Shinn, Sung Ho; Dayan, Victor; Schaff, Hartzell V; Dearani, Joseph A; Joyce, Lyle D; Lahr, Brian; Greason, Kevin L; Stulak, John M; Daly, Richard C
There is controversy regarding the comparative effectiveness of methods of tricuspid valve (TV) repair-prosthetic ring versus suture annuloplasty-in patients undergoing operation for primary mitral valve (MV) disease. In this study, we analyzed factors associated with patient survival and recurrent tricuspid regurgitation (TR) following TV repair and focused on results stratified by method of tricuspid valve repair. We reviewed patients who underwent TV repair with suture (De Vega) or flexible ring annuloplasties at the time of MV surgery from 1995 to 2010. Patients with prior cardiac or concomitant aortic valve operations were excluded. Propensity matching was performed to account for potential differences in baseline characteristics between the groups. Primary outcomes were long-term mortality and postoperative TR grade. In the overall study, there were 415 patients with median age 72 years (range, 63-78 years), from which 148 matched pairs were identified by propensity score analysis. In the overall cohort, patients in the ring annuloplasty group more often had preoperative transvenous pacemakers (P = .05), lower ejection fractions (P = .028), and more recent years of operation (P < .001). For patients who had De Vega suture annuloplasty, long-term mortality was not different from that of patients who had ring annuloplasty (hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.67-1.30). Older age, preoperative diabetes, and preoperative right ventricular dysfunction were predictors for long-term mortality. Durability of the annuloplasty methods was similar with no significant difference in trend of recurrent TR grades over follow-up (P = .807). Etiology of mitral regurgitation was not associated with recurrent TR during follow-up (P = .857). Late survival and TV durability following concomitant TV repair during MV surgery did not differ with respect to TV repair technique. In this series of patients with repaired tricuspid valves, etiology of MV disease did
Shabsigh, Muhammad; Lawrence, Cassidy; Rosero-Britton, Byron R; Kumar, Nicolas; Kimura, Satoshi; Durda, Michael Andrew; Essandoh, Michael
Mitral stenosis (MS) after mitral valve (MV) repair is a slowly progressive condition, usually detected many years after the index MV surgery. It is defined as a mean transmitral pressure gradient (TMPG) >5 mmHg or a mitral valve area (MVA) <1.5 cm(2). Pannus formation around the mitral annulus or extending to the mitral leaflets is suggested as the main mechanism for developing delayed MS after MV repair. On the other hand, early stenosis is thought to be a direct result of an undersized annuloplasty ring. Furthermore, in MS following ischemic mitral regurgitation (MR) repair, subvalvular tethering is the hypothesized pathophysiology. MS after MV repair has an incidence of 9-54%. Several factors have been associated with a higher risk for developing MS after MV repair, including the use of flexible Duran annuloplasty rings versus rigid Carpentier-Edwards rings, complete annuloplasty rings versus partial bands, small versus large anterior leaflet opening angle, and anterior leaflet tip opening length. Intraoperative echocardiography can measure the anterior leaflet opening angle, the anterior leaflet tip opening dimension, the MVA and the mean TMPG, and may help identify patients at risk for developing MS after MV repair.
Shabsigh, Muhammad; Lawrence, Cassidy; Rosero-Britton, Byron R.; Kumar, Nicolas; Kimura, Satoshi; Durda, Michael Andrew; Essandoh, Michael
Mitral stenosis (MS) after mitral valve (MV) repair is a slowly progressive condition, usually detected many years after the index MV surgery. It is defined as a mean transmitral pressure gradient (TMPG) >5 mmHg or a mitral valve area (MVA) <1.5 cm2. Pannus formation around the mitral annulus or extending to the mitral leaflets is suggested as the main mechanism for developing delayed MS after MV repair. On the other hand, early stenosis is thought to be a direct result of an undersized annuloplasty ring. Furthermore, in MS following ischemic mitral regurgitation (MR) repair, subvalvular tethering is the hypothesized pathophysiology. MS after MV repair has an incidence of 9–54%. Several factors have been associated with a higher risk for developing MS after MV repair, including the use of flexible Duran annuloplasty rings versus rigid Carpentier–Edwards rings, complete annuloplasty rings versus partial bands, small versus large anterior leaflet opening angle, and anterior leaflet tip opening length. Intraoperative echocardiography can measure the anterior leaflet opening angle, the anterior leaflet tip opening dimension, the MVA and the mean TMPG, and may help identify patients at risk for developing MS after MV repair. PMID:27148540
Pfannmueller, Bettina; Verevkin, Alexander; Borger, Michael Andrew; Mende, Meinhard; Davierwala, Piroze; Garbade, Jens; Mohr, Friedrich Wilhelm; Misfeld, Martin
The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of short- and mid-term survival of tricuspid valve (TV) repair versus conservative therapy in patients with preoperative moderate functional tricuspid regurgitation (TR) undergoing minimally invasive mitral valve (MV) surgery. Between January 2002 and December 2009, a total of 430 patients with pure mitral regurgitation and concomitant moderate TR underwent minimally invasive MV surgery for mitral regurgitation at the Leipzig Heart Center without (n = 336; group A) and with (n = 94; group B) TV surgery. Mean age was 66.7 ± 10.3 years, mean LVEF was 58.0 ± 13.8%, and 206 patients (47.9%) were male. Average logEuroSCORE was 12.4 ± 11.4%. Follow-up was on average 4.6 ± 2.4 years and 97% completed. Predischarge echocardiography showed no or mild TR in 51.1% of patients in group A versus 84.2% of patients in group B (p < 0.01). Overall 30-day mortality was 2.8% with no differences between both groups. Five-year survival was 82.9 ± 4.1% for patients with TV repair versus 85.0 ± 2.2% for patients without TV repair (p = 0.1) and it was 85.7 ± 3.3% in patients with moderate and more postoperative TR versus 90.1 ± 2.5% in patients with less than moderate postoperative TR (p = 0.08). Five-year freedom from TV-related reoperation was 98.8 ± 0.7% for patients in group A versus 98.9 ± 0.1% for patients in group B (p = 0.8). Patients undergoing MV surgery with moderate functional TR do not experience increased perioperative complication rates when a concomitant TV repair is performed. Our observations, combined with those of other groups, support current recommendations to perform concomitant TV repair in such patients, particularly if tricuspid annular dilation is present. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Panos, Aristotelis; Vlad, Sylvio; Milas, Fotios; Myers, Patrick O
Traditional resectional techniques and chordal transfer are difficult to apply in video-assisted mitral valve repair. Using artificial chords appears easier in this setting. The purpose of this study was to review the effectiveness and reproducibility of neochordal repair as a routine approach to minimally invasive mitral repair, and to assess the stability of neochord implantation using the figure-of-eight suture without pledgets in this setting. This is a retrospective review of all patients who underwent minimally invasive video-assisted mitral valve repair from 2008 to 2013. The primary endpoints were recurrent mitral regurgitation and reoperation. A total of 426 consecutive patients were included during the study period, with a mean age of 55 ± 18 years. Neochords were used in all patients, and in association with leaflet resection in 47 patients. One patient was not repairable and underwent valve replacement (repair rate, 99.8%). Fifteen patients had Grade I (3.5%) regurgitation, whereas the remainder had none. Patients were fast-tracked, with 25% extubated in the operation theatre and the remainder within 6 h. There were 5 deaths within 30 days (1.2%). Follow-up ranged 3-60 months, during which all of the patients remained with no or trace mitral regurgitation. No de-insertion or rupture of any neochords was found, and no patients required a reoperation. Minimally invasive mitral valve repair using neochords provided a high rate of repair, reproducible results in a routine cardiac surgery setting and stable repair during follow-up. This has become our preferred technique for mitral valve surgery. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.
Mvondo, Charles Mve; Pugliese, Marta; Giamberti, Alessandro; Chelo, David; Kuate, Liliane Mfeukeu; Boombhi, Jerome; Dailor, Ellen Marie
Rheumatic valve disease, a consequence of acute rheumatic fever, remains endemic in developing countries in the sub-Saharan region where it is the leading cause of heart failure and cardiovascular death, involving predominantly a young population. The involvement of the mitral valve is pathognomonic and mitral surgery has become the lone therapeutic option for the majority of these patients. However, controversies exist on the choice between valve repair or prosthetic valve replacement. Although the advantages of mitral valve repair over prosthetic valve replacement in degenerative mitral disease are well established, this has not been the case for rheumatic lesions, where the use of prosthetic valves, specifically mechanical devices, even in poorly compliant populations remains very common. These patients deserve more accurate evaluation in the choice of the surgical strategy which strongly impacts the post-operative outcomes. This report discusses the factors supporting mitral repair surgery in rheumatic disease, according to the patients' characteristics and the effectiveness of the current repair techniques compared to prosthetic valve replacement in developing countries.
Chikwe, Joanna; Toyoda, Nana; Anyanwu, Anelechi C; Itagaki, Shinobu; Egorova, Natalia N; Boateng, Percy; El-Eshmawi, Ahmed; Adams, David H
Degenerative mitral valve repair rates remain highly variable, despite established benefits of repair over replacement. The contribution of surgeon-specific factors is poorly defined. This study evaluated the influence of surgeon case volume on degenerative mitral valve repair rates and outcomes. A mandatory New York State database was queried and 5,475 patients were identified with degenerative mitral disease who underwent mitral valve operations between 2002 and 2013. Mitral repair rates, mitral reoperations within 12 months of repair, and survival were analyzed using multivariable Cox modeling and restricted cubic spline function. Median annual surgeon volume of any mitral operations was 10 (range 1 to 230), with a mean repair rate of 55% (n = 20,797 of 38,128). In the subgroup of patients with degenerative disease, the mean repair rate was 67% (n = 3,660 of 5,475), with a range of 0% to 100%. Mean repair rates ranged from 48% (n = 179 of 370) for surgeons with total annual volumes of ≤10 mitral operations to 77% (n = 1,710 of 2,216) for surgeons with total annual volumes of >50 mitral operations (p < 0.001). Higher total annual surgeon volume was associated with increased repair rates of degenerative mitral valve disease (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.13 for every additional 10 mitral operations; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10 to 1.17; p < 0.001); a steady decrease in reoperation risk until 25 total mitral operations annually; and improved 1-year survival (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.95 for every additional 10 operations; 95% CI: 0.92 to 0.98; p = 0.001). For surgeons with a total annual volume of ≤25 mitral operations, repair rates were higher (63.8%; n = 180 of 282) if they operated in the same institution as a surgeon with total annual mitral volumes of >50 and degenerative mitral valve repair rates of >70%, compared with surgeons operating in the other institutions (51.3%; n = 580 of 1,130) (adjusted OR: 1.79; 95% CI: 1.24 to 2.60; p
Zakkar, Mustafa; Bruno, Vito Domanico; Visan, Alexandru Ciprian; Curtis, Stephanie; Angelini, Gianni; Lansac, Emmanuel; Stoica, Serban
Aortic valve replacement is the gold standard for the management of patients with severe aortic stenosis or mixed pathology that is not amenable to repair according to currently available guidelines. Such a simplified approach may be suitable for many patients, but it is far from ideal for young adults considering emerging evidence demonstrating that conventional valve replacement in this cohort of patients is associated with inferior long-term survival when compared to the general population. Moreover; the utilisation of mechanical and bioprosthetic valves can significantly impact on quality and is linked to increased rates of morbidities. Other available options such as stentless valve, homografts, valve reconstruction and Ross operation can be an appealing alternative to conventional valve replacement. Young patients should be fully informed about all the options available - shared decision making is now part of modern informed consent. This can be achieved when referring physicians have a better understanding of the short and long term outcomes associated with every intervention, in terms of survival and quality of life. This review presents up to date evidence for available surgical options for young adults with aortic stenosis and mixed disease not amenable to repair.
Hwang, Ho Young; Kim, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Ki-Bong
Background Data demonstrating results of reoperation after initial tricuspid valve repair are scarce. We evaluated outcomes of tricuspid reoperations after tricuspid valve repair and compared the results of tricuspid re-repair with those of tricuspid valve replacement (TVR). Methods From 1994 to 2012, 53 patients (56±15 years, male:female =14:39) underwent tricuspid reoperations due to recurrent tricuspid regurgitation (TR) after initial repair. Twenty-two patients underwent tricuspid re-repair (TAP group) and 31 patients underwent TVR (TVR group). Results Early mortality occurred in 6 patients (11%). Early mortality and incidence of postoperative complications were similar between the 2 groups. There were 14 cases of late mortality including 9 cardiac deaths. Five- and 10-year free from cardiac death rates were 82% and 67%, respectively, without any intergroup difference. Recurrent TR (> moderate) developed in 6 TAP group patients and structural valve deterioration occurred in 1 TVR group patient (P=0.002). Isolated tricuspid valve surgery (P=0.044) and presence of atrial fibrillation during the follow-up (P=0.051) were associated with recurrent TR after re-repair. However, the overall tricuspid valve-related event rates were similar between the 2 groups with 5- and 10-year rates of 61% and 41%, respectively. Conclusions Tricuspid valve reoperation after initial repair resulted in high rates of operative mortality and complications. Long-term event-free rate was similar regardless of the type of surgery. However, great care might be needed when performing re-repair in patients with atrial fibrillation and those who had isolated tricuspid valve disease due to high recurrence of TR after re-repair. PMID:26904221
Kang, Woon S; Ko, Sung M; Lee, Younsuk; Oh, Chung S; Kwon, Mi Y; Muhammad, Hasmizy; Kim, Seong H; Kim, Tae Y
Pressure half-time (PHT) method is usually unreliable for accurate determination of mitral valve area (MVA) immediately after surgical intervention of mitral stenosis (MS). The planimetry method using three-dimensional (3D) transesophageal echocardiography (3D-planimetery method) could enhance accurate determination of the intraoperative MVA. Authors investigated the efficacy of 3D-planimetry method in determining MVA immediately after mitral valve repair procedure (MVRep) for severe mitral stenosis (MS). In severe MS patients undergoing elective MVRep (N.=41), intraoperative MVAs were determined by using PHT-method and 3D-planimetry method before and immediately after cardiopulmonary bypass (pre- and post-MVAPHT, and -MVA3D-planimetry). MVAs were also determined by using multi-detector computed tomographic scan (MDCT) before MVRep and within 7 days after MVRep (pre- and post-MVACT). MVAs determined by using three different methods were analysed. Mitral inflow pressure gradient (median [25th-75th percentile]) was significantly reduced after MVRep (3.0 [2.0-4.0] vs. 7.0 [6.0-9.0] mmHg; P<0.001). Pre-MVAPHT, pre-MVA3D-planimetry and preop-MVACT (mean [95% confidence interval]) did not differ significantly (1.08 [1.00-1.05], 1.08 [0.98-1.08], and 1.14 [1.07-1.22] cm2, respectively), but post-MVA3D-planimetry and post-MVACT (2.22 [2.07-2.36] and 2.31 [2.07-2.36] cm2, respectively) were significantly larger than post-MVAPHT (1.98 [1.83-2.13] cm2; P=0.007 and P<0.001, respectively). The correlation coefficient between post-MVA3D-planimetry and post-MVACT (0.59, P<0.01) was greater than that between post-MVAPHT and post-MVACT (0.39, P=0.01). These results support the clinical efficacy of 3D-planimetry for accurate evaluation of the MVA immediately after MVRep for severe MS, as a valuable alternative to PHT-method which usually underestimates MVA during this period.
... called anticoagulants) for the rest of their lives. Biological valves are made from animal tissue (called a ... for valve replacement (called an autograft). Patients with biological valves usually do not need to take blood- ...
Autschbach, R; Onnasch, J F; Falk, V; Walther, T; Krüger, M; Schilling, L O; Mohr, F W
The study describes the single-center experience using robot-assisted videoscopic mitral valve surgery and the early results with a remote telemanipulator-assisted approach for mitral valve repair. Out of a series of 230 patients who underwent minimally invasive mitral valve surgery, in 167 patients surgery was performed with the use of robotic assistance. A voice-controlled robotic arm was used for videoscopic guidance in 152 cases. Most recently, a computer-enhanced telemanipulator was used in 15 patients to perform the operation remotely. The mitral valve was repaired in 117 and replaced in all other patients. The voice-controlled robotic arm (AESOP 3000) facilitated videoscopic-assisted mitral valve surgery. The procedure was completed without the need for an additional assistant as "solo surgery." Additional procedures like radiofrequency ablation and tricuspid valve repair were performed in 21 and 4 patients, respectively. Duration of bypass and clamp time was comparable to conventional procedures (107 A 34 and 50 A 16 min, respectively). Hospital mortality was 1.2%. Using the da Vinci telemanipulation system, remote mitral valve repair was successfully performed in 13 of 15 patients. Robotic-assisted less invasive mitral valve surgery has evolved to a reliable technique with reproducible results for primary operations and for reoperations. Robotic assistance has enabled a solo surgery approach. The combination with radiofrequency ablation (Mini Maze) in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation has proven to be beneficial. The use of telemanipulation systems for remote mitral valve surgery is promising, but a number of problems have to be solved before the introduction of a closed chest mitral valve procedure.
Lausberg, H; Schäfers, H J
Although heart valve surgery continues to evolve in a dynamic fashion, there is still no optimal solution for all patients. Minimally invasive surgery currently receives considerable attention but its value still needs to be determined. Progress has been made in valve repair, which now allows reconstruction in most patients with mitral valve disease. Reconstruction of the aortic valve is now also possible with results that are now comparable to those of mitral repair. In the future a wider application of repair procedures and further improvements of biologic valves can be anticipated not only to influence long-term results, but also the decision making process for conservative or surgical treatment.
Yilmaz, Mustafa; Ozkan, Murat; Böke, Erkmen
Surgical treatment of rheumatic valvular disease still constitutes a significant number of cardiac operations in developing countries. Despite improvements in myocardial protection and cardiopulmonary bypass techniques, triple valve operations (aortic, mitral and tricuspid valves) are still challenging because of longer duration of cardiopulmonary bypass and higher degree of myocardial decompensation. This study was instituted in order to assess results of triple valve surgery. Between 1977 and 2002, 34 patients underwent triple valve surgery in our clinic by the same surgeon (EB). Eleven patients underwent triple valve replacement (32.4%) and 23 underwent tricuspid valve annuloplasty with aortic and mitral valve replacements (67.6%). There was no significant difference between the two groups of patients who underwent triple valve replacement and aortic and mitral valve replacement with tricuspid valve annuloplasty. There were 4 hospital deaths (11.8%) occurring within 30 days. The duration of follow-up for 30 survivors ranged from 6 to 202 months (mean 97 months). The actuarial survival rates were 85%, 72%, and 48% at 5, 10, and 15 years respectively. Actuarial freedom from reoperation rates at 5, 10, and 15 years was 86.3%, 71.9%, and 51.2%, respectively. Freedom from cerebral thromboembolism and anticoagulation-related hemorrhage rates, expressed in actuarial terms was 75.9% and 62.9% at 5 and 10 years. Major cerebral complications occurred in 10 of the 30 patients. We prefer replacing, if repairing is not possible, the tricuspid valve, with a bileaflet mechanical prosthesis in a patient with valve replacement of the left heart who will be anticoagulated in order to avoid unfavorable properties of bioprosthesis like degeneration and of old generation mechanical prosthesis like thrombosis and poor hemodynamic function. In recent years, results of triple valve surgery either with tricuspid valve conservation or valve replacement in suitable cases have become
Aicher, Diana; Fries, Roland; Rodionycheva, Svetlana; Schmidt, Kathrin; Langer, Frank; Schäfers, Hans-Joachim
Aortic valve replacement for aortic regurgitation (AR) has been established as a standard treatment but implies prosthesis-related complications. Aortic valve repair is an alternative approach, but its mid- to long-term results still need to be defined. Over a 12-year period, 640 patients underwent aortic valve repair for regurgitation of a unicuspid (n=21), bicuspid (n=205), tricuspid (n=411) or quadricuspid (n=3) aortic valve. The mechanism of regurgitation involved prolapse (n=469) or retraction (n=20) of the cusps, and dilatation of the root (n=323) or combined pathologies. Treatment consisted of cusp repair (n=529), root repair (n=323) or a combination of both (n=208). The patients were followed clinically and echocardiographically; follow-up was complete in 98.5% (cumulative follow-up: 3035 patient years). Hospital mortality was 3.4% in the total patient cohort and 0.8% for isolated aortic valve repair. The incidences of thrombo-embolism (0.2% per patient per year) and endocarditis (0.16%per patient per year) were low. Freedom from re-operation at 5 and 10 years was 88% and 81% in bicuspid and 97% and 93% in tricuspid aortic valves (p=0.0013). At re-operation, 13 out of 36 valves could be re-repaired. Freedom from valve replacement was 95% and 90% in bicuspid and 97% and 94% in tricuspid aortic valves (p=0.36). Freedom from all valve-related complications at 10 years was 88%. Reconstructive surgery of the aortic valve is feasible with low mortality in many individuals with aortic regurgitation. Freedom from valve-related complications after valve repair seems superior compared to available data on standard aortic valve replacement. Copyright 2009 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sales, Virna L.
Opinion statement More attention has been paid to the mitral valve (MV) than the tricuspid valve (TV), and this relative paucity of data has led to confusion regarding the timing of TV surgery. We review the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and European Society of Cardiology guidelines to identify areas of concordance (severe tricuspid regurgitation [TR] in a patient undergoing mitral valve surgery); discordance (less than severe TR but with markers for late TR recurrence such as pulmonary hypertension, a dilated TV annulus, atrial fibrillation, permanent transtricuspid pacing wires and others); and disagreement (surgery for primary TR). We provide our perspective from Northwestern University on these issues and where the guidelines are silent (TR in patients undergoing non-mitral valve operations). Finally, we review recent publications on the results of TV repair and replacement. Although there have been scant publications in the past, there have been more useful publications in recent years to guide our decision making. PMID:21063935
Aramendi, José I; Rodríguez, Miguel A; Voces, Roberto; Pérez, Pedro; Rodrigo, David
We describe a forme frustrée of hammock valve involving only the posterior mitral leaflet. Three adult patients were referred to surgery with the diagnosis of severe mitral regurgitation due to fibrosis of the posterior mitral leaflet. The final diagnosis was done intraoperatively. In all of them the posterior leaflet was attached to some accessory papillary muscles arranged en palisade, with three to four fused muscle heads producing restrictive leaflet motion in systole. Repair consisted in division of the papillary muscles, patch augmentation, and ring annuloplasty. This previously unreported lesion is congenital but manifests itself in adulthood.
... with an artificial valve (this is called the Ross Procedure). This procedure may be useful for people ... valve that does not close all the way will allow blood to leak backwards. This is called ...
... place. There are two types of mitral valves: Mechanical, made of man-made (synthetic) materials, such as ... Mechanical heart valves last a lifetime. However, blood clots may develop on them. This can cause them ...
Bikbov, M M; Khusnitdinov, I I
This is a review on Ahmed valve application in glaucoma surgery. It contains, in particular, data on the Ahmed valve efficiency, results of experimental and histological studies of filtering bleb encapsulation, examines the use of antimetabolites and anti-VEGF agents, and discusses implantation techniques. The current appraisal of antimetabolites delivery systems integrated into the Ahmed valve is presented. Various complications encountered in practice and preventive measures are also covered.
Tagliasacchi, Isabella; Martinelli, Luigi; Bardaro, Leopoldo; Chierchia, Sergio
Osteogenesis imperfecta is a disorder of the connective tissue that affects several structures including heart valves. However, cardiac surgery is associated with high mortality and morbidity rates. In a 48-year-old man with osteogenesis imperfecta and mitral valve prolapse, we performed the first successful mitral valve repair by right anterior mini-thoracotomy. At the 1-year follow-up, he was asymptomatic and echocardiography confirmed the initial success. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.
... and into a large blood vessel called the aorta. The aortic valve separates the heart and aorta. The aortic valve opens so blood can flow ... to be able to see your heart and aorta. You may need to be connected to a ...
... weeks, or when you can easily climb 2 flights of stairs or walk a half-mile (800 ... vomiting or diarrhea You become pregnant or are planning to become pregnant Alternative Names Aortic valve replacement - ...
Goodman, Avi; Koprivanac, Marijan; Kelava, Marta; Mick, Stephanie L; Gillinov, A Marc; Rajeswaran, Jeevanantham; Brzezinski, Anna; Blackstone, Eugene H; Mihaljevic, Tomislav
Adoption of robotic mitral valve surgery has been slow, likely in part because of its perceived technical complexity and a poorly understood learning curve. We sought to correlate changes in technical performance and outcome with surgeon experience in the "learning curve" part of our series. From 2006 to 2011, two surgeons undertook robotically assisted mitral valve repair in 458 patients (intent-to-treat); 404 procedures were completed entirely robotically (as-treated). Learning curves were constructed by modeling surgical sequence number semiparametrically with flexible penalized spline smoothing best-fit curves. Operative efficiency, reflecting technical performance, improved for (1) operating room time for case 1 to cases 200 (early experience) and 400 (later experience), from 414 to 364 to 321 minutes (12% and 22% decrease, respectively), (2) cardiopulmonary bypass time, from 148 to 102 to 91 minutes (31% and 39% decrease), and (3) myocardial ischemic time, from 119 to 75 to 68 minutes (37% and 43% decrease). Composite postoperative complications, reflecting safety, decreased from 17% to 6% to 2% (63% and 85% decrease). Intensive care unit stay decreased from 32 to 28 to 24 hours (13% and 25% decrease). Postoperative stay fell from 5.2 to 4.5 to 3.8 days (13% and 27% decrease). There were no in-hospital deaths. Predischarge mitral regurgitation of less than 2+, reflecting effectiveness, was achieved in 395 (97.8%), without correlation to experience; return-to-work times did not change substantially with experience. Technical efficiency of robotic mitral valve repair improves with experience and permits its safe and effective conduct.
Petrone, Giuseppe; Theodoropoulos, Panagiotis; Punjabi, Prakash P
Mitral valve repair (MVr) in rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains challenging. The present authors' surgical experience of MVr in 56 patients with RHD operated in between January 2011 and September 2014 is reported. Among the patients (mean age 32 ± 11 years), 11 were in NYHA functional class II, 32 in class III, and seven in class IV. An adequate or oversized autologous pericardial patch was sutured to extend the coaptating edge of both the anterior leaflet (in 18 patients) and the posterior leaflet (in 30 patients). Neochordae were implanted as needed (n = 43), and leaflet thinning (n = 13), commissurotomy (n = 15) and chordal splitting (n = 9) were also performed. A rigid annuloplasty ring was implanted in 32 patients, and in 24 patients a complete flexible annuloplasty ring made from pericardium, 4 mm Gore-Tex tube graft or a Dacron patch was constructed. Repair was not attempted in 16 patients, with replacement using a mechanical bileaflet prosthesis being considered the only option. Intraoperative post-repair transesophageal echocardiography demonstrated competency, with trivial mitral regurgitation (MR) up to grade I in all patients and a minimum coaptation depth ≥5 mm. There were no intraoperative or in-hospital deaths. Clinical and echocardiographic evaluations were performed up to six weeks after surgery, at which time 51 patients were in NYHA classes I-II and five were in class III. Residual mild MR up to grade I was identified in six patients. No recurrence of MR was observed in any of the patients, and no patients were reoperated on. The lack of adequate access to anticoagulation medication and monitoring, in addition to religious/cultural bias to the type of prosthetic valve used in low-income countries, necessitates an increase in the numbers of rheumatic MVr.
Feldman, Ted; Foster, Elyse; Glower, Donald D; Glower, Donald G; Kar, Saibal; Rinaldi, Michael J; Fail, Peter S; Smalling, Richard W; Siegel, Robert; Rose, Geoffrey A; Engeron, Eric; Loghin, Catalin; Trento, Alfredo; Skipper, Eric R; Fudge, Tommy; Letsou, George V; Massaro, Joseph M; Mauri, Laura
Mitral-valve repair can be accomplished with an investigational procedure that involves the percutaneous implantation of a clip that grasps and approximates the edges of the mitral leaflets at the origin of the regurgitant jet. We randomly assigned 279 patients with moderately severe or severe (grade 3+ or 4+) mitral regurgitation in a 2:1 ratio to undergo either percutaneous repair or conventional surgery for repair or replacement of the mitral valve. The primary composite end point for efficacy was freedom from death, from surgery for mitral-valve dysfunction, and from grade 3+ or 4+ mitral regurgitation at 12 months. The primary safety end point was a composite of major adverse events within 30 days. At 12 months, the rates of the primary end point for efficacy were 55% in the percutaneous-repair group and 73% in the surgery group (P=0.007). The respective rates of the components of the primary end point were as follows: death, 6% in each group; surgery for mitral-valve dysfunction, 20% versus 2%; and grade 3+ or 4+ mitral regurgitation, 21% versus 20%. Major adverse events occurred in 15% of patients in the percutaneous-repair group and 48% of patients in the surgery group at 30 days (P<0.001). At 12 months, both groups had improved left ventricular size, New York Heart Association functional class, and quality-of-life measures, as compared with baseline. Although percutaneous repair was less effective at reducing mitral regurgitation than conventional surgery, the procedure was associated with superior safety and similar improvements in clinical outcomes. (Funded by Abbott Vascular; EVEREST II ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00209274.).
Langer, Frank; Aicher, Diana; Kissinger, Anke; Wendler, Olaf; Lausberg, Henning; Fries, Roland; Schäfers, Hans-Joachim
Reconstruction of the aortic valve for aortic regurgitation (AR) remains challenging, in part because of not only cusp or root pathology but also a combination of both can be responsible for this valve dysfunction. We have systematically tailored the repair to the individual pathology of cusps and root. Between October 1995 and August 2003, aortic valve repair was performed in 282 of 493 patients undergoing surgery for AR and concomitant disease. Root dilatation was corrected by subcommissural plication (n=59), supracommissural aortic replacement (n=27), root remodeling (n=175), or valve reimplantation within a graft (n=24). Cusp prolapse was corrected by plication of the free margin (n=157) or triangular resection (n =36), cusp defects were closed with a pericardial patch (n=16). Additional procedures were arch replacement (n=114), coronary artery bypass graft (n=60) or mitral repair (n=24). All patients were followed-up (follow-up 99.6% complete), and cumulative follow-up was 8425 patient-months (mean, 33+/-27 months).Results- Eleven patients died in hospital (3.9%). Nine patients underwent reoperation for recurrent AR (3.3%). Actuarial freedom from AR grade > or =II at 5 years was 81% for isolated valve repair, 84% for isolated root replacement, and 94% for combination of both; actuarial freedom from reoperation at 5 years was 93%, 95%, and 98%, respectively. No thromboembolic events occurred, and there was 1 episode of endocarditis 4.5 years postoperatively. Aortic valve repair is feasible even for complex mechanisms of AR with a systematic and individually tailored approach. Operative mortality is low and mid-term durability is encouraging. The incidence of valve-related morbidity is low compared with valve replacement.
Lausberg, Henning F; Aicher, Diana; Langer, Frank; Schäfers, Hans-Joachim
Isolated aortic valve repair (AVR) has been gaining increasing interest in recent times. Results of isolated aortic valve repair have been reported to be variable. Various techniques have been utilized. We analyzed our experience with isolated valve repair using autologous pericardial patch plasty and compared the results to an age-matched collective with aortic valve repair without the use of additional material. Between January 1997 and June 2005, pericardial patch plasty of the aortic valve was performed in 42 patients (PATCH). During the same period, 42 patients after AVR without the use of additional material were age matched (NO-PATCH). Mean age in both groups was 52 years with a majority of male patients (PATCH ratio, 3.7:1; NO-PATCH ratio, 5:1). Valve anatomy was similar in both groups. All patients were followed by echocardiography for a cumulative follow-up of 2341 patient months (mean 28+/-23 months). No patient died in the hospital in neither group. The average systolic gradient was 5.9+/-2.2 mmHg in PATCH and 4.8+/-2.1 mmHg in NO-PATCH; p=0.17). Freedom from aortic regurgitation > or = II degrees was 87.8% in PATCH and 95.0% in NO-PATCH after 5 years (p=0.21). Freedom from reoperation was 97.6% in PATCH and 97.4% in NO-PATCH (p=0.96). Aortic regurgitation can be treated effectively by aortic valve repair using pericardial patch plasty. The functional results are satisfactory. With the application of this technique also more complex pathologies of the aortic valve can be addressed adequately thus extending the concept of valve preservation in patients with aortic regurgitation.
Umakanthan, Ramanan; Ghanta, Ravi K; Rangaraj, Aravind T; Lee, Lawrence S; Laurence, Rita G; Fox, John A; Mihaljevic, Tomislav; Bolman, Ralph M; Cohn, Lawrence H; Chen, Frederick Y
Open heart surgery is commonly associated with cardiopulmonary bypass and cardioplegic arrest. The attendant risks of cardiopulmonary bypass may be prohibitive in high-risk patients. We present a novel endoscopic technique of performing tricuspid valve repair without cardiopulmonary bypass in a beating ovine heart. Six sheep underwent sternotomy and creation of a right heart shunt to eliminate right atrial and right ventricular blood for clear visualization. The superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, pulmonary artery, and coronary sinus were cannulated, and the blood flow from these vessels was shunted into the pulmonary artery via a roller pump. The posterior leaflet of the tricuspid valve was partially excised to create tricuspid regurgitation, which was confirmed by Doppler echocardiography. A 7.0-mm fiberoptic videoscope was inserted into the right atrium to visualize the tricuspid valve. Under cardioscopic vision, an endoscopic needle driver was inserted into the right atrium, and a concentric stitch was placed along the posterior annulus to bicuspidize the tricuspid valve. Doppler echocardiography confirmed reduction of tricuspid regurgitation. All animals successfully underwent and tolerated the surgical procedure. The right heart shunt generated a bloodless field, facilitating cardioscopic tricuspid valve visualization. The endoscopic stitch resulted in annular plication and functional tricuspid valve bicuspidization, significantly reducing the degree of tricuspid regurgitation. Cardioscopy enables less invasive, beating-heart tricuspid valve surgery in an ovine model. This technique may be useful in performing right heart surgery without cardiopulmonary bypass in high-risk patients.
Moss, Emmanuel; Halkos, Michael E
Significant technological advances have led to an impressive evolution in mitral valve surgery over the last two decades, allowing surgeons to safely perform less invasive operations through the right chest. Most new technology comes with an increased upfront cost that must be measured against postoperative savings and other advantages such as decreased perioperative complications, faster recovery, and earlier return to preoperative level of functioning. The Da Vinci robot is an example of such a technology, combining the significant benefits of minimally invasive surgery with a "gold standard" valve repair. Although some have reported that robotic surgery is associated with increased overall costs, there is literature suggesting that efficient perioperative care and shorter lengths of stay can offset the increased capital and intraoperative expenses. While data on current cost is important to consider, one must also take into account future potential value resulting from technological advancement when evaluating cost-effectiveness. Future refinements that will facilitate more effective surgery, coupled with declining cost of technology will further increase the value of robotic surgery compared to traditional approaches.
... working correctly. Most valve replacements involve the aortic Tricuspid valve and mitral valves. The aortic valve separates ... where it shouldn’t. This is called incompetence, insufficiency or regurgitation. • Prolapse — mitral valve flaps don’t ...
McLeod, A. Jonathan; Moore, John T.; Peters, Terry M.
Beating heart valve therapies rely extensively on image guidance to treat patients who would be considered inoperable with conventional surgery. Mitral valve repair techniques including the MitrClip, NeoChord, and emerging transcatheter mitral valve replacement techniques rely on transesophageal echocardiography for guidance. These images are often difficult to interpret as the tool will cause shadowing artifacts that occlude tissue near the target site. Here, we integrate ultrasound imaging directly into the NeoChord device. This provides an unobstructed imaging plane that can visualize the valve lea ets as they are engaged by the device and can aid in achieving both a proper bite and spacing between the neochordae implants. A proof of concept user study in a phantom environment is performed to provide a proof of concept for this device.
Charland, Patrick J; Robbins, Tom; Rodriguez, Evilio; Nifong, Wiley L; Chitwood, Randolph W
To determine if the time required to perform mitral valve repairs using telemanipulation technology decreases with experience and how that decrease is influenced by patient and procedure variables. A single-center retrospective review was conducted using perioperative and outcomes data collected contemporaneously on 458 mitral valve repair surgeries using telemanipulative technology. A regression model was constructed to assess learning with this technology and predict total robot time using multiple predictive variables. Statistical analysis was used to determine if models were significantly useful, to rule out correlation between predictor variables, and to identify terms that did not contribute to the prediction of total robot time. We found a statistically significant learning curve (P < .01). The institutional learning percentage∗ derived from total robot times† for the first 458 recorded cases of mitral valve repair using telemanipulative technology is 95% (R(2) = .40). More than one third of the variability in total robot time can be explained through our model using the following variables: type of repair (chordal procedures, ablations, and leaflet resections), band size, use of clips alone in band implantation, and the presence of a fellow at bedside (P < .01). Learning in mitral valve repair surgery using telemanipulative technology occurs at the East Carolina Heart Institute according to a logarithmic curve, with a learning percentage of 95%. From our regression output, we can make an approximate prediction of total robot time using an additive model. These metrics can be used by programs for benchmarking to manage the implementation of this new technology, as well as for capacity planning, scheduling, and capital budget analysis. Copyright © 2011 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.
Desai, Ravi R; Vargas Abello, Lina Maria; Klein, Allan L; Marwick, Thomas H; Krasuski, Richard A; Ye, Ying; Nowicki, Edward R; Rajeswaran, Jeevanantham; Blackstone, Eugene H; Pettersson, Gösta B
To study the effect of mitral valve repair with or without concomitant tricuspid valve repair on functional tricuspid regurgitation and right ventricular function. From 2001 to 2007, 1833 patients with degenerative mitral valve disease, a structurally normal tricuspid valve, and no coronary artery disease underwent mitral valve repair, and 67 underwent concomitant tricuspid valve repair. Right ventricular function (myocardial performance index and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion) was measured before and after surgery using transthoracic echocardiography for randomly selected patients with tricuspid regurgitation grade 0, 1+, and 2+ (100 patients for each grade) and 93 with grade 3+/4+, 393 patients in total. In patients with mild (<3+) preoperative tricuspid regurgitation, mitral valve repair alone was associated with reduced tricuspid regurgitation and mild worsening of right ventricular function. Tricuspid regurgitation of 2+ or greater developed in fewer than 20%, and right ventricular function had improved, but not to preoperative levels, at 3 years. In patients with severe (3+/4+) preoperative tricuspid regurgitation, mitral valve repair alone reduced tricuspid regurgitation and improved right ventricular function; however, tricuspid regurgitation of 2+ or greater returned and right ventricular function worsened toward preoperative levels within 3 years. Concomitant tricuspid valve repair effectively eliminated severe tricuspid regurgitation and improved right ventricular function. Also, over time, tricuspid regurgitation did not return and right ventricular function continued to improve to levels comparable to that of patients with lower grades of preoperative tricuspid regurgitation. In patients with mitral valve disease and severe tricuspid regurgitation, mitral valve repair alone was associated with improved tricuspid regurgitation and right ventricular function. However, the improvements were incomplete and temporary. In contrast, concomitant
Robotic mitral valve repair began in 1998 and has advanced remarkably. It arose from an interest in reducing patient trauma by operating through smaller incisions with videoscopic assistance. In the United States, following two clinical trials, the FDA approved the daVinci Surgical System in 2002 for intra-cardiac surgery. This device has undergone three iterations, eventuating in the current daVinci XI. At present it is the only robotic device approved for mitral valve surgery. Many larger centers have adopted its use as part of their routine mitral valve repair armamentarium. Although these operations have longer perfusion and arrest times, complications have been either similar or less than other traditional methods. Preoperative screening is paramount and leads to optimal patient selection and outcomes. There are clear contraindications, both relative and absolute, that must be considered. Three-dimensional (3D) echocardiographic studies optimally guide surgeons in operative planning. Herein, we describe the selection criteria as well as our operative management during a robotic mitral valve repair. Major complications are detailed with tips to avoid their occurrence. Operative outcomes from the author’s series as well as those from the largest experiences in the United States are described. They show that robotic mitral valve repair is safe and effective, as well as economically reasonable due to lower costs of hospitalization. Thus, the future of this operative technique is bright for centers adopting the “heart team” approach, adequate clinical volume and a dedicated and experienced mitral repair surgeon. PMID:27942486
... heart valves are either natural (biologic) or artificial (mechanical). Natural valves are from human donors (cadavers), modified ... artificial valves will require anticoagulation. The advantage of mechanical valves is that they last longer-thus, the ...
Lausberg, H F; Aicher, D; Kissinger, A; Langer, F; Fries, R; Schäfers, H-J
Aortic valve repair was established in the context of aortic root remodeling. Variable results have been reported for isolated valve repair. We analyzed our experience with isolated valve repair and compared the results with those of aortic root remodeling. Between October 1995 and August 2003, isolated repair of the aortic valve was performed in 83 patients (REP), remodeling of the aortic valve in 175 patients (REMO). The demographics of the two groups were comparable (REP: mean age 54.4 +/- 20.7 yrs, male-female ratio 2.1 : 1; REMO: mean age 60.8 +/- 13.6 yrs, male-female ratio 2.4 : 1; p = ns). In both groups the number of bicuspid valves was comparable (REP: 41 %, REMO: 32 %; p = ns). All patients were followed by echocardiography for a cumulative follow-up of 8204 patient months (mean 32 +/- 23 months). Overall in-hospital mortality was 2.4 % in REP and 4.6 % in REMO ( p = 0.62). Systolic gradients were comparable in both groups (REP: 5.8 +/- 2.2, REMO: 6.5 +/- 3.1 mm Hg, p = 0.09). The mean degree of aortic regurgitation 12 months postoperatively was 0.8 +/- 0.7 after REP and 0.7 +/- 0.7 after REMO ( p = 0.29). Freedom from significant regurgitation (> or = II degrees ) after 5 years was 86 % in REP and 89 % in REMO ( p = 0.17). Freedom from re-operation after 5 years was 94.4 % in REP and 98.2 % in REMO ( p = 0.33). Aortic regurgitation without concomitant root dilatation can be treated effectively by aortic valve repair. The functional results are equivalent to those obtained with valve-preserving root replacement. Aortic valve repair appears to be an alternative to valve replacement in aortic regurgitation.
Honjo, Osami; Mertens, Luc; Van Arsdell, Glen S
Significant atrioventricular (AV) valve insufficiency in patient with single ventricle-physiology is strongly associated with poor survival. Herein we discuss the etiology and mechanism of development of significant AV valve insufficiency in patients with single-ventricle physiology, surgical indication and repair techniques, and clinical outcomes along with our 10-year surgical experience. Our recent clinical series and literature review indicate that it is of prime importance to appreciate the high incidence and clinical effect of the structural abnormalities of AV valve. Valve repair at stage II palliation may minimize the period of volume overload, thereby potentially preserving post-repair ventricular function. Since 85% of the AV valve insufficiency was associated with structural abnormalities, inspection of an AV valve that has more than mild to moderate insufficiency is recommended because they are not likely to be successfully treated with volume unloading surgery alone. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Juściński, Jacek H; Koprowski, Andrzej; Kołaczkowska, Magdalena; Kowalik, Maciej M; Rogowski, Jan A; Rankin, James S
Aortic valve reconstructions using geometric annuloplasty rings HAART 300/200 open new era in aortic valve surgery. The HAART technology resizes, reshapes, stabilizes and simplifies aortic valve repair. The HAART aortic repair rings are designed to be implanted directly into aortic annulus (under aortic valve leaflets). We present first in Poland 4 cases of aortic valve reconstructions using geometric annuloplasty rings HAART 300. Two patients had type IA aortic insufficiency (due to El-Khoury classification) - they were treated by HAART 300 ring insertion and ascending aorta prosthesis implantation. Third patient, Marfan with type IB aortic insufficiency was repaired by HAART 300 ring implantation followed by remodeling (Yacoub) procedure. Fourth patient with type II aortic insufficiency (due to RCC prolapse) was repaired by HAART 300 implantation and cusp plication. All patients shows good results on 6 months postoperative 3D TTE examinations. Presented technique is reproducible and simplify aortic valve reconstructions.
Revuelta, J.M.; Gomez-Duran, C.; Garcia-Rinaldi, R.; Gallagher, M.W.
It is desirable to repair coexistent tricuspid valve pathology at the time of mitral valve corrections. Conservative tricuspid repair may consist of commissurotomy, annuloplasty, or both. It is important that the repair be appropriate or tricuspid valve replacement may be necessary. A simple reproducible method of intraoperative testing for tricuspid valve insufficiency has been developed and used in 25 patients. Fifteen patients have been recatheterized, and the correlation between the intraoperative and postoperative findings has been consistent. PMID:15226931
Desai, Ravi R.; Vargas Abello, Lina Maria; Klein, Allan L.; Marwick, Thomas H.; Krasuski, Richard A.; Ye, Ying; Nowicki, Edward R.; Rajeswaran, Jeevanantham; Blackstone, Eugene H.; Pettersson, Gösta B.
Objectives To study the effect of mitral valve repair with or without concomitant tricuspid valve repair on functional tricuspid regurgitation and right ventricular function. Methods From 2001 to 2007, 1833 patients with degenerative mitral valve disease, a structurally normal tricuspid valve, and no coronary artery disease underwent mitral valve repair, and 67 underwent concomitant tricuspid valve repair. Right ventricular function (myocardial performance index and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion) was measured before and after surgery using transthoracic echocardiography for randomly selected patients with tricuspid regurgitation grade 0, 1+, and 2+(100 patients for each grade) and 93 with grade 3+/4+, 393 patients in total. Results In patients with mild (<3+) preoperative tricuspid regurgitation, mitral valve repair alone was associated with reduced tricuspid regurgitation and mild worsening of right ventricular function. Tricuspid regurgitation of 2+or greater developed in fewer than 20%, and right ventricular function had improved, but not to preoperative levels, at 3 years. In patients with severe (3+/4+) preoperative tricuspid regurgitation, mitral valve repair alone reduced tricuspid regurgitation and improved right ventricular function; however, tricuspid regurgitation of 2+ or greater returned and right ventricular function worsened toward preoperative levels within 3 years. Concomitant tricuspid valve repair effectively eliminated severe tricuspid regurgitation and improved right ventricular function. Also, over time, tricuspid regurgitation did not return and right ventricular function continued to improve to levels comparable to that of patients with lower grades of preoperative tricuspid regurgitation. Conclusions In patients with mitral valve disease and severe tricuspid regurgitation, mitral valve repair alone was associated with improved tricuspid regurgitation and right ventricular function. However, the improvements were incomplete and
... flow. Your valve has developed an infection (infectious endocarditis). You have severe mitral valve prolapse that is ... function. Damage to your heart valve from infection (endocarditis). A minimally invasive procedure has many benefits. There ...
