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Sample records for value of life

  1. The values of life.

    PubMed

    Den Hartogh, Govert

    1997-01-01

    In Life's Dominion Dworkin aims at defusing the controversy about abortion and euthanasia by redefining its terms. Basically it is not a dispute about the right to life, but about its value. Liberals should grant that human life has not only a personal, but also an intrinsic value; conservatives should accept the principle of toleration which requires to let people decide for themselves about matters of intrinsic value. Dworkin fails, however, to distinguish between two kinds of personal value: (1) the value of something to a person, when he actually or dispositionally desires it, or finds it pleasant; and (2) the value of something to a person, when it's objectively contributes to his well-being, as defined by reference to his personal point of view, whether or not he ever perceives it as so contributing. He also fails to distinguish between two meanings of the concept of 'intrinsic value': (3) ultimate, i.e. non-instrumental personal value of kind (2); (4) the impersonal value of something which is not good-for-anybody, but simply good, i.e. not a constituent of someone's well-being. Dworkin argues that the human fetus from conception onwards has a value, that it is not a personal value of kind (1), and therefore must be an intrinsic value. But the value of the life of the fetus is not a personal value of kind (2) either and therefore not an intrinsic value of kind (3): it is normally a constituent of the well-being of the pregnant woman, but that doesn't constitute its value, and it is not good 'for' the fetus itself in the relevant sense, because it doesn't have a personal point of view. If, however, the fetus' life is allowed to have an intrinsic value of kind (4), the conservative cannot be refuted by appeal to the principle of toleration, for this only concerns intrinsic value of kind (3). The liberal, indeed, should recognize that the fetus' life has a value, but it is neither a personal value (1) or (2), nor an impersonal value (4), but rather a relational

  2. Valuing QALYs at the end of life.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Prades, Jose-Luis; Sánchez-Martínez, Fernando-Ignacio; Corbacho, Belen; Baker, Rachel

    2014-07-01

    The possibility of weighting QALYs differently for different groups of patients has been a source of debate. Most recently, this debate has been extended to the relative value of QALYs at the end of life (EoL). The objective of this study is to provide evidence of societal preferences in relation to this topic. Three cross-sectional surveys were conducted amongst Spanish general population (n = 813). Survey 1 compared increases in life expectancy for EoL patients with health gains from temporary health problems. Survey 2 compared health gains for temporary health problems with quality of life gains at the EoL (palliative care). Survey 3 compared increases in life expectancy with quality of life gains, both for EoL patients. Preferences were elicited using Person Trade-Off (PTO) and Willingness to pay (WTP) techniques presenting two different durations of health benefit (6 and 18 months). Health benefits, measured in QALYs, were held constant in all comparisons. In survey 1 mean WTP was higher for life extending treatments than for temporary health problems and the majority of respondents prioritised life extension over temporary health problems in response to the PTO questions. In survey 2 mean WTP was higher for palliative care than for temporary health problems and 83% prioritized palliative care (for both durations) in the PTO questions. In survey 3 WTP values were higher for palliative care than for life extending treatments and more than 60% prioritized palliative care in the PTO questions. Our results suggest that QALYs gained from EoL treatments have a higher social value than QALYs gained from treatments for temporary health problems. Further, we found that people attach greater weight to improvements in quality of life than to life extension at the end of life. PMID:24820408

  3. Valuing vaccines using value of statistical life measures.

    PubMed

    Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Jamison, Dean T; Krupnick, Alan J; Norheim, Ole F

    2014-09-01

    Vaccines are effective tools to improve human health, but resources to pursue all vaccine-related investments are lacking. Benefit-cost and cost-effectiveness analysis are the two major methodological approaches used to assess the impact, efficiency, and distributional consequences of disease interventions, including those related to vaccinations. Childhood vaccinations can have important non-health consequences for productivity and economic well-being through multiple channels, including school attendance, physical growth, and cognitive ability. Benefit-cost analysis would capture such non-health benefits; cost-effectiveness analysis does not. Standard cost-effectiveness analysis may grossly underestimate the benefits of vaccines. A specific willingness-to-pay measure is based on the notion of the value of a statistical life (VSL), derived from trade-offs people are willing to make between fatality risk and wealth. Such methods have been used widely in the environmental and health literature to capture the broader economic benefits of improving health, but reservations remain about their acceptability. These reservations remain mainly because the methods may reflect ability to pay, and hence be discriminatory against the poor. However, willingness-to-pay methods can be made sensitive to income distribution by using appropriate income-sensitive distributional weights. Here, we describe the pros and cons of these methods and how they compare against standard cost-effectiveness analysis using pure health metrics, such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), in the context of vaccine priorities. We conclude that if appropriately used, willingness-to-pay methods will not discriminate against the poor, and they can capture important non-health benefits such as financial risk protection, productivity gains, and economic wellbeing.

  4. Valuing vaccines using value of statistical life measures.

    PubMed

    Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Jamison, Dean T; Krupnick, Alan J; Norheim, Ole F

    2014-09-01

    Vaccines are effective tools to improve human health, but resources to pursue all vaccine-related investments are lacking. Benefit-cost and cost-effectiveness analysis are the two major methodological approaches used to assess the impact, efficiency, and distributional consequences of disease interventions, including those related to vaccinations. Childhood vaccinations can have important non-health consequences for productivity and economic well-being through multiple channels, including school attendance, physical growth, and cognitive ability. Benefit-cost analysis would capture such non-health benefits; cost-effectiveness analysis does not. Standard cost-effectiveness analysis may grossly underestimate the benefits of vaccines. A specific willingness-to-pay measure is based on the notion of the value of a statistical life (VSL), derived from trade-offs people are willing to make between fatality risk and wealth. Such methods have been used widely in the environmental and health literature to capture the broader economic benefits of improving health, but reservations remain about their acceptability. These reservations remain mainly because the methods may reflect ability to pay, and hence be discriminatory against the poor. However, willingness-to-pay methods can be made sensitive to income distribution by using appropriate income-sensitive distributional weights. Here, we describe the pros and cons of these methods and how they compare against standard cost-effectiveness analysis using pure health metrics, such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), in the context of vaccine priorities. We conclude that if appropriately used, willingness-to-pay methods will not discriminate against the poor, and they can capture important non-health benefits such as financial risk protection, productivity gains, and economic wellbeing. PMID:25045822

  5. Frederick Douglass & the Value of My Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adisa, Opal Palmer

    1996-01-01

    Describes how Frederick Douglass's "Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave" can be used to explore differences between biography and autobiography, and how a personal account can be used to change attitudes of others. Presents poems written by 10th- and 11th-grade students composed after reading Douglass's "Narrative."…

  6. Life and Work Values of Counselor Trainees: A National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busacca, Louis A.; Beebe, Ronald S.; Toman, Sarah M.

    2010-01-01

    This national web-based study used the Schwartz Value Survey (Schwartz, 1994) and Super's Work Values Inventory-Revised (Zytowski, n.d.) to identify general life and work value orientations of 674 female and male entry-level counselor trainees residing in 27 states. In general, trainees emphasized benevolence, self-direction, and achievement and…

  7. The economic value of life: linking theory to practice.

    PubMed Central

    Landefeld, J S; Seskin, E P

    1982-01-01

    Human capital estimates of the economic value of life have been routinely used in the past to perform cost-benefit analyses of health programs. Recently, however, serious questions have been raised concerning the conceptual basis for valuing human life by applying these estimates. Most economists writing on these issues tend to agree that a more conceptually correct method to value risks to human life in cost-benefit analyses would be based on individuals.' "willingness to pay" for small changes in their probability of survival. Attempts to implement the willingness-to-pay approach using survey responses or revealed-preference estimates have produced a confusing array of values fraught with statistical problems and measurement difficulties. As a result, economists have searched for a link between willingness to pay and standard human capital estimates and have found that for most individuals a lower bound for valuing risks to life can be based on their willingness to pay to avoid the expected economic losses associated with death. However, while these studies provide support for using individual's private valuation of forgone income in valuing risks to life, it is also clear that standard human capital estimates cannot be used for this purpose without reformulation. After reviewing the major approaches to valuing risks to life, this paper concludes that estimates based on the human capital approach--reformulated using a willingness-to-pay criterion--produce the only clear, consistent, and objective values for use in cost-benefit analyses of policies affecting risks to life. The paper presents the first empirical estimates of such adjusted willingness-to-pay/human capital values. PMID:6803602

  8. Genetic value of herd life adjusted for milk production.

    PubMed

    Allaire, F R; Gibson, J P

    1992-05-01

    Cow herd life adjusted for lactational milk production was investigated as a genetic trait in the breeding objective. Under a simple model, the relative economic weight of milk to adjusted herd life on a per genetic standard deviation basis was equal to CVY/dCVL where CVY and CVL are the genetic coefficients of variation of milk production and adjusted herd life, respectively, and d is the depreciation per year per cow divided by the total fixed costs per year per cow. The relative economic value of milk to adjusted herd life at the prices and parameters for North America was about 3.2. An increase of 100-kg milk was equivalent to 2.2 mo of adjusted herd life. Three to 7% lower economic gain is expected when only improved milk production is sought compared with a breeding objective that included both production and adjusted herd life for relative value changed +/- 20%. A favorable economic gain to cost ratio probably exists for herd life used as a genetic trait to supplement milk in the breeding objective. Cow survival records are inexpensive, and herd life evaluations from such records may not extend the generation interval when such an evaluation is used in bull sire selection.

  9. The Transformation of the Value of Life: Dispossession as Torture.

    PubMed

    Abadía-Barrero, César E

    2015-01-01

    Workers at the oldest maternity hospital in Colombia experienced the privatization of health care and the flexibilization of their labor. Drawing on their experience, I illustrate how neoliberalism transforms the value of life. This transformation occurs first in terms of its moral worth: the worth of life changes over time, as people and public hospitals are stigmatized as the 'living memory' of the old. Second, the hospital buildings, the land on which they sit, and the roles of workers within the hospital are all transformed. Both similarities and differences emerge between a type of systemic or chronic violence that is inherent to the capitalist system and modern practices of torture. Examining how capitalist forces transform the value of life opens up new fields of inquiry to study links between critical political economy and subjectivity. PMID:26131618

  10. Patterns of Value Change During the Life Span: Some Evidence From a Functional Approach to Values.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Valdiney V; Vione, Kátia C; Milfont, Taciano L; Fischer, Ronald

    2015-09-01

    Little research has examined mean-level change in values across the life span. Using large cross-sectional data (N = 36,845) from the five geo-social regions in Brazil, this study examines how mean levels of basic values differ as a function of age (from age 12 to 65; M = 28) and whether age effects are moderated by gender. Results show that mean-level value change is substantial throughout the life course. We observed both linear and curvilinear patterns of change as well as differential patterns by gender. The observed value change is consistent with age-related life circumstances and psychosocial development. Age effects are also value dependent, supporting the notion that values have different functions for different developmental stages. PMID:26187119

  11. Roy's specific life values and the philosophical assumption of humanism.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Debra R

    2013-01-01

    Roy's philosophical assumption of humanism, which is shaped by the veritivity assumption, is considered in terms of her specific life values and in contrast to the contemporary view of humanism. Like veritivity, Roy's philosophical assumption of humanism unites a theocentric focus with anthropological values. Roy's perspective enriches the mainly secular, anthropocentric assumption. In this manuscript, the basis for Roy's perspective of humanism will be discussed so that readers will be able to use the Roy adaptation model in an authentic manner.

  12. Immigrant Status and the Value of Statistical Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersch, Joni; Viscusi, W. Kip

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the Current Population Survey and the New Immigrant Survey, this paper examines the common perception that immigrants are concentrated in high-risk jobs for which they receive little wage compensation. Compared to native U.S. workers, non-Mexican immigrants are not at higher risk and have substantial values of statistical life.…

  13. The congruence of personal life values and work attitudes.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Rachel E; Weathington, Bart L

    2006-05-01

    The authors examined the congruence between an individual's personal-life value placement and attitudes at work. Specifically, they examined how people place value on work, family, religion, and themselves (the personal life values), respectively, and how that choice influences affect, commitment, conscientiousness, and honesty in the workplace (attitudes at work). The authors also examined and tested exploratory hypotheses by using both simple correlations and multiple linear regression analyses. Results suggested varying relationships between value placement and work attitudes. The authors discussed implications and directions for future research. PMID:17663357

  14. The Value of Analog Research in the Search for Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voytek, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    All we know about life and our understanding of its distribution throughout the Universe is based on our understanding of how life originated and evolved, and how it has persisted here on Earth. As we have refined our list of requirements for earth-like organisms and explored the limits of our biosphere, a variety of possible extraterrestrial habitats that could support life have emerged. Although our access to other potentially habitable worlds is limited, we continue to increase our understanding of the environmental conditions on bodies in our solar system which can inform our search for appropriate analogue sites. There is no perfect analogue for other planetary habitable environments on Earth. Earth is a planet with plate tectonics, a hydrological cycle, a thick atmosphere and stronger gravity than most candidate systems. Moreover, present day Earth is a verdant, interconnected system resulting from billions of years of biosphere evolution. Such differences pose a challenge to analogue research and in particular limit the interpretation of the environment under study in important ways. Earth's extreme environments have been proposed as analogues of planetary environments. A common error is to assume if an environment is extreme or it is cold and dry it will make an excellent analogue site. The value of an analogue site is measured by a good assessment of the relevance of a site with rigorous attention to its Earth-based limitations is necessary and it will have different impacts depending on the question under study. Additionally, modern and ancient systems on earth can also be investigated in order to target a future search for as yet undetected terrestrial features and processes that preserve or indicate signs of past life. Despite any limitations, analogue research is essential and field research at these terrestrial sites represents a growing aspect of planetary science. Those relevant to the search for life are supported by NASA's Planetary Science

  15. Living the Good (Work) Life: Implications of General Values for Work Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlstrom, Aaron H.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in the understanding of general values from personality and social psychology apply to work values. In this paper, I introduce the concepts of values, value priorities, motivational goals, value types, and personal value systems used to clarify work values. I also introduce the terms basic and broad value and work value types. Second, I…

  16. Life Values of Library and Information Studies Students and Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Joyce; Poston-Anderson, Barbara

    1992-01-01

    Students and faculty in different programs often hold different values that can affect the learning process, especially when students share classes. A values study of students and faculty in library science, teacher librarianship, and information science revealed different terminal and instrumental values for students at different levels and in…

  17. Ethnocentrism and the value of a human life.

    PubMed

    Pratto, Felicia; Glasford, Demis E

    2008-12-01

    Drawing on theories of intergroup prejudice and decision making, the authors examined how much participants valued lives of conationals and enemy civilians. Using decisions made under risk, Experiment 1 showed that Americans valued Iraqi and American lives equally when outcomes for those nations did not compete but valued American lives more under outcome competition. Experiments 2 and 3 extended this finding by illustrating ethnocentric valuation even when large numbers of lives were at stake: The number of lives at stake mattered less for enemy civilians than it did for conational combatants. Experiment 4 provided additional evidence of this ethnocentric indifference to magnitude, regardless of combatant status of the conationals' lives. In all experiments, individual difference measures associated with prejudice (e.g., group identification and prejudice, empathy, social dominance orientation, social attitudes) corresponded to ethnocentric valuation measured in decisions. Results demonstrate that categorization, competitive context, and individual propensities for prejudice influence how much one values lives. PMID:19025292

  18. Pathways From Religion to Advance Care Planning: Beliefs About Control Over Length of Life and End-of-Life Values

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Melissa M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: To evaluate the extent to which religious affiliation and self-identified religious importance affect advance care planning (ACP) via beliefs about control over life length and end-of-life values. Design and Methods: Three hundred and five adults aged 55 and older from diverse racial and socioeconomic groups seeking outpatient care in New Jersey were surveyed. Measures included discussion of end-of-life preferences; living will (LW) completion; durable power of attorney for healthcare (DPAHC) appointment; religious affiliation; importance of religion; and beliefs about who/what controls life length, end-of-life values, health status, and sociodemographics. Results: Of the sample, 68.9% had an informal discussion and 46.2% both discussed their preferences and did formal ACP (LW and/or DPAHC). Conservative Protestants and those placing great importance on religion/spirituality had a lower likelihood of ACP. These associations were largely accounted for by beliefs about God’s controlling life length and values for using all available treatments. Implications: Beliefs and values about control account for relationships between religiosity and ACP. Beliefs and some values differ by religious affiliation. As such, congregations may be one nonclinical setting in which ACP discussions could be held, as individuals with similar attitudes toward the end of life could discuss their treatment preferences with those who share their views. PMID:23161430

  19. The Impact of a Sport-Based Life Skill Program on Adolescent Prosocial Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunelle, John; Danish, Steven J.; Forneris, Tanya

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the implementation and evaluation of a sport-based life skills and community service program. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the impact of a combined life skills and community service program on adolescents' prosocial values. The program was part of a national golf and life skills enrichment academy for…

  20. Death, life, scarcity, and value: an alternative perspective on the meaning of death.

    PubMed

    King, Laura A; Hicks, Joshua A; Abdelkhalik, Justin

    2009-12-01

    That the scarcity of objects enhances their value is a widely known principle in the behavioral sciences. In addition, research has demonstrated that attaching high value to an object produces biased perceptions of its scarcity. Three studies applied this bidirectional link between scarcity and value to the meaning of death, testing the prediction that death represents the scarcity of life. In Study 1, reminders of death led to enhanced evaluations of life. In Studies 2 and 3, the monetary (Study 2) and psychological (Study 3) value of life were manipulated. In both studies, when human life was highly valuable, the concept of death was more accessible, as predicted from the association between value and scarcity. Previous theoretical treatments of the meaning of death have shared the notion that death is essentially a threat requiring psychological defenses. The present results suggest that, from an informational perspective, death represents the scarcity of life.

  1. The Dynamic and Correlation of the Value Orientations and Life Goals of Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selivanova, Z. K.

    2014-01-01

    One of the scientific techniques in the study of value orientations and preferences consists of determining adolescents' attitudes toward personality qualities. It is well known that the model of a personality as an ideal construct formed in a person's consciousness correlates with value orientations and life goals. Its study permits us…

  2. Fates worse than death: the role of valued life activities in health-state evaluations.

    PubMed

    Ditto, P H; Druley, J A; Moore, K A; Danks, J H; Smucker, W D

    1996-09-01

    One hundred eight college students (Study 1) and 109 elderly adults (Study 2) rated 28 health impairments for the quality of life perceived to be possible in that state, the extent to which the state was perceived as a fate better or worse than death, and the extent to which the state was perceived to interfere with the ability to engage in the activities each individual valued most in life. States perceived most negatively were those perceived to interfere most with valued life activities. For any given health state, evaluations were more negative the more the state was perceived by individuals as likely to interfere with engagement in their valued life activities. Implications of these results for end-of-life medical decision making in general and the use of advance medical directives in particular are discussed. PMID:8891712

  3. The Effect of Urban Life on Traditional Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Claude S.

    1975-01-01

    Three models are elaborated that predict an association between urbanism and nontraditional behavior. Secondary analysis of American survey data on religiosity, church attendance, and attitudes toward alcohol and birth control confirm the general urbanism-deviance association and suggest the accuracy of the model which regards such behavior as due…

  4. Valuing end-of-life care in the United States: the case of new cancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Sorenson, Corinna

    2012-10-01

    New cancer therapies offer the hope of improved diagnosis to patients with life-threatening disease. Over the past 5-10 years, a number of specialty drugs have entered clinical practice to provide better systemic therapy for advanced cancers that respond to few therapeutic alternatives. To date, however, such advances have been only modestly effective in extending life and come with a high price tag, raising questions about their value for money, patient access and implications for health care costs. This article explores some of the key issues present in valuing end-of-life care in the United States in the case of advanced cancer drugs, from the difficult trade-offs between their limited health benefits and high costs to the technical, political and social challenges in assessing their value and applying such evidence to inform policy and practice. A number of initial steps are discussed that could be pursued to improve the value of advanced cancer care. PMID:23079300

  5. The effect of values and culture on life-support decisions.

    PubMed Central

    Klessig, J

    1992-01-01

    Withdrawing life support is always difficult. When patients and health professionals are from different ethnic backgrounds, value systems that form the basis for such decisions may conflict. Many cultural groups do not place the same emphasis on patient autonomy and self-determination that Western society does and find the idea of terminating life support offensive. Although physicians should never assume patients will respond in a particular way because of their ethnic background, issues of life support should be discussed in a culturally sensitive way. African-American, Chinese, Jewish, Iranian, Filipino, Mexican-American, and Korean patients were surveyed about their views on life support. The findings reported here, although not meant to be definitive, should add to health professionals' understanding about diverse beliefs around life-and-death issues. By becoming aware of this diversity of beliefs, health professionals can avoid the damage to the physician-patient relationship caused by conflicting value systems. PMID:1413777

  6. The effect of values and culture on life-support decisions.

    PubMed

    Klessig, J

    1992-09-01

    Withdrawing life support is always difficult. When patients and health professionals are from different ethnic backgrounds, value systems that form the basis for such decisions may conflict. Many cultural groups do not place the same emphasis on patient autonomy and self-determination that Western society does and find the idea of terminating life support offensive. Although physicians should never assume patients will respond in a particular way because of their ethnic background, issues of life support should be discussed in a culturally sensitive way. African-American, Chinese, Jewish, Iranian, Filipino, Mexican-American, and Korean patients were surveyed about their views on life support. The findings reported here, although not meant to be definitive, should add to health professionals' understanding about diverse beliefs around life-and-death issues. By becoming aware of this diversity of beliefs, health professionals can avoid the damage to the physician-patient relationship caused by conflicting value systems.

  7. Publication selection and the income elasticity of the value of a statistical life.

    PubMed

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Stanley, T D; Viscusi, W Kip

    2014-01-01

    Estimates of the value of a statistical life (VSL) establish the price government agencies use to value fatality risks. Transferring these valuations to other populations often utilizes the income elasticity of the VSL, which typically draw on estimates from meta-analyses. Using a data set consisting of 101 estimates of the income elasticity of VSL from 14 previously reported meta-analyses, we find that after accounting for potential publication bias the income elasticity of value of a statistical life is clearly and robustly inelastic, with a value of approximately 0.25-0.63. There is also clear evidence of the importance of controlling for levels of risk, differential publication selection bias, and the greater income sensitivity of VSL from stated preference surveys. PMID:24300998

  8. Is the value of a life or life-year saved context specific? Further evidence from a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Mortimer, Duncan; Segal, Leonie

    2008-01-01

    Background A number of recent findings imply that the value of a life saved, life-year (LY) saved or quality-adjusted life year (QALY) saved varies depending on the characteristics of the life, LY or QALY under consideration. Despite these findings, budget allocations continue to be made as if all healthy life-years are equivalent. This continued focus on simple health maximisation is partly attributable to gaps in the available evidence. The present study attempts to close some of these gaps. Methods Discrete choice experiment to estimate the marginal rate of substitution between cost, effectiveness and various non-health arguments. Odds of selecting profile B over profile A estimated via binary logistic regression. Marginal rates of substitution between attributes (including cost) then derived from estimated regression coefficients. Results Respondents were more likely to select less costly, more effective interventions with a strong evidence base where the beneficiary did not contribute to their illness. Results also suggest that respondents preferred prevention over cure. Interventions for young children were most preferred, followed by interventions for young adults, then interventions for working age adults and with interventions targeted at the elderly given lowest priority. Conclusion Results confirm that a trade-off exists between cost, effectiveness and non-health arguments when respondents prioritise health programs. That said, it is true that respondents were more likely to select less costly, more effective interventions – confirming that it is an adjustment to, rather than an outright rejection of, simple health maximisation that is required. PMID:18489787

  9. 38 CFR 8.12 - Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under section 1917(e) of title 38 U.S.C. 8... SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Cash Value and Policy Loan § 8.12 Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under section 1917(e) of title 38 U.S.C. (a) Effective January...

  10. 38 CFR 8.12 - Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under section 1917(e) of title 38 U.S.C. 8... SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Cash Value and Policy Loan § 8.12 Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under section 1917(e) of title 38 U.S.C. (a) Effective January...

  11. 38 CFR 8.12 - Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under section 1917(e) of title 38 U.S.C. 8... SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Cash Value and Policy Loan § 8.12 Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under section 1917(e) of title 38 U.S.C. (a) Effective January...

  12. 38 CFR 8.12 - Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under section 1917(e) of title 38 U.S.C. 8... SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Cash Value and Policy Loan § 8.12 Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under section 1917(e) of title 38 U.S.C. (a) Effective January...

  13. 38 CFR 8.12 - Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under section 1917(e) of title 38 U.S.C. 8... SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Cash Value and Policy Loan § 8.12 Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under section 1917(e) of title 38 U.S.C. (a) Effective January...

  14. Changes in the Life Values of Polish Youth: Study Results, Observations, Speculation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulek, Antoni

    1985-01-01

    Attempts to explain why a cohort of Polish youth participated so actively in the Solidarity movement of 1980-81, even though studies of these youth conducted in the early 1970s had shown their values to be of a private-stabilization nature. Focuses on the effects of Poland's economic crisis and life under martial law. (KH)

  15. Value-Able Still Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Susan

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how she made a major improvement to her fifth-grade lesson plan by providing a hands-on Internet experience before students worked on their own oil pastel still life. It was a success with beautiful finished products and highly motivated, engaged students. Details of this lesson are described in this article.

  16. Valuing health at the end of life: a stated preference discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Shah, Koonal K; Tsuchiya, Aki; Wailoo, Allan J

    2015-01-01

    A source of debate in the field of health care priority setting is whether health gains should be weighted differently for different groups of patients. The debate has recently focused on the relative value of life extensions for patients with short life expectancy. However, few studies have examined empirically whether society is prepared to fund life-extending end-of-life treatments that would not meet the reimbursement criteria used for other treatments. A web-based discrete choice experiment was conducted in 2012 using a sample of 3969 members of the general public in England and Wales. The study design was informed by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence's supplementary policy for the appraisal of life-extending end-of-life treatments. The choice tasks involved asking respondents which of two hypothetical patients they would prefer to treat, assuming that the health service has enough funds to treat only one of them. Conditional logit regressions were used for modelling. Choices about which patient to treat were influenced more by the sizes of treatment gains than by patients' life expectancy without treatment. Some respondents appear to support a health-maximisation type objective throughout, whilst a small minority always seek to treat those who are worse off without treatment. The majority of respondents, however, seem to advocate a mixture of the two approaches. Overall, we find little evidence that members of the general public prefer to give higher priority to life-extending end-of-life treatments than to other types of treatment. When asked to make decisions about the treatment of hypothetical patients with relatively short life expectancies, most people's choices are driven by the size of the health gains offered by treatment.

  17. Nutritive value and display-life attributes of selenium-enriched beef-muscle foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to assess the nutritive value and display-life attributes of selenium-enriched beef-muscle foods. Samples of foreshank and short loin subprimals were excised from chilled carcasses (n = 20) of beef steers that were individually finished (120 days) on either supranutritional seleni...

  18. Examining the Relationships among Coaching Staff Diversity, Perceptions of Diversity, Value Congruence, and Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, George B.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among coaching staff diversity, perceptions of diversity, value congruence, and life satisfaction. Data were collected from 71 coaching staffs (N = 196 coaches). Observed path analysis was used to examine the study predictions. Results indicate that actual staff diversity was positively…

  19. What Is the Value of Life? … and Other Socratic Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuny, Casey

    2014-01-01

    Casey Cuny was frustrated with the lack of depth in his high school English students' writing. He'd heard about Socratic seminars but was reluctant to try them until he saw them in action. He decided to conduct Socratic seminars with his students centered on the question, What is the value of life? In past years, student papers on this…

  20. Estimation of social value of statistical life using willingness-to-pay method in Nanjing, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhao; Liu, Pan; Xu, Xin

    2016-10-01

    Rational decision making regarding the safety related investment programs greatly depends on the economic valuation of traffic crashes. The primary objective of this study was to estimate the social value of statistical life in the city of Nanjing in China. A stated preference survey was conducted to investigate travelers' willingness to pay for traffic risk reduction. Face-to-face interviews were conducted at stations, shopping centers, schools, and parks in different districts in the urban area of Nanjing. The respondents were categorized into two groups, including motorists and non-motorists. Both the binary logit model and mixed logit model were developed for the two groups of people. The results revealed that the mixed logit model is superior to the fixed coefficient binary logit model. The factors that significantly affect people's willingness to pay for risk reduction include income, education, gender, age, drive age (for motorists), occupation, whether the charged fees were used to improve private vehicle equipment (for motorists), reduction in fatality rate, and change in travel cost. The Monte Carlo simulation method was used to generate the distribution of value of statistical life (VSL). Based on the mixed logit model, the VSL had a mean value of 3,729,493 RMB ($586,610) with a standard deviation of 2,181,592 RMB ($343,142) for motorists; and a mean of 3,281,283 RMB ($505,318) with a standard deviation of 2,376,975 RMB ($366,054) for non-motorists. Using the tax system to illustrate the contribution of different income groups to social funds, the social value of statistical life was estimated. The average social value of statistical life was found to be 7,184,406 RMB ($1,130,032). PMID:27178028

  1. Estimation of social value of statistical life using willingness-to-pay method in Nanjing, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhao; Liu, Pan; Xu, Xin

    2016-10-01

    Rational decision making regarding the safety related investment programs greatly depends on the economic valuation of traffic crashes. The primary objective of this study was to estimate the social value of statistical life in the city of Nanjing in China. A stated preference survey was conducted to investigate travelers' willingness to pay for traffic risk reduction. Face-to-face interviews were conducted at stations, shopping centers, schools, and parks in different districts in the urban area of Nanjing. The respondents were categorized into two groups, including motorists and non-motorists. Both the binary logit model and mixed logit model were developed for the two groups of people. The results revealed that the mixed logit model is superior to the fixed coefficient binary logit model. The factors that significantly affect people's willingness to pay for risk reduction include income, education, gender, age, drive age (for motorists), occupation, whether the charged fees were used to improve private vehicle equipment (for motorists), reduction in fatality rate, and change in travel cost. The Monte Carlo simulation method was used to generate the distribution of value of statistical life (VSL). Based on the mixed logit model, the VSL had a mean value of 3,729,493 RMB ($586,610) with a standard deviation of 2,181,592 RMB ($343,142) for motorists; and a mean of 3,281,283 RMB ($505,318) with a standard deviation of 2,376,975 RMB ($366,054) for non-motorists. Using the tax system to illustrate the contribution of different income groups to social funds, the social value of statistical life was estimated. The average social value of statistical life was found to be 7,184,406 RMB ($1,130,032).

  2. 25 CFR 179.102 - How does the Secretary calculate the value of a remainder and a life estate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and a life estate? 179.102 Section 179.102 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LIFE ESTATES AND FUTURE INTERESTS Life Estates Not Created Under AIPRA § 179.102 How does the Secretary calculate the value of a remainder and a life estate? (a) If income is...

  3. 25 CFR 179.102 - How does the Secretary calculate the value of a remainder and a life estate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and a life estate? 179.102 Section 179.102 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LIFE ESTATES AND FUTURE INTERESTS Life Estates Not Created Under AIPRA § 179.102 How does the Secretary calculate the value of a remainder and a life estate? (a) If income is...

  4. 25 CFR 179.102 - How does the Secretary calculate the value of a remainder and a life estate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and a life estate? 179.102 Section 179.102 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LIFE ESTATES AND FUTURE INTERESTS Life Estates Not Created Under AIPRA § 179.102 How does the Secretary calculate the value of a remainder and a life estate? (a) If income is...

  5. 25 CFR 179.102 - How does the Secretary calculate the value of a remainder and a life estate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and a life estate? 179.102 Section 179.102 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LIFE ESTATES AND FUTURE INTERESTS Life Estates Not Created Under AIPRA § 179.102 How does the Secretary calculate the value of a remainder and a life estate? (a) If income is...

  6. 25 CFR 179.102 - How does the Secretary calculate the value of a remainder and a life estate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and a life estate? 179.102 Section 179.102 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LIFE ESTATES AND FUTURE INTERESTS Life Estates Not Created Under AIPRA § 179.102 How does the Secretary calculate the value of a remainder and a life estate? (a) If income is...

  7. Health Values and Treatment Goals of Older, Multimorbid Adults Facing Life-Threatening Illness

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Aanand D.; Martin, Lindsey A.; Moye, Jennifer; Karel, Michele J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To identify a taxonomy of health-related values that frame goals of care of older, multimorbid adults who recently faced cancer diagnosis and treatment. DESIGN Qualitative analysis of data from a longitudinal cohort study of multimorbid cancer survivors. SETTING Cancer registries from regional Department of Veterans Affairs networks in New England and southeast Texas. PARTICIPANTS Multimorbid adults who completed interviews 12 months after diagnosis of head and neck, colorectal, gastric, or esophageal cancer and after cancer treatment (N = 146). MEASUREMENTS An interdisciplinary team conducted thematic analyses of participants’ intuitive responses to two questions: Now that you have had cancer and may face ongoing decisions about medical care in the future, what would you want your family, friends, and doctors to know about you, in terms of what is most important to you in your life? If your cancer were to recur, is there anything you’d want to be sure your loved ones knew about you and your goals of care? RESULTS Analysis revealed five distinct health-related values that guide how multimorbid cancer survivors conceptualize specific health care goals and medical decisions: self-sufficiency, life enjoyment, connectedness and legacy, balancing quality and length of life, and engagement in care. Participants typically endorsed more than one value as important. CONCLUSION Older multimorbid adults who recently faced life-threatening cancer endorsed a multidimensional taxonomy of health-related values. These health-related values guide how they frame their goals for care and treatment preferences. Eliciting individuals’ sense of their values during clinical encounters may improve their experiences with health care and more effectively align treatments with goals of care. PMID:27000335

  8. Personal values and individual quality of life in palliative care patients.

    PubMed

    Fegg, Martin J; Wasner, Maria; Neudert, Christian; Borasio, Gian Domenico

    2005-08-01

    To evaluate the relationship between personal values and individual quality of life (iQoL) in palliative care patients, 75 patients with advanced cancer or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) were asked to complete a self-report questionnaire concerning personal values and a semi-structured interview on their iQoL. Sixty-four patients took part in the study (56% cancer, 44% ALS). The most important personal values were benevolence, self-direction, and universalism, whereas power, achievement, and stimulation were the least important. Self-transcendence values were higher than self-enhancement values in all patients. Compared with healthy adults, palliative care patients scored significantly higher in benevolence and lower in self-enhancement values. Conservation values (security, conformity, tradition) were correlated with higher levels of iQoL (P=0.03). There were no significant differences between ALS and cancer patients. These data suggest that conservation values protect the patients' iQoL in the palliative care situation. The observed shift towards self-transcendence values may be related to coping processes of terminally ill patients. The relationship between self-transcendence values and iQoL should be further investigated.

  9. Valuing the person’s story: Use of life story books in a continuing care setting

    PubMed Central

    Wills, Teresa; Day, Mary Rose

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing focus on promoting person-centred systems across continuing care settings, emphasizing the need to enhance the quality of life of older adults. Life story books (LSB) can provide a holistic view of older adults, promote relationship-centred care and enhance person-centred care. The process of developing LSB involve collecting and recording aspects of a person’s life both past and present. The purpose of this study was to engage residents in developing life story books in a nursing home setting and then to explore the narratives and documented life story books with residents and their families. A qualitative descriptive exploratory design was utilized for the study. Five residents and three family carers participated. Focus groups were tape recorded and thematically analyzed and a review of the LSB was conducted. The central themes from the data analysis related to the social construction of people’s lives, social roles and religious values, relationships and loss, and sense of self. PMID:18982924

  10. The Relationship of Value Orientations, Self-Control, Frequency of School-Leisure Conflicts, and Life-Balance in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhnle, Claudia; Hofer, Manfred; Kilian, Britta

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this self-report study is to analyze proposed interrelations between value orientations, self-control, frequency of school-leisure conflicts, and life-balance in adolescence. Life-balance is defined as satisfying time investment in different life areas. The tested model posits that self-control is negatively related to conflict…

  11. Estimating the Value of Life, Injury, and Travel Time Saved Using a Stated Preference Framework.

    PubMed

    Niroomand, Naghmeh; Jenkins, Glenn P

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of fatality over the period 2010-2014 from automobile accidents in North Cyprus is 2.75 times greater than the average for the EU. With the prospect of North Cyprus entering the EU, many investments will need to be undertaken to improve road safety in order to reach EU benchmarks. The objective of this study is to provide local estimates of the value of a statistical life and injury along with the value of time savings. These are among the parameter values needed for the evaluation of the change in the expected incidence of automotive accidents and time savings brought about by such projects. In this study we conducted a stated choice experiment to identify the preferences and tradeoffs of automobile drivers in North Cyprus for improved travel times, travel costs, and safety. The choice of route was examined using mixed logit models to obtain the marginal utilities associated with each attribute of the routes that consumers choose. These estimates were used to assess the individuals' willingness to pay (WTP) to avoid fatalities and injuries and to save travel time. We then used the results to obtain community-wide estimates of the value of a statistical life (VSL) saved, the value of injury (VI) prevented, and the value per hour of travel time saved. The estimates for the VSL range from €315,293 to €1,117,856 and the estimates of VI from € 5,603 to € 28,186. These values are consistent, after adjusting for differences in incomes, with the median results of similar studies done for EU countries.

  12. Associations Between Human Values and Alcohol Consumption Among Norwegians in the Second Half of Life.

    PubMed

    Nordfjaern, Trond; Brunborg, Geir Scott

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies investigating human values and alcohol consumption have focused on adolescents, so the current study examined associations between human values and alcohol consumption in a cohort of Norwegians in the second half of life (40 years and above). Human values were studied within Schwartz' theory.(1) A survey was conducted in 2002/2003 among Norwegians aged 40 to 79 years (n = 4 149). The respondents completed measures of human values, drinking frequency and typical drinking quantity. Females (9%) were more likely to report abstinence than males (3%). Males also reported a higher consumption level. Individuals with high education had lower levels of abstinence (4%) than those with basic education (7%), and high education was also related to more consumption. People aged 40-60 years were less likely to abstain from alcohol (3%) than individuals aged 61 years and above (10%). Unmarried individuals were more likely to report abstinence, but also reported somewhat higher consumption than married individuals. Multivariate analyses adjusting for demographics as well as somatic and mental health showed that hedonistic values were related to lower probability of abstaining, while Conformity and Universalism values were associated with a higher probability of abstaining. Achivement and Hedonism values were associated with more alcohol consumption, whereas Universialism, Tradition, and Conformity were related to lower alcohol consumption.

  13. Patenting life forms and preserving human values.

    PubMed

    Lisson, E L

    1981-01-01

    Utilitarian, pragmatic, and legal considerations, while valid, must not overshadow Catholic moral theology's concern about patenting life in view of natural law. The fundamental issues remain: Does technology diminish human values? Does the patent system's own monopolistic power pose its own risk?

  14. Life Support Baseline Values and Assumptions Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Molly S.; Ewert, Michael K.; Keener, John F.; Wagner, Sandra A.

    2015-01-01

    The Baseline Values and Assumptions Document (BVAD) provides analysts, modelers, and other life support researchers with a common set of values and assumptions which can be used as a baseline in their studies. This baseline, in turn, provides a common point of origin from which many studies in the community may depart, making research results easier to compare and providing researchers with reasonable values to assume for areas outside their experience. With the ability to accurately compare different technologies' performance for the same function, managers will be able to make better decisions regarding technology development.

  15. Multivariate Meta-Analysis of Preference-Based Quality of Life Values in Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Stevanović, Jelena; Pechlivanoglou, Petros; Kampinga, Marthe A.; Krabbe, Paul F. M.; Postma, Maarten J.

    2016-01-01

    Background There are numerous health-related quality of life (HRQol) measurements used in coronary heart disease (CHD) in the literature. However, only values assessed with preference-based instruments can be directly applied in a cost-utility analysis (CUA). Objective To summarize and synthesize instrument-specific preference-based values in CHD and the underlying disease-subgroups, stable angina and post-acute coronary syndrome (post-ACS), for developed countries, while accounting for study-level characteristics, and within- and between-study correlation. Methods A systematic review was conducted to identify studies reporting preference-based values in CHD. A multivariate meta-analysis was applied to synthesize the HRQoL values. Meta-regression analyses examined the effect of study level covariates age, publication year, prevalence of diabetes and gender. Results A total of 40 studies providing preference-based values were detected. Synthesized estimates of HRQoL in post-ACS ranged from 0.64 (Quality of Well-Being) to 0.92 (EuroQol European”tariff”), while in stable angina they ranged from 0.64 (Short form 6D) to 0.89 (Standard Gamble). Similar findings were observed in estimates applying to general CHD. No significant improvement in model fit was found after adjusting for study-level covariates. Large between-study heterogeneity was observed in all the models investigated. Conclusions The main finding of our study is the presence of large heterogeneity both within and between instrument-specific HRQoL values. Current economic models in CHD ignore this between-study heterogeneity. Multivariate meta-analysis can quantify this heterogeneity and offers the means for uncertainty around HRQoL values to be translated to uncertainty in CUAs. PMID:27011260

  16. Monitoring Actuarial Present Values of Term Life Insurance By a Statistical Process Control Chart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafidz Omar, M.

    2015-06-01

    Tracking performance of life insurance or similar insurance policy using standard statistical process control chart is complex because of many factors. In this work, we present the difficulty in doing so. However, with some modifications of the SPC charting framework, the difficulty can be manageable to the actuaries. So, we propose monitoring a simpler but natural actuarial quantity that is typically found in recursion formulas of reserves, profit testing, as well as present values. We shared some simulation results for the monitoring process. Additionally, some advantages of doing so is discussed.

  17. The picture of happiness in Alzheimer's disease: living a life congruent with personal values.

    PubMed

    Shell, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    It is generally understood that happiness is an important goal of dementia care, though evaluation has been challenging. Concerns about cognitive and communicative limitations have led to the use of proxy reports to assess positive affect. However, proxy reports have been shown to differ from appraisals obtained by the person with Alzheimer's disease (AD). This article reports on a qualitative study of happiness in a sample of 12 persons with mild to moderate AD using photo-elicitation and individual interviews for data collection. Results demonstrate people with mild to moderate AD can provide meaningful evaluations of happiness, and that lifelong values continue to be important in the presence of AD. This study suggests photographs may offer a novel approach to obtain a contextualized understanding of happiness and other values in this population which may lead to the development of person centered interventions aimed to improve the individual's quality of life.

  18. The enduring value of Gánti's chemoton model and life criteria: Heuristic pursuit of exact theoretical biology.

    PubMed

    Griesemer, James

    2015-09-21

    Gánti's chemoton model of the minimal chemical organization of living systems and life criteria for the living state and a living world are characterized. It is argued that these are better interpreted as part of a heuristic pursuit of an exact theoretical biology than as a "definition of life." Several problems with efforts to define life are discussed. Clarifying the proper use of Gánti's ideas to serve constructive engineering idealizations helps to show their enduring value.

  19. Advanced Life Support System Value Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program is required to provide a performance metric to measure its progress in system development. Extensive discussions within the ALS program have reached a consensus. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been traditionally used and provides a good summary of the weight, size, and power cost factors of space life support equipment. But ESM assumes that all the systems being traded off exactly meet a fixed performance requirement, so that the value and benefit (readiness, performance, safety, etc.) of all the different systems designs are exactly equal. This is too simplistic. Actual system design concepts are selected using many cost and benefit factors and the system specification is then set accordingly. The ALS program needs a multi-parameter metric including both the ESM and a System Value Metric (SVM). The SVM would include safety, maintainability, reliability, performance, use of cross cutting technology, and commercialization potential. Another major factor in system selection is technology readiness level (TRL), a familiar metric in ALS. The overall ALS system metric that is suggested is a benefit/cost ratio, [SVM + TRL]/ESM, with appropriate weighting and scaling. The total value is the sum of SVM and TRL. Cost is represented by ESM. The paper provides a detailed description and example application of the suggested System Value Metric.

  20. Advanced Life Support System Value Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program is required to provide a performance metric to measure its progress in system development. Extensive discussions within the ALS program have led to the following approach. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been traditionally used and provides a good summary of the weight, size, and power cost factors of space life support equipment. But ESM assumes that all the systems being traded off exactly meet a fixed performance requirement, so that the value and benefit (readiness, performance, safety, etc.) of all the different systems designs are considered to be exactly equal. This is too simplistic. Actual system design concepts are selected using many cost and benefit factors and the system specification is defined after many trade-offs. The ALS program needs a multi-parameter metric including both the ESM and a System Value Metric (SVM). The SVM would include safety, maintainability, reliability, performance, use of cross cutting technology, and commercialization potential. Another major factor in system selection is technology readiness level (TRL), a familiar metric in ALS. The overall ALS system metric that is suggested is a benefit/cost ratio, SVM/[ESM + function (TRL)], with appropriate weighting and scaling. The total value is given by SVM. Cost is represented by higher ESM and lower TRL. The paper provides a detailed description and example application of a suggested System Value Metric and an overall ALS system metric.

  1. Subjective Values of Quality of Life Dimensions in Elderly People. A SEM Preference Model Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elosua, Paula

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes a Thurstonian model in the framework of Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) to assess preferences among quality of life dimensions for the elderly. Data were gathered by a paired comparison design in a sample comprised of 323 people aged from 65 to 94 years old. Five dimensions of quality of life were evaluated: Health,…

  2. Every life has equal value.

    PubMed

    Hood, Leroy E; Lazowska, Edward D

    2013-09-12

    The 2013 Lasker∼Bloomberg Public Service Award will be given to Bill and Melinda Gates "for leading an historic transformation in the way we view the globe's most pressing health concerns and improving the lives of millions of the world's most vulnerable."

  3. Instrumental and Terminal Life Values of Part-Time and Full-Time Community College Faculty in Selected Teaching Assignments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohan, John F.; Hales, Loyde W.

    A study was conducted to investigate the instrumental (e.g., Ambitious, Broadminded, Capable, Imaginative, Intellectual, Loving, and Responsibile) and terminal (e.g., A Comfortable Life, A Sense of Accomplishment, Equality, Health, National Security, Mature Love, and Salvation) life values of community college faculty in Oregon using the Rokeach…

  4. Women's pursuit of personal goals in daily life with fibromyalgia: a value-expectancy analysis.

    PubMed

    Affleck, G; Tennen, H; Zautra, A; Urrows, S; Abeles, M; Karoly, P

    2001-08-01

    Eighty-nine women with fibromyalgia completed the Life Orientation Test, identified health and social goals, and answered questions from the Goal Systems Assessment Battery (P. Karoly & L. Ruehlman, 1995) about their valuation of, and self-efficiency in attaining, each goal. For 30 days, they responded to palm-top computer interviews about their pain and fatigue and rated their goal effort, goal progress, and pain- and fatigue-related goal barriers. Goal barriers increased and goal efforts and progress decreased on days with greater pain and fatigue; goals valued more highly were pursued more effortfully and successfully; more optimistic individuals were less likely to perceive goal barriers and, on days that were more fatiguing than usual, were less likely to reduce their effort and to retreat from progress in achieving their health goal; and more pessimistic individuals perceived greater goal barriers on days that were less painful than usual. PMID:11550725

  5. Value attainment: an explanation for the negative effects of work-family conflict on job and life satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Perrewé, P L; Hochwarter, W A; Kiewitz, C

    1999-10-01

    Perceptions of work interfering with family life and family issues interfering with work are examined as 2 distinct constructs representing work-family conflict. Experienced work-family conflict is argued to reduce one's value attainment which, in turn, lowers both job and life satisfaction. This study examines value attainment as a mediating variable in the work-family conflict and satisfaction relationship. Responses from 270 hotel managers indicate that value attainment either partially or fully mediates the relationship between work interference with family and family interference with work and both job and life satisfaction. Value attainment is argued to be a meaningful explanatory variable for the negative relationship between work-family conflict and job-life satisfaction.

  6. Modeling the Value Recovery of Rare Earth Permanent Magnets at End-of-Life

    SciTech Connect

    Cong, Liang; Jin, Hongyue; Fitsos, Pete; McIntyre, Timothy; Yih, Yuehwern; Zhao, Fu; Sutherland, John W.

    2015-05-21

    Permanent magnets containing rare earth elements (REEs) such as Dysprosium and Neodymium offer an advantage over non-REE containing magnets (e.g. ferrite or AlNiCo) in terms of power relative to size. However, REE availability has varied significantly in recent years leading to volatility in the cost of rare earth permanent magnets (REPMs). The supply of REEs can be increased by recycling consumer products and industrial machinery that contain REPMs at product end-of-life (EOL). This paper discusses the REE recovery process for EOL products. The optimal dismantling of products is examined with an emphasis placed on obtaining used REPMs. The challenge of collecting, managing, transporting, and processing used products is addressed through the development of a cost model for REPM recovery. This model is used to investigate several EOL strategies for recovering REPMs. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to identify the key factors that influence value recovery economics. A hard disk drive serves as a case study for model demonstration.

  7. Modeling the Value Recovery of Rare Earth Permanent Magnets at End-of-Life

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cong, Liang; Jin, Hongyue; Fitsos, Pete; McIntyre, Timothy; Yih, Yuehwern; Zhao, Fu; Sutherland, John W.

