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Sample records for value of life

  1. The value of life and the value of life extension.

    PubMed

    Horrobin, Steven

    2006-05-01

    Recent developments in aging research have added new urgency to the bioethical debate concerning life and death issues, the value of life, and the reasonable limits of medicine. This paper analyzes the basic structures of the liberal and conservative components of this debate, showing that there has hitherto been inadequate analysis on both sides concerning the nature and implications of the value of life, as well as, and as distinct from the value of life extension. Classic concepts of the intrinsic or extrinsic value of life are argued to be tangential or actually irrelevant to the value of life's continuance and so to the value of life extension. An analysis of personhood is proposed which focuses explicitly upon the value of life extension to persons. This analysis shows that persons may only intelligibly be understood as processes, for whom life extension is an inalienable and fundamental value. It is further proposed that, properly understood, such an analysis may significantly narrow the liberal/conservative divide in bioethics.

  2. Valuing vaccines using value of statistical life measures.

    PubMed

    Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Jamison, Dean T; Krupnick, Alan J; Norheim, Ole F

    2014-09-03

    Vaccines are effective tools to improve human health, but resources to pursue all vaccine-related investments are lacking. Benefit-cost and cost-effectiveness analysis are the two major methodological approaches used to assess the impact, efficiency, and distributional consequences of disease interventions, including those related to vaccinations. Childhood vaccinations can have important non-health consequences for productivity and economic well-being through multiple channels, including school attendance, physical growth, and cognitive ability. Benefit-cost analysis would capture such non-health benefits; cost-effectiveness analysis does not. Standard cost-effectiveness analysis may grossly underestimate the benefits of vaccines. A specific willingness-to-pay measure is based on the notion of the value of a statistical life (VSL), derived from trade-offs people are willing to make between fatality risk and wealth. Such methods have been used widely in the environmental and health literature to capture the broader economic benefits of improving health, but reservations remain about their acceptability. These reservations remain mainly because the methods may reflect ability to pay, and hence be discriminatory against the poor. However, willingness-to-pay methods can be made sensitive to income distribution by using appropriate income-sensitive distributional weights. Here, we describe the pros and cons of these methods and how they compare against standard cost-effectiveness analysis using pure health metrics, such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), in the context of vaccine priorities. We conclude that if appropriately used, willingness-to-pay methods will not discriminate against the poor, and they can capture important non-health benefits such as financial risk protection, productivity gains, and economic wellbeing.

  3. Frederick Douglass & the Value of My Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adisa, Opal Palmer

    1996-01-01

    Describes how Frederick Douglass's "Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave" can be used to explore differences between biography and autobiography, and how a personal account can be used to change attitudes of others. Presents poems written by 10th- and 11th-grade students composed after reading Douglass's…

  4. Conditions of Life and Parental Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Ailsa; And Others

    Kohn's work on the relationship between social class and parental values was expanded by searching for value dimensions other than Kohn's self-direction/conformity construct and by investigating three aspects of social structure: immigrant status, quality of neighborhood, and housing type. Data were collected from parents of 305 9- to 11-year-old…

  5. Types of Meaningfulness of Life and Values of Future Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salikhova, Nailia R.

    2016-01-01

    The leading role of meaning of life in regulation of human's activity of all types provides the relevance of the research. The goal of the paper is to identify and describe types of meaningfulness of life in future teachers, and to reveal the specificity of values hierarchy indicative of each type. The leading approach applied in the research was…

  6. Life and Work Values of Counselor Trainees: A National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busacca, Louis A.; Beebe, Ronald S.; Toman, Sarah M.

    2010-01-01

    This national web-based study used the Schwartz Value Survey (Schwartz, 1994) and Super's Work Values Inventory-Revised (Zytowski, n.d.) to identify general life and work value orientations of 674 female and male entry-level counselor trainees residing in 27 states. In general, trainees emphasized benevolence, self-direction, and achievement and…

  7. Health as a Life Value of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsvetkova, I. V.

    2006-01-01

    This article is based on materials from a questionnaire survey of tenth-graders in the city of Toliatti [Togliatti], conducted by the monitoring division of the Resource Center of the Department of Education. A total of 958 adolescents in eighteen schools took part in the survey in March and April 2005. Nine schools served as "base"…

  8. The economic value of life: linking theory to practice.

    PubMed

    Landefeld, J S; Seskin, E P

    1982-06-01

    Human capital estimates of the economic value of life have been routinely used in the past to perform cost-benefit analyses of health programs. Recently, however, serious questions have been raised concerning the conceptual basis for valuing human life by applying these estimates. Most economists writing on these issues tend to agree that a more conceptually correct method to value risks to human life in cost-benefit analyses would be based on individuals.' "willingness to pay" for small changes in their probability of survival. Attempts to implement the willingness-to-pay approach using survey responses or revealed-preference estimates have produced a confusing array of values fraught with statistical problems and measurement difficulties. As a result, economists have searched for a link between willingness to pay and standard human capital estimates and have found that for most individuals a lower bound for valuing risks to life can be based on their willingness to pay to avoid the expected economic losses associated with death. However, while these studies provide support for using individual's private valuation of forgone income in valuing risks to life, it is also clear that standard human capital estimates cannot be used for this purpose without reformulation. After reviewing the major approaches to valuing risks to life, this paper concludes that estimates based on the human capital approach--reformulated using a willingness-to-pay criterion--produce the only clear, consistent, and objective values for use in cost-benefit analyses of policies affecting risks to life. The paper presents the first empirical estimates of such adjusted willingness-to-pay/human capital values.

  9. The economic value of life: linking theory to practice.

    PubMed Central

    Landefeld, J S; Seskin, E P

    1982-01-01

    Human capital estimates of the economic value of life have been routinely used in the past to perform cost-benefit analyses of health programs. Recently, however, serious questions have been raised concerning the conceptual basis for valuing human life by applying these estimates. Most economists writing on these issues tend to agree that a more conceptually correct method to value risks to human life in cost-benefit analyses would be based on individuals.' "willingness to pay" for small changes in their probability of survival. Attempts to implement the willingness-to-pay approach using survey responses or revealed-preference estimates have produced a confusing array of values fraught with statistical problems and measurement difficulties. As a result, economists have searched for a link between willingness to pay and standard human capital estimates and have found that for most individuals a lower bound for valuing risks to life can be based on their willingness to pay to avoid the expected economic losses associated with death. However, while these studies provide support for using individual's private valuation of forgone income in valuing risks to life, it is also clear that standard human capital estimates cannot be used for this purpose without reformulation. After reviewing the major approaches to valuing risks to life, this paper concludes that estimates based on the human capital approach--reformulated using a willingness-to-pay criterion--produce the only clear, consistent, and objective values for use in cost-benefit analyses of policies affecting risks to life. The paper presents the first empirical estimates of such adjusted willingness-to-pay/human capital values. PMID:6803602

  10. The Transformation of the Value of Life: Dispossession as Torture.

    PubMed

    Abadía-Barrero, César E

    2015-01-01

    Workers at the oldest maternity hospital in Colombia experienced the privatization of health care and the flexibilization of their labor. Drawing on their experience, I illustrate how neoliberalism transforms the value of life. This transformation occurs first in terms of its moral worth: the worth of life changes over time, as people and public hospitals are stigmatized as the 'living memory' of the old. Second, the hospital buildings, the land on which they sit, and the roles of workers within the hospital are all transformed. Both similarities and differences emerge between a type of systemic or chronic violence that is inherent to the capitalist system and modern practices of torture. Examining how capitalist forces transform the value of life opens up new fields of inquiry to study links between critical political economy and subjectivity.

  11. Roy's specific life values and the philosophical assumption of humanism.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Debra R

    2013-01-01

    Roy's philosophical assumption of humanism, which is shaped by the veritivity assumption, is considered in terms of her specific life values and in contrast to the contemporary view of humanism. Like veritivity, Roy's philosophical assumption of humanism unites a theocentric focus with anthropological values. Roy's perspective enriches the mainly secular, anthropocentric assumption. In this manuscript, the basis for Roy's perspective of humanism will be discussed so that readers will be able to use the Roy adaptation model in an authentic manner.

  12. Immigrant Status and the Value of Statistical Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersch, Joni; Viscusi, W. Kip

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the Current Population Survey and the New Immigrant Survey, this paper examines the common perception that immigrants are concentrated in high-risk jobs for which they receive little wage compensation. Compared to native U.S. workers, non-Mexican immigrants are not at higher risk and have substantial values of statistical life.…

  13. The concept of the person and the value of life.

    PubMed

    Harris, John

    1999-12-01

    The concept of the person has come to be intimately connected with questions about the value of life. It is applied to those sorts of beings who have some special value or moral importance and where we need to prioritize the needs or claims of different sorts of individuals. "Person" is a concept designating individuals like us in some important respects, but possibly including individuals who are very unlike us in other respects. What are these respects and why are they important? This paper sets out to answer these questions and to develop a coherent and useful concept of the person.

  14. The Value of Analog Research in the Search for Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voytek, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    All we know about life and our understanding of its distribution throughout the Universe is based on our understanding of how life originated and evolved, and how it has persisted here on Earth. As we have refined our list of requirements for earth-like organisms and explored the limits of our biosphere, a variety of possible extraterrestrial habitats that could support life have emerged. Although our access to other potentially habitable worlds is limited, we continue to increase our understanding of the environmental conditions on bodies in our solar system which can inform our search for appropriate analogue sites. There is no perfect analogue for other planetary habitable environments on Earth. Earth is a planet with plate tectonics, a hydrological cycle, a thick atmosphere and stronger gravity than most candidate systems. Moreover, present day Earth is a verdant, interconnected system resulting from billions of years of biosphere evolution. Such differences pose a challenge to analogue research and in particular limit the interpretation of the environment under study in important ways. Earth's extreme environments have been proposed as analogues of planetary environments. A common error is to assume if an environment is extreme or it is cold and dry it will make an excellent analogue site. The value of an analogue site is measured by a good assessment of the relevance of a site with rigorous attention to its Earth-based limitations is necessary and it will have different impacts depending on the question under study. Additionally, modern and ancient systems on earth can also be investigated in order to target a future search for as yet undetected terrestrial features and processes that preserve or indicate signs of past life. Despite any limitations, analogue research is essential and field research at these terrestrial sites represents a growing aspect of planetary science. Those relevant to the search for life are supported by NASA's Planetary Science

  15. Living the Good (Work) Life: Implications of General Values for Work Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlstrom, Aaron H.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in the understanding of general values from personality and social psychology apply to work values. In this paper, I introduce the concepts of values, value priorities, motivational goals, value types, and personal value systems used to clarify work values. I also introduce the terms basic and broad value and work value types. Second, I…

  16. Life Plans and Values of High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tittle, Carol Kehr

    Theories of career decision-making and occupational choice have not been well-related to the life course of the majority of women. The relationship between career and life planning variables in the areas of education, marriage, parenthood, and work were examined through interviews with urban white, black, and Hispanic eleventh grade students…

  17. The Added Value of Medical Testing in Underwriting Life Insurance

    PubMed Central

    Bronsema, Jan; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2015-01-01

    Background In present-day life-insurance medical underwriting practice the risk assessment starts with a standard health declaration (SHD). Indication for additional medical screening depends predominantly on age and amount of insured capital. From a medical perspective it is questionable whether there is an association between the level of insured capital and medical risk in terms of mortality. The aim of the study is to examine the prognostic value of parameters from the health declaration and application form on extra mortality based on results from additional medical testing. Methods A history register-based cohort study was conducted including about 15.000 application files accepted between 2007 and 2010. Blood pressure, lipids, cotinine and glucose levels were used as dependent variables in logistic regression models. Resampling validation was applied using 250 bootstrap samples to calculate area under the curves (AUC’s). The AUC was used to discriminate between persons with and without at least 25% extra mortality. Results BMI and the overall assessment of the health declaration by an insurance physician or medical underwriter showed the strongest discrimination in multivariable analysis. Including all variables at minimum cut-off levels resulted in an AUC of 0.710 while by using a model with BMI, the assessment of the health declaration and gender, the AUC was 0.708. Including all variables at maximum cut-off levels lead to an AUC of 0.743 while a model with BMI, the assessment of the health declaration and age resulted in an AUC of 0.741. Conclusions The outcome of this study shows that BMI and the overall assessment of the health declaration were the dominant variables to discriminate between applicants for life-insurance with and without at least 25 percent extra mortality. The variable insured capital set by insurers as factor for additional medical testing could not be established in this study population. The indication for additional medical

  18. The Impact of a Sport-Based Life Skill Program on Adolescent Prosocial Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunelle, John; Danish, Steven J.; Forneris, Tanya

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the implementation and evaluation of a sport-based life skills and community service program. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the impact of a combined life skills and community service program on adolescents' prosocial values. The program was part of a national golf and life skills enrichment academy for…

  19. Personal spiritual values and quality of life: evidence from Chinese college students.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kaili Chen; Hui, C Harry; Lam, Jasmine; Lau, Esther Yuet Ying; Cheung, Shu-Fai; Mok, Doris Shui Ying

    2014-08-01

    Values are guiding principles in our life. While some studies found spiritual values to be "healthier," Sagiv and Schwartz (Eur J Soc Psychol 30:177-198, 2000) showed that people holding non-spiritual values were higher on affective well-being. We examined the predictive power of these two types of values with a longitudinal data set collected from Chinese students mainly in Hong Kong. Structural equation modeling revealed that spiritual values (as well as family income) positively predicted quality of life a year later. Non-spiritual, self-enhancement values, did not show any association. Results suggest that developing spiritual values may promote well-being through enabling individuals to find meaning and purpose in life.

  20. [Towards an universal biolaw? Biolaw in action and funcionalization of human life's value].

    PubMed

    Albert, Marta

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyzes the question of the universal biolaw from the point of view of the biojuridical praxis. The main problems concerning life's protection are found in the process of interpretation and re-creation of the norms (not in their literal texts) regulating the right to life and new rights, as personal autonomy. But it is also at this sphere where the possibilities of an universal biolaw founded on the funcionalization of the human life value are to be found.

  1. Estimates and Projections of Value of Life Lost From Cancer Deaths in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Cathy J.; Mariotto, Angela B.; Brown, Martin L.; Feuer, Eric J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Value-of-life methods are increasingly used in policy analyses of the economic burden of disease. The purpose of this study was to estimate and project the value of life lost from cancer deaths in the United States. Methods We estimated and projected US age-specific mortality rates for all cancers and for 16 types of cancer in men and 18 cancers in women in the years 2000–2020 and applied them to US population projections to estimate the number of deaths in each year. Cohort life tables were used to calculate the remaining life expectancy in the absence of cancer deaths—the person-years of life lost (PYLL). We used a willingness-to-pay approach in which the value of life lost due to cancer death was calculated by multiplying PYLL by an estimate of the value of 1 year of life ($150 000). We performed sensitivity analyses for female breast, colorectal, lung, and prostate cancers using varying assumptions about future cancer mortality rates through the year 2020. Results The value of life lost from all cancer deaths in the year 2000 was $960.6 billion; lung cancer alone represented more than 25% of this value. Projections for the year 2020 with current cancer mortality rates showed a 53% increase in the total value of life lost ($1472.5 billion). Projected annual decreases of cancer mortality rates of 2% reduced the expected value of life lost in the year 2020 from $121.0 billion to $80.7 billion for breast cancer, $140.1 billion to $93.5 billion for colorectal cancer, from $433.4 billion to $289.4 billion for lung cancer, and from $58.4 billion to $39.0 billion for prostate cancer. Conclusions Estimated value of life lost due to cancer deaths in the United States is substantial and expected to increase dramatically, even if mortality rates remain constant, because of expected population changes. These estimates and projections may help target investments in cancer control strategies to tumor sites that are likely to result in the greatest burden of

  2. What Are You Worth? The Value of a Human Life and Its Impact on Personnel Recovery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    examination of value of life discussions in fields such as bioethics and actuarial science. The study then explores the impact of value of life on three...discussions in fields such as bioethics and actuarial science. The study then explores the impact of value of life on three key decisions: the... bioethics is that life has intrinsic value.31 According to                                                              25 Mark Bowden, Black Hawk Down (New

  3. The Effect of Urban Life on Traditional Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Claude S.

    1975-01-01

    Three models are elaborated that predict an association between urbanism and nontraditional behavior. Secondary analysis of American survey data on religiosity, church attendance, and attitudes toward alcohol and birth control confirm the general urbanism-deviance association and suggest the accuracy of the model which regards such behavior as due…

  4. Valuing end-of-life care in the United States: the case of new cancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Sorenson, Corinna

    2012-10-01

    New cancer therapies offer the hope of improved diagnosis to patients with life-threatening disease. Over the past 5-10 years, a number of specialty drugs have entered clinical practice to provide better systemic therapy for advanced cancers that respond to few therapeutic alternatives. To date, however, such advances have been only modestly effective in extending life and come with a high price tag, raising questions about their value for money, patient access and implications for health care costs. This article explores some of the key issues present in valuing end-of-life care in the United States in the case of advanced cancer drugs, from the difficult trade-offs between their limited health benefits and high costs to the technical, political and social challenges in assessing their value and applying such evidence to inform policy and practice. A number of initial steps are discussed that could be pursued to improve the value of advanced cancer care.

  5. The value of life in English law: revered but not sacred?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Terms such as sanctity and inviolability have failed to provide a legally coherent or ethically sound principle upon which to determine the scope of the intrinsic value of life against extrinsic, quality‐of‐life considerations in a medical context. In their recent work, Margaret Brazier and Suzanne Ost introduce a new term, reverence for life, which they suggest may be more appropriate when attempting to navigate the murky waters of the meaning of life and the value that should be attached to it. They suggest that reverence should be utilised as an alternative that better reflects the nuances and the realities of the dilemma. This paper explores the existing difficulties before considering how the principle of reverence might provide a principled compromise over when the presumption in favour of preserving life should be rebutted. PMID:28111491

  6. The effect of values and culture on life-support decisions.

    PubMed Central

    Klessig, J

    1992-01-01

    Withdrawing life support is always difficult. When patients and health professionals are from different ethnic backgrounds, value systems that form the basis for such decisions may conflict. Many cultural groups do not place the same emphasis on patient autonomy and self-determination that Western society does and find the idea of terminating life support offensive. Although physicians should never assume patients will respond in a particular way because of their ethnic background, issues of life support should be discussed in a culturally sensitive way. African-American, Chinese, Jewish, Iranian, Filipino, Mexican-American, and Korean patients were surveyed about their views on life support. The findings reported here, although not meant to be definitive, should add to health professionals' understanding about diverse beliefs around life-and-death issues. By becoming aware of this diversity of beliefs, health professionals can avoid the damage to the physician-patient relationship caused by conflicting value systems. PMID:1413777

  7. Evaluation of the 129I Half-Life Value Through Analyses of Primitive Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravdivtseva, Olga; Meshik, Alex; Hohenberg, Charles M.

    The preserved record of decay of now-extinct 129I into 129Xe forms the basis of the I-Xe chronometer. Comparison of the high precision I-Xe and Pb-Pb ages of chondrules and pure mineral phases separated from eight meteorites suggests the 17.5 ÷ 14.6 Ma range for the 129I half-life, assuming that the 235U and 238U half-lives are correct. The mean value of 16 Ma indicates that the 15.7 Ma half-life of 129I used here for the I-Xe age calculations is most probably correct. Since the 129I half-life value only affects the relative I-Xe ages, the few Ma relative to the Shallowater standard, the absolute I-Xe ages are almost immune to this uncertainty in the 129I half-life.

  8. Publication selection and the income elasticity of the value of a statistical life.

    PubMed

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Stanley, T D; Viscusi, W Kip

    2014-01-01

    Estimates of the value of a statistical life (VSL) establish the price government agencies use to value fatality risks. Transferring these valuations to other populations often utilizes the income elasticity of the VSL, which typically draw on estimates from meta-analyses. Using a data set consisting of 101 estimates of the income elasticity of VSL from 14 previously reported meta-analyses, we find that after accounting for potential publication bias the income elasticity of value of a statistical life is clearly and robustly inelastic, with a value of approximately 0.25-0.63. There is also clear evidence of the importance of controlling for levels of risk, differential publication selection bias, and the greater income sensitivity of VSL from stated preference surveys.

  9. The Influence of Value Orientations and Demographics on Quality-of-Life Perceptions: Evidence from a National Survey of Singaporeans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Soo Jiuan; Tambyah, Siok Kuan; Kau, Ah Keng

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the linkages between value orientations, demographics and the quality of life perceptions for Singaporeans based on a nationwide values and lifestyles study conducted in 2001. The quality of life perception is assessed using cognitive evaluations of satisfaction with life in general (subjective personal well-being) and with…

  10. Is the value of a life or life-year saved context specific? Further evidence from a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Mortimer, Duncan; Segal, Leonie

    2008-01-01

    Background A number of recent findings imply that the value of a life saved, life-year (LY) saved or quality-adjusted life year (QALY) saved varies depending on the characteristics of the life, LY or QALY under consideration. Despite these findings, budget allocations continue to be made as if all healthy life-years are equivalent. This continued focus on simple health maximisation is partly attributable to gaps in the available evidence. The present study attempts to close some of these gaps. Methods Discrete choice experiment to estimate the marginal rate of substitution between cost, effectiveness and various non-health arguments. Odds of selecting profile B over profile A estimated via binary logistic regression. Marginal rates of substitution between attributes (including cost) then derived from estimated regression coefficients. Results Respondents were more likely to select less costly, more effective interventions with a strong evidence base where the beneficiary did not contribute to their illness. Results also suggest that respondents preferred prevention over cure. Interventions for young children were most preferred, followed by interventions for young adults, then interventions for working age adults and with interventions targeted at the elderly given lowest priority. Conclusion Results confirm that a trade-off exists between cost, effectiveness and non-health arguments when respondents prioritise health programs. That said, it is true that respondents were more likely to select less costly, more effective interventions – confirming that it is an adjustment to, rather than an outright rejection of, simple health maximisation that is required. PMID:18489787

  11. 38 CFR 8.12 - Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under section 1917(e) of title 38 U.S.C. 8... SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Cash Value and Policy Loan § 8.12 Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under section 1917(e) of title 38 U.S.C. (a) Effective January...

  12. 38 CFR 8.12 - Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under section 1917(e) of title 38 U.S.C. 8... SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Cash Value and Policy Loan § 8.12 Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under section 1917(e) of title 38 U.S.C. (a) Effective January...

  13. Micromanaging Death: Process Preferences, Values, and Goals in End-of-Life Medical Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Nikki Ayers; Ditto, Peter H.; Danks, Joseph H.; Smucker, William D.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined patients' and surrogates' attitudes about using advance directives to manage end-of-life medical care. It also explored process preferences, or how patients want decisions to be made. Design and Methods: Data come from the third wave of the Advance Directives, Values Assessment, and Communication Enhancement project, a…

  14. What Is the Value of Life? … and Other Socratic Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuny, Casey

    2014-01-01

    Casey Cuny was frustrated with the lack of depth in his high school English students' writing. He'd heard about Socratic seminars but was reluctant to try them until he saw them in action. He decided to conduct Socratic seminars with his students centered on the question, What is the value of life? In past years, student papers on this…

  15. Health Values and Treatment Goals of Older, Multimorbid Adults Facing Life-Threatening Illness

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Aanand D.; Martin, Lindsey A.; Moye, Jennifer; Karel, Michele J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To identify a taxonomy of health-related values that frame goals of care of older, multimorbid adults who recently faced cancer diagnosis and treatment. DESIGN Qualitative analysis of data from a longitudinal cohort study of multimorbid cancer survivors. SETTING Cancer registries from regional Department of Veterans Affairs networks in New England and southeast Texas. PARTICIPANTS Multimorbid adults who completed interviews 12 months after diagnosis of head and neck, colorectal, gastric, or esophageal cancer and after cancer treatment (N = 146). MEASUREMENTS An interdisciplinary team conducted thematic analyses of participants’ intuitive responses to two questions: Now that you have had cancer and may face ongoing decisions about medical care in the future, what would you want your family, friends, and doctors to know about you, in terms of what is most important to you in your life? If your cancer were to recur, is there anything you’d want to be sure your loved ones knew about you and your goals of care? RESULTS Analysis revealed five distinct health-related values that guide how multimorbid cancer survivors conceptualize specific health care goals and medical decisions: self-sufficiency, life enjoyment, connectedness and legacy, balancing quality and length of life, and engagement in care. Participants typically endorsed more than one value as important. CONCLUSION Older multimorbid adults who recently faced life-threatening cancer endorsed a multidimensional taxonomy of health-related values. These health-related values guide how they frame their goals for care and treatment preferences. Eliciting individuals’ sense of their values during clinical encounters may improve their experiences with health care and more effectively align treatments with goals of care. PMID:27000335

  16. Personal values and individual quality of life in palliative care patients.

    PubMed

    Fegg, Martin J; Wasner, Maria; Neudert, Christian; Borasio, Gian Domenico

    2005-08-01

    To evaluate the relationship between personal values and individual quality of life (iQoL) in palliative care patients, 75 patients with advanced cancer or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) were asked to complete a self-report questionnaire concerning personal values and a semi-structured interview on their iQoL. Sixty-four patients took part in the study (56% cancer, 44% ALS). The most important personal values were benevolence, self-direction, and universalism, whereas power, achievement, and stimulation were the least important. Self-transcendence values were higher than self-enhancement values in all patients. Compared with healthy adults, palliative care patients scored significantly higher in benevolence and lower in self-enhancement values. Conservation values (security, conformity, tradition) were correlated with higher levels of iQoL (P=0.03). There were no significant differences between ALS and cancer patients. These data suggest that conservation values protect the patients' iQoL in the palliative care situation. The observed shift towards self-transcendence values may be related to coping processes of terminally ill patients. The relationship between self-transcendence values and iQoL should be further investigated.

  17. The value of a statistical life: a meta-analysis with a mixed effects regression model.

    PubMed

    Bellavance, François; Dionne, Georges; Lebeau, Martin

    2009-03-01

    The value of a statistical life (VSL) is a very controversial topic, but one which is essential to the optimization of governmental decisions. We see a great variability in the values obtained from different studies. The source of this variability needs to be understood, in order to offer public decision-makers better guidance in choosing a value and to set clearer guidelines for future research on the topic. This article presents a meta-analysis based on 39 observations obtained from 37 studies (from nine different countries) which all use a hedonic wage method to calculate the VSL. Our meta-analysis is innovative in that it is the first to use the mixed effects regression model [Raudenbush, S.W., 1994. Random effects models. In: Cooper, H., Hedges, L.V. (Eds.), The Handbook of Research Synthesis. Russel Sage Foundation, New York] to analyze studies on the value of a statistical life. We conclude that the variability found in the values studied stems in large part from differences in methodologies.

  18. The Relationship of Value Orientations, Self-Control, Frequency of School-Leisure Conflicts, and Life-Balance in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhnle, Claudia; Hofer, Manfred; Kilian, Britta

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this self-report study is to analyze proposed interrelations between value orientations, self-control, frequency of school-leisure conflicts, and life-balance in adolescence. Life-balance is defined as satisfying time investment in different life areas. The tested model posits that self-control is negatively related to conflict…

  19. Estimating the Value of Life, Injury, and Travel Time Saved Using a Stated Preference Framework.

    PubMed

    Niroomand, Naghmeh; Jenkins, Glenn P

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of fatality over the period 2010-2014 from automobile accidents in North Cyprus is 2.75 times greater than the average for the EU. With the prospect of North Cyprus entering the EU, many investments will need to be undertaken to improve road safety in order to reach EU benchmarks. The objective of this study is to provide local estimates of the value of a statistical life and injury along with the value of time savings. These are among the parameter values needed for the evaluation of the change in the expected incidence of automotive accidents and time savings brought about by such projects. In this study we conducted a stated choice experiment to identify the preferences and tradeoffs of automobile drivers in North Cyprus for improved travel times, travel costs, and safety. The choice of route was examined using mixed logit models to obtain the marginal utilities associated with each attribute of the routes that consumers choose. These estimates were used to assess the individuals' willingness to pay (WTP) to avoid fatalities and injuries and to save travel time. We then used the results to obtain community-wide estimates of the value of a statistical life (VSL) saved, the value of injury (VI) prevented, and the value per hour of travel time saved. The estimates for the VSL range from €315,293 to €1,117,856 and the estimates of VI from € 5,603 to € 28,186. These values are consistent, after adjusting for differences in incomes, with the median results of similar studies done for EU countries.

  20. Life Support Baseline Values and Assumptions Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Molly S.; Ewert, Michael K.; Keener, John F.; Wagner, Sandra A.

    2015-01-01

    The Baseline Values and Assumptions Document (BVAD) provides analysts, modelers, and other life support researchers with a common set of values and assumptions which can be used as a baseline in their studies. This baseline, in turn, provides a common point of origin from which many studies in the community may depart, making research results easier to compare and providing researchers with reasonable values to assume for areas outside their experience. With the ability to accurately compare different technologies' performance for the same function, managers will be able to make better decisions regarding technology development.

  1. Monitoring Actuarial Present Values of Term Life Insurance By a Statistical Process Control Chart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafidz Omar, M.

    2015-06-01

    Tracking performance of life insurance or similar insurance policy using standard statistical process control chart is complex because of many factors. In this work, we present the difficulty in doing so. However, with some modifications of the SPC charting framework, the difficulty can be manageable to the actuaries. So, we propose monitoring a simpler but natural actuarial quantity that is typically found in recursion formulas of reserves, profit testing, as well as present values. We shared some simulation results for the monitoring process. Additionally, some advantages of doing so is discussed.

  2. The picture of happiness in Alzheimer's disease: living a life congruent with personal values.

    PubMed

    Shell, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    It is generally understood that happiness is an important goal of dementia care, though evaluation has been challenging. Concerns about cognitive and communicative limitations have led to the use of proxy reports to assess positive affect. However, proxy reports have been shown to differ from appraisals obtained by the person with Alzheimer's disease (AD). This article reports on a qualitative study of happiness in a sample of 12 persons with mild to moderate AD using photo-elicitation and individual interviews for data collection. Results demonstrate people with mild to moderate AD can provide meaningful evaluations of happiness, and that lifelong values continue to be important in the presence of AD. This study suggests photographs may offer a novel approach to obtain a contextualized understanding of happiness and other values in this population which may lead to the development of person centered interventions aimed to improve the individual's quality of life.

  3. 76 FR 49569 - Use of Actuarial Tables in Valuing Annuities, Interests for Life or Terms of Years, and Remainder...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... factors for determining the present value of a remainder interest following one life and an example... before May 1, 2009, special factors for determining the present value of a remainder interest following... after April 30, 1989, and before May 1, 1999, special factors for determining the present value of...

  4. What is the value and role of academic medicine in the life of its university?

    PubMed

    Azziz, Ricardo

    2014-02-01

    National and global events are rapidly and irrevocably driving transformation in both academia and health care. One result is an increase in the pace of institutional restructuring, consolidations, and mergers, including the melding of academic medical centers (AMCs; i.e., medical schools and their clinical enterprises) with nonmedical universities. Georgia Regents University (GRU) resulted from one such recent consolidation, and the experience at the institution has highlighted the need to answer the question "What is the value and role of academic medicine and an AMC in the life and transformation of its university?" In attempting to answer this question, the author first contrasts the cultural features of academic medicine and nonmedical faculty and leaders, as observed from the GRU experience, which might be useful for leaders of other institutions of higher education. His analysis suggests that academic medicine is currently significantly insulated from the larger university, and that this segregation or siloing represents a lost opportunity for both the AMC and the university at large. The author's experience suggests that fostering greater synergy between the university and its AMC adds significant value, and that such synergy better ensures the ability of those universities with an AMC to undertake and meet future transformative challenges. Strategies should be proactively developed both to enhance academic medicine leaders' engagement with, exposure to, and education regarding the operations and challenges of higher education and the broader university, and, likewise, to increase nonmedical faculty's understanding of and experience with the value and unique challenges of academic medicine.

  5. Human Life and American Values Projection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    compelling evidence exists within multiple disciplines— science and biology, philosophy, religion, and law—that human life begins at conception...beyond national boundaries, and contributes to a global and universal understanding of values. Science and Biology Many within the scientific and...posture themselves above scientific findings.26 Science and biology emphasize that conception is the moment when the human DNA is established. At the

  6. The accountant as triage master: an economist's perspective on voluntary euthanasia and the value of life debate.

    PubMed

    Richardson, J

    1987-07-01

    The author, an economist, rebuts the contention that human life cannot and should not be economically evaluated and argues that such evaluations are made implicitly and inconsistently, resulting in a reduction of human welfare. He presents an economic framework for the analysis of costs and benefits in which the focal point, as in most value systems, is the tradeoff between life and quality of life. Therefore, as the quality of life decreases, society's efforts to preserve life should decrease. If the valuation of life includes self evaluation, then there should be less effort to preserve the life of an individual who wishes to die. Richardson concludes that voluntary euthanasia is a limiting case in which society accepts the individual's valuation of life.

  7. An Exploratory Study of the Relationship of Valued Activities to the Life Satisfaction of Elderly Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Gail Hills

    1983-01-01

    Describes a survey that collected information about perceived activity participation levels, health status, income, social supports, and life satisfaction of participants in a nutritional lunch program for the elderly. Results showed that perceptions of the above factors were significant predictors of life satisfaction. (NJ)

  8. Discrepancies between attainment and importance of life values and anxiety and depression in gastrointestinal cancer patients and their spouses.

    PubMed

    Nordin, K; Wasteson, E; Hoffman, K; Glimelius, B; Sjödén, P O

    2001-01-01

    Patients' satisfaction with life, viewed in terms of the discrepancy between the perceived attainment and subjective importance of various life values, is a less often studied phenomenon for understanding the psychological adaptation in cancer patients. The main aim of the present study is to investigate the relation between the degree of attainment and importance of life values on the one hand, and anxiety and depression, on the other. A consecutive series of 85 newly diagnosed patients with gastrointestinal (GI) cancers, 52 potentially cured and 33 with an advanced disease, and 26 spouses to the patients with an advanced disease participated. The patients and spouses of non-cured patients filled out questionnaires twice, close to the diagnosis and after 1 (non-cured patients) or 3 months. Overall, large discrepancies between the perceived attainment and importance of life values were associated with high anxiety and depression. For the patients (both cured and non-cured), the discrepancies decreased for several life values over time, as did anxiety and depression. For the spouses of the non-cured patients, there was no decrease either for life value discrepancies or for anxiety/depression. This suggests that patients, in contrast to their spouses, strive to achieve small discrepancies between the perceived attainment and importance of life values, as part of their adjustment to serious diseases, e.g. cancer.

  9. Advanced Life Support System Value Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program is required to provide a performance metric to measure its progress in system development. Extensive discussions within the ALS program have reached a consensus. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been traditionally used and provides a good summary of the weight, size, and power cost factors of space life support equipment. But ESM assumes that all the systems being traded off exactly meet a fixed performance requirement, so that the value and benefit (readiness, performance, safety, etc.) of all the different systems designs are exactly equal. This is too simplistic. Actual system design concepts are selected using many cost and benefit factors and the system specification is then set accordingly. The ALS program needs a multi-parameter metric including both the ESM and a System Value Metric (SVM). The SVM would include safety, maintainability, reliability, performance, use of cross cutting technology, and commercialization potential. Another major factor in system selection is technology readiness level (TRL), a familiar metric in ALS. The overall ALS system metric that is suggested is a benefit/cost ratio, [SVM + TRL]/ESM, with appropriate weighting and scaling. The total value is the sum of SVM and TRL. Cost is represented by ESM. The paper provides a detailed description and example application of the suggested System Value Metric.

  10. Advanced Life Support System Value Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program is required to provide a performance metric to measure its progress in system development. Extensive discussions within the ALS program have led to the following approach. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been traditionally used and provides a good summary of the weight, size, and power cost factors of space life support equipment. But ESM assumes that all the systems being traded off exactly meet a fixed performance requirement, so that the value and benefit (readiness, performance, safety, etc.) of all the different systems designs are considered to be exactly equal. This is too simplistic. Actual system design concepts are selected using many cost and benefit factors and the system specification is defined after many trade-offs. The ALS program needs a multi-parameter metric including both the ESM and a System Value Metric (SVM). The SVM would include safety, maintainability, reliability, performance, use of cross cutting technology, and commercialization potential. Another major factor in system selection is technology readiness level (TRL), a familiar metric in ALS. The overall ALS system metric that is suggested is a benefit/cost ratio, SVM/[ESM + function (TRL)], with appropriate weighting and scaling. The total value is given by SVM. Cost is represented by higher ESM and lower TRL. The paper provides a detailed description and example application of a suggested System Value Metric and an overall ALS system metric.

  11. Subjective Values of Quality of Life Dimensions in Elderly People. A SEM Preference Model Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elosua, Paula

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes a Thurstonian model in the framework of Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) to assess preferences among quality of life dimensions for the elderly. Data were gathered by a paired comparison design in a sample comprised of 323 people aged from 65 to 94 years old. Five dimensions of quality of life were evaluated: Health,…

  12. The value of a statistical life in Sweden: a review of the empirical literature.

    PubMed

    Hultkrantz, Lars; Svensson, Mikael

    2012-12-01

    Recent focus on cost-benefit/socio-economic assessment of government "life-saving" programmes within public health, pharmaceutics, transport, and civil contingencies has spurred a wave of empirical research on the value of a statistical life (VSL) in Sweden. This paper provides an overview of the received evidence from a range of studies in one country and over a relatively short time period. A literature search was conducted in Econlit, Pubmed, Google Scholar and in bibliographies of published papers. Twelve studies on VSL with a total of 48 VSL estimates, published with data from Sweden from 1996 onwards, were identified. Among all estimates VSL varies from 9 to 1121 million SEK (€0.9-121 million). Based on a set of additional quality inclusion criteria, as used also in a recent global review of VSL studies, the sample is restricted to 9 studies with a total of 29 VSL estimates with VSL varying from 9 to 98 million SEK (€0.9-10.6 million). The raw mean among these estimates is 34.6 million SEK (€3.7 million) and the median is 23 million SEK (€2.5 million). Currently, official authorities in Sweden recommend a VSL of 22 million Swedish kronor (€2.4 million). We also point out important concerns regarding validity of these estimates: primarily the problem that VSL is significantly related to the size of the mortality risk reduction showing significant scale insensitivity, in contrast to theoretical assumptions but in line with previous empirical findings.

  13. Every life has equal value.

    PubMed

    Hood, Leroy E; Lazowska, Edward D

    2013-09-12

    The 2013 Lasker∼Bloomberg Public Service Award will be given to Bill and Melinda Gates "for leading an historic transformation in the way we view the globe's most pressing health concerns and improving the lives of millions of the world's most vulnerable."

  14. Instrumental and Terminal Life Values of Part-Time and Full-Time Community College Faculty in Selected Teaching Assignments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohan, John F.; Hales, Loyde W.

    A study was conducted to investigate the instrumental (e.g., Ambitious, Broadminded, Capable, Imaginative, Intellectual, Loving, and Responsibile) and terminal (e.g., A Comfortable Life, A Sense of Accomplishment, Equality, Health, National Security, Mature Love, and Salvation) life values of community college faculty in Oregon using the Rokeach…

  15. Value attainment: an explanation for the negative effects of work-family conflict on job and life satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Perrewé, P L; Hochwarter, W A; Kiewitz, C

    1999-10-01

    Perceptions of work interfering with family life and family issues interfering with work are examined as 2 distinct constructs representing work-family conflict. Experienced work-family conflict is argued to reduce one's value attainment which, in turn, lowers both job and life satisfaction. This study examines value attainment as a mediating variable in the work-family conflict and satisfaction relationship. Responses from 270 hotel managers indicate that value attainment either partially or fully mediates the relationship between work interference with family and family interference with work and both job and life satisfaction. Value attainment is argued to be a meaningful explanatory variable for the negative relationship between work-family conflict and job-life satisfaction.

  16. Modeling the Value Recovery of Rare Earth Permanent Magnets at End-of-Life

    SciTech Connect

    Cong, Liang; Jin, Hongyue; Fitsos, Pete; McIntyre, Timothy; Yih, Yuehwern; Zhao, Fu; Sutherland, John W.

    2015-05-21

    Permanent magnets containing rare earth elements (REEs) such as Dysprosium and Neodymium offer an advantage over non-REE containing magnets (e.g. ferrite or AlNiCo) in terms of power relative to size. However, REE availability has varied significantly in recent years leading to volatility in the cost of rare earth permanent magnets (REPMs). The supply of REEs can be increased by recycling consumer products and industrial machinery that contain REPMs at product end-of-life (EOL). This paper discusses the REE recovery process for EOL products. The optimal dismantling of products is examined with an emphasis placed on obtaining used REPMs. The challenge of collecting, managing, transporting, and processing used products is addressed through the development of a cost model for REPM recovery. This model is used to investigate several EOL strategies for recovering REPMs. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to identify the key factors that influence value recovery economics. A hard disk drive serves as a case study for model demonstration.

  17. Modeling the Value Recovery of Rare Earth Permanent Magnets at End-of-Life

    DOE PAGES

    Cong, Liang; Jin, Hongyue; Fitsos, Pete; ...

    2015-05-21

    Permanent magnets containing rare earth elements (REEs) such as Dysprosium and Neodymium offer an advantage over non-REE containing magnets (e.g. ferrite or AlNiCo) in terms of power relative to size. However, REE availability has varied significantly in recent years leading to volatility in the cost of rare earth permanent magnets (REPMs). The supply of REEs can be increased by recycling consumer products and industrial machinery that contain REPMs at product end-of-life (EOL). This paper discusses the REE recovery process for EOL products. The optimal dismantling of products is examined with an emphasis placed on obtaining used REPMs. The challenge ofmore » collecting, managing, transporting, and processing used products is addressed through the development of a cost model for REPM recovery. This model is used to investigate several EOL strategies for recovering REPMs. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to identify the key factors that influence value recovery economics. A hard disk drive serves as a case study for model demonstration.« less

  18. The adaptive value of morphological, behavioural and life-history traits in reproductive female wolves.

    PubMed

    Stahler, Daniel R; MacNulty, Daniel R; Wayne, Robert K; vonHoldt, Bridgett; Smith, Douglas W

    2013-01-01

    Reproduction in social organisms is shaped by numerous morphological, behavioural and life-history traits such as body size, cooperative breeding and age of reproduction, respectively. Little is known, however, about the relative influence of these different types of traits on reproduction, particularly in the context of environmental conditions that determine their adaptive value. Here, we use 14 years of data from a long-term study of wolves (Canis lupus) in Yellowstone National Park, USA, to evaluate the relative effects of different traits and ecological factors on the reproductive performance (litter size and survival) of breeding females. At the individual level, litter size and survival improved with body mass and declined with age (c. 4-5 years). Grey-coloured females had more surviving pups than black females, which likely contributed to the maintenance of coat colour polymorphism in this system. The effect of pack size on reproductive performance was nonlinear as litter size peaked at eight wolves and then declined, and litter survival increased rapidly up to three wolves, beyond which it increased more gradually. At the population level, litter size and survival decreased with increasing wolf population size and canine distemper outbreaks. The relative influence of these different-level factors on wolf reproductive success followed individual > group > population. Body mass was the primary determinant of litter size, followed by pack size and population size. Body mass was also the main driver of litter survival, followed by pack size and disease. Reproductive gains because of larger body size and cooperative breeding may mitigate reproductive losses because of negative density dependence and disease. These findings highlight the adaptive value of large body size and sociality in promoting individual fitness in stochastic and competitive environments.

  19. Mortality in Appalachian coal mining regions: the value of statistical life lost

    SciTech Connect

    Hendryx, M.; Ahern, M.M.

    2009-07-15

    We examined elevated mortality rates in Appalachian coal mining areas for 1979-2005, and estimated the corresponding value of statistical life (VSL) lost relative to the economic benefits of the coal mining industry. We compared age-adjusted mortality rates and socioeconomic conditions across four county groups: Appalachia with high levels of coal mining, Appalachia with lower mining levels, Appalachia without coal mining, and other counties in the nation. We converted mortality estimates to VSL estimates and compared the results with the economic contribution of coal mining. We also conducted a discount analysis to estimate current benefits relative to future mortality costs. The heaviest coal mining areas of Appalachia had the poorest socioeconomic conditions. Before adjusting for covariates, the number of excess annual age-adjusted deaths in coal mining areas ranged from 3,975 to 10,923, depending on years studied and comparison group. Corresponding VSL estimates ranged from $18.563 billion to $84.544 billion, with a point estimate of $50.010 billion, greater than the $8.088 billion economic contribution of coal mining. After adjusting for covariates, the number of excess annual deaths in mining areas ranged from 1,736 to 2,889, and VSL costs continued to exceed the benefits of mining. Discounting VSL costs into the future resulted in excess costs relative to benefits in seven of eight conditions, with a point estimate of $41.846 billion.

  20. The value of 'life at any cost': Talk about stopping kidney dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Russ, Ann J.; Shim, Janet K.; Kaufman, Sharon R.