Delmo Walter, Eva Maria; Hetzer, Roland
We report the techniques and long-term outcome of mitral valve (MV) repair to correct congenital mitral stenosis in children. Between 1986 and 2014, 137 children (mean age 4.1 ± 5.0, range 1 month-16.8 years) underwent repair of congenital mitral stenosis (CMS). In 48 patients, CMS is involved in Shone's anomaly. The typical congenital MS (type I) was seen in 56 patients. Hypoplastic MV (type II, n = 15) was associated with severe left ventricular outflow tract abnormalities and hypoplastic left ventricular cavity and muscle mass. Supravalvar ring (type III, n = 48) ranged from a thin membrane to a thick discrete fibrous ridge. Parachute MV (type IV, n = 10) have 2 leaflets and barely distinguishable commissures, but all chordae merged either into 1 major papillary muscle or asymmetric papillary muscles-1 dominant and the other minuscule. Hammock valve (type IV, n = 8) appeared dysplastic with shortened chordae directly inserted into the posterior left ventricular muscle mass. MV repair was performed using commissurotomy, chordal division, papillary muscle splitting and fenestration, and mitral ring resection, each applied according to the presenting morphology. During the 28-year follow-up period, 23 patients underwent repeat MV repair and 3 underwent MV replacement after failed attempts at repeat repair. At 1 and 15 years postoperatively, freedom from reoperation was 89.3 ± 5.1% and 52.8 ± 11.8%, and cumulative survival rates were 92.3 ± 4.3% and 70.3 ± 8.9, respectively. Mortality unrelated to repair accounted for 9 (20%) deaths. Long-term functional outcome of MV repair in children with CMS is satisfactory. Repeat repair or replacement may be deemed necessary during the course of follow-up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Helder, Meghana R K; Schaff, Hartzell V; Dearani, Joseph A; Li, Zhuo; Stulak, John M; Suri, Rakesh M; Connolly, Heidi M
The study objective was to evaluate patients with Marfan syndrome and mitral valve regurgitation undergoing valve repair or replacement and to compare them with patients undergoing repair for myxomatous mitral valve disease. We reviewed the medical records of consecutive patients with Marfan syndrome treated surgically between March 17, 1960, and September 12, 2011, for mitral regurgitation and performed a subanalysis of those with repairs compared with case-matched patients with myxomatous mitral valve disease who had repairs (March 14, 1995, to July 5, 2013). Of 61 consecutive patients, 40 underwent mitral repair and 21 underwent mitral replacement (mean [standard deviation] age, 40  vs 31  years; P = .09). Concomitant aortic surgery was performed to a similar extent (repair, 45% [18/40] vs replacement, 43% [9/21]; P = .87). Ten-year survival was significantly better in patients with Marfan syndrome with mitral repair than in those with replacement (80% vs 41%; P = .01). Mitral reintervention did not differ between mitral repair and replacement (cumulative risk of reoperation, 27% vs 15%; P = .64). In the matched cohort, 10-year survival after repair was similar for patients with Marfan syndrome and myxomatous mitral disease (84% vs 78%; P = .63), as was cumulative risk of reoperation (17% vs 12%; P = .61). Patients with Marfan syndrome and mitral regurgitation have better survival with repair than with replacement. Survival and risk of reoperation for patients with Marfan syndrome were similar to those for patients with myxomatous mitral disease. These results support the use of mitral valve repair in patients with Marfan syndrome and moderate or more mitral regurgitation, including those having composite replacement of the aortic root. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Gafoor, Sameer; Petrescu, O Madalina; Lehr, Eric J; Puls, Charles; Zhang, Ming; Petersen, John L; Olsen, John V; Penev, Irina; Agrawal, Mayank; Sharma, Rahul; Barnhart, Glenn
Patients who present with both severe mitral and tricuspid regurgitation who are symptomatic despite optimal medical therapy and at prohibitive risk for surgery pose a significant therapeutic challenge. The MitraClip device (Abbott Vascular) is approved for percutaneous mitral valve repair in high-risk and non-operative patients, and has also been used for tricuspid valve repair. Imaging support for percutaneous edge-to-edge tricuspid valve repair has not been reported and is a vital part of the procedure. Here, we present a periprocedural imaging strategy for percutaneous tricuspid valve repair with the MitraClip device using a bicuspidization technique.
... There are two main types of new valves: Mechanical, made of man-made materials, such as titanium ... Mechanical heart valves do not fail often. However, blood clots can develop on them. If a blood ...
Maisano, F; Lorusso, R; Sandrelli, L; Torracca, L; Coletti, G; La Canna, G; Alfieri, O
The review of six cases of valve repair for traumatic tricuspid regurgitation in our institution and 74 in the literature in order to assess effective methods of treating this lesion. Tricuspid valve regurgitation is a rare complication of blunt chest trauma. Optimal treatment for this condition is still controversial ranging from long-term medical therapy to early surgical correction. We followed the cases of six consecutive patients with post-traumatic tricuspid incompetence who were successfully treated with reparative techniques. All patients were male and their ages ranged from 18 years to 42 years. Valve regurgitation was always secondary to blunt chest trauma due to motor vehicle accident. The mechanism of valve insufficiency was invariably anterior leaflet prolapse due to chordal or papillary muscle rupture associated with annular dilatation. Surgical procedures included Carpentier ring implant (5 patients), Bex posterior annuloplasty (1 patient), implant of artificial chordae (4 patients), papillary muscle reinsertion (2 patients), commissuroplasty (1 patient) and "artificial double orifice" technique (1 patient). Tricuspid insufficiency improved in all patients after the correction. No complications were recorded and all patients were asymptomatic at the follow-up. Since post-traumatic tricuspid regurgitation is effectively correctable with reparative techniques, early operation is recommended to relieve symptoms and to prevent right ventricular dysfunction.
Sardari Nia, Peyman; Heuts, Samuel; Daemen, Jean; Luyten, Peter; Vainer, Jindrich; Hoorntje, Jan; Cheriex, Emile; Maessen, Jos
Mitral valve repair performed by an experienced surgeon is superior to mitral valve replacement for degenerative mitral valve disease; however, many surgeons are still deterred from adapting this procedure because of a steep learning curve. Simulation-based training and planning could improve the surgical performance and reduce the learning curve. The aim of this study was to develop a patient-specific simulation for mitral valve repair and provide a proof of concept of personalized medicine in a patient prospectively planned for mitral valve surgery. A 65-year old male with severe symptomatic mitral valve regurgitation was referred to our mitral valve heart team. On the basis of three-dimensional (3D) transoesophageal echocardiography and computed tomography, 3D reconstructions of the patient's anatomy were constructed. By navigating through these reconstructions, the repair options and surgical access were chosen (minimally invasive repair). Using rapid prototyping and negative mould fabrication, we developed a process to cast a patient-specific mitral valve silicone replica for preoperative repair in a high-fidelity simulator. Mitral valve and negative mould were printed in systole to capture the pathology when the valve closes. A patient-specific mitral valve silicone replica was casted and mounted in the simulator. All repair techniques could be performed in the simulator to choose the best repair strategy. As the valve was printed in systole, no special testing other than adjusting the coaptation area was required. Subsequently, the patient was operated, mitral valve pathology was validated and repair was successfully done as in the simulation. The patient-specific simulation and planning could be applied for surgical training, starting the (minimally invasive) mitral valve repair programme, planning of complex cases and the evaluation of new interventional techniques. The personalized medicine could be a possible pathway towards enhancing reproducibility
Maslow, Andrew; Gemignani, Anthony; Singh, Arun; Mahmood, Feroze; Poppas, Athena
In the present study, 3 different methods to measure the mitral valve area (MVA) after mitral valve repair (MVRep) were studied. Data obtained immediately after repair were compared with postoperative data. The objective was to determine the feasibility and correlation between intraoperative and postoperative MVA data. A prospective study. A tertiary care medical center. Twenty-five elective adult surgical patients scheduled for MVRep. Echocardiographic data included MVAs obtained using the pressure half-time (PHT), 2-dimensional planimetry (2D-PLAN), and the continuity equation (CE). These data were obtained immediately after cardiopulmonary bypass and were compared with data obtained before hospital discharge (transthoracic echocardiogram 1) and 6 to 12 months after surgery (transthoracic echocardiogram 2). Intraoperative care was guided by hemodynamic goals designed to optimize cardiac function. The data show good agreement and correlation between MVA obtained with PHT and 2D-PLAN within and between each time period. MVA data obtained with the CE in the postoperative period were lower than and did not correlate or agree as well with other MVA data. The MVA recorded immediately after valve repair, using PHT, correlated and agreed with MVA data obtained in the postoperative period. These results contrast with previously published data and could highlight the impact of hemodynamic function during the assessment of MVA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Barbero, Cristina; Marchetto, Giovanni; Ricci, Davide; Mancuso, Samuel; Boffini, Massimo; Cecchi, Enrico; De Rosa, Francesco Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Mauro
Minimal access mitral valve surgery (MVS) has already proved to be feasible and effective with low perioperative mortality and excellent long-term outcomes. However, experience in more complex valve diseases such as infective endocarditis (IE) still remains limited. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate early and long-term results of minimal access MVS for IE. Data were entered into a dedicated database. Analysis was performed retrospectively for the 8-year period between January 2007 and April 2015. During the study period, 35 consecutive patients underwent minimal access MVS for IE at our department. Twenty-four had diagnosis of native MV endocarditis (68.6%) and 11 of mitral prosthesis endocarditis (31.4%).Thirty patients underwent early MVS (85.7%), and 5 patients were operated after the completion of antibiotic treatment (14.3%). Seven patients underwent MV repair (20%), 17 patients underwent MV replacement (48.6%), and 11 patients underwent mitral prosthesis replacement (31.4%). Thirty-day mortality was 11.4% (4 patients). No neurological or vascular complications were reported. One patient underwent reoperation for prosthesis IE relapse after 37 days. Overall actuarial survival rate at 1 and 5 years was 83%; freedom from MV reoperation and/or recurrence of IE at 1 and 5 years was 97%. Minimally invasive MVS for IE is feasible and associated with good early and long-term results. Preoperative accurate patient selection and transoesophageal echocardiography evaluation is mandatory for surgical planning. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.
Enomoto, Yoshinori; Sudo, Yoshio; Sueta, Tomonori
Tricuspid insufficiency due to penetrating cardiac trauma is rare. Patients with tricuspid insufficiency due to trauma can tolerate this abnormality for months or even years. We report a case of a 66-year-old female with penetrating cardiac trauma on the right side of her heart that required tricuspid valve repair in an acute setting. She sustained cut and stab wounds on her bilateral forearms and in the neck and epigastric region. She had cardiac tamponade and developed pulseless electrical activity, which required emergency surgery. The right ventricle and superior vena cava were dissected approximately 5 cm and 2 cm, respectively. After these wounds had been repaired, the patient's inability to wean from cardiopulmonary bypass suggested rightsided heart failure; transesophageal echocardiography revealed tricuspid insufficiency. Right atriotomy was performed, and a detailed examination revealed that the tricuspid valve septal leaflet was split in two. There was also an atrial septal injury that created a connection with the left atrium; these injuries were not detected from the right ventricular wound. After repair, weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass with mild tricuspid insufficiency was achieved, and she recovered uneventfully. This case emphasized the importance of thoroughly investigating intracardiac injury and transesophageal echocardiography.
Uehara, Kyokun; Minakata, Kenji; Watanabe, Kentaro; Sakaguchi, Hisashi; Yamazaki, Kazuhiro; Ikeda, Tadashi; Sakata, Ryuzo
Tricuspid valve regurgitation due to pacemaker leads is a well-known complication. Although some reports have suggested that pacemaker leads should be surgically explanted, strongly adhered leads cannot always be removed. The aim of this study was to describe our tricuspid valve repair techniques with pacemaker leads left in situ. Our retrospective study investigated 6 consecutive patients who required tricuspid valve surgery for severe regurgitation induced by pacemaker leads. From the operative findings, we identified 3 patterns of tricuspid valve and pacemaker lead involvement. In 3 patients, the leads were caught in the chordae, in 2 patients, tricuspid regurgitation was caused by lead impingement on the septal leaflet, and in 3 patients, tricuspid valve leaflets had been perforated by the pacemaker leads. During surgery, all leads were left in situ after being separated from the leaflet or valvular apparatus. In addition, suture annuloplasty was performed for annular dilatation in all cases. In one patient, the lead was reaffixed to the annulus after the posterior leaflet was cut back towards the annulus, and the leaflet was then closed. There was one hospital death due to sepsis. The degree of tricuspid regurgitation was trivial in all surviving patients at discharge. During a mean follow-up of 21 months, one patient died from pneumonia 20 months after tricuspid valve repair. In patients undergoing tricuspid valve surgery due to severe tricuspid regurgitation caused by pacemaker leads, the leads can be left in situ after proper repair with annuloplasty. © The Author(s) 2016.
Scanlan, Adam B; Nguyen, Alex V; Ilina, Anna; Lasso, Andras; Cripe, Linnea; Jegatheeswaran, Anusha; Silvestro, Elizabeth; McGowan, Francis X; Mascio, Christopher E; Fuller, Stephanie; Spray, Thomas L; Cohen, Meryl S; Fichtinger, Gabor; Jolley, Matthew A
Mastering the technical skills required to perform pediatric cardiac valve surgery is challenging in part due to limited opportunity for practice. Transformation of 3D echocardiographic (echo) images of congenitally abnormal heart valves to realistic physical models could allow patient-specific simulation of surgical valve repair. We compared materials, processes, and costs for 3D printing and molding of patient-specific models for visualization and surgical simulation of congenitally abnormal heart valves. Pediatric atrioventricular valves (mitral, tricuspid, and common atrioventricular valve) were modeled from transthoracic 3D echo images using semi-automated methods implemented as custom modules in 3D Slicer. Valve models were then both 3D printed in soft materials and molded in silicone using 3D printed "negative" molds. Using pre-defined assessment criteria, valve models were evaluated by congenital cardiac surgeons to determine suitability for simulation. Surgeon assessment indicated that the molded valves had superior material properties for the purposes of simulation compared to directly printed valves (p < 0.01). Patient-specific, 3D echo-derived molded valves are a step toward realistic simulation of complex valve repairs but require more time and labor to create than directly printed models. Patient-specific simulation of valve repair in children using such models may be useful for surgical training and simulation of complex congenital cases.
Tchantchaleishvili, Vakhtang; Rajab, Taufiek K.
The first successful mitral valve repair was performed by Elliot Cutler at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in 1923. Subsequent evolution in the surgical techniques as well as multi-disciplinary cooperation between cardiac surgeons, cardiologists and cardiac anesthesiologists has resulted in excellent outcomes. In spite of this, the etiology of mitral valve pathology ultimately determines the outcome of mitral valve repair. PMID:26309840
Siregar, Sabrina; de Heer, Frederiek; Groenwold, Rolf H H; Versteegh, Michel I M; Bekkers, Jos A; Brinkman, Emile S; Bots, Michiel L; van der Graaf, Yolanda; van Herwerden, Lex A
The aim was to describe procedural volumes, patient risk profile and outcomes of heart valve surgery in the past 16 years in Netherlands. The Dutch National Database for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery includes approximately 200 000 cardiac operations performed between 1995 and 2010. Information on all valve surgeries (56 397 operations) was extracted. We determined trends for changes in procedural volume, demographics, risk profile and in-hospital mortality of valve operations. Because of incomplete data in the first years of registration, the total number of operations in those years was estimated using Poisson regression. For a subset from 2007 to 2010, follow-up data were available. Survival status was obtained through linkage with the national Cause of Death Registry, and survival analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier method. Information on discharge and readmissions was obtained from the National Hospital Discharge Registry. The annual volume of heart valve operations increased by more than 100% from an estimated 2431 in 1995 to 5906 in 2010. Adjusted for population size in Netherlands, the number of operations per 100 000 adults increased from 20 in 1995 to 43 in 2010. In 2010, frequently performed valve surgery included the following: 34.6% isolated aortic valve (AoV) replacement, 21.8% AoV replacement and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), 14.6% isolated mitral valve surgery (repair or replacement) and 9.1% mitral valve and CABG. In AoV surgery, an increasing use of bioprostheses in all age categories is observed. In mitral valve surgery, 75.4% was performed by repair rather than replacement in 2010. In-hospital mortality for all valve surgery decreased significantly from 4.6% in 2007 to 3.6% in 2010, whereas the mean logistic EuroSCORE remained stable (median 5.8, P = 1.000). Thirty-day mortality after all valve surgery was 3.9% and 120-day mortality was 6.5%. At 1 year, survival after all valve surgery was 91.6% and a reoperation had been performed in 1
Premyodhin, Ned; Mandair, Divneet; Ferng, Alice S; Leach, Timothy S; Palsma, Ryan P; Albanna, Mohammad Z; Khalpey, Zain I
3D printed mitral valve (MV) models that capture the suture response of real tissue may be utilized as surgical training tools. Leveraging clinical imaging modalities, 3D computerized modelling and 3D printing technology to produce affordable models complements currently available virtual simulators and paves the way for patient- and pathology-specific preoperative rehearsal. We used polyvinyl alcohol, a dissolvable thermoplastic, to 3D print moulds that were casted with liquid platinum-cure silicone yielding flexible, low-cost MV models capable of simulating valvular tissue. Silicone-moulded MV models were fabricated for 2 morphologies: the normal MV and the P2 flail. The moulded valves were plication and suture tested in a laparoscopic trainer box with a da Vinci Si robotic surgical system. One cardiothoracic surgery fellow and 1 attending surgeon qualitatively evaluated the ability of the valves to recapitulate tissue feel through surveys utilizing the 5-point Likert-type scale to grade impressions of the valves. Valves produced with the moulding and casting method maintained anatomical dimensions within 3% of directly 3D printed acrylonitrile butadiene styrene controls for both morphologies. Likert-type scale mean scores corresponded with a realistic material response to sutures (5.0/5), tensile strength that is similar to real MV tissue (5.0/5) and anatomical appearance resembling real MVs (5.0/5), indicating that evaluators 'agreed' that these aspects of the model were appropriate for training. Evaluators 'somewhat agreed' that the overall model durability was appropriate for training (4.0/5) due to the mounting design. Qualitative differences in repair quality were notable between fellow and attending surgeon. 3D computer-aided design, 3D printing and fabrication techniques can be applied to fabricate affordable, high-quality educational models for technical training that are capable of differentiating proficiency levels among users. © The Author 2017
... which may include human or animal donor tissue) Ross Procedure — “Borrowing” your healthy valve and moving it ... Considerations for Surgery Medications Valve Repair Valve Replacement - Ross Procedure - Newer Surgery Options - What is TAVR? - Types ...
Munasur, Mandhir; Naidoo, Datshana
Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) accompanying severe left-sided valve disease occurs on a functional basis, secondary to pulmonary hypertension and tricuspid annular dilatation. In the context of endemic left-sided rheumatic heart disease, non-recognition of organic disease of the tricuspid valve may adversely influence surgical decision-making, resulting in suboptimal outcomes. A retrospective analysis of the perioperative and follow up data of 30 patients who underwent tricuspid valve surgery with concomitant left-sided valve replacement was undertaken. Preoperative evaluation by two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography was routinely employed. Outcomes were analyzed by evaluation of the perioperative and two-year follow up clinical and echocardiographic data. All subjects had severe TR. Mixed tricuspid valve disease occurred in 11 subjects (36.7%). Tricuspid valve repair was performed in 28 patients. A significant improvement (p <0.05) in the following parameters occurred at six weeks postoperatively: NYHA functional class, tricuspid annular diameter, systolic pulmonary artery pressure, severity of TR and tricuspid transvalvular gradient. Severe residual postoperative TR occurred in 26.7% of patients, but there were no identifiable predictors for this phenomenon. Severe residual postoperative TR was not associated with major adverse cardiovascular events. Preoperative (p = 0.013) and postoperative (p<0.002) pulmonary hypertension were associated with the development of major adverse cardiovascular events. The technique of tricuspid valve repair was not associated with the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events, nor with the development of severe residual postoperative TR. A satisfactory outcome was observed in only 40% of the study population. The coexistence of mixed tricuspid valve disease in rheumatic heart disease patients undergoing left-sided valve surgery is an important determinant of outcome in tricuspid valve repair. The persistence of
Maslow, Andrew; Mahmood, Feroze; Poppas, Athena; Singh, Arun
This study examined the geometric changes of the mitral valve (MV) after repair using conventional and three-dimensional echocardiography. Prospective evaluation of consecutive patients undergoing mitral valve repair. Tertiary care university hospital. Fifty consecutive patients scheduled for elective repair of the mitral valve for regurgitant disease. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography. Assessments of valve area (MVA) were performed using two-dimensional planimetry (2D-Plan), pressure half-time (PHT), and three-dimensional planimetry (3D-Plan). In addition, the direction of ventricular inflow was assessed from the three-dimensional imaging. Good correlations (r = 0.83) and agreement (-0.08 +/- 0.43 cm(2)) were seen between the MVA measured with 3D-Plan and PHT, and were better than either compared to 2D-Plan. MVAs were smaller after repair of functional disease repaired with an annuloplasty ring. After repair, ventricular inflow was directed toward the lateral ventricular wall. Subgroup analysis showed that the change in inflow angle was not different after repair of functional disease (168 to 171 degrees) as compared to those presenting with degenerative disease (168 to 148 degrees; p<0.0001). Three-dimensional imaging provides caregivers with a unique ability to assess changes in valve function after mitral valve repair. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mihaljevic, Tomislav; Koprivanac, Marijan; Kelava, Marta; Goodman, Avi; Jarrett, Craig; Williams, Sarah J.; Gillinov, A. Marc; Bajwa, Gurjyot; Mick, Stephanie L.; Bonatti, Johannes; Blackstone, Eugene H.
Importance The value of robotically assisted surgery for mitral valve disease is questioned because the high cost of care associated with robotic technology may outweigh its clinical benefits. Objective To investigate conditions under which benefits of robotic surgery mitigate high technology costs. Design Clinical cohort study comparing costs of robotic vs. three contemporaneous conventional surgical approaches for degenerative mitral disease. Surgery was performed from 2006–2011, and comparisons were based on intent-to-treat, with propensity-matching used to reduce selection bias. Setting Large multi-specialty academic medical center. Participants 1,290 patients aged 57±11 years, 27% women, underwent mitral repair for regurgitation from posterior leaflet prolapse. Robotic surgery was used in 473, complete sternotomy in 227, partial sternotomy in 349, and anterolateral thoracotomy in 241. Three propensity-matched groups were formed based on demographics, symptoms, cardiac and noncardiac comorbidities, valve pathophysiology, and echocardiographic measurements: robotic vs. sternotomy (n=198 pairs) vs. partial sternotomy (n=293 pairs) vs. thoracotomy (n=224 pairs). Interventions Mitral valve repair. Main Outcome Measures Cost of care, expressed as robotic capital investment, maintenance, and direct technical hospital cost, and benefit of care, based on differences in recovery time. Results Median cost of care for robotically assisted surgery exceeded the cost of alternative approaches by 27% (−5%, 68%), 32% (−6%, 70%), and 21% (−2%, 54%) (median [15th, 85th percentiles]) for complete sternotomy, partial sternotomy, and anterolateral thoracotomy, respectively. Higher operative costs were partially offset by lower postoperative costs and earlier return to work: median 35 days for robotic surgery, 49 for complete sternotomy, 56 for partial sternotomy, and 42 for anterolateral thoracotomy. Resulting net differences in cost of robotic surgery vs. the three
Nakashima, Kouki; Itatani, Keiichi; Kitamura, Tadashi; Oka, Norihiko; Horai, Tetsuya; Miyazaki, Shohei; Nie, Masaki; Miyaji, Kagami
Mitral valve morphology after mitral valve surgery affects postoperative intraventricular flow patterns and long-term cardiac performance. We visualized ventricular flow by echocardiography vector flow mapping (VFM) to reveal the impact of different mitral valve procedures. Eleven cases of mechanical mitral valve replacement (nine in the anti-anatomical and two in the anatomical position), three bioprosthetic mitral valve replacements, and four mitral valve repairs were evaluated. The mean age at the procedure was 57.4 ± 17.8 year, and the echocardiography VFM in the apical long-axis view was performed 119.9 ± 126.7 months later. Flow energy loss (EL), kinetic pressure (KP), and the flow energy efficiency ratio (EL/KP) were measured. The cases with MVR in the anatomical position and with valve repair had normal vortex directionality ("Clockwise"; N = 6), whereas those with MVR in the anti-anatomical position and with a bioprosthetic mitral valve had the vortex in the opposite direction ("Counterclockwise"; N = 12). During diastole, vortex direction had no effect on EL ("Clockwise": 0.080 ± 0.025 W/m; "Counterclockwise": 0.083 ± 0.048 W/m; P = 0.31) or KP ("Clockwise": 0.117 ± 0.021 N; "Counterclockwise": 0.099 ± 0.057 N; P = 0.023). However, during systole, the EL/KP ratio was significantly higher in the "Counterclockwise" vortex than that in the "Clockwise" vortex (1.056 ± 0.463 vs. 0.617 ± 0.158; P = 0.009). MVP and MVR with a mechanical valve in the anatomical position preserve the physiological vortex, whereas MVR with a mechanical valve in the anti-anatomical position and a bioprosthetic mitral valve generate inefficient vortex flow patterns, resulting in a potential increase in excessive cardiac workload.
van der Merwe, Johan; Van Praet, Frank; Stockman, Bernard; Degrieck, Ivan; Vermeulen, Yvette; Casselman, Filip
This study reports the factors that contribute to sternotomy conversions (SCs) and adverse intraoperative events in minimally invasive aortic valve surgery (MI-AVS) and minimally invasive Endoscopic Port Access™ atrioventricular valve surgery (MI-PAS). In total, 3780 consecutive patients with either aortic valve disease or atrioventricular valve disease underwent minimally invasive valve surgery (MIVS) at our institution between 1 February 1997 and 31 March 2016. MI-AVS was performed in 908 patients (mean age 69.2 ± 11.3 years, 45.2% women, 6.2% redo cardiac surgery) and MI-PAS in 2872 patients (mean age 64.1 ± 13.3 years, 46.7% women, 12.2% redo cardiac surgery). A cumulative total of 4415 MIVS procedures (MI-AVS = 908, MI-PAS = 3507) included 1537 valve replacements (MI-AVS = 896, MI-PAS = 641) and 2878 isolated or combined valve repairs (MI-AVS = 12, MI-PAS = 2866). SC was required in 3.0% (n = 114 of 3780) of MIVS patients, which occurred in 3.1% (n = 28 of 908) of MI-AVS patients and 3.0% (n = 86 of 2872) of MI-PAS patients, respectively. Reasons for SC in MI-AVS included inadequate visualization (n = 4, 0.4%) and arterial cannulation difficulty (n = 7, 0.8%). For MI-PAS, SC was required in 54 (2.5%) isolated mitral valve procedures (n = 2183). Factors that contributed to SC in MI-PAS included lung adhesions (n = 35, 1.2%), inadequate visualization (n = 2, 0.1%), ventricular bleeding (n = 3, 0.1%) and atrioventricular dehiscence (n = 5, 0.2%). Neurological deficit occurred in 1 (0.1%) and 3 (3.5%) MI-AVS and MI-PAS conversions, respectively. No operative or 30-day mortalities were observed in MI-AVS conversions (n = 28). The 30-day mortality associated with SC in MI-PAS (n = 86) was 10.5% (n = 9). MIVS is increasingly being recognized as the 'gold-standard' for surgical valve interventions in the context of rapidly expanding catheter-based technology and increasing
Charfeddine, Salma; Hammami, Rania; Triki, Faten; Abid, Leila; Hentati, Mourad; Frikha, Imed; Kammoun, Samir
Tricuspid valve disease has been neglected for a long time by cardiologists and surgeons, but for some years now leakage of tricuspid valve has been demonstrated as a prognostic factor in the evolution of patients with left heart valve disease undergoing surgery. Several techniques for plastic repair of tricuspid valve have been developed and the published studies differ on the results of these techniques; we conducted this study to assess the results of plastic repair of tricuspid valve in a population of patients with a high prevalence of rheumatic disease and to compare Carpentier's ring annuloplasty techniques with DEVEGA plasty. We conducted a retrospective study of patients undergoing plastic repair of tricuspid valve in the Department of Cardiology at the Medicine University of Sfax over a period of 25 years. We compared the results from the Group 1 (Carpentier's ring annuloplasty) with Group 2 (DeVEGA plasty). 91 patients were included in our study, 45 patients in the Group 1 and 46 patients in the Group 2. Most patients had mean or severe TI (83%) before surgery, ring dilation was observed in 90% of patients with no significant difference between the two groups. Immediate results were comparable between the two techniques but during monitoring recurrent, at least mean, insufficiency was significantly more frequent in the DeVEGA plasty Group. The predictive factors for significant recurring long term TI were DeVEGA technique (OR=3.26[1.12-9.28]) in multivariate study and preoperative pulmonary artery systolic pressure (OR=1.06 (1.01-1.12)). Plastic repair of tricuspid valve using Carpentier's ring seems to guarantee better results than DeVEGA plasty. On the other hand, preoperative high PASP is predictive of recurrent leakage of tricuspid valve even after plasty; hence the importance of surgery in the treatment of patients at an early stage of the disease.
Madesis, Athanasios; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Kesisis, George; Tsiouda, Theodora; Beleveslis, Thomas; Koletas, Alexander; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos
Mitral valve (MV) dysfunction is the second-most common clinically significant form of valvular defect in adults. MV regurgitation occurs with the increasing frequency of degenerative changes of the aging process. Moreover, other causes of clinically significant MV regurgitation include cardiac ischemia, infective endocarditis and rhematic disease more frequently in less developed countries. Recent evidence suggests that the best outcomes after repair of severe degenerative mitral regurgitation (MR) are achieved in asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic patients, who are selected for surgery soon after diagnosis on the basis of echocardiography. This review will focus on the surgical management of mitral insufficiency according to its aetiology today and will give insight to some of the perspectives that lay in the future. PMID:24672698
Wang, Lv; Lu, Fang-Lin; Wang, Chong; Tan, Meng-Wei; Xu, Zhi-yun
The Society of Thoracic Surgeons 2008 cardiac surgery risk models have been developed for heart valve surgery with and without coronary artery bypass grafting. The aim of our study was to evaluate the performance of Society of Thoracic Surgeons 2008 cardiac risk models in Chinese patients undergoing single valve surgery and the predicted mortality rates of those undergoing multiple valve surgery derived from the Society of Thoracic Surgeons 2008 risk models. A total of 12,170 patients underwent heart valve surgery from January 2008 to December 2011. Combined congenital heart surgery and aortal surgery cases were excluded. A relatively small number of valve surgery combinations were excluded. The final research population included the following isolated heart valve surgery types: aortic valve replacement, mitral valve replacement, and mitral valve repair. The following combined valve surgery types were included: mitral valve replacement plus tricuspid valve repair, mitral valve replacement plus aortic valve replacement, and mitral valve replacement plus aortic valve replacement and tricuspid valve repair. Evaluation was performed by using the Hosmer-Lemeshow test and C-statistics. Data from 9846 patients were analyzed. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons 2008 cardiac risk models showed reasonable discrimination and poor calibration (C-statistic, 0.712; P = .00006 in Hosmer-Lemeshow test). Society of Thoracic Surgeons 2008 models had better discrimination (C-statistic, 0.734) and calibration (P = .5805) in patients undergoing isolated valve surgery than in patients undergoing multiple valve surgery (C-statistic, 0.694; P = .00002 in Hosmer-Lemeshow test). Estimates derived from the Society of Thoracic Surgeons 2008 models exceeded the mortality rates of multiple valve surgery (observed/expected ratios of 1.44 for multiple valve surgery and 1.17 for single valve surgery). The Society of Thoracic Surgeons 2008 cardiac surgery risk models performed well when predicting the
Kim, Hyungtae; Sung, Si Chan; Choi, Kwang Ho; Lee, Hyoung Doo; Kim, Geena; Ko, Hoon; Lee, Young Seok
We adopted an operative technique of pulmonary valve (PV) annular enlargement with valve repair in tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) correction to reduce postoperative pulmonary regurgitation (PR) 16 years ago. Here, we have evaluated the long-term results. Between April 2000 and August 2005, 43 patients (26 men) with tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary stenosis underwent PV annular enlargement with valve repair. The median age and body weight at the time of surgery were 14 months and 10.2 kg, respectively. There was no operative mortality. Mean postoperative PR grade at discharge was 0.93 ± 0.40 (none or trivial in 10 patients, mild in 27 patients, mild to moderate in 5 patients and moderate in 1 patient), and the mean postoperative pressure gradient across PV was 13.0 ± 10.9 mmHg. The mean follow-up duration was 131.9 ± 42.9 months. During follow-up, 1 reoperation was performed for residual ventricular septal defect. The mean PR grade at the last follow-up echocardiography was 1.59 ± 0.60 (mild in 17 patients, mild to moderate in 8 patients, moderate in 14 patients, moderate to severe in 1 patient and severe in 3 patients), and the mean pressure gradient was 22.7 ± 9.9 mmHg. We have compared the incidence of moderate or more PR with the incidence of patients who underwent simple transannular patch enlargement through propensity score matching. The PV repair group had a lower incidence of moderate or more PR compared with the simple transannular patch group (40% vs 68%, P = 0.04). PV annular enlargement with valve repair has reasonable long-term results and yields a lower long-term incidence of significant PR compared with the simple transannular patch enlargement technique.
Echocardiographic imaging of the mitral valve before and immediately after repair is crucial to the immediate and long-term outcome. Prior to mitral valve repair, echocardiographic imaging helps determine the feasibility and method of repair. After the repair, echocardiographic imaging displays the new baseline anatomy, assesses function, and determines whether or not further management is necessary. Three-dimensional imaging has improved the assessment of the mitral valve and facilitates communication with the surgeon by providing the surgeon with an image that he/she might see upon opening up the atrium. Further advancements in imaging will continue to improve the understanding of the function and dysfunction of the mitral valve both before and after repair. This information will improve treatment options, timing of invasive therapies, and advancements of repair techniques to yield better short- and long-term patient outcomes. The purpose of this review was to connect the echocardiographic evaluation with the surgical procedure. Bridging the pre- and post-CPB imaging with the surgical procedure allows a greater understanding of mitral valve repair.
Background This study was undertaken to compare mitral valve repair and replacement as treatments for ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) with left ventricular dysfunction (LVD). Specifically, we sought to determine whether the choice of mitral valve procedure affected survival, and discover which patients were predicted to benefit from mitral valve repair and which from replacement. Methods A total of 218 consecutive patients underwent either mitral valve repair (MVP, n = 112) or mitral valve replacement (MVR, n = 106). We retrospectively reviewed the clinical material, operation methods, echocardiography check during operation and follow-up. Patients details and follow-up outcomes were compared using multivariate and Kaplan-Meier analyses. Results No statistical difference was found between the two groups in term of intraoperative data. Early mortality was 3.2% (MVP 2.7% and MVR 3.8%). At discharge, Left ventricular end-systolic and end-diastolic diameter and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were improved more in the MVP group than MVR group (P < 0.05), however, in follow-up no statistically significant difference was observed between the MVR and MVP group (P > 0.05). Follow-up mitral regurgitation grade was significantly improved in the MVR group compared with the MVP group (P < 0.05). The Kaplan-Meier survival estimates at 1, 3, and 5 years were simlar between MVP and MVR group. Logistic regression revealed poor survival was associated with old age(#75), preoperative renal insufficiency and low left ventricular ejection fraction (< 30%). Conclusion Mitral valve repair is the procedure of choice in the majority of patients having surgery for severe ischemic mitral regurgitation with left ventricular dysfunction. Early results of MVP treatment seem to be satisfactory, but several lines of data indicate that mitral valve repair provided less long-term benefit than mitral valve replacement in the LVD patients. PMID:21059216
Rostagno, Carlo; Droandi, Ginevra; Rossi, Alessandra; Bevilacqua, Sergio; Romagnoli, Stefano; Montesi, Gian Franco; Stefàno, Pier Luigi
Barlow disease is a still challenging pathology for the surgeon. Aim of the present study is to report anatomic abnormalities of mitral valve in patients undergoing mitral valve repair. Between January 1st, 2007, and December 31st, 2010, 85 consecutive patients (54 men and 31 women, mean age 59 +/- 14 years--range: 28-85 years) with the features of a Barlow mitral valve disease underwent mitral repair Forty seven percent of patients were in New York Heart Association functional class III or IV. Preoperative transesophageal echocardiography was compared with anatomical findings at the moment of surgery. Transthoracic echocardiography diagnosis of Barlow disease according to the criteria described by Carpentier was confirmed at anatomical inspection. Annular calcifications were found in 28 patients while 7 patients presented single or multiple clefts. A flail posterior mitral leaflet was detected in 32 subjects, while a flail anterior leaflet in 8. Elongation of chordae tendineae was demonstrated in 45 patients and chordal rupture in 31. All patients showed at trans esophageal echocardiography the typical features of Barlow disease. Seventy-seven (90.6%) patients had severe mitral valve regurgitation, in the remaining 9.4% it was moderate to severe. Transesophageal echocardiography failed to identify clefts in 2/7 and chordal rupture in 4/31. bileaflet prolapse > 2 mm, billowing valve with excess tissue and thickened leaflets > or = 3 mm, and severe annular dilatation, are characteristics of Barlow disease, however the identification of the associated and complex abnormalities of mitral valve is necessary to obtain optimal valve repair.
Ro, Sun Kyun; Kim, Joon Bum; Jung, Sung Ho; Choo, Suk Jung; Chung, Cheol Hyun; Lee, Jae Won
The decision to repair mild-to-moderate functional tricuspid regurgitation (TR) during mitral valve surgery remains controversial. We evaluated the effects of tricuspid valve (TV) repair for functional mild-to-moderate TR during mitral valve surgery. We enrolled 959 patients with mild-to-moderate functional TR who underwent mitral valve surgery with (repair group n = 431) or without (control group n = 528) concomitant TV repair from January 1994 to September 2010. There were no significant differences in early mortality or major morbidity rates. Median follow-up was 64.8 months (range, 0.03-203.6 months). After adjustment for baseline characteristics using a propensity score adjustment model, the repair group had similar risks for TV reoperation (hazard ratio [HR], 0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.10-2.07; P = .31); congestive heart failure (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.37-3.36; P = .84); death (HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 0.82-2.42; P = .22); and the composite of death, TV reoperation, and congestive heart failure (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.76-2.03; P = .39) compared with the control group. On multivariate Cox-regression analysis, old age, atrial fibrillation without a Maze procedure, diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, poor left ventricular ejection fraction, and redo surgery emerged as significant independent risk factors for the composite outcome of death, TV reoperation, and congestive heart failure. Early or late clinical benefits of concomitant TV repair for mild-to-moderate TR during mitral valve surgery were uncertain through a long-term follow-up of 959 patients. Several preoperative factors and the performance of Maze procedure for AF seem to be more important than TV repair in overall clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2013 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Katsi, Vasiliki; Raftopoulos, Leonidas; Aggeli, Constantina; Vlasseros, Ioannis; Felekos, Ioannis; Tousoulis, Dimitrios; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Kallikazaros, Ioannis
The tricuspid valve (TV) is inseparably connected with the mitral valve (MV) in terms of function. Any pathophysiological condition concerning the MV is potentially a threat for the normal function of the TV as well. One of the most challenging cases is functional tricuspid regurgitation (TR) after surgical MV correction. In the past, TR was considered to progressively revert with time after left-sided valve restoration. Nevertheless, more recent studies showed that TR could develop and evolve postoperatively over time, as well as being closely associated with a poorer prognosis in terms of morbidity and mortality. Pressure and volume overload are usually the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms; structural alterations, like tricuspid annulus dilatation, increased leaflet tethering and right ventricular remodelling are almost always present when regurgitation develops. The most important risk factors associated with a higher probability of late TR development involve the elderly, female gender, larger left atrial size, atrial fibrillation, right chamber dilatation, higher pulmonary artery systolic pressures, longer times from the onset of MV disease to surgery, history of rheumatic heart disease, ischaemic heart disease and prosthetic valve malfunction. The time of TR manifestation can be up to 10 years or more after an MV surgery. Echocardiography, including the novel 3D Echo techniques, is crucial in the early diagnosis and prognosis of future TV disease development. Appropriate surgical technique and timing still need to be clarified. PMID:22457188
Richards, Jennifer M.; Farrar, Emily J.; Kornreich, Bruce G.; Moïse, N. Sydney; Butcher, Jonathan T.
In degenerative valve disease, the highly organized mitral valve leaflet matrix stratification is progressively destroyed and replaced with proteoglycan rich, mechanically inadequate tissue. This is driven by the actions of originally quiescent valve interstitial cells that become active contractile and migratory myofibroblasts. While treatment for myxomatous mitral valve disease in humans ranges from repair to total replacement, therapies in dogs focus on treating the consequences of the resulting mitral regurgitation. The fundamental gap in our understanding is how the resident valve cells respond to altered mechanical signals to drive tissue remodeling. Despite the pathological similarities and high clinical occurrence, surprisingly little mechanistic insight has been gleaned from the dog. This review presents what is known about mitral valve mechanobiology from clinical, in vivo, and in vitro data. There are a number of experimental strategies already available to pursue this significant opportunity, but success requires the collaboration between veterinary clinicians, scientists, and engineers. PMID:22366572
Tomšič, Anton; Bissessar, Daniella D; van Brakel, Thomas J; Marsan, Nina Ajmone; Klautz, Robert J M; Palmen, Meindert
To assess the performance of a tissue engineering process-treated bovine pericardium patch (CardioCel) in the setting of reconstructive mitral valve surgery. Between 3/2014 and 4/2016, 30 patients (57.2±14.3 years, 27% female) underwent mitral valve leaflet repair with a CardioCel patch. Perioperative mortality was 7% (2 patients, non-graft-related). In 28 remaining patients, pre-discharge echocardiography demonstrated good repaired valve function. At a mean follow-up of 1.7±0.9 years, 3 additional deaths occurred (2 due to infective endocarditis, 1 non-cardiac related). On follow-up echocardiography [follow-up time 1.7±0.8 years, available for 26/28 (93%) hospital survivors], recurrent regurgitation was seen in 2 patients (both infective endocarditis) and 1 underwent reoperation (no infection at the level of patch repair was observed). In the remaining patients, the most recent echocardiogram demonstrated ≤mild regurgitation and stable gradients. The thickness and echodensity of the implanted patch on follow-up echocardiograms were comparable with postoperative echocardiograms. Initial results of the CardioCel patch in mitral valve repair surgery are satisfactory. The resistance to infection and late degeneration will need to be assessed in the future. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Asmarats, Lluis; Rodriguez-Gabella, Tania; Chamandi, Chekrallah; Bernier, Mathieu; Beaudoin, Jonathan; O'Connor, Kim; Dumont, Eric; Dagenais, François; Paradis, Jean-Michel; Rodés-Cabau, Josep
To assess the clinical characteristics, management, and outcomes of patients diagnosed with infective endocarditis (IE) after edge-to-edge mitral valve repair with the MitraClip device. Transcatheter edge-to-edge mitral valve repair has emerged as an alternative to surgery in high-risk patients. However, few data exist on IE following transcatheter mitral procedures. Four electronic databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, Embase, and Cochrane Library) were searched for original published studies on IE after edge-to-edge transcatheter mitral valve repair from 2003 to 2017. A total of 10 publications describing 12 patients with definitive IE (median age 76 years, 55% men) were found. The mean logistic EuroSCORE/EuroSCORE II were 41% and 45%, respectively. The IE episode occurred early (within 12 months post-procedure) in nine patients (75%; within the first month in five patients). Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent (60%) causal microorganism, and severe mitral regurgitation was present in all cases but one. Surgical mitral valve replacement (SMVR) was performed in most (67%) patients, and the mortality associated with the IE episode was high (42%). IE following transcatheter edge-to-edge mitral valve repair is a rare but life-threatening complication, usually necessitating SMVR despite the high-risk profile of the patients. These results highlight the importance of adequate preventive measures and a prompt diagnosis and treatment of this serious complication. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Renner, André; Zittermann, Armin; Aboud, Anas; Hakim-Meibodi, Kavous; Börgermann, Jochen; Gummert, Jan F
Data regarding durability and midterm benefits of mitral valve (MV) repair in elderly patients are scarce. To evaluate the feasibility and safety of MV repair in elderly patients, we performed a retrospective data analysis. We compared clinical outcomes in younger patients (<75 years: n = 462) and older patients (≥75 years: n = 100) undergoing MV repair with or without tricuspid valve (TV) repair. The primary end-point was 30-day mortality. The preoperative risk profile (EuroSCORE, NYHA class, percentage pulmonary hypertension, percentage diabetes) was higher in older patients compared with younger patients. Nevertheless, operative complications such as low cardiac output syndrome, stroke, infections, the need of haemofiltration and IABP use did not differ significantly between the two groups. The thirty-day mortality rate was 0% in older patients and 1% in younger patients (P = 0.30). In the subgroup of patients with double valve repair, the 30-day mortality rate in older patients (n = 28) and younger patients (n = 46) was 0 and 4%, respectively (P = 0.27). In older and younger patients, the 6-month mortality rate was 4 and 2%, respectively (P = 0.16), and the 1-year mortality rate was 10 and 3%, respectively (P = 0.001). The propensity score-adjusted odds ratio of 1-year mortality with the group of younger patients as a reference was 2.04 (95% confidence interval: 0.77-5.40; P = 0.15) for older patients. Freedom from 1-year reoperation did not differ significantly between age groups. Data demonstrate excellent postoperative mortality rates in older patients undergoing MV repair with or without TV repair. Consequently, even in older patients with numerous comorbidities, MV repair should be considered a suitable surgical method. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.
Sternik, Leonid; Zehr, Kenton J.
Factors predisposing patients to systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve (SAM) with left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction after mitral valve repair are the presence of a myxomatous mitral valve with redundant leaflets, a nondilated hyperdynamic left ventricle, and a short distance between the mitral valve coaptation point and the ventricular septum after repair. From December 1999 through March 2000, we used our surgical method in 6 patients with severely myxomatous regurgitant mitral valves who were at risk of developing SAM. Leaflets were markedly redundant in all 6. Left ventricular function was hyperdynamic in 4 patients and normal in 2. Triangular or quadrangular resection of the midportion of the posterior leaflet and posterior band annuloplasty were performed. To prevent SAM and LVOT obstruction, extra, posteriorly directed, mid-posterior-leaflet secondary chordae tendineae, which would otherwise have been resected, were transferred to the underside of the middle of the mid-anterior leaflet with a small piece of associated valve as an anchoring pledget. This kept the redundant anterior leaflet edge, which extended below the coaptation point, away from the LVOT. No post-repair SAM or LVOT obstruction was observed on intraoperative or discharge echocardiography. All patients had no or trivial residual mitral regurgitation. We conclude that extra chordae tendineae, when available, can be used in mitral valve repair to tether the redundant anterior leaflet and thus prevent it from flipping into the LVOT. This will theoretically prevent SAM and LVOT obstruction in patients with risk factors for SAM. PMID:15902821
Gillinov, A Marc; Mihaljevic, Tomislav; Javadikasgari, Hoda; Suri, Rakesh M; Mick, Stephanie L; Navia, José L; Desai, Milind Y; Bonatti, Johannes; Khosravi, Mitra; Idrees, Jay J; Lowry, Ashley M; Blackstone, Eugene H; Svensson, Lars G
The study objective was to assess the technical and process improvement and clinical outcomes of robotic mitral valve surgery by examining the first 1000 cases performed in a tertiary care center. We reviewed the first 1000 patients (mean age, 56 ± 10 years) undergoing robotic primary mitral valve surgery, including concomitant procedures (n = 185), from January 2006 to November 2013. Mitral valve disease cause was degenerative (n = 960, 96%), endocarditis (n = 26, 2.6%), rheumatic (n = 10, 1.0%), ischemic (n = 3, 0.3%), and fibroelastoma (n = 1, 0.1%). All procedures were performed via right chest access with femoral perfusion for cardiopulmonary bypass. Mitral valve repair was attempted in 997 patients (2 planned replacements and 1 resection of fibroelastoma), 992 (99.5%) of whom underwent valve repair, and 5 (0.5%) of whom underwent valve replacement. Intraoperative postrepair echocardiography showed that 99.7% of patients receiving repair (989/992) left the operating room with no or mild mitral regurgitation, and predischarge echocardiography showed that mitral regurgitation remained mild or less in 97.9% of patients (915/935). There was 1 hospital death (0.1%), and 14 patients (1.4%) experienced a stroke; stroke risk declined from 2% in the first 500 patients to 0.8% in the second 500 patients. Over the course of the experience, myocardial ischemic and cardiopulmonary bypass times (P < .0001), transfusion (P = .003), and intensive care unit and postoperative lengths of stay (P < .05) decreased. Robotic mitral valve surgery is associated with a high likelihood of valve repair and low operative mortality and morbidity. The combination of algorithm-driven patient selection and increased experience enhanced clinical outcomes and procedural efficiency. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
LaPietra, Angelo; Santana, Orlando; Mihos, Christos G; DeBeer, Steven; Rosen, Gerald P; Lamas, Gervasio A; Lamelas, Joseph
Minimally invasive valve surgery has been associated with increased cerebrovascular complications. Our objective was to evaluate the incidence of cerebrovascular accidents in patients undergoing minimally invasive valve surgery. We retrospectively reviewed all the minimally invasive valve surgery performed at our institution from January 2009 to June 2012. The operative times, lengths of stay, postoperative complications, and mortality were analyzed. A total of 1501 consecutive patients were identified. The mean age was 73 ± 13 years, and 808 patients (54%) were male. Of the 1501 patients, 206 (13.7%) had a history of a cerebrovascular accident, and 225 (15%) had undergone previous heart surgery. The procedures performed were 617 isolated aortic valve replacements (41.1%), 658 isolated mitral valve operations (43.8%), 6 tricuspid valve repairs (0.4%), 216 double valve surgery (14.4%), and 4 triple valve surgery (0.3%). Femoral cannulation was used in 1359 patients (90.5%) and central cannulation in 142 (9.5%). In 1392 patients (92.7%), the aorta was clamped, and in 109 (7.3%), the surgery was performed with the heart fibrillating. The median aortic crossclamp and cardiopulmonary bypass times were 86 minutes (interquartile range [IQR], 70-107) minutes and 116 minutes (IQR, 96-143), respectively. The median intensive care unit length of stay was 47 hours (IQR, 29-74), and the median postoperative hospital length of stay was 7 days (IQR, 5-10). A total of 23 cerebrovascular accidents (1.53%) and 38 deaths (2.53%) had occurred at 30 days postoperatively. Minimally invasive valve surgery was associated with an acceptable stroke rate, regardless of the cannulation technique. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
de Kerchove, Laurent; Mastrobuoni, Stefano; Boodhwani, Munir; Astarci, Parla; Rubay, Jean; Poncelet, Alain; Vanoverschelde, Jean-Louis; Noirhomme, Philippe; El Khoury, Gebrine
significantly different (P = 0.06), but in patients with basal ring ≥28 mm, valve sparing reimplantation was superior to subcommissural annuloplasty (P = 0.04). Despite similar intraoperative reduction in basal ring size in subcommissural annuloplasty and valve sparing reimplantation, patients with subcommissural annuloplasty exhibited greater increase in basal ring size during the follow-up compared with the valve sparing reimplantation group (P < 0.001). As with a bicuspid aortic valve, a large basal ring predicts recurrence of aortic regurgitation in patients with tricuspid aortic valve undergoing repair with the subcommissural annuloplasty technique. This recurrence is caused by basal ring dilatation over time after subcommissural annuloplasty. With the valve sparing reimplantation technique, large basal ring did not predict aortic regurgitation recurrence, as prosthetic-based circumferential annuloplasty displayed better stability over time. Stable circumferential annuloplasty is recommended in tricuspid aortic valve repair whenever the basal ring size is ≥28 mm. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.