    2015-05-21

    Permanent magnets containing rare earth elements (REEs) such as Dysprosium and Neodymium offer an advantage over non-REE containing magnets (e.g. ferrite or AlNiCo) in terms of power relative to size. However, REE availability has varied significantly in recent years leading to volatility in the cost of rare earth permanent magnets (REPMs). The supply of REEs can be increased by recycling consumer products and industrial machinery that contain REPMs at product end-of-life (EOL). This paper discusses the REE recovery process for EOL products. The optimal dismantling of products is examined with an emphasis placed on obtaining used REPMs. The challenge ofmore » collecting, managing, transporting, and processing used products is addressed through the development of a cost model for REPM recovery. This model is used to investigate several EOL strategies for recovering REPMs. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to identify the key factors that influence value recovery economics. A hard disk drive serves as a case study for model demonstration.« less

  8. Keene v. Brigham and Women's Hospital, Inc.: On the Value of a Life with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitello, Stanley J.

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of the Keene malpractice court case, which awarded compensatory damages to a child with severe disabilities probably contracted shortly after birth, focuses on how the court calculated life expectancy and the loss of life enjoyment, concluding discrimination against people with mental retardation, in that the decision assumes these…

  9. The adaptive value of morphological, behavioural and life-history traits in reproductive female wolves.

    PubMed

    Stahler, Daniel R; MacNulty, Daniel R; Wayne, Robert K; vonHoldt, Bridgett; Smith, Douglas W

    2013-01-01

    Reproduction in social organisms is shaped by numerous morphological, behavioural and life-history traits such as body size, cooperative breeding and age of reproduction, respectively. Little is known, however, about the relative influence of these different types of traits on reproduction, particularly in the context of environmental conditions that determine their adaptive value. Here, we use 14 years of data from a long-term study of wolves (Canis lupus) in Yellowstone National Park, USA, to evaluate the relative effects of different traits and ecological factors on the reproductive performance (litter size and survival) of breeding females. At the individual level, litter size and survival improved with body mass and declined with age (c. 4-5 years). Grey-coloured females had more surviving pups than black females, which likely contributed to the maintenance of coat colour polymorphism in this system. The effect of pack size on reproductive performance was nonlinear as litter size peaked at eight wolves and then declined, and litter survival increased rapidly up to three wolves, beyond which it increased more gradually. At the population level, litter size and survival decreased with increasing wolf population size and canine distemper outbreaks. The relative influence of these different-level factors on wolf reproductive success followed individual > group > population. Body mass was the primary determinant of litter size, followed by pack size and population size. Body mass was also the main driver of litter survival, followed by pack size and disease. Reproductive gains because of larger body size and cooperative breeding may mitigate reproductive losses because of negative density dependence and disease. These findings highlight the adaptive value of large body size and sociality in promoting individual fitness in stochastic and competitive environments.

  10. The adaptive value of morphological, behavioural and life-history traits in reproductive female wolves.

    PubMed

    Stahler, Daniel R; MacNulty, Daniel R; Wayne, Robert K; vonHoldt, Bridgett; Smith, Douglas W

    2013-01-01

    Reproduction in social organisms is shaped by numerous morphological, behavioural and life-history traits such as body size, cooperative breeding and age of reproduction, respectively. Little is known, however, about the relative influence of these different types of traits on reproduction, particularly in the context of environmental conditions that determine their adaptive value. Here, we use 14 years of data from a long-term study of wolves (Canis lupus) in Yellowstone National Park, USA, to evaluate the relative effects of different traits and ecological factors on the reproductive performance (litter size and survival) of breeding females. At the individual level, litter size and survival improved with body mass and declined with age (c. 4-5 years). Grey-coloured females had more surviving pups than black females, which likely contributed to the maintenance of coat colour polymorphism in this system. The effect of pack size on reproductive performance was nonlinear as litter size peaked at eight wolves and then declined, and litter survival increased rapidly up to three wolves, beyond which it increased more gradually. At the population level, litter size and survival decreased with increasing wolf population size and canine distemper outbreaks. The relative influence of these different-level factors on wolf reproductive success followed individual > group > population. Body mass was the primary determinant of litter size, followed by pack size and population size. Body mass was also the main driver of litter survival, followed by pack size and disease. Reproductive gains because of larger body size and cooperative breeding may mitigate reproductive losses because of negative density dependence and disease. These findings highlight the adaptive value of large body size and sociality in promoting individual fitness in stochastic and competitive environments. PMID:23043440

  11. Mortality in Appalachian coal mining regions: the value of statistical life lost

    SciTech Connect

    Hendryx, M.; Ahern, M.M.

    2009-07-15

    We examined elevated mortality rates in Appalachian coal mining areas for 1979-2005, and estimated the corresponding value of statistical life (VSL) lost relative to the economic benefits of the coal mining industry. We compared age-adjusted mortality rates and socioeconomic conditions across four county groups: Appalachia with high levels of coal mining, Appalachia with lower mining levels, Appalachia without coal mining, and other counties in the nation. We converted mortality estimates to VSL estimates and compared the results with the economic contribution of coal mining. We also conducted a discount analysis to estimate current benefits relative to future mortality costs. The heaviest coal mining areas of Appalachia had the poorest socioeconomic conditions. Before adjusting for covariates, the number of excess annual age-adjusted deaths in coal mining areas ranged from 3,975 to 10,923, depending on years studied and comparison group. Corresponding VSL estimates ranged from $18.563 billion to $84.544 billion, with a point estimate of $50.010 billion, greater than the $8.088 billion economic contribution of coal mining. After adjusting for covariates, the number of excess annual deaths in mining areas ranged from 1,736 to 2,889, and VSL costs continued to exceed the benefits of mining. Discounting VSL costs into the future resulted in excess costs relative to benefits in seven of eight conditions, with a point estimate of $41.846 billion.

  12. Value addition of Palmyra palm and studies on the storage life.

    PubMed

    Chaurasiya, A K; Chakraborty, I; Saha, J

    2014-04-01

    Palmyra palm (Borassus flabellifer L.) belonging to the family Palmae is referred to as tree of life with several uses including food, beverage, fibre, medicinal and timber. Unfortunately, the nutritionally enriched pulp of ripened palm has limited commercial use. Extraction of pulp has been accomplished by using water and heat to ensure maximum pulp recovery. Different recipes were tried for the preparation of two uncommon value added products like palm spread and palm toffee. On the basis of biochemical composition, organoleptic scores, microbial estimation and storage study both under ambient and refrigerated conditions; the suitable recipe was selected with the maximum acceptability. Gradual increase in total soluble solid (TSS), total sugar and reducing sugar while decrease in ascorbic acid, pH, β-carotene and protein content of processed products have been observed irrespective of storage condition. The results obtained from sensory evaluation and microbial status revealed that palm spread and toffee remained acceptable up to 9 months and 8 months, respectively at ambient temperature. The income per rupee investment for these two products was found to be remunerative. PMID:24741173

  13. Quality of life, values, and teamwork in geriatric care: do we communicate what we mean?

    PubMed

    Clark, P G

    1995-06-01

    Two major forces are changing the shape of health care for the frail elderly with disabling conditions: increasing emphasis on quality of life and growing reliance on an interprofessional team-based approach to care. This article outlines a conceptual framework for organizing discussions of quality of life for elderly persons with disabilities, reviews relevant empirical research, and develops a framework for understanding the different dimensions and interpretations of this concept--particularly as it is used in communication among health care providers, and between them and their elderly patients and families. New models of health care to enhance the focus on life quality and collaborative team practice are summarized. Proposed is the development of an "empowering and reflective ethic" to achieve more effective communication about quality of life in geriatric clinical practice.

  14. [Electrostimulation in therapy of postoperative urinary incontinence. Therapeutic value for quality of life].

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, W; Liedke, S; Dombo, O; Otto, U

    2005-01-01

    Worldwide use of electrical stimulation for therapy of postoperative incontinence is based on a few prospective randomized controlled studies. We present a three-arm prospective randomized study evaluating physiotherapeutic pelvic floor training alone and in combination with transanal or perineal electrical stimulation. The study compared specific continence training (CT) and a combination of CT with transanal or perineal electrostimulation. The groups included 60 patients each and were analyzed with regard to self-assessment, objective characteristics of incontinence, standard quality of life questionnaire (QLQ-C 30), and recorded data of the stimulation device. The patients participated in a specific inpatient rehabilitation program and were assessed at the time of admittance, upon discharge, and again after 3 months. Significant improvement could be achieved in every group concerning urinary incontinence and quality of life. Additional use of electrical stimulation was significantly superior to physiotherapeutic training alone. However, these results could only be detected in a highly compliant subgroup. Analysis of device data indicated a high score of errors and lack of patient compliance. Perineal electrical stimulation was better accepted than transanal and showed less side effects and better outcome in the characteristics of incontinence. Improvement in the quality of life was mostly achieved during the weeks of inpatient rehabilitation. Electrical stimulation could not improve quality of life items. Electrical stimulation is an efficient instrument for treatment of postoperative high-grade incontinence, however, only with sufficient patient compliance.

  15. Exploring Work Values: Helping Students Articulate Their Good (Work) Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlstrom, Aaron H.; Hughey, Kenneth F.

    2014-01-01

    The current article builds on "Living the Good (Work) Life: Implications of General Values for Work Values" (Carlstrom, 2011) by presenting ways to address work values in career advising. The following questions are addressed in the current article: When should students explore work values in career advising? What career development and…

  16. Career and Self-Construction of Emerging Adults: The Value of Life Designing.

    PubMed

    Maree, Jacobus G; Twigge, Adeline

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a potential way of counseling emerging adults from a life design perspective to construct a self that could enable them to be agents of both their own development and the development of others. Theoretical issues relating to a dynamic, developmental and systems framework of the understanding of wellbeing are described and the process involved is delineated. The research design was qualitative and comprised case studies. Six participants who subscribed to the definition of "emerging adults" and were comparatively representative of the ethnic diversity of South Africa, were selected purposively from a group of individuals who applied for career counseling in a private practice context. The intervention involved life design counseling and occurred over a period of 6 weeks. Information related to participants' self-construction was gathered using qualitative techniques, including the Career Interest Profile, the Career Construction Interview, a timeline, video clips, a collage, and semi-structured interviews. Following the intervention, the participants revealed heightened insights with regard to aspects of their sense of a relational-moral self. Results indicated that life design counseling could enhance elaborative personal development (enhancing self-awareness and reaping the benefits of developing an improved relational-moral self) and the promotion of an awareness of the importance to promote social justice in work-related contexts. PMID:26793152

  17. Career and Self-Construction of Emerging Adults: The Value of Life Designing.

    PubMed

    Maree, Jacobus G; Twigge, Adeline

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a potential way of counseling emerging adults from a life design perspective to construct a self that could enable them to be agents of both their own development and the development of others. Theoretical issues relating to a dynamic, developmental and systems framework of the understanding of wellbeing are described and the process involved is delineated. The research design was qualitative and comprised case studies. Six participants who subscribed to the definition of "emerging adults" and were comparatively representative of the ethnic diversity of South Africa, were selected purposively from a group of individuals who applied for career counseling in a private practice context. The intervention involved life design counseling and occurred over a period of 6 weeks. Information related to participants' self-construction was gathered using qualitative techniques, including the Career Interest Profile, the Career Construction Interview, a timeline, video clips, a collage, and semi-structured interviews. Following the intervention, the participants revealed heightened insights with regard to aspects of their sense of a relational-moral self. Results indicated that life design counseling could enhance elaborative personal development (enhancing self-awareness and reaping the benefits of developing an improved relational-moral self) and the promotion of an awareness of the importance to promote social justice in work-related contexts.

  18. Career and Self-Construction of Emerging Adults: The Value of Life Designing

    PubMed Central

    Maree, Jacobus G.; Twigge, Adeline

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a potential way of counseling emerging adults from a life design perspective to construct a self that could enable them to be agents of both their own development and the development of others. Theoretical issues relating to a dynamic, developmental and systems framework of the understanding of wellbeing are described and the process involved is delineated. The research design was qualitative and comprised case studies. Six participants who subscribed to the definition of “emerging adults” and were comparatively representative of the ethnic diversity of South Africa, were selected purposively from a group of individuals who applied for career counseling in a private practice context. The intervention involved life design counseling and occurred over a period of 6 weeks. Information related to participants' self-construction was gathered using qualitative techniques, including the Career Interest Profile, the Career Construction Interview, a timeline, video clips, a collage, and semi-structured interviews. Following the intervention, the participants revealed heightened insights with regard to aspects of their sense of a relational-moral self. Results indicated that life design counseling could enhance elaborative personal development (enhancing self-awareness and reaping the benefits of developing an improved relational-moral self) and the promotion of an awareness of the importance to promote social justice in work-related contexts. PMID:26793152

  19. How to Shape Children's Value Attitudes toward the Rural Way of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gur'ianova, M. P.

    2011-01-01

    The crisis of rural life in Russia involves a declining and aging population, emigration of rural young people to urban areas, lack of employment, and farms in urgent need of modernization. Programs in rural schools can be used more deliberately to encourage young people to remain in the village and to equip them to be agents of rural…

  20. Representations of everyday life: a proposal for capturing social values from the Marxist perspective of knowledge production.

    PubMed

    Soares, Cássia Baldini; Santos, Vilmar Ezequiel Dos; Campos, Célia Maria Sivalli; Lachtim, Sheila Aparecida Ferreira; Campos, Fernanda Cristina

    2011-12-01

    We propose from the Marxist perspective of the construction of knowledge, a theoretical and methodological framework for understanding social values by capturing everyday representations. We assume that scientific research brings together different dimensions: epistemological, theoretical and methodological that consistently to the other instances, proposes a set of operating procedures and techniques for capturing and analyzing the reality under study in order to expose the investigated object. The study of values reveals the essentiality of the formation of judgments and choices, there are values that reflect the dominant ideology, spanning all social classes, but there are values that reflect class interests, these are not universal, they are formed in relationships and social activities. Basing on the Marxist theory of consciousness, representations are discursive formulations of everyday life - opinion or conviction - issued by subjects about their reality, being a coherent way of understanding and exposure social values: focus groups show is suitable for grasping opinions while interviews show potential to expose convictions. PMID:22569667

  1. Relationships between the Life Values of U. S. College Students and their Cognitive/Affective Responses to the Threat of Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Scott B.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined relationships between life values of 399 American college students and their nuclear war-related thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Subjects completed four scales from Life Values Inventory, Satisfaction with Life Scale, four scales from Nuclear War Inventory, and single behavioral measure of approach toward information concerning nuclear…

  2. Understanding Values in a Large Health Care Organization through Work-Life Narratives of High-Performing Employees

    PubMed Central

    Karnieli-Miller, Orit; Taylor, Amanda C.; Inui, Thomas S.; Ivy, Steven S.; Frankel, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective— To understand high-performing frontline employees’ values as reflected in their narratives of day-to-day interactions in a large health care organization. Methods— A total of 150 employees representing various roles within the organization were interviewed and asked to share work-life narratives (WLNs) about value-affirming situations (i.e. situations in which they believed their actions to be fully aligned with their values) and value-challenging situations (i.e. when their actions or the actions of others were not consistent with their values), using methods based on appreciative inquiry. Results— The analysis revealed 10 broad values. Most of the value-affirming WLNs were about the story-teller and team providing care for the patient/family. Half of the value-challenging WLNs were about the story-teller or a patient and barriers created by the organization, supervisor, or physician. Almost half of these focused on “treating others with disrespect/respect”. Only 15% of the value-challenging WLNs contained a resolution reached by the participants, often leaving them describing unresolved and frequently negative feelings. Conclusions— Appreciative inquiry and thematic analysis methods were found to be an effective tool for understanding the important and sometimes competing role personal and institutional values play in day-to-day work. There is remarkable potential in using WLNs as a way to surface and reinforce shared values and, perhaps more importantly, respectfully to identify and discuss conflicting personal and professional values. PMID:23908820

  3. Instrumental and Terminal Life Values of Faculty by Community College Location, Age, Experience, Highest Degree and Other Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohan, John F.; Hales, Loyde W.

    A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the life values of community college faculty and selected demographic variables (i.e., college location, age, teaching experience, highest degree held, and other employment). A stratified random sample of 984 Oregon community college instructors was asked to identify "guiding…

  4. [The value of using administrative data in public health research: the Continuous Working Life Sample].

    PubMed

    López, María Andrée; Benavides, Fernando G; Alonso, Jordi; Espallargues, Mireia; Durán, Xavier; Martínez, José Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The use of administrative data is common practice in public health research. The present field note describes the Continuous Working Life Sample (CWLS) and its use in health research. The CWLS is built on records generated by all contacts with the social security system (work contracts, disability, etc.), plus tax data (monetary gains, income, etc.) and census data (level of education, country of birth, etc.), but does not allow individuals to be identified. The CWLS was started in 2004 with 4% (1.1 million persons) of the total population who were either contributors to or beneficiaries of the social security system. The information on the individuals in the CWLS is updated annually and lost individuals are replaced. This continuous design allows the construction of a cohort with information on working life and financial status and evaluation of their relationship with work disability. Future connection with clinical records would enable analysis of other health-related outcomes. PMID:24698033

  5. [The value of using administrative data in public health research: the Continuous Working Life Sample].

    PubMed

    López, María Andrée; Benavides, Fernando G; Alonso, Jordi; Espallargues, Mireia; Durán, Xavier; Martínez, José Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The use of administrative data is common practice in public health research. The present field note describes the Continuous Working Life Sample (CWLS) and its use in health research. The CWLS is built on records generated by all contacts with the social security system (work contracts, disability, etc.), plus tax data (monetary gains, income, etc.) and census data (level of education, country of birth, etc.), but does not allow individuals to be identified. The CWLS was started in 2004 with 4% (1.1 million persons) of the total population who were either contributors to or beneficiaries of the social security system. The information on the individuals in the CWLS is updated annually and lost individuals are replaced. This continuous design allows the construction of a cohort with information on working life and financial status and evaluation of their relationship with work disability. Future connection with clinical records would enable analysis of other health-related outcomes.

  6. EFFECTS OF A TRANSIENT CANCER SCARE ON PROPERTY VALUES: IMPLICATIONS FOR RISK VALUATION AND THE VALUE OF LIFE. (R825173)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    A transient cancer scare is presented as a rare opportunity to observe the effect of a perceived increase in risk on the price of residential property. The temporary nature of the perceived excess risk allows for the isolation of a risk premium from the change...

  7. Modelling the life insurance needs using the human life value revision method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, Haslifah; Service, David

    2013-04-01

    There are numerous methods to determine the appropriate amount of life insurance a person needs - it can be scientific or simplistic. Many life insurance agents and financial advisors simply rely on traditional rules of thumb using the multiple of income method. The more scientific methods are the needs analysis and the human life value. The needs analysis is regarded as the most commonly used sales tool and the human life value is the most agreed academic expression for the purpose of life insurance. However, there are several weaknesses of using both methods. By using needs analysis as a sales tool, the recommendation amount of life insurance would leave a person underinsured. Similar goes to the human life value method. Nevertheless, both methods can be improved with a few revisions. The post-death needs under the needs analysis must be revised to incorporate the reality that the family's standard of living changes over time. The projection of a changing standard of living is a part of human life value analysis. Therefore, this research looked into both methods and combines both concept of needs analysis and human life value to create a powerful methodology that provide adequate life insurance protection - a method we name it as 'the Human Life Value Revision Method'.

  8. Predictive value of obsessive compulsive symptoms involving the skin on quality of life in patients with acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Bez, Yasin; Yesilova, Yavuz; Arı, Mustafa; Kaya, Mehmet Cemal; Alpak, Gokay; Bulut, Mahmut

    2013-11-01

    Acne is one of the most common dermatological diseases, and obsessive compulsive disorder is among the most frequent psychiatric conditions seen in dermatology clinics. Comorbidity of these conditions may therefore be expected. The aim of this study was to measure obsessive compulsive symptoms and quality of life in patients with acne vulgaris, compare them with those of healthy control subjects, and determine whether there is any predictive value of obsessive compulsive symptoms for quality of life in patients with acne. Obsessive compulsive symptoms and quality of life measurements of 146 patients with acne vulgaris and 94 healthy control subjects were made using the Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Questionnaire and Short Form-36 in a cross-sectional design. Patients with acne vulgaris had lower scores for physical functioning, physical role dysfunction, general health perception, vitality, and emotional role dysfunction. They also had higher scores for checking, slowness, and rumination. The only predictor of physical functioning and vitality dimensions of health-related quality of life in these patients was rumination score. Obsessive compulsive symptoms in patients with acne vulgaris are higher than in controls, and this may correlate with both disease severity and quality of life for patients.

  9. The role of narrative in discussing end-of-life care: eliciting values and goals from text, context, and subtext.

    PubMed

    Young, Amanda J; Rodriguez, Keri L

    2006-01-01

    This article reports a qualitative study of elderly veterans' perceptions of and preferences for end-of-life care. At a large urban Veterans Affairs (VA) hospital, we asked 30 veterans and 30 health care providers to define 4 terms in the VA form of the advance directive: life-sustaining treatment, terminal condition, state of permanent unconsciousness, and decision-making capacity. The veterans commonly used narratives to construct meaning, and analysis showed that the resulting texts had both a subtext (the values and goals driving the narrative) and a context (life experiences that filter and shape the current interpretation). We found that all 3 components--text, subtext, and context--are crucial to understanding the central theme of an individual's narrative and the decision-making processes associated with it. In this article we examine 1 lengthy narrative using Chafe's (1994) notion of intonation units. We then present a series of short narratives to demonstrate 3 subthemes that emerged from the data: quality of life versus quantity of life, benefit of treatment versus cost of treatment, and, most common, control versus lack of control. Our goal was to demonstrate the centrality and usefulness of storytelling in the patient-provider interaction when listeners are willing to consider the subtext and context of the story and its role in the decision-making process. As demonstrated in this study, deciphering people's stories gives us insight into their values, the mental constructs that drive their decision making, and the goals that they have for their own health care.

  10. Cultural Values, Life Experiences, and Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le, Thao N.

    2008-01-01

    Wisdom is considered one ideal endpoint of human development across cultures. Studies have provided evidence for certain facilitating conditions such as challenging and stressful life events because they increase differentiation through accommodative changes, resulting in greater tolerance for uncertainty, and less projection tendencies and…

  11. Life and Health: A Value in Itself for Human Beings?

    PubMed

    Watt, Helen

    2015-09-01

    The presence of a human being/organism--a living human 'whole', with the defining tendency to promote its own welfare--has value in itself, as do the functions which compose it. Life is inseparable from health, since without some degree of healthy functionality (if not in all cases active functioning) the living whole would not exist. The value of life differs both within a single life (in different periods or possible situations) and between lives (lives that vary in length, health or even physical maturity are not all equally fulfilled). As with any other form of human flourishing, the value of life-and-health must be distinguished from the moral importance of human beings: less fulfilled means not less important morally, but more in need of being fulfilled. That said, to say that life and health has value is not to say exactly what-if anything-that value requires by way of active promotion at a given time. Many factors must be taken into account in making health care decisions, even if the worth of all lives, and the dignity of all human beings, must in every case be acknowledged.

  12. Is valuing positive emotion associated with life satisfaction?

    PubMed

    Bastian, Brock; Kuppens, Peter; De Roover, Kim; Diener, Ed

    2014-08-01

    The experience of positive emotion is closely linked to subjective well-being. For this reason, campaigns aimed at promoting the value of positive emotion have become widespread. What is rarely considered are the cultural implications of this focus on happiness. Promoting positive emotions as important for "the good life" not only has implications for how individuals value these emotional states, but for how they believe others around them value these emotions also. Drawing on data from over 9,000 college students across 47 countries we examined whether individuals' life satisfaction is associated with living in contexts in which positive emotions are socially valued. The findings show that people report more life satisfaction in countries where positive emotions are highly valued and this is linked to an increased frequency of positive emotional experiences in these contexts. They also reveal, however, that increased life satisfaction in countries that place a premium on positive emotion is less evident for people who tend to experience less valued emotional states: people who experience many negative emotions, do not flourish to the same extent in these contexts. The findings demonstrate how the cultural value placed on certain emotion states may shape the relationship between emotional experiences and subjective well-being.

  13. Comparison of toxicity values across zebrafish early life stages and mammalian studies: Implications for chemical testing.

    PubMed

    Ducharme, Nicole A; Reif, David M; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Bondesson, Maria

    2015-08-01

    With the high cost and slow pace of toxicity testing in mammals, the vertebrate zebrafish has become a tractable model organism for high throughput toxicity testing. We present here a meta-analysis of 600 chemicals tested for toxicity in zebrafish embryos and larvae. Nineteen aggregated and 57 individual toxicity endpoints were recorded from published studies yielding 2695 unique data points. These data points were compared to lethality and reproductive toxicology endpoints analyzed in rodents and rabbits and to exposure values for humans. We show that although many zebrafish endpoints did not correlate to rodent or rabbit acute toxicity data, zebrafish could be used to accurately predict relative acute toxicity through the rat inhalation, rabbit dermal, and rat oral exposure routes. Ranking of the chemicals based on toxicity and teratogenicity in zebrafish, as well as human exposure levels, revealed that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), benzo(a)pyrene, and chlorpyrifos ranked in the top nine of all chemicals for these three categories, and as such should be considered high priority chemicals for testing in higher vertebrates. PMID:25261610

  14. Comparison of toxicity values across zebrafish early life stages and mammalian studies: Implications for chemical testing.

    PubMed

    Ducharme, Nicole A; Reif, David M; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Bondesson, Maria

    2015-08-01

    With the high cost and slow pace of toxicity testing in mammals, the vertebrate zebrafish has become a tractable model organism for high throughput toxicity testing. We present here a meta-analysis of 600 chemicals tested for toxicity in zebrafish embryos and larvae. Nineteen aggregated and 57 individual toxicity endpoints were recorded from published studies yielding 2695 unique data points. These data points were compared to lethality and reproductive toxicology endpoints analyzed in rodents and rabbits and to exposure values for humans. We show that although many zebrafish endpoints did not correlate to rodent or rabbit acute toxicity data, zebrafish could be used to accurately predict relative acute toxicity through the rat inhalation, rabbit dermal, and rat oral exposure routes. Ranking of the chemicals based on toxicity and teratogenicity in zebrafish, as well as human exposure levels, revealed that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), benzo(a)pyrene, and chlorpyrifos ranked in the top nine of all chemicals for these three categories, and as such should be considered high priority chemicals for testing in higher vertebrates.

  15. Using Mandated Speed Limits to Measure the Value of a Statistical Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashenfelter, Orley; Greenstone, Michael

    2004-01-01

    In 1987 the federal government permitted states to raise the speed limit on their rural interstate roads, but not on their urban interstate roads, from 55 mph to 65 mph. Since the states that adopted the higher speed limit must have valued the travel hours they saved more than the fatalities incurred, this institutional change provides an…

  16. The Young People of Tula: Value Orientations and the Realities of Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samsonova, E. A.; Efimova, E. Iu.

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, the Laboratory of Sociological Research of the municipal office of the social service Shans Center for Social and Psychological Assistance for Young People carried out a sociological survey titled "Current Problems of Today's Young Person," for the purpose of studying the most urgent problems affecting the social development of Tula's…

  17. [Between sancticity and value of human life: in perspective of human cloning].

    PubMed

    Dyk, W

    2001-01-01

    The more we know, the more duties and greater responsibility we have. The dynamic development of biology carries a lot of hope for the freeing of mankind from genetic diseases. But the introduction of scientific thought necessarily has to be bound with the development of technology. It is wrong when technology dictates science a direction of development; when technique comes before ethics; and when technology does not respect the essence of a human being. The uncritical introduction of eugenics, especially cloning of people and rejecting all moral arguments, recalls inglorious acts of science when the ideology of progress determined the range of problems that researchers focused on. The same ideology of progress, although originating from other sources, pushes science toward a second extreme, into utilitarianism. In the article the author wishes to substantiate the necessity for researchers to respect ethical norms. Recognition of natural laws alone does not provide science with full development if the rights of conscience are violated.

  18. Relationships between Psychosocial-Spiritual Well-Being and End-of-Life Preferences and Values in African-American Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Laura C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine whether psychosocial and spiritual well-being is associated with African-American dialysis patients' end-of-life treatment preferences and acceptance of potential outcomes of life sustaining treatment. Fifty-one African Americans with end stage renal disease (ESRD) completed a socio-demographic questionnaire and interview with measures of symptom distress, health-related quality of life, psychosocial and spiritual well-being, and preferences and values related to life sustaining treatment choices. The subjects were stratified by end-of-life treatment preferences and by acceptance of life sustaining treatment outcomes and compared for psychosocial and spiritual well-being as well as socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. Individuals who desired continued use of life sustaining treatment in terminal illness or advanced dementia had significantly lower spiritual well-being (p = .012). Individuals who valued four potential outcomes of life sustaining treatment as unacceptable showed a more positive, adaptive well-being score in the spiritual dimension compared to the group who valued at least one outcome as acceptable (p = .028). Religious involvement and importance of spirituality were not associated with end-of-life treatment preferences and acceptance of treatment outcomes. African Americans with ESRD expressed varied levels of psychosocial and spiritual well-being, and this characteristic was associated with life sustaining treatment preferences. In future research, the assessment of spirituality should not be limited to its intensity or degree but extended to other dimensions. PMID:19356896

  19. Threat to Valued Elements of Life: The Experience of Dementia across Three Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Vanessa; Samsi, Kritika; Banerjee, Sube; Morgan, Craig; Murray, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: There is a fundamental knowledge gap regarding the experience of dementia within minority ethnic groups in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. The present study examined the subjective reality of living with dementia from the perspective of people with dementia within the 3 largest ethnic groups in the United Kingdom. Design and Methods:…

  20. Love and the Value of Life in Health Care: A Narrative Medicine Case Study in Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Pentiado, Jorge Alberto Martins; De Almeida, Helcia Oliveira; Amorim, Fábio Ferreira; Facioli, Adriano Machado; Trindade, Eliana Mendonça Vilar; De Almeida, Karlo Jozefo Quadros

    2016-01-01

    This case study is an example of narrative medicine applied to promote self-awareness and develop humanistic contents in medical education. The impact and the human appeal of the narrative lie in the maturity and empathy shown by a student when reporting his dramatic experience during the care given to a newborn (with Patau syndrome and multiple malformations diagnosed at birth) and to her mother. The narrative approach helped the student to be successful in bringing out the meaning behind the story and to position himself from the mother's and newborn's perspective. The student's introspection changed a seemingly scary interaction into a positive experience, overcoming many initial negative emotions, such as fear, disappointment, horror, hopelessness, and insecurity in the face of the unexpected. It is uplifting how the student was strengthened by the power of maternal love to the point of overcoming any remaining feelings of eugenics or rejection. Other important lessons emerging from the case study were the art of listening and the value of silence. This narrative shows how the development of narrative competence can help establish a good physician-patient relationship, because the physician or the student with such competence usually confirms the patient's value and demonstrates concern for them, focusing on what they say and allowing genuine contact to be established, which is necessary for effective therapeutic alliance. The student's interpretations of the meaning of love and value of life inspired him on his reframing process of a medical practice marked by vicarious suffering. PMID:26901271

  1. Life Skills Based in Nation Building Character Value Tauhidullah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yapandi, H.

    2015-01-01

    This study discusses the values Tauhidullah as a base in the training process of life skills can be developed in the community to build the character of the nation, by describing and simultaneously evaluate the education and training system that we've experienced. The paper argues that builds the character of the nation through education…

  2. Human Values and the Market: The Case of Life Insurance and Death in 19th-Century America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelizer, Viviana A.

    1978-01-01

    Explores the development of life insurance programs in the United States during the nineteenth century and traces social attitudes about life insurance from rejection to acceptance. Historical data indicate that life insurance emerged in the late nineteenth century as a form of ritual with which to face death. (Author/DB)

  3. Prognostic value of health-related quality of life for death risk stratification in patients with unresectable glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Brice; Vernerey, Dewi; Chauffert, Bruno; Dabakuyo, Sandrine; Feuvret, Loic; Taillandier, Luc; Frappaz, Didier; Taillia, Hervé; Schott, Roland; Ducray, François; Fabbro, Michel; Tennevet, Isabelle; Ghiringhelli, François; Guillamo, Jean-Sébastien; Durando, Xavier; Castera, Daniel; Frenay, Marc; Campello, Chantal; Dalban, Cécile; Skrzypski, Jérome; Chinot, Olivier; Anota, Amélie; Bonnetain, Franck

    2016-08-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in adults. Baseline health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is a major subject of concern for these patients. We aimed to assess the independent prognostic value of HRQoL in unresectable glioblastoma (UGB) patients for death risk stratification. One hundred and thirty-four patients with UGB were enrolled from the TEMAVIR trial. HRQoL was evaluated at baseline using the EORTC QLQ-C30 and BN20 brain cancer module. Clinical and HRQoL parameters were evaluated in univariable and multivariable Cox analysis as prognostic factors for overall survival (OS). Performance assessment and internal validation of the final model were evaluated with Harrel's C-index, calibration plot, and bootstrap sample procedure. Two OS independent predictors were identified: future uncertainty and sensitivity deficit. The final model exhibited good calibration and acceptable discrimination (C statistic = 0.63). The internal validity of the model was verified with robust uncertainties around the hazard ratio. The prognostic score identified three groups of patients with distinctly different risk profiles with median OS estimated at 16.2, 9.2, and 4.5 months. We demonstrated the additional prognostic value of HRQoL in UGB for death risk stratification and provided a score that may help to guide clinical management and stratification in future clinical trials.

  4. Quality of Life in High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Predictive Value of Disability and Support Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renty, J. O.; Roeyers, Herbert

    2006-01-01

    Although the concept of quality of life has increasingly been used in the field of intellectual disabilities over the past three decades, the factors contributing to quality of life of persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have received relatively little attention. In this study, disability and support characteristics associated with…

  5. The Interaction between Gender Stereotypes and Life Values as Factors in the Choice of Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razumnikova, O. M.

    2005-01-01

    The author states that, the sex-role identity of both men and women forms and changes as a function of the conditions of upbringing, schooling, and the degree of pressure of sex-role stereotypes that are instilled by the mass media. In spite of the proclaimed "equal opportunities" for men and women when it comes to acquiring some profession,…

  6. Teaching and Learning with Technology: IT as a Value-Added Component of Academic Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandler, Martin E.

    2010-01-01

    Effective assessment of teaching and learning with technology requires a capacity to map learning outcomes. Student attitudes of the use of IT are measured in a structural equation model derived from an instrument based on the principles of undergraduate practice of Chickering and Ehrmann (1996). Institutional and background data are included. By…

  7. Any Added Value? Co-Constructing Life Stories of and with People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Despite considerable achievement in inclusive research, people with intellectual disabilities have been largely excluded from the critical area of data analysis and theory development. Next to the undoubted complexity of these tasks, this can partly be attributed to higher demands of representativeness that are used to judge the validity of…

  8. Laughter as Immanent Life-Affirmation: Reconsidering the Educational Value of Laughter through a Bakhtinian Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlieghe, Joris

    2014-01-01

    In this article I try to conceive a new approach towards laughter in the context of formal schooling. I focus on laughter in so far as it is a bodily response during which we are entirely delivered to uncontrollable, spasmodic reactions. To see the educational relevance of this particular kind of laughter, as well as to understand why laughter is…

  9. Extrapolation Factors for Derivation of Acute Aquatic Life Screening Values: Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors

    EPA Science Inventory

    USEPA’s Office of Water (OW) and Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) are both charged with assessing risks of chemicals to aquatic species. The offices have developed scientifically defensible methods to assess chemicals under the Clean Water Act (CWA) and the Federal Insecticide...

  10. Nurturing the Life of the Mind: If Schools Don't Value Intellect, Who Will?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Kathleen

    2001-01-01

    If schools were strongholds of intellect, the most academically able would be stars. Gifted kids often have trouble with school; academically uninterested kids enjoy cult-hero status; and the humanities are undervalued. Schools' purpose has been to train future employees and consumers, not create intellectual citizens. (MLH)

  11. Love and the Value of Life in Health Care: A Narrative Medicine Case Study in Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Pentiado, Jorge Alberto Martins; de Almeida, Helcia Oliveira; Amorim, Fábio Ferreira; Facioli, Adriano Machado; Trindade, Eliana Mendonça Vilar; de Almeida, Karlo Jozefo Quadros

    2016-01-01

    This case study is an example of narrative medicine applied to promote self-awareness and develop humanistic contents in medical education. The impact and the human appeal of the narrative lie in the maturity and empathy shown by a student when reporting his dramatic experience during the care given to a newborn (with Patau syndrome and multiple malformations diagnosed at birth) and to her mother. The narrative approach helped the student to be successful in bringing out the meaning behind the story and to position himself from the mother’s and newborn’s perspective. The student’s introspection changed a seemingly scary interaction into a positive experience, overcoming many initial negative emotions, such as fear, disappointment, horror, hopelessness, and insecurity in the face of the unexpected. It is uplifting how the student was strengthened by the power of maternal love to the point of overcoming any remaining feelings of eugenics or rejection. Other important lessons emerging from the case study were the art of listening and the value of silence. This narrative shows how the development of narrative competence can help establish a good physician-patient relationship, because the physician or the student with such competence usually confirms the patient’s value and demonstrates concern for them, focusing on what they say and allowing genuine contact to be established, which is necessary for effective therapeutic alliance. The student’s interpretations of the meaning of love and value of life inspired him on his reframing process of a medical practice marked by vicarious suffering. PMID:26901271

  12. Cadmium risks to freshwater life: derivation and validation of low-effect criteria values using laboratory and field studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mebane, Christopher A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2001, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released updated aquatic life criteria for cadmium. Since then, additional data on the effects of cadmium to aquatic life have become available from studies supported by the EPA, Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (IDEQ), and the U.S. Geological Survey, among other sources. Updated data on the effects of cadmium to aquatic life were compiled and reviewed and low-effect concentrations were estimated. Low-effect values were calculated using EPA's guidelines for deriving numerical national water-quality criteria for the protection of aquatic organisms and their uses. Data on the short-term (acute) effects of cadmium on North American freshwater species that were suitable for criteria derivation were located for 69 species representing 57 genera and 33 families. For longer-term (chronic) effects of cadmium on North American freshwater species, suitable data were located for 28 species representing 21 genera and 17 families. Both the acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium were dependent on the hardness of the test water. Hardness-toxicity regressions were developed for both acute and chronic datasets so that effects data from different tests could be adjusted to a common water hardness. Hardness-adjusted effects values were pooled to obtain species and genus mean acute and chronic values, which then were ranked by their sensitivity to cadmium. The four most sensitive genera to acute exposures were, in order of increasing cadmium resistance, Oncorhynchus (Pacific trout and salmon), Salvelinus ('char' trout), Salmo (Atlantic trout and salmon), and Cottus (sculpin). The four most sensitive genera to chronic exposures were Hyalella (amphipod), Cottus, Gammarus (amphipod), and Salvelinus. Using the updated datasets, hardness dependent criteria equations were calculated for acute and chronic exposures to cadmium. At a hardness of 50 mg/L as calcium carbonate, the criterion maximum concentration (CMC, or 'acute

  13. Hierarchical Classification of Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ergen, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    Values are of utmost importance for the creation, development and sustainability of a life worthy of human dignity. However, because even superficial views of values are regarded as values themselves, they have become relative and become degenerated; therefore, they have lost the properties--potentials and powers--essential to human dignity. This…

  14. An attempt to estimate the economic value of the loss of human life due to landslide and flood events in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvati, Paola; Bianchi, Cinzia; Hussin, Haydar; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2013-04-01

    Landslide and flood events in Italy cause wide and severe damage to buildings and infrastructure, and are frequently involved in the loss of human life. The cost estimates of past natural disasters generally refer to the amount of public money used for the restoration of the direct damage, and most commonly do not account for all disaster impacts. Other cost components, including indirect losses, are difficult to quantify and, among these, the cost of human lives. The value of specific human life can be identified with the value of a statistical life (VLS), defined as the value that an individual places on a marginal change in their likelihood of death This is different from the value of an actual life. Based on information of fatal car accidents in Italy, we evaluate the cost that society suffers for the loss of life due to landslide and flood events. Using a catalogue of fatal landslide and flood events, for which information about gender and age of the fatalities is known, we determine the cost that society suffers for the loss of their life. For the purpose, we calculate the economic value in terms of the total income that the working-age population involved in the fatal events would have earned over the course of their life. For the computation, we use the pro-capita income calculated as the ratio between the GDP and the population value in Italy for each year, since 1980. Problems occur for children and retired people that we decided not to include in our estimates.

  15. Value stability and change during self-chosen life transitions: self-selection versus socialization effects.

    PubMed

    Bardi, Anat; Buchanan, Kathryn E; Goodwin, Robin; Slabu, Letitia; Robinson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Three longitudinal studies examine a fundamental question regarding adjustment of personal values to self-chosen life transitions: Do values fit the new life setting already at its onset, implying value-based self-selection? Or do values change to better fit the appropriate and desirable values in the setting, implying value socialization? As people are likely to choose a life transition partly based on their values, their values may fit the new life situation already at its onset, leaving little need for value socialization. However, we propose that this may vary as a function of the extent of change the life transition entails, with greater change requiring more value socialization. To enable generalization, we used 3 longitudinal studies spanning 3 different life transitions and different extents of life changes: vocational training (of new police recruits), education (psychology vs. business students), and migration (from Poland to Britain). Although each life transition involved different key values and different populations, across all 3 studies we found value fit to the life situation already early in the transition. Value socialization became more evident the more aspects of life changed as part of the transition, that is, in the migration transition. The discussion focuses on the implications of these findings for research on values and personality change, as well as limitations and future directions for research. PMID:24219783

  16. Value stability and change during self-chosen life transitions: self-selection versus socialization effects.

    PubMed

    Bardi, Anat; Buchanan, Kathryn E; Goodwin, Robin; Slabu, Letitia; Robinson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Three longitudinal studies examine a fundamental question regarding adjustment of personal values to self-chosen life transitions: Do values fit the new life setting already at its onset, implying value-based self-selection? Or do values change to better fit the appropriate and desirable values in the setting, implying value socialization? As people are likely to choose a life transition partly based on their values, their values may fit the new life situation already at its onset, leaving little need for value socialization. However, we propose that this may vary as a function of the extent of change the life transition entails, with greater change requiring more value socialization. To enable generalization, we used 3 longitudinal studies spanning 3 different life transitions and different extents of life changes: vocational training (of new police recruits), education (psychology vs. business students), and migration (from Poland to Britain). Although each life transition involved different key values and different populations, across all 3 studies we found value fit to the life situation already early in the transition. Value socialization became more evident the more aspects of life changed as part of the transition, that is, in the migration transition. The discussion focuses on the implications of these findings for research on values and personality change, as well as limitations and future directions for research.

  17. Paradoxical neurobehavioral rescue by memories of early-life abuse: the safety signal value of odors learned during abusive attachment.

    PubMed

    Raineki, Charlis; Sarro, Emma; Rincón-Cortés, Millie; Perry, Rosemarie; Boggs, Joy; Holman, Colin J; Wilson, Donald A; Sullivan, Regina M

    2015-03-01

    Caregiver-associated cues, including those learned in abusive attachment, provide a sense of safety and security to the child. Here, we explore how cues associated with abusive attachment, such as maternal odor, can modify the enduring neurobehavioral effects of early-life abuse. Two early-life abuse models were used: a naturalistic paradigm, where rat pups were reared by an abusive mother; and a more controlled paradigm, where pups underwent peppermint odor-shock conditioning that produces an artificial maternal odor through engagement of the attachment circuit. Animals were tested for maternal odor preference in infancy, forced swim test (FST), social behavior, and sexual motivation in adulthood-in the presence or absence of maternal odors (natural or peppermint). Amygdala odor-evoked local field potentials (LFPs) via wireless electrodes were also examined in response to the maternal odors in adulthood. Both early-life abuse models induced preference for the maternal odors in infancy. In adulthood, these early-life abuse models produced FST deficits and decreased social behavior, but did not change sexual motivation. Presentation of the maternal odors rescued FST and social behavior deficits induced by early-life abuse and enhanced sexual motivation in all animals. In addition, amygdala LFPs from both abuse animal models showed unique activation within the gamma frequency (70-90 Hz) bands in response to the specific maternal odor present during early-life abuse. These results suggest that attachment-related cues learned during infancy have a profound ability to rescue neurobehavioral dysregulation caused by early-life abuse. Paradoxically, abuse-associated cues seem to acquire powerful and enduring antidepressive properties and alter amygdala modulation.

  18. STAPOL: A Simulation of the Impact of Policy, Values, and Technological and Societal Developments upon the Quality of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Dennis; Feller, Richard

    The Institute for the Future has been conducting research in technological and societal forecasting, social indicators, value change, and simulation gaming. This paper describes an effort to bring together parts of that research into a simulation game ("State Policy," or STAPOL) for analysis of the impact of government policy, social values, and…

  19. Life satisfaction and life values in people with spinal cord injury living in three Asian countries: A multicultural study

    PubMed Central

    Tasiemski, Tomasz; Priebe, Michael M.; Wilski, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the differences in life satisfaction and life values among people with spinal cord injury (SCI) living in three economically similar Asian countries: India, Vietnam, and Sri Lanka. Design Cross-sectional and comparative investigation using the unified questionnaire. Setting Indian Spinal Injuries Centre in New Delhi (India), Spinal Cord Rehabilitation Department of the Bach Mai Hospital in Hanoi (Vietnam), and Foundation for the Rehabilitation of the Disabled in Colombo (Sri Lanka). Participants Two hundred and thirty-seven people with SCI using a wheelchair; 79 from India, 92 from Vietnam, and 66 from Sri Lanka. Outcome measures Life Satisfaction Questionnaire, Chinese Value Survey. Results People with SCI in Vietnam had significantly higher general life satisfaction than participants in India and Sri Lanka. Significant differences were identified in several demographic and life situation variables among the three Asian countries. With regard to “Traditional”, “Universal”, and “Personal” life values significant differences among three participating countries were identified in all domains. No significant relationships were identified between life satisfaction and life values for people with SCI in India, Vietnam, or Sri Lanka. Conclusion It could be presumed that particular demographic and life situation variables are more powerful factors of life satisfaction following SCI than the dominant culture of a country expressed by life values. PMID:23809526

  20. The development of memory efficiency and value-directed remembering across the life span: a cross-sectional study of memory and selectivity.

    PubMed

    Castel, Alan D; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Lee, Steve S; Galván, Adriana; Balota, David A; McCabe, David P

    2011-11-01

    Although attentional control and memory change considerably across the life span, no research has examined how the ability to strategically remember important information (i.e., value-directed remembering) changes from childhood to old age. The present study examined this in different age groups across the life span (N = 320, 5-96 years old). A selectivity task was used in which participants were asked to study and recall items worth different point values in order to maximize their point score. This procedure allowed for measures of memory quantity/capacity (number of words recalled) and memory efficiency/selectivity (the recall of high-value items relative to low-value items). Age-related differences were found for memory capacity, as young adults recalled more words than the other groups. However, in terms of selectivity, younger and older adults were more selective than adolescents and children. The dissociation between these measures across the life span illustrates important age-related differences in terms of memory capacity and the ability to selectively remember high-value information.

  1. Bee pollination improves crop quality, shelf life and commercial value.

    PubMed

    Klatt, Björn K; Holzschuh, Andrea; Westphal, Catrin; Clough, Yann; Smit, Inga; Pawelzik, Elke; Tscharntke, Teja

    2014-01-22

    Pollination improves the yield of most crop species and contributes to one-third of global crop production, but comprehensive benefits including crop quality are still unknown. Hence, pollination is underestimated by international policies, which is particularly alarming in times of agricultural intensification and diminishing pollination services. In this study, exclusion experiments with strawberries showed bee pollination to improve fruit quality, quantity and market value compared with wind and self-pollination. Bee-pollinated fruits were heavier, had less malformations and reached higher commercial grades. They had increased redness and reduced sugar-acid-ratios and were firmer, thus improving the commercially important shelf life. Longer shelf life reduced fruit loss by at least 11%. This is accounting for 0.32 billion US$ of the 1.44 billion US$ provided by bee pollination to the total value of 2.90 billion US$ made with strawberry selling in the European Union 2009. The fruit quality and yield effects are driven by the pollination-mediated production of hormonal growth regulators, which occur in several pollination-dependent crops. Thus, our comprehensive findings should be transferable to a wide range of crops and demonstrate bee pollination to be a hitherto underestimated but vital and economically important determinant of fruit quality.

  2. Bee pollination improves crop quality, shelf life and commercial value

    PubMed Central

    Klatt, Björn K.; Holzschuh, Andrea; Westphal, Catrin; Clough, Yann; Smit, Inga; Pawelzik, Elke; Tscharntke, Teja

    2014-01-01

    Pollination improves the yield of most crop species and contributes to one-third of global crop production, but comprehensive benefits including crop quality are still unknown. Hence, pollination is underestimated by international policies, which is particularly alarming in times of agricultural intensification and diminishing pollination services. In this study, exclusion experiments with strawberries showed bee pollination to improve fruit quality, quantity and market value compared with wind and self-pollination. Bee-pollinated fruits were heavier, had less malformations and reached higher commercial grades. They had increased redness and reduced sugar–acid–ratios and were firmer, thus improving the commercially important shelf life. Longer shelf life reduced fruit loss by at least 11%. This is accounting for 0.32 billion US$ of the 1.44 billion US$ provided by bee pollination to the total value of 2.90 billion US$ made with strawberry selling in the European Union 2009. The fruit quality and yield effects are driven by the pollination-mediated production of hormonal growth regulators, which occur in several pollination-dependent crops. Thus, our comprehensive findings should be transferable to a wide range of crops and demonstrate bee pollination to be a hitherto underestimated but vital and economically important determinant of fruit quality. PMID:24307669

  3. A new value for the half-life of 10Be by Heavy-Ion Elastic Recoil Detection and liquid scintillation counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korschinek, G.; Bergmaier, A.; Faestermann, T.; Gerstmann, U. C.; Knie, K.; Rugel, G.; Wallner, A.; Dillmann, I.; Dollinger, G.; von Gostomski, Ch. Lierse; Kossert, K.; Maiti, M.; Poutivtsev, M.; Remmert, A.