    2007-01-01

    With the trend toward an older, sicker dialysis population in the USA, discussions of ethical issues surrounding dialysis have shifted from concerns about access to and availability of the therapy, to growing unease about non-initiation and treatment discontinuation. Recent studies report treatment withdrawal as the leading cause of death among elderly dialysis patients. Yet, the actual activities that move patients toward stopping treatment often remain obscure, even to clinicians and patients themselves. This paper explores that paradox, drawing on anthropological research among patients over age 70, their families, and clinicians in two California renal dialysis units. It concludes that many older patients sacrifice a sense of choice about dialysis in the present to maintain “choice” as both value and possibility for the future. Yet, patients desire more information and communication, provided earlier in their illness, about prognosis, how long they can expect to be on dialysis, and what the impact of the treatment will be on their daily lives. That, with time, there is a transition to be made from dialysis as “treatment” to end of life care could be better explained and managed to alleviate patients’ confusion and unneeded isolation. PMID:17418924

  1. Valuing life: a plea for disaggregation.

    PubMed

    Sunstein, Cass R

    2004-11-01

    Each government agency uses a uniform figure to measure the value of a statistical life (VSL). This is a serious mistake. The very theory that underlies current practice calls for far more individuation of the relevant values. According to that theory, VSL should vary across risks. More controversially, VSL should vary across individuals -- even or especially if the result would be to produce a lower number for some people than for others. One practical implication is that a higher value should be given to programs that reduce cancer risks. Another is that government should use a higher VSL for programs that disproportionately benefit the wealthy -- and a lower VSL for programs that disproportionately benefit the poor. But there are two serious complications here. First, bounded rationality raises problems for the use of private willingness to pay, which underlies current calculations of VSL. Second, the beneficiaries of regulation sometimes pay only a fraction or even none of its cost; when this is so, the appropriate VSL for poor people might be higher, on distributional grounds, than market evidence suggests. An understanding of this point has implications for foundational issues about government regulation, including valuation of persons in poor and wealthy nations.

  2. Economics in “Global Health 2035”: a sensitivity analysis of the value of a life year estimates

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Angela Y; Robinson, Lisa A; Hammitt, James K; Resch, Stephen C

    2017-01-01

    Background In “Global health 2035: a world converging within a generation,” The Lancet Commission on Investing in Health (CIH) adds the value of increased life expectancy to the value of growth in gross domestic product (GDP) when assessing national well–being. To value changes in life expectancy, the CIH relies on several strong assumptions to bridge gaps in the empirical research. It finds that the value of a life year (VLY) averages 2.3 times GDP per capita for low– and middle–income countries (LMICs) assuming the changes in life expectancy they experienced from 2000 to 2011 are permanent. Methods The CIH VLY estimate is based on a specific shift in population life expectancy and includes a 50 percent reduction for children ages 0 through 4. We investigate the sensitivity of this estimate to the underlying assumptions, including the effects of income, age, and life expectancy, and the sequencing of the calculations. Findings We find that reasonable alternative assumptions regarding the effects of income, age, and life expectancy may reduce the VLY estimates to 0.2 to 2.1 times GDP per capita for LMICs. Removing the reduction for young children increases the VLY, while reversing the sequencing of the calculations reduces the VLY. Conclusion Because the VLY is sensitive to the underlying assumptions, analysts interested in applying this approach elsewhere must tailor the estimates to the impacts of the intervention and the characteristics of the affected population. Analysts should test the sensitivity of their conclusions to reasonable alternative assumptions. More work is needed to investigate options for improving the approach.

  3. The value of life and accident costing: a willingness-to-pay study amongst motorcyclists in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mohd Fauzi, Mohd Y; Nor Ghani, Mohd N; Radin Umar, Radin S; Ahmad Hariza, Hashim

    2004-01-01

    Motorcyclists constitute a large proportion of total road casualties in Asian countries Unfortunately, studies conducted for the purpose of evaluating the cost of traffic crashes, and cost-benefit analyses of safety interventions, are almost nonexistent in these countries. The loss-of-output approach to valuing life has been used for many years, yet this method has also long been criticised as it results in significant resource misallocation. This study attempts to overcome this problem by estimating the value of a statistical life among motorcyclists using the willingness-to-pay method that is commonly used in developed countries. The study recommends adopting a value of MYR1.1 million (almost five times the previous estimate) per statistical life for public policy analysis involving motorcycle safety.

  4. Exploring Work Values: Helping Students Articulate Their Good (Work) Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlstrom, Aaron H.; Hughey, Kenneth F.

    2014-01-01

    The current article builds on "Living the Good (Work) Life: Implications of General Values for Work Values" (Carlstrom, 2011) by presenting ways to address work values in career advising. The following questions are addressed in the current article: When should students explore work values in career advising? What career development and…

  5. Career and Self-Construction of Emerging Adults: The Value of Life Designing

    PubMed Central

    Maree, Jacobus G.; Twigge, Adeline

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a potential way of counseling emerging adults from a life design perspective to construct a self that could enable them to be agents of both their own development and the development of others. Theoretical issues relating to a dynamic, developmental and systems framework of the understanding of wellbeing are described and the process involved is delineated. The research design was qualitative and comprised case studies. Six participants who subscribed to the definition of “emerging adults” and were comparatively representative of the ethnic diversity of South Africa, were selected purposively from a group of individuals who applied for career counseling in a private practice context. The intervention involved life design counseling and occurred over a period of 6 weeks. Information related to participants' self-construction was gathered using qualitative techniques, including the Career Interest Profile, the Career Construction Interview, a timeline, video clips, a collage, and semi-structured interviews. Following the intervention, the participants revealed heightened insights with regard to aspects of their sense of a relational-moral self. Results indicated that life design counseling could enhance elaborative personal development (enhancing self-awareness and reaping the benefits of developing an improved relational-moral self) and the promotion of an awareness of the importance to promote social justice in work-related contexts. PMID:26793152

  6. Career and Self-Construction of Emerging Adults: The Value of Life Designing.

    PubMed

    Maree, Jacobus G; Twigge, Adeline

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a potential way of counseling emerging adults from a life design perspective to construct a self that could enable them to be agents of both their own development and the development of others. Theoretical issues relating to a dynamic, developmental and systems framework of the understanding of wellbeing are described and the process involved is delineated. The research design was qualitative and comprised case studies. Six participants who subscribed to the definition of "emerging adults" and were comparatively representative of the ethnic diversity of South Africa, were selected purposively from a group of individuals who applied for career counseling in a private practice context. The intervention involved life design counseling and occurred over a period of 6 weeks. Information related to participants' self-construction was gathered using qualitative techniques, including the Career Interest Profile, the Career Construction Interview, a timeline, video clips, a collage, and semi-structured interviews. Following the intervention, the participants revealed heightened insights with regard to aspects of their sense of a relational-moral self. Results indicated that life design counseling could enhance elaborative personal development (enhancing self-awareness and reaping the benefits of developing an improved relational-moral self) and the promotion of an awareness of the importance to promote social justice in work-related contexts.

  7. How to Shape Children's Value Attitudes toward the Rural Way of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gur'ianova, M. P.

    2011-01-01

    The crisis of rural life in Russia involves a declining and aging population, emigration of rural young people to urban areas, lack of employment, and farms in urgent need of modernization. Programs in rural schools can be used more deliberately to encourage young people to remain in the village and to equip them to be agents of rural…

  8. Relationships between the Life Values of U. S. College Students and their Cognitive/Affective Responses to the Threat of Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Scott B.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined relationships between life values of 399 American college students and their nuclear war-related thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Subjects completed four scales from Life Values Inventory, Satisfaction with Life Scale, four scales from Nuclear War Inventory, and single behavioral measure of approach toward information concerning nuclear…

  9. Representations of everyday life: a proposal for capturing social values from the Marxist perspective of knowledge production.

    PubMed

    Soares, Cássia Baldini; Santos, Vilmar Ezequiel Dos; Campos, Célia Maria Sivalli; Lachtim, Sheila Aparecida Ferreira; Campos, Fernanda Cristina

    2011-12-01

    We propose from the Marxist perspective of the construction of knowledge, a theoretical and methodological framework for understanding social values by capturing everyday representations. We assume that scientific research brings together different dimensions: epistemological, theoretical and methodological that consistently to the other instances, proposes a set of operating procedures and techniques for capturing and analyzing the reality under study in order to expose the investigated object. The study of values reveals the essentiality of the formation of judgments and choices, there are values that reflect the dominant ideology, spanning all social classes, but there are values that reflect class interests, these are not universal, they are formed in relationships and social activities. Basing on the Marxist theory of consciousness, representations are discursive formulations of everyday life - opinion or conviction - issued by subjects about their reality, being a coherent way of understanding and exposure social values: focus groups show is suitable for grasping opinions while interviews show potential to expose convictions.

  10. Understanding Values in a Large Health Care Organization through Work-Life Narratives of High-Performing Employees.

    PubMed

    Karnieli-Miller, Orit; Taylor, Amanda C; Inui, Thomas S; Ivy, Steven S; Frankel, Richard M

    2011-10-01

    OBJECTIVE—: To understand high-performing frontline employees' values as reflected in their narratives of day-to-day interactions in a large health care organization. METHODS—: A total of 150 employees representing various roles within the organization were interviewed and asked to share work-life narratives (WLNs) about value-affirming situations (i.e. situations in which they believed their actions to be fully aligned with their values) and value-challenging situations (i.e. when their actions or the actions of others were not consistent with their values), using methods based on appreciative inquiry. RESULTS—: The analysis revealed 10 broad values. Most of the value-affirming WLNs were about the story-teller and team providing care for the patient/family. Half of the value-challenging WLNs were about the story-teller or a patient and barriers created by the organization, supervisor, or physician. Almost half of these focused on "treating others with disrespect/respect". Only 15% of the value-challenging WLNs contained a resolution reached by the participants, often leaving them describing unresolved and frequently negative feelings. CONCLUSIONS—: Appreciative inquiry and thematic analysis methods were found to be an effective tool for understanding the important and sometimes competing role personal and institutional values play in day-to-day work. There is remarkable potential in using WLNs as a way to surface and reinforce shared values and, perhaps more importantly, respectfully to identify and discuss conflicting personal and professional values.

  11. Modelling the life insurance needs using the human life value revision method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, Haslifah; Service, David

    2013-04-01

    There are numerous methods to determine the appropriate amount of life insurance a person needs - it can be scientific or simplistic. Many life insurance agents and financial advisors simply rely on traditional rules of thumb using the multiple of income method. The more scientific methods are the needs analysis and the human life value. The needs analysis is regarded as the most commonly used sales tool and the human life value is the most agreed academic expression for the purpose of life insurance. However, there are several weaknesses of using both methods. By using needs analysis as a sales tool, the recommendation amount of life insurance would leave a person underinsured. Similar goes to the human life value method. Nevertheless, both methods can be improved with a few revisions. The post-death needs under the needs analysis must be revised to incorporate the reality that the family's standard of living changes over time. The projection of a changing standard of living is a part of human life value analysis. Therefore, this research looked into both methods and combines both concept of needs analysis and human life value to create a powerful methodology that provide adequate life insurance protection - a method we name it as 'the Human Life Value Revision Method'.

  12. Predictive value of obsessive compulsive symptoms involving the skin on quality of life in patients with acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Bez, Yasin; Yesilova, Yavuz; Arı, Mustafa; Kaya, Mehmet Cemal; Alpak, Gokay; Bulut, Mahmut

    2013-11-01

    Acne is one of the most common dermatological diseases, and obsessive compulsive disorder is among the most frequent psychiatric conditions seen in dermatology clinics. Comorbidity of these conditions may therefore be expected. The aim of this study was to measure obsessive compulsive symptoms and quality of life in patients with acne vulgaris, compare them with those of healthy control subjects, and determine whether there is any predictive value of obsessive compulsive symptoms for quality of life in patients with acne. Obsessive compulsive symptoms and quality of life measurements of 146 patients with acne vulgaris and 94 healthy control subjects were made using the Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Questionnaire and Short Form-36 in a cross-sectional design. Patients with acne vulgaris had lower scores for physical functioning, physical role dysfunction, general health perception, vitality, and emotional role dysfunction. They also had higher scores for checking, slowness, and rumination. The only predictor of physical functioning and vitality dimensions of health-related quality of life in these patients was rumination score. Obsessive compulsive symptoms in patients with acne vulgaris are higher than in controls, and this may correlate with both disease severity and quality of life for patients.

  13. Cultural Values, Life Experiences, and Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le, Thao N.

    2008-01-01

    Wisdom is considered one ideal endpoint of human development across cultures. Studies have provided evidence for certain facilitating conditions such as challenging and stressful life events because they increase differentiation through accommodative changes, resulting in greater tolerance for uncertainty, and less projection tendencies and…

  14. Life and Health: A Value in Itself for Human Beings?

    PubMed

    Watt, Helen

    2015-09-01

    The presence of a human being/organism--a living human 'whole', with the defining tendency to promote its own welfare--has value in itself, as do the functions which compose it. Life is inseparable from health, since without some degree of healthy functionality (if not in all cases active functioning) the living whole would not exist. The value of life differs both within a single life (in different periods or possible situations) and between lives (lives that vary in length, health or even physical maturity are not all equally fulfilled). As with any other form of human flourishing, the value of life-and-health must be distinguished from the moral importance of human beings: less fulfilled means not less important morally, but more in need of being fulfilled. That said, to say that life and health has value is not to say exactly what-if anything-that value requires by way of active promotion at a given time. Many factors must be taken into account in making health care decisions, even if the worth of all lives, and the dignity of all human beings, must in every case be acknowledged.

  15. Is valuing positive emotion associated with life satisfaction?

    PubMed

    Bastian, Brock; Kuppens, Peter; De Roover, Kim; Diener, Ed

    2014-08-01

    The experience of positive emotion is closely linked to subjective well-being. For this reason, campaigns aimed at promoting the value of positive emotion have become widespread. What is rarely considered are the cultural implications of this focus on happiness. Promoting positive emotions as important for "the good life" not only has implications for how individuals value these emotional states, but for how they believe others around them value these emotions also. Drawing on data from over 9,000 college students across 47 countries we examined whether individuals' life satisfaction is associated with living in contexts in which positive emotions are socially valued. The findings show that people report more life satisfaction in countries where positive emotions are highly valued and this is linked to an increased frequency of positive emotional experiences in these contexts. They also reveal, however, that increased life satisfaction in countries that place a premium on positive emotion is less evident for people who tend to experience less valued emotional states: people who experience many negative emotions, do not flourish to the same extent in these contexts. The findings demonstrate how the cultural value placed on certain emotion states may shape the relationship between emotional experiences and subjective well-being.

  16. Health Related Quality of Life in a Dutch Rehabilitation Population: Reference Values and the Effect of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Jaarsma, Eva A.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Dekker, Rienk

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To establish reference values for Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in a Dutch rehabilitation population, and to study effects of patient characteristics, diagnosis and physical activity on HRQoL in this population. Method Former rehabilitation patients (3169) were asked to fill in a questionnaire including the Dutch version of the RAND-36. Differences between our rehabilitation patients and Dutch reference values were analyzed (t-tests). Effects of patient characteristics, diagnosis and movement intensity on scores on the subscales of the RAND-36 were analyzed using block wise multiple regression analyses. Results In total 1223 patients (39%) returned the questionnaire. HRQoL was significantly poorer in the rehabilitation patients compared to Dutch reference values on all subscales (p<0.001) except for health change (p = 0.197). Longer time between questionnaire and last treatment was associated with a smaller health change (p = 0.035). Higher age negatively affected physical functioning (p<0.001), social functioning (p = 0.004) and health change (p = 0.001). Diagnosis affected outcomes on all subscales except role limitations physical, and mental health (p ranged <0.001 to 0.643). Higher movement intensity was associated with better outcomes on all subscales except for mental health (p ranged <0.001 to 0.190). Conclusions HRQoL is poorer in rehabilitation patients compared to Dutch reference values. Physical components of HRQoL are affected by diagnosis. In rehabilitation patients an association between movement intensity and HRQoL was found. For clinical purposes, results of this study can be used as reference values for HRQoL in a rehabilitation setting. PMID:28060949

  17. Relationships between psychosocial-spiritual well-being and end-of-life preferences and values in African American dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Song, Mi-Kyung; Hanson, Laura C

    2009-09-01

    The objective of the study was to examine whether psychosocial and spiritual well-being is associated with African American dialysis patients' end-of-life treatment preferences and acceptance of potential outcomes of life-sustaining treatment. Fifty-one African Americans with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and interview with measures of symptom distress, health-related quality of life, psychosocial and spiritual well-being, and preferences and values related to life-sustaining treatment choices. The subjects were stratified by end-of-life treatment preferences and by acceptance of life-sustaining treatment outcomes, and compared for psychosocial and spiritual well-being, as well as sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Individuals who desired continued use of life-sustaining treatment in terminal illness or advanced dementia had significantly lower spiritual well-being (P=0.012). Individuals who valued four potential outcomes of life-sustaining treatment as unacceptable showed a more positive, adaptive well-being score in the spiritual dimension compared with the group that valued at least one outcome as acceptable (P=0.028). Religious involvement and importance of spirituality were not associated with end-of-life treatment preferences and acceptance of treatment outcomes. African Americans with ESRD expressed varied levels of psychosocial and spiritual well-being, and this characteristic was associated with life-sustaining treatment preferences. In future research, the assessment of spirituality should not be limited to its intensity or degree but extended to other dimensions.

  18. The Young People of Tula: Value Orientations and the Realities of Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samsonova, E. A.; Efimova, E. Iu.

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, the Laboratory of Sociological Research of the municipal office of the social service Shans Center for Social and Psychological Assistance for Young People carried out a sociological survey titled "Current Problems of Today's Young Person," for the purpose of studying the most urgent problems affecting the social development of…

  19. Threat to Valued Elements of Life: The Experience of Dementia across Three Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Vanessa; Samsi, Kritika; Banerjee, Sube; Morgan, Craig; Murray, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: There is a fundamental knowledge gap regarding the experience of dementia within minority ethnic groups in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. The present study examined the subjective reality of living with dementia from the perspective of people with dementia within the 3 largest ethnic groups in the United Kingdom. Design and Methods:…

  20. Human Values and the Market: The Case of Life Insurance and Death in 19th-Century America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelizer, Viviana A.

    1978-01-01

    Explores the development of life insurance programs in the United States during the nineteenth century and traces social attitudes about life insurance from rejection to acceptance. Historical data indicate that life insurance emerged in the late nineteenth century as a form of ritual with which to face death. (Author/DB)

  1. Prognostic value of health-related quality of life for death risk stratification in patients with unresectable glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Brice; Vernerey, Dewi; Chauffert, Bruno; Dabakuyo, Sandrine; Feuvret, Loic; Taillandier, Luc; Frappaz, Didier; Taillia, Hervé; Schott, Roland; Ducray, François; Fabbro, Michel; Tennevet, Isabelle; Ghiringhelli, François; Guillamo, Jean-Sébastien; Durando, Xavier; Castera, Daniel; Frenay, Marc; Campello, Chantal; Dalban, Cécile; Skrzypski, Jérome; Chinot, Olivier; Anota, Amélie; Bonnetain, Franck

    2016-08-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in adults. Baseline health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is a major subject of concern for these patients. We aimed to assess the independent prognostic value of HRQoL in unresectable glioblastoma (UGB) patients for death risk stratification. One hundred and thirty-four patients with UGB were enrolled from the TEMAVIR trial. HRQoL was evaluated at baseline using the EORTC QLQ-C30 and BN20 brain cancer module. Clinical and HRQoL parameters were evaluated in univariable and multivariable Cox analysis as prognostic factors for overall survival (OS). Performance assessment and internal validation of the final model were evaluated with Harrel's C-index, calibration plot, and bootstrap sample procedure. Two OS independent predictors were identified: future uncertainty and sensitivity deficit. The final model exhibited good calibration and acceptable discrimination (C statistic = 0.63). The internal validity of the model was verified with robust uncertainties around the hazard ratio. The prognostic score identified three groups of patients with distinctly different risk profiles with median OS estimated at 16.2, 9.2, and 4.5 months. We demonstrated the additional prognostic value of HRQoL in UGB for death risk stratification and provided a score that may help to guide clinical management and stratification in future clinical trials.

  2. Quality of Life in High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Predictive Value of Disability and Support Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renty, J. O.; Roeyers, Herbert

    2006-01-01

    Although the concept of quality of life has increasingly been used in the field of intellectual disabilities over the past three decades, the factors contributing to quality of life of persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have received relatively little attention. In this study, disability and support characteristics associated with…

  3. The Interaction between Gender Stereotypes and Life Values as Factors in the Choice of Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razumnikova, O. M.

    2005-01-01

    The author states that, the sex-role identity of both men and women forms and changes as a function of the conditions of upbringing, schooling, and the degree of pressure of sex-role stereotypes that are instilled by the mass media. In spite of the proclaimed "equal opportunities" for men and women when it comes to acquiring some…

  4. Teaching and Learning with Technology: IT as a Value-Added Component of Academic Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandler, Martin E.

    2010-01-01

    Effective assessment of teaching and learning with technology requires a capacity to map learning outcomes. Student attitudes of the use of IT are measured in a structural equation model derived from an instrument based on the principles of undergraduate practice of Chickering and Ehrmann (1996). Institutional and background data are included. By…

  5. Extrapolation Factors for Derivation of Acute Aquatic Life Screening Values: Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors

    EPA Science Inventory

    USEPA’s Office of Water (OW) and Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) are both charged with assessing risks of chemicals to aquatic species. The offices have developed scientifically defensible methods to assess chemicals under the Clean Water Act (CWA) and the Federal Insecticide...

  6. Any Added Value? Co-Constructing Life Stories of and with People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Despite considerable achievement in inclusive research, people with intellectual disabilities have been largely excluded from the critical area of data analysis and theory development. Next to the undoubted complexity of these tasks, this can partly be attributed to higher demands of representativeness that are used to judge the validity of…

  7. Laughter as Immanent Life-Affirmation: Reconsidering the Educational Value of Laughter through a Bakhtinian Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlieghe, Joris

    2014-01-01

    In this article I try to conceive a new approach towards laughter in the context of formal schooling. I focus on laughter in so far as it is a bodily response during which we are entirely delivered to uncontrollable, spasmodic reactions. To see the educational relevance of this particular kind of laughter, as well as to understand why laughter is…

  8. The Value of Vitalism and Schrodinger's "What Is Life?" in the Contemporary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitaraman, Ramakrishnan

    2009-01-01

    Classic experiments and novel ideas in the history of science are often mentioned in passing in contemporary college-level science curricula. This study indicates that the detailed and creative recapitulation of a few well-chosen and famous, if well-known, results and ideas has the potential to increase students' understanding and appreciation of…

  9. The value of vitalism and Schrodinger's What is Life? in the contemporary classroom.

    PubMed

    Sitaraman, Ramakrishnan

    2009-05-01

    Classic experiments and novel ideas in the history of science are often mentioned in passing in contemporary college-level science curricula. This study indicates that the detailed and creative recapitulation of a few well-chosen and famous, if well-known, results and ideas has the potential to increase students' understanding and appreciation of the scientific method and provides them with an altogether novel perspective of science. Since the students are usually aware of the salient facts involved, they are free to concentrate on the method, rather than worry about assimilating new facts. Such an approach has the potential to promote original thinking and rekindle enthusiasm for science, even at the university level.

  10. Nurturing the Life of the Mind: If Schools Don't Value Intellect, Who Will?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Kathleen

    2001-01-01

    If schools were strongholds of intellect, the most academically able would be stars. Gifted kids often have trouble with school; academically uninterested kids enjoy cult-hero status; and the humanities are undervalued. Schools' purpose has been to train future employees and consumers, not create intellectual citizens. (MLH)

  11. Cancer care, money, and the value of life: whose justice? Which rationality?

    PubMed

    Sulmasy, Daniel P

    2007-01-10

    Cost-containment in oncology is a moral issue. While economists use the word "rationing" to describe all limitations on resource utilization that result from human choice, the ordinary language distinction between allocation and rationing is morally meaningful and can help oncologists to determine their proper moral role in cost-containment. It is argued that oncologists should not be required to ration at the bedside, nor should they be given financial incentives to practice frugally, nor should they be subjected to a variety of bureaucratic mechanisms to control costs indirectly. In addition, it is argued that the fact that treatments have a price does not logically imply that patients have a price. Cost-effectiveness analysis is often suggested as a means of deciding how best to allocate resources, but some of its many ethical limitations are discussed. The alternative is an open, public, participatory process about how to ration care, abandoning the formulaic pretenses of cost-effectiveness analysis, but with a commitment to reason, good will, and common sense. Oncologists would then be free to advocate for their patients within the constraints imposed by this public process.

  12. Love and the Value of Life in Health Care: A Narrative Medicine Case Study in Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Pentiado, Jorge Alberto Martins; de Almeida, Helcia Oliveira; Amorim, Fábio Ferreira; Facioli, Adriano Machado; Trindade, Eliana Mendonça Vilar; de Almeida, Karlo Jozefo Quadros

    2016-01-01

    This case study is an example of narrative medicine applied to promote self-awareness and develop humanistic contents in medical education. The impact and the human appeal of the narrative lie in the maturity and empathy shown by a student when reporting his dramatic experience during the care given to a newborn (with Patau syndrome and multiple malformations diagnosed at birth) and to her mother. The narrative approach helped the student to be successful in bringing out the meaning behind the story and to position himself from the mother’s and newborn’s perspective. The student’s introspection changed a seemingly scary interaction into a positive experience, overcoming many initial negative emotions, such as fear, disappointment, horror, hopelessness, and insecurity in the face of the unexpected. It is uplifting how the student was strengthened by the power of maternal love to the point of overcoming any remaining feelings of eugenics or rejection. Other important lessons emerging from the case study were the art of listening and the value of silence. This narrative shows how the development of narrative competence can help establish a good physician-patient relationship, because the physician or the student with such competence usually confirms the patient’s value and demonstrates concern for them, focusing on what they say and allowing genuine contact to be established, which is necessary for effective therapeutic alliance. The student’s interpretations of the meaning of love and value of life inspired him on his reframing process of a medical practice marked by vicarious suffering. PMID:26901271

  13. Cadmium risks to freshwater life: derivation and validation of low-effect criteria values using laboratory and field studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mebane, Christopher A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2001, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released updated aquatic life criteria for cadmium. Since then, additional data on the effects of cadmium to aquatic life have become available from studies supported by the EPA, Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (IDEQ), and the U.S. Geological Survey, among other sources. Updated data on the effects of cadmium to aquatic life were compiled and reviewed and low-effect concentrations were estimated. Low-effect values were calculated using EPA's guidelines for deriving numerical national water-quality criteria for the protection of aquatic organisms and their uses. Data on the short-term (acute) effects of cadmium on North American freshwater species that were suitable for criteria derivation were located for 69 species representing 57 genera and 33 families. For longer-term (chronic) effects of cadmium on North American freshwater species, suitable data were located for 28 species representing 21 genera and 17 families. Both the acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium were dependent on the hardness of the test water. Hardness-toxicity regressions were developed for both acute and chronic datasets so that effects data from different tests could be adjusted to a common water hardness. Hardness-adjusted effects values were pooled to obtain species and genus mean acute and chronic values, which then were ranked by their sensitivity to cadmium. The four most sensitive genera to acute exposures were, in order of increasing cadmium resistance, Oncorhynchus (Pacific trout and salmon), Salvelinus ('char' trout), Salmo (Atlantic trout and salmon), and Cottus (sculpin). The four most sensitive genera to chronic exposures were Hyalella (amphipod), Cottus, Gammarus (amphipod), and Salvelinus. Using the updated datasets, hardness dependent criteria equations were calculated for acute and chronic exposures to cadmium. At a hardness of 50 mg/L as calcium carbonate, the criterion maximum concentration (CMC, or 'acute

  14. Hierarchical Classification of Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ergen, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    Values are of utmost importance for the creation, development and sustainability of a life worthy of human dignity. However, because even superficial views of values are regarded as values themselves, they have become relative and become degenerated; therefore, they have lost the properties--potentials and powers--essential to human dignity. This…

  15. An attempt to estimate the economic value of the loss of human life due to landslide and flood events in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvati, Paola; Bianchi, Cinzia; Hussin, Haydar; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2013-04-01

    Landslide and flood events in Italy cause wide and severe damage to buildings and infrastructure, and are frequently involved in the loss of human life. The cost estimates of past natural disasters generally refer to the amount of public money used for the restoration of the direct damage, and most commonly do not account for all disaster impacts. Other cost components, including indirect losses, are difficult to quantify and, among these, the cost of human lives. The value of specific human life can be identified with the value of a statistical life (VLS), defined as the value that an individual places on a marginal change in their likelihood of death This is different from the value of an actual life. Based on information of fatal car accidents in Italy, we evaluate the cost that society suffers for the loss of life due to landslide and flood events. Using a catalogue of fatal landslide and flood events, for which information about gender and age of the fatalities is known, we determine the cost that society suffers for the loss of their life. For the purpose, we calculate the economic value in terms of the total income that the working-age population involved in the fatal events would have earned over the course of their life. For the computation, we use the pro-capita income calculated as the ratio between the GDP and the population value in Italy for each year, since 1980. Problems occur for children and retired people that we decided not to include in our estimates.

  16. Health-related quality of life measured by the UW-QoL--reference values from a general dental practice.

    PubMed

    Rogers, S N; O'donnell, J P; Williams-Hewitt, S; Christensen, J C; Lowe, D

    2006-03-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain age and sex-specific reference values for the University of Washington head and neck cancer questionnaire version 4 (UW-QoLv4) and to compare this with patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancer. Cross-sectional reference data was collected from 372 patients in six local general dental practices, 349 of whom presented for routine appointments. Quota sampling was used to collect data for similar numbers of patients by gender by four age bands (40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79 yr). The longitudinal sample consisted of 450 consecutive patients undergoing primary surgery for previously untreated oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma presenting to the Regional Maxillofacial Unit Liverpool, between the years 1995 and 2002. At baseline the key differences were anxiety, pain, swallowing, chewing, and mood. At 1yr there were big differences in all domains with deterioration in the oral cancer group. The difference was least notable in pain, shoulder, mood and anxiety. Reference data from a non-cancer population is very important when considering UW-QoL domains as an outcome parameter in clinical trials and also when discussing health-related quality of life outcomes with patients and their families.

  17. Paradoxical neurobehavioral rescue by memories of early-life abuse: the safety signal value of odors learned during abusive attachment.

    PubMed

    Raineki, Charlis; Sarro, Emma; Rincón-Cortés, Millie; Perry, Rosemarie; Boggs, Joy; Holman, Colin J; Wilson, Donald A; Sullivan, Regina M

    2015-03-01

    Caregiver-associated cues, including those learned in abusive attachment, provide a sense of safety and security to the child. Here, we explore how cues associated with abusive attachment, such as maternal odor, can modify the enduring neurobehavioral effects of early-life abuse. Two early-life abuse models were used: a naturalistic paradigm, where rat pups were reared by an abusive mother; and a more controlled paradigm, where pups underwent peppermint odor-shock conditioning that produces an artificial maternal odor through engagement of the attachment circuit. Animals were tested for maternal odor preference in infancy, forced swim test (FST), social behavior, and sexual motivation in adulthood-in the presence or absence of maternal odors (natural or peppermint). Amygdala odor-evoked local field potentials (LFPs) via wireless electrodes were also examined in response to the maternal odors in adulthood. Both early-life abuse models induced preference for the maternal odors in infancy. In adulthood, these early-life abuse models produced FST deficits and decreased social behavior, but did not change sexual motivation. Presentation of the maternal odors rescued FST and social behavior deficits induced by early-life abuse and enhanced sexual motivation in all animals. In addition, amygdala LFPs from both abuse animal models showed unique activation within the gamma frequency (70-90 Hz) bands in response to the specific maternal odor present during early-life abuse. These results suggest that attachment-related cues learned during infancy have a profound ability to rescue neurobehavioral dysregulation caused by early-life abuse. Paradoxically, abuse-associated cues seem to acquire powerful and enduring antidepressive properties and alter amygdala modulation.

  18. STAPOL: A Simulation of the Impact of Policy, Values, and Technological and Societal Developments upon the Quality of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Dennis; Feller, Richard

    The Institute for the Future has been conducting research in technological and societal forecasting, social indicators, value change, and simulation gaming. This paper describes an effort to bring together parts of that research into a simulation game ("State Policy," or STAPOL) for analysis of the impact of government policy, social values, and…

  19. Development and Validation of a Short Form of the Valued Life Activities Disability Questionnaire for Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Patricia P.; Radvanski, Diane C.; Allen, Diane; Buyske, Steven; Schiff, Samuel; Nadkarni, Anagha; Rosenblatt, Lisa; Maclean, Ross; Hassett, Afton L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Develop and validate a shortened version of the Valued Life Activities disability and accommodations scale (VLA) for individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods To shorten the existing VLA measure, item response theory analyses were conducted using data from 449 patients with RA. Next, the resulting 14-item shortened version of the VLA scale (S-VLA) was evaluated by structured interviews among 20 RA patients. Lastly, the S-VLA was administered to 150 RA patients along with other measures including the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and SF-36. A random sample of 50 patients completed the S-VLA two weeks later to assess reliability. Item statistics were calculated to evaluate correlations between individual items and S-VLA total score. Correlations between the S-VLA and other measures were used to evaluate validity. Results Test–retest reliability was 0.91, while Cronbach’s alpha for the S-VLA was 0.95. None of the 14 items were associated with improved alpha coefficients when omitted. All items were strongly correlated with the S-VLA total score. S-VLA scores were highly positively correlated with HAQ (r=0.81; p≤0.001), patient-reported disease activity (r=0.71; p≤0.001), satisfaction with abilities (r=0.82; p≤0.001), and number of days with activity limitations (r=0.65; p≤0.001). In addition, as hypothesized, the S-VLA was inversely correlated with SF-36 Physical Component Summary score (r=−0.78; p≤0.001) and subscales: Physical Functioning (r=−0.80; p≤0.001), Role Physical (r=−0.67; p≤0.001) and Social Functioning (r=−0.72; p≤0.001). Conclusions The S-VLA is a short, valid, and reliable instrument that may prove useful for monitoring disability among individuals with RA. PMID:21905253

  20. Bee pollination improves crop quality, shelf life and commercial value.

    PubMed

    Klatt, Björn K; Holzschuh, Andrea; Westphal, Catrin; Clough, Yann; Smit, Inga; Pawelzik, Elke; Tscharntke, Teja

    2014-01-22

    Pollination improves the yield of most crop species and contributes to one-third of global crop production, but comprehensive benefits including crop quality are still unknown. Hence, pollination is underestimated by international policies, which is particularly alarming in times of agricultural intensification and diminishing pollination services. In this study, exclusion experiments with strawberries showed bee pollination to improve fruit quality, quantity and market value compared with wind and self-pollination. Bee-pollinated fruits were heavier, had less malformations and reached higher commercial grades. They had increased redness and reduced sugar-acid-ratios and were firmer, thus improving the commercially important shelf life. Longer shelf life reduced fruit loss by at least 11%. This is accounting for 0.32 billion US$ of the 1.44 billion US$ provided by bee pollination to the total value of 2.90 billion US$ made with strawberry selling in the European Union 2009. The fruit quality and yield effects are driven by the pollination-mediated production of hormonal growth regulators, which occur in several pollination-dependent crops. Thus, our comprehensive findings should be transferable to a wide range of crops and demonstrate bee pollination to be a hitherto underestimated but vital and economically important determinant of fruit quality.

  1. The reluctance to burden others as a value in end-of-life decision making: a source of inaccuracy in substituted judgment.

    PubMed

    Winter, Laraine; Parks, Susan M

    2012-03-01

    Most patients are decisionally incapacitated at the end of life, leaving final treatment decisions to proxies, whose substituted judgment is often inaccurate. We investigated the reluctance to burden others (RBO), a commonly cited patient value, as a possible source of proxy inaccuracy. In a sample of 202 elders and their proxies, elders responded to three burden-related questions and the Life-prolonging Treatment Preferences Questionnaire. Proxies used substituted judgment to respond to the same questions. Although RBO predicted treatment preferences for both elders and proxies, elders rated RBO significantly more important than did proxies. In addition, larger elder-proxy differences in RBO were associated with more inaccurate substituted judgment.

  2. A new value for the half-life of 10Be by Heavy-Ion Elastic Recoil Detection and liquid scintillation counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korschinek, G.; Bergmaier, A.; Faestermann, T.; Gerstmann, U. C.; Knie, K.; Rugel, G.; Wallner, A.; Dillmann, I.; Dollinger, G.; von Gostomski, Ch. Lierse; Kossert, K.; Maiti, M.; Poutivtsev, M.; Remmert, A.

    2010-01-01

    The importance of 10Be in different applications of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is well-known. In this context the half-life of 10Be has a crucial impact, and an accurate and precise determination of the half-life is a prerequisite for many of the applications of 10Be in cosmic-ray and earth science research. Recently, the value of the 10Be half-life has been the centre of much debate. In order to overcome uncertainties inherent in previous determinations, we introduced a new method of high accuracy and precision. An aliquot of our highly enriched 10Be master solution was serially diluted with increasing well-known masses of 9Be. We then determined the initial 10Be concentration by least square fit to the series of measurements of the resultant 10Be/ 9Be ratio. In order to minimize uncertainties because of mass bias which plague other low-energy mass spectrometric methods, we used for the first time Heavy-Ion Elastic Recoil Detection (HI-ERD) for the determination of the 10Be/ 9Be isotopic ratios, a technique which does not suffer from difficult to control mass fractionation. The specific activity of the master solution was measured by means of accurate liquid scintillation counting (LSC). The resultant combination of the 10Be concentration and activity yields a 10Be half-life of T1/2 = 1.388 ± 0.018 (1 s, 1.30%) Ma. In a parallel but independent study (Chmeleff et al. [11]), found a value of 1.386 ± 0.016 (1.15%) Ma. Our recommended weighted mean and mean standard error for the new value for 10Be half-life based on these two independent measurements is 1.387 ± 0.012 (0.87%) Ma.

  3. Broad Themes of Difference between French and Americans in Attitudes to Food and Other Life Domains: Personal Versus Communal Values, Quantity Versus Quality, and Comforts Versus Joys

    PubMed Central

    Rozin, Paul; Remick, Abigail K.; Fischler, Claude

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of previous literature on the role of food in life in France and the United States suggests some fundamental differences in attitudes which may generalize outside of the food domain. Questionnaire results from French and American adults suggest that, compared to the French, Americans emphasize quantity rather than quality in making choices, Americans have a higher preference for variety, and Americans usually prefer comforts (things that make life easier) over joys (unique things that make life interesting). The American preference for quantity over quality is discussed in terms of the American focus on abundance as opposed to the French preference for moderation. The American preference for variety is reflective of Americans’ more personal as opposed to communal food and other values. PMID:21845184

  4. Broad Themes of Difference between French and Americans in Attitudes to Food and Other Life Domains: Personal Versus Communal Values, Quantity Versus Quality, and Comforts Versus Joys.

    PubMed

    Rozin, Paul; Remick, Abigail K; Fischler, Claude

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of previous literature on the role of food in life in France and the United States suggests some fundamental differences in attitudes which may generalize outside of the food domain. Questionnaire results from French and American adults suggest that, compared to the French, Americans emphasize quantity rather than quality in making choices, Americans have a higher preference for variety, and Americans usually prefer comforts (things that make life easier) over joys (unique things that make life interesting). The American preference for quantity over quality is discussed in terms of the American focus on abundance as opposed to the French preference for moderation. The American preference for variety is reflective of Americans' more personal as opposed to communal food and other values.

  5. The influencing factors on procalcitonin values in newborns with noninfectious conditions during the first week of life

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jueseong; Bang, Yong Hyeon; Choi, Byung Min; Hong, Young Sook

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Although procalcitonin (PCT) level is useful for the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis, PCT reliability is inconsistent because of the varied conditions encountered in neonatal intensive care units. This study aimed to investigate PCT levels and factors influencing increased PCT levelin newborns without bacterial infection during the first week of life. Methods In newborns hospitalized between March 2013 and October 2015, PCT levels were measured on the first, third, and seventh days after birth. Newborns with proven bacterial (blood culture positive for bacteria) or suspicious infection (presence of C-reactive protein expression or leukocytosis/leukopenia) were excluded. Various neonatal conditions were analyzed to identify the factors influencing increased PCT level. Results Among 292 newborns with a gestational age of 35.2±3.0 weeks and a birth weight of 2,428±643 g, preterm newborns (n=212) had higher PCT levels than term newborns (n=80). Of the newborns, 7.9% had increased PCT level (23 of 292) on the firstday; 28.3% (81 of 286), on the third day; and 3.3% (7 of 121), on the seventh day after birth. The increased PCT level was significantly associated with prenatal disuse of antibiotics (P=0.004) and surfactant administration (P<0.001) on the first day after birth, postnatal use of antibiotics (P=0.001) and ventilator application (P=0.001) on the third day after birth, and very low birth weight (P=0.042) on the seventh day after birth. Conclusion In newborns without bacterial infection, increased PCT level was significantly associated with lower gestational age and respiratory difficulty during the first week of life. Further studies are needed for clinical applications. PMID:28203255

  6. Continuous glucose monitors: use of waveform versus glycemic values in the improvements of glucose control, quality of life, and fear of hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Walker, Tomas C; Yucha, Carolyn B

    2014-05-01

    How patients are benefitting from continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) remains poorly understood. The focus on numerical glucose values persists, even though access to the glucose waveform and rate of change may contribute more to improved control. This pilot study compared outcomes of patients using CGMs with or without access to the numerical values on their CGM. Ten persons with type 1 diabetes, naïve to CGM use, enrolled in a 12-week study. Subjects were randomly assigned to either unmodified CGM receivers, or to CGM receivers that had their numerical values obscured but otherwise functioned normally. HbA1c, quality of life (QLI-D), and fear of hypoglycemia (HFS) were assessed, at baseline and at week 12. Baseline HbA1c for the entire group was 7.46 ± 1.27%. At week 12 the experimental group HbA1c reduction was 1.5 ± 0.9% (p < .05), the control group's reduction was 0.06 ± 0.61% (p > .05). Repeated measures testing revealed no significant difference in HbA1c reduction between groups. Both groups had reductions in HFS; these reductions were statistically significant within groups (p < .05), but not between groups. QLI-D indices demonstrated improvements (p < .05) in QLI-D total and the health and family subscales, but not between groups. The results of this pilot study suggest that benefits of CGM extend beyond reductions in HbA1c to reductions in fear of hypoglycemia and improvements in quality of life. The display of a numerical glucose value did not improve control when compared to numerically blinded units.

  7. Assessment of Life Cycle Information Exchanges (LCie): Understanding the Value-Added Benefit of a COBie Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    is broken down by var- iable name, value (where all data is keyed in), units, definitions and tab reference. The Tab Reference column indicates...in black text. Where cost savings are anticipated, the var- iables and values are in red text. Figure 3. Expected Assumptions. ERDC/CERL CR-13-6

  8. Dare to Dream: Personal Values, Life Goals, and International Students in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kaili C; Zhang, Abraham

    2016-10-12

    It has been well identified and supported in the literature that values and life goals are associated with one's general well-being. However, there have been few studies on values and life goals among international students in New Zealand. This study addressed this lack of research by focusing on the life goals and personal values among international students in three tertiary institutes in New Zealand. Based on the literature review, the hypothesis of this study is that international students' intrinsic life goals are positively correlated with their spiritual values. In contrast, extrinsic goals did not have similar effects. The Aspirations Index, which was used to assess life goals, and the Schwartz' value survey, which measured the students' personal values, were both distributed to the participants. Follow-up interviews with 24 of the participants were also conducted. Findings revealed that spiritual values were positively correlated with intrinsic goals and that extrinsic goals did not have similar effects. As the research findings showed that spiritual values were positively correlated with intrinsic goals, helping international students to find meaning and purpose in life may promote their well-being, and the learning and growth of international students can be improved by incorporating spiritual values and cultural aspects in college education. The authors also argue that a holistic approach to college education for international students is needed.

  9. Work preferences, life values, and personal views of top math/science graduate students and the profoundly gifted: Developmental changes and gender differences during emerging adulthood and parenthood.

    PubMed

    Ferriman, Kimberley; Lubinski, David; Benbow, Camilla P

    2009-09-01

    Work preferences, life values, and personal views of top math/science graduate students (275 men, 255 women) were assessed at ages 25 and 35 years. In Study 1, analyses of work preferences revealed developmental changes and gender differences in priorities: Some gender differences increased over time and increased more among parents than among childless participants, seemingly because the mothers' priorities changed. In Study 2, gender differences in the graduate students' life values and personal views at age 35 were compared with those of profoundly gifted participants (top 1 in 10,000, identified by age 13 and tracked for 20 years: 265 men, 84 women). Again, gender differences were larger among parents. Across both cohorts, men appeared to assume a more agentic, career-focused perspective than women did, placing more importance on creating high-impact products, receiving compensation, taking risks, and gaining recognition as the best in their fields. Women appeared to favor a more communal, holistic perspective, emphasizing community, family, friendships, and less time devoted to career. Gender differences in life priorities, which intensify during parenthood, anticipated differential male-female representation in high-level and time-intensive careers, even among talented men and women with similar profiles of abilities, vocational interests, and educational experiences.