Suzuki, Yota; Kaji, Masahiro; Hirose, Shigemichi; Ohtsubo, Satoshi
Azygos vein aneurysm is very rare and is usually found incidentally because of its clinical silence. We report a case of recurrent pleural effusion caused by an azygos vein aneurysm in a patient with moderate mitral valve regurgitation (MR) and tricuspid valve regurgitation (TR). Since valve disease is considered a significant precipitating factor for both dyspnoea and pleural effusion, we decided to study the aetiologies of these conditions concomitantly. Azygos vein aneurysm resection in combination with tricuspid and mitral valve repair using cardiopulmonary bypass was performed successfully through a right anterior thoracotomy. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient reported improved exercise capacity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.
Molnar, Adrian; Muresan, Ioan; Trifan, Catalin; Pop, Dana; Sacui, Diana
The introduction of Duke's criteria and the improvement of imaging methods has lead to an earlier and a more accurate diagnosis of infectious endocarditis (IE). The options for the best therapeutic approach and the timing of surgery are still a matter of debate and require a close colaboration between the cardiologist, the infectionist and the cardiac surgeon. We undertook a retrospective, descriptive study, spanning over a period of five years (from January 1st, 2007 to December 31st, 2012), on 100 patients who underwent surgery for native valve infectious endocarditis in our unit. The patients' age varied between 13 and 77 years (with a mean of 54 years), of which 85 were males (85%). The main microorganisms responsible for IE were: Streptococcus Spp. (21 cases - 21%), Staphylococcus Spp. (15 cases - 15%), and Enterococcus Spp. (9 cases - 9%). The potential source of infection was identified in 26 patients (26%), with most cases being in the dental area (16 cases - 16%). The lesions caused by IE were situated in the left heart in 96 patients (96%), mostly on the aortic valve (50 cases - 50%). In most cases (82%) we found preexisting endocardial lesions which predisposed to the development of IE, most of them being degenerative valvular lesions (38 cases - 38%). We performed the following surgical procedures: surgery on a single valve - aortic valve replacement (40 cases), mitral valve replacement (19 cases), mitral valve repair (1 case), surgery on more than one valve - mitral and aortic valve replacement (20 cases), aortic and tricuspid valve replacement (1 case), aortic valve replacement with a mechanical valve associated with mitral valve repair (5 cases), aortic valve replacement with a biological valve associated with mitral valve repair (2 cases), and mitral valve replacement with a mechanical valve combined with De Vega procedure on the tricuspid valve (1 case). In 5 patients (5%) the bacteriological examination of valve pieces excised during surgery was
MOLNAR, ADRIAN; MURESAN, IOAN; TRIFAN, CATALIN; POP, DANA; SACUI, DIANA
Background and aims The introduction of Duke’s criteria and the improvement of imaging methods has lead to an earlier and a more accurate diagnosis of infectious endocarditis (IE). The options for the best therapeutic approach and the timing of surgery are still a matter of debate and require a close colaboration between the cardiologist, the infectionist and the cardiac surgeon. Methods We undertook a retrospective, descriptive study, spanning over a period of five years (from January 1st, 2007 to December 31st, 2012), on 100 patients who underwent surgery for native valve infectious endocarditis in our unit. Results The patients’ age varied between 13 and 77 years (with a mean of 54 years), of which 85 were males (85%). The main microorganisms responsible for IE were: Streptococcus Spp. (21 cases – 21%), Staphylococcus Spp. (15 cases – 15%), and Enterococcus Spp. (9 cases – 9%). The potential source of infection was identified in 26 patients (26%), with most cases being in the dental area (16 cases – 16%). The lesions caused by IE were situated in the left heart in 96 patients (96%), mostly on the aortic valve (50 cases – 50%). In most cases (82%) we found preexisting endocardial lesions which predisposed to the development of IE, most of them being degenerative valvular lesions (38 cases – 38%). We performed the following surgical procedures: surgery on a single valve - aortic valve replacement (40 cases), mitral valve replacement (19 cases), mitral valve repair (1 case), surgery on more than one valve – mitral and aortic valve replacement (20 cases), aortic and tricuspid valve replacement (1 case), aortic valve replacement with a mechanical valve associated with mitral valve repair (5 cases), aortic valve replacement with a biological valve associated with mitral valve repair (2 cases), and mitral valve replacement with a mechanical valve combined with De Vega procedure on the tricuspid valve (1 case). In 5 patients (5%) the bacteriological
Lisi, M; Ballo, P; Cameli, M; Gandolfo, F; Galderisi, M; Chiavarelli, M; Henein, M Y; Mondillo, S
In patients with chronic mitral regurgitation (MR), undergoing surgical mitral valve repair, current Guidelines only recommend standard echocardiographic indices i.e. left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF), and LV end-systolic and end-diastolic diameters as preoperative variables. However LV EF is often preserved until advanced stages of the valve disease. Aim of this study was to evaluate changes in LV systolic longitudinal function, 3 months after mitral valve repair in patients with chronic degenerative MR and normal preoperative EF. We measured M-mode mitral lateral annulus systolic excursion (MAPSE) and Tissue Doppler (TD) peak systolic annular velocity (S(m)) in 31 patients with moderate to severe MR and normal EF (59.9 ± 4.7%) candidates for mitral valve repair, preoperatively and 3 months after surgery. After mitral valve repair, S(m) increased from 7.8 ± 1.4 to 9.6 ± 2.2 cm/s (p<0.0001) and MAPSE increased from 1.33 ± 0.26 to 1.55 ± 0.25 cm (p=0.0013). EF decreased from 59.9 ± 4.7 to 51.3 ± 5.9% (p<0.0001). As expected, LV diameters and volumes, wall thicknesses, midwall fractional shortening (mFS), and left atrial (LA) size were all reduced after surgery. This study suggests that assessment of LV long axis systolic velocity and amplitude of excursion by echocardiography is more sensitive than simple determination of EF for revealing the beneficial impact of MR surgery on overall systolic function. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
van der Kley, Frank; Delgado, Victoria; Ajmone Marsan, Nina; Schalij, Martin J
Osteogenesis imperfecta is associated with increased prevalence of significant mitral valve regurgitation. Surgical mitral valve repair and replacement are feasible but are associated with increased risk of bleeding and dehiscence of implanted valves may occur more frequently. The present case report describes the outcomes of transcatheter mitral valve repair in a patient with osteogenesis imperfecta. A 60 year-old patient with osteogenesis imperfecta and associated symptomatic moderate to severe mitral regurgitation underwent transthoracic echocardiography which showed a nondilated left ventricle with preserved systolic function and moderate to severe mitral regurgitation. On transoesophageal echocardiography the regurgitant jet originated between the anterolateral scallops of the anterior and posterior leaflets (A1-P1). Considering the comorbidities associated with osteogenesis imperfecta the patient was accepted for transcatheter mitral valve repair using the Mitraclip device (Abbott vascular, Menlo, CA). Under fluoroscopy and 3D transoesophageal echocardiography guidance, a Mitraclip device was implanted between the anterolateral and central scallops with significant reduction of mitral regurgitation. The postoperative evolution was uneventful. At one month follow-up, transthoracic echocardiography showed a stable position of the Mitraclip device with no mitral regurgitation. Transcatheter mitral valve repair is feasible and safe in patients with osteogenesis imperfecta and associated symptomatic significant mitral regurgitation. Copyright © 2014 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kitai, Takeshi; Furukawa, Yutaka; Murotani, Kenta; Krittanawong, Chayakrit; Kaji, Shuichiro; Koyama, Tadaaki; Okada, Yukikatsu
The aim of this study was to determine optimal patient selection and selection of a prosthetic ring size for tricuspid valve (TV) repair at the time of mitral valve (MV) repair. We prospectively enrolled 167 consecutive patients undergoing MV repair. TV repair was indicated if patients had at least one of the following conditions representing tricuspid annular dilatation: (1) tricuspid regurgitation (TR)≥moderate, (2) history of right heart failure, (3) atrial fibrillation, and (4) pulmonary hypertension. The size of the ring was targeted to a normal-sized systolic tricuspid annuls in relation to the patient's body surface area (BSA). Serial echocardiographic studies were performed preoperatively, at discharge, and at 1, 3, and 5years postoperatively. Overall, 100 (60%) patients required TV repair, while it was not indicated for 67 (40%) patients. During follow-up, 26 patients showed progression or recurrent TR≥moderate. The TR grade at 5years after MV surgery was 0.8±0.9 in patients with TV repair and 0.9±0.7 in those without TV repair (P=0.69). There were no significant differences between patients with and without TV repair in a composite endpoint of death from any cause, re-do MV or TV surgery, and recurrence or progression of TR≥moderate (P=0.46). Patient selection for TV repair considering not only the grade of TR but clinical signs representing tricuspid annular dilatation is feasible at the time of MV repair. TV repair targeting a normal systolic size in relation to the BSA is a simple and reproducible procedure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background Functional tricuspid regurgitation (TR) occurs in patients with rheumatic mitral valve disease even after mitral valve surgery. The aim of this study was to analyze surgical results of TR after previous successful mitral valve surgery. Methods From September 1996 to September 2008, 45 patients with TR after previous mitral valve replacement underwent second operation for TR. In those, 43 patients (95.6%) had right heart failure symptoms (edema of lower extremities, ascites, hepatic congestion, etc.) and 40 patients (88.9%) had atrial fibrillation. Twenty-six patients (57.8%) were in New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class III, and 19 (42.2%) in class IV. Previous operations included: 41 for mechanical mitral valve replacement (91.1%), 4 for bioprosthetic mitral valve replacement (8.9%), and 7 for tricuspid annuloplasty (15.6%). Results The tricuspid valves were repaired with Kay's (7 cases, 15.6%) or De Vega technique (4 cases, 8.9%). Tricuspid valve replacement was performed in 34 cases (75.6%). One patient (2.2%) died. Postoperative low cardiac output (LCO) occurred in 5 patients and treated successfully. Postoperative echocardiography showed obvious reduction of right atrium and ventricle. The anterioposterior diameter of the right ventricle decreased to 25.5 ± 7.1 mm from 33.7 ± 6.2 mm preoperatively (P < 0. 05). Conclusion TR after mitral valve replacement in rheumatic heart disease is a serious clinical problem. If it occurs or progresses late after mitral valve surgery, tricuspid valve annuloplasty or replacement may be performed with satisfactory results. Due to the serious consequence of untreated TR, aggressive treatment of existing TR during mitral valve surgery is recommended. PMID:22490269
Ren, Chonglei; Wang, Mingyan; Wang, Yao; Gao, Changqing
Iatrogenic aortic valve (AV) perforation during non-aortic cardiac operations is a rare complication. The suture-related inadvertent injury to an AV leaflet can produce leaflet perforation with aortic regurgitation after ventricular septal defect repair (VSDR). We report three consecutive patients who had iatrogenic aortic leaflet perforation during VSDR in other hospitals and referred to our hospital for reoperation. In all three cases, the perforated AV leaflets were preserved and repaired by autologous pericardial patch or direct local closure. PMID:29057770
Cho, Sungkyu; Kim, Woong-Han; Kwak, Jae Gun; Lee, Jeong Ryul; Kim, Yong Jin
Mitral valve (MV) repairs have been performed in paediatric patients with congenital MV stenosis. However, congenital MV stenosis lesions are a heterogeneous group of lesions, and their repair remains challenging. From March 1999 to September 2014, MV repair was performed in 22 patients with congenital MV stenosis. The median age was 10.3 months (ranging from 22 days to 9.1 years), and the mean body weight was 7.9 ± 4.0 kg at the time of the operation. Multiple-level left-side heart obstructions were present in 9 (45%) patients. The main aetiology of the mitral stenosis was a supravalvular mitral ring in 8 patients, valvular stenosis in 4 patients, a parachute deformity of the papillary muscles in 4 patients and other abnormal papillary muscles in 6 patients. The mean MV pressure gradient improved from 10.4 ± 3.9 mmHg to 3.4 ± 1.7 mmHg after MV repair (n = 18, P < 0.0001). The mean follow-up duration was 6.7 ± 5.4 years. One patient died postoperatively due to septic shock. Four patients required a second operation (2 patients for mitral stenosis, 1 patient for left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and mitral stenosis and 1 patient for mitral regurgitation). Among them, 2 patients died: 1 patient died due to cardiopulmonary bypass weaning failure and another patient died due to multiple cerebral infarcts. At the last follow-up, the mean MV pressure gradient was 4.5 ± 3.1 mmHg for all patients who did not have reoperation, and moderate or greater mitral insufficiency was detected in 3 patients. At 10 years, the survival rate was 85.9 ± 7.6%, and the freedom from reoperation rate was 77.5 ± 10.1%. In the log-rank test, MV repair in the neonate was associated with mortality (P = 0.010), and presentation of mitral insufficiency was associated with reoperation (P = 0.003). MV repair in paediatric patients with congenital mitral stenosis showed acceptable results. The follow-up echocardiogram also
Braunberger, E; Deloche, A; Berrebi, A; Abdallah, F; Celestin, J A; Meimoun, P; Chatellier, G; Chauvaud, S; Fabiani, J N; Carpentier, A
Mitral valve repair is considered the gold standard in surgery of degenerative mitral valve insufficiency (MVI), but the long-term results (>20 years) are unknown. We reviewed the first 162 consecutive patients who underwent mitral valve repair between 1970 and 1984 for MVI due to nonrheumatic disease. The cause of MVI was degenerative in 146 patients (90%) and bacterial endocarditis in 16 patients (10%). MVI was isolated or, in 18 cases, associated with tricuspid insufficiency. The mean age of the 162 patients (104 men and 58 women) was 56+/-10 years (age range 22 to 77 years). New York Heart Association functional class was I, II, III, and IV in 2%, 39%, 52%, and 7% of patients, respectively. The mean cardiothoracic ratio was 0.58+/-0.07 (0.4 to 0.8), and 72 (45%) patients had atrial fibrillation. Valve analysis showed that the main mechanism of MVI was type II Carpentier's functional classification in 152 patients. The leaflet prolapse involved the posterior leaflet in 93 patients, the anterior leaflet in 28 patients, and both leaflets in 31 patients. Surgical technique included a Carpentier's ring annuloplasty in all cases, a valve resection in 126 patients, and shortening or transposition of chordae in 49 patients. During the first postoperative month, there were 3 deaths (1.9%) and 3 reoperations (2 valve replacements and 1 repeat repair [1.9%]). Six patients were lost to follow-up. The remaining 151 patients with mitral valve repair were followed during a median of 17 years (range 1 to 29 years; 2273 patient-years). The 20-year Kaplan-Meier survival rate was 48% (95% CI 40% to 57%), which is similar to the survival rate for a normal population with the same age structure. The 20-year rates were 19.3% (95% CI 11% to 27%) for cardiac death and 26% (95% CI 17% to 35%) for cardiac morbidity/mortality (including death from a cardiac cause, stroke, and reoperation). During the 20 years of follow-up, 7 patients were underwent surgery at 3, 7, 7, 8, 8, 10, or 12
Mizuno, T; Mizukoshi, T; Uechi, M
Mitral valve repair under cardiopulmonary bypass was performed in three dogs with clinical signs associated with mitral regurgitation that were not controlled by medication. Mitral valve repair comprised circumferential annuloplasty and chordal replacement with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene. One dog died 2 years after surgery because of severe mitral regurgitation resulting from partial circumferential suture detachment. The others survived for over 5 years, but mild mitral valve stenosis persisted in one. The replaced chordae did not rupture in any dog. Mitral valve repair appears to be an effective treatment for mitral regurgitation in dogs. Chordal replacement with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene is a feasible technique, demonstrating long-term durability in dogs. However, mitral annuloplasty techniques need improvement. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.
Huffman, Lynn C; Nelson, Jennifer S; Lehman, April N; Krajacic, Marguerite C; Bolling, Steven F
Mitral valve repair for functional mitral regurgitation is common. Concomitant tricuspid valve repair for associated functional tricuspid regurgitation has gained favor. Controversy exists regarding annuloplasty sizing for tricuspid valve repair. Patients with heart failure having functional mitral regurgitation at the University of Michigan and undergoing mitral valve repair and tricuspid valve repair using identical sized annuloplasty rings between April 2007 and January 2012 were identified. Demographic and clinical records were retrospectively reviewed. Institutional review board approval was obtained for this study. Fifty-three patients met inclusion criteria. Mean age was 65 ± 1.7 years. Preoperative New York Heart Association class was III or IV in 81% (43) and mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 33% ± 2.2%. All patients had moderate or greater mitral regurgitation preoperatively and moderate or severe tricuspid regurgitation or a preoperative tricuspid annulus diameter greater than 40 mm. There was no 30-day mortality. Mean immediate postoperative tricuspid valve gradient was 1.75 ± 0.12 mm Hg and was 2.3 ± 0.19 mm Hg at 4 weeks. Four weeks postoperatively 88% (42/48) of patients had tricuspid regurgitation considered to be mild or less. There was no significant decline in right ventricular function by echocardiography over this time period. Functional tricuspid regurgitation can be repaired using an undersized rigid annuloplasty ring. Our data suggest that an identical sizing strategy can be used for tricuspid valve repair, as was used for mitral valve repair, without development of tricuspid stenosis or negative effect on right ventricular function. This method seems to prevent recurrence of significant tricuspid regurgitation. The technique we describe provides effective and reproducible results. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.
Alozie, Anthony; Westphal, Bernd; Kische, Stephan; Kaminski, Alexander; Paranskaya, Liliya; Bozdag-Turan, Ilkay; Ortak, Jasmin; Schubert, Jochen; Steinhoff, Gustav; Ince, Hüseyin
Percutaneous edge-to-edge devices for non-surgical repair of mitral valve regurgitation are under clinical evaluation in high-risk patients deemed not suitable for conventional surgery. To address guidelines for initial therapy decision, we here report on 13 cases of surgery after failed percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair or attempted repair, and discuss methodology and prognostic factors for operative outcome in this high-risk situation. Thirteen patients referred to our cardiothoracic unit after failed percutaneous mitral valve repair or attempted repair using the edge-to-edge technique, were treated surgically for mitral valve failure between June 2010 and December 2012. Pathology of mitral valve before and after interventional mitral valve repair (especially prevalent mode of failure) was evaluated and classified for each individual patient by echocardiography and intraoperative direct visualization. Number of implanted edge-to-edge devices were identified. Preoperative risk scores were matched with intraoperative observations and histopathological findings of valve tissue. Postoperative morbidity and mortality were analysed with respect to mitral valve and patient-related data. Three of 10 patients were referred with severe mitral valve regurgitation/stenosis after initially successful percutaneous edge-to-edge therapy or attempted therapy. In 3 patients, ≥ 2 edge-to-edge devices were implanted leading to very tight edge-to-edge leaflet connection and fibrosis. All patients underwent successful surgical mitral valve replacement and concomitant complete cardiac surgery (CABG, aortic or tricuspid valve surgery, ASD closure and pulmonary vein isolation for atrial fibrillation). The likelihood of repair was reduced with respect to multiple edge-to-edge technology. One device could not be harvested surgically because of embolization. One patient died on the second postoperative day due to sepsis with multiple organ failure. The remaining 12 patients
Gillinov, Marc; Quinn, Reed; Kerendi, Faraz; Gaudiani, Vince; Shemin, Richard; Barnhart, Glenn; Raines, Edward; Gerdisch, Marc W; Banbury, Michael
Premeasured expanded polytetrafluoroethylene chordal loops with integrated sutures for attachment to the papillary muscle and leaflet edges facilitate correction of mitral valve prolapse. Configured as a group of 3 loops (length range 12 to 24 mm), the loops are attached to a pledget that is passed through the papillary muscle and tied. Each of the loops has 2 sutures with attached needles; these needles are passed through the free edge of the leaflet and then the sutures are tied to each other, securing the chordal loop to the leaflet. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
da Costa, Francisco Diniz Affonso; Colatusso, Daniele de Fátima Fornazari; Martin, Gustavo Luis do Santos; Parra, Kallyne Carolina Silva; Botta, Mariana Cozer; Balbi Filho, Eduardo Mendel; Veloso, Myrian; Miotto, Gabriela; Ferreira, Andreia Dumsch de Aragon; Colatusso, Claudinei
Introduction Current guidelines state that patients with severe mitral regurgitation should be treated in reference centers with a high reparability rate, low mortality rate, and durable results. Objective To analyze our global experience with the treatment of organic mitral regurgitation from various etiologies operated in a single center. Methods We evaluated all surgically treated patients with organic mitral regurgitation from 2004-2017. Patients were evaluated clinically and by echocardiography every year. We determined early and late survival rates, valve related events and freedom from recurrent mitral regurgitation and tricuspid regurgitation. Valve failure was defined as any mitral regurgitation ≥ moderate degree or the need for reoperation for any reason. Results Out of 133 patients with organic mitral regurgitation, 125 (93.9%) were submitted to valve repair. Mean age was 57±15 years and 52 patients were males. The most common etiologies were degenerative disease (73 patients) and rheumatic disease (34 patients). Early mortality was 2.4% and late survival was 84.3% at 10 years, which are similar to the age- and gender-matched general population. Only two patients developed severe mitral regurgitation, and both were reoperated (95.6% at 10 years). Freedom from mitral valve failure was 84.5% at 10 years, with no difference between degenerative and rheumatic valves. Overall, late ≥ moderate tricuspid regurgitation was present in 34% of the patients, being more common in the rheumatic ones. The use of tricuspid annuloplasty abolished this complication. Conclusion We have demonstrated that mitral regurgitation due to organic mitral valve disease from various etiologies can be surgically treated with a high repair rate, low early mortality and long-term survival that are comparable to the matched general population. Concomitant treatment of atrial fibrillation and tricuspid valve may be important adjuncts to optimize long-term results. PMID:29617498
Atluri, Pavan; Stetson, Robert L; Hung, George; Gaffey, Ann C; Szeto, Wilson Y; Acker, Michael A; Hargrove, W Clark
Mitral valve surgery is increasingly performed through minimally invasive approaches. There are limited data regarding the cost of minimally invasive mitral valve surgery. Moreover, there are no data on the specific costs associated with mitral valve surgery. We undertook this study to compare the costs (total and subcomponent) of minimally invasive mitral valve surgery relative to traditional sternotomy. All isolated mitral valve repairs performed in our health system from March 2012 through September 2013 were analyzed. To ensure like sets of patients, only those patients who underwent isolated mitral valve repairs with preoperative Society of Thoracic Surgeons scores of less than 4 were included in this study. A total of 159 patients were identified (sternotomy, 68; mini, 91). Total incurred direct cost was obtained from hospital financial records. Analysis demonstrated no difference in total cost (operative and postoperative) of mitral valve repair between mini and sternotomy ($25,515 ± $7598 vs $26,049 ± $11,737; P = .74). Operative costs were higher for the mini cohort, whereas postoperative costs were significantly lower. Postoperative intensive care unit and total hospital stays were both significantly shorter for the mini cohort. There were no differences in postoperative complications or survival between groups. Minimally invasive mitral valve surgery can be performed with overall equivalent cost and shorter hospital stay relative to traditional sternotomy. There is greater operative cost associated with minimally invasive mitral valve surgery that is offset by shorter intensive care unit and hospital stays. Copyright © 2016 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Morales, D L; Madigan, J D; Choudhri, A F; Williams, M R; Helman, D N; Elder, J B; Naka, Y; Oz, M C
The Bow Tie Repair (BTR), a single edge-to-edge suture opposing the anterior and posterior leaflets of the mitral valve (MV), has led to satisfactory reduction of mitral regurgitation (MR) with few re-operations and excellent hemodynamic results. The simplicity of the repair lends itself to minimally invasive approaches. A MV grasper has been developed that will coapt both leaflets and fasten the structures with a graduated spiral screw. Eleven explanted adult human MVs were mounted in a mock circulatory loop created for simulating a variety of hemodynamic conditions. The MV grasper was used to place a screw in each valve, which was then continuously run for 300,000 to 1,000,000 cycles with a fixed transvalvular pressure gradient. At the completion of these studies, the valves were stressed to a maximal transvalvular gradient for ten minutes. In seven cases, MR was induced and subsequently repaired using the MV screw. In vivo, the MV screw was tested in nine male canines. Through a subcostal incision, the MV grasper entered the left ventricle, approximated the mitral leaflets and deployed the MV screw under direct visualization via an atriotomy. Follow-up transthoracic echocardiograms were done at postoperative week 1, 6, and 12 to identify screw migration, MV regurgitation/stenosis or clot formation. Dogs were sacrificed up to postoperative week 12 to allow gross and histologic assessment. In vitro, no MV screw detached from the valve leaflets or migrated during the durability testing period of 6.8 million cycles, including periods of stress load testing up to 350 mm Hg. The percent regurgitant flow used to assess MR statistically decreased with the placement of the screw from 72 +/- 7% to 34 +/- 17%; p = 0.0025. In vivo, seven dogs whose valves were examined within the first 48 hours revealed leaflet coaptation with an intact MV screw and no evidence of MR. Two dogs, followed for a prolonged period, had serial postoperative echocardiograms demonstrating
Given late outcomes of patients with tetralogy of Fallot repaired in the 1970s and 1980s, as well as a better understanding of the late deleterious effects of pulmonary regurgitation, there is a tendency toward preservation of the pulmonary valve function during primary repair of tetralogy of Fallot. The bar keeps moving downward, to include smaller and more dysmorphic pulmonary valves. This article reviews some useful indications and techniques for valve-sparing options, including intraoperative balloon dilation and cusp reconstruction using a patch. Just like other valve repair techniques, no one technique can be applied uniformly, and surgeons must master a wide armamentarium of techniques. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Honjo, Osami; Atlin, Cori R; Mertens, Luc; Al-Radi, Osman O; Redington, Andrew N; Caldarone, Christopher A; Van Arsdell, Glen S
This study was to determine whether atrioventricular valve repair modifies natural history of single-ventricle patients with atrioventricular valve insufficiency and to identify factors predicting survival and reintervention. Fifty-seven (13.5%) of 422 single-ventricle patients underwent atrioventricular valve repair. Valve morphology, regurgitation mechanism, and ventricular morphology and function were analyzed for effect on survival, transplant, and reintervention with multivariate logistic and Cox regression models. Comparative analysis used case-matched controls. Atrioventricular valve was tricuspid in 67% and common in 28%. Ventricular morphology was right in 83%. Regurgitation mechanisms were prolapse (n = 24, 46%), dysplasia (n = 18, 35%), annular dilatation (n = 8, 15%), and restriction or cleft (n = 2, 4%). Postrepair insufficiency was none or trivial in 14 (26%), mild in 33 (61%), and moderate in 7 (13%). Survival in repair group was lower than in matched controls (78.9% vs 92.7% at 1 year, 68.7% vs 90.6% at 3 years, P = .015). Patients with successful repair and normal ventricular function had equivalent survival to matched controls (P = .36). Independent predictors for death or transplant included increased indexed annular size (P = .05), increased cardiopulmonary bypass time (P = .04), and decreased postrepair ventricular function (P = .01). Ventricular dilation was a time-related factor for all events, including failed repair. Survival was lower in single-ventricle patients operated on for atrioventricular valve insufficiency than in case-matched controls. Patients with little postoperative residual regurgitation and preserved ventricular function had equivalent survival to controls. Lower grade ventricular function and ventricular dilation correlated with death and repair failure, suggesting that timing of intervention may affect outcome. Copyright © 2011 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All
Akhtar, Raja Parvez; Abid, Abdul Rehman; Zafar, Hasnain; Gardezi, Syed Javed Raza; Waheed, Abdul; Khan, Jawad Sajid
To study patients with mechanical heart valves undergoing non-cardiac surgery and their anticoagulation management during these procedures. It was a cohort study. The study was conducted at the Department of Cardiac Surgery, Punjab Institute of Cardiology, Lahore and Department of Surgery, Services Institute of Medical Sciences, Lahore, from September 1994 to June 2006. Patients with mechanical heart valves undergoing non-cardiac surgical operation during this period, were included. Their anticoagulation was monitored and anticoagulation related complications were recorded. In this study, 507 consecutive patients with a mechanical heart valve replacement were followed-up. Forty two (8.28%) patients underwent non-cardiac surgical operations of which 24 (57.1%) were for abdominal and non-abdominal surgeries, 5 (20.8%) were emergency and 19 (79.2%) were planned. There were 18 (42.9%) caesarean sections for pregnancies. Among the 24 procedures, there were 7(29.1%) laparotomies, 7(29.1%) hernia repairs, 2 (8.3%) cholecystectomies, 2 (8.3%) hysterectomies, 1(4.1%) craniotomy, 1(4.1%) spinal surgery for neuroblastoma, 1(4.1%) ankle fracture and 1(4.1%) carbuncle. No untoward valve or anticoagulation related complication was seen during this period. Patients with mechanical valve prosthesis on life-long anticoagulation, if managed properly, can undergo any type of non-cardiac surgical operation with minimal risk.
Martin, Billie-Jean; Khoo, Nee S; Smallhorn, Jeffrey; Aklabi, Mohammed Al
Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) in infancy poses a surgical challenge. Both two- and three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) can provide detailed information about the mechanism(s) of valve failure and insights into valve adaptation during follow-up. We report two patients who underwent tricuspid valve repair using Gore-Tex neochordae, repairs which were facilitated by and assessed with 3DE. Both infants had less than mild residual TR and no valve tethering at hospital discharge. Furthermore, follow-up 3DEs have helped to confirm valve competence, lack of tethering, and growth of the valve and valve apparatus.
In mitral valve repair via a minimally invasive approach, resection of the leaflet is technically demanding compared with that in the standard approach. For resection and suture repair of the posterior leaflet, premarking of incision lines is recommended for precise resection. As an alternative to resection and suture, the leaflet-folding technique is also recommended. For correction of prolapse of the anterior leaflet, neochordae placement with the loop technique is easy to perform. Premeasurement with transesophageal echocardiography or intraoperative measurement using a replica of artificial chordae is useful to determine the appropriate length of the loops. Fine-tuning of the length of neochordae is possible by adding a secondary fixation point on the leaflet if the loop is too long. If the loop is too short, a CV5 Gore-Tex suture can be passed through the loop and loosely tied several times to stack the knots, with subsequent fixation to the edge of the leaflet. Finally, skill in the mitral valve replacement technique is necessary as a back-up for surgeons who perform minimally invasive mitral valve repair.
Gosev, Igor; Yammine, Maroun; McGurk, Siobhan; Ejiofor, Julius I; Norman, Anthony; Ivkovic, Vladimir; Cohn, Lawrence H
The risks vs benefits of tricuspid valve (TV) surgery in reoperative patients requiring left-sided valve surgery and moderate-to-severe tricuspid regurgitation is unclear. We compared patients with and without concomitant TV surgery. A total of 200 patients with moderate-to-severe TV regurgitation had reoperative left-sided valve procedures from January 2002 to April 2014; 75 with TV intervention (TVI) and 125 with no tricuspid intervention (TVN). Propensity-matched cohorts of 60 TVI and 60 TVN patients were compared. Outcomes included New York Heart Association class, TV regurgitation and survival. TVI patients were younger (66 ± 15 vs 72 ± 13 years, P < 0.001), had more cardiogenic shock (6 of 75, vs 0 of 125, P < 0.001) and mitral valve surgery (60 of 75 vs 69 of 125, P < 0.001). Propensity matching yielded 60 pairs of TVI cases and TVN controls. Matched groups were comparable in age (TVI = 67 ± 13 vs TVN 68 ± 14 years, P = 0.67), cardiogenic shock (2 vs 0, P = 0.50), and mitral valve surgery (15 each, P = 1.0). Operative mortality was 2 of 60 in TVI vs 10 of 60 TVN (P = 0.27). Median follow-up was 4.4 years. Follow-up rates of New York Heart Association class III-IV were similar (12 of 60 for TVI vs 16 of 60 TVN, P = 0.52). Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated improved event-free survival for TVI patients (6 years, 95% CI: 4.8-7.2 years vs 8 years, 95% CI: 6.7-9.3 years for TVN, P = 0.030). There was a trend towards increased TR at follow-up in patients with valve repair alone vs annuloplasty (P = 0.15). TV surgery was performed more often in higher-risk patients. Matched case-control analyses showed TVI was associated with improved midterm outcomes. Our data suggest that annuloplasty was preferable to TV repair alone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yeates, Alexander; Marwick, Thomas; Deva, Rajeev; Mundy, Julie; Wood, Annabelle; Griffin, Rayleene; Peters, Paul; Shah, Pallav
This study aims to determine whether tricuspid regurgitation (TR) ≥ 2+ requires attention during mitral valve surgery. From April 1999 to 2009, 161 patients undergoing primary, isolated mitral valve procedures were assessed. Preoperative moderate TR (≥2+) was present in 56 of 161 patients and tricuspid valve repair (TVR: ring annuloplasty) was carried out on 22 of 56 patients with TR ≥ 2+. Baseline echocardiogram included TR severity (ASE criteria), TR velocity, estimated right atrial pressure, visual assessment of right ventricular failure and strain. Follow-up was 47 ± 33 months (96% complete); 91 of 161 patients overall (57%) and 44 of 45 patients with TR ≥ 2+ had follow-up echocardiogram. Patients with moderate TR had worse baseline functional class and operative risks, both worst in the non-TVR group. Overall mortality was 15% (n = 23), comprising 2.5% (4/161) 30-day mortality and 12% (9/157) late death. Poorer preoperative TR was associated with worse survival by univariate analysis (P = 0.046), after correction for right ventricular function and pulmonary artery pressure (P = 0.049), age and diabetes (P = 0.041). Despite lower risk of TR ≥ 2+ with TVR, 5-year survival was 42%, which was less than TR < 2+ and that of non-TVR group (90%, P = 0.003). Improvement in overall functional class (NYHA) was better in the non-TVR group (TVR: preoperative 2.1 ± 1.5; post-operative 1.2 ± 1.1 (P = 0.02) versus non-TVR: preoperative 1.8 ± 1.4, post-operative 1.2 ± 0.9 (P < 0.0001)). There was no difference in quality of life (QOL) indices (SF-36 questionnaire) at follow-up between patients with TR < 2+ and TR ≥ 2+ preoperatively, or across all levels of TR before or after surgical repair. Preoperative TR ≥ 2+, non-TVR group had more favourable functional class and mid-term survival with comparable QOL and echocardiographic parameters to the TVR group. © 2013 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
Farag, Mina; Arif, Rawa; Sabashnikov, Anton; Zeriouh, Mohamed; Popov, Aron-Frederik; Ruhparwar, Arjang; Schmack, Bastian; Dohmen, Pascal M.; Szabó, Gábor; Karck, Matthias; Weymann, Alexander
Background Long-term follow-up data concerning isolated tricuspid valve pathology after replacement or reconstruction is limited. Current American Heart Association guidelines equally recommend repair and replacement when surgical intervention is indicated. Our aim was to investigate and compare operative mortality and long-term survival in patients undergoing isolated tricuspid valve repair surgery versus replacement. Material/Methods Between 1995 and 2011, 109 consecutive patients underwent surgical correction of tricuspid valve pathology at our institution for varying structural pathologies. A total of 41 (37.6%) patients underwent tricuspid annuloplasty/repair (TAP) with or without ring implantation, while 68 (62.3%) patients received tricuspid valve replacement (TVR) of whom 36 (53%) were mechanical and 32 (47%) were biological prostheses. Results Early survival at 30 days after surgery was 97.6% in the TAP group and 91.1% in the TVR group. After 6 months, 89.1% in the TAP group and 87.8% in the TVR group were alive. In terms of long-term survival, there was no further mortality observed after one year post surgery in both groups (Log Rank p=0.919, Breslow p=0.834, Tarone-Ware p=0.880) in the Kaplan-Meier Survival analysis. The 1-, 5-, and 8-year survival rates were 85.8% for TAP and 87.8% for TVR group. Conclusions Surgical repair of the tricuspid valve does not show survival benefit when compared to replacement. Hence valve replacement should be considered generously in patients with reasonable suspicion that regurgitation after repair will reoccur. PMID:28236633
Tamborini, Gloria; Fusini, Laura; Muratori, Manuela; Gripari, Paola; Ghulam Ali, Sarah; Fiorentini, Cesare; Pepi, Mauro
According to current recommendations, patients could benefit from tricuspid valve (TV) annuloplasty at the time mitral valve (MV) surgery if tricuspid regurgitation is severe or if tricuspid annulus (TA) dilatation is present. Therefore, an accurate pre-operative echocardiographic study is mandatory for left but also for right cardiac structures. Aims of this study are to assess right atrial (RA), right ventricular (RV) and TA geometry and function in patients undergoing MV repair without or with TV annuloplasty. We studied 103 patients undergoing MV surgery without (G1: 54 cases) or with (G2: 49 cases) concomitant TV annuloplasty and 40 healthy subjects (NL) as controls. RA, RV and TA were evaluated by three-dimensional (3D) transthoracic echocardiography. Comparing the pathological to the NL group, TA parameters and 3D right chamber volumes were significantly larger. RA and RV ejection fraction and TA% reduction were lower in pathological versus NL, and in G2 versus G1. In pathological patients, TA area positively correlated to systolic pulmonary pressure and negatively with RV and RA ejection fraction. Patients undergoing MV surgery and TV annuloplasty had an increased TA dimensions and a more advanced remodeling of right heart chambers probably reflecting an advanced stage of the disease.
Zhong, Qi; Zeng, Wenhua; Huang, Xiaoyang; Zhao, Xiaojia
Systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve is an uncommon complication of mitral valve repair, which requires immediate supplementary surgical action. Edge-to-edge suture is considered as an effective technique to treat post-mitral valve repair systolic anterior motion by clinical researchers. However, the fundamentals and quantitative analysis are vacant to validate the effectiveness of the additional edge-to-edge surgery to repair systolic anterior motion. In the present work, finite element models were developed to simulate a specific clinical surgery for patients with posterior leaflet prolapse, so as to analyze the edge-to-edge technique quantificationally. The simulated surgery procedure concluded several actions such as quadrangular resection, mitral annuloplasty and edge-to-edge suture. And the simulated results were compared with echocardiography and measurement data of the patients under the mitral valve surgery, which shows good agreement. The leaflets model with additional edge-to-edge suture has a shorter mismatch length than that of the model merely under quadrangular resection and mitral annuloplasty actions at systole, which assures a better coaptation status. The stress on the leaflets after edge-to-edge suture is lessened as well.
Andreas, Martin; Haberl, Thomas; Paul Werner, Paul Werner; Guri, Jani; Kocher, Alfred; Hamza, Ouafa; Podesser, Bruno; Laufer, Guenther
We demonstrate the technical aspects of a novel adjustable mitral ring. This new ring was implanted in a female landrace pig, for training and educational purposes. It can be adjusted independently in the P1, P2 and P3 segments, if required, to treat recurrent mitral regurgitation, and this is a key difference to comparable devices. The first-in-man implantation is anticipated in the near future. © The Author 2016. Published by MMCTS on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.
Gil-Raga, Irene; Martinez-Herrera, Mayte; Lauritano, Dorina; Silvestre-Rangil, Javier
Background Patients scheduled for heart valve surgery should be free of any oral infectious disorders that might pose a risk in the postoperative period. Few studies have been made on the dental conditions of such patients prior to surgery. The present study describes the most frequent prior oral diseases in this population group. Material and Methods A prospective, observational case-control study was designed involving 60 patients (30 with heart valve disease and 30 controls, with a mean age of 71 years in both groups). A dental exploration was carried out, with calculation of the DMFT (decayed, missing and filled teeth) index and recording of the periodontal parameters (plaque index, gingival bleeding index, periodontal pocket depth, and attachment loss). The oral mucosa was also examined, and panoramic X-rays were used to identify possible intrabony lesions. Results Significant differences in bacterial plaque index were observed between the two groups (p<0.05), with higher scores in the patients with valve disease. Probing depth and the presence of moderate pockets were also greater in the patients with valve disease than among the controls (p<0.01). Sixty percent of the patients with valve disease presented periodontitis. Conclusions Patients scheduled for heart valve surgery should be examined for possible active periodontitis before the operation. Those individuals found to have periodontal disease should receive adequate periodontal treatment before heart surgery. Key words:Valve disease, aortic, mitral, heart surgery, periodontitis. PMID:29302279
Silvestre, Francisco-Javier; Gil-Raga, Irene; Martinez-Herrera, Mayte; Lauritano, Dorina; Silvestre-Rangil, Javier
Patients scheduled for heart valve surgery should be free of any oral infectious disorders that might pose a risk in the postoperative period. Few studies have been made on the dental conditions of such patients prior to surgery. The present study describes the most frequent prior oral diseases in this population group. A prospective, observational case-control study was designed involving 60 patients (30 with heart valve disease and 30 controls, with a mean age of 71 years in both groups). A dental exploration was carried out, with calculation of the DMFT (decayed, missing and filled teeth) index and recording of the periodontal parameters (plaque index, gingival bleeding index, periodontal pocket depth, and attachment loss). The oral mucosa was also examined, and panoramic X-rays were used to identify possible intrabony lesions. Significant differences in bacterial plaque index were observed between the two groups ( p <0.05), with higher scores in the patients with valve disease. Probing depth and the presence of moderate pockets were also greater in the patients with valve disease than among the controls ( p <0.01). Sixty percent of the patients with valve disease presented periodontitis. Patients scheduled for heart valve surgery should be examined for possible active periodontitis before the operation. Those individuals found to have periodontal disease should receive adequate periodontal treatment before heart surgery. Key words: Valve disease, aortic, mitral, heart surgery, periodontitis.
Park, Byungjoon; Sung, Kiick; Park, Pyo Won
This study aimed to evaluate the safety and feasibility of transaortic mitral pannus removal (TMPR).Methods and Results:Between 2004 and 2016, 34 patients (median age, 57 years; 30 women) with rheumatic disease underwent pannus removal on the ventricular side of a mechanical mitral valve through the aortic valve during reoperation. The median time interval from the previous surgery was 14 years. TMPR was performed after removal of the mechanical aortic valve (n=21) or diseased native aortic valve (n=11). TMPR was performed in 2 patients through a normal aortic valve. The mitral transprosthetic mean pressure gradient (TMPG) was ≥5 mmHg in 11 patients, including 3 with prosthetic valve malfunction. Prophylactic TMPR was performed in 23 patients. There were no early deaths. Concomitant operations included 22 tricuspid valve surgeries (13 replacements, 15 repairs) and 32 aortic valve replacements (24 repeats, 8 primary). The mean gradient in patients who had mitral TMPG ≥5 mmHg was significantly decreased from 6.46±1.1 to 4.37±1.17 mmHg at discharge (P<0.001). No mechanical valve malfunction was apparent on last echocardiography. TMPR is a safe and effective procedure for patients with malfunction or stenosis of a mechanical mitral valve and may be considered an alternative approach in patients with pannus overgrowth in such valves.
Barik, Ramachandra; Patnaik, A. N.; Mishra, Ramesh C.; Kumari, N. Rama; Gulati, A. S.
We report a 27 years old male who presented with a combination of both congenital and acquired cardiac defects. This syndrome complex includes congenital bicuspid aortic valve, Seller's grade II aortic regurgitation, juxta- subclavian coarctation, stenosis of ostium of left subclavian artery and ruptured sinus of Valsalva aneurysm without any evidence of infective endocarditis. This type of constellation is extremely rare. Neither coarctation of aorta with left subclavian artery stenosis nor the rupture of sinus Valsalva had a favorable pathology for percutaneus intervention. Taking account into morbidity associated with repeated surgery and anesthesia patient underwent a single stage surgical repair of both the defects by two surgical incisions. The approaches include median sternotomy for rupture of sinus of Valsalva and lateral thoracotomy for coarctation with left subclavian artery stenosis. The surgery was uneventful. After three months follow up echocardiography showed mild residual gradient across the repaired coarctation segment, mild aortic regurgitation and no residual left to right shunt. This patient is under follow up. This is an extremely rare case of single stage successful repair of coarctation and rupture of sinus of Valsalva associated with congenital bicuspid aortic valve. PMID:22629035
Barik, Ramachandra; Patnaik, A N; Mishra, Ramesh C; Kumari, N Rama; Gulati, A S
We report a 27 years old male who presented with a combination of both congenital and acquired cardiac defects. This syndrome complex includes congenital bicuspid aortic valve, Seller's grade II aortic regurgitation, juxta- subclavian coarctation, stenosis of ostium of left subclavian artery and ruptured sinus of Valsalva aneurysm without any evidence of infective endocarditis. This type of constellation is extremely rare. Neither coarctation of aorta with left subclavian artery stenosis nor the rupture of sinus Valsalva had a favorable pathology for percutaneus intervention. Taking account into morbidity associated with repeated surgery and anesthesia patient underwent a single stage surgical repair of both the defects by two surgical incisions. The approaches include median sternotomy for rupture of sinus of Valsalva and lateral thoracotomy for coarctation with left subclavian artery stenosis. The surgery was uneventful. After three months follow up echocardiography showed mild residual gradient across the repaired coarctation segment, mild aortic regurgitation and no residual left to right shunt. This patient is under follow up. This is an extremely rare case of single stage successful repair of coarctation and rupture of sinus of Valsalva associated with congenital bicuspid aortic valve.
Shafii, Alexis E.; Gillinov, A. Marc; Mihaljevic, Tomislav; Stewart, William; Batizy, Lillian H.; Blackstone, Eugene H.