    2010-01-01

    The importance of 10Be in different applications of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is well-known. In this context the half-life of 10Be has a crucial impact, and an accurate and precise determination of the half-life is a prerequisite for many of the applications of 10Be in cosmic-ray and earth science research. Recently, the value of the 10Be half-life has been the centre of much debate. In order to overcome uncertainties inherent in previous determinations, we introduced a new method of high accuracy and precision. An aliquot of our highly enriched 10Be master solution was serially diluted with increasing well-known masses of 9Be. We then determined the initial 10Be concentration by least square fit to the series of measurements of the resultant 10Be/ 9Be ratio. In order to minimize uncertainties because of mass bias which plague other low-energy mass spectrometric methods, we used for the first time Heavy-Ion Elastic Recoil Detection (HI-ERD) for the determination of the 10Be/ 9Be isotopic ratios, a technique which does not suffer from difficult to control mass fractionation. The specific activity of the master solution was measured by means of accurate liquid scintillation counting (LSC). The resultant combination of the 10Be concentration and activity yields a 10Be half-life of T1/2 = 1.388 ± 0.018 (1 s, 1.30%) Ma. In a parallel but independent study (Chmeleff et al. [11]), found a value of 1.386 ± 0.016 (1.15%) Ma. Our recommended weighted mean and mean standard error for the new value for 10Be half-life based on these two independent measurements is 1.387 ± 0.012 (0.87%) Ma.

  4. Health Professionals’ Assessment of Health-Related Quality of Life Values for Oral Clefting by Age Using a Visual Analogue Scale Method

    PubMed Central

    Wehby, George L.; Ohsfeldt, Robert L.; Murray, Jeffrey C.

    2006-01-01

    Objective To elicit health-related quality of life (HRQL) values associated with oral clefting by age using a visual analogue scale, and to explore the appropriateness of using health professionals as evaluators. Methods A representative group of health professionals working on craniofacial and/or cleft palate teams in the United States was sampled. Values (between 0 and 1) representing the HRQL associated with isolated and nonisolated oral clefting for infants, children, adolescents, and adults were obtained. The relationships between selected evaluator characteristics and values were also assessed. Results Of 330 professionals surveyed, 133 (40%) completed and returned reliable evaluations. Overall, HRQL values were clustered toward the right tail of the scale, indicating modest decreases in HRQL. Most evaluators reported feeling confident in completing the evaluations. HRQL values seemed to vary by team type (cleft palate only versus cleft palate/craniofacial care) and geographic location, but no major differences were found overall for any selected evaluator characteristics. Conclusions This study provides HRQL values for oral clefting based on preferences of health professionals that may be useful in evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of prevention and treatment strategies, including those carried out in clinical trial studies. The clustered pattern of HRQL values suggests either a consensus among evaluators of a limited burden of oral clefting or an overall lack of understanding of the evaluation task. PMID:16854194

  5. Broad Themes of Difference between French and Americans in Attitudes to Food and Other Life Domains: Personal Versus Communal Values, Quantity Versus Quality, and Comforts Versus Joys

    PubMed Central

    Rozin, Paul; Remick, Abigail K.; Fischler, Claude

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of previous literature on the role of food in life in France and the United States suggests some fundamental differences in attitudes which may generalize outside of the food domain. Questionnaire results from French and American adults suggest that, compared to the French, Americans emphasize quantity rather than quality in making choices, Americans have a higher preference for variety, and Americans usually prefer comforts (things that make life easier) over joys (unique things that make life interesting). The American preference for quantity over quality is discussed in terms of the American focus on abundance as opposed to the French preference for moderation. The American preference for variety is reflective of Americans’ more personal as opposed to communal food and other values. PMID:21845184

  6. Value of real life (in situ) simulation training for tracheal intubation skills in medical undergraduates during short duration anesthesia rotation

    PubMed Central

    Minai, Fauzia; Shafiq, Faraz; Ul Haq, Muhammad Irfan

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Skill of a successful endotracheal intubation needs to be acquired by training and attaining several competencies simultaneously. It becomes more challenging when we have to deliver the key concepts in a limited period of time. The medium fidelity simulator is a valuable tool of training for such scenarios. For this purpose we aim to compare the efficacy of structured training in endotracheal intubation between real life simulation and the conventional teaching method. Materials and Methods: The year 4 medical students had their attachment in anaesthesia for a period of 6 months from Jun — Dec 2009 were randomly divided into Group (Gp) A who had conventional teaching and Group B who were taught by four simulated sessions of endotracheal intubation. Performance of both the groups was observed by a person blinded to the study against a checklist on a 7 point rating scale in anaesthetized patient. Results: Total 57 students, 29 in Gp A and 28 in Gp B were rotated in the anaesthesia during the study period. Evaluation of the individual component tasks revealed that simulated group achieved a significant difference in the scoring for laryngoscope and intubation technique. (P = 0.026, 0.012) The comparison of overall competence again showed that the 64.3% of student in Gp B achieved an excellent score in comparison to Gp A in which only 41.4% achieved excellent. (P = 0.049). Similarly the lesser number of students in Gp B (14.3%) require remediation as compared to the Gp A, in which the requirement was 40% (P=0.04). Conclusion: We conclude that all essential skills components of tracheal intubation in correct flow and sequence are acquired more efficiently by real life simulated training. PMID:25425771

  7. Teen women: disparity between cognitive values and anticipated life events.

    PubMed

    Bassoff, B Z; Ortiz, E T

    1984-01-01

    Data from a study of teen values show conflicts between values teens say they hold and their behavior. The authors try to show why this is so and suggest ways to support teens' positive values. PMID:6705600

  8. Continuous glucose monitors: use of waveform versus glycemic values in the improvements of glucose control, quality of life, and fear of hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Walker, Tomas C; Yucha, Carolyn B

    2014-05-01

    How patients are benefitting from continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) remains poorly understood. The focus on numerical glucose values persists, even though access to the glucose waveform and rate of change may contribute more to improved control. This pilot study compared outcomes of patients using CGMs with or without access to the numerical values on their CGM. Ten persons with type 1 diabetes, naïve to CGM use, enrolled in a 12-week study. Subjects were randomly assigned to either unmodified CGM receivers, or to CGM receivers that had their numerical values obscured but otherwise functioned normally. HbA1c, quality of life (QLI-D), and fear of hypoglycemia (HFS) were assessed, at baseline and at week 12. Baseline HbA1c for the entire group was 7.46 ± 1.27%. At week 12 the experimental group HbA1c reduction was 1.5 ± 0.9% (p < .05), the control group's reduction was 0.06 ± 0.61% (p > .05). Repeated measures testing revealed no significant difference in HbA1c reduction between groups. Both groups had reductions in HFS; these reductions were statistically significant within groups (p < .05), but not between groups. QLI-D indices demonstrated improvements (p < .05) in QLI-D total and the health and family subscales, but not between groups. The results of this pilot study suggest that benefits of CGM extend beyond reductions in HbA1c to reductions in fear of hypoglycemia and improvements in quality of life. The display of a numerical glucose value did not improve control when compared to numerically blinded units.

  9. The Development of Memory Efficiency and Value-Directed Remembering across the Life Span: A Cross-Sectional Study of Memory and Selectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castel, Alan D.; Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Lee, Steve S.; Galvan, Adriana; Balota, David A.; McCabe, David P.

    2011-01-01

    Although attentional control and memory change considerably across the life span, no research has examined how the ability to strategically remember important information (i.e., value-directed remembering) changes from childhood to old age. The present study examined this in different age groups across the life span (N = 320, 5-96 years old). A…

  10. Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment Surgery in Elderly People over 70 Years Old: Visual Acuity, Quality of Life, and Cost-Utility Values

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Haidong; Xu, Xiaocheng; Liu, Haiyun; Bai, Lin; Xu, Xun; Zhang, Xi

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose To evaluate the influence of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) surgery on elderly patients in terms of visual acuity, vision-related quality of life and its cost-effectiveness. Methods Elderly patients over 70 years old, who were diagnosed and underwent RRD surgery at Shanghai First People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China, from January 1, 2009, through January 1, 2013. The participants received scleral buckling surgery and vitreous surgery with or without scleral buckling under retrobulbar anesthesia. We followed the patients for 1 year and collected best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), vision-related quality of life, and direct medical costs data. Utility values elicited by time-trade-off were analyzed to determine the quality of life. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained in life expectancy were calculated and discounted at 3% annually. Costs per QALY gained were reported using the bootstrap method. Further analyses were made for two age groups, age 70–79 and age over 80 years. Sensitivity analyses were performed to test stability of the results. Results 98 patients were included in the study. The BCVA significantly improved by 0.53±0.44 (Logarithm of the Minimum Angle of Resolution (logMAR)) at the 1-year postoperative time point (p<0.001). Utility values increased from 0.77 to 0.84 (p<0.001), and an average of 0.4 QALYs were gained in the life expectancy. Costs per QALY gained from the RRD surgery were 33,186 Chinese Yuan (CNY) (5,276 US dollars (USD))/QALY; 24,535 CNY (3,901 USD)/QALY for the age group of 70–79 years and 71,240 CNY (11,326 USD)/QALY for the age group over 80 years. Conclusions RRD surgery improved the visual acuity and quality of life in the elderly patients over 70 years old. According to the World Health Organization’s recommendation, at a threshold of willingness to pay of 115,062 CNY (18,293 USD)/QALY, RRD surgery is cost effective in the elderly patients. PMID:25330168

  11. Work preferences, life values, and personal views of top math/science graduate students and the profoundly gifted: Developmental changes and gender differences during emerging adulthood and parenthood.

    PubMed

    Ferriman, Kimberley; Lubinski, David; Benbow, Camilla P

    2009-09-01

    Work preferences, life values, and personal views of top math/science graduate students (275 men, 255 women) were assessed at ages 25 and 35 years. In Study 1, analyses of work preferences revealed developmental changes and gender differences in priorities: Some gender differences increased over time and increased more among parents than among childless participants, seemingly because the mothers' priorities changed. In Study 2, gender differences in the graduate students' life values and personal views at age 35 were compared with those of profoundly gifted participants (top 1 in 10,000, identified by age 13 and tracked for 20 years: 265 men, 84 women). Again, gender differences were larger among parents. Across both cohorts, men appeared to assume a more agentic, career-focused perspective than women did, placing more importance on creating high-impact products, receiving compensation, taking risks, and gaining recognition as the best in their fields. Women appeared to favor a more communal, holistic perspective, emphasizing community, family, friendships, and less time devoted to career. Gender differences in life priorities, which intensify during parenthood, anticipated differential male-female representation in high-level and time-intensive careers, even among talented men and women with similar profiles of abilities, vocational interests, and educational experiences.

  12. Work preferences, life values, and personal views of top math/science graduate students and the profoundly gifted: Developmental changes and gender differences during emerging adulthood and parenthood.

    PubMed

    Ferriman, Kimberley; Lubinski, David; Benbow, Camilla P

    2009-09-01

    Work preferences, life values, and personal views of top math/science graduate students (275 men, 255 women) were assessed at ages 25 and 35 years. In Study 1, analyses of work preferences revealed developmental changes and gender differences in priorities: Some gender differences increased over time and increased more among parents than among childless participants, seemingly because the mothers' priorities changed. In Study 2, gender differences in the graduate students' life values and personal views at age 35 were compared with those of profoundly gifted participants (top 1 in 10,000, identified by age 13 and tracked for 20 years: 265 men, 84 women). Again, gender differences were larger among parents. Across both cohorts, men appeared to assume a more agentic, career-focused perspective than women did, placing more importance on creating high-impact products, receiving compensation, taking risks, and gaining recognition as the best in their fields. Women appeared to favor a more communal, holistic perspective, emphasizing community, family, friendships, and less time devoted to career. Gender differences in life priorities, which intensify during parenthood, anticipated differential male-female representation in high-level and time-intensive careers, even among talented men and women with similar profiles of abilities, vocational interests, and educational experiences. PMID:19686005

  13. Spiritual Meaning in Life and Values in Patients With Severe Mental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Huguelet, Philippe; Mohr, Sylvia Madeleine; Olié, Emilie; Vidal, Sonia; Hasler, Roland; Prada, Paco; Bancila, Mircea; Courtet, Philippe; Guillaume, Sébastien; Perroud, Nader

    2016-06-01

    Spirituality and meaning in life are key dimensions of recovery in psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to explore spiritual meaning in life in relation to values and mental health among 175 patients with schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder, bipolar disorder, and anorexia nervosa. For 26% of the patients, spirituality was essential in providing meaning in life. Depending on the diagnosis, considering spirituality as essential in life was associated with better social functioning; self-esteem; psychological and social quality of life; fewer negative symptoms; higher endorsement of values such as universalism, tradition (humility, devoutness), and benevolence (helpfulness); and a more meaningful perspective in life. These results highlight the importance of spirituality for recovery-oriented care. PMID:26955007

  14. Middle School Students' Perceptions of the Instructional Value of Analogies, Summaries and Answering Questions in Life Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BouJaoude, Saouma; Tamim, Rana

    2008-01-01

    Meaningful learning is the fundamental process that underlies the acquisition of useful information and the construction of new knowledge. By creating meaningful relations, learners are able to organize the information in bigger and more organized chunks of information; an organization that reduces memory overload and increases processing…

  15. AN EMPIRICAL BAYES APPROACH TO COMBINING ESTIMATES OF THE VALUE OF A STATISTICAL LIFE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This analysis updates EPA's standard VSL estimate by using a more comprehensive collection of VSL studies that include studies published between 1992 and 2000, as well as applying a more appropriate statistical method. We provide a pooled effect VSL estimate by applying the empi...

  16. 76 FR 49569 - Use of Actuarial Tables in Valuing Annuities, Interests for Life or Terms of Years, and Remainder...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ...: Background On May 7, 2009, the IRS published in the Federal Register (74 FR 21438 and 74 FR 21519) final and... computations under this section, the age of an individual is the age at the individual's nearest birthday. (2... individual's nearest birthday. If the adjusted payout rate is an amount that is between adjusted payout...

  17. The Value of Fieldwork in Life and Environmental Sciences in the Context of Higher Education: A Case Study in Learning About Biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Graham W.; Goulder, Raymond; Wheeler, Phillip; Scott, Lisa J.; Tobin, Michelle L.; Marsham, Sara

    2012-02-01

    Fieldwork is assumed by most practitioners to be an important if not essential component of a degree level education in the environmental sciences. However, there is strong evidence that as a result of a wide range of pressures (academic, financial and societal) fieldwork is in decline in the UK and elsewhere. In this paper we discuss the value of fieldwork in a higher education context and present the results of a case study which illustrates its value to student learning and the wider student experience. We used qualitative and quantitative methods to compare the impact of two learning tasks upon the affective and cognitive domains of students. We designed two tasks. One task that included fieldwork, and required students to collect organisms from the field and make labelled drawings of them, and one task that omitted the fieldwork and simply required drawing of specimens that the students had not collected. We evaluated the students' experience through structured and semi-structured questionnaires and written exercises. Students did not perceive the two tasks as being equivalent to one another. They reported that they enjoy fieldwork and value it (in the contexts of their learning at university, life-long learning, and in relation to their career aspirations) and felt that they learn more effectively in the field. Our students were better able to construct a taxonomic list of organisms that they had collected themselves, better able to recall the structural detail of these organisms and were better able to recall the detail of an ecological sampling methodology that they had personally carried out in the field rather than one that a tutor had described to them in a classroom setting. Our case study supports the growing body of evidence that fieldwork is an important way of enhancing undergraduate learning and highlights some key areas for future research.

  18. Faculty Work and Public Trust: Restoring the Value of Teaching and Public Service in American Academic Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairweather, James S.

    In examining the source of public distrust for higher education and faculty work, this volume reviews empirical data concerning questions which lie at the core of the roles of faculty in academe, in the economy, and the larger society. Chapter 1 describes the background in changing social attitudes and economic factors. Chapter 2 looks at faculty…

  19. Highly efficient, long life, reusable and robust photosynthetic hybrid core-shell beads for the sustainable production of high value compounds.

    PubMed

    Desmet, Jonathan; Meunier, Christophe; Danloy, Emeric; Duprez, Marie-Eve; Lox, Frédéric; Thomas, Diane; Hantson, Anne-Lise; Crine, Michel; Toye, Dominique; Rooke, Joanna; Su, Bao-Lian

    2015-06-15

    An efficient one-step process to synthesize highly porous (Ca-alginate-SiO2-polycation) shell: (Na-alginate-SiO2) core hybrid beads for cell encapsulation, yielding a reusable long-life photosynthetically active material for a sustainable manufacture of high-value metabolites is presented. Bead formation is based on crosslinking of an alginate biopolymer and mineralisation of silicic acid in combination with a coacervation process between a polycation and the silica sol, forming a semi-permeable external membrane. The excellent mechanical strength and durability of the monodispersed beads and the control of their porosity and textural properties is achieved by tailoring the silica and alginate loading, polycation concentration and incubation time during coacervation. This process has led to the formation of a remarkably robust hybrid material that confers exceptional protection to live cells against sheer stresses and contamination in a diverse range of applications. Dunaliella tertiolecta encapsulated within this hybrid core-shell system display high photosynthetic activity over a long duration (>1 year). This sustainable biotechnology could find use in high value chemical harvests and biofuel cells to photosynthetic solar cells (energy transformation, electricity production, water splitting technologies). Furthermore the material can be engineered into various forms from spheres to variable thickness films, broadening its potential applications.

  20. Highly efficient, long life, reusable and robust photosynthetic hybrid core-shell beads for the sustainable production of high value compounds.

    PubMed

    Desmet, Jonathan; Meunier, Christophe; Danloy, Emeric; Duprez, Marie-Eve; Lox, Frédéric; Thomas, Diane; Hantson, Anne-Lise; Crine, Michel; Toye, Dominique; Rooke, Joanna; Su, Bao-Lian

    2015-06-15

    An efficient one-step process to synthesize highly porous (Ca-alginate-SiO2-polycation) shell: (Na-alginate-SiO2) core hybrid beads for cell encapsulation, yielding a reusable long-life photosynthetically active material for a sustainable manufacture of high-value metabolites is presented. Bead formation is based on crosslinking of an alginate biopolymer and mineralisation of silicic acid in combination with a coacervation process between a polycation and the silica sol, forming a semi-permeable external membrane. The excellent mechanical strength and durability of the monodispersed beads and the control of their porosity and textural properties is achieved by tailoring the silica and alginate loading, polycation concentration and incubation time during coacervation. This process has led to the formation of a remarkably robust hybrid material that confers exceptional protection to live cells against sheer stresses and contamination in a diverse range of applications. Dunaliella tertiolecta encapsulated within this hybrid core-shell system display high photosynthetic activity over a long duration (>1 year). This sustainable biotechnology could find use in high value chemical harvests and biofuel cells to photosynthetic solar cells (energy transformation, electricity production, water splitting technologies). Furthermore the material can be engineered into various forms from spheres to variable thickness films, broadening its potential applications. PMID:25721859

  1. Universal values of Canadian astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brcic, Jelena; Della-Rossa, Irina

    2012-11-01

    Values are desirable, trans-situational goals, varying in importance, that guide behavior. Research has demonstrated that universal values may alter in importance as a result of major life events. The present study examines the effect of spaceflight and the demands of astronauts' job position as life circumstances that affect value priorities. We employed thematic content analysis for references to Schwartz's well-established value markers in narratives (media interviews, journals, and pre-flight interviews) of seven Canadian astronauts and compared the results to the values of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Russian Space Agency (RKA) astronauts. Space flight did alter the level of importance of Canadian astronauts' values. We found a U-shaped pattern for the values of Achievement and Tradition before, during, and after flight, and a linear decrease in the value of Stimulation. The most frequently mentioned values were Achievement, Universalism, Security, and Self-Direction. Achievement and Self Direction are also within the top 4 values of all other astronauts; however, Universalism was significantly higher among the Canadian astronauts. Within the value hierarchy of Canadian astronauts, Security was the third most frequently mentioned value, while it is in seventh place for all other astronauts. Interestingly, the most often mentioned value marker (sub-category) in this category was Patriotism. The findings have important implications in understanding multi-national crew relations during training, flight, and reintegration into society.

  2. What Does "Value" Evoke for Children? A Detection Study as to Transferring Values to Daily Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coskun Keskin, Sevgi

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have been carried out because of the importance of values education in recent years. The studies have shown their effects on the curriculum of 2005. In many classes it is aimed to provide individuals with the gains kneaded with appropriate values. Social Studies are one of them. However, no satisfactory studies as to whether the…

  3. Predictive value of dental readiness and psychological dimensions for oral health-related quality of life in Croatian soldiers: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Špalj, Stjepan; Perić, Davorka; Mlacović Zrinski, Magda; Bulj, Martina; Plančak, Darije

    2012-01-01

    Aim To determine the predictive value of dental readiness and psychological dimensions for oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in Croatian soldiers. Methods The sample consisted of 402 consecutive soldiers aged 21 to 54 years classified into the following groups according to dental readiness: Class 1 – not requiring dental treatment (N = 54), Class 2 – unlikely to need emergency treatment within 12 months (N = 205), and Class 3 – very likely to need treatment within 12 months (N = 143). OHRQoL was assessed by the Oral Health Impact Profile and psychological dimensions by the Brief Symptom Inventory and Dental Anxiety Scale. Results Multivariate analysis showed that Class 3 soldiers had higher frequency of psychological discomfort, psychological disability, and physical pain and handicap than Class 1 soldiers (P = 0.019). Multiple linear regression showed that longer military experience, higher level of dental anxiety, and dental unreadiness were significant predictors of lower OHRQoL (P < 0.050) but accounted for low variability. None of the single psychological symptomatic dimensions was a significant predictor of OHRQoL. Conclusion Although this study found a moderate association between OHRQoL and clinical, military, demographic, and psychological variables, the significant predictors could be used as a basis for further research of clinical and psychosocial factors of OHRQoL. PMID:23100208

  4. Toward a Social Theory of Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weigel, Elizabeth

    1975-01-01

    A new social theory of value must be developed because of the possibility of a world-wide emergency in the face of growing famine and pollution and an accompanying decline of moral values. This theory must have the life of all humanity and the life of our own culture as its ultimate values. (Author/RK)

  5. The Value of Reciprocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molm, Linda D.; Schaefer, David R.; Collett, Jessica L.

    2007-01-01

    The value of reciprocity in social exchange potentially comprises both instrumental value (the value of the actual benefits received from exchange) and communicative or symbolic value (the expressive and uncertainty reduction value conveyed by features of the act of reciprocity itself). While all forms of exchange provide instrumental value, we…

  6. The value ground of nursing.

    PubMed

    Snellman, Ingrid; Gedda, Kersti M

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this literature study was to suggest a value ground for nursing anchored in two ethical principles: the principle of human value and the right to experience a meaningful life. Previous nursing research between the years 2000 and 2009 was analysed. Presented values suggested in this value ground are thus in line with the nursing context and science of today. Statements within ethical literature have been used in order to formulate arguments aimed at supporting the values that were found in the study. In the literature study six values were found: trust, nearness, sympathy, support, knowledge and responsibility. These values hold equal status and are not presented in hierarchical order. They vary due to the persons involved, nursing situations and cultural surroundings, but have the common requirement of being non-excluding. In order to implement the values within the value ground, two prerequisites are discussed and claimed as essential: ethical dialogue and a caring encounter between care provider and patients.

  7. P02.02. Quality Improvement Study Suggesting the Value of Point-of-Care Documentation of Quality of Life Vital Signs in an Academic Integrative Health Center

    PubMed Central

    Lynn, Misti; Mikhail, Eriny; Bogle, Richard; Elam, Roy

    2013-01-01

    Focus Area: Supporting Behavioral Change Rigorous quality improvement and outcome reporting within interdisciplinary academic integrative health centers (IHCs) is a realm requiring significant focus in an era of skyrocketing healthcare costs, especially in management of complex chronic illness. In one southeastern US academic IHC seeing primarily (>80%) patients with chronic pain, treatment modalities include yoga, physical therapy (PT), cognitive-based therapy (CBT), acupuncture, and group therapy. A random sample of returning patients at this IHC completed a paper survey querying the following: treatment length and modalities used as a patient at this IHC; current pain, fatigue, and anxiety levels (0–10); change in pain, fatigue, anxiety, and quality of life (−5, “much worse,” to 5, “much better”) since first visit to this IHC. Seventy-seven responses were collected. Mean and median scores were calculated for current pain (m=3.9, SD=2.6, M=4), fatigue (m=4.7, SD=3.0, M=4), anxiety (m=3.5, SD=2.7, M=3), as well as changes in QOL (m=2.8, SD=1.7, M=3), pain (m=2.4, SD=1.9, M=3), anxiety (m=2.4, SD=1.7, M=3), and fatigue (m=1.8, SD=1.7, M=3). Increasing time following treatment was associated with improved QOL (P=.045, r=0.232) as was an increasing number of services utilized (P=.021, r=0.263). Associated with these QOL changes were improved pain (P<.01, r=0.561), fatigue (P<.01, r=0.604), and anxiety (P<0.01, r=0.495) while more severe current pain (P=.002, r=−.347) and fatigue (P=.015, r=−0.277) upon survey completion inversely predicted QOL change. A two-tailed t-test revealed that patients finding PT useful reported improved QOL (P=.008), anxiety (P=.008), fatigue (P=.006), and pain (P=.003) compared to those not. Patients reporting acupuncture useful enjoyed lower anxiety (P=.016) and improved pain (P=.037) while those finding yoga useful reported improved anxiety (P=.005). Together, these data suggest the potential value of implementing a more

  8. Life-Metaphors among Colombian Medical Students: Uncovering Core Values and Educational Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Edward; Acosta-Orozco, Catalina; Compton, William C.

    2015-01-01

    The present study utilized metaphor analysis to examine the core values of Colombian medical students. The entire 9th semester medical class of 60 students was invited to respond to a structured questionnaire. It asked participants to state their preferred life-metaphor, whether they had always preferred this metaphor since childhood or…

  9. Life-Metaphors among Colombian Leadership Students: Core Values and Educational Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Edward; Acosta-Orozco, Catalina

    2015-01-01

    The present study utilized metaphor analysis to explore the core values of Colombian college students in a leadership program. The entire class of 60 students was invited to respond to a structured questionnaire. It asked participants to state their preferred life-metaphor, whether they had always preferred this metaphor since childhood or…

  10. Accounting for land use in life cycle assessment: The value of NPP as a proxy indicator to assess land use impacts on ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Taelman, Sue Ellen; Schaubroeck, Thomas; De Meester, Steven; Boone, Lieselot; Dewulf, Jo

    2016-04-15

    Terrestrial land and its resources are finite, though, for economic and socio-cultural needs of humans, these natural resources are further exploited. It highlights the need to quantify the impact humans possibly have on the environment due to occupation and transformation of land. As a starting point of this paper (1(st) objective), the land use activities, which may be mainly socio-culturally or economically oriented, are identified in addition to the natural land-based processes and stocks and funds that can be altered due to land use. To quantify the possible impact anthropogenic land use can have on the natural environment, linked to a certain product or service, life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool commonly used. During the last decades, many indicators are developed within the LCA framework in an attempt to evaluate certain environmental impacts of land use. A second objective of this study is to briefly review these indicators and to categorize them according to whether they assess a change in the asset of natural resources for production and consumption or a disturbance of certain ecosystem processes, i.e. ecosystem health. Based on these findings, two enhanced proxy indicators are proposed (3(rd) objective). Both indicators use net primary production (NPP) loss (potential NPP in the absence of humans minus remaining NPP after land use) as a relevant proxy to primarily assess the impact of land use on ecosystem health. As there are two approaches to account for the natural and productive value of the NPP remaining after land use, namely the Human Appropriation of NPP (HANPP) and hemeroby (or naturalness) concepts, two indicators are introduced and the advantages and limitations compared to state-of-the-art NPP-based land use indicators are discussed. Exergy-based spatially differentiated characterization factors (CFs) are calculated for several types of land use (e.g., pasture land, urban land).

  11. Accounting for land use in life cycle assessment: The value of NPP as a proxy indicator to assess land use impacts on ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Taelman, Sue Ellen; Schaubroeck, Thomas; De Meester, Steven; Boone, Lieselot; Dewulf, Jo

    2016-04-15

    Terrestrial land and its resources are finite, though, for economic and socio-cultural needs of humans, these natural resources are further exploited. It highlights the need to quantify the impact humans possibly have on the environment due to occupation and transformation of land. As a starting point of this paper (1(st) objective), the land use activities, which may be mainly socio-culturally or economically oriented, are identified in addition to the natural land-based processes and stocks and funds that can be altered due to land use. To quantify the possible impact anthropogenic land use can have on the natural environment, linked to a certain product or service, life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool commonly used. During the last decades, many indicators are developed within the LCA framework in an attempt to evaluate certain environmental impacts of land use. A second objective of this study is to briefly review these indicators and to categorize them according to whether they assess a change in the asset of natural resources for production and consumption or a disturbance of certain ecosystem processes, i.e. ecosystem health. Based on these findings, two enhanced proxy indicators are proposed (3(rd) objective). Both indicators use net primary production (NPP) loss (potential NPP in the absence of humans minus remaining NPP after land use) as a relevant proxy to primarily assess the impact of land use on ecosystem health. As there are two approaches to account for the natural and productive value of the NPP remaining after land use, namely the Human Appropriation of NPP (HANPP) and hemeroby (or naturalness) concepts, two indicators are introduced and the advantages and limitations compared to state-of-the-art NPP-based land use indicators are discussed. Exergy-based spatially differentiated characterization factors (CFs) are calculated for several types of land use (e.g., pasture land, urban land). PMID:26808405

  12. Five Values of Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besjes-de Bock, Karin M.; de Ruyter, Doret J.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes five values attributed to giftedness. The ascription of values to this phenomenon resembles values attached to gifts in gift-giving processes. Whereas gift-giving often includes expectations of reciprocity, each gift possesses a numerical, utility, social, personal, and intrinsic value. Developmental models of giftedness and…

  13. The Value of Fieldwork in Life and Environmental Sciences in the Context of Higher Education: A Case Study in Learning about Biodiversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Graham W.; Goulder, Raymond; Wheeler, Phillip; Scott, Lisa J.; Tobin, Michelle L.; Marsham, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Fieldwork is assumed by most practitioners to be an important if not essential component of a degree level education in the environmental sciences. However, there is strong evidence that as a result of a wide range of pressures (academic, financial and societal) fieldwork is in decline in the UK and elsewhere. In this paper we discuss the value of…

  14. Value of a statistical life in road safety: a benefit-transfer function with risk-analysis guidance based on developing country data.

    PubMed

    Milligan, Craig; Kopp, Andreas; Dahdah, Said; Montufar, Jeannette

    2014-10-01

    We model a value of statistical life (VSL) transfer function for application to road-safety engineering in developing countries through an income-disaggregated meta-analysis of scope-sensitive stated preference VSL data. The income-disaggregated meta-analysis treats developing country and high-income country data separately. Previous transfer functions are based on aggregated datasets that are composed largely of data from high-income countries. Recent evidence, particularly with respect to the income elasticity of VSL, suggests that the aggregate approach is deficient because it does not account for a possible change in income elasticity across income levels. Our dataset (a minor update of the OECD database published in 2012) includes 123 scope-sensitive VSL estimates from developing countries and 185 scope-sensitive estimates from high-income countries. The transfer function for developing countries gives VSL=1.3732E-4×(GDP per capita)(∧)2.478, with VSL and GDP per capita expressed in 2005 international dollars (an international dollar being a notional currency with the same purchasing power as the U.S. dollar). The function can be applied for low- and middle-income countries with GDPs per capita above $1268 (with a data gap for very low-income countries), whereas it is not useful above a GDP per capita of about $20,000. The corresponding function built using high-income country data is VSL=8.2474E+3×(GDP per capita)(∧).6932; it is valid for high-income countries but over-estimates VSL for low- and middle-income countries. The research finds two principal significant differences between the transfer functions modeled using developing-country and high-income-country data, supporting the disaggregated approach. The first of these differences relates to between-country VSL income elasticity, which is 2.478 for the developing country function and .693 for the high-income function; the difference is significant at p<0.001. This difference was recently postulated

  15. Using Values Narratives to Promote Youth Well-Being in Schools: An Exploratory Quantitative Evaluation of the Laws of Life Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banyard, Victoria; Hamby, Sherry; Grych, John

    2016-01-01

    Expressive writing or values narratives are a promising addition to school social workers' toolkits of intervention strategies for distressed youth and prevention work to reduce mental health problems in schools. Narrative can promote resilience among students who have been exposed to adversity and promote healthy development among those who have…

  16. Predictive value of health-related quality of life in progression of disability and depression in persons with multiple sclerosis: a 3-year study.

    PubMed

    Kisic Tepavcevic, Darija; Pekmezovic, Tatjana; Stojsavljevic, Nebojsa; Kostic, Jelena; Dujmovic Basuroski, Irena; Mesaros, Sarlota; Drulovic, Jelena

    2013-12-01

    In our study, we examined whether health-related quality of life (HRQoL) could predict changes in disability, depression, and fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) over a 3-year follow-up period. A group of 109 consecutive MS patients (McDonald's criteria) referring to the Institute of Neurology, Belgrade were enrolled in the study. At two time points during the study (baseline, and after a 3-year period) an HRQoL (measured by MSQoL-54), EDSS, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HDRS) and Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) were assessed. At the end of a 3-year follow-up, 12 out of 109 patients (11%) had dropped out. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that Physical Health scale of MSQoL-54 is significant independent predictor of change in EDSS after 3 years (p = 0.035). Mental health composite score of MSQoL-54 was predictor of change in HDRS score (p = 0.049). In separate regression analysis, only social function was independent predictor of the development of depression (p = 0.041). None of the HRQoL domains had predictive effect on the change of FSS. Our study suggests that baseline HRQoL scores, measured by MSQoL-54, could be applied as a prognostic marker for progression of both, disability, and severity of depressive symptoms in MS. PMID:23460394

  17. The Origin of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodson, D.

    1975-01-01

    Presents an outline of lectures given on this topic to British secondary students. Man's various ideas about the origin of life are included in three categories: those that consider life to have been created by a Divine Being; those that consider life to have developed from non-living matter; and those that consider life to be eternal. (MLH)

  18. The Dubious Value of Value Neutrality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balch, Stephen H.

    2006-01-01

    Hard science is properly value neutral. But when that ideological neutrality extends to the whole university, the traditional foundation crumbles. Steve Balch laments the moral vacuum that now substitutes for fundamental principles, because it is impossible to frame a program of education--especially in the humanities and social sciences--without…

  19. [The concept of dignity and life science law: a symbolic, dynamic value at the heart of the social construction of man].

    PubMed

    Byk, Christian

    2010-12-01

    Included in human rights law just after the Second World War, dignity is the quality common to all people in that it symbolises their human condition. Inherent to each person, it is therefore independent of any other personal and random condition (physical state, origin, colour, religion...) just as it is independent of social conditions (a person's dignity cannot be questioned by society). However, the very context of this recognition--in the aftermath of the defeat of Nazism--emphasises the fact that it was not something evident in human history. So there is in this manifestation of the international community a strong political sign which makes dignity as much a construction of man as a quality consubstantial with his nature. A symbol of the human condition, dignity is therefore also a dynamic value, a combat value. As such, it forces us to wonder about what belongs to the human sphere and also about the particular responsibility which springs for every man and for mankind, from the dignity with which he is invested.

  20. Effect of Individual Component Life Distribution on Engine Life Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Soditus, Sherry M.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of individual engine component life distributions on engine life prediction was determined. A Weibull-based life and reliability analysis of the NASA Energy Efficient Engine was conducted. The engine s life at a 95 and 99.9 percent probability of survival was determined based upon the engine manufacturer s original life calculations and assumed values of each of the component s cumulative life distributions as represented by a Weibull slope. The lives of the high-pressure turbine (HPT) disks and blades were also evaluated individually and as a system in a similar manner. Knowing the statistical cumulative distribution of each engine component with reasonable engineering certainty is a condition precedent to predicting the life and reliability of an entire engine. The life of a system at a given reliability will be less than the lowest-lived component in the system at the same reliability (probability of survival). Where Weibull slopes of all the engine components are equal, the Weibull slope had a minimal effect on engine L(sub 0.1) life prediction. However, at a probability of survival of 95 percent (L(sub 5) life), life decreased with increasing Weibull slope.

  1. Exploring the Viability and Perceived Pedagogical Value of the Virtual Interactive Biology Experience (VIBE) Assignment Format in Higher Education Life Science Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klesath, Marta Jean

    The current Net generation has grown up surrounded by technology. Today's technological devices have become integrated in every aspect of our lives, including education. Utilizing design-based research methodology we have developed a unique technology-rich, multimedia embedded 3D virtual assignment format dubbed Virtual Interactive Biology Experiences , or VIBE. The focus of this sequential mixed methods study was to gather empirical data related to the viability and perceived pedagogical value of the VIBE assignment format. Quantitative data was collected on the student's current usage of, and attitudes towards, technology prior to their exposure to the VIBE format. Students' responses to an assignment questionnaire indicated their perceived value of the VIBE assignment format. Student responses were collected immediately following both the first and last (third) exposure to the VIBE format. A repeated T-test indicated that students' attitudes towards the pedagogical value of this format become more positive with increased familiarity. Additionally, specific covariates associated with the students responses on the technology survey were identified as predictive for the students reported values of the VIBE format to varying degrees. Multiple regression predictive models were developed which differed between the initial and repeated measures data. This variation supported the repeated measures finding emphasizing differences in responses associated with the first and subsequent uses of the VIBE format. Future studies are planned in which potential learning gains associated with the use of this format may be evaluated.

  2. Radionuclide biological half-life values for terrestrial and aquatic wildlife.

    PubMed

    Beresford, N A; Beaugelin-Seiller, K; Burgos, J; Cujic, M; Fesenko, S; Kryshev, A; Pachal, N; Real, A; Su, B S; Tagami, K; Vives i Batlle, J; Vives-Lynch, S; Wells, C; Wood, M D

    2015-12-01

    The equilibrium concentration ratio is typically the parameter used to estimate organism activity concentrations within wildlife dose assessment tools. Whilst this is assumed to be fit for purpose, there are scenarios such as accidental or irregular, fluctuating, releases from licensed facilities when this might not be the case. In such circumstances, the concentration ratio approach may under- or over-estimate radiation exposure depending upon the time since the release. To carrying out assessments for such releases, a dynamic approach is needed. The simplest and most practical option is representing the uptake and turnover processes by first-order kinetics, for which organism- and element-specific biological half-life data are required. In this paper we describe the development of a freely available international database of radionuclide biological half-life values. The database includes 1907 entries for terrestrial, freshwater, riparian and marine organisms. Biological half-life values are reported for 52 elements across a range of wildlife groups (marine = 9, freshwater = 10, terrestrial = 7 and riparian = 3 groups). Potential applications and limitations of the database are discussed. PMID:26378959

  3. Dealing with Life's Dilemmas: Exploring Values through English and Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milgrim, Sally-Anne

    The nine original one-act plays in this collection are meant to be performed in the classroom or at any social gathering where an informal reading or enactment by a group can take place. The plays touch on a number of conflicts that people may encounter when seeking independence; looking for jobs; trying romance; relating to family members;…

  4. Deciphering death: a commentary on Gompertz (1825) ‘On the nature of the function expressive of the law of human mortality, and on a new mode of determining the value of life contingencies’

    PubMed Central

    Kirkwood, Thomas B. L.

    2015-01-01

    In 1825, the actuary Benjamin Gompertz read a paper, ‘On the nature of the function expressive of the law of human mortality, and on a new mode of determining the value of life contingencies’, to the Royal Society in which he showed that over much of the adult human lifespan, age-specific mortality rates increased in an exponential manner. Gompertz's work played an important role in shaping the emerging statistical science that underpins the pricing of life insurance and annuities. Latterly, as the subject of ageing itself became the focus of scientific study, the Gompertz model provided a powerful stimulus to examine the patterns of death across the life course not only in humans but also in a wide range of other organisms. The idea that the Gompertz model might constitute a fundamental ‘law of mortality’ has given way to the recognition that other patterns exist, not only across the species range but also in advanced old age. Nevertheless, Gompertz's way of representing the function expressive of the pattern of much of adult mortality retains considerable relevance for studying the factors that influence the intrinsic biology of ageing. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750242

  5. Deciphering death: a commentary on Gompertz (1825) 'On the nature of the function expressive of the law of human mortality, and on a new mode of determining the value of life contingencies'.

    PubMed

    Kirkwood, Thomas B L

    2015-04-19

    In 1825, the actuary Benjamin Gompertz read a paper, 'On the nature of the function expressive of the law of human mortality, and on a new mode of determining the value of life contingencies', to the Royal Society in which he showed that over much of the adult human lifespan, age-specific mortality rates increased in an exponential manner. Gompertz's work played an important role in shaping the emerging statistical science that underpins the pricing of life insurance and annuities. Latterly, as the subject of ageing itself became the focus of scientific study, the Gompertz model provided a powerful stimulus to examine the patterns of death across the life course not only in humans but also in a wide range of other organisms. The idea that the Gompertz model might constitute a fundamental 'law of mortality' has given way to the recognition that other patterns exist, not only across the species range but also in advanced old age. Nevertheless, Gompertz's way of representing the function expressive of the pattern of much of adult mortality retains considerable relevance for studying the factors that influence the intrinsic biology of ageing. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.

  6. Combined effects of marinating and γ-irradiation in ensuring safety, protection of nutritional value and increase in shelf-life of ready-to-cook meat for immunocompromised patients.

    PubMed

    Ben Fadhel, Yosra; Leroy, Valentin; Dussault, Dominic; St-Yves, France; Lauzon, Martine; Salmieri, Stéphane; Jamshidian, Majid; Vu, Dang Khanh; Lacroix, Monique

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of combining marinating and γ-irradiation at doses of 1, 1.5 and 3kGy on Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium and Clostridium sporogenes in raw meat packed under vacuum and stored at 4°C and to estimate its safety and shelf-life. Further, the effect of combined treatments on sensorial, nutritional values (lipid oxidation, concentration of thiamin and riboflavin) and color was evaluated. The study demonstrated that the use of marinade in combination with a low dose of γ-irradiation (1.5kGy) could act in synergy to reduce to undetectable level of pathogenic bacteria and increase the shelf-life of ready-to-cook meat loin without affecting its sensorial and nutritional quality. PMID:27043970

  7. Defending definitions of life.

    PubMed

    Mix, Lucas John

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, it has become unpopular to talk about definitions of life, under the assumption that attempts at a precise definition are counterproductive. Recent attempts have failed to meet strict philosophical criteria for definitions and have failed to reach consensus. I argue that provisional definitions are necessary for clear communications. Our current knowledge of biology justifies a number of universal claims about the category of life. Whether or not "life" represents a natural category, it maps to a number of important, observable processes. Given the importance of those processes and the extent of our knowledge, plural explicit definitions of life (and related categories) will be necessary for progress in astrobiology and origin-of-life studies as well as biology in general. I propose concrete categories related to, but not necessarily coextensive with, life for clear communication and hypothesis formation: Woese life, Darwin life, Haldane life.

  8. Multiple origins of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raup, D. M.; Valentine, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    There is some indication that life may have originated readily under primitive earth conditions. If there were multiple origins of life, the result could have been a polyphyletic biota today. Using simple stochastic models for diversification and extinction, we conclude: (1) the probability of survival of life is low unless there are multiple origins, and (2) given survival of life and given as many as 10 independent origins of life, the odds are that all but one would have gone extinct, yielding the monophyletic biota we have now. The fact of the survival of our particular form of life does not imply that it was unique or superior.

  9. Value of Information References

    DOE Data Explorer

    Morency, Christina

    2014-12-12

    This file contains a list of relevant references on value of information (VOI) in RIS format. VOI provides a quantitative analysis to evaluate the outcome of the combined technologies (seismology, hydrology, geodesy) used to monitor Brady's Geothermal Field.

  10. Well for life: a way of life.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Wendi A; Thompson, Catherine E; McKenzie, Rosemary A; Naccarella, Lucio

    2007-10-01

    Well for Life is an innovative public program in Victoria, Australia that focuses on improving nutrition and increasing physical activity to promote healthy aging. For more than 4 years Aged Care has funded projects for frail older people who live in Public Sector Residential Aged Care (PSRAC) facilities or attend Home and Community Care (HACC) Planned Activity Groups (PAGs). Many stereotypes exist around what frail older people can or cannot do. Well for Life challenges many of these through organizational culture and policy change and workforce development. A person-centered approach to care is adopted that emphasizes improving participants' activities of daily living and encouraging exercise and involvement. An external provider used a participatory evaluation approach to support the first phase of Well for Life. This approach enabled funded agencies to plan, implement, and monitor progress in their projects and assist them to embed Well for Life into policy and practice. The evaluation not only revealed insight into the delivery and adoption of Well for Life, but also assisted management and staff to make Well for Life a reality. Many PSRAC residents and PAG participants have reported significant gains from their involvement in Well for Life. These achievements reflect staff enthusiasm and organizational commitment to Well for Life principles. Evidence supports the benefit of improved nutrition and physical activity for people of any age and Well for Life is adding to the evidence-base for frail older people.

  11. Are physicians' estimations of future events value-impregnated? Cross-sectional study of double intentions when providing treatment that shortens a dying patient's life.

    PubMed

    Rydvall, Anders; Juth, Niklas; Sandlund, Mikael; Lynøe, Niels

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to corroborate or undermine a previously presented conjecture that physicians' estimations of others' opinions are influenced by their own opinions. We used questionnaire based cross-sectional design and described a situation where an imminently dying patient was provided with alleviating drugs which also shortened life and, additionally, were intended to do so. We asked what would happen to physicians' own trust if they took the action described, and also what the physician estimated would happen to the general publics' trust in health services. Decrease of trust was used as surrogate for an undesirable action. The results are presented as proportions with a 95 % Confidence Interval (CI). Statistical analysis was based on inter-rater agreement (Weighted Kappa)-test as well as χ (2) test and Odds Ratio with 95 % CI. We found a moderate inter-rater agreement (Kappa = 0.552) between what would happen with the physicians' own trust in healthcare and their estimations of what would happen with the general population's trust. We identified a significant difference between being pro et contra the treatment with double intentions and the estimation of the general population's trust (χ(2) = 72, df = 2 and p < 0.001). Focusing on either decreasing or increasing own trust and being pro or contra the action we identified a strong association [OR 79 (CI 25-253)]. Although the inter-rater agreement in the present study was somewhat weaker compared to a study about the explicit use of the term 'physicians assisted suicide' we found that our hypothesis-physicians' estimations of others' opinions are influenced by their own opinions-was corroborated. This might have implications in research as well as in clinical decision-making. We suggest that Merton's ideal of disinterestedness should be highlighted.

  12. The Value of the P Value

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Dinesh; Balakrishnan, Archana; Vyas, Arpita

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the discussion on the implications of irreproducibility in the sciences has been brought into the spotlight. This topic has been discussed for years in the literature. A multitude of reasons have been attributed to this issue; one commonly labeled culprit is the overuse of the p value as a determinant of significance by the scientific community. Both scientists and statisticians have questioned the use of null hypothesis testing as the basis of scientific analysis. This survey of the current issues at hand in irreproducibility in research emphasizes potential causes of the issue, impacts that this can have for drug development and efforts been taken to increase transparency of findings in research. PMID:27430018

  13. Diminishing willingness to pay per quality-adjusted life year: valuing acute foodborne illness.

    PubMed

    Haninger, Kevin; Hammitt, James K

    2011-09-01

    We design and conduct a stated-preference survey to estimate willingness to pay (WTP) to reduce foodborne risk of acute illness and to test whether WTP is proportional to the corresponding gain in expected quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). If QALYs measure utility for health, then economic theory requires WTP to be nearly proportional to changes in both health quality and duration of illness and WTP could be estimated by multiplying the expected change in QALYs by an appropriate monetary value. WTP is elicited using double-bounded, dichotomous-choice questions in which respondents (randomly selected from the U.S. general adult population, n = 2,858) decide whether to purchase a more expensive food to reduce the risk of foodborne illness. Health risks vary by baseline probability of illness, reduction in probability, duration and severity of illness, and conditional probability of mortality. The expected gain in QALYs is calculated using respondent-assessed decrements in health-related quality of life if ill combined with the duration of illness and reduction in probability specified in the survey. We find sharply diminishing marginal WTP for severity and duration of illness prevented. Our results suggest that individuals do not have a constant rate of WTP per QALY, which implies that WTP cannot be accurately estimated by multiplying the change in QALYs by an appropriate monetary value. PMID:21488924

  14. Expected value information improves financial risk taking across the adult life span.

    PubMed

    Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R; Wagner, Anthony D; Knutson, Brian

    2011-04-01

    When making decisions, individuals must often compensate for cognitive limitations, particularly in the face of advanced age. Recent findings suggest that age-related variability in striatal activity may increase financial risk-taking mistakes in older adults. In two studies, we sought to further characterize neural contributions to optimal financial risk taking and to determine whether decision aids could improve financial risk taking. In Study 1, neuroimaging analyses revealed that individuals whose mesolimbic activation correlated with the expected value estimates of a rational actor made more optimal financial decisions. In Study 2, presentation of expected value information improved decision making in both younger and older adults, but the addition of a distracting secondary task had little impact on decision quality. Remarkably, provision of expected value information improved the performance of older adults to match that of younger adults at baseline. These findings are consistent with the notion that mesolimbic circuits play a critical role in optimal choice, and imply that providing simplified information about expected value may improve financial risk taking across the adult life span.