  10. Relationships between Parents' and Children's Salient Values for Future and Children's Overall Life Satisfaction: A Comparison across Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coenders, Germa; Casas, Ferran; Figuer, Cristina; Gonzalez, Monica

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a model is set forth relating (a) overall life satisfaction of children to children's values and (b) children's values to parents' values. Using confirmatory factor analysis models three dimensions of values (materialistic values, capacities and knowledge values and interpersonal relationship values) consistently emerged in 5…

  11. Middle School Students' Perceptions of the Instructional Value of Analogies, Summaries and Answering Questions in Life Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BouJaoude, Saouma; Tamim, Rana

    2008-01-01

    Meaningful learning is the fundamental process that underlies the acquisition of useful information and the construction of new knowledge. By creating meaningful relations, learners are able to organize the information in bigger and more organized chunks of information; an organization that reduces memory overload and increases processing…

  12. Do we have a moral obligation to synthesize organisms to increase biodiversity? On kinship, awe, and the value of life's diversity.

    PubMed

    Boldt, Joachim

    2013-10-01

    Synthetic biology can be understood as expanding the abilities and aspirations of genetic engineering. Nonetheless, whereas genetic engineering has been subject to criticism due to its endangering biodiversity, synthetic biology may actually appear to prove advantageous for biodiversity. After all, one might claim, synthesizing novel forms of life increases the numbers of species present in nature and thus ought to be ethically recommended. Two perspectives on how to spell out the conception of intrinsic value of biodiversity are examined in order to assess this line of thought. At the cost of introducing two separate capacities of human knowledge acquisition, the 'admiration stance' turns out to reject outright the assumption of a synthetic species' intrinsic value and of an imperative to create novel species. The 'kinship stance' by contrast does ascribe value to both synthetic and natural species and organisms. Nonetheless, while from this perspective creating novel species may become an ethical demand under certain conditions, it favours changing organisms by getting in contact with them rather than synthesizing them. It is concluded that neither the admiration nor the kinship stance warrants a supposed general moral obligation to create novel species to increase biodiversity.

  13. AN EMPIRICAL BAYES APPROACH TO COMBINING ESTIMATES OF THE VALUE OF A STATISTICAL LIFE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This analysis updates EPA's standard VSL estimate by using a more comprehensive collection of VSL studies that include studies published between 1992 and 2000, as well as applying a more appropriate statistical method. We provide a pooled effect VSL estimate by applying the empi...

  14. The Value of Fieldwork in Life and Environmental Sciences in the Context of Higher Education: A Case Study in Learning About Biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Graham W.; Goulder, Raymond; Wheeler, Phillip; Scott, Lisa J.; Tobin, Michelle L.; Marsham, Sara

    2012-02-01

    Fieldwork is assumed by most practitioners to be an important if not essential component of a degree level education in the environmental sciences. However, there is strong evidence that as a result of a wide range of pressures (academic, financial and societal) fieldwork is in decline in the UK and elsewhere. In this paper we discuss the value of fieldwork in a higher education context and present the results of a case study which illustrates its value to student learning and the wider student experience. We used qualitative and quantitative methods to compare the impact of two learning tasks upon the affective and cognitive domains of students. We designed two tasks. One task that included fieldwork, and required students to collect organisms from the field and make labelled drawings of them, and one task that omitted the fieldwork and simply required drawing of specimens that the students had not collected. We evaluated the students' experience through structured and semi-structured questionnaires and written exercises. Students did not perceive the two tasks as being equivalent to one another. They reported that they enjoy fieldwork and value it (in the contexts of their learning at university, life-long learning, and in relation to their career aspirations) and felt that they learn more effectively in the field. Our students were better able to construct a taxonomic list of organisms that they had collected themselves, better able to recall the structural detail of these organisms and were better able to recall the detail of an ecological sampling methodology that they had personally carried out in the field rather than one that a tutor had described to them in a classroom setting. Our case study supports the growing body of evidence that fieldwork is an important way of enhancing undergraduate learning and highlights some key areas for future research.

  15. Valued Life Activities, Smoking Cessation, and Mood in Post-Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Andrew M.; Srour, John Fani; Arrighi, James A.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Borrelli, Belinda

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Continued engagement in valued life activities is a protective factor for depression and has been linked to readiness to quit smoking in medical populations, but has never been examined among Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) patients. The purpose of this study is to investigate relationships among valued life activities, mood, and smoking post-ACS. Methods Participants were 54 post-ACS patients who were smoking before ACS hospitalization. Data on mood, smoking status, engagement in valued activities, restriction of valued activities, and satisfactory replacement of restricted activities was collected 1-12 months post-ACS. Results Depressive symptoms were associated with both less valued activity engagement and greater valued activity restriction. Positive affect was associated with greater valued activity engagement and negative affect was associated with greater valued activity restriction. Satisfactory replacement of restricted activities was associated with greater positive affect, fewer depressive symptoms, and quitting smoking post-ACS. The majority of these relationships remained significant after controlling for relevant covariates, including physical functioning. Conclusions Valued activity restriction and engagement may contribute to depressed mood and failure to quit smoking in ACS patients. Psychotherapies that target greater engagement in valued life activities deserve further investigation in ACS patients. PMID:25471466

  16. Faculty Work and Public Trust: Restoring the Value of Teaching and Public Service in American Academic Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairweather, James S.

    In examining the source of public distrust for higher education and faculty work, this volume reviews empirical data concerning questions which lie at the core of the roles of faculty in academe, in the economy, and the larger society. Chapter 1 describes the background in changing social attitudes and economic factors. Chapter 2 looks at faculty…

  17. A Cluster-Analytic Approach to Understanding the Life Values of North Carolina Public Alternative School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Adam W.

    2013-01-01

    Public alternative schools are often a significant defense against school dropout (Souza, 1999). However, little empirical research focused on alternative schools was found. Empirical research focused on the teachers who teach in these settings is even scarcer. The purpose of this descriptive study is two-fold. First, as an initial step in…

  18. Highly efficient, long life, reusable and robust photosynthetic hybrid core-shell beads for the sustainable production of high value compounds.

    PubMed

    Desmet, Jonathan; Meunier, Christophe; Danloy, Emeric; Duprez, Marie-Eve; Lox, Frédéric; Thomas, Diane; Hantson, Anne-Lise; Crine, Michel; Toye, Dominique; Rooke, Joanna; Su, Bao-Lian

    2015-06-15

    An efficient one-step process to synthesize highly porous (Ca-alginate-SiO2-polycation) shell: (Na-alginate-SiO2) core hybrid beads for cell encapsulation, yielding a reusable long-life photosynthetically active material for a sustainable manufacture of high-value metabolites is presented. Bead formation is based on crosslinking of an alginate biopolymer and mineralisation of silicic acid in combination with a coacervation process between a polycation and the silica sol, forming a semi-permeable external membrane. The excellent mechanical strength and durability of the monodispersed beads and the control of their porosity and textural properties is achieved by tailoring the silica and alginate loading, polycation concentration and incubation time during coacervation. This process has led to the formation of a remarkably robust hybrid material that confers exceptional protection to live cells against sheer stresses and contamination in a diverse range of applications. Dunaliella tertiolecta encapsulated within this hybrid core-shell system display high photosynthetic activity over a long duration (>1 year). This sustainable biotechnology could find use in high value chemical harvests and biofuel cells to photosynthetic solar cells (energy transformation, electricity production, water splitting technologies). Furthermore the material can be engineered into various forms from spheres to variable thickness films, broadening its potential applications.

  19. Universal values of Canadian astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brcic, Jelena; Della-Rossa, Irina

    2012-11-01

    Values are desirable, trans-situational goals, varying in importance, that guide behavior. Research has demonstrated that universal values may alter in importance as a result of major life events. The present study examines the effect of spaceflight and the demands of astronauts' job position as life circumstances that affect value priorities. We employed thematic content analysis for references to Schwartz's well-established value markers in narratives (media interviews, journals, and pre-flight interviews) of seven Canadian astronauts and compared the results to the values of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Russian Space Agency (RKA) astronauts. Space flight did alter the level of importance of Canadian astronauts' values. We found a U-shaped pattern for the values of Achievement and Tradition before, during, and after flight, and a linear decrease in the value of Stimulation. The most frequently mentioned values were Achievement, Universalism, Security, and Self-Direction. Achievement and Self Direction are also within the top 4 values of all other astronauts; however, Universalism was significantly higher among the Canadian astronauts. Within the value hierarchy of Canadian astronauts, Security was the third most frequently mentioned value, while it is in seventh place for all other astronauts. Interestingly, the most often mentioned value marker (sub-category) in this category was Patriotism. The findings have important implications in understanding multi-national crew relations during training, flight, and reintegration into society.

  20. What Does "Value" Evoke for Children? A Detection Study as to Transferring Values to Daily Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coskun Keskin, Sevgi

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have been carried out because of the importance of values education in recent years. The studies have shown their effects on the curriculum of 2005. In many classes it is aimed to provide individuals with the gains kneaded with appropriate values. Social Studies are one of them. However, no satisfactory studies as to whether the…

  1. Predictive value of dental readiness and psychological dimensions for oral health-related quality of life in Croatian soldiers: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Špalj, Stjepan; Perić, Davorka; Mlacović Zrinski, Magda; Bulj, Martina; Plančak, Darije

    2012-01-01

    Aim To determine the predictive value of dental readiness and psychological dimensions for oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in Croatian soldiers. Methods The sample consisted of 402 consecutive soldiers aged 21 to 54 years classified into the following groups according to dental readiness: Class 1 – not requiring dental treatment (N = 54), Class 2 – unlikely to need emergency treatment within 12 months (N = 205), and Class 3 – very likely to need treatment within 12 months (N = 143). OHRQoL was assessed by the Oral Health Impact Profile and psychological dimensions by the Brief Symptom Inventory and Dental Anxiety Scale. Results Multivariate analysis showed that Class 3 soldiers had higher frequency of psychological discomfort, psychological disability, and physical pain and handicap than Class 1 soldiers (P = 0.019). Multiple linear regression showed that longer military experience, higher level of dental anxiety, and dental unreadiness were significant predictors of lower OHRQoL (P < 0.050) but accounted for low variability. None of the single psychological symptomatic dimensions was a significant predictor of OHRQoL. Conclusion Although this study found a moderate association between OHRQoL and clinical, military, demographic, and psychological variables, the significant predictors could be used as a basis for further research of clinical and psychosocial factors of OHRQoL. PMID:23100208

  2. Toward a Social Theory of Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weigel, Elizabeth

    1975-01-01

    A new social theory of value must be developed because of the possibility of a world-wide emergency in the face of growing famine and pollution and an accompanying decline of moral values. This theory must have the life of all humanity and the life of our own culture as its ultimate values. (Author/RK)

  3. The Value of Reciprocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molm, Linda D.; Schaefer, David R.; Collett, Jessica L.

    2007-01-01

    The value of reciprocity in social exchange potentially comprises both instrumental value (the value of the actual benefits received from exchange) and communicative or symbolic value (the expressive and uncertainty reduction value conveyed by features of the act of reciprocity itself). While all forms of exchange provide instrumental value, we…

  4. Work Values during the Transition to Adulthood and Mid-Life Satisfaction: Cascading Effects across 25 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Angela; Galambos, Nancy L.; Krahn, Harvey J.

    2017-01-01

    This 25-year longitudinal study of a sample of Canadian high school seniors (N = 373) examined pathways from work values at age 18 to mid-life (age 43) career satisfaction and life satisfaction through several possible mediators: age 25 and 32 work values, months of postsecondary education (PSE) by age 25, and age 43 work rewards. Gender and…

  5. Life-Metaphors among Colombian Medical Students: Uncovering Core Values and Educational Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Edward; Acosta-Orozco, Catalina; Compton, William C.

    2015-01-01

    The present study utilized metaphor analysis to examine the core values of Colombian medical students. The entire 9th semester medical class of 60 students was invited to respond to a structured questionnaire. It asked participants to state their preferred life-metaphor, whether they had always preferred this metaphor since childhood or…

  6. Life-Metaphors among Colombian Leadership Students: Core Values and Educational Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Edward; Acosta-Orozco, Catalina

    2015-01-01

    The present study utilized metaphor analysis to explore the core values of Colombian college students in a leadership program. The entire class of 60 students was invited to respond to a structured questionnaire. It asked participants to state their preferred life-metaphor, whether they had always preferred this metaphor since childhood or…

  7. Accounting for land use in life cycle assessment: The value of NPP as a proxy indicator to assess land use impacts on ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Taelman, Sue Ellen; Schaubroeck, Thomas; De Meester, Steven; Boone, Lieselot; Dewulf, Jo

    2016-04-15

    Terrestrial land and its resources are finite, though, for economic and socio-cultural needs of humans, these natural resources are further exploited. It highlights the need to quantify the impact humans possibly have on the environment due to occupation and transformation of land. As a starting point of this paper (1(st) objective), the land use activities, which may be mainly socio-culturally or economically oriented, are identified in addition to the natural land-based processes and stocks and funds that can be altered due to land use. To quantify the possible impact anthropogenic land use can have on the natural environment, linked to a certain product or service, life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool commonly used. During the last decades, many indicators are developed within the LCA framework in an attempt to evaluate certain environmental impacts of land use. A second objective of this study is to briefly review these indicators and to categorize them according to whether they assess a change in the asset of natural resources for production and consumption or a disturbance of certain ecosystem processes, i.e. ecosystem health. Based on these findings, two enhanced proxy indicators are proposed (3(rd) objective). Both indicators use net primary production (NPP) loss (potential NPP in the absence of humans minus remaining NPP after land use) as a relevant proxy to primarily assess the impact of land use on ecosystem health. As there are two approaches to account for the natural and productive value of the NPP remaining after land use, namely the Human Appropriation of NPP (HANPP) and hemeroby (or naturalness) concepts, two indicators are introduced and the advantages and limitations compared to state-of-the-art NPP-based land use indicators are discussed. Exergy-based spatially differentiated characterization factors (CFs) are calculated for several types of land use (e.g., pasture land, urban land).

  8. Particular Features of Interrelation of Motivation, Values and Sense of Life's Meaning as Subjective Factors of Individualizing Trajectory in the System of Continuous Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zavodchikov, Dmitry P.; Sharov, Anton A.; Tolstykh, Anastasia ?.; Kholopova, Ekaterina S.; Krivtsov, Artem I.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the problem under study is based on the fact that, as regards methodological and theoretical aspects, the problem of value and motivational sphere is poorly elaborated regarding the interrelation between professional education and professional activity and on the empirical level there is no clear understanding of how the sense of…

  9. Five Values of Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besjes-de Bock, Karin M.; de Ruyter, Doret J.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes five values attributed to giftedness. The ascription of values to this phenomenon resembles values attached to gifts in gift-giving processes. Whereas gift-giving often includes expectations of reciprocity, each gift possesses a numerical, utility, social, personal, and intrinsic value. Developmental models of giftedness and…

  10. Life Roles, Values, and Careers. International Findings of the Work Importance Study. First Edition. The Jossey-Bass Social and Behavioral Science Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Super, Donald E., Ed.; And Others

    This book answers fundamental questions about the nature of work in modern life based on the research from an innovative, cross-national project of the Work Importance Study (WIS). Part 1 presents the background for WIS. "Studies of the Meaning of Work" (Branimir Sverko, Vlasta Vizek-Vidovic) reviews the current state of understanding of…

  11. Health-Related Quality of Life and Health Utility Values in Beta Thalassemia Major Patients Receiving Different Types of Iron Chelators in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Seyedifar, Meysam; Dorkoosh, Farid Abedin; Hamidieh, Amir Ali; Naderi, Majid; Karami, Hossein; Karimi, Mehran; Fadaiyrayeny, Masoomeh; Musavi, Masoumeh; Safaei, Sanaz; Ahmadian-Attari, Mohammad Mahdi; Hadjibabaie, Molouk; Cheraghali, Abdol Majid; Akbari Sari, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Thalassemia is a chronic, inherited blood disorder, which in its most severe form, causes life-threatening anemia. Thalassemia patients not only engage with difficulties of blood transfusion and iron chelating therapy but also have some social challenges and health threatening factors. There are some reports on quality of life in thalassemia patients around the world from southeast of Asia to Italy in Europe and United States. In this study, we tried to evaluate and compare Health Related Quality of life (HRQoL) and the health utility in beta thalassemia major patients receiving different types of iron chelators and living in different socio-economical situations. Subjects and Methods: EQ-5D-3L accompanied by a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) questionnaire was used. The respondents were patients with beta thalassemia major that were at least 12 years old selected from 3 provinces of Sistan-Blouchestan, Fars and Mazandaran. Comorbidities including heart complication, Diabetes Mellitus and Hepatitis and also types of iron chelators (oral, injection, combination of both) were also asked. Cross tab and ANOVA analysis conducted to evaluate each dimension score and health utility differences between provinces, iron chelation methods, comorbidities, age group and gender. Results: 528 patients answered the questionnaires. The health utility of patients that received oral iron chelator were 0.87 ± .01 for oral iron chelators versus 0.81 ± .01 for injection dosage form (p<0.05). Increase in age was accompanied by decrease in health utility. Females faced more usual activity problems, anxiety and depression. Heart problems were more prevalent in males. Conclusion: This study suggests that the quality of life of beta thalassemia major patients is dependent on type of iron chelation treatment which they received, the gender they have, the comorbidities they suffer and socio-economical situations they live in. PMID:27928477

  12. The Discriminant Value of Phase-Dependent Local Dynamic Stability of Daily Life Walking in Older Adult Community-Dwelling Fallers and Nonfallers.

    PubMed

    Ihlen, Espen A F; Weiss, Aner; Helbostad, Jorunn L; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M

    2015-01-01

    The present study compares phase-dependent measures of local dynamic stability of daily life walking with 35 conventional gait features in their ability to discriminate between community-dwelling older fallers and nonfallers. The study reanalyzes 3D-acceleration data of 3-day daily life activity from 39 older people who reported less than 2 falls during one year and 31 who reported two or more falls. Phase-dependent local dynamic stability was defined for initial perturbation at 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% of the step cycle. A partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to compare the discriminant abilities of phase-dependent local dynamic stability with the discriminant abilities of 35 conventional gait features. The phase-dependent local dynamic stability λ at 0% and 60% of the step cycle discriminated well between fallers and nonfallers (AUC = 0.83) and was significantly larger (p < 0.01) for the nonfallers. Furthermore, phase-dependent λ discriminated as well between fallers and nonfallers as all other gait features combined. The present result suggests that phase-dependent measures of local dynamic stability of daily life walking might be of importance for further development in early fall risk screening tools.

  13. Value Assessment at the Point of Care: Incorporating Patient Values throughout Care Delivery and a Draft Taxonomy of Patient Values.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Melissa J; Mullins, C Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Incorporation of patient values is a key element of patient-centered care, but consistent incorporation of patient values at the point of care is lacking. Shared decision making encourages incorporation of patient values in decision making, but associated tools often lack guidance on value assessment. In addition, focusing on patient values relating only to specific decisions misses an opportunity for a more holistic approach to value assessment that could impact other aspects of clinical encounters, including health care planning, communication, and stakeholder involvement. In this commentary, we propose a taxonomy of values underlying patient decision making and provide examples of how these impact provision of health care. The taxonomy describes four categories of patient values: global, decisional, situational, and external. Global values are personal values impacting decision making at a universal level and can include value traits and life priorities. Decisional values are the values traditionally conceptualized in decision making, including considerations such as efficacy, toxicity, quality of life, convenience, and cost. Situational values are values tied to a specific moment in time that modify patients' existing global and decisional values. Finally, discussion of external values acknowledges that many patients consider values other than their own when making decisions. Recognizing the breadth of values impacting patient decision making has implications for both overall health care delivery and shared decision making because value assessments focusing only on decisional values may miss important patient considerations. This draft taxonomy highlights different values impacting decision making and facilitates a more complete value assessment at the point of care.

  14. The Value of Fieldwork in Life and Environmental Sciences in the Context of Higher Education: A Case Study in Learning about Biodiversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Graham W.; Goulder, Raymond; Wheeler, Phillip; Scott, Lisa J.; Tobin, Michelle L.; Marsham, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Fieldwork is assumed by most practitioners to be an important if not essential component of a degree level education in the environmental sciences. However, there is strong evidence that as a result of a wide range of pressures (academic, financial and societal) fieldwork is in decline in the UK and elsewhere. In this paper we discuss the value of…

  15. Standard Operating Procedure for Using the NAFTA Guidance to Calculate Representative Half-life Values and Characterizing Pesticide Degradation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Results of the degradation kinetics project and describes a general approach for calculating and selecting representative half-life values from soil and aquatic transformation studies for risk assessment and exposure modeling purposes.

  16. Value of a statistical life in road safety: a benefit-transfer function with risk-analysis guidance based on developing country data.

    PubMed

    Milligan, Craig; Kopp, Andreas; Dahdah, Said; Montufar, Jeannette

    2014-10-01

    We model a value of statistical life (VSL) transfer function for application to road-safety engineering in developing countries through an income-disaggregated meta-analysis of scope-sensitive stated preference VSL data. The income-disaggregated meta-analysis treats developing country and high-income country data separately. Previous transfer functions are based on aggregated datasets that are composed largely of data from high-income countries. Recent evidence, particularly with respect to the income elasticity of VSL, suggests that the aggregate approach is deficient because it does not account for a possible change in income elasticity across income levels. Our dataset (a minor update of the OECD database published in 2012) includes 123 scope-sensitive VSL estimates from developing countries and 185 scope-sensitive estimates from high-income countries. The transfer function for developing countries gives VSL=1.3732E-4×(GDP per capita)(∧)2.478, with VSL and GDP per capita expressed in 2005 international dollars (an international dollar being a notional currency with the same purchasing power as the U.S. dollar). The function can be applied for low- and middle-income countries with GDPs per capita above $1268 (with a data gap for very low-income countries), whereas it is not useful above a GDP per capita of about $20,000. The corresponding function built using high-income country data is VSL=8.2474E+3×(GDP per capita)(∧).6932; it is valid for high-income countries but over-estimates VSL for low- and middle-income countries. The research finds two principal significant differences between the transfer functions modeled using developing-country and high-income-country data, supporting the disaggregated approach. The first of these differences relates to between-country VSL income elasticity, which is 2.478 for the developing country function and .693 for the high-income function; the difference is significant at p<0.001. This difference was recently postulated

  17. Using Values Narratives to Promote Youth Well-Being in Schools: An Exploratory Quantitative Evaluation of the Laws of Life Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banyard, Victoria; Hamby, Sherry; Grych, John

    2016-01-01

    Expressive writing or values narratives are a promising addition to school social workers' toolkits of intervention strategies for distressed youth and prevention work to reduce mental health problems in schools. Narrative can promote resilience among students who have been exposed to adversity and promote healthy development among those who have…

  18. The Dubious Value of Value Neutrality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balch, Stephen H.

    2006-01-01

    Hard science is properly value neutral. But when that ideological neutrality extends to the whole university, the traditional foundation crumbles. Steve Balch laments the moral vacuum that now substitutes for fundamental principles, because it is impossible to frame a program of education--especially in the humanities and social sciences--without…

  19. Effect of Individual Component Life Distribution on Engine Life Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Soditus, Sherry M.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of individual engine component life distributions on engine life prediction was determined. A Weibull-based life and reliability analysis of the NASA Energy Efficient Engine was conducted. The engine s life at a 95 and 99.9 percent probability of survival was determined based upon the engine manufacturer s original life calculations and assumed values of each of the component s cumulative life distributions as represented by a Weibull slope. The lives of the high-pressure turbine (HPT) disks and blades were also evaluated individually and as a system in a similar manner. Knowing the statistical cumulative distribution of each engine component with reasonable engineering certainty is a condition precedent to predicting the life and reliability of an entire engine. The life of a system at a given reliability will be less than the lowest-lived component in the system at the same reliability (probability of survival). Where Weibull slopes of all the engine components are equal, the Weibull slope had a minimal effect on engine L(sub 0.1) life prediction. However, at a probability of survival of 95 percent (L(sub 5) life), life decreased with increasing Weibull slope.

  20. Radionuclide biological half-life values for terrestrial and aquatic wildlife.

    PubMed

    Beresford, N A; Beaugelin-Seiller, K; Burgos, J; Cujic, M; Fesenko, S; Kryshev, A; Pachal, N; Real, A; Su, B S; Tagami, K; Vives i Batlle, J; Vives-Lynch, S; Wells, C; Wood, M D

    2015-12-01

    The equilibrium concentration ratio is typically the parameter used to estimate organism activity concentrations within wildlife dose assessment tools. Whilst this is assumed to be fit for purpose, there are scenarios such as accidental or irregular, fluctuating, releases from licensed facilities when this might not be the case. In such circumstances, the concentration ratio approach may under- or over-estimate radiation exposure depending upon the time since the release. To carrying out assessments for such releases, a dynamic approach is needed. The simplest and most practical option is representing the uptake and turnover processes by first-order kinetics, for which organism- and element-specific biological half-life data are required. In this paper we describe the development of a freely available international database of radionuclide biological half-life values. The database includes 1907 entries for terrestrial, freshwater, riparian and marine organisms. Biological half-life values are reported for 52 elements across a range of wildlife groups (marine = 9, freshwater = 10, terrestrial = 7 and riparian = 3 groups). Potential applications and limitations of the database are discussed.

  1. Dealing with Life's Dilemmas: Exploring Values through English and Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milgrim, Sally-Anne

    The nine original one-act plays in this collection are meant to be performed in the classroom or at any social gathering where an informal reading or enactment by a group can take place. The plays touch on a number of conflicts that people may encounter when seeking independence; looking for jobs; trying romance; relating to family members;…

  2. Deciphering death: a commentary on Gompertz (1825) ‘On the nature of the function expressive of the law of human mortality, and on a new mode of determining the value of life contingencies’

    PubMed Central

    Kirkwood, Thomas B. L.

    2015-01-01

    In 1825, the actuary Benjamin Gompertz read a paper, ‘On the nature of the function expressive of the law of human mortality, and on a new mode of determining the value of life contingencies’, to the Royal Society in which he showed that over much of the adult human lifespan, age-specific mortality rates increased in an exponential manner. Gompertz's work played an important role in shaping the emerging statistical science that underpins the pricing of life insurance and annuities. Latterly, as the subject of ageing itself became the focus of scientific study, the Gompertz model provided a powerful stimulus to examine the patterns of death across the life course not only in humans but also in a wide range of other organisms. The idea that the Gompertz model might constitute a fundamental ‘law of mortality’ has given way to the recognition that other patterns exist, not only across the species range but also in advanced old age. Nevertheless, Gompertz's way of representing the function expressive of the pattern of much of adult mortality retains considerable relevance for studying the factors that influence the intrinsic biology of ageing. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750242

  3. Deciphering death: a commentary on Gompertz (1825) 'On the nature of the function expressive of the law of human mortality, and on a new mode of determining the value of life contingencies'.

    PubMed

    Kirkwood, Thomas B L

    2015-04-19

    In 1825, the actuary Benjamin Gompertz read a paper, 'On the nature of the function expressive of the law of human mortality, and on a new mode of determining the value of life contingencies', to the Royal Society in which he showed that over much of the adult human lifespan, age-specific mortality rates increased in an exponential manner. Gompertz's work played an important role in shaping the emerging statistical science that underpins the pricing of life insurance and annuities. Latterly, as the subject of ageing itself became the focus of scientific study, the Gompertz model provided a powerful stimulus to examine the patterns of death across the life course not only in humans but also in a wide range of other organisms. The idea that the Gompertz model might constitute a fundamental 'law of mortality' has given way to the recognition that other patterns exist, not only across the species range but also in advanced old age. Nevertheless, Gompertz's way of representing the function expressive of the pattern of much of adult mortality retains considerable relevance for studying the factors that influence the intrinsic biology of ageing. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.

  4. Combined effects of marinating and γ-irradiation in ensuring safety, protection of nutritional value and increase in shelf-life of ready-to-cook meat for immunocompromised patients.

    PubMed

    Ben Fadhel, Yosra; Leroy, Valentin; Dussault, Dominic; St-Yves, France; Lauzon, Martine; Salmieri, Stéphane; Jamshidian, Majid; Vu, Dang Khanh; Lacroix, Monique

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of combining marinating and γ-irradiation at doses of 1, 1.5 and 3kGy on Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium and Clostridium sporogenes in raw meat packed under vacuum and stored at 4°C and to estimate its safety and shelf-life. Further, the effect of combined treatments on sensorial, nutritional values (lipid oxidation, concentration of thiamin and riboflavin) and color was evaluated. The study demonstrated that the use of marinade in combination with a low dose of γ-irradiation (1.5kGy) could act in synergy to reduce to undetectable level of pathogenic bacteria and increase the shelf-life of ready-to-cook meat loin without affecting its sensorial and nutritional quality.

  5. Defending definitions of life.

    PubMed

    Mix, Lucas John

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, it has become unpopular to talk about definitions of life, under the assumption that attempts at a precise definition are counterproductive. Recent attempts have failed to meet strict philosophical criteria for definitions and have failed to reach consensus. I argue that provisional definitions are necessary for clear communications. Our current knowledge of biology justifies a number of universal claims about the category of life. Whether or not "life" represents a natural category, it maps to a number of important, observable processes. Given the importance of those processes and the extent of our knowledge, plural explicit definitions of life (and related categories) will be necessary for progress in astrobiology and origin-of-life studies as well as biology in general. I propose concrete categories related to, but not necessarily coextensive with, life for clear communication and hypothesis formation: Woese life, Darwin life, Haldane life.

  6. The Value of the P Value.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Dinesh; Balakrishnan, Archana; Vyas, Arpita

    2015-12-01

    Recently, the discussion on the implications of irreproducibility in the sciences has been brought into the spotlight. This topic has been discussed for years in the literature. A multitude of reasons have been attributed to this issue; one commonly labeled culprit is the overuse of the p value as a determinant of significance by the scientific community. Both scientists and statisticians have questioned the use of null hypothesis testing as the basis of scientific analysis. This survey of the current issues at hand in irreproducibility in research emphasizes potential causes of the issue, impacts that this can have for drug development and efforts been taken to increase transparency of findings in research.

  7. Value of Information References

    SciTech Connect

    Morency, Christina

    2014-12-12

    This file contains a list of relevant references on value of information (VOI) in RIS format. VOI provides a quantitative analysis to evaluate the outcome of the combined technologies (seismology, hydrology, geodesy) used to monitor Brady's Geothermal Field.

  8. The Prudential Value of Education for Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Mark

    2011-01-01

    A popular justification of education for autonomy is that autonomy possession has intrinsic prudential value. Communitarians have argued, however, that although autonomy may be a core element of a well-lived life in liberal societies, it cannot claim such a prudential pedigree in traditional societies in which the conception of a good life is…

  9. The Value of the P Value

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Dinesh; Balakrishnan, Archana; Vyas, Arpita

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the discussion on the implications of irreproducibility in the sciences has been brought into the spotlight. This topic has been discussed for years in the literature. A multitude of reasons have been attributed to this issue; one commonly labeled culprit is the overuse of the p value as a determinant of significance by the scientific community. Both scientists and statisticians have questioned the use of null hypothesis testing as the basis of scientific analysis. This survey of the current issues at hand in irreproducibility in research emphasizes potential causes of the issue, impacts that this can have for drug development and efforts been taken to increase transparency of findings in research. PMID:27430018

  10. Diminishing willingness to pay per quality-adjusted life year: valuing acute foodborne illness.

    PubMed

    Haninger, Kevin; Hammitt, James K

    2011-09-01

    We design and conduct a stated-preference survey to estimate willingness to pay (WTP) to reduce foodborne risk of acute illness and to test whether WTP is proportional to the corresponding gain in expected quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). If QALYs measure utility for health, then economic theory requires WTP to be nearly proportional to changes in both health quality and duration of illness and WTP could be estimated by multiplying the expected change in QALYs by an appropriate monetary value. WTP is elicited using double-bounded, dichotomous-choice questions in which respondents (randomly selected from the U.S. general adult population, n = 2,858) decide whether to purchase a more expensive food to reduce the risk of foodborne illness. Health risks vary by baseline probability of illness, reduction in probability, duration and severity of illness, and conditional probability of mortality. The expected gain in QALYs is calculated using respondent-assessed decrements in health-related quality of life if ill combined with the duration of illness and reduction in probability specified in the survey. We find sharply diminishing marginal WTP for severity and duration of illness prevented. Our results suggest that individuals do not have a constant rate of WTP per QALY, which implies that WTP cannot be accurately estimated by multiplying the change in QALYs by an appropriate monetary value.

  11. Health-related quality of life assessment and reported outcomes in leukaemia randomised controlled trials - a systematic review to evaluate the added value in supporting clinical decision making.

    PubMed

    Efficace, Fabio; Kemmler, Georg; Vignetti, Marco; Mandelli, Franco; Molica, Stefano; Holzner, Bernhard

    2008-07-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is increasingly reported as an important outcome in cancer clinical trials. However, very little evidence exists on the impact of such evaluation in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of leukaemia patients. A systematic search of the literature from 1980 to 2007 was undertaken and studies were identified and evaluated independently, according to a pre-defined coding scheme, by three reviewers. Both HRQOL outcomes and traditional clinical reported outcomes were systematically analysed to evaluate their consistency and their relevance for supporting clinical decision making. Nine RCTs were identified, involving 3838 patients overall. There were four RCTs involving acute myeloid leukaemia patients (AML), three with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) and two with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). Six studies were published after 2000 and provided fairly robust methodological quality. Imatinib greatly improved HRQOL compared to interferon based treatments in CML patients and fludarabine plus cyclophosphamide does not seem to have a deleterious impact on patient's HRQOL when compared to fludarabine alone or chlorambucil in CLL patients. This study revealed the paucity of HRQOL research in leukaemia patients. Nonetheless, HRQOL assessment is feasible in RCTs and has the great potential of providing valuable outcomes to further support clinical decision making.

  12. Cultural and moral values surrounding care and (in)dependence in late life: reflections from India in an era of global modernity.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Sarah

    2005-01-01

    In India, many are participating in a shift from the intergenerational family as the central site of aging and elder care, to an increasing reliance on individual selves, the state, and private institutions. Over recent years, the nation has witnessed a proliferation of old age homes and a new industry of aging-focused institutions offering social, emotional, and practical support for older persons living alone. This article examines Indians' perspectives on elder care and the significant changes underway in their nation and world. Qualitative ethnographic fieldwork was conducted primarily in Kolkata (formerly Calcutta) among older persons, their families, and community members, with a focus on old age homes. Beliefs and practices surrounding competing models of elder care--such as in the family or in old age homes--speak not only to elder care per se, but also to broader cultural-moral visions of the relationship among persons, families, and states, and the nature and aims of the human life course.

  13. Expected value information improves financial risk taking across the adult life span.

    PubMed

    Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R; Wagner, Anthony D; Knutson, Brian

    2011-04-01

    When making decisions, individuals must often compensate for cognitive limitations, particularly in the face of advanced age. Recent findings suggest that age-related variability in striatal activity may increase financial risk-taking mistakes in older adults. In two studies, we sought to further characterize neural contributions to optimal financial risk taking and to determine whether decision aids could improve financial risk taking. In Study 1, neuroimaging analyses revealed that individuals whose mesolimbic activation correlated with the expected value estimates of a rational actor made more optimal financial decisions. In Study 2, presentation of expected value information improved decision making in both younger and older adults, but the addition of a distracting secondary task had little impact on decision quality. Remarkably, provision of expected value information improved the performance of older adults to match that of younger adults at baseline. These findings are consistent with the notion that mesolimbic circuits play a critical role in optimal choice, and imply that providing simplified information about expected value may improve financial risk taking across the adult life span.

  14. Value of Fundamental Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burov, Alexey

    Fundamental science is a hard, long-term human adventure that has required high devotion and social support, especially significant in our epoch of Mega-science. The measure of this devotion and this support expresses the real value of the fundamental science in public opinion. Why does fundamental science have value? What determines its strength and what endangers it? The dominant answer is that the value of science arises out of curiosity and is supported by the technological progress. Is this really a good, astute answer? When trying to attract public support, we talk about the ``mystery of the universe''. Why do these words sound so attractive? What is implied by and what is incompatible with them? More than two centuries ago, Immanuel Kant asserted an inseparable entanglement between ethics and metaphysics. Thus, we may ask: which metaphysics supports the value of scientific cognition, and which does not? Should we continue to neglect the dependence of value of pure science on metaphysics? If not, how can this issue be addressed in the public outreach? Is the public alienated by one or another message coming from the face of science? What does it mean to be politically correct in this sort of discussion?

  15. World and Life or Education and the Question of Meaning (of Life).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masschelein, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Examines whether the human world is threatened by a decline in respect for life, questioning some of the convictions and assumptions which underlie this diagnosis and the concomitant demand for an education in the value of life. The paper discusses the meaning of life, human existence, the sacredness of life, and the question of meaning and…

  16. Value of Information spreadsheet

    DOE Data Explorer

    Trainor-Guitton, Whitney

    2014-05-12

    This spreadsheet represents the information posteriors derived from synthetic data of magnetotellurics (MT). These were used to calculate value of information of MT for geothermal exploration. Information posteriors describe how well MT was able to locate the "throat" of clay caps, which are indicative of hidden geothermal resources. This data is full explained in the peer-reviewed publication: Trainor-Guitton, W., Hoversten, G. M., Ramirez, A., Roberts, J., Júlíusson, E., Key, K., Mellors, R. (Sept-Oct. 2014) The value of spatial information for determining well placement: a geothermal example, Geophysics.

  17. Definition of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirk, Schulze-Makuch; Irwin, Louis N.

    The definition of life is a long-standing debate with no general scientific consensus to be expected any time soon. The underlying problem is that living systems use compounds that are abundant in the surrounding environment and processes that are not intrinsically different from reactions that occur abiologically. There does not appear to exist a single characteristic property that is both intrinsic and unique to life. Rather we have to argue that life meets certain standards, or that it qualifies by the collective presence of a certain set of characteristics. The threshold for meeting this standard sounds arbitrary, and may well be arbitrary in the sense that life presumably arose through a long sequence of "emergent events", each at a greater level of molecular complexity and order (Hazen 2002). If that notion is correct, any rigid distinction between life and non-life is a matter of subjective judgment. While our everyday experience with life on Earth makes the distinction between the living and non-living for the most part unambiguous, a consideration of life on other worlds, where conditions may be different, and/or where life may have evolved from its inorganic precedents to a lesser degree, requires us to formulate a more formal and objective definition for life. Before doing so, we will first address the limitations of commonplace assumptions about what constitutes life.

  18. Take a Selfie of Life: A Qualitative Exploration of College Students' Self-Reflections on Free Time Use and Personal Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsin-Yu; Yarnal, Careen; Hustad, John T. P.; Sims, Damon

    2016-01-01

    Adopting a qualitative approach, this study explores college students' self-reflections on free time use and personal values. Data were collected from 111 students' final reflection papers for a class entitled "Leisure and Human Behavior." The findings suggest that leisure education may empower students with fundamental knowledge about…

  19. AIRUSE-LIFE +: estimation of natural source contributions to urban ambient air PM10 and PM2. 5 concentrations in southern Europe - implications to compliance with limit values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diapouli, Evangelia; Manousakas, Manousos I.; Vratolis, Stergios; Vasilatou, Vasiliki; Pateraki, Stella; Bairachtari, Kyriaki A.; Querol, Xavier; Amato, Fulvio; Alastuey, Andrés; Karanasiou, Angeliki A.; Lucarelli, Franco; Nava, Silvia; Calzolai, Giulia; Gianelle, Vorne L.; Colombi, Cristina; Alves, Célia; Custódio, Danilo; Pio, Casimiro; Spyrou, Christos; Kallos, George B.; Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos

    2017-03-01

    The contribution of natural sources to ambient air particulate matter (PM) concentrations is often not considered; however, it may be significant for certain areas and during specific periods of the year. In the framework of the AIRUSE-LIFE+ project, state-of-the-art methods have been employed for assessing the contribution of major natural sources (African dust, sea salt and forest fires) to PM concentrations, in southern European urban areas. 24 h measurements of PM10 and PM2. 5 mass and chemical composition were performed over the course of a year in five cities: Porto, Barcelona, Milan, Florence and Athens. Net African dust and sea-salt concentrations were calculated based on the methodologies proposed by the EC (SEC 2011/208). The contribution of uncontrolled forest fires was calculated through receptor modelling. Sensitivity analysis with respect to the calculation of African dust was also performed, in order to identify major parameters affecting the estimated net dust concentrations. African dust contribution to PM concentrations was more pronounced in the eastern Mediterranean, with the mean annual relative contribution to PM10 decreasing from 21 % in Athens, to 5 % in Florence, and around 2 % in Milan, Barcelona and Porto. The respective contribution to PM2. 5 was calculated equal to 14 % in Athens and from 1.3 to 2.4 % in all other cities. High seasonal variability of contributions was observed, with dust transport events occurring at different periods in the western and eastern Mediterranean basin. Sea salt was mostly related to the coarse mode and also exhibited significant seasonal variability. Sea-salt concentrations were highest in Porto, with average relative contributions equal to 12.3 % for PM10. Contributions from uncontrolled forest fires were quantified only for Porto and were low on an annual basis (1.4 and 1.9 % to PM10 and PM2. 5, respectively); nevertheless, contributions were greatly increased during events, reaching 20 and 22 % of 24 h

  20. The value of anecdote.

    PubMed

    Parodi, Juan C; Parodi, Federico E

    2014-04-01

    Anecdote is defined as "a usually short narrative of an interesting, amusing, or biographical incident" and are not often deemed scientifically valuable (www.merriam-webster.com). Anecdotes can be analyzed, however, and those observations can become the initiation of important and groundbreaking work. In this article, we describe aecdotes of several cases which by themselves had seemingly little value. The value was added later, when these concepts were extrapolated to important projects, which expanded into series of experiences, which were reproducible and able to be analyzed and judged as valuable devices and/or methods. The authors recognize that some of the images are old and not of great quality but the information provided is as complete as possible and reliable.

  1. Origin of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrenfreund, P.; Cleaves, H. J.

    2003-10-01

    Deciphering the origin of life requires some knowledge of the early planetary environment. Unfortunately, we lack definitive evidence of the atmospheric composition, surface temperature, oceanic pH, and other environmental conditions that may have been important for the appearance of the first living systems on Earth. The rock remnants of the early Archean are extremely scarce and most of the record has been lost. The first indications of life from carbon inclusions in rocks and the oldest fossil record are currently under debate but there is a consensus that life started during the first billion years after the Earth formed. Life as we know it is a chemical phenomenon. The chemistry that could have produced self-organizing systems is the central problem in the origin of life. There are several competing theories for how this chemistry may have arisen. In spite of their diversity, proposals for a prebiotic "soup", for the role of submarine hydrothermal vents, or for the extraterrestrial origin of organic compounds have as a common background assumption the idea that abiotic organic compounds were necessary for the emergence of life. It is possible that a combination of these sources - exogenous and endogenous - contributed building blocks for the origin of life on Earth. In this paper we provide a review of the main ideas on the origin of life from the astrobiological perspective and discuss the probability of life on extrasolar planets.

  2. Creating Value with Long Term R&D: The life science industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloman, Darlene J. S.

    2008-03-01

    Agilent Laboratories looks to the future to identify, invest and enable technologies and applications that will nurture the world’s people, environment and economies, and help ensure Agilent’s continuing leadership. Following a brief introduction to Agilent Technologies and Agilent Laboratories, Solomon will discuss how innovation and long-term R&D are transcending traditional boundaries. Focusing on the life sciences industry, she will discuss current trends in R&D and the importance of measurement in advancing the industry. She will describe some of the challenges that are disrupting the pharmaceutical industry where significant and sustained investment in R&D has not translated into large numbers of block-buster therapeutics. Much of this gap results from the profound complexity of biological systems. New discoveries quickly generate new questions, which in turn drive more research and necessitate new business models. Solomon will highlight examples of Agilent’s long-range R&D in life sciences, emphasizing the importance of physics. She’ll conclude with the importance of creating sustainable value with R&D.

  3. The value of biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Alho, C J R

    2008-11-01

    In addition to its intrinsic value (nature working as it is; species are the product of a long history of continuing evolution by means of ecological processes, and so they have the right to continued existence), biodiversity also plays a fundamental role as ecosystem services in the maintenance of natural ecological processes. The economic or utilitarian values of biodiversity rely upon the dependence of man on biodiversity; products that nature can provide: wood, food, fibers to make paper, resins, chemical organic products, genes as well as knowledge for biotechnology, including medicine and cosmetic sub-products. It also encompasses ecosystem services, such as climate regulation, reproductive and feeding habitats for commercial fish, some organisms that can create soil fertility through complex cycles and interactions, such as earthworms, termites and bacteria, in addition to fungi responsible for cycling nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur and making them available to plant absorption. These services are the benefits that people indirectly receive from natural ecosystem functions (air quality maintenance, regional climate, water quality, nutrient cycling, reproductive habitats of commercial fish, etc.) with their related economic values.

  4. Family Strengths and Adaptation to Army Life: A Focus of Variations in Family Values and Expectations Across Racial/Ethnic Groups and Rank.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-22

    ApprovedIOM8 No. 0704-0188 Ia. REPORT SECURITY CLASSIFICATION lb RESTRICTIVE MARKINGS Unclassified Za . SECURITY CLASSIFICATION AUTHORITY 3...community practice is consistent with the challenge by Dolores Curran for institutions to work in concert with families to better realize their values

  5. I-Xe systematics of the impact plume produced chondrules from the CB carbonaceous chondrites: Implications for the half-life value of 129I and absolute age normalization of 129I-129Xe chronometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravdivtseva, O.; Meshik, A.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Krot, A. N.

