth J.; Stafstrom, Carl E.; Hardwick, J. Marie

    2015-01-01

    There are no effective treatments for millions of patients with intractable epilepsy. High-fat ketogenic diets may provide significant clinical benefit but are challenging to implement. Low carbohydrate levels appear to be essential for the ketogenic diet to work, but the active ingredients in dietary interventions remain elusive, and a role for ketogenesis has been challenged. A potential antiseizure role of dietary protein or of individual amino acids in the ketogenic diet is understudied. We investigated the two exclusively ketogenic amino acids, L-leucine and L-lysine, and found that only L-leucine potently protects mice when administered prior to the onset of seizures induced by kainic acid injection, but not by inducing ketosis. Unexpectedly, the D-enantiomer of leucine, which is found in trace amounts in the brain, worked as well or better than L-leucine against both kainic acid and 6 Hz electroshock-induced seizures. However, unlike L-leucine, D-leucine potently terminated seizures even after the onset of seizure activity. Furthermore, D-leucine, but not L-leucine, reduced long-term potentiation but had no effect on basal synaptic transmission in vitro. In a screen of candidate neuronal receptors, D-leucine failed to compete for binding by cognate ligands, potentially suggesting a novel target. Even at low doses, D-leucine suppressed ongoing seizures at least as effectively as diazepam but without sedative effects. These studies raise the possibility that D-leucine may represent a new class of anti-seizure agents, and that D-leucine may have a previously unknown function in eukaryotes. PMID:26054437

  5. Leucine Supplementation Improves Skeletal Muscle Regeneration after Cryolesion in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Marcelo G.; Baptista, Igor L.; Carlassara, Eduardo O. C.; Moriscot, Anselmo S.; Aoki, Marcelo S.; Miyabara, Elen H.

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken in order to provide further insight into the role of leucine supplementation in the skeletal muscle regeneration process, focusing on myofiber size and strength recovery. Young (2-month-old) rats were subjected or not to leucine supplementation (1.35 g/kg per day) started 3 days prior to cryolesion. Then, soleus muscles were cryolesioned and continued receiving leucine supplementation until 1, 3 and 10 days later. Soleus muscles from leucine-supplemented animals displayed an increase in myofiber size and a reduction in collagen type III expression on post-cryolesion day 10. Leucine was also effective in reducing FOXO3a activation and ubiquitinated protein accumulation in muscles at post-cryolesion days 3 and 10. In addition, leucine supplementation minimized the cryolesion-induced decrease in tetanic strength and increase in fatigue in regenerating muscles at post-cryolesion day 10. These beneficial effects of leucine were not accompanied by activation of any elements of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt/mechanistic target of rapamycin signalling pathway in the regenerating muscles. Our results show that leucine improves myofiber size gain and strength recovery in regenerating soleus muscles through attenuation of protein ubiquitination. In addition, leucine might have therapeutic effects for muscle recovery following injury and in some muscle diseases. PMID:24416379

  6. Improvement of L-valine production at high temperature in Brevibacterium flavum by overexpressing ilvEBNrC genes.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiaohu; Ge, Xiangyang; Wu, Di; Qian, He; Zhang, Weiguo

    2012-01-01

    Brevibacterium flavum ATCC14067 was engineered for L: -valine production by overexpression of different ilv genes; the ilvEBN(r)C genes from B. flavum NV128 provided the best candidate for L: -valine production. In traditional fermentation, L: -valine production reached 30.08 ± 0.92 g/L at 31°C in 72 h with a low conversion efficiency of 0.129 g/g. To further improve the L: -valine production and conversion efficiency based on the optimum temperatures of L: -valine biosynthesis enzymes (above 35°C) and the thermotolerance of B. flavum, the fermentation temperature was increased to 34, 37, and 40°C. As a result, higher metabolic rate and L: -valine biosynthesis enzymes activity were obtained at high temperature, and the maximum L: -valine production, conversion efficiency, and specific L: -valine production rate reached 38.08 ± 1.32 g/L, 0.241 g/g, and 0.133 g g(-1) h(-1), respectively, at 37°C in 48 h fermentation. The strategy for enhancing L: -valine production by overexpression of key enzymes in thermotolerant strains may provide an alternative approach to enhance branched-chain amino acids production with other strains.

  7. L-isoleucine-supplemented Oral Rehydration Solution in the Treatment of Acute Diarrhoea in Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Raqib, R.; Ashraf, H.; Qadri, F.; Ahmed, S.; Zasloff, M.; Agerberth, B.; Salam, M.A.; Gyr, N.; Meier, R.

    2011-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides represent an important component of the innate immune defenses of living organisms, including humans. They are broad-spectrum surface-acting agents secreted by the epithelial cells of the body in response to infection. Recently, L-isoleucine and its analogues have been found to induce antimicrobial peptides. The objectives of the study were to examine if addition of L-isoleucine to oral rehydration salts (ORS) solution would reduce stool output and/or duration of acute diarrhoea in children and induce antimicrobial peptides in intestine. This double-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted at the Dhaka Hospital of ICDDR,B. Fifty male children, aged 6-36 months, with acute diarrhoea and some dehydration, attending the hospital, were included in the study. Twenty-five children received L-isoleucine (2 g/L)-added ORS (study), and 25 received ORS without L-isoleucine (control). Stool weight, ORS intake, and duration of diarrhoea were the primary outcomes. There was a trend in reduction in mean±standard deviation (SD) daily stool output (g) of children in the L-isoleucine group from day 2 but it was significant on day 3 (388±261 vs 653±446; the difference between mean [95% confidence interval (CI) (-)265 (−509, −20); p=0.035]. Although the cumulative stool output from day 1 to day 3 reduced by 26% in the isoleucine group, it was not significant. Also, there was a trend in reduction in the mean±SD intake of ORS solution (mL) in the L-isoleucine group but it was significant only on day 1 (410±169 vs 564±301), the difference between mean (95% CI) (-)154 (-288, −18); p=0.04. The duration (hours) of diarrhoea was similar in both the groups. A gradual increase in stool concentrations of ß-defensin 2 and 3 was noted but they were not significantly different between the groups. L-isoleucine-supplemented ORS might be beneficial in reducing stool output and ORS intake in children with acute watery diarrhoea. A further study is warranted

  8. Ion formation upon electron collisions with valine embedded in helium nanodroplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberger, Nikolaus; Ralser, Stefan; Renzler, Michael; Harnisch, Martina; Kaiser, Alexander; Denifl, Stefan; Böhme, Diethard K.; Scheier, Paul

    2016-04-01

    We report here experimental results for the electron ionization of large superfluid helium nanodroplets with sizes of about 105 atoms that are doped with valine and clusters of valine. Spectra of both cations and anions were monitored with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (mass resolution >4000). Clear series of peaks with valine cluster sizes up to at least 40 and spaced by the mass of a valine molecule are visible in both the cation and anion spectra. Ion efficiency curves are presented for selected cations and anions at electron energies up to about 40 eV and these provide insight into the mode of ion formation. The measured onset of 24.59 eV for cations is indicative of valine ionization by He+ whereas broad resonances at 2, 10 and 22 eV (and beyond) in the formation of anions speak to the occurrence of various modes of dissociative electron attachment by collisions with electrons or He*- and the influence of droplet size on the relative importance of these processes. Comparisons are also made with gas phase results and these provide insight into a matrix effect within the superfluid helium nanodroplet. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Advances in Positron and Electron Scattering", edited by Paulo Limao-Vieira, Gustavo Garcia, E. Krishnakumar, James Sullivan, Hajime Tanuma and Zoran Petrovic.

  9. The Amino Acid Valine Is Secreted in Continuous-Flow Bacterial Biofilms▿ ‡

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Jaione; Da Re, Sandra; Schmid, Solveig; Skurnik, David; D'Ari, Richard; Ghigo, Jean-Marc

    2008-01-01

    Biofilms are structured communities characterized by distinctive gene expression patterns and profound physiological changes compared to those of planktonic cultures. Here, we show that many gram-negative bacterial biofilms secrete high levels of a small-molecular-weight compound, which inhibits the growth of only Escherichia coli K-12 and a rare few other natural isolates. We demonstrate both genetically and biochemically that this molecule is the amino acid valine, and we provide evidence that valine production within biofilms results from metabolic changes occurring within high-density biofilm communities when carbon sources are not limiting. This finding identifies a natural environment in which bacteria can encounter high amounts of valine, and we propose that in-biofilm valine secretion may be the long-sought reason for widespread but unexplained valine resistance found in most enterobacteria. Our results experimentally validate the postulated production of metabolites that is characteristic of the conditions associated with some biofilm environments. The identification of such molecules may lead to new approaches for biofilm monitoring and control. PMID:17981982

  10. Exogenous l-Valine Promotes Phagocytosis to Kill Multidrug-Resistant Bacterial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xin-hai; Liu, Shi-rao; Peng, Bo; Li, Dan; Cheng, Zhi-xue; Zhu, Jia-xin; Zhang, Song; Peng, Yu-ming; Li, Hui; Zhang, Tian-tuo; Peng, Xuan-xian

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria presents a severe threat to public health and causes extensive losses in livestock husbandry and aquaculture. Effective strategies to control such infections are in high demand. Enhancing host immunity is an ideal strategy with fewer side effects than antibiotics. To explore metabolite candidates, we applied a metabolomics approach to investigate the metabolic profiles of mice after Klebsiella pneumoniae infection. Compared with the mice that died from K. pneumoniae infection, mice that survived the infection displayed elevated levels of l-valine. Our analysis showed that l-valine increased macrophage phagocytosis, thereby reducing the load of pathogens; this effect was not only limited to K. pneumoniae but also included Escherichia coli clinical isolates in infected tissues. Two mechanisms are involved in this process: l-valine activating the PI3K/Akt1 pathway and promoting NO production through the inhibition of arginase activity. The NO precursor l-arginine is necessary for l-valine-stimulated macrophage phagocytosis. The valine-arginine combination therapy effectively killed K. pneumoniae and exerted similar effects in other Gram-negative (E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. Our study extends the role of metabolism in innate immunity and develops the possibility of employing the metabolic modulator-mediated innate immunity as a therapy for bacterial infections. PMID:28321214

  11. l-Valine Production with Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex-Deficient Corynebacterium glutamicum▿

    PubMed Central

    Blombach, Bastian; Schreiner, Mark E.; Holátko, Jiří; Bartek, Tobias; Oldiges, Marco; Eikmanns, Bernhard J.

    2007-01-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum was engineered for the production of l-valine from glucose by deletion of the aceE gene encoding the E1p enzyme of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and additional overexpression of the ilvBNCE genes encoding the l-valine biosynthetic enzymes acetohydroxyacid synthase, isomeroreductase, and transaminase B. In the absence of cellular growth, C. glutamicum ΔaceE showed a relatively high intracellular concentration of pyruvate (25.9 mM) and produced significant amounts of pyruvate, l-alanine, and l-valine from glucose as the sole carbon source. Lactate or acetate was not formed. Plasmid-bound overexpression of ilvBNCE in C. glutamicum ΔaceE resulted in an approximately 10-fold-lower intracellular pyruvate concentration (2.3 mM) and a shift of the extracellular product pattern from pyruvate and l-alanine towards l-valine. In fed-batch fermentations at high cell densities and an excess of glucose, C. glutamicum ΔaceE(pJC4ilvBNCE) produced up to 210 mM l-valine with a volumetric productivity of 10.0 mM h−1 (1.17 g l−1 h−1) and a maximum yield of about 0.6 mol per mol (0.4 g per g) of glucose. PMID:17293513

  12. Deficiency in methionine, tryptophan, isoleucine, or choline induces apoptosis in cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Yen, Chi-Liang E; Mar, Mei-Heng; Craciunescu, Corneliu N; Edwards, Lloyd J; Zeisel, Steven H

    2002-07-01

    Cells in culture die by apoptosis when deprived of the essential nutrient choline. We now report that cells (both proliferating PC12 cells and postmitotic neurons isolated from fetal rat brains) undergo apoptosis when deprived of other individual essential nutrients (methionine, tryptophan or isoleucine). In PC12 cells, deficiencies of each nutrient independently led to ceramide accumulation and to caspase activation, both recognized signals of several apoptotic pathways. A similar profile of caspases was activated in PC12 cells deprived of choline, methionine, tryptophan or isoleucine. More than one caspase was involved and these caspases appeared to transmit parallel signals for apoptosis induction because only broad-spectrum caspase inhibitors, but not inhibitors for specific individual caspases inhibited apoptosis in choline- or methionine-deprived cells. The induction of these caspase-dependent apoptosis pathways likely did not involve the same upstream signals. Choline deficiency perturbed choline metabolism but did not affect protein synthesis, whereas amino acid deficiencies inhibited protein synthesis but did not perturb choline metabolism. In addition, a subclone of PC12 cells that was resistant to choline deficiency-induced apoptosis was not resistant to tryptophan deficiency-induced apoptosis. These observations suggest that deficiency of each studied nutrient activates different pathways for signaling apoptosis that ultimately converge on a common execution pathway.

  13. Integrative Genomic Analysis Identifies Isoleucine and CodY as Regulators of Listeria monocytogenes Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Lobel, Lior; Sigal, Nadejda; Borovok, Ilya; Ruppin, Eytan; Herskovits, Anat A.

    2012-01-01

    Intracellular bacterial pathogens are metabolically adapted to grow within mammalian cells. While these adaptations are fundamental to the ability to cause disease, we know little about the relationship between the pathogen's metabolism and virulence. Here we used an integrative Metabolic Analysis Tool that combines transcriptome data with genome-scale metabolic models to define the metabolic requirements of Listeria monocytogenes during infection. Twelve metabolic pathways were identified as differentially active during L. monocytogenes growth in macrophage cells. Intracellular replication requires de novo synthesis of histidine, arginine, purine, and branch chain amino acids (BCAAs), as well as catabolism of L-rhamnose and glycerol. The importance of each metabolic pathway during infection was confirmed by generation of gene knockout mutants in the respective pathways. Next, we investigated the association of these metabolic requirements in the regulation of L. monocytogenes virulence. Here we show that limiting BCAA concentrations, primarily isoleucine, results in robust induction of the master virulence activator gene, prfA, and the PrfA-regulated genes. This response was specific and required the nutrient responsive regulator CodY, which is known to bind isoleucine. Further analysis demonstrated that CodY is involved in prfA regulation, playing a role in prfA activation under limiting conditions of BCAAs. This study evidences an additional regulatory mechanism underlying L. monocytogenes virulence, placing CodY at the crossroads of metabolism and virulence. PMID:22969433

  14. Chiral Asymmetric Structures in Aspartic Acid and Valine Crystals Assessed by Atomic Force Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Omar; Soares, David Mendez

    2016-03-29

    Structures of crystallized deposits formed by the molecular self-assembly of aspartic acid and valine on silicon substrates were imaged by atomic force microscopy. Images of d- and l-aspartic acid crystal surfaces showing extended molecularly flat sheets or regions separated by single molecule thick steps are presented. Distinct orientation surfaces were imaged, which, combined with the single molecule step size, defines the geometry of the crystal. However, single molecule step growth also reveals the crystal chirality, i.e., growth orientations. The imaged ordered lattice of aspartic acid (asp) and valine (val) mostly revealed periodicities corresponding to bulk terminations, but a previously unreported molecular hexagonal lattice configuration was observed for both l-asp and l-val but not for d-asp or d-val. Atomic force microscopy can then be used to identify the different chiral forms of aspartic acid and valine crystals.

  15. Design, synthesis, and fungicidal activities of imino diacid analogs of valine amide fungicides.

    PubMed

    Sun, Man; Yang, Hui-Hui; Tian, Lei; Li, Jian-Qiang; Zhao, Wei-Guang

    2015-12-15

    The novel imino diacid analogs of valine amides were synthesized via several steps, including the protection, amidation, deprotection, and amino alkylation of valine, with the resulting structures confirmed by (1)H and (13)C NMR and HRMS. Bioassays showed that some of these compounds exhibited good fungicidal activity. Notably, isopropyl 2-((1-((1-(3-fluorophenyl)ethyl)amino)-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)amino)propanoate 5i displayed significant levels of control, at 50%, against Erysiphe graminis at 3.9μM as well as a level of potency very similar to the reference azoxystrobin, which gave 60% activity at this concentration. The present work demonstrates that imino diacid analogs of valine amides could be potentially useful key compounds for the development of novel fungicides against wheat powdery mildew. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Decomposition of L-valine under nonthermal dielectric barrier discharge plasma.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingying; Kojtari, Arben; Friedman, Gary; Brooks, Ari D; Fridman, Alex; Ji, Hai-Feng

    2014-02-13

    L-Valine solutions in water and phosphate buffer were treated with nonthermal plasma generated by using a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) device and the products generated after plasma treatments were characterized by (1)H NMR and GC-MS. Our results demonstrate that L-valine is decomposed to acetone, formic acid, acetic acid, threo-methylaspartic acid, erythro-methlyaspartic acid, and pyruvic acid after direct exposure to DBD plasma. The concentrations of these compounds are time-dependent with plasma treatment. The mechanisms of L-valine under the DBD plasma are also proposed in this study. Acetone, pyruvic acid, and organic radicals (•)CHO, CH3COCH2OO(•) (acetonylperoxy), and CH3COC(OH)2OO(•) (1,1-dihydroxypropan-2-one peroxy) may be the determining chemicals in DNA damage.

  17. Optimization of carbon source and glucose feeding strategy for improvement of L-isoleucine production by Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Wen, Bing; Xu, Qingyang; Xie, Xixian; Chen, Ning

    2015-03-04

    Fed-batch cultivations of L-isoleucine-producing Escherichia coli TRFP (SG r , α -ABA r , with a pTHR101 plasmid containing a thr operon and ilvA) were carried out on different carbon sources: glucose, sucrose, fructose, maltose and glycerol. The results indicated that sucrose was the best initial carbon source for L-isoleucine production and then sucrose concentration of 30 g·L -1 was determined in the production medium. The results of different carbon sources feeding showed that the glucose solution was the most suitable feeding media. The dissolved oxygen (DO) of L-isoleucine fermentation was maintained at 5%, 15% and 30% with DO-stat feeding, respectively. The results indicated that when the DO level was maintained at 30%, the highest biomass and L-isoleucine production were obtained. The accumulation of acetate was decreased and the production of L-isoleucine was increased markedly, when the glucose concentration was maintained at 0.15 g·L -1 by using glucose-stat feeding. Finally, the glucose concentration was maintained at 0.10 g·L -1 and the DO level was controlled at approximately 30% during the whole fermentation period, using the combined feeding strategy of glucose-stat feeding and DO feedback feeding. The acetate accumulation was decreased to 7.23 g·L -1 , and biomass and production of L-isoleucine were increased to 46.8 and 11.95 g·L -1 , respectively.

  18. Optimization of carbon source and glucose feeding strategy for improvement of L-isoleucine production by Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Wen, Bing; Xu, Qingyang; Xie, Xixian; Chen, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Fed-batch cultivations of L-isoleucine-producing Escherichia coli TRFP (SGr, α-ABAr, with a pTHR101 plasmid containing a thr operon and ilvA) were carried out on different carbon sources: glucose, sucrose, fructose, maltose and glycerol. The results indicated that sucrose was the best initial carbon source for L-isoleucine production and then sucrose concentration of 30 g·L−1 was determined in the production medium. The results of different carbon sources feeding showed that the glucose solution was the most suitable feeding media. The dissolved oxygen (DO) of L-isoleucine fermentation was maintained at 5%, 15% and 30% with DO-stat feeding, respectively. The results indicated that when the DO level was maintained at 30%, the highest biomass and L-isoleucine production were obtained. The accumulation of acetate was decreased and the production of L-isoleucine was increased markedly, when the glucose concentration was maintained at 0.15 g·L−1 by using glucose-stat feeding. Finally, the glucose concentration was maintained at 0.10 g·L−1 and the DO level was controlled at approximately 30% during the whole fermentation period, using the combined feeding strategy of glucose-stat feeding and DO feedback feeding. The acetate accumulation was decreased to 7.23 g·L−1, and biomass and production of L-isoleucine were increased to 46.8 and 11.95 g·L−1, respectively. PMID:26019655

  19. Fed-batch culture of Escherichia coli for L-valine production based on in silico flux response analysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Hwan; Kim, Tae Yong; Lee, Kwang Ho; Lee, Sang Yup

    2011-04-01

    We have previously reported the development of a 100% genetically defined engineered Escherichia coli strain capable of producing L-valine from glucose with a high yield of 0.38 g L-valine per gram glucose (0.58 mol L-valine per mol glucose) by batch culture. Here we report a systems biological strategy of employing flux response analysis in bioprocess development using L-valine production by fed-batch culture as an example. Through the systems-level analysis, the source of ATP was found to be important for efficient L-valine production. There existed a trade-off between L-valine production and biomass formation, which was optimized for the most efficient L-valine production. Furthermore, acetic acid feeding strategy was optimized based on flux response analysis. The final fed-batch cultivation strategy allowed production of 32.3 g/L L-valine, the highest concentration reported for E. coli. This approach of employing systems-level analysis of metabolic fluxes in developing fed-batch cultivation strategy would also be applicable in developing strategies for the efficient production of other bioproducts. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Leucine Supplementation Protects from Insulin Resistance by Regulating Adiposity Levels

    PubMed Central

    Binder, Elke; Bermúdez-Silva, Francisco J.; André, Caroline; Elie, Melissa; Romero-Zerbo, Silvana Y.; Leste-Lasserre, Thierry; Belluomo, llaria; Duchampt, Adeline; Clark, Samantha; Aubert, Agnes; Mezzullo, Marco; Fanelli, Flaminia; Pagotto, Uberto; Layé, Sophie; Mithieux, Gilles; Cota, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Background Leucine supplementation might have therapeutic potential in preventing diet-induced obesity and improving insulin sensitivity. However, the underlying mechanisms are at present unclear. Additionally, it is unclear whether leucine supplementation might be equally efficacious once obesity has developed. Methodology/Principal Findings Male C57BL/6J mice were fed chow or a high-fat diet (HFD), supplemented or not with leucine for 17 weeks. Another group of HFD-fed mice (HFD-pairfat group) was food restricted in order to reach an adiposity level comparable to that of HFD-Leu mice. Finally, a third group of mice was exposed to HFD for 12 weeks before being chronically supplemented with leucine. Leucine supplementation in HFD-fed mice decreased body weight and fat mass by increasing energy expenditure, fatty acid oxidation and locomotor activity in vivo. The decreased adiposity in HFD-Leu mice was associated with increased expression of uncoupling protein 3 (UCP-3) in the brown adipose tissue, better insulin sensitivity, increased intestinal gluconeogenesis and preservation of islets of Langerhans histomorphology and function. HFD-pairfat mice had a comparable improvement in insulin sensitivity, without changes in islets physiology or intestinal gluconeogenesis. Remarkably, both HFD-Leu and HFD-pairfat mice had decreased hepatic lipid content, which likely helped improve insulin sensitivity. In contrast, when leucine was supplemented to already obese animals, no changes in body weight, body composition or glucose metabolism were observed. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that leucine improves insulin sensitivity in HFD-fed mice by primarily decreasing adiposity, rather than directly acting on peripheral target organs. However, beneficial effects of leucine on intestinal gluconeogenesis and islets of Langerhans's physiology might help prevent type 2 diabetes development. Differently, metabolic benefit of leucine supplementation is lacking in

  1. d-Leucine: Evaluation in an epilepsy model.

    PubMed

    Holden, Kylie; Hartman, Adam L

    2018-01-01

    Current medicines do not provide sufficient seizure control for nearly one-third of patients with epilepsy. New options are needed to address this treatment gap. We recently found that the atypical amino acid d-leucine protected against acutely-induced seizures in mice, but its effect in chronic seizures has not been explored. We hypothesized that d-leucine would protect against spontaneous recurrent seizures. We also investigated whether mice lacking a previously-described d-leucine receptor (Tas1R2/R3) would be protected against acutely-induced seizures. Male FVB/NJ mice were subjected to kainic acid-induced status epilepticus and monitored by video-electroencephalography (EEG) (surgically implanted electrodes) for 4weeks before, during, and after treatment with d-leucine. Tas1R2/R3 knockout mice and controls underwent the maximal electroshock threshold (MES-T) and 6-Hz tests. There was no difference in number of calendar days with seizures or seizure frequency with d-leucine treatment. In an exploratory analysis, mice treated with d-leucine had a lower number of dark cycles with seizures. Tas1R2/R3 knockout mice had elevated seizure thresholds in the MES-T test but not the 6-Hz test. d-Leucine treatment was ineffective against chronic seizures after kainic acid-induced status epilepticus, but there was some efficacy during the dark cycle. Because d-leucine is highly concentrated in the pineal gland, these data suggest that d-leucine may be useful as a tool for studying circadian patterns in epilepsy. Deletion of the Tas1R2/R3 receptor protected against seizures in the MES-T test and, therefore, may be a novel target for treating seizures. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Partial deficiency of isoleucine impairs root development and alters transcript levels of the genes involved in branched-chain amino acid and glucosinolate metabolism in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dong

    2013-01-01

    Isoleucine is one of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) that are essential substrates for protein synthesis in all organisms. Although the metabolic pathway for isoleucine has been well characterized in higher plants, it is not known whether it plays a specific role in plant development. In this study, an Arabidopsis mutant, lib (low isoleucine biosynthesis), that has defects in both cell proliferation and cell expansion processes during root development, was characterized. The lib mutant carries a T-DNA insertion in the last exon of the OMR1 gene that encodes a threonine deaminase/dehydratase (TD). TD catalyses the deamination and dehydration of threonine, which is the first and also the committed step in the biosynthesis of isoleucine. This T-DNA insertion results in a partial deficiency of isoleucine in lib root tissues but it does not affect its total protein content. Application of exogenous isoleucine or introduction of a wild-type OMR1 gene into the lib mutant can completely rescue the mutant phenotypes. These results reveal an important role for isoleucine in plant development. In addition, microarray analysis indicated that the partial deficiency of isoleucine in the lib mutant triggers a decrease in transcript levels of the genes encoding the major enzymes involved in the BCAA degradation pathway; the analysis also indicated that many genes involved in the biosynthesis of methionine-derived glucosinolates are up-regulated. PMID:23230023

  3. Short-term and long-term ethanol administration inhibits the placental uptake and transport of valine in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Patwardhan, R.V.; Schenker, S.; Henderson, G.I.

    1981-08-01

    Ethanol ingestion during pregnancy causes a pattern of fetal/neonatal dysfunction called the FAS. The effects of short- and long-term ethanol ingestion on the placental uptake and maternal-fetal transfer of valine were studied in rats. The in vivo placental uptake and fetal uptake were estimated after injection of 0.04 micromol of /sub 14/C-valine intravenously on day 20 of gestation in Sprague-Dawley rats. Short-term ethanol ingestion (4 gm/kg) caused a significant reduction in the placental uptake of /sub 14/C-valine by 33%, 60%, and 30%, and 31% at 2.5, 5, 10, and 15 min after valine administration, respectively (p less than 0.01), andmore » a similar significant reduction occurred in the fetal uptake of /sub 14/C-valine (p less than 0.01). Long-term ethanol ingestion prior to and throughout gestation resulted in a 47% reduction in placental valine uptake (p less than 0.01) and a 46% reduction in fetal valine uptake (p less than 0.01). Long-term ethanol feeding from day 4 to day 20 of gestation caused a 32% reduction in placental valine uptake (p less than 0.01) and a 26% reduction in fetal valine uptake (p less than 0.01). We conclude that both short- and long-term ingestion of ethanol inhibit the placental uptake and maternal-fetal transfer of an essential amino acid--valine. An alteration of placental function may contribute to the pathogenesis of the FAS.« less

  4. Determination of the purity of valine by isocratic liquid chromatography coupled with charged aerosol detection (CAD).

    PubMed

    Lodi, A; Angus, M; Nap, C J; Skellern, G; Nicolas, A

    2015-01-01

    A liquid chromatography coupled with charged aerosol detection (LC-CAD) procedure; capable of separating and quantifying the most common impurities of valine at levels as low as 0.05 per cent (m/m), has been developed. The procedure is simple (isocratic), rapid, linear, sensitive and repeatable. It employs a widely available and inexpensive stationary phase (C18).

  5. Biosensor-driven adaptive laboratory evolution of l-valine production in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Mahr, Regina; Gätgens, Cornelia; Gätgens, Jochem; Polen, Tino; Kalinowski, Jörn; Frunzke, Julia

    2015-11-01

    Adaptive laboratory evolution has proven a valuable strategy for metabolic engineering. Here, we established an experimental evolution approach for improving microbial metabolite production by imposing an artificial selective pressure on the fluorescent output of a biosensor using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Cells showing the highest fluorescent output were iteratively isolated and (re-)cultivated. The L-valine producer Corynebacterium glutamicum ΔaceE was equipped with an L-valine-responsive sensor based on the transcriptional regulator Lrp of C. glutamicum. Evolved strains featured a significantly higher growth rate, increased L-valine titers (~25%) and a 3-4-fold reduction of by-product formation. Genome sequencing resulted in the identification of a loss-of-function mutation (UreD-E188*) in the gene ureD (urease accessory protein), which was shown to increase L-valine production by up to 100%. Furthermore, decreased L-alanine formation was attributed to a mutation in the global regulator GlxR. These results emphasize biosensor-driven evolution as a straightforward approach to improve growth and productivity of microbial production strains. Copyright © 2015 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of peptide histidine valine on cardiovascular and respiratory function in normal subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Chilvers, E R; Dixon, C M; Yiangou, Y; Bloom, S R; Ind, P W

    1988-01-01

    Non-adrenergic inhibitory nerves may have an important role in regulating airway calibre. A recently discovered peptide, peptide histidine valine, is a potent relaxer of airway smooth muscle in vitro and has been proposed as a possible neurotransmitter in this tissue. The cardiovascular and respiratory effects of graded infusions of this peptide (2.5-10 pmol kg-1 min-1) have been examined in six normal subjects in a placebo controlled, randomised double blind study. The mean (SEM) peak plasma concentration of peptide histidine valine during the highest infusion rate was 2392 (170) pmol/l, representing a 29 fold increase above the basal concentration. This was accompanied by flushing, a significant increase in heart rate of 28 (3.7) beats/min and skin temperature of 1.8 degrees (0.16 degrees) C, but no effect on systolic or diastolic blood pressure. Despite these high plasma concentrations of the peptide and the substantial tachycardia and increase in skin blood flow, there was no change in partial expiratory flow at 40% of vital capacity (Vp40) or in the airway response to inhaled histamine (geometric PD40 9.37 and 9.73 mumol during saline and peptide histidine valine infusion respectively). Although these findings provide no support for a physiological role of peptide histidine valine in controlling airway function in healthy subjects, important effects of locally released peptides in the vasoactive intestinal peptide family cannot be excluded. PMID:3206383

  7. Effect of peptide histidine valine on cardiovascular and respiratory function in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Chilvers, E R; Dixon, C M; Yiangou, Y; Bloom, S R; Ind, P W

    1988-10-01

    Non-adrenergic inhibitory nerves may have an important role in regulating airway calibre. A recently discovered peptide, peptide histidine valine, is a potent relaxer of airway smooth muscle in vitro and has been proposed as a possible neurotransmitter in this tissue. The cardiovascular and respiratory effects of graded infusions of this peptide (2.5-10 pmol kg-1 min-1) have been examined in six normal subjects in a placebo controlled, randomised double blind study. The mean (SEM) peak plasma concentration of peptide histidine valine during the highest infusion rate was 2392 (170) pmol/l, representing a 29 fold increase above the basal concentration. This was accompanied by flushing, a significant increase in heart rate of 28 (3.7) beats/min and skin temperature of 1.8 degrees (0.16 degrees) C, but no effect on systolic or diastolic blood pressure. Despite these high plasma concentrations of the peptide and the substantial tachycardia and increase in skin blood flow, there was no change in partial expiratory flow at 40% of vital capacity (Vp40) or in the airway response to inhaled histamine (geometric PD40 9.37 and 9.73 mumol during saline and peptide histidine valine infusion respectively). Although these findings provide no support for a physiological role of peptide histidine valine in controlling airway function in healthy subjects, important effects of locally released peptides in the vasoactive intestinal peptide family cannot be excluded.

  8. Dating lacustrine episodes in the eastern Sahara by the epimerization of isoleucine in ostrich eggshells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, G.H.; Wendorf, F.; Ernst, R.; Schild, R.; Close, A.E.; Friedman, I.; Schwarcz, H.P.

    1991-01-01

    The eggshell of the African ostrich, Struthio camelus, closely approximates a closed system for the retention of indigenous proteinaceous residues. Epimerization of the protein amino acid isoleucine follows linear first-order kinetics in laboratory simulations nearly to racemic equilibrium, and the variation in D/L ratio within a single fragment, or between fragments of the same age, is significantly less than in other carbonate systems. These observations suggest that the extent of isoleucine epimerization (aIle/Ile ratio) in ostrich eggshell offers the potential for high-resolution geochronology of Quaternary deposits. From the simulation experiments, and dated early Holocene samples for which we have in situ mean annual sediment temperature measurements, Arrhenius parameters have been calculated; the activation energy is 30.33 kcal mol-1, similar to that of other carbonate systems. We have measured the aIle/Ile ratio in ostrich eggshell associated with lacustrine episodes at Bir Tarfawi and Bir Sahara East, two depressions in what is currently the hyperarid eastern Sahara. The ratios can be used directly to indicate qualitatively the time represented by each series of lake sediment, and to correlate disjunct lacustrine deposits within and between the basins. Uranium-series disequilibrium dating of algal mats contained within some of the lake beds indicate that a major wet interval occurred about 130 ka ago. Using the U-series date for calibration, the amino acid ratios are used to date the most recent lacustrine interval to about 100 ka B.P., and two older intervals, one about 200 ?? 25 ka B.P., and an older interval that occurred prior to 250 ka ago. ?? 1991.

  9. Acetohydroxy acid synthase is a target for leucine containing peptide toxicity in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Gollop, N; Tavori, H; Barak, Z

    1982-01-01

    Acetohydroxy acid synthase from a mutant resistant to leucine-containing peptides was insensitive to leucine inhibition. It is concluded that acetohydroxy acid synthase is a target for the toxicity of the high concentrations of leucine brought into Escherichia coli K-12 by leucine-containing peptides. PMID:7033214

  10. Efficacy and Safety of Leucine Supplementation in the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Borack, Michael S; Volpi, Elena

    2016-12-01

    Leucine supplementation has grown in popularity due to the discovery of its anabolic effects on cell signaling and protein synthesis in muscle. The current recommendation is a minimum intake of 55 mg ⋅ kg -1 . d -1 Leucine acutely stimulates skeletal muscle anabolism and can overcome the anabolic resistance of aging. The value of chronic leucine ingestion for muscle growth is still unclear. Most of the research into leucine consumption has focused on efficacy. To our knowledge, very few studies have sought to determine the maximum safe level of intake. Limited evidence suggests that intakes of ≤1250 mg ⋅ kg -1 . d -1 do not appear to have any health consequences other than short-term elevated plasma ammonia concentrations. Similarly, no adverse events have been reported for the leucine metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB), although no studies have tested HMB toxicity in humans. Therefore, future research is needed to evaluate leucine and HMB toxicity in the elderly and in specific health conditions. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Escherichia coli W as a new platform strain for the enhanced production of L-valine by systems metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Hwan; Jang, Yu-Sin; Lee, Jeong Wook; Lee, Sang Yup

    2011-05-01

    A less frequently employed Escherichia coli strain W, yet possessing useful metabolic characteristics such as less acetic acid production and high L-valine tolerance, was metabolically engineered for the production of L-valine. The ilvA gene was deleted to make more pyruvate, a key precursor for L-valine, available for enhanced L-valine biosynthesis. The lacI gene was deleted to allow constitutive expression of genes under the tac or trc promoter. The ilvBN(mut) genes encoding feedback-resistant acetohydroxy acid synthase (AHAS) I and the L-valine biosynthetic ilvCED genes encoding acetohydroxy acid isomeroreductase, dihydroxy acid dehydratase, and branched chain amino acid aminotransferase, respectively, were amplified by plasmid-based overexpression. The global regulator Lrp and L-valine exporter YgaZH were also amplified by plasmid-based overexpression. The engineered E. coli W (ΔlacI ΔilvA) strain overexpressing the ilvBN(mut) , ilvCED, ygaZH, and lrp genes was able to produce an impressively high concentration of 60.7 g/L L-valine by fed-batch culture in 29.5 h, resulting in a high volumetric productivity of 2.06 g/L/h. The most notable finding is that there was no other byproduct produced during L-valine production. The results obtained in this study suggest that E. coli W can be a good alternative to Corynebacterium glutamicum and E. coli K-12, which have so far been the most efficient L-valine producer. Furthermore, it is expected that various bioproducts including other amino acids might be more efficiently produced by this revisited platform strain of E. coli. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Controlled branched-chain amino acids auxotrophy in Listeria monocytogenes allows isoleucine to serve as a host signal and virulence effector

    PubMed Central

    Borovok, Ilya; Sigal, Nadejda

    2018-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a saprophyte and intracellular pathogen. Transition to the pathogenic state relies on sensing of host-derived metabolites, yet it remains unclear how these are recognized and how they mediate virulence gene regulation. We previously found that low availability of isoleucine signals Lm to activate the virulent state. This response is dependent on CodY, a global regulator and isoleucine sensor. Isoleucine-bound CodY represses metabolic pathways including branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) biosynthesis, however under BCAA depletion, as occurs during infection, BCAA biosynthesis is upregulated and isoleucine-unbound CodY activates virulence genes. While isoleucine was revealed as an important input signal, it was not identified how internal levels are controlled during infection. Here we show that Lm regulates BCAA biosynthesis via CodY and via a riboregulator located upstream to the BCAA biosynthesis genes, named Rli60. rli60 is transcribed when BCAA levels drop, forming a ribosome-mediated attenuator that cis-regulates the downstream genes according to BCAA supply. Notably, we found that Rli60 restricts BCAA production, essentially starving Lm, a mechanism that is directly linked to virulence, as it controls the internal isoleucine pool and thereby CodY activity. This controlled BCAA auxotrophy likely evolved to enable isoleucine to serve as a host signal and virulence effector. PMID:29529043

  13. Controlled branched-chain amino acids auxotrophy in Listeria monocytogenes allows isoleucine to serve as a host signal and virulence effector.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Moran; Lobel, Lior; Borovok, Ilya; Sigal, Nadejda; Herskovits, Anat A

    2018-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a saprophyte and intracellular pathogen. Transition to the pathogenic state relies on sensing of host-derived metabolites, yet it remains unclear how these are recognized and how they mediate virulence gene regulation. We previously found that low availability of isoleucine signals Lm to activate the virulent state. This response is dependent on CodY, a global regulator and isoleucine sensor. Isoleucine-bound CodY represses metabolic pathways including branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) biosynthesis, however under BCAA depletion, as occurs during infection, BCAA biosynthesis is upregulated and isoleucine-unbound CodY activates virulence genes. While isoleucine was revealed as an important input signal, it was not identified how internal levels are controlled during infection. Here we show that Lm regulates BCAA biosynthesis via CodY and via a riboregulator located upstream to the BCAA biosynthesis genes, named Rli60. rli60 is transcribed when BCAA levels drop, forming a ribosome-mediated attenuator that cis-regulates the downstream genes according to BCAA supply. Notably, we found that Rli60 restricts BCAA production, essentially starving Lm, a mechanism that is directly linked to virulence, as it controls the internal isoleucine pool and thereby CodY activity. This controlled BCAA auxotrophy likely evolved to enable isoleucine to serve as a host signal and virulence effector.

  14. Isoleucine epimerization and amino acid composition in molecular-weight separations of Pleistocene Genyornis eggshell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Darrell S.; Miller, Gifford H.

    1995-07-01

    This study explores the geochronological utility and analytical reproducibility of separating the high-molecular-weight fraction (HMW) from eggshells of the extinct late Pleistocene ratite, Genyornis, using disposable, prepacked gel-filtration columns. The superior integrity of ratite eggshell for the retention of amino acids indicates that this biomineral is better suited for this type of investigation than previously studied molluscan shell. To evaluate the reproducibility of the gel-filtration technique, we analyzed triplicate subsamples of three eggshells of different ages. The reproducibility, based on the average intrashell variation (coefficient of variation; CV) in the extent of isoleucine epimerization (aIle/Ile) in the HMW (enriched in molecules ca. >10,000 MW) is 3%, well within the range appropriate for geochronological purposes. The average intrashell variation in the total amino acid concentration (Σ[aa]) of the HMW is 5%, somewhat better than for the total acid hydrolysate (TOTAL) of the same samples (7%). To evaluate the relation between molecular weight and the rate of isoleucine epimerization, three molecular-weight fractions were separated using gel filtration, plus the naturally hydrolyzed free fraction (FREE), for each of four fossil eggshells. AIle/Ile increases with decreasing molecular weight in all shells, with a ca. sixfold to ninefold difference in ratios between the HMW andFREE, and a ca. fivefold difference between the HMW andTOTAL. Although linear correlations between aIle/Ile measured in each molecular-weight fraction and in theTOTAL are all highly significant (r ⩾ 0.951), the relation between the extent of epimerization in the HMW and in the TOTAL is best expressed as an exponential function (r = 0.951). This relation is consistent with the idea that, as the epimerization reaction approaches equilibrium in theTOTAL (ca. aIle/Ile > 1.1), its rate decreases beyond that of the HMW. The amino acid composition (relative percent of

  15. Regulation of amino acid transport in Escherichia coli by transcription termination factor rho.

    PubMed

    Quay, S C; Oxender, D L

    1977-06-01

    Amino acid transport rates and amino acid binding proteins were examined in a strain containing the rho-120 mutation (formerly SuA), which has been shown to lower the rho-dependent, ribonucleic acid-activated adenosine triphosphatase activity to 9% of the rho activity in the isogenic wild-type strain. Tryptophan and proline transport, which occur by membrane-bound systems, were not altered. On the other hand, arginine, histidine, leucine, isoleucine, and valine transport were variably increased by a factor of 1.4 to 5.0. Kinetics of leucine transport showed that the LIV (leucine, isoleucine, and valine)-I (binding protein-associated) transport system is increased 8.5-fold, whereas the LIV-II (membrane-bound) system is increased 1.5-fold in the rho mutant under leucine-limited growth conditions. The leucine binding protein is increased fourfold under the same growth conditions. The difference in leucine transport in these strains was greatest during leucine-limited growth; growth on complex media repressed both strains to the same transport activity. We propose that rho-dependent transcriptional termination is important for leucine-specific repression of branched-chain amino acid transport, although rho-independent regulation, presumably by a corepressor-aporepressor-type mechanism, must also occur.

  16. Identification of HIBCH gene mutations causing autosomal recessive Leigh syndrome: a gene involved in valine metabolism.

    PubMed

    Soler-Alfonso, Claudia; Enns, Gregory M; Koenig, Mary Kay; Saavedra, Heather; Bonfante-Mejia, Eliana; Northrup, Hope

    2015-03-01

    Leigh syndrome is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with usual onset of symptoms during the first year of life. The disorder has been associated with mutations in over 30 genes. This difficulty with genetic heterogeneity makes whole exome sequencing a more cost-effective approach for investigation of etiology. We describe an individual with typical Leigh syndrome who was found to have compound heterozygous mutations in the gene HIBCH (3-hydroxyisobutyryl coenzyme A hydrolase), an enzyme involved in the catabolism of valine. She exhibited significant clinical improvement after a valine-restricted diet. A subset of patients with uncharacterized Leigh syndrome present with specific biochemical abnormalities. This report highpoints the challenges and restrictions of routine metabolic testing and features the recognition of inborn errors of metabolism as potential treatable causes of Leigh syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Raman spectroscopic study of DL valine under pressure up to 20 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rêgo, F. S. C.; Lima, J. A.; Freire, P. T. C.; Melo, F. E. A.; Mendes Filho, J.; Polian, A.

    2016-04-01

    DL-valine crystal was studied by Raman spectroscopy under hydrostatic pressure using a diamond anvil cell from ambient pressure up to 19.4 GPa in the spectral range from 40 to 3300 cm-1. Modifications in the spectra furnished evidence of the occurrence of two structural phase transitions undergone by this racemic amino acid crystal. The classification of the vibrational modes, the behavior of their wavenumber as a function of the pressure and the reversibility of the phase transitions are discussed.

  18. Thiacalix[4]arene functionalized gold nano-assembly for recognition of isoleucine in aqueous solution and its antioxidant study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darjee, Savan M.; Bhatt, Keyur; Kongor, Anita; Panchal, Manthan K.; Jain, Vinod K.

    2017-01-01

    Thiacalix[4]arenes comes under heteracalixarene class which has notable utility in the area of nanoscience. This stimulation has led to the synthesis of water-dispersible gold nanoparticles (AuNps) using thiacalix[4]arene tetrahydrazide (TCTH) as both reducing as well as stabilizing agent. The synthesized nanoparticles (TCTH-AuNps) were characterized by SPR, TEM and EDX. TCTH-AuNps were found to be selective and sensitive for isoleucine. The concentration of isoleucine was detected in the limit of 1 nM to 1.2 μM based on fluorescence enhancement. TCTH-AuNps were also used to measure antioxidant capacity against the standard ascorbic acid.

  19. Production of volatiles in fresh-cut apple: effect of applying alginate coatings containing linoleic acid or isoleucine.

    PubMed

    Maya-Meraz, Irma O; Espino-Díaz, Miguel; Molina-Corral, Francisco J; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Jacobo-Cuellar, Juan L; Sepulveda, David R; Olivas, Guadalupe I

    2014-11-01

    One of the main quality parameters in apples is aroma, its main precursors are fatty acids (FA) and amino acids (AA). In this study, alginate edible coatings were used as carriers of linoleic acid or isoleucine to serve as precursors for the production of aroma in cut apples. Apple wedges were immersed in a CaCl2 solution and coated with one of the following formulations: alginate solution (Alg-Ca), Alg-Ca-low-level linoleic acid (0.61 g/Lt), (LFA), Alg-Ca-high-level linoleic acid (2.44 g/L; HFA), Alg-Ca-low-level isoleucine (0.61 g/L; LAA), and Alg-Ca-high-level isoleucine (2.44 g/L; HAA). Apple wedges were stored at 3 °C and 85% relative humidity for 21 d and key volatiles were studied during storage. Addition of precursors, mainly isoleucine, showed to increase the production of some key volatiles on coated fresh-cut apples during storage. The concentration of 2-methyl-1-butanol was 4 times higher from day 12 to day 21 in HAA, while 2-methyl butyl acetate increased from day 12 to day 21 in HAA. After 21 d, HAA-apples presented a 40-fold value of 2-methyl-butyl acetate, compared to Alg-Ca cut apples. Values of hexanal increased during cut apple storage when the coating carried linoleic acid, mainly on HFA, from 3 to 12 d. The ability of apples to metabolize AA and FA depends on the concentration of precursors, but also depends on key enzymes, previous apple storage, among others. Further studies should be done to better clarify the behavior of fresh-cut apples as living tissue to metabolize precursors contained in edible coatings for the production of volatiles. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Conditional solvation thermodynamics of isoleucine in model peptides and the limitations of the group-transfer model.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Dheeraj S; Weber, Valéry; Pettitt, B Montgomery; Asthagiri, D

    2014-04-17

    The hydration thermodynamics of the amino acid X relative to the reference G (glycine) or the hydration thermodynamics of a small-molecule analog of the side chain of X is often used to model the contribution of X to protein stability and solution thermodynamics. We consider the reasons for successes and limitations of this approach by calculating and comparing the conditional excess free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of hydration of the isoleucine side chain in zwitterionic isoleucine, in extended penta-peptides, and in helical deca-peptides. Butane in gauche conformation serves as a small-molecule analog for the isoleucine side chain. Parsing the hydrophobic and hydrophilic contributions to hydration for the side chain shows that both of these aspects of hydration are context-sensitive. Furthermore, analyzing the solute-solvent interaction contribution to the conditional excess enthalpy of the side chain shows that what is nominally considered a property of the side chain includes entirely nonobvious contributions of the background. The context-sensitivity of hydrophobic and hydrophilic hydration and the conflation of background contributions with energetics attributed to the side chain limit the ability of a single scaling factor, such as the fractional solvent exposure of the group in the protein, to map the component energetic contributions of the model-compound data to their value in the protein. But ignoring the origin of cancellations in the underlying components the group-transfer model may appear to provide a reasonable estimate of the free energy for a given error tolerance.