  15. Expected value information improves financial risk taking across the adult life span

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Anthony D.; Knutson, Brian

    2011-01-01

    When making decisions, individuals must often compensate for cognitive limitations, particularly in the face of advanced age. Recent findings suggest that age-related variability in striatal activity may increase financial risk-taking mistakes in older adults. In two studies, we sought to further characterize neural contributions to optimal financial risk taking and to determine whether decision aids could improve financial risk taking. In Study 1, neuroimaging analyses revealed that individuals whose mesolimbic activation correlated with the expected value estimates of a rational actor made more optimal financial decisions. In Study 2, presentation of expected value information improved decision making in both younger and older adults, but the addition of a distracting secondary task had little impact on decision quality. Remarkably, provision of expected value information improved the performance of older adults to match that of younger adults at baseline. These findings are consistent with the notion that mesolimbic circuits play a critical role in optimal choice, and imply that providing simplified information about expected value may improve financial risk taking across the adult life span. PMID:20501485

  16. Value of Fundamental Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burov, Alexey

    Fundamental science is a hard, long-term human adventure that has required high devotion and social support, especially significant in our epoch of Mega-science. The measure of this devotion and this support expresses the real value of the fundamental science in public opinion. Why does fundamental science have value? What determines its strength and what endangers it? The dominant answer is that the value of science arises out of curiosity and is supported by the technological progress. Is this really a good, astute answer? When trying to attract public support, we talk about the ``mystery of the universe''. Why do these words sound so attractive? What is implied by and what is incompatible with them? More than two centuries ago, Immanuel Kant asserted an inseparable entanglement between ethics and metaphysics. Thus, we may ask: which metaphysics supports the value of scientific cognition, and which does not? Should we continue to neglect the dependence of value of pure science on metaphysics? If not, how can this issue be addressed in the public outreach? Is the public alienated by one or another message coming from the face of science? What does it mean to be politically correct in this sort of discussion?

  17. What makes a life event traumatic for a child? The predictive values of DSM-Criteria A1 and A2

    PubMed Central

    Verlinden, Eva; Schippers, Mirjam; Van Meijel, Els P. M.; Beer, Renée; Opmeer, Brent C.; Olff, Miranda; Boer, Frits; Lindauer, Ramón J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-Criteria A1 and A2 for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been discussed extensively, with several studies in adults or adolescents supporting the removal of Criterion A2. However, solid research in children is missing. Objective This study evaluated the DSM-Criteria A1 and A2 in predicting posttraumatic stress in children. Method A sample of 588 Dutch school children, aged 8–18 years, completed a self-report questionnaire to determine if they met Criteria A1 and/or A2. Their posttraumatic stress response was assessed using the Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale. Results The contribution of Criterion A2 to the prediction of posttraumatic stress in children is of greater importance than the contribution of Criterion A1. Children who met Criterion A2 reported significantly higher levels of posttraumatic stress and were nine times more likely to develop probable PTSD than children who did not meet Criterion A2. When Criterion A1 was met, a child was only two times more likely to develop probable PTSD as compared with those where Criterion A1 was not met. Furthermore, the low sensitivity of Criterion A1 suggests that children may regularly develop severe posttraumatic stress in the absence of Criterion A1. The remarkably high negative predictive value of Criterion A2 indicates that if a child does not have a subjective reaction during an event that it is unlikely that he or she will develop PTSD. Conclusions In contrast to most adult studies, the findings of this study emphasize the significant contribution of Criterion A2 to the prediction of posttraumatic stress in children and raise fundamental questions about the value of the current Criterion A1. PMID:23977424

  18. Value of Information spreadsheet

    DOE Data Explorer

    Trainor-Guitton, Whitney

    2014-05-12

    This spreadsheet represents the information posteriors derived from synthetic data of magnetotellurics (MT). These were used to calculate value of information of MT for geothermal exploration. Information posteriors describe how well MT was able to locate the "throat" of clay caps, which are indicative of hidden geothermal resources. This data is full explained in the peer-reviewed publication: Trainor-Guitton, W., Hoversten, G. M., Ramirez, A., Roberts, J., Júlíusson, E., Key, K., Mellors, R. (Sept-Oct. 2014) The value of spatial information for determining well placement: a geothermal example, Geophysics.

  19. Value of space defenses

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1992-10-29

    This report discusses the economic value of defenses against Near-Earth Object (NEO) impacts is bounded by calculating expected losses in their absence, which illustrates the contributions from NEOs of different sizes and the sensitivity of total expected losses to impact frequencies. For typical size distributions and damage of only a few decades duration, losses are most sensitive to small NEOs, and lead to defenses worth a few $M/yr. When the persistence of damage with NEO size is taken into account, that shifts the loss to the largest NEOs and greatly increases expected loss and values.

  20. Take a Selfie of Life: A Qualitative Exploration of College Students' Self-Reflections on Free Time Use and Personal Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsin-Yu; Yarnal, Careen; Hustad, John T. P.; Sims, Damon

    2016-01-01

    Adopting a qualitative approach, this study explores college students' self-reflections on free time use and personal values. Data were collected from 111 students' final reflection papers for a class entitled "Leisure and Human Behavior." The findings suggest that leisure education may empower students with fundamental knowledge about…

  1. The value of certification.

    PubMed

    Kaplow, Roberta

    2011-01-01

    Certification is defined in the nursing literature in several ways; no one consistent definition of certification exists. Nursing specialty certification programs are intended for consumer protection. Certification protects the public by enabling consumers to identify competent people more readily. However, benefits for stakeholders other than patients and families are also described in the literature. This article describes the value of specialty certification from the perspective of the patient and family, nurse, and employer.

  2. Creating Value with Long Term R&D: The life science industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloman, Darlene J. S.

    2008-03-01

    Agilent Laboratories looks to the future to identify, invest and enable technologies and applications that will nurture the world’s people, environment and economies, and help ensure Agilent’s continuing leadership. Following a brief introduction to Agilent Technologies and Agilent Laboratories, Solomon will discuss how innovation and long-term R&D are transcending traditional boundaries. Focusing on the life sciences industry, she will discuss current trends in R&D and the importance of measurement in advancing the industry. She will describe some of the challenges that are disrupting the pharmaceutical industry where significant and sustained investment in R&D has not translated into large numbers of block-buster therapeutics. Much of this gap results from the profound complexity of biological systems. New discoveries quickly generate new questions, which in turn drive more research and necessitate new business models. Solomon will highlight examples of Agilent’s long-range R&D in life sciences, emphasizing the importance of physics. She’ll conclude with the importance of creating sustainable value with R&D.

  3. An Analysis of the Factorial Dimensions of Value Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, James V., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Examines whether the major dimensions of human value systems can be empirically defined in terms of nature and possible influence. Subjects (N=171) completed the Life Values Inventory and Personal Values Inventory to assess terminal and instrumental values. Factor analysis yielded eight basic dimensions of the value domain. (JAC)

  4. The Value of Non-Work Time in Cross-National Quality of Life Comparisons: The Case of the United States vs. the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verbakel, Ellen; DiPrete, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    Comparisons of wellbeing between the United States and Western Europe generally show that most Americans have higher standards of living than do Western Europeans at comparable locations in their national income distributions. These comparisons of wellbeing typically privilege disposable income and cash transfers while ignoring other aspects of…

  5. The Life of Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Cathie

    2010-01-01

    Using the notion of a suggestion, or rather charting the life of suggestions, this article considers the happenings of chance and embodiment as the "problems that got away." The life of suggestions helps us to ask how connectivities are made, how desire functions, and how "immanence" rather than "transcendence" can open up the politics and ethics…

  6. Neuronal imprinting of human values.

    PubMed

    Delgado, J M

    2000-03-01

    In the 21st century, psychophysiology will face the challenge of establishing ethical principles and practical means for the genetic and social influencing of the development of human beings. Neuronal imprinting of beliefs and morality within infantile minds will be necessary for the peaceful coexistence of races and cultures. This process requires study and consideration, among others, of the following psychophysiological facts: (1) Genes do not transmit moral values. (2) Material support of physiological activities is necessary for the existence and development of mental functions. (3) Imprinting of human values is based on material changes within neuronal structures. (4) Early neuronal imprinting is performed without personal awareness or consent of the individual and depends on sensory inputs, mainly from the social structure of the group. (5) Biological structures lack values. Personal and social antagonisms do not depend on genes, but on cultural indoctrination. (6) Pleasure and punishment (positive and negative reinforcement) are the two main elements, which regulate animal and human behavior. (7) Values must be chosen by adults, who decide the questions 'why'? 'when'? 'which ones'?, 'who should teach'?, 'what?' and 'how'? (8) Many biological imperatives are shared by all animals and by all people. Human beings may be considered the 'crickets of the Universe', unable to understand the mysteries of nature because of our insufficient neuronal capacity. (9) Our emotional life is mainly related to the structure of the limbic system controlled by the neocortex. (10) New theories based on the integration of physics, chemistry, biology and other specific areas of knowledge, as proposed by the General Theory of Systems, will avoid 'opposites', favoring the acceptance of complementary aspects of reality. (11) Early education will promote preferential learning which depends on both genetic endowment and neuronal development influenced by experience. It is the

  7. Recovery of uranium values

    DOEpatents

    Brown, K. B.; Crouse, Jr., D. J.; Moore, J. G.

    1959-03-10

    A liquid-liquid extraction method is presented for recovering uranium values from an aqueous acidic solution by means of certain high molecular weight amine fn the amine classes of primary, secondary, heterocyclic secondary, tertiary, or heterocyclic tertiary. The uranium bearing aqueous acidic solution is contacted with the selected anine dissolved in a nonpolar waterimmiscible organfc solvent such as kerosene. The uranium which is substantially completely extracted by the organic phase may be stripped therefrom by water, and recovered from the aqueous phase by treatment into ammonia to precipitate ammonium diuranate.

  8. RECOVERY OF URANIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Brown, K.B.; Crouse, D.J. Jr.; Moore, J.G.

    1959-03-10

    A liquid-liquid extraction method is presented for recovering uranium values from an aqueous acidic solution by means of certain high molecular weight amine in the amine classes of primary, secondary, heterocyclic secondary, tertiary, or heterocyclic tertiary. The uranium bearing aqueous acidic solution is contacted with the selected amine dissolved in a nonpolar water-immiscible organic solvent such as kerosene. The uranium which is substantially completely exiracted by the organic phase may be stripped therefrom by waters and recovered from the aqueous phase by treatment into ammonia to precipitate ammonium diuranate.

  9. Emergence of Life.

    PubMed

    Bassez, Marie-Paule

    2011-09-29

    Indeed, even if we know that many individual components are necessary for life to exist, we do not yet know what makes life emerge. One goal of this journal Life is to juxtapose articles with multidisciplinary approaches and perhaps to answer in the near future this question of the emergence of life. Different subjects and themes will be developed, starting of course with the multiple definitions of life and continuing with others such as: life diversity and universality; characteristics of living systems; thermodynamics with energy and entropy; kinetics and catalysis; water in its different physical states; circulation of sap and blood and its origin; the first blood pump and first heart; the first exchange of nutrients between cells, sap and blood; essential molecules of living systems; chirality; molecular asymmetry and its origin; formation of enantiomer excess and amplification; microscopic observations on a micrometer and sub-micrometer scales, at molecular and atomic levels; the first molecules at the origin of genetic information, viroids, circular RNA; regions of space or the area inside membranes and cells capable of initiating and maintaining life; phenomena at the origin of the emergence of life; molecules studied in the traditional field of chemistry and in the recent field of nanoscience governed by new laws; interaction between the individual molecules and components of living systems; interaction between living systems and the environment; transfer of information through generations; continuation of life from one generation to the next; prebiotic chemistry and prebiotic signatures on Earth, on Mars, on other planets; biosignatures of the first forms of life; fossils and pseudofossils dating 3.5 Ga ago and more recent ones; experimental fossilization; pluricellular eukaryotes dating 2.1 Ga ago; sudden increase in oxygen in the atmosphere around 2.0 to 2.5 Ga ago and its relation to geology; shell symmetry; aging with transformation of molecules, of

  10. Origin of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, Ashwini Kumar

    2008-10-01

    The evolution of life has been a big enigma despite rapid advancements in the field of astrobiology, microbiology and genetics in recent years. The answer to this puzzle is as mindboggling as the riddle relating to evolution of the universe itself. Despite the fact that panspermia has gained considerable support as a viable explanation for origin of life on the earth and elsewhere in the universe, the issue, however, remains far from a tangible solution. This paper examines the various prevailing hypotheses regarding origin of life-like abiogenesis, RNA world, iron-sulphur world and panspermia, and concludes that delivery of life-bearing organic molecules by the comets in the early epoch of the earth alone possibly was not responsible for kick-starting the process of evolution of life on our planet.

  11. The value of reputation.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Thomas; Tran, Lily; Krumme, Coco; Rand, David G

    2012-11-01

    Reputation plays a central role in human societies. Empirical and theoretical work indicates that a good reputation is valuable in that it increases one's expected payoff in the future. Here, we explore a game that couples a repeated Prisoner's Dilemma (PD), in which participants can earn and can benefit from a good reputation, with a market in which reputation can be bought and sold. This game allows us to investigate how the trading of reputation affects cooperation in the PD, and how participants assess the value of having a good reputation. We find that depending on how the game is set up, trading can have a positive or a negative effect on the overall frequency of cooperation. Moreover, we show that the more valuable a good reputation is in the PD, the higher the price at which it is traded in the market. Our findings have important implications for the use of reputation systems in practice.

  12. The value of reputation.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Thomas; Tran, Lily; Krumme, Coco; Rand, David G

    2012-11-01

    Reputation plays a central role in human societies. Empirical and theoretical work indicates that a good reputation is valuable in that it increases one's expected payoff in the future. Here, we explore a game that couples a repeated Prisoner's Dilemma (PD), in which participants can earn and can benefit from a good reputation, with a market in which reputation can be bought and sold. This game allows us to investigate how the trading of reputation affects cooperation in the PD, and how participants assess the value of having a good reputation. We find that depending on how the game is set up, trading can have a positive or a negative effect on the overall frequency of cooperation. Moreover, we show that the more valuable a good reputation is in the PD, the higher the price at which it is traded in the market. Our findings have important implications for the use of reputation systems in practice. PMID:22718993

  13. Early HIV treatment led to life expectancy gains valued at $80 billion for people infected in 1996-2009.

    PubMed

    Romley, John A; Juday, Timothy; Solomon, Matthew D; Seekins, Daniel; Brookmeyer, Ronald; Goldman, Dana P

    2014-03-01

    In late 2009 US guidelines for HIV treatment were revised to recommend the initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) earlier in the course of the disease. We analyzed the life expectancy gains of people infected with HIV between the introduction of cART in 1996 and the 2009 guideline revisions. Compared to people who initiated cART late (defined as having a CD4 cell count of less than 350 per cubic millimeter of blood), those who initiated treatment early (with a CD4 count of 350-500) could expect to live 6.1 years longer, and the earliest initiators (with a CD4 count of more than 500) could expect an extra 9.0 years of life. The total value of life expectancy gains to the early and earliest initiators of treatment was $80 billion, with each life-year valued at $150,000. The value of the survival gains was more than double the increase in drug manufacturers' revenues from early cART initiation. Our results clarify the economic implications of adherence to treatment guidelines.

  14. Symptom Control at the End of Life.

    PubMed

    Kreher, Margaret

    2016-09-01

    Symptom control at the end of life is an identified ongoing gap in end-of-life care. Increased demand for high-quality symptom control; limited supply of specialty trained clinicians; lack of consistent high-quality evidence-based interventions; and education deficits among clinicians, patients, and families in end-of-life processes contribute to this gap. High-value end-of-life care is centered on high-quality communication about goals of care. This article reviews primary palliative care concepts of communication and symptom control to provide a framework for primary care physicians to use in the care of patients at the end of life. PMID:27542430

  15. The "trophic" value of foods.

    PubMed

    Williams, R J; Heffley, J D; Yew, M L; Bode, C W

    1973-03-01

    Foods must furnish (i) calories, which can readily be measured, and (ii) raw materials necessary for the building and maintenance of metabolic machinery which makes possible fuel utilization. We have called this "beyond-calorie" quality of food its "trophic" value. This concept has more unity than appears on the surface, and is capable of approximate measurement by biological testing as our experiments show. The trophic value of a food cannot be ascertained from food composition tables because only a smattering of the necessary information is commonly furnished. A food cannot support life if it is missing, or deficient with respect to, any one of the necessary nutrients. A tabulation which includes only a few nutrients-e.g., calcium, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, phosphorus, and iron-can be woefully misleading, especially if these individual nutrients have been added by way of fortification. THE MEASUREMENT WE HAVE APPLIED TO A NUMBER OF FOODS IS POTENTIALLY VALUABLE FOR COMPARING SIMILAR FOOD PRODUCTS: two grains, two breads, two milk products, or for comparison of the same food grown, processed, or preserved in different ways. By using essentially this method we have found that barnyard eggs are somewhat superior to battery eggs, but that whether they are fertile or infertile makes no difference. We are of the opinion that extensive biological testing of many commercial food products is highly desirable to help promote human health and better internal environments for our cells and tissues.

  16. Value Encounters - Modeling and Analyzing Co-creation of Value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigand, Hans

    Recent marketing and management literature has introduced the concept of co-creation of value. Current value modeling approaches such as e3-value focus on the exchange of value rather than co-creation. In this paper, an extension to e3-value is proposed in the form of a “value encounter”. Value encounters are defined as interaction spaces where a group of actors meet and derive value by each one bringing in some of its own resources. They can be analyzed from multiple strategic perspectives, including knowledge management, social network management and operational management. Value encounter modeling can be instrumental in the context of service analysis and design.

  17. End of Life Issues

    MedlinePlus

    ... difficult. But by deciding what end-of-life care best suits your needs when you are healthy, ... making choices about the following: The goals of care (for example, whether to use certain medicines during ...

  18. Personal Values: Psychological Determinants of Retirement Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, William F.

    With the trend toward early retirement and the fact that people are living to an older average age, more years of an individual's life will be spent in retirement. To examine personal values as psychological determinants of the retirement preparation process, 206 classified university employees, between the ages of 50 and 65 years of age,…

  19. First Day of Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy The First Day of Life KidsHealth > For Parents > The First Day ... continue What Your Baby Does on the First Day Many parents are surprised to see how alert ...

  20. On the Value of Second Life for Students' Engagement in Blended and Online Courses: A Comparative Study from the Higher Education in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellas, Nikolaos; Kazanidis, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays three-dimensional (3D) multi-user virtual worlds (VWs) are the most well-known candidate platforms in Higher education. Despite the growing number of notable studies that have presented VWs as valuable platforms for the e-Education, there is still a paucity of a comparative study in order to be determined the degree of the students'…

  1. Destroying the life and career of a valued physician-scientist who tried to protect us from plague: was it really necessary?

    PubMed

    Murray, Barbara E; Anderson, Karl E; Arnold, Keith; Bartlett, John G; Carpenter, Charles C; Falkow, Stanley; Hartman, J Ted; Lehman, Tom; Reid, Ted W; Ryburn, Frank M; Sack, R Bradley; Struelens, Marc J; Young, Lowell S; Greenough, William B

    2005-06-01

    Thomas Campbell Butler, at 63 years of age, is completing the first year of a 2-year sentence in federal prison, following an investigation and trial that was initiated after he voluntarily reported that he believed vials containing Yersinia pestis were missing from his laboratory at Texas Tech University. We take this opportunity to remind the infectious diseases community of the plight of our esteemed colleague, whose career and family have, as a result of his efforts to protect us from infection by this organism, paid a price from which they will never recover.

  2. Destroying the life and career of a valued physician-scientist who tried to protect us from plague: was it really necessary?

    PubMed

    Murray, Barbara E; Anderson, Karl E; Arnold, Keith; Bartlett, John G; Carpenter, Charles C; Falkow, Stanley; Hartman, J Ted; Lehman, Tom; Reid, Ted W; Ryburn, Frank M; Sack, R Bradley; Struelens, Marc J; Young, Lowell S; Greenough, William B

    2005-06-01

    Thomas Campbell Butler, at 63 years of age, is completing the first year of a 2-year sentence in federal prison, following an investigation and trial that was initiated after he voluntarily reported that he believed vials containing Yersinia pestis were missing from his laboratory at Texas Tech University. We take this opportunity to remind the infectious diseases community of the plight of our esteemed colleague, whose career and family have, as a result of his efforts to protect us from infection by this organism, paid a price from which they will never recover. PMID:15889363

  3. The Financial Value of a Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantrowitz, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Five years have passed since the U.S. Census Bureau published synthetic estimates of work-life earnings by educational attainment. This paper updates those figures with the most recent data from the U.S. Census Bureau's annual Current Population Surveys, and adds net present value analysis of the financial benefit of a college degree to the…

  4. [Conditional reimbursement: a tool to reduce uncertainty relating the value of medicines and reinforce their continuous evaluation in real-life].

    PubMed

    Bail, J-N

    2013-09-01

    In order to alleviate the inherent uncertainty that comes with the market access and public funding of new health products, a conditional reimbursement mechanism is proposed. The latter is circumscribed by recommendations regarding its implementation in limited cases in order to allow for a fair access of patients to therapeutic innovations, within economic conditions both optimum and reviewable.

  5. The moral status of extraterrestrial life.

    PubMed

    Persson, Erik

    2012-10-01

    If we eventually discover extraterrestrial life, do we have any moral obligations for how to treat the life-forms we find; does it matter whether they are intelligent, sentient, or just microbial-and does it matter that they are extraterrestrial? In this paper, I examine these questions by looking at two of the basic questions in moral philosophy: What does it take to be a moral object? and What has value of what kind? I will start with the first of these questions by looking at the most important attempts to answer this question on our own planet and by asking whether and how they could be applied to extraterrestrial life. The results range from a very strong protection of all extraterrestrial life and all extraterrestrial environments, whether inhabited or not, to total exclusion of extraterrestrial life. Subsequently, I also examine whether extraterrestrial life that lacks moral status can have value to human or alien life with moral status, and if that could generate any obligations for how to treat extraterrestrial life. Based on this analysis, I conclude that extraterrestrial life-forms can have both instrumental value and end value to moral objects, which has strong implications for how to treat them.

  6. The moral status of extraterrestrial life.

    PubMed

    Persson, Erik

    2012-10-01

    If we eventually discover extraterrestrial life, do we have any moral obligations for how to treat the life-forms we find; does it matter whether they are intelligent, sentient, or just microbial-and does it matter that they are extraterrestrial? In this paper, I examine these questions by looking at two of the basic questions in moral philosophy: What does it take to be a moral object? and What has value of what kind? I will start with the first of these questions by looking at the most important attempts to answer this question on our own planet and by asking whether and how they could be applied to extraterrestrial life. The results range from a very strong protection of all extraterrestrial life and all extraterrestrial environments, whether inhabited or not, to total exclusion of extraterrestrial life. Subsequently, I also examine whether extraterrestrial life that lacks moral status can have value to human or alien life with moral status, and if that could generate any obligations for how to treat extraterrestrial life. Based on this analysis, I conclude that extraterrestrial life-forms can have both instrumental value and end value to moral objects, which has strong implications for how to treat them. PMID:23013271

  7. Choosing a Life One Has Reason to Value: The Role of the Arts in Fostering Capability Development in Four Small Urban High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Cindy; Donovan, Corinne; Mishook, Jacob; de Gaillande, Genevieve; Garcia, Ivonne

    2012-01-01

    A holistic education linked to creativity, innovation, critical thinking and local/global citizenship is increasingly marginalized in the United States as schools continue to struggle with the impact of high-stakes testing regimes. In particular, urban youths' access to an education that furthers their ability to choose lives they have reason to…

  8. The Value of Pretending.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Marilyn; Adcock, Don

    By participating in their children's imaginative play or pretending, parents may be able to understand better their children's feelings, resolve parent-child conflicts, communicate parental values, and build parent-child relationships based on mutual respect. Many people seem to believe that pretending appears automatically in young children, that…

  9. The resurrection of life.

    PubMed

    Morange, Michel

    2010-04-01

    The question of life was progressively put aside in the second half of the 20th century with the rise of molecular biology, but has recently re-emerged. Many scientists and philosophers consider that there is no place for this question within biology; that the distinction between living and non-living is arbitrary; and that progress in synthetic biology will finally put this question out of people's minds. I will argue that there is something wrong with the arguments supporting these statements. There are no reasons to exclude the question "What is life?" from biology. But the nature of the question has dramatically changed recently. Instead of being a search for the principles of life, the answer is now sought in the description of the historical process that has coupled the now well-established characteristics of organisms.

  10. Normative Ideas of Life and Autobiographical Reasoning in Life Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohn, Annette

    2011-01-01

    Autobiographical reasoning is closely related to the development of normative ideas about life as measured by the cultural life script. The acquisition of a life script is an important prerequisite for autobiographical reasoning because children learn through the life script which events are expected to go into their life story, and when to expect…

  11. Quantum Game of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glick, Aaron; Carr, Lincoln; Calarco, Tommaso; Montangero, Simone

    2014-03-01

    In order to investigate the emergence of complexity in quantum systems, we present a quantum game of life, inspired by Conway's classic game of life. Through Matrix Product State (MPS) calculations, we simulate the evolution of quantum systems, dictated by a Hamiltonian that defines the rules of our quantum game. We analyze the system through a number of measures which elicit the emergence of complexity in terms of spatial organization, system dynamics, and non-local mutual information within the network. Funded by NSF

  12. Disability in Valued Life Activities Among Individuals With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Patricia; Morris, Anne; Trupin, Laura; Yazdany, Jinoos; Yelin, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Objective To identify the prevalence of disability in a wide range of valued life activities (VLAs) among individuals with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 1-year changes in such disability, and predictors of and changes in VLA disability. Methods Data were from 2 waves of a cohort of 829 individuals with SLE interviewed annually by telephone. VLA disability was assessed using a scale rating the difficulty of performing 21 activities. Scores were also calculated for subscales corresponding to obligatory, committed, and discretionary activities. Changes in VLA disability from baseline to 1-year followup were assessed. Sociodemographic and disease status measures were examined as predictors of and changes in VLA disability using multiple regression analyses. Results Almost half of the subjects were unable to perform ≥1 VLA at baseline. Almost all (91%) reported ≥1 VLA affected by SLE. One-quarter of the subjects experienced a significant increase in the number of activities they were unable to perform; approximately half experienced significant increases in the number of activities affected and in difficulty scores. Proportions of individuals whose disability increased and whose disability decreased were roughly equivalent. Disease status measures accounted for 62–72% of the variation in VLA difficulty. More severe disease status was predictive of increases in VLA difficulty; few predictors of improvements were identified. Conclusion VLA disability was common, with more disability noted in committed and discretionary activities than in obligatory activities. Because VLA disability has been linked to psychological well-being in previous studies, identification of factors that may protect against such disability is important. PMID:18383406

  13. Nutritional values of waterfowl foods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fredickson, Leigh H.; Reid, Fredric A.

    1988-01-01

    wetland habitats throughout their annual cycles. Survival, reproduction, and growth are dependent on the availability of foods that meet nutritional requirements for recurring biological events. These requirements occur among a wide variety of environmental conditions that also influence nutritional demands. Recent work on nesting waterfowl has identified the female’s general nutrient needs for egg laying and incubation. Far less is known about nutritional requirements for molt and other portions of the life cycle, particularly those during the nonbreeding season. Although information on specific requirements for amino acids and micronutrients of wild birds is meager, the available information on waterfowl requirements can be used to develop waterfowl management strategies. For example, nutrient content of foods, nutritional requirements of waterfowl, and the cues waterfowl use in locating and selecting foods are all kinds of information that managers need to encourage use of habitats by feeding waterfowl. Waterfowl nutritional needs during the annual cycle and the nutritional values of natural foods and crops will be discussed below.

  14. Life Out of Chaos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrhenius, Gustaf

    2002-01-01

    Doctinary overlays on the definition of life can effectively be avoided by focusing discussion on microorganisms, their vital processes, and their genetic pedigree. To reach beyond these present and highly advanced forms of life and to inquire about its origin it is necessary to consider the requirements imposed by the environment. These requirements include geophysically and geochemically acceptable conjectures for the generation of source compounds, their concentration from dilute solution, and their selective combination into functional biomolecules. For vital function these macromolecules require programming in the form of specific sequence motifs. This critical programming constitutes the scientifically least understood process in the origin of life. Once this stage has been surpassed the laws of Darwinian evolution can operate in ways that are understood and experimentally demonstrated.

  15. Chemical Origins of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, J. Lawrence

    1972-01-01

    Reviews ideas and evidence bearing on the origin of life. Shows that evidence to support modifications of Oparin's theories of the origin of biological constituents from inorganic materials is accumulating, and that the necessary components are readily obtained from the simple gases found in the universe. (AL)

  16. The Business of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunski, Jonathan F.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a learning game called The Business of Life that demonstrates the cellular processes of photosynthesis and respiration as business transactions. Incorporates the ideas that energy flows through ecosystems as well as through cells of individual organisms. Demonstrates the interdependence of living things and that processes at the cellular…

  17. Life Satisfaction of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torgoff, Irving; And Others

    The feelings and perceptions of adolescents, apart from objective indices, warrent attention from those who are concerned with adolescent development and psychological stress. There is a need for a reliable baseline measure of adolescent subjective well-being, as manifested by self-reports of life satisfaction, to which future measurements can be…

  18. The secret of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, David; Kirsebom, Oliver

    2013-02-01

    Life as we know it would not be possible were it not for a particular nuclear energy level of carbon-12 predicted 60 years ago by Fred Hoyle. But the true nature of this energy level remains one of the biggest unsolved questions in nuclear physics, say David Jenkins and Oliver Kirsebom.

  19. The Logic of Values Clarification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazepides, A. C.

    1977-01-01

    Traces the origin of the Values Clarification movement in education in Carl Roger's clien-centered therapy and exposes its unwarranted extreme ethical stance. Examines a model episode of values clarification and shows how the theoretical confusions of the Values Clarification proponents are reflected in their actual teaching strategies. (Editor/RK)

  20. The fundamental values of nurses in Poland.

    PubMed

    Wrońska, Irena; Mariańiski, Janusz

    2002-01-01

    Polish society has found itself at a very important point in its history. The transformation from a traditional to a postmodern pluralistic society involves changes in many spheres of social life. These trends give rise to the question of which way the younger generation of Polish nurses will be going. The main objective of this research was to elucidate the opinions of nurses on life and health as basic values, and on their ethical and religious background regarding their nursing care. The study made use of a questionnaire for collection and interpretation of the data. Although this article shows some lack of consistency, and even contradictions, it is possible to conclude that life and health are cherished with affection by the great majority of nurses as positive factors of human existence.

  1. Teaching the Value of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shumow, Lee; Schmidt, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Why and under what conditions might students value their science learning? To find out, the authors observed approximately 400 science classes. They found that although several teachers were amazingly adept at regularly promoting the value of science, many others missed out on important opportunities to promote the value of science. The authors…

  2. A life of cycles.

    PubMed

    Pycock, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    Jonathan Pycock is one of three equine claims consultants with the Veterinary Defence Society. His career in equine reproduction, and lecturing on the same topic, has given him the opportunity to work and travel widely, and ensure his work/life balance stays in sync. PMID:25748201

  3. Transmission of values from adolescents to their parents: the role of value content and authoritative parenting.

    PubMed

    Pinquart, Martin; Silbereisen, Rainer K

    2004-01-01

    The intergenerational transmission of values is a bidirectional process. To date, however, adolescents' influence on parental values has rarely been investigated. In the present study, we analyzed the transmission of values from adolescents (aged 11 to 17 years) to their mothers and fathers across a one-year interval in 431 mother-child dyads and 346 father-child dyads. Transmission of values from adolescents to parents was observed regarding topics that are salient in adolescence (the usefulness of new technology, beliefs concerning the traditional way of life, the importance of religion) but not regarding topics that become salient later. In addition, the transmission of adolescents' values to their parents was mainly observed in families with above-average levels of authoritative parenting (i.e., parents are receptive and supportive). However, adolescents' religious values were also transmitted to their parents in families with below-average levels of authoritative parenting. Transmission of values from parents to adolescents was also investigated.

  4. Neurobiology of value integration: when value impacts valuation.

    PubMed

    Park, Soyoung Q; Kahnt, Thorsten; Rieskamp, Jörg; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2011-06-22

    Everyday choice options have advantages (positive values) and disadvantages (negative values) that need to be integrated into an overall subjective value. For decades, economic models have assumed that when a person evaluates a choice option, different values contribute independently to the overall subjective value of the option. However, human choice behavior often violates this assumption, suggesting interactions between values. To investigate how qualitatively different advantages and disadvantages are integrated into an overall subjective value, we measured the brain activity of human subjects using fMRI while they were accepting or rejecting choice options that were combinations of monetary reward and physical pain. We compared different subjective value models on behavioral and neural data. These models all made similar predictions of choice behavior, suggesting that behavioral data alone are not sufficient to uncover the underlying integration mechanism. Strikingly, a direct model comparison on brain data decisively demonstrated that interactive value integration (where values interact and affect overall valuation) predicts neural activity in value-sensitive brain regions significantly better than the independent mechanism. Furthermore, effective connectivity analyses revealed that value-dependent changes in valuation are associated with modulations in subgenual anterior cingulate cortex-amygdala coupling. These results provide novel insights into the neurobiological underpinnings of human decision making involving the integration of different values.

  5. Predicting Later-Life Outcomes of Early-Life Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: In utero exposure of the fetus to a stressor can lead to disease in later life. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely mediators of later-life expression of early-life events.Objectives: We examined the current state of understanding of later-life diseases resulting from ea...

  6. Risk and value analysis of SETI.

    PubMed

    Billingham, J

    1990-01-01

    This paper attempts to apply a traditional risk and value analysis to the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence--SETI. In view of the difficulties of assessing the probability of success, a comparison is made between SETI and a previous search for extraterrestrial life, the biological component of Project Viking. Our application of simple Utility Theory, given some reasonable assumptions, suggests that SETI is at least as worthwhile as the biological experiment on Viking.

  7. Risk and value analysis of SETI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingham, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper attempts to apply a traditional risk and value analysis to the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence--SETI. In view of the difficulties of assessing the probability of success, a comparison is made between SETI and a previous search for extraterrestrial life, the biological component of Project Viking. Our application of simple Utility Theory, given some reasonable assumptions, suggests that SETI is at least as worthwhile as the biological experiment on Viking.

  8. The Quality of Life in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Chong-Min

    2009-01-01

    The AsiaBarometer survey of 1,023 respondents shows Life in Korea is highly modernized and digitalized without being much globalized. Despite the modernization and digitalization of their lifestyles, ordinary citizens still prioritize materialistic values more than post-materialistic values, and they remain least satisfied in the material life…

  9. Practical Life: The Keystone of Life, Culture, and Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramani, Uma

    2013-01-01

    Uma Ramani's characterization of practical life is philosophical and anthropological, suggesting that "human history is the story of the evolution of our practical life activities." Practical life is a collaborative activity that creates community and culture. One's adaptation to life through the daily work of ordering our environment…

  10. Values in a Science of Social Work: Values-Informed Research and Research-Informed Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longhofer, Jeffrey; Floersch, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    While social work must be evaluative in relation to its diverse areas of practice and research (i.e., values-informed research), the purpose of this article is to propose that values are within the scope of research and therefore research on practice should make values a legitimate object of investigation (i.e., research-informed values). In this…

  11. The medicalization of life

    PubMed Central

    Illich, Ivan

    1975-01-01

    Two contributions from Dr Ivan Illich follow. The first, in which he sets out his primary thesis of the medicalization of life, is a section from Dr Illich's book `Medical Nemesis'. (It is reprinted with the permission of the author and his publishers, Messrs Calder and Boyars.) The second is a transcript of the paper which Dr Illich read at the conference organized by the London Medical Group on iatrogenic disease. Both are ultimately addressed to the recipients of medical care, the general public, although the second paper is specifically addressed to young doctors and medical students. For Dr Illich the world is suffering from too much medical interference, and a medical edifice has been built which is one of the threats to the real life of human beings - a threat which so far has been disguised as care. PMID:809583

  12. The Value of Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trundley, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses her research into the development of counting in pre-school children. Her research involved a small-scale case study with a personal flavour--the children in the study were her twin daughters (called Emily and Alice for the purpose of the research). Observations of their mathematical development began at 18…

  13. The Value of Cocurriculars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Most educators support the popular theory that cocurricular activities benefit participants in a number of ways, such as reducing drug and alcohol abuse and crime; raising grades; and improving students' prospects of attending college, finding jobs, and becoming responsible citizens. A multitude of studies shows that students who participate in…

  14. The value of place

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dentzau, Michael W.

    2014-03-01

    This commentary seeks to expand the dialogue on place-based science education presented in Katie Lynn Brkich's article, where the connections fifth grade students make between their formal earth science curriculum and their lived experiences are highlighted. The disconnect between the curriculum the students are offered and their immediate environment is clear, and we are presented with examples of how they strive to make connections between the content and what they are familiar with—namely their surroundings. "Place" is identified as a term with complex meanings and interpretations, even in the scope of place-based science education, and understanding how the term is used in any given scenario is essential to understanding the implications of place-based education. Is place used as a location, locale or a sense of place? To understand "place" is to acknowledge that for the individual, it is highly situational, cultural and personal. It is just such attributes that make place-based education appealing, and potentially powerful, pedagogically on one hand, yet complex for implementation on the other. The argument is posed that place is particularly important in the context of education about the environment, which in its simplest manifestation, connects formal science curriculum to resources that are local and tangible to students. The incorporation of place in such a framework seeks to bridge the gap between formal school science subjects and students' lived experiences, yet acknowledges the tensions that can arise between accommodating place meanings and the desire to acculturate students into the language of the scientific community. The disconnect between guiding policy frameworks and the reality of the Next Generation Science Standards is addressed opening an avenue for further discussion of the importance of socio-cultural frameworks of science learning in an ever increasing era of accountability.

  15. Value of intensified nursing

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Wilhelm; Konta, Brigitte; Prusa, Nina; Raymann, Cornelia

    2006-01-01

    The concept "intensified nursing" is mentioned in differentiation to concepts of "nursing care" or "nursing" which intensifies resources or patient contact. Especially psychic and social needs of patients are very appreciated in nursing. A similar type of nursing is known under the concept "advanced nursing practice" (ANP) which means, that a specialised, academically trained nurse offers an extended nursing care in which a focus on the published knowledge of evidence based research is made. From the thin literature to this topic a selection of predetermined topics was analysed where at least two articles with a sufficient high methodical quality were available. The selected topic groups were: „Infant and paediatric nursing", "gerontology" and "oncology". Generally the five publications concerning infant and paediatric nursing could conclusive show a benefit of intensified nursing. Further research is still needed to prove intensified nursing care. Two publications could be found to the gerontological intensified nursing; both used an extended nursing model and an enlarged use of resources. Both studies demonstrated a measurable success in the applied parameters. Two studies also could be analysed in the oncological field in which successes were also provable by the applied parameters. The success was given especially in a higher patient satisfaction, one study showed an improved scheduling (time planning) of nurses. There was not one article concerning economic questions of intensified nursing care. It has to be taken into account that the financial resources have to be used effectively also in nursing nowadays. It has to be assumed that the costs are driven by increased use of resources. Savings can be achieved, however, in the form of avoided therapies and days in hospital by intensified nursing. The intensified nursing can be considered as similar cost-effective as conventional models of nursing. Ethically it is necessary to consider that the possibilities of

  16. The Value of Imaging Part II: Value beyond Image Interpretation.

    PubMed

    Duong, Phuong-Anh T; Pastel, David A; Sadigh, Gelareh; Ballard, David; Sullivan, Joseph C; Bresnahan, Brian; Buch, Karen; Duszak, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Although image interpretation is an essential part of radiologists' value, there are other ways in which we contribute to patient care. Part II of the value of imaging series reviews current initiatives that demonstrate value beyond the image interpretation. Standardizing processes, reducing the radiation dose of our examinations, clarifying written reports, improving communications with patients and providers, and promoting appropriate imaging through decision support are all ways we can provide safer, more consistent, and higher quality care. As payers and policy makers push to drive value, research that demonstrates the value of these endeavors, or lack thereof, will become increasingly sought after and supported.

  17. The Value of Imaging Part II: Value beyond Image Interpretation.

    PubMed

    Duong, Phuong-Anh T; Pastel, David A; Sadigh, Gelareh; Ballard, David; Sullivan, Joseph C; Bresnahan, Brian; Buch, Karen; Duszak, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Although image interpretation is an essential part of radiologists' value, there are other ways in which we contribute to patient care. Part II of the value of imaging series reviews current initiatives that demonstrate value beyond the image interpretation. Standardizing processes, reducing the radiation dose of our examinations, clarifying written reports, improving communications with patients and providers, and promoting appropriate imaging through decision support are all ways we can provide safer, more consistent, and higher quality care. As payers and policy makers push to drive value, research that demonstrates the value of these endeavors, or lack thereof, will become increasingly sought after and supported. PMID:26683509

  18. RECOVERY OF RUTHENIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Grummitt, W.E.; Hardwick, W.H.

    1961-01-01

    A process is given for the recovery of ruthenium from its aqueous solutions by oxidizing the ruthenium to the octavalent state and subsequently extracting the ruthenium into a halogen-substituted liquid paraffin.

  19. The Value of Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynes, Warren

    2013-01-01

    How can a teacher carve out a deeper sense of community in an inexpensive way? Across the nation, many schools have managed to craft creative and inexpensive community-building projects. Perhaps the three projects featured here will spark some new ideas for your own school: (1) The Hunger Games Come to Texas; (2) Tough Mudders in Macungie; and (3)…

  20. [Qualities of life and happiness].

    PubMed

    Veenhoven, R

    2011-03-01

    The phrase 'quality of life' is actually misleading. The designation suggests that the issue has to do with 1 quality, whereas in fact more qualities of life are indicated. Four of these qualities are: 1. the 'livability' of the surroundings, 2. the 'life-abilities' of the individual, 3. the 'utility of life' and 4. the subjective 'satisfaction' with a person's own life. The various qualities cannot meaningfully be collected together in an index. The most comprehensive measure of quality of life is how long and happily a person lives. The relationship between that and oral health has still hardly been studied.

  1. Explaining the Value of Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenery, Mary Faeth

    1994-01-01

    Overviews the philosophy and theory of camp experiences and discusses the special benefits of camps, including experiences that can lead to significant life-changing outcomes, sound educational goals, a sense of psychological and physical safety, and helping children to deal with social problems such as the degradation of the environment and human…

  2. End of Life Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... impossible. In such a situation, treatment that only prolongs life may be appropriately withheld. In fact, the ... residents is to relieve discomfort rather than to prolong life. If individuals or their surrogates turn down ...

  3. Values beyond value? Is anything beyond the logic of capital?

    PubMed

    Skeggs, Bev

    2014-03-01

    We are living in a time when it is frequently assumed that the logic of capital has subsumed every single aspect of our lives, intervening in the organization of our intimate relations as well as the control of our time, including investments in the future (e.g. via debt). The theories that document the incursion of this logic (often through the terms of neoliberalism and/or governmentality) assume that this logic is internalized, works and organizes everything including our subjectivity. These theories performatively reproduce the very conditions they describe, shrinking the domain of values and making it subject to capital's logic. All values are reduced to value. Yet values and value are always dialogic, dependent and co-constituting. In this paper I chart the history by which value eclipses values and how this shrinks our sociological imagination. By outlining the historical processes that institutionalized different organizations of the population through political economy and the social contract, producing ideas of proper personhood premised on propriety, I detail how forms of raced, gendered and classed personhood was formed. The gaps between the proper and improper generate significant contradictions that offer both opportunities to and limits on capitals' lines of flight. It is the lacks, the residues, and the excess that cannot be captured by capital's mechanisms of valuation that will be explored in order to think beyond the logic of capital and show how values will always haunt value. PMID:24571532

  4. Values beyond value? Is anything beyond the logic of capital?

    PubMed

    Skeggs, Bev

    2014-03-01

    We are living in a time when it is frequently assumed that the logic of capital has subsumed every single aspect of our lives, intervening in the organization of our intimate relations as well as the control of our time, including investments in the future (e.g. via debt). The theories that document the incursion of this logic (often through the terms of neoliberalism and/or governmentality) assume that this logic is internalized, works and organizes everything including our subjectivity. These theories performatively reproduce the very conditions they describe, shrinking the domain of values and making it subject to capital's logic. All values are reduced to value. Yet values and value are always dialogic, dependent and co-constituting. In this paper I chart the history by which value eclipses values and how this shrinks our sociological imagination. By outlining the historical processes that institutionalized different organizations of the population through political economy and the social contract, producing ideas of proper personhood premised on propriety, I detail how forms of raced, gendered and classed personhood was formed. The gaps between the proper and improper generate significant contradictions that offer both opportunities to and limits on capitals' lines of flight. It is the lacks, the residues, and the excess that cannot be captured by capital's mechanisms of valuation that will be explored in order to think beyond the logic of capital and show how values will always haunt value.

  5. The Value of Literacy Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito, Lucio; Kebede, Bereket; Maddox, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    The concepts of literacy events and practices have received considerable attention in educational research and policy. In comparison, the question of value, that is, "which literacy practices do people most value?" has been neglected. With the current trend of cross-cultural adult literacy assessment, it is increasingly important to…

  6. The Moral Value of Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergoffen, Debra B.

    1980-01-01

    This essay develops the thesis that we can, by appealing to Socrates and Bertrand Russell as role models, counter the assumption that philosophy is an ivory tower enterprise and show students that an essential relationship exists between the process of rationale reflection and the living of a moral life. (Author)

  7. Last Days of Life (PDQ)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for more information. Symptoms During the Final Months, Weeks, and Days of Life Key Points Delirium Delirium ... may get worse during the final days or weeks of life. Shortness of breath or not being ...

  8. Coleridge's "theory of life".

    PubMed

    Smith, C U

    1999-01-01

    Coleridge has been seen by some not so much as a poet spoiled by philosophy, but as a philosopher who was also a poet. It could be argued that his major endeavor was an attempt to save the life sciences form the mechanistic interpretation which he saw as the outcome of Lockean "mechanico-corpuscularian" philosophy. This contribution describes that endeavour. It shows its connection to the social circumstances of the time. It discusses its relationship to the poetic sensibility of the "Lake poets" and to the German thought which Coleridge absorbed during and after his sojourn in Gottingen in 1798-99. It describes the nature of his "Theory of Life" as seen not only from the posthumous publication itself, but also from the numerous hints and struggles recorded in his voluminous notebooks, letters and lecture notes. It is concluded that, although never adequately assembled, it forms the only serious attempt to construct a profound alternative to the ultimately mechanistic biology of Charles Darwin and the psysiologists of the second half of the century. As such it strongly influenced the young Richard Owen and, as is well known, was eventually overwhelmed by the Darwin-Huxley synthesis of the 1860s. Nevertheless, insofar as Coleridge's concept of life ultimately derived from his ambition to find a way of healing the Cartesian divide, we may wonder whether the recent upsurge in consciousness studies may cause us to look again at his panentheistic ideas and, discarding the obsolete and fanciful metaphysics, recast them into a more acceptable form.

  9. Legal Implications of Values Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Brian C.; Cummings, Daniel L.

    Americans traditionally have looked to the public schools to play a role in transmitting society's values to students, and on various occasions the U.S. Supreme Court has emphasized the role of the nation's schools in inculcating basic values. For many years Maine has had a statute mandating the teaching of virtue and morality and another that…

  10. End of Life: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toner, Mary Ann; Shadden, Barbara B.

    2012-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) provide services to patients confronting the end of life (EOL) in a variety of settings. Instead of targeting improvement of health or sustaining life, EOL services focus primarily on quality of life. Although SLPs may not consider themselves core members of the health care team providing EOL services, the…

  11. [Quality of life].