    2017-03-01

    0.6 Ma value for 129I half-life. The slopes of I-Xe - Pb-Pb correlation lines plotted for different sets of samples for Shallowater normalization are always ⩽1. Assuming uranium half-life values are correct; this restricts the half-life of 129I to ⩽15.7 Ma.

  6. Boundaries of life: estimating the life span of the biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franck, S.; Bounama, C.; von Bloh, W.

    We present a minimal model for the global carbon cycle of the Earth containing the reservoirs mantle ocean floor continental crust continental biosphere and the Kerogen as well as the aggregated reservoir ocean and atmosphere and obtain reasonable values for the present distribution of carbon in the surface reservoirs of the Earth The Earth system model for the long-term carbon cycle is specified by introducing three different types of biosphere prokaryotes eucaryotes and complex multicellular life They are characterized by different global temperature tolerance windows prokaryotes 2oC 100oC eucaryotes 5oC 45oC complex multicellular life 0oC 30oC From the Archaean to the future there always exists a prokaryotic biosphere 2 Gyr ago eucaryotic life first appears because the global surface temperature reaches the tolerance window for eucaryotes The emergence of complex multicellular life is connected with an explosive increase in biomass and a strong decrease in Cambrian global surface temperature at about 0 54 Gyr ago In the long-term future the three types of biosphere will die out in reverse sequence of their appearance For realistic values of the biotic enhancement of weathering there is no bistability in the future solutions for complex life Therefore complex organisms will not extinct by an implosion in comparison to the Cambrian explosion Eucaryotes and complex life become extinct because of too high surface temperatures in the future The ultimate life span of the biosphere is defined by the extinction of procaryotes in about 1 6 Gyr

  7. The Life of Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Cathie

    2010-01-01

    Using the notion of a suggestion, or rather charting the life of suggestions, this article considers the happenings of chance and embodiment as the "problems that got away." The life of suggestions helps us to ask how connectivities are made, how desire functions, and how "immanence" rather than "transcendence" can open up the politics and ethics…

  8. The Value of Non-Work Time in Cross-National Quality of Life Comparisons: The Case of the United States vs. the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verbakel, Ellen; DiPrete, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    Comparisons of wellbeing between the United States and Western Europe generally show that most Americans have higher standards of living than do Western Europeans at comparable locations in their national income distributions. These comparisons of wellbeing typically privilege disposable income and cash transfers while ignoring other aspects of…

  9. Emergence of Life.

    PubMed

    Bassez, Marie-Paule

    2011-09-29

    Indeed, even if we know that many individual components are necessary for life to exist, we do not yet know what makes life emerge. One goal of this journal Life is to juxtapose articles with multidisciplinary approaches and perhaps to answer in the near future this question of the emergence of life. Different subjects and themes will be developed, starting of course with the multiple definitions of life and continuing with others such as: life diversity and universality; characteristics of living systems; thermodynamics with energy and entropy; kinetics and catalysis; water in its different physical states; circulation of sap and blood and its origin; the first blood pump and first heart; the first exchange of nutrients between cells, sap and blood; essential molecules of living systems; chirality; molecular asymmetry and its origin; formation of enantiomer excess and amplification; microscopic observations on a micrometer and sub-micrometer scales, at molecular and atomic levels; the first molecules at the origin of genetic information, viroids, circular RNA; regions of space or the area inside membranes and cells capable of initiating and maintaining life; phenomena at the origin of the emergence of life; molecules studied in the traditional field of chemistry and in the recent field of nanoscience governed by new laws; interaction between the individual molecules and components of living systems; interaction between living systems and the environment; transfer of information through generations; continuation of life from one generation to the next; prebiotic chemistry and prebiotic signatures on Earth, on Mars, on other planets; biosignatures of the first forms of life; fossils and pseudofossils dating 3.5 Ga ago and more recent ones; experimental fossilization; pluricellular eukaryotes dating 2.1 Ga ago; sudden increase in oxygen in the atmosphere around 2.0 to 2.5 Ga ago and its relation to geology; shell symmetry; aging with transformation of molecules, of

  10. Origin of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, Ashwini Kumar

    2008-10-01

    The evolution of life has been a big enigma despite rapid advancements in the field of astrobiology, microbiology and genetics in recent years. The answer to this puzzle is as mindboggling as the riddle relating to evolution of the universe itself. Despite the fact that panspermia has gained considerable support as a viable explanation for origin of life on the earth and elsewhere in the universe, the issue, however, remains far from a tangible solution. This paper examines the various prevailing hypotheses regarding origin of life-like abiogenesis, RNA world, iron-sulphur world and panspermia, and concludes that delivery of life-bearing organic molecules by the comets in the early epoch of the earth alone possibly was not responsible for kick-starting the process of evolution of life on our planet.

  11. Value of periangiography hydration.

    PubMed

    Kerstein, M D; Puyau, F A

    1984-11-01

    The value of contrast dye to the planning and evaluation of cardiovascular disease cannot be overestimated. However, adverse renal sequellae may cause the surgeon to hesitate in obtaining an arteriogram, especially in patients with compromised renal function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of renal dysfunction in patients requiring angiography. Standard contrast angiography for cerebral or peripheral vascular disease was administered to 150 consecutive patients (89 men and 61 women), with an average age of 63.3 years (range 49 to 89 years). All patients received 100 to 150 ml of dye, with a concentration of approximately 50% iodine. Patients were hydrated with 0.5 N saline/5% dextrose, intravenously, for 8 hours before the procedure (1 to 3 ml/kg/hr). In 31 patients (11 women and 20 men) the serum BUN and/or creatinine levels were elevated (mean BUN value of 48 +/- 9 mg/dl; mean creatinine level of 2.8 +/- 0.6 mg/dl). The patients with abnormal renal function received an additional 300 to 500 ml of intravenous fluid, plus 20 to 40 mg intravenous furosemide, 1 hour before roentgenography to establish a diuresis. All patients were hydrated for 6 hours after angiography with the same solution at the same rate (1 to 3 ml/kg/hr). There were no episodes of compromised renal or cardiopulmonary dysfunction because of contrast angiography. In no patient did the BUN or creatinine level rise, nor was there evidence of acute tubular necrosis, as documented by oliguria and abnormal cells in the urine. Angiography is a safe procedure, even with patients who may have compromised renal function, if appropriate prehydration/posthydration and diuretic measures are undertaken.

  12. The value of reputation.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Thomas; Tran, Lily; Krumme, Coco; Rand, David G

    2012-11-07

    Reputation plays a central role in human societies. Empirical and theoretical work indicates that a good reputation is valuable in that it increases one's expected payoff in the future. Here, we explore a game that couples a repeated Prisoner's Dilemma (PD), in which participants can earn and can benefit from a good reputation, with a market in which reputation can be bought and sold. This game allows us to investigate how the trading of reputation affects cooperation in the PD, and how participants assess the value of having a good reputation. We find that depending on how the game is set up, trading can have a positive or a negative effect on the overall frequency of cooperation. Moreover, we show that the more valuable a good reputation is in the PD, the higher the price at which it is traded in the market. Our findings have important implications for the use of reputation systems in practice.

  13. End of life care.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ruth

    2012-01-26

    The combination of an ageing population and increasing numbers of prisoners means delivering end of life care in prisons is inevitable. To this end the National End of Life Programme has published a practical guide, aimed at health and social care workers, and prison staff. The guide outlines the six steps of the end of life care pathway in detail, from initiating discussions to care after death. It also includes case studies highlighting best practice. To read the guide, visit http://tinyurl.com/ndoflifeinprison.

  14. Value Encounters - Modeling and Analyzing Co-creation of Value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigand, Hans

    Recent marketing and management literature has introduced the concept of co-creation of value. Current value modeling approaches such as e3-value focus on the exchange of value rather than co-creation. In this paper, an extension to e3-value is proposed in the form of a “value encounter”. Value encounters are defined as interaction spaces where a group of actors meet and derive value by each one bringing in some of its own resources. They can be analyzed from multiple strategic perspectives, including knowledge management, social network management and operational management. Value encounter modeling can be instrumental in the context of service analysis and design.

  15. End of Life Issues

    MedlinePlus

    ... difficult. But by deciding what end-of-life care best suits your needs when you are healthy, ... making choices about the following: The goals of care (for example, whether to use certain medicines during ...

  16. End of Life Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... this with your healthcare provider. End of Life Considerations There are situations that ill older adults may ... is not indicated. In some settings, however, the law may require that physicians offer the option of ...

  17. The 'negative cost' of value engineering.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Martin

    2012-06-01

    Martin Wilkinson, national sales manager at system protection specialist, Spirotech UK, highlights the 'potential negative consequences' of value engineering in heating system specification in the healthcare sector, and argues that system protection products such as de-aerators and dirt separators have considerable value in preventative maintenance, and in helping to extend the useful life of both the system as a whole, and its vital parts.

  18. On the Value of Second Life for Students' Engagement in Blended and Online Courses: A Comparative Study from the Higher Education in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellas, Nikolaos; Kazanidis, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays three-dimensional (3D) multi-user virtual worlds (VWs) are the most well-known candidate platforms in Higher education. Despite the growing number of notable studies that have presented VWs as valuable platforms for the e-Education, there is still a paucity of a comparative study in order to be determined the degree of the students'…

  19. The Financial Value of a Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantrowitz, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Five years have passed since the U.S. Census Bureau published synthetic estimates of work-life earnings by educational attainment. This paper updates those figures with the most recent data from the U.S. Census Bureau's annual Current Population Surveys, and adds net present value analysis of the financial benefit of a college degree to the…

  20. Destroying the life and career of a valued physician-scientist who tried to protect us from plague: was it really necessary?

    PubMed

    Murray, Barbara E; Anderson, Karl E; Arnold, Keith; Bartlett, John G; Carpenter, Charles C; Falkow, Stanley; Hartman, J Ted; Lehman, Tom; Reid, Ted W; Ryburn, Frank M; Sack, R Bradley; Struelens, Marc J; Young, Lowell S; Greenough, William B

    2005-06-01

    Thomas Campbell Butler, at 63 years of age, is completing the first year of a 2-year sentence in federal prison, following an investigation and trial that was initiated after he voluntarily reported that he believed vials containing Yersinia pestis were missing from his laboratory at Texas Tech University. We take this opportunity to remind the infectious diseases community of the plight of our esteemed colleague, whose career and family have, as a result of his efforts to protect us from infection by this organism, paid a price from which they will never recover.

  1. The moral status of extraterrestrial life.

    PubMed

    Persson, Erik

    2012-10-01

    If we eventually discover extraterrestrial life, do we have any moral obligations for how to treat the life-forms we find; does it matter whether they are intelligent, sentient, or just microbial-and does it matter that they are extraterrestrial? In this paper, I examine these questions by looking at two of the basic questions in moral philosophy: What does it take to be a moral object? and What has value of what kind? I will start with the first of these questions by looking at the most important attempts to answer this question on our own planet and by asking whether and how they could be applied to extraterrestrial life. The results range from a very strong protection of all extraterrestrial life and all extraterrestrial environments, whether inhabited or not, to total exclusion of extraterrestrial life. Subsequently, I also examine whether extraterrestrial life that lacks moral status can have value to human or alien life with moral status, and if that could generate any obligations for how to treat extraterrestrial life. Based on this analysis, I conclude that extraterrestrial life-forms can have both instrumental value and end value to moral objects, which has strong implications for how to treat them.

  2. Choosing a Life One Has Reason to Value: The Role of the Arts in Fostering Capability Development in Four Small Urban High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Cindy; Donovan, Corinne; Mishook, Jacob; de Gaillande, Genevieve; Garcia, Ivonne

    2012-01-01

    A holistic education linked to creativity, innovation, critical thinking and local/global citizenship is increasingly marginalized in the United States as schools continue to struggle with the impact of high-stakes testing regimes. In particular, urban youths' access to an education that furthers their ability to choose lives they have reason to…

  3. Normative Ideas of Life and Autobiographical Reasoning in Life Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohn, Annette

    2011-01-01

    Autobiographical reasoning is closely related to the development of normative ideas about life as measured by the cultural life script. The acquisition of a life script is an important prerequisite for autobiographical reasoning because children learn through the life script which events are expected to go into their life story, and when to expect…

  4. A Quantum Origin of Life?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Paul C. W.

    The following sections are included: * Chemistry and Information * Q-life * The Problem of Decoherence * Life as the "Solution" of a Quantum Search Algorithm * Quantum Choreography * Acknowledgements * References

  5. Nutritional values of waterfowl foods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fredickson, Leigh H.; Reid, Fredric A.

    1988-01-01

    wetland habitats throughout their annual cycles. Survival, reproduction, and growth are dependent on the availability of foods that meet nutritional requirements for recurring biological events. These requirements occur among a wide variety of environmental conditions that also influence nutritional demands. Recent work on nesting waterfowl has identified the female’s general nutrient needs for egg laying and incubation. Far less is known about nutritional requirements for molt and other portions of the life cycle, particularly those during the nonbreeding season. Although information on specific requirements for amino acids and micronutrients of wild birds is meager, the available information on waterfowl requirements can be used to develop waterfowl management strategies. For example, nutrient content of foods, nutritional requirements of waterfowl, and the cues waterfowl use in locating and selecting foods are all kinds of information that managers need to encourage use of habitats by feeding waterfowl. Waterfowl nutritional needs during the annual cycle and the nutritional values of natural foods and crops will be discussed below.

  6. Life Out of Chaos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrhenius, Gustaf

    2002-01-01

    Doctinary overlays on the definition of life can effectively be avoided by focusing discussion on microorganisms, their vital processes, and their genetic pedigree. To reach beyond these present and highly advanced forms of life and to inquire about its origin it is necessary to consider the requirements imposed by the environment. These requirements include geophysically and geochemically acceptable conjectures for the generation of source compounds, their concentration from dilute solution, and their selective combination into functional biomolecules. For vital function these macromolecules require programming in the form of specific sequence motifs. This critical programming constitutes the scientifically least understood process in the origin of life. Once this stage has been surpassed the laws of Darwinian evolution can operate in ways that are understood and experimentally demonstrated.

  7. Habitats of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirk, Schulze-Makuch; Irwin, Louis N.

    There are four principal habitats in which life may exist - the surface of a planetary body, its subsurface, its atmosphere and space. From our own experience we know that life does exist on the surface of a planet, in its subsurface, and transiently at least in the atmosphere. Where it is present, it exists in a surprising diversity and in a variety of microhabitats, from deep caverns (Hose et al. 2000, Melim et al. 2001) to hydrothermal fluids and hot springs of various chemistries (Jannasch 1995, Rzonca and Schulze-Makuch 2002), to the frozen deserts of Antarctica (Friedmann 1982, Sun and Friedmann 1999). In this chapter we will elaborate on the principal habitats, the constraints they impose on life, and the possibilities they provide.

  8. Chemical Origins of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, J. Lawrence

    1972-01-01

    Reviews ideas and evidence bearing on the origin of life. Shows that evidence to support modifications of Oparin's theories of the origin of biological constituents from inorganic materials is accumulating, and that the necessary components are readily obtained from the simple gases found in the universe. (AL)

  9. The Business of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunski, Jonathan F.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a learning game called The Business of Life that demonstrates the cellular processes of photosynthesis and respiration as business transactions. Incorporates the ideas that energy flows through ecosystems as well as through cells of individual organisms. Demonstrates the interdependence of living things and that processes at the cellular…

  10. The secret of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, David; Kirsebom, Oliver

    2013-02-01

    Life as we know it would not be possible were it not for a particular nuclear energy level of carbon-12 predicted 60 years ago by Fred Hoyle. But the true nature of this energy level remains one of the biggest unsolved questions in nuclear physics, say David Jenkins and Oliver Kirsebom.

  11. How to Assess the Value of Medicines?

    PubMed Central

    Simoens, Steven

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to discuss approaches to assessing the value of medicines. Economic evaluation assesses value by means of the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Health is maximized by selecting medicines with increasing ICERs until the budget is exhausted. The budget size determines the value of the threshold ICER and vice versa. Alternatively, the threshold value can be inferred from pricing/reimbursement decisions, although such values vary between countries. Threshold values derived from the value-of-life literature depend on the technique used. The World Health Organization has proposed a threshold value tied to the national GDP. As decision makers may wish to consider multiple criteria, variable threshold values and weighted ICERs have been suggested. Other approaches (i.e., replacement approach, program budgeting and marginal analysis) have focused on improving resource allocation, rather than maximizing health subject to a budget constraint. Alternatively, the generalized optimization framework and multi-criteria decision analysis make it possible to consider other criteria in addition to value. PMID:21607066

  12. Quality of Life Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces. New Mexico Environmental Inst.

    Comments, speeches, and questions delivered at the Quality of Life Symposium are compiled in these proceedings. As an exploratory session, the conference objectives were to (1) become better informed about New Mexico--its resource base, the economy, social and cultural base, and the environment; and (2) to evaluate and discuss the role of New…

  13. Work Values of Singaporean Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Esther

    This study attempted to determine the predominant work values among Singaporean students, possible changes in the work values of adolescents as they proceed from early to late adolescence, and the role of gender in forming work values. Using a cross-sectional design and stratified random sampling techniques, a sample of 645 boys and 735 girls was…

  14. The Logic of Values Clarification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazepides, A. C.

    1977-01-01

    Traces the origin of the Values Clarification movement in education in Carl Roger's clien-centered therapy and exposes its unwarranted extreme ethical stance. Examines a model episode of values clarification and shows how the theoretical confusions of the Values Clarification proponents are reflected in their actual teaching strategies. (Editor/RK)

  15. Predicting Later-Life Outcomes of Early-Life Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: In utero exposure of the fetus to a stressor can lead to disease in later life. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely mediators of later-life expression of early-life events.Objectives: We examined the current state of understanding of later-life diseases resulting from ea...

  16. Risk and value analysis of SETI.

    PubMed

    Billingham, J

    1990-01-01

    This paper attempts to apply a traditional risk and value analysis to the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence--SETI. In view of the difficulties of assessing the probability of success, a comparison is made between SETI and a previous search for extraterrestrial life, the biological component of Project Viking. Our application of simple Utility Theory, given some reasonable assumptions, suggests that SETI is at least as worthwhile as the biological experiment on Viking.

  17. Risk and value analysis of SETI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingham, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper attempts to apply a traditional risk and value analysis to the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence--SETI. In view of the difficulties of assessing the probability of success, a comparison is made between SETI and a previous search for extraterrestrial life, the biological component of Project Viking. Our application of simple Utility Theory, given some reasonable assumptions, suggests that SETI is at least as worthwhile as the biological experiment on Viking.

  18. Practical Life: The Keystone of Life, Culture, and Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramani, Uma

    2013-01-01

    Uma Ramani's characterization of practical life is philosophical and anthropological, suggesting that "human history is the story of the evolution of our practical life activities." Practical life is a collaborative activity that creates community and culture. One's adaptation to life through the daily work of ordering our environment…

  19. The Quality of Life in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Chong-Min

    2009-01-01

    The AsiaBarometer survey of 1,023 respondents shows Life in Korea is highly modernized and digitalized without being much globalized. Despite the modernization and digitalization of their lifestyles, ordinary citizens still prioritize materialistic values more than post-materialistic values, and they remain least satisfied in the material life…

  20. Role of Value Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnegan, Gregory T.; McCampbell, James F.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a series of five principles which facilitate the completion of performance analysis and the implementation of solutions to organizational problems. The effectiveness of the principles is demonstrated through an account of a project in which lack of control over operating room inventory in a hospital was analyzed and remedied. (JL)

  1. End of life issues.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Nigel

    2008-05-01

    Despite advances in cancer survival rates, end of life care remains a vital aspect of cancer management. The use of integrated care pathways can facilitate effective care of dying patients in a generalist setting. However, it remains important that staff are able to recognise the onset of the dying process, not only in order to make symptom control provision, but also that appropriate communication can occur with patients and those close to them. This allows the exercise of choice over place and style of care. The key symptoms at the end of life are restlessness, agitation, breathlessness, pain and noisy respiration from retained airway secretions. Ethical tensions arise from the assumptions that the use of opioids and sedatives hastens dying, but this is contradicted by available evidence.

  2. [Quality of life in gerodontology].

    PubMed

    de Baat, C

    2011-04-01

    In clinical decision-making on whether or not to treat an oral disease and on making a choice from the spectrum of treatment options, the influence of the treatment on the physical and psycho-social well-being of the patient should play a crucial role. This awareness originates from gerodontology. To assess the value of a potential treatment, the concept quality of life has been advanced and various related questionnaires have been developed and employed. In the meantime, doubts have arisen about the value of these questionnaires. The present-day trend is to return to so-called qualitative research, which consists of systematic interviews of groups of older people using open-ended questions without making use of structured response options.

  3. Values in a Science of Social Work: Values-Informed Research and Research-Informed Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longhofer, Jeffrey; Floersch, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    While social work must be evaluative in relation to its diverse areas of practice and research (i.e., values-informed research), the purpose of this article is to propose that values are within the scope of research and therefore research on practice should make values a legitimate object of investigation (i.e., research-informed values). In this…

  4. Life Satisfaction across Four Stages of Adult Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medley, Morris L.

    1980-01-01

    For men life satisfaction was related to age stage in a monotonic increasing fashion. Life satisfaction scores remained relatively constant across the age stages for women. Family life and standard of living were found to be significant determinants of life satisfaction, for both sexes at each stage of adulthood. (Author)

  5. The Value of Cocurriculars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Most educators support the popular theory that cocurricular activities benefit participants in a number of ways, such as reducing drug and alcohol abuse and crime; raising grades; and improving students' prospects of attending college, finding jobs, and becoming responsible citizens. A multitude of studies shows that students who participate in…

  6. The Value of Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trundley, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses her research into the development of counting in pre-school children. Her research involved a small-scale case study with a personal flavour--the children in the study were her twin daughters (called Emily and Alice for the purpose of the research). Observations of their mathematical development began at 18…

  7. The Value of Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Lee

    2006-01-01

    David Horner, a recent president of North Park College and Theological Seminary has suggested that, in light of the tension between the demands of free inquiry and the need for religious inculcation, Christian colleges have two options: either redefine academic freedom or limit it and be up front and principled about it. In this article, the…

  8. The value of place

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dentzau, Michael W.

    2014-03-01

    This commentary seeks to expand the dialogue on place-based science education presented in Katie Lynn Brkich's article, where the connections fifth grade students make between their formal earth science curriculum and their lived experiences are highlighted. The disconnect between the curriculum the students are offered and their immediate environment is clear, and we are presented with examples of how they strive to make connections between the content and what they are familiar with—namely their surroundings. "Place" is identified as a term with complex meanings and interpretations, even in the scope of place-based science education, and understanding how the term is used in any given scenario is essential to understanding the implications of place-based education. Is place used as a location, locale or a sense of place? To understand "place" is to acknowledge that for the individual, it is highly situational, cultural and personal. It is just such attributes that make place-based education appealing, and potentially powerful, pedagogically on one hand, yet complex for implementation on the other. The argument is posed that place is particularly important in the context of education about the environment, which in its simplest manifestation, connects formal science curriculum to resources that are local and tangible to students. The incorporation of place in such a framework seeks to bridge the gap between formal school science subjects and students' lived experiences, yet acknowledges the tensions that can arise between accommodating place meanings and the desire to acculturate students into the language of the scientific community. The disconnect between guiding policy frameworks and the reality of the Next Generation Science Standards is addressed opening an avenue for further discussion of the importance of socio-cultural frameworks of science learning in an ever increasing era of accountability.

  9. Value of intensified nursing

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Wilhelm; Konta, Brigitte; Prusa, Nina; Raymann, Cornelia

    2006-01-01

    The concept "intensified nursing" is mentioned in differentiation to concepts of "nursing care" or "nursing" which intensifies resources or patient contact. Especially psychic and social needs of patients are very appreciated in nursing. A similar type of nursing is known under the concept "advanced nursing practice" (ANP) which means, that a specialised, academically trained nurse offers an extended nursing care in which a focus on the published knowledge of evidence based research is made. From the thin literature to this topic a selection of predetermined topics was analysed where at least two articles with a sufficient high methodical quality were available. The selected topic groups were: „Infant and paediatric nursing", "gerontology" and "oncology". Generally the five publications concerning infant and paediatric nursing could conclusive show a benefit of intensified nursing. Further research is still needed to prove intensified nursing care. Two publications could be found to the gerontological intensified nursing; both used an extended nursing model and an enlarged use of resources. Both studies demonstrated a measurable success in the applied parameters. Two studies also could be analysed in the oncological field in which successes were also provable by the applied parameters. The success was given especially in a higher patient satisfaction, one study showed an improved scheduling (time planning) of nurses. There was not one article concerning economic questions of intensified nursing care. It has to be taken into account that the financial resources have to be used effectively also in nursing nowadays. It has to be assumed that the costs are driven by increased use of resources. Savings can be achieved, however, in the form of avoided therapies and days in hospital by intensified nursing. The intensified nursing can be considered as similar cost-effective as conventional models of nursing. Ethically it is necessary to consider that the possibilities of

  10. The Value of Imaging Part II: Value beyond Image Interpretation.

    PubMed

    Duong, Phuong-Anh T; Pastel, David A; Sadigh, Gelareh; Ballard, David; Sullivan, Joseph C; Bresnahan, Brian; Buch, Karen; Duszak, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Although image interpretation is an essential part of radiologists' value, there are other ways in which we contribute to patient care. Part II of the value of imaging series reviews current initiatives that demonstrate value beyond the image interpretation. Standardizing processes, reducing the radiation dose of our examinations, clarifying written reports, improving communications with patients and providers, and promoting appropriate imaging through decision support are all ways we can provide safer, more consistent, and higher quality care. As payers and policy makers push to drive value, research that demonstrates the value of these endeavors, or lack thereof, will become increasingly sought after and supported.

  11. Something of Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Through relaxed civil service requirements, the Defense Department placed Neighborhood Youth Corps trainees in military installations, with permanent jobs to follow 9 months of training and work experience. (BH)

  12. RECOVERY OF RUTHENIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Grummitt, W.E.; Hardwick, W.H.

    1961-01-01

    A process is given for the recovery of ruthenium from its aqueous solutions by oxidizing the ruthenium to the octavalent state and subsequently extracting the ruthenium into a halogen-substituted liquid paraffin.

  13. The Value of Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynes, Warren

    2013-01-01

    How can a teacher carve out a deeper sense of community in an inexpensive way? Across the nation, many schools have managed to craft creative and inexpensive community-building projects. Perhaps the three projects featured here will spark some new ideas for your own school: (1) The Hunger Games Come to Texas; (2) Tough Mudders in Macungie; and (3)…

  14. Bilastine and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Jáuregui, I; Bartra, J; del Cuvillo, A; Dávila, I; Ferrer, M; Montoro, J; Mullol, J; Sastre, J; Valero, A

    2011-01-01

    The evaluation of quality of life (QoL) and its modification through therapeutic interventions has become a prioritary concern in recent years and a requirement on the part of regulatory agencies for the authorization of new drugs. In clinical studies of allergic disorders, particularly allergic rhinitis and urticaria, different types of generic questionnaires have been used - especially disease specific instruments such as the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ) or skin disease specific tools such as the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). Throughout its clinical development, bilastine has been shown to be more effective than placebo and at least as effective as cetirizine, levocetirizine, fexofenadine or desloratadine in controlling the symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria. QoL has been studied as a secondary objective in three allergic rhinitis clinical trials, using the RQLQ, in a total of 2335 patients. Likewise, in chronic urticaria, QoL has been evaluated using the DLQI in a total of 525 patients, versus levocetirizine and placebo. The improvement in the QoL parameters in these studies (RQLQ or DLQI domains) at all times proved proportional to the symptoms improvement. In general, the data obtained relating to changes in QoL are concordant with the mean global visual analog scale (VAS in mm) values and their changes, from the beginning until the end of the treatment period, for all of the trials, for bilastine and all its comparators.

  15. [Qualities of life and happiness].

    PubMed

    Veenhoven, R

    2011-03-01

    The phrase 'quality of life' is actually misleading. The designation suggests that the issue has to do with 1 quality, whereas in fact more qualities of life are indicated. Four of these qualities are: 1. the 'livability' of the surroundings, 2. the 'life-abilities' of the individual, 3. the 'utility of life' and 4. the subjective 'satisfaction' with a person's own life. The various qualities cannot meaningfully be collected together in an index. The most comprehensive measure of quality of life is how long and happily a person lives. The relationship between that and oral health has still hardly been studied.

  16. Values beyond value? Is anything beyond the logic of capital?

    PubMed

    Skeggs, Bev

    2014-03-01

    We are living in a time when it is frequently assumed that the logic of capital has subsumed every single aspect of our lives, intervening in the organization of our intimate relations as well as the control of our time, including investments in the future (e.g. via debt). The theories that document the incursion of this logic (often through the terms of neoliberalism and/or governmentality) assume that this logic is internalized, works and organizes everything including our subjectivity. These theories performatively reproduce the very conditions they describe, shrinking the domain of values and making it subject to capital's logic. All values are reduced to value. Yet values and value are always dialogic, dependent and co-constituting. In this paper I chart the history by which value eclipses values and how this shrinks our sociological imagination. By outlining the historical processes that institutionalized different organizations of the population through political economy and the social contract, producing ideas of proper personhood premised on propriety, I detail how forms of raced, gendered and classed personhood was formed. The gaps between the proper and improper generate significant contradictions that offer both opportunities to and limits on capitals' lines of flight. It is the lacks, the residues, and the excess that cannot be captured by capital's mechanisms of valuation that will be explored in order to think beyond the logic of capital and show how values will always haunt value.

  17. The Moral Value of Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergoffen, Debra B.

    1980-01-01

    This essay develops the thesis that we can, by appealing to Socrates and Bertrand Russell as role models, counter the assumption that philosophy is an ivory tower enterprise and show students that an essential relationship exists between the process of rationale reflection and the living of a moral life. (Author)

  18. The Value of Literacy Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito, Lucio; Kebede, Bereket; Maddox, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    The concepts of literacy events and practices have received considerable attention in educational research and policy. In comparison, the question of value, that is, "which literacy practices do people most value?" has been neglected. With the current trend of cross-cultural adult literacy assessment, it is increasingly important to…

  19. The Value of Location Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvrcek, Dan; Kumpost, Marek; Matyas, Vashek; Danezis, George

    The value attached to privacy has become a common notion in the press, featuring frequent stories of people selling sensitive personal information for a couple of dollars. Syverson argues [1] that we should incorporate the risk of data misuse into our reasoning about privacy valuations. Yet there are doubts as to whether people can, and do, value their privacy correctly and appropriately.

  20. End of Life: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toner, Mary Ann; Shadden, Barbara B.

    2012-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) provide services to patients confronting the end of life (EOL) in a variety of settings. Instead of targeting improvement of health or sustaining life, EOL services focus primarily on quality of life. Although SLPs may not consider themselves core members of the health care team providing EOL services, the…

  1. End of Life (Hospice Care)

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle End of life Hospice care might be an option if you or a loved one has ... 28, 2016 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/end-of-life/in-depth/hospice-care/art- ...

  2. LATENT LIFE OF ARTERIES.

    PubMed

    Carrel, A

    1910-07-23

    When a segment of artery, killed by heat, formalin or glycerin is transplanted, it undergoes a rapid degeneration. Its muscle fibers disappear while the tissue of the host reacts by building a new wall of connective tissue. When the transplanted vessel has been preserved in a condition of latent life, no degeneration of the wall occurs, or the wall undergoes only partial degeneration. The muscle fibers can keep their normal appearance, even for a long time after the operation. It is, therefore, demonstrated that arteries can be preserved outside of the body in a condition of unmanifested actual life. The best method of preservation consists of placing the vessels, immersed in vaselin, in an ice box, the temperature of which is slightly above the freezing point. From a surgical standpoint, the transplantation of preserved vessels can be used with some safety. When the arteries were kept in defibrinated blood or vaselin and in cold storage, the proportion of positive results was 75 and 80 per cent., and this can probably be increased.

  3. Geography of European Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okulicz-Kozaryn, Adam

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of studies analyze life satisfaction at individual and/or country level. This study contributes with analysis of life satisfaction at the (sub-national) province level across multiple countries. The purpose of this study is to call attention to spatial aspects of life satisfaction. Literature does not discuss the fact that life…

  4. Quality of life: its definition and measurement.

    PubMed

    Felce, D; Perry, J

    1995-01-01

    A model of quality of life is proposed that integrates objective and subjective indicators, a broad range of life domains, and individual values. It takes account of concerns that externally derived norms should not be applied without reference to individual differences. It also allows for objective comparisons to be made between the situations of particular groups and what is normative. Considerable agreement exists that quality of life is multidimensional. Coverage may be categorised within five dimensions: physical wellbeing, material wellbeing, social wellbeing, emotional wellbeing, and development and activity. A research agenda is discussed as are the particular problems caused by difficulties in understanding and communicating.

  5. Attitudes of Social Studies Teachers toward Value and Values Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celikkaya, Tekin; Filoglu, Simge

    2014-01-01

    This research was conducted to determine how social studies teachers define value and "values education" as well as reveal the problems they encountered during the implementation. The participants in this study consisted of 17 social studies teachers from 12 primary schools (selected out of 39 primary schools in the city of Kirsehir…

  6. Lifing of Engine Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The successful development of advanced aerospace engines depends greatly on the capabilities of high performance materials and structures. Advanced materials, such as nickel based single crystal alloys, metal foam, advanced copper alloys, and ceramics matrix composites, have been engineered to provide higher engine temperature and stress capabilities. Thermal barrier coatings have been developed to improve component durability and fuel efficiency, by reducing the substrate hot wall metal temperature and protecting against oxidation and blanching. However, these coatings are prone to oxidation and delamination failures. In order to implement the use of these materials in advanced engines, it is necessary to understand and model the evolution of damage of the metal substrate as well as the coating under actual engine conditions. The models and the understanding of material behavior are utilized in the development of a life prediction methodology for hot section components. The research activities were focused on determining the stress and strain fields in an engine environment under combined thermo-mechanical loads to develop life prediction methodologies consistent with the observed damage formation of the coating and the substrates.

  7. Astrophysics of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario; Reid, I. Neill; Sparks, William B.

    2011-03-01

    1. A voyage from dark clouds to the early Earth P. Ehrenfreund, S. B. Charnley and O. Botta; 2. Galactic environment of the Sun and stars: interstellar and interplanetary material P. C. Frisch, H. R. Muller, G. P. Zank and C. Lopate; 3. Transits R. L. Gilliland; 4. Planet migration E. W. Thommes and J. J. Lissauer; 5. Organic synthesis in space S. A. Sandford; 6. The Vegetation Red Edge Spectroscopic Feature as a surface biomarker S. Seager and E. B. Ford; 7. Search for extra-solar planets through gravitational microlensing K. C. Sahu; 8. The galactic habitable zone G. Gonzalez; 9. Cosmology and life M. Livio.

  8. Extended Life Testing of Duplex Ball Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mobley, Jeffrey; Robertson, Michael; Hodges, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Sierra Nevada Corporation’s Space Systems performed bearing life testing for the Scan Mirror Motor/Encoder Assembly (SMMA), part of the Scan Mirror Assembly on-board the Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor (APS) on the NASA Glory Spacecraft. The baseline bearing life test duration extended beyond the launch date for the Glory Spacecraft; a risk that the program was willing to undertake with the understanding that if any anomalies or failures occurred before the required life was achieved, then the mission objectives or operating profile could be modified on orbit to take those results into account. Even though the Glory Spacecraft failed to reach orbit during its launch in March of 2011, the bearing life testing was continued through a mutual understanding of value between Sierra Nevada Corporation and our customer; with a revised goal of testing to failure rather than completing a required number of life cycles. Life testing thus far has not only exceeded the original mission required life, but has also exceeded the published test data for Cumulative Degradation Factor (CDF) from NASA/CR-2009-215681. Many lessons were learned along the way regarding long life testing. The bearing life test has been temporarily suspended due to test support equipment issues.

  9. Half-life of 52V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva, Jefferson W. M.; Zahn, Guilherme S.; Genezini, Frederico A.

    2011-08-01

    In this work, the half life of the β decay of 52V was measured by following the activity of 32 samples of 50 μg each after they were irradiated in the IEA-R1 reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. The results were then fitted using a non-paralizable dead time correction to the regular exponential decay and the individual half-life values obtained were then analyzed using different statistical methods (Weighted Average, Normalized Residuals and Rajeval Technique), resulting in a value of 3.733(4) min. The obtained result is somewhat smaller than tabulated one but the difference does not surpass two standard deviations.

  10. Negative Entropy of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goradia, Shantilal

    2015-10-01

    We modify Newtonian gravity to probabilistic quantum mechanical gravity to derive strong coupling. If this approach is valid, we should be able to extend it to the physical body (life) as follows. Using Boltzmann equation, we get the entropy of the universe (137) as if its reciprocal, the fine structure constant (ALPHA), is the hidden candidate representing the negative entropy of the universe which is indicative of the binary information as its basis (http://www.arXiv.org/pdf/physics0210040v5). Since ALPHA relates to cosmology, it must relate to molecular biology too, with the binary system as the fundamental source of information for the nucleotides of the DNA as implicit in the book by the author: ``Quantum Consciousness - The Road to Reality.'' We debate claims of anthropic principle based on the negligible variation of ALPHA and throw light on thermodynamics. We question constancy of G in multiple ways.

  11. The essence of life purpose.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Pamela J

    2009-01-01

    Life purpose is an important thread of critical care nursing. However, no consensus exists for a definition of life purpose. In addition, ambiguity prevails regarding the manner in which life purpose is incorporated into nursing practice and research. Therefore, through a conceptual synthesis process, this article aims to clarify the essence of life purpose with relevance to health and critical care nursing today. The outcome of the conceptual synthesis is an operational definition to be used in future nursing research. Information was obtained from a literature search of scholarly articles using (1) searches of electronic databases of literature about life purpose and (2) research studies addressing conceptual, substantive, and methodological domains. Topics consisted of the philosophical underpinnings of life purpose, its attributes, definitions, and theoretical frameworks, along with differences in theories and empirical support. Finally, emerging from this process, the article culminates with a proposed conceptual definition of life purpose, which may be applied broadly to older adults in various critical care settings.

  12. Average and recommended half-life values for two neutrino double beta decay: Upgrade-2013

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, A. S.

    2013-12-30

    All existing positive results on two neutrino double beta decay in different nuclei were analyzed. Using the procedure recommended by the Particle Data Group, weighted average values for half-lives of {sup 48}Ca, {sup 76}Ge, {sup 82}Se, {sup 96}Zr, {sup 100}Mo, {sup 100}Mo−{sup 100}Ru (0{sub 1}{sup +}), {sup 116}Cd, {sup 130}Te, {sup 136}Xe, {sup 150}Nd, {sup 150}Nd−{sup 150}Sm (0{sub 1}{sup +}) and {sup 238}U were obtained. Existing geochemical data were analyzed and recommended values for half-lives of {sup 128}Te and {sup 130}Ba are proposed. I recommend the use of these results as the most currently reliable values for half-lives.

  13. Navy Quality of Life Survey: Shipboard Life Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    ballpoint , or felt tip pens . Erase cleanly and completely any changes you make. Make black marks that fill in the entire circle. Do NOT make stray marks on...population. Results are presented for shipboard life overall and specific and grouped aspects of shipboard life. Of the 15 domains, the Shipboard Life...April 2002, with data collection closing in August 2002. This survey focused on overall perceptions of QOL in the Navy and QOL in 15 specific life

  14. Game of Life Music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Eduardo R.; Kirke, Alexis

    At the time when the first author was post-graduate student, in the evenings he used to entertain himself with the equipment in the electronic music studio at the University of York until dawn. It must have been around three o'clock in the morning of a rather cold winter night in the late 1980s, when he connected his Atari 1040ST computer to a synthesizer to test the first prototype of a system, which he was developing for his thesis. The system, named CAMUS (short for Cellular Automata Music), implemented a method that he invented to render music from the behaviour of the Game of Life (GoL) cellular automata (CA).

  15. The relative value of growth.

    PubMed

    Mass, Nathaniel J

    2005-04-01

    Most executives would say that adding a point of growth and gaining a point of operating-profit margin contribute about equally to shareholder value. Margin improvements hit the bottom line immediately, while growth compounds value over time. But the reality is that the two are rarely equivalent. Growth often is far more valuable than managers think. For some companies, convincing the market that they can grow by just one additional percentage point can be worth six, seven, or even ten points of margin improvement. This article presents a new strategic metric, called the relative value of growth (RVG), which gives managers a clear picture of how growth projects and margin improvement initiatives affect shareholder value. Using basic balance sheet and income sheet data, managers can determine their companies' RVGs, as well as those of their competitors. Calculating RVGs gives managers insights into which corporate strategies are working to deliver value and whether their companies are pulling the most powerful value-creation levers. The author examines a number of well-known companies and explains what their RVG numbers say about their strategies. He reviews the unspoken assumption that growth and profits are incompatible over the long term and shows that a fair number of companies are effective at delivering both. Finally, he explains how managers can use the RVG framework to help them define strategies that balance growth and profitability at both the corporate and business unit levels.

  16. Values Supporting Quality Family Life: An Exploratory Descriptive Study. Report HF/MF-33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viljoen, Sylvia; Steyn, Anna F.

    This monograph describes an investigation into the family values of colored and white cultural groups in South Africa. Experts in social work and marriage counseling were first surveyed, followed by in-depth interviews in groups with varying combinations of culture, language, social class and age differences. Detailed findings are presented on…

  17. Extremal values of the sojourn time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astaburuaga, M. A.; Cortés, V. H.; Duclos, P.

    2010-11-01

    Consider a self-adjoint operator H on a separable Hilbert space \\ {H} with non-trivial absolutely continuous component. We study the general properties of the real-valued functional, \\tau _{H}(\\psi )=\\int _{{\\ R}}|(e^{-itH}\\psi,\\psi )|^2\\,dt, which in quantum mechanics represents the sojourn time (or life time) of an initial state \\psi \\in \\ {H}. We characterize the critical points of the sojourn time, τX, of the operator multiplication by x in L^2({\\ R}), and prove that it attains a global maximum in the unit sphere of the Sobolev space \\ {W}^{1,2}({\\ R}).

  18. Camp Teaches Life Lessons: A Director's Commentary on Camp's Lasting Educational Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gucker, Peter L.