Degenerative mitral valve disease is the leading cause of mitral regurgitation in North America. Surgical intervention has hinged on symptoms and ventricular changes that develop as compensatory ventricular remodeling takes place. In this study, we sought to characterize the temporal response of left ventricular (LV) morphology and function to mitral valve surgery for degenerative disease, and identify preoperative factors that influence reverse remodeling. From 1986–2007, 2,778 patients with isolated degenerative mitral valve disease underwent valve repair (n=2,607/94%) or replacement (n=171/6%) and had at least 1 postoperative transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE); 5,336 TTEs were available for analysis. Multivariable longitudinal repeated-measures analysis was performed to identify factors associated with reverse remodeling. LV dimensions decreased in the first year after surgery (end-diastolic from 5.7±0.80 to 4.9±1.4 cm; end-systolic from 3.4±0.71 to 3.1±1.4 cm). LV mass index decreased from 139±44 to 112±73 g·m−2. Reduction of LV hypertrophy was less pronounced in patients with greater preoperative left heart enlargement (P<.0001) and greater preoperative LV mass (P<.0001). Postoperative LV ejection fraction initially decreased from 58±7.0 to 53±20, increased slightly over the first postoperative year, and was negatively influenced by preoperative heart failure symptoms (P<.0001) and lower preoperative LV ejection fraction (P<.0001). Risk-adjusted response of LV morphology and function to valve repair and replacement was similar (P>.2). In conclusion, a positive response toward normalization of LV morphology and function after mitral valve surgery is greatest in the first year. The best response occurs when surgery is performed before left heart dilatation, LV hypertrophy, or LV dysfunction develop. PMID:22534055
... of the aorta repair - discharge; Heart surgery for children - discharge; Atrial septal defect repair - discharge; Ventricular septal ... discharge; Acquired heart disease - discharge; Heart valve surgery - ... Heart surgery - pediatric - discharge; Heart transplant - pediatric - ...
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Brunsting, Louis A; Rankin, J Scott; Braly, Kimberly C; Binford, Robert S
Artificial chordal replacement (ACR) has emerged as a superior method of mitral valve repair with excellent early and late efficacy. It is also ideal to combine with robotic techniques for correction of mitral prolapse, and this article presents a current method of robotic Gore-Tex ACR. Patients with isolated posterior leaflet prolapse are approached with the fourth-generation DaVinci robotic system and endoaortic balloon occlusion. A pledgetted anchor stitch is placed in a papillary muscle, and a 2-o Gore-Tex suture is passed through the anchor pledget. After full annuloplasty ring placement, the Gore-Tex suture is woven into the prolapsing segment and positioned temporarily with robotic forceps. Chordal length is then "adjusted" by lengthening or shortening the temporary knot over 1-cm increments as the valve is tested by injection of cold saline into the ventricle. After achieving good leaflet position and valve competence, the chord is tied permanently. The "adjustable" ACR procedure preserves leaflet surface area and produces a competent valve in the majority of patients. Postoperative transesophageal echo shows a large surface area of coaptation. Patient recovery is facilitated by the minimally invasive approach, while long-term stability of similar open ACR techniques have been excellent with a 2% to 3% failure rate over 10 years of follow-up. Robotic Gore-Tex ACR without leaflet resection is a reproducible procedure that simplifies mitral repair for prolapse. The outcomes observed in early robotic applications have been excellent. It is suggested that most patients with simple prolapse might validly be approached in this manner.
Vergnat, Mathieu; Asfour, Boulos; Arenz, Claudia; Suchowerskyj, Philipp; Bierbach, Benjamin; Schindler, Ehrenfried; Schneider, Martin; Hraska, Victor
Any aortic valve (AoV) operation in children (repair, Ross or mechanical replacement) is a palliation and reinterventions are frequent. AoV repair is a temporary solution primarily aimed at allowing the patient to grow to an age when more definitive solutions are available. We retrospectively analysed AoV repair effectiveness across the whole age spectrum of children, excluding neonates and AoV disease secondary to congenital heart disease. From 2003 to 2015, 193 consecutive patients were included. The mean age was 9.2 ± 6.9 years (22% <1 year); 86 (45%) had a preceding balloon valvuloplasty. The indications for the procedure were stenotic (n = 123; 64%), regurgitant (n = 63; 33%) or combined (n = 7; 4%) disease. The procedures performed were commissurotomy shaving (n = 74; 38%), leaflet replacement (n = 78; 40%), leaflet extension (n = 21; 11%) and neocommissure creation (n = 21; 11%). Post-repair geometry was tricuspid in 137 (71%) patients. The 10-year survival rate was 97.1%. Freedom from reoperation and replacement at 7 years was, respectively, 57% (95% confidence interval, 47-66) and 68% (95% confidence interval, 59-76). In multivariate analysis, balloon dilatation before 6 months, the absence of a developed commissure, a non-tricuspid post-repair geometry and cross-clamp duration were predictors for reoperation and replacement. After a mean follow-up period of 5.1 ± 3.0 years, 145 (75%) patients had a preserved native valve, with undisturbed valve function (peak gradient <40 mmHg, regurgitation ≤mild) in 113 (58%). Aortic valve repair in children is safe and effective in delaying the timing for more definitive solution. Surgical strategy should be individualized according to the age of the patient. Avoidance of early balloon dilatation and aiming for a tricuspid post-repair arrangement may improve outcomes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association
Leopaldi, Alberto M; Wrobel, Krzysztof; Speziali, Giovanni; van Tuijl, Sjoerd; Drasutiene, Agne; Chitwood, W Randolph
Previously, cardiac surgeons and cardiologists learned to operate new clinical devices for the first time in the operating room or catheterization laboratory. We describe a biosimulator that recapitulates normal heart valve physiology with associated real-time hemodynamic performance. To highlight the advantages of this simulation platform, transventricular extruded polytetrafluoroethylene artificial chordae were attached to repair flail or prolapsing mitral valve leaflets. Guidance for key repair steps was by 2-dimensional/3-dimensional echocardiography and simultaneous intracardiac videoscopy. Multiple surgeons have assessed the use of this biosimulator during artificial chordae implantations. This simulation platform recapitulates normal and pathologic mitral valve function with associated hemodynamic changes. Clinical situations were replicated in the simulator and echocardiography was used for navigation, followed by videoscopic confirmation. This beating heart biosimulator reproduces prolapsing mitral leaflet pathology. It may be the ideal platform for surgeon and cardiologist training on many transcatheter and beating heart procedures. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.
Chivasso, Pierpaolo; Bruno, Vito D; Farid, Shakil; Malvindi, Pietro Giorgio; Modi, Amit; Benedetto, Umberto; Ciulli, Franco; Abu-Omar, Yasir; Caputo, Massimo; Angelini, Gianni D; Livesey, Steve; Vohra, Hunaid A
An increasing number of octogenarians are referred to undergo mitral valve surgery for degenerative disease, and percutaneous approaches are being increasingly used in this subgroup of patients. We sought to determine the survival and its predictors after Mitral Valve Surgery in Octogenarians (MiSO) in a multicenter UK study of high-volume specialized centers. Pooled data from 3 centers were collected retrospectively. To identify the predictors of short-term composite outcome of 30 days mortality, acute kidney injury, and cerebrovascular accident, a multivariable logistic regression model was developed. Multiple Cox regression analysis was performed for late mortality. Kaplan-Meier curves were generated for long-term survival in various subsets of patients. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was done to determine the predictive power of the logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation. A total of 247 patients were included in the study. The median follow-up was 2.9 years (minimum 0, maximum 14 years). A total of 150 patients (60.7%) underwent mitral valve repair, and 97 patients (39.3%) underwent mitral valve replacement. Apart from redo cardiac surgery (mitral valve repair 6 [4%] vs mitral valve replacement 11 [11.3%], P = .04) and preoperative atrial fibrillation (mitral valve repair 79 [52.6%] vs mitral valve replacement 34 [35.1%], P < .01), there was no significant difference in terms of any other preoperative characteristics between the 2 groups. Patient operative risk, as estimated by logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation, was lower in the mitral valve repair group (10.2 ± 11.8 vs 13.7 ± 15.2 in mitral valve replacement; P = .07). No difference was found between groups for duration of cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic crossclamp times. The 30-day mortality for the whole cohort was 13.8% (mitral valve repair 4.7% vs mitral valve replacement 18.6%; P < .01). No differences were found in terms
Hekmat, Manouchehr; Ghorbani, Mohsen; Ghaderi, Hamid; Majidi, Masoud; Beheshti, Mahmood
Valvular heart disease is the common cardiac manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with a tendency for mitral valve regurgitation. In this study we report a case of mitral valve replacement for mitral stenosis caused by Libman-Sacks endocarditis in the setting of SLE. In addition, we provide a systematic review of the literature on mitral valve surgery in the presence of Libman-Sacks endocarditis because its challenge on surgical options continues. Surgical decision depends on structural involvement of mitral valve and presence of active lupus nephritis and antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. Review of the literature has also shown that outcome is good in most SLE patients who have undergone valvular surgery, but association of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome with SLE has negative impact on the outcome. PMID:25401131
Dimas, V. Vivian; Grifka, Ronald G.; Fraser, Charles D.
Chronic tricuspid valve insufficiency secondary to blunt chest trauma is rare in the pediatric population, with fewer than 10 cases reported. Surgical repair has focused on the tricuspid valve. We present 2 cases of traumatic tricuspid valve insufficiency in pediatric patients after blunt chest trauma in whom tricuspid valve repair was performed along with superior cavopulmonary anastomosis. To our knowledge, this is the 1st report of the use of this combination of surgical procedures for repair of traumatic tricuspid regurgitation in either adults or children. PMID:15745295
Javadikasgari, Hoda; Gillinov, A Marc; Idrees, Jay J; Mihaljevic, Tomislav; Suri, Rakesh M; Raza, Sajjad; Houghtaling, Penny L; Svensson, Lars G; Navia, José L; Mick, Stephanie L; Desai, Milind Y; Sabik, Joseph F; Blackstone, Eugene H
For mitral regurgitation (MR) from degenerative mitral disease in patients with coexisting coronary artery disease, the appropriate surgical strategy remains controversial. From 1985 to 2011, 1,071 adults (age 70 ± 9.3 years, 77% men) underwent combined coronary artery bypass grafting and either mitral valve repair (n = 872, 81%) or replacement (n=199, 19%) for degenerative MR. Propensity matching (177 patient pairs, 89% of possible matches) was used to compare early outcomes and time-related recurrence of MR after mitral valve repair, mitral valve reoperation, and mortality. Risk factors for death were identified with multivariable, multiphase hazard-function analysis. Patients undergoing valve replacement were older, with more valve calcification and a higher prevalence of preoperative atrial fibrillation and heart failure (all p < .0001). Among matched pairs, mitral replacement versus repair was associated with higher hospital mortality (5.0% vs 1.0%, p = .0001) and more postoperative renal failure (7.0% vs 3.2%, p = .01), reexplorations for bleeding (6.0% vs 3.1%, p = .05), and respiratory failure (14% vs 4.7%, p < .0001). Of matched patients undergoing repair, 18% had MR above 3+ by 5 years. Mitral valve durability was similar between matched groups, but survival at 15 years was 18% after replacement versus 52% after repair. Nomograms from the multivariable equation revealed that in 94% of cases, 10-year survival was calculated to be higher after repair than after replacement. In patients with coexisting degenerative mitral valve and coronary artery diseases, mitral valve repair is expected to confer a long-term survival advantage over replacement despite some recurrence of MR. When feasible, it is the procedure of choice for these patients. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cazelli, José Guilherme; Camargo, Gabriel Cordeiro; Kruczan, Dany David; Weksler, Clara; Felipe, Alexandre Rouge; Gottlieb, Ilan
The prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in valvular patients is similar to that of the general population, with the usual association with traditional risk factors. Nevertheless, the search for obstructive CAD is more aggressive in the preoperative period of patients with valvular heart disease, resulting in the indication of invasive coronary angiography (ICA) to almost all adult patients, because it is believed that coronary artery bypass surgery should be associated with valve replacement. To evaluate the prevalence of obstructive CAD and factors associated with it in adult candidates for primary heart valve surgery between 2001 and 2014 at the National Institute of Cardiology (INC) and, thus, derive and validate a predictive obstructive CAD score. Cross-sectional study evaluating 2898 patients with indication for heart surgery of any etiology. Of those, 712 patients, who had valvular heart disease and underwent ICA in the 12 months prior to surgery, were included. The P value < 0.05 was adopted as statistical significance. The prevalence of obstructive CAD was 20%. A predictive model of obstructive CAD was created from multivariate logistic regression, using the variables age, chest pain, family history of CAD, systemic arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, smoking, and male gender. The model showed excellent correlation and calibration (R² = 0.98), as well as excellent accuracy (ROC of 0.848; 95%CI: 0.817-0.879) and validation (ROC of 0.877; 95%CI: 0.830 - 0.923) in different valve populations. Obstructive CAD can be estimated from clinical data of adult candidates for valve repair surgery, using a simple, accurate and validated score, easy to apply in clinical practice, which may contribute to changes in the preoperative strategy of acquired heart valve surgery in patients with a lower probability of obstructive disease.
Haydari, Aghigh; Sabzi, Feridoun; Dabiri, Samsam; Poormotaabed, Alireza
We report a patient presented with recurrent pericardial effusion caused by drug-induced systemic lupus Erythematosus (SLE) following mitral valve repair. The surgery was complicated by hemiparesis and convulsion in early postoperative period. The patient had been received carbamazepine for a paroxysmal seizure that occurred following mitral valve repair. The post operative computed tomography showed embolic stroke and its sequel (seizure) that treated with carbamazepine. In the 3rd month of follow-up, however, hemiparesis recovered by physiotherapy but carbamazepine was not discontinued as by request of neurologist. In the 6th month of surgery, the patient admitted by dyspnea and massive pericardial effusion that treated by subxiphoid drainage. This event was re occurred in two times in a short time frame and each event treated by surgical approach. The serologic exam in the last admission revealed drug-induced lupus erythematosus. The carbamazepine as an anti convulsive drug has been described to cause LE like disease in multiple case reports. Laboratory exam exhibited the possibility of carbamazepine-induced lupus in our case, with the extremely rare presentation of recurrent massive pericardial effusion.
Rostagno, Carlo; Droandi, G; Gelsomino, S; Carone, E; Gensini, G F; Stefàno, P L
At present, limited experience exists on the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients undergoing mitral valve repair (MVR) for Barlow disease. The aim of this investigation was to prospectively evaluate the radiofrequency ablation of AF in patients undergoing MVR for severe regurgitation due to Barlow disease. From January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2010, out of 85 consecutive patients with Barlow disease, 27 with AF underwent RF ablation associated with MVR. They were examined every 4 months in the first year after surgery and thereafter twice yearly. At follow-up, AF was observed in 4/25 (16.0%). NYHA (New York Heart Association) functional class improved significantly, with no patients in class III or IV (before surgery, 81.5% had been). Otherwise, among 58 patients in sinus rhythm, 6 (11%) developed AF during follow-up. No clinical or echocardiographic predictive factor was found in this subgroup. Results from our investigation suggest that radiofrequency ablation of AF in patients with Barlow disease undergoing MVR for severe regurgitation is effective and should be considered in every patient with Barlow disease and AF undergoing valve surgical repair. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Navia, José L; Elgharably, Haytham; Javadikasgari, Hoda; Ibrahim, Ahmed; Koprivanac, Marijan; Lowry, Ashley M; Blackstone, Eugene H; Klein, Allan L; Gillinov, A Marc; Roselli, Eric E; Svensson, Lars G
Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) often accompanies ischemic mitral regurgitation and is generally assumed to be a secondary consequence of altered hemodynamics of the left-sided regurgitation. We hypothesized that it may also be a direct consequence of right-sided ischemic disease. Therefore, our objectives were to (1) characterize the nature of this TR and (2) describe its time course after mitral valve surgery for ischemic mitral regurgitation, with or without concomitant tricuspid valve repair. From 2001 to 2011, 568 patients with ischemic mitral regurgitation underwent mitral valve surgery. They had varying degrees of TR and altered right-side heart morphology and function; 131 had concomitant tricuspid valve repair. Postoperatively, 1,395 echocardiograms were available to assess residual and recurrent TR. Greater severity of preoperative TR was accompanied by larger tricuspid valve diameter, greater leaflet tethering, worse right ventricular function, and higher right ventricular pressure (all p [trend] ≤ 0.002). Without tricuspid valve repair, 31% of patients with no preoperative TR had moderate or greater TR by 5 years, as did 62% with moderate TR. With tricuspid valve repair, 25% with moderate preoperative TR remained in that grade at 5 years, but 11% had severe TR. Tricuspid regurgitation accompanying ischemic mitral regurgitation is associated with right-side heart remodeling and dysfunction often mirroring that occurring in the left side of the heart-ischemic TR. Tricuspid valve repair is effective initially, but as with mitral valve repair, TR progressively returns. Therefore, when the severity of TR and right-sided remodeling reaches the point of irreversibility, it may be an indication to eliminate the TR by replacing the tricuspid valve. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Acker, Michael A; Parides, Michael K; Perrault, Louis P; Moskowitz, Alan J; Gelijns, Annetine C; Voisine, Pierre; Smith, Peter K; Hung, Judy W; Blackstone, Eugene H; Puskas, John D; Argenziano, Michael; Gammie, James S; Mack, Michael; Ascheim, Deborah D; Bagiella, Emilia; Moquete, Ellen G; Ferguson, T Bruce; Horvath, Keith A; Geller, Nancy L; Miller, Marissa A; Woo, Y Joseph; D'Alessandro, David A; Ailawadi, Gorav; Dagenais, Francois; Gardner, Timothy J; O'Gara, Patrick T; Michler, Robert E; Kron, Irving L
Ischemic mitral regurgitation is associated with a substantial risk of death. Practice guidelines recommend surgery for patients with a severe form of this condition but acknowledge that the supporting evidence for repair or replacement is limited. We randomly assigned 251 patients with severe ischemic mitral regurgitation to undergo either mitral-valve repair or chordal-sparing replacement in order to evaluate efficacy and safety. The primary end point was the left ventricular end-systolic volume index (LVESVI) at 12 months, as assessed with the use of a Wilcoxon rank-sum test in which deaths were categorized below the lowest LVESVI rank. At 12 months, the mean LVESVI among surviving patients was 54.6±25.0 ml per square meter of body-surface area in the repair group and 60.7±31.5 ml per square meter in the replacement group (mean change from baseline, -6.6 and -6.8 ml per square meter, respectively). The rate of death was 14.3% in the repair group and 17.6% in the replacement group (hazard ratio with repair, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.42 to 1.47; P=0.45 by the log-rank test). There was no significant between-group difference in LVESVI after adjustment for death (z score, 1.33; P=0.18). The rate of moderate or severe recurrence of mitral regurgitation at 12 months was higher in the repair group than in the replacement group (32.6% vs. 2.3%, P<0.001). There were no significant between-group differences in the rate of a composite of major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events, in functional status, or in quality of life at 12 months. We observed no significant difference in left ventricular reverse remodeling or survival at 12 months between patients who underwent mitral-valve repair and those who underwent mitral-valve replacement. Replacement provided a more durable correction of mitral regurgitation, but there was no significant between-group difference in clinical outcomes. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Canadian Institutes of
Repair of pectus is one of the most common congenital abnormality for which patient presents for thoracic surgery. In recent years, innovative minimally invasive techniques involving video assisted thoracoscopy for pectus repair have become the norm. Similarly, anaesthetic techniques have evolved to include principles of enhanced recovery, multimodal analgesia and innovative ultrasound guided neuraxial and nerve blocks. Adequate anaesthetic set up and monitoring including the use of real time intraoperative monitoring with transesophageal echocardiography (TOE) has enabled the anaesthetist to enhance patient safety by providing instantaneous imaging of cardiac compression and complications during surgery. In this review article we aim to provide non-systematic review and institutional experience of our anaesthetic strategy to provide effective peri-operative care in this patient group. PMID:29078504
Lehr, Eric J.; Guy, T. Sloane; Smith, Robert L.; Grossi, Eugene A.; Shemin, Richard J.; Rodriguez, Evelio; Ailawadi, Gorav; Agnihotri, Arvind K.; Fayers, Trevor M.; Hargrove, W. Clark; Hummel, Brian W.; Khan, Junaid H.; Malaisrie, S. Chris; Mehall, John R.; Murphy, Douglas A.; Ryan, William H.; Salemi, Arash; Segurola, Romualdo J.; Smith, J. Michael; Wolfe, J. Alan; Weldner, Paul W.; Barnhart, Glenn R.; Goldman, Scott M.; Lewis, Clifton T. P.
Abstract Minimally invasive mitral valve operations are increasingly common in the United States, but robotic-assisted approaches have not been widely adopted for a variety of reasons. This expert opinion reviews the state of the art and defines best practices, training, and techniques for developing a successful robotics program. PMID:27662478
Li, Feng P.; Rajchl, Martin; Moore, John; Peters, Terry M.
Mitral regurgitation (MR) occurs when the mitral valve cannot close properly during systole. The NeoChordtool aims to repair MR by implanting artificial chordae tendineae on flail leaflets inside the beating heart, without a cardiopulmonary bypass. Image guidance is crucial for such a procedure due to the lack of direct vision of the targets or instruments. While this procedure is currently guided solely by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), our previous work has demonstrated that guidance safety and efficiency can be significantly improved by employing augmented virtuality to provide virtual presentation of mitral valve annulus (MVA) and tools integrated with real time ultrasound image data. However, real-time mitral annulus tracking remains a challenge. In this paper, we describe an image-based approach to rapidly track MVA points on 2D/biplane TEE images. This approach is composed of two components: an image-based phasing component identifying images at optimal cardiac phases for tracking, and a registration component updating the coordinates of MVA points. Preliminary validation has been performed on porcine data with an average difference between manually and automatically identified MVA points of 2.5mm. Using a parallelized implementation, this approach is able to track the mitral valve at up to 10 images per second.
Umakanthan, Ramanan; Leacche, Marzia; Petracek, Michael R; Kumar, Sathappan; Solenkova, Nataliya V; Kaiser, Clayton A; Greelish, James P; Balaguer, Jorge M; Ahmad, Rashid M; Ball, Stephen K; Hoff, Steven J; Absi, Tarek S; Kim, Betty S; Byrne, John G
We developed a technique for open heart surgery through a small (5 cm) right-anterolateral thoracotomy without aortic cross-clamp. One hundred and ninety-five consecutive patients (103 male and 92 female), age 69 +/- 8 years, underwent surgery between January 2006 and July 2007. Mean preoperative New York Heart Association function class was 2.2 +/- 0.7. Thirty-five patients (18%) had an ejection fraction 0.35 or less. Cardiopulmonary bypass was instituted through femoral (176 of 195, 90%), axillary (18 of 195, 9%), or direct aortic (1 of 195, 0.5%) cannulation. Under cold fibrillatory arrest (mean temperature 28.2 degrees C) without aortic cross-clamp, mitral valve repair (72 of 195, 37%), mitral valve replacement (117 of 195, 60%), or other (6 of 195, 3%) procedures were performed. Concomitant procedures included maze (45 of 195, 23%), patent foramen ovale closure (42 of 195, 22%) and tricuspid valve repair (16 of 195, 8%), or replacement (4 of 195, 2%). Thirty-day mortality was 3% (6 of 195). Duration of fibrillatory arrest, cardiopulmonary bypass, and "skin to skin" surgery were 88 +/- 32, 118 +/- 52, and 280 +/- 78 minutes, respectively. Ten patients (5%) underwent reexploration for bleeding and 44% did not receive any blood transfusions. Six patients (3%) sustained a postoperative stroke, eight (4%) developed low cardiac output syndrome, and two (1%) developed renal failure requiring hemodialysis. Mean length of hospital stay was 7 +/- 4.8 days. This simplified technique of minimally invasive open heart surgery is safe and easily reproducible. Fibrillatory arrest without aortic cross-clamping, with coronary perfusion against an intact aortic valve, does not increase the risk of stroke or low cardiac output. It may be particularly useful in higher risk patients in whom sternotomy with aortic clamping is less desirable.
Azarnoush, Kasra; Nadeemy, Ahmad S; Pereira, Bruno; Leesar, Massoud A; Lambert, Céline; Azhari, Alaa; Eljezi, Vedat; Dauphin, Nicolas; Geoffroy, Etienne; Camilleri, Lionel
AIM To determine whether the need for additional tricuspid valve repair is an independent risk factor when surgery is required for a left-sided heart disease. METHODS One hundred and eighty patients (68 ± 12 years, 79 males) underwent tricuspid annuoplasty. Cox proportional-hazards regression model for multivariate analysis was performed for variables found significant in univariate analyses. RESULTS Tricuspid regurgitation etiology was functional in 154 cases (86%), organic in 16 cases (9%), and mixed in 10 cases (6%), respectively. Postoperative mortality at 30 days was 11.7%. Mean follow-up was 51.7 mo with survival at 5 years of 73.5%. Risk factors for mortality were acute endocarditis [hazard ratio (HR) = 9.22 (95%CI: 2.87-29.62), P < 0.001], ischemic heart disease requiring myocardial revascularization [HR = 2.79 (1.26-6.20), P = 0.012], and aortic valve stenosis [HR = 2.6 (1.15-5.85), P = 0.021]. Significant predictive factors from univariate analyses were double-valve replacement combined with tricuspid annuloplasty [HR = 2.21 (1.11-4.39), P = 0.003] and preoperatively impaired ejection fraction [HR = 1.98 (1.04-3.92), P = 0.044]. However, successful mitral valve repair showed a protective effect [HR = 0.32 (0.10-0.98), P = 0.046]. Additionally, in instances where tricuspid regurgitation required the need for concomitant tricuspid valve repair, mortality predictor scores such as Euroscore 2 could be shortened to a simple Euroscore-tricuspid comprised of only 7 inputs. The explanation may lie in the fact that significant tricuspid regurgitation following left-sided heart disease represents an independent risk factor encompassing several other factors such as pulmonary arterial hypertension and dyspnea. CONCLUSION Tricuspid annuloplasty should be used more often as a concomitant procedure in the presence of relevant tricuspid regurgitation, although it usually reveals an overly delayed correction of a left-sided heart disease. PMID:29104738
Karamlou, Tara; McCrindle, Brian W; Williams, William G
Biventricular correction of tetralogy of Fallot was devised more than 50 years ago. Current short-term outcomes are excellent. The potential for late complications is, however, an important concern for the growing number of postrepair survivors. Progressive pulmonary valve regurgitation leading to right heart failure and arrhythmia are centrally important problems faced by these patients. New techniques are, however, likely to change the future outcomes for postrepair survivors. These techniques include percutaneous valve replacement, arrhythmia ablation surgery, and strategies that emphasize preservation of the pulmonary valve even at the cost of leaving some residual valvular stenosis. The objectives of this Review are to outline the major complications that arise late after repair of tetralogy of Fallot, to describe the surgical approaches that have been developed to avoid and manage arising complications, and to briefly explore how novel treatment paradigms could change the future long-term outlook for patients following tetralogy repair.
Ghavidel, Alireza Alizadeh; Samiei, Niloofar; Javadikasgari, Hoda; Bashirpour, Kamiar
The exact length of neochordae loops plays the major role in the success of mitral valve repair. The Neochordae Loop Maker is a novel device that models the left ventricular structure in an individual patient. Preoperative transthoracic echocardiography is used to identify the geometry of each papillary muscle and set up the device for the patient. All required neochordae loops are made in the operating room before initiating the cardiopulmonary bypass. In the calibration phase, seven consecutive patients who were candidates for mitral valve replacement underwent transthoracic echocardiography. The device was set up for each patient, and the length of their normal chordae and their respective neochordae was compared by the Bland-Altman analysis. From seven excised mitral valves, 21 chordae were considered normal (gold standard). The length of these gold standards (1.92 ± 0.67 cm) and their respective neochordae (1.93 ± 0.69 cm) showed agreement by the Bland-Altman analysis. The proposed technology showed satisfactory preliminary results in creating the premeasured neochorda loops inasmuch as it reduced the complexity of minimally invasive surgeries.
Pepe, Martino; De Cillis, Emanuela; Acquaviva, Tommaso; Cecere, Annagrazia; D'Alessandro, Pasquale; Giordano, Arturo; Ciccone, Marco Matteo; Bortone, Alessandro Santo
Mitral regurgitation (MR) is the most prevalent valvular heart disease (VHD) and represents an important cause of heart failure. Medical therapy has a limited role in improving symptoms and does not hinder the progression of valvular disease. Surgery is the treatment of choice for severe symptomatic MR; valve repair is currently the preferred surgical approach because it reduces peri-operative mortality and ensures a good medium- to long-term survival outcome. Nevertheless, a non-negligible proportion of patients with indications for surgical correction are considered to be at prohibitive perioperative risk, mainly because of old age and multiple comorbidities. The introduction of percutaneous interventions to clinical practice has changed the natural history of this population. Percutaneous edge-to-edge transcatheter mitral valve repair (Mitraclip®, Abbott Vascular, Menlo Park, CA) is a state-of-the-art therapy for approaching MR in patients with a high surgical risk. Despite having been only recently introduced, this transvenous transfemoral percutaneous intervention has already been performed in more than 40,000 subjects worldwide, with reassuring post-operative results in terms of safety, feasibility, mortality and morbidity. Since Mitraclip® is considered to be minimally invasive, it is currently indicated in "frail" patients with severe comorbidities. We provide a critical review of the literature to clarify current indications, procedural details, patient selection criteria, and future perspectives for this innovative technique.
Girdauskas, Evaldas; Disha, Kushtrim; Espinoza, Andres; Misfeld, Martin; Reichenspurner, Hermann; Borger, Michael A; Kuntze, Thomas
Regurgitant bicuspid aortic valves (BAV) are reported to be associated with myxomatous degeneration of the anterior mitral leaflet. We examined the risk of late new-onset mitral regurgitation (MR) in patients who underwent aortic valve/aortic root surgery for BAV regurgitation and concomitant root dilatation. A total of 97 consecutive patients (47±11 years, 94% men) were identified from our institutional BAV database (N.=640) based on the following criteria: 1) BAV regurgitation; 2) aortic root diameter >40 mm; 3) no relevant mitral valve disease (i.e., MR<2+) and no simultaneous mitral intervention at the time of BAV surgery. All patients underwent isolated aortic valve replacement (AVR subgroup, N.=59) or aortic root replacement with a composite graft (i.e., for root aneurysm >50 mm) (ARR subgroup, N.=38) from 1995 through 2008. Echocardiographic follow-up (1009 patient-years) was obtained for all 96 (100%) hospital survivors. The primary endpoint was freedom from new-onset MR>2+ and redo mitral valve surgery. Nine patients (9.4%) showed new-onset MR>2+ after mean echocardiographic follow-up of 10.4±4.0 years postoperatively. Myxomatous degeneration and prolapse of the anterior mitral leaflet was found in all 9 patients, and the posterior leaflet was involved in 3 of them. Two patients (2%) in AVR subgroup underwent re-do mitral surgery. No MR>2+ occurred in ARR subgroup. Freedom from MR>2+ or mitral surgery at 15 years was significantly lower in AVR subgroup vs. ARR subgroup (i.e., 38% vs. 100%, P=0.01). The risk of new-onset MR is significantly increased in patients with BAV regurgitation and aortic root dilatation who undergo isolated AVR rather than root replacement. The mechanism by which aortic root replacement may prevent the occurrence of late MR in BAV root phenotype patients is to be determined.
Background Although temporary cardiac pacing is infrequently needed, temporary epicardial pacing wires are routinely inserted after valve surgery. As they are associated with infrequent, but life threatening complications, and the decreased need for postoperative pacing in a group of low risk patients; this study aims to identify the predictors of temporary cardiac pacing after valve surgery. Methods A retrospective analysis of data collected prospectively on 400 consecutive valve surgery patients between May 2002 and December 2012 was performed. Patients were grouped according to avoidance or insertion of temporary pacing wires, and were further subdivided according to temporary cardiac pacing need. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine the predictors of temporary cardiac pacing. Results 170 (42.5%) patients did not have insertion of temporary pacing wires and none of them needed temporary pacing. 230 (57.5%) patients had insertion of temporary pacing wires and among these, only 55 (23.9%) required temporary pacing who were compared with the remaining 175 (76.1%) patients in the main analysis. The determinants of temporary cardiac pacing (adjusted odds ratios; 95% confidence interval) were as follows: increased age (1.1; 1.1, 1.3, p = 0.002), New York Heart Association class III- IV (5.6; 1.6, 20.2, p = 0.008) , pulmonary artery pressure ≥ 50 mmHg (22.0; 3.4, 142.7, p = 0.01), digoxin use (8.0; 1.3, 48.8, p = 0.024), multiple valve surgery (13.5; 1.5, 124.0, p = 0.021), aorta cross clamp time ≥ 60 minutes (7.8; 1.6, 37.2, p = 0.010), and valve annulus calcification (7.9; 2.0, 31.7, p = 0.003). Conclusion Although limited by sample size, the present results suggest that routine use of temporary epicardial pacing wires after valve surgery is only necessary for high risk patients. Preoperative identification and aggressive management of predictors of temporary cardiac pacing and the possible modulation of
Guedes, Marco Antonio Vieira; Pomerantzeff, Pablo Maria Alberto; Brandão, Carlos Manuel de Almeida; Vieira, Marcelo Luiz Campos; Grinberg, Max; Stolf, Noedir Antonio Groppo
The right anterolateral thoracotomy is an alternative technique for surgical approach of mitral valve. In these cases, femoral-femoral bypass still has been used, rising occurrence of complications related to femoral cannulation. Describe the technique and results of mitral valve treatment by right anterolateral thoracotomy using aortic cannulation for cardiac pulmonary bypass (CPB). From 1983 e 2008, 100 consecutive female patients, with average age 35 ±13 years, 96 (96%) underwent mitral valve surgical treatment in the Heart Institute of São Paulo. A right anterolateral thoracotomy approach associated with aortic cannulation was used for CPB. Eighty (80%) patients had rheumatic disease and 84 (84%) patients presented functional class III or IV. Were performed 45 (45%) comissurotomies, 38 (38%) valve repairs, 7(7%) mitral valve replacements, seven (7%) recomissurotomies and three (3%) prosthesis replacement. Sparing surgery was performed in 90 (90%) patients. The average CPB and clamp time were 57 ± 27 min e 39 ± 19 min, respectively. There were no in-hospital death, reoperation due to bleeding and convertion to sternotomy. Introperative complications were related to heart harvest (5%), especially in reoperations (3%). The most important complications in postoperative period were related to pulmonary system (11%), followed by atrial fibrilation (10%) but without major systemic repercussions. The mean inhospital length of stay was 8 ± 3 days. Follow-up was 6.038 patients/month. Actuarial survival was 98.0 ± 1.9% and freedom from reoperation was 81.4 ± 7.8% in 180 months. The right anterolateral thoracotomy associated with aortic cannulation in mitral valve surgery is a simple technique, reproducible and safety.
Sandoval, Elena; Singh, Steve K; Carillo, Julius A; Baldwin, Andrew C W; Ono, Masahiro; Anand, Jatin; Frazier, O H; Mallidi, Hari R
Mitral regurgitation (MR) is common in patients with end-stage heart failure. We assessed the effect of performing concomitant mitral valve repair during continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD) implantation in patients with severe preoperative MR. We performed a single-centre, retrospective review of all patients who underwent CF-LVAD implantation between December 1999 and December 2013 (n = 469). Patients with severe preoperative MR (n = 78) were identified and then stratified according to whether they underwent concomitant valve repair. Univariate and survival analyses were performed, and multivariable regression was used to determine predictors of survival. Of the 78 patients with severe MR, 21 underwent valve repair at the time of CF-LVAD implantation (repair group) and 57 did not (non-repair group). A comparison of the 2 groups showed significant differences between groups: INTERMACS I 16.985 vs 9.52%, (P = 0.039), cardiopulmonary bypass time 82.09 vs 109.4 min (P = 0.0042) and the use of HeartMate II 63.16 vs 100% (P = 0.001). Survival analysis suggested trends towards improved survival and a lower incidence of heart failure-related readmissions in the repair group. Multivariable regression analysis showed no significant independent predictors of survival (mitral valve repair: odds ratio 0.4, 95% confidence interval 0.8-1.5; P = 0.2). Despite the lack of statistical significance, trends towards improved survival and a lower incidence of heart failure events suggest that mitral valve repair may be beneficial in patients undergoing CF-LVAD implantation. Given the known relationship between severe MR and mortality, further study is encouraged to confirm the value of mitral valve repair in these patients. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.
Chan, Kwan Leung; Chen, Shin-Yee; Mesana, Thierry; Lam, Buu Khanh
The development of mitral stenosis (MS) is not uncommon after mitral valve (MV) repair for degenerative mitral regurgitation (MR), but the significance of MS in this setting has not been defined. We prospectively studied 110 such patients who underwent supine bicycle exercise testing to assess intracardiac hemodynamics at rest and at peak exercise. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels were measured at rest and after the exercise test. The patients also performed the 6-minute walk test and completed the 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF-36). Follow-up was performed by a review of the medical record and telephone interview. Of 110 patients, 22 had MS defined by a mitral valve area (MVA) ≤ 1.5 cm 2 . The resting and peak exercise mitral gradients and pulmonary artery systolic pressure were significantly higher in patients with MS compared with patients with an MVA > 1.5 cm 2 . BNP levels at rest and after exercise were also higher in the patients with MS, who also had lower exercise capacity and worse perception of well-being in 3 domains (physical function, vitality, and social function) on the SF-36. MVA had higher specificity and positive predictive value in predicting outcome events compared with a mean gradient of 3 or 5 mm Hg. In patients who had MV repair for degenerative MR, an MVA ≤ 1.5 cm 2 occurs in about one-fifth of patients and is associated with adverse intracardiac hemodynamics, lower exercise capacity, and adverse outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sorajja, Paul; Vemulapalli, Sreekanth; Feldman, Ted; Mack, Michael; Holmes, David R; Stebbins, Amanda; Kar, Saibal; Thourani, Vinod; Ailawadi, Gorav
Post-market surveillance is needed to evaluate the real-world clinical effectiveness and safety of U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved devices. The authors examined the commercial experience with transcatheter mitral valve repair for the treatment of mitral regurgitation. Data from the Society of Thoracic Surgery/American College of Cardiology Transcatheter Valve Therapy Registry on patients commercially treated with transcatheter mitral valve repair were analyzed. The study population consisted of 2,952 patients treated at 145 hospitals between November 2013 and September 2015. In 1,867 patients, data were linked to patient-specific Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services administrative claims for analyses. The median age was 82 years (55.8% men), with a median Society of Thoracic Surgery predicted risk of mortality of 6.1% (interquartile range: 3.7% to 9.9%) and 9.2% (interquartile range: 6.0% to 14.1%) for mitral repair and replacement, respectively. Overall, in-hospital mortality was 2.7%. Acute procedure success occurred in 91.8%. Among the patients with Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services linkage data, the mortality at 30 days and at 1 year was 5.2% and 25.8%, respectively, and repeat hospitalization for heart failure at 1 year occurred in 20.2%. Variables associated with mortality or rehospitalization for heart failure after multivariate adjustment were increasing age, lower baseline left ventricular ejection fraction, worse post-procedural mitral regurgitation, moderate or severe lung disease, dialysis, and severe tricuspid regurgitation. Our findings demonstrate that commercial transcatheter mitral valve repair is being performed in the United States with acute effectiveness and safety. Our findings may help determine which patients have favorable long-term outcomes with this therapy. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kovarević, Pavle; Mihajlović, Bogoljub; Velicki, Lazar; Redzek, Aleksandar; Ivanović, Vladimir; Komazec, Nikola
The last decade of the 20th century brought up a significant development in the field of minimally invasive approaches to the valvular heart surgery. Potential benefits of this method are: good esthetic appearance, reduced pain, reduction of postoperative hemorrhage and incidence of surgical site infection, shorter postoperative intensive care units (ICU) period and overall in-hospital period. Partial upper median stemotomy currently presents as a state-of-the art method for minimally invasive surgery of cardiac valves. The aim of this study was to report on initial experience in application of this surgical method in the surgery of mitral and aortic valves. The study was designed and conducted in a prospective manner and included all the patients who underwent minimally invasive cardiac valve surgery through the partial upper median stemotomy during the period November 2008 - August 2009. We analyzed the data on mean age of patients, mean extubation time, mean postoperative drainage, mean duration of hospital stay, as well as on occurance of postoperative complications (postoperative bleeding, surgical site infection and cerebrovascular insult). During the observed period, in the Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases of Vojvodina, Clinic for Cardiovascular Surgery, 17 ministernotomies were performed, with 14 aortic valve replacements (82.35%) and 3 mitral valve replacements (17.65%). Mean age of the patients was 60.78 +/- 12.99 years (64.71% males, 35.29% females). Mean extubation time was 12.53 +/- 8.87 hours with 23.5% of the patients extubated in less than 8 hours. Mean duration of hospital stay was 12.35 +/- 10.17 days (in 29.4% of the patients less than 8 days). Mean postoperative drainage was 547.06 +/- 335.2 mL. Postoperative complications included: bleeding (5.88%) and cerebrovascular insult (5.88%). One patient (5.88%) required conversion to full stemotomy. Partial upper median sternotomy represents the optimal surgical method for the interventions on the
Zhu, Yuanjia; Roselli, Eric E.; Idrees, Jay J.; Wojnarski, Charles M.; Griffin, Brian; Kalahasti, Vidyasagar; Pettersson, Gosta; Svensson, Lars G.
Background Unicuspid aortic valve is an important subset of bicuspid aortic valve, and knowledge regarding its aortopathy pattern and surgical outcomes is limited. Our objectives were to characterize unicuspid aortic valve patients, associated aortopathy, and surgical outcomes. Methods From January 1990 to May 2013, 149 adult unicuspid aortic valve patients underwent aortic valve replacement or repair for aortic stenosis (n = 13), regurgitation (n = 13), or both (n = 123), and in 91 (61%) the aortic valve operation was combined with aortic repair. Data were obtained from the Cardiovascular Information Registry and medical record review. Three-dimensional imaging analysis was performed from preoperative computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival analysis. Results Patients had a mean maximum aortic diameter of 44 ± 8 mm and variably involved the aortic root, ascending, or arch, or both. Patients with valve operations alone were more likely to be hypertensive (p = 0.01) and to have severe aortic stenosis (p = 0.07) than those who underwent concurrent aortic operations. There were no operative deaths, strokes, or myocardial infarctions. Patients undergoing aortic repair had better long-term survival. Estimated survival at 1, 5, and 10 years was 100%, 100%, and 100% after combined operations and was 100%, 88%, and 88% after valve operations alone (p = 0.01). Conclusions Patients with a dysfunctional unicuspid aortic valve frequently present with an ascending aneurysm that requires repair. Combined aortic valve operations and aortic repair was associated with significantly better long-term survival than a valve operation alone. Further study of this association may direct decisions about timing of surgical intervention. PMID:26453423
Petersen, Johannes; Vettorazzi, Eik; Winter, Lena; Schmied, Wolfram; Kindermann, Ingrid; Schäfers, Hans-Joachim
Physical and mental recovery are important factors to consider in the treatment of aortic valve disease, and the process of recovery is not well known. We investigated the course of physical and mental recovery directly after conventional aortic valve surgery. In a longitudinal study, 60 patients undergoing elective aortic valve surgery were studied preoperatively and at intervals of 4 weeks after aortic valve surgery. The last measurement was taken 6 months postoperatively. Measurements included the 6-minute walk test and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide. Mental recovery was assessed by the Short Form Health Survey and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. All parameters were compared with published healthy norms. All parameters except for the anxiety score showed a significant decline after the first postoperative measurement at 1 week after aortic valve surgery. The baseline level was restored at 1 to 3 weeks (anxiety, depression, mental quality of life, Borg scale), 4 to 6 weeks (6-minute walk test, physical quality of life), and 9 weeks (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) after the first postoperative week. Significantly better values than preoperatively for the first time were reached at 2 to 3 weeks (anxiety, depression, mental quality of life), 5 weeks (6-minute walk test), 8 weeks (physical quality of life), and 12 weeks (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) after the first postoperative week. At 3 months postoperatively, significant improvements (P < .001) were seen in walk distance (+212 m), dyspnea (-1.11), physical (+12.38) and mental quality of life (+7.71), anxiety (-3.74), and depression (-3.62) compared with the first week postoperatively. At 6 months postoperatively, all parameters were significantly improved compared with preoperative data and, except for the N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide value, significantly better or equal compared with published healthy norms. After conventional aortic
Goldhammer, Jordan E; Herman, Corey R; Berguson, Mark W; Torjman, Marc C; Epstein, Richard H; Sun, Jian-Zhong
Preoperative aspirin has been studied in patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgery. However, there is a paucity of clinical data available evaluating perioperative aspirin in other cardiac surgical procedures. This study was designed to investigate the effects of aspirin on bleeding and transfusion in patients undergoing non-emergent, isolated, heart valve repair or replacement. Retrospective, cohort study. Academic medical center. A total of 694 consecutive patients having non-emergent, isolated, valve repair or replacement surgery at an academic medical center were identified. Of the 488 patients who met inclusion criteria, 2 groups were defined based on their preoperative use of aspirin: those taking (n = 282), and those not taking (n = 206) aspirin within 5 days of surgery. Binary logistic regression was used to examine relationships among demographic and clinical variables. No significant difference was found between the aspirin and non-aspirin groups with respect to the percentage receiving red blood cell (RBC) transfusion, mean RBC units transfused in those who required transfusion, massive transfusion of RBC, or amounts of fresh frozen plasma, cryoprecipitate, or platelets. Aspirin was not associated with an increase in the rate of re-exploration for bleeding (5.3% v 6.3%, p = 0.478). Major adverse cardiocerebral events (MACE), 30-day mortality, and 30-day readmission rates were not statistically different between the aspirin-and non-aspirin-treated groups. Preoperative aspirin therapy in elective, isolated, valve surgery did not result in an increase in transfusion or reoperation for bleeding and was not associated with reduced readmission rate, MACE, or 30-day mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zientara, Alicja; Genoni, Michele; Graves, Kirk; Odavic, Dragan; Löblein, Helen; Häussler, Achim; Dzemali, Omer
Background Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) in patients undergoing surgery for mitral valve (MV) increases morbidity and mortality, especially in case of a poor right ventricle. Does repair of mild-to-moderate insufficiency of the tricuspid valve (TV) in patients undergoing MV surgery lead to a benefit in early postoperative outcome? Methods A total of 22 patients with mild-to-moderate TR underwent MV repair and concomitant TV repair with Tri-Ad (Medtronic ATS Medical Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States) and Edwards Cosgrove (Edwards Lifesciences Irvine, California, United States) rings. The severity of TR was assessed echocardiographically by using color-Doppler flow images. The tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) was under 1.7 cm. Additional procedures included coronary artery bypass ( n = 9) and maze procedure ( n = 15). The following parameters were compared: postoperative and peak dose of noradrenaline (NA), pre/postoperative systolic pulmonary pressure (sPAP), extubation time, operation time, cross-clamp time, cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time, pre/postoperative ejection fraction (EF), intensive care unit (ICU)-stay, hospital stay, cell saver blood transfusion, intra/postoperative blood transfusion, and postoperative TR. Results The mean age was 67 ± 14.8 years, 45% were male. Mean EF was 47 ± 16.2%, postoperative 52 ± 12.4%. sPAP was 46 ± 20.1 mm Hg preoperatively, sPAP was 40.6 ± 9.4 mm Hg postoperatively, NA postoperatively was 12 ± 10 μg/min, NA peak was 18 ± 11 μg/min, operation time was 275 ± 92 minutes, CPB was 145 ± 49 minutes, ICU stay was 2.4 ± 2.4 days, hospital stay was 10.8 ± 3.5 days, cell saver blood transfusion was 736 ± 346 mL, intraoperative transfusions were 2.5 ± 1.6. Two patients needed postoperative transfusions. A total of 19 patients were extubated at the 1st postoperative day, 2 patients at the 2nd day, and 1 at the 4th
Uechi, Masami; Mizukoshi, Takahiro; Mizuno, Takeshi; Mizuno, Masashi; Harada, Kayoko; Ebisawa, Takashi; Takeuchi, Junichirou; Sawada, Tamotsu; Uchida, Shuhei; Shinoda, Asako; Kasuya, Arane; Endo, Masaaki; Nishida, Miki; Kono, Shota; Fujiwara, Megumi; Nakamura, Takashi
To determine whether mitral valve repair (MVR) under cardiopulmonary bypass would be an effective treatment for mitral regurgitation in small-breed dogs. Retrospective case series. 48 small-breed dogs (body weight, 1.88 to 4.65 kg [4.11 to 10.25 lb]; age, 5 to 15 years) with mitral regurgitation that underwent surgery between August 2006 and August 2009. Cardiopulmonary bypass was performed with a cardiopulmonary bypass circuit. After induction of cardiac arrest, a mitral annuloplasty was performed, and the chordae tendineae were replaced with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene chordal prostheses. After closure of the left atrium and declamping to restart the heart, the thorax was closed. Preoperatively, cardiac murmur was grade 3 of 6 to 6 of 6, thoracic radiography showed cardiac enlargement (median vertebral heart size, 12.0 vertebrae; range, 9.5 to 14.5 vertebrae), and echocardiography showed severe mitral regurgitation and left atrial enlargement (median left atrium-to-aortic root ratio, 2.6; range, 1.7 to 4.0). 45 of 48 dogs survived to discharge. Three months after surgery, cardiac murmur grade was reduced to 0/6 to 3/6, and the heart shadow was reduced (median vertebral heart size, 11.1 vertebrae, range, 9.2 to 13.0 vertebrae) on thoracic radiographs. Echocardiography confirmed a marked reduction in mitral regurgitation and left atrium-to-aortic root ratio (median, 1.7; range, 1.0 to 3.0). We successfully performed MVR under cardiopulmonary bypass in small-breed dogs, suggesting this may be an effective surgical treatment for dogs with mitral regurgitation. Mitral valve repair with cardiopulmonary bypass can be beneficial for the treatment of mitral regurgitation in small-breed dogs.