    PubMed

    Volf, N

    1991-01-01

    The term "Quality of life" appeared at the end of the fifties of this century, it seems in the philosophical and sociological vocabulary at first, and soon after that it became adjusted in medical and non-medical (politics, ethology, mass media) use. In the last few years this term has been used all the more frequently in different branches of medicine because of a more extended human lifetime, due to the development of medicine, the domination of chronic diseases in the pathology of well-developed environments, and because of the growing influence of socio-psychological viewpoints in the bounds of medicine as well. Time will show whether only a transient, "fashionable" term is in question, or if a lasting survival in medical vocabulary has been ensured. This paper analyses the development and the contents of the quality of life concept, it's ethical connotation, the application in different branches of medicine, as well as the principals and problems of it's measurement for clinical purposes. The literature contributed includes 75 domestic and foreign authentic references. PMID:1921860

  12. LATENT LIFE OF ARTERIES.

    PubMed

    Carrel, A

    1910-07-23

    When a segment of artery, killed by heat, formalin or glycerin is transplanted, it undergoes a rapid degeneration. Its muscle fibers disappear while the tissue of the host reacts by building a new wall of connective tissue. When the transplanted vessel has been preserved in a condition of latent life, no degeneration of the wall occurs, or the wall undergoes only partial degeneration. The muscle fibers can keep their normal appearance, even for a long time after the operation. It is, therefore, demonstrated that arteries can be preserved outside of the body in a condition of unmanifested actual life. The best method of preservation consists of placing the vessels, immersed in vaselin, in an ice box, the temperature of which is slightly above the freezing point. From a surgical standpoint, the transplantation of preserved vessels can be used with some safety. When the arteries were kept in defibrinated blood or vaselin and in cold storage, the proportion of positive results was 75 and 80 per cent., and this can probably be increased. PMID:19867337

  13. Geography of European Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okulicz-Kozaryn, Adam

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of studies analyze life satisfaction at individual and/or country level. This study contributes with analysis of life satisfaction at the (sub-national) province level across multiple countries. The purpose of this study is to call attention to spatial aspects of life satisfaction. Literature does not discuss the fact that life…

  14. Quality of life: its definition and measurement.

    PubMed

    Felce, D; Perry, J

    1995-01-01

    A model of quality of life is proposed that integrates objective and subjective indicators, a broad range of life domains, and individual values. It takes account of concerns that externally derived norms should not be applied without reference to individual differences. It also allows for objective comparisons to be made between the situations of particular groups and what is normative. Considerable agreement exists that quality of life is multidimensional. Coverage may be categorised within five dimensions: physical wellbeing, material wellbeing, social wellbeing, emotional wellbeing, and development and activity. A research agenda is discussed as are the particular problems caused by difficulties in understanding and communicating.

  15. Half-life measurement of 124Sb.

    PubMed

    Paepen, J; Altzitzoglou, T; Van Ammel, R; Sibbens, G; Pommé, S

    2010-01-01

    The half-life of (124)Sb was determined experimentally by following the decay of a source from a radiopure solution with a Centronic IG12 ionisation chamber. Thousands of measurements were performed over a period of 358 days, i.e. about six half-life periods. However, the data analysis was restricted to the first 221 days, in order to limit the dominant uncertainty component associated with the hypothetical possibility of a systematic error on background subtraction. The resulting value for the (124)Sb half-life, 60.212 (11) days, is found to be in very good agreement with published values, but carries a lower uncertainty. Major uncertainty contributions pertain to possible systematic errors in background correction, long-term changes in source-detector geometry and medium- and long-term instability of the instrument. Additional measurements were performed with a high-purity germanium detector to confirm the above value.

  16. Attitudes of Social Studies Teachers toward Value and Values Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celikkaya, Tekin; Filoglu, Simge

    2014-01-01

    This research was conducted to determine how social studies teachers define value and "values education" as well as reveal the problems they encountered during the implementation. The participants in this study consisted of 17 social studies teachers from 12 primary schools (selected out of 39 primary schools in the city of Kirsehir…

  17. The Values and Value Systems of Educational Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikula, Andrew F.; Sikula, John P.

    This speech reports on a study of 62 educational administrators that supplies empirical evidence in support of the contention that there are significantly different profiles associated with different occupational-career groups. Utilizing the Rokeach Value Survey Form D, the authors surveyed and compared the value configurations of 12 distinct…

  18. Lifing of Engine Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The successful development of advanced aerospace engines depends greatly on the capabilities of high performance materials and structures. Advanced materials, such as nickel based single crystal alloys, metal foam, advanced copper alloys, and ceramics matrix composites, have been engineered to provide higher engine temperature and stress capabilities. Thermal barrier coatings have been developed to improve component durability and fuel efficiency, by reducing the substrate hot wall metal temperature and protecting against oxidation and blanching. However, these coatings are prone to oxidation and delamination failures. In order to implement the use of these materials in advanced engines, it is necessary to understand and model the evolution of damage of the metal substrate as well as the coating under actual engine conditions. The models and the understanding of material behavior are utilized in the development of a life prediction methodology for hot section components. The research activities were focused on determining the stress and strain fields in an engine environment under combined thermo-mechanical loads to develop life prediction methodologies consistent with the observed damage formation of the coating and the substrates.

  19. Astrophysics of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario; Reid, I. Neill; Sparks, William B.

    2011-03-01

    1. A voyage from dark clouds to the early Earth P. Ehrenfreund, S. B. Charnley and O. Botta; 2. Galactic environment of the Sun and stars: interstellar and interplanetary material P. C. Frisch, H. R. Muller, G. P. Zank and C. Lopate; 3. Transits R. L. Gilliland; 4. Planet migration E. W. Thommes and J. J. Lissauer; 5. Organic synthesis in space S. A. Sandford; 6. The Vegetation Red Edge Spectroscopic Feature as a surface biomarker S. Seager and E. B. Ford; 7. Search for extra-solar planets through gravitational microlensing K. C. Sahu; 8. The galactic habitable zone G. Gonzalez; 9. Cosmology and life M. Livio.

  20. End of life and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Valente, Sharon M

    2004-01-01

    The anticipated rise in the elderly population with chronic and life-threatening illness has been well documented. The purpose of this article is to recommend educational programs in end-of-life care, with an emphasis on culture and therapeutic responses to terminally ill patients to help nurses facilitate end-of-life discussions, consultation, and advocacy.

  1. Values of The Cultural Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, James C. F.

    1977-01-01

    Examines Chinese press editorials and testimonials from members of the People's Liberation Army in an attempt to determine the meaning of Mao Tse Tung's vision of a new socialist man and the societal value transformation process. (MH)

  2. Extended Life Testing of Duplex Ball Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mobley, Jeffrey; Robertson, Michael; Hodges, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Sierra Nevada Corporation’s Space Systems performed bearing life testing for the Scan Mirror Motor/Encoder Assembly (SMMA), part of the Scan Mirror Assembly on-board the Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor (APS) on the NASA Glory Spacecraft. The baseline bearing life test duration extended beyond the launch date for the Glory Spacecraft; a risk that the program was willing to undertake with the understanding that if any anomalies or failures occurred before the required life was achieved, then the mission objectives or operating profile could be modified on orbit to take those results into account. Even though the Glory Spacecraft failed to reach orbit during its launch in March of 2011, the bearing life testing was continued through a mutual understanding of value between Sierra Nevada Corporation and our customer; with a revised goal of testing to failure rather than completing a required number of life cycles. Life testing thus far has not only exceeded the original mission required life, but has also exceeded the published test data for Cumulative Degradation Factor (CDF) from NASA/CR-2009-215681. Many lessons were learned along the way regarding long life testing. The bearing life test has been temporarily suspended due to test support equipment issues.

  3. What Is the Value of Value-Based Purchasing?

    PubMed

    Tanenbaum, Sandra J

    2016-10-01

    Value-based purchasing (VBP) is a widely favored strategy for improving the US health care system. The meaning of value that predominates in VBP schemes is (1) conformance to selected process and/or outcome metrics, and sometimes (2) such conformance at the lowest possible cost. In other words, VBP schemes choose some number of "quality indicators" and financially incent providers to meet them (and not others). Process measures are usually based on clinical science that cannot determine the effects of a process on individual patients or patients with comorbidities, and do not necessarily measure effects that patients value; additionally, there is no provision for different patients valuing different things. Proximate outcome measures may or may not predict distal ones, and the more distal the outcome, the less reliably it can be attributed to health care. Outcome measures may be quite rudimentary, such as mortality rates, or highly contestable: survival or function after prostate surgery? When cost is an element of value-based purchasing, it is the cost to the value-based payer and not to other payers or patients' families. The greatest value of value-based purchasing may not be to patients or even payers, but to policy makers seeking a morally justifiable alternative to politically contested regulatory policies.

  4. What Is the Value of Value-Based Purchasing?

    PubMed

    Tanenbaum, Sandra J

    2016-10-01

    Value-based purchasing (VBP) is a widely favored strategy for improving the US health care system. The meaning of value that predominates in VBP schemes is (1) conformance to selected process and/or outcome metrics, and sometimes (2) such conformance at the lowest possible cost. In other words, VBP schemes choose some number of "quality indicators" and financially incent providers to meet them (and not others). Process measures are usually based on clinical science that cannot determine the effects of a process on individual patients or patients with comorbidities, and do not necessarily measure effects that patients value; additionally, there is no provision for different patients valuing different things. Proximate outcome measures may or may not predict distal ones, and the more distal the outcome, the less reliably it can be attributed to health care. Outcome measures may be quite rudimentary, such as mortality rates, or highly contestable: survival or function after prostate surgery? When cost is an element of value-based purchasing, it is the cost to the value-based payer and not to other payers or patients' families. The greatest value of value-based purchasing may not be to patients or even payers, but to policy makers seeking a morally justifiable alternative to politically contested regulatory policies. PMID:27256808

  5. Theoretical value of psychological testing.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, David

    2012-01-01

    Apart from their diagnostic value, psychological tests, especially the Rorschach test, have an important theoretical value for understanding psychopathology. They present a picture of a living person, in contrast to a picture of forces and agencies within the person. This rests on 2 advantages of tests over the usual psychiatric and psychoanalytic interviews: Tests are ahistorical and they present information primarily of a formal kind.

  6. Negative Entropy of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goradia, Shantilal

    2015-10-01

    We modify Newtonian gravity to probabilistic quantum mechanical gravity to derive strong coupling. If this approach is valid, we should be able to extend it to the physical body (life) as follows. Using Boltzmann equation, we get the entropy of the universe (137) as if its reciprocal, the fine structure constant (ALPHA), is the hidden candidate representing the negative entropy of the universe which is indicative of the binary information as its basis (http://www.arXiv.org/pdf/physics0210040v5). Since ALPHA relates to cosmology, it must relate to molecular biology too, with the binary system as the fundamental source of information for the nucleotides of the DNA as implicit in the book by the author: ``Quantum Consciousness - The Road to Reality.'' We debate claims of anthropic principle based on the negligible variation of ALPHA and throw light on thermodynamics. We question constancy of G in multiple ways.

  7. Origin of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, S.

    1985-01-01

    The pathways of organic chemical synthesis, the chemical evolution on the early Earth leading to life was constrained by the development of the planet by accretion and core formation. The accretion and differentiation into the core-mantle-crust-atmosphere system strongly influenced the temperature and composition of the atmosphere, surface, and interior; but large gaps persist in our understanding of these processes. The time-span over which Earth acquired its volatiles, the composition of these volatiles, and the conditions under which outgassing of volatiles occurred to form the atmosphere, are unknown. Uncertainties in existing models for Earth accretion and early planetary development allows a wide range of possible prebiotic atmospheric compositions at the time and temperature when liquid water appeared and thermally-labile organic compounds could survive. These compositions range from strongly reducing atmospheres to mildly reducing ones.

  8. Average and recommended half-life values for two neutrino double beta decay: Upgrade-2013

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, A. S.

    2013-12-30

    All existing positive results on two neutrino double beta decay in different nuclei were analyzed. Using the procedure recommended by the Particle Data Group, weighted average values for half-lives of {sup 48}Ca, {sup 76}Ge, {sup 82}Se, {sup 96}Zr, {sup 100}Mo, {sup 100}Mo−{sup 100}Ru (0{sub 1}{sup +}), {sup 116}Cd, {sup 130}Te, {sup 136}Xe, {sup 150}Nd, {sup 150}Nd−{sup 150}Sm (0{sub 1}{sup +}) and {sup 238}U were obtained. Existing geochemical data were analyzed and recommended values for half-lives of {sup 128}Te and {sup 130}Ba are proposed. I recommend the use of these results as the most currently reliable values for half-lives.

  9. A Child's World of Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahy, Mary

    Children need to share their personal lives with other persons in a relationship of mutual respect and responsiveness; i.e., in a relationship of love. Children are an end, not a means, people to be valued for their own sakes. Adults must help children to know who they are and who they can become. Values contribute to the fulfillment of a person's…

  10. Game of Life Music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Eduardo R.; Kirke, Alexis

    At the time when the first author was post-graduate student, in the evenings he used to entertain himself with the equipment in the electronic music studio at the University of York until dawn. It must have been around three o'clock in the morning of a rather cold winter night in the late 1980s, when he connected his Atari 1040ST computer to a synthesizer to test the first prototype of a system, which he was developing for his thesis. The system, named CAMUS (short for Cellular Automata Music), implemented a method that he invented to render music from the behaviour of the Game of Life (GoL) cellular automata (CA).

  11. The relative value of growth.

    PubMed

    Mass, Nathaniel J

    2005-04-01

    Most executives would say that adding a point of growth and gaining a point of operating-profit margin contribute about equally to shareholder value. Margin improvements hit the bottom line immediately, while growth compounds value over time. But the reality is that the two are rarely equivalent. Growth often is far more valuable than managers think. For some companies, convincing the market that they can grow by just one additional percentage point can be worth six, seven, or even ten points of margin improvement. This article presents a new strategic metric, called the relative value of growth (RVG), which gives managers a clear picture of how growth projects and margin improvement initiatives affect shareholder value. Using basic balance sheet and income sheet data, managers can determine their companies' RVGs, as well as those of their competitors. Calculating RVGs gives managers insights into which corporate strategies are working to deliver value and whether their companies are pulling the most powerful value-creation levers. The author examines a number of well-known companies and explains what their RVG numbers say about their strategies. He reviews the unspoken assumption that growth and profits are incompatible over the long term and shows that a fair number of companies are effective at delivering both. Finally, he explains how managers can use the RVG framework to help them define strategies that balance growth and profitability at both the corporate and business unit levels.

  12. The Dynamics of Life Skills Coaching. Life Skills Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtiss, Paul R.; Warren, Phillip W.

    This book is to be used in a Life Skills Coach Training course. Life skills are defined as problem-solving behaviors appropriately and responsibly used in the management of personal affairs. They apply to the following areas of responsibility: self, family, leisure, community, and job. A course aimed at training people in the life skills implies…

  13. Capacity Value of Wind Power

    SciTech Connect

    Keane, Andrew; Milligan, Michael; Dent, Chris; Hasche, Bernhard; DAnnunzio, Claudine; Dragoon, Ken; Holttinen, Hannele; Samaan, Nader A.; Soder, Lennart; O'Malley, Mark J.

    2011-05-04

    Power systems are planned such that they have adequate generation capacity to meet the load, according to a defined reliability target. The increase in the penetration of wind generation in recent years has led to a number of challenges for the planning and operation of power systems. A key metric for system adequacy is the capacity value of generation. The capacity value of a generator is the contribution that a given generator makes to overall system adequacy. The variable and stochastic nature of wind sets it apart from conventional energy sources. As a result, the modeling of wind generation in the same manner as conventional generation for capacity value calculations is inappropriate. In this paper a preferred method for calculation of the capacity value of wind is described and a discussion of the pertinent issues surrounding it is given. Approximate methods for the calculation are also described with their limitations highlighted. The outcome of recent wind capacity value analyses in Europe and North America are highlighted with a description of open research questions also given.

  14. The Plantation System in the Ethnic Consciousness of Hawaii (A Rationale for the Study of the Plantation in Values Education) [And] A Day in the Life of Ah Sing Chong [And] A Worker's Daily Round.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Marianne Andrews

    The paper suggests that by studying the Hawaiian plantation system, seventh graders can gain understanding of personal values and ethnic heritage. The current racial and cultural diversity in Hawaii is a result of mass immigration initiated in 1876 by the needs of the sugar and pineapple industries. Over 400,000 field workers from China, Japan,…

  15. Value System of Students of the Republic of Kazakhstan as a Special Social and Cultural Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biyekenova, Nikara Zh.; Abdiraiymova, Gulmira S.; Kenzhakimova, Gulnara A.; Shaukenova, Zarema K.; Senuk, Zinaida V.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the role of a value structure in understanding today's students. Analysis of the value orientations of the students is of current interest, as they are understood as a social and demographic group of youth characterized by the process of self-determination in life consciously defining their own life values. Students' life…

  16. The value of innovation under value-based pricing

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Santiago G.; Ray, Joshua A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The role of cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) in incentivizing innovation is controversial. Critics of CEA argue that its use for pricing purposes disregards the ‘value of innovation’ reflected in new drug development, whereas supporters of CEA highlight that the value of innovation is already accounted for. Our objective in this article is to outline the limitations of the conventional CEA approach, while proposing an alternative method of evaluation that captures the value of innovation more accurately. Method The adoption of a new drug benefits present and future patients (with cost implications) for as long as the drug is part of clinical practice. Incidence patients and off-patent prices are identified as two key missing features preventing the conventional CEA approach from capturing 1) benefit to future patients and 2) future savings from off-patent prices. The proposed CEA approach incorporates these two features to derive the total lifetime value of an innovative drug (i.e., the value of innovation). Results The conventional CEA approach tends to underestimate the value of innovative drugs by disregarding the benefit to future patients and savings from off-patent prices. As a result, innovative drugs are underpriced, only allowing manufacturers to capture approximately 15% of the total value of innovation during the patent protection period. In addition to including the incidence population and off-patent price, the alternative approach proposes pricing new drugs by first negotiating the share of value of innovation to be appropriated by the manufacturer (>15%?) and payer (<85%?), in order to then identify the drug price that satisfies this condition. Conclusion We argue for a modification to the conventional CEA approach that integrates the total lifetime value of innovative drugs into CEA, by taking into account off-patent pricing and future patients. The proposed approach derives a price that allows manufacturers to capture an agreed share

  17. [The cognitive deficits in the late-life depression and their prognostic value for pharmacotherapy].

    PubMed

    Sołtys, Krzysztof; Bidzan, Leszek; Turczyński, Jacek; Łapin, Joanna

    2002-01-01

    The cognitive deficits in the late-life depression are considered as risk factor for presentation of dementia in the long-term prognosis. In this research we were looking for correlations between the cognitive deficits and depression, their influence for the short-term prognosis and the activity of daily living in the elderly. 90 patients with depression (ICD-10 criteria were used) were assessed with scales: MADRS, MMSE, ADAS, IADL. After 3 months the evaluation with clinical improvement scale was made. The results indicate for correlations between the cognitive deficits and intensity of depression. No influence of cognitive deficits level for the clinical improvement after 3 months was proved. The intensity of depression was connected with lower level of daily living activities (assessed with IADL). PMID:12647436

  18. Diversity of Life Possible

    NASA Video Gallery

    Planets are distinguished by two basic properties, their size and their orbit. The size determines if the planet can have a life-sustaining atmosphere. The orbit affects the surface temperature and...

  19. Origins and Evolution of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gargaud, Muriel; López-García, Purificación; Martin, Hervé

    2011-01-01

    Part I. What Is Life?: 1. Problems raised by a definition of life M. Morange; 2. Some remarks about uses of cosmological anthropic 'principles' D. Lambert; 3. Minimal cell: the biologist point of view C. Brochier-Armanet; 4. Minimal cell: the computer scientist point of view H. Bersini; 5. Origins of life: computing and simulation approaches B. Billoud; Part II. Astronomical and Geophysical Context of the Emergence of Life: 6. Organic molecules in interstellar medium C. Ceccarelli and C. Cernicharo; 7. Cosmochemical evolution and the origin of life: insights from meteorites S. Pizzarello; 8. Astronomical constraints on the emergence of life M. Gounelle and T. Montmerle; 9. Formation of habitable planets J. Chambers; 10. The concept of galactic habitable zone N. Prantzos; 11. The young Sun and its influence on planetary atmospheres M. Güdel and J. Kasting; 12. Climates of the Earth G. Ramstein; Part III. Role of Water in the Emergence of Life: 13. Liquid water: a necessary condition to all forms of life K. Bartik, G. Bruylants, E. Locci and J. Reisse; 14. The role of water in the formation and evolution of planets T. Encrenaz; 15. Water on Mars J. P. Bibring; Part IV. From Non-Living Systems to Life: 16. Energetic constraints on prebiotic pathways: application to the emergence of translation R. Pascal and L. Boiteau; 17. Comparative genomics and early cell evolution A. Lazcano; 18. Origin and evolution of metabolisms J. Peretó; Part V. Mechanisms for Life Evolution: 19. Molecular phylogeny: inferring the patterns of evolution E. Douzery; 20. Horizontal gene transfer: mechanisms and evolutionary consequences D. Moreira; 21. The role of symbiosis in eukaryotic evolution A. Latorre, A. Durbán, A. Moya and J. Peretó; Part VI. Life in Extreme Conditions: 22. Life in extreme conditions: Deinococcus radiodurans, an organism able to survive prolonged desiccation and high doses of ionising radiation S. Sommer and M. Toueille; 23. Molecular effects of UV and ionizing

  20. The origin of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClendon, John H.

    1999-07-01

    Microfossil finds have been firmly established at about 3.5 Ga (giga annee=10 9 years), but no rocks older than about 4.0 Ga have been demonstrated, leaving the history of the first 0.6 Ga missing. This gap has been filled by models of the solar system. The origin of the ocean, atmosphere, and much crustal material apparently lies in a heavy rain of comets, subsequent to the catastrophic Moon-forming event. The earliest microfossils are those of the Apex chert in Australia, about 3.5 Ga old. `Prebiotic' simulations of possible biochemistry have made some progress in recent years, but many obstacles remain, and there is no agreement as to the course of development. The `ribose nucleic acid (RNA) World', aboriginal `clay genes', and catalysis on iron-sulfide precipitates are not ruled out. The search for the `last common ancestor' has reached a point between the Bacteria and the Archaea. It is possible that this organism may have been a thermophile, similar to many modern hot spring organisms. But it is likely to have been an autotroph, and a late development after the true origin of life. Even more speculative are suggestions about the origins of metabolic sequences, in particular the origin of the genetic code. Since all modern organisms share this code (and many other things), there had to be a long history of development during the blank period of Earth history.

  1. The Value of the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tubbs, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    The value of the arts is often measured in terms of human creativity against instrumental rationality, while art for art's sake defends against a utility of art. Such critiques of the technical and formulaic are themselves formulaic, repeating the dualism of the head and the heart. How should we account for this formula? We should do so by…

  2. Quality of life philosophy I. Quality of life, happiness, and meaning in life.

    PubMed

    Ventegodt, Søren; Andersen, Niels Jørgen; Merrick, Joav

    2003-12-01

    In the Danish Quality of Life Survey, we asked 10,000 people about their quality of life with the validated SEQOL questionnaire with more than 300 questions on their quality of life. How did they feel? How content were they with their lives? How happy were they? Did they feel their needs were fulfilled? And many more questions. We asked the questions we believed to be important for their quality of life (QOL). The results were quite surprising and forced us to recontemplate the following philosophical questions: What is quality of life, happiness, and meaning in life? What is a human being? Do we need a new biology? Is the brain the seat of consciousness? How do we seize the meaning of life and by doing so, will we become well again? What are the key concepts of quality of life? The meaning of life is connectedness and development. It is about realizing every opportunity and potential in one"s existence. The opportunities must be found and acknowledged. What do you find when you find yourself deep down? You find your real self and your purpose in life. You realize that you are already a part of a larger totality. Antonovsky called it "coherence". Maslow called it "transcendence". Frankl called it "meaning of life". We call it simply "being". To test if these philosophical questions are actually relevant for medicine, we looked at the consequences for patients being taught the quality of life philosophy. Quite surprisingly we learned from our pilot studies with "quality of life as medicine" that just by assimilating the basic concepts of the quality of life philosophy presented in this series of papers, patients felt better and saw their lives as more meaningful. The improvement of the patient"s personal philosophy of life seems to be the essence of holistic medicine, helping the patient to assume more responsibility for his or her own existence.

  3. Decision making concerning life-sustaining treatment in paediatric nephrology: professionals' experiences and values

    PubMed Central

    Fauriel, Isabelle; Moutel, Grégoire; Duchange, Nathalie; Montuclard, Luc; Moutard, Marie-Laure; Cochat, Pierre; Hervé, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Background In a previous paper, we studied decisions to withhold or withdraw life-sustaining treatment (LST) taken between 1995 and 2001 in 31 French-speaking paediatric nephrology centres. Files were available for 18 of the 31 centres. A grid was used to analyse the criteria on which decisions were based, and the results were enriched by an analysis of interviews with the doctors in at these centres (31 interviews with doctors from the 18 centres). The goal was to describe in detail and to specify the criteria on which decisions to withhold or withdraw LST were based, extracted from the files. The second paper deals exclusively with the interviews with doctors and analyses their lifetime’s experience and perception Methods We carried out semi-directed interviews with nephrologists from all the paediatric nephrology centres in France and the French-speaking regions of Switzerland and Belgium. Results We interviewed 46 paediatric nephrologists. Most were aware that decisions relating to LST are necessary and based on the assessment of the child’s quality of life. According to them, decisions are not based on scientific criteria, but on the capacity to accept handicap, the family’s past experiences and the doctor’s own projections. They report that their task is particularly difficult when their action may contribute to death (withdrawal of treatment, acceleration of the process). They feel that their duty is to help the families in the acceptation of the doctors’ decision rather than to encourage their participation in the decision-making process. Conclusions This paper shows that paediatric nephrologists differ in their opinions, mostly due to their own ethical convictions. This observation highlights the need to establish common rules taking into account the views held by doctors. This is the only way to establish an ethical code shared by professionals. PMID:16204280

  4. Teaching the Values of Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buyer, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The author of this paper first learned about the values of competition as a member of the 1989 Star of Indiana Drum and Bugle Corps. Because they played more than thirty shows that summer, it was common to compete two nights in a row. He vividly remembers one such occasion. Their first show was outstanding, and they finished second. Everyone was…

  5. The Epistemic Value of Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Emily

    2013-01-01

    This article briefly considers current positions about whether the inclusion of the perspectives and interests of marginalised groups in the construction of knowledge is of epistemic value. It is then argued that applied social epistemology is the proper epistemic stance to take in evaluating this question. Theorists who have held that diversity…

  6. The ethics of life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Small, Robin

    2002-08-01

    Some ethical dilemmas in health care, such as over the use of age as a criterion of patient selection, appeal to the notion of life expectancy. However, some features of this concept have not been discussed. Here I look in turn at two aspects: one positive--our expectation of further life--and the other negative--the loss of potential life brought about by death. The most common method of determining this loss, by counting only the period of time between death and some particular age, implies that those who die at ages not far from that one are regarded as losing very little potential life, while those who die at greater ages are regarded as losing none at all. This approach has methodological advantages but ethical disadvantages, in that it fails to correspond to our strong belief that anyone who dies is losing some period of life that he or she would otherwise have had. The normative role of life expectancy expressed in the 'fair innings' attitude arises from a particular historical situation: not the increase of life expectancy in modern societies, but a related narrowing in the distribution of projected life spans. Since life expectancy is really a representation of existing patterns of mortality, which in turn are determined by many influences, including the present allocation of health resources, it should not be taken as a prediction, and still less as a statement of entitlement. PMID:12956176

  7. The Intrinsic Value of Nature and Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helton, William S.; Helton, Nicole D.

    2007-01-01

    Many environmental, humane and character educators try to foster a belief in the intrinsic value of nature and a respect for non-human life among students. Marangudakis argues that Christianity advocates anthropocentrism and opposes belief in the intrinsic value of nature. If Marangudakis is correct, then a goal of many environmental and humane…

  8. Graduates: Perceptions of MBA Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bledsoe, Maynard T.; Oatsvall, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    MBA worth--who decides? Much of the current assessment comes from market driven and/or institutional perspectives. This research examines responses from Meredith College MBA graduates to determine their perceptions of the worth and value of their MBA experience.

  9. WORK VALUES OF THE HANDICAPPED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KINNANE, JOHN F.; SUZIEDELIS, ANTANAS

    TO DETERMINE THE WORK VALUES OF THE PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED, A WORK MOTIVATION SCHEDULE WAS DEVELOPED AND ADMINISTERED TO 200 NORMAL WHITE MEN AND 200 WOMEN OF REPRESENTATIVE NATIONAL AVERAGE AGE AND EDUCATION AND TO CEREBRAL PALSIED, DEAF, 63 RECENT AMPUTEES FROM THE VIETNAM WAR AND NEURO-PSYCHIATRIC PATIENTS. COMPARISON OF THE TWO GROUPS SHOWED…

  10. Sexual Values of 783 Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richey, Emily; Knox, David; Zusman, Marty

    2009-01-01

    The sexual values of absolutism (abstinence until marriage), relativism (sexual decisions made in reference to the nature of the relationship), and hedonism ("if it feels good, do it") were assessed in a convenience sample of 783 undergraduate students at a large southeastern university. Results revealed that relativism (62.1%) was the predominate…

  11. Children's Judgments of Expected Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlottmann, Anne; Anderson, Norman H.

    1994-01-01

    Expected value judgments of 5- through 10-year-olds were studied by having children view roulette-type games and make judgments of how happy a puppet playing the game would be. Even the youngest children showed some understanding of probability dependence, with children under eight using an additive integration rule and children eight and older…

  12. The Value of Strategic Partnerships

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, Josh; Narayan, Amit; McNutt, Ty

    2015-02-10

    Strong strategic partnerships can be the difference between those technologies that only achieve success in the lab and those that actually break into the marketplace. Two ARPA-E awardees—AutoGrid and APEI—have forged strategic partnerships that have positioned their technologies to achieve major success in the market. This video features remarks from ARPA-E Technology-to-Market Advisor Josh Gould and interviews with technologists at AutoGrid and APEI, who each tell the story of how their company leveraged relationships with strategic partners to broaden their customer base and bring their technology to life.

  13. The Value of Strategic Partnerships

    ScienceCinema

    Gould, Josh; Narayan, Amit; McNutt, Ty

    2016-07-12

    Strong strategic partnerships can be the difference between those technologies that only achieve success in the lab and those that actually break into the marketplace. Two ARPA-E awardees—AutoGrid and APEI—have forged strategic partnerships that have positioned their technologies to achieve major success in the market. This video features remarks from ARPA-E Technology-to-Market Advisor Josh Gould and interviews with technologists at AutoGrid and APEI, who each tell the story of how their company leveraged relationships with strategic partners to broaden their customer base and bring their technology to life.

  14. Second Life for Electric Vehicle Batteries: Answering Questions on Battery Degradation and Value

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, J. S.; Wood, E.; Pesaran, A.

    2015-05-04

    Battery second use – putting used plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) batteries into secondary service following their automotive tenure – has been proposed as a means to decrease the cost of PEVs while providing low cost energy storage to other fields (e.g. electric utility markets). To understand the value of used automotive batteries, however, we must first answer several key questions related to National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a methodology and the requisite tools to answer these questions, including NREL’s Battery Lifetime Simulation Tool (BLAST). Herein we introduce these methods and tools, and demonstrate their application. We have found that capacity fade from automotive use has a much larger impact on second use value than resistance growth. Where capacity loss is driven by calendar effects more than cycling effects, average battery temperature during automotive service – which is often driven by climate – is found to be the single factor with the largest effect on remaining value. Installing hardware and software capabilities onboard the vehicle that can both infer remaining battery capacity from in-situ measurements, as well as track average battery temperature over time, will thereby facilitate the second use of automotive batteries.

  15. The value of percutaneous cholangiography

    PubMed Central

    Evison, Gordon; McNulty, Myles; Thomson, Colin

    1973-01-01

    Percutaneous cholangiograms performed on fifty patients in a district general hospital have been reviewed, and the advantages and limitations of the examination are described. The investigation is considered to have sufficient diagnostic value to warrant its inclusion in the diagnostic armamentarium of every general radiological department. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:4788917

  16. Forecasting the Value of Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basarab, Dave

    2011-01-01

    The Predictive Evaluation (PE) model is a training and evaluation approach with the element of prediction. PE allows trainers and business leaders to predict the results, value, intention, adoption, and impact of training, allowing them to make smarter, more strategic training and evaluation investments. PE is invaluable for companies that…

  17. Likely values of the Higgs vacuum expectation value

    SciTech Connect

    Donoghue, John F.; Dutta, Koushik; Ross, Andreas; Tegmark, Max

    2010-04-01

    We make an estimate of the likelihood function for the Higgs vacuum expectation value (vev) by imposing anthropic constraints on the existence of atoms while allowing the other parameters of the standard model to also be variable. We argue that the most important extra ingredients are the Yukawa couplings, and for the intrinsic distribution of Yukawa couplings we use the scale-invariant distribution which is favored phenomenologically. The result is successful phenomenologically, favoring values close to the observed vev. We also discuss modifications that can change these conclusions. Our work supports the hypothesis that the anthropic constraints could be the origin of the small Higgs vev.

  18. Life Cycle of Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In this stunning picture of the giant galactic nebula NGC 3603, the crisp resolution of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captures various stages of the life cycle of stars in one single view. To the upper left of center is the evolved blue supergiant called Sher 25. The star has a unique circumstellar ring of glowing gas that is a galactic twin to the famous ring around the supernova 1987A. The grayish-bluish color of the ring and the bipolar outflows (blobs to the upper right and lower left of the star) indicates the presence of processed (chemically enriched) material. Near the center of the view is a so-called starburst cluster dominated by young, hot Wolf-Rayet stars and early O-type stars. A torrent of ionizing radiation and fast stellar winds from these massive stars has blown a large cavity around the cluster. The most spectacular evidence for the interaction of ionizing radiation with cold molecular-hydrogen cloud material are the giant gaseous pillars to the right of the cluster. These pillars are sculptured by the same physical processes as the famous pillars Hubble photographed in the M16 Eagle Nebula. Dark clouds at the upper right are so-called Bok globules, which are probably in an earlier stage of star formation. To the lower left of the cluster are two compact, tadpole-shaped emission nebulae. Similar structures were found by Hubble in Orion, and have been interpreted as gas and dust evaporation from possibly protoplanetary disks (proplyds). This true-color picture was taken on March 5, 1999 with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2.

  19. "The Trees of Knowledge and Life Growing Together" in the Educational Vision of C. S. Lewis: Why Medway and Stevens Are Almost Right about Enlightenment and Romantic Values in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Peter Medway's paper "English and Enlightenment" ("Changing English," 2010) and David Stevens' response to it, "Critically Enlightened Romantic Values and English Pedagogy: A Response to Peter Medway" ("Changing English," 2011), address the relative merits of the quest for truth and the place of aesthetic…

  20. Utilization of Spiritual Values in Counseling: An Ignored Dimension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodore, Robert M.

    1984-01-01

    Charges that psychologists have denied spiritual values as a legitimate part of life and suggests a new model for incorporating spirituality which includes physical, psychological, and spiritual aspects of human behavior. Encourages counselors to be sensitive to clients' religious backgrounds and personal values. (JAC)

  1. The Basic Values of Russian and European Schoolteachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griaznova, O. S.; Magun, V. S.

    2013-01-01

    countries show that the average Russian schoolteacher places a very high value on security and a very low value on the opportunity to enjoy life and have pleasure. Russia's schoolteachers are more often ahead of other Europeans when it comes to the importance of personal success,…

  2. A Blizzard of a Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostic, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    "Who has been to Dairy Queen® and purchased a Blizzard?®" Ms. Bosetti asked her students. During the summer, Bosetti had seen many of her former and future students at the local Dairy Queen enjoying Blizzard desserts and wondered, "Which Blizzard size is the best value?" She used this context for a ratios and proportions task…

  3. THE NUTRITIVE VALUE OF FUSARIA.

    PubMed

    Vinson, L J; Cerecedo, L R; Mull, R P; Nord, F F

    1945-04-13

    It has been shown that Fusarium lini B. grown on an artificial stock culture medium when supplemented with thiamin provides adequate amounts of the B-complex vitamins for normal growth, reproduction and lactation in mice, and that it compares very favorably with brewer's yeast in its food value.

  4. Enduring values of municipal utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Telly, C.S.; Grove, J.F.

    1981-05-01

    The value of municipal utilities is assessed in terms of their social responsibility, the political responsiveness of the owners, and pricing policy - issues which conflict with the traditional concept of corporate responsibility to the shareholder and which reveal a growing demand for accountability. Although municipal utilities are only a small part of the economic, legal, and political setting, they contribute as a small, locally-controlled natural monopoly to the American goals of democracy and self-determination. (DCK)

  5. The Meaning of Academic Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagedorn, Linda Serra

    2012-01-01

    This address reports the findings of a survey of higher education colleagues on the degree of happiness associated with personal definitions of "meaning of life" and "purpose in life." Using a unique sliding scale, the survey draws items from the Oxford Happiness Project among other sources and began with all ASHE members (N = 1,904) with a final…

  6. Life Cycle of a Pencil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeske, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Explains a project called "Life Cycle of a Pencil" which was developed by the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Describes the life cycle of a pencil in stages starting from the first stage of design to the sixth stage of product disposal. (YDS)

  7. Professional values, aesthetic values, and the ends of trade.

    PubMed

    Edgar, Andrew

    2011-05-01

    Professionalism is initially understood as a historical process, through which certain commercial services sought to improve their social status (and economic reward) by separating themselves from mere crafts or trades. This process may be traced clearly with the aspiration of British portrait painters (headed by Sir Joshua Reynolds), in the eighteenth century, to acquire a social status akin to that of already established professionals, such as clerics and doctors. This may be understood, to a significant degree, as a process of gentrification. The values of the professional thereby lie as much in the etiquette and other social skills with which they deal with their clients, than with any distinctive form of skill or value. Professionalisation as gentrification seemingly says little about the nature of modern professionalism. However, if this process is also construed as one in which the goals and achievements of the profession come to be subject to radical reflection, then something significant about professional values emerges. On this account, the profession is distinguished from craft or trade on the grounds that the goals of the profession, and the effectiveness of any attempt to realise them, are not transparent to the client. While a lay person will typically have the competence necessary to judge whether or not a craft worker has achieved their goal, that person will not necessarily be able to recognise the values that determine the success of a medical operation. It will be concluded that the values of a profession are articulated intrinsically to the profession, in terms of the contested understanding that the professionals themselves have of the meaning of the profession and the narratives within which its history is to be told.

  8. Professional values, aesthetic values, and the ends of trade.

    PubMed

    Edgar, Andrew

    2011-05-01

    Professionalism is initially understood as a historical process, through which certain commercial services sought to improve their social status (and economic reward) by separating themselves from mere crafts or trades. This process may be traced clearly with the aspiration of British portrait painters (headed by Sir Joshua Reynolds), in the eighteenth century, to acquire a social status akin to that of already established professionals, such as clerics and doctors. This may be understood, to a significant degree, as a process of gentrification. The values of the professional thereby lie as much in the etiquette and other social skills with which they deal with their clients, than with any distinctive form of skill or value. Professionalisation as gentrification seemingly says little about the nature of modern professionalism. However, if this process is also construed as one in which the goals and achievements of the profession come to be subject to radical reflection, then something significant about professional values emerges. On this account, the profession is distinguished from craft or trade on the grounds that the goals of the profession, and the effectiveness of any attempt to realise them, are not transparent to the client. While a lay person will typically have the competence necessary to judge whether or not a craft worker has achieved their goal, that person will not necessarily be able to recognise the values that determine the success of a medical operation. It will be concluded that the values of a profession are articulated intrinsically to the profession, in terms of the contested understanding that the professionals themselves have of the meaning of the profession and the narratives within which its history is to be told. PMID:21063909

  9. Historical Medical Value of Donguibogam

    PubMed Central

    Song, Bong-Keun; Won, Jin-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Oriental medicine, since its origin in China, has had a long history extending over 2000 years. Today, it comprises several types of medicine predominately practiced in East Asia, including traditional Chinese, traditional Korean, and Kampo medicine. The distinctive medical system of traditional Korean medicine was established shortly after the publication of Donguibogam by Dr. Heo Jun in 1613. Donguibogam is highly acclaimed across East Asia; in 2009, in light of its historical medical value, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization registered the book on its cultural heritage list. Here, we review the historical medical value of Donguibogam. The findings confirm that Donguibogam developed a unique and independent form of traditional Korean medicine and innovatively reformed the disease classification system. Moreover, Donguibogam emphasized the importance of disease prevention and medical pragmatism. This book also accelerated the development of folk medicine. Owing to its historical medical value, Donguibogam is now considered the 'bible' of Oriental medicine. Its wide acceptance has contributed to the expansion of Korean medicine utilization among the general public. Donguibogam has also played an important role in the establishment of traditional Korean medicine as a universally valid and original form of medicine, independent of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:27280045

  10. Historical Medical Value of Donguibogam.

    PubMed

    Song, Bong-Keun; Won, Jin-Hee; Kim, Sungchul

    2016-03-01

    Oriental medicine, since its origin in China, has had a long history extending over 2000 years. Today, it comprises several types of medicine predominately practiced in East Asia, including traditional Chinese, traditional Korean, and Kampo medicine. The distinctive medical system of traditional Korean medicine was established shortly after the publication of Donguibogam by Dr. Heo Jun in 1613. Donguibogam is highly acclaimed across East Asia; in 2009, in light of its historical medical value, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization registered the book on its cultural heritage list. Here, we review the historical medical value of Donguibogam. The findings confirm that Donguibogam developed a unique and independent form of traditional Korean medicine and innovatively reformed the disease classification system. Moreover, Donguibogam emphasized the importance of disease prevention and medical pragmatism. This book also accelerated the development of folk medicine. Owing to its historical medical value, Donguibogam is now considered the 'bible' of Oriental medicine. Its wide acceptance has contributed to the expansion of Korean medicine utilization among the general public. Donguibogam has also played an important role in the establishment of traditional Korean medicine as a universally valid and original form of medicine, independent of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:27280045

  11. Harmonization of nutrient intake values.

    PubMed

    King, Janet C; Garza, Cutberto

    2007-03-01

    The conceptual framework for the various NIVs is depicted in figure 1 along with the methodological approaches and applications. The NIVs consist of two values derived from a statistical evaluation of data on nutrient requirements, the average nutrient requirement (ANR), or nutrient toxicities, the upper nutrient level (UNL). The individual nutrient levelx (INLx) is derived from the distribution of average nutrient requirements. The percentile chosen is often 98%, which is equivalent to 2 SD above the mean requirement. Concepts underlying the NIVs include criteria for establishing a nutrient requirement, e.g., ferritin stores, nitrogen balance, or serum vitamin C. Once the requirement for the absorbed nutrient is determined, it may be necessary to adjust the value for food sources, i.e., bioavailability, or host factors, such as the effect of infection on nutrient utilization. Other concepts that committees may want to consider when establishing NIVs include the effects of genetic variation on nutrient requirements and the role of the nutrient in preventing long-term disease. Two fundamental uses of NIVs are for assessing the adequacy of nutrient intakes and for planning diets for individuals and populations. Establishing the NIV using the statistical framework proposed in this report improves the efficacy of the values for identifying risks of nutrient deficiency or excess among individuals and populations. NIVs also are applied to a number of aspects of food and nutrition policy. Some examples include regulatory issues and trade, labeling, planning programs for alleviating public health nutrition problems, food fortification, and dietary guidance.

  12. The evolution of complex life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingham, J.

    1985-01-01

    The emergence of complex living organisms in the context of evolutionary biology, planetary environments, and space events is investigated. The application of data on biological evolution, climatology, and the chemical and physical environments of the earth's surface, to explain the development of extraterrestrial life is described and an example is provided. The possibility of extraplanetary disturbances such as, meteorite and comet bombardments, and supernova explosions, causing the elimination of preexisting life and allowing advanced life development is analyzed. The possible existence of different life cycles (genetic and reproductive strategies) on other planets is studied. The GAIA hypothesis (Lovelock, 1979) which states living things modify the global environment to their own advantage is examined. The improved identification of habitable planetary environments and the possible existence of a form of extraterrestrial intelligent life is discussed.

  13. Being of Value: Intentionally Fostering and Documenting Public Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dierking, Lynn D.

    2010-01-01

    The discussion of public value is in the air among museums and other cultural institutions as they strive to achieve strategic impact "for and with" their "communities," rather than merely operational impact "for themselves." At the most basic level, it is about ensuring that their work is fully and meaningfully connected to the fabric and true…

  14. What's the Value of VAM (Value-Added Modeling)?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherrer, Jimmy

    2012-01-01

    The use of value-added modeling (VAM) in school accountability is expanding, but deciding how to embrace VAM is difficult. Various experts say it's too unreliable, causes more harm than good, and has a big margin for error. Others assert VAM is imperfect but useful, and provides valuable feedback. A closer look at the models, and their use,…

  15. Exploring the Origin, Extent, and Future of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertka, Constance M.

    2009-09-01

    1. Astrobiology in societal context Constance Bertka; Part I. Origin of Life: 2. Emergence and the experimental pursuit of the origin of life Robert Hazen; 3. From Aristotle to Darwin, to Freeman Dyson: changing definitions of life viewed in historical context James Strick; 4. Philosophical aspects of the origin-of-life problem: the emergence of life and the nature of science Iris Fry; 5. The origin of terrestrial life: a Christian perspective Ernan McMullin; 6. The alpha and the omega: reflections on the origin and future of life from the perspective of Christian theology and ethics Celia Deane-Drummond; Part II. Extent of Life: 7. A biologist's guide to the Solar System Lynn Rothschild; 8. The quest for habitable worlds and life beyond the Solar System Carl Pilcher; 9. A historical perspective on the extent and search for life Steven J. Dick; 10. The search for extraterrestrial life: epistemology, ethics, and worldviews Mark Lupisella; 11. The implications of discovering extraterrestrial life: different searches, different issues Margaret S. Race; 12. God, evolution, and astrobiology Cynthia S. W. Crysdale; Part III. Future of Life: 13. Planetary ecosynthesis on Mars: restoration ecology and environmental ethics Christopher P. McKay; 14. The trouble with intrinsic value: an ethical primer for astrobiology Kelly C. Smith; 15. God's preferential option for life: a Christian perspective on astrobiology Richard O. Randolph; 16. Comparing stories about the origin, extent, and future of life: an Asian religious perspective Francisca Cho; Index.

  16. Wild Beasts of Still Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Debra

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a project with a transformative approach to color theory and still life. Students' use of an arbitrary color scheme can open their eyes, push their creativity and produce exciting paintings. Ordinary still-life objects will be transformed into dramatic, vibrant visuals. The Fauve style of painting is a great art history…

  17. Cassava Breeding I: The Value of Breeding Value

    PubMed Central

    Ceballos, Hernán; Pérez, Juan C.; Joaqui Barandica, Orlando; Lenis, Jorge I.; Morante, Nelson; Calle, Fernando; Pino, Lizbeth; Hershey, Clair H.

    2016-01-01

    Breeding cassava relies on several selection stages (single row trial-SRT; preliminary; advanced; and uniform yield trials—UYT). This study uses data from 14 years of evaluations. From more than 20,000 genotypes initially evaluated only 114 reached the last stage. The objective was to assess how the data at SRT could be used to predict the probabilities of genotypes reaching the UYT. Phenotypic data from each genotype at SRT was integrated into the selection index (SIN) used by the cassava breeding program. Average SIN from all the progenies derived from each progenitor was then obtained. Average SIN is an approximation of the breeding value of each progenitor. Data clearly suggested that some genotypes were better progenitors than others (e.g., high number of their progenies reaching the UYT), suggesting important variation in breeding values of progenitors. However, regression of average SIN of each parental genotype on the number of their respective progenies reaching UYT resulted in a negligible coefficient of determination (r2 = 0.05). Breeding value (e.g., average SIN) at SRT was not efficient predicting which genotypes were more likely to reach the UYT stage. Number of families and progenies derived from a given progenitor were more efficient predicting the probabilities of the progeny from a given parent reaching the UYT stage. Large within-family genetic variation tends to mask the true breeding value of each progenitor. The use of partially inbred progenitors (e.g., S1 or S2 genotypes) would reduce the within-family genetic variation thus making the assessment of breeding value more accurate. Moreover, partial inbreeding of progenitors can improve the breeding value of the original (S0) parental material and sharply accelerate genetic gains. For instance, homozygous S1 genotypes for the dominant resistance to cassava mosaic disease (CMD) could be generated and selected. All gametes from these selected S1 genotypes would carry the desirable allele and

  18. Cassava Breeding I: The Value of Breeding Value.

    PubMed

    Ceballos, Hernán; Pérez, Juan C; Joaqui Barandica, Orlando; Lenis, Jorge I; Morante, Nelson; Calle, Fernando; Pino, Lizbeth; Hershey, Clair H

    2016-01-01

    Breeding cassava relies on several selection stages (single row trial-SRT; preliminary; advanced; and uniform yield trials-UYT). This study uses data from 14 years of evaluations. From more than 20,000 genotypes initially evaluated only 114 reached the last stage. The objective was to assess how the data at SRT could be used to predict the probabilities of genotypes reaching the UYT. Phenotypic data from each genotype at SRT was integrated into the selection index (SIN) used by the cassava breeding program. Average SIN from all the progenies derived from each progenitor was then obtained. Average SIN is an approximation of the breeding value of each progenitor. Data clearly suggested that some genotypes were better progenitors than others (e.g., high number of their progenies reaching the UYT), suggesting important variation in breeding values of progenitors. However, regression of average SIN of each parental genotype on the number of their respective progenies reaching UYT resulted in a negligible coefficient of determination (r (2) = 0.05). Breeding value (e.g., average SIN) at SRT was not efficient predicting which genotypes were more likely to reach the UYT stage. Number of families and progenies derived from a given progenitor were more efficient predicting the probabilities of the progeny from a given parent reaching the UYT stage. Large within-family genetic variation tends to mask the true breeding value of each progenitor. The use of partially inbred progenitors (e.g., S1 or S2 genotypes) would reduce the within-family genetic variation thus making the assessment of breeding value more accurate. Moreover, partial inbreeding of progenitors can improve the breeding value of the original (S0) parental material and sharply accelerate genetic gains. For instance, homozygous S1 genotypes for the dominant resistance to cassava mosaic disease (CMD) could be generated and selected. All gametes from these selected S1 genotypes would carry the desirable allele and

  19. Cassava Breeding I: The Value of Breeding Value

    PubMed Central

    Ceballos, Hernán; Pérez, Juan C.; Joaqui Barandica, Orlando; Lenis, Jorge I.; Morante, Nelson; Calle, Fernando; Pino, Lizbeth; Hershey, Clair H.