    2001-01-01

    At camp, children learn values and skills that are seldom included in school curricula. The community-based environment of camps is conducive to learning self-assurance, community respect, and healthy competition, and to understanding diversity. Exposure to Nature promotes an infectious enthusiasm for the wilderness and for learning outdoor…

  19. The Plantation System in the Ethnic Consciousness of Hawaii (A Rationale for the Study of the Plantation in Values Education) [And] A Day in the Life of Ah Sing Chong [And] A Worker's Daily Round.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Marianne Andrews

    The paper suggests that by studying the Hawaiian plantation system, seventh graders can gain understanding of personal values and ethnic heritage. The current racial and cultural diversity in Hawaii is a result of mass immigration initiated in 1876 by the needs of the sugar and pineapple industries. Over 400,000 field workers from China, Japan,…

  20. "What is the Meaning of Life?": Selections from "Zhongguo Qingnian."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinese Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Focuses on letters to the editor of the magazine "Chinese Youth" on the topic of personal reactions to modern life in China. Among opinions expressed are some despairing over the meaninglessness and hypocrisy of Chinese life, some expressing cynicism over official values, and some indicating appreciation of socialist values. (AM)

  1. Value System of Students of the Republic of Kazakhstan as a Special Social and Cultural Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biyekenova, Nikara Zh.; Abdiraiymova, Gulmira S.; Kenzhakimova, Gulnara A.; Shaukenova, Zarema K.; Senuk, Zinaida V.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the role of a value structure in understanding today's students. Analysis of the value orientations of the students is of current interest, as they are understood as a social and demographic group of youth characterized by the process of self-determination in life consciously defining their own life values. Students' life…

  2. The value of innovation under value-based pricing

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Santiago G.; Ray, Joshua A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The role of cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) in incentivizing innovation is controversial. Critics of CEA argue that its use for pricing purposes disregards the ‘value of innovation’ reflected in new drug development, whereas supporters of CEA highlight that the value of innovation is already accounted for. Our objective in this article is to outline the limitations of the conventional CEA approach, while proposing an alternative method of evaluation that captures the value of innovation more accurately. Method The adoption of a new drug benefits present and future patients (with cost implications) for as long as the drug is part of clinical practice. Incidence patients and off-patent prices are identified as two key missing features preventing the conventional CEA approach from capturing 1) benefit to future patients and 2) future savings from off-patent prices. The proposed CEA approach incorporates these two features to derive the total lifetime value of an innovative drug (i.e., the value of innovation). Results The conventional CEA approach tends to underestimate the value of innovative drugs by disregarding the benefit to future patients and savings from off-patent prices. As a result, innovative drugs are underpriced, only allowing manufacturers to capture approximately 15% of the total value of innovation during the patent protection period. In addition to including the incidence population and off-patent price, the alternative approach proposes pricing new drugs by first negotiating the share of value of innovation to be appropriated by the manufacturer (>15%?) and payer (<85%?), in order to then identify the drug price that satisfies this condition. Conclusion We argue for a modification to the conventional CEA approach that integrates the total lifetime value of innovative drugs into CEA, by taking into account off-patent pricing and future patients. The proposed approach derives a price that allows manufacturers to capture an agreed share

  3. The Value of Certainty (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkstrom, B. R.

    2009-12-01

    It is clear that Earth science data are valued, in part, for their ability to provide some certainty about the past state of the Earth and about its probable future states. We can sharpen this notion by using seven categories of value ● Warning Service, requiring latency of three hours or less, as well as uninterrupted service ● Information Service, requiring latency less than about two weeks, as well as unterrupted service ● Process Information, requiring ability to distinguish between alternative processes ● Short-term Statistics, requiring ability to construct a reliable record of the statistics of a parameter for an interval of five years or less, e.g. crop insurance ● Mid-term Statistics, requiring ability to construct a reliable record of the statistics of a parameter for an interval of twenty-five years or less, e.g. power plant siting ● Long-term Statistics, requiring ability to construct a reliable record of the statistics of a parameter for an interval of a century or less, e.g. one hundred year flood planning ● Doomsday Statistics, requiring ability to construct a reliable statistical record that is useful for reducing the impact of `doomsday' scenarios While the first two of these categories place high value on having an uninterrupted flow of information, and the third places value on contributing to our understanding of physical processes, it is notable that the last four may be placed on a common footing by considering the ability of observations to reduce uncertainty. Quantitatively, we can often identify metrics for parameters of interest that are fairly simple. For example, ● Detection of change in the average value of a single parameter, such as global temperature ● Detection of a trend, whether linear or nonlinear, such as the trend in cloud forcing known as cloud feedback ● Detection of a change in extreme value statistics, such as flood frequency or drought severity For such quantities, we can quantify uncertainty in terms

  4. Origins and Evolution of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gargaud, Muriel; López-García, Purificación; Martin, Hervé

    2011-01-01

    Part I. What Is Life?: 1. Problems raised by a definition of life M. Morange; 2. Some remarks about uses of cosmological anthropic 'principles' D. Lambert; 3. Minimal cell: the biologist point of view C. Brochier-Armanet; 4. Minimal cell: the computer scientist point of view H. Bersini; 5. Origins of life: computing and simulation approaches B. Billoud; Part II. Astronomical and Geophysical Context of the Emergence of Life: 6. Organic molecules in interstellar medium C. Ceccarelli and C. Cernicharo; 7. Cosmochemical evolution and the origin of life: insights from meteorites S. Pizzarello; 8. Astronomical constraints on the emergence of life M. Gounelle and T. Montmerle; 9. Formation of habitable planets J. Chambers; 10. The concept of galactic habitable zone N. Prantzos; 11. The young Sun and its influence on planetary atmospheres M. Güdel and J. Kasting; 12. Climates of the Earth G. Ramstein; Part III. Role of Water in the Emergence of Life: 13. Liquid water: a necessary condition to all forms of life K. Bartik, G. Bruylants, E. Locci and J. Reisse; 14. The role of water in the formation and evolution of planets T. Encrenaz; 15. Water on Mars J. P. Bibring; Part IV. From Non-Living Systems to Life: 16. Energetic constraints on prebiotic pathways: application to the emergence of translation R. Pascal and L. Boiteau; 17. Comparative genomics and early cell evolution A. Lazcano; 18. Origin and evolution of metabolisms J. Peretó; Part V. Mechanisms for Life Evolution: 19. Molecular phylogeny: inferring the patterns of evolution E. Douzery; 20. Horizontal gene transfer: mechanisms and evolutionary consequences D. Moreira; 21. The role of symbiosis in eukaryotic evolution A. Latorre, A. Durbán, A. Moya and J. Peretó; Part VI. Life in Extreme Conditions: 22. Life in extreme conditions: Deinococcus radiodurans, an organism able to survive prolonged desiccation and high doses of ionising radiation S. Sommer and M. Toueille; 23. Molecular effects of UV and ionizing

  5. Vision and quality-of-life.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, G C

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship of visual acuity loss to quality of life. DESIGN: Three hundred twenty-five patients with visual loss to a minimum of 20/40 or greater in at least 1 eye were interviewed in a standardized fashion using a modified VF-14, questionnaire. Utility values were also obtained using both the time trade-off and standard gamble methods of utility assessment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Best-corrected visual acuity was correlated with the visual function score on the modified VF-14 questionnaire, as well as with utility values obtained using both the time trade-off and standard gamble methods. RESULTS: Decreasing levels of vision in the eye with better acuity correlated directly with decreasing visual function scores on the modified VF-14 questionnaire, as did decreasing utility values using the time trade-off method of utility evaluation. The standard gamble method of utility evaluation was not as directly correlated with vision as the time trade-off method. Age, level of education, gender, race, length of time of visual loss, and the number of associated systemic comorbidities did not significantly affect the time trade-off utility values associated with visual loss in the better eye. The level of reduced vision in the better eye, rather than the specific disease process causing reduced vision, was related to mean utility values. The average person with 20/40 vision in the better seeing eye was willing to trade 2 of every 10 years of life in return for perfect vision (utility value of 0.8), while the average person with counting fingers vision in the better eye was willing to trade approximately 5 of every 10 remaining years of life (utility value of 0.52) in return for perfect vision. CONCLUSIONS: The time trade-off method of utility evaluation appears to be an effective method for assessing quality of life associated with visual loss. Time trade-off utility values decrease in direct conjunction with decreasing vision in the better

  6. First Day of Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... Feelings Having a baby is a major, life-changing experience. Don't be surprised to find that ...

  7. Diversity of Life Possible

    NASA Video Gallery

    Planets are distinguished by two basic properties, their size and their orbit. The size determines if the planet can have a life-sustaining atmosphere. The orbit affects the surface temperature and...

  8. Decision making concerning life-sustaining treatment in paediatric nephrology: professionals' experiences and values

    PubMed Central

    Fauriel, Isabelle; Moutel, Grégoire; Duchange, Nathalie; Montuclard, Luc; Moutard, Marie-Laure; Cochat, Pierre; Hervé, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Background In a previous paper, we studied decisions to withhold or withdraw life-sustaining treatment (LST) taken between 1995 and 2001 in 31 French-speaking paediatric nephrology centres. Files were available for 18 of the 31 centres. A grid was used to analyse the criteria on which decisions were based, and the results were enriched by an analysis of interviews with the doctors in at these centres (31 interviews with doctors from the 18 centres). The goal was to describe in detail and to specify the criteria on which decisions to withhold or withdraw LST were based, extracted from the files. The second paper deals exclusively with the interviews with doctors and analyses their lifetime’s experience and perception Methods We carried out semi-directed interviews with nephrologists from all the paediatric nephrology centres in France and the French-speaking regions of Switzerland and Belgium. Results We interviewed 46 paediatric nephrologists. Most were aware that decisions relating to LST are necessary and based on the assessment of the child’s quality of life. According to them, decisions are not based on scientific criteria, but on the capacity to accept handicap, the family’s past experiences and the doctor’s own projections. They report that their task is particularly difficult when their action may contribute to death (withdrawal of treatment, acceleration of the process). They feel that their duty is to help the families in the acceptation of the doctors’ decision rather than to encourage their participation in the decision-making process. Conclusions This paper shows that paediatric nephrologists differ in their opinions, mostly due to their own ethical convictions. This observation highlights the need to establish common rules taking into account the views held by doctors. This is the only way to establish an ethical code shared by professionals. PMID:16204280

  9. Experimental Assessment of Delphi Procedures with Group Value Judgments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalkey, Norman C.; Rourke, Daniel L.

    This report describes the results of an experiment assessing the appropriateness of Delphi procedures for formulating group value judgments. Two groups of subjects--upperclass and graduate students from UCLA--were asked to generate and rate value categories relating to higher education and the quality of life. The initial lists (300 and 250 items…

  10. The Value of the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tubbs, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    The value of the arts is often measured in terms of human creativity against instrumental rationality, while art for art's sake defends against a utility of art. Such critiques of the technical and formulaic are themselves formulaic, repeating the dualism of the head and the heart. How should we account for this formula? We should do so by…

  11. Congruence and functions of personal and cultural values: do my values reflect my culture's values?

    PubMed

    Fischer, Ronald

    2006-11-01

    Two studies are described examining the correlation between self- and culture-referenced values at a culture level (Study 1) and correlation between self- and culture-referenced values and self-reported behavior at an individual level (Study 2). It is found that values related to individual-group relationships (embeddedness) and expression and experience of affective feelings and emotions (affective autonomy) are significantly correlated at a culture level. In Study 2, culture-referenced values are shown to correlate with behaviors attached to social norms, whereas self-rated values are found to correlate with behaviors that are not norm-governed. Implications for measurement of cultural values and cultural and cross-cultural research designs are discussed.

  12. Transfer of value from fit.

    PubMed

    Higgins, E Tory; Chen Idson, Lorraine; Freitas, Antonio L; Spiegel, Scott; Molden, Daniel C

    2003-06-01

    People experience regulatory fit when they pursue a goal in a manner that sustains their regulatory orientation (E. T. Higgins, 2000). Five studies tested whether the value experienced from regulatory fit can transfer to a subsequent evaluation of an object. In Studies 1 and 2, participants gave the same coffee mug a higher price if they had chosen it with a strategy that fit their orientation (eager strategy/promotion; vigilant strategy/prevention) than a strategy that did not fit. Studies 3-5 investigated possible mechanisms underlying this effect. Value transfer was independent of positive mood, perceived effectiveness (instrumentality), and perceived efficiency (ease), and occurred for an object that w as independent of the fit process itself. The findings supported a value confusion account of transfer.

  13. Half life of /sup 26/Al

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, T.L.; Gancarz, A.J.; Rokop, D.J.; Thomas, K.W.

    1983-01-01

    The half-life of /sup 26/Al has been redetermined because of suggestions of an error in the accepted value based on its use in calculating /sup 21/Ne production rates from cosmic rays in meteorites. Two solutions of /sup 26/Al were analyzed for the specific radioactivity and mass spectrometric determination of the /sup 26/Al concentration. The half-life obtained for /sup 26/Al was 7.05 x 10/sup 5/ years +- 3.7% at the two sigma level. This is identical to the accepted value of 7.16 x 10/sup 5/ years and indicates that problems with the /sup 21/Ne production rate is not due to an erroneous half-life.

  14. The Language of Life

    PubMed Central

    Palmenberg, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Science is our best current approximation of the way things work. You cannot do science unless you believe there is a discernable truth inherent to the arrangement of our tangible world. The problem is, we in our given time, never know where exactly the asymptote lies or how far we are from it. My curiosity about the natural world is innate, but fate has variously gifted me with outstanding personal opportunities to indulge that curiosity through the study of viruses. As a woman of the boomer generation, professional paths were not always open-door, and to a certain extent, still aren’t. Whether such points should now be viewed as obstacles or stepping stones is a matter of perspective. RNA viruses and the multiple, seminal mentors who taught me their secrets, have defined my career. Some of their stories are told here as they dovetail with mine. If there is any unity to this, it would be a pursuit of the language of life, or sequence analysis, as taught to us by natural selection. The intent here is not a legacy but an example. Science is a beautiful fate. PMID:27741404

  15. The Intrinsic Value of Nature and Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helton, William S.; Helton, Nicole D.

    2007-01-01

    Many environmental, humane and character educators try to foster a belief in the intrinsic value of nature and a respect for non-human life among students. Marangudakis argues that Christianity advocates anthropocentrism and opposes belief in the intrinsic value of nature. If Marangudakis is correct, then a goal of many environmental and humane…

  16. A Clash of Values: Censorship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neill, S. D.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the relationship between the responsibility of librarians to reject materials that threaten the moral and social values of the community and support for intellectual freedom by the library profession. Criteria that justify the censorship of materials are identified and discussed. (16 references) (CLB)

  17. Value of Personnel Classification Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abellera, James W.; And Others

    The study outlines the development of a methodology for meaningfully estimating the value of classification information used by the Air Force to make selection and job assignment decisions which lead to the satisfaction of first-term enlisted manpower requirements. The methodology, called the optimal allocation strategy, is employed to solve a…

  18. Sexual Values of 783 Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richey, Emily; Knox, David; Zusman, Marty

    2009-01-01

    The sexual values of absolutism (abstinence until marriage), relativism (sexual decisions made in reference to the nature of the relationship), and hedonism ("if it feels good, do it") were assessed in a convenience sample of 783 undergraduate students at a large southeastern university. Results revealed that relativism (62.1%) was the predominate…

  19. WORK VALUES OF THE HANDICAPPED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KINNANE, JOHN F.; SUZIEDELIS, ANTANAS

    TO DETERMINE THE WORK VALUES OF THE PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED, A WORK MOTIVATION SCHEDULE WAS DEVELOPED AND ADMINISTERED TO 200 NORMAL WHITE MEN AND 200 WOMEN OF REPRESENTATIVE NATIONAL AVERAGE AGE AND EDUCATION AND TO CEREBRAL PALSIED, DEAF, 63 RECENT AMPUTEES FROM THE VIETNAM WAR AND NEURO-PSYCHIATRIC PATIENTS. COMPARISON OF THE TWO GROUPS SHOWED…

  20. Second Life for Electric Vehicle Batteries: Answering Questions on Battery Degradation and Value

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, J. S.; Wood, E.; Pesaran, A.

    2015-05-04

    Battery second use – putting used plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) batteries into secondary service following their automotive tenure – has been proposed as a means to decrease the cost of PEVs while providing low cost energy storage to other fields (e.g. electric utility markets). To understand the value of used automotive batteries, however, we must first answer several key questions related to National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a methodology and the requisite tools to answer these questions, including NREL’s Battery Lifetime Simulation Tool (BLAST). Herein we introduce these methods and tools, and demonstrate their application. We have found that capacity fade from automotive use has a much larger impact on second use value than resistance growth. Where capacity loss is driven by calendar effects more than cycling effects, average battery temperature during automotive service – which is often driven by climate – is found to be the single factor with the largest effect on remaining value. Installing hardware and software capabilities onboard the vehicle that can both infer remaining battery capacity from in-situ measurements, as well as track average battery temperature over time, will thereby facilitate the second use of automotive batteries.

  1. The Value of Strategic Partnerships

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, Josh; Narayan, Amit; McNutt, Ty

    2015-02-10

    Strong strategic partnerships can be the difference between those technologies that only achieve success in the lab and those that actually break into the marketplace. Two ARPA-E awardees—AutoGrid and APEI—have forged strategic partnerships that have positioned their technologies to achieve major success in the market. This video features remarks from ARPA-E Technology-to-Market Advisor Josh Gould and interviews with technologists at AutoGrid and APEI, who each tell the story of how their company leveraged relationships with strategic partners to broaden their customer base and bring their technology to life.

  2. The Value of Strategic Partnerships

    ScienceCinema

    Gould, Josh; Narayan, Amit; McNutt, Ty

    2016-07-12

    Strong strategic partnerships can be the difference between those technologies that only achieve success in the lab and those that actually break into the marketplace. Two ARPA-E awardees—AutoGrid and APEI—have forged strategic partnerships that have positioned their technologies to achieve major success in the market. This video features remarks from ARPA-E Technology-to-Market Advisor Josh Gould and interviews with technologists at AutoGrid and APEI, who each tell the story of how their company leveraged relationships with strategic partners to broaden their customer base and bring their technology to life.

  3. Forecasting the Value of Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basarab, Dave

    2011-01-01

    The Predictive Evaluation (PE) model is a training and evaluation approach with the element of prediction. PE allows trainers and business leaders to predict the results, value, intention, adoption, and impact of training, allowing them to make smarter, more strategic training and evaluation investments. PE is invaluable for companies that…

  4. The value of percutaneous cholangiography

    PubMed Central

    Evison, Gordon; McNulty, Myles; Thomson, Colin

    1973-01-01

    Percutaneous cholangiograms performed on fifty patients in a district general hospital have been reviewed, and the advantages and limitations of the examination are described. The investigation is considered to have sufficient diagnostic value to warrant its inclusion in the diagnostic armamentarium of every general radiological department. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:4788917

  5. The Epistemic Value of Curiosity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Frederick F.; Lahroodi, Reza

    2008-01-01

    In this essay, Frederick Schmitt and Reza Lahroodi explore the value of curiosity for inquiry and knowledge. They defend an appetitive account of curiosity, viewing curiosity as a motivationally original desire to know that arises from having one's attention drawn to the object and that in turn sustains one's attention to it. Distinguishing…

  6. Likely values of the Higgs vacuum expectation value

    SciTech Connect

    Donoghue, John F.; Dutta, Koushik; Ross, Andreas; Tegmark, Max

    2010-04-01

    We make an estimate of the likelihood function for the Higgs vacuum expectation value (vev) by imposing anthropic constraints on the existence of atoms while allowing the other parameters of the standard model to also be variable. We argue that the most important extra ingredients are the Yukawa couplings, and for the intrinsic distribution of Yukawa couplings we use the scale-invariant distribution which is favored phenomenologically. The result is successful phenomenologically, favoring values close to the observed vev. We also discuss modifications that can change these conclusions. Our work supports the hypothesis that the anthropic constraints could be the origin of the small Higgs vev.

  7. The Basic Values of Russian and European Schoolteachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griaznova, O. S.; Magun, V. S.

    2013-01-01

    countries show that the average Russian schoolteacher places a very high value on security and a very low value on the opportunity to enjoy life and have pleasure. Russia's schoolteachers are more often ahead of other Europeans when it comes to the importance of personal success,…

  8. Life Cycle of Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In this stunning picture of the giant galactic nebula NGC 3603, the crisp resolution of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captures various stages of the life cycle of stars in one single view. To the upper left of center is the evolved blue supergiant called Sher 25. The star has a unique circumstellar ring of glowing gas that is a galactic twin to the famous ring around the supernova 1987A. The grayish-bluish color of the ring and the bipolar outflows (blobs to the upper right and lower left of the star) indicates the presence of processed (chemically enriched) material. Near the center of the view is a so-called starburst cluster dominated by young, hot Wolf-Rayet stars and early O-type stars. A torrent of ionizing radiation and fast stellar winds from these massive stars has blown a large cavity around the cluster. The most spectacular evidence for the interaction of ionizing radiation with cold molecular-hydrogen cloud material are the giant gaseous pillars to the right of the cluster. These pillars are sculptured by the same physical processes as the famous pillars Hubble photographed in the M16 Eagle Nebula. Dark clouds at the upper right are so-called Bok globules, which are probably in an earlier stage of star formation. To the lower left of the cluster are two compact, tadpole-shaped emission nebulae. Similar structures were found by Hubble in Orion, and have been interpreted as gas and dust evaporation from possibly protoplanetary disks (proplyds). This true-color picture was taken on March 5, 1999 with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2.

  9. "The Trees of Knowledge and Life Growing Together" in the Educational Vision of C. S. Lewis: Why Medway and Stevens Are Almost Right about Enlightenment and Romantic Values in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Peter Medway's paper "English and Enlightenment" ("Changing English," 2010) and David Stevens' response to it, "Critically Enlightened Romantic Values and English Pedagogy: A Response to Peter Medway" ("Changing English," 2011), address the relative merits of the quest for truth and the place of aesthetic…

  10. A Blizzard of a Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostic, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    "Who has been to Dairy Queen® and purchased a Blizzard?®" Ms. Bosetti asked her students. During the summer, Bosetti had seen many of her former and future students at the local Dairy Queen enjoying Blizzard desserts and wondered, "Which Blizzard size is the best value?" She used this context for a ratios and proportions task…

  11. Enduring values of municipal utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Telly, C.S.; Grove, J.F.

    1981-05-01

    The value of municipal utilities is assessed in terms of their social responsibility, the political responsiveness of the owners, and pricing policy - issues which conflict with the traditional concept of corporate responsibility to the shareholder and which reveal a growing demand for accountability. Although municipal utilities are only a small part of the economic, legal, and political setting, they contribute as a small, locally-controlled natural monopoly to the American goals of democracy and self-determination. (DCK)

  12. Life Cycle of a Pencil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeske, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Explains a project called "Life Cycle of a Pencil" which was developed by the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Describes the life cycle of a pencil in stages starting from the first stage of design to the sixth stage of product disposal. (YDS)

  13. Professional values, aesthetic values, and the ends of trade.

    PubMed

    Edgar, Andrew

    2011-05-01

    Professionalism is initially understood as a historical process, through which certain commercial services sought to improve their social status (and economic reward) by separating themselves from mere crafts or trades. This process may be traced clearly with the aspiration of British portrait painters (headed by Sir Joshua Reynolds), in the eighteenth century, to acquire a social status akin to that of already established professionals, such as clerics and doctors. This may be understood, to a significant degree, as a process of gentrification. The values of the professional thereby lie as much in the etiquette and other social skills with which they deal with their clients, than with any distinctive form of skill or value. Professionalisation as gentrification seemingly says little about the nature of modern professionalism. However, if this process is also construed as one in which the goals and achievements of the profession come to be subject to radical reflection, then something significant about professional values emerges. On this account, the profession is distinguished from craft or trade on the grounds that the goals of the profession, and the effectiveness of any attempt to realise them, are not transparent to the client. While a lay person will typically have the competence necessary to judge whether or not a craft worker has achieved their goal, that person will not necessarily be able to recognise the values that determine the success of a medical operation. It will be concluded that the values of a profession are articulated intrinsically to the profession, in terms of the contested understanding that the professionals themselves have of the meaning of the profession and the narratives within which its history is to be told.

  14. Historical Medical Value of Donguibogam.

    PubMed

    Song, Bong-Keun; Won, Jin-Hee; Kim, Sungchul

    2016-03-01

    Oriental medicine, since its origin in China, has had a long history extending over 2000 years. Today, it comprises several types of medicine predominately practiced in East Asia, including traditional Chinese, traditional Korean, and Kampo medicine. The distinctive medical system of traditional Korean medicine was established shortly after the publication of Donguibogam by Dr. Heo Jun in 1613. Donguibogam is highly acclaimed across East Asia; in 2009, in light of its historical medical value, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization registered the book on its cultural heritage list. Here, we review the historical medical value of Donguibogam. The findings confirm that Donguibogam developed a unique and independent form of traditional Korean medicine and innovatively reformed the disease classification system. Moreover, Donguibogam emphasized the importance of disease prevention and medical pragmatism. This book also accelerated the development of folk medicine. Owing to its historical medical value, Donguibogam is now considered the 'bible' of Oriental medicine. Its wide acceptance has contributed to the expansion of Korean medicine utilization among the general public. Donguibogam has also played an important role in the establishment of traditional Korean medicine as a universally valid and original form of medicine, independent of traditional Chinese medicine.

  15. Historical Medical Value of Donguibogam

    PubMed Central

    Song, Bong-Keun; Won, Jin-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Oriental medicine, since its origin in China, has had a long history extending over 2000 years. Today, it comprises several types of medicine predominately practiced in East Asia, including traditional Chinese, traditional Korean, and Kampo medicine. The distinctive medical system of traditional Korean medicine was established shortly after the publication of Donguibogam by Dr. Heo Jun in 1613. Donguibogam is highly acclaimed across East Asia; in 2009, in light of its historical medical value, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization registered the book on its cultural heritage list. Here, we review the historical medical value of Donguibogam. The findings confirm that Donguibogam developed a unique and independent form of traditional Korean medicine and innovatively reformed the disease classification system. Moreover, Donguibogam emphasized the importance of disease prevention and medical pragmatism. This book also accelerated the development of folk medicine. Owing to its historical medical value, Donguibogam is now considered the 'bible' of Oriental medicine. Its wide acceptance has contributed to the expansion of Korean medicine utilization among the general public. Donguibogam has also played an important role in the establishment of traditional Korean medicine as a universally valid and original form of medicine, independent of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:27280045

  16. Harmonization of nutrient intake values.

    PubMed

    King, Janet C; Garza, Cutberto

    2007-03-01

    The conceptual framework for the various NIVs is depicted in figure 1 along with the methodological approaches and applications. The NIVs consist of two values derived from a statistical evaluation of data on nutrient requirements, the average nutrient requirement (ANR), or nutrient toxicities, the upper nutrient level (UNL). The individual nutrient levelx (INLx) is derived from the distribution of average nutrient requirements. The percentile chosen is often 98%, which is equivalent to 2 SD above the mean requirement. Concepts underlying the NIVs include criteria for establishing a nutrient requirement, e.g., ferritin stores, nitrogen balance, or serum vitamin C. Once the requirement for the absorbed nutrient is determined, it may be necessary to adjust the value for food sources, i.e., bioavailability, or host factors, such as the effect of infection on nutrient utilization. Other concepts that committees may want to consider when establishing NIVs include the effects of genetic variation on nutrient requirements and the role of the nutrient in preventing long-term disease. Two fundamental uses of NIVs are for assessing the adequacy of nutrient intakes and for planning diets for individuals and populations. Establishing the NIV using the statistical framework proposed in this report improves the efficacy of the values for identifying risks of nutrient deficiency or excess among individuals and populations. NIVs also are applied to a number of aspects of food and nutrition policy. Some examples include regulatory issues and trade, labeling, planning programs for alleviating public health nutrition problems, food fortification, and dietary guidance.

  17. Communication in palliative care: talking about the end of life, before the end of life.

    PubMed

    Brighton, Lisa Jane; Bristowe, Katherine

    2016-08-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrates the benefits of early end-of-life care discussions with patients with life-threatening illness and their families. However, these conversations often do not occur. This review explores some of the many barriers faced by clinicians in relation to end-of-life care discussions, including prognostic uncertainty, fear of causing distress, navigating patient readiness and feeling unprepared for these conversations. The value of core clinical communication skills, potential strategies for improvement and areas for future research are also discussed. It is essential that clinicians offer patients facing life-threatening illness, and those close to them, the opportunity to discuss end-of-life issues in line with their information and decision-making preferences. With a growing and ageing global population, supporting both generalist and specialist providers of palliative care in this task is key. With careful preparation, fears of undertaking these discussions should not be a barrier to initiating them.

  18. Exploring the Origin, Extent, and Future of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertka, Constance M.

    2009-09-01

    1. Astrobiology in societal context Constance Bertka; Part I. Origin of Life: 2. Emergence and the experimental pursuit of the origin of life Robert Hazen; 3. From Aristotle to Darwin, to Freeman Dyson: changing definitions of life viewed in historical context James Strick; 4. Philosophical aspects of the origin-of-life problem: the emergence of life and the nature of science Iris Fry; 5. The origin of terrestrial life: a Christian perspective Ernan McMullin; 6. The alpha and the omega: reflections on the origin and future of life from the perspective of Christian theology and ethics Celia Deane-Drummond; Part II. Extent of Life: 7. A biologist's guide to the Solar System Lynn Rothschild; 8. The quest for habitable worlds and life beyond the Solar System Carl Pilcher; 9. A historical perspective on the extent and search for life Steven J. Dick; 10. The search for extraterrestrial life: epistemology, ethics, and worldviews Mark Lupisella; 11. The implications of discovering extraterrestrial life: different searches, different issues Margaret S. Race; 12. God, evolution, and astrobiology Cynthia S. W. Crysdale; Part III. Future of Life: 13. Planetary ecosynthesis on Mars: restoration ecology and environmental ethics Christopher P. McKay; 14. The trouble with intrinsic value: an ethical primer for astrobiology Kelly C. Smith; 15. God's preferential option for life: a Christian perspective on astrobiology Richard O. Randolph; 16. Comparing stories about the origin, extent, and future of life: an Asian religious perspective Francisca Cho; Index.

  19. Values Education, the Judgment of Value and Self-Esteem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eidle, William R.

    If individuals have an objectified, firm understanding of themselves as subjects who exist within a basic self-constituting process for knowing and valuing, they will discover that their authenticity as human beings exists in fulfilling the requirements through which this self-constituting process effectively expresses itself. Self-appropriation…

  20. The evolution of complex life.

    PubMed

    Billingham, J

    1989-01-01

    In considering the probabilities that intelligent life might exist elsewhere in the Universe, it is important to ask questions about the factors governing the emergence of complex living organisms in the context of evolutionary biology, planetary environments and events in space. Two important problems arise. First, what can be learned about the general laws governing the evolution of complex life anywhere in space by studying its history on the Earth? Second, how is the evolution of complex life affected by events in space? To address these problems, a series of Science Workshops on the Evolution of Complex Life was held at the Ames Research Center. Included in this paper are highlights of those workshops, with particular emphasis on the first question, namely the evolution of complex extraterrestrial life.

  1. Wild Beasts of Still Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Debra

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a project with a transformative approach to color theory and still life. Students' use of an arbitrary color scheme can open their eyes, push their creativity and produce exciting paintings. Ordinary still-life objects will be transformed into dramatic, vibrant visuals. The Fauve style of painting is a great art history…

  2. Cassava Breeding I: The Value of Breeding Value

    PubMed Central

    Ceballos, Hernán; Pérez, Juan C.; Joaqui Barandica, Orlando; Lenis, Jorge I.; Morante, Nelson; Calle, Fernando; Pino, Lizbeth; Hershey, Clair H.

    2016-01-01

    Breeding cassava relies on several selection stages (single row trial-SRT; preliminary; advanced; and uniform yield trials—UYT). This study uses data from 14 years of evaluations. From more than 20,000 genotypes initially evaluated only 114 reached the last stage. The objective was to assess how the data at SRT could be used to predict the probabilities of genotypes reaching the UYT. Phenotypic data from each genotype at SRT was integrated into the selection index (SIN) used by the cassava breeding program. Average SIN from all the progenies derived from each progenitor was then obtained. Average SIN is an approximation of the breeding value of each progenitor. Data clearly suggested that some genotypes were better progenitors than others (e.g., high number of their progenies reaching the UYT), suggesting important variation in breeding values of progenitors. However, regression of average SIN of each parental genotype on the number of their respective progenies reaching UYT resulted in a negligible coefficient of determination (r2 = 0.05). Breeding value (e.g., average SIN) at SRT was not efficient predicting which genotypes were more likely to reach the UYT stage. Number of families and progenies derived from a given progenitor were more efficient predicting the probabilities of the progeny from a given parent reaching the UYT stage. Large within-family genetic variation tends to mask the true breeding value of each progenitor. The use of partially inbred progenitors (e.g., S1 or S2 genotypes) would reduce the within-family genetic variation thus making the assessment of breeding value more accurate. Moreover, partial inbreeding of progenitors can improve the breeding value of the original (S0) parental material and sharply accelerate genetic gains. For instance, homozygous S1 genotypes for the dominant resistance to cassava mosaic disease (CMD) could be generated and selected. All gametes from these selected S1 genotypes would carry the desirable allele and

  3. Globalization and Life History Research: Fragments of a Life Foretold

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to understand, by way of a life history of one low-income working-class youth, how globalization impacts the working class in a developing nation. The concept of globalization and the method of life history seem diametrically opposed. Globalization is an idea about large social forces that impact the economic and material…

  4. End of life decisions at the beginning of life.

    PubMed

    Snyder, R D

    1996-01-01

    Modern neonatal intensive care technology enhances the ability to maintain vulnerable newborns. In some circumstances survival may be insufficient justification for care. "End of life" strategies, originally applicable to adults, are being considered for newborns. Unresolved ethical issues in the care of these newborns involve multiple considerations. Concern occurs regarding patient-centered beneficence, non-maleficence, distributive justice, futility, legal rights of infants, and autonomy. The benefits to a newborn of treatment may fail to overcome the burdens of subsequent life. Under what circumstances a newborn loses the right to have life prolonged becomes a difficult ethical issue. With time and debate the proper response will become implemented.

  5. Psychological Aspects of Life Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swensen, Clifford H.

    1992-01-01

    Results of research directly and indirectly applicable to life support indicate that patients and intimates suffer less psychological distress if those who have close positive relationship with patient maintain emotional closeness to patient and participate in making decisions concerning life support. Suggests that people feel less distress if…

  6. [Spirituality - Value of the relationship].

    PubMed

    Utsch, M

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays, issues of religiosity and spirituality are viewed differently than 50 years ago. Social upheaval, migration and secularization have changed the interpretation of religious meaning but have not made religion obsolete. This article describes the differences between a religious and a secular global view and defines spirituality as attachment to a larger entirety. The resources of spirituality are described and the dangers of fanaticism and fundamentalism should not be neglected. Criteria for healthy belief are compared to religious delusion. In the context of attachment theory and the concept of self-transcendence, the value of spirituality is explained by connectedness and relationship.

  7. [The quality of life in schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Lecardeur, L

    2015-09-01

    The World Health Organization defines quality of life as individuals' perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards, and concerns. Quality of life (QoL) is a concept, which reflects multiple as well subjective as objective dimensions. In patients with schizophrenia, quality of life has been negatively correlated with depressive and anxiety symptoms (results seem more unconvincing concerning positive symptoms and cognitive deficits); the remission of positive and negative symptoms has been associated with a better quality of life, but the persistence of depressive symptoms decreases quality of life even when patients were or not in remission; second generation antipsychotics significantly increase more quality of life than first generation antipsychotics; and psychotherapies (rehabilitation, case management...) improve quality of life. Several general and disease-specific QoL scales have been developed and successfully tested in patients with schizophrenia. The most appropriate disease-specific scale is the Quality of Life Scale (Heinrichs et al., 1984) since it takes patients' cognitive deficits into account and because it allows to subtly measuring the patients' subjective feeling during a hetero-evaluation. The Quality of Life Scale is a 21-item scale based on a semi-structured interview, which is comprised of four subscales: interpersonal relations, instrumental role functioning, intra-psychic foundations, and use of common objects and activities. It has been designed initially to assess deficit symptoms in schizophrenia. It is a simple and quite short tool, which is intended for the use as an outcome criterion, a measure of change and an indicator of the efficacy of therapeutic interventions. Convincing metrological qualities have been described: content, construct and nomological validities; inter-raters and test-retest fidelities; it is sensitive

  8. [Nutritional value of sesame seeds].

    PubMed

    Martinchik, A N

    2011-01-01

    Literature data on the nutritional value of sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum L.), their use in feeding the world population and food production are presented. Sesame seeds contain up to 55% oil and 20% protein. Sesame proteins are limited by lysine but rich in tryptophan and methionine. Sesame oil is rich in linoleic and oleic acids, the predominance of gamma-tocopherol over the other isomers of vitamin E and high content of fat-soluble lignans (sesamin and sesamolin). Thanks to recent sesame oil has a phytoestrogen activity; it has a cholesterol-lowering effect.

  9. Genetics & the Quality of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, Joseph D.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the contribution made to the quality of human life by the study of genetics. Presents a description of the current status of genetics education. Suggests changes in genetics education necessary to keep up with new developments. (39 references) (CW)

  10. Personal Values as Mitigating Factors in the Link between Income and Life Satisfaction: Evidence from the European Social Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgellis, Yannis; Tsitsianis, Nicholas; Yin, Ya Ping

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the first two rounds of the European Social Survey, we examine the link between income, reference income and life satisfaction across Western Europe. We find that whilst there is a strong positive relationship between income and life satisfaction, reference or comparison income exerts a strong negative influence. Interestingly, our…

  11. Learning the value of VE

    SciTech Connect

    Sperling, R.B.

    1989-03-03

    Describing lessons learned from Value Engineers (VE) studies at a government-funded research laboratory reveals how project managers were encouraged to use VE and how their projects benefited from the VE savings. The five major lessons were: An officer of ''free'' VE is a low-risk incentive to encourage the use of VE; More costs savings can be identified by VE studies than cost reviews or design reviews; Large projects can benefit from repeat VE studies; VE teams can identify surprising savings when allowed to challenge all design criteria; VE programs can be costs effective even though return on investment may vary among projects. 6 tabs.

  12. Total Value of Phosphorus Recovery.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Brooke K; Baker, Lawrence A; Boyer, Treavor H; Drechsel, Pay; Gifford, Mac; Hanjra, Munir A; Parameswaran, Prathap; Stoltzfus, Jared; Westerhoff, Paul; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2016-07-05

    Phosphorus (P) is a critical, geographically concentrated, nonrenewable resource necessary to support global food production. In excess (e.g., due to runoff or wastewater discharges), P is also a primary cause of eutrophication. To reconcile the simultaneous shortage and overabundance of P, lost P flows must be recovered and reused, alongside improvements in P-use efficiency. While this motivation is increasingly being recognized, little P recovery is practiced today, as recovered P generally cannot compete with the relatively low cost of mined P. Therefore, P is often captured to prevent its release into the environment without beneficial recovery and reuse. However, additional incentives for P recovery emerge when accounting for the total value of P recovery. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the range of benefits of recovering P from waste streams, i.e., the total value of recovering P. This approach accounts for P products, as well as other assets that are associated with P and can be recovered in parallel, such as energy, nitrogen, metals and minerals, and water. Additionally, P recovery provides valuable services to society and the environment by protecting and improving environmental quality, enhancing efficiency of waste treatment facilities, and improving food security and social equity. The needs to make P recovery a reality are also discussed, including business models, bottlenecks, and policy and education strategies.

  13. Water, a host of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niculescu, E.; Maghiar, R.

    2012-04-01

    An interdisciplinary study of water realized in High Schools of Bucharest and Oradea The paper studies the importance and the properties of water from different points of view. In the curricula the water is studied by sciences as Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Geography and Environmental Sciences, but the water is important also for History, Economy, Sociology, Religion, Arts, Sport, and so on. The students from "C.A.Rosetti High-school" from Bucharest and "Mihai Viteazul" from Oradea, guided by their teachers realized some interesting studies about water as physical, biological and chemical properties but also about economical importance of the water in our life, or about the aesthetic value of the water. The final products (CD-s, PowerPoint presentations, movies, drawings, posters and so on) are realized during the lessons from the curricula but also in non-formal education activities. So the students accomplished some research about water in specialised institutes, but also in the middle of nature. They studied the plants, insects and animals living in wetland areas. The students went to the springs, rivers , lakes, the Danube Delta and to the Black Sea and after that they organised workshops and seminars in order to disseminate their work.

  14. Values and the quantum conception of man

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, H.P.

    1995-06-01

    Classical mechanics is based upon a mechanical picture of nature that is fundamentally incorrect. It has been replaced at the basic level by a radically different theory: quantum mechanics. This change entails an enormous shift in one`s basic conception of nature, one that can profoundly alter the scientific image of man himself. Self-image is the foundation of values, and the replacement of the mechanistic self-image derived from classical mechanics by one concordant with quantum mechanics may provide the foundation of a moral order better suited to today`s times, a self-image that endows human life with meaning, responsibility, and a deeper linkage to nature as a whole.

  15. Value: Changes in the Detection and Recognition Thresholds of Three Basic Tastes in Lung Cancer Patients Receiving Cisplatin and Paclitaxel and Its Association with Nutritional and Quality of Life Parameters.

    PubMed

    Turcott, Jenny G; Juárez-Hernández, Eva; De la Torre-Vallejo, Martha; Sánchez-Lara, Karla; Luvian-Morales, Julissa; Arrieta, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of cisplatin and paclitaxel on taste acuity and their associations with nutritional and health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Forty chemotherapy (CT)-naïve patients were assessed at baseline and after two cycles of paclitaxel and cisplatin. The taste evaluation was performed using a rinsing technique to identify detection and recognition thresholds (DT and RT) of bitter, sweet, and umami tastes. At baseline, 37.5% of the patients reported dysgeusia. After CT, the patients showed lower medians DT (p = 0.017) and RT (p = 0.028) for umami taste. These decreases were associated with clinical neuropathy, worse HRQL, and a tendency toward increased appetite loss. Additionally, CT did not significantly reduce the median DT for sweet (p = 0.09), which is associated with lower intake of protein (p = 0.015), animal protein (p = 0.010), fat (p = 0.004), and iron (p = 0.047). CT decreased the median DT for bitter (p = 0.035); however, this decrease was not associated with nutritional parameters or with HRQL. Sensitivity to taste increased with paclitaxel and cisplatin CT, making foods more unpleasant, and it was associated with neuropathy, worse HRQL, and reduced nutrient intake in advanced NSCLC patients. The protocol was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01540045).

  16. Half-life of /sup 218/Po

    SciTech Connect

    Potapov, V.G.; Soloshenkov, P.S.

    1986-10-01

    The decay of Po 218 is accompanied by the emission of 6.00-MeV alpha particles. The most suitable method for studying it is the alphaspectrometric method. To generate radon, the source for RaA, the authors used a preparation of Ra 226 with a high degree of purity. Targets were prepared for measuring the half-life on a radon setup. Approximately 30 sec after holding in a radon atmosphere the target was placed with the polonium deposited on it into a vacuum chamber. It was noted that the intensity of the peak at 6.70 MeV decreases at the same rate as the decay of Po 218, and the ratio of the intensities of their peaks was equal to 0.037 +/- 0.007%. The spectra (alpha was analyzed on an LP-4900 analyzer. The values of the half-life that were obtained are in good agreement with the values obtained previously.

  17. The Value of Medicines: A Crucial but Vague Concept.

    PubMed

    Antoñanzas, Fernando; Terkola, Robert; Postma, Maarten

    2016-12-01

    Health Technology Assessment is increasingly used to evaluate the value of healthcare products and to prioritize resources; however, defining exactly what value is and how it should be measured remains a challenge. In this article, we report the results of a literature review, focusing on nine European countries, with the aim of investigating how value is defined from the perspective of different stakeholders, how definitions of value are used, and how value is incorporated into decision making. Only three articles were identified that presented definitions of value, and there was no single shared definition of value in healthcare, which appears to be a highly subjective concept. The majority of the countries investigated combine clinical assessment with economic evaluation to make reimbursement recommendations; the quality-adjusted life-year is the most commonly used measure of value but does not capture broader aspects of value that may be important to patients and healthcare systems. We describe the use of value-based pricing and multi-criteria decision analysis, two approaches to the incorporation of broader aspects of value into decision making. Overall, we have identified considerable variation in how a product's value is defined by different stakeholders. Although a universal understanding of value in healthcare is important, it is clear that current definitions are insufficient, potentially leading to inconsistent reimbursement decisions. Ultimately, the establishment of clearer policies for defining and measuring value in healthcare is needed, and is likely to lead to improvements in the consistency of decision making.

  18. Life expectancy of kibbutz members.

    PubMed

    Leviatan, U; Cohen, J; Jaffe-Katz, A

    1986-01-01

    Data are presented demonstrating that the life expectancy (LE) of kibbutz members--both men and women--is higher than that of the overall Jewish population in Israel. Closer inspection of the death rates at various ages reveals that, from age thirty, those of kibbutz women are lower than those of the Jewish population. Although those of kibbutz men are actually higher until age forty-nine, nevertheless the LE of kibbutz members (based on death rates) surpasses that of Jews in Israel. These data add to and support other research findings illustrating the more positive mental health and well-being found among kibbutz members than among other comparative populations. Similarly, the factors contributing to kibbutz members' life expectancy evolve from this quality of life, especially as this quality of life affects old age.

  19. Clinical value of bone densitometry.

    PubMed

    Sartoris, D J

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide insight into the long-standing controversy over the clinical value of noninvasive measurement of bone mass. Results of recent studies have increasingly supported the judicious use of bone densitometry as a clinical tool [1]. These reports contradict editorials on the limitations of bone densitometry that have appeared in a variety of subspecialty publications [2,3]. The importance of bone mass measurement is underscored by the lack of success in predicting bone density from various combinations of anthropometric and historical variables. Growing evidence suggests that densitometry is a useful tool for determining which women near menopause are at risk for osteoporosis and, therefore, are candidates for estrogen-replacement therapy. This article summarizes current concepts on the subject and attempts to prove that bone densitometry is a beneficial and indicated procedure for selected patients.

  20. Half-life of {sup 44}Ti

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.; Kutschera, W.; Castagnoli, G.; Paul, M.

    1995-08-01

    The measurement of the {sup 44}Ti half-life, started 3 years ago, is still continuing. The goal of this measurement is to determine the half-life of {sup 44}Ti, which is {approximately}52 y, to a precision of {approximately}5%. An accurate value of this half-life is of interest to cosmologists who need it to determine the production of heavy elements in supernova. Three sets of samples - a pure 200-nCi {sup 44}Ti sample, a pure 300-nCi {sup 60}Co source, and a mixed {sup 44}Ti-{sup 60}Co source of similar strength - were prepared and their spectra are being measured with Ge spectrometers at Argonne, Torino and Jerusalem. Each sample is counted for a period of 2 days, at approximate intervals of 4 months. The room background is also measured for the same length of time. We hope to start data analysis at the end of summer and obtain a value for the {sup 44}Ti half-life.

  1. Quality of life in vitiligo patients.

    PubMed

    Teovska Mitrevska, Natasa; Eleftheriadou, Viktoria; Guarneri, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    Quality of life is defined by the World Health Organization as "individuals' perceptions of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns." Often overlooked in the past, it is nowadays considered, in a more holistic view of medicine, a decisive factor to understand the impact of diseases and improve the quality of medical care. Such evaluation is particularly relevant for dermatological diseases, because visibility of the lesions can significantly affect self-esteem and social relationships. Vitiligo represents an emblematic case: often disfiguring and located in visible areas, confused in the past (and, in many world regions, even in the present) with leprosy, often perceived by physicians as a harmless, purely cosmetic problem, it significantly decreases the quality of life of affected persons. After a brief overview on definition, usefulness and methods for the assessment of quality of life, the authors examine the peculiarities of its relationship with skin diseases, particularly vitiligo. The state of the art of knowledge and research in this field is presented, together with data showing usefulness and positive results of a multidisciplinary approach, which adequately keeps into account perceived quality of life, on patient's satisfaction, adherence to treatment protocols and, ultimately, better outcome of treatments. In this context, an important role can be played by support communities, groups of patients and dedicated associations and societies, connected through modern communication networks like the Internet.