  1. Dietary leucine requirement of juvenile Japanese seabass ( Lateolabrax japonicus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Cheng, Zhenyan; Mai, Kangsen; Ai, Qinghui

    2015-02-01

    A 56-day feeding trial was conducted to examine the dietary leucine requirement of juvenile Japanese seabass in seawater floating net cages (1.5 m × 1.5 m × 2.0 m). Six isonitrogenous (crude protein 40%) and isoenergetic (gross energy 20 kJ g-1) diets were formulated to contain different concentrations of leucine (0.9%, 1.49%, 2.07%, 2.70%, 3.30% and 3.88% of dry matter). Crystalline L-amino acids were supplemented to simulate the whole body amino acid pattern of Japanese seabass except for leucine. Three groups (30 fish individuals each, 8.0 g ± 0.20 g in initial weight) were fed to apparent satiation at 5:00 and 17:30 every day. During the experimental period, the water temperature ranged from 26 to 32δC and salinity from 26 to 30, and the dissolved oxygen was maintained at 7 mg L-1. The results showed that weight gain ( WG), nitrogen retention ( NR), feed efficiency ( FE) and protein efficiency ratio ( PER) were significantly increased when dietary leucine was increased from 0.90% to 2.70% of dry matter, and then declined. WG was the highest when fish were fed D4 containing 2.70% of leucine. No significant differences were observed in body composition among dietary treatments ( P > 0.05). Considering the change of WG, the optimum dietary leucine requirement of juvenile Japanese seabass was either 2.39% of dry matter or 5.68% of dietary protein.

  2. Identification and codon reading properties of 5-cyanomethyl uridine, a new modified nucleoside found in the anticodon wobble position of mutant haloarchaeal isoleucine tRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Debabrata; Köhrer, Caroline; Su, Dan; Babu, I. Ramesh; Chan, Clement T.Y.; Liu, Yuchen; Söll, Dieter; Blum, Paul; Kuwahara, Masayasu; Dedon, Peter C.; RajBhandary, Uttam L.

    2014-01-01

    Most archaea and bacteria use a modified C in the anticodon wobble position of isoleucine tRNA to base pair with A but not with G of the mRNA. This allows the tRNA to read the isoleucine codon AUA without also reading the methionine codon AUG. To understand why a modified C, and not U or modified U, is used to base pair with A, we mutated the C34 in the anticodon of Haloarcula marismortui isoleucine tRNA (tRNA2Ile) to U, expressed the mutant tRNA in Haloferax volcanii, and purified and analyzed the tRNA. Ribosome binding experiments show that although the wild-type tRNA2Ile binds exclusively to the isoleucine codon AUA, the mutant tRNA binds not only to AUA but also to AUU, another isoleucine codon, and to AUG, a methionine codon. The G34 to U mutant in the anticodon of another H. marismortui isoleucine tRNA species showed similar codon binding properties. Binding of the mutant tRNA to AUG could lead to misreading of the AUG codon and insertion of isoleucine in place of methionine. This result would explain why most archaea and bacteria do not normally use U or a modified U in the anticodon wobble position of isoleucine tRNA for reading the codon AUA. Biochemical and mass spectrometric analyses of the mutant tRNAs have led to the discovery of a new modified nucleoside, 5-cyanomethyl U in the anticodon wobble position of the mutant tRNAs. 5-Cyanomethyl U is present in total tRNAs from euryarchaea but not in crenarchaea, eubacteria, or eukaryotes. PMID:24344322

  3. Valine partitioning and kinetics between the gastrointestinal tract and hind limbs in lambs with an adult Trichostrongylus colubriformis burden.

    PubMed

    Bermingham, E N; McNabb, W C; Sinclair, B R; Tavendale, M H; Roy, N C

    2011-11-01

    Intestinal parasitic infection increases the demand for AA because of increased protein synthesis in the intestine and increased luminal losses of AA, and these increased demands may be supported by increased mobilization of AA from the skeletal muscles. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of parasitic infection on valine kinetics within the gastrointestinal tract and hind limbs of lambs fed fresh forages. On d 1, lambs were given 6,000 stage-3 Trichostrongylus colubriformis larvae per day for 6 d (n = 6) or kept as parasite-free controls (n = 6) and fed fresh lucerne (Medicago sativa; Exp. 1) or fresh sulla (Hedysarum coronarium; Exp. 2). On d 48, valine kinetics within the mesenteric- (MDV) and portal-drained viscera (PDV) and hind limbs were obtained by carrying out concurrent infusions of para-amminohippuric acid into the mesenteric vein and indocyanin green into the abdominal aorta (for blood flow), and [3,4-(3)H]valine into the jugular vein and [1-(13)C]valine into the abomasum for 8 h (for kinetics). During the infusions, blood was collected from the mesenteric and portal veins and from the mesenteric artery and vena cava, and plasma was harvested. After the 8-h infusion, lambs were euthanized, ileal digesta were collected, and tissues were sampled from the intestine and muscle (biceps femoris). Tissues, digesta, and plasma were analyzed for valine concentration, specific radioactivity, and isotopic enrichment. In both experiments, intestinal worm burdens on d 48 were greater in parasitized lambs (P = 0.0001 and 0.003). In Exp. 1, parasitic infection increased (P = 0.03) the total valine irreversible loss rate (ILR) in the MDV and PDV. In Exp. 2, luminal ILR of valine in the MDV was reduced (P = 0.01); however, ILR of valine in the PDV was unaffected. Despite these changes within the MDV and PDV, parasitic infection did not affect the ILR of valine within the hind limbs, and valine transport rates were largely unchanged. We suggest that

  4. Whey peptide Isoleucine-Tryptophan inhibits expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Kopaliani, Irakli; Martin, Melanie; Zatschler, Birgit; Müller, Bianca; Deussen, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Aortic stiffness is an independent risk factor for development of cardiovascular diseases. Activation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) including angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity leads to overproduction of angiotensin II (ANGII) from its precursor angiotensin I (ANGI). ANGII leads to overexpression and activation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2), which is critically associated with pathophysiology of aortic stiffness. We previously reported that the whey peptide Isoleucine-Tryptophan (IW) acts as a potent ACE inhibitor. Herein, we critically elucidate the mechanism of action by which IW causes inhibition of expression and activity of MMP2 in aortic tissue. Effects of IW on expression and activity of MMP2 were assessed on endothelial and smooth muscle cells (ECs and SMCs) in vitro and ex vivo (isolated rat aorta). As controls we used the pharmaceutical ACE inhibitor - captopril and the ANGII type 1 receptor blocker - losartan. In vitro, both ANGII and ANGI stimulation significantly (P<0.01) increased expression of MMP2 assessed with western blot. Similarly, to captopril IW significantly (P<0.05) inhibited ANGI, but not ANGII mediated increase in expression of MMP2, while losartan also blocked effects of ANGII. Signaling pathways regulating MMP2 expression in ECs and SMCs were similarly inhibited after treatment with IW or captopril. In ECs IW significantly (P<0.05) inhibited JNK pathway, whereas in SMCs JAK2/STAT3 pathway, assessed with western blot. In vitro findings were fully consistent with results in isolated rat aorta ex vivo. Moreover, IW not only inhibited the MMP2 expression, but also its activation assessed with gelatin zymography. Our findings demonstrate that IW effectively inhibits expression and activation of MMP2 in rat aorta by decreasing local conversion of ANGI to ANGII. Thus, similar to pharmaceutical ACE inhibitor captopril the dipeptide IW may effectively inhibit ACE activity and prevent the age and hypertension

  5. Free amino acids in fibromyalgia syndrome: relationship with clinical picture.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Valeria; Mura, Massimiliano; Cacace, Enrico; Era, Benedetta; Peri, Marcella; Sanna, Giuseppina; Fais, Antonella

    2017-04-01

    The objectives of our study were to evaluate free amino acid (FAA) concentrations in the serum of patients affected by fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and to determine the relationships between FAA levels and FMS clinical parameters. Thus, serum amino acid concentrations were quantified (HPLC analysis) in 23 females with fibromyalgia (according to the American College of Rheumatology classification criteria) and 20 healthy females. The results showed significantly higher serum concentrations of aspartate, cysteine, glutamate, glycine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, ornithine, phenylalanine, sarcosine, serine, taurine, tyrosine and valine in FMS patients vs. healthy controls. Patients with higher Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) scores showed increased levels of alanine, glutamine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, proline and valine. In conclusion, our results indicate an imbalance in some FAAs in FMS patients. Increased Glu is particularly interesting, as it could explain the deficit in monoaminergic transmission involved in pain.

  6. Quantitative role of splanchnic region in leucine metabolism: L-(1-13C,15N)leucine and substrate balance studies

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Y.M.; Wagner, D.A.; Tredget, E.E.

    1990-07-01

    The role of the splanchnic region (Sp) in whole body leucine metabolism was assessed in six chronically catheterized fasting mongrel dogs and in eight dogs during constant enteral feeding of a complete amino acid solution (0.24 g.kg-1.h-1). We used primed continuous intravenous infusions of L-(1-13C,15N)leucine and L-(1-14C)leucine and measurements of arteriovenous isotope and leucine balance across the gut, liver, and Sp. In the fasted condition, 3.5% of arterial leucine supply was oxidized in the Sp, accounting for 13% of total body leucine oxidation, with 10% by liver. With amino acid feeding (1) leucine carbon and nitrogen fluxes and oxidation weremore » increased (P less than 0.01) at the whole body level; (2) the percent of whole body leucine oxidation occurring in the Sp and liver increased (P less than 0.01) to 41 and 27%, respectively; (3) fractional metabolic utilization of leucine delivered to the Sp was reduced (P less than 0.01) from 47 to 35%; (4) the deamination rate of leucine in the gut was increased (P less than 0.05), along with an increased reamination rate of alpha-ketoisocaproic acid in the Sp (P less than 0.05). These findings reveal that the Sp accounts for a small fraction of whole body leucine oxidation during the fasting condition, but it plays a quantitatively important role in total body leucine oxidation during amino acid feeding; the gut and liver play cooperative roles in controlling leucine supply to peripheral tissues.« less

  7. Determination of the tolerable upper intake level of leucine in acute dietary studies in young men.

    PubMed

    Elango, Rajavel; Chapman, Karen; Rafii, Mahroukh; Ball, Ronald O; Pencharz, Paul B

    2012-10-01

    Leucine has been suggested to improve athletic performance. Therefore, the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), especially leucine, are popular as dietary supplements in strength-training athletes; however, the intake of leucine in excess of requirements raises concerns regarding adverse effects. Currently, the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for leucine is unknown. The objective of the current study was to determine the UL for leucine in adult men under acute dietary conditions. Five healthy adults (20-35 y) each received graded stepwise increases in leucine intakes of 50, 150, 250, 500, 750, 1000, and 1250 mg · kg⁻¹ · d⁻¹, which corresponded to the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) and the EAR ×3, ×5, ×10, ×15, ×20, and ×25 in a total of 29 studies. The UL of leucine was identified by the measurement of plasma and urinary biochemical variables and changes in leucine oxidation by using l-[1-¹³C]-leucine. A significant increase in blood ammonia concentrations above normal values, plasma leucine concentrations, and urinary leucine excretion were observed with leucine intakes >500 mg · kg⁻¹ · d⁻¹. The oxidation of l-[1-¹³C]-leucine expressed as label tracer oxidation in breath (F¹³CO₂), leucine oxidation, and α-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) oxidation led to different results: a plateau in F¹³CO₂ observed after 500 mg · kg⁻¹ · d⁻¹, no clear plateau observed in leucine oxidation, and KIC oxidation appearing to plateau after 750 mg · kg⁻¹ · d⁻¹. On the basis of plasma and urinary variables, the UL for leucine in healthy adult men can be suggested at 500 mg · kg⁻¹ · d⁻¹ or ~35 g/d as a cautious estimate under acute dietary conditions.

  8. 21 CFR 862.1460 - Leucine aminopeptidase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Leucine aminopeptidase test system. 862.1460 Section 862.1460 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test...

  9. BHC80 is Critical in Suppression of Snail-LSD1 Interaction and Breast Cancer Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    characteristics such as invasion and metastasis. The most common chemotherapeutic drugs function by introducing DNA damage to impair cell division...expression confers drug resistancy on cancer cells indicates that Snail can function as a survival factor. Recently we performed a sequential protein...one of alanine, isoleucine , leucine and valine (Figure 3A). While the sequence surrounding Arg151, Lys152 and Ala153 does not exactly follow the rule

  10. Association between insulin resistance and plasma amino acid profile in non-diabetic Japanese subjects.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Chizumi; Kondo, Masumi; Kishimoto, Noriaki; Shibata, Takeo; Nagai, Yoko; Imanishi, Tadashi; Oroguchi, Takashige; Ishii, Naoaki; Nishizaki, Yasuhiro

    2015-07-01

    Elevation of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), valine, leucine and isoleucine; and the aromatic amino acids, tyrosine and phenylalanine, has been observed in obesity-related insulin resistance. However, there have been few studies on Asians, who are generally less obese and less insulin-resistant than Caucasian or African-Americans. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and plasma amino acid concentration in non-diabetic Japanese participants. A total of 94 healthy men and women were enrolled, and plasma amino acid concentration was measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry after overnight fasting. The associations between HOMA-IR and 20 amino acid concentrations, and anthropometric and clinical parameters of lifestyle-related diseases were evaluated. The mean age and body mass index were 40.1 ± 9.6 years and 22.7 ± 3.9, respectively. Significantly positive correlations were observed between HOMA-IR and valine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine and total BCAA concentration. Compared with the HOMA-IR ≤ 1.6 group, the HOMA-IR > 1.6 group showed significantly exacerbated anthropometric and clinical parameters, and significantly elevated levels of valine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine and BCAA. The present study shows that the insulin resistance-related change in amino acid profile is also observed in non-diabetic Japanese subjects. These amino acids include BCAAs (valine, isoleucine and leucine) and aromatic amino acids (tyrosine and phenylalanine), in agreement with previous studies carried out using different ethnic groups with different degrees of obesity and insulin resistance.

  11. Characterization of leucine zipper complexes by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed Central

    Wendt, H.; Dürr, E.; Thomas, R. M.; Przybylski, M.; Bosshard, H. R.

    1995-01-01

    The development of "soft" ionization methods has enabled the mass spectrometric analysis of higher-order structural features of proteins. We have applied electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) to the analysis of the number and composition of polypeptide chains in homomeric and heteromeric leucine zippers. In comparison with other methods that have been used to analyze leucine zippers, such as analytical ultracentrifugation, gel chromatography, or electrophoretic band shift assays, ESI-MS is very fast and highly sensitive and provides a straightforward way to distinguish between homomeric and heteromeric coiled-coil structures. ESI-MS analyses were carried out on the parallel dimeric leucine zipper domain GCN4-p1 of the yeast transcription factor GCN4 and on three synthetic peptides with the sequences Ac-EYEALEKKLAAX1EAKX2QALEKKLEALEHG-amide: peptide LZ (X1, X2 = Leu), peptide LZ(12A) (X1 = Ala, X2 = Leu), and peptide LZ(16N) (X1 = Leu, X2 = Asn). Equilibrium ultracentrifugation analysis showed that LZ forms a trimeric coiled coil and this could be confirmed unequivocally by ESI-MS as could the dimeric nature of GCN4-p1. The formation of heteromeric two- and three-stranded leucine zippers composed of chains from LZ and LZ(12A), or from GCN4-p1 and LZ, was demonstrated by ESI-MS and confirmed by fluorescence quenching experiments on fluorescein-labeled peptides. The results illustrate the adaptability and flexibility of the leucine zipper motif, properties that could be useful to the design of specific protein assemblies by way of coiled-coil domains. PMID:8520482

  12. Concentration-Dependent Patterns of Leucine Incorporation by Coastal Picoplankton

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Cecilia; Pernthaler, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    Coastal pelagic environments are believed to feature concentration gradients of dissolved organic carbon at a microscale, and they are characterized by pronounced seasonal differences in substrate availability for the heterotrophic picoplankton. Microbial taxa that coexist in such habitats might thus differ in their ability to incorporate substrates at various concentrations. We investigated the incorporation patterns of leucine in four microbial lineages from the coastal North Sea at concentrations between 0.1 and 100 nM before and during a spring phytoplankton bloom. Community bulk incorporation rates and the fraction of leucine-incorporating cells in the different populations were analyzed. Significantly fewer bacterial cells incorporated the amino acid before (13 to 35%) than during (23 to 47%) the bloom at all but the highest concentration. The incorporation rate per active cell in the prebloom situation was constant above 0.1 nM added leucine, whereas it increased steeply with substrate concentration during the bloom. At both time points, a high proportion of members of the Roseobacter clade incorporated leucine at all concentrations (55 to 80% and 86 to 94%, respectively). In contrast, the fractions of leucine-incorporating cells increased substantially with substrate availability in bacteria from the SAR86 clade (8 to 31%) and from DE cluster 2 of the Flavobacteria-Sphingobacteria (14 to 33%). The incorporation patterns of marine Euryarchaeota were between these extremes (30 to 56% and 48 to 70%, respectively). Our results suggest that the contribution of microbial taxa to the turnover of particular substrates may be concentration dependent. This may help us to understand the specific niches of coexisting populations that appear to compete for the same resources. PMID:16517664

  13. ECHS1 mutations in Leigh disease: a new inborn error of metabolism affecting valine metabolism.

    PubMed

    Peters, Heidi; Buck, Nicole; Wanders, Ronald; Ruiter, Jos; Waterham, Hans; Koster, Janet; Yaplito-Lee, Joy; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Pitt, James

    2014-11-01

    Two siblings with fatal Leigh disease had increased excretion of S-(2-carboxypropyl)cysteine and several other metabolites that are features of 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA hydrolase (HIBCH) deficiency, a rare defect in the valine catabolic pathway associated with Leigh-like disease. However, this diagnosis was excluded by HIBCH sequencing and normal enzyme activity. In contrast to HIBCH deficiency, the excretion of 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-carnitine was normal in the children, suggesting deficiency of short-chain enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECHS1 gene). This mitochondrial enzyme is active in several metabolic pathways involving fatty acids and amino acids, including valine, and is immediately upstream of HIBCH in the valine pathway. Both children were compound heterozygous for a c.473C > A (p.A158D) missense mutation and a c.414+3G>C splicing mutation in ECHS1. ECHS1 activity was markedly decreased in cultured fibroblasts from both siblings, ECHS1 protein was undetectable by immunoblot analysis and transfection of patient cells with wild-type ECHS1 rescued ECHS1 activity. The highly reactive metabolites methacrylyl-CoA and acryloyl-CoA accumulate in deficiencies of both ECHS1 and HIBCH and are probably responsible for the brain pathology in both disorders. Deficiency of ECHS1 or HIBCH should be considered in children with Leigh disease. Urine metabolite testing can detect and distinguish between these two disorders. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Infrared and Raman spectroscopy and DFT calculations of DL amino acids: Valine and lysine hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paiva, F. M.; Batista, J. C.; Rêgo, F. S. C.; Lima, J. A.; Freire, P. T. C.; Melo, F. E. A.; Mendes Filho, J.; de Menezes, A. S.; Nogueira, C. E. S.

    2017-01-01

    Single crystals of DL-valine and DL-lysine hydrochloride were grown by slow evaporation method and the crystallographic structure were confirmed by X-ray diffraction experiment and Rietveld method. These two crystals have been studied by Raman spectroscopy in the 25-3600 cm-1 spectral range and by infrared spectroscopy through the interval 375-4000 cm-1 at room temperature. Experimental and theoretical vibrational spectra were compared and a complete analysis of the modes was done in terms of the Potential Energy Distribution (PED).

  15. Neuropeptide glutamic acid-isoleucine (NEI)-induced paradoxical sleep in rats.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Moe; Fukuda, Satoru; Sakamoto, Hidetoshi; Takata, Junko; Sawamura, Shigehito

    2017-01-01

    Neuropeptideglutamic acid-isoleucine (NEI) as well as melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) is cleaved from the 165 amino acid protein, prepro-melanin concentrating hormone (prepro-MCH). Among many physiological roles of MCH, we demonstrated that intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of MCH induced increases in REM sleep episodes as well as in non REM sleep episodes. However, there are no studies on the effect of NEI on the sleep-wake cycle. As for the sites of action of MCH for induction of REM sleep, the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) has been reported to be one of its site of action. Although MCH neurons contain NEI, GABA, MCH, and other neuropeptides, we do not know which transmitter(s) might induce REM sleep by acting on the vlPAG. Thus, we first examined the effect of icv injection of NEI on the sleep-wake cycle, and investigated how microinjection of either NEI, MCH, or GABA into the vlPAG affected REM sleep in rats. Icv injection of NEI (0.61μg/5μl: n=7) significantly increased the time spent in REM episodes compared to control (saline: 5μl; n=6). Microinjection of either NEI (61ng/0.2μl: n=7), MCH (100ng/0.2μl: n=6) or GABA (250mM/0.2μl: n=7) into the vlPAG significantly increased the time spent in REM episodes and the AUC. Precise hourly analysis of REM sleep also revealed that after those microinjections, NEI and MCH increased REM episodes at the latter phase, compared to GABA which increased REM episodes at the earlier phase. This result suggests that NEI and MCH may induce sustained REM sleep, while GABA may initiate REM sleep. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that NEI, a cleaved peptide from the same precursor, prepro-MCH, as MCH, induce REM sleep at least in part through acting on the vlPAG. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Isoleucine epimerization in the high-molecular-weight fraction of pleistocene Arctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Darrell S.; Sejrup, Hans-Petter

    The extent of amino acid racemization, as traditionally determined in the entire (total acid hydrolysate) pool of amino acids comprising the organic remains of fossils, is a function of the integrated effects of a complex diagenetic reaction network. We investigated the possibility that some of the complications involved in protein diagenesis might be circumvented by isolating one component of the reaction network and studying the extent of racemization in that fraction alone. We used gel-filtration to extract the high-molecular-weight (HMW) fraction of proteinaceous matter from fossil and modem molluscan shells. This fraction contains the largest (ca. > 15,000 MW), most-pristine macromolecules and has been less affected by diagenesis than the more-degraded, lower molecular-weight fractions. Variations in the extent of racemization (isoleucine epimerization; alle/Ile) measured in the HMW fraction of subsamples taken along cross sections of Arctica shells from two interglacial sites, Bø and Fjøsanger, southwestern Norway, are within the range of analytical uncertainty [coefficient of variation (cv) = 5-8%], despite the strong gradient (cv = 20-24%) in alle/Ile of the total amino acid population. Because there is no age difference across a shell, this finding supports the idea that the HMW fraction contains more geochronologically reliable proteinaceous matter than the total amino acid pool. Weighted mean alle/Ile ratios in the HMW fraction of aliquots of powdered sample from the two shells overlap at ± 1σ, despite significantly different alle/Ile ratios in the total amino acid population of some shells from the two sites. The difference in alle/Ile ratios in the total population is attributed to a greater proportion of low-molecular-weight (ca. 300 MW), and hence, extensively epimerized molecules measured in gel-filtered samples from the Fjøsanger shell. Because the rate of epimerization in the HMW fraction is much lower than in the total population, the

  17. Local rhamnosoft, ceramides and L-isoleucine in atopic eczema: a randomized, placebo controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Marseglia, Alessia; Licari, Amelia; Agostinis, Fabio; Barcella, Antonio; Bonamonte, Domenico; Puviani, Mario; Milani, Massimo; Marseglia, GianLuigi

    2014-01-01

    Background A non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory moisturizing cream containing rhamnosoft, ceramides, and L-isoleucine (ILE) (pro-AMP cream) has been recently developed for the specific treatment of atopic eczema (AE) of the face. In this trial, we evaluated the clinical efficacy and tolerability of pro-AMP cream in the treatment of facial AE in children in comparison with an emollient cream. Methods In a randomized, prospective, assessor-blinded, parallel groups (2:1) controlled trial, 107 children (72 allocated to pro-AMP cream and 35 allocated to control group) with mild-to-moderate chronic AE of the face were enrolled. Treatments were applied twice daily for a 6-week period. Facial Eczema Severity Score (ESS) was evaluated at baseline, week 3, and week 6, by an assessor unaware of treatment allocation. Investigator's Global Assessment (IGA) score was assessed at week 3 and at week 6. Tolerability was evaluated at week 3 and at week 6 using a 4-point score (from 0: low tolerability to 3: very good tolerability). Results At baseline ESS, mean (SD) was 6.1 (2.4) in the pro-AMP cream group and 5.3 (3) in the control group. In the pro-AMP group, in comparison with baseline, ESS was significantly reduced to 2.5 (−59%) after 3 wks and to 1.0 (−84%) at week 6 (p = 0.0001). In the control group, ESS was reduced to 3 (−42%) at week 2 and to 2.6 (−50%) at week 6. At week 6, ESS in pro-AMP cream was significantly lower than the control group (1.0 vs. 2.6; p = 0.001). Both products were well tolerated. Conclusion Pro-AMP cream has shown to be effective in the treatment of mild-to-moderate chronic lesion of AE of the face. Clinical efficacy was greater in comparison with an emollient cream. (Clinical trial Registry: NTR4084). PMID:24750568

  18. Endurance Exercise Attenuates Postprandial Whole-Body Leucine Balance in Trained Men.

    PubMed

    Mazzulla, Michael; Parel, Justin T; Beals, Joseph W; VAN Vliet, Stephan; Abou Sawan, Sidney; West, Daniel W D; Paluska, Scott A; Ulanov, Alexander V; Moore, Daniel R; Burd, Nicholas A

    2017-12-01

    Endurance exercise increases indices of small intestinal damage and leucine oxidation, which may attenuate dietary amino acid appearance and postprandial leucine balance during postexercise recovery. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an acute bout of endurance exercise on postprandial leucine kinetics and net leucine balance. In a crossover design, seven trained young men (age = 25.6 ± 2.3 yr; V˙O2peak = 61.4 ± 2.9 mL·kg·min; mean ± SEM) received a primed constant infusion of L-[1-C]leucine before and after ingesting a mixed macronutrient meal containing 18 g whole egg protein intrinsically labeled with L-[5,5,5-H3]leucine, 17 g fat, and 60 g carbohydrate at rest and after 60 min of treadmill running at 70% V˙O2peak. Plasma intestinal fatty acid binding protein concentrations and leucine oxidation both increased (P < 0.01) to peaks that were ~2.5-fold above baseline values during exercise with a concomitant decrease (P < 0.01) in nonoxidative leucine disposal. Meal ingestion attenuated (P < 0.01) endogenous leucine rates of appearance at rest and after exercise. There were no differences (both, P > 0.05) in dietary leucine appearance rates or in the amount of dietary protein-derived leucine that appeared into circulation over the 5-h postprandial period at rest and after exercise (62% ± 2% and 63% ± 2%, respectively). Leucine balance over the 5-h postprandial period was positive (P < 0.01) in both conditions but was negative (P < 0.01) during the exercise trial after accounting for exercise-induced leucine oxidation. We demonstrate that endurance exercise does not modulate dietary leucine availability from a mixed meal but attenuates postprandial whole-body leucine balance in trained young men.

  19. Rapid sensing of l-leucine by human and murine hypothalamic neurons: Neurochemical and mechanistic insights.

    PubMed

    Heeley, Nicholas; Kirwan, Peter; Darwish, Tamana; Arnaud, Marion; Evans, Mark L; Merkle, Florian T; Reimann, Frank; Gribble, Fiona M; Blouet, Clemence

    2018-04-01

    Dietary proteins are sensed by hypothalamic neurons and strongly influence multiple aspects of metabolic health, including appetite, weight gain, and adiposity. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which hypothalamic neural circuits controlling behavior and metabolism sense protein availability. The aim of this study is to characterize how neurons from the mediobasal hypothalamus respond to a signal of protein availability: the amino acid l-leucine. We used primary cultures of post-weaning murine mediobasal hypothalamic neurons, hypothalamic neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells, and calcium imaging to characterize rapid neuronal responses to physiological changes in extracellular l-Leucine concentration. A neurochemically diverse subset of both mouse and human hypothalamic neurons responded rapidly to l-leucine. Consistent with l-leucine's anorexigenic role, we found that 25% of mouse MBH POMC neurons were activated by l-leucine. 10% of MBH NPY neurons were inhibited by l-leucine, and leucine rapidly reduced AGRP secretion, providing a mechanism for the rapid leucine-induced inhibition of foraging behavior in rodents. Surprisingly, none of the candidate mechanisms previously implicated in hypothalamic leucine sensing (K ATP channels, mTORC1 signaling, amino-acid decarboxylation) were involved in the acute activity changes produced by l-leucine. Instead, our data indicate that leucine-induced neuronal activation involves a plasma membrane Ca 2+ channel, whereas leucine-induced neuronal inhibition is mediated by inhibition of a store-operated Ca 2+ current. A subset of neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus rapidly respond to physiological changes in extracellular leucine concentration. Leucine can produce both increases and decreases in neuronal Ca 2+ concentrations in a neurochemically-diverse group of neurons, including some POMC and NPY/AGRP neurons. Our data reveal that leucine can signal through novel mechanisms to rapidly

  20. Conditional Solvation Thermodynamics of Isoleucine in Model Peptides and the Limitations of the Group-Transfer Model

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The hydration thermodynamics of the amino acid X relative to the reference G (glycine) or the hydration thermodynamics of a small-molecule analog of the side chain of X is often used to model the contribution of X to protein stability and solution thermodynamics. We consider the reasons for successes and limitations of this approach by calculating and comparing the conditional excess free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of hydration of the isoleucine side chain in zwitterionic isoleucine, in extended penta-peptides, and in helical deca-peptides. Butane in gauche conformation serves as a small-molecule analog for the isoleucine side chain. Parsing the hydrophobic and hydrophilic contributions to hydration for the side chain shows that both of these aspects of hydration are context-sensitive. Furthermore, analyzing the solute–solvent interaction contribution to the conditional excess enthalpy of the side chain shows that what is nominally considered a property of the side chain includes entirely nonobvious contributions of the background. The context-sensitivity of hydrophobic and hydrophilic hydration and the conflation of background contributions with energetics attributed to the side chain limit the ability of a single scaling factor, such as the fractional solvent exposure of the group in the protein, to map the component energetic contributions of the model-compound data to their value in the protein. But ignoring the origin of cancellations in the underlying components the group-transfer model may appear to provide a reasonable estimate of the free energy for a given error tolerance. PMID:24650057

  1. Extracellular levels of amino acids and choline in human high grade gliomas: an intraoperative microdialysis study.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, L; De Micheli, E; Bricolo, A; Ballini, C; Fattori, M; Venturi, C; Pedata, F; Tipton, K F; Della Corte, L

    2004-01-01

    The concentrations of endogenous amino acids and choline in the extracellular fluid of human cerebral gliomas have been measured, for the first time, by in vivo microdialysis. Glioblastoma growth was associated with increased concentrations of choline, GABA, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, phenylalanine, taurine, tyrosine, and valine. There was no difference between grade III and grade IV tumors in the concentrations of phenylalanine, isoleucine, tyrosine, valine, and lysine, whereas the concentrations of choline, aspartate, taurine, GABA, leucine, and glutamate were significantly different in the two tumor-grade subgroups. In contrast to the other compounds, the concentration of glutamate was decreased in glioma. The parenchyma adjacent to the tumor showed significant changes only in the extracellular concentration of glutamate, isoleucine, and valine. The concentrations of choline and the amino acids, glutamate, leucine, taurine, and tyrosine showed significant positive correlations with the degree of cell proliferation. Epilepsy, which is relatively common in subjects with gliomas, was shown to be a significant confounding variable when the extracellular concentrations of aspartate, glutamate and GABA were considered.

  2. Enthalpy characteristics of the dissolution of L-valine in water/formamide mixtures at 298.15 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, V. I.; Badelin, V. G.

    2016-11-01

    The thermochemical dissolution of L-valine in solvent mixtures H2O + (formamide, N-methylformamide, and N, N-dimethylformamide) is studied at an organic component concentration of x 2 = 0-0.35 molar fractions and a temperature of 298.15 K. The experimental data are used to calculate standard enthalpies of dissolution, the transferring of L-valine from water to a mixed solvent, and the enthalpy coefficients of pairwise interactions ( h xy ) with organic solvent molecules. The correlation between the enthalpy characteristics of the dissolution of L-valine with the composition of aqueous organic mixtures and the nature of the organic solvent (its physicochemical properties) is determined. A comparative analysis of the values of h xy of a number of aliphatic L-amino acids in similar solvent mixtures with the hydrophobicity parameters of their side chains is performed.

  3. Microbial synthesis of propane by engineering valine pathway and aldehyde-deformylating oxygenase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Liang, Yajing; Wu, Wei; Tan, Xiaoming; Lu, Xuefeng

    2016-01-01

    Propane, a major component of liquid petroleum gas (LPG) derived from fossil fuels, has widespread applications in vehicles, cooking, and ambient heating. Given the concerns about fossil fuel depletion and carbon emission, exploiting alternative and renewable source of propane have become attractive. In this study, we report the construction of a novel propane biosynthetic pathway in Escherichia coli. We constructed an aldehyde reductases (ALR)-deprived E. coli strain BW25113(DE3) Δ13 via genetic engineering, which produced sufficient isobutyraldehyde precursors and finally achieved de novo synthesis of propane (91 μg/L) by assembling the engineered valine pathway and cyanobacterial aldehyde-deformylating oxygenase (ADO). Additionally, after extensive screening of ADO mutants generated by engineering the active center to accommodate branched-chain isobutyraldehyde, we identified two ADO mutants (I127G, I127G/A48G) which exhibited higher catalytic activity for isobutyraldehyde and improved propane productivity by three times (267 μg/L). The propane biosynthetic pathway constructed here through the engineered valine pathway can produce abundant isobutyraldehyde for ADO and overcome the low availability of precursors in propane production. Furthermore, the rational design aiming at the ADO active center illustrates the plasticity and catalytic potential of ADO. These results together highlight the potential for developing a microbial biomanufacturing platform for propane.

  4. Time-Resolved Transcriptome Analysis of Bacillus subtilis Responding to Valine, Glutamate, and Glutamine

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Bang-Ce; Zhang, Yan; Yu, Hui; Yu, Wen-Bang; Liu, Bao-Hong; Yin, Bin-Cheng; Yin, Chun-Yun; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Chu, Ju; Zhang, Si-Liang

    2009-01-01

    Microorganisms can restructure their transcriptional output to adapt to environmental conditions by sensing endogenous metabolite pools. In this paper, an Agilent customized microarray representing 4,106 genes was used to study temporal transcript profiles of Bacillus subtilis in response to valine, glutamate and glutamine pulses over 24 h. A total of 673, 835, and 1135 amino-acid-regulated genes were identified having significantly changed expression at one or more time points in response to valine, glutamate, and glutamine, respectively, including genes involved in cell wall, cellular import, metabolism of amino-acids and nucleotides, transcriptional regulation, flagellar motility, chemotaxis, phage proteins, sporulation, and many genes of unknown function. Different amino acid treatments were compared in terms of both the global temporal profiles and the 5-minute quick regulations, and between-experiment differential genes were identified. The highlighted genes were analyzed based on diverse sources of gene functions using a variety of computational tools, including T-profiler analysis, and hierarchical clustering. The results revealed the common and distinct modes of action of these three amino acids, and should help to elucidate the specific signaling mechanism of each amino acid as an effector. PMID:19763274

  5. Structural basis for leucine sensing by the Sestrin2-mTORC1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Saxton, Robert A.; Knockenhauer, Kevin E.; Wolfson, Rachel L.; Chantranupong, Lynne; Pacold, Michael E.; Wang, Tim; Schwartz, Thomas U.; Sabatini, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells coordinate growth with the availability of nutrients through mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), a master growth regulator. Leucine is of particular importance and activates mTORC1 via the Rag GTPases and their regulators GATOR1 and GATOR2. Sestrin2 interacts with GATOR2 and is a leucine sensor. We present the 2.7-Å crystal structure of Sestrin2 in complex with leucine. Leucine binds through a single pocket that coordinates its charged functional groups and confers specificity for the hydrophobic side chain. A loop encloses leucine and forms a lid-latch mechanism required for binding. A structure-guided mutation in Sestrin2 that decreases its affinity for leucine leads to a concomitant increase in the leucine concentration required for mTORC1 activation in cells. These results provide a structural mechanism of amino acid sensing by the mTORC1 pathway. PMID:26586190

  6. Leucine Metabolism in T Cell Activation: mTOR Signaling and Beyond123

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Jonathan D; Hutson, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    In connection with the increasing interest in metabolic regulation of the immune response, this review discusses current advances in understanding the role of leucine and leucine metabolism in T lymphocyte (T cell) activation. T cell activation during the development of an immune response depends on metabolic reprogramming to ensure that sufficient nutrients and energy are taken up by the highly proliferating T cells. Leucine has been described as an important essential amino acid and a nutrient signal that activates complex 1 of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTORC1), which is a critical regulator of T cell proliferation, differentiation, and function. The role of leucine in these processes is further discussed in relation to amino acid transporters, leucine-degrading enzymes, and other metabolites of leucine metabolism. A new model of T cell regulation by leucine is proposed and outlines a chain of events that leads to the activation of mTORC1 in T cells. PMID:27422517

  7. Plasma Amino Acid Responses After Consumption of Beverages with Varying Protein Type

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    lysine 0.92 1.32 0.91 methionine 0.31 0.28 OJI phenylalanine 0.58 0.46 0.61 threonine 0.49 0.60 0.52 tryptophan 0.18 0.29 0.13 valine 0.69 0.64 0.68...threonine. serine. glutamine. proline. glycine, alanine, valine. isoleucine. leucine. tyrosine, phenylalanine . lysine, histidine, and arginine (Terrlink. van...with peak concentration in parentheses, were 2 ± 2 (45ŕ" ± 34%), 4 ± 3 (50% ± 32%). and 3 ± 3 mg/ dl (79% ± 37%). respectively. Postexercise, WP. CAS

  8. An engineered allosteric switch in leucine-zipper oligomerization.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, L; Plecs, J J; Alber, T

    1996-06-01

    Controversy remains about the role of core side-chain packing in specifying protein structure. To investigate the influence of core packing on the oligomeric structure of a coiled coil, we engineered a GCN4 leucine zipper mutant that switches from two to three strands upon binding the hydrophobic ligands cyclohexane and benzene. In solution these ligands increased the apparent thermal stability and the oligomerization order of the mutant leucine zipper. The crystal structure of the peptide-benzene complex shows a single benzene molecule bound at the engineered site in the core of the trimer. These results indicate that coiled coils are well-suited to function as molecular switches and emphasize that core packing is an important determinant of oligomerization specificity.

  9. Influence of valine enantiomer configuration on the molecular dynamics simulation of their separation by β-cyclodextrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvira, Elena

    2017-07-01

    The influence of enantiomeric configurations on the separation of valine by β-cyclodextrin with different solvents, is analysed by a molecular dynamics simulation at constant temperature. Different methods to select the initial dispositions of valine enantiomers in the trajectories are proposed, and their influence on the interaction energy, residence time, elution order and capacity to form inclusion complexes is studied. The residence time is the most influenced quantity, whereas the capacity to form inclusion complexes is hardly affected by enantiomeric dispositions. In any case, guests tend to locate in the same areas of β-cyclodextrin but with different orientations according to disposition.

  10. Generation of a novel monoclonal antibody that recognizes the alpha (α)-amidated isoform of a valine residue.

    PubMed

    Antón Palma, Benito; Leff Gelman, Philippe; Medecigo Ríos, Mayra; Calva Nieves, Juan Carlos; Acevedo Ortuño, Rodolfo; Matus Ortega, Maura Epifanía; Hernández Calderón, Jorge Alberto; Hernández Miramontes, Ricardo; Flores Zamora, Anabel; Salazar Juárez, Alberto

    2015-10-13

    Alpha (α)-amidation of peptides is a mechanism required for the conversion of prohormones into functional peptide sequences that display biological activities, receptor recognition and signal transduction on target cells. Alpha (α)-amidation occurs in almost all species and amino acids identified in nature. C-terminal valine amide neuropeptides constitute the smallest group of functional peptide compounds identified in neurosecretory structures in vertebrate and invertebrate species. The α-amidated isoform of valine residue (Val-CONH2) was conjugated to KLH-protein carrier and used to immunize mice. Hyperimmune animals displaying high titers of valine amide antisera were used to generate stable hybridoma-secreting mAbs. Three productive hybridoma (P15A4, P17C11, and P18C5) were tested against peptides antigens containing both the C-terminal α-amidated (-CONH2) and free α-carboxylic acid (-COO(-)) isovariant of the valine residue. P18C5 mAb displayed the highest specificity and selectivity against C-terminal valine amidated peptide antigens in different immunoassays. P18C5 mAb-immunoreactivity exhibited a wide distribution along the neuroaxis of the rat brain, particularly in brain areas that did not cross-match with the neuronal distribution of known valine amide neuropeptides (α-MSH, adrenorphin, secretin, UCN1-2). These brain regions varied in the relative amount of putative novel valine amide peptide immunoreactive material (nmol/μg protein) estimated through a fmol-sensitive solid-phase radioimmunoassay (RIA) raised for P18C5 mAb. Our results demonstrate the versatility of a single mAb able to differentiate between two structural subdomains of a single amino acid. This mAb offers a wide spectrum of potential applications in research and medicine, whose uses may extend from a biological reagent (used to detect valine amidated peptide substances in fluids and tissues) to a detoxifying reagent (used to neutralize exogenous toxic amide peptide compounds) or

  11. Jerking & confused: Leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 receptor encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Casault, Colin; Alikhani, Katayoun; Pillay, Neelan; Koch, Marcus

    2015-12-15

    This is a case of autoimmune encephalitis with features of faciobrachial dystonic seizures (FBDS) pathognomonic for Leucine Rich Glioma inactivated (LGI)1 antibody encephalitis. This voltage-gated potassium channel complex encephalitis is marked by rapid onset dementia, FBDS and hyponatremia, which is sensitive to management with immunotherapy including steroids, IVIG and other agents. In this case report we review the clinical features, imaging and management of this condition. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. MRA_1571 is required for isoleucine biosynthesis and improves Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra survival under stress

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rishabh; Keshari, Deepa; Singh, Kumar Sachin; Yadav, Shailendra; Singh, Sudheer Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Threonine dehydratase is a pyridoxal 5-phosphate dependent enzyme required for isoleucine biosynthesis. Threonine dehydratase (IlvA) participates in conversion of threonine to 2-oxobutanoate and ammonia is released as a by-product. MRA_1571 is annotated to be coding for IlvA in Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra (Mtb-Ra). We developed a recombinant (KD) Mtb-Ra strain by down-regulating IlvA. The growth studies on different carbon sources suggested reduced growth of KD compared to wild-type (WT), also, isoleucine concentration dependent KD growth restoration was observed. The expression profiling of IlvA suggested increased expression of IlvA during oxygen, acid and oxidative stress. In addition, KD showed reduced survival under pH, starvation, nitric oxide and peroxide stresses. KD was more susceptible to antimycobacterial agents such as streptomycin (STR), rifampicin (RIF) and levofloxacin (LVF), while, no such effect was noticeable when exposed to isoniazid. Also, an increase in expression of IlvA was observed when exposed to STR, RIF and LVF. The dye accumulation studies suggested increased permeability of KD to ethidium bromide and Nile Red as compared to WT. TLC and Mass studies confirmed altered lipid profile of KD. In summary down-regulation of IlvA affects Mtb growth, increases its susceptibility to stress and leads to altered cell wall lipid profile. PMID:27353854

  13. Controlling Mechanical Properties of Bis-leucine Oxalyl Amide Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, William; Carvajal, Daniel; Shull, Kenneth

    2011-03-01

    is-leucine oxalyl amide is a low molecular weight gelator capable of gelling polar and organic solvents. A fundamental understanding of self-assembled systems can lead to new methods in drug delivery and the design of new soft material systems. An important feature of self-assembled systems are the intermolecular forces between solvent and gelator molecule; by changing the environment the gel is in, the mechanical properties also change. In this project two variables were considered: the degree of neutralization present for the gelator molecule from neutral to completely ionized, and the concentration of the gelator molecule, from 1 weight percent to 8 weight percent in 1-butanol. Mechanical properties were studied using displacement controlled indentation techniques and temperature sweep rheometry. It has been found that properties such as the storage modulus, gelation temperature and maximum stress allowed increase with bis-leucine oxalyl amide concentration. The results from this study establish a 3-d contour map between the gelator concentration, the gelator degree of ionization and mechanical properties such as storage modulus and maximum stress allowed. The intermolecular forces between the bis-leucine low molecular weight gelator and 1-butanol govern the mechanical properties of the gel system, and understanding these interactions will be key to rationally designed self-assembled systems.

  14. Effect of D-valine and cytosine arabinoside on (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation in rat and rabbit epididymal epithelial cell cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Orgebin-Crist, M.C.; Jonas-Davies, J.; Storey, P.

    1984-01-01

    Epithelial cell enriched primary cultures were established from the rat and the rabbit epididymis. Epithelial cell aggregates, obtained after pronase digestion of minced epididymis, attached to the culture dish and after 72 h in vitro spread out to form discrete patches of cells. These cells have an epithelioid morphology and form a monolayer of closely apposed polygonal cells where DNA synthesis, as judged by (/sup 3/H)thymidine uptake, is very low. In L-valine medium the nonepithelial cell contamination was no more than 10% in rat and rabbit epididymal primary cultures. The labeling index of rat epididymal cells cultured in D-valine mediummore » was significantly lower than that of cells cultured in L-valine medium. In contrast, the labeling index of rabbit epididymal cells cultured in D-valine medium was significantly higher than that of cells cultured in L-valine medium. Cytosine arabinoside decreased the number of labeled cells in both L-valine and D-valine cultures. From these results, it appears that D-valine is a selective agent for rat epididymal epithelial cells, but not for rabbit epithelial cells, and that cytosine arabinoside is a simple and effective means to control the proliferation of fibroblast-like cells in both rat and rabbit epididymal cell cultures.« less

  15. l-Valine Production during Growth of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex- Deficient Corynebacterium glutamicum in the Presence of Ethanol or by Inactivation of the Transcriptional Regulator SugR▿

    PubMed Central

    Blombach, Bastian; Arndt, Annette; Auchter, Marc; Eikmanns, Bernhard J.