    2016-01-01

    Breeding cassava relies on several selection stages (single row trial-SRT; preliminary; advanced; and uniform yield trials—UYT). This study uses data from 14 years of evaluations. From more than 20,000 genotypes initially evaluated only 114 reached the last stage. The objective was to assess how the data at SRT could be used to predict the probabilities of genotypes reaching the UYT. Phenotypic data from each genotype at SRT was integrated into the selection index (SIN) used by the cassava breeding program. Average SIN from all the progenies derived from each progenitor was then obtained. Average SIN is an approximation of the breeding value of each progenitor. Data clearly suggested that some genotypes were better progenitors than others (e.g., high number of their progenies reaching the UYT), suggesting important variation in breeding values of progenitors. However, regression of average SIN of each parental genotype on the number of their respective progenies reaching UYT resulted in a negligible coefficient of determination (r2 = 0.05). Breeding value (e.g., average SIN) at SRT was not efficient predicting which genotypes were more likely to reach the UYT stage. Number of families and progenies derived from a given progenitor were more efficient predicting the probabilities of the progeny from a given parent reaching the UYT stage. Large within-family genetic variation tends to mask the true breeding value of each progenitor. The use of partially inbred progenitors (e.g., S1 or S2 genotypes) would reduce the within-family genetic variation thus making the assessment of breeding value more accurate. Moreover, partial inbreeding of progenitors can improve the breeding value of the original (S0) parental material and sharply accelerate genetic gains. For instance, homozygous S1 genotypes for the dominant resistance to cassava mosaic disease (CMD) could be generated and selected. All gametes from these selected S1 genotypes would carry the desirable allele and

  20. Cassava Breeding I: The Value of Breeding Value.

    PubMed

    Ceballos, Hernán; Pérez, Juan C; Joaqui Barandica, Orlando; Lenis, Jorge I; Morante, Nelson; Calle, Fernando; Pino, Lizbeth; Hershey, Clair H

    2016-01-01

    Breeding cassava relies on several selection stages (single row trial-SRT; preliminary; advanced; and uniform yield trials-UYT). This study uses data from 14 years of evaluations. From more than 20,000 genotypes initially evaluated only 114 reached the last stage. The objective was to assess how the data at SRT could be used to predict the probabilities of genotypes reaching the UYT. Phenotypic data from each genotype at SRT was integrated into the selection index (SIN) used by the cassava breeding program. Average SIN from all the progenies derived from each progenitor was then obtained. Average SIN is an approximation of the breeding value of each progenitor. Data clearly suggested that some genotypes were better progenitors than others (e.g., high number of their progenies reaching the UYT), suggesting important variation in breeding values of progenitors. However, regression of average SIN of each parental genotype on the number of their respective progenies reaching UYT resulted in a negligible coefficient of determination (r (2) = 0.05). Breeding value (e.g., average SIN) at SRT was not efficient predicting which genotypes were more likely to reach the UYT stage. Number of families and progenies derived from a given progenitor were more efficient predicting the probabilities of the progeny from a given parent reaching the UYT stage. Large within-family genetic variation tends to mask the true breeding value of each progenitor. The use of partially inbred progenitors (e.g., S1 or S2 genotypes) would reduce the within-family genetic variation thus making the assessment of breeding value more accurate. Moreover, partial inbreeding of progenitors can improve the breeding value of the original (S0) parental material and sharply accelerate genetic gains. For instance, homozygous S1 genotypes for the dominant resistance to cassava mosaic disease (CMD) could be generated and selected. All gametes from these selected S1 genotypes would carry the desirable allele and

  1. Quality of life in chronic cardiovascular illness.

    PubMed

    Wenger, N K

    1992-01-01

    Aspects of outcome that require assessment in chronic cardiovascular illness include the total consequences of both the illness and its management. Quality of life in the medical care context, addresses the resultant comfort, sense of well-being and life satisfaction; the maintenance of reasonable physical, emotional, and intellective function; and the ability to participate in valued activities in the family, workplace, and community. Factors reinforcing the validity of considering quality of life attributes relate to the contemporary marked increase in the prevalence of chronic cardiovascular illness. In chronic illness, the therapies administered are not curative but are rather designed to limit the disabling consequences of the disease; the perceptions of patients about their resultant health status thus have clinical relevance. Next is that patients, as enlightened consumers, increasingly seek information about the options available to them for treatments for chronic cardiovascular disease, with their queries relating both to the biomedical (morbidity and mortality) outcomes and to the psychosocial (life quality) outcomes. Finally, quality of life attributes are increasingly examined in evaluating the cost effectiveness of cardiovascular care, in addition to morbidity and mortality data; determining features involve the resultant functional independence of the individual as a result of care, productivity, return to remunerative work, and level of life satisfaction. PMID:1590648

  2. Globalization and Life History Research: Fragments of a Life Foretold

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to understand, by way of a life history of one low-income working-class youth, how globalization impacts the working class in a developing nation. The concept of globalization and the method of life history seem diametrically opposed. Globalization is an idea about large social forces that impact the economic and material…

  3. Systems of Values and Their Multidimensional Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Russell A.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Values were elicited spontaneously from a sample of undergraduates and adults attending college, and were compared to Rokeach's terminal and instrumental values. Multidimensional scaling revealed a simpler structure among spontaneously mentioned values than Rokeach's values. (JKS)

  4. Quality of life: perception of lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Montazeri, A; Milroy, R; Gillis, C R; McEwen, J

    1996-12-01

    An investigation was carried out to examine what quality of life means to lung cancer patients. 200 patients with either lung cancer (108) or chronic respiratory disease (92) were interviewed using a short open-ended questionnaire. They were asked to define quality of life in general, identify what they considered to be a good quality of life for themselves and to rank the relative importance attached to each nominated item. A content analysis was carried out and patients' responses were categorised into eight items. These were: ability to do what one wants to do/work, enjoyment of life, family life, financial security, happiness, health, living longer and social life/leisure activities. Of these, health (42%), enjoyment of life (25%) and family life (24%) were the three most nominated items as definition of quality of life in general. Patients perceived a good quality of life for themselves differently. Family life (58%), health (51%) and social life (43%) were found to be the most nominated components of a good quality of life for the patients. Overall, patients ranked family life and health as the first or second most important factors. There were no significant differences between cases and controls. The study results are challenging and serve to remind us that the term quality of life is misused in many studies. Most existing measures do not encompass the wider aspects of quality of life identified here, but rather concentrate on the "health-related" aspects of quality of life. To achieve this, the research into the best ways of measuring and assessing quality of life must continue to seek individual values and preferences and how these can be applied in a simple way in clinical studies.

  5. [The quality of life in schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Lecardeur, L

    2015-09-01

    The World Health Organization defines quality of life as individuals' perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards, and concerns. Quality of life (QoL) is a concept, which reflects multiple as well subjective as objective dimensions. In patients with schizophrenia, quality of life has been negatively correlated with depressive and anxiety symptoms (results seem more unconvincing concerning positive symptoms and cognitive deficits); the remission of positive and negative symptoms has been associated with a better quality of life, but the persistence of depressive symptoms decreases quality of life even when patients were or not in remission; second generation antipsychotics significantly increase more quality of life than first generation antipsychotics; and psychotherapies (rehabilitation, case management...) improve quality of life. Several general and disease-specific QoL scales have been developed and successfully tested in patients with schizophrenia. The most appropriate disease-specific scale is the Quality of Life Scale (Heinrichs et al., 1984) since it takes patients' cognitive deficits into account and because it allows to subtly measuring the patients' subjective feeling during a hetero-evaluation. The Quality of Life Scale is a 21-item scale based on a semi-structured interview, which is comprised of four subscales: interpersonal relations, instrumental role functioning, intra-psychic foundations, and use of common objects and activities. It has been designed initially to assess deficit symptoms in schizophrenia. It is a simple and quite short tool, which is intended for the use as an outcome criterion, a measure of change and an indicator of the efficacy of therapeutic interventions. Convincing metrological qualities have been described: content, construct and nomological validities; inter-raters and test-retest fidelities; it is sensitive

  6. The Predictive Value of Foreshocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, G. A.; Avlonitis, M.; Di Fiore, B.; Minadakis, G.

    2012-04-01

    Foreshock activity was considered as a potential precursor of mainshocks since the 1960's. This is because foreshocks come directly from the source where mainshock is under preparation. However, the precise predictive value of foreshocks remained unrevealed due to the lack of precise earthquake catalogue data. We use recent examples of foreshocks from Japan, Italy, Greece and California and show that significant changes of seismicity in space-time-size domains during precisely located foreshock sequences provide seismicity patterns bearing high probability gain before the mainshock. The power-law increase of the event rate and the move of foreshocks towards mainshock epicenter indicate an accumulated or cascade stress redistribution process and a nucleation process, respectively. On the other hand, the statistically significant drop of b-value during foreshock sequences, from physical point of view provides clues for a softening material process in the seismogenic volume. We show analytically that the microstructural parameter α of the Olami-Feder-Christensen model controls the macroscopically observed b-value. This is further supported by our simulation results. The seismicity changes in the time, space and size domains during foreshocks provide information about the time and space of mainshock preparation as well as about the lower threshold of the mainshock magnitude, M. However, they do not provide an approximation of M. The recent examples used yield evidence that the foreshock area is likely a function of M. We propose that in selected target areas the close seismicity monitoring may provide evidence for foreshock activity beforehand, which may open possibilities for the predictability of mainshocks.

  7. [Philosophical and historical values of medicine].

    PubMed

    Angeletti, L R

    1998-01-01

    History of Medicine has pointed its higher attention on both great physicians and relevant medical schools. The hieratic person of the physician has been pre-eminent and conditioning the relationship between patients and doctor, the latter in a paternalistic dominant position. Changes occurred in medicine during the last century, mainly related to the technological advancements and a new ethiopatogenetic view. Better social conditions, improvement of diagnostic procedures and the discovery of effective therapeutic drugs (e.g. antibiotics, etc.) has produced advancements in general life conditions (measured by parameters such as aging, reduction of newborn mortality etc.), but also an increase in the cost of the social medical system. So, the new frontier of History of Medicine is the analysis of changes occurred in medicine (new epistemological rules, pressure of new technologies, more sophisticated citizens-patients) to deepen the values of medicine in an anthropological view of managed care. PMID:11620537

  8. [Nutritional value of sesame seeds].

    PubMed

    Martinchik, A N

    2011-01-01

    Literature data on the nutritional value of sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum L.), their use in feeding the world population and food production are presented. Sesame seeds contain up to 55% oil and 20% protein. Sesame proteins are limited by lysine but rich in tryptophan and methionine. Sesame oil is rich in linoleic and oleic acids, the predominance of gamma-tocopherol over the other isomers of vitamin E and high content of fat-soluble lignans (sesamin and sesamolin). Thanks to recent sesame oil has a phytoestrogen activity; it has a cholesterol-lowering effect.

  9. The Quality of Life over the Family Life Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldous, Joan; And Others

    Studies conducted in the 1960s (Aldous and Hill, 1969) examining the quality of life in families based on their affective and financial resources identified the childbearing stage and the stage when adolescents were present as especially stressful periods. Findings from the 1978 Quality of American Life survey (Campbell and Converse, 1980) were…

  10. [Value of aerobic rehabilitation in the management of fibromyalgia].

    PubMed

    Maquet, D; Croisier, J L; Demoulin, C; Faymonville, M; Crielaard, J M

    2006-02-01

    This study assesses the influence of a muscular aerobic revalidation program on the management of the fibromyalgia syndrome. After 3 months, benefits consisting of increased muscle performances associated with a reduction of pain and an improvement of quality of life were documented. This study confirms the value of aerobic muscle exercise in fibromyalgia patients. PMID:16566119

  11. Life of Pi and the moral wound.

    PubMed

    Allen, Thomas E

    2014-12-01

    The "moral wound," rendered symbolically in the form of the tiger in Life of Pi, is a complex trauma in which the victim, in order to survive in life-threatening circumstances, commits an ethical transgression against his or her deeply held values. Pi experiences such a trauma and deals with it by dissociating it in the form of the tiger and then has to simultaneously both preserve the tiger and wish it to disappear. Jonathan Shay's work relating the experiences of returning Vietnam veterans to Homer's Odyssey is used to further an understanding of both Life of Pi and American soldiers returning from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Reasons are considered for the possible delayed effect of trauma as a factor in the increased suicide rate of older veterans. Finally, the concept of the "moral wound" is discussed, with an eye to its treatment. PMID:25503752

  12. Outcome Measures in Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Tate, D G; Dijkers, M; Johnson-Greene, L

    1996-01-01

    The concept of quality of life (QOL) represents a new paradigm in rehabilitation research and cSinical care. Three measurement approaches have been used to investigate QOL of individuals: (1) evaluative or subjective, (2) objective, and (3) quality adjusted life year (QALY). QALYs represent the utility approach to measurement with emphasis on value of, desirability of, or preference for conditions or status. When the condition in question isdefined as health, health-related quality of life (HQOL) measures are employed. Very few studies are found in the literature addressing QOL of stroke patients. Among studies reviewed, HQOL measures are often used. A summary of these studies and discussion of limitations associated with QOL measures utilized are provided. PMID:27620148

  13. Total Value of Phosphorus Recovery.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Brooke K; Baker, Lawrence A; Boyer, Treavor H; Drechsel, Pay; Gifford, Mac; Hanjra, Munir A; Parameswaran, Prathap; Stoltzfus, Jared; Westerhoff, Paul; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2016-07-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a critical, geographically concentrated, nonrenewable resource necessary to support global food production. In excess (e.g., due to runoff or wastewater discharges), P is also a primary cause of eutrophication. To reconcile the simultaneous shortage and overabundance of P, lost P flows must be recovered and reused, alongside improvements in P-use efficiency. While this motivation is increasingly being recognized, little P recovery is practiced today, as recovered P generally cannot compete with the relatively low cost of mined P. Therefore, P is often captured to prevent its release into the environment without beneficial recovery and reuse. However, additional incentives for P recovery emerge when accounting for the total value of P recovery. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the range of benefits of recovering P from waste streams, i.e., the total value of recovering P. This approach accounts for P products, as well as other assets that are associated with P and can be recovered in parallel, such as energy, nitrogen, metals and minerals, and water. Additionally, P recovery provides valuable services to society and the environment by protecting and improving environmental quality, enhancing efficiency of waste treatment facilities, and improving food security and social equity. The needs to make P recovery a reality are also discussed, including business models, bottlenecks, and policy and education strategies.

  14. Total Value of Phosphorus Recovery.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Brooke K; Baker, Lawrence A; Boyer, Treavor H; Drechsel, Pay; Gifford, Mac; Hanjra, Munir A; Parameswaran, Prathap; Stoltzfus, Jared; Westerhoff, Paul; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2016-07-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a critical, geographically concentrated, nonrenewable resource necessary to support global food production. In excess (e.g., due to runoff or wastewater discharges), P is also a primary cause of eutrophication. To reconcile the simultaneous shortage and overabundance of P, lost P flows must be recovered and reused, alongside improvements in P-use efficiency. While this motivation is increasingly being recognized, little P recovery is practiced today, as recovered P generally cannot compete with the relatively low cost of mined P. Therefore, P is often captured to prevent its release into the environment without beneficial recovery and reuse. However, additional incentives for P recovery emerge when accounting for the total value of P recovery. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the range of benefits of recovering P from waste streams, i.e., the total value of recovering P. This approach accounts for P products, as well as other assets that are associated with P and can be recovered in parallel, such as energy, nitrogen, metals and minerals, and water. Additionally, P recovery provides valuable services to society and the environment by protecting and improving environmental quality, enhancing efficiency of waste treatment facilities, and improving food security and social equity. The needs to make P recovery a reality are also discussed, including business models, bottlenecks, and policy and education strategies. PMID:27214029

  15. Water, a host of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niculescu, E.; Maghiar, R.

    2012-04-01

    An interdisciplinary study of water realized in High Schools of Bucharest and Oradea The paper studies the importance and the properties of water from different points of view. In the curricula the water is studied by sciences as Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Geography and Environmental Sciences, but the water is important also for History, Economy, Sociology, Religion, Arts, Sport, and so on. The students from "C.A.Rosetti High-school" from Bucharest and "Mihai Viteazul" from Oradea, guided by their teachers realized some interesting studies about water as physical, biological and chemical properties but also about economical importance of the water in our life, or about the aesthetic value of the water. The final products (CD-s, PowerPoint presentations, movies, drawings, posters and so on) are realized during the lessons from the curricula but also in non-formal education activities. So the students accomplished some research about water in specialised institutes, but also in the middle of nature. They studied the plants, insects and animals living in wetland areas. The students went to the springs, rivers , lakes, the Danube Delta and to the Black Sea and after that they organised workshops and seminars in order to disseminate their work.

  16. The beginning of human life

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction The Jewish religion is characterized by a strict association between faith and practical precept. Jewish law has two sections, the written and the oral tradition. The foundation of the written law and the origin of authority is the Torah, the first five books of the Scripture. It is an expression of God’s revelation, teaching and guiding humanity. The oral laws interpret, expand, and elucidate the written Torah and behavior patterns regulate new rules and customs. The main parts of the oral law are as follows: the Mishnah, the Talmud, Post-Talmudic Codes and. Responsa Literature. Discussion Life is a process that has a beginning and an end. The consensus about the time when human life really begins is still not reached among scientists, philosophers, ethicists, sociologists and theologizes. The scientific data suggested that a single developmental moment marking the beginning of human life does not exist. Current biological perspectives on when human life begins range through fertilization, gastrulation, to birth and even after. The development of a newborn is a smoothly continuous process. Results Procreation is acknowledged in the Bible to be the gift of God. The (Halachic) Jewish interpretation of when human life begins is extracted predominantly from procreation is acknowledged in the Bible to be the gift of God. The Jewish interpretation of when human life begins is extracted predominantly from The Halachic sources. The Bible does not make any other direct references regarding the beginning of human life. Conclusion While the Talmud gives the full status of humanness to a child at birth, the rabbinical writings have partially extended the acquisition of humanness to the 13th postnatal day of life for full-term infants. The Babylonian Talmud Yevamot 69b states that: “the embryo is considered to be mere water until the fortieth day.” Afterwards, it is considered subhuman until it is born. The issues of abortion, embryo research, multifetal

  17. Quality of life: does measurement help?

    PubMed

    Bergsma, J; Engel, G L

    1988-01-01

    'Quality of life' is a very frequently applied concept nowadays. One may doubt whether everyone has the same connotation in mind while using this expression and why 'quality of life' attracts so much attention. Is the idea a very old one or is it a new and noble value? It is argued here that changes such as in the number of aged people and of chronically disabled people, combined with spectacular developments in medical technology and with a rise in knowledge and assertivity, created an increased awareness of 'quality of life' and its interaction with medicine. Moreover, limitations to budgets and technological developments trigger an interest in new arguments. 'Quality of life' plays an increasing role in all sorts of medical decisions, be it in policy decisions or in individual clinical decisions, be it formally assessed or implicitly weighted. A number of examples is briefly described to illustrate the very broad and diffuse use of quality of life as a criterion. Subsequently we have tried to operationalize the concept on 4 levels: macro, meso, personal and physical. The macro level applies to the meaning of life in a society; assessments of quality of life play a role, for instance, in discussions on euthanasia and in political decisions on medical investments. Examples of the meso level are the hospital, with its internal processes and its ties to the rest of the world, but also the patient in his social environment. On the personal level the individual's frames of reference on health, illness, future, pain and hope - both of the patient and the doctor - are being considered. It is argued that legitimation of important decisions, investments and interventions requires measurement of quality of life in an objective way and on different levels. Quantifying quality, however, appears hardly feasible. Therefore 'quality of life' is frequently measured at the fourth level only, the level of physical activities. Confining measurement to the measurable induces the

  18. Personal Values as Mitigating Factors in the Link between Income and Life Satisfaction: Evidence from the European Social Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgellis, Yannis; Tsitsianis, Nicholas; Yin, Ya Ping

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the first two rounds of the European Social Survey, we examine the link between income, reference income and life satisfaction across Western Europe. We find that whilst there is a strong positive relationship between income and life satisfaction, reference or comparison income exerts a strong negative influence. Interestingly, our…

  19. Values and the quantum conception of man

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, H.P.

    1995-06-01

    Classical mechanics is based upon a mechanical picture of nature that is fundamentally incorrect. It has been replaced at the basic level by a radically different theory: quantum mechanics. This change entails an enormous shift in one`s basic conception of nature, one that can profoundly alter the scientific image of man himself. Self-image is the foundation of values, and the replacement of the mechanistic self-image derived from classical mechanics by one concordant with quantum mechanics may provide the foundation of a moral order better suited to today`s times, a self-image that endows human life with meaning, responsibility, and a deeper linkage to nature as a whole.

  20. Race-related stress, quality of life indicators, and life satisfaction among elderly African Americans.

    PubMed

    Utsey, Shawn O; Payne, Yasser A; Jackson, Ebonique S; Jones, Antoine M

    2002-08-01

    This article examined the relationships among race-related stress, quality of life indicators, and life satisfaction among elderly African Americans. A sample of 127 elderly African Americans, consisting of 87 women and 26 men (and 14 missing values), were administered the Index of Race-Related Stress, the Satisfaction With Life Scale, and the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey. Results indicated that elderly African American men and women differed significantly with regard to institutional and collective racism-related stress. In addition, the authors found that institutional racism-related stress was a significant predictor of psychological health in this sample of elderly African Americans.

  1. Half-life of /sup 218/Po

    SciTech Connect

    Potapov, V.G.; Soloshenkov, P.S.

    1986-10-01

    The decay of Po 218 is accompanied by the emission of 6.00-MeV alpha particles. The most suitable method for studying it is the alphaspectrometric method. To generate radon, the source for RaA, the authors used a preparation of Ra 226 with a high degree of purity. Targets were prepared for measuring the half-life on a radon setup. Approximately 30 sec after holding in a radon atmosphere the target was placed with the polonium deposited on it into a vacuum chamber. It was noted that the intensity of the peak at 6.70 MeV decreases at the same rate as the decay of Po 218, and the ratio of the intensities of their peaks was equal to 0.037 +/- 0.007%. The spectra (alpha was analyzed on an LP-4900 analyzer. The values of the half-life that were obtained are in good agreement with the values obtained previously.

  2. Half-life of {sup 44}Ti

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.; Kutschera, W.; Castagnoli, G.; Paul, M.

    1995-08-01

    The measurement of the {sup 44}Ti half-life, started 3 years ago, is still continuing. The goal of this measurement is to determine the half-life of {sup 44}Ti, which is {approximately}52 y, to a precision of {approximately}5%. An accurate value of this half-life is of interest to cosmologists who need it to determine the production of heavy elements in supernova. Three sets of samples - a pure 200-nCi {sup 44}Ti sample, a pure 300-nCi {sup 60}Co source, and a mixed {sup 44}Ti-{sup 60}Co source of similar strength - were prepared and their spectra are being measured with Ge spectrometers at Argonne, Torino and Jerusalem. Each sample is counted for a period of 2 days, at approximate intervals of 4 months. The room background is also measured for the same length of time. We hope to start data analysis at the end of summer and obtain a value for the {sup 44}Ti half-life.

  3. The pro-life argument from substantial identity and the pro-choice argument from asymmetric value: a reply to Patrick Lee.

    PubMed

    Reiman, Jeffrey

    2007-07-01

    Lee claims that foetuses and adult humans are phases of the same identical substance, and thus have the same moral status because: first, foetuses and adults are the same physical organism, and second, the development from foetus to adult is quantitative and thus not a change of substance. Versus the first argument, I contend that the fact that foetuses and adults are the same physical organism implies only that they are the same thing but not the same substance, much as living adults and their corpses are the same thing (same body) but not the same substance. Against Lee's second argument, I contend that Lee confuses the nature of a process with the nature of its result. A process of quantitative change can produce a change in substance. Lee also fails to show that foetuses are rational and thus have all the essential properties of adults, as required for them to be the same substance. Against the pro-choice argument from asymmetric value (that only the fact that a human has become conscious of its life and begun to count on its continuing can explain human life's asymmetric moral value, i.e. that it is vastly worse to kill a human than not to produce one), Lee claims that foetus's lives are asymmetrically valuable to them before consciousness. This leads to counterintuitive outcomes, and it confuses the goodness of life (a symmetric value that cannot account for why it is worse to kill a human than not produce one) with asymmetric value. PMID:17845457

  4. The pro-life argument from substantial identity and the pro-choice argument from asymmetric value: a reply to Patrick Lee.

    PubMed

    Reiman, Jeffrey

    2007-07-01

    Lee claims that foetuses and adult humans are phases of the same identical substance, and thus have the same moral status because: first, foetuses and adults are the same physical organism, and second, the development from foetus to adult is quantitative and thus not a change of substance. Versus the first argument, I contend that the fact that foetuses and adults are the same physical organism implies only that they are the same thing but not the same substance, much as living adults and their corpses are the same thing (same body) but not the same substance. Against Lee's second argument, I contend that Lee confuses the nature of a process with the nature of its result. A process of quantitative change can produce a change in substance. Lee also fails to show that foetuses are rational and thus have all the essential properties of adults, as required for them to be the same substance. Against the pro-choice argument from asymmetric value (that only the fact that a human has become conscious of its life and begun to count on its continuing can explain human life's asymmetric moral value, i.e. that it is vastly worse to kill a human than not to produce one), Lee claims that foetus's lives are asymmetrically valuable to them before consciousness. This leads to counterintuitive outcomes, and it confuses the goodness of life (a symmetric value that cannot account for why it is worse to kill a human than not produce one) with asymmetric value.

  5. Quality of life in vitiligo patients.

    PubMed

    Teovska Mitrevska, Natasa; Eleftheriadou, Viktoria; Guarneri, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    Quality of life is defined by the World Health Organization as "individuals' perceptions of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns." Often overlooked in the past, it is nowadays considered, in a more holistic view of medicine, a decisive factor to understand the impact of diseases and improve the quality of medical care. Such evaluation is particularly relevant for dermatological diseases, because visibility of the lesions can significantly affect self-esteem and social relationships. Vitiligo represents an emblematic case: often disfiguring and located in visible areas, confused in the past (and, in many world regions, even in the present) with leprosy, often perceived by physicians as a harmless, purely cosmetic problem, it significantly decreases the quality of life of affected persons. After a brief overview on definition, usefulness and methods for the assessment of quality of life, the authors examine the peculiarities of its relationship with skin diseases, particularly vitiligo. The state of the art of knowledge and research in this field is presented, together with data showing usefulness and positive results of a multidisciplinary approach, which adequately keeps into account perceived quality of life, on patient's satisfaction, adherence to treatment protocols and, ultimately, better outcome of treatments. In this context, an important role can be played by support communities, groups of patients and dedicated associations and societies, connected through modern communication networks like the Internet. PMID:23237035

  6. Quality of life in vitiligo patients.

    PubMed

    Teovska Mitrevska, Natasa; Eleftheriadou, Viktoria; Guarneri, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    Quality of life is defined by the World Health Organization as "individuals' perceptions of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns." Often overlooked in the past, it is nowadays considered, in a more holistic view of medicine, a decisive factor to understand the impact of diseases and improve the quality of medical care. Such evaluation is particularly relevant for dermatological diseases, because visibility of the lesions can significantly affect self-esteem and social relationships. Vitiligo represents an emblematic case: often disfiguring and located in visible areas, confused in the past (and, in many world regions, even in the present) with leprosy, often perceived by physicians as a harmless, purely cosmetic problem, it significantly decreases the quality of life of affected persons. After a brief overview on definition, usefulness and methods for the assessment of quality of life, the authors examine the peculiarities of its relationship with skin diseases, particularly vitiligo. The state of the art of knowledge and research in this field is presented, together with data showing usefulness and positive results of a multidisciplinary approach, which adequately keeps into account perceived quality of life, on patient's satisfaction, adherence to treatment protocols and, ultimately, better outcome of treatments. In this context, an important role can be played by support communities, groups of patients and dedicated associations and societies, connected through modern communication networks like the Internet.

  7. [Mathematical model of value of population].

    PubMed

    Sha, J; Wang, S

    1983-09-29

    The authors define the value of population as an economic concept and present mathematical formulas for calculating this value. Included in this theoretical discussion are different kinds of surplus value of population and the social significance of population value. PMID:12279805

  8. Life Domain Satisfactions as Predictors of Overall Life Satisfaction Among Workers: Evidence from Chile.

    PubMed

    Loewe, Nicolas; Bagherzadeh, Mehdi; Araya-Castillo, Luis; Thieme, Claudio; Batista-Foguet, Joan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the subjective antecedents of life satisfaction of workers. Adopting a 'bottom-up' perspective, we assessed the unique influence that satisfaction with multiple life domains have on evaluative judgments of overall life satisfaction. Based on a nationwide sample of 530 Chilean workers, we simultaneously tested the effects of seven life domain satisfactions that have been consistently included in extant models of life satisfaction and subjective well-being. These were satisfaction with health, financial situation, social relationships, one's self-worth, leisure-time, family, and work. Having controlled for age and gender, results showed that satisfaction with one's financial situation was the dominant predictor of overall life satisfaction of workers, with a weight of .36. Satisfaction with family, work, and health had effects of .25, .14, and .14, respectively. Interestingly, satisfaction with one's self-worth, leisure-time, and social relationships did not have statistically significant effects on life satisfaction, although the first two showed t values near the critical value. PMID:25018580

  9. Life Domain Satisfactions as Predictors of Overall Life Satisfaction Among Workers: Evidence from Chile.

    PubMed

    Loewe, Nicolas; Bagherzadeh, Mehdi; Araya-Castillo, Luis; Thieme, Claudio; Batista-Foguet, Joan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the subjective antecedents of life satisfaction of workers. Adopting a 'bottom-up' perspective, we assessed the unique influence that satisfaction with multiple life domains have on evaluative judgments of overall life satisfaction. Based on a nationwide sample of 530 Chilean workers, we simultaneously tested the effects of seven life domain satisfactions that have been consistently included in extant models of life satisfaction and subjective well-being. These were satisfaction with health, financial situation, social relationships, one's self-worth, leisure-time, family, and work. Having controlled for age and gender, results showed that satisfaction with one's financial situation was the dominant predictor of overall life satisfaction of workers, with a weight of .36. Satisfaction with family, work, and health had effects of .25, .14, and .14, respectively. Interestingly, satisfaction with one's self-worth, leisure-time, and social relationships did not have statistically significant effects on life satisfaction, although the first two showed t values near the critical value.

  10. Inversion concept of the origin of life.

    PubMed

    Kompanichenko, V N

    2012-06-01

    The essence of the inversion concept of the origin of life can be narrowed down to the following theses: 1) thermodynamic inversion is the key transformation of prebiotic microsystems leading to their transition into primary forms of life; 2) this transformation might occur only in the microsystems oscillating around the bifurcation point under far-from-equilibrium conditions. The transformation consists in the inversion of the balance "free energy contribution / entropy contribution", from negative to positive values. At the inversion moment the microsystem radically reorganizes in accordance with the new negentropy (i.e. biological) way of organization. According to this approach, the origin-of-life process on the early Earth took place in the fluctuating hydrothermal medium. The process occurred in two successive stages: a) spontaneous self-assembly of initial three-dimensional prebiotic microsystems composed mainly of hydrocarbons, lipids and simple amino acids, or their precursors, within the temperature interval of 100-300°C (prebiotic stage); b) non-spontaneous synthesis of sugars, ATP and nucleic acids started at the inversion moment under the temperature 70-100°C (biotic stage). Macro- and microfluctuations of thermodynamic and physico-chemical parameters able to sustain this way of chemical conversion have been detected in several contemporary hydrothermal systems. A minimal self-sufficient unit of life on the early Earth was a community of simplest microorganisms (not a separate microorganism).

  11. Inversion Concept of the Origin of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kompanichenko, V. N.

    2012-06-01

    The essence of the inversion concept of the origin of life can be narrowed down to the following theses: 1) thermodynamic inversion is the key transformation of prebiotic microsystems leading to their transition into primary forms of life; 2) this transformation might occur only in the microsystems oscillating around the bifurcation point under far-from-equilibrium conditions. The transformation consists in the inversion of the balance "free energy contribution / entropy contribution", from negative to positive values. At the inversion moment the microsystem radically reorganizes in accordance with the new negentropy (i.e. biological) way of organization. According to this approach, the origin-of-life process on the early Earth took place in the fluctuating hydrothermal medium. The process occurred in two successive stages: a) spontaneous self-assembly of initial three-dimensional prebiotic microsystems composed mainly of hydrocarbons, lipids and simple amino acids, or their precursors, within the temperature interval of 100-300°C (prebiotic stage); b) non-spontaneous synthesis of sugars, ATP and nucleic acids started at the inversion moment under the temperature 70-100°C (biotic stage). Macro- and microfluctuations of thermodynamic and physico-chemical parameters able to sustain this way of chemical conversion have been detected in several contemporary hydrothermal systems. A minimal self-sufficient unit of life on the early Earth was a community of simplest microorganisms (not a separate microorganism).

  12. Children of the Era of Changes: Their Values and Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zapesotskii, A. S.

    2007-01-01

    In February and March 2006, the St. Petersburg Humanities University of Trade Unions and the Social Information Agency conducted a survey titled "The Life Plans and Value Orientations of Upper-Grade Students in St. Petersburg," directed by A.S. Zapesotskii and R.S. Mogilevskii. The purpose was to determine and analyze the dynamics of the values…

  13. The Value of Clean Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shindell, D. T.

    2014-12-01

    How can society place a value on clean air? I present a multi-impact economic valuation framework called the Social Cost of Atmospheric Release (SCAR) that extends the Social Cost of Carbon (SCC) used previously for carbon dioxide (CO2) to a broader range of pollutants and impacts. Values consistently incorporate health impacts of air quality along with climate damages. The latter include damages associated with aerosol-induced hydrologic cycle changes that lead to net climate benefits when reducing cooling aerosols. Evaluating a 1% reduction in current global emissions, benefits with a high discount rate are greatest for reductions of co-emitted products of incomplete combustion (PIC), followed by sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and then CO2, ammonia and methane. With a low discount rate, benefits are greatest for CO2 reductions, though the sum of SO2, PIC and methane is substantially larger. These results suggest that efforts to mitigate atmosphere-related environmental damages should target a broad set of emissions including CO2, methane and aerosol/ozone precursors. Illustrative calculations indicate environmental damages are 410-1100 billion yr-1 for current US electricity generation ( 19-46¢ per kWh for coal, 4-24¢ for gas) and 3.80 (-1.80/+2.10) per gallon of gasoline ($4.80 (-3.10/+3.50) per gallon for diesel). These results suggest that total atmosphere-related environmental damages plus generation costs are much greater for coal-fired power than other types of electricity generation, and that damages associated with gasoline vehicles substantially exceed those for electric vehicles.

  14. Protocells: At the Interface of Life and Non-Life

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wentao; Feng, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The cellular form, manifesting as a membrane-bounded system (comprising various functional molecules), is essential to life. The ultimate reason for this is that, typically, one functional molecule can only adopt one “correct” structure to perform one special function (e.g., an enzyme), and thus molecular cooperation is inevitable. While this is particularly true for advanced life with complex functions, it should have already been true for life at its outset with only limited functions, which entailed some sort of primitive cellular form—“protocells”. At the very beginning, the protocells may have even been unable to intervene in the growth of their own membrane, which can be called “pseudo-protocells”. Then, the ability to synthesize membrane components (amphiphiles) may have emerged under selective pressure, leading to “true-protocells”. The emergence of a “chromosome” (with genes linked together)—thus avoiding “gene-loss” during the protocell division, was another key event in the evolution of protocells. Such “unitary-protocells”, containing a central genetic molecule, may have appeared as a milestone—in principle, since then life could evolve endlessly, “gaining” more and more functions by introducing new genes. To synthesize in laboratory these different types of protocells, which stand at the interface between life and non-life, would greatly enhance our understanding on the essence of life. PMID:25809963

  15. Protocells: at the interface of life and non-life.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wentao; Feng, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The cellular form, manifesting as a membrane-bounded system (comprising various functional molecules), is essential to life. The ultimate reason for this is that, typically, one functional molecule can only adopt one "correct" structure to perform one special function (e.g., an enzyme), and thus molecular cooperation is inevitable. While this is particularly true for advanced life with complex functions, it should have already been true for life at its outset with only limited functions, which entailed some sort of primitive cellular form-"protocells". At the very beginning, the protocells may have even been unable to intervene in the growth of their own membrane, which can be called "pseudo-protocells". Then, the ability to synthesize membrane components (amphiphiles) may have emerged under selective pressure, leading to "true-protocells". The emergence of a "chromosome" (with genes linked together)-thus avoiding "gene-loss" during the protocell division, was another key event in the evolution of protocells. Such "unitary-protocells", containing a central genetic molecule, may have appeared as a milestone-in principle, since then life could evolve endlessly, "gaining" more and more functions by introducing new genes. To synthesize in laboratory these different types of protocells, which stand at the interface between life and non-life, would greatly enhance our understanding on the essence of life. PMID:25809963

  16. The half-life of 18F.

    PubMed

    García-Toraño, Eduardo; Medina, Virginia Peyrés; Ibarra, Miguel Roteta

    2010-01-01

    The half-life of the positron-emitter (18)F has been measured by following the decay rate with three systems: ionization chambers, Ge detectors and coincidence with fast scintillators. The decay rate was measured for periods of time up to 9 half-lives. The combination of the results obtained with the three measuring systems gives a value of T(1/2)=1.82871 (18)h, in good agreement with recommended data and with an estimated uncertainty lower than any other previously reported value. PMID:20036570

  17. Valued Life Activity Disability Played a Significant Role in Self-Rated Health among Adults with Chronic Health Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Patricia; Morris, Anne; Gregorich, Steve; Yazdany, Jinoos; Eisner, Mark; Yelin, Edward; Blanc, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Objective Because self-rated health (SRH) is strongly associated with health outcomes, it is important to identify factors that individuals take into account when they assess their health. We examined the role of valued life activities (VLAs), the wide range of activities deemed to be important to individuals, in SRH assessments. Study Design and Setting Data were from 3 cohort studies of individuals with different chronic conditions – rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Each cohort’s data were collected through structured telephone interviews. Logistic regression analyses identified factors associated with ratings of fair/poor SRH. All analyses included sociodemographic characteristics, general and disease-specific health-related factors, and general measures of physical functioning. Results Substantial portions of each group rated their health as fair/poor (RA 37%, SLE 47%, COPD 40%). In each group, VLA disability was strongly associated with fair/poor health (RA: OR=4.44 [1.86,10.62]; SLE: OR=3.60 [2.10,6.16]; COPD: OR=2.76 [1.30,5.85], even after accounting for covariates. Conclusion VLA disability appears to play a substantial role in individual perceptions of health, over and above other measures of health status, disease symptoms, and general physical functioning. PMID:18722089

  18. The fitness value of information

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson-Matasci, Matina C.; Bergstrom, Carl T.; Lachmann, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Communication and information are central concepts in evolutionary biology. In fact, it is hard to find an area of biology where these concepts are not used. However, quantifying the information transferred in biological interactions has been difficult. How much information is transferred when the first spring rainfall hits a dormant seed, or when a chick begs for food from its parent? One measure that is commonly used in such cases is fitness value: by how much, on average, an individual’s fitness would increase if it behaved optimally with the new information, compared to its average fitness without the information. Another measure, often used to describe neural responses to sensory stimuli, is the mutual information—a measure of reduction in uncertainty, as introduced by Shannon in communication theory. However, mutual information has generally not been considered to be an appropriate measure for describing developmental or behavioral responses at the organismal level, because it is blind to function; it does not distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information. In this paper we show that there is in fact a surprisingly tight connection between these two measures in the important context of evolution in an uncertain environment. In this case, a useful measure of fitness benefit is the increase in the long-term growth rate, or the fold increase in number of surviving lineages. We show that in many cases the fitness value of a developmental cue, when measured this way, is exactly equal to the reduction in uncertainty about the environment, as described by the mutual information. PMID:25843980

  19. Life satisfaction in elderly Nigerians: reliability and factor composition of the life satisfaction Index Z.

    PubMed

    Baiyewu, O; Jegede, R O

    1992-07-01

    Life satisfaction Index Z was administered to 945 persons aged 60 years and over in a community survey in rural and urban locations in South-Western Nigeria. Life Satisfaction Index scores correlated significantly with items on self-assessed health, loneliness, sex (women having a higher mean score) and location. Items that measure social contact, such as marital status, proximity of nearest child, and frequency of seeing close friends, did not correlate at a significant level. Factor analysis produced two factors on varimax rotation and an internal consistency value of 0.72 was obtained. These values are similar to some of those reported in other studies outside Africa. PMID:1514454

  20. Remaining life assessment of furnace heater tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, C.J.; Finlay, M.R.

    1996-12-31

    Fired heater tube condition is an important factor in life prediction and optimization of operation. The condition of tubes from eight process furnaces a/t refineries in Australia has been investigated with the aim of life prediction. The tubes were manufactured from carbon steel and low alloy ferritic materials. Various scale types of differing thickness were observed, in particular on hotter tubes where extensive fireside corrosion had occurred. The metallurgical condition of the tubes was assessed by replication followed by optical and electron microscopy, X-ray analysis of scales and hardness measurement. Various microstructural degradation was observed such as carbide spheroidization and subsequent softening. Life assessment was performed by review of ultrasonic wall thickness data and estimation of thinning rate using extreme value statistics. Creep life calculations were performed using a variety of material property data and temperatures estimated from heat flux calculations using process data and by in-situ thermocouple measurement. It is concluded that accurate determination of wall thinning rate, temperature and location within the creep rupture scatter band are critical factors influencing life. It is therefore necessary to validate the method of thickness measurement and to regularly take comprehensive measurements (e.g., every 3 years). Additionally accurate temperature determination using tube skin thermocouples is beneficial.

  1. The Values of Australian Activists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellerman, D. A.; Feather, N. T.

    1976-01-01

    Relevant literature on student activism was reviewed so as to discover leads for predictions about differences between activists and non-activists in the way they might be expected to rank the terminal and instrumental values from Rokeach's Value Survey. (Editor)

  2. Is the creation of artificial life morally significant?

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Thomas; Powell, Russell; Savulescu, Julian

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, the Venter lab announced that it had created the first bacterium with an entirely synthetic genome. This was reported to be the first instance of ‘artificial life,’ and in the ethical and policy discussions that followed it was widely assumed that the creation of artificial life is in itself morally significant. We cast doubt on this assumption. First we offer an account of the creation of artificial life that distinguishes this from the derivation of organisms from existing life and clarify what we mean in asking whether the creation of artificial life has moral significance. We then articulate and evaluate three attempts to establish that the creation of artificial life is morally significant. These appeal to (1) the claim that the creation of artificial life involves playing God, as expressed in three distinct formulations; (2) the claim that the creation of artificial life will encourage reductionist attitudes toward the living world that undermine the special moral value accorded to life; and (3) the worry that artificial organisms will have an uncertain functional status and consequently an uncertain moral status. We argue that all three attempts to ground the moral significance of the creation of artificial life fail, because none of them establishes that the creation of artificial life is morally problematic in a way that the derivation of organisms from existing life forms is not. We conclude that the decisive moral consideration is not how life is created but what non-genealogical properties it possesses. PMID:23810562

  3. Is the creation of artificial life morally significant?

    PubMed

    Douglas, Thomas; Powell, Russell; Savulescu, Julian

    2013-12-01

    In 2010, the Venter lab announced that it had created the first bacterium with an entirely synthetic genome. This was reported to be the first instance of 'artificial life,' and in the ethical and policy discussions that followed it was widely assumed that the creation of artificial life is in itself morally significant. We cast doubt on this assumption. First we offer an account of the creation of artificial life that distinguishes this from the derivation of organisms from existing life and clarify what we mean in asking whether the creation of artificial life has moral significance. We then articulate and evaluate three attempts to establish that the creation of artificial life is morally significant. These appeal to (1) the claim that the creation of artificial life involves playing God, as expressed in three distinct formulations; (2) the claim that the creation of artificial life will encourage reductionist attitudes toward the living world that undermine the special moral value accorded to life; and (3) the worry that artificial organisms will have an uncertain functional status and consequently an uncertain moral status. We argue that all three attempts to ground the moral significance of the creation of artificial life fail, because none of them establishes that the creation of artificial life is morally problematic in a way that the derivation of organisms from existing life forms is not. We conclude that the decisive moral consideration is not how life is created but what non-genealogical properties it possesses. PMID:23810562

  4. Value Profiles of Male and Female Entrepreneurs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Lloyd W., Jr.; Solomon, George T.

    1987-01-01

    Comparison of the values of 86 male and 74 female entrepreneurs found males' highest terminal values being pleasure and true friendship while females' highest terminal values were health and self-respect. High instrumental values for males were ambition and broadmindedness; while for females high instrumental values were honesty and…

  5. The Place of Values in Psychotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abroms, Gene M.

    1978-01-01

    Psychotherapy is a value-laden process because the very notions of 'therapeutic,''cure,' and 'health' involve patients and therapists in making value choices. Two hierarchies of health values as they apply to therapy are reviewed. (Author)

  6. Student Views on the Value of Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marie, Jenny A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the value that a sample of students placed on feedback, what they valued it for and the conditions that affected this value judgement. I show that not all students value feedback particularly highly, especially when considered in relation to other factors in their education and when considered for its intrinsic value as…

  7. Comparison of Student and Recruiter Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vecchiotti, Dorothea I.; Korn, James H.

    1980-01-01

    Value priorities of campus employment recruiters and liberal arts students were compared using Rokeach's Value Survey. Confirmed: (1) students ranked idealistic values high, while recruiters ranked values applicable to business high; (2) more significant differences were found among instrumental than among terminal values; and (3) recruiters chose…

  8. Family, money, and health: regional differences in the determinants of life satisfaction over the life course.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Rachel; Myrskylä, Mikko

    2013-06-01

    We examine how family, money, and health explain variation in life satisfaction over the life cycle across seven global regions using data from the World Values Survey. With a life domain approach, we study whether the importance of the life domains varies by region and age groups and whether the variation explained by each factor is due to the magnitude or prevalence of each factor. Globally, family, money, and health explain a substantial fraction of life satisfaction, increasing from 12 percent in young adulthood to 15 percent in mature adulthood. Health is the most important factor, and its importance increases with age. Income is unimportant above age 50. Remarkably, the contribution of family is small across ages. Across regions health is most important in the wealthier, and income in the poorer regions of the world. Family explains a substantial fraction of life satisfaction only in Western Europe and Anglophone countries. Findings highlight that the population-level importance of family, money, and health in explaining variation in life satisfaction across regions is mainly attributable to the individual-level life satisfaction differences between people of different statuses rather than differences in the distribution of various states such as poor health across regions.

  9. VALUING LOST HOME PRODUCTION OF DUAL EARNER COUPLES.

    PubMed

    House, Christopher L; Laitner, John; Stolyarov, Dmitriy

    2008-05-01

    Using a life-cycle model in which women divide their time between home and market work, we establish a link between retirement wealth and the value of forgone home production. We use data from the Health and Retirement Study to estimate the model's parameters and adjust the growth rate of GDP to reflect reductions in non-market output. We find that the value of forgone home production is modest - about 25 percent of women's measured earnings.

  10. A loaf of bread: Price and value.

    PubMed

    Pearn, J

    1998-03-01

    In the Western world, the basic staple of nutrition is bread. It evolved, from Neolithic times in Mesopotamia and the Levant, from flour made from natural hybrids of emmer and einkorn. Its form has changed from that of a dark, coarse and heavy loaf, baked in the ashes, to the enriched artistic breads of the late twentieth century. Its variety of forms conferred status on those who ate its refined and whitened form. The wheel of fashion and nutrition has turned full circle to the quality-controlled, vitamin and mineral-enriched wholemeal loaf of the new millennium to come. Bread has changed from a staple not simply of nutrition itself, but to that of a 'functional food' whose fibre confers protection against preventible disease. The bread of the new century thus will be both a food and a medicine. So fundamental to Western life is bread, that its price has long been the last item to remain controlled, when all else is left to the dictates of a free market economy. Bread is the fundamental unit of exchange and forms the last link in a chain of commodities which starts from items of luxury to those of survival itself. The price of bread can thus be used as a currency datum. As such, the price of a loaf of bread, and the minutes of labour needed to produce it, can be used to measure the economy, and to give a measured perspective of its influence on a community's history. Costs, throughout history, can be expressed in 'bread units'. As such, the latter forms an absolute index of the worth of other items, particularly a person's labour. As such, bread and its value forms a partly independent measure of inflationary and other social influences. Bread remains a fundamental part not only of nutrition, but of life itself.