  2. Life Domain Satisfactions as Predictors of Overall Life Satisfaction Among Workers: Evidence from Chile.

    PubMed

    Loewe, Nicolas; Bagherzadeh, Mehdi; Araya-Castillo, Luis; Thieme, Claudio; Batista-Foguet, Joan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the subjective antecedents of life satisfaction of workers. Adopting a 'bottom-up' perspective, we assessed the unique influence that satisfaction with multiple life domains have on evaluative judgments of overall life satisfaction. Based on a nationwide sample of 530 Chilean workers, we simultaneously tested the effects of seven life domain satisfactions that have been consistently included in extant models of life satisfaction and subjective well-being. These were satisfaction with health, financial situation, social relationships, one's self-worth, leisure-time, family, and work. Having controlled for age and gender, results showed that satisfaction with one's financial situation was the dominant predictor of overall life satisfaction of workers, with a weight of .36. Satisfaction with family, work, and health had effects of .25, .14, and .14, respectively. Interestingly, satisfaction with one's self-worth, leisure-time, and social relationships did not have statistically significant effects on life satisfaction, although the first two showed t values near the critical value.

  3. Quality of Life: Perspectives and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schalock, Robert L., Ed.

    The book deals with the concept of quality of life for persons with mental retardation and developmental disabilities. Part I, "Quality of Life: Personal Perspectives," contains "A Dream for Myself" (Connie Martinez); "Reflections on My Quality of Life: Then and Now" (Nancy Ward); "Quality of Life versus Quality of Life Judgments: A Parent's…

  4. The value of brain scanning

    PubMed Central

    Riddoch, D.; Drolc, Z.

    1972-01-01

    Over a 3-year period, 667 brain scans were performed, of which the results in 632 have been analysed. Positive scans were found in 68% of 204 cerebral tumours. There was a high rate of detection of meningiomas and malignant gliomas. Scanning was less helpful in visualizing slowly growing gliomas, and those tumours situated in the mid-line or posterior fossa. Metastases occupied an intermediate position. Positive scans occurred in a proportion of patients following acute cerebro-vascular accidents, and in a few other miscellaneous disorders. Virtually all patients with transient cerebral ischaemia, migraine, epilepsy and presenile dementia had normal brain scans. The value and limitations of this investigation have been discussed. PMID:5076491

  5. Inversion Concept of the Origin of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kompanichenko, V. N.

    2012-06-01

    The essence of the inversion concept of the origin of life can be narrowed down to the following theses: 1) thermodynamic inversion is the key transformation of prebiotic microsystems leading to their transition into primary forms of life; 2) this transformation might occur only in the microsystems oscillating around the bifurcation point under far-from-equilibrium conditions. The transformation consists in the inversion of the balance "free energy contribution / entropy contribution", from negative to positive values. At the inversion moment the microsystem radically reorganizes in accordance with the new negentropy (i.e. biological) way of organization. According to this approach, the origin-of-life process on the early Earth took place in the fluctuating hydrothermal medium. The process occurred in two successive stages: a) spontaneous self-assembly of initial three-dimensional prebiotic microsystems composed mainly of hydrocarbons, lipids and simple amino acids, or their precursors, within the temperature interval of 100-300°C (prebiotic stage); b) non-spontaneous synthesis of sugars, ATP and nucleic acids started at the inversion moment under the temperature 70-100°C (biotic stage). Macro- and microfluctuations of thermodynamic and physico-chemical parameters able to sustain this way of chemical conversion have been detected in several contemporary hydrothermal systems. A minimal self-sufficient unit of life on the early Earth was a community of simplest microorganisms (not a separate microorganism).

  6. Inversion concept of the origin of life.

    PubMed

    Kompanichenko, V N

    2012-06-01

    The essence of the inversion concept of the origin of life can be narrowed down to the following theses: 1) thermodynamic inversion is the key transformation of prebiotic microsystems leading to their transition into primary forms of life; 2) this transformation might occur only in the microsystems oscillating around the bifurcation point under far-from-equilibrium conditions. The transformation consists in the inversion of the balance "free energy contribution / entropy contribution", from negative to positive values. At the inversion moment the microsystem radically reorganizes in accordance with the new negentropy (i.e. biological) way of organization. According to this approach, the origin-of-life process on the early Earth took place in the fluctuating hydrothermal medium. The process occurred in two successive stages: a) spontaneous self-assembly of initial three-dimensional prebiotic microsystems composed mainly of hydrocarbons, lipids and simple amino acids, or their precursors, within the temperature interval of 100-300°C (prebiotic stage); b) non-spontaneous synthesis of sugars, ATP and nucleic acids started at the inversion moment under the temperature 70-100°C (biotic stage). Macro- and microfluctuations of thermodynamic and physico-chemical parameters able to sustain this way of chemical conversion have been detected in several contemporary hydrothermal systems. A minimal self-sufficient unit of life on the early Earth was a community of simplest microorganisms (not a separate microorganism).

  7. The Value of Clean Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shindell, D. T.

    2014-12-01

    How can society place a value on clean air? I present a multi-impact economic valuation framework called the Social Cost of Atmospheric Release (SCAR) that extends the Social Cost of Carbon (SCC) used previously for carbon dioxide (CO2) to a broader range of pollutants and impacts. Values consistently incorporate health impacts of air quality along with climate damages. The latter include damages associated with aerosol-induced hydrologic cycle changes that lead to net climate benefits when reducing cooling aerosols. Evaluating a 1% reduction in current global emissions, benefits with a high discount rate are greatest for reductions of co-emitted products of incomplete combustion (PIC), followed by sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and then CO2, ammonia and methane. With a low discount rate, benefits are greatest for CO2 reductions, though the sum of SO2, PIC and methane is substantially larger. These results suggest that efforts to mitigate atmosphere-related environmental damages should target a broad set of emissions including CO2, methane and aerosol/ozone precursors. Illustrative calculations indicate environmental damages are 410-1100 billion yr-1 for current US electricity generation ( 19-46¢ per kWh for coal, 4-24¢ for gas) and 3.80 (-1.80/+2.10) per gallon of gasoline ($4.80 (-3.10/+3.50) per gallon for diesel). These results suggest that total atmosphere-related environmental damages plus generation costs are much greater for coal-fired power than other types of electricity generation, and that damages associated with gasoline vehicles substantially exceed those for electric vehicles.

  8. Life satisfaction in elderly Nigerians: reliability and factor composition of the life satisfaction Index Z.

    PubMed

    Baiyewu, O; Jegede, R O

    1992-07-01

    Life satisfaction Index Z was administered to 945 persons aged 60 years and over in a community survey in rural and urban locations in South-Western Nigeria. Life Satisfaction Index scores correlated significantly with items on self-assessed health, loneliness, sex (women having a higher mean score) and location. Items that measure social contact, such as marital status, proximity of nearest child, and frequency of seeing close friends, did not correlate at a significant level. Factor analysis produced two factors on varimax rotation and an internal consistency value of 0.72 was obtained. These values are similar to some of those reported in other studies outside Africa.

  9. Is the creation of artificial life morally significant?

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Thomas; Powell, Russell; Savulescu, Julian

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, the Venter lab announced that it had created the first bacterium with an entirely synthetic genome. This was reported to be the first instance of ‘artificial life,’ and in the ethical and policy discussions that followed it was widely assumed that the creation of artificial life is in itself morally significant. We cast doubt on this assumption. First we offer an account of the creation of artificial life that distinguishes this from the derivation of organisms from existing life and clarify what we mean in asking whether the creation of artificial life has moral significance. We then articulate and evaluate three attempts to establish that the creation of artificial life is morally significant. These appeal to (1) the claim that the creation of artificial life involves playing God, as expressed in three distinct formulations; (2) the claim that the creation of artificial life will encourage reductionist attitudes toward the living world that undermine the special moral value accorded to life; and (3) the worry that artificial organisms will have an uncertain functional status and consequently an uncertain moral status. We argue that all three attempts to ground the moral significance of the creation of artificial life fail, because none of them establishes that the creation of artificial life is morally problematic in a way that the derivation of organisms from existing life forms is not. We conclude that the decisive moral consideration is not how life is created but what non-genealogical properties it possesses. PMID:23810562

  10. Is the creation of artificial life morally significant?

    PubMed

    Douglas, Thomas; Powell, Russell; Savulescu, Julian

    2013-12-01

    In 2010, the Venter lab announced that it had created the first bacterium with an entirely synthetic genome. This was reported to be the first instance of 'artificial life,' and in the ethical and policy discussions that followed it was widely assumed that the creation of artificial life is in itself morally significant. We cast doubt on this assumption. First we offer an account of the creation of artificial life that distinguishes this from the derivation of organisms from existing life and clarify what we mean in asking whether the creation of artificial life has moral significance. We then articulate and evaluate three attempts to establish that the creation of artificial life is morally significant. These appeal to (1) the claim that the creation of artificial life involves playing God, as expressed in three distinct formulations; (2) the claim that the creation of artificial life will encourage reductionist attitudes toward the living world that undermine the special moral value accorded to life; and (3) the worry that artificial organisms will have an uncertain functional status and consequently an uncertain moral status. We argue that all three attempts to ground the moral significance of the creation of artificial life fail, because none of them establishes that the creation of artificial life is morally problematic in a way that the derivation of organisms from existing life forms is not. We conclude that the decisive moral consideration is not how life is created but what non-genealogical properties it possesses.

  11. Value Profiles of Male and Female Entrepreneurs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Lloyd W., Jr.; Solomon, George T.

    1987-01-01

    Comparison of the values of 86 male and 74 female entrepreneurs found males' highest terminal values being pleasure and true friendship while females' highest terminal values were health and self-respect. High instrumental values for males were ambition and broadmindedness; while for females high instrumental values were honesty and…

  12. Family, money, and health: Regional differences in the determinants of life satisfaction over the life course

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, Rachel; Myrskylä, Mikko

    2013-01-01

    We examine how family, money, and health explain variation in life satisfaction over the life cycle across seven global regions using data from the World Values Survey. With a life domain approach, we study whether the importance of the life domains varies by region and age groups and whether the variation explained by each factor is due to the magnitude or prevalence of each factor. Globally, family, money, and health explain a substantial fraction of life satisfaction, increasing from 12 percent in young adulthood to 15 percent in mature adulthood. Health is the most important factor, and its importance increases with age. Income is unimportant above age 50. Remarkably, the contribution of family is small across ages. Across regions health is most important in the wealthier, and income in the poorer regions of the world. Family explains a substantial fraction of life satisfaction only in Western Europe and Anglophone countries. Findings highlight that the population-level importance of family, money, and health in explaining variation in life satisfaction across regions is mainly attributable to the individual-level life satisfaction differences between people of different statuses rather than differences in the distribution of various states such as poor health across regions. PMID:24796263

  13. Consistent set of nuclear parameters values for absolute INAA

    SciTech Connect

    Heft, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    Gamma spectral analysis of irradiated material can be used to determine absolute disintegration rates for specific radionuclides. These data, together with measured values for the thermal and epithermal neutron fluxes, and irradiation, cooling and counting time values, are all the experimental information required to do absolute Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The calculations required to go from product photon emission rate to target nuclide amount depend upon values used for the thermal neutron capture cross-section, the resonance absorption integral, the half-life and photon branching ratios. Values for these parameters were determined by irradiating and analyzing a series of elemental standards. The results of these measurements were combined with values reported by other workers to arrive at a set of recommended values for the constants. Values for 114 nuclides are listed.

  14. Student Views on the Value of Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marie, Jenny A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the value that a sample of students placed on feedback, what they valued it for and the conditions that affected this value judgement. I show that not all students value feedback particularly highly, especially when considered in relation to other factors in their education and when considered for its intrinsic value as…

  15. A loaf of bread: Price and value.

    PubMed

    Pearn, J

    1998-03-01

    In the Western world, the basic staple of nutrition is bread. It evolved, from Neolithic times in Mesopotamia and the Levant, from flour made from natural hybrids of emmer and einkorn. Its form has changed from that of a dark, coarse and heavy loaf, baked in the ashes, to the enriched artistic breads of the late twentieth century. Its variety of forms conferred status on those who ate its refined and whitened form. The wheel of fashion and nutrition has turned full circle to the quality-controlled, vitamin and mineral-enriched wholemeal loaf of the new millennium to come. Bread has changed from a staple not simply of nutrition itself, but to that of a 'functional food' whose fibre confers protection against preventible disease. The bread of the new century thus will be both a food and a medicine. So fundamental to Western life is bread, that its price has long been the last item to remain controlled, when all else is left to the dictates of a free market economy. Bread is the fundamental unit of exchange and forms the last link in a chain of commodities which starts from items of luxury to those of survival itself. The price of bread can thus be used as a currency datum. As such, the price of a loaf of bread, and the minutes of labour needed to produce it, can be used to measure the economy, and to give a measured perspective of its influence on a community's history. Costs, throughout history, can be expressed in 'bread units'. As such, the latter forms an absolute index of the worth of other items, particularly a person's labour. As such, bread and its value forms a partly independent measure of inflationary and other social influences. Bread remains a fundamental part not only of nutrition, but of life itself.

  16. The Impact of Discovering Life beyond Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: astrobiology and society Steven J. Dick; Part I. Motivations and Approaches. How Do We Frame the Problems of Discovery and Impact?: Introduction; 1. Current approaches to finding life beyond earth, and what happens if we do Seth Shostak; 2. The philosophy of astrobiology: the Copernican and Darwinian presuppositions Iris Fry; 3. History, discovery, analogy: three approaches to the impact of discovering life beyond earth Steven J. Dick; 4. Silent impact: why the discovery of extraterrestrial life should be silent Clément Vidal; Part II. Transcending Anthropocentrism. How Do We Move beyond our Own Preconceptions of Life, Intelligence and Culture?: Introduction; 5. The landscape of life Dirk Schulze-Makuch; 6. The landscape of intelligence Lori Marino; 7. Universal biology: assessing universality from a single example Carlos Mariscal; 8. Equating culture, civilization, and moral development in imagining extraterrestrial intelligence: anthropocentric assumptions? John Traphagan; 9. Communicating with the other: infinity, geometry, and universal math and science Douglas Vakoch; Part III. Philosophical, Theological, and Moral Impact. How Do We Comprehend the Cultural Challenges Raised by Discovery?: Introduction; 10. Life, intelligence and the pursuit of value in cosmic evolution Mark Lupisella; 11. 'Klaatu barada nikto' - or, do they really think like us? Michael Ruse; 12. Alien minds Susan Schneider; 13. The moral subject of astrobiology: guideposts for exploring our ethical and political responsibilities towards extraterrestrial life Elspeth Wilson and Carol Cleland; 14. Astrobiology and theology Robin Lovin; 15. Would you baptize an extraterrestrial? Guy Consolmagno, SJ; Part IV. Practical Considerations: How Should Society Prepare for Discovery - and Non-Discovery?: Introduction; 16. Is there anything new about astrobiology and society? Jane Maienschein; 17. Evaluating preparedness for the discovery of extraterrestrial life: considering potential

  17. Youth and Work: The Diffusion of "Countercultural" Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Richard; Langman, Lauren

    1974-01-01

    Examines the diffusion among mostly Catholic blue-collar youth of certain countercultural values, viz. those pertaining to general orientations to life and work: 117 out of a random sample of 200 students selected from lists of 4000 liberal arts students at Loyola University completed a questionaire. (Author/JM)

  18. [End of life in France].

    PubMed

    Vacheron, André

    2013-01-01

    Two major changes in end-of-life management have occured in recent decades: first, because of the increase in life expectancy and the resulting aging of the population, most deaths now involve old or very old people; second, more than two-thirds of deaths occur in a hospital or an institution. Our fellow citizens are afraid of suffering and death. They wish for a peaceful death, as rapid as possible and, in recent surveys, say they favour euthanasia. Yet euthanasia is illegal in France and in most other Western countries (with the exception of the Benelux nations). Palliative care ensures dignity in death, without anxiety of suffering, and is expanding rapidly in France. Léonetti's law of 22 April 2005 ensures the protection of the weakest, who should never be considered unworthy of life, yet is poorly known to the public and even to physicians. It now needs to be applied in practice.

  19. Life in an Unjust Community: A Hollywood View of High School Moral Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, David

    2008-01-01

    This article analyses the film "Mean girls" (2004) as a window on popular notions of the moral life of American high schools, which straddles Kohlberg's Stage 2 and 3. The film presents loyalty to peer group cliques as a key value, even as it offers an individualist, relativist critique of that loyalty. Gossip is the main transgression in this…

  20. SEPARATION OF SCANDIUM VALUES FORM IRON VALUES BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Kuhlman, C.W. Jr.; Lang, G.P.

    1961-12-19

    A process is given for separating scandium from trivalent iron values. In this process, an aqueous nitric acid solution is contacted with a water- immiscible alkyl phosphate solution, the aqueous solution containing the values to be separated, whereby the scandium is taken up by the alkyl phosphate. The aqueous so1ution is preferably saturated with magnesium nitrate to retain the iron in the aqueous solution. (AEC)

  1. The value of snow cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokratov, S. A.

    2009-04-01

    only and not even the main outcome from snow cover use. The value of snow cover for agriculture, water resources, industry and transportation is so naturally inside the activities that is not often quantified. However, any considerations of adaptation strategies for climate change with changing snow conditions need such quantification.

  2. Value and Pricing of MOOCs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Rose M.; Passmore, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Reviewed in this article is the potential for Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) to transform higher education delivery, accessibility, and costs. Next, five major value propositions for MOOCs are considered (headhunting, certification, face-to-face learning, personalized learning, integration with services external to the MOOC, marketing). Then,…

  3. Optimization of data life cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, C.; Gasthuber, M.; Giesler, A.; Hardt, M.; Meyer, J.; Rigoll, F.; Schwarz, K.; Stotzka, R.; Streit, A.

    2014-06-01

    Data play a central role in most fields of science. In recent years, the amount of data from experiment, observation, and simulation has increased rapidly and data complexity has grown. Also, communities and shared storage have become geographically more distributed. Therefore, methods and techniques applied to scientific data need to be revised and partially be replaced, while keeping the community-specific needs in focus. The German Helmholtz Association project "Large Scale Data Management and Analysis" (LSDMA) aims to maximize the efficiency of data life cycles in different research areas, ranging from high energy physics to systems biology. In its five Data Life Cycle Labs (DLCLs), data experts closely collaborate with the communities in joint research and development to optimize the respective data life cycle. In addition, the Data Services Integration Team (DSIT) provides data analysis tools and services which are common to several DLCLs. This paper describes the various activities within LSDMA and focuses on the work performed in the DLCLs.

  4. Contemporary psychological approaches to life at the end of life.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Brian D

    2014-01-01

    When people have a serious life-limiting illness, physical symptoms are often prominent, both in the experience of the illness and in its treatment. No less important, however, are psychological symptoms. A holistic, bio-psycho-social-spiritual approach to quality of life near the end of life must address psychological distress of all types, including frank psychopathology, more moderate problems with living, and existential distress. Responding to mental health issues at the end of life requires (1) systematic and careful assessment, and (2) deployment of evidence-based treatments. In recent years, standardized assessment tools have been adapted or developed for use with people who have serious illness, and the same has happened with psychological treatments. Practitioners have several resources available to them. Given their practice orientation centered on meaningful engagement, occupational therapists can play an important role in responding to mental distress in patients with serious illness whose lives are becoming more circumscribed because of their medical condition or because of the mental distress itself. High-quality end-of-life care depends on scrupulous attention to the full spectrum of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that unfold as death draws near.

  5. The Education of Developing Responsibility Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Güngör, Semra Kiranli; Güzel, Deniz Bostan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research is to improve different responsibility value education activities in pre-school value education. In Turkey, there is a yearly programme in which value should be gained in pre-school value education, but it is lack of activities and how. This research was performed with the studies in a total of 26 students aged five and…

  6. Chiroptical signatures of life and fundamental physics.

    PubMed

    Macdermott, Alexandra J

    2012-09-01

    This paper aims to inspire experimentalists to carry out proposed new chiroptical experiments springing from the theoretical study of the role of parity violation in the origin of biomolecular homochirality and to provide a brief update on the current status of calculations of the electroweak parity-violating energy difference (PVED) between enantiomers. If the PVED did select life's handedness, we would expect to find life on other planets consistently using the same hand as terrestrial biochemistry. Much more importantly, even finding the "wrong" hand (rather than a racemic mixture) on another planet could be the homochiral signature of life, and we discuss our proposal for chiroptical detection of life on extra-solar planets. The PVED may also have an exciting future as a "molecular footprint" of fundamental physics: comparison of calculated PVEDs with measured values could one day allow chemists to do "table-top particle physics" more cheaply with improved chiroptical techniques instead of ever larger particle accelerators. We discuss our proposed chiroptical method to measure the PVED by using molecular beams. To our knowledge, optical rotation has not yet been measured in molecular beams, but the rewards of doing so include a host of other "first ever" results in addition to measurement of the PVED.

  7. Fossil evidence of Archaean life

    PubMed Central

    Schopf, J. William

    2006-01-01

    Evidence for the existence of life during the Archaean segment of Earth history (more than 2500 Myr ago) is summarized. Data are presented for 48 Archaean deposits reported to contain biogenic stromatolites, for 14 such units reported to contain 40 morphotypes of putative microfossils, and for 13 especially ancient, 3200–3500 Myr old geologic units for which available organic geochemical data are also summarized. These compilations support the view that life's existence dates from more than or equal to 3500 Myr ago. PMID:16754604

  8. Sources of Teachers' Values and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collinson, Vivienne

    2012-01-01

    Philosophers have written extensively about values and have long understood that internalized values define character and decisions. However, scholarship on sources of values, particularly for teachers, remains relatively unexplored. Sources of teachers' values are usually mentioned only in passing in books or articles dealing with other aspects…

  9. Determining the Value of Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrott, Allen

    2002-01-01

    In contemporary educational discourse, value in relation to lifelong learning can mean a moral/ethical concept, economic or monetary value, or mathematical or numerical value. "Added value" is devoid of ethical/moral meaning; it encourages a view of learning that is purely technical. (SK)

  10. Teaching Time Value of Money Using an Excel Retirement Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arellano, Fernando; Mulig, Liz; Rhame, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The time value of money (TVM) is required knowledge for all business students. It is traditionally taught in finance and accounting classes for use in various applications in the business curriculum. These concepts are also very useful in real life situations such as calculating the amount to save for retirement. This paper details a retirement…

  11. Brief report: value priorities of early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tulviste, Tiia; Tamm, Anni

    2014-07-01

    Although adolescence is considered to be the formative period of values, relatively few studies have addressed values held by adolescents. The present short-term longitudinal study explores value priorities of early adolescents from two social groups (among ethnic Estonians and Russian-speaking minority) in terms of the 10 value types defined by Schwartz, and the question whether values change during one year. 575 early adolescents filled out a 21-item version of the Portrait Values Questionnaire. Adolescents' value priorities differed from the pan-cultural value hierarchy of adults (Bardi, Lee, Hoffmann-Towfigh, & Soutar, 2009) by attributing more importance to hedonism and stimulation, and less importance to benevolence and conformity. Although Russian-speaking students rated Self-Enhancement and Openness to Change more highly than Estonians, the value hierarchy of adolescents from two social groups was rather similar. Boys considered Self-Enhancement more important than girls. More value change was observable in Russian-speaking students, and boys.

  12. Breaking the Bread of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mineo, Thomas M.; Royce, Christine A.

    2000-01-01

    Describes Bishop Hannan High School's (Pennsylvania) retreat program, in which students learn to develop a spiritual element in their lives. Discusses the theme, "The Bread of Life," and how the process of baking bread for communion helped unite and nourish students. Reports that, through a variety of fellowship activities, students gained a sense…

  13. Subjective Evaluation of Life Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontana, Alan F.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Surveyed medical/surgical patients concerning life events during the preceding year. Subjective evaluations of events were obtained for dimensions of desirability, adjustment, anticipation, and control. Psychological impairment was associated with subjective evaluations, specifically desirability and adjustment. Inclusion of anticipation and…

  14. The Community of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Anthony Wayne

    Anthony Wayne Smith, President, National Parks and Conservation Association (NPCA), delivered this address before the Annual Meeting of The Humane Society of the United States, Newport, Rhode Island, October, 1971. Reviewing the philosophy and activities of the NPCA, he discloses how the wildlife preservation movement of the NPCA needs the help of…

  15. Constructor theory of life

    PubMed Central

    Marletto, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory explains how the appearance of purposive design in the adaptations of living organisms can have come about without their intentionally being designed. The explanation relies crucially on the possibility of certain physical processes: mainly, gene replication and natural selection. In this paper, I show that for those processes to be possible without the design of biological adaptations being encoded in the laws of physics, those laws must have certain other properties. The theory of what these properties are is not part of evolution theory proper, yet without it the neo-Darwinian theory does not fully achieve its purpose of explaining the appearance of design. To this end, I apply constructor theory's new mode of explanation to express exactly within physics the appearance of design, no-design laws, and the logic of self-reproduction and natural selection. I conclude that self-reproduction, replication and natural selection are possible under no-design laws, the only non-trivial condition being that they allow digital information to be physically instantiated. This has an exact characterization in the constructor theory of information. I also show that under no-design laws an accurate replicator requires the existence of a ‘vehicle’ constituting, together with the replicator, a self-reproducer. PMID:25589566

  16. Constructor theory of life.

    PubMed

    Marletto, Chiara

    2015-03-06

    Neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory explains how the appearance of purposive design in the adaptations of living organisms can have come about without their intentionally being designed. The explanation relies crucially on the possibility of certain physical processes: mainly, gene replication and natural selection. In this paper, I show that for those processes to be possible without the design of biological adaptations being encoded in the laws of physics, those laws must have certain other properties. The theory of what these properties are is not part of evolution theory proper, yet without it the neo-Darwinian theory does not fully achieve its purpose of explaining the appearance of design. To this end, I apply constructor theory's new mode of explanation to express exactly within physics the appearance of design, no-design laws, and the logic of self-reproduction and natural selection. I conclude that self-reproduction, replication and natural selection are possible under no-design laws, the only non-trivial condition being that they allow digital information to be physically instantiated. This has an exact characterization in the constructor theory of information. I also show that under no-design laws an accurate replicator requires the existence of a 'vehicle' constituting, together with the replicator, a self-reproducer.

  17. Linking manager values and behavior with employee values and behavior: a study of values and safety in the hairdressing industry.

    PubMed

    Maierhofer, N I; Griffin, M A; Sheehan, M

    2000-10-01

    Five theoretical processes that link values and behavior were identified: value congruence, value-behavior consistency, behavioral modeling, value internalization, and descriptive norms. A values questionnaire was administered to 219 employees and their managers. Values for preventive safety procedures and time urgency were linked to safety behavior of employees in the hairdressing industry. Hairdressers are frequently exposed to hazardous chemicals, and the safety behavior measured was wearing protective gloves. Results support value internalization (linking manager's and employee's values) and behavioral modeling (linking manager's and employee's behavior). Employee time urgency values were also negatively related to safety behavior (value-behavior consistency). Descriptive norms and value congruence were not supported. Strategies to align values within organizations and the management of safety at work are considered.

  18. Fossil Record of Precambrian Life on Land

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knauth, Paul

    2000-01-01

    The argument that the earth's early ocean was up to two times modern salinity was published in 'Nature' and presented at the 1998 Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of America in Toronto. The argument is bolstered by chemical data for fluid inclusions in Archean black smokers. The inclusions were 1.7 times the modern salinity causing the authors to interpret the parent fluids as evaporite brines (in a deep marine setting). I reinterpreted the data in terms of the predicted value of high Archean salinities. If the arguments I presented are on track, early life was either halophilic or non-marine. Halophiles are not among the most primitive organisms based on RNA sequencing, so here is an a priori argument that non-marine environments may have been the site of most early biologic evolution. This result carries significant implications for the issue of past life on Mars or current life on the putative sub-ice oceans on Europa and possibly Callisto. If the Cl/H2O ratio on these objects is similar to that of the earth, then oceans and oceanic sediments are probably not the preferred sites for early life. On Mars, this means that non-marine deposits such as caliche in basalt may be an overlooked potential sample target.

  19. The Molecules of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Robert A.

    1985-01-01

    New advances in molecular biology have established a biotechnology industry and have changed ways people think about living things. In support of this theme, a discussion on historical development and current practice of gene cloning is presented. The role of nucleic acids, viruses, and therapeutic intervention is also considered. (DH)

  20. The Logic of Life.

    PubMed

    Pascal, Robert; Pross, Addy

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we propose a logical connection between the physical and biological worlds, one resting on a broader understanding of the stability concept. We propose that stability manifests two facets - time and energy, and that stability's time facet, expressed as persistence, is more general than its energy facet. That insight leads to the logical formulation of the Persistence Principle, which describes the general direction of material change in the universe, and which can be stated most simply as: nature seeks persistent forms. Significantly, the principle is found to express itself in two mathematically distinct ways: in the replicative world through Malthusian exponential growth, and in the 'regular' physical/chemical world through Boltzmann's probabilistic considerations. By encompassing both 'regular' and replicative worlds, the principle appears to be able to help reconcile two of the major scientific theories of the 19th century - the Second Law of Thermodynamics and Darwin's theory of evolution - within a single conceptual framework.

  1. The Logic of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascal, Robert; Pross, Addy

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we propose a logical connection between the physical and biological worlds, one resting on a broader understanding of the stability concept. We propose that stability manifests two facets - time and energy, and that stability's time facet, expressed as persistence, is more general than its energy facet. That insight leads to the logical formulation of the Persistence Principle, which describes the general direction of material change in the universe, and which can be stated most simply as: nature seeks persistent forms. Significantly, the principle is found to express itself in two mathematically distinct ways: in the replicative world through Malthusian exponential growth, and in the `regular' physical/chemical world through Boltzmann's probabilistic considerations. By encompassing both `regular' and replicative worlds, the principle appears to be able to help reconcile two of the major scientific theories of the 19th century - the Second Law of Thermodynamics and Darwin's theory of evolution - within a single conceptual framework.

  2. Neural representations of subjective reward value.

    PubMed

    Peters, J; Büchel, C

    2010-12-01

    Decision neuroscience suggests that there exists a core network for the subjective valuation of rewards from a range of different domains, encompassing the ventral striatum and regions of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), in particular the ventromedial aspect of the OFC. Here we first review ways to measure subjective value experimentally in a cognitive neuroscience context, and provide a brief overview over different types of value (outcome, goal and decision value). We then compare results of functional neuroimaging studies of subjective value representations across these different types of value. Our analysis suggests that the same region of the mOFC represents the outcome values of primary reinforcers, but also more complex decision values in which multiple dimensions of the reward need to be integrated. The subjective (hedonic) experience of processing highly valued decision options (regardless of whether they refer to actually experienced rewards or merely potential future rewards) appears to be what is reflected in value-related mOFC activity.

  3. Remeasurement of (234)U Half-Life.

    PubMed

    Varga, Zsolt; Nicholl, Adrian; Wallenius, Maria; Mayer, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    The half-life of (234)U has been measured using a novel approach. In this method, a uranium material was chemically purified from its thorium decay product at a well-known time. The ingrowth of the (230)Th daughter product in the material was followed by measuring the accumulated (230)Th daughter product relative to its parent (234)U nuclide using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Then, the (234)U decay constant and the respective half-life could be calculated using the radioactive decay equations based on the n((230)Th)/n((234)U) amount ratio. The obtained (234)U half-life is 244 900 ± 670 years (k = 1), which is in good agreement with the previously reported results in the literature with comparable uncertainty. The main advantages of the proposed method are that it does not require the assumption of secular equilibrium between (234)U and (238)U. Moreover, the calculation is independent from the (238)U half-life value and its uncertainty. The suggested methodology can also be applied for the remeasurement of the half-lives of several other long-lived radionuclides.

  4. The Chemistry of Life's Origin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, James P.

    1984-01-01

    From an understanding of how the solar system was formed, scientists have determined the conditions under which life probably originated on earth and, by experiment, have demonstrated a number of possible theories. These conditions, experiments, theories, and related topics are discussed. (JN)

  5. Life Expectancy of Kibbutz Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leviatan, Uri; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Data are presented demonstrating that the life expectancy of kibbutz members--both men and women--is higher than that of the overall Jewish population in Israel. These data add to and support other research findings illustrating the more positive mental health and well-being found among kibbutz members than among other comparative populations.…

  6. The Tree of Animal Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braude, Stan

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a short activity which introduces third- to fifth-grade students to animal classification. The Tree of Animal Life activity is a simple, sorting exercise that can help them see a bigger picture. The activity sets the stage for learning about animal taxonomy and introduces the characteristics of various animal…

  7. The Tree of Life Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milbrath, Sherry

    2009-01-01

    Middle-school students are just beginning to recognize their place in the world. That is why this author believes it is important to incorporate their world into their art. In this article, the author discusses the "Tree of Life" project, which she developed for her students in order to make them aware of various environmental issues, and how to…

  8. Life: A Question of Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlitt, Dorothy M.; And Others

    The purpose of this textbook is to provide junior high school students with the knowledge they will need to effect the changes that must be made for survival, to provide an environment that can sustain and flourish life, and understand and appreciate the aesthetic, social, and scientific implications of environmental problems. Organized around…

  9. Extinctions of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepkoski, J. J. Jr; Sepkoski JJ, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1988-01-01

    This meeting presentation examines mass extinctions through earth's history. Extinctions are charted for marine families and marine genera. Timing of marine genera extinctions is discussed. Periodicity in extinctions during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras is plotted and compared with Paleozoic extinction peaks. The role of extinction in evolution and mankind's role in present extinctions are examined.

  10. The Staff of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rebecca

    1994-01-01

    Some children have chronic illnesses that require diet modifications as part of their medical treatment. Advises school districts to hire a registered dietitian or look for resources at a local hospital or public health office. In addition, schools should work with parents, improve staff training, and conduct spot checks of school cafeterias. (MLF)

  11. 29 CFR 4044.72 - Form of annuity to be valued.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... participant has made a valid election pursuant to § 2617.4(c) of this chapter. (See Note at beginning of part... life annuity, no benefit shall be valued; or (ii) If the participant had made a valid election of a... termination— (i) If the form was a single life annuity, no benefit shall be valued; (ii) If the form was...

  12. First Day of Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your baby also may receive a dose of hepatitis B vaccine , with your consent. Other tests vary from one ... feelings. You may experience everything from relief to concern to anxiety to pure joy. And your feelings ...

  13. Uncertainty of Monetary Valued Ecosystem Services – Value Transfer Functions for Global Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Stefan; Manceur, Ameur M.; Seppelt, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Growing demand of resources increases pressure on ecosystem services (ES) and biodiversity. Monetary valuation of ES is frequently seen as a decision-support tool by providing explicit values for unconsidered, non-market goods and services. Here we present global value transfer functions by using a meta-analytic framework for the synthesis of 194 case studies capturing 839 monetary values of ES. For 12 ES the variance of monetary values could be explained with a subset of 93 study- and site-specific variables by utilizing boosted regression trees. This provides the first global quantification of uncertainties and transferability of monetary valuations. Models explain from 18% (water provision) to 44% (food provision) of variance and provide statistically reliable extrapolations for 70% (water provision) to 91% (food provision) of the terrestrial earth surface. Although the application of different valuation methods is a source of uncertainty, we found evidence that assuming homogeneity of ecosystems is a major error in value transfer function models. Food provision is positively correlated with better life domains and variables indicating positive conditions for human well-being. Water provision and recreation service show that weak ownerships affect valuation of other common goods negatively (e.g. non-privately owned forests). Furthermore, we found support for the shifting baseline hypothesis in valuing climate regulation. Ecological conditions and societal vulnerability determine valuation of extreme event prevention. Valuation of habitat services is negatively correlated with indicators characterizing less favorable areas. Our analysis represents a stepping stone to establish a standardized integration of and reporting on uncertainties for reliable and valid benefit transfer as an important component for decision support. PMID:26938447

  14. Uncertainty of Monetary Valued Ecosystem Services - Value Transfer Functions for Global Mapping.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Stefan; Manceur, Ameur M; Seppelt, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Growing demand of resources increases pressure on ecosystem services (ES) and biodiversity. Monetary valuation of ES is frequently seen as a decision-support tool by providing explicit values for unconsidered, non-market goods and services. Here we present global value transfer functions by using a meta-analytic framework for the synthesis of 194 case studies capturing 839 monetary values of ES. For 12 ES the variance of monetary values could be explained with a subset of 93 study- and site-specific variables by utilizing boosted regression trees. This provides the first global quantification of uncertainties and transferability of monetary valuations. Models explain from 18% (water provision) to 44% (food provision) of variance and provide statistically reliable extrapolations for 70% (water provision) to 91% (food provision) of the terrestrial earth surface. Although the application of different valuation methods is a source of uncertainty, we found evidence that assuming homogeneity of ecosystems is a major error in value transfer function models. Food provision is positively correlated with better life domains and variables indicating positive conditions for human well-being. Water provision and recreation service show that weak ownerships affect valuation of other common goods negatively (e.g. non-privately owned forests). Furthermore, we found support for the shifting baseline hypothesis in valuing climate regulation. Ecological conditions and societal vulnerability determine valuation of extreme event prevention. Valuation of habitat services is negatively correlated with indicators characterizing less favorable areas. Our analysis represents a stepping stone to establish a standardized integration of and reporting on uncertainties for reliable and valid benefit transfer as an important component for decision support.

  15. Integrating Varieties of Life Course Concepts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A body of work referred to as the “life course” framework (also known as “life course theory,” the “life course paradigm,” and the “life course perspective”) has been increasingly used to motivate and justify the examination of the relationships among variables in social and behavioral science, particularly in the study of population health and aging. Yet, there is very little agreement on what some of these concepts mean, and there is hardly any agreement on what the “life course” is. This article focuses on the different ways in which the concept oflife course” is used in the contemporary study of aging and human development, particularly with regard to health and well-being. Clarification is given for how “life course” is distinguished from “life span” and “life cycle,” among other “life” words. This work reviews the conceptual literature on the life course, beginning with its formative years in the 1960s and 1970s, through to the present time. Detailed research of several literatures across disciplines revealed five different uses of the term “life course”: (a) life course as time or age, (b) life course as life stages, (c) life course as events, transitions, and trajectories, (d) life course as life-span human development, and (e) life course as early life influences (and their cumulation) on later adult outcomes. To the extent the concept of life course has a multiplicity of meanings that are at variance with one another, this is problematic, as communication is thereby hindered. On the other hand, to the extent the concept of life course involves a rich tapestry of different emphases, this is a good thing, and the diversity of meanings should be retained. This paper proposes a conceptual integration based in part on Riley’s age stratification model that resolves the various meanings of life course into one general framework. Coupled with a demographic conceptualization of the life course, this framework embeds

  16. Probability: A Matter of Life and Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassani, Mehdi; Kippen, Rebecca; Mills, Terence

    2016-01-01

    Life tables are mathematical tables that document probabilities of dying and life expectancies at different ages in a society. Thus, the life table contains some essential features of the health of a population. Probability is often regarded as a difficult branch of mathematics. Life tables provide an interesting approach to introducing concepts…

  17. Quality of Life

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    Defense 1995 Sexual Harrassment Survey Education Trust - Ticket to Nowhere - Thinking K-16, Fall 1999 GAO Report to Congressional Committee Gender...Marital Status Communication Style Work Style Gender Ethnic Heritage Race Mental Occupation Sexual Orientation Age AppearanceProblem Solving Style...Meaningful incentives to attract, motivate and retain diverse personnel. Also, objective determination of candidate aptitudes. Workplace

  18. The Structures of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), 2007

    2007-01-01

    This booklet reveals how structural biology provides insight into health and disease and is useful in developing new medications. It contains a general introduction to proteins, coverage of the techniques used to determine protein structures, and a chapter on structure-based drug design. The booklet features "Student Snapshots," designed to…

  19. The Structures of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of General Medical Sciences (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This booklet, geared toward an advanced high school or early college-level audience, explains how structural biology provides insight into health and disease and is useful in developing new medications. This publication contains a general introduction to proteins, coverage of the techniques used to determine protein structures, and a chapter on…

  20. LIFE: Life Investigation For Enceladus A Sample Return Mission Concept in Search for Evidence of Life.

    PubMed

    Tsou, Peter; Brownlee, Donald E; McKay, Christopher P; Anbar, Ariel D; Yano, Hajime; Altwegg, Kathrin; Beegle, Luther W; Dissly, Richard; Strange, Nathan J; Kanik, Isik

    2012-08-01

    Life Investigation For Enceladus (LIFE) presents a low-cost sample return mission to Enceladus, a body with high astrobiological potential. There is ample evidence that liquid water exists under ice coverage in the form of active geysers in the "tiger stripes" area of the southern Enceladus hemisphere. This active plume consists of gas and ice particles and enables the sampling of fresh materials from the interior that may originate from a liquid water source. The particles consist mostly of water ice and are 1-10 μ in diameter. The plume composition shows H(2)O, CO(2), CH(4), NH(3), Ar, and evidence that more complex organic species might be present. Since life on Earth exists whenever liquid water, organics, and energy coexist, understanding the chemical components of the emanating ice particles could indicate whether life is potentially present on Enceladus. The icy worlds of the outer planets are testing grounds for some of the theories for the origin of life on Earth. The LIFE mission concept is envisioned in two parts: first, to orbit Saturn (in order to achieve lower sampling speeds, approaching 2 km/s, and thus enable a softer sample collection impact than Stardust, and to make possible multiple flybys of Enceladus); second, to sample Enceladus' plume, the E ring of Saturn, and the Titan upper atmosphere. With new findings from these samples, NASA could provide detailed chemical and isotopic and, potentially, biological compositional context of the plume. Since the duration of the Enceladus plume is unpredictable, it is imperative that these samples are captured at the earliest flight opportunity. If LIFE is launched before 2019, it could take advantage of a Jupiter gravity assist, which would thus reduce mission lifetimes and launch vehicle costs. The LIFE concept offers science returns comparable to those of a Flagship mission but at the measurably lower sample return costs of a Discovery-class mission.

  1. 38 CFR 6.16 - Payment of cash value in monthly installments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... selected by the insured. If no designated beneficiary survives, the present value of any remaining unpaid... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment of cash value in... AFFAIRS UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT LIFE INSURANCE Cash Value § 6.16 Payment of cash value in...

  2. Estimation of Half-Life for Single Compartmental Elimination Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickens, R. E.; Rucker, S.

    2008-01-01

    A method is presented to calculate accurate approximations to the half-life values of elimination systems modelled by one compartment. The major advantage of this method is that only algebraic mathematical operations are required. The results will be of value not only to students beginning the study of elimination kinetics, but also to…

  3. Generation of Finite Life Distributional Goodman Diagrams for Reliability Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kececioglu, D.; Guerrieri, W. N.

    1971-01-01

    The methodology of developing finite life distributional Goodman diagrams and surfaces is described for presenting allowable combinations of alternating stress and mean stress to the design engineer. The combined stress condition is that of an alternating bending stress and a constant shear stress. The finite life Goodman diagrams and surfaces are created from strength distributions developed at various ratios of alternating to mean stress at particular cycle life values. The conclusions indicate that the Von Mises-Hencky ellipse, for cycle life values above 1000 cycles, is an adequate model of the finite life Goodman diagram. In addition, suggestions are made which reduce the number of experimental data points required in a fatigue data acquisition program.

  4. The Quality of Life in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoguchi, Takashi; Fujii, Seiji

    2009-01-01

    This study is part of a collaborative project examining the quality of life in Confucian societies in Asia. Our major findings suggest that, when our sixteen specific life domains are grouped into three life spheres, namely, material, post-material, and public, the Japanese people tend to be most satisfied with the post-material sphere of life and…

  5. New Thoughts of Customer Value Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hong; Su, Zhuqing

    Customer value theory's discovery has established to take customer and even customer value as the center position for research of marketing, which is good progress of marketing theory. However, in the past researches for customer value emphasized customer perceived value, there was no good answer on which customers perceived with what scale. This paper states that customer perceived value is established in value transmission mechanism of its rear, which is based on the role of consumption values. With a market environment's change, and the strength of consumer's sovereignty consciousness, especially when personal consumption is identified and developed to become a mainstream consume culture in nowadays society, the role of the transmission is increasingly in evidence. Studies of consumeption values are to deepen customer value theory.

  6. Impact frustration of the origin of life.

    PubMed

    Maher, K A; Stevenson, D J

    1988-02-18

    One possible definition for the origin of life on Earth is the time at which the interval between devastating environmental insults by impact exceeded the timescale for establishing self-replicating proto-organisms. A quantitative relationship for the Hadean (pre-3,800 Myr ago) and Early Archean (3,800 to 3,400 Myr) impact flux can be derived from the lunar and terrestrial impact records. Also, the effects of impact-related processes on the various environments proposed for abiogenesis (the development of life through chemical evolution from inorganic materials) can be estimated. Using a range of plausible values for the timescale for abiogenesis, the interval in time when life might first have bootstrapped itself into existence can be found for each environment. We find that if the deep marine hydrothermal setting provided a suitable site, abiogenesis could have happened as early as 4,000 to 4,200 Myr ago, whereas at the surface of the Earth abiogenesis could have occurred between 3,700 and 4,000 Myr.