Choudhary, Shiv Kumar; Abraham, Atul; Bhoje, Amol; Gharde, Parag; Sahu, Manoj; Talwar, Sachin; Airan, Balram
The present study evaluates the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of edge-to-edge repair for moderate secondary/functional mitral regurgitation in patients undergoing aortic valve/root interventions. Sixteen patients underwent transaortic edge-to-edge mitral valve repair. Mitral regurgitation was 2+ in 8 patients and 3+ in 6 patients. Two patients in whom cardiac arrest developed preoperatively had severe (4+) mitral regurgitation. Patients underwent operation for severe aortic regurgitation ± aortic root lesions. The mean left ventricular systolic and diastolic diameters were 51.5 ± 12.8 mm and 70.7 ± 10.7 mm, respectively. Left ventricular ejection fraction ranged from 20% to 60%. Primary surgical procedure included Bentall's ± hemiarch replacement in 10 patients, aortic valve replacement in 5 patients, and noncoronary sinus replacement with aortic valve repair in 1 patient. Severity of mitral regurgitation decreased to trivial or zero in 13 patients, 1+ in 2 patients, and 2+ in 1 patient. There were no gradients across the mitral valve in 9 patients, less than 5 mm Hg in 6 patients, and 9 mm Hg in 1 patient. There was no operative mortality. Follow-up ranged from 2 weeks to 54 months. Echocardiography showed trivial or no mitral regurgitation in 12 patients, 1+ in 2 patients, and 2+ in 2 patients. None of the patients had significant mitral stenosis. The mean left ventricular systolic and diastolic diameters decreased to 40.5 ± 10.3 mm and 58.7 ± 11.6 mm, respectively. Ejection fraction also improved slightly (22%-65%). Transaortic edge-to-edge mitral valve repair is a safe and effective technique to abolish secondary/functional mitral regurgitation. However, its impact on overall survival needs to be studied. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Raman, Jai; Ballal, Apoorva; Hota, Bala; Mirza, Sara; Lai, David; Bleck, Thomas; Lateef, Omar
The optimal timing of surgical treatment for infective endocarditis complicated by cerebrovascular events is controversial, largely due to the perceived risk of perioperative intracranial bleeding. Current guidelines suggest waiting 2 weeks between the diagnosis of stroke and surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and neurological outcomes of early surgery following a stroke. This was a single-center retrospective analysis of 12 consecutive patients requiring surgery for infective endocarditis between 2011 and 2014 at Rush University Medical Center, with either ischemic (n = 6) and/or hemorrhagic (n = 6) cerebrovascular complications. All underwent computed tomographic angiography prior to early valve reconstructive surgery to identify potentially actionable neurological findings. Early valve surgery was performed for ongoing sepsis or persistent emboli. Neurologic risk and outcome were assessed pre- and postoperatively using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and the Glasgow Outcome Scale, respectively. All 12 patients underwent surgical treatment within 10 days of the diagnosis of stroke. Mortality in the immediate postoperative period was 8%. Eleven of the 12 patients exhibited good neurological recovery in the immediate postoperative period, with a Glasgow Outcome Scale score ≥ 3. There was no correlation between duration of cardiopulmonary bypass and neurological outcomes. Early cardiac surgery in patients with infective endocarditis and stroke maybe lifesaving with a low neurological risk. Comprehensive neurovascular imaging may help in identifying patient-related risk factors. © The Author(s) 2016.
Fenton, James R.
Less invasive approaches to aortic valve surgery frequently rely upon the development of new technology and instrumentation. While not suitable for every patient requiring an aortic valve procedure, these less invasive operations can offer certain clinical benefits and are becoming an important part of the modern cardiothoracic surgeon’s skillset. A lower partial sternotomy approach provides excellent visualization of the operative field, efficient execution of the operation and many of the benefits of minimally invasive surgery. Importantly, the lower partial sternotomy requires no new or unusual instruments and presents a familiar view to the surgeon. The technique, therefore, lends itself well to being adapted and utilized quickly with a potentially shorter “learning curve” for maximal surgical flexibility and patient benefit. PMID:24251024
Milani, Rodrigo; Brofman, Paulo Roberto Slud; Oliveira, Sergio; Patrial Neto, Luiz; Rosa, Matheus; Lima, Victor Hugo; Binder, Luis Fernando; Sanches, Aline
Reoperations of the mitral valve have a higher rate of complications when compared with the first surgery. With the field of video-assisted techniques for the first surgery of mitral valve became routine, reoperation cases began to arouse interest for this less invasive procedures. To assess the results and the technical difficulties in 10 patients undergoing minimally invasive redo mitral valve surgery. Cardiopulmonary bypass was installed through a cannula placed in the femoral vessels and right internal jugular vein, conducted in 28 degrees of temperature in ventricular fibrillation. A right lateral thoracotomy with 5 to 6 cm in the third or fourth intercostal space was done, pericardium was displaced only at the point of atriotomy. The aorta was not clamped. Ten patients with mean age of 56.9 ± 10.5 years, four were in atrial fibrilation rhythm and six in sinusal. Average time between first operation and reoperations was 11 ± 3.43 years. The mean EuroSCORE group was 8.3 ± 1.82. The mean ventricular fibrillation and cardiopulmonary bypass was respectively 70.9 ± 17.66 min and 109.4 ± 25.37 min. The average length of stay was 7.6 ± 1.5 days. There were no deaths in this series. Mitral valve reoperation can be performed through less invasive techniques with good immediate results, low morbidity and mortality. However, this type of surgery requires a longer duration of cardiopulmonary bypass, especially in cases where the patient already has prosthesis. The presence of a minimal aortic insufficiency also makes this procedure technically more challenging.
Zeeshan, Ahmad; Idrees, Jay J; Johnston, Douglas R; Rajeswaran, Jeevanantham; Roselli, Eric E; Soltesz, Edward G; Gillinov, A Marc; Griffin, Brian; Grimm, Richard; Hammer, Donald F; Pettersson, Gösta B; Blackstone, Eugene H; Sabik, Joseph F; Svensson, Lars G
To determine the value of aortic valve repair rather than replacement for valve dysfunction, we assessed late outcomes of various repair techniques in the contemporary era. From January 2001 to January 2011, aortic valve repair was planned in 1,124 patients. Techniques involved commissural figure-of-8 suspension sutures (n = 63 [6.2%]), cusp repair with commissuroplasty (n = 481 [48%]), debridement (n = 174 [17%]), free-margin plication (n = 271 [27%]) or resection (n = 75) or both, or annulus repair with resuspension (n = 230 [23%]), root reimplantation (n = 252 [25%]), or remodeling (n = 35 [3.5%]). Planned repair was aborted for replacement in 115 patients (10%); risk factors included greater severity of aortic regurgitation (AR; p = 0.0002) and valve calcification (p < 0.0001). In-hospital outcomes for the remaining 1,009 patients included death (12 [1.2%]), stroke (13 [1.3%]), and reoperation for valve dysfunction (14 [1.4%]). Freedom from aortic valve reoperation at 1, 5, and 10 years was 97%, 93%, and 90%, respectively. Figure-of-8 suspension sutures, valve resuspension, and root repair and replacement were least likely to require reoperation; cusp repair with commissural sutures, plication, and commissuroplasty was most likely (p < 0.05). Survival at 1, 5, and 10 years was 96%, 92%, and 83%. Immediate postoperative AR grade was none-mild (94%), moderate (5%), and severe (1%). At 10 years after repair, AR grade was none (20%), mild (33%), moderate (26%), and severe (21%). Patients undergoing root procedures were less likely to have higher-grade postoperative AR (p < 0.0001). Valve repair is effective and durable for treating aortic valve dysfunction. Greater severity of AR preoperatively is associated with higher likelihood of repair failure. Commissural figure-of-8 suspension sutures and repair with annular support have the best long-term durability. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights
Padala, Muralidhar; Gyoneva, Lazarina I; Thourani, Vinod H; Yoganathan, Ajit P
Mitral valve geometry is significantly altered secondary to left ventricular remodeling in non-ischemic and ischemic dilated cardiomyopathies. Since the extent of remodeling and asymmetry of dilatation of the ventricle differ significantly between individual patients, the valve geometry and tethering also differ. The study aim was to determine if mitral valve geometry has an impact on the efficacy of surgical repairs to eliminate regurgitation and restore valve closure in a validated experimental model. Porcine mitral valves (n = 8) were studied in a pulsatile heart simulator, in which the mitral valve geometry can be precisely altered and controlled throughout the experiment. Baseline hemodynamics for each valve were measured (Control), and the valves were tethered in two distinct ways: annular dilatation with 7 mm apical papillary muscle (PM) displacement (Tether 1, symmetric), and annular dilatation with 7 mm apical, 7 mm posterior and 7 mm lateral PM displacement (Tether 2, asymmetric). Mitral annuloplasty was performed on each valve (Annular Repair), succeeded by anterior leaflet secondary chordal cutting (Sub-annular Repair). The efficacy of each repair in the setting of a given valve geometry was quantified by measuring the changes in mitral regurgitation (MR), leaflet coaptation length, tethering height and area. At baseline, none of the valves was regurgitant. Significant leaflet tethering was measured in Tether 2 over Tether 1, but both groups were significantly higher compared to baseline (60.9 +/- 31 mm2 for Control versus 129.7 +/- 28.4 mm2 for Tether 1 versus 186.4 +/- 36.3 mm2 for Tether 2). Consequently, the MR fraction was higher in Tether 2 group (23.0 +/- 5.7%) than in Tether 1 (10.5 +/- 5.5%). Mitral annuloplasty reduced MR in both groups, but remnant regurgitation after the repair was higher in Tether 2. After chordal cutting a similar trend was observed with trace regurgitation in Tether 1 group at 3.6 +/- 2.8%, in comparison to 18.6 +/- 4
McNeely, Christian A; Vassileva, Christina M
The short-term advantage of mitral valve repair versus replacement for degenerative disease has been extensively documented. These advantages include lower operative mortality, improved survival, better preservation of left-ventricular function, shorter post-operative hospital stay, lower total costs, and fewer valve-related complications, including thromboembolism, anticoagulation-related bleeding events and late prosthetic dysfunction. More recent written data are available indicating the long-term advantage of repair versus replacement. While at some institutions, the repair rate for degenerative disease may exceed 90%, the national average in 2007 was only 69%. Making direct comparisons between mitral valve repair and replacement using the available studies does present some challenges however, as there are often differences in baseline characteristics between patient groups as well as other dissimilarities between studies. The purpose of this review is to systematically summarize the long-term survival and reoperation data of mitral valve repair versus replacement for degenerative disease. A PubMed search was done and resulted in 12 studies that met our study criteria for comparing mitral valve repair versus replacement for degenerative disease. A systematic review was then conducted abstracting survival and reoperation data. PMID:25158683
South, Harry L; Osoro, Moses; Overly, Tjuan
We report a 73-year-old male with late onset monomorphic ventricular tachycardia following mitral valve repair (MVR). Typically, injury to epicardial arteries following mitral valve repair/replacement presents immediately as ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation, difficulty weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass, worsening ECG changes, increasing cardiac biomarkers, or new wall motion abnormalities. Our case illustrates a "late complication" of a distorted circumflex artery following mitral valve repair and the importance of early diagnostic angiography and percutaneous intervention.
Grossi, Eugene A; Goldman, Scott; Wolfe, J Alan; Mehall, John; Smith, J Michael; Ailawadi, Gorav; Salemi, Arash; Moore, Matt; Ward, Alison; Gunnarsson, Candace
Small series of thoracotomy for mitral valve repair have demonstrated clinical benefit. This multi-institutional administrative database analysis compares outcomes of thoracotomy and sternotomy approaches for mitral repair. The Premier database was queried from 2007 to 2011 for mitral repair hospitalizations. Premier contains billing, cost, and coding data from more than 600 US hospitals, totaling 25 million discharges. Thoracotomy and sternotomy approaches were identified through expert rules; robotics were excluded. Propensity matching on baseline characteristics was performed. Regression analysis of surgical approach on outcomes and costs was modeled. Expert rule analysis positively identified thoracotomy in 847 and sternotomy in 566. Propensity matching created 2 groups of 367. Mortalities were similar (thoracotomy 1.1% vs sternotomy 1.9%). Sepsis and other infections were significantly lower with thoracotomy (1.1% vs 4.4%). After adjustment for hospital differences, thoracotomy carried a 17.2% lower hospitalization cost (-$8289) with a 2-day stay reduction. Readmission rates were significantly lower with thoracotomy (26.2% vs 35.7% at 30 days and 31.6% vs 44.1% at 90 days). Thoracotomy was more common in southern and northeastern hospitals (63% vs 37% and 64% vs 36%, respectively), teaching hospitals (64% vs 36%) and larger hospitals (>600 beds, 78% vs 22%). Relative to sternotomy, thoracotomy for mitral repairs provides similar mortality, less morbidity, fewer infections, shorter stay, and significant cost savings during primary admission. The markedly lower readmission rates for thoracotomy will translate into additional institutional cost savings when a penalty on hospitals begins under the Affordable Care Act's Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ruel, Marc; Dickie, Sean; Chow, Benjamin J W; Labinaz, Marino
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a new modality that may change the therapeutic landscape in the management of aortic valve stenosis. Despite the excellent results of surgical aortic valve replacement, TAVI has the potential to revolutionize the treatment of elderly and high-risk patients with aortic stenosis. It therefore constitutes a new reality that cardiac surgeons have to acknowledge. As TAVI indications and techniques become better defined, the importance of a team approach to the implementation and performance of TAVI is becoming increasingly evident. The surgeon has a crucial role to play in the introduction, development, and sustainability of TAVI at any institution. In this article, we discuss the procedural technique involved in TAVI, as well as the cardiologist and heart surgeon individualities and team dynamics. We make a case for judicious team-based adoption of TAVI technologies, considering that evidence-based and health economics data are not yet available. We also illustrate how a team approach may lead to improved outcomes, better patient and institutional acceptance, and a better definition of the therapeutic niche of TAVI modalities, amid the excellent results of conventional aortic valve replacement surgery. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is present in 30-50% of patients presenting for mitral valve surgery. If left untreated, AF in these patients is associated with increased morbidity and, possibly, increased mortality. Therefore, concomitant management of the arrhythmia is indicated in most mitral valve patients with preexisting AF. The cut-and-sew Cox-Maze III procedure is extremely effective, eliminating AF in 80-95%; however, it has been supplanted by newer operations that rely upon alternate energy sources to create lines of conduction block. Early and midterm results are good with a variety of technologies. Choice of lesion set remains a matter of debate, but success of ablation appears to be enhanced by a biatrial lesion set and exceeds 90% in some series. Targeted areas for improvement in combined mitral valve surgery and AF ablation include acceptance of uniform standards for reporting results, development of improved technology for ablation and intraoperative assessment, and creation of instrumentation that facilitates minimally invasive approaches.
Sibilitz, Kirstine L; Berg, Selina K; Tang, Lars H; Risom, Signe S; Gluud, Christian; Lindschou, Jane; Kober, Lars; Hassager, Christian; Taylor, Rod S; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe
Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation may benefit heart valve surgery patients. We conducted a systematic review to assess the evidence for the use of exercise-based intervention programmes following heart valve surgery. To assess the benefits and harms of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation compared with no exercise training intervention, or treatment as usual, in adults following heart valve surgery. We considered programmes including exercise training with or without another intervention (such as a psycho-educational component). We searched: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE); MEDLINE (Ovid); EMBASE (Ovid); CINAHL (EBSCO); PsycINFO (Ovid); LILACS (Bireme); and Conference Proceedings Citation Index-S (CPCI-S) on Web of Science (Thomson Reuters) on 23 March 2015. We handsearched Web of Science, bibliographies of systematic reviews and trial registers (ClinicalTrials.gov, Controlled-trials.com, and The World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform). We included randomised clinical trials that investigated exercise-based interventions compared with no exercise intervention control. The trial participants comprised adults aged 18 years or older who had undergone heart valve surgery for heart valve disease (from any cause) and received either heart valve replacement, or heart valve repair. Two authors independently extracted data. We assessed the risk of systematic errors ('bias') by evaluation of bias risk domains. Clinical and statistical heterogeneity were assessed. Meta-analyses were undertaken using both fixed-effect and random-effects models. We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence. We sought to assess the risk of random errors with trial sequential analysis. We included two trials from 1987 and 2004 with a total 148 participants who have had heart valve surgery. Both trials had a high risk of bias.There was insufficient evidence
Lund, K; Sibilitz, K L; Berg, S K; Thygesen, L C; Taylor, R S; Zwisler, A D
Increased physical activity predicts survival and reduces risk of readmission in patients with coronary heart disease. However, few data show how physical activity is associated with survival and readmission after heart valve surgery. Objective were to assess the association between physical activity levels 6-12 months after heart valve surgery and (1) survival, (2) hospital readmission 18-24 months after surgery and (3) participation in exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation. Prospective cohort study with registry data from The CopenHeart survey, The Danish National Patient Register and The Danish Civil Registration System of 742 eligible patients. Physical activity was quantified with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and analysed using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression and logistic regression methods. Patients with a moderate to high physical activity level had a reduced risk of mortality (3 deaths in 289 patients, 1%) compared with those with a low physical activity level (13 deaths in 235 patients, 5.5%) with a fully adjusted HR of 0.19 (95% CI 0.05 to 0.70). In contrast, physical activity level was not associated with the risk of hospital readmission. Patients who participated in exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (n=297) were more likely than the non-participants (n=200) to have a moderate or high physical activity level than a low physical activity level (fully adjusted OR: 1.52, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.24). Moderate to high levels of physical activity after heart valve surgery are positively associated with higher survival rates and participation in cardiac rehabilitation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Sullivan, Rachel T; Frommelt, Peter C; Hill, Garick D
The association between Down syndrome and pulmonary hypertension could contribute to more severe pulmonary regurgitation after tetralogy of Fallot repair and possibly earlier pulmonary valve replacement. We compared cardiac magnetic resonance measures of pulmonary regurgitation and right ventricular dilation as well as timing of pulmonary valve replacement between those with and without Down syndrome after tetralogy of Fallot repair. Review of our surgical database from 2000 to 2015 identified patients with tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary stenosis. Those with Down syndrome were compared to those without. The primary outcome of interest was time from repair to pulmonary valve replacement. Secondary outcomes included pulmonary regurgitation and indexed right ventricular volume on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. The cohort of 284 patients included 35 (12%) with Down syndrome. Transannular patch repair was performed in 210 (74%). Down syndrome showed greater degree of pulmonary regurgitation (55 ± 14 vs. 37 ± 16%, p = 0.01) without a significantly greater rate of right ventricular dilation (p = 0.09). In multivariable analysis, Down syndrome (HR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2-4.5, p = 0.02) and transannular patch repair (HR 5.5, 95% CI 1.7-17.6, p = 0.004) were significant risk factors for valve replacement. Those with Down syndrome had significantly lower freedom from valve replacement (p = 0.03). Down syndrome is associated with an increased degree of pulmonary regurgitation and earlier pulmonary valve replacement after tetralogy of Fallot repair. These patients require earlier assessment by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging to determine timing of pulmonary valve replacement and evaluation for and treatment of preventable causes of pulmonary hypertension.
Wottke, Michael; Deutsch, Marcus-André; Krane, Markus; Piazza, Nicolo; Lange, Ruediger; Bleiziffer, Sabine
Background Due to a considerable rise in bioprosthetic as opposed to mechanical valve implantations, an increase of patients presenting with failing bioprosthetic surgical valves in need of a reoperation is to be expected. Redo surgery may pose a high-risk procedure. Transcatheter aortic valve-in-valve implantation is an innovative, less-invasive treatment alternative for these patients. However, a comprehensive evaluation of the outcome of consecutive patients after a valve-in-valve TAVI [transcatheter aortic valve-in-surgical aortic valve (TAV-in-SAV)] as compared to a standard reoperation [surgical aortic valve redo-operation (SAV-in-SAV)] has not yet been performed. The goal of this study was to compare postoperative outcomes after TAV-in-SAV and SAV-in-SAV in a single center setting. Methods All SAV-in-SAV and TAV-in-SAV patients from January 2001 to October 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with previous mechanical or transcatheter valves, active endocarditis and concomitant cardiac procedures were excluded. Patient characteristics, preoperative data, post-procedural complications, and 30-day mortality were collected from a designated database. Mean values ± SD were calculated for all continuous variables. Counts and percentages were calculated for categorical variables. The Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used to compare categorical variables. Continuous variables were compared using the t-test for independent samples. A 2-sided P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results A total of 102 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria, 50 patients (49%) underwent a transcatheter valve-in-valve procedure, while 52 patients (51%) underwent redo-surgery. Patients in the TAV-in-SAV group were significantly older, had a higher mean logistic EuroSCORE and exhibited a lower mean left ventricular ejection fraction than patients in the SAV-in-SAV group (78.1±6.7 vs. 66.2±13.1, P<0.001; 27.4±18.7 vs. 14.4±10, P<0.001; and 49.8±13
An apparent advantage of minimally invasive mitral surgery through right mini-thoracotomy is cosmetic appearance. Possible advantages of this procedure are a shorter ventilation time, shorter hospital stay, and less blood transfusion. With regard to hard endpoints, such as operative mortality, freedom from reoperation, or cardiac death, this method is reportedly equivalent, but not superior, to the standard median sternotomy technique. However, perfusion-related complications (e.g., stroke, vascular damage, and limb ischemia) tend to occur more frequently in minimally invasive technique than with the standard technique. In addition, valve repair through a small thoracotomy is technically demanding. Therefore, screening out patients who are not appropriate for performing minimally invasive surgery is the first step. Vascular disease and inadequate anatomy can be evaluated with contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Peripheral cannulation should be carefully performed, using transesophageal echocardiography guidance. Preoperative detailed planning of the valve repair process is desirable because every step is time-consuming in minimally invasive surgery. Three-dimensional echocardiography is a powerful tool for this purpose. For satisfactory exposure and detailed observation of the valve, a special left atrial retractor and high-definition endoscope are useful. Valve repair can be performed in minimally invasive surgery as long as cardiopulmonary bypass is stable and bloodless exposure of the valve is obtained.
Sibilitz, Kirstine L; Berg, Selina K; Rasmussen, Trine B; Risom, Signe Stelling; Thygesen, Lau C; Tang, Lars; Hansen, Tina B; Johansen, Pernille Palm; Gluud, Christian; Lindschou, Jane; Schmid, Jean Paul; Hassager, Christian; Køber, Lars; Taylor, Rod S; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe
The evidence for cardiac rehabilitation after valve surgery remains sparse. Current recommendations are therefore based on patients with ischaemic heart disease. The aim of this randomised clinical trial was to assess the effects of cardiac rehabilitation versus usual care after heart valve surgery. The trial was an investigator-initiated, randomised superiority trial (The CopenHeart VR trial, VR; valve replacement or repair). We randomised 147 patients after heart valve surgery 1:1 to 12 weeks of cardiac rehabilitation consisting of physical exercise and monthly psycho-educational consultations (intervention) versus usual care without structured physical exercise or psycho-educational consultations (control). Primary outcome was physical capacity measured by VO 2 peak and secondary outcome was self-reported mental health measured by Short Form-36. 76% were men, mean age 62 years, with aortic (62%), mitral (36%) or tricuspid/pulmonary valve surgery (2%). Cardiac rehabilitation compared with control had a beneficial effect on VO 2 peak at 4 months (24.8 mL/kg/min vs 22.5 mL/kg/min, p=0.045) but did not affect Short Form-36 Mental Component Scale at 6 months (53.7 vs 55.2 points, p=0.40) or the exploratory physical and mental outcomes. Cardiac rehabilitation increased the occurrence of self-reported non-serious adverse events (11/72 vs 3/75, p=0.02). Cardiac rehabilitation after heart valve surgery significantly improves VO 2 peak at 4 months but has no effect on mental health and other measures of exercise capacity and self-reported outcomes. Further research is needed to justify cardiac rehabilitation in this patient group. NCT01558765, Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Baghaei, Ramin; Tabib, Avisa; Jalili, Farshad; Totonchi, Ziae; Mahdavi, Mohammad; Ghadrdoost, Behshid
Background: Congenital lesions of the mitral valve are relatively rare and are associated with a wide spectrum of cardiac malformations. The surgical management of congenital mitral valve malformations has been a great challenge. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the early and intermediate-term outcome of congenital mitral valve (MV) surgery in children and to identify the predictors for poor postoperative outcomes and death. Patients and Methods: In this retrospective study, 100 consecutive patients with congenital MV disease undergoing mitral valve surgery were reviewed in 60-month follow-up (mean, 42.4 ± 16.4 months) during 2008 - 2013. Twenty-six patients (26%) were under one-year old. The mean age and weight of the patients were 41.63 ± 38.18 months and 11.92 ± 6.12 kg, respectively. The predominant lesion of the mitral valve was MV stenosis (MS group) seen in 21% and MR (MR group) seen in 79% of the patients. All patients underwent preoperative two-dimensional echocardiography and then every six months after surgery Results: Significant improvement in degree of MR was noted in all patients with MR during postoperative and follow-up period in both patients with or without atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) (P = 0.045 in patients with AVSD and P = 0.008 in patients without AVSD). Decreasing trend of mean gradient (MG) in MS group was statistically significant (P = 0.005). In patients with MR, the mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) had improved postoperatively (P < 0.001). Although PAP in patients with MV stenosis was reduced, this reduction was not statistically significant (P = 0.17). In-hospital mortality was 7%. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that age (P < 0.001), weight (P < 0.001), and pulmonary stenosis (P = 0.03) are strong predictors for mortality. Based on the echocardiography report at the day of discharge from hospital, surgical results were optimal (up to moderate degree for MR group and up to mild degree for MS group) in
Chan, Vincent; Chu, Michael W A; Leong-Poi, Howard; Latter, David A; Hall, Judith; Thorpe, Kevin E; de Varennes, Benoit E; Quan, Adrian; Tsang, Wendy; Dhingra, Natasha; Yared, Kibar; Teoh, Hwee; Chu, F Victor; Chan, Kwan-Leung; Mesana, Thierry G; Connelly, Kim A; Ruel, Marc; Jüni, Peter; Mazer, C David; Verma, Subodh
The gold-standard treatment of severe mitral regurgitation (MR) due to degenerative disease is valve repair, which is surgically performed with either a leaflet resection or leaflet preservation approach. Recent data suggest that functional mitral stenosis (MS) may occur following valve repair using a leaflet resection strategy, which adversely affects patient prognosis. A randomised comparison of these two approaches to mitral repair on functional MS has not been conducted. This is a prospective, multicentre randomised controlled trial designed to test the hypothesis that leaflet preservation leads to better preservation of mitral valve geometry, and therefore, will be superior to leaflet resection for the primary outcome of functional MS as assessed by 12-month mean mitral valve gradient at peak exercise. Eighty-eight patients with posterior leaflet prolapse will be randomised intraoperatively once deemed by the operating surgeon to feasibly undergo mitral repair using either a leaflet resection or leaflet preservation approach. Secondary end points include comparison of repair strategies with regard to mitral valve orifice area, leaflet coaptation height, 6 min walk test and a composite major adverse event end point consisting of recurrent MR ≥2+, death or hospital readmission for congestive heart failure within 12 months of surgery. Institutional ethics approval has been obtained from all enrolling sites. Overall, there remains clinical equipoise regarding the mitral valve repair strategy that is associated with the least likelihood of functional MS. This trial hopes to introduce high-quality evidence to help surgical decision making in this context. NCT02552771. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Grubitzsch, Herko; Tarar, Waharat; Claus, Benjamin; Gabbieri, Davide; Falk, Volkmar; Christ, Torsten
Prosthetic valve endocarditis is the most severe form of infective endocarditis. This study assessed the risks and challenges of surgery for aortic prosthetic valve endocarditis. In total, 116 consecutive patients (98 males, age 65.2±12.7years), who underwent redo-surgery for active aortic prosthetic valve endocarditis between 2000 and 2014, were reviewed. Cox regression analysis was used to identify factors for aortic root destructions as well as for morbidity and mortality. Median follow-up was 3.8 years (0-13.9 years). Aortic root destructions (42 limited and 29 multiple lesions) were associated with early prosthetic valve endocarditis and delayed diagnosis (≥14 d), but not with mortality. There were 16 (13.8%) early (≤30 d) and 32 (27.6%) late (>30 days) deaths. Survival at 1, 5, and 10 years was 72±4.3%, 56±5.4%, and 46±6.4%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of death, reinfection, and reoperation was 19.0% at 30days and 36.2% at 1year. Delayed diagnosis, concomitant procedures, and EuroSCORE II >20% were predictors for early mortality and need for mechanical circulatory support, age >70years, and critical preoperative state were predictors for late mortality. In their absence, survival at 10 years was 70±8.4%. Reinfections and reoperations occurred more frequently if ≥1 risk factor for endocarditis and aortic root destructions were present. At 10 years, freedom from reinfection and reoperation was 89±4.2% and 91±4.0%. The risks of death, reinfection, and reoperation are significant within the first year after surgery for aortic prosthetic valve endocarditis. Early diagnosis and aortic root destructions are the most important challenges, but advanced age, critical preoperative state, and the need for mechanical circulatory support determine long-term survival. Copyright © 2017 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B
Delmo Walter, Eva Maria; Javier, Mariano; Hetzer, Roland
Parachute and hammock valves in children remain one of the most challenging congenital malformations to correct. We report our institutional experience with valve-preserving repair techniques and the early and late surgical outcomes in parachute and hammock valves in infants and children. From January 1990-June 2014, 20 infants and children with parachute (n = 12, median age = 2.5 years, range: 2 months-13 years) and hammock (n = 8, median age = 7 months, range: 1 month-14.9 years) valves underwent mitral valve (MV) repair. Children with parachute valves have predominant stenosis, whereas those with hammock valves often have predominant insufficiency. Intraoperative findings included fused and shortened chordae with single papillary muscles in children with parachute valves. MV repair was performed using annuloplasty, commissurotomy, leaflet incision toward the body of the papillary muscles, and split toward its base. Children with hammock valves have dysplastic and shortened chordae, absence of papillary muscles with fused and thickened commissures. MV repair consisted of carving off a suitably thick part of the left ventricular wall carrying the rudimentary chordae. The degree and extent of incision and commissurotomy is determined by the minimal age-related acceptable MV diameter to avoid mitral stenosis. During a median duration of follow-up of 9.6 years (range: 6.4-21.4 years), cumulative survival rate and freedom from reoperation in parachute valves were 43.7 ± 1.6% and 53.0 ± 1.8%, respectively. In hammock valves, during a median duration of follow-up of 6.7 years (range: 2.7-19.4 years), cumulative survival rate and freedom from reoperation was 72.9 ± 1.6% and 30.0 ± 1.7%, respectively. Age less than 1 year proved to be a high-risk factor for reoperation and mortality (P < 0.005). In conclusion, children with parachute and hammock valves, repeat MV repair may be necessary during the course of follow-up. Infants have a greater risk for reoperation and
Efird, Jimmy T; Griffin, William F; Gudimella, Preeti; O'Neal, Wesley T; Davies, Stephen W; Crane, Patricia B; Anderson, Ethan J; Kindell, Linda C; Landrine, Hope; O'Neal, Jason B; Alwair, Hazaim; Kypson, Alan P; Nifong, Wiley L; Chitwood, W Randolph
Conditional survival is defined as the probability of surviving an additional number of years beyond that already survived. The aim of this study was to compute conditional survival in patients who received a robotically assisted, minimally invasive mitral valve repair procedure (RMVP). Patients who received RMVP with annuloplasty band from May 2000 through April 2011 were included. A 5- and 10-year conditional survival model was computed using a multivariable product-limit method. Non-smoking men (≤65 years) who presented in sinus rhythm had a 96% probability of surviving at least 10 years if they survived their first year following surgery. In contrast, recent female smokers (>65 years) with preoperative atrial fibrillation only had an 11% probability of surviving beyond 10 years if alive after one year post-surgery. In the context of an increasingly managed healthcare environment, conditional survival provides useful information for patients needing to make important treatment decisions, physicians seeking to select patients most likely to benefit long-term following RMVP, and hospital administrators needing to comparatively assess the life-course economic value of high-tech surgical procedures.
Patzelt, Johannes; Zhang, Yingying; Magunia, Harry; Ulrich, Miriam; Jorbenadze, Rezo; Droppa, Michal; Zhang, Wenzhong; Lausberg, Henning; Walker, Tobias; Rosenberger, Peter; Seizer, Peter; Gawaz, Meinrad; Langer, Harald F
Improved mitral valve leaflet coaptation with consecutive reduction of mitral regurgitation (MR) is a central goal of percutaneous mitral valve repair (PMVR) with the MitraClip® system. As influences of PMVR on mitral valve geometry have been suggested before, we examined the effect of the procedure on mitral annular size in relation to procedural outcome. Geometry of the mitral valve annulus was evaluated in 183 patients undergoing PMVR using echocardiography before and after the procedure and at follow-up. Mitral valve annular anterior-posterior (ap) diameter decreased from 34.0 ± 4.3 to 31.3 ± 4.9 mm (P < 0.001), and medio-lateral (ml) diameter from 33.2 ± 4.8 to 32.4 ± 4.9 mm (P < 0.001). Accordingly, we observed an increase in MV leaflet coaptation after PMVR. The reduction of mitral valve ap diameter showed a significant inverse correlation with residual MR. Importantly, the reduction of mitral valve ap diameter persisted at follow-up (31.3 ± 4.9 mm post PMVR, 28.4 ± 5.3 mm at follow-up). This study demonstrates mechanical approximation of both mitral valve annulus edges with improved mitral valve annular coaptation by PMVR using the MitraClip® system, which correlates with residual MR in patients with MR. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Maximus, Steven; Milliken, Jeffrey C; Danielsen, Beate; Shemin, Richard; Khan, Junaid; Carey, Joseph S
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) procedures were introduced in 2011. Initially, procedures were limited to patients who were not surgical candidates, but subsequently high-risk surgical candidates were considered for TAVR. The influence on aortic valve surgery in California is unknown. The California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development hospitalized patient discharge database was queried for the years 2009 through 2014. isolated surgical aortic valve and aortic valve/coronary artery bypass graft (SAVR) and TAVR procedures were identified by International Classification of Diseases-9th revision clinical modification procedure codes. Seven TAVR programs were introduced in 2011, 12 in 2012, 3 in 2013, and 6 in 2014. SAVR procedure volumes were compared from the 2 years before institution with SAVR volumes during the year(s) after institution of the TAVR program in these 28 hospitals. Overall, surgical volumes increased during the first, second, and third years after implementation of TAVR procedures. Among 7 hospitals with 4-year programs, surgical volumes increased to a maximum of 15.5% during the third year, then began to decrease. The hospital performing the largest number of TAVR procedures showed a marked decrease in SAVR volume by the fourth year, suggesting a shift of SAVR candidates to TAVR. Among all hospitals with 4-year programs, TAVR exceeded SAVR procedures by the fourth year. In California overall, SAVR increased during 2011 through 2013, due primarily to increasing volume of isolated SAVR procedures. Statewide, isolated SAVR increased from a yearly average of 3111 procedures during 2009-2010 to 3592 (+15.5%) in 2013, then decreased slightly in 2014. SAVR plus coronary artery bypass graft procedures decreased during the same time period. After implementation of TAVR, hospital SAVR volumes increased moderately, then began to decrease by the fourth year, when TAVR volume exceeded SAVR. Surgical candidates may be identified
Gillinov, A Marc; Gelijns, Annetine C; Parides, Michael K; DeRose, Joseph J; Moskowitz, Alan J; Voisine, Pierre; Ailawadi, Gorav; Bouchard, Denis; Smith, Peter K; Mack, Michael J; Acker, Michael A; Mullen, John C; Rose, Eric A; Chang, Helena L; Puskas, John D; Couderc, Jean-Philippe; Gardner, Timothy J; Varghese, Robin; Horvath, Keith A; Bolling, Steven F; Michler, Robert E; Geller, Nancy L; Ascheim, Deborah D; Miller, Marissa A; Bagiella, Emilia; Moquete, Ellen G; Williams, Paula; Taddei-Peters, Wendy C; O'Gara, Patrick T; Blackstone, Eugene H; Argenziano, Michael
Among patients undergoing mitral-valve surgery, 30 to 50% present with atrial fibrillation, which is associated with reduced survival and increased risk of stroke. Surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation has been widely adopted, but evidence regarding its safety and effectiveness is limited. We randomly assigned 260 patients with persistent or long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation who required mitral-valve surgery to undergo either surgical ablation (ablation group) or no ablation (control group) during the mitral-valve operation. Patients in the ablation group underwent further randomization to pulmonary-vein isolation or a biatrial maze procedure. All patients underwent closure of the left atrial appendage. The primary end point was freedom from atrial fibrillation at both 6 months and 12 months (as assessed by means of 3-day Holter monitoring). More patients in the ablation group than in the control group were free from atrial fibrillation at both 6 and 12 months (63.2% vs. 29.4%, P<0.001). There was no significant difference in the rate of freedom from atrial fibrillation between patients who underwent pulmonary-vein isolation and those who underwent the biatrial maze procedure (61.0% and 66.0%, respectively; P=0.60). One-year mortality was 6.8% in the ablation group and 8.7% in the control group (hazard ratio with ablation, 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.32 to 1.84; P=0.55). Ablation was associated with more implantations of a permanent pacemaker than was no ablation (21.5 vs. 8.1 per 100 patient-years, P=0.01). There were no significant between-group differences in major cardiac or cerebrovascular adverse events, overall serious adverse events, or hospital readmissions. The addition of atrial fibrillation ablation to mitral-valve surgery significantly increased the rate of freedom from atrial fibrillation at 1 year among patients with persistent or long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation, but the risk of implantation of a permanent pacemaker
Bouma, Wobbe; Wijdh-den Hamer, Inez J.; Klinkenberg, Theo J.; Kuijpers, Michiel; Bijleveld, Aanke; van der Horst, Iwan C.C.; Erasmus, Michiel E.; Gorman, Joseph H.; Gorman, Robert C.; Mariani, Massimo A.
OBJECTIVES Papillary muscle rupture (PMR) is a rare, but serious mechanical complication of myocardial infarction (MI). Although mitral valve replacement is usually the preferred treatment for this condition, mitral valve repair may offer an improved outcome. In this study, we sought to determine the outcome of mitral valve repair for post-MI PMR and to provide a systematic review of the literature on this topic. METHODS Between January 1990 and December 2010, 9 consecutive patients (mean age 63.5 ± 14.2 years) underwent mitral valve repair for partial post-MI PMR. Clinical data, echocardiographic data, catheterization data and surgical reports were reviewed. Follow-up was obtained in December of 2012 and it was complete; the mean follow-up was 8.7 ± 6.1 (range 0.2–18.8 years). RESULTS Intraoperative and in-hospital mortality were 0%. Intraoperative repair failure rate was 11.1% (n = 1). Freedom from Grade 3+ or 4+ mitral regurgitation and from reoperation at 1, 5, 10 and 15 years was 87.5 ± 11.7%. Estimated 1-, 5-, 10- and 15-year survival rates were 100, 83.3 ± 15.2, 66.7 ± 19.2 and 44.4 ± 22.2%, respectively. There were 3 late deaths, and 2 were cardiac-related. All late survivors were in New York Heart Association Class I or II. No predictors of long-term survival could be identified. CONCLUSIONS Mitral valve repair for partial or incomplete post-MI PMR is reliable and provides good short- and long-term results, provided established repair techniques are used and adjacent tissue is not friable. PMR type and adjacent tissue quality ultimately determine the feasibility and durability of repair. PMID:23520228
Wada, J; Komatsu, S; Nakae, S; Kazui, T
The present paper describes experimental and clinical studies of a new method "Apicoaortic-PA" cannulation for mitral valve surgery. Our experimental study showed that this method was more rapid and more physiological for cardiopulmonary bypass. We used this technique in 55 cases of isolated mitral valve surgery with successful results. Our general philosophy of surgical approach to the mitral valve diseases is also discussed. We advocate the utilization of the "Apicoaortic Pulmonary Artery" cannulation method for clinical use in isolated mitral valve surgery through the left thoracotomy.
Van den Branden, Ben J L; Swaans, Martin J; Post, Martijn C; Rensing, Benno J W M; Eefting, Frank D; Jaarsma, Wybren; Van der Heyden, Jan A S
This study sought to assess the feasibility and safety of percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve (MV) repair in patients with an unacceptably high operative risk. MV repair for mitral regurgitation (MR) can be accomplished by use of a clip that approximates the free edges of the mitral leaflets. All patients were declined for surgery because of a high logistic EuroSCORE (>20%) or the presence of other specific surgical risk factors. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed before and 6 months after the procedure. Differences in New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class, quality of life (QoL) using the Minnesota questionnaire, and 6-min walk test (6-MWT) distances were reported. Fifty-five procedures were performed in 52 patients (69.2% male, age 73.2 ± 10.1 years, logistic EuroSCORE 27.1 ± 17.0%). In 3 patients, partial clip detachment occurred; a second clip was placed successfully. One patient experienced cardiac tamponade. Two patients developed inguinal bleeding, of whom 1 needed surgery. Six patients (11.5%) died during 6-month follow-up (5 patients as a result of progressive heart failure and 1 noncardiac death). The MR grade before repair was ≥3 in 100%; after 6 months, a reduction in MR grade to ≤2 was present in 79% of the patients. Left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic diameter, LV ejection fraction, and systolic pulmonary artery pressure improved significantly. Accompanied improvements in NYHA functional class, QoL index, 6-MWT distances, and log N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide were observed. In a high-risk population, MR reduction can be achieved by percutaneous edge-to-edge valve repair, resulting in LV remodeling with improvement of functional capacity after 6 months. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bradley, Scott M
The contents of this article were presented in the session "Aortic insufficiency in the teenager" at the congenital parallel symposium of the 2013 Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) annual meeting. The accompanying articles detail the approaches of aortic valve repair and the Ross procedure.(1,2) The current article focuses on prosthetic valve replacement. For many young patients requiring aortic valve surgery, either aortic valve repair or a Ross procedure provides a good option. The advantages include avoidance of anticoagulation and potential for growth. In other patients, a prosthetic valve is an appropriate alternative. This article discusses the current state of knowledge regarding mechanical and bioprosthetic valve prostheses and their specific advantages relative to valve repair or a Ross procedure. In current practice, young patients requiring aortic valve surgery frequently undergo valve replacement with a prosthetic valve. In STS adult cardiac database, among patients ≤30 years of age undergoing aortic valve surgery, 34% had placement of a mechanical valve, 51% had placement of a bioprosthetic valve, 9% had aortic valve repair, and 2% had a Ross procedure. In the STS congenital database, among patients 12 to 30 years of age undergoing aortic valve surgery, 21% had placement of a mechanical valve, 18% had placement of a bioprosthetic valve, 30% had aortic valve repair, and 24% had a Ross procedure. In the future, the balance among these options may be altered by design improvements in prosthetic valves, alternatives to warfarin, the development of new patch materials for valve repair, and techniques to avoid Ross autograft failure.
DiBardino, Daniel J; ElBardissi, Andrew W; McClure, R Scott; Razo-Vasquez, Ozwaldo A; Kelly, Nicole E; Cohn, Lawrence H
To determine the long-term outcomes of mitral valvuloplasty for myxomatous valve disease, rheumatic valve disease, and functional mitral regurgitation. A total of 1503 patients underwent mitral valvuloplasty by a single surgeon between February 1972 and April 2008 and were retrospectively reviewed for short- and long-term results. Overall mean age was 60.3 + or - 13.7 years, and 57% were male. The cause was rheumatic in 193 patients, myxomatous in 1042 patients, and ischemic and nonischemic functional mitral regurgitation in 236 patients. Ring annuloplasty was performed in 1306 patients (87%). Commissurotomy was the primary repair for rheumatic valves, posterior leaflet resection and reconstruction was the most common repair for myxomatous valves (527/1042 [51%]), and ring reduction annuloplasty was the primary operation for functional mitral regurgitation. The 30-day mortality was 19 of 1503 patients (1.3%) and significantly higher in the functional mitral regurgitation group (11/236 patients, 4.7% vs 0.5% in the rheumatic group and 0.6% in the myxomatous group, P < .01). The 10-, 20-, and 30-year survivals were similar for the rheumatic and myxomatous groups (77%, 56%, and 39% vs 79%, 62%, and 52%, respectively) but significantly less for the functional mitral regurgitation group (44%, 4%, and 0%, respectively, log-rank P < .0001). The 10- and 20-year freedom from reoperation rates were significantly better for the myxomatous group than for the rheumatic group (90% and 82% vs 66% and 34%, log-rank P < .0001), with a 30-year freedom from reoperation of only 10% for rheumatic repair. In the myxomatous group, freedom from reoperation was lower in patients with anterior leaflet pathology (P = .0008). Follow-up data to 36 years demonstrate that cause strongly determines survival and durability of mitral valvuloplasty; patients with rheumatic valve disease who survive more than 20 years require reoperation, whereas functional mitral regurgitation carries the highest
Umakanthan, Ramanan; Petracek, Michael R; Leacche, Marzia; Solenkova, Nataliya V; Eagle, Susan S; Thompson, Annemarie; Ahmad, Rashid M; Greelish, James P; Ball, Stephen K; Hoff, Steven J; Absi, Tarek S; Balaguer, Jorge M; Byrne, John G
The study aim was to determine the safety and benefits of minimally invasive mitral valve surgery without aortic cross-clamping for mitral valve surgery after previous cardiac surgery. Between January 2006 and August 2008, a total of 90 consecutive patients (38 females, 52 males; mean age 66 +/- 9 years) underwent minimally invasive mitral valve surgery after having undergone previous cardiac surgery. Of these patients, 80 (89%) underwent mitral valve replacement and 10 (11%) mitral valve repair utilizing a small (5 cm) right lateral thoracotomy along the 4th or 5th intercostal space under fibrillatory arrest (mean temperature 28 +/- 2 degrees C). The predicted mortality, calculated using the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) algorithm, was compared to the observed mortality. The mean ejection fraction was 45 +/- 13%, mean NYHA class 3 +/- 1, while 66 patients (73%) had previous coronary artery bypass grafting and 37 (41%) had previous valve surgery. Twenty-six patients (29%) underwent non-elective surgery. Cardiopulmonary bypass was instituted through axillary (n = 19), femoral (n = 70) or direct use aortic (n = 1) cannulation. Operative mortality was 2% (2/90), lower than the STS-predicted mortality of 7%. Three patients (3%) developed acute renal failure postoperatively, one patient (1%) required new-onset hemodialysis, and one (1%) developed postoperative stroke. No patients developed postoperative myocardial infarction. The mean postoperative packed red blood cell transfusion requirement at 48 h was 2 +/- 3 units. Minimally invasive right thoracotomy without aortic cross-clamping is an excellent alternative to conventional redo-sternotomy for reoperative mitral valve surgery. The present study confirmed that this technique is safe and effective in reducing operative mortality in high-risk patients undergoing reoperative cardiac surgery.