    2009-01-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-deficient strains of Corynebacterium glutamicum produce l-valine from glucose only after depletion of the acetate required for growth. Here we show that inactivation of the DeoR-type transcriptional regulator SugR or replacement of acetate by ethanol already in course of the growth phase results in efficient l-valine production. PMID:19088318

  16. Comparative 13C Metabolic Flux Analysis of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex-Deficient, l-Valine-Producing Corynebacterium glutamicum▿†

    PubMed Central

    Bartek, Tobias; Blombach, Bastian; Lang, Siegmund; Eikmanns, Bernhard J.; Wiechert, Wolfgang; Oldiges, Marco; Nöh, Katharina; Noack, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    l-Valine can be formed successfully using C. glutamicum strains missing an active pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme complex (PDHC). Wild-type C. glutamicum and four PDHC-deficient strains were compared by 13C metabolic flux analysis, especially focusing on the split ratio between glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). Compared to the wild type, showing a carbon flux of 69% ± 14% through the PPP, a strong increase in the PPP flux was observed in PDHC-deficient strains with a maximum of 113% ± 22%. The shift in the split ratio can be explained by an increased demand of NADPH for l-valine formation. In accordance, the introduction of the Escherichia coli transhydrogenase PntAB, catalyzing the reversible conversion of NADH to NADPH, into an l-valine-producing C. glutamicum strain caused the PPP flux to decrease to 57% ± 6%, which is below the wild-type split ratio. Hence, transhydrogenase activity offers an alternative perspective for sufficient NADPH supply, which is relevant for most amino acid production systems. Moreover, as demonstrated for l-valine, this bypass leads to a significant increase of product yield due to a concurrent reduction in carbon dioxide formation via the PPP. PMID:21784914

  17. Crystal structure of fac-aquatricarbonyl[(S)-valin-ato-κ(2) N,O]-rhenium(I).

    PubMed

    Piletska, Kseniia O; Domasevitch, Kostiantyn V; Shtemenko, Alexander V

    2016-04-01

    In the mol-ecule of the title compound, [Re(C5H10NO2)(CO)3(H2O)], the Re(I) atom adopts a distorted octa-hedral coordination sphere defined by one aqua and three carbonyl ligands as well as one amino N and one carboxyl-ate O atom of the chelating valinate anion. The carbonyl ligands are arranged in a fac-configuration around the Re(I) ion. In the crystal, an intricate hydrogen-bonding system under participation of two O-H, two N-H and one C-H donor groups and the carboxyl-ate and carbonyl O atoms as acceptor groups contribute to the formation of a three-dimensional supra-molecular network.

  18. Metabolism and acetylation contribute to leucine-mediated inhibition of cardiac glucose uptake.

    PubMed

    Renguet, Edith; Ginion, Audrey; Gélinas, Roselle; Bultot, Laurent; Auquier, Julien; Robillard Frayne, Isabelle; Daneault, Caroline; Vanoverschelde, Jean-Louis; Des Rosiers, Christine; Hue, Louis; Horman, Sandrine; Beauloye, Christophe; Bertrand, Luc

    2017-08-01

    High plasma leucine levels strongly correlate with type 2 diabetes. Studies of muscle cells have suggested that leucine alters the insulin response for glucose transport by activating an insulin-negative feedback loop driven by the mammalian target of rapamycin/p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (mTOR/p70S6K) pathway. Here, we examined the molecular mechanism involved in leucine's action on cardiac glucose uptake. Leucine was indeed able to curb glucose uptake after insulin stimulation in both cultured cardiomyocytes and perfused hearts. Although leucine activated mTOR/p70S6K, the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin did not prevent leucine's inhibitory action on glucose uptake, ruling out the contribution of the insulin-negative feedback loop. α-Ketoisocaproate, the first metabolite of leucine catabolism, mimicked leucine's effect on glucose uptake. Incubation of cardiomyocytes with [ 13 C]leucine ascertained its metabolism to ketone bodies (KBs), which had a similar negative impact on insulin-stimulated glucose transport. Both leucine and KBs reduced glucose uptake by affecting translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) to the plasma membrane. Finally, we found that leucine elevated the global protein acetylation level. Pharmacological inhibition of lysine acetyltransferases counteracted this increase in protein acetylation and prevented leucine's inhibitory action on both glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation. Taken together, these results indicate that leucine metabolism into KBs contributes to inhibition of cardiac glucose uptake by hampering the translocation of GLUT4-containing vesicles via acetylation. They offer new insights into the establishment of insulin resistance in the heart. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Catabolism of the branched-chain amino acid leucine into ketone bodies efficiently inhibits cardiac glucose uptake through decreased translocation of glucose transporter 4 to the plasma membrane. Leucine increases protein acetylation. Pharmacological inhibition of acetylation

  19. Management of a Woman With Maple Syrup Urine Disease During Pregnancy, Delivery, and Lactation.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Ann E; Mogensen, Kris M; Rohr, Frances; Erick, Miriam; Neilan, Edward G; Chopra, Sameer; Levy, Harvey L; Gray, Kathryn J; Wilkins-Haug, Louise; Berry, Gerard T

    2015-09-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited disorder of metabolism of the branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Complications of acute elevation in plasma leucine include ketoacidosis and risk of cerebral edema, which can be fatal. Individuals with MSUD are at risk of metabolic crisis throughout life, especially at times of physiological stress. We present a case of successful management of a woman with MSUD through pregnancy, delivery, postpartum, and lactation, including nutrition therapy using modified parenteral nutrition. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  20. Enzymes involved in branched-chain amino acid metabolism in humans.

    PubMed

    Adeva-Andany, María M; López-Maside, Laura; Donapetry-García, Cristóbal; Fernández-Fernández, Carlos; Sixto-Leal, Cristina

    2017-06-01

    Branched-chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine and valine) are structurally related to branched-chain fatty acids. Leucine is 2-amino-4-methyl-pentanoic acid, isoleucine is 2-amino-3-methyl-pentanoic acid, and valine is 2-amino-3-methyl-butanoic acid. Similar to fatty acid oxidation, leucine and isoleucine produce acetyl-coA. Additionally, leucine generates acetoacetate and isoleucine yields propionyl-coA. Valine oxidation produces propionyl-coA, which is converted into methylmalonyl-coA and succinyl-coA. Branched-chain aminotransferase catalyzes the first reaction in the catabolic pathway of branched-chain amino acids, a reversible transamination that converts branched-chain amino acids into branched-chain ketoacids. Simultaneously, glutamate is converted in 2-ketoglutarate. The branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the irreversible oxidative decarboxylation of branched-chain ketoacids to produce branched-chain acyl-coA intermediates, which then follow separate catabolic pathways. Human tissue distribution and function of most of the enzymes involved in branched-chain amino acid catabolism is unknown. Congenital deficiencies of the enzymes involved in branched-chain amino acid metabolism are generally rare disorders. Some of them are associated with reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity and respiratory chain dysfunction that may contribute to their clinical phenotype. The biochemical phenotype is characterized by accumulation of the substrate to the deficient enzyme and its carnitine and/or glycine derivatives. It was established at the beginning of the twentieth century that the plasma level of the branched-chain amino acids is increased in conditions associated with insulin resistance such as obesity and diabetes mellitus. However, the potential clinical relevance of this elevation is uncertain.

  1. Leigh syndrome caused by a novel m.4296G>A mutation in mitochondrial tRNA isoleucine.

    PubMed

    Cox, Rachel; Platt, Julia; Chen, Li Chieh; Tang, Sha; Wong, Lee-Jun; Enns, Gregory M

    2012-03-01

    Leigh syndrome is a severe neurodegenerative disease with heterogeneous genetic etiology. We report a novel m.4296G>A variant in the mitochondrial tRNA isoleucine gene in a child with Leigh syndrome, mitochondrial proliferation, lactic acidosis, and abnormal respiratory chain enzymology. The variant is present at >75% heteroplasmy in blood and cultured fibroblasts from the proband, <5% in asymptomatic maternal relatives, and is absent in 3000 controls. It is located in the highly conserved anticodon region of tRNA(Ile) where three other pathogenic changes have been described. We conclude that there is strong evidence to classify m.4296G>A as a pathogenic mutation causing Leigh syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.

  2. The Leucine Incorporation Method Estimates Bacterial Growth Equally Well in Both Oxic and Anoxic Lake Waters

    PubMed Central

    Bastviken, David; Tranvik, Lars

    2001-01-01

    Bacterial biomass production is often estimated from incorporation of radioactively labeled leucine into protein, in both oxic and anoxic waters and sediments. However, the validity of the method in anoxic environments has so far not been tested. We compared the leucine incorporation of bacterial assemblages growing in oxic and anoxic waters from three lakes differing in nutrient and humic contents. The method was modified to avoid O2 contamination by performing the incubation in syringes. Isotope saturation levels in oxic and anoxic waters were determined, and leucine incorporation rates were compared to microscopically observed bacterial growth. Finally, we evaluated the effects of O2 contamination during incubation with leucine, as well as the potential effects of a headspace in the incubation vessel. Isotope saturation occurred at a leucine concentration of above about 50 nM in both oxic and anoxic waters from all three lakes. Leucine incorporation rates were linearly correlated to observed growth, and there was no significant difference between oxic and anoxic conditions. O2 contamination of anoxic water during 1-h incubations with leucine had no detectable impact on the incorporation rate, while a headspace in the incubation vessel caused leucine incorporation to increase in both anoxic and O2-contaminated samples. The results indicate that the leucine incorporation method relates equally to bacterial growth rates under oxic and anoxic conditions and that incubation should be performed without a headspace. PMID:11425702

  3. Acetone Formation in the Vibrio Family: a New Pathway for Bacterial Leucine Catabolism

    PubMed Central

    Nemecek-Marshall, Michele; Wojciechowski, Cheryl; Wagner, William P.; Fall, Ray

    1999-01-01

    There is current interest in biological sources of acetone, a volatile organic compound that impacts atmospheric chemistry. Here, we determined that leucine-dependent acetone formation is widespread in the Vibrionaceae. Sixteen Vibrio isolates, two Listonella species, and two Photobacterium angustum isolates produced acetone in the presence of l-leucine. Shewanella isolates produced much less acetone. Growth of Vibrio splendidus and P. angustum in a fermentor with controlled aeration revealed that acetone was produced after a lag in late logarithmic or stationary phase of growth, depending on the medium, and was not derived from acetoacetate by nonenzymatic decarboxylation in the medium. l-Leucine, but not d-leucine, was converted to acetone with a stoichiometry of approximately 0.61 mol of acetone per mol of l-leucine. Testing various potential leucine catabolites as precursors of acetone showed that only α-ketoisocaproate was efficiently converted by whole cells to acetone. Acetone production was blocked by a nitrogen atmosphere but not by electron transport inhibitors, suggesting that an oxygen-dependent reaction is required for leucine catabolism. Metabolic labeling with deuterated (isopropyl-d7)-l-leucine revealed that the isopropyl carbons give rise to acetone with full retention of deuterium in each methyl group. These results suggest the operation of a new catabolic pathway for leucine in vibrios that is distinct from the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A pathway seen in pseudomonads. PMID:10601206

  4. Jasmonic acid-isoleucine formation in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) by two enzymes with distinct transcription profiles.

    PubMed

    Böttcher, Christine; Burbidge, Crista A; di Rienzo, Valentina; Boss, Paul K; Davies, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    The plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) is essential for stress responses and the formation of reproductive organs, but its role in fruit development and ripening is unclear. Conjugation of JA to isoleucine is a crucial step in the JA signaling pathway since only JA-Ile is recognized by the jasmonate receptor. The conjugation reaction is catalyzed by JA-amido synthetases, belonging to the family of Gretchen Hagen3 (GH3) proteins. Here, in vitro studies of two grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv Shiraz) GH3 enzymes, VvGH3-7 and VvGH3-9, demonstrated JA-conjugating activities with an overlapping range of amino acid substrates, including isoleucine. Expression studies of the corresponding genes in grape berries combined with JA and JA-Ile measurements suggested a primary role for JA signaling in fruit set and cell division and did not support an involvement of JA in the ripening process. In response to methyl JA (MeJA) treatment, and in wounded and unwounded (distal) leaves, VvGH3-9 transcripts accumulated, indicating a participation in the JA response. In contrast, VvGH3-7 was unresponsive to MeJA and local wounding, demonstrating a differential transcriptional regulation of VvGH3-7 and VvGH3-9. The transient induction of VvGH3-7 in unwounded, distal leaves was suggestive of the involvement of an unknown mobile wound signal. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  5. Dual Leucine Zipper Kinase Inhibitors for the Treatment of Neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Siu, Michael; Sengupta Ghosh, Arundhati; Lewcock, Joseph W

    2018-06-04

    Dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK, MAP3K12) is an essential driver of the neuronal stress response that regulates neurodegeneration in models of acute neuronal injury and chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and ALS. In this review, we provide an overview of DLK signaling mechanisms and describe selected small molecules that have been utilized to inhibit DLK kinase activity in vivo. These compounds represent valuable tools for understanding the role of DLK signaling and evaluating the potential for DLK inhibition as a therapeutic strategy to prevent neuronal degeneration.

  6. Histochemistry of leucine aminoaphthylamidase (LAN) in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bouck, Gerald R.

    1979-01-01

    The histochemistry of leucine aminonaphthylamidase (LAN) was studied in frozen tissue sections of rainbow trout both in yearling and adult fish. Age of fish had relatively little effect upon the results. The most intense LAN color production was in epithelial cells of midgut, pyloric ceca, hindgut, and in some segments of kidney tubules. Lower levels of LAN were evident in liver cells of Kupffer, and still lower or slight levels of LAN activity were found in blood cells, muscle, nerve, connective tissue, gonad, and pancreas. The results indicate that LAN might be useful in assessing histotoxicity to LAN-rich areas of the body.

  7. Histochemistry of leucine aminonaphthylamidase (LAN) in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bouck, Gerald R.

    1979-01-01

    The histochemistry of leucine aminonaphthylamidase (LAN) was studied in frozen tissue sections of rainbow trout both in yearling and adult fish. Age of fish had relatively little effect upon the results. The most intense LAN color production was in epithelial cells of midgut, pyloric ceca, hindgut, and in some segments of kidney tubules. Lower levels of LAN were evident in liver cells of Kupffer, and still lower or slight levels of LAN activity were found in blood cells, muscle, nerve, connective tissue, gonad, and pancreas. The results indicate that LAN might be useful in assessing histotoxicity to LAN-rich areas of the body.

  8. Determining the optimal isoleucine:lysine ratio for ten- to twenty-two-kilogram and twenty-four- to thirty-nine-kilogram pigs fed diets containing nonexcess levels of leucine.

    PubMed

    Htoo, J K; Zhu, C L; Huber, L; de Lange, C F M; Quant, A D; Kerr, B J; Cromwell, G L; Lindemann, M D

    2014-08-01

    Three 21-d experiments were conducted to determine the optimum standardized ileal digestible (SID) Ile:Lys ratio in 10- to 22-kg and 24- to 39-kg pigs. In Exp. 1, 144 Yorkshire pigs (initial BW = 10.2 kg) were assigned to 6 diets with 6 pens per treatment. Diets 1 to 5 were formulated to contain 5 graded SID Ile:Lys (44, 51, 57, 63, and 70%), 1.18% SID Leu, and 0.90% SID Lys (second limiting). Diet 6 (diet 5 with added Lys) was formulated (1.06% SID Lys) as a positive control. Pigs fed diet 6 had higher (P < 0.05) ADG and G:F and lower (P < 0.05) plasma urea N (PUN) than pigs fed diet 5 (P < 0.02), indicating that Lys was limiting in diets 1 to 5. Final BW, ADG, and ADFI increased (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05) while G:F and PUN at d 21 were not affected (P > 0.10) by dietary Ile:Lys. Overall, ADG and ADFI were highest for pigs fed diet 2 (51% SID Ile:Lys). In Exp. 2, 216 Yorkshire pigs (initial BW = 9.6 kg) were assigned to 9 diets with 6 pens per treatment. Diets 1 to 4 contained 0.40, 0.47, 0.54, and 0.61% SID Ile, respectively, and 1.21% SID Lys; diets 5 to 8 contained 0.72, 0.84, 0.96, and 1.08% SID Lys, respectively, and 0.68% SID Ile. Diet 9 was high in both Ile and Lys (0.68% SID Ile and 1.21% SID Lys). All diets contained 1.21% SID Leu. The ADG and G:F increased (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05) as SID Ile:Lys increased (diets 1 to 4 and 9). The ADG and G:F increased (linear, P < 0.05) as SID Lys increased (diets 5 to 9). The PUN at d 21 decreased (linear, P < 0.05) by increasing dietary Ile:Lys. The SID Ile:Lys to optimize ADG was 46% by curvilinear plateau or exponential regression. For G:F, the optimal SID Ile:Lys was 47 and 51% by curvilinear plateau and exponential regressions, respectively. In Exp. 3, 80 pigs (PIC 327 × C23; initial BW = 24.0 kg) were allotted to 5 treatments with 4 pigs per pen. Diets 1 to 5 were formulated to contain 5 graded SID Ile:Lys (39, 46, 53, 61, and 68%), 1.17% SID Leu, and 0.91% SID Lys (second limiting). Final BW and ADG increased (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05) and ADFI increased (linear, P = 0.047) as SID Ile:Lys increased. Using ADG and G:F, the optimum SID Ile:Lys was 54 and 53%, respectively, by curvilinear plateau and exponential regression. The PUN was minimized at 53 and 59% SID Ile:Lys by curvilinear plateau and broken line regression. Overall, the average optimum SID Ile:Lys was approximately 51% for 10- to 22-kg pigs and 54% for 24- to 39-kg pigs fed diets containing nonexcess levels of Leu.

  9. Quantitative measurements of regional glucose utilization and rate of valine incorporation into proteins by double-tracer autoradiography in the rat brain tumor model

    SciTech Connect

    Kirikae, M.; Diksic, M.; Yamamoto, Y.L.

    1989-02-01

    We examined the rate of glucose utilization and the rate of valine incorporation into proteins using 2-(/sup 18/F)fluoro-2-deoxyglucose and L-(1-14C)-valine in a rat brain tumor model by quantitative double-tracer autoradiography. We found that in the implanted tumor the rate of valine incorporation into proteins was about 22 times and the rate of glucose utilization was about 1.5 times that in the contralateral cortex. (In the ipsilateral cortex, the tumor had a profound effect on glucose utilization but no effect on the rate of valine incorporation into proteins.) Our findings suggest that it is more useful to measure protein synthesis thanmore » glucose utilization to assess the effectiveness of antitumor agents and their toxicity to normal brain tissue. We compared two methods to estimate the rate of valine incorporation: kinetic (quantitation done using an operational equation and the average brain rate coefficients) and washed slices (unbound labeled valine removed by washing brain slices in 10% trichloroacetic acid). The results were the same using either method. It would seem that the kinetic method can thus be used for quantitative measurement of protein synthesis in brain tumors and normal brain tissue using (/sup 11/C)-valine with positron emission tomography.« less

  10. Comparative analysis of pharmacological treatments with N-acetyl-DL-leucine (Tanganil) and its two isomers (N-acetyl-L-leucine and N-acetyl-D-leucine) on vestibular compensation: Behavioral investigation in the cat.

    PubMed

    Tighilet, Brahim; Leonard, Jacques; Bernard-Demanze, Laurence; Lacour, Michel

    2015-12-15

    Head roll tilt, postural imbalance and spontaneous nystagmus are the main static vestibular deficits observed after an acute unilateral vestibular loss (UVL). In the UVL cat model, these deficits are fully compensated over 6 weeks as the result of central vestibular compensation. N-Acetyl-dl-leucine is a drug prescribed in clinical practice for the symptomatic treatment of acute UVL patients. The present study investigated the effects of N-acetyl-dl-leucine on the behavioral recovery after unilateral vestibular neurectomy (UVN) in the cat, and compared the effects of each of its two isomers N-acetyl-L-leucine and N-acetyl-D-leucine. Efficacy of these three drug treatments has been evaluated with respect to a placebo group (UVN+saline water) on the global sensorimotor activity (observation grids), the posture control (support surface measurement), the locomotor balance (maximum performance at the rotating beam test), and the spontaneous vestibular nystagmus (recorded in the light). Whatever the parameters tested, the behavioral recovery was strongly and significantly accelerated under pharmacological treatments with N-acetyl-dl-leucine and N-acetyl-L-leucine. In contrast, the N-acetyl-D-leucine isomer had no effect at all on the behavioral recovery, and animals of this group showed the same recovery profile as those receiving a placebo. It is concluded that the N-acetyl-L-leucine isomer is the active part of the racemate component since it induces a significant acceleration of the vestibular compensation process similar (and even better) to that observed under treatment with the racemate component only. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The effects of acute leucine or leucine-glutamine co-ingestion on recovery from eccentrically biased exercise.

    PubMed

    Waldron, Mark; Ralph, Cameron; Jeffries, Owen; Tallent, Jamie; Theis, Nicola; Patterson, Stephen David

    2018-05-16

    This study investigated the effects of leucine or leucine + glutamine supplementation on recovery from eccentric exercise. In a double-blind independent groups design, 23 men were randomly assigned to a leucine (0.087 g/kg; n = 8), leucine + glutamine (0.087 g/kg + glutamine 0.3 g/kg; n = 8) or placebo (0.3 g/kg maltodextrin; n = 7) group. Participants performed 5 sets of drop jumps, with each set comprising 20 repetitions. Isometric knee-extensor strength, counter-movement jump (CMJ) height, delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and creatine kinase (CK) were measured at baseline, 1, 24, 48 h and 72 h post-exercise. There was a time × group interaction for isometric strength, CMJ and CK (P < 0.05), with differences between the leucine + glutamine and placebo group at 48 h and 72 h for strength (P = 0.013; d = 1.43 and P < 0.001; d = 2.06), CMJ (P = 0.008; d = 0.87 and P = 0.019; d = 1.17) and CK at 24 h (P = 0.012; d = 0.54) and 48 h (P = 0.010; d = 1.37). The leucine group produced higher strength at 72 h compared to placebo (P = 0.007; d = 1.65) and lower CK at 24 h (P = 0.039; d = 0.63) and 48 h (P = 0.022; d = 1.03). Oral leucine or leucine + glutamine increased the rate of recovery compared to placebo after eccentric exercise. These findings highlight potential benefits of co-ingesting these amino acids to ameliorate recovery.

  12. Furo-fused BINOL based crown as a fluorescent chiral sensor for enantioselective recognition of phenylethylamine and ethyl ester of valine.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Sunil P; Pissurlenkar, Raghuvir R S; Coutinho, Evans C; Karnik, Anil V

    2007-07-20

    A furo-fused BINOL based chiral crown was developed as an enantioselective chiral sensor for phenylethylamine and ethyl ester of valine. Fusion of furan to BINOL has resulted in a highly stereo-discriminating backbone for the chiral crown developed. This chiral crown exhibited a fluorescence enhancement difference of 2.97 times between two enantiomers of phenylethylamine and 2.55 times between two enantiomers of ethyl ester of valine. The ratio of association constants for two diastereomeric complexes of two enantiomers of phenylethylamine was found to be 11.30, and the ratio for two enantiomers of ethyl ester of valine was 7.02.

  13. Cold Shock Response of Bacillus subtilis: Isoleucine-Dependent Switch in the Fatty Acid Branching Pattern for Membrane Adaptation to Low Temperatures†

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Wolfgang; Weber, Michael H. W.; Marahiel, Mohamed A.

    1999-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis has developed sophisticated mechanisms to withstand fluctuations in temperature. Membrane fatty acids are the major determinants for a sufficiently fluid membrane state to ensure the membrane’s function at all temperatures. The fatty acid profile of B. subtilis is characterized by a high content of branched fatty acids irrespective of the growth medium. Here, we report on the importance of isoleucine for B. subtilis to survive cold shock from 37 to 15°C. Cold shock experiments with strain JH642 revealed a cold-protective function for all intermediates of anteiso-branched fatty acid biosynthesis. Metabolites related to iso-branched or straight-chain fatty acid biosynthesis were not protective. Fatty acid profiles of different B. subtilis wild-type strains proved the altered branching pattern by an increase in the anteiso-branched fatty acid content and a concomitant decrease of iso-branched species during cold shock. There were no significant changes in the fatty acid saturation or acyl chain length. The cold-sensitive phenotype of isoleucine-deficient strains in the absence of isoleucine correlated with their inability to synthesize more anteiso-branched fatty acids, as shown by the fatty acid profile. The switch to a fatty acid profile dominated by anteiso-C15:0 and C17:0 at low temperatures and the cold-sensitive phenotype of isoleucine-deficient strains in the absence of isoleucine focused our attention on the critical role of anteiso-branched fatty acids in the growth of B. subtilis in the cold. PMID:10464205

  14. SdAb heterodimer formation using leucine zippers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Ellen R.; Anderson, George P.; Brozozog-Lee, P. Audrey; Zabetakis, Dan

    2013-05-01

    Single domain antibodies (sdAb) are variable domains cloned from camel, llama, or shark heavy chain only antibodies, and are among the smallest known naturally derived antigen binding fragments. SdAb derived from immunized llamas are able to bind antigens with high affinity, and most are capable of refolding after heat or chemical denaturation to bind antigen again. We hypothesized that the ability to produce heterodimeric sdAb would enable reagents with the robust characteristics of component sdAb, but with dramatically improved overall affinity through increased avidity. Previously we had constructed multimeric sdAb by genetically linking sdAb that bind non-overlapping epitopes on the toxin, ricin. In this work we explored a more flexible approach; the construction of multivalent binding reagents using multimerization domains. We expressed anti-ricin sdAb that recognize different epitopes on the toxin as fusions with differently charged leucine zippers. When the initially produced homodimers are mixed the leucine zipper domains will pair to produce heterodimers. We used fluorescence resonance energy transfer to confirm heterodimer formation. Surface plasmon resonance, circular dichroism, enzyme linked immunosorbent assays, and fluid array assays were used to characterize the multimer constructs, and evaluate their utility in toxin detection.

  15. Prostate Cancer Cells in Different Androgen Receptor Status Employ Different Leucine Transporters.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Hideo; Kimura, Toru; Yamaga, Takashi; Kosaka, Takeo; Suehiro, Jun-Ichi; Sakurai, Hiroyuki

    2017-02-01

    Leucine stimulates cancer cell proliferation through the mTOR pathway, therefore, inhibiting leucine transporters may be a novel therapeutic target for cancer. L-type amino acid transporter (LAT) 1, a Na + -independent amino acid transporter, is highly expressed in many tumor cells. However, leucine transporter(s) in different stages of prostate cancer, particularly in the stages of castration resistance with androgen receptor (AR) expression, is unclear. LNCaP and DU145 and PC-3 cell lines were used as a model of androgen dependent, and metastatic prostate cancer. A new "LN-cr" cell line was established after culturing LNCaP cells for 6 months under androgen-free conditions, which is considered a model of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) with androgen AR expression. The expression of leucine transporters was investigated with quantitative PCR and immunofluorescence. Uptake of 14 C Leucine was examined in the presence or absence of BCH (a pan-LAT inhibitor), JPH203 (an LAT1-specific inhibitor), or Na + . Cell growth was assessed with MTT assay. siRNA studies were performed to evaluate the indispensability of y + LAT2 on leucine uptake and cell viability in LN-cr. Cell viability showed a 90% decrease in the absence of leucine in all four cell lines. LNCaP cells principally expressed LAT3, and their leucine uptake was more than 90% Na + -independent. BCH, but not JPH203, inhibited leucine uptake, and cell proliferation (IC 50BCH :15 mM). DU145 and PC-3 cells predominantly expressed LAT1. Leucine uptake and cell growth were suppressed by BCH or JPH203 in a dose-dependent manner (IC 50BCH : ∼20 mM, IC 50JPH203 : ∼5 µM). In LN-cr cells, Na + -dependent uptake of leucine was 3.8 pmol/mgprotein/min, while, Na + -independent uptake was only 0.52 (P < 0.05). Leucine uptake of LN-cr was largely (∼85%) Na + -dependent. y + LAT2 expression was confirmed in LN-cr. Knockdown of y + LAT2 lead to significant leucine uptake inhibition (40%) and cell

  16. Metabolic engineering to guide evolution - Creating a novel mode for L-valine production with Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Schwentner, Andreas; Feith, André; Münch, Eugenia; Busche, Tobias; Rückert, Christian; Kalinowski, Jörn; Takors, Ralf; Blombach, Bastian

    2018-03-06

    Evolutionary approaches are often undirected and mutagen-based yielding numerous mutations, which need elaborate screenings to identify relevant targets. We here apply Metabolic engineering to Guide Evolution (MGE), an evolutionary approach evolving and identifying new targets to improve microbial producer strains. MGE is based on the idea to impair the cell's metabolism by metabolic engineering, thereby generating guided evolutionary pressure. It consists of three distinct phases: (i) metabolic engineering to create the evolutionary pressure on the applied strain followed by (ii) a cultivation phase with growth as straightforward screening indicator for the evolutionary event, and (iii) comparative whole genome sequencing (WGS), to identify mutations in the evolved strains, which are eventually re-engineered for verification. Applying MGE, we evolved the PEP and pyruvate carboxylase-deficient strain C. glutamicum Δppc Δpyc to grow on glucose as substrate with rates up to 0.31 ± 0.02 h -1 which corresponds to 80% of the growth rate of the wildtype strain. The intersection of the mutations identified by WGS revealed isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICD) as consistent target in three independently evolved mutants. Upon re-engineering in C. glutamicum Δppc Δpyc, the identified mutations led to diminished ICD activities and activated the glyoxylate shunt replenishing oxaloacetate required for growth. Intracellular relative quantitative metabolome analysis showed that the pools of citrate, isocitrate, cis-aconitate, and L-valine were significantly higher compared to the WT control. As an alternative to existing L-valine producer strains based on inactivated or attenuated pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, we finally engineered the PEP and pyruvate carboxylase-deficient C. glutamicum strains with identified ICD mutations for L-valine production by overexpression of the L-valine biosynthesis genes. Among them, C. glutamicum Δppc Δpyc ICD G407S (pJC4ilvBNCE) produced up

  17. Dietary leucine requirement for juvenile large yellow croaker Pseudosciaena crocea (Richardson, 1846)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Ai, Qinghui; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Cheng, Zhenyan; He, Zhigang

    2010-12-01

    Dietary leucine requirement for juvenile large yellow croaker, Pseudosciaena crocea Richardson 1846 (initial body weight 6.0 g ± 0.1 g) was determined using dose-response method. Six isonitogenous (crude protein 43%) and isoenergetic (19 kJ g-1) practical diets containing six levels of leucine (Diets 1-6) ranging from 1.23% to 4.80% (dry matter) were made at about 0.7% increment of leucine. Equal amino acid nitrogen was maintained by replacing leucine with glutamic acid. Triplicate groups of 60 individuals were fed to apparent satiation by hand twice daily (05:00 and 17:30). The water temperature was 26-32°C, salinity 26-30 and dissolved oxygen approximately 7 mg L-1 during the experimental period. Final weight (FW) of large yellow croaker initially increased with increasing level of dietary leucine but then decreased at further higher level of leucine. The highest FW was obtained in fish fed diet with 3.30% Leucine (Diet 4). FW of fish fed the diet with 4.80% Leucine (Diet 6) was significantly lower than those fed Diet 4. However, no significant differences were observed between the other dietary treatments. Feed efficiency (FE) and whole body composition were independent of dietary leucine contents ( P > 0.05). The results indicated that leucine was essential for growth of juvenile large yellow croaker. On the basis of FW, the optimum dietary leucine requirement for juvenile large yellow croaker was estimated to be 2.92% of dry matter (6.79% of dietary protein).

  18. Monitoring exposure to acrylonitrile using adducts with N-terminal valine in hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Osterman-Golkar, S M; MacNeela, J P; Turner, M J; Walker, V E; Swenberg, J A; Sumner, S J; Youtsey, N; Fennell, T R

    1994-12-01

    Human exposure to acrylonitrile (ACN), a carcinogen in rats, may occur in industrial settings, through waste water and tobacco smoke. ACN is an electrophilic compound and binds covalently to nucleophilic sites in macromolecules. Measurements of adducts with hemoglobin could be utilized for improved exposure assessments. In this study, a method for quantification of N-(2-cyanoethyl)valine (CEVal), the product of reaction of ACN with N-terminal valine in hemoglobin has been developed. The method is based on the N-alkyl Edman procedure, which involves derivatization of the globin with pentafluorophenyl isothiocyanate and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of the resulting thiohydantoin. An internal standard was prepared by reacting valylglycylglycine with [2H3]ACN, spiked with [14C]ACN to a known sp. act. Levels of CEVal were measured in globin from rats exposed to 3-300 p.p.m. ACN in drinking water for 105 days and from humans (four smokers and four non-smokers). CEVal was detected at all exposure levels in the drinking water study. The relationship between adduct level and water concentration was linear at concentrations of 10 p.p.m. (corresponding to an average daily uptake of c. 0.74 mg ACN/kg body wt during the 65 days prior to sacrifice) and below, with a slope of 37.7 pmol CEVal/g globin/p.p.m. At higher concentrations, adduct levels increased sublinearly, indicating saturation of a metabolic process for elimination of ACN. Comparison of adduct formation with the estimated dose (mg/kg/day) of ACN indicated that at low dose (0-10 p.p.m.) CEVal = 0.508 x ACN dose + 0.048 and at high dose (35-300 p.p.m.) CEVal = 1.142 x ACN dose - 1.098. Globin from the smokers (10-20 cigarettes/day) contained about 90 pmol CEVal/g, whereas the adduct levels in globin from non-smokers were below the detection limit. The analytical sensitivity should be sufficient to allow monitoring of occupationally exposed workers at levels well below the current Occupational Safety

  19. Metabolic reconstructions identify plant 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase that is crucial for branched-chain amino acid catabolism in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Latimer, Scott; Li, Yubing; Nguyen, Thuong T H; Soubeyrand, Eric; Fatihi, Abdelhak; Elowsky, Christian G; Block, Anna; Pichersky, Eran; Basset, Gilles J

    2018-05-09

    The proteinogenic branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine and valine are essential nutrients for mammals. In plants, BCAAs double as alternative energy sources when carbohydrates become limiting, the catabolism of BCAAs providing electrons to the respiratory chain and intermediates to the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Yet, the actual architecture of the degradation pathways of BCAAs is not well understood. In this study, gene network modeling in Arabidopsis and rice, and plant-prokaryote comparative genomics detected candidates for 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase (4.2.1.18), one of the missing plant enzymes of leucine catabolism. Alignments of these protein candidates sampled from various spermatophytes revealed non-homologous N-terminal extensions that are lacking in their bacterial counterparts, and green fluorescent protein-fusion experiments demonstrated that the Arabidopsis protein, product of gene At4g16800, is targeted to mitochondria. Recombinant At4g16800 catalyzed the dehydration of 3-hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA into 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA, and displayed kinetic features similar to those of its prokaryotic homolog. When at4g16800 knockout plants were subjected to dark-induced carbon starvation, their rosette leaves displayed accelerated senescence as compared with control plants, and this phenotype was paralleled by a marked increase in the accumulation of free and total leucine, isoleucine and valine. The seeds of the at4g16800 mutant showed a similar accumulation of free BCAAs. These data suggest that 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase is not solely involved in the degradation of leucine, but is also a significant contributor to that of isoleucine and valine. Furthermore, evidence is shown that unlike the situation observed in Trypanosomatidae, leucine catabolism does not contribute to the formation of the terpenoid precursor mevalonate. © 2018 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Long-term leucine induced stimulation of muscle protein synthesis is amino acid dependent

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Infusing leucine for 1 h increases skeletal muscle protein synthesis in the neonate, but this is not sustained for 2 h unless the corresponding fall in amino acids is prevented. This study aimed to determine whether a continuous leucine infusion can stimulate protein synthesis for a prolonged period...

  1. Differential effects of long-term leucine infusion on tissue protein synthesis in neonatal pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Leucine is unique among the amino acids in its ability to promote protein synthesis by activating translation initiation via the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Previously, we showed that leucine infusion acutely stimulates protein synthesis in fast-twitch glycolytic muscle of neonatal...

  2. Adhesion of Blood Plasma Proteins and Platelet-rich Plasma on l-Valine-Based Poly(ester urea).

    PubMed

    Childers, Erin P; Peterson, Gregory I; Ellenberger, Alex B; Domino, Karen; Seifert, Gabrielle V; Becker, Matthew L

    2016-10-10

    The competitive absorption of blood plasma components including fibrinogen (FG), bovine serum albumin (BSA), and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on l-valine-based poly(ester urea) (PEU) surfaces were investigated. Using four different PEU polymers, possessing compositionally dependent trends in thermal, mechanical, and critical surface tension measurements, water uptake studies were carried out to determine in vitro behavior of the materials. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements were used to quantify the adsorption characteristics of PRP onto PEU thin films by coating the surfaces initially with FG or BSA. Pretreatment of the PEU surfaces with FG inhibited the adsorption of PRP and BSA decreased the absorption 4-fold. In vitro studies demonstrated that cells cultured on l-valine-based PEU thin films allowed attachment and spreading of rat aortic cells. These measurements will be critical toward efforts to use this new class of materials in blood-contacting biomaterials applications.

  3. Dietary L-leucine improves the anemia in a mouse model for Diamond-Blackfan anemia.

    PubMed

    Jaako, Pekka; Debnath, Shubhranshu; Olsson, Karin; Bryder, David; Flygare, Johan; Karlsson, Stefan

    2012-09-13

    Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a congenital erythroid hypoplasia caused by a functional haploinsufficiency of genes encoding for ribosomal proteins. Recently, a case study reported a patient who became transfusion-independent in response to treatment with the amino acid L-leucine. Therefore, we have validated the therapeutic effect of L-leucine using our recently generated mouse model for RPS19-deficient DBA. Administration of L-leucine significantly improved the anemia in Rps19-deficient mice (19% improvement in hemoglobin concentration; 18% increase in the number of erythrocytes), increased the bone marrow cellularity, and alleviated stress hematopoiesis. Furthermore, the therapeutic response to L-leucine appeared specific for Rps19-deficient hematopoiesis and was associated with down-regulation of p53 activity. Our study supports the rationale for clinical trials of L-leucine as a therapeutic agent for DBA.

  4. Influence of methionine/valine-depleted enteral nutrition on nucleic acid and protein metabolism in tumor-bearing rats

    PubMed Central

    He, Yin-Cheng; Cao, Jun; Chen, Ji-Wei; Pan, Ding-Yu; Zhou, Ya-Kui

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of methionine/valine-depleted enteral nutrition (EN) on RNA, DNA and protein metabolism in tumor-bearing (TB) rats. METHODS: Sprague-Dawlley (SD) rats underwent jejunostomy for nutritional support. A suspension of Walker-256 carcinosarcoma cells was subcutaneously inoculated. 48 TB rats were randomly divided in 4 groups: A, B, C and D. The TB rats had respectively received jejunal feedings supplemented with balanced amino acids, methionine-depleted, balanced amino acids and valine-depleted for 6 d before injection of 740 KBq 3H- methionine/valine via jejunum. The 3H incorporation rate of the radioactivity into RNA, DNA and proteins in tumor tissues at 0.5, 1, 2, 4 h postinjection of tracers was assessed with liquid scintillation counter. RESULTS: Incorporation of 3H into proteins in groups B and D was (0.500 ± 0.020)% to (3.670 ± 0.110)% and (0.708 ± 0.019)% to (3.813 ± 0.076)% respectively, lower than in groups A [(0.659 ± 0.055)% to (4.492 ± 0.108)%] and C [(0.805 ± 0.098)% to (4.180 ± 0.018)%]. Incorporation of 3H into RNA, DNA in group B was (0.237 ± 0.075)% and (0.231 ± 0.052)% respectively, lower than in group A (P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in uptake of 3H by RNA and DNA between group C and D (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Protein synthesis was inhibited by methionine/valine starvation in TB rats and nucleic acid synthesis was reduced after methionine depletion, thus resulting in suppression of tumor growth. PMID:12679929

  5. A high proportion of ADA point mutations associated with a specific alanine-to-valine substitution.

    PubMed

    Markert, M L; Norby-Slycord, C; Ward, F E

    1989-09-01

    In 15%-20% of children with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), the underlying defect is adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency. The overall goal of our research has been to identify the precise molecular defects in patients with ADA-deficient SCID. In this study, we focused on a patient whom we found to have normal sized ADA mRNA by Northern analysis and an intact ADA structural gene by Southern analysis. By cloning and sequencing this patient's ADA cDNA, we found a C-to-T point mutation in exon 11. This resulted in the amino acid substitution of a valine for an alanine at position 329 of the ADA protein. Sequence analysis revealed that this mutation created a new BalI restriction site. Using Southern analyses, we were able to directly screen individuals to determine the frequency of this mutation. By combining data on eight families followed at our institution with data on five other families reported in the literature, we established that five of 13 patients (seven of 22 alleles) with known or suspected point mutations have this defect. This mutation was found to be associated with three different ADA haplotypes. This argues against a founder effect and suggests that the mutation is very old. In summary, a conservative amino acid substitution is found in a high proportion of patients with ADA deficiency; this can easily be detected by Southern analysis.

  6. Predicting Three-Dimensional Conformations of Peptides Constructed of Only Glycine, Alanine, Aspartic Acid, and Valine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Akifumi; Fukuyoshi, Shuichi

    2015-06-01

    The GADV hypothesis is a form of the protein world hypothesis, which suggests that life originated from proteins (Lacey et al. 1999; Ikehara 2002; Andras 2006). In the GADV hypothesis, life is thought to have originated from primitive proteins constructed of only glycine, alanine, aspartic acid, and valine ([GADV]-proteins). In this study, the three-dimensional (3D) conformations of randomly generated short [GADV]-peptides were computationally investigated using replica-exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulations (Sugita and Okamoto 1999). Because the peptides used in this study consisted of only 20 residues each, they could not form certain 3D structures. However, the conformational tendencies of the peptides were elucidated by analyzing the conformational ensembles generated by REMD simulations. The results indicate that secondary structures can be formed in several randomly generated [GADV]-peptides. A long helical structure was found in one of the hydrophobic peptides, supporting the conjecture of the GADV hypothesis that many peptides aggregated to form peptide multimers with enzymatic activity in the primordial soup. In addition, these results indicate that REMD simulations can be used for the structural investigation of short peptides.

  7. Mitochondrial targeting increases specific activity of a heterologous valine assimilation pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Kevin V; Ovadia, Elisa; Yu, Fujio; Mizunashi, Wataru; O'Malley, Michelle A

    2016-12-01

    Bio-based isobutantol is a sustainable 'drop in' substitute for petroleum-based fuels. However, well-studied production routes, such as the Ehrlich pathway, have yet to be commercialized despite more than a century of research. The more versatile bacterial valine catabolism may be a competitive alternate route producing not only an isobutanol precursor but several carboxylic acids with applications as biomonomers, and building blocks for other advanced biofuels. Here, we transfer the first two committed steps of the pathway from pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 to yeast to evaluate their activity in a safer model organism. Genes encoding the heteroligomeric branched chain keto-acid dehydrogenase (BCKAD; bkdA1, bkdA2, bkdB, lpdV ), and the homooligomeric acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACD; acd1 ) were tagged with fluorescence epitopes and targeted for expression in either the mitochondria or cytoplasm of S. cerevisiae . We verified the localization of our constructs with confocal fluorescence microscopy before measuring the activity of tag-free constructs. Despite reduced heterologous expression of mitochondria-targeted enzymes, their specific activities were significantly improved with total enzyme activities up to 138% greater than those of enzymes expressed in the cytoplasm. In total, our results demonstrate that the choice of protein localization in yeast has significant impact on heterologous activity, and suggests a new path forward for isobutanol production.

  8. Study on optical properties of L-valine doped ADP crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaikh, R. N.; Anis, Mohd.; Shirsat, M. D.; Hussaini, S. S.

    2015-02-01

    Single crystal of L-valine doped ammonium dihydrogen phosphate has been grown by slow evaporation method at room temperature. The crystalline nature of the grown crystal was confirmed using powder X-ray diffraction technique. The different functional groups of the grown crystal were identified using Fourier transform infrared analysis. The UV-visible studies were employed to examine the high optical transparency and influential optical constants for tailoring materials suitability for optoelectronics applications. The cutoff wavelength of the title crystal was found to be 280 nm with wide optical band gap of 4.7 eV. The dielectric measurements were carried to determine the dielectric constant and dielectric loss at room temperature. The grown crystal has been characterized by thermogravimetric analysis. The second harmonic generation efficiency of the grown crystal was determined by the classical Kurtz powder technique and it is found to be 1.92 times that of potassium dihydrogen phosphate. The grown crystal was identified as third order nonlinear optical material employing Z-scan technique using He-Ne laser operating at 632.8 nm.

  9. Enhanced Cellular Uptake and Pharmacokinetic Characteristics of Doxorubicin-Valine Amide Prodrug.

    PubMed

    Park, Yohan; Park, Ju-Hwan; Park, Suryeon; Lee, Song Yi; Cho, Kwan Hyung; Kim, Dae-Duk; Shim, Won-Sik; Yoon, In-Soo; Cho, Hyun-Jong; Maeng, Han-Joo

    2016-09-22

    In this study, we synthesized the valine (Val)-conjugated amide prodrug of doxorubicin (DOX) by the formation of amide bonds between DOX and Val. The synthesis of the DOX-Val prodrug was identified by a proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H-NMR) assay. In the MCF-7 cells (human breast adenocarcinoma cell; amino acid transporter-positive cell), the cellular accumulation efficiency of DOX-Val was higher than that of DOX according to the flow cytometry analysis data. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) imaging, it was confirmed that DOX-Val as well as DOX was mainly distributed in the nucleus of cancer cells. DOX-Val was intravenously administered to rats at a dose of 4 mg/kg, and the plasma concentrations of DOX-Val (prodrug) and DOX (formed metabolite) were quantitatively determined. Based on the systemic exposure (represented as area under the curve (AUC) values) of DOX-Val (prodrug) and DOX (formed metabolite), approximately half of DOX-Val seemed to be metabolized into DOX. However, it is expected that the remaining DOX-Val may exert improved cellular uptake efficiency in cancer cells after its delivery to the cancer region.

  10. Concentrations of amino acids in the plasma of neonatal foals with septicemia.

    PubMed

    Zicker, S C; Spensley, M S; Rogers, Q R; Willits, N H

    1991-07-01

    Concentrations of amino acids in the plasma of 13 neonatal foals with septicemia were compared with the concentrations of amino acids in the plasma of 13 age-matched neonatal foals without septicemia. Analysis of the results revealed significantly lower concentrations of arginine, citrulline, isoleucine, proline, threonine, and valine in the plasma of foals with septicemia. The ratio of the plasma concentrations of the branched chain amino acids (isoleucine, leucine, and valine) to the aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine and tyrosine), was also significantly lower in the foals with septicemia. In addition, the concentrations of alanine, glycine, and phenylalanine were significantly higher in the plasma of foals with septicemia. Therefore, neonatal foals with septicemia had significant differences in the concentrations of several amino acids in their plasma, compared with concentrations from healthy foals. These differences were compatible with protein calorie inadequacy and may be related to an alteration in the intake, production, use, or clearance of amino acids from the plasma pool in sepsis.