  7. Origin of life: Cold-hearted RNA heats up life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehman, Niles

    2013-12-01

    An RNA replicase ribozyme has long been sought by chemists interested in the origin of life. Now, a selection strategy employing a low-temperature water-ice mixture as the medium has led to discovery of a ribozyme that can catalyse polymerization of an RNA chain greater than its own length.

  8. Value Differentiation in Adolescence: The Role of Age and Cultural Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Ella; Schiefer, David; Mollering, Anna; Benish-Weisman, Maya; Boehnke, Klaus; Knafo, Ariel

    2012-01-01

    Living in complex social worlds, individuals encounter discordant values across life contexts, potentially resulting in different importance of values across contexts. Value differentiation is defined here as the degree to which values receive different importance depending on the context in which they are considered. Early and mid-adolescents (N…

  9. Nutrient intake values (NIVs): a recommended terminology and framework for the derivation of values.

    PubMed

    King, Janet C; Vorster, Hester H; Tome, Daniel G

    2007-03-01

    Although most countries and regions around the world set recommended nutrient intake values for their populations, there is no standardized terminology or framework for establishing these standards. Different terms used for various components of a set of dietary standards are described in this paper and a common set of terminology is proposed. The recommended terminology suggests that the set of values be called nutrient intake values (NIVs) and that the set be composed of three different values. The average nutrient requirement (ANR) reflects the median requirement for a nutrient in a specific population. The individual nutrient level (INLx) is the recommended level of nutrient intake for all healthy people in the population, which is set at a certain level x above the mean requirement. For example, a value set at 2 standard deviations above the mean requirement would cover the needs of 98% of the population and would be INL98. The third component of the NIVs is an upper nutrient level (UNL), which is the highest level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects for almost all individuals in a specified life-stage group. The proposed framework for deriving a set of NIVs is based on a statistical approach for determining the midpoint of a distribution of requirements for a set of nutrients in a population (the ANR), the standard deviation of the requirements, and an individual nutrient level that assures health at some point above the mean, e.g., 2 standard deviations. Ideally, a second set of distributions of risk of excessive intakes is used as the basis for a UNL.

  10. Uses, Value, and Benefits of Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machlup, Fritz

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of the value of knowledge clarifies issues related to the distinction between the process of information and the knowledge transmitted. Topics addressed include practical and intellectual knowledge, the value of education, the private and social value of scientific journals, and benefit-and-cost analysis. (eight references) (MES)

  11. Asthma Outcomes: Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sandra R.; Rand, Cynthia S.; Cabana, Michael D.; Foggs, Michael B.; Halterman, Jill S.; Olson, Lynn; Vollmer, William M.; Wright, Rosalind J.; Taggart, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Background “Asthma-related quality of life” refers to the perceived impact that asthma has on the patient’s quality of life. Objective National Institutes of Health (NIH) institutes and other federal agencies convened an expert group to recommend standardized measures of the impact of asthma on quality of life for use in future asthma clinical research. Methods We reviewed published documentation regarding the development and psychometric evaluation; clinical research use since 2000; and extent to which the content of each existing quality of life instrument provides a unique, reliable, and valid assessment of the intended construct. We classified instruments as core (required in future studies), supplemental (used according to the study’s aims and standardized), or emerging (requiring validation and standardization). This work was discussed at an NIH-organized workshop convened in March 2010 and finalized in September 2011. Results Eleven instruments for adults and 6 for children were identified for review. None qualified as core instruments because they predominantly measured indicators of asthma control (symptoms and/or functional status); failed to provide a distinct, reliable score measuring all key dimensions of the intended construct; and/or lacked adequate psychometric data. Conclusions In the absence of existing instruments that meet the stated criteria, currently available instruments are classified as either supplemental or emerging. Research is strongly recommended to develop and evaluate instruments that provide a distinct, reliable measure of the patient’s perception of the impact of asthma on all of the key dimensions of quality of life, an important outcome that is not captured in other outcome measures. PMID:22386511

  12. The life of lipid droplets

    PubMed Central

    Walther, Tobias C.; Farese, Robert V.

    2009-01-01

    Lipid droplets are the least characterized of cellular organelles. Long considered simple lipid storage depots, these dynamic and remarkable organelles have recently been implicated in many biological processes, and we are only now beginning to gain insights into their fascinating lives in cells. Here we examine what we know of the life of lipid droplets. We review emerging data concerning their cellular biology and present our thoughts on some of the most salient questions for investigation. PMID:19041421

  13. The Promise of Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peruniak, Geoffrey S.

    2008-01-01

    Little has been written in the career development literature about quality of life, even though this concept is implied in all counselor interventions. In this article, the author suggests that the broad and subjective nature of quality of life, rather than a liability, is its very strength. Quality of life is presented as an important holistic…

  14. Marginalization and Precariat: The Challenge of Intensifying Life Construction Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Palazzeschi, Letizia

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the case study of a graduate student who, at the time of the study, was doing an internship, considered in the literature as a new form of precariat (temporary or insecure employment). The student participated in a life construction intervention during which he completed two new qualitative instruments: the Life Adaptability Qualitative Assessment (LAQuA) and the Career Counseling Innovative Outcomes (CCIO) before and after the life construction intervention. The results are discussed in the article. The life construction intervention helped the participant understand himself better, develop his life and career paths, and construct his identity. The study confirmed the value of enhancing life construction interventions using a preventive approach, particularly for precarious people (people in temporary or unstable jobs), with early interventions starting with young internees in organizations. PMID:27065914

  15. Marginalization and Precariat: The Challenge of Intensifying Life Construction Intervention.

    PubMed

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Palazzeschi, Letizia

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the case study of a graduate student who, at the time of the study, was doing an internship, considered in the literature as a new form of precariat (temporary or insecure employment). The student participated in a life construction intervention during which he completed two new qualitative instruments: the Life Adaptability Qualitative Assessment (LAQuA) and the Career Counseling Innovative Outcomes (CCIO) before and after the life construction intervention. The results are discussed in the article. The life construction intervention helped the participant understand himself better, develop his life and career paths, and construct his identity. The study confirmed the value of enhancing life construction interventions using a preventive approach, particularly for precarious people (people in temporary or unstable jobs), with early interventions starting with young internees in organizations.

  16. The origin of cellular life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingber, D. E.

    2000-01-01

    This essay presents a scenario of the origin of life that is based on analysis of biological architecture and mechanical design at the microstructural level. My thesis is that the same architectural and energetic constraints that shape cells today also guided the evolution of the first cells and that the molecular scaffolds that support solid-phase biochemistry in modern cells represent living microfossils of past life forms. This concept emerged from the discovery that cells mechanically stabilize themselves using tensegrity architecture and that these same building rules guide hierarchical self-assembly at all size scales (Sci. Amer 278:48-57;1998). When combined with other fundamental design principles (e.g., energy minimization, topological constraints, structural hierarchies, autocatalytic sets, solid-state biochemistry), tensegrity provides a physical basis to explain how atomic and molecular elements progressively self-assembled to create hierarchical structures with increasingly complex functions, including living cells that can self-reproduce.

  17. Work Values of Mortuary Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Thomas; Duys, David K.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a descriptive study in an area significantly lacking validation. The focus of the study was the work values held by mortuary science students from 3 educational programs in the Midwest. The Values Scale (D. Nevill & D. Super, 1989) was used to measure the career-related values of a sample group of 116. According to…

  18. The Value of Natural History Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allmon, Warren D.

    1994-01-01

    Presents research and public values of natural history museum collections. Research values include documenting biotas no longer available and serving as inspiration for scientific discovery. Public values include servings as resources for identification of unknown specimens, hands-on education, and depositories for evidence of the history and…

  19. Value of Information Evaluation using Field Data

    SciTech Connect

    Trainor-Guitton, W.

    2015-06-15

    Value of information (VOI) provides the ability to identify and prioritize useful information gathering for a geothermal prospect, either hydrothermal or for enhanced geothermal systems. Useful information provides a value greater than the cost of the information; wasteful information costs more than the expected value of the information. In this project we applied and refined VOI methodologies on selected geothermal prospects.

  20. Towards the bibliography of life.

    PubMed

    King, David; Morse, David R; Willis, Alistair; Dil, Anton

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses how we intend to take forward the vision of a Bibliography of Life in the ViBRANT project. The underlying principle of the Bibliography is to provide taxonomists and others with a freely accessible bibliography covering the whole of life. Such a bibliography has been achieved for specific study areas within taxonomy, but not for "life" as a whole.The creation of such a comprehensive tool has been hindered by various social and technical issues. The social concerns focus on the willingness of users to contribute to the Bibliography. The technical concerns relate to the architecture required to deliver the Bibliography. These issues are discussed in the paper and approaches to addressing them within the ViBRANT project are described, to demonstrate how we can now seriously consider building a Bibliography of Life. We are particularly interested in the potential of the resulting tool to improve the quality of bibliographic references. Through analysing the large number of references in the Bibliography we will be able to add metadata by resolving known issues such as geographical name variations. This should result in a tool that will assist taxonomists in two ways. Firstly, it will be easier for them to discover relevant literature, especially pre-digital literature; and secondly, it will be easier for them to identify the canonical form for a citationThe paper also covers related issues relevant to building the tool in ViBRANT, including implementation and copyright, with suggestions as to how we could address them.

  1. The Value of Contrast: Contrasting the Value of Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Erica C.; Putte, F. C. M. V.

    1988-01-01

    Analyzes the differences in usage of the Spanish preterite and imperfect by native speakers of Spanish and by nonnative speakers of Spanish whose first language is Dutch. Teaching strategies to enhance the learner's awareness of context and sequencing are suggested. (LMO)

  2. [Quality of a life of military seamen of Northern fleet].

    PubMed

    Mosiagin, I G; Sakharov, O S; Gubernitskaia, S V

    2010-05-01

    Research of quality of a life of military seamen with use of the Russian-speaking version of the general questionnaire of health "Medical Outcomes Study-Short Forms" (SF-36) is conducted. 600 military men at the age from 18 till 55 years are surveyed. Military seamen have highly appreciated the quality of a life. Absolute values of indicators of quality of a life on all scales 70 points that is considered, how very high there are more. The physical component of health is estimated by military men above, than psychological. Values of indicators of quality of a life on all scales of questionnaire SF-36 at men were above, than at women, with preservation of the general tendency more an appreciation of a physical component of health. Military men on an appeal have estimated the quality of a life above, than military men under the contract. Essential distinctions in an estimation of quality of a life in group of military men under the contract it is not revealed.

  3. An Assessment of Teacher Work Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlan, Robert J.

    1969-01-01

    Provides the basis for identifying five basic teacher work value types according to the strength of their identification with the value systems undergirding bureaucracy, professionalism, and their informal work group. (DE)

  4. A dynamic architecture of life

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Beatrix P.; Brockes, Jeremy; Galliot, Brigitte; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Lobo, Daniel; Mainardi, Marco; Mirouze, Marie; Prochiantz, Alain; Steger, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, a profound conceptual transformation has occurred comprising different areas of biological research, leading to a novel understanding of life processes as much more dynamic and changeable. Discoveries in plants and animals, as well as novel experimental approaches, have prompted the research community to reconsider established concepts and paradigms. This development was taken as an incentive to organise a workshop in May 2014 at the Academia Nazionale dei Lincei in Rome. There, experts on epigenetics, regeneration, neuroplasticity, and computational biology, using different animal and plant models, presented their insights on important aspects of a dynamic architecture of life, which comprises all organisational levels of the organism. Their work demonstrates that a dynamic nature of life persists during the entire existence of the organism and permits animals and plants not only to fine-tune their response to particular environmental demands during development, but underlies their continuous capacity to do so. Here, a synthesis of the different findings and their relevance for biological thinking is presented. PMID:26949518

  5. Arginine, scurvy and Cartier's "tree of life"

    PubMed Central

    Durzan, Don J

    2009-01-01

    Several conifers have been considered as candidates for "Annedda", which was the source for a miraculous cure for scurvy in Jacques Cartier's critically ill crew in 1536. Vitamin C was responsible for the cure of scurvy and was obtained as an Iroquois decoction from the bark and leaves from this "tree of life", now commonly referred to as arborvitae. Based on seasonal and diurnal amino acid analyses of candidate "trees of life", high levels of arginine, proline, and guanidino compounds were also probably present in decoctions prepared in the severe winter. The semi-essential arginine, proline and all the essential amino acids, would have provided additional nutritional benefits for the rapid recovery from scurvy by vitamin C when food supply was limited. The value of arginine, especially in the recovery of the critically ill sailors, is postulated as a source of nitric oxide, and the arginine-derived guanidino compounds as controlling factors for the activities of different nitric oxide synthases. This review provides further insights into the use of the candidate "trees of life" by indigenous peoples in eastern Canada. It raises hypotheses on the nutritional and synergistic roles of arginine, its metabolites, and other biofactors complementing the role of vitamin C especially in treating Cartier's critically ill sailors. PMID:19187550

  6. Arginine, scurvy and Cartier's "tree of life".

    PubMed

    Durzan, Don J

    2009-02-02

    Several conifers have been considered as candidates for "Annedda", which was the source for a miraculous cure for scurvy in Jacques Cartier's critically ill crew in 1536. Vitamin C was responsible for the cure of scurvy and was obtained as an Iroquois decoction from the bark and leaves from this "tree of life", now commonly referred to as arborvitae. Based on seasonal and diurnal amino acid analyses of candidate "trees of life", high levels of arginine, proline, and guanidino compounds were also probably present in decoctions prepared in the severe winter. The semi-essential arginine, proline and all the essential amino acids, would have provided additional nutritional benefits for the rapid recovery from scurvy by vitamin C when food supply was limited. The value of arginine, especially in the recovery of the critically ill sailors, is postulated as a source of nitric oxide, and the arginine-derived guanidino compounds as controlling factors for the activities of different nitric oxide synthases. This review provides further insights into the use of the candidate "trees of life" by indigenous peoples in eastern Canada. It raises hypotheses on the nutritional and synergistic roles of arginine, its metabolites, and other biofactors complementing the role of vitamin C especially in treating Cartier's critically ill sailors.

  7. Quality of Life and Functional Status Across the Life Course

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    This is a randomized exercise intervention trial with a lymphedema prevention program. Project 1 is a continuation of a study that was initiated in...quality of life, lymphedema , exercise 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON USAMRMC a. REPORT...children in the home, balancing work and family roles, and changes in physical health as a result of cancer or its treatment, (e.g., lymphedema or

  8. Clinical life: expectation and the double edge of medical promise.

    PubMed

    Shim, Janet K; Russ, Ann J; Kaufman, Sharon R

    2007-04-01

    This article introduces the concept of clinical life to capture a form of life produced in the pursuit and wake of medically achieved longevity. Relying on the retrospective accounts of 28 individuals over age 70 who have undergone cardiac bypass surgery, angioplasty or a stent procedure, as well as interviews with their families and with clinicians, we examine three features of clinical life. First, patients do not distinguish between clinical possibility and clinical promise, and thus assume that life can and will be improved by medical intervention in late life. Rather than anticipating a range of potential treatment outcomes, patients therefore expect the best-case scenario: that medical procedures will reverse aging, disease and the march of time. Second, patients then assess the value of their post-procedure lives in accordance with that expectation. Norms regarding what life 'should be like' at particular ages are continually recalibrated to the horizon of what is clinically possible. And third, the price of living longer entails a double-edged relationship with the clinic--it generates opportunities for bodily restoration and increased self-worth but also creates ambivalence about the value of life. This latter feature of clinical life is rarely publicly acknowledged in an environment that emphasizes medical promise.

  9. Quality of Life and Functional Status across the Life Course

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    Recovery Practices in Breast Cancer (RESTORE). This is a randomized exercise intervention trial with a lymphedema prevention program. Project 1 is...treatment and beyond. 15. SUBJECT TERMS breast cancer, quality of life, lymphedema , exercise 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...management may be a potential intervention for those at greater risk of lymphedema . • Women with swelling reported a significantly lower quality

  10. Anthropology and the Teaching of Human Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Richard H.; De Vita, Philip

    1985-01-01

    Argues that college introductory anthropology courses should focus on helping students to examine their values and convictions, not on preparing them for upper level courses. Suggests a teaching approach that relates an issues-and-values orientation to anthropological concepts (culture, beliefs, and values) and topics (means of production,…

  11. Value of Topics in Consumer Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garman, E. Thomas; Gummerson, Ronald R.

    1977-01-01

    Reports preliminary findings from students who have completed a course in consumer education which address this question: What value do you now place on selected topics in consumer education? Topics with the greatest value were budgeting, dishonest and deceptive sales schemes, automobile insurance, principles of wise buying, and value comparison.…

  12. An Examination of Personal Values and Value Systems of Chinese and U.S. Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giacomino, Don E.; Li, Xin; Michael D. Akers,

    2013-01-01

    Using the Rokeach Value Survey and the Musser and Orke typology this paper examines the personal values and value systems of business students in China and compares the results with the results of a recent study that used similar methodology to examine the values and value systems of U.S. students. The study also examines the differences in values…

  13. The Search for Signals of Extraterrestrial Life

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The search for signals of extraterrestial life is connected with the general problem of existence and distribution of intelligent life in the...of scientific research. More than that, a portion of the problem which relates to the form of life of the planets of the solar system has already been...civilizations not exist on the nearest planets of the solar system, but even the existence of simple forms of life there is questionable.

  14. Serpentinite and the dawn of life.

    PubMed

    Sleep, Norman H; Bird, Dennis K; Pope, Emily C

    2011-10-27

    Submarine hydrothermal vents above serpentinite produce chemical potential gradients of aqueous and ionic hydrogen, thus providing a very attractive venue for the origin of life. This environment was most favourable before Earth's massive CO(2) atmosphere was subducted into the mantle, which occurred tens to approximately 100 Myr after the moon-forming impact; thermophile to clement conditions persisted for several million years while atmospheric pCO(2) dropped from approximately 25 bar to below 1 bar. The ocean was weakly acid (pH ∼ 6), and a large pH gradient existed for nascent life with pH 9-11 fluids venting from serpentinite on the seafloor. Total CO(2) in water was significant so the vent environment was not carbon limited. Biologically important phosphate and Fe(II) were somewhat soluble during this period, which occurred well before the earliest record of preserved surface rocks approximately 3.8 billion years ago (Ga) when photosynthetic life teemed on the Earth and the oceanic pH was the modern value of approximately 8. Serpentinite existed by 3.9 Ga, but older rocks that might retain evidence of its presence have not been found. Earth's sequesters extensive evidence of Archaean and younger subducted biological material, but has yet to be exploited for the Hadean record.

  15. Serpentinite and the dawn of life

    PubMed Central

    Sleep, Norman H.; Bird, Dennis K.; Pope, Emily C.

    2011-01-01

    Submarine hydrothermal vents above serpentinite produce chemical potential gradients of aqueous and ionic hydrogen, thus providing a very attractive venue for the origin of life. This environment was most favourable before Earth's massive CO2 atmosphere was subducted into the mantle, which occurred tens to approximately 100 Myr after the moon-forming impact; thermophile to clement conditions persisted for several million years while atmospheric pCO2 dropped from approximately 25 bar to below 1 bar. The ocean was weakly acid (pH ∼ 6), and a large pH gradient existed for nascent life with pH 9–11 fluids venting from serpentinite on the seafloor. Total CO2 in water was significant so the vent environment was not carbon limited. Biologically important phosphate and Fe(II) were somewhat soluble during this period, which occurred well before the earliest record of preserved surface rocks approximately 3.8 billion years ago (Ga) when photosynthetic life teemed on the Earth and the oceanic pH was the modern value of approximately 8. Serpentinite existed by 3.9 Ga, but older rocks that might retain evidence of its presence have not been found. Earth's sequesters extensive evidence of Archaean and younger subducted biological material, but has yet to be exploited for the Hadean record. PMID:21930576

  16. The conception of life in synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Deplazes-Zemp, Anna

    2012-12-01

    The phrase 'synthetic biology' is used to describe a set of different scientific and technological disciplines, which share the objective to design and produce new life forms. This essay addresses the following questions: What conception of life stands behind this ambitious objective? In what relation does this conception of life stand to that of traditional biology and biotechnology? And, could such a conception of life raise ethical concerns? Three different observations that provide useful indications for the conception of life in synthetic biology will be discussed in detail: 1. Synthetic biologists focus on different features of living organisms in order to design new life forms, 2. Synthetic biologists want to contribute to the understanding of life, and 3. Synthetic biologists want to modify life through a rational design, which implies the notions of utilising, minimising/optimising, varying and overcoming life. These observations indicate a tight connection between science and technology, a focus on selected aspects of life, a production-oriented approach to life, and a design-oriented understanding of life. It will be argued that through this conception of life synthetic biologists present life in a different light. This conception of life will be illustrated by the metaphor of a toolbox. According to the notion of life as a toolbox, the different features of living organisms are perceived as various rationally designed instruments that can be used for the production of the living organism itself or secondary products made by the organism. According to certain ethical positions this conception of life might raise ethical concerns related to the status of the organism, the motives of the scientists and the role of technology in our society.

  17. The value of male height in the marriage market.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Kitae

    2015-07-01

    Analyzing the Indonesian Family Life Survey 2007, this paper estimates the value of relative height (relative to the spouse's height) in the marriage market of a developing country. The results indicate that the value of a 1cm reduction in the husband's height relative to his wife's height is about 3% of his earnings. 3% of the mean of yearly earnings amounts to Rp. 492,000 or US$54 in 2007. That value is reduced to 1% when earnings-generating attributes are controlled for. This difference of 2% points can be considered the value that women attach to their husbands' earnings-generating attributes; meanwhile, the remaining 1% suggests that there are still other attributes that women look for in male height.

  18. The Life of Roger Langdon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langdon, Roger; Langdon, Ellen

    2010-11-01

    Preface H. Clifton Lambert; 1. 'Why was I born?'; 2. Childhood's days; 3. Starting in life; 4. My secret departure; 5. Life in Jersey; 6. Return and marriage; 7. Scientific achievements; 8. Closing years; Appendices.

  19. The Representational Value of Hats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane M.; Fitzallen, Noleine E.; Wilson, Karen G.; Creed, Julie F.

    2008-01-01

    The literature that is available on the topic of representations in mathematics is vast. One commonly discussed item is graphical representations. From the history of mathematics to modern uses of technology, a variety of graphical forms are available for middle school students to use to represent mathematical ideas. The ideas range from algebraic…

  20. The Value of Sustainability Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradfield, Steven L.

    2009-01-01

    This article offers the perspectives of a veteran in the field of sustainability. The author shares the steps in the development, evolution, and management of sustainability and sustainable practices at a leading flooring manufacturer. The author leverages over 20 years of experience in industry to discuss the necessary skills and mindsets to…

  1. The Automaticity of Social Life

    PubMed Central

    Bargh, John A.; Williams, Erin L.

    2008-01-01

    Much of social life is experienced through mental processes that are not intended and about which one is fairly oblivious. These processes are automatically triggered by features of the immediate social environment, such as the group memberships of other people, the qualities of their behavior, and features of social situations (e.g., norms, one's relative power). Recent research has shown these nonconscious influences to extend beyond the perception and interpretation of the social world to the actual guidance, over extended time periods, of one's important goal pursuits and social interactions. PMID:18568084

  2. Absolute realization of low BRDF value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zilong; Liao, Ningfang; Li, Ping; Wang, Yu

    2010-10-01

    Low BRDF value is widespread used in many critical domains such as space and military fairs. These values below 0.1 Sr-1 . So the Absolute realization of these value is the most critical issue in the absolute measurement of BRDF. To develop the Absolute value realization theory of BRDF , defining an arithmetic operators of BRDF , achieving an absolute measurement Eq. of BRDF based on radiance. This is a new theory method to solve the realization problem of low BRDF value. This theory method is realized on a self-designed common double orientation structure in space. By designing an adding structure to extend the range of the measurement system and a control and processing software, Absolute realization of low BRDF value is achieved. A material of low BRDF value is measured in this measurement system and the spectral BRDF value are showed within different angles allover the space. All these values are below 0.4 Sr-1 . This process is a representative procedure about the measurement of low BRDF value. A corresponding uncertainty analysis of this measurement data is given depend on the new theory of absolute realization and the performance of the measurement system. The relative expand uncertainty of the measurement data is 0.078. This uncertainty analysis is suitable for all measurements using the new theory of absolute realization and the corresponding measurement system.

  3. Value of Flexibility - Phase 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-25

    Team M embers Marty Wortman - T exas A&M University Barry Boehm - Universit y of Southern California Dave Jacques - Air Forc e Institute of...results. The Selby [1988] analysis of about 3000 NASA software modules found that reuse with modification of the components was considerably more...60 70 80 90 100 % of Software Problem Reports (SPR’s) TRW Project A 373 SPR’s TRW Project B 1005 SPR’s % o f C o s t to F ix S P R ’s

  4. Space Biology: Patterns of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salisbury, Frank B.

    1971-01-01

    Present knowledge about Mars is compared with past beliefs about the planet. Biological experiments that indicate life may exist on Mars are interpreted. Life patterns or biological features that might be postulated for extraterrestrial life are presented at the molecular, cellular, organism, and ecosystem levels. (DS)

  5. The value of shared services.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Beverly B

    2011-07-01

    A multisite shared services organization, combined with a robust business continuity plan, provides infrastructure and redundancies that mitigate risk for hospital CFOs. These structures can position providers to do the following: move essential operations out of a disaster impact zone, if necessary. Allow resources to focus on immediate patient care needs. Take advantage of economies of scale in temporary staffing. Leverage technology. Share in investments in disaster preparedness and business continuity solutions

  6. The value of customer preference

    SciTech Connect

    Herig, C.; Houston, A.

    1996-05-01

    Customer preference (CP), or green pricing, may be the financial hedge for electric supply industry integration of photovoltaics. CP is currently defined as a voluntary contribution for energy generated with renewable resources. Several utilities have examined the CP financing of renewables through experimental or implemented programs and market research. This paper first expands the concept of customer preference to include both voluntary and involuntary customer contributions. It then categorizes the features of existing and proposed CP programs. The connections between these features and market research and marketing strategies for new product development from a competitive industry are analyzed.

  7. VALUING LOST HOME PRODUCTION OF DUAL EARNER COUPLES*

    PubMed Central

    House, Christopher L.; Laitner, John; Stolyarov, Dmitriy

    2009-01-01

    Using a life-cycle model in which women divide their time between home and market work, we establish a link between retirement wealth and the value of forgone home production. We use data from the Health and Retirement Study to estimate the model’s parameters and adjust the growth rate of GDP to reflect reductions in non-market output. We find that the value of forgone home production is modest – about 25 percent of women’s measured earnings. PMID:20052402

  8. Exobiology and the origin of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.; Khare, B. N.

    1976-01-01

    Abstracts on planetary studies and the search for extraterrestrial life are presented. Studies of the Jovian atmosphere were conducted. An assessment of the prospects for life on Mars is presented. And, the the means of contacting extraterrestrial civilizations is discussed.

  9. Preparing for the End of Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... care focus on comfort and quality of life. Hospice Care Click for more information One of the ways ... before they need end-of-life or hospice care. Unlike hospice care, palliative care may be used for as ...

  10. The Paradoxical Value of Privacy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-14

    on occurrence of identity theft correlated with consumer behavior so that probabilities of at least such clear privacy problems could be assigned to...now. And, the market typically needs to learn from experience, so consumer behavior is likely to lag behind any current reality. So one answer is that

  11. Assessing the Value of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The issue of assessment in U.S. education is one that is wrought with conflict because there are many kinds of assessments being used--in various configurations--from district to district and state to state. Contributing writer Susan Reese looks at various assessments, including those being used in career and technical education classrooms, and…

  12. The Value of Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seefeldt, Vern; Vogel, Paul

    This booklet summarizes results of research and literature reviews that had been collected in a source book titled "Physical Activity & Well-Being" and published in 1986 by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education. The evidence presented suggests that exercise can reduce or delay the undesirable effects of many degenerative…

  13. Value of IDEA Ratings Questioned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2010-01-01

    Just as it has every June since 2006, the U.S. Department of Education last month delivered a rating to each state and territory based on the performance of its special education programs. The ratings, intended to fulfill the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act's requirement that "measurable" and "rigorous" targets be…

  14. The Economic Value of Teeth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glied, Sherry; Neidell, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of oral health on labor market outcomes by exploiting variation in fluoridated water exposure during childhood. The politics surrounding the adoption of water fluoridation by local governments suggests exposure to fluoride is exogenous to other factors affecting earnings. Exposure to fluoridated water increases…

  15. Value of Wind Power Forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, D.; Milligan, M.; Jordan, G.; Piwko, R.

    2011-04-01

    This study, building on the extensive models developed for the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS), uses these WECC models to evaluate the operating cost impacts of improved day-ahead wind forecasts.

  16. Value of Information Web Application

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    their understanding of VoI attributes (source reliable , information content, and latency). The VoI web application emulates many features of a...built to allow the tool to be accessed from the Internet via a web browser. The following sections describe the web application’s user interface...based upon 3 attributes: source reliable , information content, and latency. The cards are divided into 4 decks: training, tactical, strategic, and

  17. METHOD OF PREPARING PROTACTINIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Katzin, L.I.; Larson, R.G.; Thompson, R.C.; Van Winkle, Q.

    1959-05-19

    Separation and purification from initial acid leaches of pitchblende of Pa is described. This supernatant acid solution is treated with alkali metal carbonates to precipitate Pa. Silica is removed from the precipitate by hydroxide treatment. The Pa residue is dissolved in HNO/sub 3/ and Pa is concentrated by cyclic precipitations with MnO/sub 2/. The last solution is hydrolyzed to precipitate Pa. The Pa precipitate contains Ti and Zr which are removed by ion exchange. (T.R.H.)

  18. Strong or Weak Handgrip? Normative Reference Values for the German Population across the Life Course Stratified by Sex, Age, and Body Height

    PubMed Central

    Steiber, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Handgrip strength is an important biomarker of healthy ageing and a powerful predictor of future morbidity and mortality both in younger and older populations. Therefore, the measurement of handgrip strength is increasingly used as a simple but efficient screening tool for health vulnerability. This study presents normative reference values for handgrip strength in Germany for use in research and clinical practice. It is the first study to provide normative data across the life course that is stratified by sex, age, and body height. The study used a nationally representative sample of test participants ages 17–90. It was based on pooled data from five waves of the German Socio-Economic Panel (2006–2014) and involved a total of 11,790 persons living in Germany (providing 25,285 observations). Handgrip strength was measured with a Smedley dynamometer. Results showed that peak mean values of handgrip strength are reached in men’s and women’s 30s and 40s after which handgrip strength declines in linear fashion with age. Following published recommendations, the study used a cut-off at 2 SD below the sex-specific peak mean value across the life course to define a ‘weak grip’. Less than 10% of women and men aged 65–69 were classified as weak according to this definition, shares increasing to about half of the population aged 80–90. Based on survival analysis that linked handgrip strength to a relevant outcome, however, a ‘critically weak grip’ that warrants further examination was estimated to commence already at 1 SD below the group-specific mean value. PMID:27701433

  19. Strong or Weak Handgrip? Normative Reference Values for the German Population across the Life Course Stratified by Sex, Age, and Body Height.

    PubMed

    Steiber, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Handgrip strength is an important biomarker of healthy ageing and a powerful predictor of future morbidity and mortality both in younger and older populations. Therefore, the measurement of handgrip strength is increasingly used as a simple but efficient screening tool for health vulnerability. This study presents normative reference values for handgrip strength in Germany for use in research and clinical practice. It is the first study to provide normative data across the life course that is stratified by sex, age, and body height. The study used a nationally representative sample of test participants ages 17-90. It was based on pooled data from five waves of the German Socio-Economic Panel (2006-2014) and involved a total of 11,790 persons living in Germany (providing 25,285 observations). Handgrip strength was measured with a Smedley dynamometer. Results showed that peak mean values of handgrip strength are reached in men's and women's 30s and 40s after which handgrip strength declines in linear fashion with age. Following published recommendations, the study used a cut-off at 2 SD below the sex-specific peak mean value across the life course to define a 'weak grip'. Less than 10% of women and men aged 65-69 were classified as weak according to this definition, shares increasing to about half of the population aged 80-90. Based on survival analysis that linked handgrip strength to a relevant outcome, however, a 'critically weak grip' that warrants further examination was estimated to commence already at 1 SD below the group-specific mean value.

  20. [Three Essential Shared Capabilities for Young Psychiatrists: Brain, Real-world, and Life-course Principles toward Values-based Psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Kasai, Kiyoto

    2015-01-01

    The discipline of psychiatry promotes well-being and recovery based on a comprehensive understanding of the patient from the perspectives of the brain, real-world, and life-course. Pursuant to efforts toward addressing social issues at a regional and national level, it is assumed that the psychiatrist can assist individuals based on an understanding of these three perspectives. This tripartite relationship goes beyond the history of extreme reductionism in neuroscience and the aftermath resulting from the anti-psychiatry movement to provide a foundation for the development of psychiatry and a theoretical groundwork for such basic psychiatric issues as what role pharmacotherapy plays in psychiatric treatment, just why the lives of people living in the community are thought to be important to an individual's well-being, and just what constitutes recovery. Humans have come to possess highly developed brain and mental functions as a result of the adaptation to the social environment that takes place as part of the evolutionary process. While mental functions are thus dictated in large part by evolution of the brain, they also consist of important features that are not attributable to reductionist models of the brain. That is, human mental functioning forms a foundation for metacognition and sophisticated language functions, and through interactions with others and society, one's mental functioning allows for further brain transformation and development (self-regulation of mental functions). Humans develop their own brain and mental functions through mutual exchanges with others, and their dealings with other people and society form their individual modes of living in the real-world. The human brain and mental functions have evolved in such a way as to provide for a better mode of living. Accordingly, for the individual, the makeup of his or her mode of living in the real-world is the source of the well-being that serves to support that individual's values. The

  1. Therapists Value of Interprofessional Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Vries, Dawn R.

    2012-01-01

    The work of occupational (OT), physical (PT), and recreational therapists (RT), as well as speech- language pathologists (SLP), is interrelated and requires effective teamwork and collaboration to optimize patient outcomes and satisfaction. Literature shows that health care professionals are ill prepared to work in an interprofessional manner due…

  2. The Value of Work Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahooty, David; Rainer, Lillian

    1999-01-01

    Internships enable secondary and college students to gain experience, learn how an agency functions, and establish a network of contacts within organizations. Thirty-two summer internships, co-ops, and minority school programs are listed alphabetically. Each entry contains a brief program description, prerequisites, deadline for applications, and…

  3. The Values of Outdoor Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkind, David

    2006-01-01

    This article describes outdoor play as a solid foundation and a central vehicle of knowledge about the real world. Outdoor play is important to all age levels, but particularly in early childhood and the elementary years. Children's outdoor play is not a luxury. It is critical in children's ability to learn about the world, others, and themselves.…

  4. The Values of Negative Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bier, Jesse

    1983-01-01

    Advocates introducing high school literature classes by analyzing the serious flaws in an important work such as Edgar Alan Poe's poem, "The Raven," in order to increase student involvement in evaluating literature, strengthen student trust of the teacher's judgment, and motivate students for positive criticism. (MM)

  5. The Value of Interior Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    originals, 8-10 pt print, impact 20 - 30 - 50 printing (good ribbotn), ballpoint or felt tip pen , conference rooms, library areas, general filing...creates a special concern for the maintenance and longevity of interior office materials. Designs involving wire management systems introduce many new

  6. The Value of Competitive Contracting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Research & Engineering) BBP Better Buying Power BOA basic ordering agreement BPA basic purchase agreement CAE Component Acquisition Executive CDSA...Basic Ordering Agreement ( BOA ) c. Government wide acquisition contracts and IDIQ contracts d. BPAs and BPA calls under Federal Supply Schedules...contract actions ( BOAs , BPAs, FSS, and GWAC) contracts that are not required to report the number of competitive offers. The fiscal year 2011 DOD

  7. Life cycle assessment of gasoline blending options.

    PubMed

    Mata, Teresa M; Smith, Raymond L; Young, Douglas M; Costa, Carlos A V

    2003-08-15

    A life cycle assessment has been done to compare the potential environmental impacts of various gasoline blends that meet octane and vapor pressure specifications. The main blending components of alkylate, cracked gasoline, and reformate have different octane and vapor pressure values as well as different potential environmental impacts. Because the octane and vapor pressure values are nonlinearly related to impacts, the results of this study show that some blends are better for the environment than others. To determine blending component compositions, simulations of a reformer were done at various operating conditions. The reformate products of these simulations had a wide range of octane values and potential environmental impacts. Results of the study indicate that for low-octane gasoline (95 Research Octane Number), lower reformer temperatures and pressures generally decrease the potential environmental impacts. However, different results are obtained for high-octane gasoline (98 RON), where increasing reformer temperatures and pressures increase the reformate octane values faster than the potential environmental impacts. The higher octane values for reformate allow blends to have less reformate, and therefore high-octane gasoline can have lower potential environmental impacts when the reformer is operated at higher temperatures and pressures. In the blends studied, reformate and cracked gasoline have the highest total impacts, of which photochemical ozone creation is the largest contributor (assuming all impact categories are equally weighted). Alkylate has a much lower total potential environmental impact but does have higher impact values for human toxicity by ingestion, aquatic toxicity, terrestrial toxicity, and acidification. Therefore, depending on environmental priorities, different gasoline blends and operating conditions should be chosen to meet octane and vapor pressure specifications.

  8. Value-Based Leadership Approach: A Way for Principals to Revive the Value of Values in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Niekerk, Molly; Botha, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The qualitative research discussed in this article is based on the assumption that school principals as leaders need to establish, develop and maintain a core of shared values in their schools. Our focus is on principals' current perceptions of values in their schools. This is important because values underpin their decisions and actions and thus…

  9. Only six kingdoms of life.

    PubMed

    Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2004-06-22

    There are many more phyla of microbes than of macro-organisms, but microbial biodiversity is poorly understood because most microbes are uncultured. Phylogenetic analysis of rDNA sequences cloned after PCR amplification of DNA extracted directly from environmental samples is a powerful way of exploring our degree of ignorance of major groups. As there are only five eukaryotic kingdoms, two claims using such methods for numerous novel 'kingdom-level' lineages among anaerobic eukaryotes would be remarkable, if true. By reanalysing those data with 167 known species (not merely 8-37), I identified relatives for all 8-10 'mysterious' lineages. All probably belong to one of five already recognized phyla (Amoebozoa, Cercozoa, Apusozoa, Myzozoa, Loukozoa) within the basal kingdom Protozoa, mostly in known classes, sometimes even in known orders, families or genera. This strengthens the idea that the ancestral eukaryote was a mitochondrial aerobe. Analogous claims of novel bacterial divisions or kingdoms may reflect the weak resolution and grossly non-clock-like evolution of ribosomal rRNA, not genuine phylum-level biological disparity. Critical interpretation of environmental DNA sequences suggests that our overall picture of microbial biodiversity at phylum or division level is already rather good and comprehensive and that there are no uncharacterized kingdoms of life. However, immense lower-level diversity remains to be mapped, as does the root of the tree of life.

  10. Only six kingdoms of life.

    PubMed Central

    Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    There are many more phyla of microbes than of macro-organisms, but microbial biodiversity is poorly understood because most microbes are uncultured. Phylogenetic analysis of rDNA sequences cloned after PCR amplification of DNA extracted directly from environmental samples is a powerful way of exploring our degree of ignorance of major groups. As there are only five eukaryotic kingdoms, two claims using such methods for numerous novel 'kingdom-level' lineages among anaerobic eukaryotes would be remarkable, if true. By reanalysing those data with 167 known species (not merely 8-37), I identified relatives for all 8-10 'mysterious' lineages. All probably belong to one of five already recognized phyla (Amoebozoa, Cercozoa, Apusozoa, Myzozoa, Loukozoa) within the basal kingdom Protozoa, mostly in known classes, sometimes even in known orders, families or genera. This strengthens the idea that the ancestral eukaryote was a mitochondrial aerobe. Analogous claims of novel bacterial divisions or kingdoms may reflect the weak resolution and grossly non-clock-like evolution of ribosomal rRNA, not genuine phylum-level biological disparity. Critical interpretation of environmental DNA sequences suggests that our overall picture of microbial biodiversity at phylum or division level is already rather good and comprehensive and that there are no uncharacterized kingdoms of life. However, immense lower-level diversity remains to be mapped, as does the root of the tree of life. PMID:15306349

  11. The Cost of Uncertain Life Span*

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Ryan D.

    2012-01-01

    A considerable amount of uncertainty surrounds the length of human life. The standard deviation in adult life span is about 15 years in the U.S., and theory and evidence suggest it is costly. I calibrate a utility-theoretic model of preferences over length of life and show that one fewer year in standard deviation is worth about half a mean life year. Differences in the standard deviation exacerbate cross-sectional differences in life expectancy between the U.S. and other industrialized countries, between rich and poor countries, and among poor countries. Accounting for the cost of life-span variance also appears to amplify recently discovered patterns of convergence in world average human well-being. This is partly for methodological reasons and partly because unconditional variance in human length of life, primarily the component due to infant mortality, has exhibited even more convergence than life expectancy. PMID:22368324

  12. Folklore: A Tapestry of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Linda C.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the value of introducing folklore into the curriculum to help students learn about their sense of place in the community. Describes various pertinent Web sites, including the American Folklife Center of the Library of Congress, the American Folklore Society, and the Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage. (LRW)

  13. The genetics of neuroticism and human values.

    PubMed

    Zacharopoulos, George; Lancaster, Thomas M; Maio, Gregory R; Linden, David E J

    2016-04-01

    Human values and personality have been shown to share genetic variance in twin studies. However, there is a lack of evidence about the genetic components of this association. This study examined the interplay between genes, values and personality in the case of neuroticism, because polygenic scores were available for this personality trait. First, we replicated prior evidence of a positive association between the polygenic neuroticism score (PNS) and neuroticism. Second, we found that the PNS was significantly associated with the whole human value space in a sinusoidal waveform that was consistent with Schwartz's circular model of human values. These results suggest that it is useful to consider human values in the analyses of genetic contributions to personality traits. They also pave the way for an investigation of the biological mechanisms contributing to human value orientations.

  14. The genetics of neuroticism and human values

    PubMed Central

    Lancaster, Thomas M.; Maio, Gregory R.; Linden, David E. J.

    2016-01-01

    Human values and personality have been shown to share genetic variance in twin studies. However, there is a lack of evidence about the genetic components of this association. This study examined the interplay between genes, values and personality in the case of neuroticism, because polygenic scores were available for this personality trait. First, we replicated prior evidence of a positive association between the polygenic neuroticism score (PNS) and neuroticism. Second, we found that the PNS was significantly associated with the whole human value space in a sinusoidal waveform that was consistent with Schwartz's circular model of human values. These results suggest that it is useful to consider human values in the analyses of genetic contributions to personality traits. They also pave the way for an investigation of the biological mechanisms contributing to human value orientations. PMID:26915771

  15. Life Satisfaction of the Elderly American Indian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Freddie L.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examines generally high life satisfaction of 58 elderly reservation American Indians and its relationship to selected internal and external environmental factors. Suggests that internal environmental variables may be useful indicators of life satisfaction and that subjective measures of life satisfaction may be more predictive of mental health…

  16. The origins of cellular life.

    PubMed

    Schrum, Jason P; Zhu, Ting F; Szostak, Jack W

    2010-09-01

    Understanding the origin of cellular life on Earth requires the discovery of plausible pathways for the transition from complex prebiotic chemistry to simple biology, defined as the emergence of chemical assemblies capable of Darwinian evolution. We have proposed that a simple primitive cell, or protocell, would consist of two key components: a protocell membrane that defines a spatially localized compartment, and an informational polymer that allows for the replication and inheritance of functional information. Recent studies of vesicles composed of fatty-acid membranes have shed considerable light on pathways for protocell growth and division, as well as means by which protocells could take up nutrients from their environment. Additional work with genetic polymers has provided insight into the potential for chemical genome replication and compatibility with membrane encapsulation. The integration of a dynamic fatty-acid compartment with robust, generalized genetic polymer replication would yield a laboratory model of a protocell with the potential for classical Darwinian biological evolution, and may help to evaluate potential pathways for the emergence of life on the early Earth. Here we discuss efforts to devise such an integrated protocell model.

  17. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM URANIUM AND FISSION PRODUCT VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Maddock, A.G.; Booth, A.H.

    1960-09-13

    Separation of plutonium present in small amounts from neutron irradiated uranium by making use of the phenomenon of chemisorption is described. Plutonium in the tetravalent state is chemically absorbed on a fluoride in solid form. The steps for the separation comprise dissolving the irradiated uranium in nitric acid, oxidizing the plutonium in the resulting solution to the hexavalent state, adding to the solution a soluble calcium salt which by the common ion effect inhibits dissolution of the fluoride by the solution, passing the solution through a bed or column of subdivided calcium fluoride which has been sintered to about 8OO deg C to remove the chemisorbable fission products, reducing the plutonium in the solution thus obtained to the tetravalent state, and again passing the solution through a similar bed or column of calcium fluoride to selectively absorb the plutonium, which may then be recovered by treating the calcium fluoride with a solution of ammonium oxalate.