  11. The Impact of Discovering Life beyond Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven J.

    2015-10-01

    Introduction: astrobiology and society Steven J. Dick; Part I. Motivations and Approaches. How Do We Frame the Problems of Discovery and Impact?: Introduction; 1. Current approaches to finding life beyond earth, and what happens if we do Seth Shostak; 2. The philosophy of astrobiology: the Copernican and Darwinian presuppositions Iris Fry; 3. History, discovery, analogy: three approaches to the impact of discovering life beyond earth Steven J. Dick; 4. Silent impact: why the discovery of extraterrestrial life should be silent Clément Vidal; Part II. Transcending Anthropocentrism. How Do We Move beyond our Own Preconceptions of Life, Intelligence and Culture?: Introduction; 5. The landscape of life Dirk Schulze-Makuch; 6. The landscape of intelligence Lori Marino; 7. Universal biology: assessing universality from a single example Carlos Mariscal; 8. Equating culture, civilization, and moral development in imagining extraterrestrial intelligence: anthropocentric assumptions? John Traphagan; 9. Communicating with the other: infinity, geometry, and universal math and science Douglas Vakoch; Part III. Philosophical, Theological, and Moral Impact. How Do We Comprehend the Cultural Challenges Raised by Discovery?: Introduction; 10. Life, intelligence and the pursuit of value in cosmic evolution Mark Lupisella; 11. 'Klaatu barada nikto' - or, do they really think like us? Michael Ruse; 12. Alien minds Susan Schneider; 13. The moral subject of astrobiology: guideposts for exploring our ethical and political responsibilities towards extraterrestrial life Elspeth Wilson and Carol Cleland; 14. Astrobiology and theology Robin Lovin; 15. Would you baptize an extraterrestrial? Guy Consolmagno, SJ; Part IV. Practical Considerations: How Should Society Prepare for Discovery - and Non-Discovery?: Introduction; 16. Is there anything new about astrobiology and society? Jane Maienschein; 17. Evaluating preparedness for the discovery of extraterrestrial life: considering potential

  12. Quality of life in cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Loria, Anthony; Escheik, Carey; Gerber, N Lynn; Younossi, Zobair M

    2013-01-01

    Quality of life is a construct that reflects the positive and negative aspects of one's life, and is expanded upon by health-related quality of life (HRQL), which specifically address the impact of health on patients' well-being. Cirrhosis is the culmination of various pathways that leads into development of advanced hepatic fibrosis with its complications. This paper addresses the impact of cirrhosis on individuals HRQL. In addition, we will define what disease specific and general HRQL instruments aim to measure. We discuss the liver disease specific scales [Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire (CLDQ), Liver Disease Quality of Life 1.0 (LDQOL)] and the most commonly used generic health profile [Short Form 36 Profile (SF-36)]. Furthermore, we examine recent literature which describes how to measure and what is known about quality of life of patients with cirrhosis. This information gives insight to health care providers concerning the impact of disease on patients if treatments are not only to improve health but also function and unexpected treatment outcomes.

  13. Psoriasis and the life cycle of persistent life effects.

    PubMed

    Garshick, Marisa Kardos; Kimball, Alexa Boer

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is associated with significant physical, social, and behavioral comorbidities that create a substantial burden. We outline herein that these comorbidities start early in life and persist for decades, ultimately impacting the entire life course of patients with psoriasis. By highlighting the ages that psoriasis patients are affected with physical, social, behavioral and emotional comorbidities, we demonstrate the age-appropriate considerations for psoriasis patients.

  14. The Acquisition and Development of Values. Perspectives on Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Leora Wood, Comp.

    A conference on research relating to how children acquire their systems of values and morality was held with the overall objective toward improving the quality of human life through greater scientific understanding of the developmental processes and the support of research on these complex problems. Participants stressed that many child-rearing…

  15. [End of life in France].

    PubMed

    Vacheron, André

    2013-01-01

    Two major changes in end-of-life management have occured in recent decades: first, because of the increase in life expectancy and the resulting aging of the population, most deaths now involve old or very old people; second, more than two-thirds of deaths occur in a hospital or an institution. Our fellow citizens are afraid of suffering and death. They wish for a peaceful death, as rapid as possible and, in recent surveys, say they favour euthanasia. Yet euthanasia is illegal in France and in most other Western countries (with the exception of the Benelux nations). Palliative care ensures dignity in death, without anxiety of suffering, and is expanding rapidly in France. Léonetti's law of 22 April 2005 ensures the protection of the weakest, who should never be considered unworthy of life, yet is poorly known to the public and even to physicians. It now needs to be applied in practice. PMID:25518160

  16. The algorithmic origins of life

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Sara Imari; Davies, Paul C. W.

    2013-01-01

    Although it has been notoriously difficult to pin down precisely what is it that makes life so distinctive and remarkable, there is general agreement that its informational aspect is one key property, perhaps the key property. The unique informational narrative of living systems suggests that life may be characterized by context-dependent causal influences, and, in particular, that top-down (or downward) causation—where higher levels influence and constrain the dynamics of lower levels in organizational hierarchies—may be a major contributor to the hierarchal structure of living systems. Here, we propose that the emergence of life may correspond to a physical transition associated with a shift in the causal structure, where information gains direct and context-dependent causal efficacy over the matter in which it is instantiated. Such a transition may be akin to more traditional physical transitions (e.g. thermodynamic phase transitions), with the crucial distinction that determining which phase (non-life or life) a given system is in requires dynamical information and therefore can only be inferred by identifying causal architecture. We discuss some novel research directions based on this hypothesis, including potential measures of such a transition that may be amenable to laboratory study, and how the proposed mechanism corresponds to the onset of the unique mode of (algorithmic) information processing characteristic of living systems. PMID:23235265

  17. Europa: Prospects for Life and for the Origin of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chyba, C. F.

    2002-12-01

    Life as we know it could exist on Europa as we know it. That is, our current understanding of Europa seems to allow the existence of certain microorganisms that we know on Earth. Europa almost certainly has an ocean of liquid water and a supply of biogenic elements sufficient for a biosphere. Potential sources of free energy that could fuel a europan microbial ecosystem can be identified, but several of them depend on the extent to which Europa's crust communicates with its ocean (Chyba and Hand, Science 292, 2026-2027 (2001); Chyba and Phillips, Origins of Life 32, 47-68 (2002)). This communication seems possible in both thin-ice and thick-ice scenarios, but it may require another mission before we are confident about which geophysical models are in fact correct. The prospects for the origin of life on Europa are much trickier to evaluate. If the origin of life had to occur under the present ice cover, the abundant energy of the Sun's ultraviolet light would not have been available to drive prebiotic chemistry. Some current models for the origin of life on Earth would seem not to be troubled by this, but recent experimental results suggest that the concentration of salts in the early terrestrial ocean could have been an important impediment to the polymerization of early organic monomers and the formation of prebiotic vesicles-implying that life may have originated in freshwater environments on early Earth. The implications of these results for the origin of life in Europa's ocean will be discussed.

  18. Prolong the life of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Ilaria, J.E.

    1995-07-01

    The most widely used construction materials are concrete and related cement-based products, such as common building block. The excellent reputation of concrete as a durable material of construction has been questioned i modern times. The expanded use of Portland cement concrete, the increase in corrosive environments, and lack of understanding of the composition of concrete all indicate a need for methods to increase life expectancy. Chemical and mechanical factors can shorten service life. Understanding these properties will lead to the proper application of protective coatings.

  19. Life in an Unjust Community: A Hollywood View of High School Moral Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, David

    2008-01-01

    This article analyses the film "Mean girls" (2004) as a window on popular notions of the moral life of American high schools, which straddles Kohlberg's Stage 2 and 3. The film presents loyalty to peer group cliques as a key value, even as it offers an individualist, relativist critique of that loyalty. Gossip is the main transgression in this…

  20. SEPARATION OF SCANDIUM VALUES FORM IRON VALUES BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Kuhlman, C.W. Jr.; Lang, G.P.

    1961-12-19

    A process is given for separating scandium from trivalent iron values. In this process, an aqueous nitric acid solution is contacted with a water- immiscible alkyl phosphate solution, the aqueous solution containing the values to be separated, whereby the scandium is taken up by the alkyl phosphate. The aqueous so1ution is preferably saturated with magnesium nitrate to retain the iron in the aqueous solution. (AEC)

  1. The value of snow cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokratov, S. A.

    2009-04-01

    only and not even the main outcome from snow cover use. The value of snow cover for agriculture, water resources, industry and transportation is so naturally inside the activities that is not often quantified. However, any considerations of adaptation strategies for climate change with changing snow conditions need such quantification.

  2. Record Values of a Pareto Distribution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahsanullah, M.

    The record values of the Pareto distribution, labelled Pareto (II) (alpha, beta, nu), are reviewed. The best linear unbiased estimates of the parameters in terms of the record values are provided. The prediction of the sth record value based on the first m (s>m) record values are obtained. A classical Pareto distribution provides reasonably good…

  3. Contemporary psychological approaches to life at the end of life.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Brian D

    2014-01-01

    When people have a serious life-limiting illness, physical symptoms are often prominent, both in the experience of the illness and in its treatment. No less important, however, are psychological symptoms. A holistic, bio-psycho-social-spiritual approach to quality of life near the end of life must address psychological distress of all types, including frank psychopathology, more moderate problems with living, and existential distress. Responding to mental health issues at the end of life requires (1) systematic and careful assessment, and (2) deployment of evidence-based treatments. In recent years, standardized assessment tools have been adapted or developed for use with people who have serious illness, and the same has happened with psychological treatments. Practitioners have several resources available to them. Given their practice orientation centered on meaningful engagement, occupational therapists can play an important role in responding to mental distress in patients with serious illness whose lives are becoming more circumscribed because of their medical condition or because of the mental distress itself. High-quality end-of-life care depends on scrupulous attention to the full spectrum of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that unfold as death draws near.

  4. Chiroptical signatures of life and fundamental physics.

    PubMed

    Macdermott, Alexandra J

    2012-09-01

    This paper aims to inspire experimentalists to carry out proposed new chiroptical experiments springing from the theoretical study of the role of parity violation in the origin of biomolecular homochirality and to provide a brief update on the current status of calculations of the electroweak parity-violating energy difference (PVED) between enantiomers. If the PVED did select life's handedness, we would expect to find life on other planets consistently using the same hand as terrestrial biochemistry. Much more importantly, even finding the "wrong" hand (rather than a racemic mixture) on another planet could be the homochiral signature of life, and we discuss our proposal for chiroptical detection of life on extra-solar planets. The PVED may also have an exciting future as a "molecular footprint" of fundamental physics: comparison of calculated PVEDs with measured values could one day allow chemists to do "table-top particle physics" more cheaply with improved chiroptical techniques instead of ever larger particle accelerators. We discuss our proposed chiroptical method to measure the PVED by using molecular beams. To our knowledge, optical rotation has not yet been measured in molecular beams, but the rewards of doing so include a host of other "first ever" results in addition to measurement of the PVED.

  5. Fossil evidence of Archaean life

    PubMed Central

    Schopf, J. William

    2006-01-01

    Evidence for the existence of life during the Archaean segment of Earth history (more than 2500 Myr ago) is summarized. Data are presented for 48 Archaean deposits reported to contain biogenic stromatolites, for 14 such units reported to contain 40 morphotypes of putative microfossils, and for 13 especially ancient, 3200–3500 Myr old geologic units for which available organic geochemical data are also summarized. These compilations support the view that life's existence dates from more than or equal to 3500 Myr ago. PMID:16754604

  6. Psychosomatic medicine and the philosophy of life.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Michael A; Wiggins, Osborne P

    2010-01-01

    Basing ourselves on the writings of Hans Jonas, we offer to psychosomatic medicine a philosophy of life that surmounts the mind-body dualism which has plagued Western thought since the origins of modern science in seventeenth century Europe. Any present-day account of reality must draw upon everything we know about the living and the non-living. Since we are living beings ourselves, we know what it means to be alive from our own first-hand experience. Therefore, our philosophy of life, in addition to starting with what empirical science tells us about inorganic and organic reality, must also begin from our own direct experience of life in ourselves and in others; it can then show how the two meet in the living being. Since life is ultimately one reality, our theory must reintegrate psyche with soma such that no component of the whole is short-changed, neither the objective nor the subjective. In this essay, we lay out the foundational components of such a theory by clarifying the defining features of living beings as polarities. We describe three such polarities: 1) Being vs. non-being: Always threatened by non-being, the organism must constantly re-assert its being through its own activity. 2) World-relatedness vs. self-enclosure: Living beings are both enclosed with themselves, defined by the boundaries that separate them from their environment, while they are also ceaselessly reaching out to their environment and engaging in transactions with it. 3) Dependence vs. independence: Living beings are both dependent on the material components that constitute them at any given moment and independent of any particular groupings of these components over time.We then discuss important features of the polarities of life: Metabolism; organic structure; enclosure by a semi-permeable membrane; distinction between "self" and "other"; autonomy; neediness; teleology; sensitivity; values. Moral needs and values already arise at the most basic levels of life, even if only human

  7. [Obesity and quality of life].

    PubMed

    Da Silva, M Paes; Jorge, Z; Domingues, A; Nobre, E Lacerda; Chambel, P; De Castro, J Jácome

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is considered one of the most relevant health problems of modern societies, as it constitutes a predominant risk factor in the development of various other diseases. The negative impact of obesity on the quality of life of individuals has been the subject of diverse research. The results of a test carried out at Gothenburg University in Sweden suggest that severe obesity is a debilitating factor both for health and psychosocial functioning. Research carried out in Madrid permitted identification of a profile of obese patients with impaired quality of life, which has enabled prophylactic intervention or early treatment of these cases to be considered. The results of a study carried out in the USA propose that pain would appear to be directly related with quality of life and could be considered a covariant of obesity, and should therefore be taken into account in obesity treatments. A study carried out in Oxford concluded that obese subjects or subjects with another chronic disease presented a deterioration in physical wellbeing, however only subjects with another chronic disease (without associated obesity) presented a deterioration in psychological wellbeing. The majority of studies suggest the negative influence of obesity and overweight on health and psychosocial functioning, however it is not possible to clearly define a linear relation between obesity and diminished quality of life.

  8. Values of Estonian Students, Teachers and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veisson, Marika

    2009-01-01

    R. Inglehart (1990, 2005) considers values to be one's reactions to changes in the environment. According to his approach values develop in the socialisation process. Values can be divided into traditional, modernist and postmodernist. According to Rokeach (1973), values are an element of culture, an image of the desirable that might not be…

  9. [The helix of life].

    PubMed

    Kahn, Axel

    2003-04-01

    The discovery of DNA's double helix 50 years ago was the founding event of molecular biology. It was also the moment that forged the reputation of two of biology's most compelling figures, no doubt in perpetuity. However, Jim Watson and Francis Crick were not the only players of this outstanding fest whose certain circumstances remain today rather singular.

  10. Valuing Informal Care Experience: Does Choice of Measure Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentzakis, Emmanouil; McNamee, Paul; Ryan, Mandy; Sutton, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Well-being equations are often estimated to generate monetary values for non-marketed activities. In such studies, utility is often approximated by either life satisfaction or General Health Questionnaire scores. We estimate and compare monetary valuations of informal care for the first time in the UK employing both measures, using longitudinal…

  11. Teaching Time Value of Money Using an Excel Retirement Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arellano, Fernando; Mulig, Liz; Rhame, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The time value of money (TVM) is required knowledge for all business students. It is traditionally taught in finance and accounting classes for use in various applications in the business curriculum. These concepts are also very useful in real life situations such as calculating the amount to save for retirement. This paper details a retirement…

  12. Livestock, ethics, and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Hodges, J

    2003-11-01

    Agricultural and animal scientists need to embrace a new vision beyond the single-minded existing pursuit of biological efficiency. The public in the West is no longer concerned solely with cheap food. Other paramount issues define quality of life, including: health and safety of foods; nutritional value; traditional, regional, locally produced, and organic foods; animal welfare; sustainable farming, environment, and rural resources. The paper provides examples of how the credibility of animal scientists has been lost due to some recent unethical behavior. Research, teaching and application of agricultural and animal science, especially of biotechnology, need to be reshaped into a new "Quality of Life Agricultural Era" to replace the "Era of Intensification." This new era will need fresh assumptions, beliefs and leadership to match the emerging social agenda of the 21st century. Animal scientists have a special role in implementing this new plausibility structure. PMID:14601893

  13. The origins of cellular life.

    PubMed

    Koonin, Eugene V

    2014-07-01

    All life on earth can be naturally classified into cellular life forms and virus-like selfish elements, the latter being fully dependent on the former for their reproduction. Cells are reproducers that not only replicate their genome but also reproduce the cellular organization that depends on semipermeable, energy-transforming membranes and cannot be recovered from the genome alone, under the famous dictum of Rudolf Virchow, Omnis cellula e cellula. In contrast, simple selfish elements are replicators that can complete their life cycles within the host cell starting from genomic RNA or DNA alone. The origin of the cellular organization is the central and perhaps the hardest problem of evolutionary biology. I argue that the origin of cells can be understood only in conjunction with the origin and evolution of selfish genetic elements. A scenario of precellular evolution is presented that involves cohesion of the genomes of the emerging cellular life forms from primordial pools of small genetic elements that eventually segregated into hosts and parasites. I further present a model of the coevolution of primordial membranes and membrane proteins, discuss protocellular and non-cellular models of early evolution, and examine the habitats on the primordial earth that could have been conducive to precellular evolution and the origin of cells.

  14. The Community of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Anthony Wayne

    Anthony Wayne Smith, President, National Parks and Conservation Association (NPCA), delivered this address before the Annual Meeting of The Humane Society of the United States, Newport, Rhode Island, October, 1971. Reviewing the philosophy and activities of the NPCA, he discloses how the wildlife preservation movement of the NPCA needs the help of…

  15. What Is Quality of Life?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamieson, Dale; Sneed, Joseph D.

    Is the concept of "quality of life" potentially an important one for public policy analysis, or must it remain forever vague and controversial, resisting clear definition and scientific measurement? Everyday usage of the phrase is examined as well as its relation to other terms like "happiness" and "welfare." It is concluded that one reason for…

  16. Breaking the Bread of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mineo, Thomas M.; Royce, Christine A.

    2000-01-01

    Describes Bishop Hannan High School's (Pennsylvania) retreat program, in which students learn to develop a spiritual element in their lives. Discusses the theme, "The Bread of Life," and how the process of baking bread for communion helped unite and nourish students. Reports that, through a variety of fellowship activities, students gained a sense…

  17. Teaching The Web of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meichtry, Yvonne J.

    2005-01-01

    This series of activities, which integrates science and social studies, is designed to involve students in experimental learning experiences conducted in an outdoor setting. Throughout the lesson, which is based on a model of instruction called Flow Learning [TM], students (a) simulate the Web of Life, (b) use different senses and scientific…

  18. Constructor theory of life.

    PubMed

    Marletto, Chiara

    2015-03-01

    Neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory explains how the appearance of purposive design in the adaptations of living organisms can have come about without their intentionally being designed. The explanation relies crucially on the possibility of certain physical processes: mainly, gene replication and natural selection. In this paper, I show that for those processes to be possible without the design of biological adaptations being encoded in the laws of physics, those laws must have certain other properties. The theory of what these properties are is not part of evolution theory proper, yet without it the neo-Darwinian theory does not fully achieve its purpose of explaining the appearance of design. To this end, I apply constructor theory's new mode of explanation to express exactly within physics the appearance of design, no-design laws, and the logic of self-reproduction and natural selection. I conclude that self-reproduction, replication and natural selection are possible under no-design laws, the only non-trivial condition being that they allow digital information to be physically instantiated. This has an exact characterization in the constructor theory of information. I also show that under no-design laws an accurate replicator requires the existence of a 'vehicle' constituting, together with the replicator, a self-reproducer.

  19. Constructor theory of life

    PubMed Central

    Marletto, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory explains how the appearance of purposive design in the adaptations of living organisms can have come about without their intentionally being designed. The explanation relies crucially on the possibility of certain physical processes: mainly, gene replication and natural selection. In this paper, I show that for those processes to be possible without the design of biological adaptations being encoded in the laws of physics, those laws must have certain other properties. The theory of what these properties are is not part of evolution theory proper, yet without it the neo-Darwinian theory does not fully achieve its purpose of explaining the appearance of design. To this end, I apply constructor theory's new mode of explanation to express exactly within physics the appearance of design, no-design laws, and the logic of self-reproduction and natural selection. I conclude that self-reproduction, replication and natural selection are possible under no-design laws, the only non-trivial condition being that they allow digital information to be physically instantiated. This has an exact characterization in the constructor theory of information. I also show that under no-design laws an accurate replicator requires the existence of a ‘vehicle’ constituting, together with the replicator, a self-reproducer. PMID:25589566

  20. Development and validation of the Perceived Life Significance Scale.

    PubMed

    Hibberd, Rachel; Vandenberg, Brian

    2015-01-01

    A recent literature review of meaning and bereavement suggests a conceptual distinction between sense-making, or the integration of a loss with beliefs and narratives, and life significance, or perception of value associated with an aspect of one's life experience. The present study aims to develop and validate a new measure: the Perceived Life Significance Scale (PLSS). Exploratory (n = 353) and confirmatory (n = 483) factor analyses support three factors: active pursuit of goals and activities; emptiness/insignificance (reverse-scored); and receptivity to beauty in everyday life. The PLSS demonstrates convergent and discriminant validity with respect to general measures of meaning, negative affect, depression, and sense-making. PMID:25679540

  1. The Molecules of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Robert A.

    1985-01-01

    New advances in molecular biology have established a biotechnology industry and have changed ways people think about living things. In support of this theme, a discussion on historical development and current practice of gene cloning is presented. The role of nucleic acids, viruses, and therapeutic intervention is also considered. (DH)

  2. The Logic of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascal, Robert; Pross, Addy

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we propose a logical connection between the physical and biological worlds, one resting on a broader understanding of the stability concept. We propose that stability manifests two facets - time and energy, and that stability's time facet, expressed as persistence, is more general than its energy facet. That insight leads to the logical formulation of the Persistence Principle, which describes the general direction of material change in the universe, and which can be stated most simply as: nature seeks persistent forms. Significantly, the principle is found to express itself in two mathematically distinct ways: in the replicative world through Malthusian exponential growth, and in the `regular' physical/chemical world through Boltzmann's probabilistic considerations. By encompassing both `regular' and replicative worlds, the principle appears to be able to help reconcile two of the major scientific theories of the 19th century - the Second Law of Thermodynamics and Darwin's theory of evolution - within a single conceptual framework.

  3. The Logic of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascal, Robert; Pross, Addy

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we propose a logical connection between the physical and biological worlds, one resting on a broader understanding of the stability concept. We propose that stability manifests two facets - time and energy, and that stability's time facet, expressed as persistence, is more general than its energy facet. That insight leads to the logical formulation of the Persistence Principle, which describes the general direction of material change in the universe, and which can be stated most simply as: nature seeks persistent forms. Significantly, the principle is found to express itself in two mathematically distinct ways: in the replicative world through Malthusian exponential growth, and in the `regular' physical/chemical world through Boltzmann's probabilistic considerations. By encompassing both `regular' and replicative worlds, the principle appears to be able to help reconcile two of the major scientific theories of the 19th century - the Second Law of Thermodynamics and Darwin's theory of evolution - within a single conceptual framework.

  4. Service life prediction of reinforced concrete structures

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, M.T.; Wang, K.L.; Liang, C.H.

    1999-09-01

    This paper is focused on the estimation of durability and service life of reinforced concrete structures. Assuming that the chloride ion in concrete can be absorbed on tricalcium aluminate, calcium silicate hydrate, and by other constituents of hardened cement paste, hydrated or not, the exact analytical solution of the governing partial differential equation together with its boundary and initial conditions can be obtained through nondimensional parameters and Laplace's transform. When the results of an exact analytical solution using suitable parameters were compared with the results of previous experimental work, the differences were found to be very small. This suggests that the absorption model is of considerable value. The exact analytical solution with the saturation parameter and time and diffusion coefficients under different effective electrical potential could be used to predict both the experimental results and the service life of reinforced concrete structures.

  5. Fossil Record of Precambrian Life on Land

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knauth, Paul

    2000-01-01

    The argument that the earth's early ocean was up to two times modern salinity was published in 'Nature' and presented at the 1998 Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of America in Toronto. The argument is bolstered by chemical data for fluid inclusions in Archean black smokers. The inclusions were 1.7 times the modern salinity causing the authors to interpret the parent fluids as evaporite brines (in a deep marine setting). I reinterpreted the data in terms of the predicted value of high Archean salinities. If the arguments I presented are on track, early life was either halophilic or non-marine. Halophiles are not among the most primitive organisms based on RNA sequencing, so here is an a priori argument that non-marine environments may have been the site of most early biologic evolution. This result carries significant implications for the issue of past life on Mars or current life on the putative sub-ice oceans on Europa and possibly Callisto. If the Cl/H2O ratio on these objects is similar to that of the earth, then oceans and oceanic sediments are probably not the preferred sites for early life. On Mars, this means that non-marine deposits such as caliche in basalt may be an overlooked potential sample target.

  6. The Staff of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rebecca

    1994-01-01

    Some children have chronic illnesses that require diet modifications as part of their medical treatment. Advises school districts to hire a registered dietitian or look for resources at a local hospital or public health office. In addition, schools should work with parents, improve staff training, and conduct spot checks of school cafeterias. (MLF)

  7. Extinctions of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepkoski, J. J. Jr; Sepkoski JJ, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1988-01-01

    This meeting presentation examines mass extinctions through earth's history. Extinctions are charted for marine families and marine genera. Timing of marine genera extinctions is discussed. Periodicity in extinctions during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras is plotted and compared with Paleozoic extinction peaks. The role of extinction in evolution and mankind's role in present extinctions are examined.

  8. The Tree of Life Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milbrath, Sherry

    2009-01-01

    Middle-school students are just beginning to recognize their place in the world. That is why this author believes it is important to incorporate their world into their art. In this article, the author discusses the "Tree of Life" project, which she developed for her students in order to make them aware of various environmental issues, and how to…

  9. The Chemistry of Life's Origin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, James P.

    1984-01-01

    From an understanding of how the solar system was formed, scientists have determined the conditions under which life probably originated on earth and, by experiment, have demonstrated a number of possible theories. These conditions, experiments, theories, and related topics are discussed. (JN)

  10. The Tree of Animal Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braude, Stan

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a short activity which introduces third- to fifth-grade students to animal classification. The Tree of Animal Life activity is a simple, sorting exercise that can help them see a bigger picture. The activity sets the stage for learning about animal taxonomy and introduces the characteristics of various animal…

  11. Remeasurement of (234)U Half-Life.

    PubMed

    Varga, Zsolt; Nicholl, Adrian; Wallenius, Maria; Mayer, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    The half-life of (234)U has been measured using a novel approach. In this method, a uranium material was chemically purified from its thorium decay product at a well-known time. The ingrowth of the (230)Th daughter product in the material was followed by measuring the accumulated (230)Th daughter product relative to its parent (234)U nuclide using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Then, the (234)U decay constant and the respective half-life could be calculated using the radioactive decay equations based on the n((230)Th)/n((234)U) amount ratio. The obtained (234)U half-life is 244 900 ± 670 years (k = 1), which is in good agreement with the previously reported results in the literature with comparable uncertainty. The main advantages of the proposed method are that it does not require the assumption of secular equilibrium between (234)U and (238)U. Moreover, the calculation is independent from the (238)U half-life value and its uncertainty. The suggested methodology can also be applied for the remeasurement of the half-lives of several other long-lived radionuclides. PMID:26823129

  12. Towards a definition of life.

    PubMed

    Macklem, Peter T; Seely, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This article offers a new definition of life as a "self-contained, self-regulating, self-organizing, self-reproducing, interconnected, open thermodynamic network of component parts which performs work, existing in a complex regime which combines stability and adaptability in the phase transition between order and chaos, as a plant, animal, fungus, or microbe." Open thermodynamic networks, which create and maintain order and are used by all organisms to perform work, import energy from and export entropy into the environment. Intra- and extracellular interconnected networks also confer order. Although life obeys the laws of physics and chemistry, the design of living organisms is not determined by these laws, but by Darwinian selection of the fittest designs. Over a short range of normalized energy consumption, open thermodynamic systems change from deeply ordered to chaotic, and life is found in this phase transition, where a dynamic balance between stability and adaptability allows for homeokinesis. Organisms and cells move within the phase transition with changes in metabolic rate. Seeds, spores and cryo-preserved tissue are well within the ordered regime, while health probably cannot be maintained with displacements into the chaotic regime. Understanding life in these terms may provide new insights into what constitutes health and lead to new theories of disease.

  13. Uncertainty of Monetary Valued Ecosystem Services - Value Transfer Functions for Global Mapping.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Stefan; Manceur, Ameur M; Seppelt, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Growing demand of resources increases pressure on ecosystem services (ES) and biodiversity. Monetary valuation of ES is frequently seen as a decision-support tool by providing explicit values for unconsidered, non-market goods and services. Here we present global value transfer functions by using a meta-analytic framework for the synthesis of 194 case studies capturing 839 monetary values of ES. For 12 ES the variance of monetary values could be explained with a subset of 93 study- and site-specific variables by utilizing boosted regression trees. This provides the first global quantification of uncertainties and transferability of monetary valuations. Models explain from 18% (water provision) to 44% (food provision) of variance and provide statistically reliable extrapolations for 70% (water provision) to 91% (food provision) of the terrestrial earth surface. Although the application of different valuation methods is a source of uncertainty, we found evidence that assuming homogeneity of ecosystems is a major error in value transfer function models. Food provision is positively correlated with better life domains and variables indicating positive conditions for human well-being. Water provision and recreation service show that weak ownerships affect valuation of other common goods negatively (e.g. non-privately owned forests). Furthermore, we found support for the shifting baseline hypothesis in valuing climate regulation. Ecological conditions and societal vulnerability determine valuation of extreme event prevention. Valuation of habitat services is negatively correlated with indicators characterizing less favorable areas. Our analysis represents a stepping stone to establish a standardized integration of and reporting on uncertainties for reliable and valid benefit transfer as an important component for decision support. PMID:26938447

  14. Uncertainty of Monetary Valued Ecosystem Services – Value Transfer Functions for Global Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Stefan; Manceur, Ameur M.; Seppelt, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Growing demand of resources increases pressure on ecosystem services (ES) and biodiversity. Monetary valuation of ES is frequently seen as a decision-support tool by providing explicit values for unconsidered, non-market goods and services. Here we present global value transfer functions by using a meta-analytic framework for the synthesis of 194 case studies capturing 839 monetary values of ES. For 12 ES the variance of monetary values could be explained with a subset of 93 study- and site-specific variables by utilizing boosted regression trees. This provides the first global quantification of uncertainties and transferability of monetary valuations. Models explain from 18% (water provision) to 44% (food provision) of variance and provide statistically reliable extrapolations for 70% (water provision) to 91% (food provision) of the terrestrial earth surface. Although the application of different valuation methods is a source of uncertainty, we found evidence that assuming homogeneity of ecosystems is a major error in value transfer function models. Food provision is positively correlated with better life domains and variables indicating positive conditions for human well-being. Water provision and recreation service show that weak ownerships affect valuation of other common goods negatively (e.g. non-privately owned forests). Furthermore, we found support for the shifting baseline hypothesis in valuing climate regulation. Ecological conditions and societal vulnerability determine valuation of extreme event prevention. Valuation of habitat services is negatively correlated with indicators characterizing less favorable areas. Our analysis represents a stepping stone to establish a standardized integration of and reporting on uncertainties for reliable and valid benefit transfer as an important component for decision support. PMID:26938447

  15. The Structures of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), 2007

    2007-01-01

    This booklet reveals how structural biology provides insight into health and disease and is useful in developing new medications. It contains a general introduction to proteins, coverage of the techniques used to determine protein structures, and a chapter on structure-based drug design. The booklet features "Student Snapshots," designed to…

  16. The Structures of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of General Medical Sciences (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This booklet, geared toward an advanced high school or early college-level audience, explains how structural biology provides insight into health and disease and is useful in developing new medications. This publication contains a general introduction to proteins, coverage of the techniques used to determine protein structures, and a chapter on…

  17. Integrating Varieties of Life Course Concepts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A body of work referred to as the “life course” framework (also known as “life course theory,” the “life course paradigm,” and the “life course perspective”) has been increasingly used to motivate and justify the examination of the relationships among variables in social and behavioral science, particularly in the study of population health and aging. Yet, there is very little agreement on what some of these concepts mean, and there is hardly any agreement on what the “life course” is. This article focuses on the different ways in which the concept oflife course” is used in the contemporary study of aging and human development, particularly with regard to health and well-being. Clarification is given for how “life course” is distinguished from “life span” and “life cycle,” among other “life” words. This work reviews the conceptual literature on the life course, beginning with its formative years in the 1960s and 1970s, through to the present time. Detailed research of several literatures across disciplines revealed five different uses of the term “life course”: (a) life course as time or age, (b) life course as life stages, (c) life course as events, transitions, and trajectories, (d) life course as life-span human development, and (e) life course as early life influences (and their cumulation) on later adult outcomes. To the extent the concept of life course has a multiplicity of meanings that are at variance with one another, this is problematic, as communication is thereby hindered. On the other hand, to the extent the concept of life course involves a rich tapestry of different emphases, this is a good thing, and the diversity of meanings should be retained. This paper proposes a conceptual integration based in part on Riley’s age stratification model that resolves the various meanings of life course into one general framework. Coupled with a demographic conceptualization of the life course, this framework embeds

  18. Probability: A Matter of Life and Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassani, Mehdi; Kippen, Rebecca; Mills, Terence

    2016-01-01

    Life tables are mathematical tables that document probabilities of dying and life expectancies at different ages in a society. Thus, the life table contains some essential features of the health of a population. Probability is often regarded as a difficult branch of mathematics. Life tables provide an interesting approach to introducing concepts…

  19. Estimation of Half-Life for Single Compartmental Elimination Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickens, R. E.; Rucker, S.

    2008-01-01

    A method is presented to calculate accurate approximations to the half-life values of elimination systems modelled by one compartment. The major advantage of this method is that only algebraic mathematical operations are required. The results will be of value not only to students beginning the study of elimination kinetics, but also to…

  20. LIFE: Life Investigation For Enceladus A Sample Return Mission Concept in Search for Evidence of Life.

    PubMed

    Tsou, Peter; Brownlee, Donald E; McKay, Christopher P; Anbar, Ariel D; Yano, Hajime; Altwegg, Kathrin; Beegle, Luther W; Dissly, Richard; Strange, Nathan J; Kanik, Isik

    2012-08-01

    Life Investigation For Enceladus (LIFE) presents a low-cost sample return mission to Enceladus, a body with high astrobiological potential. There is ample evidence that liquid water exists under ice coverage in the form of active geysers in the "tiger stripes" area of the southern Enceladus hemisphere. This active plume consists of gas and ice particles and enables the sampling of fresh materials from the interior that may originate from a liquid water source. The particles consist mostly of water ice and are 1-10 μ in diameter. The plume composition shows H(2)O, CO(2), CH(4), NH(3), Ar, and evidence that more complex organic species might be present. Since life on Earth exists whenever liquid water, organics, and energy coexist, understanding the chemical components of the emanating ice particles could indicate whether life is potentially present on Enceladus. The icy worlds of the outer planets are testing grounds for some of the theories for the origin of life on Earth. The LIFE mission concept is envisioned in two parts: first, to orbit Saturn (in order to achieve lower sampling speeds, approaching 2 km/s, and thus enable a softer sample collection impact than Stardust, and to make possible multiple flybys of Enceladus); second, to sample Enceladus' plume, the E ring of Saturn, and the Titan upper atmosphere. With new findings from these samples, NASA could provide detailed chemical and isotopic and, potentially, biological compositional context of the plume. Since the duration of the Enceladus plume is unpredictable, it is imperative that these samples are captured at the earliest flight opportunity. If LIFE is launched before 2019, it could take advantage of a Jupiter gravity assist, which would thus reduce mission lifetimes and launch vehicle costs. The LIFE concept offers science returns comparable to those of a Flagship mission but at the measurably lower sample return costs of a Discovery-class mission. PMID:22970863

  1. LIFE: Life Investigation For Enceladus A Sample Return Mission Concept in Search for Evidence of Life.

    PubMed

    Tsou, Peter; Brownlee, Donald E; McKay, Christopher P; Anbar, Ariel D; Yano, Hajime; Altwegg, Kathrin; Beegle, Luther W; Dissly, Richard; Strange, Nathan J; Kanik, Isik

    2012-08-01

    Life Investigation For Enceladus (LIFE) presents a low-cost sample return mission to Enceladus, a body with high astrobiological potential. There is ample evidence that liquid water exists under ice coverage in the form of active geysers in the "tiger stripes" area of the southern Enceladus hemisphere. This active plume consists of gas and ice particles and enables the sampling of fresh materials from the interior that may originate from a liquid water source. The particles consist mostly of water ice and are 1-10 μ in diameter. The plume composition shows H(2)O, CO(2), CH(4), NH(3), Ar, and evidence that more complex organic species might be present. Since life on Earth exists whenever liquid water, organics, and energy coexist, understanding the chemical components of the emanating ice particles could indicate whether life is potentially present on Enceladus. The icy worlds of the outer planets are testing grounds for some of the theories for the origin of life on Earth. The LIFE mission concept is envisioned in two parts: first, to orbit Saturn (in order to achieve lower sampling speeds, approaching 2 km/s, and thus enable a softer sample collection impact than Stardust, and to make possible multiple flybys of Enceladus); second, to sample Enceladus' plume, the E ring of Saturn, and the Titan upper atmosphere. With new findings from these samples, NASA could provide detailed chemical and isotopic and, potentially, biological compositional context of the plume. Since the duration of the Enceladus plume is unpredictable, it is imperative that these samples are captured at the earliest flight opportunity. If LIFE is launched before 2019, it could take advantage of a Jupiter gravity assist, which would thus reduce mission lifetimes and launch vehicle costs. The LIFE concept offers science returns comparable to those of a Flagship mission but at the measurably lower sample return costs of a Discovery-class mission.

  2. Generation of Finite Life Distributional Goodman Diagrams for Reliability Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kececioglu, D.; Guerrieri, W. N.

    1971-01-01

    The methodology of developing finite life distributional Goodman diagrams and surfaces is described for presenting allowable combinations of alternating stress and mean stress to the design engineer. The combined stress condition is that of an alternating bending stress and a constant shear stress. The finite life Goodman diagrams and surfaces are created from strength distributions developed at various ratios of alternating to mean stress at particular cycle life values. The conclusions indicate that the Von Mises-Hencky ellipse, for cycle life values above 1000 cycles, is an adequate model of the finite life Goodman diagram. In addition, suggestions are made which reduce the number of experimental data points required in a fatigue data acquisition program.

  3. Prayer Life of a Professor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baesler, E. James

    2009-01-01

    This autoethnographic account describes interconnections among the author's personal prayer life, teaching, and research. The contextual frame for the story includes episodes and observations from a twelve-year span, encompassing postacademic tenure and promotion to the present. The author's prayer is that others might resonate with parts of this…

  4. The Quality of Life in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoguchi, Takashi; Fujii, Seiji

    2009-01-01

    This study is part of a collaborative project examining the quality of life in Confucian societies in Asia. Our major findings suggest that, when our sixteen specific life domains are grouped into three life spheres, namely, material, post-material, and public, the Japanese people tend to be most satisfied with the post-material sphere of life and…

  5. An Aristotelian Account of Minimal Chemical Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedau, Mark A.

    2010-12-01

    This paper addresses the open philosophical and scientific problem of explaining and defining life. This problem is controversial, and there is nothing approaching a consensus about what life is. This raises a philosophical meta-question: Why is life so controversial and so difficult to define? This paper proposes that we can attribute a significant part of the controversy over life to use of a Cartesian approach to explaining life, which seeks necessary and sufficient conditions for being an individual living organism, out of the context of other organisms and the abiotic environment. The Cartesian approach contrasts with an Aristotelian approach to explaining life, which considers life only in the whole context in which it actually exists, looks at the characteristic phenomena involving actual life, and seeks the deepest and most unified explanation for those phenomena. The phenomena of life might be difficult to delimit precisely, but it certainly includes life's characteristic hallmarks, borderline cases, and puzzles. The Program-Metabolism-Container (PMC) model construes minimal chemical life as a functionally integrated triad of chemical systems, which are identified as the Program, Metabolism, and Container. Rasmussen diagrams precisely depict the functional definition of minimal chemical life. The PMC model illustrates the Aristotelian approach to life, because it explains eight of life's hallmarks, one of life's borderline cases (the virus), and two of life's puzzles.

  6. An Aristotelian account of minimal chemical life.

    PubMed

    Bedau, Mark A

    2010-12-01

    This paper addresses the open philosophical and scientific problem of explaining and defining life. This problem is controversial, and there is nothing approaching a consensus about what life is. This raises a philosophical meta-question: Why is life so controversial and so difficult to define? This paper proposes that we can attribute a significant part of the controversy over life to use of a Cartesian approach to explaining life, which seeks necessary and sufficient conditions for being an individual living organism, out of the context of other organisms and the abiotic environment. The Cartesian approach contrasts with an Aristotelian approach to explaining life, which considers life only in the whole context in which it actually exists, looks at the characteristic phenomena involving actual life, and seeks the deepest and most unified explanation for those phenomena. The phenomena of life might be difficult to delimit precisely, but it certainly includes life's characteristic hallmarks, borderline cases, and puzzles. The Program-Metabolism-Container (PMC) model construes minimal chemical life as a functionally integrated triad of chemical systems, which are identified as the Program, Metabolism, and Container. Rasmussen diagrams precisely depict the functional definition of minimal chemical life. The PMC model illustrates the Aristotelian approach to life, because it explains eight of life's hallmarks, one of life's borderline cases (the virus), and two of life's puzzles.

  7. Quality of life in systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Cristiana; Almeida, Isabel; Vasconcelos, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic multi-system autoimmune disease associated with disability and reduced quality of life. There is no effective treatment or cure to SSc, so it is important improve global health of these patients and reduce morbidity and mortality associated with SSc. It was made a literature review about quality of life in patients with SSc, regarding the several factors that should be considered and evaluated when attending to SSc patients. It was also considered the validated scales and questionnaires used to measure outcomes in patients with SSc. We concluded that it is important to have an interdisciplinary approach to SSc patients considering the patient's cognitive representations of the disease and what they value most like mobility and hand function, pain, fatigue, sleep, depression and body image.

  8. The Impact of Life Role Salience on Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrone, Kristin M.; Civiletto, Christine L.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined the relationships among life role salience, role strain, coping efficacy, and life satisfaction for adults (N = 125) who combine multiple life roles. Causal modeling procedures were used to test hypotheses based on D. E. Super's (1980, 1990) life-span, life-space theory and the social cognitive career theory (R. W. Lent, S. D.…

  9. The Value of a Housewife's Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiswick, Carmel U.

    1982-01-01

    Estimating the value of a homemaker's time requires an estimate of the market value of the goods and services produced. This means estimating the marginal value of output as a function of hours worked. For purposes of economic analysis, homemakers should be considered self-employed persons producing for their own consumption. (SK)

  10. Evidence of Construct Validity for Work Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuty, Melanie E.; Hansen, Jo-Ida C.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the importance of work values in the process of career adjustment (Dawis, 2002), little empirical research has focused on articulating the domains represented within the construct of work values and the examination of evidence of validity for the construct has been limited. Furthermore, the larger number of work values measures has made it…

  11. Personal values of male and female doctors: gender aspects.

    PubMed

    Neittaanmäki, L; Gross, E B; Virjo, I; Hyppölä, H; Kumpusalo, E

    1999-02-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the personal values of physicians. It was part of the Physician 93 Study, the purpose of which was to shed light on the life situation, career and future plans of young doctors and their views on medical education. The survey population included all the medical doctors registered during the years 1982-1991 in Finland (N = 4671). In the spring of 1993 a postal questionnaire was sent to a random sample of 2341 doctors. After two reminder letters, 1818 questionnaires (78%) were returned. 59% of the respondents were women. Subjects were asked to rate on a 4-point scale each of a set of 17 potentially important values listed in the questionnaire, five of which were seen by the majority of physicians as very important. These values were: family life, health, close friends, success in work or in studies and children's success. The potentially important values were conceptualized as indicative of eight important dimensions of the values of physicians: close friends, health. self actualization, success, universal values, well-being, family and ideology. Women doctors rated close friends, health, success, universalism and ideology as more important than men doctors. PMID:10075180

  12. Virtues, Values, and the Good Life: Alasdair MacIntyre's Virtue Ethics and Its Implications for Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart-Sicking, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    The philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre's critique of modern ethics and his virtue-centered alternative suggest that counseling can be considered a form of applied virtue ethics, helping clients cultivate the qualities necessary to live the good life. Although similar to developmental theory and positive psychology, this perspective also questions…

  13. Value Differentiation in Adolescence: The Role of Age and Cultural Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Ella; Schiefer, David; Mollering, Anna; Benish-Weisman, Maya; Boehnke, Klaus; Knafo, Ariel

    2012-01-01

    Living in complex social worlds, individuals encounter discordant values across life contexts, potentially resulting in different importance of values across contexts. Value differentiation is defined here as the degree to which values receive different importance depending on the context in which they are considered. Early and mid-adolescents (N…

  14. Nutrient intake values (NIVs): a recommended terminology and framework for the derivation of values.

    PubMed

    King, Janet C; Vorster, Hester H; Tome, Daniel G

    2007-03-01

    Although most countries and regions around the world set recommended nutrient intake values for their populations, there is no standardized terminology or framework for establishing these standards. Different terms used for various components of a set of dietary standards are described in this paper and a common set of terminology is proposed. The recommended terminology suggests that the set of values be called nutrient intake values (NIVs) and that the set be composed of three different values. The average nutrient requirement (ANR) reflects the median requirement for a nutrient in a specific population. The individual nutrient level (INLx) is the recommended level of nutrient intake for all healthy people in the population, which is set at a certain level x above the mean requirement. For example, a value set at 2 standard deviations above the mean requirement would cover the needs of 98% of the population and would be INL98. The third component of the NIVs is an upper nutrient level (UNL), which is the highest level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects for almost all individuals in a specified life-stage group. The proposed framework for deriving a set of NIVs is based on a statistical approach for determining the midpoint of a distribution of requirements for a set of nutrients in a population (the ANR), the standard deviation of the requirements, and an individual nutrient level that assures health at some point above the mean, e.g., 2 standard deviations. Ideally, a second set of distributions of risk of excessive intakes is used as the basis for a UNL.

  15. Verbal Conditioning of Value-Related Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilliston, Lawrence

    1972-01-01

    The results clearly indicate support for the general hypothesis of differential verbal conditioning effects as a function of the interaction between value related content and the S's personal value orientation. (Author)

  16. The value of nursing: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Horton, Khim; Tschudin, Verena; Forget, Armorel

    2007-11-01

    This article is part of a wider study entitled Value of Nursing, and contains the literature search from electronic databases. Key words for the search included 'values of nursing', 'values in nursing', 'organisational values' and 'professional identity'. Thirty-two primary reports published in English between 2000 and 2006 were identified. The findings highlight the importance of understanding values and their relevance in nursing and how values are constructed. The value of nursing is seen to be influenced by cultural change, globalization, and advancement in technology and medicine. These factors are crucial in providing a more structured and measured view of what nursing is, which will result in greater job satisfaction among nurses, better nurse retention and enhanced patient care within a supportive and harmonious organization. The findings of this review have implications for policy makers in recruitment and retention in determining the global value of nursing. PMID:17901183

  17. Energy values of nine Populus clones

    SciTech Connect

    Strong, T.F.

    1980-01-01

    This paper compares calorific values for components of nine Populus clones. The components include stem wood, stem bark, and branches. Also compared are calorific values for clones of balsam poplar and black cottonwood parentages.