  11. Processing of the seven valine tRNAs in Escherichia coli involves novel features of RNase P

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Ankit; Mohanty, Bijoy K.; Kushner, Sidney R.

    2014-01-01

    Here we report that RNase P is required for the initial separation of all seven valine tRNAs from three distinct polycistronic transcripts (valV valW, valU valX valY lysY and lysT valT lysW valZ lysY lysZ lysQ). Particularly significant is the mechanism by which RNase P processes the valU and lysT polycistronic transcripts. Specifically, the enzyme initiates processing by first removing the Rho-independent transcription terminators from the primary valU and lysT transcripts. Subsequently, it proceeds in the 3′ → 5′ direction generating one pre-tRNA at a time. Based on the absolute requirement for RNase P processing of all three primary transcripts, inactivation of the enzyme leads to a >4-fold decrease in the levels of both type I and type II valine tRNAs. The ability of RNase P to initiate tRNA processing at the 3′ ends of long primary transcripts by endonucleolytically removing the Rho-independent transcription terminator represents a previously unidentified function for the enzyme, which is responsible for generating the mature 5’ termini of all 86 E. coli tRNAs. RNase E only plays a very minor role in the processing of all three valine polycistronic transcripts. PMID:25183518

  12. Metabolic Responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Valine and Ammonium Pulses during Four-Stage Continuous Wine Fermentations

    PubMed Central

    Clement, T.; Perez, M.; Mouret, J. R.; Sanchez, I.; Sablayrolles, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen supplementation, which is widely used in winemaking to improve fermentation kinetics, also affects the products of fermentation, including volatile compounds. However, the mechanisms underlying the metabolic response of yeast to nitrogen additions remain unclear. We studied the consequences for Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism of valine and ammonium pulses during the stationary phase of four-stage continuous fermentation (FSCF). This culture technique provides cells at steady state similar to that of the stationary phase of batch wine fermentation. Thus, the FSCF device is an appropriate and reliable tool for individual analysis of the metabolic rerouting associated with nutrient additions, in isolation from the continuous evolution of the environment in batch processes. Nitrogen additions, irrespective of the nitrogen-containing compound added, substantially modified the formation of fermentation metabolites, including glycerol, succinate, isoamyl alcohol, propanol, and ethyl esters. This flux redistribution, fulfilling the requirements for precursors of amino acids, was consistent with increased protein synthesis resulting from increased nitrogen availability. Valine pulses, less efficient than ammonium addition in increasing the fermentation rate, were followed by a massive conversion of this amino acid in isobutanol and isobutyl acetate through the Ehrlich pathway. However, additional routes were involved in valine assimilation when added in stationary phase. Overall, we found that particular metabolic changes may be triggered according to the nature of the amino acid supplied, in addition to the common response. Both these shared and specific modifications should be considered when designing strategies to modulate the production of volatile compounds, a current challenge for winemakers. PMID:23417007

  13. Facile fabrication of superhydrophobic flower-like polyaniline architectures by using valine as a dopant in polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jun; Bi, Hong

    2012-03-01

    A facile method was developed to fabricate superhydrophobic, flower-like polyanline (PANI) architectures with hierarchical nanostructures by adding valine in polymerization as a dopant. The water contact angle of the prepared PANI film was measured to be 155.3°, and the hydrophobic surface of the PANI architectures can be tuned easily by varying the polymerization time as well as valine doping quantity. It is believed that valine plays an important role in not only growth of the hierarchical PANI structures but also formation of the superhydrophobic surface, for it provides functional groups such as sbnd COOH, sbnd NH2 and a hydrophobic terminal group which may further increase intra-/inter-molecular interactions including hydrogen bonding, π-π stacking and hydrophobic properties. Similar flower-like PANI architectures have been prepared successfully by employing other amino acids such as threonine, proline and arginine. This method makes it possible for widespread applications of superhydrophobic PANI film due to its simplicity and practicability.

  14. Metabolic responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to valine and ammonium pulses during four-stage continuous wine fermentations.

    PubMed

    Clement, T; Perez, M; Mouret, J R; Sanchez, I; Sablayrolles, J M; Camarasa, C

    2013-04-01

    Nitrogen supplementation, which is widely used in winemaking to improve fermentation kinetics, also affects the products of fermentation, including volatile compounds. However, the mechanisms underlying the metabolic response of yeast to nitrogen additions remain unclear. We studied the consequences for Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism of valine and ammonium pulses during the stationary phase of four-stage continuous fermentation (FSCF). This culture technique provides cells at steady state similar to that of the stationary phase of batch wine fermentation. Thus, the FSCF device is an appropriate and reliable tool for individual analysis of the metabolic rerouting associated with nutrient additions, in isolation from the continuous evolution of the environment in batch processes. Nitrogen additions, irrespective of the nitrogen-containing compound added, substantially modified the formation of fermentation metabolites, including glycerol, succinate, isoamyl alcohol, propanol, and ethyl esters. This flux redistribution, fulfilling the requirements for precursors of amino acids, was consistent with increased protein synthesis resulting from increased nitrogen availability. Valine pulses, less efficient than ammonium addition in increasing the fermentation rate, were followed by a massive conversion of this amino acid in isobutanol and isobutyl acetate through the Ehrlich pathway. However, additional routes were involved in valine assimilation when added in stationary phase. Overall, we found that particular metabolic changes may be triggered according to the nature of the amino acid supplied, in addition to the common response. Both these shared and specific modifications should be considered when designing strategies to modulate the production of volatile compounds, a current challenge for winemakers.

  15. Effect of L-Valine on the growth and characterization of Sodium Acid Phthalate (SAP) single crystals.

    PubMed

    Nirmala, L Ruby; Thomas Joseph Prakash, J

    2013-06-01

    Undoped and amino acid doped good quality single crystals of Sodium Acid Phthalate crystals (SAP) were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique which are semiorganic in nature. The effect of amino acid (L-Valine) dopant on the growth and the properties of SAP single crystal was investigated. The single crystal X-ray diffraction studies and FT-IR studies were carried out to identify the crystal structure and the presence of functional groups in undoped and L-Valine doped SAP crystals. The transparent nature of the grown crystal was observed using UV-Visible spectrum. The thermal decomposition of the doped SAP crystals was investigated by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The enhancement in the NLO property of the undoped and L-Valine doped SAP crystals using KDP crystal as a reference was studied using SHG measurements. Vickers micro hardness measurements are used for the study of mechanical strength of the grown crystals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Leucine and HMB differentially modulate proteasome system in skeletal muscle under different sarcopenic conditions.

    PubMed

    Baptista, Igor L; Silva, Willian J; Artioli, Guilherme G; Guilherme, Joao Paulo L F; Leal, Marcelo L; Aoki, Marcelo S; Miyabara, Elen H; Moriscot, Anselmo S

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we have compared the effects of leucine supplementation and its metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methyl butyrate (HMB) on the ubiquitin-proteasome system and the PI3K/Akt pathway during two distinct atrophic conditions, hindlimb immobilization and dexamethasone treatment. Leucine supplementation was able to minimize the reduction in rat soleus mass driven by immobilization. On the other hand, leucine supplementation was unable to provide protection against soleus mass loss in dexamethasone treated rats. Interestingly, HMB supplementation was unable to provide protection against mass loss in all treatments. While solely fiber type I cross sectional area (CSA) was protected in immobilized soleus of leucine-supplemented rats, none of the fiber types were protected by leucine supplementation in rats under dexamethasone treatment. In addition and in line with muscle mass results, HMB treatment did not attenuate CSA decrease in all fiber types against either immobilization or dexamethasone treatment. While leucine supplementation was able to minimize increased expression of both Mafbx/Atrogin and MuRF1 in immobilized rats, leucine was only able to minimize Mafbx/Atrogin in dexamethasone treated rats. In contrast, HMB was unable to restrain the increase in those atrogenes in immobilized rats, but in dexamethasone treated rats, HMB minimized increased expression of Mafbx/Atrogin. The amount of ubiquitinated proteins, as expected, was increased in immobilized and dexamethasone treated rats and only leucine was able to block this increase in immobilized rats but not in dexamethasone treated rats. Leucine supplementation maintained soleus tetanic peak force in immobilized rats at normal level. On the other hand, HMB treatment failed to maintain tetanic peak force regardless of treatment. The present data suggested that the anti-atrophic effects of leucine are not mediated by its metabolite HMB.

  17. Leucine and HMB Differentially Modulate Proteasome System in Skeletal Muscle under Different Sarcopenic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Baptista, Igor L.; Silva, Willian J.; Artioli, Guilherme G.; Guilherme, Joao Paulo L. F.; Leal, Marcelo L.; Aoki, Marcelo S.; Miyabara, Elen H.; Moriscot, Anselmo S.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we have compared the effects of leucine supplementation and its metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methyl butyrate (HMB) on the ubiquitin-proteasome system and the PI3K/Akt pathway during two distinct atrophic conditions, hindlimb immobilization and dexamethasone treatment. Leucine supplementation was able to minimize the reduction in rat soleus mass driven by immobilization. On the other hand, leucine supplementation was unable to provide protection against soleus mass loss in dexamethasone treated rats. Interestingly, HMB supplementation was unable to provide protection against mass loss in all treatments. While solely fiber type I cross sectional area (CSA) was protected in immobilized soleus of leucine-supplemented rats, none of the fiber types were protected by leucine supplementation in rats under dexamethasone treatment. In addition and in line with muscle mass results, HMB treatment did not attenuate CSA decrease in all fiber types against either immobilization or dexamethasone treatment. While leucine supplementation was able to minimize increased expression of both Mafbx/Atrogin and MuRF1 in immobilized rats, leucine was only able to minimize Mafbx/Atrogin in dexamethasone treated rats. In contrast, HMB was unable to restrain the increase in those atrogenes in immobilized rats, but in dexamethasone treated rats, HMB minimized increased expression of Mafbx/Atrogin. The amount of ubiquitinated proteins, as expected, was increased in immobilized and dexamethasone treated rats and only leucine was able to block this increase in immobilized rats but not in dexamethasone treated rats. Leucine supplementation maintained soleus tetanic peak force in immobilized rats at normal level. On the other hand, HMB treatment failed to maintain tetanic peak force regardless of treatment. The present data suggested that the anti-atrophic effects of leucine are not mediated by its metabolite HMB. PMID:24124592

  18. Leucine supplementation via drinking water reduces atherosclerotic lesions in apoE null mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yang; Dai, Xiao-yan; Zhou, Zhou; Zhao, Ge-xin; Wang, Xian; Xu, Ming-jiang

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Recent evidence suggests that the essential amino acid leucine may be involved in systemic cholesterol metabolism. In this study, we investigated the effects of leucine supplementation on the development of atherosclerosis in apoE null mice. Methods: ApoE null mice were fed with chow supplemented with leucine (1.5% w/v) in drinking water for 8 week. Aortic atherosclerotic lesions were examined using Oil Red O staining. Plasma lipoprotein-cholesterol levels were measured with fast protein liquid chromatography. Hepatic gene expression was detected using real-time PCR and Western blot analyses. Results: Leucine supplementation resulted in 57.6% reduction of aortic atherosclerotic lesion area in apoE null mice, accompanied by 41.2% decrease of serum LDL-C levels and 40.2% increase of serum HDL-C levels. The body weight, food intake and blood glucose level were not affected by leucine supplementation. Furthermore, leucine supplementation increased the expression of Abcg5 and Abcg8 (that were involved in hepatic cholesterol efflux) by 1.28- and 0.86-fold, respectively, and significantly increased their protein levels. Leucine supplementation also increased the expression of Srebf1, Scd1 and Pgc1b (that were involved in hepatic triglyceride metabolism) by 3.73-, 1.35- and 1.71-fold, respectively. Consequently, leucine supplementation resulted in 51.77% reduction of liver cholesterol content and 2.2-fold increase of liver triglyceride content. Additionally, leucine supplementation did not affect the serum levels of IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-12, but markedly decreased the serum level of MCP-1. Conclusion: Leucine supplementation effectively attenuates atherosclerosis in apoE null mice by improving the plasma lipid profile and reducing systemic inflammation. PMID:26687933

  19. Leucine supplementation attenuates macrophage foam-cell formation: Studies in humans, mice, and cultured macrophages.

    PubMed

    Grajeda-Iglesias, Claudia; Rom, Oren; Hamoud, Shadi; Volkova, Nina; Hayek, Tony; Abu-Saleh, Niroz; Aviram, Michael

    2018-02-05

    Whereas atherogenicity of dietary lipids has been largely studied, relatively little is known about the possible contribution of dietary amino acids to macrophage foam-cell formation, a hallmark of early atherogenesis. Recently, we showed that leucine has antiatherogenic properties in the macrophage model system. In this study, an in-depth investigation of the role of leucine in macrophage lipid metabolism was conducted by supplementing humans, mice, or cultured macrophages with leucine. Macrophage incubation with serum obtained from healthy adults supplemented with leucine (5 g/d, 3 weeks) significantly decreased cellular cholesterol mass by inhibiting the rate of cholesterol biosynthesis and increasing cholesterol efflux from macrophages. Similarly, leucine supplementation to C57BL/6 mice (8 weeks) resulted in decreased cholesterol content in their harvested peritoneal macrophages (MPM) in relation with reduced cholesterol biosynthesis rate. Studies in J774A.1 murine macrophages revealed that leucine dose-dependently decreased cellular cholesterol and triglyceride mass. Macrophages treated with leucine (0.2 mM) showed attenuated uptake of very low-density lipoproteins and triglyceride biosynthesis rate, with a concurrent down-regulation of diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1, a key enzyme catalyzing triglyceride biosynthesis in macrophages. Similar effects were observed when macrophages were treated with α-ketoisocaproate, a key leucine metabolite. Finally, both in vivo and in vitro leucine supplementation significantly improved macrophage mitochondrial respiration and ATP production. The above studies, conducted in human, mice, and cultured macrophages, highlight a protective role for leucine attenuating macrophage foam-cell formation by mechanisms related to the metabolism of cholesterol, triglycerides, and energy production. © 2018 BioFactors, 2018. © 2018 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  20. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for the production of l-valine based on transcriptome analysis and in silico gene knockout simulation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin Hwan; Lee, Kwang Ho; Kim, Tae Yong; Lee, Sang Yup

    2007-01-01

    The l-valine production strain of Escherichia coli was constructed by rational metabolic engineering and stepwise improvement based on transcriptome analysis and gene knockout simulation of the in silico genome-scale metabolic network. Feedback inhibition of acetohydroxy acid synthase isoenzyme III by l-valine was removed by site-directed mutagenesis, and the native promoter containing the transcriptional attenuator leader regions of the ilvGMEDA and ilvBN operon was replaced with the tac promoter. The ilvA, leuA, and panB genes were deleted to make more precursors available for l-valine biosynthesis. This engineered Val strain harboring a plasmid overexpressing the ilvBN genes produced 1.31 g/liter l-valine. Comparative transcriptome profiling was performed during batch fermentation of the engineered and control strains. Among the down-regulated genes, the lrp and ygaZH genes, which encode a global regulator Lrp and l-valine exporter, respectively, were overexpressed. Amplification of the lrp, ygaZH, and lrp-ygaZH genes led to the enhanced production of l-valine by 21.6%, 47.1%, and 113%, respectively. Further improvement was achieved by using in silico gene knockout simulation, which identified the aceF, mdh, and pfkA genes as knockout targets. The VAMF strain (Val ΔaceF Δmdh ΔpfkA) overexpressing the ilvBN, ilvCED, ygaZH, and lrp genes was able to produce 7.55 g/liter l-valine from 20 g/liter glucose in batch culture, resulting in a high yield of 0.378 g of l-valine per gram of glucose. These results suggest that an industrially competitive strain can be efficiently developed by metabolic engineering based on combined rational modification, transcriptome profiling, and systems-level in silico analysis. PMID:17463081

  1. Leucine incorporation and its potential as a measure of protein synthesis by bacteria in natural aquatic systems.

    PubMed Central

    Kirchman, D; K'nees, E; Hodson, R

    1985-01-01

    Leucine incorporation was examined as a method for estimating rates of protein synthesis by bacterial assemblages in natural aquatic systems. The proportion of the total bacterial population that took up leucine in three marine environments was high (greater than 50%). Most of the leucine (greater than 90%) taken up was incorporated into protein, and little (less than 20%) was degraded to other amino acids, except in two oligotrophic marine environments. In samples from these two environments, ca. 50% of the leucine incorporated had been degraded to other amino acids, which were subsequently incorporated into protein. The degree of leucine degradation appears to depend on the organic carbon supply, as the proportion of 3H-radioactivity incorporated into protein that was recovered as [3H]leucine after acid hydrolysis increased with the addition of pyruvate to oligotrophic water samples. The addition of extracellular leucine inhibited total incorporation of [14C]pyruvate (a precursor for leucine biosynthesis) into protein. Furthermore, the proportion of [14C]pyruvate incorporation into protein that was recovered as [14C]leucine decreased with the addition of extracellular leucine. These results show that the addition of extracellular leucine inhibits leucine biosynthesis by marine bacterial assemblages. The molar fraction of leucine in a wide variety of proteins is constant, indicating that changes in leucine incorporation rates reflect changes in rates of protein synthesis rather than changes in the leucine content of proteins. The results demonstrate that the incorporation rate of [3H]leucine into a hot trichloroacetic acid-insoluble cell fraction can serve as an index of protein synthesis by bacterial assemblages in aquatic systems. PMID:3994368

  2. Effects of the standardized ileal digestible valine : lysine ratio on performance, milk composition and plasma indices of lactating sows.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yetong; Zeng, Zhikai; Xu, Xiao; Tian, Qiyu; Ma, Xiaokang; Long, Shenfei; Piao, Meijing; Cheng, Zhibin; Piao, Xiangshu

    2017-08-01

    To determine the effects of standardized ileal digestible (SID) valine : lysine ratio on the performance, milk composition and plasma indices of lactating sows, 32 Large White × Landrace sows (219.78 ± 7.15 kg body weight; parity 1.82 ± 0.62) were allotted to one of four dietary treatments with eight sows per treatment based on parity, back fat thickness and body weight. The sows were fed corn-soybean meal-based diets containing 63, 83, 103 or 123% SID valine : lysine from day 107 of gestation until day 28 of lactation. The average daily feed intake of sows and daily weight gain of piglets increased linearly (P < 0.05) while back fat loss decreased linearly (P < 0.05) as the SID valine : lysine ratio increased. All of the analyzed amino acids in sow colostrum and valine concentrations of sow and piglet plasma increased linearly (P < 0.05) with the increasing SID valine : lysine ratio. In conclusion, 88 and 113% dietary SID valine : lysine ratios were optimal to achieve minimum back fat loss and maximum piglet growth rate using a linear-break point model which exceeds the requirement of 85% that is estimated by the National Research Council (2012). © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  3. Stimulation of skeletal muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs by long-term infusion of leucine is amino acid dependent

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Infusing leucine for 1 hr increases skeletal muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs, but this is not sustained for 2 h unless the leucine-induced fall in amino acids is prevented. We aimed to determine whether continuous leucine infusion can stimulate protein synthesis for a prolonged period whe...

  4. Stimulation of muscle protein synthesis by prolonged parenteral infusion of leucine is dependent on amino acid availability in neonatal pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The postprandial rise in amino acids, particularly leucine, stimulates muscle protein synthesis in neonates. Previously, we showed that a 1-h infusion of leucine increased protein synthesis, but this response was not sustained for 2 h unless the leucine-induced decrease in amino acids was prevented....

  5. Mental retardation linked to mutations in the HSD17B10 gene interfering with neurosteroid and isoleucine metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Song-Yu; He, Xue-Ying; Olpin, Simon E.; Sutton, Vernon R.; McMenamin, Joe; Philipp, Manfred; Denman, Robert B.; Malik, Mazhar

    2009-01-01

    Mutations in the HSD17B10 gene were identified in two previously described mentally retarded males. A point mutation c.776G>C was found from a survivor (SV), whereas a potent mutation, c.419C>T, was identified in another deceased case (SF) with undetectable hydroxysteroid (17β) dehydrogenase 10 (HSD10) activity. Protein levels of mutant HSD10(R130C) in patient SF and HSD10(E249Q) in patient SV were about half that of HSD10 in normal controls. The E249Q mutation appears to affect HSD10 subunit interactions, resulting in an allosteric regulatory enzyme. For catalyzing the oxidation of allopregnanolone by NAD+ the Hill coefficient of the mutant enzyme is ≈1.3. HSD10(E249Q) was unable to catalyze the dehydrogenation of 2-methyl-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA and the oxidation of allopregnanolone, a positive modulator of the γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor, at low substrate concentrations. Neurosteroid homeostasis is critical for normal cognitive development, and there is increasing evidence that a blockade of isoleucine catabolism alone does not commonly cause developmental disabilities. The results support the theory that an imbalance in neurosteroid metabolism could be a major cause of the neurological handicap associated with hydroxysteroid (17β) dehydrogenase 10 deficiency. PMID:19706438

  6. Metabolic Footprint Analysis Uncovers Strain Specific Overflow Metabolism and D-Isoleucine Production of Staphylococcus Aureus COL and HG001

    PubMed Central

    Dörries, Kirsten; Lalk, Michael

    2013-01-01

    During infection processes, Staphylococcus aureus is able to survive within the host and to invade tissues and cells. For studying the interaction between the pathogenic bacterium and the host cell, the bacterial growth behaviour and its metabolic adaptation to the host cell environment provides first basic information. In the present study, we therefore cultivated S. aureus COL and HG001 in the eukaryotic cell culture medium RPMI 1640 and analyzed the extracellular metabolic uptake and secretion patterns of both commonly used laboratory strains. Extracellular accumulation of D-isoleucine was detected starting during exponential growth of COL and HG001 in RPMI medium. This non-canonical D-amino acid is known to play a regulatory role in adaptation processes. Moreover, individual uptake of glucose, accumulation of acetate, further overflow metabolites, and intermediates of the branched-chain amino acid metabolism constitute unique metabolic footprints. Altogether these time-resolved footprint analyses give first metabolic insights into staphylococcal growth behaviour in a culture medium used for infection related studies. PMID:24312553

  7. Basolateral Sorting of Furin in MDCK Cells Requires a Phenylalanine-Isoleucine Motif Together with an Acidic Amino Acid Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Simmen, Thomas; Nobile, Massimo; Bonifacino, Juan S.; Hunziker, Walter

    1999-01-01

    Furin is a subtilisin-related endoprotease which processes a wide range of bioactive proteins. Furin is concentrated in the trans-Golgi network (TGN), where proteolytic activation of many precursor proteins takes place. A significant fraction of furin, however, cycles among the TGN, the plasma membrane, and endosomes, indicating that the accumulation in the TGN reflects a dynamic localization process. The cytosolic domain of furin is necessary and sufficient for TGN localization, and two signals are responsible for retrieval of furin to the TGN. A tyrosine-based (YKGL) motif mediates internalization of furin from the cell surface into endosomes. An acidic cluster that is part of two casein kinase II phosphorylation sites (SDSEEDE) is then responsible for retrieval of furin from endosomes to the TGN. In addition, the acidic EEDE sequence also mediates endocytic activity. Here, we analyzed the sorting of furin in polarized epithelial cells. We show that furin is delivered to the basolateral surface of MDCK cells, from where a significant fraction of the protein can return to the TGN. A phenylalanine-isoleucine motif together with the acidic EEDE cluster is required for basolateral sorting and constitutes a novel signal regulating intracellular traffic of furin. PMID:10082580

  8. Leucine facilitates insulin signaling through a Gαi protein-dependent signaling pathway in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuefeng; Mei, Shuang; Wang, Xiaolei; Li, Xiang; Liu, Rui; Ma, Yan; Hao, Liping; Yao, Ping; Liu, Liegang; Sun, Xiufa; Gu, Haihua; Liu, Zhenqi; Cao, Wenhong

    2013-03-29

    In this study, we addressed the direct effect of leucine on insulin signaling. In investigating the associated mechanisms, we found that leucine itself does not activate the classical Akt- or ERK1/2 MAP kinase-dependent signaling pathways but can facilitate the insulin-induced phosphorylations of Akt(473) and ERK1/2 in a time- and dose-dependent manner in cultured hepatocytes. The leucine-facilitated insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt at residue 473 was not affected by knocking down the key component of mTORC1 or -2 complexes but was blocked by inhibition of c-Src (PP2), PI3K (LY294002), Gαi protein (pertussis toxin or siRNA against Gαi1 gene, or β-arrestin 2 (siRNA)). Similarly, the leucine-facilitated insulin activation of ERK1/2 was also blunted by pertussis toxin. We further show that leucine facilitated the insulin-mediated suppression of glucose production and expression of key gluconeogenic genes in a Gαi1 protein-dependent manner in cultured primary hepatocytes. Together, these results show that leucine can directly facilitate insulin signaling through a Gαi protein-dependent intracellular signaling pathway. This is the first evidence showing that macronutrients like amino acid leucine can facilitate insulin signaling through G proteins directly.

  9. Increased IGFBP-1 phosphorylation in response to leucine deprivation is mediated by CK2 and PKC

    PubMed Central

    Malkani, Niyati; Biggar, Kyle; Shehab, Majida Abu; Li, Shawn; Jansson, Thomas; Gupta, Madhulika B.

    2016-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), secreted by fetal liver, is a key regulator of IGF-I bioavailability and fetal growth. IGFBP-1 phosphorylation decreases IGF-I bioavailability and diminishes its growth-promoting effects. Growth-restricted fetuses have decreased levels of circulating essential amino acids. We recently showed that IGFBP-1 hyperphosphorylation (pSer101/119/169) in response to leucine deprivation is regulated via activation of the amino acid response (AAR) in HepG2 cells. Here we investigated nutrient-sensitive protein kinases CK2/PKC/PKA in mediating IGFBP-1 phosphorylation in leucine deprivation. We demonstrated that leucine deprivation stimulated CK2 activity (enzymatic assay) and induced IGFBP-1 phosphorylation (immunoblotting/MRM-MS). Inhibition (pharmacological/siRNA) of CK2/PKC, but not PKA, prevented IGFBP-1 hyperphosphorylation in leucine deprivation. PKC inhibition also prevented leucine deprivation-stimulated CK2 activity. Functionally, leucine deprivation decreased IGF-I-induced-IGF-1R autophosphorylation when CK2/PKC were not inhibited. Our data strongly support that PKC promotes leucine deprivation-induced IGFBP-1 hyperphosphorylation via CK2 activation, mechanistically linking decreased amino acid availability and reduced fetal growth. PMID:26733150

  10. Leucine Facilitates Insulin Signaling through a Gαi Protein-dependent Signaling Pathway in Hepatocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xuefeng; Mei, Shuang; Wang, Xiaolei; Li, Xiang; Liu, Rui; Ma, Yan; Hao, Liping; Yao, Ping; Liu, Liegang; Sun, Xiufa; Gu, Haihua; Liu, Zhenqi; Cao, Wenhong

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we addressed the direct effect of leucine on insulin signaling. In investigating the associated mechanisms, we found that leucine itself does not activate the classical Akt- or ERK1/2 MAP kinase-dependent signaling pathways but can facilitate the insulin-induced phosphorylations of Akt473 and ERK1/2 in a time- and dose-dependent manner in cultured hepatocytes. The leucine-facilitated insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt at residue 473 was not affected by knocking down the key component of mTORC1 or -2 complexes but was blocked by inhibition of c-Src (PP2), PI3K (LY294002), Gαi protein (pertussis toxin or siRNA against Gαi1 gene, or β-arrestin 2 (siRNA)). Similarly, the leucine-facilitated insulin activation of ERK1/2 was also blunted by pertussis toxin. We further show that leucine facilitated the insulin-mediated suppression of glucose production and expression of key gluconeogenic genes in a Gαi1 protein-dependent manner in cultured primary hepatocytes. Together, these results show that leucine can directly facilitate insulin signaling through a Gαi protein-dependent intracellular signaling pathway. This is the first evidence showing that macronutrients like amino acid leucine can facilitate insulin signaling through G proteins directly. PMID:23404499

  11. Leucine deprivation inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of human breast cancer cells via fatty acid synthase

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Fei; Wang, Chunxia; Yin, Hongkun; Yu, Junjie; Chen, Shanghai; Fang, Jing; Guo, Feifan

    2016-01-01

    Substantial studies on fatty acid synthase (FASN) have focused on its role in regulating lipid metabolism and researchers have a great interest in treating cancer with dietary manipulation of amino acids. In the current study, we found that leucine deprivation caused the FASN-dependent anticancer effect. Here we showed that leucine deprivation inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells. In an in vivo tumor xenograft model, the leucine-free diet suppressed the growth of human breast cancer tumors and triggered widespread apoptosis of the cancer cells. Further study indicated that leucine deprivation decreased expression of lipogenic gene FASN in vitro and in vivo. Over-expression of FASN or supplementation of palmitic acid (the product of FASN action) blocked the effects of leucine deprivation on cell proliferation and apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, leucine deprivation suppressed the FASN expression via regulating general control non-derepressible (GCN)2 and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1C (SREBP1C). Taken together, our study represents proof of principle that anticancer effects can be obtained with strategies to deprive tumors of leucine via suppressing FASN expression, which provides important insights in prevention of breast cancer via metabolic intervention. PMID:27579768

  12. Structural basis for leucine sensing by the Sestrin2-mTORC1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Saxton, Robert A; Knockenhauer, Kevin E; Wolfson, Rachel L; Chantranupong, Lynne; Pacold, Michael E; Wang, Tim; Schwartz, Thomas U; Sabatini, David M

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells coordinate growth with the availability of nutrients through the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), a master growth regulator. Leucine is of particular importance and activates mTORC1 via the Rag guanosine triphosphatases and their regulators GATOR1 and GATOR2. Sestrin2 interacts with GATOR2 and is a leucine sensor. Here we present the 2.7 angstrom crystal structure of Sestrin2 in complex with leucine. Leucine binds through a single pocket that coordinates its charged functional groups and confers specificity for the hydrophobic side chain. A loop encloses leucine and forms a lid-latch mechanism required for binding. A structure-guided mutation in Sestrin2 that decreases its affinity for leucine leads to a concomitant increase in the leucine concentration required for mTORC1 activation in cells. These results provide a structural mechanism of amino acid sensing by the mTORC1 pathway. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Modulatory effects of arginine, glutamine and branched-chain amino acids on heat shock proteins, immunity and antioxidant response in exercised rats.

    PubMed

    Moura, Carolina Soares; Lollo, Pablo Christiano Barboza; Morato, Priscila Neder; Risso, Eder Muller; Amaya-Farfan, Jaime

    2017-09-20

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are endogenous proteins whose function is to maintain the cell's tolerance to insult, and glutamine supplementation is known to increase HSP expression during intense exercise. Since few studies have addressed the possibility that supplementation with other amino acids could have similar effects to that of glutamine, our objective was to evaluate the effects of leucine, valine, isoleucine and arginine as potential stimulators of HSPs 25, 60, 70 and 90 in rats subjected to acute exercise as a stressing factor. The immune markers, antioxidant system, blood parameters, glycogen and amino acid profile responses were also assessed. Male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups: control (rest, without gavage), vehicle (water), l-leucine, l-isoleucine, l-valine, l-arginine and l-glutamine. Except for the control, all animals were exercised and received every amino acid by oral gavage. Arginine supplementation up-regulated muscle HSP70 and HSP90 and serum HSP70, however, none of the amino acids affected the HSP25. All amino acids increased exercise-induced HSP60 expression, except for valine. Antioxidant enzymes were reduced by exercise, but both glutamine and arginine restored glutathione peroxidase, while isoleucine and valine restored superoxide dismutase. Exercise reduced monocyte, platelet, lymphocyte and erythrocyte levels, while leucine stimulated immune response, preserved the levels of the lymphocytes and increased leukocytes and maintained platelets at control levels. Plasma and muscle amino acid profiles showed specific metabolic features. The data suggest that the tissue-protecting effects of arginine could proceed by enhancing specific HSPs in the body.

  14. Synthesis, structure and property of diorganotin complexes with chiral N-(5-chlorosalicylidene)valinate ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Laijin; Yao, Yanze; Wang, Yuhua; Liu, Jin

    2018-03-01

    Six new diorganotin N-[(5-chloro-2-oxyphenyl)methylene]valinates, R2SnL (R = Me, 1; Et, 2; L = 5-Cl-2-OC6H3CH = NCH(i-Pr)COO: (S)-, a; (R)-, b; (RS)-, c), have been synthesized from the reaction of R2SnCl2 with the chiral ligand KHL (potassium salt of HL) in different solvents and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, NMR (1H, 13C and 119Sn) spectra. In benzene, the configuration of the chiral ligand was retained. (S)-Enantiomers (1a and 2a) and (R)-enantiomers (1b and 2b) display discrete molecular structures with distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometries in which two C atoms of organic groups (R) and the imino N atom occupy the equatorial positions and a phenoxide O and an unidentate carboxylate group O atom are in the axial orientation. In the methanol, the chiral ligand was racemized. 1cṡMeOH is a centrosymmetric dimers formed by (R)- and (S)- enantiomers through two Snsbnd OṡṡṡSn bridges. The coordination geometry of the Sn atom can be described as a distorted pentagonal bipyramid with two methyl groups in axial positions. The crystal of 2c is composed of two threefold symmetric trimers, a [Et2SnL-(R)]3 and a [Et2SnL-(S)]3, with a macrocyclic 12-membered ring structure formed by the bidenate bridging coordination of carboxylate group to tin atoms. Each tin atom is six-coordinated in distorted [SnC2NO3] octahedron geometry. The fluorescence properties of ligand KHL and complexes 1 (1a-1c) and 2 (2a-2c) have been measured. The results show the complexes may be explored for potential luminescent materials.

  15. The PPARgamma agonist FMOC-L-leucine protects both mature and immature brain.

    PubMed

    Maurois, Pierre; Rocchi, Stéphane; Pages, Nicole; Bac, Pierre; Stables, James P; Gressens, Pierre; Vamecq, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    (N-[9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl]-)-L-leucine (FMOC-L-leucine) and rosiglitazone, two ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), were evaluated in mature (adult mice) and immature (pups) brain injury models. In adult magnesium-deficient mice, a model responsive to both neuroprotective and anti-seizure compounds, FMOC-L-leucine, but not rosiglitazone, protected against audiogenic seizures. The protection afforded by FMOC-L-leucine was alleviated by the PPARgamma antagonist GW9662 (1-2 mg/kg) and was induced in 50% animals by 4.8+/-1.2 mg/kg. At this dose, FMOC-L-leucine modified audiogenic seizure phase durations in convulsing mice differently than prototype antiepileptic drugs did. FMOC-L-leucine (up to 100 mg/kg) was inactive in the 6 Hz seizure test, an adult animal model largely responsive to anti-seizure drugs. In a model of neonatal brain injury, FMOC-L-leucine (4 microg/kg) was neuroprotective against cerebral ibotenate toxicity. It reduced significantly the size of lesions in grey but not in white matter, while rosiglitazone (10 microg/kg) was inactive. Taken as a whole, the present data support neuroprotective potentialities of FMOC-L-leucine towards both mature and immature brain. The PPAR-based protection of immature brain is more important as it is known that classic adult brain protectants (GABA(A) activators, N-methyl-D-aspartate and sodium channel blockers) may be toxic for immature brain. The PPARgamma agonist FMOC-L-leucine is likely to be devoid of these classic protective mechanisms because of its inactivity in the 6 Hz seizure test, its activity in the audiogenic test being explained by neuroprotective rather than intrinsic anti-seizure mechanisms. Targeting PPARs might be thus a promising way to protect immature brain.

  16. Leucine elicits myotube hypertrophy and enhances maximal contractile force in tissue engineered skeletal muscle in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Neil R.W.; Turner, Mark C.; Farrington, Robert; Player, Darren J.

    2017-01-01

    The amino acid leucine is thought to be important for skeletal muscle growth by virtue of its ability to acutely activate mTORC1 and enhance muscle protein synthesis, yet little data exist regarding its impact on skeletal muscle size and its ability to produce force. We utilized a tissue engineering approach in order to test whether supplementing culture medium with leucine could enhance mTORC1 signaling, myotube growth, and muscle function. Phosphorylation of the mTORC1 target proteins 4EBP‐1 and rpS6 and myotube hypertrophy appeared to occur in a dose dependent manner, with 5 and 20 mM of leucine inducing similar effects, which were greater than those seen with 1 mM. Maximal contractile force was also elevated with leucine supplementation; however, although this did not appear to be enhanced with increasing leucine doses, this effect was completely ablated by co‐incubation with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin, showing that the augmented force production in the presence of leucine was mTOR sensitive. Finally, by using electrical stimulation to induce chronic (24 hr) contraction of engineered skeletal muscle constructs, we were able to show that the effects of leucine and muscle contraction are additive, since the two stimuli had cumulative effects on maximal contractile force production. These results extend our current knowledge of the efficacy of leucine as an anabolic nutritional aid showing for the first time that leucine supplementation may augment skeletal muscle functional capacity, and furthermore validates the use of engineered skeletal muscle for highly‐controlled investigations into nutritional regulation of muscle physiology. PMID:28409828

  17. Enhanced Incorporation of 3-Hydroxy-4-Methylvalerate Unit into Biosynthetic Polyhydroxyalkanoate Using Leucine as a Precursor

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Ralstonia eutropha PHB-4 expressing Pseudomonas sp. 61-3 polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase 1 (PhaC1Ps) synthesizes PHA copolymer containing 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and a small amount (0.5 mol%) of 3-hydroxy-4-methylvalerate (3H4MV) from fructose as a carbon source. In this study, enhanced incorporation of 3H4MV into PHA was investigated using branched amino acid leucine as a precursor of 3H4MV. Leucine has the same carbon backbone as 3H4MV and is expected to be a natural and self-producible precursor. We found that the incorporation of 3H4MV was enhanced by the supplementation of excess amount (10 g/L) of leucine in the culture medium. This finding indicates that 3H4MV can be derived from leucine. To increase metabolic flux to leucine biosynthesis in the host strain by eliminating the feedback inhibition, the cells were subjected to N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (NTG) mutagenesis and leucine analog resistant mutants were generated. The mutants showed statistically higher 3H4MV fraction than the parent strain without supplementing leucine. Additionally, by supplying excess amount of leucine, the mutants synthesized 3HB-based PHA copolymer containing 3.1 mol% 3H4MV and 1.2 mol% 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) as minor constituents, which significantly affected the thermal properties of the copolymer. This study demonstrates that it is possible to enhance the monomer supply of 3H4MV into PHA by manipulating leucine metabolism. PMID:21906338

  18. Leucine elicits myotube hypertrophy and enhances maximal contractile force in tissue engineered skeletal muscle in vitro.

    PubMed

    Martin, Neil R W; Turner, Mark C; Farrington, Robert; Player, Darren J; Lewis, Mark P

    2017-10-01

    The amino acid leucine is thought to be important for skeletal muscle growth by virtue of its ability to acutely activate mTORC1 and enhance muscle protein synthesis, yet little data exist regarding its impact on skeletal muscle size and its ability to produce force. We utilized a tissue engineering approach in order to test whether supplementing culture medium with leucine could enhance mTORC1 signaling, myotube growth, and muscle function. Phosphorylation of the mTORC1 target proteins 4EBP-1 and rpS6 and myotube hypertrophy appeared to occur in a dose dependent manner, with 5 and 20 mM of leucine inducing similar effects, which were greater than those seen with 1 mM. Maximal contractile force was also elevated with leucine supplementation; however, although this did not appear to be enhanced with increasing leucine doses, this effect was completely ablated by co-incubation with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin, showing that the augmented force production in the presence of leucine was mTOR sensitive. Finally, by using electrical stimulation to induce chronic (24 hr) contraction of engineered skeletal muscle constructs, we were able to show that the effects of leucine and muscle contraction are additive, since the two stimuli had cumulative effects on maximal contractile force production. These results extend our current knowledge of the efficacy of leucine as an anabolic nutritional aid showing for the first time that leucine supplementation may augment skeletal muscle functional capacity, and furthermore validates the use of engineered skeletal muscle for highly-controlled investigations into nutritional regulation of muscle physiology. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by wiley periodicals, Inc.

  19. Leucine and Protein Metabolism in Obese Zucker Rats

    PubMed Central

    She, Pengxiang; Olson, Kristine C.; Kadota, Yoshihiro; Inukai, Ayami; Shimomura, Yoshiharu; Hoppel, Charles L.; Adams, Sean H.; Kawamata, Yasuko; Matsumoto, Hideki; Sakai, Ryosei; Lang, Charles H.; Lynch, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are circulating nutrient signals for protein accretion, however, they increase in obesity and elevations appear to be prognostic of diabetes. To understand the mechanisms whereby obesity affects BCAAs and protein metabolism, we employed metabolomics and measured rates of [1-14C]-leucine metabolism, tissue-specific protein synthesis and branched-chain keto-acid (BCKA) dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC) activities. Male obese Zucker rats (11-weeks old) had increased body weight (BW, 53%), liver (107%) and fat (∼300%), but lower plantaris and gastrocnemius masses (−21–24%). Plasma BCAAs and BCKAs were elevated 45–69% and ∼100%, respectively, in obese rats. Processes facilitating these rises appeared to include increased dietary intake (23%), leucine (Leu) turnover and proteolysis [35% per g fat free mass (FFM), urinary markers of proteolysis: 3-methylhistidine (183%) and 4-hydroxyproline (766%)] and decreased BCKDC per g kidney, heart, gastrocnemius and liver (−47–66%). A process disposing of circulating BCAAs, protein synthesis, was increased 23–29% by obesity in whole-body (FFM corrected), gastrocnemius and liver. Despite the observed decreases in BCKDC activities per gm tissue, rates of whole-body Leu oxidation in obese rats were 22% and 59% higher normalized to BW and FFM, respectively. Consistently, urinary concentrations of eight BCAA catabolism-derived acylcarnitines were also elevated. The unexpected increase in BCAA oxidation may be due to a substrate effect in liver. Supporting this idea, BCKAs were elevated more in liver (193–418%) than plasma or muscle, and per g losses of hepatic BCKDC activities were completely offset by increased liver mass, in contrast to other tissues. In summary, our results indicate that plasma BCKAs may represent a more sensitive metabolic signature for obesity than BCAAs. Processes supporting elevated BCAA]BCKAs in the obese Zucker rat include increased dietary intake, Leu and

  20. Substitution of isoleucine for threonine at position 190 of S-opsin causes S-cone-function abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Baraas, Rigmor C.; Hagen, Lene A.; Dees, Elise W.; Neitz, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    Five mutations in the S-cone-opsin gene (OPN1SW) that give rise to different single amino-acid substitutions (L56P, G79R, S214P, P264S, R283Q) are known to be associated with tritan color-vision deficiency. Here we report a sixth OPN1SW mutation (T190I) and the associated color vision phenotype. S-opsin genotyping and clinical evaluation of color vision were performed on affected and unaffected family members and normal controls. Chromatic contrast was tested at different levels of retinal illuminance. Affected family members were heterozygous for a nucleotide change that substituted the amino acid isoleucine (I) in place of threonine (T) that is normally present at position 190 of the S-opsin. The mutation is in extracellular loop II (EII). The association between making tritan errors and having the T190I mutant S opsin was strong (p > 0.0001: Fisher's exact test). The performance of subjects with the T190I mutation was significantly different from that of normal trichromats along the tritan vector under all conditions tested (Mann-Whitney U: p < 0.05), but not along the protan or deutan vectors. Individuals with the T190I S-opsin mutation behaved as mild tritans at 12.3–92.3 Td, but as tritanopes at 1.2–9.2 Td, for both light-adapted and dark-adapted conditions. The results are consistent with the mutant opsin causing abnormal S-cone function. PMID:23022137

  1. Plasma levels of lysine, tyrosine, and valine during pregnancy are independent risk factors of insulin resistance and gestational diabetes.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Park, Jin Young; Lee, Ju Hong; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2015-03-01

    This study compared plasma concentrations of amino acids in pregnant women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and identified the association between plasma amino acid levels and GDM, insulin resistance, and insulin secretion at 24-28 weeks of pregnancy. Circulating amino acid levels were evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography at 24-28 weeks of pregnancy in 25 non-GDM and 64 GDM women after adjusting for covariates such as maternal age, body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy, BMI and gestational age at screening GDM, and daily caloric intake. Backward stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to identify the predictors of developing GDM, and homeostatic model assessments for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and β-cell function (HOMA-B). Circulating levels of amino acids except threonine and tyrosine were significantly higher in GDM women than non-GDM women. Along with the intakes of energy, protein, and fat from animal sources, the intakes of each amino acid were significantly higher in the GDM group without a direct correlation to plasma amino acid levels. The variation in GDM development was explained by maternal age, diastolic blood pressure, and plasma lysine levels (R(2)=0.691). Height, BMI before pregnancy, systolic blood pressure, and plasma tyrosine and valine levels accounted for the variation in HOMA-IR (R(2)=0.589). The 53.3% variation of HOMA-B was explained by maternal age, BMI at GDM screening, plasma insulin level at 1 h during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and plasma valine level. Circulating concentrations of lysine, tyrosine, and valine were independently and positively associated with GDM through modifying insulin resistance and secretion.

  2. Molecular structure of leucine aminopeptidase at 2. 7- angstrom resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Burley, S.K.; David, P.R.; Lipscomb, W.N.

    1990-09-01

    The three-dimensional structure of bovine lens leucine aminopeptidase complexed with bestatin, a slow-binding inhibitor, has been solved to 3.0-{angstrom} resolution by the multiple isomorphous replacement method with phase combination and density modification. In addition, the structure of the isomorphous native enzyme has been refined at 2.7-{angstrom} resolution, and the current crystallographic R factor is 0.169 for a model that includes the two zinc ions and all 487 amino acid residues comprising the asymmetric unit. The enzyme is physiologically active as a hexamer, which has 32 symmetry and is triangular in shape with a triangle edge length of 115 {angstrom} andmore » maximal thickness of 90 {angstrom}. The monomers are crystallographically equivalent and each is folded into two unequal {alpha}/{beta} domains connected by an {alpha}-helix to give a comma-like shape with approximate maximal dimensions of 90 x 55 x 55 {angstrom}{sup 3}. The secondary structural composition is 40% {alpha}-helix and 19% {beta}-strand. The active site also contains two positively charged residues, Lys-250 and Arg-336. The six active sites are themselves located in the interior of the hexamer, where they line a disk-shaped cavity of radius 15 {angstrom} and thickness 10 {angstrom}. Access to this cavity is provided by solvent channels that run along the twofold symmetry axes.« less

  3. Differential Assimilation of Inorganic Carbon and Leucine by Prochlorococcus in the Oligotrophic North Pacific Subtropical Gyre

    PubMed Central

    Björkman, Karin M.; Church, Matthew J.; Doggett, Joseph K.; Karl, David M.