Orban, Mathias; Orban, Martin; Lesevic, Hasema; Braun, Daniel; Deseive, Simon; Sonne, Carolin; Hutterer, Lisa; Grebmer, Christian; Khandoga, Alexander; Pache, Jürgen; Mehilli, Julinda; Schunkert, Heribert; Kastrati, Adnan; Hagl, Christian; Bauer, Axel; Massberg, Steffen; Boekstegers, Peter; Nabauer, Michael; Ott, Ilka; Hausleiter, Jörg
To determine predictors for long-term outcome in high-risk patients undergoing transcatheter edge-to-edge mitral valve repair (TMVR) for severe mitral regurgitation (MR). There is no data on predictors of long-term outcome in high-risk real-world patients. From August 2009 to April 2011, 126 high-risk patients deemed inoperable were treated with TMVR in two high-volume university centers. MR could be successfully reduced to grade ≤2 in 92.1% of patients (116/126 patients). Long-term clinical follow-up up to 5 years (95.2% follow-up rate) revealed a mortality rate of 35.7% (45/126 patients). Repeat mitral valve treatment (surgery or intervention) was needed in 19 patients (15.1%). Long-term clinical improvement was demonstrated with 69% of patients being in NYHA class ≤II. In a multivariable Cox regression analysis, the post-procedural grade of MR (hazard ratio [HR] 1.55 per grade, P = 0.035), the left ventricular ejection fraction (HR 0.58 for difference between 75th and 25th percentile, P = 0.031) and the glomerular filtration rate (HR 0.33 for 75th vs 25th percentile, P < 0.001) were independent predictors for long-term mortality. Patients with primary MR and a post-procedural MR grade ≤1 had the most favorable long-term outcome. This study determines predictors of long-term clinical outcome after TMVR and demonstrates that the grade of residual MR determines long-term survival. Our data suggest that it might be of benefit reducing residual MR to the lowest possible MR grade using TMVR-especially in selected high-risk patients with primary MR who are not considered as candidates for surgical MVR. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Myers, Patrick O; Khalpey, Zain; Maloney, Ann M; Brinster, Derek R; D'Ambra, Michael N; Cohn, Lawrence H
The edge-to-edge technique has been proposed to prevent systolic anterior motion (SAM) of the mitral valve. There is limited clinical data available on outcomes of this technique for this indication. We reviewed the midterm results of this technique for SAM prevention and treatment. A total of 2226 patients had mitral valve repair between 2000 and 2011, 1148 of which were for myxomatous mitral regurgitation. Beginning in 2000, predictability of postrepair SAM based on the prebypass, intraoperative transesophageal echocardiogram arose in our program. The edge-to-edge technique was used in 65 patients (5.7%) for SAM management, in 53 patients preemptively for transesophageal echocardiogram-based SAM prediction, and in 12 patients for postrepair SAM treatment. There was no operative mortality. Postoperative mitral regurgitation was significantly improved in all patients compared with the preoperative grade (P < .001). SAM was completely eliminated, the mean mitral regurgitation grade in the postoperative period was 0.7 ± 0.9, and the mean transmitral gradient was 1.3 ± 2.2 mm Hg. During a mean follow-up of 26 months, 1 patient in the SAM treatment group presented late recurrence of SAM and no patients developed mitral stenosis (mean transmitral gradient, 2.0 ± 2.6 mm Hg; P = .12). Without SAM prediction and preemptive edge-to-edge technique, the expected rate of SAM would have been 5.7%; however, the observed rate was 1% (12 of 1148 patients). Initiating an expectation for prebypass SAM prediction, combined with a surgical SAM prevention strategy, resulted in a reduced prevalence of SAM compared with our model of observed to-expected-ratios and to published norms. Copyright © 2013 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
... 2009) Mitral Valve Prolapse Minimally Invasive Heart Surgery: Robot Assisted Mitral Valve Repair (Baptist Health South Florida, ... Center, Merriam, KS, 05/04/2012) Kidney Cancer Robot Assisted Partial Nephrectomy Using Fluorescence (Shawnee Mission Medical ...
Petracek, Michael R; Leacche, Marzia; Solenkova, Natalia; Umakanthan, Ramanan; Ahmad, Rashid M; Ball, Stephen K; Hoff, Steven J; Absi, Tarek S; Balaguer, Jorge M; Byrne, John G
A simplified minimally invasive mitral valve surgery (MIMVS) approach avoiding cross-clamping and cardioplegic myocardial arrest using a small (5 cm) right antero-lateral incision was developed. We hypothesized that, in high-risk patients and in patients with prior sternotomy, this approach would yield superior results compared to those predicted by the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) algorithm for standard median sternotomy mitral valve surgery. Five hundred and four consecutive patients (249 males/255 females), median age 65 years (range 20-92 years) underwent MIMVS between 1/06 and 8/09. Median preoperative New York Heart Association function class was 3 (range 1-4). Eighty-two (16%) patients had an ejection fraction ≤35%. Forty-seven (9%) had a STS predicted mortality ≥10%. Under cold fibrillatory arrest (median temperature 28°C) without aortic cross-clamp, mitral valve repair (224/504, 44%) or replacement (280/504, 56%) was performed. Thirty-day mortality for the entire cohort was 2.2% (11/504). In patients with a STS predicted mortality ≥ 10% (range 10%-67%), the observed 30-day mortality was 4% (2/47), lower than the mean STS predicted mortality of 20%. Morbidity in this high-risk group was equally low: 1 of 47 (2%) patients underwent reexploration for bleeding, 1 of 47 (2%) patients suffered a permanent neurologic deficit, none had wound infection. The median length of stay was 8 days (range 1-68 days). This study demonstrates that MIMVS without aortic cross-clamp is reproducible with low mortality and morbidity rates. This approach expands the surgical options for high-risk patients and yields to superior results than the conventional median sternotomy approach.
Konstantinidou, Maria Kalliopi; Moat, Neil
Posttraumatic tricuspid valve regurgitation (TR) is a rare entity and is almost always associated with blunt chest trauma. It is usually identified by transthoracic echocardiography after the manifestation of clinical symptoms of heart failure. Treatment varies from long-term medical therapy and observation to surgical correction with tricuspid valve replacement or repair. We describe the case of a 26-year-old man who was involved in a major road traffic accident and was referred for surgical repair a year later because of severe posttraumatic TR. The tricuspid valve was successfully reconstructed with a CardioCel patch, Gore-Tex neochordae, and a tricuspid ring. The patient recovered well. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Purser, Molly F.; Richards, Andrew L.; Cook, Richard C.; Osborne, Jason A.; Cormier, Denis R.; Buckner, Gregory D.
Purpose An in vitro study using explanted porcine hearts was conducted to evaluate a novel annuloplasty band, reinforced with a two-phase, shape memory alloy, designed specifically for minimally invasive mitral valve repair. Description In its rigid (austenitic) phase, this band provides the same mechanical properties as the commercial semi-rigid bands. In its compliant (martensitic) phase, this band is flexible enough to be introduced through an 8-mm trocar and is easily manipulated within the heart. Evaluation In its rigid phase, the prototype band displayed similar mechanical properties to commercially available semi-rigid rings. Dynamic flow testing demonstrated no statistical differences in the reduction of mitral valve regurgitation. In its flexible phase, the band was easily deployed through an 8-mm trocar, robotically manipulated and sutured into place. Conclusions Experimental results suggest that the shape memory alloy reinforced band could be a viable alternative to flexible and semi-rigid bands in minimally invasive mitral valve repair. PMID:19766827
Wolf, Alvit; Hod, Yair; Buckman, Gila; Stein, Nili; Geyer, Orna
To compare the efficacy of an autoscleral free-flap graft versus an autoscleral rotational flap graft in Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) surgery. Medical records (2005 to 2012) of 51 consecutive patients (51 eyes) who underwent AGV surgery with the use of either an autoscleral free-flap graft or an autoscleral rotational flap graft to cover the external tube at the limbus were retrieved for review. The main outcome measure was the incidence of tube exposure associated with each surgical approach. Twenty-seven consecutive patients (27 eyes) received a free-flap graft and 24 consecutive patients (24 eyes) received a rotational flap graft. The mean follow-up time was 55.6 ± 18.3 months for the former and 24.2± 5 .0 months for the latter (P<0.0001). Two patients in the free-flap group (8.9%) developed tube exposure at 24 and 55 months postoperatively compared with none of the patients in the rotational flap group. Graft thinning without evidence of conjunctival erosion was observed in 15 patients (55%) in the free-flap group and in 7 patients (29.1%) in the rotational flap group. The use of an autoscleral rotational flap graft is an efficacious technique for primary tube patch grafting in routine AGV surgery, and yielded better results than an autoscleral free-flap graft. Its main advantages over donor graft material are availability and lower cost.
Tang, Gilbert H L; Kaple, Ryan; Cohen, Martin; Dutta, Tanya; Undemir, Cenap; Ahmad, Hasan; Poniros, Angelica; Bennett, Joanne; Feng, Cheng; Lansman, Steven
Pacemaker lead-associated severe tricuspid regurgitation (TR) can lead to right heart failure and poor prognosis. Surgery in these patients carries significant morbidities. We describe a successful treatment of symptomatic severe TR by leadless pacemaker implantation followed by tricuspid valve (TV) repair with the MitraClip NT. A 71-year-old frail female with poor functional status, chronic atrial fibrillation and permanent pacemaker implantation in 2012 presented with symptomatic moderate-severe mitral regurgitation (MR) and severe TR with the pacemaker lead as the culprit. She was deemed extreme risk for double valve surgery and, because of her pacemaker dependency, the decision was to stage her interventions first with transcatheter mitral repair, then laser lead extraction and leadless pacemaker implantation to free the TV from tethering, then TV repair. An obstructive LAD lesion was identified and treated during mitral repair with the MitraClip NT. The Micra leadless pacemaker implantation and subsequent TV repair with the MitraClip NT were successful and the patient's MR improved to mild and TR to moderate, respectively. We report here a first successful transcatheter strategy to treat lead-associated severe TR by leadless pacemaker and MitraClip. Removing the pacemaker lead relieved leaflet tethering and improved the reparability of the TV.
Rajbanshi, Bijoy G; Suri, Rakesh M; Nkomo, Vuyisile T; Dearani, Joseph A; Daly, Richard C; Burkhart, Harold M; Stulak, John M; Joyce, Lyle D; Li, Zhuo; Schaff, Hartzell V
To study the determinants of functional tricuspid regurgitation (TR) progression after surgical correction of mitral regurgitation, including the influence of mitral valve (MV) repair (MVr) versus replacement (MVR) for degenerative mitral regurgitation. From January 1995 to January 2006, 747 adults with MV prolapse underwent isolated MVr (n=683) or MVR (n=64; mechanical in 32). The mean age was 60.8 years, and 491 were men (66.0%). Moderate preoperative functional TR was present in 115 (15.4%). The MVR group had a greater likelihood of New York Heart Association class III or IV (75.0% vs 34.4%, P<.001), atrial fibrillation (20.3% vs 8.3%, P=.002), a lower left ventricular ejection fraction (61.0% vs 65.2%, P<.003), and a higher pulmonary artery pressure (50.1 vs 41.2 mm Hg, P=.001). The patients were monitored for a mean of 6.9 years (MVr) or 7.7 years (MVR; P=.075). During late follow-up, no difference was found between the groups in the development of moderately severe or severe TR: 1 to 5 years (3.0% vs 3.3%, P=.91) and >5 years (6.1% vs 6.5%; P=.93). The univariate predictors of severe TR after 5 years were older age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.1; P=.011), female gender (HR, 6.86; P=.005), higher pulmonary artery pressure (HR, 1.05; P=.022), and larger left atrial size (HR, 2.11; P=.035). Two patients (0.26%) who had undergone initial MVr required reoperation for late functional TR. Another 2 patients had had the tricuspid valve addressed concurrent with reoperation for MVr failure. No tricuspid reoperations were required in the MVR group. The risk of TR progression was low after MVr or MVR for MV prolapse. Timely MV surgery before the development of left atrial dilatation or pulmonary hypertension could further decrease the risk of TR progression during follow-up. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pozzi, Matteo; Generali, Tommaso; Henaine, Roland; Mitchell, Julia; Lemaire, Anais; Chiari, Pascal; Fran, Jean; Obadia, Jean François
Standardized techniques of mitral valve repair (MVR) have recently witnessed the introduction of a 'respect rather than resect' concept, the strategy of which involves the use of artificial chordae. MVR displays several advantages over mitral valve replacement in degenerative mitral regurgitation (MR), but the risk of reoperation for MVR failure must be taken into account. Different mechanisms could be advocated as the leading cause of MVR failure; procedure-related mechanisms are usually involved in early MVR failure, while valve-related mechanisms are common in late failure. Here, the case is reported of an early failure of MVR using artificial chordae that could be explained by an unusual procedure-related mechanism, namely anterior papillary muscle necrosis. MVR failure is a well-known complication after surgical repair of degenerative MR, but anterior papillary muscle partial necrosis might also be considered a possible mechanism of procedure-related MVR failure, especially when considering the increasing use of artificial chordae. Owing to the encouraging results obtained, mitral valve re-repair might be considered a viable solution, but must be selected after only a meticulous evaluation of the underlying mechanism of MVR failure.
Background Heart valve diseases are common with an estimated prevalence of 2.5% in the Western world. The number is rising due to an ageing population. Once symptomatic, heart valve diseases are potentially lethal, and heavily influence daily living and quality of life. Surgical treatment, either valve replacement or repair, remains the treatment of choice. However, post surgery, the transition to daily living may become a physical, mental and social challenge. We hypothesise that a comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation programme can improve physical capacity and self-assessed mental health and reduce hospitalisation and healthcare costs after heart valve surgery. Methods A randomised clinical trial, CopenHeartVR, aims to investigate whether cardiac rehabilitation in addition to usual care is superior to treatment as usual after heart valve surgery. The trial will randomly allocate 210 patients, 1:1 intervention to control group, using central randomisation, and blinded outcome assessment and statistical analyses. The intervention consists of 12 weeks of physical exercise, and a psycho-educational intervention comprising five consultations. Primary outcome is peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) measured by cardiopulmonary exercise testing with ventilatory gas analysis. Secondary outcome is self-assessed mental health measured by the standardised questionnaire Short Form 36. Also, long-term healthcare utilisation and mortality as well as biochemistry, echocardiography and cost-benefit will be assessed. A mixed-method design is used to evaluate qualitative and quantitative findings encompassing a survey-based study before the trial and a qualitative pre- and post-intervention study. Discussion The study is approved by the local regional Research Ethics Committee (H-1-2011-157), and the Danish Data Protection Agency (j.nr. 2007-58-0015). Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (http://NCT01558765). PMID:23782510
Sibilitz, Kirstine Laerum; Berg, Selina Kikkenborg; Hansen, Tina Birgitte; Risom, Signe Stelling; Rasmussen, Trine Bernholdt; Hassager, Christian; Køber, Lars; Steinbrüchel, Daniel; Gluud, Christian; Winkel, Per; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Hansen, Jane Lindschou; Schmid, Jean Paul; Conraads, Viviane; Brocki, Barbara Christina; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe
Heart valve diseases are common with an estimated prevalence of 2.5% in the Western world. The number is rising due to an ageing population. Once symptomatic, heart valve diseases are potentially lethal, and heavily influence daily living and quality of life. Surgical treatment, either valve replacement or repair, remains the treatment of choice. However, post surgery, the transition to daily living may become a physical, mental and social challenge. We hypothesise that a comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation programme can improve physical capacity and self-assessed mental health and reduce hospitalisation and healthcare costs after heart valve surgery. A randomised clinical trial, CopenHeartVR, aims to investigate whether cardiac rehabilitation in addition to usual care is superior to treatment as usual after heart valve surgery. The trial will randomly allocate 210 patients, 1:1 intervention to control group, using central randomisation, and blinded outcome assessment and statistical analyses. The intervention consists of 12 weeks of physical exercise, and a psycho-educational intervention comprising five consultations. Primary outcome is peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) measured by cardiopulmonary exercise testing with ventilatory gas analysis. Secondary outcome is self-assessed mental health measured by the standardised questionnaire Short Form 36. Also, long-term healthcare utilisation and mortality as well as biochemistry, echocardiography and cost-benefit will be assessed. A mixed-method design is used to evaluate qualitative and quantitative findings encompassing a survey-based study before the trial and a qualitative pre- and post-intervention study. The study is approved by the local regional Research Ethics Committee (H-1-2011-157), and the Danish Data Protection Agency (j.nr. 2007-58-0015). ClinicalTrials.gov (http://NCT01558765).
Rim, Yonghoon; Laing, Susan T.; McPherson, David D.; Kim, Hyunggun
Mitral valve repair using expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) sutures is an established and preferred interventional method to resolve the complex pathophysiologic problems associated with chordal rupture. We developed a novel computational evaluation protocol to determine the effect of the artificial sutures on restoring mitral valve function following valve repair. A virtual mitral valve was created using three-dimensional echocardiographic data in a patient with ruptured mitral chordae tendineae. Virtual repairs were designed by adding artificial sutures between the papillary muscles and the posterior leaflet where the native chordae were ruptured. Dynamic finite element simulations were performed to evaluate pre- and post-repair mitral valve function. Abnormal posterior leaflet prolapse and mitral regurgitation was clearly demonstrated in the mitral valve with ruptured chordae. Following virtual repair to reconstruct ruptured chordae, the severity of the posterior leaflet prolapse decreased and stress concentration was markedly reduced both in the leaflet tissue and the intact native chordae. Complete leaflet coaptation was restored when four or six sutures were utilized. Computational simulations provided quantitative information of functional improvement following mitral valve repair. This novel simulation strategy may provide a powerful tool for evaluation and prediction of interventional treatment for ruptured mitral chordae tendineae. PMID:24072489
Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Tae Youn; Choi, Jong Bum; Kuh, Ja Hong
Patients requiring redo cardiac surgery for diseased heart valves other than mitral valves may show increased pressure gradients and reduced valve areas of previously placed mechanical mitral valves due to subvalvular pannus formation. We treated four women who had mechanical mitral valves inserted greater than or equal to 20 years earlier and who presented with circular pannus that protruded into the lower margin of the valve ring but did not impede leaflet motion. Pannus removal improved the haemodynamic function of the mitral valve. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.
Yaghoubi, Mohsen; Aghayan, Hamid Reza; Arjmand, Babak; Emami-Razavi, Seyed Hassan
The clinical effectiveness of heart valve replacement surgery has been well documented. Mechanical and homograft valves are used routinely for replacement of damaged heart valves. Homograft valves are produced in our country but we import the mechanical valves. To our knowledge the cost-effectiveness of homograft valve has not been assessed. The objective of the present study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of homograft valve replacement with mechanical valve replacement surgery. Our samples were selected from 200 patients that underwent homograft and mechanical heart valve replacement surgery in Imam-Khomeini hospital (2000-2005). In each group we enrolled 30 patients. Quality of life was measured using the SF-36 questionnaire and utility was measured in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). For each group we calculated the price of heart valve and hospitalization charges. Finally the cost-effectiveness of each treatment modalities were summarized as costs per QALYs gained. Forty male and twenty female participated in the study. The mean score of quality of life was 66.06 (SD = 9.22) in homograft group and 57.85 (SD = 11.30) in mechanical group (P < 0.05). The mean QALYs gained in homograft group was 0.67 more than mechanical group. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) revealed a cost savings of 1,067 US$ for each QALY gained in homograft group. Despite limitation of this introductory study, we concluded that homograft valve replacement was more effective and less expensive than mechanical valve. These findings can encourage healthcare managers and policy makers to support the production of homograft valves and allocate more recourse for developing such activities.
Moreno, Sandra; Parra, Beatriz; Botero, Javier E; Moreno, Freddy; Vásquez, Daniel; Fernández, Hugo; Alba, Sandra; Gallego, Sara; Castillo, Gilberto; Contreras, Adolfo
Periodontitis is an infectious disease that affects the support tissue of the teeth and it is associated with different systemic diseases, including cardiovascular disease. Microbiological studies facilitate the detection of microorganisms from subgingival and cardiovascular samples. To describe the cultivable periodontal microbiota and the presence of microorganisms in heart valves from patients undergoing valve replacement surgery in a clinic in Cali. We analyzed 30 subgingival and valvular tissue samples by means of two-phase culture medium, supplemented blood agar and trypticase soy agar with antibiotics. Conventional PCR was performed on samples of valve tissue. The periodontal pathogens isolated from periodontal pockets were: Fusobacterium nucleatum (50%), Prevotella intermedia/ nigrescens (40%), Campylobacter rectus (40%), Eikenella corrodens (36.7%), Gram negative enteric bacilli (36.7%), Porphyromonas gingivalis (33.3%), and Eubacterium spp. (33.3%). The pathogens isolated from the aortic valve were Propionibacterium acnes (12%), Gram negative enteric bacilli (8%), Bacteroides merdae (4%), and Clostridium bifermentans (4%), and from the mitral valve we isolated P. acnes and Clostridium beijerinckii. Conventional PCR did not return positive results for oral pathogens and bacterial DNA was detected only in two samples. Periodontal microbiota of patients undergoing surgery for heart valve replacement consisted of species of Gram-negative bacteria that have been associated with infections in extraoral tissues. However, there is no evidence of the presence of periodontal pathogens in valve tissue, because even though there were valve and subgingival samples positive for Gram-negative enteric bacilli, it is not possible to maintain they corresponded to the same phylogenetic origin.
Morais, Rex Joseph; Ashokka, Balakrishnan; Paranjothy, Suresh; Siau, Chiang; Ti, Lian Kah
Echocardiographic assessment of the repaired or replaced mitral valve intraoperatively involves making a high-impact joint decision with the surgeon, in a time-sensitive manner, in a dynamic clinical situation. These decisions have to take into account the degree of imperfection if any, the likelihood of obtaining a better result, the underlying condition of the patient, and the impact of a longer cardiopulmonary bypass period if the decision is made to reintervene. Traditional echocardiography teaching is limited in its ability to provide this training. The authors report the development and implementation of a training module simulating the dynamic clinical environment of a mitral valve surgery in progress and the critical echo-based intraoperative decision making involved in the assessment of the acceptability of the surgical result. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Balaras, Elias; Cha, K S; Griffith, Bartley P; Gammie, James S
Aortic valve bypass surgery treats aortic valve stenosis with a valve-containing conduit that connects the left ventricular apex to the descending thoracic aorta. After aortic valve bypass, blood is ejected from the left ventricle via both the native stenotic aortic valve and the conduit. We performed computational modeling to determine the effects of aortic valve bypass on aortic and cerebral blood flow, as well as the effect of conduit size on relative blood flow through the conduit and the native valve. The interaction of blood flow with the vascular boundary was modeled using a hybrid Eurelian-Lagrangian formulation, where an unstructured Galerkin finite element method was coupled with an immersed boundary approach. Our model predicted native (stenotic) valve to conduit flow ratios of 45:55, 52:48, and 60:40 for conduits with diameters of 20, 16, and 10 mm, respectively. Mean gradients across the native aortic valve were calculated to be 12.5, 13.8, and 17.6 mm Hg, respectively. Post-aortic valve bypass cerebral blood flow was unchanged from preoperative aortic valve stenosis configurations and was constant across all conduit sizes. In all cases modeled, cerebral blood flow was completely supplied by blood ejected across the native aortic valve. An aortic valve bypass conduit as small as 10 mm results in excellent relief of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction in critical aortic valve stenosis. The presence of an aortic valve bypass conduit has no effect on cerebral blood flow. All blood flow to the brain occurs via antegrade flow across the native stenotic valve; this configuration may decrease the long-term risk of cerebral thromboembolism.
Aicher, Diana; Langer, Frank; Adam, Oliver; Tscholl, Dietmar; Lausberg, Henning; Schäfers, Hans-Joachim
Cusp prolapse may be an isolated cause of aortic regurgitation or may exist in conjunction with dilatation of the proximal aorta. Prolapse can be corrected by central plication, triangular resection, or pericardial patch implantation. We retrospectively analyzed our results with these techniques. From October 1995 to December 2006, 604 patients (aged 3-86 years) underwent aortic valve repair. Cusp prolapse was found in 427 patients (246 tricuspid, 181 bicuspid). Prolapse was corrected by central plication (n = 275) or triangular resection (n = 80). A pericardial patch was implanted for pre-existing cusp defects or after excision of calcium (n = 72). One cusp was repaired in 198 patients; the remaining patients underwent repair of 2 (n = 189) or 3 cusps (n = 40). In 102 patients more than one technique was used, and the patients were allocated to the group of the assumedly more complex repair (central plication < triangular resection < pericardial patch plasty). Cumulative follow-up was 1238 patient-years (mean 35 +/- 27 months). Hospital mortality was 2.6% (11/427). Actuarial freedom from aortic regurgitation of grade II or more at 5 years was 92% (central plication), 90% (triangular resection), and 90% (pericardial patch plasty). Thirteen patients were reoperated on, with prolapse as the most common reason for failure (n = 7); 6 underwent re-repair. Freedom from reoperation at 5 years was 95% (central plication), 94% (triangular resection), and 94% (pericardial patch plasty). Freedom from valve replacement at 5 years was 97% (central plication), 99% (triangular resection), and 98% (pericardial patch plasty). In aortic valve repair, cusp prolapse can be treated reliably by central plication. In the presence of more complex disease, triangular resection or pericardial patch plasty may be used without compromising midterm durability.
Carrel, Thierry; Berdat, Pascal; Pavlovic, Mladen; Pfammatter, Jean-Pierre
Current techniques to correct valvular anomalies of the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) include repair and replacement of the pulmonary valve. However, the performance of currently used conduits has been less than ideal because of unfavorable hemodynamics and mid- to long-term complications. An early experience with a totally integrated Contegra valved conduit derived from a bovine jugular vein is reported; this conduit has the advantage that there is no discontinuity between its lumen and the valve it incorporates. Between October 1999 and October 2001, a total of 22 Contegra valved conduits (12-22 mm) was implanted in 21 children aged <5 years, and in one patient aged 21 years. Diagnosis included tetralogy of Fallot (n = 13), pulmonary atresia (n = 3), double outlet right ventricle with pulmonary stenosis (PS) (n = 3), transposition of the great arteries, ventricular septal defect and PS (n = 2) and truncus arteriosus (n = 1). In 15 of these patients, distal and proximal anastomoses were performed on the beating heart. There was no mortality and no valved-conduit-related early morbidity. Intraoperative invasive assessment demonstrated excellent hemodynamic characteristics: mean peak pressure increase was 8.5+/-6.3 mmHg (varying between 4 mmHg in the 20-mm conduit and 18 mmHg in the 14-mm conduit). These values were confirmed by pre-discharge transthoracic pulsed-wave Doppler echocardiography. Because of endocarditis, one conduit was explanted after 11 months and replaced with a pulmonary homograft. Two patients required reintervention. The Contegra valved conduit is an excellent immediate substitute in the treatment of RVOT lesion when a pulmonary valve has to be inserted. Both systolic and diastolic valve functions are promising. Further data are required to confirm the favorable hemodynamics, as well as the durability and efficacy of this conduit in the long term.
Pagnesi, Matteo; Montalto, Claudio; Mangieri, Antonio; Agricola, Eustachio; Puri, Rishi; Chiarito, Mauro; Ancona, Marco B; Regazzoli, Damiano; Testa, Luca; De Bonis, Michele; Moat, Neil E; Rodés-Cabau, Josep; Colombo, Antonio; Latib, Azeem
Tricuspid valve (TV) repair at the time of left-sided valve surgery is indicated in patients with either severe functional tricuspid regurgitation (TR) or mild-to-moderate TR with coexistent tricuspid annular dilation or right heart failure. We assessed the benefits of a concomitant TV repair strategy during left-sided surgical valve interventions, focusing on mortality and echocardiographic TR-related outcomes. A meta-analysis was performed of studies reporting outcomes of patients who underwent left-sided (mitral and/or aortic) valve surgery with or without concomitant TV repair. Primary endpoints were all-cause and cardiac-related mortality; secondary endpoints were the presence of more-than-moderate TR, TR progression, and TR severity grade. All endpoints were evaluated at the longest available follow-up. Fifteen studies were included for a total of 2840 patients. TV repair at the time of left-sided valve surgery was associated with a significantly lower risk of cardiac-related mortality (odds ratio [OR] 0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.25-0.58; p<0.001), with a trend towards a lower risk of all-cause mortality (OR 0.57; 95% CI: 0.32-1.05; p=0.07) at a mean weighted follow-up of 6years. The presence of more-than-moderate TR (OR 0.19; 95% CI: 0.12-0.30; p<0.001), TR progression (OR 0.03; 95% CI: 0.01-0.05; p<0.001), and TR grade (standardized mean difference -1.11; 95% CI: -1.57 to -0.65; p<0.001) were significantly lower in the TV repair group at a mean weighted follow-up of 4.7years. A concomitant TV repair strategy during left-sided valve surgery is associated with a reduction in cardiac-related mortality and improved echocardiographic TR outcomes at follow-up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
LaPar, Damien J; Likosky, Donald S; Zhang, Min; Theurer, Patty; Fonner, C Edwin; Kern, John A; Bolling, Stephen F; Drake, Daniel H; Speir, Alan M; Rich, Jeffrey B; Kron, Irving L; Prager, Richard L; Ailawadi, Gorav
While tricuspid valve (TV) operations remain associated with high mortality (∼8-10%), no robust prediction models exist to support clinical decision-making. We developed a preoperative clinical risk model with an easily calculable clinical risk score (CRS) to predict mortality and major morbidity after isolated TV surgery. Multi-state Society of Thoracic Surgeons database records were evaluated for 2,050 isolated TV repair and replacement operations for any etiology performed at 50 hospitals (2002-2014). Parsimonious preoperative risk prediction models were developed using multi-level mixed effects regression to estimate mortality and composite major morbidity risk. Model results were utilized to establish a novel CRS for patients undergoing TV operations. Models were evaluated for discrimination and calibration. Operative mortality and composite major morbidity rates were 9% and 42%, respectively. Final regression models performed well (both P<0.001, AUC = 0.74 and 0.76) and included preoperative factors: age, gender, stroke, hemodialysis, ejection fraction, lung disease, NYHA class, reoperation and urgent or emergency status (all P<0.05). A simple CRS from 0-10+ was highly associated (P<0.001) with incremental increases in predicted mortality and major morbidity. Predicted mortality risk ranged from 2%-34% across CRS categories, while predicted major morbidity risk ranged from 13%-71%. Mortality and major morbidity after isolated TV surgery can be predicted using preoperative patient data from the STS Adult Cardiac Database. A simple clinical risk score predicts mortality and major morbidity after isolated TV surgery. This score may facilitate perioperative counseling and identification of suitable patients for TV surgery. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Percutaneous mitral valve repair with the MitraClip system according to the predicted risk by the logistic EuroSCORE: preliminary results from the German Transcatheter Mitral Valve Interventions (TRAMI) Registry.
Wiebe, Jens; Franke, Jennifer; Lubos, Edith; Boekstegers, Peter; Schillinger, Wolfgang; Ouarrak, Taoufik; May, Andreas E; Eggebrecht, Holger; Kuck, Karl-Heinz; Baldus, Stephan; Senges, Jochen; Sievert, Horst
To evaluate in-hospital and short-term outcomes of percutaneous mitral valve repair according to patients' logistic EuroSCORE (logEuroSCORE) in a multicenter registry The logEuroSCORE is an established tool to predict the risk of mortality during cardiac surgery. In high-risk patients percutaneous mitral valve repair with the MitraClip system represents a less-invasive alternative Data from 1002 patients, who underwent percutaneous mitral valve repair with the MitraClip system, were analyzed in the German Transcatheter Mitral Valve Interventions (TRAMI) Registry. A logEuroSCORE (mortality risk in %) ≥ 20 was considered high risk Of all patients, 557 (55.6%) had a logEuroSCORE ≥ 20. Implantation of the MitraClip was successful in 95.5 % (942/986) patients. Moderate residual mitral valve regurgitation was more often detected in patients with a logEuroSCORE ≥ 20 (23.8% vs. 17.1%, respectively, P < 0.05). In patients with a logEuroSCORE ≥ 20 the procedural complication rate was 8.9% (vs. 6.4, n.s.) and the in-hospital MACCE rate 4.9% (vs. 1.4% P < 0.01). The in-hospital mortality rate in patients with a logEuroSCORE ≥ 20 and logEuroSCORE < 20 was 4.3 and 1.1%, respectively (P ≤ 0.01) CONCLUSION: Percutaneous mitral valve repair with the MitraClip system is feasible in patients with a logEuroSCORE ≥ 20 with similar procedural results compared to patients with lower predicted risk. Although mortality was four times higher than in patients with logEuroSCORE < 20, mortality in high risk patients was lower than predicted. In those with a logEuroSCORE ≥ 20, moderate residual mitral valve regurgitation was more frequent. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Motomura, Noboru; Miyata, Hiroaki; Tsukihara, Hiroyuki; Takamoto, Shinichi
Risk models of cardiac valve surgery using a large database are useful for improving surgical quality. In order to obtain accurate, high-quality assessments of surgical outcome, each geographic area should maintain its own database. The study aim was to collect Japanese data and to prepare a risk stratification of cardiac valve procedures, using the Japan Adult Cardiovascular Surgery Database (JACVSD). A total of 6562 valve procedure records from 97 participating sites throughout Japan was analyzed, using a data entry form with 255 variables that was sent to the JACVSD office from a web-based data collection system. The statistical model was constructed using multiple logistic regression. Model discrimination was tested using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (C-index). The model calibration was tested using the Hosmer-Lemeshow (H-L) test. Among 6562 operated cases, 15% had diabetes mellitus, 5% were urgent, and 12% involved preoperative renal failure. The observed 30-day and operative mortality rates were 2.9% and 4.0%, respectively. Significant variables with high odds ratios included emergent or salvage status (3.83), reoperation (3.43), and left ventricular dysfunction (3.01). The H-L test and C-index values for 30-day mortality were satisfactory (0.44 and 0.80, respectively). The results obtained in Japan were at least as good as those reported elsewhere. The performance of this risk model also matched that of the STS National Adult Cardiac Database and the European Society Database.
Lee, Jung Hee; Kim, Tae Ho; Kim, Wook Sung
Severe and permanent tricuspid regurgitation induced by pacemaker leads is rarely reported in the literature. The mechanism of pacemaker-induced tricuspid regurgitation has been identified, but its management has not been well established. Furthermore, debate still exists regarding the proper surgical approach. We present the case of a patient with severe tricuspid regurgitation induced by a pacemaker lead, accompanied by triple valve disease. The patient underwent double valve replacement and tricuspid valve repair without removal of the pre-existing pacemaker lead. The operation was successful and the surgical procedure is discussed in detail.
... VHAP service-skip period leak detection and repair. 61.243-2 Section 61.243-2 Protection of Environment... AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Equipment Leaks (Fugitive Emission Sources) § 61.243-2 Alternative standards for valves in VHAP service—skip period leak detection and repair. (a)(1) An owner or...
Mollon, Brent; Mahure, Siddharth A; Ensor, Kelsey L; Zuckerman, Joseph D; Kwon, Young W; Rokito, Andrew S
To quantify the incidence of and identify the risk factors for subsequent shoulder procedures after isolated SLAP repair. New York's Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System database was searched between 2003 and 2014 to identify individuals with the sole diagnosis of a SLAP lesion who underwent isolated arthroscopic SLAP repair. Patients were longitudinally followed up for a minimum of 3 years to analyze for subsequent ipsilateral shoulder procedures. Between 2003 and 2014, 2,524 patients met our inclusion criteria. After 3 to 11 years of follow-up, 10.1% of patients (254 of 2,524) underwent repeat surgical intervention on the same shoulder as the initial SLAP repair. The mean time to repeat shoulder surgery was 2.3 ± 2.1 years. Subsequent procedures included subacromial decompression (35%), debridement (26.7%). repeat SLAP repair (19.7%), and biceps tenodesis or tenotomy (13.0%). After isolated SLAP repair, patients aged 20 years or younger were more likely to undergo arthroscopic Bankart repair (odds ratio [OR], 2.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36-6.21; P = .005), whereas age older than 30 years was an independent risk factor for subsequent acromioplasty (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.4-3.7; P < .001) and distal clavicle resection (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.1-5.5; P = .030). The need for a subsequent procedure was significantly associated with Workers' Compensation cases (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.7-3.2; P < .001). We identified a 10.1% incidence of subsequent surgery after isolated SLAP repair, often related to an additional diagnosis, suggesting that clinicians should consider other potential causes of shoulder pain when considering surgery for patients with SLAP lesions. In addition, the number of isolated SLAP repairs performed has decreased over time, and management of failed SLAP repair has shifted toward biceps tenodesis or tenotomy over revision SLAP repair in more recent years. Level III, case-control study. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of
Messé, Steven R.; Acker, Michael A.; Kasner, Scott E.; Fanning, Molly; Giovannetti, Tania; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Bilello, Michel; Szeto, Wilson Y.; Bavaria, Joseph E.; Hargrove, W. Clark; Mohler, Emile R.; Floyd, Thomas F.
Background The incidence and impact of clinical stroke and silent radiographic cerebral infarction complicating open surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR) are poorly characterized. Methods and Results We performed a prospective cohort study of subjects ≥ 65 years of age undergoing AVR for calcific aortic stenosis. Subjects were evaluated by neurologists pre-operatively and post-operatively, and underwent post-operative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Over a 4 year period, 196 subjects were enrolled at 2 sites. Mean age = 75.8 ± 6.2 years, 36% female, 6% non-white. Clinical strokes were detected in 17%, Transient Ischemic Attack in 2%, and in-hospital mortality was 5%. The frequency of stroke in the Society for Thoracic Surgery (STS) database in this cohort was 7%. Most strokes were mild; the median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) was 3 (interquartile range 1 – 9). Clinical stroke was associated with increased length of stay, median 12 vs 10 days, p = 0.02. Moderate or severe stroke (NIHSS ≥10) occurred in 8 (4%) and was strongly associated with in-hospital mortality, 38% vs 4%, p = 0.005. Of the 109 stroke-free subjects with post-operative MRI, silent infarct was identified in 59 (54%). Silent infarct was not associated with in-hospital mortality or increased length of stay. Conclusions Clinical stroke after AVR was more common than previously reported, more than double for this same cohort in the STS database, and silent cerebral infarctions were detected in over half of patients undergoing AVR. Clinical stroke complicating AVR is associated with increased length of stay and mortality. PMID:24690611
Bouleti, Claire; Juliard, Jean-Michel; Himbert, Dominique; Iung, Bernard; Brochet, Eric; Urena, Marina; Dilly, Marie-Pierre; Ou, Phalla; Nataf, Patrick; Vahanian, Alec
Tricuspid valve disease is mainly represented by tricuspid regurgitation (TR), which is a predictor of poor outcome. TR is usually secondary, caused by right ventricle pressure or volume overload, the leading cause being left-sided heart valve diseases. Tricuspid surgery for severe TR is recommended during left valve surgery, and consists of either a valve replacement or, most often, a tricuspid repair with or without prosthetic annuloplasty. When TR persists or worsens after left valvular surgery, redo isolated tricuspid surgery is associated with high mortality. In addition, a sizeable proportion of patients present with tricuspid surgery deterioration over time, and need a reintervention, which is associated with high morbi-mortality rates. In this context, and given the recent major breakthrough in the percutaneous treatment of aortic and mitral valve diseases, the tricuspid valve appears an appealing challenge, although it raises specific issues. The first applications of transcatheter techniques for tricuspid valve disease were valve-in-valve and valve-in-ring implantation for degenerated bioprosthesis or ring annuloplasty. Some concerns remain regarding prosthesis sizing, rapid ventricular pacing and the best approach, but these procedures appear to be safe and effective. More recently, bicuspidization using a transcatheter approach for the treatment of native tricuspid valve has been published, in two patients. Finally, other devices are in preclinical development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Drews, Thorsten; Pasic, Miralem; Buz, Semih; Unbehaun, Axel
In patients with previous heart surgery, the operative risk is elevated during conventional aortic valve re-operations. Trans-catheter aortic valve implantation is a new method for the treatment of high-risk patients. Nevertheless, this new procedure carries potential risks in patients with previous homograft implantation in aortic position. Between April 2008 and February 2011, 345 consecutive patients (mean EuroSCORE (European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation): 38 ± 20%; mean Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) Mortality Score: 19 ± 16%; mean age: 80 ± 8 years; 111 men and 234 women) underwent trans-apical aortic valve implantation. In three patients, previous aortic homograft implantation had been performed. Homograft degeneration causing combined valve stenosis and incompetence made re-operation necessary. In all three patients, the aortic valve could be implanted using the trans-apical approach, and the procedure was successful. In two patients, there was slight paravalvular leakage of the aortic prosthesis and the other patient had slight central leakage. Neither ostium obstruction nor mitral valve damage was observed. Trans-catheter valve implantation can be performed successfully after previous homograft implantation. Particular care should be taken to achieve optimal valve positioning, not to obstruct the ostium of the coronary vessels due to the changed anatomic situation and not to cause annulus rupture. Copyright © 2011 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
O’Byrne, Michael L; Gillespie, Matthew J
Purpose of Review Catheter-based valve technologies have evolved rapidly over the last decade. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has become a routine procedure in high-risk adult patients with calcific aortic stenosis. In patients with congenital heart disease (CHD), transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement represents a transformative technology for right ventricular outflow tract dysfunction with the potential to expand to other indications. This review aims to summarize 1) the current state of the art for transcatheter valve replacement (TVR) in CHD, 2) the expanding indications for TVR, and 3) the technological obstacles to optimizing TVR. Recent findings Multiple case series have demonstrated that TVR with the Melody transcatheter pulmonary valve in properly selected patients is safe, effective, and durable in short-term follow-up. The Sapien transcatheter heart valve represents an alternative device with similar safety and efficacy in limited studies. Innovative use of current valves has demonstrated the flexibility of TVR, while highlighting the need for devices to address the broad range of post-operative anatomies either with a single device or strategies to prepare the outflow tract for subsequent device deployment. Summary The potential of TVR has not been fully realized, but holds promise in treatment of CHD. PMID:24281347
Umakanthan, Ramanan; Leacche, Marzia; Petracek, Michael R; Zhao, David X; Byrne, John G
Combined coronary artery valvular heart disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the adult patient population. The standard treatment for such disease has been open heart surgery in which coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is performed concurrently with valve surgery using a median sternotomy and cardiopulmonary bypass. With the increasing complexity of patients referred to surgery, some patients may prove to be poor surgical candidates for combined valve and CABG surgery. In certain selected patients who fall into this category, valve surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have been considered a feasible alternative. Conventionally, valve surgery is performed in the cardiac surgical operating room, whereas PCI is carried out in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. Separation of these two procedural suites has presented a logistic limitation because it impedes the concomitant performance of both procedures in one setting. Hence, PCI and valve surgery usually have been performed as a "two-stage" procedure in two different operative suites, with the procedures being separated by hours, days, or weeks. Technologic advancements have made possible the construction of a "hybrid" procedural suite that combines the facilities of a cardiac surgical operating room with those of a cardiac catheterization laboratory. This design has enabled the concept of "one-stage" or "one-stop" PCI and valve surgery, allowing both procedures to be performed in a hybrid suite in one setting, separated by minutes. The advantages of such a method could prove to be multifold by enabling a less invasive surgical approach and improving logistics, patient satisfaction, and outcomes in selected patients.
BACKGROUND: Left ventricular (LV) reconstruction surgery leads to early improvement in LV function in ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) patients. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of mitral valve (MV) repair associated with LV reconstruction on LV function 1-year after surgery in ICM patients assessed by real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography (3DE). METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixty ICM patients who underwent the combination surgery (LV reconstruction in 60, MV repair in 30, and revascularization in 52 patients) were studied. Real-time 3DE was performed and LV volumes were obtained at baseline, discharge, 6-month and >or=12-month follow-up. Reduction in end-diastolic volumes (EDV) by 29% and in end-systolic volumes by 38% were demonstrated immediately after surgery and remained at subsequent follow-up (P<0.0001). The LV ejection fraction significantly increased by about 10% at discharge and was maintained >or=12-month (P<0.0001). Although the LV volumes were significantly larger in patients with MV repair before surgery (EDV, 235+/-87 mL versus 193+/-67 mL, P<0.05), they were similar to LV volumes of the patients without MV repair at subsequent follow-ups. However, the EDV increased from 139+/-24 mL to 227+/-79 mL (P<0.01) in 7 patients with recurrent mitral regurgitation (MR). Improvement in New York Heart Association functional class occurred in 81% patients during late follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Real-time 3DE demonstrates that LV reconstruction provides significant reduction in LV volumes and improvement in LV function which is sustained throughout the 1-year follow-up with 84% cardiac event free survival. If successful, MV repair may prevent LV redilation, while recurrent MR is associated with increased LV volumes.
Agnino, Alfonso; Lanzone, Alberto Maria; Albertini, Andrea; Anselmi, Amedeo
The free margin running suture (FMRS) is a novel technique for nonresection correction of degenerative mitral regurgitation. It was employed in 37 minimally invasive mitral repair cases. We performed a retrospective collection of in-hospital data and a clinical/echocardiographic follow-up. All patients were discharged with none or mild mitral regurgitation, except one who had mild-to-moderate (2+) regurgitation. At follow-up (average: 2.1 years), all patients were alive; there were no instances of recurrent regurgitation, one case of 2+ regurgitation, and no valve-related complications. Average mitral valve area, mean gradient, and coaptation length were 2.9 cm 2 ±0.1, 3.5 mm Hg ±0.9, and 1.1 cm ±0.2. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Yaffee, David W; Loulmet, Didier F; Kelly, Lauren A; Ward, Alison F; Ursomanno, Patricia A; Rabinovich, Annette E; Neuburger, Peter J; Krishnan, Sandeep; Hill, Frederick T; Grossi, Eugene A
A concern with the initiation of totally endoscopic robotic mitral valve repair (TERMR) programs has been the risk for the learning curve. To minimize this risk, we initiated a TERMR program with a defined team and structured learning approach before clinical implementation. A dedicated team (two surgeons, one cardiac anesthesiologist, one perfusionist, and two nurses) was trained with clinical scenarios, simulations, wet laboratories, and "expert" observation for 3 months. This team then performed a series of TERMRs of varying complexity. Thirty-two isolated TERMRs were performed during the first programmatic year. All operations included mitral valve repair, left atrial appendage exclusion, and annuloplasty device implantation. Additional procedures included leaflet resection, neochordae insertion, atrial ablation, and papillary muscle shortening. Longer clamp times were associated with number of neochordae (P < 0.01), papillary muscle procedures (P < 0.01), and leaflet resection (P = 0.06). Sequential case number had no impact on cross-clamp time (P = 0.3). Analysis of nonclamp time demonstrated a 71.3% learning percentage (P < 0.01; ie, 28.7% reduction in nonclamp time with each doubling of case number). There were no hospital deaths or incidences of stroke, myocardial infarction, unplanned reoperation, respiratory failure, or renal failure. Median length of stay was 4 days. All patients were discharged home. Totally endoscopic robotic mitral valve repair can be safely performed after a pretraining regimen with emphasis on experts' current practice and team training. After a pretraining regimen, cross-clamp times were not subject to learning curve phenomena but were dependent on procedural complexity. Nonclamp times were associated with a short learning curve.