  18. Asthma Outcomes: Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sandra R.; Rand, Cynthia S.; Cabana, Michael D.; Foggs, Michael B.; Halterman, Jill S.; Olson, Lynn; Vollmer, William M.; Wright, Rosalind J.; Taggart, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Background “Asthma-related quality of life” refers to the perceived impact that asthma has on the patient’s quality of life. Objective National Institutes of Health (NIH) institutes and other federal agencies convened an expert group to recommend standardized measures of the impact of asthma on quality of life for use in future asthma clinical research. Methods We reviewed published documentation regarding the development and psychometric evaluation; clinical research use since 2000; and extent to which the content of each existing quality of life instrument provides a unique, reliable, and valid assessment of the intended construct. We classified instruments as core (required in future studies), supplemental (used according to the study’s aims and standardized), or emerging (requiring validation and standardization). This work was discussed at an NIH-organized workshop convened in March 2010 and finalized in September 2011. Results Eleven instruments for adults and 6 for children were identified for review. None qualified as core instruments because they predominantly measured indicators of asthma control (symptoms and/or functional status); failed to provide a distinct, reliable score measuring all key dimensions of the intended construct; and/or lacked adequate psychometric data. Conclusions In the absence of existing instruments that meet the stated criteria, currently available instruments are classified as either supplemental or emerging. Research is strongly recommended to develop and evaluate instruments that provide a distinct, reliable measure of the patient’s perception of the impact of asthma on all of the key dimensions of quality of life, an important outcome that is not captured in other outcome measures. PMID:22386511

  19. Quality of life in myopia

    PubMed Central

    Rose, K.; Harper, R.; Tromans, C.; Waterman, C.; Goldberg, D.; Haggerty, C.; Tullo, A.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The safety and predictability of refractive surgery for all degrees of myopia is now becoming established. It is therefore appropriate to evaluate whether there is a patient driven demand for such treatments and, if so, to establish guidelines for its provision within the National Health Service (NHS).
METHODS—A comparative study was designed to assess the effect of degree of myopia on quality of life ("high" (n = 30) -10.00D, worse eye; "moderate" (n = 40) -4.00 to -9.75D, worse eye; "low" (n = 42) <-4.00D, worse eye) compared with a group of patients with keratoconus (n = 30) treated by optical correction. Data collection included binocular logMAR visual acuity, Pelli-Robson low contrast letter sensitivity, questionnaires to assess subjective visual function (VF-14) and effect on quality of life (VQOL), and semi-structured interviews.
RESULTS—There were no significant differences in any of the measures between patients with a high degree of myopia and those with keratoconus, or between those with a low and those with a moderate degree of myopia. However, those with a high degree of myopia had highly significantly poorer logMAR, VF-14, and VQOL scores than those with low and moderate myopia (p<0.001). Interview data supported these findings with patients with a high degree of myopia and those with keratoconus reporting that psychological, cosmetic, practical, and financial factors affected their quality of life.
CONCLUSION—Compared with low and moderate myopia, patients with a high degree of myopia experience impaired quality of life similar to that of patients with keratoconus. Criteria should therefore be identified to enable those in sufficient need to obtain refractive surgical treatment under the NHS.

 PMID:10966960

  20. The Promise of Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peruniak, Geoffrey S.

    2008-01-01

    Little has been written in the career development literature about quality of life, even though this concept is implied in all counselor interventions. In this article, the author suggests that the broad and subjective nature of quality of life, rather than a liability, is its very strength. Quality of life is presented as an important holistic…

  1. Evolution of alternative insect life histories in stochastic seasonal environments.

    PubMed

    Kivelä, Sami M; Välimäki, Panu; Gotthard, Karl

    2016-08-01

    Deterministic seasonality can explain the evolution of alternative life history phenotypes (i.e., life history polyphenism) expressed in different generations emerging within the same year. However, the influence of stochastic variation on the expression of such life history polyphenisms in seasonal environments is insufficiently understood. Here, we use insects as a model and explore (1) the effects of stochastic variation in seasonality and (2) the life cycle on the degree of life history differentiation among the alternative developmental pathways of direct development and diapause (overwintering), and (3) the evolution of phenology. With numerical simulation, we determine the values of development (growth) time, growth rate, body size, reproductive effort, adult life span, and fecundity in both the overwintering and directly developing generations that maximize geometric mean fitness. The results suggest that natural selection favors the expression of alternative life histories in the alternative developmental pathways even when there is stochastic variation in seasonality, but that trait differentiation is affected by the developmental stage that overwinters. Increasing environmental unpredictability induced a switch to a bet-hedging type of life history strategy, which is consistent with general life history theory. Bet-hedging appeared in our study system as reduced expression of the direct development phenotype, with associated changes in life history phenotypes, because the fitness value of direct development is highly variable in uncertain environments. Our main result is that seasonality itself is a key factor promoting the evolution of seasonally polyphenic life histories but that environmental stochasticity may modulate the expression of life history phenotypes. PMID:27547340

  2. The origin of cellular life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingber, D. E.

    2000-01-01

    This essay presents a scenario of the origin of life that is based on analysis of biological architecture and mechanical design at the microstructural level. My thesis is that the same architectural and energetic constraints that shape cells today also guided the evolution of the first cells and that the molecular scaffolds that support solid-phase biochemistry in modern cells represent living microfossils of past life forms. This concept emerged from the discovery that cells mechanically stabilize themselves using tensegrity architecture and that these same building rules guide hierarchical self-assembly at all size scales (Sci. Amer 278:48-57;1998). When combined with other fundamental design principles (e.g., energy minimization, topological constraints, structural hierarchies, autocatalytic sets, solid-state biochemistry), tensegrity provides a physical basis to explain how atomic and molecular elements progressively self-assembled to create hierarchical structures with increasingly complex functions, including living cells that can self-reproduce.

  3. Ontogeny of Early Life Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, David J.; Levy, Ofer

    2014-01-01

    The human immune system is comprised of cellular and molecular components designed to coordinately prevent infection while avoiding potentially harmful inflammation and auto-immunity. Immunity varies with age, reflecting unique age-dependent challenges including fetal gestation, the neonatal phase and infancy. Herein, we review novel mechanistic insights into early life immunity, with emphasis on emerging models of human immune ontogeny, which may inform age-specific translational development of novel anti-infectives, immunomodulators and vaccines. PMID:24880460

  4. The Poet as Creator of Social Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Sonia

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the development of social values and the birth of the poet; the first poets and the crystallization of poetic symbols, including Black and White symbols; India as a civilization conquered by poetry; African and African-American poetic resistance to imperialist social values; African combat poetry; and the Black value-setting in the…

  5. Work Values of Mortuary Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Thomas; Duys, David K.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a descriptive study in an area significantly lacking validation. The focus of the study was the work values held by mortuary science students from 3 educational programs in the Midwest. The Values Scale (D. Nevill & D. Super, 1989) was used to measure the career-related values of a sample group of 116. According to…

  6. Value of Information Evaluation using Field Data

    SciTech Connect

    Trainor-Guitton, W.

    2015-06-15

    Value of information (VOI) provides the ability to identify and prioritize useful information gathering for a geothermal prospect, either hydrothermal or for enhanced geothermal systems. Useful information provides a value greater than the cost of the information; wasteful information costs more than the expected value of the information. In this project we applied and refined VOI methodologies on selected geothermal prospects.

  7. Marginalization and Precariat: The Challenge of Intensifying Life Construction Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Palazzeschi, Letizia

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the case study of a graduate student who, at the time of the study, was doing an internship, considered in the literature as a new form of precariat (temporary or insecure employment). The student participated in a life construction intervention during which he completed two new qualitative instruments: the Life Adaptability Qualitative Assessment (LAQuA) and the Career Counseling Innovative Outcomes (CCIO) before and after the life construction intervention. The results are discussed in the article. The life construction intervention helped the participant understand himself better, develop his life and career paths, and construct his identity. The study confirmed the value of enhancing life construction interventions using a preventive approach, particularly for precarious people (people in temporary or unstable jobs), with early interventions starting with young internees in organizations. PMID:27065914

  8. Marginalization and Precariat: The Challenge of Intensifying Life Construction Intervention.

    PubMed

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Palazzeschi, Letizia

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the case study of a graduate student who, at the time of the study, was doing an internship, considered in the literature as a new form of precariat (temporary or insecure employment). The student participated in a life construction intervention during which he completed two new qualitative instruments: the Life Adaptability Qualitative Assessment (LAQuA) and the Career Counseling Innovative Outcomes (CCIO) before and after the life construction intervention. The results are discussed in the article. The life construction intervention helped the participant understand himself better, develop his life and career paths, and construct his identity. The study confirmed the value of enhancing life construction interventions using a preventive approach, particularly for precarious people (people in temporary or unstable jobs), with early interventions starting with young internees in organizations.

  9. Towards the bibliography of life.

    PubMed

    King, David; Morse, David R; Willis, Alistair; Dil, Anton

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses how we intend to take forward the vision of a Bibliography of Life in the ViBRANT project. The underlying principle of the Bibliography is to provide taxonomists and others with a freely accessible bibliography covering the whole of life. Such a bibliography has been achieved for specific study areas within taxonomy, but not for "life" as a whole.The creation of such a comprehensive tool has been hindered by various social and technical issues. The social concerns focus on the willingness of users to contribute to the Bibliography. The technical concerns relate to the architecture required to deliver the Bibliography. These issues are discussed in the paper and approaches to addressing them within the ViBRANT project are described, to demonstrate how we can now seriously consider building a Bibliography of Life. We are particularly interested in the potential of the resulting tool to improve the quality of bibliographic references. Through analysing the large number of references in the Bibliography we will be able to add metadata by resolving known issues such as geographical name variations. This should result in a tool that will assist taxonomists in two ways. Firstly, it will be easier for them to discover relevant literature, especially pre-digital literature; and secondly, it will be easier for them to identify the canonical form for a citationThe paper also covers related issues relevant to building the tool in ViBRANT, including implementation and copyright, with suggestions as to how we could address them. PMID:22207811

  10. Half-life of 14O

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, Jason T.; Vetter, Paul A.; Freedman, Stuart J.; Fujikawa,Brian K.; Winter, Wesley T.

    2006-01-11

    We have measured the half-life of 14O, a superallowed (0+\\rightarrow 0+) \\beta decay isotope. The 14O was produced by the12C(3He,n)14O reaction using a carbon aerogel target. A low-energy ionbeam of 14O was mass separated and implanted in a thin beryllium foil.The beta particles were counted with plastic scintillator detectors. Wefind \\tau 1/2 = 70.696 +- 0.037\\sigma. This result is 2.0\\sigma higherthan an average value from six earlier experiments, but agrees moreclosely with the most recent previous measurment.

  11. A dynamic architecture of life

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Beatrix P.; Brockes, Jeremy; Galliot, Brigitte; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Lobo, Daniel; Mainardi, Marco; Mirouze, Marie; Prochiantz, Alain; Steger, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, a profound conceptual transformation has occurred comprising different areas of biological research, leading to a novel understanding of life processes as much more dynamic and changeable. Discoveries in plants and animals, as well as novel experimental approaches, have prompted the research community to reconsider established concepts and paradigms. This development was taken as an incentive to organise a workshop in May 2014 at the Academia Nazionale dei Lincei in Rome. There, experts on epigenetics, regeneration, neuroplasticity, and computational biology, using different animal and plant models, presented their insights on important aspects of a dynamic architecture of life, which comprises all organisational levels of the organism. Their work demonstrates that a dynamic nature of life persists during the entire existence of the organism and permits animals and plants not only to fine-tune their response to particular environmental demands during development, but underlies their continuous capacity to do so. Here, a synthesis of the different findings and their relevance for biological thinking is presented. PMID:26949518

  12. Ecology. The value of nature and the nature of value.

    PubMed

    Daily, G C; Söderqvist, T; Aniyar, S; Arrow, K; Dasgupta, P; Ehrlich, P R; Folke, C; Jansson, A; Jansson, B; Kautsky, N; Levin, S; Lubchenco, J; Mäler, K G; Simpson, D; Starrett, D; Tilman, D; Walker, B

    2000-07-21

    Ecosystems are capital assets: When properly managed, they yield a flow of vital goods and services. Relative to other forms of capital, however, ecosystems are poorly understood, scarcely monitored, and--in many important cases--undergoing rapid degradation. The process of economic valuation could greatly improve stewardship. This potential is now being realized with innovative financial instruments and institutional arrangements. PMID:10939949

  13. The Value of Medical and Pharmaceutical Interventions for Reducing Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Michaud, Pierre-Carl; Goldman, Dana; Lakdawalla, Darius; Zheng, Yuhui; Gailey, Adam H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts to quantify the social, private, and public-finance values of reducing obesity through pharmaceutical and medical interventions. We find that the total social value of bariatric surgery is large for treated patients, with incremental social cost-effectiveness ratios typically under $10,000 per life-year saved. On the other hand, pharmaceutical interventions against obesity yield much less social value with incremental social cost-effectiveness ratios around $50,000. Our approach accounts for: competing risks to life expectancy; health care costs; and a variety of non-medical economic consequences (pensions, disability insurance, taxes, and earnings), which account for 20% of the total social cost of these treatments. On balance, bariatric surgery generates substantial private value for those treated, in the form of health and other economic consequences. The net public fiscal effects are modest, primarily because the size of the population eligible for treatment is small while the net social effect is large once improvements in life expectancy are taken into account. PMID:22705389

  14. The Final Stages of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winget, D.

    2014-04-01

    The overwhelming majority of all stars end their lives as white dwarf stars. These stars and their environs have a deep personal significance for humanity: this is the expected fate of our own sun. Once a star becomes a white dwarf, its remaining evolution is best described as an exponential cooling. In the final throws of post-main sequence mass-loss the former stellar core becomes a white dwarf, emerging phoenix-like from amongst the ashes. Some planets may survive and others may form as a sort of second generation from the cast-off material. Life may survive or may be reborn on any planets that remain; life may also arise on newly formed planets. The prospects will depend in a significant way on the timescales of the central white dwarf star's cooling evolution and how its radiation shapes the environment. We will discuss white dwarf evolutionary timescales with an eye towards the potential habitability of planets, both new and old. We will consider the uncertainties in these timescales from both an empirical and a theoretical perspective. We will critique the existing evidence for planets and summarize what we have learned so far through direct imaging and stellar pulsations. We will close with the very bright prospects for the future of planets and life in the final stages.

  15. Arginine, scurvy and Cartier's "tree of life"

    PubMed Central

    Durzan, Don J

    2009-01-01

    Several conifers have been considered as candidates for "Annedda", which was the source for a miraculous cure for scurvy in Jacques Cartier's critically ill crew in 1536. Vitamin C was responsible for the cure of scurvy and was obtained as an Iroquois decoction from the bark and leaves from this "tree of life", now commonly referred to as arborvitae. Based on seasonal and diurnal amino acid analyses of candidate "trees of life", high levels of arginine, proline, and guanidino compounds were also probably present in decoctions prepared in the severe winter. The semi-essential arginine, proline and all the essential amino acids, would have provided additional nutritional benefits for the rapid recovery from scurvy by vitamin C when food supply was limited. The value of arginine, especially in the recovery of the critically ill sailors, is postulated as a source of nitric oxide, and the arginine-derived guanidino compounds as controlling factors for the activities of different nitric oxide synthases. This review provides further insights into the use of the candidate "trees of life" by indigenous peoples in eastern Canada. It raises hypotheses on the nutritional and synergistic roles of arginine, its metabolites, and other biofactors complementing the role of vitamin C especially in treating Cartier's critically ill sailors. PMID:19187550

  16. Unraveling the Complexities of Life Sciences Data.

    PubMed

    Higdon, Roger; Haynes, Winston; Stanberry, Larissa; Stewart, Elizabeth; Yandl, Gregory; Howard, Chris; Broomall, William; Kolker, Natali; Kolker, Eugene

    2013-03-01

    The life sciences have entered into the realm of big data and data-enabled science, where data can either empower or overwhelm. These data bring the challenges of the 5 Vs of big data: volume, veracity, velocity, variety, and value. Both independently and through our involvement with DELSA Global (Data-Enabled Life Sciences Alliance, DELSAglobal.org), the Kolker Lab ( kolkerlab.org ) is creating partnerships that identify data challenges and solve community needs. We specialize in solutions to complex biological data challenges, as exemplified by the community resource of MOPED (Model Organism Protein Expression Database, MOPED.proteinspire.org ) and the analysis pipeline of SPIRE (Systematic Protein Investigative Research Environment, PROTEINSPIRE.org ). Our collaborative work extends into the computationally intensive tasks of analysis and visualization of millions of protein sequences through innovative implementations of sequence alignment algorithms and creation of the Protein Sequence Universe tool (PSU). Pushing into the future together with our collaborators, our lab is pursuing integration of multi-omics data and exploration of biological pathways, as well as assigning function to proteins and porting solutions to the cloud. Big data have come to the life sciences; discovering the knowledge in the data will bring breakthroughs and benefits.

  17. Quality of life in body dysmorphic disorder.

    PubMed

    IsHak, Waguih William; Bolton, Michael A; Bensoussan, Jean-Charles; Dous, George V; Nguyen, Trang T; Powell-Hicks, Allycin L; Gardner, Jennifer E; Ponton, Kimberly M

    2012-12-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) has a significant impact on the patients' quality of life (QOL). This is an initial literature review of QOL in patients with BDD, examining the extent of QOL impairments, the impact of psychiatric comorbidity on QOL, and the effect of treatment on QOL in BDD. Studies were identified through PubMed, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO searches from 1960-2011 using the keywords: "quality of life," "body dysmorphic disorder," "dysmorphophobia," and "body image." Studies included in this review were selected using specific criteria by two authors reaching consensus. Most BDD research studies have used symptom severity measures mainly to study BDD and its treatments. BBD with or without comorbidities is significantly associated with poor QOL and functioning. Studies show that treatment of BDD, either by psychopharmacological treatments such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or cognitive behavior therapy, might have positive effects on QOL, although these results need to be replicated in larger studies. In conclusion, QOL could add significant value to the assessment of BDD if used as one of the primary measures in research and clinical work in BDD, by providing more information and clearer understanding on the impact of the illness on satisfaction with activities of daily life and overall sense of wellbeing before and after treatment.

  18. "Living theatre, theatre of life".

    PubMed

    Wenzel, E

    1987-09-01

    Young people love to play theatre--in one way or another. They like to play with behaviours, costumes, words, communication patterns, etc.; they like to disguise themselves, to create certain spheres and scenes of drama and tragedy, excitement and extacy, satire and irony, morals and decadence. Due to the particular uncertainties of the adolescent passage, youth oscillates between taking life both, too seriously and easy. Searching for identity and integration, they tend to experiment with styles of behaviour and culturally defined patterns of lifestyles conductive to well-being. Sometimes, life is perceived as pure entertainment, and sometimes as pure drama. It's living theatre and theatre of life. On the one hand it is "acting out", on the other hand it is playing precisely defined roles. And, in-between, it is always the question: Who am I? They tend to slip into roles in order to check out whether they are willing to accept their implications with regard to the priorities they have set so far.

  19. The half-life of 237Np

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowles, I. M.; Mac Mahon, T. D.; Wiltshire, R. A. P.; Crossley, D.; Fudge, A. J.

    1992-02-01

    The only available precise measurement of the half-life of 237Np is that of Brauer et al. (J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 12 (1960) 234), which dates from 1960. As a consequence of this radionuclide's importance in fission reactors, the IAEA-CRP requested a confirmatory measurement of the half-life of 237Np. In this present determination the specific activity of 37 sources, prepared from known masses of high purity 237Np solution, have been measured. Accurate concentration analysis of the solution was provided by controlled-potential coulometry. Source activities, in the range 1.0-1.9 kBq. were measured by α-particle counting in two gas flow proportional counters of known geometry. The measured specific activity was 26.03±0.08 Bq μg-1, which corresponds to a half-life of 2.144±0.007 × 106 years, in excellent agreement with the value reported by Brauer et al.

  20. An Examination of Personal Values and Value Systems of Chinese and U.S. Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giacomino, Don E.; Li, Xin; Michael D. Akers,

    2013-01-01

    Using the Rokeach Value Survey and the Musser and Orke typology this paper examines the personal values and value systems of business students in China and compares the results with the results of a recent study that used similar methodology to examine the values and value systems of U.S. students. The study also examines the differences in values…

  1. The Value of Fundamental Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederman, Leon M.

    1984-01-01

    Although the cost of basic science to the taxpayer is only about five percent of the cost of applied research and development, it contributes deeply to technology, the education of scientists, and the general enrichment of the culture. Examples of such research are provided to illustrate these contributions. (JN)

  2. Values Education in the Mathematics Classroom: Subject Values, Educational Values and One Teacher's Articulation of Her Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bills, Liz; Husbands, Chris

    2005-01-01

    The issue of values has been a longstanding concern of mathematics education research. Attempts have been made to analyze the specifically mathematical values which characterize the practice of mathematics teachers. In this paper we draw on one teacher's articulation of her practice to explore values issues in the teaching of mathematics, drawing…

  3. Serpentinite and the dawn of life.

    PubMed

    Sleep, Norman H; Bird, Dennis K; Pope, Emily C

    2011-10-27

    Submarine hydrothermal vents above serpentinite produce chemical potential gradients of aqueous and ionic hydrogen, thus providing a very attractive venue for the origin of life. This environment was most favourable before Earth's massive CO(2) atmosphere was subducted into the mantle, which occurred tens to approximately 100 Myr after the moon-forming impact; thermophile to clement conditions persisted for several million years while atmospheric pCO(2) dropped from approximately 25 bar to below 1 bar. The ocean was weakly acid (pH ∼ 6), and a large pH gradient existed for nascent life with pH 9-11 fluids venting from serpentinite on the seafloor. Total CO(2) in water was significant so the vent environment was not carbon limited. Biologically important phosphate and Fe(II) were somewhat soluble during this period, which occurred well before the earliest record of preserved surface rocks approximately 3.8 billion years ago (Ga) when photosynthetic life teemed on the Earth and the oceanic pH was the modern value of approximately 8. Serpentinite existed by 3.9 Ga, but older rocks that might retain evidence of its presence have not been found. Earth's sequesters extensive evidence of Archaean and younger subducted biological material, but has yet to be exploited for the Hadean record.

  4. Serpentinite and the dawn of life.

    PubMed

    Sleep, Norman H; Bird, Dennis K; Pope, Emily C

    2011-10-27

    Submarine hydrothermal vents above serpentinite produce chemical potential gradients of aqueous and ionic hydrogen, thus providing a very attractive venue for the origin of life. This environment was most favourable before Earth's massive CO(2) atmosphere was subducted into the mantle, which occurred tens to approximately 100 Myr after the moon-forming impact; thermophile to clement conditions persisted for several million years while atmospheric pCO(2) dropped from approximately 25 bar to below 1 bar. The ocean was weakly acid (pH ∼ 6), and a large pH gradient existed for nascent life with pH 9-11 fluids venting from serpentinite on the seafloor. Total CO(2) in water was significant so the vent environment was not carbon limited. Biologically important phosphate and Fe(II) were somewhat soluble during this period, which occurred well before the earliest record of preserved surface rocks approximately 3.8 billion years ago (Ga) when photosynthetic life teemed on the Earth and the oceanic pH was the modern value of approximately 8. Serpentinite existed by 3.9 Ga, but older rocks that might retain evidence of its presence have not been found. Earth's sequesters extensive evidence of Archaean and younger subducted biological material, but has yet to be exploited for the Hadean record. PMID:21930576

  5. Serpentinite and the dawn of life

    PubMed Central

    Sleep, Norman H.; Bird, Dennis K.; Pope, Emily C.

    2011-01-01

    Submarine hydrothermal vents above serpentinite produce chemical potential gradients of aqueous and ionic hydrogen, thus providing a very attractive venue for the origin of life. This environment was most favourable before Earth's massive CO2 atmosphere was subducted into the mantle, which occurred tens to approximately 100 Myr after the moon-forming impact; thermophile to clement conditions persisted for several million years while atmospheric pCO2 dropped from approximately 25 bar to below 1 bar. The ocean was weakly acid (pH ∼ 6), and a large pH gradient existed for nascent life with pH 9–11 fluids venting from serpentinite on the seafloor. Total CO2 in water was significant so the vent environment was not carbon limited. Biologically important phosphate and Fe(II) were somewhat soluble during this period, which occurred well before the earliest record of preserved surface rocks approximately 3.8 billion years ago (Ga) when photosynthetic life teemed on the Earth and the oceanic pH was the modern value of approximately 8. Serpentinite existed by 3.9 Ga, but older rocks that might retain evidence of its presence have not been found. Earth's sequesters extensive evidence of Archaean and younger subducted biological material, but has yet to be exploited for the Hadean record. PMID:21930576

  6. Extension of vector-valued integral polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carando, Daniel; Lassalle, Silvia

    2005-07-01

    We study the extendibility of integral vector-valued polynomials on Banach spaces. We prove that an X-valued Pietsch-integral polynomial on E extends to an X-valued Pietsch-integral polynomial on any space F containing E, with the same integral norm. This is not the case for Grothendieck-integral polynomials: they do not always extend to X-valued Grothendieck-integral polynomials. However, they are extendible to X-valued polynomials. The Aron-Berner extension of an integral polynomial is also studied. A canonical integral representation is given for domains not containing l1.

  7. The value of male height in the marriage market.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Kitae

    2015-07-01

    Analyzing the Indonesian Family Life Survey 2007, this paper estimates the value of relative height (relative to the spouse's height) in the marriage market of a developing country. The results indicate that the value of a 1cm reduction in the husband's height relative to his wife's height is about 3% of his earnings. 3% of the mean of yearly earnings amounts to Rp. 492,000 or US$54 in 2007. That value is reduced to 1% when earnings-generating attributes are controlled for. This difference of 2% points can be considered the value that women attach to their husbands' earnings-generating attributes; meanwhile, the remaining 1% suggests that there are still other attributes that women look for in male height.

  8. The Value of Sustainability Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradfield, Steven L.

    2009-01-01

    This article offers the perspectives of a veteran in the field of sustainability. The author shares the steps in the development, evolution, and management of sustainability and sustainable practices at a leading flooring manufacturer. The author leverages over 20 years of experience in industry to discuss the necessary skills and mindsets to…

  9. The Representational Value of Hats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane M.; Fitzallen, Noleine E.; Wilson, Karen G.; Creed, Julie F.

    2008-01-01

    The literature that is available on the topic of representations in mathematics is vast. One commonly discussed item is graphical representations. From the history of mathematics to modern uses of technology, a variety of graphical forms are available for middle school students to use to represent mathematical ideas. The ideas range from algebraic…

  10. Service life of respirator cartridges for formaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, G.O.; Carlson, G.J.; Johnson, J.S.

    1981-11-20

    To date there is no NIOSH-approved air-purifying respirator which will effectively remove formaldehyde gas. Because of formaldehyde's high vapor pressure, service life values calculated using the adsorption isotherm and Wheeler equations indicate that organic vapor cartridges containing activated carbon will last less than 10 minutes at concentrations greater than 10 ppM. Studies were initiated to identify a suitable sorbent for this potentially dangerous material. The project involves the following steps: develop a method for producing relatively high concentrations (20 ppM) of a formaldehyde test mixture; verify this test concentration using the NIOSH-approved chromotropic acid wet chemical technique; and survey a wide variety of sorbents, both plain and impregnated, in hopes of identifying a suitable air-purifying cartridge for formaldehyde. A dynamic formaldehyde generation system was fabricated in which formaldehyde was produced by continuously injecting formalin using a syringe pump. The concentration was monitored using an infrared analyzer and checked using the chromotropic acid technique. Twenty-five cartridges were tested for service life at concentrations of formaldehyde gas from 7.1 to 14.8 ppM. Acid gas cartridges and those containing Pittsburgh FCA or ASC showed superior service life.

  11. The Automaticity of Social Life.

    PubMed

    Bargh, John A; Williams, Erin L

    2006-02-01

    Much of social life is experienced through mental processes that are not intended and about which one is fairly oblivious. These processes are automatically triggered by features of the immediate social environment, such as the group memberships of other people, the qualities of their behavior, and features of social situations (e.g., norms, one's relative power). Recent research has shown these nonconscious influences to extend beyond the perception and interpretation of the social world to the actual guidance, over extended time periods, of one's important goal pursuits and social interactions.

  12. The Automaticity of Social Life.

    PubMed

    Bargh, John A; Williams, Erin L

    2006-02-01

    Much of social life is experienced through mental processes that are not intended and about which one is fairly oblivious. These processes are automatically triggered by features of the immediate social environment, such as the group memberships of other people, the qualities of their behavior, and features of social situations (e.g., norms, one's relative power). Recent research has shown these nonconscious influences to extend beyond the perception and interpretation of the social world to the actual guidance, over extended time periods, of one's important goal pursuits and social interactions. PMID:18568084

  13. [The value of shockwave lithotripsy].

    PubMed

    Beglinger, C

    1994-03-26

    The standard treatment for symptomatic cholecystolithiasis remains surgery, the present method of choice being laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Noninvasive treatment options are available, but should be restricted to selected cases. Extracorporal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is an alternative to noninvasive treatment, provided the patients are carefully selected. The main disadvantages include prolonged administration of gall salts and the problem of stone recurrence.

  14. Tracing the soul: medical decisions at the margins of life.

    PubMed

    Glannon, W

    2000-04-01

    Most religious traditions hold that what makes one a person is the possession of a soul and that this gives one moral status. This status in turn gives persons interests and rights that delimit the set of actions that are permitted to be done to them. In this paper, I identify the soul with the capacity for consciousness and mental life and examine the ethical aspects of medical decision-making at the beginning and end of life in cases of patients who either never have had or have lost this capacity. I argue that, although these patients may lack moral status, they nonetheless have moral value as human organisms and forms of God-given biological life. In particular, I explore what this value entails about the permissibility of withholding or withdrawing life-sustaining treatment and of harvesting viable organs from patients with no higher-brain function.

  15. The value of shared services.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Beverly B

    2011-07-01

    A multisite shared services organization, combined with a robust business continuity plan, provides infrastructure and redundancies that mitigate risk for hospital CFOs. These structures can position providers to do the following: move essential operations out of a disaster impact zone, if necessary. Allow resources to focus on immediate patient care needs. Take advantage of economies of scale in temporary staffing. Leverage technology. Share in investments in disaster preparedness and business continuity solutions PMID:21789944

  16. The value of customer preference

    SciTech Connect

    Herig, C.; Houston, A.

    1996-05-01

    Customer preference (CP), or green pricing, may be the financial hedge for electric supply industry integration of photovoltaics. CP is currently defined as a voluntary contribution for energy generated with renewable resources. Several utilities have examined the CP financing of renewables through experimental or implemented programs and market research. This paper first expands the concept of customer preference to include both voluntary and involuntary customer contributions. It then categorizes the features of existing and proposed CP programs. The connections between these features and market research and marketing strategies for new product development from a competitive industry are analyzed.

  17. Space Biology: Patterns of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salisbury, Frank B.

    1971-01-01

    Present knowledge about Mars is compared with past beliefs about the planet. Biological experiments that indicate life may exist on Mars are interpreted. Life patterns or biological features that might be postulated for extraterrestrial life are presented at the molecular, cellular, organism, and ecosystem levels. (DS)

  18. The Economic Value of Teeth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glied, Sherry; Neidell, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of oral health on labor market outcomes by exploiting variation in fluoridated water exposure during childhood. The politics surrounding the adoption of water fluoridation by local governments suggests exposure to fluoride is exogenous to other factors affecting earnings. Exposure to fluoridated water increases…

  19. Value of IDEA Ratings Questioned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2010-01-01

    Just as it has every June since 2006, the U.S. Department of Education last month delivered a rating to each state and territory based on the performance of its special education programs. The ratings, intended to fulfill the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act's requirement that "measurable" and "rigorous" targets be met on the 6.7…

  20. The Value of Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seefeldt, Vern; Vogel, Paul

    This booklet summarizes results of research and literature reviews that had been collected in a source book titled "Physical Activity & Well-Being" and published in 1986 by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education. The evidence presented suggests that exercise can reduce or delay the undesirable effects of many degenerative…

  1. VALUING LOST HOME PRODUCTION OF DUAL EARNER COUPLES*

    PubMed Central

    House, Christopher L.; Laitner, John; Stolyarov, Dmitriy

    2009-01-01

    Using a life-cycle model in which women divide their time between home and market work, we establish a link between retirement wealth and the value of forgone home production. We use data from the Health and Retirement Study to estimate the model’s parameters and adjust the growth rate of GDP to reflect reductions in non-market output. We find that the value of forgone home production is modest – about 25 percent of women’s measured earnings. PMID:20052402

  2. Associative learning of social value

    PubMed Central

    Behrens, Timothy EJ; Hunt, Laurence T; Woolrich, Mark W; Rushworth, Matthew FS

    2008-01-01

    Our decisions are guided by information learnt from our environment. This information may come via personal experiences of reward, but also from the behaviour of social partners1, 2. Social learning is widely held to be distinct from other forms of learning in its mechanism and neural implementation; it is often assumed to compete with simpler mechanisms, such as reward-based associative learning, to drive behaviour3. Recently however, neural signals have been observed during social exchange reminiscent of signals seen in associative paradigms4. Here, we demonstrate that social information may be acquired using the same associative processes assumed to underlie reward-based learning. We find that key computational variables for learning in the social and reward domains are processed in a similar fashion, but in parallel neural processing streams. Two neighbouring divisions of the anterior cingulate cortex were central to learning about social and reward-based information, and for determining the extent to which each source of information guides behaviour. When making a decision, however, the information learnt using these parallel streams was combined within ventromedial prefrontal cortex. These findings suggest that human social valuation can be realised via the same associative processes previously established for learning other, simpler, features of the environment. PMID:19005555

  3. A Consideratlon of Life Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Keiko

    This paper is a record of Special Lecture at the awarding ceremony of the 22nd “Niwa Prize”. Lecturer describes the mechanism in biology, taking a biology as an information system. For instance, when we make a protain by genes, every substance like hormones and nezymes, which were made by genes, has information. The system of biology moves by the fact that an gene dose not move itself, but substances with information go around in the body. From the viewpoint of life sciences, lecturer proposes the necessity to reconsider information as a linkage of heart and substance.

  4. Value of Wind Power Forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, D.; Milligan, M.; Jordan, G.; Piwko, R.

    2011-04-01

    This study, building on the extensive models developed for the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS), uses these WECC models to evaluate the operating cost impacts of improved day-ahead wind forecasts.

  5. [Value of simulation in pediatrics].

    PubMed

    Oriot, D; Boureau-Voultoury, A; Ghazali, A; Brèque, C; Scépi, M

    2013-06-01

    The authors present the concepts of simulation and its utilization in pediatrics. Simulation in medicine is a teaching method that has not yet been developed in Europe and has not spread in pediatrics in France. Motivations for simulation are first and foremost ethical: "Never the first time on patients!" Simulation also provides benefits in teaching communication skills and theoretical concepts. It is an essential means to maintain patient safety by limiting the risk of errors. It covers teaching procedures requiring realistic models such as in teaching communication and crisis resource management. Simulation can also be used for teaching disclosure of bad news, using actors. Simulation skills are acquired during debriefing, when the supervisor acts as a facilitator. Evaluation is mandatory in simulation, dependent on the how realistic the models are and on the performance of a procedure or multidisciplinary team management. Performance can be objectively assessed only with validated tools. Simulation will become a mandatory teaching method in medicine.

  6. Exobiology and the origin of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.; Khare, B. N.

    1976-01-01

    Abstracts on planetary studies and the search for extraterrestrial life are presented. Studies of the Jovian atmosphere were conducted. An assessment of the prospects for life on Mars is presented. And, the the means of contacting extraterrestrial civilizations is discussed.

  7. METHOD OF PREPARING PROTACTINIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Katzin, L.I.; Larson, R.G.; Thompson, R.C.; Van Winkle, Q.

    1959-05-19

    Separation and purification from initial acid leaches of pitchblende of Pa is described. This supernatant acid solution is treated with alkali metal carbonates to precipitate Pa. Silica is removed from the precipitate by hydroxide treatment. The Pa residue is dissolved in HNO/sub 3/ and Pa is concentrated by cyclic precipitations with MnO/sub 2/. The last solution is hydrolyzed to precipitate Pa. The Pa precipitate contains Ti and Zr which are removed by ion exchange. (T.R.H.)

  8. Early Predictors of Alcohol Abuse: A Study of the Relationships Between Interests, Values and Personality Variables From the 1960 TALENT Data Base and Alcohol Abuse in Later Life. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Richard A.

    In 1960, Project TALENT gathered demographic, cognitive, and socio-pyschological data from a nationwide sample of high school students. In addition, responses from a saturation sample of 16,000 cases in Knox County, Tennessee were collected. The relationships between attitudes, personality traits, and subsequent alcohol abuse (as shown by Knox…

  9. Patients’ Perceptions of the Value of Current Vision

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Objective To improve understanding and awareness of the impact of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNV) on health-related quality of life, we sought to measure the preference value that patients with subfoveal CNV assigned to their health and vision status. Patients and Methods Patients with subfoveal CNV completed telephone interviews about their quality of life prior to enrollment and random treatment assignment in the Submacular Surgery Trials, a set of multi-center randomized controlled trials evaluating outcomes of submacular surgery compared with observation. The interviewers asked patients to rate their current vision on a scale from 0 (completely blind) to 100 (perfect vision). The interviewers also asked them to rate complete blindness and then perfect vision, assuming their health otherwise was the same as it was at the time of the interview, on a scale from 0 (dead) to 100 (perfect health with perfect vision). Scores were converted to a 0 to 1 preference value scale for health and vision status, where 0 represents death and 1 represents perfect health and vision. Results Of 1015 participants enrolled in the Submacular Surgery Trials, 996 completed interviews that included the rating questions, and 792 (80%) answered all 3 rating questions in a manner permitting calculation of a single overall preference value for their current health and vision status on a scale from 0 (dead) to 1 (perfect). The mean preference value was 0.64 (median, 0.68; interquartile range, 0.51–0.80). The preference values correlated with age (Pearson correlation coefficient, −0.11; P=.002), patients’ self-rated perception of overall health (Spearman correlation coefficient, 0.36; P<.001), and self-reported perception of vision (Spearman correlation coefficient, 0.47; P<.001). The preference values were significantly lower with poorer visual acuity in the better eye and greater evidence of dysfunction on either the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale or the Physical

  10. Therapists Value of Interprofessional Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Vries, Dawn R.

    2012-01-01

    The work of occupational (OT), physical (PT), and recreational therapists (RT), as well as speech- language pathologists (SLP), is interrelated and requires effective teamwork and collaboration to optimize patient outcomes and satisfaction. Literature shows that health care professionals are ill prepared to work in an interprofessional manner due…

  11. The Value of Work Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahooty, David; Rainer, Lillian

    1999-01-01

    Internships enable secondary and college students to gain experience, learn how an agency functions, and establish a network of contacts within organizations. Thirty-two summer internships, co-ops, and minority school programs are listed alphabetically. Each entry contains a brief program description, prerequisites, deadline for applications, and…

  12. Towards the bibliography of life

    PubMed Central

    King, David; Morse, David R.; Willis, Alistair; Dil, Anton

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper discusses how we intend to take forward the vision of a Bibliography of Life in the ViBRANT project. The underlying principle of the Bibliography is to provide taxonomists and others with a freely accessible bibliography covering the whole of life. Such a bibliography has been achieved for specific study areas within taxonomy, but not for “life” as a whole. The creation of such a comprehensive tool has been hindered by various social and technical issues. The social concerns focus on the willingness of users to contribute to the Bibliography. The technical concerns relate to the architecture required to deliver the Bibliography. These issues are discussed in the paper and approaches to addressing them within the ViBRANT project are described, to demonstrate how we can now seriously consider building a Bibliography of Life. We are particularly interested in the potential of the resulting tool to improve the quality of bibliographic references. Through analysing the large number of references in the Bibliography we will be able to add metadata by resolving known issues such as geographical name variations. This should result in a tool that will assist taxonomists in two ways. Firstly, it will be easier for them to discover relevant literature, especially pre-digital literature; and secondly, it will be easier for them to identify the canonical form for a citation The paper also covers related issues relevant to building the tool in ViBRANT, including implementation and copyright, with suggestions as to how we could address them. PMID:22207811

  13. Life cycle assessment of gasoline blending options.

    PubMed

    Mata, Teresa M; Smith, Raymond L; Young, Douglas M; Costa, Carlos A V

    2003-08-15

    A life cycle assessment has been done to compare the potential environmental impacts of various gasoline blends that meet octane and vapor pressure specifications. The main blending components of alkylate, cracked gasoline, and reformate have different octane and vapor pressure values as well as different potential environmental impacts. Because the octane and vapor pressure values are nonlinearly related to impacts, the results of this study show that some blends are better for the environment than others. To determine blending component compositions, simulations of a reformer were done at various operating conditions. The reformate products of these simulations had a wide range of octane values and potential environmental impacts. Results of the study indicate that for low-octane gasoline (95 Research Octane Number), lower reformer temperatures and pressures generally decrease the potential environmental impacts. However, different results are obtained for high-octane gasoline (98 RON), where increasing reformer temperatures and pressures increase the reformate octane values faster than the potential environmental impacts. The higher octane values for reformate allow blends to have less reformate, and therefore high-octane gasoline can have lower potential environmental impacts when the reformer is operated at higher temperatures and pressures. In the blends studied, reformate and cracked gasoline have the highest total impacts, of which photochemical ozone creation is the largest contributor (assuming all impact categories are equally weighted). Alkylate has a much lower total potential environmental impact but does have higher impact values for human toxicity by ingestion, aquatic toxicity, terrestrial toxicity, and acidification. Therefore, depending on environmental priorities, different gasoline blends and operating conditions should be chosen to meet octane and vapor pressure specifications.

  14. Life table of Paederus fuscipes (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae).

    PubMed

    Bong, Lee-Jin; Neoh, Kok-Boon; Jaal, Zairi; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2012-05-01

    The life history characteristics of the rove beetle Paederus fuscipes Curtis were studied under laboratory conditions using three field strains from Malaysia: Desa Wawasan (DW), Sri Pinang (SP), and Ampang Jajar (AJ). The total development time of immature stages differed significantly among the three strains, especially between DW (17.43 +/- 0.16 d), SP (18.60 +/- 0.19 d), and AJ (18.68 +/- 0.22 d). Adult females and males from DW also exhibited a shorter life span, although the difference among strains was not significant. In terms of fecundity, the numbers of eggs laid per female for DW, SP, and AJ were 121.28 +/- 15.98, 127.30 +/- 18.01, and 147.45 +/- 17.12, respectively. Additionally, because of the shorter life span in DW strain, two apparent peaks in age-stage specific fecundity were detected. The beetles compensated for their shorter life span by increasing their reproductive activity to sustain the progeny in the population. The intrinsic rates of increase (r) of P. fuscipes from DW, SP, and AJ were 0.0773 +/- 0.0046 d(-1), 0.0788 +/- 0.0051 d(-1), and 0.0873 +/- 0.0054 d(-1), respectively; and the net reproduction rates (R0) were 40.09 +/- 7.39 offspring, 45.29 +/- 8.74 offspring, and 42.34 +/- 8.25 offspring, respectively. The mean generation time of P. fuscipes from AJ was 43.08 +/- 1.07 d, which was significantly higher than that from DW (47.95 +/- 1.36 d) and SP (48.57 +/- 1.43 d). The total immature development time of P. fuscipes in this study was shorter than values reported in previous studies.

  15. Strong or Weak Handgrip? Normative Reference Values for the German Population across the Life Course Stratified by Sex, Age, and Body Height

    PubMed Central

    Steiber, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Handgrip strength is an important biomarker of healthy ageing and a powerful predictor of future morbidity and mortality both in younger and older populations. Therefore, the measurement of handgrip strength is increasingly used as a simple but efficient screening tool for health vulnerability. This study presents normative reference values for handgrip strength in Germany for use in research and clinical practice. It is the first study to provide normative data across the life course that is stratified by sex, age, and body height. The study used a nationally representative sample of test participants ages 17–90. It was based on pooled data from five waves of the German Socio-Economic Panel (2006–2014) and involved a total of 11,790 persons living in Germany (providing 25,285 observations). Handgrip strength was measured with a Smedley dynamometer. Results showed that peak mean values of handgrip strength are reached in men’s and women’s 30s and 40s after which handgrip strength declines in linear fashion with age. Following published recommendations, the study used a cut-off at 2 SD below the sex-specific peak mean value across the life course to define a ‘weak grip’. Less than 10% of women and men aged 65–69 were classified as weak according to this definition, shares increasing to about half of the population aged 80–90. Based on survival analysis that linked handgrip strength to a relevant outcome, however, a ‘critically weak grip’ that warrants further examination was estimated to commence already at 1 SD below the group-specific mean value. PMID:27701433

  16. Value of global weather sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1998-12-23

    Long-range weather predictions have great scientific and economic potential, but require precise global observations. Small balloon transponders could serve as lagrangian trace particles to measure the vector wind, which is the primary input to long-range numerical forecasts. The wind field is difficult to measure; it is at present poorly sampled globally. Distance measuring equipment (DME) triangulation of signals from roughly a million transponders could sample it with sufficient accuracy to support {approximately} two week forecasts. Such forecasts would have great scientific and economic potential which is estimated below. DME uses small, low-power transmitters on each transponder to broadcast short, low-power messages that are detected by several small receivers and forwarded to the ground station for processing of position, velocity, and state information. Thus, the transponder is little more than a balloon with a small radio, which should only weigh a few grams and cost a few dollars.

  17. [Three Essential Shared Capabilities for Young Psychiatrists: Brain, Real-world, and Life-course Principles toward Values-based Psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Kasai, Kiyoto

    2015-01-01

    The discipline of psychiatry promotes well-being and recovery based on a comprehensive understanding of the patient from the perspectives of the brain, real-world, and life-course. Pursuant to efforts toward addressing social issues at a regional and national level, it is assumed that the psychiatrist can assist individuals based on an understanding of these three perspectives. This tripartite relationship goes beyond the history of extreme reductionism in neuroscience and the aftermath resulting from the anti-psychiatry movement to provide a foundation for the development of psychiatry and a theoretical groundwork for such basic psychiatric issues as what role pharmacotherapy plays in psychiatric treatment, just why the lives of people living in the community are thought to be important to an individual's well-being, and just what constitutes recovery. Humans have come to possess highly developed brain and mental functions as a result of the adaptation to the social environment that takes place as part of the evolutionary process. While mental functions are thus dictated in large part by evolution of the brain, they also consist of important features that are not attributable to reductionist models of the brain. That is, human mental functioning forms a foundation for metacognition and sophisticated language functions, and through interactions with others and society, one's mental functioning allows for further brain transformation and development (self-regulation of mental functions). Humans develop their own brain and mental functions through mutual exchanges with others, and their dealings with other people and society form their individual modes of living in the real-world. The human brain and mental functions have evolved in such a way as to provide for a better mode of living. Accordingly, for the individual, the makeup of his or her mode of living in the real-world is the source of the well-being that serves to support that individual's values. The

  18. [Three Essential Shared Capabilities for Young Psychiatrists: Brain, Real-world, and Life-course Principles toward Values-based Psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Kasai, Kiyoto

    2015-01-01

    The discipline of psychiatry promotes well-being and recovery based on a comprehensive understanding of the patient from the perspectives of the brain, real-world, and life-course. Pursuant to efforts toward addressing social issues at a regional and national level, it is assumed that the psychiatrist can assist individuals based on an understanding of these three perspectives. This tripartite relationship goes beyond the history of extreme reductionism in neuroscience and the aftermath resulting from the anti-psychiatry movement to provide a foundation for the development of psychiatry and a theoretical groundwork for such basic psychiatric issues as what role pharmacotherapy plays in psychiatric treatment, just why the lives of people living in the community are thought to be important to an individual's well-being, and just what constitutes recovery. Humans have come to possess highly developed brain and mental functions as a result of the adaptation to the social environment that takes place as part of the evolutionary process. While mental functions are thus dictated in large part by evolution of the brain, they also consist of important features that are not attributable to reductionist models of the brain. That is, human mental functioning forms a foundation for metacognition and sophisticated language functions, and through interactions with others and society, one's mental functioning allows for further brain transformation and development (self-regulation of mental functions). Humans develop their own brain and mental functions through mutual exchanges with others, and their dealings with other people and society form their individual modes of living in the real-world. The human brain and mental functions have evolved in such a way as to provide for a better mode of living. Accordingly, for the individual, the makeup of his or her mode of living in the real-world is the source of the well-being that serves to support that individual's values. The

  19. Only six kingdoms of life.

    PubMed Central

    Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    There are many more phyla of microbes than of macro-organisms, but microbial biodiversity is poorly understood because most microbes are uncultured. Phylogenetic analysis of rDNA sequences cloned after PCR amplification of DNA extracted directly from environmental samples is a powerful way of exploring our degree of ignorance of major groups. As there are only five eukaryotic kingdoms, two claims using such methods for numerous novel 'kingdom-level' lineages among anaerobic eukaryotes would be remarkable, if true. By reanalysing those data with 167 known species (not merely 8-37), I identified relatives for all 8-10 'mysterious' lineages. All probably belong to one of five already recognized phyla (Amoebozoa, Cercozoa, Apusozoa, Myzozoa, Loukozoa) within the basal kingdom Protozoa, mostly in known classes, sometimes even in known orders, families or genera. This strengthens the idea that the ancestral eukaryote was a mitochondrial aerobe. Analogous claims of novel bacterial divisions or kingdoms may reflect the weak resolution and grossly non-clock-like evolution of ribosomal rRNA, not genuine phylum-level biological disparity. Critical interpretation of environmental DNA sequences suggests that our overall picture of microbial biodiversity at phylum or division level is already rather good and comprehensive and that there are no uncharacterized kingdoms of life. However, immense lower-level diversity remains to be mapped, as does the root of the tree of life. PMID:15306349

  20. Folklore: A Tapestry of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Linda C.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the value of introducing folklore into the curriculum to help students learn about their sense of place in the community. Describes various pertinent Web sites, including the American Folklife Center of the Library of Congress, the American Folklore Society, and the Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage. (LRW)