    2015-01-01

    The light effect on photoheterotrophic processes in Prochlorococcus, and primary and bacterial productivity in the oligotrophic North Pacific Subtropical Gyre was investigated using 14C-bicarbonate and 3H-leucine. Light and dark incubation experiments were conducted in situ throughout the euphotic zone (0–175 m) on nine expeditions to Station ALOHA over a 3-year period. Photosynthetrons were also used to elucidate rate responses in leucine and inorganic carbon assimilation as a function of light intensity. Taxonomic group and cell-specific rates were assessed using flow cytometric sorting. The light:dark assimilation rate ratios of leucine in the top 150 m were ∼7:1 for Prochlorococcus, whereas the light:dark ratios for the non-pigmented bacteria (NPB) were not significant different from 1:1. Prochlorococcus assimilated leucine in the dark at per cell rates similar to the NPB, with a contribution to the total community bacterial production, integrated over the euphotic zone, of approximately 20% in the dark and 60% in the light. Depth-resolved primary productivity and leucine incorporation showed that the ratio of Prochlorococcus leucine:primary production peaked at 100 m then declined steeply below the deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM). The photosynthetron experiments revealed that, for Prochlorococcus at the DCM, the saturating irradiance (Ek) for leucine incorporation was reached at approximately half the light intensity required for light saturation of 14C-bicarbonate assimilation. Additionally, high and low red fluorescing Prochlorococcus populations (HRF and LRF), co-occurring at the DCM, had similar Ek values for their respective substrates, however, maximum assimilation rates, for both leucine and inorganic carbon, were two times greater for HRF cells. Our results show that Prochlorococcus contributes significantly to bacterial production estimates using 3H-leucine, whether or not the incubations are conducted in the dark or light, and this should be

  4. A Lepidopteran-Specific Gene Family Encoding Valine-Rich Midgut Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Odman-Naresh, Jothini; Duevel, Margret; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Merzendorfer, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Many lepidopteran larvae are serious agricultural pests due to their feeding activity. Digestion of the plant diet occurs mainly in the midgut and is facilitated by the peritrophic matrix (PM), an extracellular sac-like structure, which lines the midgut epithelium and creates different digestive compartments. The PM is attracting increasing attention to control lepidopteran pests by interfering with this vital function. To identify novel PM components and thus potential targets for insecticides, we performed an immunoscreening with anti-PM antibodies using an expression library representing the larval midgut transcriptome of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. We identified three cDNAs encoding valine-rich midgut proteins of M. sexta (MsVmps), which appear to be loosely associated with the PM. They are members of a lepidopteran-specific family of nine VMP genes, which are exclusively expressed in larval stages in M. sexta. Most of the MsVMP transcripts are detected in the posterior midgut, with the highest levels observed for MsVMP1. To obtain further insight into Vmp function, we expressed MsVMP1 in insect cells and purified the recombinant protein. Lectin staining and glycosidase treatment indicated that MsVmp1 is highly O-glycosylated. In line with results from qPCR, immunoblots revealed that MsVmp1 amounts are highest in feeding larvae, while MsVmp1 is undetectable in starving and molting larvae. Finally using immunocytochemistry, we demonstrated that MsVmp1 localizes to the cytosol of columnar cells, which secrete MsVmp1 into the ectoperitrophic space in feeding larvae. In starving and molting larvae, MsVmp1 is found in the gut lumen, suggesting that the PM has increased its permeability. The present study demonstrates that lepidopteran species including many agricultural pests have evolved a set of unique proteins that are not found in any other taxon and thus may reflect an important adaptation in the highly specialized lepidopteran digestive tract facing

  5. Complete genome sequence of Corynebacterium glutamicum CP, a Chinese l-leucine producing strain.

    PubMed

    Gui, Yongli; Ma, Yuechao; Xu, Qingyang; Zhang, Chenglin; Xie, Xixian; Chen, Ning

    2016-02-20

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Corynebacterium glutamicum CP, an industrial l-leucine producing strain in China. The whole genome consists of a circular chromosome and a plasmid. The comparative genomics analysis shows that there are many mutations in the key enzyme coding genes relevant to l-leucine biosynthesis compared to C. glutamicum ATCC 13032. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Light Dependence of [3H]Leucine Incorporation in the Oligotrophic North Pacific Ocean†

    PubMed Central

    Church, Matthew J.; Ducklow, Hugh W.; Karl, David M.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of irradiance on bacterial incorporation of [3H]leucine was evaluated at Station ALOHA in the oligotrophic North Pacific subtropical gyre. Six experiments were conducted on three cruises to Station ALOHA to examine how [3H]leucine incorporation varied as a function of irradiance. Two experiments were also conducted to assess the photoautotrophic response to irradiance (based on photosynthetic uptake of [14C]bicarbonate) in both the upper and lower photic zones. Rates of [3H]leucine incorporation responded to irradiance in a photosynthesis-like manner, increasing sharply at low light and then saturating and sometimes declining with increasing light intensity. The influence of irradiance on bacterial growth was evaluated in both the well-lit (5 to 25 m) and dimly lit regions of the upper ocean (75 to 100 m) to determine whether the bacterial response to irradiance differed along the depth-dependent light gradient of the photic zone. [3H]leucine incorporation rates were analyzed with a photosynthesis-irradiance model for a quantitative description of the relationships between [3H]leucine incorporation and irradiance. Maximum rates of [3H]leucine incorporation in the upper photic zone increased 48 to 92% relative to those of dark-incubated samples, with [3H]leucine incorporation saturating at light intensities between 58 and 363 μmol of quanta m−2 s−1. Rates of [3H]leucine incorporation in the deep photic zone were photostimulated 53 to 114% and were susceptible to photoinhibition, with rates declining at light intensities of >100 μmol of quanta m−2 s−1. The results of these experiments revealed that sunlight directly influences bacterial growth in this open-ocean ecosystem. PMID:15240286

  7. Providing a diet deficient in valine but with excess leucine results in a rapid decrease in feed intake and modifies the postprandial plasma amino acid and α-keto acid concentrations in pigs.

    PubMed

    Gloaguen, M; Le Floc'h, N; Corrent, E; Primot, Y; van Milgen, J

    2012-09-01

    Indispensable AA are involved in the control of feed intake. When a diet deficient in Val is offered to pigs, feed intake is typically reduced. This effect is aggravated when dietary Leu is supplied in excess of the requirement. If an unbalanced supply of branched-chain AA (BCAA) is harmful, an anorectic response may serve as a mechanism to prevent this situation. We verified this hypothesis by measuring the voluntary feed intake of a balanced diet offered during the 30-min period 1 h after ingestion of a test meal deficient or not in Val (Val- and Val+) with an excess of Leu. Twelve and four 6-wk-old crossbred female pigs were used in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively. Prior ingestion of the Val- test meal resulted in a 14% reduction in feed intake compared with that observed after ingestion of the Val+ test meal (P = 0.06) in Exp. 1, indicating that the signal to reduce feed intake occurred within 1 h. It is possible that the plasma concentration of the limiting AA serves as a signal for the dietary AA deficiency. We therefore determined the postprandial plasma concentrations of BCAA and their α-keto acids after ingestion of Val- and Val+ in 4 pigs in Exp. 2. After ingestion of the Val- diet, plasma concentrations of Val and its keto acid were reduced compared with values observed after ingestion of the Val+ diet. The peak concentration occurred earlier after ingestion of the Val- diet compared with that of the Val+ diet. Although the plasma concentration increased after the meal, it declined rapidly in pigs offered Val-, and the Val concentration 4 h after ingestion of the meal was even less than that observed in the fasted state. In conclusion, it appears that the pig is able to detect a deficient supply of Val within 1 h after ingestion. The plasma concentration of Val or its concentration relative to the other BCAA during the postprandial period may act as a signal indicating the AA deficiency.

  8. Antineoplastic activity of linear leucine homodipeptides and their potential mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yun; Yang, Xiao-Xia; Guo, Wei; Zhang, Fu-Yong; Liao, Xiao-Jian; Yang, Hui-Fu; Xu, Shi-Hai; Xiong, Sheng

    2018-07-01

    Galaxamide is a rare cyclic homopentapeptide composed of three leucines and two N-methyl leucines isolated from marine algae Galaxaura filamentosa. The strong antitumor activity of this compound makes it a promising candidate for tumor therapy. The synthesis of galaxamide, however, is a complex process, and it has poor water solubility. On the basis of its special chemical composition, we designed a series of linear leucine homopeptides. Among seven dipeptide derivatives, five compounds with terminal protection groups and methyl substitution of the hydrogen in the amido group showed remarkable inhibitory effects against various cancer cells. N-tertbutyl-D-leucine-N-methyl-D-leucinebenzyl (A7), the only stereomer condensed by two D-leucines, showed the highest antineoplastic activity. A7-treated cells showed cell cycle arrest and morphological changes typical of cells undergoing apoptosis. The population of Annexin-V positive/propidium iodide-negative cells also increased, indicating the induction of early apoptosis. A7 promoted the cleavage of caspase-9 and caspase-3, as well as increased intracellular Ca levels and decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential. Collectively, certain linear leucine dipeptides derived from cyclic pentapeptide are able to inhibit tumor cell proliferation through cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction. The N-methyl group in the side chain and the D/L conformation of the amino-acid residue are critical for their activity.

  9. Structural basis for leucine sensing by the Sestrin2-mTORC1 pathway

    DOE PAGES

    Saxton, Robert A.; Knockenhauer, Kevin E.; Wolfson, Rachel L.; ...

    2015-11-19

    Eukaryotic cells coordinate growth with the availability of nutrients through mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), a master growth regulator. Leucine is of particular importance and activates mTORC1 via the Rag GTPases and their regulators GATOR1 and GATOR2. Sestrin2 interacts with GATOR2 and is a leucine sensor. We present the 2.7-Å crystal structure of Sestrin2 in complex with leucine. Leucine binds through a single pocket that coordinates its charged functional groups and confers specificity for the hydrophobic side chain. A loop encloses leucine and forms a lid-latch mechanism required for binding. A structure-guided mutation in Sestrin2 that decreases its affinity for leucinemore » leads to a concomitant increase in the leucine concentration required for mTORC1 activation in cells. Lastly, these results provide a structural mechanism of amino acid sensing by the mTORC1 pathway.« less

  10. Sestrin2 is a leucine sensor for the mTORC1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wolfson, Rachel L.; Chantranupong, Lynne; Saxton, Robert A.; Shen, Kuang; Scaria, Sonia M.; Cantor, Jason R.; Sabatini, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Leucine is a proteogenic amino acid that also regulates many aspects of mammalian physiology, in large part by activating the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) protein kinase, a master growth controller. Amino acids signal to mTORC1 through the Rag guanine triphosphatases (GTPases). Several factors regulate the Rags, including GATOR1, a GTPase activating protein (GAP); GATOR2, a positive regulator of unknown function; and Sestrin2, a GATOR2-interacting protein that inhibits mTORC1 signaling. We find that leucine, but not arginine, disrupts the Sestrin2-GATOR2 interaction by binding to Sestrin2 with a Kd of 20 µM, which is the leucine concentration that half-maximally activates mTORC1. The leucine-binding capacity of Sestrin2 is required for leucine to activate mTORC1 in cells. These results indicate that Sestrin2 is a leucine sensor for the mTORC1 pathway. PMID:26449471

  11. IGFBP-1 hyperphosphorylation in response to leucine deprivation is mediated by the AAR pathway

    PubMed Central

    Malkani, Niyati; Jansson, Thomas; Gupta, Madhulika B.

    2017-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I) is the key regulator of fetal growth. IGF-I bioavailability is markedly diminished by IGF binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) phosphorylation. Leucine deprivation strongly induces IGFBP-1hyperphosphorylation, and plays an important role in fetal growth restriction (FGR). FGR is characterized by decreased amino acid availability, which activates the amino acid response (AAR) and inhibits the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. We investigated the role of AAR and mTOR in mediating IGFBP-1 secretion and phosphorylation in HepG2 cells in leucine deprivation. mTOR inhibition (rapamycin or raptor+rictor siRNA), or activation (DEPTOR siRNA) demonstrated a role of mTOR in leucine deprivation-induced IGFBP-1 secretion but not phosphorylation. When the AAR was blocked (U0126, or ERK/GCN2 siRNA), both IGFBP-1 secretion and phosphorylation (Ser101/Ser119/Ser169) due to leucine deprivation were prevented. CK2 inhibition by TBB also attenuated IGFBP-1 phosphorylation in leucine deprivation. These results suggest that the AAR and mTOR independently regulate IGFBP-1 secretion and phosphorylation in leucine deprivation. PMID:25957086

  12. Metabolic Mechanism for l-Leucine-Induced Metabolome To Eliminate Streptococcus iniae.

    PubMed

    Du, Chao-Chao; Yang, Man-Jun; Li, Min-Yi; Yang, Jun; Peng, Bo; Li, Hui; Peng, Xuan-Xian

    2017-05-05

    Crucial metabolites that modulate hosts' metabolome to eliminate bacterial pathogens have been documented, but the metabolic mechanisms are largely unknown. The present study explores the metabolic mechanism for l-leucine-induced metabolome to eliminate Streptococcus iniae in tilapia. GC-MS-based metabolomics was used to investigate the tilapia liver metabolic profile in the presence of exogenous l-leucine. Thirty-seven metabolites of differential abundance were determined, and 11 metabolic pathways were enriched. Pattern recognition analysis identified serine and proline as crucial metabolites, which are the two metabolites identified in survived tilapias during S. iniae infection, suggesting that the two metabolites play crucial roles in l-leucine-induced elimination of the pathogen by the host. Exogenous l-serine reduces the mortality of tilapias infected by S. iniae, providing a robust proof supporting the conclusion. Furthermore, exogenous l-serine elevates expression of genes IL-1β and IL-8 in tilapia spleen, but not TNFα, CXCR4 and Mx, suggesting that the metabolite promotes a phagocytosis role of macrophages, which is consistent with the finding that l-leucine promotes macrophages to kill both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Therefore, the ability of phagocytosis enhanced by exogenous l-leucine is partly attributed to elevation of l-serine. These results demonstrate a metabolic mechanism by which exogenous l-leucine modulates tilapias' metabolome to enhance innate immunity and eliminate pathogens.

  13. Sestrin2 is a leucine sensor for the mTORC1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Wolfson, Rachel L; Chantranupong, Lynne; Saxton, Robert A; Shen, Kuang; Scaria, Sonia M; Cantor, Jason R; Sabatini, David M

    2016-01-01

    Leucine is a proteogenic amino acid that also regulates many aspects of mammalian physiology, in large part by activating the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) protein kinase, a master growth controller. Amino acids signal to mTORC1 through the Rag guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases). Several factors regulate the Rags, including GATOR1, aGTPase-activating protein; GATOR2, a positive regulator of unknown function; and Sestrin2, a GATOR2-interacting protein that inhibits mTORC1 signaling. We find that leucine, but not arginine, disrupts the Sestrin2-GATOR2 interaction by binding to Sestrin2 with a dissociation constant of 20 micromolar, which is the leucine concentration that half-maximally activates mTORC1. The leucine-binding capacity of Sestrin2 is required for leucine to activate mTORC1 in cells. These results indicate that Sestrin2 is a leucine sensor for the mTORC1 pathway. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Development and Properties of Valine-Alanine based Antibody-Drug Conjugates with Monomethyl Auristatin E as the Potent Payload

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Shiyong; Zhong, Wu; Zhou, Xinbo; Li, Song

    2017-01-01

    Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), designed to selectively deliver cytotoxic agents to antigen-bearing cells, are poised to become an important class of cancer therapeutics. Human epithelial growth factor receptor (HER2) is considered an effective target for cancer treatment, and a HER2-targeting ADC has shown promising results. Most ADCs undergoing clinical evaluation contain linkers that have a lysosomal protease-cleavable dipeptide, of which the most common is valine-citrulline (VC). However, valine-alanine (VA), another dipeptide comprising two human essential amino acids, has been used in next generation ADCs loading new toxins, but the druggable properties of ADCs loaded the most popular monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) remain to be further explored. In this study, we generated VA-based ADCs that connected MMAE to an anti-HER2 antibody. We studied the differences in the preparation process, in vitro stability, cathepsin B activity and in vitro cytotoxicity of VA-based ADC compared to the ADC of VC. VA had comparable performance to VC, which preliminarily displays its practicability. Additional efficacy and safety studies in a xenograft model indicate this novel ADC exerted potent anti-tumor activity and negligible toxicity. The results of this study show the application potential of VA-based ADC with MMAE as the payload. PMID:28841157

  15. Serine- and Threonine/Valine-Dependent Activation of PDK and Tor Orthologs Converge on Sch9 to Promote Aging

    PubMed Central

    Fabrizio, Paola; Wei, Min; Hu, Jia; Longo, Valter D.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary restriction extends longevity in organisms ranging from bacteria to mice and protects primates from a variety of diseases, but the contribution of each dietary component to aging is poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that glucose and specific amino acids promote stress sensitization and aging through the differential activation of the Ras/cAMP/PKA, PKH1/2 and Tor/S6K pathways. Whereas glucose sensitized cells through a Ras-dependent mechanism, threonine and valine promoted cellular sensitization and aging primarily by activating the Tor/S6K pathway and serine promoted sensitization via PDK1 orthologs Pkh1/2. Serine, threonine and valine activated a signaling network in which Sch9 integrates TORC1 and Pkh signaling via phosphorylation of threonines 570 and 737 and promoted intracellular relocalization and transcriptional inhibition of the stress resistance protein kinase Rim15. Because of the conserved pro-aging role of nutrient and growth signaling pathways in higher eukaryotes, these results raise the possibility that similar mechanisms contribute to aging in mammals. PMID:24516402

  16. Development and Properties of Valine-Alanine based Antibody-Drug Conjugates with Monomethyl Auristatin E as the Potent Payload.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanming; Fan, Shiyong; Zhong, Wu; Zhou, Xinbo; Li, Song

    2017-08-25

    Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), designed to selectively deliver cytotoxic agents to antigen-bearing cells, are poised to become an important class of cancer therapeutics. Human epithelial growth factor receptor (HER2) is considered an effective target for cancer treatment, and a HER2-targeting ADC has shown promising results. Most ADCs undergoing clinical evaluation contain linkers that have a lysosomal protease-cleavable dipeptide, of which the most common is valine-citrulline (VC). However, valine-alanine (VA), another dipeptide comprising two human essential amino acids, has been used in next generation ADCs loading new toxins, but the druggable properties of ADCs loaded the most popular monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) remain to be further explored. In this study, we generated VA-based ADCs that connected MMAE to an anti-HER2 antibody. We studied the differences in the preparation process, in vitro stability, cathepsin B activity and in vitro cytotoxicity of VA-based ADC compared to the ADC of VC. VA had comparable performance to VC, which preliminarily displays its practicability. Additional efficacy and safety studies in a xenograft model indicate this novel ADC exerted potent anti-tumor activity and negligible toxicity. The results of this study show the application potential of VA-based ADC with MMAE as the payload.

  17. Molecular cloning and characterization of leucine aminopeptidase from Fasciola gigantica.

    PubMed

    Changklungmoa, Narin; Chaithirayanon, Kulathida; Kueakhai, Pornanan; Meemon, Krai; Riengrojpitak, Suda; Sobhon, Prasert

    2012-07-01

    M17 leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) is one of a family of metalloexopeptidases, of which short peptide fragments are cleaved from the N-terminals. In this study, the full length of cDNA encoding Fasciola gigantica LAP (FgLAP) was cloned from adult parasites. The amino acid sequences of FgLAP showed a high degree of identity (98%) with that from Fasciola hepatica and a low degree of identities (11% and 9%) with those from cattle and human. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the FgLAP was closely related and grouped with F. hepatica LAP (FhLAP). Northern analysis showed that FgLAP transcriptional products have 1800 base pairs. Analysis by RNA in situ hybridization indicated that LAP gene was expressed in the cecal epithelial cells of adult parasites. A polyclonal antibody to a recombinant FgLAP (rFgLAP) detected the native LAP protein in various developmental stages of the parasite. In a functional test, this rFgLAP displayed aminolytic activity using a fluorogenic Leu-MCA substrate, and was significantly inhibited by bestatin. Its maximum activity was at pH 8.0 and enhanced by Mn(2+) ions. Localization of LAP proteins by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence techniques indicated that the enzyme was distributed in the apical cytoplasm of cecal epithelial cells. Because of its important metabolic role and fairly exposed position, FgLAP is a potential drug target and a possible vaccine candidate against fasciolosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Distribution and Evolution of Yersinia Leucine-Rich Repeat Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yueming; Huang, He; Hui, Xinjie; Cheng, Xi; White, Aaron P.

    2016-01-01

    Leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins are widely distributed in bacteria, playing important roles in various protein-protein interaction processes. In Yersinia, the well-characterized type III secreted effector YopM also belongs to the LRR protein family and is encoded by virulence plasmids. However, little has been known about other LRR members encoded by Yersinia genomes or their evolution. In this study, the Yersinia LRR proteins were comprehensively screened, categorized, and compared. The LRR proteins encoded by chromosomes (LRR1 proteins) appeared to be more similar to each other and different from those encoded by plasmids (LRR2 proteins) with regard to repeat-unit length, amino acid composition profile, and gene expression regulation circuits. LRR1 proteins were also different from LRR2 proteins in that the LRR1 proteins contained an E3 ligase domain (NEL domain) in the C-terminal region or an NEL domain-encoding nucleotide relic in flanking genomic sequences. The LRR1 protein-encoding genes (LRR1 genes) varied dramatically and were categorized into 4 subgroups (a to d), with the LRR1a to -c genes evolving from the same ancestor and LRR1d genes evolving from another ancestor. The consensus and ancestor repeat-unit sequences were inferred for different LRR1 protein subgroups by use of a maximum parsimony modeling strategy. Structural modeling disclosed very similar repeat-unit structures between LRR1 and LRR2 proteins despite the different unit lengths and amino acid compositions. Structural constraints may serve as the driving force to explain the observed mutations in the LRR regions. This study suggests that there may be functional variation and lays the foundation for future experiments investigating the functions of the chromosomally encoded LRR proteins of Yersinia. PMID:27217422

  19. Early postnatal development of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide- and peptide histidine isoleucine-immunoreactive structures in the cat visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Wahle, P; Meyer, G

    1989-04-08

    The early postnatal development of neurons containing vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI) has been analyzed in visual areas 17 and 18 of cats aged from postnatal day (P) 0 to adulthood. Neuronal types are established mainly by axonal criteria. Both peptides occur in the same neuronal types and display the same postnatal chronology of appearance. Several cell types are transient, which means that they are present in the cortex only for a limited period of development. According to their chronology of appearance the VIP/PHI-immunoreactive (ir) cell types are grouped into three neuronal populations. The first population comprises six cell types which appear early in postnatal life. The pseudohorsetail cells of layer I possess a vertically descending axon which initially gives rise to recurrent collaterals, then forms a bundle passing layers III to V, and finally, horizontal terminal fibers in layer VI. The neurons differentiate at P 4 and disappear by degeneration around P 30. The neurons with columnar dendritic fields of layers IV/V are characterized by a vertical arrangement of long dendrites ascending or descending parallel to each other, thus forming an up to 600 microns long dendritic column. Their axons always descend and terminate in broad fields in layer VI. The neurons appear at P 7 and are present until P 20. The multipolar neurons of layer VI occur in isolated positions and have broad axonal territories. The neurons differentiate at P 7 and persist into adulthood. Bitufted to multipolar neurons of layers II/III have axons descending as a single fiber to layer VI, where they terminate. The neurons appear at P 12 and persist into adulthood. The four cell types described above issue a vertically oriented fiber architecture in layers II-V and a horizontal terminal plexus in layer VI which is dense during the second, third and fourth week. Concurrent with the disappearance of the two transient types the number of

  20. CYP94-mediated jasmonoyl-isoleucine hormone oxidation shapes jasmonate profiles and attenuates defence responses to Botrytis cinerea infection

    PubMed Central

    Aubert, Yann; Widemann, Emilie; Miesch, Laurence; Pinot, Franck; Heitz, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Induced resistance to the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea depends on jasmonate metabolism and signalling in Arabidopsis. We have presented here extensive jasmonate profiling in this pathosystem and investigated the impact of the recently reported jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) catabolic pathway mediated by cytochrome P450 (CYP94) enzymes. Using a series of mutant and overexpressing (OE) plant lines, we showed that CYP94B3 and CYP94C1 are integral components of the fungus-induced jasmonate metabolic pathway and control the abundance of oxidized conjugated but also some unconjugated derivatives, such as sulfated 12-HSO4-JA. Despite causing JA-Ile overaccumulation due to impaired oxidation, CYP94 deficiency had negligible impacts on resistance, associated with enhanced JAZ repressor transcript levels. In contrast, plants overexpressing (OE) CYP94B3 or CYP94C1 were enriched in 12-OH-JA-Ile or 12-COOH-JA-Ile respectively. This shift towards oxidized JA-Ile derivatives was concomitant with strongly impaired defence gene induction and reduced disease resistance. CYP94B3-OE, but unexpectedly not CYP94C1-OE, plants displayed reduced JA-Ile levels compared with the wild type, suggesting that increased susceptibility in CYP94C1-OE plants may result from changes in the hormone oxidation ratio rather than absolute changes in JA-Ile levels. Consistently, while feeding JA-Ile to seedlings triggered strong induction of JA pathway genes, induction was largely reduced or abolished after feeding with the CYP94 products 12-OH-JA-Ile and 12-COOH-JA-Ile, respectively. This trend paralleled in vitro pull-down assays where 12-COOH-JA-Ile was unable to promote COI1–JAZ9 co-receptor assembly. Our results highlight the dual function of CYP94B3/C1 in antimicrobial defence: by controlling hormone oxidation status for signal attenuation, these enzymes also define JA-Ile as a metabolic hub directing jasmonate profile complexity. PMID:25903915

  1. A General Method for Selection of α-Acetolactate Decarboxylase-Deficient Lactococcus lactis Mutants To Improve Diacetyl Formation

    PubMed Central

    Curic, Mirjana; Stuer-Lauridsen, Birgitte; Renault, Pierre; Nilsson, Dan

    1999-01-01

    The enzyme acetolactate decarboxylase (Ald) plays a key role in the regulation of the α-acetolactate pool in both pyruvate catabolism and the biosynthesis of the branched-chain amino acids, isoleucine, leucine, and valine (ILV). This dual role of Ald, due to allosteric activation by leucine, was used as a strategy for the isolation of Ald-deficient mutants of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis. Such mutants can be selected as leucine-resistant mutants in ILV- or IV-prototrophic strains. Most dairy lactococcus strains are auxotrophic for the three amino acids. Therefore, the plasmid pMC004 containing the ilv genes (encoding the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of IV) of L. lactis NCDO2118 was constructed. Introduction of pMC004 into ILV-auxotrophic dairy strains resulted in an isoleucine-prototrophic phenotype. By plating the strains on a chemically defined medium supplemented with leucine but not valine and isoleucine, spontaneous leucine-resistant mutants were obtained. These mutants were screened by Western blotting with Ald-specific antibodies for the presence of Ald. Selected mutants lacking Ald were subsequently cured of pMC004. Except for a defect in the expression of Ald, the resulting strain, MC010, was identical to the wild-type strain, as shown by Southern blotting and DNA fingerprinting. The mutation resulting in the lack of Ald in MC010 occurred spontaneously, and the strain does not contain foreign DNA; thus, it can be regarded as food grade. Nevertheless, its application in dairy products depends on the regulation of genetically modified organisms. These results establish a strategy to select spontaneous Ald-deficient mutants from transformable L. lactis strains. PMID:10049884

  2. Study of solid/liquid and solid/gas interfaces in Cu-isoleucine complex by surface X-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrer, Pilar; Rubio-Zuazo, Juan; Castro, German R.

    2013-02-01

    The enzymes could be understood like structures formed by amino acids bonded with metals, which act as active sites. The research on the coordination of metal-amino acid complexes will bring light on the behavior of metal enzymes, due to the close relation existing between the atomic structure and the functionality. The Cu-isoleucine bond is considered as a good model system to attain a better insight into the characteristics of naturally occurring copper metalloproteins. The surface structure of metal-amino acid complex could be considered as a more realistic model for real systems under biologic working conditions, since the molecular packing is decreased. In the surface, the structural constrains are reduced, keeping the structural capability of surface complex to change as a function of the surrounding environment. In this work, we present a surface X-ray diffraction study on Cu-isoleucine complex under different ambient conditions. Cu(Ile)2 crystals of about 5 mm × 5 mm × 1 mm have been growth, by seeding method in a supersaturated solution, presenting a surface of high quality. The sample for the surface diffraction study was mounted on a cell specially designed for solid/liquid or solid/gas interface analysis. The Cu-isoleucine crystal was measured under a protective dry N2 gas flow and in contact with a saturated metal amino acid solution. The bulk and the surface signals were compared, showing different atomic structures. In both cases, from surface diffraction data, it is observed that the atomic structure of the top layer undergoes a clear structural deformation. A non-uniform surface relaxation is observed producing an inhomogeneous displacement of the surface atoms towards the surface normal.

  3. Genetic and biochemical analysis of the interaction of Bacillus subtilis CodY with branched-chain amino acids.

    PubMed

    Villapakkam, Anuradha C; Handke, Luke D; Belitsky, Boris R; Levdikov, Vladimir M; Wilkinson, Anthony J; Sonenshein, Abraham L

    2009-11-01

    Bacillus subtilis CodY protein is a DNA-binding global transcriptional regulator that responds to branched-chain amino acids (isoleucine, leucine, and valine) and GTP. Crystal structure studies have shown that the N-terminal region of the protein includes a GAF domain that contains a hydrophobic pocket within which isoleucine and valine bind. This region is well conserved in CodY homologs. Site-directed mutagenesis was employed to understand the roles of some of the residues in the GAF domain and hydrophobic pocket in interaction with isoleucine and GTP. The F40A, F71E, and F98A forms of CodY were inactive in vivo. They were activatable by GTP but to a much lesser extent by branched-chain amino acids in vitro. The CodY mutant R61A retained partial repression of target promoters in vivo and was able to respond to GTP in vitro but also responded poorly to branched-chain amino acids in vitro unless GTP was simultaneously present. Thus, the GAF domain includes residues essential for full activation of CodY by branched-chain amino acids, but these residues are not critical for activation by GTP. Binding studies with branched-chain amino acids and their analogs revealed that an amino group at position 2 and a methyl group at position 3 of valine are critical components of the recognition of the amino acids by CodY.

  4. Leucine Deprivation Stimulates Fat Loss via Increasing CRH Expression in the Hypothalamus and Activating The Sympathetic Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ying; Zhang, Qian; Meng, Qingshu; Xia, Tingting; Huang, Zhiying; Wang, Chunxia; Liu, Bin; Chen, Shanghai; Xiao, Fei; Du, Ying

    2011-01-01

    We previously showed that leucine deprivation decreases abdominal fat mass largely by increasing energy expenditure, as demonstrated by increased lipolysis in white adipose tissue (WAT) and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in brown adipose tissue (BAT). The goal of the present study was to investigate the possible involvement of central nervous system (CNS) in this regulation and elucidate underlying molecular mechanisms. For this purpose, levels of genes and proteins related to lipolysis in WAT and UCP1 expression in BAT were analyzed in wild-type mice after intracerebroventricular administration of leucine or corticotrophin-releasing hormone antibodies, or in mice deleted for three β-adrenergic receptors, after being maintained on a leucine-deficient diet for 7 d. Here, we show that intracerebroventricular administration of leucine significantly attenuates abdominal fat loss and blocks activation of hormone sensitive lipase in WAT and induction of UCP1 in BAT in leucine-deprived mice. Furthermore, we provide evidence that leucine deprivation stimulates fat loss by increasing expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone in the hypothalamus via activation of stimulatory G protein/cAMP/protein kinase A/cAMP response element-binding protein pathway. Finally, we show that the effect of leucine deprivation on fat loss is mediated by activation of the sympathetic nervous system. These results suggest that CNS plays an important role in regulating fat loss under leucine deprivation and thereby provide novel and important insights concerning the importance of CNS leucine in the regulation of energy homeostasis. PMID:21719534

  5. Reviewing the Effects of l-Leucine Supplementation in the Regulation of Food Intake, Energy Balance, and Glucose Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Pedroso, João A.B.; Zampieri, Thais T.; Donato, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Leucine is a well-known activator of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Because mTOR signaling regulates several aspects of metabolism, the potential of leucine as a dietary supplement for treating obesity and diabetes mellitus has been investigated. The objective of the present review was to summarize and discuss the available evidence regarding the mechanisms and the effects of leucine supplementation on the regulation of food intake, energy balance, and glucose homeostasis. Based on the available evidence, we conclude that although central leucine injection decreases food intake, this effect is not well reproduced when leucine is provided as a dietary supplement. Consequently, no robust evidence indicates that oral leucine supplementation significantly affects food intake, although several studies have shown that leucine supplementation may help to decrease body adiposity in specific conditions. However, more studies are necessary to assess the effects of leucine supplementation in already-obese subjects. Finally, although several studies have found that leucine supplementation improves glucose homeostasis, the underlying mechanisms involved in these potential beneficial effects remain unknown and may be partially dependent on weight loss. PMID:26007339

  6. Leucine deprivation stimulates fat loss via increasing CRH expression in the hypothalamus and activating the sympathetic nervous system.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ying; Zhang, Qian; Meng, Qingshu; Xia, Tingting; Huang, Zhiying; Wang, Chunxia; Liu, Bin; Chen, Shanghai; Xiao, Fei; Du, Ying; Guo, Feifan

    2011-09-01

    We previously showed that leucine deprivation decreases abdominal fat mass largely by increasing energy expenditure, as demonstrated by increased lipolysis in white adipose tissue (WAT) and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in brown adipose tissue (BAT). The goal of the present study was to investigate the possible involvement of central nervous system (CNS) in this regulation and elucidate underlying molecular mechanisms. For this purpose, levels of genes and proteins related to lipolysis in WAT and UCP1 expression in BAT were analyzed in wild-type mice after intracerebroventricular administration of leucine or corticotrophin-releasing hormone antibodies, or in mice deleted for three β-adrenergic receptors, after being maintained on a leucine-deficient diet for 7 d. Here, we show that intracerebroventricular administration of leucine significantly attenuates abdominal fat loss and blocks activation of hormone sensitive lipase in WAT and induction of UCP1 in BAT in leucine-deprived mice. Furthermore, we provide evidence that leucine deprivation stimulates fat loss by increasing expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone in the hypothalamus via activation of stimulatory G protein/cAMP/protein kinase A/cAMP response element-binding protein pathway. Finally, we show that the effect of leucine deprivation on fat loss is mediated by activation of the sympathetic nervous system. These results suggest that CNS plays an important role in regulating fat loss under leucine deprivation and thereby provide novel and important insights concerning the importance of CNS leucine in the regulation of energy homeostasis.

  7. Leucine signaling in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and obesity.

    PubMed

    Melnik, Bodo C

    2012-03-15

    Epidemiological evidence points to increased dairy and meat consumption, staples of the Western diet, as major risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). This paper presents a new concept and comprehensive review of leucine-mediated cell signaling explaining the pathogenesis of T2D and obesity by leucine-induced over-stimulation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). mTORC1, a pivotal nutrient-sensitive kinase, promotes growth and cell proliferation in response to glucose, energy, growth factors and amino acids. Dairy proteins and meat stimulate insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling and provide high amounts of leucine, a primary and independent stimulator for mTORC1 activation. The downstream target of mTORC1, the kinase S6K1, induces insulin resistance by phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1, thereby increasing the metabolic burden of β-cells. Moreover, leucine-mediated mTORC1-S6K1-signaling plays an important role in adipogenesis, thus increasing the risk of obesity-mediated insulin resistance. High consumption of leucine-rich proteins explains exaggerated mTORC1-dependent insulin secretion, increased β-cell growth and β-cell proliferation promoting an early onset of replicative β-cell senescence with subsequent β-cell apoptosis. Disturbances of β-cell mass regulation with increased β-cell proliferation and apoptosis as well as insulin resistance are hallmarks of T2D, which are all associated with hyperactivation of mTORC1. In contrast, the anti-diabetic drug metformin antagonizes leucine-mediated mTORC1 signaling. Plant-derived polyphenols and flavonoids are identified as natural inhibitors of mTORC1 and exert anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects. Furthermore, bariatric surgery in obesity reduces increased plasma levels of leucine and other branched-chain amino acids. Attenuation of leucine-mediated mTORC1 signaling by defining appropriate upper limits of the daily intake of leucine-rich animal and dairy

  8. Branched-chain Amino Acids are associated with Metabolic Parameters in Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Fellendorf, F T; Platzer, M; Pilz, R; Rieger, A; Kapfhammer, H P; Mangge, H; Dalkner, N; Zelzer, S; Meinitzer, A; Birner, A; Bengesser, S A; Queissner, R; Hamm, C; Hartleb, R; Reininghaus, E Z

    2018-06-14

    An important aspect of bipolar disorder (BD) research is the identification of biomarkers pertaining to the somatic health state. The branched-chain essential amino acids (BCAAs), viz valine, leucine and isoleucine, have been proposed as biomarkers of an individual's health state, given their influence on protein synthesis and gluconeogenesis inhibition. BCAA levels of 141 euthymic/subsyndromal individuals with BD and 141 matched healthy controls (HC) were analyzed by high-pressure lipid chromatography and correlated with clinical psychiatric, anthropometric and metabolic parameters. BD and HC did not differ in valine and isoleucine, whereas leucine was significantly lower in BD. Furthermore, correlations were found between BCAAs and anthropometric and glucose metabolism data. All BCAAs correlated with lipid metabolism parameters in females. There were no associations between BCAAs and long-term clinical parameters of BD. A negative correlation was found between valine and Hamilton-Depression-Scale, and Beck-Depression-Inventory-II, in male individuals. Our results indicate the utility of BCAAs as biomarkers for the current state of health, also in BD. As BD individuals have a high risk for overweight/obesity, in association with comorbid medical conditions (e.g. cardiovascular diseases, insulin resistance), health-state markers are urgently required. However, no illness-specific associations were found in this euthymic/subsyndromal BD group.

  9. Acute depletion of plasma glutamine increases leucine oxidation in prednisone-treated humans

    PubMed Central

    Le Bacquer, Olivier; Mauras, Nelly; Welch, Susan; Haymond, Morey; Darmaun, Dominique

    2007-01-01

    Background, aims & methods To determine whether depletion in plasma glutamine worsens the catabolic response to corticosteroids, 7 healthy volunteers received oral prednisone for 6 days on 2 separate occasions, at least 2 weeks apart, and in random order. On the 6th day of each treatment course, they received 5h intravenous infusions of L-[1-14C]-leucine and L-[1-13C]-glutamine in the postabsorptive state 1) under baseline conditions (prednisone only day), and 2) after 24h of treatment with phenylbutyrate (prednisone+phenylbutyrate day), a glutamine chelating agent. Results Phenylbutyrate treatment was associated with 1) an ≈15% decline in plasma glutamine concentration (627±39 vs. 530±31 μmol.L-1; P<0.05), 2) no change in leucine appearance rate, an index of protein breakdown (124±9 vs. 128±9 μmol.kg-1.h-1; NS) nor in non oxidative leucine disposal, an index of whole body protein synthesis (94±9 vs. 91±7 μmol.kg -1.h-1; NS); and 3) a ≈25% rise in leucine oxidation (30±1 vs. 38±2 μmol.kg-1.h-1, P<0.05), despite an ≈25% decline (p<0.05) in leucine concentration. Conclusions In a model of mild, stress-induced protein catabolism, depletion of plasma glutamine per se may worsen branched chain amino acid and protein wasting. PMID:17097772

  10. METABOLIC RESPONSES TO DIETARY LEUCINE RESTRICTION INVOLVE REMODELING OF ADIPOSE TISSUE AND ENHANCED HEPATIC INSULIN SIGNALING

    PubMed Central

    Wanders, Desiree; Stone, Kirsten P.; Dille, Kelly; Simon, Jacob; Pierse, Alicia; Gettys, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary leucine was incrementally restricted to test whether limiting this essential amino acid (EAA) would fully reproduce the beneficial responses produced by dietary methionine restriction. Restricting leucine by 85% increased energy intake and expenditure within five to seven days of its introduction and reduced overall accumulation of adipose tissue. Leucine restriction (LR) also improved glucose tolerance, increased hepatic release of FGF21 into the blood stream, and enhanced insulin-dependent activation of Akt in liver. However, LR had no effect on hepatic lipid levels and failed to lower lipogenic gene expression in the liver. LR did affect remodeling of white and brown adipose tissue, increasing expression of both thermogenic and lipogenic genes. These findings illustrate that dietary LR reproduces many but not all of the physiological responses of methionine restriction. The primary differences occur in the liver, where methionine and leucine restriction cause opposite effects on tissue lipid levels and expression of lipogenic genes. Together these findings suggest that the sensing systems which detect and respond to dietary restriction of EAAs act through mechanisms that both leucine and methionine are able to engage, and in the case of hepatic lipid metabolism, may be unique to specific EAAs such as methionine. PMID:26643647

  11. Thermodynamic analysis of the heterodimerization of leucine zippers of Jun and Fos transcription factors

    SciTech Connect

    Seldeen, Kenneth L.; McDonald, Caleb B.; Deegan, Brian J.

    2008-10-31

    Jun and Fos are components of the AP1 family of transcription factors and bind to the promoters of a diverse multitude of genes involved in critical cellular responses such as cell growth and proliferation, cell cycle regulation, embryonic development and cancer. Here, using the powerful technique of isothermal titration calorimetry, we characterize the thermodynamics of heterodimerization of leucine zippers of Jun and Fos. Our data suggest that the heterodimerization of leucine zippers is driven by enthalpic forces with unfavorable entropy change at physiological temperatures. Furthermore, the basic regions appear to modulate the heterodimerization of leucine zippers and may undergo atmore » least partial folding upon heterodimerization. Large negative heat capacity changes accompanying the heterodimerization of leucine zippers are consistent with the view that leucine zippers do not retain {alpha}-helical conformations in isolation and that the formation of the native coiled-coil {alpha}-helical dimer is attained through a coupled folding-dimerization mechanism.« less

  12. Functional Profiling Discovers the Dieldrin Organochlorinated Pesticide Affects Leucine Availability in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Vulpe, Chris D.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to organochlorinated pesticides such as dieldrin has been linked to Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases, endocrine disruption, and cancer, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms of toxicity behind these effects remain largely unknown. Here we demonstrate, using a functional genomics approach in the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae, that dieldrin alters leucine availability. This model is supported by multiple lines of congruent evidence: (1) mutants defective in amino acid signaling or transport are sensitive to dieldrin, which is reversed by the addition of exogenous leucine; (2) dieldrin sensitivity of wild-type or mutant strains is dependent upon leucine concentration in the media; (3) overexpression of proteins that increase intracellular leucine confer resistance to dieldrin; (4) leucine uptake is inhibited in the presence of dieldrin; and (5) dieldrin induces the amino acid starvation response. Additionally, we demonstrate that appropriate negative regulation of the Ras/protein kinase A pathway, along with an intact pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, is required for dieldrin tolerance. Many yeast genes described in this study have human orthologs that may modulate dieldrin toxicity in humans. PMID:23358190

  13. A pilot, short-term dietary manipulation of branched chain amino acids has modest influence on fasting levels of branched chain amino acids.

    PubMed

    Cavallaro, Nicole Landa; Garry, Jamie; Shi, Xu; Gerszten, Robert E; Anderson, Ellen J; Walford, Geoffrey A

    2016-01-01

    Elevated fasting levels of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs: valine, isoleucine, leucine) in venous blood are associated with a variety of metabolic impairments, including increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Fasting BCAA levels are influenced by non-dietary factors. However, it is unknown whether fasting BCAAs can be altered through manipulation of dietary intake alone. To test whether a specific dietary intervention, using differences in BCAA intake, alters fasting BCAA levels independent of other factors. Five healthy male volunteers underwent 4 days of a low and 4 days of a high BCAA content dietary intervention (ClinicalTrials.gov [NCT02110602]). All food and supplements were provided. Fasting BCAAs were measured from venous blood samples by mass spectrometry at baseline and after each intervention. Diets were isocaloric; contained equal percentages of calories from carbohydrate, fats, and protein; and differed from each other in BCAA content (1.5±0.1 vs. 14.0±0.6 g for valine; 4.5±0.9 g vs. 13.8±0.5 g for isoleucine; 2.1±0.2 g vs. 27.1±1.0 g for leucine; p<0.0001 for all). Fasting valine was significantly lower (p=0.02) and fasting isoleucine and leucine were numerically lower following the low BCAA content vs. the high BCAA content diet levels. The inter-individual response to the dietary interventions was variable and not explained by adherence. Short-term dietary manipulation of BCAA intake led to modest changes in fasting levels of BCAAs. The approach from our pilot study can be expanded to test the metabolic implications of dietary BCAA manipulation.

  14. Is diabetes mellitus-linked amino acid signature associated with β-blocker-induced impaired fasting glucose?

    PubMed

    Cooper-Dehoff, Rhonda M; Hou, Wei; Weng, Liming; Baillie, Rebecca A; Beitelshees, Amber L; Gong, Yan; Shahin, Mohamed H A; Turner, Stephen T; Chapman, Arlene; Gums, John G; Boyle, Stephen H; Zhu, Hongjie; Wikoff, William R; Boerwinkle, Eric; Fiehn, Oliver; Frye, Reginald F; Kaddurah-Daouk, Rima; Johnson, Julie A

    2014-04-01

    The 5-amino acid (AA) signature, including isoleucine, leucine, valine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine, has been associated with incident diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance. We investigated whether this same AA signature, single-nucleotide polymorphisms in genes in their catabolic pathway, was associated with development of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) after atenolol treatment. Among 234 European American participants enrolled in the Pharmacogenomic Evaluation of Antihypertensive Responses (PEAR) study and treated with atenolol for 9 weeks, we prospectively followed a nested cohort that had both metabolomics profiling and genotype data available for the development of IFG. We assessed the association between baseline circulating levels of isoleucine, leucine, valine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine, as well as single-nucleotide polymorphisms in branched-chain amino-acid transaminase 1 (BCAT1) and phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) with development of IFG. All baseline AA levels were strongly associated with IFG development. Each increment in standard deviation of the 5 AAs was associated with the following odds ratio and 95% confidence interval for IFG based on a fully adjusted model: isoleucine 2.29 (1.31-4.01), leucine 1.80 (1.10-2.96), valine 1.77 (1.07-2.92), tyrosine 2.13 (1.20-3.78), and phenylalanine 2.04 (1.16-3.59). The composite P value was 2×10(-5). Those with PAH (rs2245360) AA genotype had the highest incidence of IFG (P for trend=0.0003). Our data provide important insight into the metabolic and genetic mechanisms underlying atenolol-associated adverse metabolic effects. Clinical Trial Registration- http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique Identifier: NCT00246519.