Hummel, Brian W; Buss, Randall W; DiGiorgi, Paul L; Laviano, Brittany N; Yaeger, Nalani A; Lucas, M Lee; Comas, George M
Single-dose antegrade crystalloid cardioplegia with Custodiol-HTK (histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate) has been used for many years. Its safety and efficacy were established in experimental and clinical studies. It is beneficial in complex valve surgery because it provides a long period of myocardial protection with a single dose. Thus, valve procedures (minimally invasive or open) can be performed with limited interruption. The aim of this study is to compare the use of Custodiol-HTK cardioplegia with traditional blood cardioplegia in patients undergoing minimally invasive and open valve surgery. A single-institution, retrospective case-control review was performed on patients who underwent valve surgery in Lee Memorial Health System at either HealthPark Medical Center or Gulf Coast Medical Center from July 1, 2011, through March 7, 2015. A total of 181 valve cases (aortic or mitral) performed using Custodiol-HTK cardioplegia were compared with 181 cases performed with traditional blood cardioplegia. Each group had an equal distribution of minimally invasive and open valve cases. Right chest thoracotomy or partial sternotomy was performed on minimally invasive valve cases. Demographics, perioperative data, clinical outcomes, and financial data were collected and analyzed. Patient outcomes were superior in the Custodiol-HTK cardioplegia group for blood transfusion, stroke, and hospital readmission within 30 days (P < 0.05). No statistical differences were observed in the other outcomes categories. Hospital charges were reduced on average by $3013 per patient when using Custodiol-HTK cardioplegia. Use of Custodiol-HTK cardioplegia is safe and cost-effective when compared with traditional repetitive blood cardioplegia in patients undergoing minimally invasive and open valve surgery.
Lorusso, Roberto; Gelsomino, Sandro; De Cicco, Giuseppe; Beghi, Cesare; Russo, Claudio; De Bonis, Michele; Colli, Andrea; Sala, Andrea
To evaluate postoperative outcome of emergency surgery for acute severe mitral regurgitation (ASMR) from a multicentre experience. In six centres, 279 patients (mean age 62+/-14 years, 62% female) undergoing emergency surgery for ASMR from December 1986 to March 2007 were analysed and followed up. Aetiology included acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in 126 patients (group 1, 45%), degenerative mitral valve disease in 74 (group 2, 26%), and acute endocarditis (AE) in 79 (group 3, 28%). Preoperatively, all patients were in haemodynamic instability, with 185 patients in cardiogenic shock (66%), 184 (66%) intubated, and 61 (22%) on IABP, respectively. Valve repair was performed in 76 (27%), whereas 203 (73%) underwent valve replacement. Median follow-up (98% complete) was 70.8 months (inter-quartile range 59.8-86.66 months). Overall 30-day mortality was 22.5% (63/279). Early death was significantly lower in group 2 (p<0.001 and p=0.005 vs group 1 and 3, respectively) whereas no difference was detected between group 1 and 3. At logistic regression analysis AMI, AE, shock, left ventricular dysfunction, and coronary artery disease were predictors of early death. Overall 15-year survival was 67+/-10%. Survival was lower in group 1 (39+/-11%) than in group 2 (75+/-9%) and group 3 (77+/-10%). Cox regression found AMI, and associated coronary artery disease to be predictors of late death. Overall 15-year actuarial and actual freedom from cardiac-related events were 44+/-9% and 28+/-10%, respectively, with the worst outcome in the presence of AE. Associated coronary artery disease, AE, AMI, preoperative atrial fibrillation, and chronic renal failure were independent predictors of cardiac-related events. Emergency surgery for ASMR remains a surgical challenge for high incidence of early and late cardiac-related events, particularly in patients with associated coronary artery disease and acute endocarditis. Apparently, type of mitral valve surgical approaches (repair or
Martínez-Sellés, Manuel; Muñoz, Patricia; Arnáiz, Ana; Moreno, Mar; Gálvez, Juan; Rodríguez-Roda, Jorge; de Alarcón, Arístides; García Cabrera, Emilio; Fariñas, María C; Miró, José M; Montejo, Miguel; Moreno, Alfonso; Ruiz-Morales, Josefa; Goenaga, Miguel A; Bouza, Emilio
Surgery for infective endocarditis (IE) is associated with high mortality. Our objectives were to describe the experience with surgical treatment for IE in Spain, and to identify predictors of in-hospital mortality. Prospective cohort of 1000 consecutive patients with IE. Data were collected in 26 Spanish hospitals. Surgery was performed in 437 patients (43.7%). Patients treated with surgery were younger and predominantly male. They presented fewer comorbid conditions and more often had negative blood cultures and heart failure. In-hospital mortality after surgery was lower than in the medical therapy group (24.3 vs 30.7%, p=0.02). In patients treated with surgery, endocarditis involved a native valve in 267 patients (61.1%), a prosthetic valve in 122 (27.9%), and a pacemaker lead with no clear further valve involvement in 48 (11.0%). The most common aetiologies were Staphylococcus (186, 42.6%), Streptococcus (97, 22.2%), and Enterococcus (49, 11.2%). The main indications for surgery were heart failure and severe valve regurgitation. A risk score for in-hospital mortality was developed using 7 prognostic variables with a similar predictive value (OR between 1.7 and 2.3): PALSUSE: prosthetic valve, age ≥ 70, large intracardiac destruction, Staphylococcus spp, urgent surgery, sex [female], EuroSCORE ≥ 10. In-hospital mortality ranged from 0% in patients with a PALSUSE score of 0 to 45.4% in patients with PALSUSE score >3. The prognosis of IE surgery is highly variable. The PALSUSE score could help to identify patients with higher in-hospital mortality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Suleiman, Tariq; Kavinsky, Clifford J.; Skerritt, Clare; Kenny, Damien; Ilbawi, Michael N.; Caputo, Massimo
An increasing number of patients with tetralogy of Fallot require repeat surgical intervention for pulmonary valve replacement secondary to pulmonary regurgitation. Catheter-based interventions have emerged as an attractive alternative to surgery in this patient population but it is limited by patient size or the anatomy of the right ventricular outflow tract. Hybrid approaches involving both cardiac interventionists and surgeons are being developed to overcome these limitations. The purpose of this review is to highlight the recent advances in the hybrid field of pulmonary valve replacement, summarizing the advantages and disadvantages of the “traditional” surgical and the new catheter-based techniques and discuss the direction future research should take to determine the optimal management for individual patients. PMID:26082929
Yu, Pey-Jen; Mattia, Allan; Cassiere, Hugh A; Esposito, Rick; Manetta, Frank; Kohn, Nina; Hartman, Alan R
Significant mitral regurgitation in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is associated with increased mortality. The aim of this study is to determine if surgical correction of both aortic and mitral valves in high risk patients with concomitant valvular disease would offer patients better outcomes than TAVR alone. A retrospective analysis of 43 high-risk patients who underwent concomitant surgical aortic valve replacement and mitral valve surgery from 2008 to 2012 was performed. Immediate and long term survival were assessed. There were 43 high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing concomitant surgical aortic valve replacement and mitral valve surgery. The average age was 80 ± 6 years old. Nineteen (44%) patients had prior cardiac surgery, 15 (34.9%) patients had chronic obstructive lung disease, and 39 (91%) patients were in congestive heart failure. The mean Society of Thoracic Surgeons Predicted Risk of Mortality for isolated surgical aortic valve replacement for the cohort was 10.1% ± 6.4%. Five patients (11.6%) died during the index admission and/or within thirty days of surgery. Mortality rate was 25% at six months, 35% at 1 year and 45% at 2 years. There was no correlation between individual preoperative risk factors and mortality. High-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis and mitral valve disease undergoing concomitant surgical aortic valve replacement and mitral valve surgery may have similar long term survival as that described for such patients undergoing TAVR. Surgical correction of double valvular disease in this patient population may not confer mortality benefit compared to TAVR alone.
Salad, Abdulwahab M.; Jimale, Liban H.; Kour, Prabhjot; Austveg, Berit; Kumar, Bernadette
Obstetric fistula is treatable by surgery, although access is usually limited, particularly in the context of conflict. This study examines the profile of women attending fistula repair surgery in three hospitals in Somalia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Somalia from August to September 2016. Structured questionnaires were administered to 81 women who registered for fistula repair surgery in the Garowe, Daynile, and Kismayo General Hospitals in Somalia. Findings revealed that 70.4% of the study participants reported obstetric labor as the cause of their fistula, and 29.6% reported iatrogenic causes. Regarding the waiting time for the repair surgery, 45% waited for the surgery for over one year, while the rest received the surgery within a year. The study suggests that training for fistula surgery has to be provided for healthcare professionals in Somalia, fistula centers should be established, and access to these facilities has to be guaranteed for all patients who need these services. PMID:28761443
Gele, Abdi A; Salad, Abdulwahab M; Jimale, Liban H; Kour, Prabhjot; Austveg, Berit; Kumar, Bernadette
Obstetric fistula is treatable by surgery, although access is usually limited, particularly in the context of conflict. This study examines the profile of women attending fistula repair surgery in three hospitals in Somalia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Somalia from August to September 2016. Structured questionnaires were administered to 81 women who registered for fistula repair surgery in the Garowe, Daynile, and Kismayo General Hospitals in Somalia. Findings revealed that 70.4% of the study participants reported obstetric labor as the cause of their fistula, and 29.6% reported iatrogenic causes. Regarding the waiting time for the repair surgery, 45% waited for the surgery for over one year, while the rest received the surgery within a year. The study suggests that training for fistula surgery has to be provided for healthcare professionals in Somalia, fistula centers should be established, and access to these facilities has to be guaranteed for all patients who need these services.
Maciejewski, Marek; Piestrzeniewicz, Katarzyna; Bielecka-Dąbrowa, Agata; Piechowiak, Monika; Jaszewski, Ryszard
Introduction The aim of the study was to analyse the risk factors of early and late mortality in patients undergoing the first reoperation for prosthetic valve dysfunction. Material and methods A retrospective observational study was performed in 194 consecutive patients (M = 75, F = 119; mean age 53.2 ±11 years) with a mechanical prosthetic valve (n = 103 cases; 53%) or bioprosthesis (91; 47%). Univariate and multivariate Cox statistical analysis was performed to determine risk factors of early and late mortality. Results The overall early mortality was 18.6%: 31.4% in patients with symptoms of NYHA functional class III-IV and 3.4% in pts in NYHA class I-II. Multivariate analysis identified symptoms of NYHA class III-IV and endocarditis as independent predictors of early mortality. The overall late mortality (> 30 days) was 8.2% (0.62% year/patient). Multivariate analysis identified age at the time of reoperation as a strong independent predictor of late mortality. Conclusions Reoperation in patients with prosthetic valves, performed urgently, especially in patients with symptoms of NYHA class III-IV or in the case of endocarditis, bears a high mortality rate. Risk of planned reoperation, mostly in patients with symptoms of NYHA class I-II, does not differ from the risk of the first operation. PMID:22291767
Lange, R; Piazza, N; Günther, T
Functional tricuspid valve (TV) regurgitation secondary to left heart disease (e.g. mitral insufficiency and stenosis) is observed in 75% of the patients with TV regurgitation and is thus the most common etiology; therefore, the majority of patients who require TV surgery, undergo concomitant mitral and/or aortic valve surgery. Uncorrected moderate and severe TV regurgitation may persist or even worsen after mitral valve surgery, leading to progressive heart failure and death. Patients with moderate to severe TV regurgitation show a 3-year survival rate of 40%. Surgery is indicated in patients with severe TV regurgitation undergoing left-sided valve surgery and in patients with severe isolated primary regurgitation without severe right ventricular (RV) dysfunction. For patients requiring mitral valve surgery, tricuspid valve annuloplasty should be considered even in the absence of significant regurgitation, when severe annular dilatation (≥40 mm or >21 mm/m 2 ) is present. Functional TV regurgitation is primarily treated with valve reconstruction which carries a lower perioperative risk than valve replacement. Valve replacement is rarely required. Tricuspid valve repair with ring annuloplasty is associated with better survival and a lower reoperation rate than suture annuloplasty. Long-term results are not available. The severity of the heart insufficiency and comorbidities (e.g. renal failure and liver dysfunction) are the essential determinants of operative mortality and long-term survival. Tricuspid valve reoperations are rarely necessary and associated with a considerable mortality.
Bogachev-Prokophiev, Alexandr V; Afanasyev, Alexandr V; Zheleznev, Sergei I; Nazarov, Vladimir M; Sharifulin, Ravil M; Karaskov, Alexandr M
We aimed to compare the outcomes of mitral valve repair with flexible band (FB) versus complete semirigid ring (SR) in degenerative mitral valve disease patients. From September 2011 to 2014, 171 patients were randomized and underwent successful mitral valve repair using a SR (n = 85) or FB (n = 86). There were no significant between-group differences at baseline. There were no early mortalities. The mean follow up was 24.7 months. The 2-year survival was 96.0 ± 2.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 88.6-98.7%) and 94.3 ± 2.8% (95% CI, 85.5-97.9%) in the SR and FB groups, respectively (p = 0.899). The left ventricle remodeling was similar between the groups. Higher transmitral peak (8.5 [3.9-17] vs. 6 [2.1-18] mmHg, p < 0.001), mean pressure gradients (3.7 [1.3-8] vs. 2.8 [0.6-6.8] mmHg, p = 0.001), and systolic pulmonary artery pressure (34.5 [20-68] vs. 29.5 [8-48] mmHg, p < 0.001) was observed in the SR group. The 2-year freedom from recurrence of significant mitral regurgitation was significantly higher in the FB group than the SR group (p = 0.002). Residual mitral regurgitation was an independent prognostic factor of recurrence of mitral regurgitation. The 3-year freedom from reoperation was significantly higher in the FB group than the SR group (p = 0.044). Patients with degenerative mitral valve disease may benefit from valve repair with FBs. Residual mitral regurgitation before discharge is an independent risk factor of late insufficiency recurrence. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03278574 , retrospectively registered on 06.09.2017.
Lalani, Tahaniyat; Chu, Vivian H; Park, Lawrence P; Cecchi, Enrico; Corey, G Ralph; Durante-Mangoni, Emanuele; Fowler, Vance G; Gordon, David; Grossi, Paolo; Hannan, Margaret; Hoen, Bruno; Muñoz, Patricia; Rizk, Hussien; Kanj, Souha S; Selton-Suty, Christine; Sexton, Daniel J; Spelman, Denis; Ravasio, Veronica; Tripodi, Marie Françoise; Wang, Andrew
There are limited prospective, controlled data evaluating survival in patients receiving early surgery vs medical therapy for prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE). To determine the in-hospital and 1-year mortality in patients with PVE who undergo valve replacement during index hospitalization compared with patients who receive medical therapy alone, after controlling for survival and treatment selection bias. Participants were enrolled between June 2000 and December 2006 in the International Collaboration on Endocarditis-Prospective Cohort Study (ICE-PCS), a prospective, multinational, observational cohort of patients with infective endocarditis. Patients hospitalized with definite right- or left-sided PVE were included in the analysis. We evaluated the effect of treatment assignment on mortality, after adjusting for biases using a Cox proportional hazards model that included inverse probability of treatment weighting and surgery as a time-dependent covariate. The cohort was stratified by probability (propensity) for surgery, and outcomes were compared between the treatment groups within each stratum. Valve replacement during index hospitalization (early surgery) vs medical therapy. In-hospital and 1-year mortality. Of the 1025 patients with PVE, 490 patients (47.8%) underwent early surgery and 535 individuals (52.2%) received medical therapy alone. Compared with medical therapy, early surgery was associated with lower in-hospital mortality in the unadjusted analysis and after controlling for treatment selection bias (in-hospital mortality: hazard ratio [HR], 0.44 [95% CI, 0.38-0.52] and lower 1-year mortality: HR, 0.57 [95% CI, 0.49-0.67]). The lower mortality associated with surgery did not persist after adjustment for survivor bias (in-hospital mortality: HR, 0.90 [95% CI, 0.76-1.07] and 1-year mortality: HR, 1.04 [95% CI, 0.89-1.23]). Subgroup analysis indicated a lower in-hospital mortality with early surgery in the highest surgical propensity quintile (21
Transthoracic echocardiography in patients undergoing mitral valve repair: comparison of new transthoracic 3D techniques to 2D transoesophageal echocardiography in the localization of mitral valve prolapse.
Gripari, Paola; Mapelli, Massimo; Bellacosa, Ilaria; Piazzese, Concetta; Milo, Maria; Fusini, Laura; Muratori, Manuela; Ali, Sarah Ghulam; Tamborini, Gloria; Pepi, Mauro
Successful mitral valve (MV) repair for degenerative mitral regurgitation (DMR) is mainly related to surgical expertise and MV anatomy. Although 2D echocardiography, specifically transoesophageal (TOE), provides precise information regarding MV anatomy, recent advancements in matrix technology meant a decisive step forward to the point where segmental MV analysis can be accurately performed from a noninvasive 3D transthoracic (TTE) approach. The aims of this study were: (a) to evaluate the feasibility and time required for real-time 3D TTE in a large consecutive cohort of patients with severe DMR in the assessment of MV anatomy; (b) to compare the accuracy of 3D TTE and 2D TOE versus surgical inspection in the recognition and localization of all components of the MV leaflets; (c) to establish the added diagnostic value of 3D colourDoppler examination to pure 3D morphologic evaluation. 149 consecutive patients with severe DMR underwent complete 3D TTE before surgery and 2D TOE in the operating room. Echocardiographic data obtained by the different techniques were compared with surgical inspection. 3D TTE was feasible in a relatively short time (8 ± 4 min), with good (49%) and optimal (33%) imaging quality in the majority of cases. 3D TTE had significant better overall accuracy compared to 2D TOE (93 and 91%, p < 0.05, respectively). 2D TOE was significantly more specific than 3D TTE in the identification of A3 prolapse (99 vs. 96%). The colourDoppler mode did not improve significantly the accuracy of 3D TTE, albeit it determined a better sensitivity in the detection of A2 prolapse if compared to 2D TOE (95 vs. 85%). 3D TTE with or without colourDoppler is a feasible and useful method in the analysis of MV prolapse; it allows a preoperative and noninvasive description of the pathology as accurate as the 2D TOE.
Kortlandt, Friso A; de Beenhouwer, Thomas; Swaans, Martin J; Post, Marco C; van der Heyden, Jan A S; Eefting, Frank D; Rensing, Benno J W M
Percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve (MV) repair is a relatively new treatment option for mitral regurgitation (MR). After the feasibility and safety having been proved in low-surgical-risk patients, the use of this procedure has shifted more to the treatment of high-risk patients. With the absence of randomized controlled trials (RCT) for this particular subgroup, observational studies try to add evidence to the safety aspect of this procedure. These also provide short- and mid-term mortality figures. Several mortality predictors have been identified, which may help the optimal selection of patients who will benefit most from this technique. In this article we provide an overview of the literature about mortality and its predictors in patients treated with the percutaneous edge-to-edge device.
Muneretto, Claudio; Alfieri, Ottavio; Cesana, Bruno Mario; Bisleri, Gianluigi; De Bonis, Michele; Di Bartolomeo, Roberto; Savini, Carlo; Folesani, Gianluca; Di Bacco, Lorenzo; Rambaldini, Manfredo; Maureira, Juan Pablo; Laborde, Francois; Tespili, Maurizio; Repossini, Alberto; Folliguet, Thierry
We sought to investigate the clinical outcomes of patients with isolated severe aortic stenosis and an intermediate- to high-risk profile treated by means of conventional surgery (surgical aortic valve replacement), sutureless valve implantation, or transcatheter aortic valve replacement in a multicenter evaluation. Among 991 consecutive patients with isolated severe aortic stenosis and an intermediate- to high-risk profile (Society of Thoracic Surgeons score >4 and logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation I >10), a propensity score analysis was performed on the basis of the therapeutic strategy: surgical aortic valve replacement (n = 204), sutureless valve implantation (n = 204), and transcatheter aortic valve replacement (n = 204). Primary end points were 30-day mortality and overall survival at 24-month follow-up; the secondary end point was survival free from a composite end point of major adverse cardiac events (defined as cardiac-related mortality, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accidents, and major hemorrhagic events) and periprosthetic regurgitation greater than 2. Thirty-day mortality was significantly higher in the transcatheter aortic valve replacement group (surgical aortic valve replacement = 3.4% vs sutureless = 5.8% vs transcatheter aortic valve replacement = 9.8%; P = .005). The incidence of postprocedural was 3.9% in asurgical aortic valve replacement vs 9.8% in sutureless vs 14.7% in transcatheter aortic valve replacement (P< .001) and peripheral vascular complications occurred in 0% of surgicalaortic valve replacement vs 0% of sutureless vs 9.8% transcatheter aortic valve replacement (P< .001). At 24-month follow-up, overall survival (surgical aortic valve replacement = 91.3% ± 2.4% vs sutureless = 94.9% ± 2.1% vs transcatheter aortic valve replacement = 79.5% ± 4.3%; P < .001) and survival free from the composite end point of major adverse cardiovascular events and periprosthetic regurgitation were significantly
Szałański, Przemysław; Zembala, Michał; Filipiak, Krzysztof; Karolak, Wojciech; Wojarski, Jacek; Garbacz, Marcin; Kaczmarczyk, Aleksandra; Kwiecień, Anna; Zembala, Marian
Over the last twenty years, minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR) has evolved into a safe, well-tolerated and efficient surgical treatment option for aortic valve disease. It has been shown to reduce postoperative morbidity, providing faster recovery and rehabilitation, shorter hospital stay and better cosmetic results compared with conventional surgery. A variety of minimally invasive accesses have been developed and utilized to date. This concise review demonstrates and discusses surgical techniques used in contemporary approaches to MIAVR and presents the most important results of MIAVR procedures. PMID:26336491
Mazzeffi, Michael; Kassa, Woderyelesh; Gammie, James; Tanaka, Kenichi; Roman, Philip; Zhan, Min; Griffith, Bartley; Rock, Peter
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) occurs uncommonly after cardiac surgery but has a mortality rate as high as 80%. Aspirin may prevent lung injury in at-risk patients by reducing platelet-neutrophil aggregates in the lung. We hypothesized that preoperative aspirin use would be associated with a decreased risk of ARDS after aortic valve replacement surgery. We performed a retrospective single-center cohort study that included all adult patients who had aortic valve replacement surgery during a 5-year period. The primary outcome variable was postoperative ARDS. The secondary outcome variable was nadir PaO2/FIO2 ratio during the first 72 hours after surgery. Both crude and propensity score-adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the odds ratio for developing ARDS in aspirin users. Subgroups were analyzed to determine whether preoperative aspirin use might be associated with improved oxygenation in patients with specific risk factors for lung injury. Of the 375 patients who had aortic valve replacement surgery during the study period, 181 patients took aspirin preoperatively (48.3%) with most taking a dose of 81 mg (72.0%). There were 22 cases of ARDS in the cohort (5.5%). There was no significant difference in the rate of ARDS between aspirin users and nonusers (5.0% vs 6.7%, P = 0.52). There was also no significant difference in the nadir PaO2/FIO2 ratio between aspirin users and nonusers (P = 0.12). The crude odds ratio for ARDS in aspirin users was 0.725 (99% confidence interval, 0.229-2.289; P = 0.47), and the propensity score-adjusted odds ratio was 0.457 (99% confidence interval, 0.120-1.730; P = 0.13). Within the constraints of this analysis that included only 22 affected patients, preoperative aspirin use was not associated with a decreased incidence of ARDS after aortic valve replacement surgery or improved oxygenation.
Yoo, Chungkwon; Kwon, Sung Wook
We report four cases in which a pericardium (Tutoplast®) plug was used to repair a corneoscleral fistula after Ahmed Glaucoma Valve (AGV) explantation. In four cases in which the AGV tube had been exposed, AGV explantation was performed using a pericardium (Tutoplast®) plug to seal the defect previously occupied by the tube. After debridement of the fistula, a piece of processed pericardium (Tutoplast®), measured 1 mm in width, was plugged into the fistula and secured with two interrupted 10-0 nylon sutures. To control intraocular pressure, a new AGV was implanted elsewhere in case 1, phaco-trabeculectomy was performed concurrently in case 2, cyclophotocoagulation was performed postoperatively in case 3 and anti-glaucomatous medication was added in case 4. No complication related to the fistula developed at the latest follow-up (range: 12~26 months). The pericardium (Tutoplast®) plug seems to be an effective method in the repair of corneoscleral fistulas resulting from explantation of glaucoma drainage implants. PMID:19096247
Shimamura, Yoshiei; Maisawa, Kazuma
A novel device to create multiple artificial chordae loops for mitral repair is developed. The device consists of a circular metal base with a removable central rod on one end, which can easily be attached or removed by screwing into a hole located on the base, and 51 fixed rods placed radially around the central rod at distances of 10~60 mm from the central rod. A needle with CV-4 e-polytetrafluoroethylene suture is passed through a pledget, and the suture is looped from the central rod around the fixed rod located at the desired loop length. The needle is then passed back through the pledget. The suture is tied over the pledget, bringing it in contact with the central rod. When multiple loops of various lengths are required, different fixed rods located at distances corresponding to the required loop lengths are used. Following creation of the necessary loops, the central rod is unscrewed, and the loops are released from the device. Construction of artificial chordae with this device is quick, reliable, reproducible, and increases the technical possibilities for mitral valve repair.
Mishra, Vinod; Lewandowska, Milena; Andersen, Jack Gunnar; Andersen, Marit Helen; Lindberg, Harald; Døhlen, Gaute; Fosse, Erik
Abstract OBJECTIVES: Today, both surgical and percutaneous techniques are available for pulmonary valve implantation in patients with right ventricle outflow tract obstruction or insufficiency. In this controlled, non-randomized study the hospital costs per patient of the two treatment options were identified and compared. METHODS: During the period of June 2011 until October 2014 cost data in 20 patients treated with the percutaneous technique and 14 patients treated with open surgery were consecutively included. Two methods for cost analysis were used, a retrospective average cost estimate (overhead costs) and a direct prospective detailed cost acquisition related to each individual patient (patient-specific costs). RESULTS: The equipment cost, particularly the stents and valve itself was by far the main cost-driving factor in the percutaneous pulmonary valve group, representing 96% of the direct costs, whereas in the open surgery group the main costs derived from the postoperative care and particularly the stay in the intensive care department. The device-related cost in this group represented 13.5% of the direct costs. Length-of-stay-related costs in the percutaneous group were mean $3885 (1618) and mean $17 848 (5060) in the open surgery group. The difference in postoperative stay between the groups was statistically significant (P≤ 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Given the high postoperative cost in open surgery, the percutaneous procedure could be cost saving even with a device cost of more than five times the cost of the surgical device. PMID:28007875
Hansen, Tina B; Berg, Selina K; Sibilitz, Kirstine L; Zwisler, Ann D; Norekvål, Tone M; Lee, Anne; Buus, Niels
Little evidence exists on whether cardiac rehabilitation is effective for patients after heart valve surgery. Yet, accepted recommendations for patients with ischaemic heart disease continue to support it. To date, no studies have determined what heart valve surgery patients prefer in a cardiac rehabilitation programme, and none have analysed their experiences with it. The purpose of this qualitative analysis was to gain insight into patients' experiences in cardiac rehabilitation, the CopenHeart VR trial. This trial specifically assesses patients undergoing isolated heart valve surgery. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine patients recruited from the intervention arm of the trial. The intervention consisted of a physical training programme and a psycho-educational intervention. Participants were interviewed three times: 2-3 weeks, 3-4 months and 8-9 months after surgery between April 2013 and October 2014. Data were analysed using qualitative thematic analysis. Participants had diverse needs and preferences. Two overall themes emerged: cardiac rehabilitation played an important role in (i) reducing insecurity and (ii) helping participants to take active personal responsibility for their health. Despite these benefits, participants experienced existential and psychological challenges and musculoskeletal problems. Participants also sought additional advice from healthcare professionals both inside and outside the healthcare system. Even though the cardiac rehabilitation programme reduced insecurity and helped participants take active personal responsibility for their health, they experienced existential, psychological and physical challenges during recovery. The cardiac rehabilitation programme had several limitations, having implications for designing future programmes.
Mokhles, Mostafa M; Siregar, Sabrina; Versteegh, Michel I M; Noyez, Luc; van Putte, Bart; Vonk, Alexander B A; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W; Bogers, Ad J J C; Takkenberg, Johanna J M
The objective of this study was to compare male-female differences with respect to baseline characteristics and short-term outcome in a contemporary nationwide cohort of patients who underwent isolated mitral valve (MV) surgery. All patients [N = 3411; 58% males (N = 1977)] who underwent isolated MV surgery (replacement: N = 1048, 31%; reconstruction: N = 2364, 69%) in the Netherlands between January 2007 and December 2011 were included in this study. Differences in patient and procedural characteristics and in-hospital outcome were compared between male and female patients. Female patients were generally older (mean age, 64 vs 61 years, P < 0.001), presented more often with pulmonary hypertension (P = 0.03) and had higher logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) I (P < 0.001). Male patients presented more often with prior coronary artery bypass graft surgery (P < 0.001) and active endocarditis (P = 0.002). Female patients underwent MV replacement more often (P < 0.001) and, in case of replacement, received stented bioprostheses more often (P < 0.001). In-hospital mortality rates after MV replacement were 7% (n = 33) and 7% (n = 40) in male and female patients, respectively (OR 1.08, 95% CI 0.67-1.75; P = 0.75). In-hospital mortality rates after MV reconstruction were 1.4% (n = 21) and 1.3% (n = 11) in male and female patients, respectively (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.42-1.84; P = 0.74). There are substantial male-female differences in patient presentation and procedural aspects in isolated MV surgery in the Netherlands. Female patients are older, have more severe disease at the time of surgery and undergo valve repair less often. Future studies are needed to identify potentially modifiable patient factors to improve the outcome of female patients with MV disease. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.
Gomelsky, Alex; Penson, David F; Dmochowski, Roger R
What is known on the subject? and What does the study add? Substantial experience of the outcomes has been gathered regarding the acute and sub-acute experience with various types of corrective procedures for POP. These include long-term POP correction as well as more recent recognition of improvement in functional disorders associated with POP such as UI, colorectal dysfunction, and sexual dysfunction. Long-term follow-up is available for some of the older types of interventions and current multicentre trials are being accrued with longer term follow-up for new interventions including mesh-type repairs. The study adds a condensed and summarized version of the current literature regarding the various interventions for POP and also provides an overview of the current controversies and areas where knowledge is incomplete and in need of further elaboration for definitive answers regarding optimization of surgical care for POP. Our aim is to summarise the available data on the transvaginal placement of synthetic mesh for pelvic organ prolapse (POP) repair, with a focus on the outcomes and complications of commercial POP-repair kits. As the stability and durability of autologous tissues may be questionable, nonabsorbable, synthetic materials are an attractive alternative for providing additional support during POP surgery. These materials are not novel, and most have been used for many years in surgical applications, e.g. hernia repairs. While theoretically appealing, the implantation of synthetic mesh in the pelvis may be associated with inherent adverse consequences, such as erosion, extrusion, and infection. Additionally, the routine use of these materials may carry potential long-term complications, such as dyspareunia, chronic pelvic pain, and vaginal distortion. The success and failure of mesh-augmented POP repair is related not only to the synthetic material itself, but also to patient- and surgeon-related factors. Recent warnings by the USA Food and Drug
Rim, Yonghoon; Laing, Susan T; McPherson, David D; Kim, Hyunggun
Mitral valve (MV) repair using expanded polytetrafluoroethylene sutures is an established and preferred interventional method to resolve the complex pathophysiologic problems associated with chordal rupture. We developed a novel computational evaluation protocol to determine the effect of the artificial sutures on restoring MV function following valve repair. A virtual MV was created using three-dimensional echocardiographic data in a patient with ruptured mitral chordae tendineae (RMCT). Virtual repairs were designed by adding artificial sutures between the papillary muscles and the posterior leaflet where the native chordae were ruptured. Dynamic finite element simulations were performed to evaluate pre- and post-repair MV function. Abnormal posterior leaflet prolapse and mitral regurgitation was clearly demonstrated in the MV with ruptured chordae. Following virtual repair to reconstruct ruptured chordae, the severity of the posterior leaflet prolapse decreased and stress concentration was markedly reduced both in the leaflet tissue and the intact native chordae. Complete leaflet coaptation was restored when four or six sutures were utilized. Computational simulations provided quantitative information of functional improvement following MV repair. This novel simulation strategy may provide a powerful tool for evaluation and prediction of interventional treatment for RMCT.
Arkelyan, A.M.; Rickard, C.L.
A gate valve for controlling the flow of fluid in separate concentric ducts or channels by means of a single valve is described. In one position, the valve sealing discs engage opposed sets of concentric ducts leading to the concentric pipes defining the flow channels to block flow therethrough. In another position, the discs are withdrawn from engagement with the opposed ducts and at the same time a bridging section is interposed therebetween to define concentric paths coextensive with and connecting the opposed ducts to facilitate flow therebetween. A wedge block arrangement is employed with each sealing disc to enable it to engage the ducts. The wedge block arrangement also facilitates unobstructcd withdrawal of the discs out of the intervening space between the sets of ducts. (AEC)
A positive acting valve suitable for operation in a corrosive environment is provided. The valve includes a hollow valve body defining an open-ended bore for receiving two, axially aligned, spaced-apart, cylindrical inserts. One insert, designated the seat insert, terminates inside the valve body in an annular face which lies within plane normal to the axis of the two inserts. An elastomeric O-ring seal is disposed in a groove extending about the annular face. The other insert, designated the wedge insert, terminates inside the valve body in at least two surfaces oppositely inclined with respect to each other and with respect to a plane normal to the axis of the two inserts. An elongated reciprocable gate, movable between the two inserts along a path normal to the axis of the two inserts, has a first flat face portion disposed adjacent and parallel to the annular face of the seat insert. The gate has a second face portion opposite to the first face portion provided with at least two oppositely inclined surfaces for mating with respective inclined surfaces of the wedge insert. An opening is provided through the gate which registers with a flow passage through the two inserts when the valve is open. Interaction of the respective inclined surfaces of the gate and wedge insert act to force the first flat face portion of the gate against the O-ring seal in the seat insert at the limits of gate displacement where it reaches its respective fully open and fully closed positions.
Bikbov, M M; Babushkin, A E; Chaĭka, O V; Orenburkina, O I; Matiukhina, E N
Surgical results of 76 patients (76 eyes) aged 25-79 years with secondary refractory glaucoma were analyzed. The best hypotensive effect and visual functions integrity were achieved with Ahmed valve implantation (86.7% and 83.3% of cases respectively); after conventional fistulizing surgery the hypotensive effect was observed in 45.5%, noncompromised vision--in 54.5% of cases. Tunnel trabeculectomy with iridocycloretraction led to normalization of intraocular pressure and stabilization of visual functions in 81.3% and 68.8% of cases respectively and thus can be considered as an alternative to fistulizing surgery in patients with secondary refractory glaucoma. Uveal glaucoma is a relative contraindication to Ahmed valve implantation, while neovascular glaucoma is that to tunnel trabeculectomy with iridocycloretraction.
Kume, Yuta; Fujita, Tomoyuki; Fukushima, Satsuki; Shimahara, Yusuke; Matsumoto, Yorihiko; Yamashita, Kizuku; Kawamoto, Naonori; Kobayashi, Junjiro
The presence of cerebral haemorrhage (CH) preoperatively is a risk factor of in-hospital cerebrovascular complications post-valve surgery for acute infective endocarditis. However, factors related to cerebrovascular complications in the long term are poorly understood. We reviewed a series of these patients to investigate risk factors of in-hospital and long-term outcomes. An institutional series of 148 patients who underwent valve surgery for active infective endocarditis between 2000 and 2016 were enrolled. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on the presence of preoperative CH:CH group (n = 25) and non-CH group (n = 123). Of them, 14 (10%) patients were preoperatively diagnosed with mycotic aneurysm (MA). The 30-day mortality was 5% with no difference between the 2 groups. The 5-year survival rate was 92% in the CH group and 77% in the non-CH group. Freedom from CH at 5 years was 92% in the CH group and 97% in the non-CH group. There was no difference in the postoperative haemorrhage rate between patients who had surgery within 14 days from the onset of CH and those who had surgery after 14 days. Freedom from CH at 5 years was 99% in patients without MA and 71% in those with MA. The presence of MA preoperatively was the only independent risk factor of postoperative CH (P = 0.002). Valve surgery for acute infective endocarditis is safe, even in patients with CH preoperatively, regardless of the timing of surgery. Patients with intracranial MA are associated with postoperative CH in the hospital and long term.
Russell, E Anne; Tran, Lavinia; Baker, Robert A; Bennetts, Jayme S; Brown, Alex; Reid, Christopher M; Tam, Robert; Walsh, Warren F; Maguire, Graeme P
Globally, rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains an important cause of heart disease. In Australia it particularly affects younger Indigenous and older non-Indigenous Australians. Despite its impact there is limited understanding of the factors influencing outcome following surgery for RHD. The Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons Cardiac Surgery Database was analysed to assess outcomes following surgical procedures for RHD and non-RHD valvular disease. The association with demographics, co-morbidities, pre-operative status, valve(s) affected and operative procedure was evaluated. Outcome of 1384 RHD and 15843 non-RHD valve procedures was analysed. RHD patients had longer ventilation, experienced fewer strokes and had more readmissions to hospital and anticoagulant complications. Mortality following RHD surgery at 30 days was 3.1% (95% CI 2.2 - 4.3), 5 years 15.3% (11.7 - 19.5) and 10 years 25.0% (10.7 - 44.9). Mortality following non-RHD surgery at 30 days was 4.3% (95% CI 3.9 - 4.6), 5 years 17.6% (16.4 - 18.9) and 10 years 39.4% (33.0 - 46.1). Factors independently associated with poorer longer term survival following RHD surgery included older age (OR1.03/additional year, 95% CI 1.01 - 1.05), concomitant diabetes (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1 - 2.5) and chronic kidney disease (1.9, 1.2 - 2.9), longer invasive ventilation time (OR 1.7 if greater than median value, 1.1- 2.9) and prolonged stay in hospital (1.02/additional day, 1.01 - 1.03). Survival in Indigenous Australians was comparable to that seen in non-Indigenous Australians. In a large prospective cohort study we have demonstrated survival following RHD valve surgery in Australia is comparable to earlier studies. Patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease, were at particular risk of poorer long-term survival. Unlike earlier studies we did not find pre-existing atrial fibrillation, being an Indigenous Australian or the nature of the underlying valve lesion were independent
Ghidini, Filippo; Sekulovic, Sasa; Castagnetti, Marco
Decisional regret is defined as distress after making a health care choice and can be an issue for parents electing distal hypospadias repair for their sons. We assessed the influence on decisional regret of variables related to the family, surgery and outcomes. Charts for 372 patients undergoing primary distal hypospadias repair between 2005 and 2012 were reviewed, and validated questionnaires, including the Decisional Regret Scale, Pediatric Penile Perception Score and Dysfunctional Voiding and Incontinence Scoring System, were administered to parents. Data were available for 172 of 372 families (response rate 46.2%). Of 323 parents 128 (39.6%) presented with moderately strong decisional regret, with good agreement within couples. Predictors of decisional regret included intermediate parental educational level (OR 3.19, 95% CI 1.52-6.69), patient not being the first born (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.07-3.78), family history of hypospadias (OR 4.42, 95% CI 1.96-9.97), initial desire to avoid surgery (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.04-4.12), younger age at followup (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.72-0.91), presence of lower urinary tract symptoms (OR 4.92, 95% CI 1.53-15.81) and lower Pediatric Penile Perception Score (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.75-0.99). Decisional regret was unrelated to parental desire to avoid circumcision, surgical variables, development of complications and duration of followup. Decisional regret is a problem in a significant proportion of parents electing distal hypospadias repair for their sons. In our experience family variables seemed to be predictors of decisional regret, while surgical variables did not. Predictors of decisional regret included worse parental perception of penile appearance and the presence of lower urinary tract symptoms. However, the latter could be unrelated to surgery. Irrespective of the duration of followup, decisional regret seems decreased in parents of older patients. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc
Chen, Yuan-Hao; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Chiang, Yung-Hsiao; Ju, Da-Tong; Liu, Ming-Ying; Chen, Guann-Juh
Supraorbital keyhole surgery is a limited surgical procedure with reduced traumatic manipulation of tissue and entailing little time in the opening and closing of wounds. We utilized the approach to treat head injury patients complicated with optic nerve compression and cerebrospinal fluid leakage (CSF). Eleven cases of basal skull fracture complicated with either optic nerve compression and/or CSF leakage were surgically treated at our department from February 1995 to June 1999. Six cases had primary optic nerve compression, four had CSF leakage and one case involved both injuries. Supraorbital craniotomy was carried out using a keyhole-sized burr hole plus a small craniotomy. The size of craniotomy approximated 2 x 3 cm2. The optic nerve was decompressed via removal of the optic canal roof and anterior clinoid process with high-speed drills. The defect of dura was repaired with two pieces of tensa fascia lata that were attached on both sides of the torn dural defect with tissue glue. Seven cases with optic nerve injury included five cases of total blindness and two cases of light perception before operation. Vision improved in four cases. The CSF leakage was stopped successfully in all four cases without complication. As optic nerve compression and CSF leakage are skull base lesions, the supraorbital keyhole surgery constitutes a suitable approach. The supraorbital keyhole surgery allows for an anterior approach to the skull base. This approach also allows the treatment of both CSF leakage and optic nerve compression. Our results indicate that supraorbital keyhole operation is a safe and effective method for preserving or improving vision and attenuating CSF leakage following injury.
Du, Dongxing; Jiang, Song; Wang, Ze; Hu, Yingying; He, Zhaoming
Mitral valve (MV) edge-to-edge repair (ETER) is a surgical procedure for the correction of mitral valve regurgitation by suturing the free edge of the leaflets. The leaflets are often sutured at three different positions: central, lateral and commissural portions. To study the effects of position of suture on left ventricular (LV) fluid mechanics under mitral valve ETER, a parametric model of MV-LV system during diastole was developed. The distribution and development of vortex and atrio-ventricular pressure under different suture position were investigated. Results show that the MV sutured at central and lateral in ETER creates two vortex rings around two jets, compared with single vortex ring around one jet of the MV sutured at commissure. Smaller total orifices lead to a higher pressure difference across the atrio-ventricular leaflets in diastole. The central suture generates smaller wall shear stresses than the lateral suture, while the commissural suture generated the minimum wall shear stresses in ETER.
Liu, Xian-bao; Wang, Jian-an
Transcatheter valve implantation or repair has been a very promising approach for the treatment of valvular heart diseases since transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) was successfully performed in 2002. Great achievements have been made in this field (especially TAVI and transcatheter mitral valve repair—MitraClip system) in recent years. Evidence from clinical trials or registry studies has proved that transcatheter valve treatment for valvular heart diseases is safe and effective in surgical high-risk or inoperable patients. As the evidence accumulates, transcatheter valve treatment might be an alterative surgery for younger patients with surgically low or intermediate risk valvular heart diseases in the near future. In this paper, the updates on transcatheter valve treatment are reviewed. PMID:23897785
The cardiac valves are targets of both congenital and acquired diseases. The formation of valves during embryogenesis (i.e., valvulogenesis) originates from endocardial cells lining the myocardium. These cells undergo an endothelial-mesenchymal transition, proliferate and migrate within an extracellular matrix. This leads to the formation of bilateral cardiac cushions in both the atrioventricular canal and the outflow tract. The embryonic origin of both the endocardium and prospective valve cells is still elusive. Endocardial and myocardial lineages are segregated early during embryogenesis and such a cell fate decision can be recapitulated in vitro by embryonic stem cells (ESC). Besides genetically modified mice and ex vivo heart explants, ESCs provide a cellular model to study the early steps of valve development and might constitute a human therapeutic cell source for decellularized tissue-engineered valves. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Cardiac Pathways of Differentiation, Metabolism and Contraction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Demirkilic, U; Bolcal, C; Gunay, C; Doganci, S; Temizkan, V; Kuralay, E; Tatar, H
The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of thermocontrolled endocardial radiofrequency (RF) ablation for the patients with mitral valve disorder and associated chronic atrial fibrillation during mitral valve replacement operation. Between February 2002 and January 2004, 43 patients with mitral valve disease and associated chronic atrial fibrillation underwent mitral valve replacement and thermocontrolled endocardial RF ablation with Cobra RF system flexible probe at Gulhane Military Academy of Medicine, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery. Eighteen of the patients (41.8%) were males, while the remaining 25 (58.2%) were females. The average age of the patients was 44+/-14.21 (18-66) years. Functional capacity of the patients was class II in 15 (34. 9%), class III in 24 (55.8%), class IV in 4 (9.3%) according to the NYHA classification. At the preoperative period all of the patients were evaluated routinely by twelve-lead ECG, chest film and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). For the patients over 40 years of age, we performed additional coronary angiography to delineate any coronary lesions. The patients were evaluated at months 1, 3, 6 and annually by twelve-lead ECG, TTE and holter monitoring after discharge. There were not any complications related to the performed technique. No operative and hospital mortality were recorded. At the follow-up period for 35 of 43 patients (81.4%) sinus rhythm was restored. The mean follow-up time was 24.3+/-11.2 (12-35) months. Endocardial RF ablation especially during mitral valve surgery is a simple technique to be performed. Early and midterm results of the cohort are satisfying.
Hickey, Edward J; McCrindle, Brian W; Blackstone, Eugene H; Yeh, Thomas; Pigula, Frank; Clarke, David; Tchervenkov, Christo I; Hawkins, John
Limited availability and durability of allograft conduits require that alternatives be considered. We compared bovine jugular venous valved (JVV) and allograft conduit performance in 107 infants who survived truncus arteriosus repair. Children were prospectively recruited between 2003 and 2007 from 17 institutions. The median z-score for JVV (n=27, all 12 mm) was +2.1 (range +1.2 to +3.2) and allograft (n=80, 9-15mm) was +1.7 (range -0.4 to +3.6). Propensity-adjusted comparison of conduit survival was undertaken using parametric risk-hazard analysis and competing risks techniques. All available echocardiograms (n=745) were used to model deterioration of conduit function in regression equations adjusted for repeated measures. Overall conduit survival was 64+/-9% at 3 years. Conduit replacement was for conduit stenosis (n=16) and/or pulmonary artery stenosis (n=18) or regurgitation (n=1). The propensity-adjusted 3-year freedom from replacement for in-conduit stenosis was 96+/-4% for JVV and 69+/-8% for allograft (p=0.05). The risk of intervention or replacement for branch pulmonary artery stenosis was similar for JVV and allograft. Smaller conduit z-score predicted poor conduit performance (p<0.01) with best outcome between +1 and +3. Although JVV conduits were a uniform diameter, their z-score more consistently matched this ideal. JVV exhibited a non-significant trend towards slower progression of conduit regurgitation and peak right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) gradient. In addition, catheter intervention was more successful at slowing subsequent gradient progression in children with JVV versus those with allograft (p<0.01). JVV does match allograft performance and may be advantageous. It is an appropriate first choice for repair of truncus arteriosus, and perhaps other small infants requiring RVOT reconstruction.