  18. The Strategic Value of the Panama Canal: Value Versus Cost

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    was a "better place of business than San Francisco ." The upsurge in opportunities led U.S. private investors to finance the construction of the Panama...Isthmian canal. At the outbreak of the war, the U.S. battleship OREGON was in San Francisco . The navy ordered the OREGON to Florida to join the U.S. fleet...instead of 4,000 miles if there had been a canal). The battleship left San Francisco on March 19, 1898 and arrived off Palm Beach, Florida on May 24

  19. A rooted net of life.

    PubMed

    Williams, David; Fournier, Gregory P; Lapierre, Pascal; Swithers, Kristen S; Green, Anna G; Andam, Cheryl P; Gogarten, J Peter

    2011-09-21

    Phylogenetic reconstruction using DNA and protein sequences has allowed the reconstruction of evolutionary histories encompassing all life. We present and discuss a means to incorporate much of this rich narrative into a single model that acknowledges the discrete evolutionary units that constitute the organism. Briefly, this Rooted Net of Life genome phylogeny is constructed around an initial, well resolved and rooted tree scaffold inferred from a supermatrix of combined ribosomal genes. Extant sampled ribosomes form the leaves of the tree scaffold. These leaves, but not necessarily the deeper parts of the scaffold, can be considered to represent a genome or pan-genome, and to be associated with members of other gene families within that sequenced (pan)genome. Unrooted phylogenies of gene families containing four or more members are reconstructed and superimposed over the scaffold. Initially, reticulations are formed where incongruities between topologies exist. Given sufficient evidence, edges may then be differentiated as those representing vertical lines of inheritance within lineages and those representing horizontal genetic transfers or endosymbioses between lineages.

  20. A Rooted Net of Life

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Phylogenetic reconstruction using DNA and protein sequences has allowed the reconstruction of evolutionary histories encompassing all life. We present and discuss a means to incorporate much of this rich narrative into a single model that acknowledges the discrete evolutionary units that constitute the organism. Briefly, this Rooted Net of Life genome phylogeny is constructed around an initial, well resolved and rooted tree scaffold inferred from a supermatrix of combined ribosomal genes. Extant sampled ribosomes form the leaves of the tree scaffold. These leaves, but not necessarily the deeper parts of the scaffold, can be considered to represent a genome or pan-genome, and to be associated with members of other gene families within that sequenced (pan)genome. Unrooted phylogenies of gene families containing four or more members are reconstructed and superimposed over the scaffold. Initially, reticulations are formed where incongruities between topologies exist. Given sufficient evidence, edges may then be differentiated as those representing vertical lines of inheritance within lineages and those representing horizontal genetic transfers or endosymbioses between lineages. Reviewers W. Ford Doolittle, Eric Bapteste and Robert Beiko. PMID:21936906

  1. Assessment of Quality of Life in Migraine

    PubMed Central

    TAŞKAPILIOĞLU, Özlem; KARLI, Necdet

    2013-01-01

    Quality of life is the perception of an individual’s position in life associated with his objectives, expectations, interests, and standard’s of life. Health-related quality of life, on the other hand, includes satisfaction with his health and emotional reaction to his state of health. Primary headaches are encountered commonly in adults during their most productive years like end of puberty and at the beginning of 50’s. Migraine alone is responsible for 1.3% of years with disability in the world, all headaches together being responsible for twice of this load. Headaches both worsen quality of life of individuals and place a significant burden on the society. This review will focus on the effects of primary headaches, especially migraine, on quality of life and tools used to evaluate these effects.

  2. Quality of Life for Marines on Okinawa.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-03-01

    well . As in any organization, and as in life in general in our society, quality of life , at least in its material and psychological aspects, increases...trying to definitively tie performance to other variables such as job satisfaction , organizational commitment, and quality of life . The fact that the... life . In addition to eliciting information on the D-T (feelings) scale, satisfaction scales, and comparison items, this section of the survey also

  3. On the origin of life.

    PubMed

    Szostak, Jack W

    The origin of life is a very rich field, filled with possibilities and ripe for discovery. RNA replication requires chemical energy and vesicle division is easy to do with mechanical energy. These requirements point to a surface lake, perhaps at some time following the period of concentrated cyanide chemistry that gave rise to nucleotides, amino acids and (maybe) fatty acids. A second requirement follows specifically from the nature of the RNA replication cycle, which requires generally cool to moderate temperatures for the copying chemistry, punctuated by brief periods of high temperature for strand separation. Remarkably, lakes in a geothermal active area provide just such a fluctuating temperature environment, because lakes similar to Yellowstone can be generally cool (even ice covered in winter), but they contain numerous hydrothermal vents that emit streams of hot water. Protocells in such an environment would occasionally be swept into these hot water streams, where the transient high temperature exposure would cause RNA strand separation. However, the protocells would be quickly mixed with surrounding cold water, and would therefore cool quickly, before their delicate RNA molecules could be destroyed by heat. Because of the combination of favorable chemical and physical environments, this could be the most likely scenario for the early Earth environment that nurtured the origin of life.

  4. Capacity Value of Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Madaeni, S. H.; Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

    2011-06-01

    This study estimates the capacity value of a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant at a variety of locations within the western United States. This is done by optimizing the operation of the CSP plant and by using the effective load carrying capability (ELCC) metric, which is a standard reliability-based capacity value estimation technique. Although the ELCC metric is the most accurate estimation technique, we show that a simpler capacity-factor-based approximation method can closely estimate the ELCC value. Without storage, the capacity value of CSP plants varies widely depending on the year and solar multiple. The average capacity value of plants evaluated ranged from 45%?90% with a solar multiple range of 1.0-1.5. When introducing thermal energy storage (TES), the capacity value of the CSP plant is more difficult to estimate since one must account for energy in storage. We apply a capacity-factor-based technique under two different market settings: an energy-only market and an energy and capacity market. Our results show that adding TES to a CSP plant can increase its capacity value significantly at all of the locations. Adding a single hour of TES significantly increases the capacity value above the no-TES case, and with four hours of storage or more, the average capacity value at all locations exceeds 90%.

  5. FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM LIGHT ELEMENT VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Cunningham, B.B.

    1957-12-17

    A process is described for removing light element impurities from plutonium. It has been found that plutonium contaminated with impurities may be purified by converting the plutonium to a halide and purifying the halide by a fractional distillation whereby impurities may be distilled from the plutonium halide. A particularly effective method includes the step of forming a lower halide such as the trior tetrahalide and distilling the halide under conditions such that no decomposition of the halide occurs. Molecular distillation methods are particularly suitable for this process. The apparatus may comprise an evaporation plate with means for heating it and a condenser surface with means for cooling it. The condenser surface is placed at a distance from the evaporating surface less than the mean free path of molecular travel of the material being distilled at the pressure and temperature used. The entire evaporating system is evacuated until the pressure is about 10/sup -4/ millimeters of mercury. A high temperuture method is presented for sealing porous materials such as carbon or graphite that may be used as a support or a moderator in a nuclear reactor. The carbon body is subjected to two surface heats simultaneously in an inert atmosphere; the surface to be sealed is heated to 1500 degrees centigrade; and another surface is heated to 300 degrees centigrade, whereupon the carbon vaporizes and flows to the cooler surface where it is deposited to seal that surface. This method may be used to seal a nuclear fuel in the carbon structure.

  6. Early life nutrition, epigenetics and programming of later life disease.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Mark H

    2014-06-02

    The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to marked changes in diet and lifestyle; namely marked increases in dietary intakes of high energy diets and concomitant reductions in physical activity levels. However, less attention has been paid to the role of developmental plasticity and alterations in phenotypic outcomes resulting from altered environmental conditions during the early life period. Human and experimental animal studies have highlighted the link between alterations in the early life environment and increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. In particular, the nutritional environment in which the fetus or infant develops influences the risk of metabolic disorders in offspring. The late onset of such diseases in response to earlier transient experiences has led to the suggestion that developmental programming may have an epigenetic component, as epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation or histone tail modifications could provide a persistent memory of earlier nutritional states. Moreover, evidence exists, at least from animal models, that such epigenetic programming should be viewed as a transgenerational phenomenon. However, the mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring are relatively unclear. Thus far, these mechanisms include permanent structural changes to the organ caused by suboptimal levels of an important factor during a critical developmental period, changes in gene expression caused by epigenetic modifications (including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA) and permanent changes in cellular ageing. A better understanding of the epigenetic basis of developmental programming and how these effects may be

  7. Early Life Nutrition, Epigenetics and Programming of Later Life Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to marked changes in diet and lifestyle; namely marked increases in dietary intakes of high energy diets and concomitant reductions in physical activity levels. However, less attention has been paid to the role of developmental plasticity and alterations in phenotypic outcomes resulting from altered environmental conditions during the early life period. Human and experimental animal studies have highlighted the link between alterations in the early life environment and increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. In particular, the nutritional environment in which the fetus or infant develops influences the risk of metabolic disorders in offspring. The late onset of such diseases in response to earlier transient experiences has led to the suggestion that developmental programming may have an epigenetic component, as epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation or histone tail modifications could provide a persistent memory of earlier nutritional states. Moreover, evidence exists, at least from animal models, that such epigenetic programming should be viewed as a transgenerational phenomenon. However, the mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring are relatively unclear. Thus far, these mechanisms include permanent structural changes to the organ caused by suboptimal levels of an important factor during a critical developmental period, changes in gene expression caused by epigenetic modifications (including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA) and permanent changes in cellular ageing. A better understanding of the epigenetic basis of developmental programming and how these effects may be

  8. Quality of life in asthma patients.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Lara Noronha; Brito, Ulisses; Ferreira, Pedro Lopes

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a study whose main aim is the measurement of the Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) of patients with asthma and the presentation of a first draft of normative values as measured by the SF-6D for asthma patients. In addition, we investigate how far non-disease-specific HRQoL measures can distinguish groups in terms of sociodemographic characteristics. The Portuguese versions of the EQ-5D, SF-6D, AQLQ(S) and ACQ were administered using personal interviews to a representative sample of the Portuguese population with asthma. Most of the individuals did not report significant problems in the dimensions used, with the exception of the physical functioning, where individuals reported moderate limitations. The mean utility value was 0.86. Male gender, young, single, individuals with high educational attainment level, employed, individuals with high income and those residing in urban areas reported higher utility levels. As expected, those who were in a severe stadium of the disease reported lower mean utility levels than those who were in a less severe stadium of the disease. Normative values for the SF-6D were computed for patients with asthma by gender, age, marital status, educational attainment level, employment status, area of residence and average monthly net income. The preference-based measures used in this study distinguish patient groups with asthma in terms of socio- demographic groups. The normative values can be used in economic evaluation and clinical studies as they incorporate patients' preferences and translate the value attributed to patients' health state.

  9. Death: A Part of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otero, George G.; Harris, Zoanne

    This two-part curriculum unit includes 20 slides depicting Days of the Dead in Mexico and the United States. The unit is designed to help middle school students compare customs and practices associated with death throughout the world in a way that promotes understanding of the values and needs that produce and are reinforced by death rituals and…

  10. Spacelab life sciences 1 - Reprints of background life sciences publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Ronald (Editor); Leonard, Joel (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Results from investigations conducted in preparation for the first Spacelab life-sciences mission are summarized in selected previously published papers. Topics discussed are the role of calcium in osteoporosis, orthostaic hypotension, cardiovascular adjustments to gravitational stress, cell biology, exposure to stressful environments, heart-lung interactions in aerospace medicine, effects of weightlessness on human fluid and electrolyte physiology, macular bioaccelerometers on earth and in space, and metabolism of nonessential N-15-labeled amino acids and the measurement of human whole-body protein synthesis rates.

  11. The Value of Research in Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Gay Helen; Slowik, Amy J. W.

    2013-01-01

    In the summer of 2010, two researchers interviewed twenty-three library administrators of comparable academic libraries at American universities for their views of the value of research in academic libraries. The interview questions focused on the administrators' perceived value of academic librarians' research, incentives given to academic…

  12. A Clinical Support System Based on Quality of Life Estimation.

    PubMed

    Faria, Brígida Mónica; Gonçalves, Joaquim; Reis, Luis Paulo; Rocha, Álvaro

    2015-10-01

    Quality of life is a concept influenced by social, economic, psychological, spiritual or medical state factors. More specifically, the perceived quality of an individual's daily life is an assessment of their well-being or lack of it. In this context, information technologies may help on the management of services for healthcare of chronic patients such as estimating the patient quality of life and helping the medical staff to take appropriate measures to increase each patient quality of life. This paper describes a Quality of Life estimation system developed using information technologies and the application of data mining algorithms to access the information of clinical data of patients with cancer from Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck services of an oncology institution. The system was evaluated with a sample composed of 3013 patients. The results achieved show that there are variables that may be significant predictors for the Quality of Life of the patient: years of smoking (p value 0.049) and size of the tumor (p value < 0.001). In order to assign the variables to the classification of the quality of life the best accuracy was obtained by applying the John Platt's sequential minimal optimization algorithm for training a support vector classifier. In conclusion data mining techniques allow having access to patients additional information helping the physicians to be able to know the quality of life and produce a well-informed clinical decision.

  13. Accelerating the life of transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haochun, Qi; Changzhi, Lü; Xiaoling, Zhang; Xuesong, Xie

    2013-06-01

    Choosing small and medium power switching transistors of the NPN type in a 3DK set as the study object, the test of accelerating life is conducted in constant temperature and humidity, and then the data are statistically analyzed with software developed by ourselves. According to degradations of such sensitive parameters as the reverse leakage current of transistors, the lifetime order of transistors is about more than 104 at 100 °C and 100% relative humidity (RH) conditions. By corrosion fracture of transistor outer leads and other failure modes, with the failure truncated testing, the average lifetime rank of transistors in different distributions is extrapolated about 103. Failure mechanism analyses of degradation of electrical parameters, outer lead fracture and other reasons that affect transistor lifetime are conducted. The findings show that the impact of external stress of outer leads on transistor reliability is more serious than that of parameter degradation.

  14. Object Relations and the Development of Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazda, George M.; Sedgwick, Charlalee

    1990-01-01

    Claims acquisition of values is related to successes and failures of early relationships. Describes steps person goes through in making identifications, explaining steps that move person toward construction of value system. Refers to works of Heinz Kohut to explain how child's idealizing has within it necessary components for child's growth in…

  15. The Many Perspectives of Valuing Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duvekot, Ruud

    2009-01-01

    Valuing Learning is the process of promoting participation in and outcomes of (formal or non-formal) learning and as such the organising principle for lifelong learning strategies. It aims at the recognition and validation of prior learning (VPL) and further development. Four main models of Valuing Learning can be distinguished: (1) the…

  16. Employee Perceptions and Value of Performance Appraisals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagnell, Rhea

    2012-01-01

    Performance appraisals traditionally have been studied quantitatively, from the manager's point of view, without considering their value or lack of value to workers. The absence of this information indicates that workers' perceptions and feelings have not always been considered. Therefore, the purpose of this phenomenological study was…

  17. The value of information technology in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Richard I

    2003-01-01

    Not only will healthcare investments in information technology (IT) continue, they are sure to increase. Just as other industries learned over time how to extract more value from IT investments, so too will the healthcare industry, and for the same reason: because they must. This article explores the types of business value IT has generated in other industries, what value it can generate in healthcare, and some of the barriers encountered in achieving that value. The article ends with management principles for IT investment.

  18. Operation of ULCS - real life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prpić-Oršić, Jasna; Parunov, Joško; Šikić, Igor

    2014-12-01

    In this paper the real life operation of ULCS (Ultra Large Container Ships) is presented from the point of view of shipmasters. The paper provides interpretation of results of questionnaire filled by masters of large container ships during Tools for Ultra Large Container Ships (TULC) EUI FP7 project. This is done in a way that results of questionnaire are further reviewed and commented by experienced master of ULCS. Following phenomena are subject of questionnaire and further discussed in the paper: parametric rolling, slamming, whipping, springing, green water and rogue waves. Special attention is given to the definition of rough sea states as well as to measures that ship masters take to avoid them as well as to the manoeuvring in heavy seas. The role of the wave forecast and weather routing software is also discussed.

  19. Professors as Value Agents: A Typology of Management Academics' Value Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moosmayer, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    The paper addresses the paradox of value-free science and the need for value-oriented management education. Taking the values discussion in the German management community as an example, we identify two stereotypes in management literature: an allegedly value-free scientist who limits responsibility to economic aims and a value-laden academic who…

  20. Measuring the Value Added of Management: A Knowledge Value Added Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-30

    Value Added Approach Presenter: Dr. Thomas J. Housel specializes in valuing intellectual capital , telecommunications, information technology, value...Value-Added methodology for objectively measuring the return generated by corporate knowledge assets/ intellectual capital . He received his PhD...measuring the value of intellectual capital has been featured in a Fortune cover story (October 3, 1994) and Investor’s Business Daily, numerous books

  1. [Health and life-style of students].

    PubMed

    Grebniak, N P; Grebniak, V P; Mashinistov, V V

    2007-01-01

    It is established that the increase of morbidity with highly active chronic development is an integral characteristic of students' health. The unfavorable tendencies in health conditions are conditioned by the improper life-style. The specificity of students' life-style relates to the professional targeting of the education and gender trends. The conceptual model of healthy life-style formation includes such blocks as the parameters of life-style, the risk factors, the deviations in health conditions, the activities in life-style enhancement.

  2. Life on Titan: Theorem of existance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potashko, O.

    Volcanoes engender life on heavenly bodies; they are pacemakers of life[1]. All planets during their period of formation pass through volcanism hence - all planets and their satellites pass through life. Tracks of life If we want to find tracks of life -- most promising places are places with volcanic activity, current or past. In the case of just-in-time volcanic activity we have 100% probability to find a life. Therefore the most perspective ``search for life'' are Io and comets, further would be Venus, Jupiter, Saturn, their satellites and first of all -- Titan. Titan has atmosphere. It might be result of high volcanic activity -- from one side, from other side atmosphere is a necessary condition development life from procaryota to eucaryota. Existence of a planet means that all its elements after hydrogen formed just there inside a planet. The forming of the elements leads to the formation of mineral and organic substances and further to the organic life. Development of the life depends upon many factors, e.g. the distance from star/s. The intensity of the processes of the element formation is inversely to the distance from the star. Therefore we may suppose that the intensity of the life in Mercury was very high. Hence we may detect tracks of life in Mercury, particularly near volcanoes. The distance from the star is only one parameter and now Titan looks very active -- mainly due to interior reason. Its atmosphere compounds are analogous to comet tail compounds. Their collation may lead to interesting result as progress occurs at one of them. Volcanic activity is as a source of life origin as well a reason for a death of life. It depends upon the thickness of planet crust. In the case of small thickness of a crust the probability is high that volcanoes may destroy a life on a planet -- like Noachian deluge. Destroying of the life under volcano influences doesn't lead to full dead. As result we would have periodic Noachian deluge or nuclear winter. These

  3. Perceived Educational Values of Omani School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Ani, Wajeha Thabit; Al-Harthi, Aisha Salim

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the perceived educational values of Omani school principals. Data were collected using a semi-structured interview form which focused on the core values of school administration as perceived by a sample of 44 school principals; a focus group interview was also held. Data were analysed using Nvivo software. The…

  4. The Work Values of Japanese Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, John W.

    Empirical studies of Japanese work ethics have tended to focus on male workers while neglecting women. In addition, work values in both Japan and the United States appear to be changing. More information is needed on the work values of American and Japanese female workers. A study was conducted to explore the work ethics of Japanese women and to…

  5. Differentiation of Work Values during Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulenberg, John E.; Vondracek, Fred W.

    Work values, or the qualities and rewards that one desires from work, are considered to be important determinants of career decision making and exploration during adolescence. A study was conducted to investigate age-based continuities and discontinuities in the structure of work values in a cross-sectional sample of 679 students in grades 7-12.…

  6. The Myth of Value Free Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kegley, John F.

    A counselor's values are inherent in all that he does with a client, ranging from selection of the counseling modality to the decision to terminate facilitative intervention. Value-free counseling is a myth, and recognition of this fact is the first step in arriving at a clear conception of what counseling can, or should, be. A counselor can be…

  7. [The formation of the basis for the health life style of school children].

    PubMed

    Ponomareva, L A; Abdukadyrova, L K; Sharipova, S A; Iuldashbaev, I T

    2002-01-01

    Sanitary knowledge of graduates of the Tashkent schools on healthy life style was studied. Poor knowledge and understanding of the value of health and role of healthy life style in health preservation were revealed. The majority of graduates just vaguely know the main components of a healthy life style, as a result of which their actual life style cannot help them preserve their health. The authors suggest that a curriculum for the formation of a healthy life style be developed for schoolchildren, which will determine the priorities and the most rational forms of a healthy life style.

  8. Derivation of the extrinsic values of biological diversity from its intrinsic value and of both from the first principles of evolution.

    PubMed

    White, Peter S

    2013-12-01

    Conservation ethics have been based on 2 philosophical value systems: extrinsic value (defined broadly to include all values that derive from something external to the thing valued) and intrinsic value. Valuing biological diversity on the basis of an extrinsic value system is problematic because measurement is often difficult; extrinsic value changes as spatial or temporal scales change; extrinsic value differs on the basis of external factors; some species have trivial or negative extrinsic values; and extrinsic value varies across human cultures and societies and with such factors as socioeconomic conditions, individual experiences, and educational backgrounds. Valuing biological diversity on the basis of an intrinsic value system also poses challenges because intrinsic value can be seen as a disguised form of human extrinsic value; intrinsic value is initially ambiguous as to which objects or characteristics of biological diversity are to being valued; all aspects of biological diversity (e.g., species and ecosystems) are transitory; species and ecosystems are not static concrete entities; and intrinsic value of one species is often in conflict with the intrinsic value of other species. Extrinsic and intrinsic value systems share a common origin, such that extrinsic values are always derived from intrinsic value and life mutely expresses both intrinsic and extrinsic values-these are derived from and are products of biological evolution. Probing the values that underlie conservation helps the community clearly articulate its aims. Derivación de los Valores Extrínsecos de la Biodiversidad a Partir de sus Valores Intrínsecos y de Ambos a Partir de los Primeros Principios de la Evolución.

  9. Reconstructing Ancient Forms of Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benner, Steven A.

    1998-01-01

    Progress in the past three months has occurred in two areas, reconstruction of ancestral proteins and improved understanding of chemical features that are likely to be universal in generic matter regardless of its genesis. Ancestral ribonucleases have been reconstructed, and an example has been developed that shows how physiological function can be assigned to in vitro behaviors observed in biological systems. Sequence data have been collected to permit the reconstruction of src homology 2 domains that underwent radiative divergence at the time of the radiative divergence of chordates. New studies have been completed that show how genetic matter (or its remnants) might be detected on Mars (or other non-terrean locations.) Last, the first in vitro selection experiments have been completed using a nucleoside library carrying positively charged functionality, illustrating the importance of non-standard nucleotides to those attempting to obtain evidence for an "RNA world" as an early episode of life on earth.

  10. Origin of life and definition of life, from Buffon to Oparin.

    PubMed

    Tirard, Stéphane

    2010-04-01

    Many theories on origin of life at the end of the XIXth century and the beginning of the XXth, generally use conceptions of life instead of explicit definitions of life. This paper presents ideas on the origin of life as studied by Buffon (1707-1788), Lamarck (1744-1829), Darwin (1809-1882), Huxley (1825-1895), Oparin (1894-1980) and Haldane (1892-1964). We show that their conceptions on the evolution of matter and life reveal their conceptions of life rather than their definitions of life.

  11. Simultaneous discrimination learning in pigeons: value of S- affects the relative value of its associated S+.

    PubMed

    Clement, T S; Weaver, J E; Sherburne, L M; Zentall, T R

    1998-11-01

    In a simple simultaneous discrimination involving a positive stimulus (S+) and a negative stimulus (S-), it has been hypothesized that positive value can transfer from the S+ to the S- (thus increasing the relative value of the S-) and also that negative value can transfer from the S- to the S+ (thus diminishing the relative value of the S+; Fersen, Wynne, Delius, & Staddon, 1991). Evidence for positive value transfer has been reported in pigeons (e.g. Zentall & Sherburne, 1994). The purpose of the present experiments was to determine, in a simultaneous discrimination, whether the S- diminishes the value of the S+ or the S- is contrasted with the S+ (thus enhancing the value of the S+). In two experiments, we found evidence for contrast, rather than value transfer, attributable to simultaneous discrimination training. Thus, not only does the S+ appear to enhance the value of the S-, but the S- appears to enhance rather than reduce the value of the S+.

  12. Origins of life systems chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, J.

    2015-10-01

    By reconciling previously conflicting views about the origin of life - in which one or other cellular subsystem emerges first, and then 'invents' the others - a new modus operandi for its study is suggested. Guided by this, a cyanosulfidic protometabolism is uncovered which uses UV light and the stoichiometric reducing power of hydrogen sulfide to convert hydrogen cyanide, and a couple of other prebiotic feedstock molecules which can be derived therefrom, into nucleic acid, peptide and lipid building blocks. Copper plays several key roles in this chemistry, thus, for example, copper(I) catalysed cross coupling and copper(II) driven oxidative crosscoupling reactions generate key feedstock molecules. Geochemical scenarios consistent with this protometabolism are outlined. Finally, the transition of a system from the inanimate to the animate state is considered in the context of there being intermediate stages of partial 'aliveness'.

  13. Dysphagia and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Vesey, Siobhan

    2013-05-01

    Swallowing difficulties can be a symptom of many different disease processes, and are associated with adverse health outcomes; malnutrition, dehydration, pneumonia and death. The use of feeding tubes directly into the stomach as in percutaneous endoscopic gastrosomy (PEG) is an increasingly common treatment option for these patients with more and more being cared for in the community. Living with a gastrostomy tube brings physical and emotional impacts and direct consequences for quality of life. Guidance from the Royal College of Physicians recommends 'nil by mouth' should be a last resort even when swallow function is deemed unsafe. Impaired swallowing can cause increased anxiety and fear. Many patients avoid oral intake leading to malnutrition, isolation and depression. Understanding and balancing the risks and potential benefits of continuing oral intake or choosing gastrostomy makes this a complex and challenging area of health care.

  14. Building the blueprint of life.

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, C. S.; Overbeek, R.; Stevens, R. L.; Fellowship for Interpretation of Genomes

    2010-07-01

    With recent breakthroughs in experimental microbiology making it possible to synthesize and implant an entire genome to create a living cell, the challenge of constructing a working blueprint for the first truly minimal synthetic organism is more important than ever. Here we review the significant progress made in the design and creation of a minimal organism. We discuss how comparative genomes, gene essentiality data, naturally small genomes, and metabolic modeling are all being applied to produce a catalogue of the biological functions essential for life. We compare the minimal gene sets from three published sources with functions identified in 13 existing gene essentiality datasets. We examine how genome-scale metabolic models have been applied to design a minimal metabolism for growth in simple and complex media. Additionally, we survey the progress of efforts to construct a minimal organism, either through implementation of combinatorial deletions in Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli or through the synthesis and implantation of synthetic genomes.

  15. Life span of the biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovelock, J. E.; Whitfield, M.

    1982-04-01

    Since main sequence stars appear to increase their burning rate as they age, the sun may be thought to have increased its output by 30% since the earth's origin 4.5 billion years ago. Due to the requirement for some means of planetary thermostasis in the maintenance of an equable climate since life began, possible links are considered between the biological, Gaia hypothesis of Lovelock and Margulis (1974) for climate control, and Walker et al's (in press) model of automatic thermostasis, in which the abundance of such atmospheric greenhouse gases as CO2 adjusts to resist the warming tendency of the increased solar flux. It is concluded that, since atmospheric CO2 is now close to its partial pressure lower limit, the biosphere will on a geological time-scale be soon exposed, without protection, to the predicted solar luminosity increases.

  16. Valuing the Implementation of Financial Literacy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kimberlee; Durband, Dorothy Bagwell

    2008-01-01

    Placing a monetary value on education is a complex task. A more difficult task is to determine at what monetary level individuals will support educational improvements. The contingent valuation method was used to estimate the value of the implementation of financial literacy education in Texas public schools. A Web-based survey was administered to…

  17. The Pedagogy of Value-Confrontation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagschal, Harry Goldwyn

    This paper describes the basic principles and objectives of an educational approach based on "values confrontation" and evaluates its impact on student values, feelings, and behavior. After stressing the importance of forming a modern pedagogy concerned with developing rational thinking and deeper personal and social awareness, the paper…

  18. Organizational Change through Metaphorical Expression of Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karathanos, Patricia Hager; Huter, La Vonne

    1995-01-01

    States that organizational values (a subset of organizational culture) provide behavioral guidelines for employees in organizations. Proposes that metaphorical imagery can heighten the usefulness of corporate values as behavioral guideposts. Notes managerial implications for change and suggests a process for change. (PA)

  19. Life cycle of cytosolic prions.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Julia; Vorberg, Ina

    2013-01-01

    Prions are self-templating protein aggregates that were originally identified as the causative agent of prion diseases in mammals, but have since been discovered in other kingdoms. Mammalian prions represent a unique class of infectious agents that are composed of misfolded prion protein. Prion proteins usually exist as soluble proteins but can refold and assemble into highly ordered, self-propagating prion polymers. The prion concept is also applicable to a growing number of non-Mendelian elements of inheritance in lower eukaryotes. While prions identified in mammals are clearly pathogens, prions in lower eukaryotes can be either detrimental or beneficial to the host. Prion phenotypes in fungi are transmitted vertically from mother to daughter cells during cell division and horizontally during mating or abortive mating, but extracellular phases have not been reported. Recent findings now demonstrate that in a mammalian cell environment, protein aggregates derived from yeast prion domains exhibit a prion life cycle similar to mammalian prions propagated ex vivo. This life cycle includes a soluble state of the protein, an induction phase by exogenous prion fibrils, stable replication of prion entities, vertical transmission to progeny and natural horizontal transmission to neighboring cells. Our data reveal that mammalian cells contain all co-factors required for cytosolic prion propagation and dissemination. This has important implications for understanding prion-like properties of disease-related protein aggregates. In light of the growing number of identified functional amyloids, cell-to-cell propagation of cytosolic protein conformers might not only be relevant for the spreading of disease-associated proteins, but might also be of more general relevance under non-disease conditions.

  20. The fractal geometry of life.

    PubMed

    Losa, Gabriele A

    2009-01-01

    The extension of the concepts of Fractal Geometry (Mandelbrot [1983]) toward the life sciences has led to significant progress in understanding complex functional properties and architectural / morphological / structural features characterising cells and tissues during ontogenesis and both normal and pathological development processes. It has even been argued that fractal geometry could provide a coherent description of the design principles underlying living organisms (Weibel [1991]). Fractals fulfil a certain number of theoretical and methodological criteria including a high level of organization, shape irregularity, functional and morphological self-similarity, scale invariance, iterative pathways and a peculiar non-integer fractal dimension [FD]. Whereas mathematical objects are deterministic invariant or self-similar over an unlimited range of scales, biological components are statistically self-similar only within a fractal domain defined by upper and lower limits, called scaling window, in which the relationship between the scale of observation and the measured size or length of the object can be established (Losa and Nonnenmacher [1996]). Selected examples will contribute to depict complex biological shapes and structures as fractal entities, and also to show why the application of the fractal principle is valuable for measuring dimensional, geometrical and functional parameters of cells, tissues and organs occurring within the vegetal and animal realms. If the criteria for a strict description of natural fractals are met, then it follows that a Fractal Geometry of Life may be envisaged and all natural objects and biological systems exhibiting self-similar patterns and scaling properties may be considered as belonging to the new subdiscipline of "fractalomics".

  1. Life cycle of cytosolic prions

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Julia; Vorberg, Ina

    2013-01-01

    Prions are self-templating protein aggregates that were originally identified as the causative agent of prion diseases in mammals, but have since been discovered in other kingdoms. Mammalian prions represent a unique class of infectious agents that are composed of misfolded prion protein. Prion proteins usually exist as soluble proteins but can refold and assemble into highly ordered, self-propagating prion polymers. The prion concept is also applicable to a growing number of non-Mendelian elements of inheritance in lower eukaryotes. While prions identified in mammals are clearly pathogens, prions in lower eukaryotes can be either detrimental or beneficial to the host. Prion phenotypes in fungi are transmitted vertically from mother to daughter cells during cell division and horizontally during mating or abortive mating, but extracellular phases have not been reported. Recent findings now demonstrate that in a mammalian cell environment, protein aggregates derived from yeast prion domains exhibit a prion life cycle similar to mammalian prions propagated ex vivo. This life cycle includes a soluble state of the protein, an induction phase by exogenous prion fibrils, stable replication of prion entities, vertical transmission to progeny and natural horizontal transmission to neighboring cells. Our data reveal that mammalian cells contain all co-factors required for cytosolic prion propagation and dissemination. This has important implications for understanding prion-like properties of disease-related protein aggregates. In light of the growing number of identified functional amyloids, cell-to-cell propagation of cytosolic protein conformers might not only be relevant for the spreading of disease-associated proteins, but might also be of more general relevance under non-disease conditions. PMID:24021964

  2. The Value of Pets in Children's Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blue, Gladys F.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews literature focusing on six aspects of pet-person relationships that are most relevant to the growing child. Areas include love, attachment, and comfort; sensorimotor and nonverbal learning; responsibility, nurturance, and competence; learning about the life cycle; therapeutic benefits; and nurturing humaness, ecological awareness, and…

  3. The Economic Value of Opportunity Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfield, Clive R.; Levin, Henry M.; Rosen, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    It is often said that youth are society's future; individuals need to prepare and nurture them if they desire that future to be bright and productive. Yet, with the spotlight currently on slow economic growth and high unemployment across the U.S., there has been little focus on the plight of youth as they transition from school to adult life. But…

  4. Values as Predictors of Global Consciousness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayton, Daniel M., II; Lerandeau, Elizabeth A.

    This study assessed the relationships between human values and the psychological construct of world-mindedness. Fifty-one college students and 58 high school students in a town in the Pacific Northwest completed the Values Questionnaire (Schwartz, 1992, 94) and the Cross-cultural World-mindedness Questionnaire (Der-Karabetian, 1992). A stepwise…

  5. Overview: Securing the fabric of life.

    PubMed

    Myers, N

    1998-01-01

    Earth is the only planet known to sustain life, and the forms of life on earth are so abundant that modern science can only estimate how many millions of species share the planet with humans. With only 1.7 million of a possible 8-15 million species identified, it will take decades to identify even half of the species (assuming the number does not exceed 10 million). This great number of species provides a multitude of essential environmental services to humanity, such as creating soil, controlling water supplies, controlling pests, dispersing pollutants, and stabilizing the weather and climate. Initial estimates of the economic value of these services range from $2.9 to $33 trillion (as compared to the world's gross economic product of $29 trillion). Recognition of economic value can translate into protection, as evidenced by payments for "bioprospecting" being conducted by US pharmaceutical firms and the way that revenues from ecotourism far exceed other activities (a single pod of 16 whales in Japan would produce $41 million from whale watchers over 15 years as compared to the $4.3 million they represent to hunters). Despite these findings, humans continue to contribute to a mass extinction on par with the extinction of the dinosaurs. What actions are taken in the next few decades will determine the future of the biosphere for the next 5 million years. Even if immediate action is taken, it will take decades before the hole in the ozone layer is fixed, eroded topsoil is replaced, and the climate is stabilized. The strategy of creating protected areas is no longer enough, and action must be taken to protect the remaining biodiversity.

  6. "Sticking jewels in your life": exploring women's strategies for negotiating an acceptable quality of life with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Frances; Prior, Sarah

    2003-11-01

    The authors explored women's strategies for achieving quality of life with multiple sclerosis (MS) through interviews with 27 women, most of whom had lived with MS for more than 5 years. Analysis of the semistructured interviews followed the interpretative phenomenological approach. The women portrayed living with MS as an ongoing process of negotiation and described gaining quality of life through looking after health; maintaining meaningful occupations and roles; establishing mutual relationships; clarifying beliefs, aspirations, and philosophy of life; activism on disability issues; consciously valuing positive life experiences; and finding benefits in adversity. Despite recounting resourceful strategies, many acknowledged ongoing difficulties. Some narratives suggested a mesh or tapestry of coexisting positive and negative experiences. Others portrayed an adversarial relationship, with the positive and negative forces in their lives constantly battling for supremacy. A wide array of flexible, evolving strategies was required to achieve an acceptable quality of life with MS.

  7. Strong Families, Tidy Houses, and Children's Values in Adult Life: Are "Chaotic", "Crowded" and "Unstable" Homes Really so Bad?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flouri, Eirini

    2009-01-01

    Chaotic home systems have been linked with children's adverse psychological and academic outcomes. But, as they represent a departure from the suburban ideal of space, order, and family cohesiveness and stability, they should also be linked with low support for survival values. Using longitudinal data from the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70)…

  8. Character in Learning for Life: A Virtue-Ethical Rationale for Recent Research on Moral and Values Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, James; Carr, David

    2013-01-01

    This article has three broad aims. The first is to draw attention what is probably the largest empirical study of moral, values and character education in the United Kingdom to the present date. The second is to outline--sufficient for present purposes--a plausible conceptual or theoretical case for placing a particular virtue-ethical concept of…

  9. Accuracy Evaluation of the Unified P-Value from Combining Correlated P-Values

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Gelio; Yu, Yi-Kuo

    2014-01-01

    Meta-analysis methods that combine -values into a single unified -value are frequently employed to improve confidence in hypothesis testing. An assumption made by most meta-analysis methods is that the -values to be combined are independent, which may not always be true. To investigate the accuracy of the unified -value from combining correlated -values, we have evaluated a family of statistical methods that combine: independent, weighted independent, correlated, and weighted correlated -values. Statistical accuracy evaluation by combining simulated correlated -values showed that correlation among -values can have a significant effect on the accuracy of the combined -value obtained. Among the statistical methods evaluated those that weight -values compute more accurate combined -values than those that do not. Also, statistical methods that utilize the correlation information have the best performance, producing significantly more accurate combined -values. In our study we have demonstrated that statistical methods that combine -values based on the assumption of independence can produce inaccurate -values when combining correlated -values, even when the -values are only weakly correlated. Therefore, to prevent from drawing false conclusions during hypothesis testing, our study advises caution be used when interpreting the -value obtained from combining -values of unknown correlation. However, when the correlation information is available, the weighting-capable statistical method, first introduced by Brown and recently modified by Hou, seems to perform the best amongst the methods investigated. PMID:24663491

  10. Describing Spirituality at the End of Life.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Pam Shockey; Berry, Devon M

    2015-09-01

    Spirituality is salient to persons nearing the end of life (EOL). Unfortunately, researchers have not been able to agree on a universal definition of spirituality reducing the effectiveness of spiritual research. To advance spiritual knowledge and build an evidence base, researchers must develop creative ways to describe spirituality as it cannot be explicitly defined. A literature review was conducted to determine the common attributes that comprise the essence of spirituality, thereby creating a common ground on which to base spiritual research. Forty original research articles (2002 to 2012) focusing on EOL and including spiritual definitions/descriptions were reviewed. Analysis identified five attributes that most commonly described the essence of spirituality, including meaning, beliefs, connecting, self-transcendence, and value.

  11. Determination of Turboprop Reduction Gearbox System Fatigue Life and Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Lewicki, David G.; Savage, Michael; Vlcek, Brian L.

    2007-01-01

    Two computational models to determine the fatigue life and reliability of a commercial turboprop gearbox are compared with each other and with field data. These models are (1) Monte Carlo simulation of randomly selected lives of individual bearings and gears comprising the system and (2) two-parameter Weibull distribution function for bearings and gears comprising the system using strict-series system reliability to combine the calculated individual component lives in the gearbox. The Monte Carlo simulation included the virtual testing of 744,450 gearboxes. Two sets of field data were obtained from 64 gearboxes that were first-run to removal for cause, were refurbished and placed back in service, and then were second-run until removal for cause. A series of equations were empirically developed from the Monte Carlo simulation to determine the statistical variation in predicted life and Weibull slope as a function of the number of gearboxes failed. The resultant L(sub 10) life from the field data was 5,627 hr. From strict-series system reliability, the predicted L(sub 10) life was 774 hr. From the Monte Carlo simulation, the median value for the L(sub 10) gearbox lives equaled 757 hr. Half of the gearbox L(sub 10) lives will be less than this value and the other half more. The resultant L(sub 10) life of the second-run (refurbished) gearboxes was 1,334 hr. The apparent load-life exponent p for the roller bearings is 5.2. Were the bearing lives to be recalculated with a load-life exponent p equal to 5.2, the predicted L(sub 10) life of the gearbox would be equal to the actual life obtained in the field. The component failure distribution of the gearbox from the Monte Carlo simulation was nearly identical to that using the strict-series system reliability analysis, proving the compatibility of these methods.

  12. On the value of the reconnection rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comisso, L.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2016-12-01

    Numerical simulations have consistently shown that the reconnection rate in certain collisionless regimes can be fast, of the order of ABu$ , where A$ and u$ are the Alfvén speed and the reconnecting magnetic field upstream of the ion diffusion region. This particular value has been reported in myriad numerical simulations under disparate conditions. However, despite decades of research, the reasons underpinning this specific value remain mysterious. Here, we present an overview of this problem and discuss the conditions under which the `0.1 value' is attained. Furthermore, we explain why this problem should be interpreted in terms of the ion diffusion region length.

  13. Comparative values of advanced space solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slifer, L. W., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A methodology for deriving a first order dollar value estimate for advanced solar cells which consists of defining scenarios for solar array production and launch to orbit and the associated costs for typical spacecraft, determining that portion affected by cell design and performance and determining the attributable cost differences is presented. Break even values are calculated for a variety of cells; confirming that efficiency and related effects of radiation resistance and temperature coefficient are major factors; array tare mass, packaging and packing factor are important; but cell mass is of lesser significance. Associated dollar values provide a means of comparison.

  14. Measuring the Dollar Value of Volunteering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ironmonger, Duncan

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of sample surveys to estimate the amount of time spent volunteering. States that it is necessary to estimate the number of hours involved and to establish an appropriate value per hour. (SK)

  15. The Relativity of Values and the Implications for Multicultural and Values Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annis, David B.

    1995-01-01

    Evaluates main arguments for the relativity of moral values. Although anthropological evidence shows that values are relative to one's culture, this sense of relativity seems compatible with universal moral or ethical values. Presents arguments supporting a limited form of universalism, a core set of moral values, and explores its implications for…

  16. Value of the energy data base

    SciTech Connect

    King, D.W.; Griffiths, J.M.; Roderer, N.K.; Wiederkehr, R.R.V.

    1982-03-31

    An assessment was made of the Energy Data Base (EDB) of the Department of Energy's Technical Information Center (TIC). As the major resource containing access information to the world's energy literature, EDB products and services are used extensively by energy researchers to identify journal articles, technical reports and other items of potential utility in their work. The approach taken to assessing value begins with the measurement of extent of use of the EDB. Apparent value is measured in terms of willingness to pay. Consequential value is measured in terms of effect - for searching, the cost of reading which results; and for reading, the savings which result from the application of the information obtained in reading. Resulting estimates of value reflect value to the searchers, the reader, and the reader's organization or funding source. A survey of the 60,000 scientists and eingineers funded by the DOE shows that annually they read about 7.1 million journal articles and 6.6 million technical reports. A wide range of savings values were reported for one-fourth of all article readings and three-fourths of all report readings. There was an average savings of $590 per reading of all articles; there was an average savings of $1280 for technical reports. The total annual savings attributable to reading by DOE-funded scientists and engineers is estimated to be about $13 billion. An investment of $5.3 billion in the generation of information and about $500 million in processing and using information yields a partial return of about $13 billion. Overall, this partial return on investment is about 2.2 to 1. In determining the value of EDB only those searches and readings directly attributable to it are included in the analysis. The values are $20 million to the searchers, $117 million to the readers and $3.6 billion to DOE.

  17. Death: A Part of Life. An Experimental Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otero, George G.

    This experimental unit on death employs a cross-cultural comparison of death and burial customs to increase student understanding of the values and reasons behind events surrounding the end of the life cycle. Nine activities are presented in which students collect, label, analyze, and generalize about the relationship of death customs to the…

  18. Comprehensive Review and Critical Evaluation of the Half-Life of Tritium

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, L. L.; Unterweger, M. P.

    2000-01-01

    As part of the preparation and calibration of three new National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) tritiated-water radioactivity Standard Reference Materials (SRMs), we have performed a comprehensive review and critical evaluation of the half-life of tritium (hydrogen-3). Twenty three experimentally-determined values of the half-life of tritium, reported between 1936 and 2000, were found. Six of these values were updated by later values. Two values were limits. Two values were deemed to be outliers. The 13 remaining values were evaluated in several ways. The results are compared with the results of other recent evaluations and all are found to be in good agreement. Our final recommended value for the half-life of tritium is the average of the adopted values from the four most recent evaluations, (4500 ± 8) d, where 8 d corresponds to one standard uncertainty. PMID:27551621

  19. Values Education: Why the Teaching of Values in Schools Is Necessary, but Not Sufficient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etherington, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a growing demand by educators, governments, and the community for the teaching of values in public schools has led to the implementation of values education. As acknowledged by the 2010 Living Skills Values Education Program, values education is an essential part of schooling. In the public school system, there have been attempts…

  20. The new lingo of added value.

    PubMed

    Appleby, C

    1997-02-05

    In the vast kit of tools used by corporate America to measure success, one has vaulted from the desks of CFOs to the cover of Fortune. Economic value added, better known as EVA, has become the tool of choice to assess shareholder value in publicly owned companies. Despite its Wall Street roots, advocates say EVA can also be applied to the traditionally not-for-profit health care industry, especially in an age of brutal competition for scarce capital.