  15. A pilot, short-term dietary manipulation of branched chain amino acids has modest influence on fasting levels of branched chain amino acids

    PubMed Central

    Cavallaro, Nicole Landa; Garry, Jamie; Shi, Xu; Gerszten, Robert E.; Anderson, Ellen J.; Walford, Geoffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Elevated fasting levels of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs: valine, isoleucine, leucine) in venous blood are associated with a variety of metabolic impairments, including increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Fasting BCAA levels are influenced by non-dietary factors. However, it is unknown whether fasting BCAAs can be altered through manipulation of dietary intake alone. Objective To test whether a specific dietary intervention, using differences in BCAA intake, alters fasting BCAA levels independent of other factors. Design Five healthy male volunteers underwent 4 days of a low and 4 days of a high BCAA content dietary intervention (ClinicalTrials.gov [NCT02110602]). All food and supplements were provided. Fasting BCAAs were measured from venous blood samples by mass spectrometry at baseline and after each intervention. Results Diets were isocaloric; contained equal percentages of calories from carbohydrate, fats, and protein; and differed from each other in BCAA content (1.5±0.1 vs. 14.0±0.6 g for valine; 4.5±0.9 g vs. 13.8±0.5 g for isoleucine; 2.1±0.2 g vs. 27.1±1.0 g for leucine; p<0.0001 for all). Fasting valine was significantly lower (p=0.02) and fasting isoleucine and leucine were numerically lower following the low BCAA content vs. the high BCAA content diet levels. The inter-individual response to the dietary interventions was variable and not explained by adherence. Conclusion Short-term dietary manipulation of BCAA intake led to modest changes in fasting levels of BCAAs. The approach from our pilot study can be expanded to test the metabolic implications of dietary BCAA manipulation. PMID:26781817

  16. THE EFFECT OF dl-METHIONINE, l-CYSTINE, AND dl-ISOLEUCINE ON THE UTILIZATION OF PARENTERALLY ADMINISTERED DOG HEMOGLOBIN

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Leon L.; Alling, Eric L.

    1947-01-01

    1. Further observations on the utilization of parenterally administered dog hemoglobin show that oral supplements of dl-methionine and l-cystine improve the efficiency of utilization of hemoglobin N, while a fed supplement of dl-isoleucine alone is without effect. 2. When N-isoleucine is added to a fed supplement of methionine or methionine and cystine, the utilization of parenterally given hemoglobin N is even better than with the sulfur-containing amino acids alone. 3. A suggested approach to the problem of designing the quantitatively "ideal" amino acid mixture lies in the definition of what may be called total organism-amino acid patterns of rat, dog, man, etc. These may vary considerably not only at different developmental stages in a given species, but also certainly from one species to another. 4. Further attempts to detect globin in the peripheral circulation have pointed to the need for a highly specific procedure such as that an immunologic method may offer. 5. Reduced hemin in dog plasma migrates with α1-globulin and albumin in veronal buffer at pH 8.5 and the colored zones give strong hemochromogen absorption bands. PMID:19871599

  17. Block of Brain Sodium Channels by Peptide Mimetics of the Isoleucine, Phenylalanine, and Methionine (IFM) Motif from the Inactivation Gate

    PubMed Central

    Eaholtz, Galen; Colvin, Anita; Leonard, Daniele; Taylor, Charles; Catterall, William A.

    1999-01-01

    Inactivation of sodium channels is thought to be mediated by an inactivation gate formed by the intracellular loop connecting domains III and IV. A hydrophobic motif containing the amino acid sequence isoleucine, phenylalanine, and methionine (IFM) is required for the inactivation process. Peptides containing the IFM motif, when applied to the cytoplasmic side of these channels, produce two types of block: fast block, which resembles the inactivation process, and slow, use-dependent block stimulated by strong depolarizing pulses. Fast block by the peptide ac-KIFMK-NH2, measured on sodium channels whose inactivation was slowed by the α-scorpion toxin from Leiurus quinquestriatus (LqTx), was reversed with a time constant of 0.9 ms upon repolarization. In contrast, control and LqTx-modified sodium channels were slower to recover from use-dependent block. For fast block, linear peptides of three to six amino acid residues containing the IFM motif and two positive charges were more effective than peptides with one positive charge, whereas uncharged IFM peptides were ineffective. Substitution of the IFM residues in the peptide ac-KIFMK-NH2 with smaller, less hydrophobic residues prevented fast block. The positively charged tripeptide IFM-NH2 did not cause appreciable fast block, but the divalent cation IFM-NH(CH2)2NH2 was as effective as the pentapeptide ac-KIFMK-NH2. The constrained peptide cyclic KIFMK containing two positive charges did not cause fast block. These results indicate that the position of the positive charges is unimportant, but flexibility or conformation of the IFM-containing peptide is important to allow fast block. Slow, use-dependent block was observed with IFM-containing peptides of three to six residues having one or two positive charges, but not with dipeptides or phenylalanine-amide. In contrast to its lack of fast block, cyclic KIFMK was an effective use-dependent blocker. Substitutions of amino acid residues in the tripeptide IFM-NH2 showed

  18. Magnetic Field Dependence of Heat Capacity Study on the (e-p) Bose-Einstein Condensation Through the Hydrogen onto D, L-Valine Optical Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W. Q.; Gong, G. Y.; Shen, X. C.; Qiao, B. H.; Li, J. J.

    2017-07-01

    For the aim to investigate the role of chirality and helicity between D- and L-valine crystal lattices under Debye temperature 2 K to 20 K, the magnetic field dependence of zero-field and 1, 3 and 5 Tesla on the heat capacity were measured.

  19. Studies on the synthesis, spectral, optical and thermal properties of l-Valine Zinc Sulphate: an organic inorganic hybrid nonlinear optical crystal.

    PubMed

    Puhal Raj, A; Ramachandra Raja, C

    2012-11-01

    Nonlinear optical (NLO) organic inorganic hybrid l-Valine Zinc Sulphate (LVZS) was synthesized and single crystals were obtained from saturated aqueous solution by slow evaporation method at 36°C using a constant temperature bath (CTB) with an accuracy of ±0.01°C. This crystal is reported with its characterization by single crystal and powder XRD, FTIR, UV-Vis-NIR, TG/DTA analysis and SHG test. Single crystal XRD study reveals that LVZS crystallizes in monoclinic system with the lattice constants a=9.969(3) Å, b=7.238(3) Å, c=24.334(9) Å and cell volume is 1736.00Å(3). Sharp peaks observed in powder X-ray diffraction studies confirm the high degree of crystallinity of grown crystal. The incorporation of sulphate ion with l-valine is confirmed by FTIR spectrum in LVZS crystal(.) A remarkable increase in optical transparency has been observed in LVZS when compared to l-valine and zinc sulphate heptahydrate Thermal properties of LVZS have been reported by using TG/DTA analysis. Kurtz powder second harmonic generation (SHG) test confirms NLO property of the crystal and SHG efficiency of LVZS was found to be 1.34 times more than pure l-valine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Synthesis, growth, structural, spectroscopic and optical studies of a new semiorganic nonlinear optical crystal: L-valine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Kirubavathi, K; Selvaraju, K; Valluvan, R; Vijayan, N; Kumararaman, S

    2008-04-01

    Single crystals of a new semiorganic nonlinear optical (NLO) material, L-valine hydrochloride (LVHCl), having dimensions up to 20 mm x 6 mm x 4 mm have been grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies confirm that the grown crystal belongs to the monoclinic system. The functional groups presented in the crystal were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) technique. Optical transmission spectrum shows very low absorption in the entire visible region. Differential thermal and thermogravimetric analyses confirmed that the crystal is stable up to 211 degrees C. The powder second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of LVHCl is 1.7 times efficient as potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP).

  1. Spectroscopic study of gel grown L-Valine Zinc Glycine Thiourea Sulfate (VZGTS) crystal: A novel NLO crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathod, Kiran T.; Patel, I. B.

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, organometalic non linear optical (NLO) materials have attained immense appeal form researchers due to its range of technological applications in photonic field and optoelectronic technology. In present research work, novel semi organic NLO L-Valine Zinc Glycine Thiourea Sulfate crystals (VZGTS) with different morphologies were grown by gel method at ambient temperature. Presence and identification of functional groups were confirmed by FITR analysis. Spectroscopic studies were carried out for it. The UV-Vis spectroscopy is recorded for crystal. PL study stats that the crystal has insulating nature. Spectroscopic study shows that this crystal has good transparency in the case of fundamental wavelength of Nd : YAG laser. Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) efficiency was confirmed by Kurtz - Perry powder method. Results are discussed in the paper.

  2. The effect of a high protein diet on leucine and alanine turnover in acid maltase deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Umpleby, A M; Trend, P S; Chubb, D; Conaglen, J V; Williams, C D; Hesp, R; Scobie, I N; Wiles, C M; Spencer, G; Sönksen, P H

    1989-01-01

    Leucine and alanine production rate was measured in 5 patients with acid maltase deficiency in the postabsorptive state, following 6 months on a normal diet with placebo and 6 months on an isocaloric high protein diet (16-22% protein). Whole body leucine production rate, a measure of protein degradation, expressed in terms of lean body mass was significantly greater than in five control subjects. Following the high protein diet, leucine production rate was decreased in four of the five patients but this was not statistically significant. Alanine production rate expressed in terms of lean body mass was significantly greater than in control subjects. After the high protein diet, alanine production rate and concentration were significantly decreased (p less than 0.05). There were no significant improvements in any of the clinically relevant variables measured in these patients. It is possible that a larger increase in protein intake over a longer time period may have a clinical effect. PMID:2507747

  3. Regulatory function of homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-ZIP) family proteins during embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Roodbarkelari, Farshad; Groot, Edwin P

    2017-01-01

    Homeodomain-leucine zipper proteins (HD-ZIPs) form a plant-specific family of transcription factors functioning as homo- or heterodimers. Certain members of all four classes of this family are involved in embryogenesis, the focus of this review. They support auxin biosynthesis, transport and response, which are in turn essential for the apical-basal patterning of the embryo, radicle formation and outgrowth of the cotyledons. They transcriptionally regulate meristem regulators to maintain the shoot apical meristem once it is initiated. Some members are specific to the protoderm, the outermost layer of the embryo, and play a role in shoot apical meristem function. Within classes, homeodomain-leucine zippers tend to act redundantly during embryo development, and there are many examples of regulation within and between classes of homeodomain-leucine zippers. This indicates a complex network of regulation that awaits future experiments to uncover. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Acetyl-DL-leucine improves gait variability in patients with cerebellar ataxia-a case series.

    PubMed

    Schniepp, Roman; Strupp, Michael; Wuehr, Max; Jahn, Klaus; Dieterich, Marianne; Brandt, Thomas; Feil, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Acetyl-DL-leucine is a modified amino acid that was observed to improve ataxic symptoms in patients with sporadic and hereditary forms of ataxia. Here, we investigated the effect of the treatment with Acetyl-DL-leucine on the walking stability of patients with cerebellar ataxia (10x SAOA, 2x MSA-C, 2x ADA, 1x CACNA-1A mutation, 2x SCA 2, 1x SCA 1). Treatment with Acetyl-DL-leucine (500 mg; 3-3-4) significantly improved the coefficient of variation of stride time in 14 out of 18 patients. Moreover, subjective ambulatory scores (FES-I and ABC) and the SARA scores were also improved under treatment. Further prospective studies are necessary to support these class III observational findings.

  5. Branched-chain amino acid transport in Streptococcus mutans Ingbritt.

    PubMed

    Dashper, S G; Reynolds, E C

    1993-06-01

    Leucine transport in glucose-energized cells of Streptococcus mutans exhibited Michaelis-Menten-type kinetics at low extracellular concentrations, with a K1 of 15.3 microM and a Vmax of 6.1 nmol/mg dry weight/min. At high extracellular leucine concentrations, the transmembrane diffusion of leucine was not saturable, indicating that passive diffusion becomes a significant mechanism of leucine transmembrane movement under these conditions. The proton motive force (PMF) was measured in glucose-energized cells of S. mutans and was found to have a maximum value of 126 mV at an extracellular pH (pH0) of 5.0; this decreased to 45 mV at pH0 8.0. The intracellular accumulation of leucine was significantly correlated with the magnitude of the PMF. The addition of excess isoleucine or valine caused a marked decrease in the leucine transport rate. Maximal rates of leucine transport occurred at pH0 6.0, and the rate of leucine transport was independent of the growth medium. The results suggest that there is a PMF-driven, branched-chain amino acid carrier in S. mutans with a proton: substrate stoichiometry of 1.

  6. Use of the [(14)C]leucine incorporation technique to measure bacterial production in river sediments and the epiphyton.

    PubMed

    Fischer, H; Pusch, M

    1999-10-01

    Bacterial production is a key parameter for the understanding of carbon cycling in aquatic ecosystems, yet it remains difficult to measure in many aquatic habitats. We therefore tested the applicability of the [(14)C]leucine incorporation technique for the measurement of bulk bacterial production in various habitats of a lowland river ecosystem. To evaluate the method, we determined (i) extraction efficiencies of bacterial protein from the sediments, (ii) substrate saturation of leucine in sediments, the biofilms on aquatic plants (epiphyton), and the pelagic zone, (iii) bacterial activities at different leucine concentrations, (iv) specificity of leucine uptake by bacteria, and (v) the effect of the incubation technique (perfused-core incubation versus slurry incubation) on leucine incorporation into protein. Bacterial protein was best extracted from sediments and precipitated by hot trichloroacetic acid treatment following ultrasonication. For epiphyton, an alkaline-extraction procedure was most efficient. Leucine incorporation saturation occurred at 1 microM in epiphyton and 100 nM in the pelagic zone. Saturation curves in sediments were difficult to model but showed the first level of leucine saturation at 50 microM. Increased uptake at higher leucine concentrations could be partly attributed to eukaryotes. Addition of micromolar concentrations of leucine did not enhance bacterial electron transport activity or DNA replication activity. Similar rates of leucine incorporation into protein calculated for whole sediment cores were observed after slurry and perfused-core incubations, but the rates exhibited strong vertical gradients after the core incubation. We conclude that the leucine incorporation method can measure bacterial production in a wide range of aquatic habitats, including fluvial sediments, if substrate saturation and isotope dilution are determined.

  7. Use of the [14C]Leucine Incorporation Technique To Measure Bacterial Production in River Sediments and the Epiphyton

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Helmut; Pusch, Martin

    1999-01-01

    Bacterial production is a key parameter for the understanding of carbon cycling in aquatic ecosystems, yet it remains difficult to measure in many aquatic habitats. We therefore tested the applicability of the [14C]leucine incorporation technique for the measurement of bulk bacterial production in various habitats of a lowland river ecosystem. To evaluate the method, we determined (i) extraction efficiencies of bacterial protein from the sediments, (ii) substrate saturation of leucine in sediments, the biofilms on aquatic plants (epiphyton), and the pelagic zone, (iii) bacterial activities at different leucine concentrations, (iv) specificity of leucine uptake by bacteria, and (v) the effect of the incubation technique (perfused-core incubation versus slurry incubation) on leucine incorporation into protein. Bacterial protein was best extracted from sediments and precipitated by hot trichloroacetic acid treatment following ultrasonication. For epiphyton, an alkaline-extraction procedure was most efficient. Leucine incorporation saturation occurred at 1 μM in epiphyton and 100 nM in the pelagic zone. Saturation curves in sediments were difficult to model but showed the first level of leucine saturation at 50 μM. Increased uptake at higher leucine concentrations could be partly attributed to eukaryotes. Addition of micromolar concentrations of leucine did not enhance bacterial electron transport activity or DNA replication activity. Similar rates of leucine incorporation into protein calculated for whole sediment cores were observed after slurry and perfused-core incubations, but the rates exhibited strong vertical gradients after the core incubation. We conclude that the leucine incorporation method can measure bacterial production in a wide range of aquatic habitats, including fluvial sediments, if substrate saturation and isotope dilution are determined. PMID:10508068

  8. Nutritional leucine supplementation attenuates cardiac failure in tumour-bearing cachectic animals.

    PubMed

    Toneto, Aline Tatiane; Ferreira Ramos, Luiz Alberto; Salomão, Emilianne Miguel; Tomasin, Rebeka; Aereas, Miguel Arcanjo; Gomes-Marcondes, Maria Cristina Cintra

    2016-12-01

    The condition known as cachexia presents in most patients with malignant tumours, leading to a poor quality of life and premature death. Although the cancer-cachexia state primarily affects skeletal muscle, possible damage in the cardiac muscle remains to be better characterized and elucidated. Leucine, which is a branched chain amino acid, is very useful for preserving lean body mass. Thus, this amino acid has been studied as a coadjuvant therapy in cachectic cancer patients, but whether this treatment attenuates the effects of cachexia and improves cardiac function remains poorly understood. Therefore, using an experimental cancer-cachexia model, we evaluated whether leucine supplementation ameliorates cachexia in the heart. Male Wistar rats were fed either a leucine-rich or a normoprotein diet and implanted or not with subcutaneous Walker-256 carcinoma. During the cachectic stage (approximately 21 days after tumour implantation), when the tumour mass was greater than 10% of body weight, the rats were subjected to an electrocardiogram analysis to evaluate the heart rate, QT-c, and T wave amplitude. The myocardial tissues were assayed for proteolytic enzymes (chymotrypsin, alkaline phosphatase, cathepsin, and calpain), cardiomyopathy biomarkers (myeloperoxidase, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases, and total plasminogen activator inhibitor 1), and caspase-8, -9, -3, and -7 activity. Both groups of tumour-bearing rats, especially the untreated group, had electrocardiography alterations that were suggestive of ischemia, dilated cardiomyopathy, and sudden death risk. Additionally, the rats in the untreated tumour-bearing group but not their leucine-supplemented littermates exhibited remarkable increases in chymotrypsin activity and all three heart failure biomarkers analysed, including an increase in caspase-3 and -7 activity. Our data suggest that a leucine-rich diet could modulate heart damage, cardiomyocyte proteolysis, and apoptosis driven by cancer

  9. Impaired intracortical transmission in G2019S leucine rich-repeat kinase Parkinson patients.

    PubMed

    Ponzo, Viviana; Di Lorenzo, Francesco; Brusa, Livia; Schirinzi, Tommaso; Battistini, Stefania; Ricci, Claudia; Sambucci, Manolo; Caltagirone, Carlo; Koch, Giacomo

    2017-05-01

    A mutation in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 is the most common cause of hereditary Parkinson's disease (PD), yet the neural mechanisms and the circuitry potentially involved are poorly understood. We used different transcranial magnetic stimulation protocols to explore in the primary motor cortex the activity of intracortical circuits and cortical plasticity (long-term potentiation) in patients with the G2019S leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene mutation when compared with idiopathic PD patients and age-matched healthy subjects. Paired pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to investigate short intracortical inhibition and facilitation and short afferent inhibition. Intermittent theta burst stimulation, a form of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, was used to test long-term potentiation-like cortical plasticity. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 and idiopathic PD were tested both in ON and in OFF l-dopa therapy. When compared with idiopathic PD and healthy subjects, leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 PD patients showed a remarkable reduction of short intracortical inhibition in both ON and in OFF l-dopa therapy. This reduction was paralleled by an increase of intracortical facilitation in OFF l-dopa therapy. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 PD showed abnormal long-term potentiation-like cortical plasticity in ON l-dopa therapy. The motor cortex in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 mutated PD patients is strongly disinhibited and hyperexcitable. These abnormalities could be a result of an impairment of inhibitory (gamma-Aminobutyric acid) transmission eventually related to altered neurotransmitter release. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  10. Isolation and characterization of awamori yeast mutants with L-leucine accumulation that overproduce isoamyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Hiroshi; Hashida, Keisuke; Watanabe, Daisuke; Nasuno, Ryo; Ohashi, Masataka; Iha, Tomoya; Nezuo, Maiko; Tsukahara, Masatoshi

    2015-02-01

    Awamori shochu is a traditional distilled alcoholic beverage made from steamed rice in Okinawa, Japan. Although it has a unique aroma that is distinguishable from that of other types of shochu, no studies have been reported on the breeding of awamori yeasts. In yeast, isoamyl alcohol (i-AmOH), known as the key flavor of bread, is mainly produced from α-ketoisocaproate in the pathway of L-leucine biosynthesis, which is regulated by end-product inhibition of α-isopropylmalate synthase (IPMS). Here, we isolated mutants resistant to the L-leucine analog 5,5,5-trifluoro-DL-leucine (TFL) derived from diploid awamori yeast of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Some of the mutants accumulated a greater amount of intracellular L-leucine, and among them, one mutant overproduced i-AmOH in awamori brewing. This mutant carried an allele of the LEU4 gene encoding the Ser542Phe/Ala551Val variant IPMS, which is less sensitive to feedback inhibition by L-leucine. Interestingly, we found that either of the constituent mutations (LEU4(S542F) and LEU4(A551V)) resulted in the TFL tolerance of yeast cells and desensitization to L-leucine feedback inhibition of IPMS, leading to intracellular L-leucine accumulation. Homology modeling also suggested that L-leucine binding was drastically inhibited in the Ser542Phe, Ala551Val, and Ser542Phe/Ala551Val variants due to steric hindrance in the cavity of IPMS. As we expected, awamori yeast cells expressing LEU4(S542F), LEU4(A551V), and LEU4(S542F/A551V) showed a prominent increase in extracellular i-AmOH production, compared with that of cells carrying the vector only. The approach described here could be a practical method for the breeding of novel awamori yeasts to expand the diversity of awamori taste and flavor. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. LC-MS/MS screening strategy for unknown adducts to N-terminal valine in hemoglobin applied to smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Henrik; von Stedingk, Hans; Nilsson, Ulrika; Törnqvist, Margareta

    2014-12-15

    Electrophilically reactive compounds have the ability to form adducts with nucleophilic sites in DNA and proteins, constituting a risk for toxic effects. Mass spectrometric detection of adducts to N-terminal valine in hemoglobin (Hb) after detachment by modified Edman degradation procedures is one approach for in vivo monitoring of exposure to electrophilic compounds/metabolites. So far, applications have been limited to one or a few selected reactive species, such as acrylamide and its metabolite glycidamide. This article presents a novel screening strategy for unknown Hb adducts to be used as a basis for an adductomic approach. The method is based on a modified Edman procedure, FIRE, specifically developed for LC-MS/MS analysis of N-terminal valine adducts in Hb detached as fluorescein thiohydantoin (FTH) derivatives. The aim is to detect and identify a priori unknown Hb adducts in human blood samples. Screening of valine adducts was performed by stepwise scanning of precursor ions in small mass increments, monitoring four fragments common for the FTH derivative of valine with different N-substitutions in the multiple-reaction mode, covering a mass range of 135 Da (m/z 503-638). Samples from six smokers and six nonsmokers were analyzed. Control experiments were performed to compare these results with known adducts and to check for artifactual formation of adducts. In all samples of smokers and nonsmokers, seven adducts were identified, of which six have previously been studied. Nineteen unknown adducts were observed, and 14 of those exhibited fragmentation patterns similar to earlier studied FTH derivatives of adducts to valine. Identification of the unknown adducts will be the focus of future work. The presented methodology is a promising screening tool using Hb adducts to indicate exposure to potentially toxic electrophilic compounds and metabolites.

  12. Time-dependent changes in the plasma amino acid concentration in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Mochida, Taiga; Tanaka, Takayuki; Shiraki, Yasuko; Tajiri, Hiroko; Matsumoto, Shirou; Shimbo, Kazutaka; Ando, Toshihiko; Nakamura, Kimitoshi; Okamoto, Masahiro; Endo, Fumio

    2011-08-01

    We investigated longitudinal change in the amino acid (AA) profile in type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) using AKITA mice, which develop DM as a result of insulin deficiency. The plasma concentrations of valine, leucine, isoleucine, as well as the total branched chain amino acids, alanine, citrulline and proline, were significantly higher in the diabetic mice. We show that the degree and timing of the changes were different among the plasma amino acid concentrations (pAAs) during the development of type 1 DM. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. AMINO ACID COMPOSITION OF HIGHLY PURIFIED VIRAL PARTICLES OF INFLUENZA A AND B

    PubMed Central

    Knight, C. A.

    1947-01-01

    Microbiological assays for amino acids were made on hydrolysates of four to five highly purified preparations each of influenza A virus (PR8 strain) and influenza B virus (Lee strain). The results of the assays indicated that these strains of influenza virus contain approximately the same amounts of alanine, aspartic acid, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, and valine. However, significant differences were found in the values for arginine, glutamic acid, lysine, tryptophane, and tyrosine. It is believed that these differences may provide, at least in part, a chemical explanation for some of the differing properties of the PR8 and Lee strains of influenza viruses. PMID:19871660

  14. Leucine Promotes Proliferation and Differentiation of Primary Preterm Rat Satellite Cells in Part through mTORC1 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jie-Min; Yu, Mu-Xue; Shen, Zhen-Yu; Guo, Chu-Yi; Zhuang, Si-Qi; Qiu, Xiao-Shan

    2015-01-01

    Signaling through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in response to leucine modulates many cellular and developmental processes. However, in the context of satellite cell proliferation and differentiation, the role of leucine and mTORC1 is less known. This study investigates the role of leucine in the process of proliferation and differentiation of primary preterm rat satellite cells, and the relationship with mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activation. Dissociation of primary satellite cells occurred with type I collagenase and trypsin, and purification, via different speed adherence methods. Satellite cells with positive expression of Desmin were treated with leucine and rapamycin. We observed that leucine promoted proliferation and differentiation of primary satellite cells and increased the phosphorylation of mTOR. Rapamycin inhibited proliferation and differentiation, as well as decreased the phosphorylation level of mTOR. Furthermore, leucine increased the expression of MyoD and myogenin while the protein level of MyoD decreased due to rapamycin. However, myogenin expressed no affect by rapamycin. In conclusion, leucine may up-regulate the activation of mTORC1 to promote proliferation and differentiation of primary preterm rat satellite cells. We have shown that leucine promoted the differentiation of myotubes in part through the mTORC1-MyoD signal pathway. PMID:26007333

  15. Differential Effects of Leucine Supplementation in Young and Aged Mice at the Onset of Skeletal Muscle Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Richard A.; Brown, Lemuel A.; Lee, David E.; Brown, Jacob L.; Baum, Jamie I.; Greene, Nicholas P.; Washington, Tyrone A.

    2016-01-01

    Aging decreases the ability of skeletal muscle to respond to injury. Leucine has been demonstrated to target protein synthetic pathways in skeletal muscle thereby enhancing this response. However, the effect of aging on leucine-induced alterations in protein synthesis at the onset of skeletal muscle regeneration has not been fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to determine if aging alters skeletal muscle regeneration and leucine-induced alterations in markers of protein synthesis. The tibialis anterior of young (3 months) and aged (24 months) female C57BL/6J mice were injected with either bupivacaine or PBS, and the mice were given ad libitum access to leucine-supplemented or normal drinking water. Protein and gene expression of markers of protein synthesis and degradation, respectively, were analyzed at three days post-injection. Following injury in young mice, leucine supplementation was observed to elevate only p-p70S6K. In aged mice, leucine was shown to elicit higher p-mTOR content with and without injury, and p-4EBP-1 content post-injury. Additionally in aged mice, leucine was shown to elicit higher content of relative p70S6K post-injury. Our study shows that leucine supplementation affects markers of protein synthesis at the onset of skeletal muscle regeneration differentially in young and aged mice. PMID:27327351

  16. Leucine stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs by enhancing mTORC1 activation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Skeletal muscle in the neonate grows at a rapid rate due in part to an enhanced sensitivity to the postprandial rise in amino acids, particularly leucine. To elucidate the molecular mechanism by which leucine stimulates protein synthesis in neonatal muscle, overnight-fasted 7-day-old piglets were tr...

  17. Nanoparticles Suitable for BCAA Isolation Can Serve for Use in Magnetic Lipoplex-Based Delivery System for L, I, V, or R-rich Antimicrobial Peptides.

    PubMed

    Vesely, Radek; Jelinkova, Pavlina; Hegerova, Dagmar; Cernei, Natalia; Kopel, Pavel; Moulick, Amitava; Richtera, Lukas; Heger, Zbynek; Adam, Vojtech; Zitka, Ondrej

    2016-03-31

    This paper investigates the synthesis of paramagnetic nanoparticles, which are able to bind branched chain amino acids (BCAAs)-leucine, valine, and isoleucine and, thus, serve as a tool for their isolation. Further, by this, we present an approach for encapsulation of nanoparticles into a liposome cavity resulting in a delivery system. Analyses of valine and leucine in entire complex show that 31.3% and 32.6% recoveries are reached for those amino acids. Evaluation of results shows that the success rate of delivery in Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) is higher in the case of BCAAs on nanoparticles entrapped in liposomes (28.7% and 34.7% for valine and leucine, respectively) when compared to nanoparticles with no liposomal envelope (18.3% and 13.7% for valine and leucine, respectively). The nanoparticles with no liposomal envelope exhibit the negative zeta potential (-9.1 ± 0.3 mV); however, their encapsulation results in a shift into positive values (range of 28.9 ± 0.4 to 33.1 ± 0.5 mV). Thus, electrostatic interactions with negatively-charged cell membranes (approx. -50 mV in the case of E. coli ) leads to a better uptake of cargo. Our delivery system was finally tested with the leucine-rich antimicrobial peptide (FALALKALKKALKKLKKALKKAL) and it is shown that hemocompatibility (7.5%) and antimicrobial activity of the entire complex against E. coli , Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus ), and methicilin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is comparable or better than conventional penicillin antibiotics.

  18. 'Zipbody' leucine zipper-fused Fab in E. coli in vitro and in vivo expression systems.

    PubMed

    Ojima-Kato, Teruyo; Fukui, Kansuke; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Hashimura, Dai; Miyake, Shiro; Hirakawa, Yuki; Yamasaki, Tomomi; Kojima, Takaaki; Nakano, Hideo

    2016-04-01

    A small antibody fragment, fragment of antigen binding (Fab), is favorable for various immunological assays. However, production efficiency of active Fab in microorganisms depends considerably on the clones. In this study, leucine zipper-peptide pairs that dimerize in parallel (ACID-p1 (LZA)/BASE-p1 (LZB) or c-Jun/c-Fos) were fused to the C-terminus of heavy chain (Hc, VH-CH1) and light chain (Lc, VL-CL), respectively, to accelerate the association of Hc and Lc to form Fab in Escherichia coli in vivo and in vitro expression systems. The leucine zipper-fused Fab named 'Zipbody' was constructed using anti-E. coli O157 monoclonal antibody obtained from mouse hybridoma and produced in both in vitro and in vivo expression systems in an active form, whereas Fab without the leucine zipper fusion was not. Similarly, Zipbody of rabbit monoclonal antibody produced in in vitro expression showed significant activity. The purified, mouse Zipbody produced in the E. coli strain Shuffle T7 Express had specificity toward the antigen; in bio-layer interferometry analysis, the KD value was measured to be 1.5-2.0 × 10(-8) M. These results indicate that leucine zipper fusion to Fab C-termini markedly enhances active Fab formation in E. coli. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. 3D Printing of Protein Models in an Undergraduate Laboratory: Leucine Zippers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Scott C.

    2015-01-01

    An upper-division undergraduate laboratory experiment is described that explores the structure/function relationship of protein domains, namely leucine zippers, through a molecular graphics computer program and physical models fabricated by 3D printing. By generating solvent accessible surfaces and color-coding hydrophobic, basic, and acidic amino…

  20. FLCN Maintains the Leucine Level in Lysosome to Stimulate mTORC1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhi; Ji, Xin; Qiao, Xianfeng; Jin, Yaping; Liu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The intracellular amino acid pool within lysosome is a signal that stimulates the nutrient-sensing mTORC1 signalling pathway. The signal transduction cascade has garnered much attention, but little is known about the sequestration of the signalling molecules within the lysosome. Using human HEK293 cells as a model, we found that suppression of the BHD syndrome gene FLCN reduced the leucine level in lysosome, which correlated with decreased mTORC1 activity. Both consequences could be reversed by supplementation with high levels of leucine, but not other tested amino acids. Conversely, overexpressed FLCN could sequester lysosomal leucine and stimulate mTORC1 in an amino acid limitation environment. These results identify a novel function of FLCN: it controls mTORC1 by modulating the leucine signal in lysosome. Furthermore, we provided evidence that FLCN exerted this role by inhibiting the accumulation of the amino acid transporter PAT1 on the lysosome surface, thereby maintaining the signal level within the organelle. PMID:27280402

  1. Nutritional and regulatory roles of leucine in muscle growth and fat reduction.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yehui; Li, Fengna; Liu, Hongnan; Li, Yinghui; Liu, Yingying; Kong, Xiangfeng; Zhang, Yuzhe; Deng, Dun; Tang, Yulong; Feng, Zemeng; Wu, Guoyao; Yin, Yulong

    2015-01-01

    The metabolic roles for L-leucine, an essential branched-chain amino acid (BCAA), go far beyond serving exclusively as a building block for de novo protein synthesis. Growing evidence shows that leucine regulates protein and lipid metabolism in animals. Specifically, leucine activates the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, including the 70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1) to stimulate protein synthesis in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue and to promote mitochondrial biogenesis, resulting in enhanced cellular respiration and energy partitioning. Activation of cellular energy metabolism favors fatty acid oxidation to CO2 and water in adipocytes, lean tissue gain in young animals, and alleviation of muscle protein loss in aging adults, lactating mammals, and food-deprived subjects. As a functional amino acid, leucine holds great promise to enhance the growth, efficiency of food utilization, and health of animals and humans. 

  2. Estimating Bacterial Production in Marine Waters from the Simultaneous Incorporation of Thymidine and Leucine

    PubMed Central

    Chin-Leo, Gerardo; Kirchman, David L.

    1988-01-01

    We examined the simultaneous incorporation of [3H]thymidine and [14C]leucine to obtain two independent indices of bacterial production (DNA and protein syntheses) in a single incubation. Incorporation rates of leucine estimated by the dual-label method were generally higher than those obtained by the single-label method, but the differences were small (dual/single = 1.1 ± 0.2 [mean ± standard deviation]) and were probably due to the presence of labeled leucyl-tRNA in the cold trichloroacetic acid-insoluble fraction. There were no significant differences in thymidine incorporation between dual- and single-label incubations (dual/ single = 1.03 ± 0.13). Addition of the two substrates in relatively large amounts (25 nM) did not apparently increase bacterial activity during short incubations (<5 h). With the dual-label method we found that thymidine and leucine incorporation rates covaried over depth profiles of the Chesapeake Bay. Estimates of bacterial production based on thymidine and leucine differed by less than 25%. Although the need for appropriate conversion factors has not been eliminated, the dual-label approach can be used to examine the variation in bacterial production while ensuring that the observed variation in incorporation rates is due to real changes in bacterial production rather than changes in conversion factors or introduction of other artifacts. PMID:16347706

  3. The ontogeny of seizures induced by leucine-enkephalin and beta-endorphin.

    PubMed

    Snead, O C; Stephens, H

    1984-06-01

    Rats ranging in postnatal age from 6 hours to 28 days were implanted with cortical and depth electrodes as well as an indwelling cannula in the lateral ventricle. We then administered varying amounts of the opiate peptides leucine-enkephalin and beta-endorphin intracerebroventricularly with continuous electroencephalographic monitoring. Leucine-enkephalin produced electrical seizure activity in rats as young as 2 days. beta-Endorphin administration was associated with seizures at the fifth postnatal day, with a high incidence of apnea resulting in death in animals as young as 6 hours. An adult seizure response to beta-endorphin and leucine-enkephalin was seen at 15 and 28 days of age, respectively. Naloxone blocked the seizure produced by these opiate peptides in all age groups. The data indicate that the opiate peptides are potent epileptogenic compounds in developing brain, that seizures induced by leucine-enkephalin differ from those caused by beta-endorphin, and that petit mal-like seizure activity can be an adult response in the rodent.

  4. Estimating bacterial production in marine waters from the simultaneous incorporation of thymidine and leucine.

    PubMed

    Chin-Leo, G; Kirchman, D L

    1988-08-01

    We examined the simultaneous incorporation of [H]thymidine and [C]leucine to obtain two independent indices of bacterial production (DNA and protein syntheses) in a single incubation. Incorporation rates of leucine estimated by the dual-label method were generally higher than those obtained by the single-label method, but the differences were small (dual/single = 1.1 +/- 0.2 [mean +/- standard deviation]) and were probably due to the presence of labeled leucyl-tRNA in the cold trichloroacetic acid-insoluble fraction. There were no significant differences in thymidine incorporation between dual- and single-label incubations (dual/ single = 1.03 +/- 0.13). Addition of the two substrates in relatively large amounts (25 nM) did not apparently increase bacterial activity during short incubations (<5 h). With the dual-label method we found that thymidine and leucine incorporation rates covaried over depth profiles of the Chesapeake Bay. Estimates of bacterial production based on thymidine and leucine differed by less than 25%. Although the need for appropriate conversion factors has not been eliminated, the dual-label approach can be used to examine the variation in bacterial production while ensuring that the observed variation in incorporation rates is due to real changes in bacterial production rather than changes in conversion factors or introduction of other artifacts.

  5. Prolonged leucine infusion differentially affects tissue protein synthesis in neonatal pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Leucine (Leu) acutely stimulates protein synthesis by activating the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway. To determine whether Leu can stimulate protein synthesis in muscles of different fiber types and visceral tissues of the neonate for a prolonged period and to determine the ...

  6. Leucine pulses enhance skeletal muscle protein synthesis during continuous feeding in neonatal pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Infants unable to maintain oral feeding can be nourished by orogastric tube. We have shown that orogastric continuous feeding restricts muscle protein synthesis compared with intermittent bolus feeding in neonatal pigs. To determine whether leucine leu infusion can be used to enhance protein synthes...

  7. Role of glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) in bone acquisition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) have both anabolic and catabolic effects on bone. However, no GC anabolic effect mediator has been identified to date. In this report, we provide the first evidence that glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ), a GC anti-inflammatory effect mediator, can enhance bone forma...

  8. Autophagy and leucine promote chronological longevity and respiration proficiency during calorie restriction in yeast.

    PubMed

    Aris, John P; Alvers, Ashley L; Ferraiuolo, Roy A; Fishwick, Laura K; Hanvivatpong, Amanda; Hu, Doreen; Kirlew, Christine; Leonard, Michael T; Losin, Kyle J; Marraffini, Michelle; Seo, Arnold Y; Swanberg, Veronica; Westcott, Jennifer L; Wood, Michael S; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Dunn, William A

    2013-10-01

    We have previously shown that autophagy is required for chronological longevity in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we examine the requirements for autophagy during extension of chronological life span (CLS) by calorie restriction (CR). We find that autophagy is upregulated by two CR interventions that extend CLS: water wash CR and low glucose CR. Autophagy is required for full extension of CLS during water wash CR under all growth conditions tested. In contrast, autophagy was not uniformly required for full extension of CLS during low glucose CR, depending on the atg allele and strain genetic background. Leucine status influenced CLS during CR. Eliminating the leucine requirement in yeast strains or adding supplemental leucine to growth media extended CLS during CR. In addition, we observed that both water wash and low glucose CR promote mitochondrial respiration proficiency during aging of autophagy-deficient yeast. In general, the extension of CLS by water wash or low glucose CR was inversely related to respiration deficiency in autophagy-deficient cells. Also, autophagy is required for full extension of CLS under non-CR conditions in buffered media, suggesting that extension of CLS during CR is not solely due to reduced medium acidity. Thus, our findings show that autophagy is: (1) induced by CR, (2) required for full extension of CLS by CR in most cases (depending on atg allele, strain, and leucine availability) and, (3) promotes mitochondrial respiration proficiency during aging under CR conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Autophagy and leucine promote chronological longevity and respiration proficiency during calorie restriction in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Aris, John P.; Alvers, Ashley L.; Ferraiuolo, Roy A.; Fishwick, Laura K.; Hanvivatpong, Amanda; Hu, Doreen; Kirlew, Christine; Leonard, Michael T.; Losin, Kyle J.; Marraffini, Michelle; Seo, Arnold Y.; Swanberg, Veronica; Westcott, Jennifer L.; Wood, Michael S.; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Dunn, William A.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that autophagy is required for chronological longevity in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we examine the requirements for autophagy during extension of chronological life span (CLS) by calorie restriction (CR). We find that autophagy is upregulated by two CR interventions that extend CLS: water wash CR and low glucose CR. Autophagy is required for full extension of CLS during water wash CR under all growth conditions tested. In contrast, autophagy was not uniformly required for full extension of CLS during low glucose CR, depending on the atg allele and strain genetic background. Leucine status influenced CLS during CR. Eliminating the leucine requirement in yeast strains or adding supplemental leucine to growth media extended CLS during CR. In addition, we observed that both water wash and low glucose CR promote mitochondrial respiration proficiency during aging of autophagy-deficient yeast. In general, the extension of CLS by water wash or low glucose CR was inversely related to respiration deficiency in autophagy-deficient cells. Also, autophagy is required for full extension of CLS under non-CR conditions in buffered media, suggesting that extension of CLS during CR is not solely due to reduced medium acidity. Thus, our findings show that autophagy is: (1) induced by CR, (2) required for full extension of CLS by CR in most cases (depending on atg allele, strain, and leucine availability) and, (3) promotes mitochondrial respiration proficiency during aging under CR conditions. PMID:23337777

  10. Impact of prolonged leucine supplementation on protein synthesis and lean growth in neonatal pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Most low-birth weight infants experience extrauterine growth failure due to reduced nutrient intake as a result of feeding intolerance. The objective of this study was to determine whether prolonged enteral leucine supplementation improves lean growth in neonatal pigs fed a restricted protein diet. ...

  11. Leucine minimizes denervation-induced skeletal muscle atrophy of rats through akt/mtor signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Carolina B.; Christofoletti, Daiane C.; Pezolato, Vitor A.; de Cássia Marqueti Durigan, Rita; Prestes, Jonato; Tibana, Ramires A.; Pereira, Elaine C. L.; de Sousa Neto, Ivo V.; Durigan, João L. Q.; da Silva, Carlos A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of leucine treatment (0.30 mM) on muscle weight and signaling of myoproteins related to synthesis and degradation pathways of soleus muscle following seven days of complete sciatic nerve lesion. Wistar rats (n = 24) of 3–4 months of age (192 ± 23 g) were used. The animals were randomly distributed into four experimental groups (n = 6/group): control, treated with leucine (L), denervated (D) and denervated treated with leucine (DL). Dependent measures were proteins levels of AKT, AMPK, mTOR, and ACC performed by Western blot. Leucine induced a reduction in the phosphorylation of AMPK (p < 0.05) by 16% in the L and by 68% in the DL groups as compared with control group. Denervation increased AMPK by 24% in the D group as compared with the control group (p < 0.05). AKT was also modulated by denervation and leucine treatment, highlighted by the elevation of AKT phosphorylation in the D (65%), L (98%) and DL (146%) groups as compared with the control group (p < 0.05). AKT phosphorylation was 49% higher in the D group as compared with the DL group. Furthermore, denervation decreased mTOR phosphorylation by 29% in the D group as compared with the control group. However, leucine treatment induced an increase of 49% in the phosphorylation of mTOR in the L group as compared with the control group, and an increase of 154% in the DL as compared with the D group (p < 0.05). ACC phosphorylation was 20% greater in the D group than the control group. Furthermore, ACC in the soleus was 22% lower in the in the L group and 50% lower in the DL group than the respective control group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, leucine treatment minimized the deleterious effects of denervation on rat soleus muscle by increasing anabolic (AKT and mTOR) and decreasing catabolic (AMPK) pathways. These results may be interesting for muscle recovery following acute denervation, which may contribute to musculoskeletal rehabilitation after denervation

  12. Kinetic Study of Laboratory Mutants of NDM-1 Metallo-β-Lactamase and the Importance of an Isoleucine at Position 35

    PubMed Central

    Marcoccia, Francesca; Bottoni, Carlo; Sabatini, Alessia; Colapietro, Martina; Mercuri, Paola Sandra; Galleni, Moreno; Kerff, Frédéric; Matagne, André; Celenza, Giuseppe; Amicosante, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Two laboratory mutants of NDM-1 were generated by replacing the isoleucine at position 35 with threonine and serine residues: the NDM-1I35T and NDM-1I35S enzymes. These mutants were well characterized, and their kinetic parameters were compared with those of the NDM-1 wild type. The kcat, Km, and kcat/Km values calculated for the two mutants were slightly different from those of the wild-type enzyme. Interestingly, the kcat/Km of NDM-1I35S for loracarbef was about 14-fold higher than that of NDM-1. Far-UV circular dichroism (CD) spectra of NDM-1 and NDM-1I35T and NDM-1I35S enzymes suggest local structural rearrangements in the secondary structure with a marked reduction of α-helix content in the mutants. PMID:26856833

  13. Crystal structure of a super leucine zipper, an extended two-stranded super long coiled coil

    PubMed Central

    Diao, Jiasheng

    2010-01-01

    Coiled coil is a ubiquitous structural motif in proteins, with two to seven alpha helices coiled together like the strands of a rope, and coiled coil folding and assembly is not completely understood. A GCN4 leucine zipper mutant with four mutations of K3A, D7A, Y17W, and H18N has been designed, and the crystal structure has been determined at 1.6 Å resolution. The peptide monomer shows a helix trunk with short curved N- and C-termini. In the crystal, two monomers cross in 35° and form an X-shaped dimer, and each X-shaped dimer is welded into the next one through sticky hydrophobic ends, thus forming an extended two-stranded, parallel, super long coiled coil rather than a discrete, two-helix coiled coil of the wild-type GCN4 leucine zipper. Leucine residues appear at every seventh position in the super long coiled coil, suggesting that it is an extended super leucine zipper. Compared to the wild-type leucine zipper, the N-terminus of the mutant has a dramatic conformational change and the C-terminus has one more residue Glu 32 determined. The mutant X-shaped dimer has a large crossing angle of 35° instead of 18° in the wild-type dimer. The results show a novel assembly mode and oligomeric state of coiled coil, and demonstrate that mutations may affect folding and assembly of the overall coiled coil. Analysis of the formation mechanism of the super long coiled coil may help understand and design self-assembling protein fibers. PMID:20027625

  14. Crystal Structure of a Super Leucine Zipper an Extended Two-Stranded Super Long Coiled Coil

    SciTech Connect

    J Diao

    2011-12-31

    Coiled coil is a ubiquitous structural motif in proteins, with two to seven alpha helices coiled together like the strands of a rope, and coiled coil folding and assembly is not completely understood. A GCN4 leucine zipper mutant with four mutations of K3A, D7A, Y17W, and H18N has been designed, and the crystal structure has been determined at 1.6 {angstrom} resolution. The peptide monomer shows a helix trunk with short curved N- and C-termini. In the crystal, two monomers cross in 35{sup o} and form an X-shaped dimer, and each X-shaped dimer is welded into the next one through stickymore » hydrophobic ends, thus forming an extended two-stranded, parallel, super long coiled coil rather than a discrete, two-helix coiled coil of the wild-type GCN4 leucine zipper. Leucine residues appear at every seventh position in the super long coiled coil, suggesting that it is an extended super leucine zipper. Compared to the wild-type leucine zipper, the N-terminus of the mutant has a dramatic conformational change and the C-terminus has one more residue Glu 32 determined. The mutant X-shaped dimer has a large crossing angle of 35{sup o} instead of 18{sup o} in the wild-type dimer. The results show a novel assembly mode and oligomeric state of coiled coil, and demonstrate that mutations may affect folding and assembly of the overall coiled coil. Analysis of the formation mechanism of the super long coiled coil may help understand and design self-assembling protein fibers.« less

  15. Investigation of Phenolic Acids in Suspension Cultures of Vitis vinifera Stimulated with Indanoyl-Isoleucine, N-Linolenoyl-L-Glutamine, Malonyl Coenzyme A and Insect Saliva

    PubMed Central

    Riedel, Heidi; Akumo, Divine N.; Saw, Nay Min Min Thaw; Smetanska, Iryna; Neubauer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Vitis vinifera c.v. Muscat de Frontignan (grape) contains various high valuable bioactive phenolic compounds with pharmaceutical properties and industrial interest which are not fully exploited. The focus of this investigation consists in testing the effects of various biological elicitors on a non-morphogenic callus suspension culture of V. vinifera. The investigated elicitors: Indanoyl-isoleucine (IN), N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine (LG), insect saliva (IS) and malonyl coenzyme A (MCoA) were aimed at mimicking the influence of environmental pathogens on plants in their natural habitats and at provoking exogenous induction of the phenylpropanoid pathway. The elicitors’ indanoyl-isoleucine (IN), N-linolenoyl-L-glutamine (LG) and insect saliva (IS), as well as malonyl coenzyme A (MCoA), were independently inoculated to stimulate the synthesis of phenylpropanoids. All of the enhancers positively increased the concentration of phenolic compounds in grape cells. The highest concentration of phenolic acids was detected after 2 h for MCoA, after 48 h for IN and after 24 h for LG and IS respectively. At the maximum production time, treated grape cells had a 3.5-fold (MCoA), 1.6-fold (IN) and 1.5-fold (IS) higher phenolic acid content compared to the corresponding control samples. The HPLC results of grape cells showed two major resveratrol derivatives: 3-O-Glucosyl-resveratrol and 4-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-phenol. Their influences of the different elicitors, time of harvest and biomass concentration (p < 0.0001) were statistically significant on the synthesis of phenolic compounds. The induction with MCoA was found to demonstrate the highest statistical effect corresponding to the strongest stress response within the phenylpropanoid pathway in grape cells. PMID:24957372

  16. Leptin and leucine synergistically regulate protein metabolism in C2C12 myotubes and mouse skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiangbing; Zeng, Xiangfang; Huang, Zhimin; Wang, Junjun; Qiao, Shiyan

    2013-07-28

    Leucine and leptin play important roles in regulating protein synthesis and degradation in skeletal muscles in vitro and in vivo. However, the objective of the present study was to determine whether leptin and leucine function synergistically in regulating protein metabolism of skeletal muscles. In the in vitro experiment, C2C12 myotubes were cultured for 2 h in the presence of 5 mm-leucine and/or 50 ng/ml of leptin. In the in vivo experiment, C57BL/6 and ob/ob mice were randomly assigned to be fed a non-purified diet supplemented with 3 % L-leucine or 2·04 % L-alanine (isonitrogenous control) for 14 d. Ob/ob mice were injected intraperitoneally with sterile PBS or recombinant mouse leptin (0·1 μg/g body weight) for 14 d. In C57BL/6 mice, dietary leucine supplementation increased (P< 0·05) plasma leptin, leptin receptor expression and protein synthesis in skeletal muscles, but reduced (P< 0·05) plasma urea and protein degradation in skeletal muscles. Dietary leucine supplementation and leptin injection increased the relative weight of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles in ob/ob mice. Moreover, leucine and leptin treatments stimulated (P< 0·05) protein synthesis and inhibited (P< 0·05) protein degradation in C2C12 myotubes and skeletal muscles of ob/ob mice. There were interactions (P< 0·05) between the leucine and leptin treatments with regard to protein metabolism in C2C12 myotubes and soleus muscles of ob/ob mice but not in the gastrocnemius muscles of ob/ob mice. Collectively, these results suggest that leptin and leucine synergistically regulate protein metabolism in skeletal muscles both in vitro and in vivo.

  17. Phenothiazine-based CaaX competitive inhibitors of human farnesyltransferase bearing a cysteine, methionine, serine or valine moiety as a new family of antitumoral compounds.

    PubMed

    Dumitriu, Gina-Mirabela; Bîcu, Elena; Belei, Dalila; Rigo, Benoît; Dubois, Joëlle; Farce, Amaury; Ghinet, Alina

    2015-10-15

    A new family of CaaX competitive inhibitors of human farnesyltransferase based on phenothiazine and carbazole skeleton bearing a l-cysteine, l-methionine, l-serine or l-valine moiety was designed, synthesized and biologically evaluated. Phenothiazine derivatives proved to be more active than carbazole-based compounds. Phenothiazine 1b with cysteine residue was the most promising inhibitor of human farnesyltransferase in the current study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of (S)-valine thiazole-derived cyclic and non-cyclic peptidomimetic oligomers as modulators of human P-glycoprotein (ABCB1)

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Satyakam; Prasad, Nagarajan Rajendra; Kapoor, Khyati; Chufan, Eduardo E.; Patel, Bhargav A.; Ambudkar, Suresh V.; Talele, Tanaji T.

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) caused by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) through extrusion of anticancer drugs from the cells is a major cause of failure to cancer chemotherapy. Previously, selenazole containing cyclic peptides were reported as P-gp inhibitors and these were also used for co-crystallization with mouse P-gp, which has 87% homology to human P-gp. It has been reported that human P-gp, can simultaneously accommodate 2-3 moderate size molecules at the drug binding pocket. Our in-silico analysis based on the homology model of human P-gp spurred our efforts to investigate the optimal size of (S)-valine-derived thiazole units that can be accommodated at drug-binding pocket. Towards this goal, we synthesized varying lengths of linear and cyclic derivatives of (S)-valine-derived thiazole units to investigate the optimal size, lipophilicity and the structural form (linear and cyclic) of valine-derived thiazole peptides that can accommodate well in the P-gp binding pocket and affects its activity, previously an unexplored concept. Among these oligomers, lipophilic linear- (13) and cyclic-trimer (17) derivatives of QZ59S-SSS were found to be the most and equally potent inhibitors of human P-gp (IC50 = 1.5 μM). Cyclic trimer and linear trimer being equipotent, future studies can be focused on non-cyclic counterparts of cyclic peptides maintaining linear trimer length. Binding model of the linear trimer (13) within the drug-binding site on the homology model of human P-gp represents an opportunity for future optimization, specifically replacing valine and thiazole groups in the non-cyclic form. PMID:24288265

  19. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of (S)-valine thiazole-derived cyclic and noncyclic peptidomimetic oligomers as modulators of human P-glycoprotein (ABCB1).

    PubMed

    Singh, Satyakam; Prasad, Nagarajan Rajendra; Kapoor, Khyati; Chufan, Eduardo E; Patel, Bhargav A; Ambudkar, Suresh V; Talele, Tanaji T

    2014-01-03

    Multidrug resistance caused by ATP binding cassette transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) through extrusion of anticancer drugs from the cells is a major cause of failure in cancer chemotherapy. Previously, selenazole-containing cyclic peptides were reported as P-gp inhibitors and were also used for co-crystallization with mouse P-gp, which has 87 % homology to human P-gp. It has been reported that human P-gp can simultaneously accommodate two to three moderately sized molecules at the drug binding pocket. Our in silico analysis, based on the homology model of human P-gp, spurred our efforts to investigate the optimal size of (S)-valine-derived thiazole units that can be accommodated at the drug binding pocket. Towards this goal, we synthesized varying lengths of linear and cyclic derivatives of (S)-valine-derived thiazole units to investigate the optimal size, lipophilicity, and structural form (linear or cyclic) of valine-derived thiazole peptides that can be accommodated in the P-gp binding pocket and affects its activity, previously an unexplored concept. Among these oligomers, lipophilic linear (13) and cyclic trimer (17) derivatives of QZ59S-SSS were found to be the most and equally potent inhibitors of human P-gp (IC50 =1.5 μM). As the cyclic trimer and linear trimer compounds are equipotent, future studies should focus on noncyclic counterparts of cyclic peptides maintaining linear trimer length. A binding model of the linear trimer 13 within the drug binding site on the homology model of human P-gp represents an opportunity for future optimization, specifically replacing valine and thiazole groups in the noncyclic form. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Gas-phase reactions of glycine, alanine, valine and their N-methyl derivatives with the nitrosonium ion, NO+.

    PubMed

    Freitas, M A; O'Hair, R A; Schmidt, J A; Tichy, S E; Plashko, B E; Williams, T D

    1996-10-01

    The gas-phase reactions of the nitrosonium ion, NO+ with the amino acids glycine, alanine and valine and their N-methyl derivatives were investigated under chemical ionization mass spectrometric (CIMS) conditions. Two products were observed in all cases: the formation of the iminium ion and the formation of an [M-H]+ ion. The latter product is consistent with a reaction channel involving hydride abstraction by NO+, and was confirmed by (i) examining the Ar+CI mass spectra of the same amino acids under similar source conditions and (ii) examining the unimolecular fragmentation reactions of the [M + H]+ ions of the N-nitroso-N-methyl derivatives of each of the amino acids in a tandem mass spectrometer. Further insights into the reaction of glycine with NO+ were obtained by performing ab initio calculations (at the MP2/6-31G* parallel HF/6-31G* level). These results indicate that four reactions are thermodynamically viable for glycine: (i) hydride abstraction; (ii) iminium ion formation (with concomitant loss of HONO and CO); (iii) diazonium ion formation; and (iv) diazonium ion formation followed by loss of N2. Possible reasons why reactions (iii) and (iv) are not observed are discussed, and comparisons with solution reactivity and the gas-phase reactivity of NO+ are also made.

  1. Experimental study of the anti-tumour activity and pharmacokinetics of arctigenin and its valine ester derivative.

    PubMed

    Cai, Enbo; Song, Xingzhuo; Han, Mei; Yang, Limin; Zhao, Yan; Li, Wei; Han, Jiahong; Tu, Shumei

    2018-02-19

    Arctigenin (ARG) is a functional active component that has important physiological and pharmacological activities. The anti-tumour and anti-inflammatory activities of ARG show good potential for application and development, but this material has the defect of low water solubility. In this experiment, the valine derivative of ARG (ARG-V) was designed and synthesized to overcome this disadvantage. The ARG amino acid, EDCI and DMAP were raw materials in the addition reaction, with a molar ratio of 1:2:2:0.5. The yield of ARG-V was up to 80%. ARG-V has strong anti-tumour activity in vivo and in vitro. The inhibitory rate of ARG-V was 69.2%, with less damage to the immune organs and different degrees of increased serum cytotoxicity. Moreover, the pharmacokinetics of ARG following oral administration and ARG-V following oral administration in rats were also studied. The C max and AUC values of ARG-V showed significant differences compared to ARG. The relative bioavailabilities of three doses of ARG-V compared to ARG were 664.7%, 741.5% and 812.9%. These pharmacokinetic results may be useful for further studies of the bioactive mechanism of ARG and provide a theoretical basic for clinical use.

  2. Capsaicin Synthesis Requires in Situ Phenylalanine and Valine Formation in in Vitro Maintained Placentas from Capsicum chinense.

    PubMed

    Baas-Espinola, Fray M; Castro-Concha, Lizbeth A; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe A; Miranda-Ham, María L

    2016-06-21

    Capsaicinoids (CAP) are nitrogenous metabolites formed from valine (Val) and phenylalanine (Phe) in the placentas of hot Capsicum genotypes. Placentas of Habanero peppers can incorporate inorganic nitrogen into amino acids and have the ability to secure the availability of the required amino acids for CAP biosynthesis. In order to determine the participation of the placental tissue as a supplier of these amino acids, the effects of blocking the synthesis of Val and Phe by using specific enzyme inhibitors were analyzed. Isolated placentas maintained in vitro were used to rule out external sources' participation. Blocking Phe synthesis, through the inhibition of arogenate dehydratase, significantly decreased CAP accumulation suggesting that at least part of Phe required in this process has to be produced in situ. Chlorsulfuron inhibition of acetolactate synthase, involved in Val synthesis, decreased not only Val accumulation but also that of CAP, pointing out that the requirement for this amino acid can also be fulfilled by this tissue. The presented data demonstrates that CAP accumulation in in vitro maintained placentas can be accomplished through the in situ availability of Val and Phe and suggests that the synthesis of the fatty acid chain moiety may be a limiting factor in the biosynthesis of these alkaloids.

  3. Molecular Basis of Valine-Citrulline-PABC Linker Instability in Site-Specific ADCs and Its Mitigation by Linker Design.

    PubMed

    Dorywalska, Magdalena; Dushin, Russell; Moine, Ludivine; Farias, Santiago E; Zhou, Dahui; Navaratnam, Thayalan; Lui, Victor; Hasa-Moreno, Adela; Casas, Meritxell Galindo; Tran, Thomas-Toan; Delaria, Kathy; Liu, Shu-Hui; Foletti, Davide; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Pons, Jaume; Shelton, David L; Rajpal, Arvind; Strop, Pavel

    2016-05-01

    The degree of stability of antibody-drug linkers in systemic circulation, and the rate of their intracellular processing within target cancer cells are among the key factors determining the efficacy of antibody-drug conjugates (ADC) in vivo Previous studies demonstrated the susceptibility of cleavable linkers, as well as auristatin-based payloads, to enzymatic cleavage in rodent plasma. Here, we identify Carboxylesterase 1C as the enzyme responsible for the extracellular hydrolysis of valine-citrulline-p-aminocarbamate (VC-PABC)-based linkers in mouse plasma. We further show that the activity of Carboxylesterase 1C towards VC-PABC-based linkers, and consequently the stability of ADCs in mouse plasma, can be effectively modulated by small chemical modifications to the linker. While the introduced modifications can protect the VC-PABC-based linkers from extracellular cleavage, they do not significantly alter the intracellular linker processing by the lysosomal protease Cathepsin B. The distinct substrate preference of the serum Carboxylesterase 1C offers the opportunity to modulate the extracellular stability of cleavable ADCs without diminishing the intracellular payload release required for ADC efficacy. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(5); 958-70. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Intramembranous valine linked to schizophrenia is required for neuregulin 1 regulation of the morphological development of cortical neurons

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yachi; Hancock, Melissa L.; Role, Lorna W.; Talmage, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) signaling is critical to various aspects of neuronal development and function. Among different NRG1 isoforms, the Type III isoforms of NRG1 are unique in their ability to signal via the intracellular domain following γ-secretase-dependent intramembranous processing. However, the functional consequences of Type III NRG1 signaling via its intracellular domain are largely unknown. In this study, we have identified mutations within Type III NRG1 that disrupt intramembranous proteolytic processing and abolish intracellular domain signaling. In particular, substitutions at valine 321, previously linked to schizophrenia risks, result in NRG1 proteins that fail to undergo γ-secretase-mediated nuclear localization and transcriptional activation. Using processing-defective mutants of Type III NRG1, we demonstrate that the intracellular domain signaling is specifically required for NRG1 regulation of the growth and branching of cortical dendrites but not axons. Consistent with the role of Type III NRG1 signaling via the intracellular domain in the initial patterning of cortical dendrites, our findings from pharmacological and genetic studies indicate that Type III NRG1 functions in dendritic development independent of ERBB kinase activity. Taken together, these results support the proposal that aberrant intracellular processing and defective signaling via the intracellular domain of Type III NRG1 impair a subset of NRG1 functions in cortical development and contribute to abnormal neuroconnectivity implicated in schizophrenia. PMID:20610754

  5. Deamidation of Protonated Asparagine-Valine Investigated by a Combined Spectroscopic, Guided Ion Beam, and Theoretical Study.

    PubMed

    Kempkes, L J M; Boles, G C; Martens, J; Berden, G; Armentrout, P B; Oomens, J

    2018-03-08

    Peptide deamidation of asparaginyl residues is a spontaneous post-translational modification that is believed to play a role in aging and several diseases. It is also a well-known small-molecule loss channel in the MS/MS spectra of protonated peptides. Here we investigate the deamidation reaction, as well as other decomposition pathways, of the protonated dipeptide asparagine-valine ([AsnVal + H] + ) upon low-energy activation in a mass spectrometer. Using a combination of infrared ion spectroscopy, guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometry, and theoretical calculations, we have been able to identify product ion structures and determine the energetics and mechanisms for decomposition. Deamidation proceeds via ammonia loss from the asparagine side chain, initiated by a nucleophilic attack of the peptide bond oxygen on the γ-carbon of the Asn side chain. This leads to the formation of a furanone ring containing product ion characterized by a threshold energy of 129 ± 5 kJ/mol (15 kJ/mol higher in energy than dehydration of [AsnVal + H] + , the lowest energy dissociation channel available to the system). Competing formation of a succinimide ring containing product, as has been observed for protonated asparagine-glycine ([AsnGly + H] + ) and asparagine-alanine ([AsnAla + H] + ), was not observed here. Quantum-chemical modeling of the reaction pathways confirms these subtle differences in dissociation behavior. Measured reaction thresholds are in agreement with predicted theoretical reaction energies computed at several levels of theory.

  6. Growth, spectral, linear and nonlinear optical characteristics of an efficient semiorganic acentric crystal: L-valinium L-valine chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nageshwari, M.; Jayaprakash, P.; Kumari, C. Rathika Thaya; Vinitha, G.; Caroline, M. Lydia

    2017-04-01

    An efficient nonlinear optical semiorganic material L-valinium L-valine chloride (LVVCl) was synthesized and grown-up by means of slow evaporation process. Single crystal XRD evince that LVVCl corresponds to monoclinic system having acentric space group P21. The diverse functional groups existing in LVVCl were discovered with FTIR spectral investigation. The UV-Visible and photoluminescence spectrum discloses the optical and electronic properties respectively for the grown crystal. Several optical properties specifically extinction coefficient, reflectance, linear refractive index, electrical and optical conductivity were also determined. The SEM analysis was also carried out and it portrayed the surface morphology of LVVCl. The calculated value of laser damage threshold was 2.59 GW/cm2. The mechanical and dielectric property of LVVCl was investigated employing microhardness and dielectric studies. The second and third order nonlinear optical characteristics of LVVCl was characterized utilizing Kurtz Perry and Z scan technique respectively clearly suggest its suitability in the domain of optics and photonics.

  7. Impact of antibodies against amyloidogenic transthyretin (ATTR) on phenotypes of patients with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) ATTR Valine30Methionine.

    PubMed

    Obayashi, Konen; Tasaki, Masayoshi; Jono, Hirofumi; Ueda, Mitsuharu; Shinriki, Satoru; Misumi, Yohei; Yamashita, Taro; Oshima, Toshinori; Nakamura, Teruya; Ikemizu, Shinji; Anan, Intissar; Suhr, Ole; Ando, Yukio

    2013-04-18

    This study investigated whether a relationship exists between the presence of de novo antibodies and the clinical manifestations of familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP). Serum samples were collected from 25 Japanese and 6 Swedish FAP amyloidogenic transthyretin (ATTR) Valine30Methionine (V30M) patients, 4 asymptomatic Japanese ATTR V30M gene carriers, and 24 Japanese healthy volunteers. Study methods included enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and mass spectrometry. Three Japanese and 5 Swedish patients had significantly higher levels of antibodies against ATTR than did healthy volunteers and asymptomatic gene carriers (P<0.05). All 8 patients with higher antibody levels were late-onset cases. The ratio of wild-type TTR to ATTR V30M in serum from the high-antibody group was higher than that of the low-antibody group. ELISA results revealed two epitopes at positions 24-35 and 105-115 of ATTR V30M. We found a significant positive correlation between levels of the antibody at positions 24-35 and the age at FAP onset (r=0.751, P<0.05). An age-dependent increase in the occurrence of antibodies was observed in these patients with an epitope at positions 24-35. These findings may help explain the differences in early- and late-onset FAP and/or the progression of FAP. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Multifunctional Composites of Chiral Valine Derivative Schiff Base Cu(II) Complexes and TiO2

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, Yuki; Takakura, Kazuya; Akitsu, Takashiro

    2015-01-01

    We have prepared four new Cu(II) complexes containing valine moieties with imidazole ligands at the fourth coordination sites and examined their photo-induced reactions with TiO2 in order of understanding the reaction mechanisms. Under a nitrogen atmosphere, the intermolecular electron transfer reactions (essentially supramolecular interactions) of these systems, which resulted in the reduction of Cu(II) species to Cu(I) ones, occurred after UV light irradiation. In this study, we have investigated the conditions of the redox reactions in view of substituent effects of aldehyde moieties. The results of cyclic voltammetry (CV) on an rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE) suggested that the substitution effects and redox potentials were correlated. Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations were also performed to simulate the UV–Vis and circular dichroism (CD) spectra; the results revealed a reasonably good correlation between the substituent effects and the highest occupied molecular orbitals and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (HOMO-LUMO) gaps associated with the most intense transition bands. In addition, we summarized the substitution effects of Cu(II) complexes for their corresponding UV light-induced reactions. PMID:25686033

  9. The Influence of 8 Weeks of Whey-Protein and Leucine Supplementation on Physical and Cognitive Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Influence of 8 Weeks of Whey Protein and Leucine Supplementation on Physical and Cognitive Performance 5a. GONTRAGT NUMBER FA8650-04-D-6472 5b. GRANT NUMBER...investigate the ability of whey -protein and leucine supplementation to enhance physical and cognitive performance and body composition. Thirty moderately fit...composition before and after supplementing their daily diet for 8 wk with either 19.7 g of whey protein and 6.2 g leucine (WPL) or a calorie-equivalent placebo

  10. N-Acetyl-L-Leucine Accelerates Vestibular Compensation after Unilateral Labyrinthectomy by Action in the Cerebellum and Thalamus

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Guoming; Potschka, Heidrun; Jahn, Klaus; Bartenstein, Peter; Brandt, Thomas; Dutia, Mayank; Dieterich, Marianne; Strupp, Michael; la Fougère, Christian; Zwergal, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    An acute unilateral vestibular lesion leads to a vestibular tone imbalance with nystagmus, head roll tilt and postural imbalance. These deficits gradually decrease over days to weeks due to central vestibular compensation (VC). This study investigated the effects of i.v. N-acetyl-DL-leucine, N-acetyl-L-leucine and N-acetyl-D-leucine on VC using behavioural testing and serial [18F]-Fluoro-desoxyglucose ([18F]-FDG)-μPET in a rat model of unilateral chemical labyrinthectomy (UL). Vestibular behavioural testing included measurements of nystagmus, head roll tilt and postural imbalance as well as sequential whole-brain [18F]-FDG-μPET was done before and on days 1,3,7 and 15 after UL. A significant reduction of postural imbalance scores was identified on day 7 in the N-acetyl-DL-leucine (p < 0.03) and the N-acetyl-L-leucine groups (p < 0.01), compared to the sham treatment group, but not in the N-acetyl-D-leucine group (comparison for applied dose of 24 mg i.v. per rat, equivalent to 60 mg/kg body weight, in each group). The course of postural compensation in the DL- and L-group was accelerated by about 6 days relative to controls. The effect of N-acetyl-L-leucine on postural compensation depended on the dose: in contrast to 60 mg/kg, doses of 15 mg/kg and 3.75 mg/kg had no significant effect. N-acetyl-L-leucine did not change the compensation of nystagmus or head roll tilt at any dose. Measurements of the regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCGM) by means of μPET revealed that only N-acetyl-L-leucine but not N-acetyl-D-leucine caused a significant increase of rCGM in the vestibulocerebellum and a decrease in the posterolateral thalamus and subthalamic region on days 3 and 7. A similar pattern was found when comparing the effect of N-acetyl-L-leucine on rCGM in an UL-group and a sham UL-group without vestibular damage. In conclusion, N-acetyl-L-leucine improves compensation of postural symptoms after UL in a dose-dependent and specific manner, most likely by

  11. N-acetyl-L-leucine accelerates vestibular compensation after unilateral labyrinthectomy by action in the cerebellum and thalamus.

    PubMed

    Günther, Lisa; Beck, Roswitha; Xiong, Guoming; Potschka, Heidrun; Jahn, Klaus; Bartenstein, Peter; Brandt, Thomas; Dutia, Mayank; Dieterich, Marianne; Strupp, Michael; la Fougère, Christian; Zwergal, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    An acute unilateral vestibular lesion leads to a vestibular tone imbalance with nystagmus, head roll tilt and postural imbalance. These deficits gradually decrease over days to weeks due to central vestibular compensation (VC). This study investigated the effects of i.v. N-acetyl-DL-leucine, N-acetyl-L-leucine and N-acetyl-D-leucine on VC using behavioural testing and serial [18F]-Fluoro-desoxyglucose ([18F]-FDG)-μPET in a rat model of unilateral chemical labyrinthectomy (UL). Vestibular behavioural testing included measurements of nystagmus, head roll tilt and postural imbalance as well as sequential whole-brain [18F]-FDG-μPET was done before and on days 1,3,7 and 15 after UL. A significant reduction of postural imbalance scores was identified on day 7 in the N-acetyl-DL-leucine (p < 0.03) and the N-acetyl-L-leucine groups (p < 0.01), compared to the sham treatment group, but not in the N-acetyl-D-leucine group (comparison for applied dose of 24 mg i.v. per rat, equivalent to 60 mg/kg body weight, in each group). The course of postural compensation in the DL- and L-group was accelerated by about 6 days relative to controls. The effect of N-acetyl-L-leucine on postural compensation depended on the dose: in contrast to 60 mg/kg, doses of 15 mg/kg and 3.75 mg/kg had no significant effect. N-acetyl-L-leucine did not change the compensation of nystagmus or head roll tilt at any dose. Measurements of the regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCGM) by means of μPET revealed that only N-acetyl-L-leucine but not N-acetyl-D-leucine caused a significant increase of rCGM in the vestibulocerebellum and a decrease in the posterolateral thalamus and subthalamic region on days 3 and 7. A similar pattern was found when comparing the effect of N-acetyl-L-leucine on rCGM in an UL-group and a sham UL-group without vestibular damage. In conclusion, N-acetyl-L-leucine improves compensation of postural symptoms after UL in a dose-dependent and specific manner, most likely by

  12. N-terminal valine adduct from the anti-HIV drug abacavir in rat haemoglobin as evidence for abacavir metabolism to a reactive aldehyde in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Charneira, C; Grilo, NM; Pereira, SA; Godinho, ALA; Monteiro, EC; Marques, MM; Antunes, AMM

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The aim of this study was to obtain evidence for the activation of the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor abacavir to reactive aldehyde metabolites in vivo. Protein haptenation by these reactive metabolites may be a factor in abacavir-induced toxic events. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The formation of N-terminal valine adducts from the abacavir-derived aldehydes was investigated in the haemoglobin of Wistar rats treated with eight daily doses (120 mg·kg−1) of abacavir. The analyses were conducted by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry upon comparison with synthetic standards. KEY RESULTS An N-terminal valine haemoglobin adduct derived from an α,β-unsaturated aldehyde metabolite of abacavir was identified in vivo for the first time. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS This preliminary work on abacavir metabolism provides the first unequivocal evidence for the formation of an α,β-unsaturated aldehyde metabolite in vivo and of its ability to form haptens with proteins. The methodology described herein can be used to assess the formation of this metabolite in human samples and has the potential to become a valuable pharmacological tool for mechanistic studies of abacavir toxicity. In fact, the simplicity of the method suggests that the abacavir adduct with the N-terminal valine of haemoglobin could be used to investigate abacavir-induced toxicity for accurate risk/benefit estimations. PMID:22725138

  13. N-terminal valine adduct from the anti-HIV drug abacavir in rat haemoglobin as evidence for abacavir metabolism to a reactive aldehyde in vivo.

    PubMed

    Charneira, C; Grilo, N M; Pereira, S A; Godinho, A L A; Monteiro, E C; Marques, M M; Antunes, A M M

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain evidence for the activation of the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor abacavir to reactive aldehyde metabolites in vivo. Protein haptenation by these reactive metabolites may be a factor in abacavir-induced toxic events. The formation of N-terminal valine adducts from the abacavir-derived aldehydes was investigated in the haemoglobin of Wistar rats treated with eight daily doses (120 mg·kg(-1)) of abacavir. The analyses were conducted by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry upon comparison with synthetic standards. An N-terminal valine haemoglobin adduct derived from an α,β-unsaturated aldehyde metabolite of abacavir was identified in vivo for the first time. This preliminary work on abacavir metabolism provides the first unequivocal evidence for the formation of an α,β-unsaturated aldehyde metabolite in vivo and of its ability to form haptens with proteins. The methodology described herein can be used to assess the formation of this metabolite in human samples and has the potential to become a valuable pharmacological tool for mechanistic studies of abacavir toxicity. In fact, the simplicity of the method suggests that the abacavir adduct with the N-terminal valine of haemoglobin could be used to investigate abacavir-induced toxicity for accurate risk/benefit estimations. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  14. Effect of mixing, concentration and temperature on the formation of mesostructured solutions and their role in the nucleation of DL-valine crystals.

    PubMed

    Jawor-Baczynska, Anna; Moore, Barry D; Sefcik, Jan

    2015-01-01

    We report investigations on the formation of mesostructured solutions in DL-valine-water-2-propanol mixtures, and the crystallization of DL-valine from these solutions. Mesostructured liquid phases, similar to those previously observed in aqueous solutions of glycine and DL-alanine, were observed using Dynamic Light Scattering and Brownian microscopy, in both undersaturated and supersaturated solutions below a certain transition temperature. Careful experimentation was used to demonstrate that the optically clear mesostructured liquid phase, comprising colloidal mesoscale clusters dispersed within bulk solution, is thermodynamically stable and present in equilibrium with the solid phase at saturation conditions. Solutions prepared by slow cooling contained mesoscale clusters with a narrow size distribution and a mean hydrodynamic diameter of around 200 nm. Solutions of identical composition prepared by rapid isothermal mixing of valine aqueous solutions with 2-propanol contained mesoscale clusters which were significantly larger than those observed in slowly cooled solutions. The presence of larger mesoscale clusters was found to correspond to faster nucleation. Observed induction times were strongly dependent on the rapid initial mixing step, although solutions were left undisturbed afterwards and the induction times observed were up to two orders of magnitude longer than the initial mixing period. We propose that mesoscale clusters above a certain critical size are likely to be the location of productive nucleation events.

  15. The impaired intestinal mucosal immune system by valine deficiency for young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is associated with decreasing immune status and regulating tight junction proteins transcript abundance in the intestine.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jian-Bo; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary valine on the growth, intestinal immune response, tight junction proteins transcript abundance and gene expression of immune-related signaling molecules in the intestine of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Six iso-nitrogenous diets containing graded levels of valine (4.3-19.1 g kg(-)(1) diet) were fed to the fish for 8 weeks. The results showed that percentage weight gain (PWG), feed intake and feed efficiency of fish were the lowest in fish fed the valine-deficient diet (P < 0.05). In addition, valine deficiency decreased lysozyme, acid phosphatase activities and complement 3 content in the intestine (P < 0.05), down-regulated mRNA levels of interleukin 10, transforming growth factor β1, IκBα and target of rapamycin (TOR) (P < 0.05), and up-regulated tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 8 and nuclear factor κB P65 (NF-κB P65) gene expression (P < 0.05). Additionally, valine deficiency significantly decreased transcript of Occludin, Claudin b, Claudin c, Claudin 3, and ZO-1 (P < 0.05), and improved Claudin 15 expression in the fish intestine (P < 0.05). However, valine did not have a significant effect on expression of Claudin 12 in the intestine of grass carp (P > 0.05). In conclusion, valine deficiency decreased fish growth and intestinal immune status, as well as regulated gene expression of tight junction proteins, NF-κB P65, IκBα and TOR in the fish intestine. Based on the quadratic regression analysis of lysozyme activity or PWG, the dietary valine requirement of young grass carp (268-679 g) were established to be 14.47 g kg(-1) diet (4.82 g 100 g(-1) CP) or 14.00 g kg(-1) diet (4.77 g 100 g(-1) CP), respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids is essential for effective symbioses between betarhizobia and Mimosa pudica.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Ming; Prell, Jurgen; James, Euan K; Sheu, Der-Shyan; Sheu, Shih-Yi

    2012-07-01

    Burkholderia phymatum STM815 and Cupriavidus taiwanensis LMG19424 are betaproteobacterial strains that can effectively nodulate several species of the large legume genus Mimosa. A Tn5 mutant, derived from B. phymatum STM815 (KM60), and another derived from C. taiwanensis LMG19424 (KM184-55) induced Fix(-) nodules on Mimosa pudica. The Tn5-interrupted genes of the mutants showed strong homologies to ilvE, which encodes a branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase, and leuC, which encodes the large subunit of isopropylmalate isomerase. Both enzymes are known to be involved in the biosynthetic pathways for branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) (leucine, valine and isoleucine). The B. phymatum ilvE mutant, KM60, was not auxotrophic for BCAAs and could grow well on minimal medium with pyruvate as a carbon source and ammonia as a nitrogen source. However, it grew less efficiently than the wild-type (WT) strain when ammonia was substituted with valine or isoleucine as a nitrogen source. The BCAA aminotransferase activity of KM60 was significantly reduced relative to the WT strain, especially with isoleucine and valine as amino group donors. The C. taiwanensis leuC mutant, KM184-55, could not grow on a minimal medium with pyruvate as a carbon source and ammonia as a nitrogen source, but its growth was restored when leucine was added to the medium. The isopropylmalate isomerase activity of KM184-55 was completely lost compared with the WT strain. Both mutants recovered their respective enzyme activities after complementation with the WT ilvE or leuC genes and were subsequently able to grow as well as their parental strains on minimal medium. They were also able to form nitrogen-fixing nodules on M. pudica. We conclude that the biosynthesis of BCAAs is essential for the free-living growth of betarhizobia, as well as for their ability to form effective symbioses with their host plant.

  17. Amino Acid Availability and Age Affect the Leucine Stimulation of Protein Synthesis and eIF4F Formation in Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, Jeffery; Frank, Jason W.; Suryawan, Agus; Nguyen, Hanh V.; Davis, Teresa A.

    2009-01-01

    We have previously shown that a physiological increase in plasma leucine for 60- and 120-min increases translation initiation factor activation in muscle of neonatal pigs. Although muscle protein synthesis is increased by leucine at 60 min, it is not maintained at 120 min, perhaps due to the decrease in plasma amino acids (AA). In the current study, 7- and 26-day-old pigs were fasted overnight and infused with leucine (0 or 400 µmol· kg−1· h−1) for 120 min to raise leucine within the postprandial range. The leucine was infused in the presence or absence of a replacement AA mixture (without leucine) to maintain baseline plasma AA levels. AA administration prevented the leucine-induced reduction in plasma AA in both age groups. At 7 days, leucine infusion alone increased eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E binding protein-1 (4E-BP1) phosphorylation, decreased inactive 4E-BP1·eIF4E complex abundance, and increased active eIF4G·eIF4E complex formation in skeletal muscle; leucine infusion with replacement AA also stimulated these, as well as S6K1, rpS6, and eIF4G phosphorylation. At 26 days, leucine infusion alone increased 4E-BP1 phosphorylation and decreased the inactive 4E-BP1·eIF4E complex only; leucine with AA also stimulated these, as well as S6K1 and rpS6 phosphorylation. Muscle protein synthesis was increased in 7-day-old (+60%) and 26-day-old (+40%) pigs infused with leucine and replacement AA, but not with leucine alone. Thus, the ability of leucine to stimulate eIF4F formation and protein synthesis in skeletal muscle is dependent on AA availability and age. PMID:17878223

  18. The Staphylococcus aureus leucine aminopeptidase LAP is localized to the bacterial cytosol and demonstrates a broad substrate range that extends beyond leucine

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Ronan K.; Veillard, Florian; Gagne, Danielle T.; Lindenmuth, Jarrod M.; Poreba, Marcin; Drag, Marcin; Potempa, Jan; Shaw, Lindsey N.

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a potent pathogen of humans exhibiting a broad disease range, in part, due to an extensive repertoire of secreted virulence factors, including proteases. Recently, we identified the first example of an intracellular protease (leucine aminopeptidase - LAP) that is required for virulence in S. aureus. Disruption of pepZ, the gene encoding LAP, had no affect on the growth rate of bacteria, however, in systemic and localized infection models the pepZ mutant was significantly attenuated in virulence. Recently, a contradictory report has been published, suggesting that LAP is an extracellular enzyme and it is required for growth in S. aureus. Here, we investigate these results and confirm our previous findings that LAP is localized to the bacterial cytosol and is not required for growth. In addition we conduct a biochemical investigation of purified recombinant LAP identifying optimal conditions for enzymatic activity and substrate preference for hydrolysis. Our results show that LAP has a broad substrate range, including activity against the dipeptide cysteine-glycine and that leucine is not the primary target of LAP. PMID:23241672

  19. Interactions among the branched-chain amino acids and their effects on methionine utilization in growing pigs: effects on plasma amino- and keto-acid concentrations and branched-chain keto-acid dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Langer, S; Scislowski, P W; Brown, D S; Dewey, P; Fuller, M F

    2000-01-01

    The present experiment was designed to elucidate the mechanism of the methionine-sparing effect of excess branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) reported in the previous paper (Langer & Fuller, 2000). Twelve growing gilts (30-35 kg) were prepared with arterial catheters. After recovery, they received for 7 d a semipurified diet with a balanced amino acid pattern. On the 7th day blood samples were taken before (16 h postabsorptive) and after the morning meal (4 h postprandial). The animals were then divided into three groups and received for a further 7 d a methionine-limiting diet (80% of requirement) (1) without any amino acid excess; (2) with excess leucine (50% over requirement); or (3) with excesses of all three BCAA (leucine, isoleucine, valine, each 50% over the requirement). On the 7th day blood samples were taken as in the first period, after which the animals were killed and liver and muscle samples taken. Plasma amino acid and branched-chain keto acid (BCKA) concentrations in the blood and branched-chain keto-acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH; EC 1.2.4.4) activity in liver and muscle homogenates were determined. Compared with those on the balanced diet, pigs fed on methionine-limiting diets had significantly lower (P < 0.05) plasma methionine concentrations in the postprandial but not in the postabsorptive state. There was no effect of either leucine or a mixture of all three BCAA fed in excess on plasma methionine concentrations. Excess dietary leucine reduced (P < 0.05) the plasma concentrations of isoleucine and valine in both the postprandial and postabsorptive states. Plasma concentrations of the BCKA reflected the changes in the corresponding amino acids. Basal BCKDH activity in the liver and total BCKDH activity in the biceps femoris muscle were significantly (P < 0.05) increased by excesses of leucine or all BCAA.

  20. Electrophoretically mediated microanalysis of leucine aminopeptidase using two-photon excited fluorescence detection on a microchip.

    PubMed

    Zugel, S A; Burke, B J; Regnier, F E; Lytle, F E

    2000-11-15

    Two-photon excited fluorescence detection was performed on a microfabricated electrophoresis chip. A calibration curve of the fluorescent tag beta-naphthylamine was performed, resulting in a sensitivity of 2.5 x 10(9) counts M(-1) corresponding to a detection limit of 60 nM. Additionally, leucine aminopeptidase was assayed on the chip using electrophoretically mediated microanalysis. The differential electroosmotic mobilities of the enzyme and substrate, L-leucine beta-naphthylamide, allowed for efficient mixing in an open channel, resulting in the detection of a 30 nM enzyme solution under constant potential. A zero potential incubation for 1 min yielded a calculated detection limit of 4 nM enzyme.

  1. Seizures induced by carbachol, morphine, and leucine-enkephalin: a comparison.

    PubMed

    Snead, O C

    1983-04-01

    The electrical, behavioral, and pharmacological properties of seizures induced by morphine, leucine-enkephalin, and the muscarinic cholinergic agonist carbachol were examined and compared. Low-dose carbachol given intracerebroventricularly (ICV) produced seizures similar electrically to those produced by ICV morphine and leucine-enkephalin, although there was some difference in site of subcortical origin of onset. Carbachol and morphine were similar in that they had the same anticonvulsant profile, produced similar behavioral changes, caused generalized absence seizures in low doses and generalized convulsive seizures in high doses, and were capable of chemical kindling. However, opiate-induced seizures were not overcome by cholinergic antagonists, nor were carbachol seizures blocked by opiate antagonists. These data suggest that there may be a common noncholinergic, nonopiatergic system involved in mediating carbachol- and morphine-induced seizures but not enkephalin seizures.

  2. Parkinson's Disease: Leucine-Rich Repeat Kinase 2 and Autophagy, Intimate Enemies

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-San Pedro, José M.; Gómez-Sánchez, Rubén; Pizarro-Estrella, Elisa; Niso-Santano, Mireia; González-Polo, Rosa A.; Fuentes Rodríguez, José M.

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is the second common neurodegenerative disorder, after Alzheimer's disease. It is a clinical syndrome characterized by loss of dopamine-generating cells in the substancia nigra, a region of the midbrain. The etiology of Parkinson's disease has long been through to involve both genetic and environmental factors. Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene cause late-onset Parkinson's disease with a clinical appearance indistinguishable from Parkinson's disease idiopathic. Autophagy is an intracellular catabolic mechanism whereby a cell recycles or degrades damage proteins and cytoplasmic organelles. This degradative process has been associated with cellular dysfunction in neurodegenerative processes including Parkinson's disease. We discuss the role of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 in autophagy, and how the deregulations of this degradative mechanism in cells can be implicated in the Parkinson's disease etiology. PMID:22970411

  3. Defective regulation of autophagy upon leucine deprivation reveals a targetable liability of human melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sheen, Joon-Ho; Zoncu, Roberto; Kim, Dohoon; Sabatini, David M.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Autophagy is of increasing interest as a target for cancer therapy. We find that leucine deprivation causes the caspase-dependent apoptotic death of melanoma cells because it fails to appropriately activate autophagy. Hyperactivation of the RAS-MEK pathway, which is common in melanoma, prevents leucine deprivation from inhibiting mTORC1, the main repressor of autophagy under nutrient-rich conditions. In an in vivo tumor xenograft model, the combination of a leucine-free diet and an autophagy inhibitor synergistically suppresses the growth of human melanoma tumors and triggers widespread apoptosis of the cancer cells. Together, our study represents proof of principle that anti-cancer effects can be obtained with a combination of autophagy inhibition and strategies to deprive tumors of leucine. PMID:21575862

  4. Systemic D-Phenylalanine and D-Leucine for Effective Treatment of Pain in the Horse

    PubMed Central

    McKibbin, L. S.; Cheng, R. S. S.

    1982-01-01

    This study showed that subcutaneous injection of a solution of D-amino acids produced effective analgesia in horses. It is postulated that systemic D-phenylalanine and D-leucine may become one of the safe, effective and nonaddictive drugs for acute and chronic pain treatment. These D-amino acids cause analgesia by presumably preserving brain endorphins. They may bind reversibly to enkephalinases and prevent enzymatic degradation of enkephalins. PMID:17422107

  5. Overexpression and characterization of an extracellular leucine aminopeptidase from Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Matsushita-Morita, Mayumi; Tada, Sawaki; Suzuki, Satoshi; Hattori, Ryota; Marui, Junichiro; Furukawa, Ikuyo; Yamagata, Youhei; Amano, Hitoshi; Ishida, Hiroki; Takeuchi, Michio; Kashiwagi, Yutaka; Kusumoto, Ken-Ichi

    2011-02-01

    Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP), an enzyme used in the food industry, is an exopeptidase that removes an amino acid residue, primarily leucine (Leu), from the N-terminus of peptides and protein substrates. In this study, we focused on the leucine aminopeptidase A (lapA) gene from Aspergillus oryzae RIB40. To purify and characterize the LapA, lapA was overexpressed in A. oryzae RIB40 using the amyB promoter. LAP activity in the culture supernatant of one transformant harboring the lapA expression plasmid was 33 times that of the host strain. LapA was purified from the culture supernatant of this lapA-overexpressing strain by column chromatography. The purified recombinant LapA had a molecular mass of 33 kDa, and its N-terminal amino acid was the tyrosine at position 80 of the deduced amino acid sequence. Optimal enzyme activity was observed at 60°C and pH 8.5, and the enzyme was stable at temperatures up to 60°C and in the pH range 7.5-11. In transcriptional analysis, lapA was induced under alkaline conditions and expressed at a relatively low level under normal conditions. LapA showed maximum hydrolyzing activity for the substrate leucine para-nitroanilide (Leu-pNA), followed by substrates Phe-pNA (39% activity compared with Leu-pNA), Met-pNA, Lys-pNA, and Arg-pNA. In addition, LapA preferentially hydrolyzed peptides longer than tripeptides.

  6. Site reactivity in the free radicals induced damage to leucine residues: a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Medina, M E; Galano, A; Alvarez-Idaboy, J R

    2015-02-21

    Several recent computational studies have tried to explain the observed selectivity in radical damage to proteins. In this work we use Density Functional Theory and Transition State Theory including tunnelling corrections, reaction path degeneracy, the effect of diffusion, and the role of free radicals to get further insights into this important topic. The reaction between a leucine derivative and free radicals of biological significance, in aqueous and lipid media, has been investigated. Both thermochemical and kinetic analyses, in both hydrophilic and hydrophobic environments, have been carried out. DPPH, ˙OOH, ˙OOCH3, ˙OOCH2Cl, ˙OOCHCl2 and ˙OOCHCH2 radicals do not react with the target molecule. The reactions are proposed to be kinetically controlled. The leucine gamma site was the most reactive for the reactions with ˙N3, ˙OOCCl3, ˙OCH3, ˙OCH2Cl, and ˙OCHCl2 radicals, with rate constants equal to 1.97 × 10(5), 3.24 × 10(4), 6.68 × 10(5), 5.98 × 10(6) and 8.87 × 10(8) M(-1) s(-1), respectively, in aqueous solution. The ˙Cl, ˙OH and ˙OCCl3 radicals react with leucine at the beta, gamma, and delta positions at rates close to the diffusion limit with the alpha position which is the slowest path and the most thermodynamically favored. The presented results confirm that the Bell-Evans-Polanyi principle does not apply for the reactions between amino acid residues and free radicals. Regarding the influence of the environment on the reactivity of the studied series of free radicals towards leucine residues, it is concluded that hydrophilic media slightly lower the reactivity of the studied radicals, compared to hydrophobic ones, albeit the trends in reactivity are very similar.

  7. Dietary Leucine - An Environmental Modifier of Insulin Resistance Acting on Multiple Levels of Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Macotela, Yazmin; Emanuelli, Brice; Bång, Anneli M.; Espinoza, Daniel O.; Boucher, Jeremie; Beebe, Kirk; Gall, Walter; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Environmental factors, such as the macronutrient composition of the diet, can have a profound impact on risk of diabetes and metabolic syndrome. In the present study we demonstrate how a single, simple dietary factor—leucine—can modify insulin resistance by acting on multiple tissues and at multiple levels of metabolism. Mice were placed on a normal or high fat diet (HFD). Dietary leucine was doubled by addition to the drinking water. mRNA, protein and complete metabolomic profiles were assessed in the major insulin sensitive tissues and serum, and correlated with changes in glucose homeostasis and insulin signaling. After 8 weeks on HFD, mice developed obesity, fatty liver, inflammatory changes in adipose tissue and insulin resistance at the level of IRS-1 phosphorylation, as well as alterations in metabolomic profile of amino acid metabolites, TCA cycle intermediates, glucose and cholesterol metabolites, and fatty acids in liver, muscle, fat and serum. Doubling dietary leucine reversed many of the metabolite abnormalities and caused a marked improvement in glucose tolerance and insulin signaling without altering food intake or weight gain. Increased dietary leucine was also associated with a decrease in hepatic steatosis and a decrease in inflammation in adipose tissue. These changes occurred despite an increase in insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase indicating enhanced activation of mTOR, a phenomenon normally associated with insulin resistance. These data indicate that modest changes in a single environmental/nutrient factor can modify multiple metabolic and signaling pathways and modify HFD induced metabolic syndrome by acting at a systemic level on multiple tissues. These data also suggest that increasing dietary leucine may provide an adjunct in the management of obesity-related insulin resistance. PMID:21731668

  8. Multiple functions of the leucine-rich repeat protein LrrA of Treponema denticola.

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Akihiko; Honma, Kiyonobu; Sharma, Ashu; Kuramitsu, Howard K

    2004-08-01

    The gene lrrA, encoding a leucine-rich repeat protein, LrrA, that contains eight consensus tandem repeats of 23 amino acid residues, has been identified in Treponema denticola ATCC 35405. A leucine-rich repeat is a generally useful protein-binding motif, and proteins containing this repeat are typically involved in protein-protein interactions. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that T. denticola ATCC 35405 expresses the lrrA gene, but the gene was not identified in T. denticola ATCC 33520. In order to analyze the functions of LrrA in T. denticola, an lrrA-inactivated mutant of strain ATCC 35405 and an lrrA gene expression transformant of strain ATCC 33520 were constructed. Characterization of the mutant and transformant demonstrated that LrrA is associated with the extracytoplasmic fraction of T. denticola and expresses multifunctional properties. It was demonstrated that the attachment of strain ATCC 35405 to HEp-2 cell cultures and coaggregation with Tannerella forsythensis were attenuated by the lrrA mutation. In addition, an in vitro binding assay demonstrated specific binding of LrrA to a portion of the Tannerella forsythensis leucine-rich repeat protein, BspA, which is mediated by the N-terminal region of LrrA. It was also observed that the lrrA mutation caused a reduction of swarming in T. denticola ATCC 35405 and consequently attenuated tissue penetration. These results suggest that the leucine-rich repeat protein LrrA plays a role in the attachment and penetration of human epithelial cells and coaggregation with Tannerella forsythensis. These properties may play important roles in the virulence of T. denticola.

  9. Lysine and Leucine Deficiencies Affect Myocytes Development and IGF Signaling in Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata)

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, Sheida; Nematollahi, Mohammad Ali; Mojazi Amiri, Bagher; Vélez, Emilio J.; Lutfi, Esmail; Navarro, Isabel; Capilla, Encarnación; Gutiérrez, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing aquaculture production requires better knowledge of growth regulation and improvement in diet formulation. A great effort has been made to replace fish meal for plant protein sources in aquafeeds, making necessary the supplementation of such diets with crystalline amino acids (AA) to cover the nutritional requirements of each species. Lysine and Leucine are limiting essential AA in fish, and it has been demonstrated that supplementation with them improves growth in different species. However, the specific effects of AA deficiencies in myogenesis are completely unknown and have only been studied at the level of hepatic metabolism. It is well-known that the TOR pathway integrates the nutritional and hormonal signals to regulate protein synthesis and cell proliferation, to finally control muscle growth, a process also coordinated by the expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs). This study aimed to provide new information on the impact of Lysine and Leucine deficiencies in gilthead sea bream cultured myocytes examining their development and the response of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), MRFs, as well as key molecules involved in muscle growth regulation like TOR. Leucine deficiency did not cause significant differences in most of the molecules analyzed, whereas Lysine deficiency appeared crucial in IGFs regulation, decreasing significantly IGF-I, IGF-II and IGF-IRb mRNA levels. This treatment also down-regulated the gene expression of different MRFs, including Myf5, Myogenin and MyoD2. These changes were also corroborated by a significant decrease in proliferation and differentiation markers in the Lysine-deficient treatment. Moreover, both Lysine and Leucine limitation induced a significant down-regulation in FOXO3 gene expression, which deserves further investigation. We believe that these results will be relevant for the production of a species as appreciated for human consumption as it is gilthead sea bream and demonstrates the importance of

  10. Structure of aureobasidin A.

    PubMed

    Ikai, K; Takesako, K; Shiomi, K; Moriguchi, M; Umeda, Y; Yamamoto, J; Kato, I; Naganawa, H

    1991-09-01

    Aureobasidin A, a new antifungal antibiotic, was isolated from the culture medium of Aureobasidium pullulans R106. Aureobasidin A was a cyclic depsipeptide consisting of eight alpha-amino acid units and one hydroxy acid unit. The structures of the units were found by acid hydrolysis of the antibiotic to be 2(R)-hydroxy-3(R)-methylpentanoic acid, beta-hydroxy-N-methyl-L-valine, N-methyl-L-valine, L-proline, allo-L-isoleucine, N-methyl-L-phenylalanine, L-leucine, and L-phenyl-alanine. The sequence of the units was identified by NMR and FAB-MS of the products from the alkaline hydrolysis of aureobasidin A.

  11. Leucine incorporation by aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria in the Delaware estuary

    PubMed Central

    Stegman, Monica R; Cottrell, Matthew T; Kirchman, David L

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria are well known to be abundant in estuaries, coastal regions and in the open ocean, but little is known about their activity in any aquatic ecosystem. To explore the activity of AAP bacteria in the Delaware estuary and coastal waters, single-cell 3H-leucine incorporation by these bacteria was examined with a new approach that combines infrared epifluorescence microscopy and microautoradiography. The approach was used on samples from the Delaware coast from August through December and on transects through the Delaware estuary in August and November 2011. The percent of active AAP bacteria was up to twofold higher than the percentage of active cells in the rest of the bacterial community in the estuary. Likewise, the silver grain area around active AAP bacteria in microautoradiography preparations was larger than the area around cells in the rest of the bacterial community, indicating higher rates of leucine consumption by AAP bacteria. The cell size of AAP bacteria was 50% bigger than the size of other bacteria, about the same difference on average as measured for activity. The abundance of AAP bacteria was negatively correlated and their activity positively correlated with light availability in the water column, although light did not affect 3H-leucine incorporation in light–dark experiments. Our results suggest that AAP bacteria are bigger and more active than other bacteria, and likely contribute more to organic carbon fluxes than indicated by their abundance. PMID:24824666

  12. Low temperature investigations of dynamic properties in l-leucine - chloranilic acid complex.

    PubMed

    Hetmańczyk, J; Nowicka-Scheibe, J; Maurin, J K; Pawlukojć, A

    2018-07-05

    Inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and infra-red (IR) spectroscopy methods were used for determination of dynamic structure of l-leucine - chloranilic acid complex. A theoretical dynamic pattern calculated by the density functional theory (DFT) method for periodic boundary conditions accompanied the experimental ones. Normal modes in the vibrational spectra were defined and described. The characteristic presence of the Hadži's trio enriched by numerous submaxima is observed in the wavenumber range 3200-800 cm -1 . Bands assigned to CH 3 torsion vibrations in the leucine cation were observed at 231 cm -1 and 258 cm -1 in the INS spectrum. Temperature-dependent far-infrared spectra in the temperature range 9 K-290 K were obtained. Vibrational bands were analyzed as a function of temperature. Activation energies for reorientational motion of CH 3 and CH 2 groups were determined by means of the band shape analysis performed for torsional and twisting vibrations of these groups. The estimated energy is equal to E a  = 2.7 ± 0.2 kJ/mol and E a  = 2.17 ± 0.12 kJ/mol for CH 3 and CH 2 groups, respectively. A phase transition at about 130 K in the l-leucine - chloranilic acid complex was observed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. TGFβ1-induced leucine limitation uncovered by differential ribosome codon reading.

    PubMed

    Loayza-Puch, Fabricio; Rooijers, Koos; Zijlstra, Jelle; Moumbeini, Behzad; Zaal, Esther A; Oude Vrielink, Joachim F; Lopes, Rui; Ugalde, Alejandro P; Berkers, Celia R; Agami, Reuven

    2017-04-01

    Cancer cells modulate their metabolic networks to support cell proliferation and a higher demand of building blocks. These changes may restrict the availability of certain amino acids for protein synthesis, which can be utilized for cancer therapy. However, little is known about the amino acid demand changes occurring during aggressive and invasive stages of cancer. Recently, we developed diricore, an approach based on ribosome profiling that can uncover amino acid limitations. Here, we applied diricore to a cellular model in which epithelial breast cells respond rapidly to TGFβ1, a cytokine essential for cancer progression and metastasis, and uncovered shortage of leucine. Further analyses indicated that TGFβ1 treatment of human breast epithelial cells reduces the expression of SLC3A2, a subunit of the leucine transporter, which diminishes leucine uptake and inhibits cell proliferation. Thus, we identified a specific amino acid limitation associated with the TGFβ1 response, a vulnerability that might be associated with aggressiveness in cancer. © 2017 The Authors.

  14. Leucine incorporation by aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria in the Delaware estuary.

    PubMed

    Stegman, Monica R; Cottrell, Matthew T; Kirchman, David L

    2014-11-01

    Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria are well known to be abundant in estuaries, coastal regions and in the open ocean, but little is known about their activity in any aquatic ecosystem. To explore the activity of AAP bacteria in the Delaware estuary and coastal waters, single-cell (3)H-leucine incorporation by these bacteria was examined with a new approach that combines infrared epifluorescence microscopy and microautoradiography. The approach was used on samples from the Delaware coast from August through December and on transects through the Delaware estuary in August and November 2011. The percent of active AAP bacteria was up to twofold higher than the percentage of active cells in the rest of the bacterial community in the estuary. Likewise, the silver grain area around active AAP bacteria in microautoradiography preparations was larger than the area around cells in the rest of the bacterial community, indicating higher rates of leucine consumption by AAP bacteria. The cell size of AAP bacteria was 50% bigger than the size of other bacteria, about the same difference on average as measured for activity. The abundance of AAP bacteria was negatively correlated and their activity positively correlated with light availability in the water column, although light did not affect (3)H-leucine incorporation in light-dark experiments. Our results suggest that AAP bacteria are bigger and more active than other bacteria, and likely contribute more to organic carbon fluxes than indicated by their abundance.

  15. Sunlight Effects on the Osmotrophic Uptake of DMSP-Sulfur and Leucine by Polar Phytoplankton

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-González, Clara; Galí, Martí; Sintes, Eva; Herndl, Gerhard J.; Gasol, Josep M.; Simó, Rafel

    2012-01-01

    Even though the uptake and assimilation of organic compounds by phytoplankton has been long recognized, very little is still known about its potential ecological role in natural marine communities and whether it varies depending on the light regimes the algae experience. We combined measurements of size-fractionated assimilation of trace additions of 3H-leucine and 35S-dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) with microautoradiography to assess the extent and relevance of osmoheterotrophy in summer phytoplankton assemblages from Arctic and Antarctic waters, and the role of solar radiation on it was further investigated by exposing samples to different radiation spectra. Significant assimilation of both substrates occurred in the size fraction containing most phytoplankton (>5 µm), sunlight exposure generally increasing 35S-DMSP-sulfur assimilation and decreasing 3H-leucine assimilation. Microautoradiography revealed that the capacity to take up both organic substrates seemed widespread among different polar algal phyla, particularly in pennate and centric diatoms, and photosynthetic dinoflagellates. Image analysis of the microautoradiograms showed for the first time interspecific variability in the uptakes of 35S-DMSP and 3H-leucine by phytoplankton depending on the solar spectrum. Overall, these results suggest that the role of polar phytoplankton in the utilization of labile dissolved organic matter may be significant under certain conditions and further confirm the relevance of solar radiation in regulating heterotrophy in the pelagic ocean. PMID:23029084

  16. Lean body mass change over 6 years is associated with dietary leucine intake in an older Danish population.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Cameron Keith; Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z; Capra, Sandra; Bauer, Judy; Raymond, Kyle; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2016-05-01

    Higher protein intake, and particularly higher leucine intake, is associated with attenuated loss of lean body mass (LBM) over time in older individuals. Dietary leucine is thought to be a key mediator of anabolism. This study aimed to assess this relationship over 6 years among younger and older adult Danes. Dietary leucine intake was assessed at baseline and after 6 years in men and women, aged 35-65 years, participating in the Danish cohort of the WHO-MONICA (Multinational MONItoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease) study (n 368). Changes in LBM over the 6 years were measured by bioelectrical impedance using equations developed for this Danish population. The association between leucine and LBM changes was examined using multivariate linear regression and ANCOVA analyses adjusted for potential confounders. After adjustment for baseline LBM, sex, age, energy intake and physical activity, leucine intake was associated with LBM change in those older than 65 years (n 79), with no effect seen in those younger than 65 years. Older participants in the highest quartile of leucine intake (7·1 g/d) experienced LBM maintenance, whereas lower intakes were associated with LBM loss over 6 years (for trend: β=0·434, P=0·03). Sensitivity analysis indicated no effect modification of sex or the presence of CVD. Greater leucine intake in conjunction with adequate total protein intake was associated with long-term LBM retention in a healthy older Danish population. This study corroborates findings from laboratory investigations in relation to protein and leucine intakes and LBM change. A more diverse and larger sample is needed for confirmation of these results.

  17. Impact of Leucine Supplementation on Exercise Training Induced Anti-Cardiac Remodeling Effect in Heart Failure Mice

    PubMed Central

    de Moraes, Wilson Max Almeida Monteiro; Melara, Thaís Plasti; de Souza, Pamella Ramona Moraes; de Salvi Guimarães, Fabiana; Bozi, Luiz Henrique Marchesi; Brum, Patricia Chakur; Medeiros, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Leucine supplementation potentiates the effects of aerobic exercise training (AET) on skeletal muscle; however, its potential effects associated with AET on cardiac muscle have not been clarified yet. We tested whether leucine supplementation would potentiate the anti-cardiac remodeling effect of AET in a genetic model of sympathetic hyperactivity-induced heart failure in mice (α2A/α2CARKO). Mice were assigned to five groups: wild type mice treated with placebo and sedentary (WT, n = 11), α2A/α2CARKO treated with placebo and sedentary (KO, n = 9), α2A/α2CARKO treated with leucine and sedentary (KOL, n = 11), α2A/α2CARKO treated with placebo and AET (KOT, n = 12) or α2A/α2CARKO treated with leucine and AET (KOLT, n = 12). AET consisted of four weeks on a treadmill with 60 min sessions (six days/week, 60% of maximal speed) and administration by gavage of leucine (1.35 g/kg/day) or placebo (distilled water). The AET significantly improved exercise capacity, fractional shortening and re-established cardiomyocytes’ diameter and collagen fraction in KOT. Additionally, AET significantly prevented the proteasome hyperactivity, increased misfolded proteins and HSP27 expression. Isolated leucine supplementation displayed no effect on cardiac function and structure (KOL), however, when associated with AET (KOLT), it increased exercise tolerance to a higher degree than isolated AET (KOT) despite no additional effects on AET induced anti-cardiac remodeling. Our results provide evidence for the modest impact of leucine supplementation on cardiac structure and function in exercised heart failure mice. Leucine supplementation potentiated AET effects on exercise tolerance, which might be related to its recognized impact on skeletal muscle. PMID:25988767

  18. Effect of 8-week leucine supplementation and resistance exercise training on muscle hypertrophy and satellite cell activation in rats.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chang Hyun; Gil, Ju Hyun; Quan, Helong; Viet, Dang Ha; Kim, Chang Keun

    2018-06-01

    We investigated the effects of regular leucine intake and/or resistance exercise training on skeletal muscle hypertrophy and satellite cell activity after the administration of different doses of leucine. Ten-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to six groups (n = 7 per group): a control group (Con), two groups receiving either 10% (0.135 g/kg.wt) (Leu10) or 50% (0.675 g/kg.wt) (Leu50) leucine supplementation, and three exercise groups receiving 0% (Ex), 10% (Leu10Ex), and 50% (Leu50Ex) leucine supplementation. The rats performed ladder climbing exercises thrice per week for 8 weeks, and received leucine supplements at the same time daily. Muscle phenotypes were assessed by immunohistochemistry. MyoD, myogenin, and IGF1 protein levels were determined by western blot. The Leu50Ex group displayed significantly higher numbers of positive embryonic myosin fibers (0.35 ± 0.08, 250%) and myonuclei (3.29 ± 0.3, 118.7%) than all other groups. And exercise training groups increased the cross-sectional area, the number of satellite cells and protein expression of MyoD, myogenin, and IGF1alpha relative to the Control group (P < 0.05). However, Only leucine supplementation group did not increase skeletal muscle hypertrophy and satellite cell activity, regardless of the dose (P > 0.05). Leucine intake accompanied by regular exercise training may increase satellite cell activation in skeletal muscles, and improve muscle quality more effectively than continuous leucine ingestion alone. © 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  19. Leucine stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs by enhancing mTORC1 activation.

    PubMed

    Suryawan, Agus; Jeyapalan, Asumthia S; Orellana, Renan A; Wilson, Fiona A; Nguyen, Hanh V; Davis, Teresa A

    2008-10-01

    Skeletal muscle in the neonate grows at a rapid rate due in part to an enhanced sensitivity to the postprandial rise in amino acids, particularly leucine. To elucidate the molecular mechanism by which leucine stimulates protein synthesis in neonatal muscle, overnight-fasted 7-day-old piglets were treated with rapamycin [an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex (mTORC)1] for 1 h and then infused with leucine for 1 h. Fractional rates of protein synthesis and activation of signaling components that lead to mRNA translation were determined in skeletal muscle. Rapamycin completely blocked leucine-induced muscle protein synthesis. Rapamycin markedly reduced raptor-mTOR association, an indicator of mTORC1 activation. Rapamycin blocked the leucine-induced phosphorylation of mTOR, S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), and eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)4E-binding protein-1 (4E-BP1) and formation of the eIF4E.eIF4G complex and increased eIF4E.4E-BP1 complex abundance. Rapamycin had no effect on the association of mTOR with rictor, a crucial component for mTORC2 activation, or G protein beta-subunit-like protein (GbetaL), a component of mTORC1 and mTORC2. Neither leucine nor rapamycin affected the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), PKB, or tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)2, signaling components that reside upstream of mTOR. Eukaryotic elongation factor (eEF)2 phosphorylation was not affected by leucine or rapamycin, although current dogma indicates that eEF2 phosphorylation is mTOR dependent. Together, these in vivo data suggest that leucine stimulates muscle protein synthesis in neonates by enhancing mTORC1 activation and its downstream effectors.

  20. Leucine stimulates protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs by enhancing mTORC1 activation

    PubMed Central

    Suryawan, Agus; Jeyapalan, Asumthia S.; Orellana, Renan A.; Wilson, Fiona A.; Nguyen, Hanh V.; Davis, Teresa A.

    2008-01-01

    Skeletal muscle in the neonate grows at a rapid rate due in part to an enhanced sensitivity to the postprandial rise in amino acids, particularly leucine. To elucidate the molecular mechanism by which leucine stimulates protein synthesis in neonatal muscle, overnight-fasted 7-day-old piglets were treated with rapamycin [an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex (mTORC)1] for 1 h and then infused with leucine for 1 h. Fractional rates of protein synthesis and activation of signaling components that lead to mRNA translation were determined in skeletal muscle. Rapamycin completely blocked leucine-induced muscle protein synthesis. Rapamycin markedly reduced raptor-mTOR association, an indicator of mTORC1 activation. Rapamycin blocked the leucine-induced phosphorylation of mTOR, S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), and eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)4E-binding protein-1 (4E-BP1) and formation of the eIF4E·eIF4G complex and increased eIF4E·4E-BP1 complex abundance. Rapamycin had no effect on the association of mTOR with rictor, a crucial component for mTORC2 activation, or G protein β-subunit-like protein (GβL), a component of mTORC1 and mTORC2. Neither leucine nor rapamycin affected the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), PKB, or tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)2, signaling components that reside upstream of mTOR. Eukaryotic elongation factor (eEF)2 phosphorylation was not affected by leucine or rapamycin, although current dogma indicates that eEF2 phosphorylation is mTOR dependent. Together, these in vivo data suggest that leucine stimulates muscle protein synthesis in neonates by enhancing mTORC1 activation and its downstream effectors. PMID:18682538

  1. A randomized controlled trial: branched-chain amino acid levels and glucose metabolism in patients with obesity and sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Barceló, Antonia; Morell-Garcia, Daniel; Salord, Neus; Esquinas, Cristina; Pérez, Gerardo; Pérez, Antonio; Monasterio, Carmen; Gasa, Merce; Fortuna, Ana Maria; Montserrat, Josep Maria; Mayos, Mercedes

    2017-12-01

    There is evidence that changes in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) levels may correlate with the efficacy of therapeutic interventions for affecting improvement in metabolic control. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether serum concentrations of BCAAs (leucine, isoleucine, valine) could mediate in insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance after continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). A prospective randomized controlled trial of OSA patients with morbid obesity was conducted. Eighty patients were randomized into two groups: 38 received conservative treatment and 42 received CPAP treatment for 12 weeks. Plasma levels of BCAA, glucose tolerance and insulin resistance were evaluated at baseline and after treatment. After treatment, significant decreases of leucine levels were observed in both groups when compared with baseline levels (P < 0.005). With respect to patients with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) had higher baseline levels of isoleucine (78 ± 16 versus 70 ± 13 μmol L -1 , P = 0.014) and valine (286 ± 36 versus 268 ± 41 μmol L -1 , P = 0.049), respectively. Changes in levels of leucine and isoleucine after treatment were related negatively to changes in fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin values only in the conservative group (P < 0.05). In summary, we found that the treatment with CPAP for 12 weeks caused similar changes in circulating BCAAs concentrations to conservative treatment and a differential metabolic response of CPAP and conservative treatment was observed between the relationship of BCAAs and glucose homeostasis. Additional studies are needed to determine the interplay between branched-chain amino acids and glucose metabolism in patients with sleep apnea. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  2. Oral Leucine Supplementation Is Sensed by the Brain but neither Reduces Food Intake nor Induces an Anorectic Pattern of Gene Expression in the Hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Zampieri, Thais T.; Pedroso, João A. B.; Furigo, Isadora C.; Tirapegui, Julio; Donato, Jose

    2013-01-01

    Leucine activates the intracellular mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, and hypothalamic mTOR signaling regulates food intake. Although central infusion of leucine reduces food intake, it is still uncertain whether oral leucine supplementation is able to affect the hypothalamic circuits that control energy balance. We observed increased phosphorylation of p70s6k in the mouse hypothalamus after an acute oral gavage of leucine. We then assessed whether acute oral gavage of leucine induces the activation of neurons in several hypothalamic nuclei and in the brainstem. Leucine did not induce the expression of Fos in hypothalamic nuclei, but it increased the number of Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the area postrema. In addition, oral gavage of leucine acutely increased the 24 h food intake of mice. Nonetheless, chronic leucine supplementation in the drinking water did not change the food intake and the weight gain of ob/ob mice and of wild-type mice consuming a low- or a high-fat diet. We assessed the hypothalamic gene expression and observed that leucine supplementation increased the expression of enzymes (BCAT1, BCAT2 and BCKDK) that metabolize branched-chain amino acids. Despite these effects, leucine supplementation did not induce an anorectic pattern of gene expression in the hypothalamus. In conclusion, our data show that the brain is able to sense oral leucine intake. However, the food intake is not modified by chronic oral leucine supplementation. These results question the possible efficacy of leucine supplementation as an appetite suppressant to treat obesity. PMID:24349566

  3. Branched-chain amino acids complex inhibits melanogenesis in B16F0 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cha, Jae-Young; Yang, Hyun-Ju; Moon, Hyung-In; Cho, Young-Su

    2012-04-01

    Present study was investigated the effect of each or complex of three branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; isoleucine, leucine, and valine) on melanin production in B16F0 melanoma cells treated with various concentrations (1-16 mM) for 72 h. Among the 20 amino acids, lysine and glycine showed the highest activities of DPPH radical scavenging and mushroom tyrosinase inhibition, respectively. Each and combination of BCAAs reduced melanogenesis in a concentration-dependent manner without any morphological changes and cell viability in melanoma cells. Present study was also investigated the inhibitory effects of each or complex of BCAAs at each 10 mM concentration on the 100 μM IBMX-mediated stimulation of melanogenesis in melanoma cells for 72 h and found that IBMX treatment was stimulated to enhance melanin synthesis and that the complex of BCAAs was the most effectively inhibited in the melanin amounts of cellular and extracellular and the whitening the cell pellet. When the inhibitory effect of BCAAs on tyrosinase was examined by intracellular tyrosinase assay, both isoleucine and valine exhibit slightly inhibition, but leucine and combination of BCAAs did not inhibit the cell-derived tyrosinase activity. Present study demonstrated that complex of BCAAs inhibited melanin production without changes intercellular tyrosinase activity. Thus, the complex of BCAAs may be used in development of safe potentially depigmenting agents.

  4. Rapid determination of branched chain amino acids in human blood plasma by pressure-assisted capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Tůma, Petr; Gojda, Jan

    2015-08-01

    A CE method with contactless conductivity detection has been developed for the clinical determination of the branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) valine, isoleucine and leucine in human blood plasma. The CE separation was performed in an optimised BGE with composition of 3.2 M acetic acid in 20% v/v methanol, pH 2.0. The achieved separation time was 125 s when using a capillary with an effective length of 14.7 cm, electric field intensity of 0.96 kV/cm and simultaneous application of a hydrodynamic pressure of 50 mbar. The separation efficiency in blood plasma equalled 461 000 theoretical plates/m for valine and isoleucine, and 455 000 theoretical plates/m for leucine; the detection limits are equal to 0.4 μM for all three amino acids. The RSD values for repeatability of the migration time equalled 0.1% for measurements during a single day and 0.3% for measurements on different days; the RSD values for repeatability of the peak areas equalled 2.3-2.6% for measurements during a single day and 2.7-4.6% for measurements on different days. It followed from the performed tests that the plasmatic levels of BCAAs attain a maximum 60 min after intravenous application of an infusion of BCAAs. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Electron ionization and dissociation of aliphatic amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papp, P.; Shchukin, P.; Kočíšek, J.; Matejčík, Š.

    2012-09-01

    We present experimental and theoretical study of electron ionization and dissociative ionization to the gas phase amino acids valine, leucine, and isoleucine. A crossed electron/molecular beams technique equipped with quadrupole mass analyzer has been applied to measure mass spectra and ion efficiency curves for formation of particular ions. From experimental data the ionization energies of the molecules and the appearance energies of the fragment ions were determined. Ab initio calculations (Density Functional Theory and G3MP2 methods) were performed in order to calculate the fragmentation paths and interpret the experimental data. The experimental ionization energies of parent molecules [P]+ 8.91 ± 0.05, 8.85 ± 0.05, and 8.79 ± 0.05 eV and G3MP2 ionization energies (adiabatic) of 8.89, 8.88, and 8.81 eV were determined for valine, leucine, and isoleucine, respectively, as well as the experimental and theoretical threshold energies for dissociative ionization channels. The comparison of experimental data with calculations resulted in identification of the ions as well as the neutral fragments formed in the dissociative reactions. Around 15 mass/charge ratio fragments were identified from the mass spectra by comparison of experimental appearance energies with calculated reaction enthalpies for particular dissociative reactions.

  6. Effects of essential amino acids on lipid metabolism in mice and humans.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Fei; Du, Ying; Lv, Ziquan; Chen, Shanghai; Zhu, Jianmin; Sheng, Hongguang; Guo, Feifan

    2016-11-01

    Eight amino acids are considered essential for human nutrition, and three of them, including leucine, isoleucine and valine, are called as branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). We recently discovered that dietary deficiency of any BCAA for 7 days rapidly reduces the abdominal fat mass in mice. The goal of this study was to investigate (1) whether dietary deficiency of the other five essential amino acids (EAAs), including phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, methionine and lysine, would produce similar effects and (2) whether an association between serum AAs and obesity was observed in humans in Chinese Han population. Similar to BCAAs deprivation, dietary deficiency of any of these five EAAs for 7 days significantly reduced abdominal fat mass, which is likely caused by increased energy expenditure. Expression of genes and proteins related to lipolysis, however, were differentially regulated by different EAAs. These results suggest a crucial role of EAAs deprivation on lipid metabolism in mice. Our human studies revealed that levels of four EAAs (leucine, isoleucine, valine and phenylalanine) were elevated in obese humans compared with those in lean controls in Chinese Han population. Based on the results obtained from mice, we speculate that these four EAAs might play important roles in human obesity. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  7. Branched-chain and aromatic amino acids are predictors of insulin resistance in young adults.

    PubMed

    Würtz, Peter; Soininen, Pasi; Kangas, Antti J; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Lehtimäki, Terho; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma S; Raitakari, Olli T; Ala-Korpela, Mika

    2013-03-01

    Branched-chain and aromatic amino acids are associated with the risk for future type 2 diabetes; however, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We tested whether amino acids predict insulin resistance index in healthy young adults. Circulating isoleucine, leucine, valine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and six additional amino acids were quantified in 1,680 individuals from the population-based Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study (baseline age 32 ± 5 years; 54% women). Insulin resistance was estimated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) at baseline and 6-year follow-up. Amino acid associations with HOMA of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and glucose were assessed using regression models adjusted for established risk factors. We further examined whether amino acid profiling could augment risk assessment of insulin resistance (defined as 6-year HOMA-IR >90th percentile) in early adulthood. Isoleucine, leucine, valine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine were associated with HOMA-IR at baseline and for men at 6-year follow-up, while for women only leucine, valine, and phenylalanine predicted 6-year HOMA-IR (P < 0.05). None of the other amino acids were prospectively associated with HOMA-IR. The sum of branched-chain and aromatic amino acid concentrations was associated with 6-year insulin resistance for men (odds ratio 2.09 [95% CI 1.38-3.17]; P = 0.0005); however, including the amino acid score in prediction models did not improve risk discrimination. Branched-chain and aromatic amino acids are markers of the development of insulin resistance in young, normoglycemic adults, with most pronounced associations for men. These findings suggest that the association of branched-chain and aromatic amino acids with the risk for future diabetes is at least partly mediated through insulin resistance.

  8. Sense codon emancipation for proteome-wide incorporation of noncanonical amino acids: rare isoleucine codon AUA as a target for genetic code expansion.

    PubMed

    Bohlke, Nina; Budisa, Nediljko

    2014-02-01

    One of the major challenges in contemporary synthetic biology is to find a route to engineer synthetic organisms with altered chemical constitution. In terms of core reaction types, nature uses an astonishingly limited repertoire of chemistries when compared with the exceptionally rich and diverse methods of organic chemistry. In this context, the most promising route to change and expand the fundamental chemistry of life is the inclusion of amino acid building blocks beyond the canonical 20 (i.e. expanding the genetic code). This strategy would allow the transfer of numerous chemical functionalities and reactions from the synthetic laboratory into the cellular environment. Due to limitations in terms of both efficiency and practical applicability, state-of-the-art nonsense suppression- or frameshift suppression-based methods are less suitable for such engineering. Consequently, we set out to achieve this goal by sense codon emancipation, that is, liberation from its natural decoding function - a prerequisite for the reassignment of degenerate sense codons to a new 21st amino acid. We have achieved this by redesigning of several features of the post-transcriptional modification machinery which are directly involved in the decoding process. In particular, we report first steps towards the reassignment of 5797 AUA isoleucine codons in Escherichia coli using efficient tools for tRNA nucleotide modification pathway engineering. © 2014 The Authors. FEMS Microbiology Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

  9. Sense codon emancipation for proteome-wide incorporation of noncanonical amino acids: rare isoleucine codon AUA as a target for genetic code expansion

    PubMed Central

    Bohlke, Nina; Budisa, Nediljko

    2014-01-01

    One of the major challenges in contemporary synthetic biology is to find a route to engineer synthetic organisms with altered chemical constitution. In terms of core reaction types, nature uses an astonishingly limited repertoire of chemistries when compared with the exceptionally rich and diverse methods of organic chemistry. In this context, the most promising route to change and expand the fundamental chemistry of life is the inclusion of amino acid building blocks beyond the canonical 20 (i.e. expanding the genetic code). This strategy would allow the transfer of numerous chemical functionalities and reactions from the synthetic laboratory into the cellular environment. Due to limitations in terms of both efficiency and practical applicability, state-of-the-art nonsense suppression- or frameshift suppression-based methods are less suitable for such engineering. Consequently, we set out to achieve this goal by sense codon emancipation, that is, liberation from its natural decoding function – a prerequisite for the reassignment of degenerate sense codons to a new 21st amino acid. We have achieved this by redesigning of several features of the post-transcriptional modification machinery which are directly involved in the decoding process. In particular, we report first steps towards the reassignment of 5797 AUA isoleucine codons in Escherichia coli using efficient tools for tRNA nucleotide modification pathway engineering. PMID:24433543

  10. Life without tRNAIle-lysidine synthetase: translation of the isoleucine codon AUA in Bacillus subtilis lacking the canonical tRNA2Ile

    PubMed Central

    Köhrer, Caroline; Mandal, Debabrata; Gaston, Kirk W.; Grosjean, Henri; Limbach, Patrick A.; RajBhandary, Uttam L.

    2014-01-01

    Translation of the isoleucine codon AUA in most prokaryotes requires a modified C (lysidine or agmatidine) at the wobble position of tRNA2Ile to base pair specifically with the A of the AUA codon but not with the G of AUG. Recently, a Bacillus subtilis strain was isolated in which the essential gene encoding tRNAIle-lysidine synthetase was deleted for the first time. In such a strain, C34 at the wobble position of tRNA2Ile is expected to remain unmodified and cells depend on a mutant suppressor tRNA derived from tRNA1Ile, in which G34 has been changed to U34. An important question, therefore, is how U34 base pairs with A without also base pairing with G. Here, we show (i) that unlike U34 at the wobble position of all B. subtilis tRNAs of known sequence, U34 in the mutant tRNA is not modified, and (ii) that the mutant tRNA binds strongly to the AUA codon on B. subtilis ribosomes but only weakly to AUG. These in vitro data explain why the suppressor strain displays only a low level of misreading AUG codons in vivo and, as shown here, grows at a rate comparable to that of the wild-type strain. PMID:24194599

  11. Jasmonoyl-l-Isoleucine Coordinates Metabolic Networks Required for Anthesis and Floral Attractant Emission in Wild Tobacco (Nicotiana attenuata)[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Stitz, Michael; Hartl, Markus; Baldwin, Ian T.; Gaquerel, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Jasmonic acid and its derivatives (jasmonates [JAs]) play central roles in floral development and maturation. The binding of jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile) to the F-box of CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) is required for many JA-dependent physiological responses, but its role in anthesis and pollinator attraction traits remains largely unexplored. Here, we used the wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata, which develops sympetalous flowers with complex pollination biology, to examine the coordinating function of JA homeostasis in the distinct metabolic processes that underlie flower maturation, opening, and advertisement to pollinators. From combined transcriptomic, targeted metabolic, and allometric analyses of transgenic N. attenuata plants for which signaling deficiencies were complemented with methyl jasmonate, JA-Ile, and its functional homolog, coronatine (COR), we demonstrate that (1) JA-Ile/COR-based signaling regulates corolla limb opening and a JA-negative feedback loop; (2) production of floral volatiles (night emissions of benzylacetone) and nectar requires JA-Ile/COR perception through COI1; and (3) limb expansion involves JA-Ile-induced changes in limb fresh mass and carbohydrate metabolism. These findings demonstrate a master regulatory function of the JA-Ile/COI1 duet for the main function of a sympetalous corolla, that of advertising for and rewarding pollinator services. Flower opening, by contrast, requires JA-Ile signaling-dependent changes in primary metabolism, which are not compromised in the COI1-silenced RNA interference line used in this study. PMID:25326292

  12. Effects of dietary valine:lysine ratio on the performance, amino acid composition of tissues and mRNA expression of genes involved in branched-chain amino acid metabolism of weaned piglets

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ye Tong; Ma, Xiao Kang; Wang, Chun Lin; Yuan, Ming Feng; Piao, Xiang Shu

    2018-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary standard ileal digestible (SID) valine:lysine ratios on performance, intestinal morphology, amino acids of liver and muscle, plasma indices and mRNA expression of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism enzymes. Methods A total of 144 crossbred pigs (Duroc×Landrace×Large White) weaned at 28±4 days of age (8.79±0.02 kg body weight) were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 diets formulated to provide SID valine:lysine ratios of 50%, 60%, 70%, or 80%. Each diet was fed to 6 pens of pigs with 6 pigs per pen (3 gilts and 3 barrows) for 28 days. Results Average daily gain increased quadratically (p<0.05), the villous height of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum increased linearly (p<0.05) as the SID valine:lysine ratio increased. The concentrations of plasma α-keto isovaleric and valine increased linearly (p<0.05), plasma aspartate, asparagine and cysteine decreased (p<0.05) as the SID valine:lysine ratio increased. An increase in SID lysine:valine levels increased mRNA expression levels of mitochondrial BCAA transaminase and branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase in the longissimus dorsi muscle (p<0.05). Conclusion Using a quadratic model, a SID valine:lysine ratio of 68% was shown to maximize the growth of weaned pigs which is slightly higher than the level recommended by the National Research Council [6]. PMID:28728397

  13. Expression, purification and preliminary biochemical and structural characterization of the leucine rich repeat namesake domain of leucine rich repeat kinase 2.

    PubMed

    Vancraenenbroeck, Renée; Lobbestael, Evy; Weeks, Stephen D; Strelkov, Sergei V; Baekelandt, Veerle; Taymans, Jean-Marc; De Maeyer, Marc

    2012-03-01

    Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the most common cause of familial Parkinson's disease. Much research effort has been directed towards the catalytic core region of LRRK2 composed of GTPase (ROC, Ras of complex proteins) and kinase domains and a connecting COR (C-terminus of ROC) domain. In contrast, the precise functions of the protein-protein interaction domains, such as the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain, are not known. In the present study, we modeled the LRRK2 LRR domain (LRR(LRRK2)) using a template assembly approach, revealing the presence of 14 LRRs. Next, we focused on the expression and purification of LRR(LRRK2) in Escherichia coli. Buffer optimization revealed that the protein requires the presence of a zwitterionic detergent, namely Empigen BB, during solubilization and the subsequent purification and characterization steps. This indicates that the detergent captures the hydrophobic surface patches of LRR(LRRK2) thereby suppressing its aggregation. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy measured 18% α-helices and 21% β-sheets, consistent with predictions from the homology model. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and dynamic light scattering measurements showed the presence of a single species, with a Stokes radius corresponding to the model dimensions of a protein monomer. Furthermore, no obvious LRR(LRRK2) multimerization was detected via cross-linking studies. Finally, the LRR(LRRK2) clinical mutations did not influence LRR(LRRK2) secondary, tertiary or quaternary structure as determined via SEC and CD spectroscopy. We therefore conclude that these mutations are likely to affect putative LRR(LRRK2) inter- and intramolecular interactions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Leucine Modulation of the mTOR Pathway for Cognition Modulation: Kinetic and In Vitro Studies and Model Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    isoleucine non-polar L1 131 Aromatic side chain phenylalanine non-polar L1 165 tyrosine polar L1 181 tryptophan slightly...Human Performance Wing Human Effectiveness Directorate Bioeffects Division Molecular Bioeffects Branch Wright-Patterson AFB OH 45433-5707 NOTICE...IV, DAF Chief, Bioeffects Division Human Effectiveness Directorate 711th Human Performance Wing Air Force Research Laboratory This report is

  15. Supplementation of Diabetic Rats with Leucine, Zinc, and Chromium: Effects on Function and Histological Structure of Testes.

    PubMed

    Kolahian, Saeed; Sadri, Hassan; Larijani, Amir; Hamidian, Gholamreza; Davasaz, Afshin

    2015-12-01

    The objective was to study whether leucine, zinc, and chromium supplementations influence function and histological structure of testes in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Seventy seven adult male rats were categorized into 11 groups of 7 animals each: (1) nondiabetic (negative control); (2) non-treated (positive control); (3) treated with insulin; (4) treated with glibenclamide; (5) treated with leucine; (6) treated with zinc; (7) treated with chromium; (8) treated with leucine + zinc; (9) treated with leucine + chromium; (10) treated with zinc + chromium; (11) treated with leucine + zinc + chromium. In the non-treated group, hyperglycemia severely damaged testes morphology as well as the spermatogenic process. Diabetes induction decreased testicular length, height, width, volume, total number of epididymal sperm, and number of live sperm. Seminiferous tubules of diabetic rats showed a decrease in diameter of tubules and height of epithelium. Diabetes induction decreased the number of cells (spermatogonia, spermatocyte, spermatid, and Sertoli) in cross sections of seminiferous tubules. Administration of nutritional supplements to the diabetic rats improved testes morphology and reversed, although not completely, impairment of spermatogenesis. Treatment with nutritional supplements increased testicular length, height, width, and volume. All treatments increased the number of live sperm and the total number of epididymal sperm. Furthermore, nutritional supplements increased diameter of tubules, height of epithelium, and the number of cells in seminiferous tubules. These alleviating effects were more pronounced in animals treated with the leucine-zinc-chromium combination. The present results demonstrate beneficial effects of zinc, leucine, and chromium supplements to improve testes morphology and to restore spermatogenesis in type 2 diabetic rats.

  16. Physico-Chemical Properties, Aerosolization and Dissolution of Co-Spray Dried Azithromycin Particles with L-Leucine for Inhalation.

    PubMed

    Mangal, Sharad; Nie, Haichen; Xu, Rongkun; Guo, Rui; Cavallaro, Alex; Zemlyanov, Dmitry; Zhou, Qi Tony

    2018-01-08

    Inhalation therapy is popular to treat lower respiratory tract infections. Azithromycin is effective against some bacteria that cause respiratory tract infections; but it has poor water solubility that may limit its efficacy when administrated as inhalation therapy. In this study, dry powder inhaler formulations were developed by co-spray drying azithromycin with L-leucine with a purpose to improve dissolution. The produced powder formulations were characterized regarding particle size, morphology, surface composition and in-vitro aerosolization performance. Effects of L-leucine on the solubility and in-vitro dissolution of azithromycin were also evaluated. The spray dried azithromycin alone formulation exhibited a satisfactory aerosol performance with a fine particle fraction (FPF) of 62.5 ± 4.1%. Addition of L-leucine in the formulation resulted in no significant change in particle morphology and FPF, which can be attributed to enrichment of azithromycin on the surfaces of composite particles. Importantly, compared with the spray-dried amorphous azithromycin alone powder, the co-spray dried powder formulations of azithromycin and L-leucine demonstrated a substantially enhanced in-vitro dissolution rate. Such enhanced dissolution of azithromycin could be attributed to the formation of composite system and the acidic microenvironment around azithromycin molecules created by the dissolution of acidic L-leucine in the co-spray dried powder. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic data showed intermolecular interactions between azithromycin and L-leucine in the co-spray dried formulations. We developed the dry powder formulations with satisfactory aerosol performance and enhanced dissolution for a poorly water soluble weak base, azithromycin, by co-spray drying with an amino acid, L-leucine.

  17. Physico-Chemical Properties, Aerosolization and Dissolution of Co-Spray Dried Azithromycin Particles with L-Leucine for Inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Mangal, Sharad; Nie, Haichen; Xu, Rongkun; Guo, Rui; Cavallaro, Alex; Zemlyanov, Dmitry; Zhou, Qi (Tony)

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Inhalation therapy is popular to treat lower respiratory tract infections. Azithromycin is effective against some bacteria that cause respiratory tract infections; but it has poor water solubility that may limit its efficacy when administrated as inhalation therapy. In this study, dry powder inhaler formulations were developed by co-spray drying azithromycin with L-leucine with a purpose to improve dissolution. Methods The produced powder formulations were characterized regarding particle size, morphology, surface composition and in-vitro aerosolization performance. Effects of L-leucine on the solubility and in-vitro dissolution of azithromycin were also evaluated. Results The spray dried azithromycin alone formulation exhibited a satisfactory aerosol performance with a fine particle fraction (FPF) of 62.5 ± 4.1%. Addition of L-leucine in the formulation resulted in no significant change in particle morphology and FPF, which can be attributed to enrichment of azithromycin on the surfaces of composite particles. Importantly, compared with the spray-dried amorphous azithromycin alone powder, the co-spray dried powder formulations of azithromycin and L-leucine demonstrated a substantially enhanced in-vitro dissolution rate. Such enhanced dissolution of azithromycin could be attributed to the formation of composite system and the acidic microenvironment around azithromycin molecules created by the dissolution of acidic L-leucine in the co-spray dried powder. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic data showed intermolecular interactions between azithromycin and L-leucine in the co-spray dried formulations. Conclusions We developed the dry powder formulations with satisfactory aerosol performance and enhanced dissolution for a poorly water soluble weak base, azithromycin, by co-spray drying with an amino acid, L-leucine. PMID:29374368

  18. Fabrication of valine-functionalized graphene quantum dots and its use as a novel optical probe for sensitive and selective detection of Hg2 +

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaoyan, Zhou; Zhangyi, Li; Zaijun, Li

    2017-01-01

    The functionalization of graphene quantum dots has become a powerful method to modulate its chemical, electronic and optical properties for various applications. In the study, we reported a facile synthesis of valine-functionalized graphene quantum dots (Val-GQDs) and its use as a novel fluorescent probe for optical detection of Hg2 +. Herein, Val-GQDs was synthesized by the thermal pyrolysis of citric acid and valine. The resulting Val-GQDs has an average size of 3 nm and the edge of graphene sheets contains the rich of hydrophilic groups, leading to a high water-solubility. Compared to the GQDs prepared by thermal pyrolysis of citric acid, Val-GQDs exhibits a stronger fluorescence (> 10-fold) and better photostability (> 4-fold). Interestingly, the existence of valine moieties in the Val-GQDs results in a more sensitive fluorescent response to Hg2 +. The fluorescent signal will linearly decrease with the increase of Hg2 + concentration in the range from 0.8 nM to 1 μM with the correlation coefficient of 0.992. The detection limit is 0.4 nM (S/N = 3), which the sensitivity is > 14-fold that of GQDs. The analytical method provides the prominent advantage of sensitivity, selectivity and stability. It has been successfully applied in the optical detection of Hg2 + in real water samples. The study also provides a promising approach for the design and synthesis of functionalized GQDs to meet the needs of further applications in sensing and catalysis.

  19. Influence of pH on the cis- trans isomerization of Valine-Proline dipeptide: An integrated NMR and theoretical investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Galya; Yakimova, Boryana; Angelova, Silvia; Stoineva, Ivanka; Enchev, Venelin

    2010-06-01

    The pH influence on the cis- trans isomerization of the Valine-Proline dipeptide was investigated by means of NMR spectral techniques and quantum chemical calculations at different computational levels. It was found that the process of isomerization is strongly pH dependent. The trans-isomer of Val-Pro is the more abundant isomer when the amino group is protonated, while an approximately equal distribution between the cis and trans-isomers for the neutral and anion forms of the dipeptide