Mantini, Cesare; Caulo, Massimo; Marinelli, Daniele; Chiacchiaretta, Piero; Tartaro, Armando; Cotroneo, Antonio Raffaele; Di Giammarco, Gabriele
To investigate and describe the distribution of aortic and cerebral blood flow (CBF) in patients with severe valvular aortic stenosis (AS) before and after aortic valve bypass (AVB) surgery. We enrolled 10 consecutive patients who underwent AVB surgery for severe AS. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) and brain magnetic resonance imaging were performed as baseline before surgery and twice after surgery. Quantitative flow measurements were obtained using 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner phase-contrast images of the ascending aorta, descending thoracic aorta (3 cm proximally and distally from the conduit-to-aorta anastomosis), and ventricular outflow portion of the conduit. The evaluation of CBF was performed using 3.0-T MRI scanner arterial spin labeling (ASL) through sequences acquired at the gray matter, dorsal default-mode network, and sensorimotor levels. Conduit flow, expressed as the percentage of total antegrade flow through the conduit, was 63.5 ± 8% and 67.8 ± 7% on early and mid-term postoperative CMR, respectively (P < .05). Retrograde perfusion from the level of the conduit insertion in the descending thoracic aorta toward the aortic arch accounted for 6.9% of total cardiac output and 11% of total conduit flow. We did not observe any significant reduction in left ventricular stroke volume at postoperative evaluation compared with preoperative evaluation (P = .435). No differences were observed between preoperative and postoperative CBF at the gray matter, dorsal default-mode network, and sensorimotor levels (P = .394). After AVB surgery in patients with severe AS, cardiac output is split between the native left ventricular outflow tract and the apico-aortic bypass, with two-thirds of the total antegrade flow passing through the latter and one-third passing through the former. In our experience, CBF assessment confirms that the flow redistribution does not jeopardize cerebral blood supply. Copyright © 2018 The
Li, Feng P; Rajchl, Martin; Moore, John; Peters, Terry M
To develop and validate a real-time mitral valve annulus (MVA) tracking approach based on biplane transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) data and magnetic tracking systems (MTS) to be used in minimally invasive off-pump beating heart mitral valve repair (MVR). The authors' guidance system consists of three major components: TEE, magnetic tracking system, and an image guidance software platform. TEE provides real-time intraoperative images to show the cardiac motion and intracardiac surgical tools. The magnetic tracking system tracks the TEE probe and the surgical tools. The software platform integrates the TEE image planes and the virtual model of the tools and the MVA model on the screen. The authors' MVA tracking approach, which aims to update the MVA model in near real-time, comprises of three steps: image based gating, predictive reinitialization, and registration based MVA tracking. The image based gating step uses a small patch centered at each MVA point in the TEE images to identify images at optimal cardiac phases for updating the position of the MVA. The predictive reinitialization step uses the position and orientation of the TEE probe provided by the magnetic tracking system to predict the position of the MVA points in the TEE images and uses them for the initialization of the registration component. The registration based MVA tracking step aims to locate the MVA points in the images selected by the image based gating component by performing image based registration. The validation of the MVA tracking approach was performed in a phantom study and a retrospective study on porcine data. In the phantom study, controlled translations were applied to the phantom and the tracked MVA was compared to its "true" position estimated based on a magnetic sensor attached to the phantom. The MVA tracking accuracy was 1.29 ± 0.58 mm when the translation distance is about 1 cm, and increased to 2.85 ± 1.19 mm when the translation distance is about 3 cm. In the study on
Bouma, Wobbe; Wijdh-den Hamer, Inez J; Koene, Bart M; Kuijpers, Michiel; Natour, Ehsan; Erasmus, Michiel E; van der Horst, Iwan C C; Gorman, Joseph H; Gorman, Robert C; Mariani, Massimo A
Papillary muscle rupture (PMR) is a rare, but often life-threatening mechanical complication of myocardial infarction (MI). Immediate surgical intervention is considered the optimal and most rational treatment for acute PMR, but carries high risks. At this point it is not entirely clear which patients are at highest risk. In this study we sought to determine in-hospital mortality and its predictors for patients who underwent mitral valve surgery for post-MI PMR. Between January 1990 and December 2012, 48 consecutive patients (mean age 64.9 ± 10.8 years) underwent mitral valve repair (n = 10) or replacement (n = 38) for post-MI PMR. Clinical data, echocardiographic data, catheterization data, and surgical reports were reviewed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of in-hospital mortality. Intraoperative mortality was 4.2% and in-hospital mortality was 25.0%. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed the logistic EuroSCORE and EuroSCORE II as independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. Receiver operating characteristics curves showed an optimal cutoff value of 40% for the logistic EuroSCORE (area under the curve 0.85, 95% CI 0.71-1.00, P < 0.001) and of 25% for the EuroSCORE II (area under the curve 0.83, 95% CI 0.68-0.99, P = 0.001). After removal of the EuroSCOREs from the model, complete PMR and intraoperative intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) requirement were independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. The logistic EuroSCORE (optimal cutoff ≥ 40%), EuroSCORE II (optimal cutoff ≥ 25%), complete PMR, and intraoperative IABP requirement are strong independent predictors of in-hospital mortality in patients undergoing mitral valve surgery for post-MI PMR. These predictors may aid in surgical decision making and they may help improve the quality of informed consent.
Benfatti, Ricardo Ádala; Carli, Amanda Ferreira; Silva, Guilherme Viotto Rodrigues da; Dias, Amaury Edgardo Mont'serrat Ávila Souza; Goldiano, José Anderson; Pontes, José Carlos Dorsa Vieira
The epsilon aminocaproic acid is an antifibrinolytic used in cardiovascular surgery to inhibit the fibrinolysis and to reduce the bleeding after CPB. [corrected] To analyze the influence of the using of epsilon aminocaproic acid in the bleeding and in red-cell transfusion requirement in the first twenty-four hours postoperative of mitral valve surgery. Prospective studying, forty-two patients, randomized and divided in two equal groups: group #1 control and group #2--epsilon aminocaproic acid. In Group II were infused five grams of EACA in the induction of anesthesia, after full heparinization, CPB perfusate after reversal of heparin and one hour after the surgery, totaling 25 grams. In group I, saline solution was infused only in those moments. Group #1 showed average bleeding volume of 633.57 ± 305,7 ml, and Group #2, an average of 308.81 ± 210.1 ml, with significant statistic difference (P = 0.0003). Average volume of red-cell transfusion requirement in Groups 1 and 2 was, respectively, 942.86 ± 345.79 ml and 214.29 ± 330.58 ml, with significant difference (P < 0.0001). The epsilon aminocaproic acid was able to reduce the bleeding volume and the red-cell transfusion requirement in the immediate postoperative of patients submitted to mitral valve surgery.
Hausleiter, Jörg; Braun, Daniel; Orban, Mathias; Latib, Azeem; Lurz, Philipp; Boekstegers, Peter; von Bardeleben, Ralph Stephan; Kowalski, Marek; Hahn, Rebecca T; Maisano, Francesco; Hagl, Christian; Massberg, Steffen; Nabauer, Michael
Severe tricuspid regurgitation (TR) has long been neglected despite its well known association with mortality. While surgical mortality rates remain high in isolated tricuspid valve surgery, interventional TR repair is rapidly evolving as an alternative to cardiac surgery in selected patients at high surgical risk. Currently, interventional edge-to-edge repair is the most frequently applied technique for TR repair even though the device has not been developed for this particular indication. Due to the inherent differences in tricuspid and mitral valve anatomy and pathology, percutaneous repair of the tricuspid valve is challenging due to a variety of factors including the complexity and variability of tricuspid valve anatomy, echocardiographic visibility of the valve leaflets, and device steering to the tricuspid valve. Furthermore, it remains to be clarified which patients are suitable for a percutaneous tricuspid repair and which features predict a successful procedure. On the basis of the available experience, we describe criteria for patient selection including morphological valve features, a standardized process for echocardiographic screening, and a strategy for clip placement. These criteria will help to achieve standardization of valve assessment and the procedural approach, and to further develop interventional tricuspid valve repair using either currently available devices or dedicated tricuspid edge-to-edge repair devices in the future. In summary, this manuscript will provide guidance for patient selection and echocardiographic screening when considering edge-to-edge repair for severe TR.
Carev, Mladen; Bulat, Cristijan; Karanović, Nenad; Lojpur, Mihajlo; Jercić, Antonio; Nenadić, Denis; Marovih, Zlatko; Husedzinović, Ino; Letica, Dalibor
Secondary pulmonary hypertension is a frequent condition after heart valve surgery. It may significantly complicate the perioperative management and increase patients' morbidity and mortality. The treatment has not been yet completely defined principally because of lack of the selectivity of drugs for the pulmonary vasculature. The usage of inhaled milrinone could be the possible therapeutic option. Inodilator milrinone is commonly used intravenously for patients with pulmonary hypertension and ventricular dysfunction in cardiac surgery. The decrease in systemic vascular resistance frequently necessitates concomitant use of norepinephrine. Pulmonary vasodilators might be more effective and also devoid of potentially dangerous systemic side effects if applied by inhalation, thus acting predominantly on pulmonary circulation. There are only few reports of inhaled milrinone usage in adult post cardiac surgical patients. We reported 2 patients with severe pulmonary hypertension after valve surgery. Because of desperate clinical situation, we decided to use the combination of inhaled and intravenous milrinone. Inhaled milrinone was delivered by means of pneumatic medication nebulizer dissolved with saline in final concentration of 0.5 mg/ml. The nebulizer was attached to the inspiratory limb of the ventilator circuit, just before the Y-piece. We obtained satisfactory reduction in mean pulmonary artery pressure in both patients, and they were successfully extubated and discharged. Although it is a very small sample of patients, we conclude that the combination of inhaled and intravenous milrinone could be an effective treatment of secondary pulmonary hypertension in high-risk cardiac valve surgery patient. The exact indications for inhaled milrinone usage, optimal concentrations for this route, and the beginning and duration of treatment are yet to be determined.
Aydin, Ebuzer; Arslan, Akin; Ozkokeli, Mehmet
Objective In this study, we aimed to compare clinical outcomes of superior transseptal approach with the conventional left atriotomy in patients undergoing mitral valve surgery. Methods Between January 2010 and November 2012, a total of 91 consecutive adult patients (39 males, 52 females; mean age: 54.0±15.4 years; range, 16 to 82 years) who underwent mitral valve surgery in the Division of Cardiovascular Surgery at Koşuyolu Training Hospital were included. The patients were randomized to either superior transseptal approach (n=47) or conventional left atriotomy (n=44). Demographic characteristics of the patients, comorbidities, additional interventions, intraoperational data, pre- and postoperative electrophysiological study findings, and postoperative complications were recorded. Results Of all patients, 86.7% (n=79) were in New York Heart Association Class III, while 12 were in New York Heart Association Class IV. All patients underwent annuloplasty (42.9%) or valve replacement surgery (57.1%). There was no significant difference in pre- and postoperative electrocardiogram findings between the groups. Change from baseline in the cardiac rhythm was statistically significant in superior transseptal approach group alone (P<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in mortality rate between the groups. Permanent pacemaker implantation was performed in 10.6% of the patients in superior transseptal approach group and 4.5% in the conventional left atriotomy group. No statistically significant difference in bleeding, total length of hospital and intensive care unit stay, the presence of low cardiac output syndrome was observed between the groups. Conclusion Our study results suggest that superior transseptal approach does not lead to serious or fatal adverse effects on sinus node function or atrial vulnerability, compared to conventional approach. PMID:25372911
Yussra, Y; Sutton, P A; Kosai, N R; Razman, J; Mishra, R K; Harunarashid, H; Das, S
Inguinal hernia remains the most commonly encountered surgical problem. Various methods of repair have been described, and the most suitable one debated. Single port access (SPA) surgery is a rapidly evolving field, and has the advantage of affording 'scarless' surgery. Single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) for inguinal hernia repair is seen to be feasible in both total extraperitoneal (TEP) and transabdominal pre-peritoneal (TAPP) approaches. Data and peri-operative information on both of these however are limited. We aimed to review the clinical experience, feasibility and short term complications related to laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair via single port access. A literature search was performed using Google Scholar, Springerlink Library, Highwire Press, Surgical Endoscopy Journal, World Journal of Surgery and Medscape. The following search terms were used: laparoscopic hernia repair, TAPP, TEP, single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS). Fourteen articles in English language related to SILS inguinal hernia repair were identified. Nine articles were related to TEP repair and the remaining 5 to TAPP. A total of 340 patients were reported within these studies: 294 patients having a TEP repair and 46 a TAPP. Only two cases of recurrence were reported. Various ports have been utilized, including the SILS port, Tri-Port and a custom- made port using conventional laparoscopic instruments. The duration of surgery was 40-100 minutes and the average length of hospital stay was one day. Early outcomes of this novel technique show it to be feasible, safe and with potentially better cosmetic outcome.
Bikbov, Mukharram Mukhtaramovich
ABSTRACT The treatment of refractory glaucoma (RG) is challenging. The commonly adopted strategy in RG treatment is a glaucoma drainage device (GDD) implantation, which despite its radical nature may not always provide the desired intraocular pressure (IOP) levels for a long term. This review is based on the scientific literature on Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation for refractory glaucoma. The technique of AGV implantation is described and data for both the types, FP7 and FP8 performance are presented. The outcome with adjunct antimetabolite and anti-VEGF drugs are also highlighted. An insight is given about experimental and histological examinations of the filtering bleb encapsulation. The article also describes various complications and measures to prevent them. How to cite this article: Bikbov MM, Khusnitdinov II. The Results of the Use of Ahmed Valve in Refractory Glaucoma Surgery. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2015;9(3):86-91. PMID:26997843
McClure, R Scott; Cohn, Lawrence H; Wiegerinck, Esther; Couper, Gregory S; Aranki, Sary F; Bolman, R Morton; Davidson, Michael J; Chen, Frederick Y
This study analyzes a single institution experience with minimally invasive mitral valve repair and evaluates long-term surgical outcomes of morbidity, mortality, and rates of reoperation. Late follow-up of mitral regurgitation and left ventricular function were also assessed. Between August 1996 and October 2007, minimally invasive mitral valve repair was performed in 713 patients (mean follow-up 5.7 years). Excluding 6 repairs with robotic assistance, an perspective analysis of the remaining 707 patients was carried forth. Mean age was 57 +/- 13 years. Mean preoperative ejection fraction was 60% +/- 10%. Surgical access was through a lower ministernotomy (74%), right parasternal incision (24%), right thoracotomy (1.4%), or upper ministernotomy (0.7%). Exposure of the mitral valve was through the left atrium in 58% of the cases and transeptal in 42%. A ring annuloplasty was incorporated into 680 (96%) of 707 repairs. The Kaplan-Meier and Student t test for paired samples were used for statistical analysis. There were 3 (0.4%) operative deaths. Perioperative morbidity included new-onset atrial fibrillation (20%), reoperation for bleeding (2%), stroke (1.9%), permanent pacemaker implantation (1.7%), deep sternal wound infection (0.7%), and aortic dissection (0.4%). Median hospital stay was 5 days. Only 31% of patients required blood transfusion during the hospital course. There were 49 (6.9%) late deaths and 34 (4.8%) failed repairs necessitating reoperation. At 11.2 years, survival was 83% (95% confidence intervals, 76.5-88.1); freedom from reoperation was 92% (95% confidence intervals, 86.2-94.9). Nine (1.3%) patients were lost to follow-up. A total of 2369 patient-years of echocardiography time were obtained in 544 patients (mean 4.36 years, range 0.47-11.09). Mean grade of mitral regurgitation decreased from 3.80 to 1.42 (P < .0001) Mean left ventricular ejection fraction decreased from 60.7% to 56.3% (P < .0001). Combined risk of death, reoperation, and
Wróbel, Krzysztof; Kurnicka, Katarzyna; Zygier, Marcin; Dyk, Wojciech; Wojdyga, Ryszard; Zieliński, Dariusz; Jarzębska, Małgorzata; Juraszyński, Zbigniew; Lichodziejewska, Barbara; Pruszczyk, Piotr; Biederman, Andrzej; Speziali, Giovanni; Kasten, Uwe
Artificial chord implantation to repair a flail or prolapsing mitral valve leaflet requires open heart surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass. Transapical off-pump artificial chordae implantation is a new surgical technique proposed to treat degenerative mitral valve regurgitation. The procedure is performed using the NeoChord DS1000 system (NeoChord, Inc., St. Louis Park, MN, USA), which facilitates both implantation and lenght adjustment of the artificial chordae under two (2D)- and three (3D)-dimensional transoesophageal echocardiographic (TEE) guidance on a beating heart. Two male patients aged 60 and 55 years with severe mitral regurgitation due to posterior leaflet prolapse underwent transapical off-pump artificial chordae implantation on September 3, 2015. The procedure was performed by left minithoracotomy under general anaesthesia in a cardiac surgical theatre, using 2D and 3D TEE guidance. Early procedural success as confirmed by 3D TEE was achieved in both patients, with implantation of 6 artificial chordae in the first patient and 3 artificial chordae in the second patient. Both procedures were uneventful, and no postoperative complications were noted. The patients were discharged home on the 8th and 6th postoperative day, respectively. The NeoChord DS1000 system allows both implantation and lenght adjustment of artificial chordae under 2D and 3D TEE guidance on a beating heart. Our initial experience in 2 patients with posterior mitral leaflet prolapse indicates that the procedure is feasible and safe.
Baril, Donald T; Jacobs, Tikva S; Marin, Michael L
Despite improvements in diagnostic and therapeutic methods and an increased awareness of their clinical significance, abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) continue to be a major source of morbidity and mortality. Endovascular repair of AAAs, initially described in 1990, offers a less-invasive alternative to conventional open repair. The technology and devices used for endovascular repair of AAAs have progressed rapidly and the approach has proven to be safe and effective in short to midterm investigations. Furthermore, several large trials have demonstrated that elective endovascular repair is associated with lower perioperative morbidity and mortality than open repair. The long-term benefits of endovascular repair relative to open repair, however, continue to be studied. In addition to elective repair, the use of endovascular repair for ruptured AAAs has been increasing, and has been shown to be associated with reduced perioperative morbidity and mortality. Advances in endovascular repair of AAAs, including the development of branched and fenestrated grafts and the use of implantable devices to measure aneurysm-sac pressures following stent-graft deployment, have further broadened the application of the technique and have enhanced postoperative monitoring. Despite these advances, endovascular repair of AAAs remains a relatively novel technique, and further long-term data need to be collected.
Ouda, Ahmed; Matschke, Klaus; Ghazy, Tamer; Speiser, Uwe; Alexiou, Konstantin; Tugtekin, Sems-Malte; Schoen, Steffen; Kappert, Utz
The study aim was to assess the impact of reducing the right ventricular (RV) cavity in order to optimize the outcome of tricuspid valve (TV) repair in cases of functional tricuspid regurgitation (FTR) with dilated right ventricle. Between May 2007 and February 2010, a total of 17 patients (six males, 11 females; mean age 69.5 +/- 10.1 years; mean logistic EuroSCORE 24 +/- 13%) with severe FTR and severe RV dilation were included. Echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed for geometric assessment of the right ventricle. Intraoperatively, the lateral RV free wall was plicated to reduce the RV cavum to approximate the papillary muscles and decrease tethering of the TV; a conventional ring annuloplasty was then performed. Follow up included echocardiography and MRI at one month and one year postoperatively. The mean operative time was 157 +/- 30 min, and the cross-clamp time 63 13 min. Postoperatively, the mean bleeding volume was 486 +/- 455 ml, the rethoracotomy rate 5.9%, intensive therapy unit (ITU) stay 6.0 +/- 4.4 days, and hospital stay 19.0 +/- 8.8 days. In-hospital mortality was 17.6%. The mean follow up was 14.4 +/- 2.4 months. The one-year follow up revealed a survival of 82.3%, a slight decrease in RV ejection fraction (from 33.5 +/- 4.2% to 31.7 +/- 5.7%; p = 0.13), a significant reduction in the RV end-diastolic volume index (from 160 +/- 15.6 to 128 +/- 10 ml/m2; p = 0.0001), a reduction in TV tenting area (from 3.3 +/- 0.9 to 0.9 +/- 0.3 cm2; p = 0.0001), and a significant reduction in the ratio of TR jet to right atrial surface area (from 54.8 +/- 8.2% to 14.1 +/- 3.5%; p = 0.0001). In cases of FTR, RV dilation may be considered as a correctable factor at subvalvular level to optimize the outcome of TV repair.
Schueler, Robert; Kaplan, Sarah; Melzer, Charlotte; Öztürk, Can; Weber, Marcel; Sinning, Jan-Malte; Welz, Armin; Werner, Nikos; Nickenig, Georg; Hammerstingl, Christoph
The acute and long-term effects of interventional edge-to-edge repair on the mitral valve (MV) geometry are unclear. We sought to assess MV-annular geometry and the association of changes in MV-diameters with functional response one year after MitraClip implantation. Consecutive patients (n=84; age 81.2±8.3years, logistic EuroSCORE 21.7±17.9%) with symptomatic moderate-to-severe mitral regurgitation (MR) underwent MitraClip-procedure. MV-annular geometry was assessed with 3D TOE before, immediately and one year after clip implantation. 96.7% of secondary mitral regurgitation (SMR) patients presented with moderate-to-severe MR, 3.3% with severe SMR, respectively. 66.7% of primary MR (PMR) patients had moderate-to-severe MR, and 33.3% severe PMR respectively. When analyzing immediate effects of MitraClipC on mitral geometry, only patients with SMR (n=60, 71.4%) experienced significant reductions of the diastolic MV anterior-posterior diameters (AP: 3.9±0.5cm, 3.5±0.7cm; p<0.001), and annulus-areas (2D: 12.9±3.8cm2, 12.6±3.7cm2; p<0.001; 3D: 13.4±3.8, 13.1±3.2cm2; p<0.001). All measures on MV annular geometry were not significantly altered in patients with PMR (p>0.05). After one year of follow-up, MV annular parameters remained significantly reduced in SMR patients (p<0.05) and remained unchanged in subjects with PMR (p>0.05). Only SMR patients experienced significant increase in 6min walking distances (p=0.004), decrease in pulmonary pressures (p=0.007) and functional NYHA-class (p<0.001); in patients with PMR only NYHA class improved after one year (p<0.001). Edge-to-edge repair with the MitraClip-system impacts on MV-geometry in patients with SMR with stable results after 12months. Reduction of MV-annular dimensions was associated with higher rates of persisting MR reduction and better functional status in patients with SMR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Borgarelli, M; Lanz, O; Pavlisko, N; Abbott, J A; Menciotti, G; Aherne, M; Lahmers, S M; Lahmers, K K; Gammie, J S
Mitral valve (MV) regurgitation due to degenerative MV disease is the leading cause of cardiac death in dogs. We carried out preliminary experiments to determine the feasibility and short-term effects of beating-heart MV repair using an expanded polytetrafluorethylene (ePTFE) chordal implantation device (Harpoon TSD-5) in dogs. This study involved six healthy purpose-bred Beagles (weight range 8.9-11.4 kg). Following a mini-thoracotomy performed under general anesthesia, the TSD-5 was used to place 1 or 2 artificial ePTFE cords on the anterior MV leaflet or the posterior MV leaflet via a left-ventricular transapical approach. The procedure was guided and monitored by transesophageal echocardiography. Postoperative antithrombotic treatment consisted of clopidogrel or a combination of clopidogrel and apixaban. Dogs were serially evaluated by transthoracic echocardiography at day 1, 7, 14, 21, and 30. The hearts were then examined for evaluation of tissues reactions and to detect signs of endothelialization. One or two chords were successfully implanted in five dogs. Four dogs completed the 30 days follow-up. One dog died intra-operatively because of aortic perforation. One dog died early post-operatively from a hemorrhagic pleural effusion attributed to overly aggressive antithrombotic treatment. One dog developed a thrombus surrounding both the knot and the synthetic cord. Postmortem exam confirmed secure placement of ePTFE knots in the mitral leaflets in all dogs and the presence of endothelialization of the knots and chords. These preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of artificial chordal placement using an ePTFE cordal implantation device in dogs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sachithanandan, Anand; Nanjaiah, Prakash; Wright, Christine J; Rooney, Stephen J
Homozygous sickle cell disease (SCD) presents a multitude of challenges in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Special consideration must be made in such patients and routine practice modified to prevent hypoxia, hypothermia, acidaemia and low-flow states which may potentially trigger a fatal sickling crisis perioperatively. We discuss several perioperative management strategies including a preoperative exchange transfusion, high flow normothermic bypass and warm blood cardioplegia that was utilized in a woman with homozygous SCD who underwent a successful double valve procedure.
Wang, Chong; Zhang, Guan-xin; Zhang, Hao; Lu, Fang-lin; Li, Bai-ling; Xu, Ji-bin; Han, Lin; Xu, Zhi-yun
The aim of this study was to develop a preoperative risk prediction model and an scorecard for prolonged intensive care unit length of stay (PrlICULOS) in adult patients undergoing heart valve surgery. This is a retrospective observational study of collected data on 3925 consecutive patients older than 18 years, who had undergone heart valve surgery between January 2000 and December 2010. Data were randomly split into a development dataset (n=2401) and a validation dataset (n=1524). A multivariate logistic regression analysis was undertaken using the development dataset to identify independent risk factors for PrlICULOS. Performance of the model was then assessed by observed and expected rates of PrlICULOS on the development and validation dataset. Model calibration and discriminatory ability were analysed by the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistic and the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, respectively. There were 491 patients that required PrlICULOS (12.5%). Preoperative independent predictors of PrlICULOS are shown with odds ratio as follows: (1) age, 1.4; (2) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 1.8; (3) atrial fibrillation, 1.4; (4) left bundle branch block, 2.7; (5) ejection fraction, 1.4; (6) left ventricle weight, 1.5; (7) New York Heart Association class III-IV, 1.8; (8) critical preoperative state, 2.0; (9) perivalvular leakage, 6.4; (10) tricuspid valve replacement, 3.8; (11) concurrent CABG, 2.8; and (12) concurrent other cardiac surgery, 1.8. The Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistic was not statistically significant in both development and validation dataset (P=0.365 vs P=0.310). The ROC curve for the prediction of PrlICULOS in development and validation dataset was 0.717 and 0.700, respectively. We developed and validated a local risk prediction model for PrlICULOS after adult heart valve surgery. This model can be used to calculate patient-specific risk with an equivalent predicted risk at our centre in
Lazzeroni, Davide; Bini, Matteo; Camaiora, Umberto; Castiglioni, Paolo; Moderato, Luca; Bosi, Davide; Geroldi, Simone; Ugolotti, Pietro T; Brambilla, Lorenzo; Brambilla, Valerio; Coruzzi, Paolo
Background High levels of serum uric acid have been associated with adverse outcomes in cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction and heart failure. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the prognostic role of serum uric acid levels in patients undergoing cardiac rehabilitation after myocardial revascularization and/or cardiac valve surgery. Design We performed an observational prospective cohort study. Methods The study included 1440 patients with available serum uric acid levels, prospectively followed for 50 ± 17 months. Mean age was 67 ± 11 years; 781 patients (54%) underwent myocardial revascularization, 474 (33%) cardiac valve surgery and 185 (13%) valve-plus-coronary artery by-pass graft surgery. The primary endpoints were overall and cardiovascular mortality while secondary end-points were combined major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events. Results Serum uric acid level mean values were 286 ± 95 µmol/l and elevated serum uric acid levels (≥360 µmol/l or 6 mg/dl) were found in 275 patients (19%). Overall mortality (hazard ratio = 2.1; 95% confidence interval: 1.5-3.0; p < 0.001), cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio = 2.0; 95% confidence interval: 1.2-3.2; p = 0.004) and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events rate (hazard ratio = 1.5; 95% confidence interval: 1.0-2.0; p = 0.019) were significantly higher in patients with elevated serum uric acid levels, even after adjustment for age, gender, arterial hypertension, diabetes, glomerular filtration rate, atrial fibrillation and medical therapy. Moreover, strong positive correlations between serum uric acid level and probability of overall mortality ( p < 0.001), cardiovascular mortality ( p < 0.001) and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events ( p = 0.003) were found. Conclusions Serum uric acid levels predict mortality and adverse cardiovascular outcome in patients undergoing myocardial revascularization
Extended use of percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair beyond EVEREST (Endovascular Valve Edge-to-Edge Repair) criteria: 30-day and 12-month clinical and echocardiographic outcomes from the GRASP (Getting Reduction of Mitral Insufficiency by Percutaneous Clip Implantation) registry.
Attizzani, Guilherme F; Ohno, Yohei; Capodanno, Davide; Cannata, Stefano; Dipasqua, Fabio; Immé, Sebastiano; Mangiafico, Sarah; Barbanti, Marco; Ministeri, Margherita; Cageggi, Anna; Pistritto, Anna Maria; Giaquinta, Sandra; Farruggio, Silvia; Chiarandà, Marta; Ronsivalle, Giuseppe; Schnell, Audrey; Scandura, Salvatore; Tamburino, Corrado; Capranzano, Piera; Grasso, Carmelo
This study sought to compare, in high-risk patients with 3+ to 4+ mitral regurgitation (MR) dichotomized by baseline echocardiographic features, acute, 30-day, and 12-month outcomes following percutaneous mitral valve repair using the MitraClip. The feasibility and mid-term outcomes after MitraClip implantation in patients with echocardiographic features different from the EVEREST (Endovascular Valve Edge-to-Edge Repair) I and II trials have been scarcely studied. Clinical and echocardiographic outcomes through 12-month follow-up of consecutive patients who underwent MitraClip implantation were obtained from an ongoing prospective registry. Two different groups, divided according to baseline echocardiographic criteria (investigational group [EVERESTOFF] and control group [EVERESTON]), were compared. Seventy-eight patients were included in EVERESTOFF and 93 patients in EVERESTON groups. Important and comparable acute reductions in MR and no clip-related complications were revealed. The primary safety endpoint at 30 days was comparable between groups (2.6% vs. 6.5%, respectively, p = 0.204); in addition, MR reduction was mostly sustained, whereas equivalent improvement in New York Heart Association functional class were demonstrated. Kaplan-Meier freedom from death, surgery for mitral valve dysfunction, or grade ≥3+ MR at 12 months was demonstrated in 71.4% and 76.2%, respectively, in the EVERESTOFF and EVERESTON groups (log rank p = 0.378). Significant improvements in ejection fraction and reduction in left ventricle volumes were demonstrated in both groups over time, but the baseline between-group differences were sustained. MitraClip implantation in patients with expanded baseline echocardiographic features, compared with the control group, was associated with similar rates of safety and efficacy through 12-month follow-up. Further validation of our findings is warranted. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All
Kasahara, Hirofumi; Kudo, Mikihiko; Kawajiri, Hiroyuki; Yozu, Ryohei
We report on a successful tricuspid valve plasty using port-access minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS) for severe traumatic tricuspid insufficiency caused by blunt chest trauma suffered 15 years previously. A combination repair procedure, consisting of cleft closures, plication of the anteroseptal commissure, and ring annuloplasty, was necessary to achieve valve competence and proved possible via port access without difficulty. Port-access MICS is an alternative approach for tricuspid valve surgery.
Taylor, Samuel A; Degen, Ryan M; White, Alexander E; McCarthy, Moira M; Gulotta, Lawrence V; O'Brien, Stephen J; Werner, Brian C
Data regarding risk factors for revision surgery after superior labral anterior-posterior (SLAP) repair are limited to institutional series. To define risk factors for revision surgery after SLAP repair among patients in a large national database. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. A national insurance database was queried for patients undergoing arthroscopic SLAP repair (Current Procedural Terminology [CPT] code 29807) for the diagnosis of a SLAP tear. Patients without a CPT modifier for laterality were excluded. Revision surgery was defined as (1) subsequent ipsilateral SLAP repair (CPT 29807), (2) ipsilateral arthroscopic debridement for the diagnosis of a SLAP tear (CPT 29822 or 29823, with diagnosis code 840.7), (3) subsequent ipsilateral arthroscopic biceps tenodesis (CPT 29828), (4) subsequent ipsilateral open biceps tenodesis (CPT 23430), and (5) subsequent biceps tenotomy (CPT 23405). Multivariable binomial logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors for revision surgery after SLAP repair, including patient demographics/comorbidities, concomitant diagnoses, and concomitant procedures performed. Odds ratios (ORs), 95% CIs, and P values were calculated. The estimated financial impact of revision surgery was also calculated. There were 4751 patients who met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Overall, 121 patients (2.5%) required revision surgery after SLAP repair. Regression analysis identified numerous risk factors for revision surgery, including age >40 years (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2-1.8; P = .045), female sex (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.3-1.8; P = .010), obesity (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.5-2.2; P = .001), smoking (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.6-2.4; P < .0001), and diagnosis of biceps tendinitis (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 3.0-4.2; P < .0001) or long head of the biceps tearing (OR, 5.1; 95% CI, 4.1-6.3; P < .0001) at or before the time of surgery. Concomitant rotator cuff repair and distal clavicle excision were not significant risk factors for revision surgery
Yoshimura, Y; Okumoto, T; Iijima, Y; Inoue, Y
Nasal growth after cleft lip surgery with or without primary nasal repair was evaluated using lateral cephalograms. In 14 patients who underwent simultaneous nasal repair with primary cleft lip repair and 12 patients without simultaneous nasal repair, lateral cephalograms were obtained at 5 and 10 years of age. Lateral cephalograms of normal Japanese children were used as a control. At 5 years of age, there were significant differences in the nasal height and columellar angle among the three groups. Children without simultaneous nasal repair had shorter noses with more upward tilt of the columella compared with the controls, while children with simultaneous nasal repair had much shorter noses and more upward tilt than those without repair. At 10 years of age, the children without simultaneous nasal repair showed no differences from the control group, while those with simultaneous repair still had shorter noses and more upward tilt of the columella. These findings suggest that performing nasal repair at the same time as primary cleft lip surgery has an adverse influence on the subsequent growth of the nose. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hosseini, Jalil; Kaviani, Ali; Mohammadhosseini, Mojtaba; Rezaei, Alireza; Rezaei, Iraj; Javanmard, Babak
The aim of this study was to evaluate the success rate of urethrocutaneous fistula repair using buccal mucosal graft in patients with a previous hypospadias repair. We reviewed records of our patients with urethrocutaneous fistula developed after hypospadias repair in whom buccal mucosal graft fistula repair had been performed. All of the patients had been followed up for 24 postoperative months. A successful surgical operation was defined as no fistula recurrence or urethral stricture. Retrograde urethrography and urethrocystoscopy would be performed in patients who had any history of decreased force and caliber of urine or any difficulty in urination. Fistula repair using buccal mucosa patch graft had been done in 14 children with urethrocutaneous fistula developing after hypospadias reconstruction. The mean age of the children was 8.70 +/- 1.99 years old (range, 4 to 11 years). Seven fistulas were in the midshaft, 4 were in the penoscrotal region, and 3 were in the coronal region. Repair of the fistulas was successful in 11 of 14 patients (78.6%). In the remaining children, the diameter of the fistula was smaller than that before the operation, offering a good opportunity for subsequent closure. Our findings showed that fistula repair using buccal mucosal graft can be one of the acceptable techniques for repairing fistulas developed after hypospadias repair.
Mohd Alkaf, A L; Simon, V; Taweesak, C; Abdul Rahman, I
Barlow's disease has a complex pathology requiring reconstructive surgery. Despite the complicated surgery it holds a positive outcome. We report a successful case of Barlow's disease who underwent mitral valve reconstructive surgery at our centre. Post-operative echocardiography shows a well-functioning repaired mitral valve without significant mitral regurgitation.
Kuppahally, Suman S; Paloma, Allan; Craig Miller, D; Schnittger, Ingela; Liang, David
A novel multiplanar reformatting (MPR) technique in three-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (3D TTE) was used to precisely localize the prolapsed lateral segment of posterior mitral valve leaflet in a patient symptomatic with mitral valve prolapse (MVP) and moderate mitral regurgitation (MR) before undergoing mitral valve repair surgery. Transesophageal echocardiography was avoided based on the findings of this new technique by 3D TTE. It was noninvasive, quick, reproducible and reliable. Also, it did not need the time-consuming reconstruction of multiple cardiac images. Mitral valve repair surgery was subsequently performed based on the MPR findings and corroborated the findings from the MPR examination.
Update to the study protocol, including statistical analysis plan for a randomized clinical trial comparing comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation after heart valve surgery with control: the CopenHeartVR trial.
Sibilitz, Kirstine Laerum; Berg, Selina Kikkenborg; Hansen, Tina Birgitte; Risom, Signe Stelling; Rasmussen, Trine Bernholdt; Hassager, Christian; Køber, Lars; Gluud, Christian; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Lindschou, Jane; Schmid, Jean Paul; Taylor, Rod S; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe
Heart valve diseases are common with an estimated prevalence of 2.5% in the Western world. The number is rising because of an ageing population. Once symptomatic, heart valve diseases are potentially lethal, and heavily influence daily living and quality of life. Surgical treatment, either valve replacement or repair, remains the treatment of choice. However, post-surgery, the transition to daily living may become a physical, mental and social challenge. We hypothesize that a comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation program can improve physical capacity and self-assessed mental health and reduce hospitalization and healthcare costs after heart valve surgery. This randomized clinical trial, CopenHeartVR, aims to investigate whether cardiac rehabilitation in addition to usual care is superior to treatment as usual after heart valve surgery. The trial will randomly allocate 210 patients 1:1 to an intervention or a control group, using central randomization, and blinded outcome assessment and statistical analyses. The intervention consists of 12 weeks of physical exercise and a psycho-educational intervention comprising five consultations. The primary outcome is peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) measured by cardiopulmonary exercise testing with ventilatory gas analysis. The secondary outcome is self-assessed mental health measured by the standardized questionnaire Short Form-36. Long-term healthcare utilization and mortality as well as biochemistry, echocardiography and cost-benefit will be assessed. A mixed-method design will be used to evaluate qualitative and quantitative findings, encompassing a survey-based study before the trial and a qualitative pre- and post-intervention study. This randomized clinical trial will contribute with evidence of whether cardiac rehabilitation should be provided after heart valve surgery. The study is approved by the local regional Research Ethics Committee (H-1-2011-157), and the Danish Data Protection Agency (j.nr. 2007-58-0015). Trial
Abdelgawad, Ahmed; Ramadan, Mona; Arafat, Heba; Abdel Aziz, Ahmed
The purpose of this study was to compare the hospital outcome and short term results of tricuspid valve (TV) repair with three repair techniques for functional tricuspid regurgitation (TR), namely, flexible Dacron band, DeVega and segmental annuloplasty. A total of 60 patients underwent TV repair at National Heart Institute from January 2013 to November 2014, of which 20 had DeVega procedure (DV), 20 had a segmental annuloplasty (SA) procedure and 20 had a Dacron band (DB) procedure. Concomitant procedures done for rheumatic left sided valve pathology consisted of mitral valve replacement in 70% of patients, and double valve replacement in 30% of patients. Clinical and echocardiographic follow-up data were obtained. Follow-up was 100% complete and was concluded after one year. All demographic criteria and preoperative characteristics of the three studied groups were comparable except for preoperative right ventricular (RVEDD) size that was significantly bigger in Dacron band group as compared to the other two groups (3.18 ± 0.43 cm compared to 3.00 ± 0.33 cm (DV) and to 2.88 ± 0.35 cm (SA), p value of (0.045)). Similarly, all operative and postoperative criteria were comparable among the study groups. Noticeably, (RVEDD) size remodeled better postoperatively in (DB) group as compared to the other two groups, (2.54 ± 0.26 cm compared to 2.83 ± 0.311 cm (DV) and to 2.72 ± 0.29 cm (SA), mean difference values were group (0.64 ± 0.47 cm) for (DB) compared to (0.18 ± 0.29 cm) for (DV) or to (0.16 ± 0.45 cm) for (SA) with p value of 0.000. The majority of patients in each group did not have tricuspid regurgitation (TR) or mild degree (+1) of (TR) on discharge. After one year of follow-up, most of the patient had either no regurgitation or grade (+1 TR). Two patients (10%) in DV group and one patient (5%) in SA group had (+3 TR). There was no statistical significance in the incidence of hospital mortality, only one patient died in DB
Stoliński, Jarosław; Musiał, Robert; Plicner, Dariusz; Andres, Janusz
The aim of the study was to comparatively analyze respiratory system function after minimally invasive, through right minithoracotomy aortic valve replacement (RT-AVR) to conventional AVR. Analysis of 201 patients scheduled for RT-AVR and 316 for AVR between January 2010 and November 2013. Complications of the respiratory system and pulmonary functional status are presented. Complications of the respiratory system occurred in 16.8% of AVR and 11.0% of RT-AVR patients (P = 0.067). The rate of pleural effusions, thoracenteses, pneumonias, or phrenic nerve dysfunctions was not significantly different between groups. Perioperative mortality was 1.9% in AVR and 1.0% in RT-AVR (P = 0.417). Mechanical ventilation time after surgery was 9.7 ± 5.9 hours for AVR and 7.2 ± 3.2 hours for RT-AVR patients (P < 0.001). Stroke (odds ratio [OR] = 13.4, P = 0.008), increased postoperative blood loss (OR = 9.6, P < 0.001), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR = 7.7, P < 0.001) were risk factors of prolonged mechanical lung ventilation. A week after surgery, the results of most pulmonary function tests were lower in the AVR than in the RT-AVR group (P < 0.001 was seen for forced expiratory volume in the first second, vital capacity, total lung capacity, maximum inspiratory pressure and maximum expiratory pressure, P = 0.377 was seen for residual volume). Right anterior aortic valve replacement minithoracotomy surgery with single-lung ventilation did not result in increased rate of respiratory system complications. Spirometry examinations revealed that pulmonary functional status was more impaired after AVR in comparison with RT-AVR surgery.
Kuntze, Thomas; Owais, Tamer; Secknus, Maria-Anna; Kaemmerer, Daniel; Baum, Richard; Girdauskas, Evaldas
six years postoperatively. At the latest follow up, 12 of the 17 survivors were in NYHA class I, and five in NYHA class II. The adverse cardiac event rate was 71%. Echocardiographically, 46% of patients (6/13) showed at least stationary or mild improvement in the right ventricular ejection fraction at follow up, with no evidence of paravalvular leak, infective endocarditis, or progressive other native valvular carcinoid affection. Postoperatively, the right atrial dimensions were preserved as normal in 23 patients (59%), mildly dilated in six (15%), moderately dilated in three (8%), and severely dilated in seven (18%). Valve-in-valve transcatheter aortic valve implantation was performed in two patients (12%) due to structural degeneration of the valve bioprosthesis and native valve disease progression. Despite advanced systemic disease, the surgical treatment of patients with carcinoid heart syndrome is associated with an acceptable perioperative risk and satisfactory mid-term survival. Those patients who survived valve surgery benefited from a significant improvement in their functional capacity. Percutaneous procedures may represent a useful tool to reduce the risk of late valvular reinterventions.
Hussain, Syed T.; Witten, James; Shrestha, Nabin K.; Blackstone, Eugene H.
Right-sided infective endocarditis (RSIE) is less common than left-sided infective endocarditis (IE), encompassing only 5–10% of cases of IE. Ninety percent of RSIE involves the tricuspid valve (TV). Given the relatively small numbers of TVIE cases operated on at most institutions, the purpose of this review is to highlight and discuss the current understanding of IE involving the TV. RSIE and TVIE are strongly associated with intravenous drug use (IVDU), although pacemaker leads, defibrillator leads and vascular access for dialysis are also major risk factors. Staphylococcus aureus is the predominant causative organism in TVIE. Most patients with TVIE are successfully treated with antibiotics, however, 5–16% of RSIE cases eventually require surgical intervention. Indications and timing for surgery are less clear than for left-sided IE; surgery is primarily considered for failed medical therapy, large vegetations and septic pulmonary embolism, and less often for TV regurgitation and heart failure. Most patients with an infected prosthetic TV will require surgery. Concomitant left-sided IE has its own surgical indications. Earlier surgical intervention may potentially prevent further destruction of leaflet tissue and increase the likelihood of TV repair. Fortunately, TV debridement and repair can be accomplished in most cases, even those with extensive valve destruction, using a variety of techniques. Valve repair is advocated over replacement, particularly in IVDUs patients who are young, non-compliant and have a higher risk of recurrent infection and reoperation with valve replacement. Excising the valve without replacing, it is not advocated; it has been reported previously, but these patients are likely to be symptomatic, particularly in cases with septic pulmonary embolism and increased pulmonary vascular resistance. Patients with concomitant left-sided involvement have worse prognosis than those with RSIE alone, due predominantly to greater likelihood of
Kulshrestha, P; Das, B; Iyer, K S; Sampathkumar, A; Sharma, M L; Rao, I M; Kaul, U; Srivastava, S; Bhatia, M L; Venugopal, P
Seventy-eight patients undergoing mitral valve surgery with or without replacement of the aortic valve also underwent procedures on the tricuspid valve over a period of 10 years. All patients were in functional class III or IV preoperatively. The procedures were performed in all patients with organic disease of the tricuspid valve (N = 44) and in those with moderate or severe functional tricuspid valvar regurgitation (N = 34). Seventy-one patients underwent DeVega's annuloplasty with or without commissurotomy. The overall mortality was 11.5%. 65 long-term survivors were followed up for a period of 6 months to 10 years (mean 5.3 years). Sixty-three patients were in functional class I or II at the last follow-up. Six patients had clinical evidence of mild to moderate tricuspid regurgitation. Regression of cardiomegaly (as judged by the chest radiograph and right ventricular hypertrophy seen in the electrocardiogram) was evident in most cases. Fifty-one of 54 patients evaluated by cross-sectional echocardiography were reported to have a functionally normal tricuspid valve. Doppler echocardiography in 28 patients showed no significant tricuspid regurgitation or stenosis in 26 patients. Eleven consecutive patients undergoing DeVega's annuloplasty were studied prospectively with pre- and postoperative Doppler echocardiography. Good correlation existed between right ventricular systolic pressures predicted by Doppler with those obtained preoperatively at cardiac catheterization. Postoperative Doppler echocardiography in these 11 patients showed complete restoration of competence of the tricuspid valve as well as normalisation of the right ventricular systolic pressure in 10 patients.
Kim, Ho Jin; Kim, Joon Bum; Jung, Sung-Ho; Choo, Suk Jung; Chung, Cheol Hyun; Lee, Jae Won
As the efficacy of surgical ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) is reported to be suboptimal for patients with a giant left atrium (LA), its routine use on this population has remained controversial. We sought to evaluate the clinical outcomes of patients with a giant LA undergoing mitral valve (MV) surgery with/without the maze procedure. We identified 759 patients with a giant LA (>60 mm) and AF undergoing MV surgery from 1999 through 2012. Of these, 400 underwent MV surgery with the maze procedure (maze group), and the remainder (n=359) underwent MV surgery only (no-maze group). To reduce the impact of selection bias, propensity score analyses were performed based on 25 baseline covariates. Early death occurred in five (1.3%) and nine (2.5%) patients in the maze and the no-maze group, respectively (p=0.28). Freedom from AF at 5 years was 68.9% in the maze group and 9.6% in the no-maze group (p<0.001). After adjustment, the maze group showed a significantly lower risk of death (HR, 0.65; 95% CI 0.44 to 0.98; p=0.038), thromboembolic events (HR, 0.23; 95% CI 0.09 to 0.58; p=0.002) and composite adverse outcomes (death, congestive heart failure and valve-related complications; HR, 0.55; 95% CI 0.42 to 0.71; p<0.001) than the no-maze group. In subgroup analyses, MV surgery with the maze procedure resulted in higher survival and event-free survival in most risk subgroups than without the maze procedure. The concomitant maze procedure improved postoperative rhythm status, clinical outcomes and cardiac functions in patients with a giant LA undergoing MV surgery. This study indicates that the patients with a giant LA undergoing MV surgery may benefit from an addition of the maze procedure. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Kurkluoglu, Mustafa; John, Anitha S; Cross, Russell; Chung, David; Yerebakan, Can; Zurakowski, David; Jonas, Richard A; Sinha, Pranava
Indications for prophylactic tricuspid annuloplasty in patients with pulmonary regurgitation (PR) after tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) repair are unclear and often extrapolated from acquired functional tricuspid regurgitation (TR) data in adults, where despite correction of primary left heart pathology, progressive tricuspid annular dilation is noted beyond a threshold diameter >4 cm (21 mm/m(2)). We hypothesized that unlike in adult functional TR, in pure volume-overload conditions such as patients with PR after TOF, the tricuspid valve size is likely to regress after pulmonary valve replacement (PVR). A total of 43 consecutive patients who underwent PVR from 2005 until 2012 at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed. Absolute and indexed tricuspid annulus diameters (TADs), tricuspid annulus Z-scores, grade of TR along with right ventricular size, and function indices were recorded before and after PVR. Preoperative and postoperative echocardiographic data were available in all patients. A higher tricuspid valve Z-score correlated with greater TR both preoperatively (P = 0.005) and postoperatively (P = 0.02). Overall reductions in the absolute and indexed TAD and tricuspid valve Z-scores were seen postoperatively, with greater absolute as well as percentage reduction seen with larger preoperative TAD index (P = 0.007) and higher tricuspid annulus Z-scores (P = 0.06). In pure volume-overload conditions such as patients with PR after TOF, reduction in the tricuspid valve size is seen after PVR. Concomitant tricuspid annuloplasty should not be considered based on tricuspid annular dilation alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Aim: To verify if partial intraoperative Tenon’s capsule resection (PTCR) with adjunctive mitomycin C is effective in developing thin, avascular blebs in eyes undergoing Ahmed glaucoma valve insertion, and to assess the efficacy and safety of this procedure. Methods: A multicentre, prospective, alternating case assignment, investigator unmasked, parallel group, comparative interventional study was conducted in four Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, and Peru). Ahmed glaucoma valve implant insertion with PTCR (group A) and without PCTR (group B) was performed in neovascular glaucomatous eyes without previous surgery. Adjunctive mitomycin C (MMC) was used in both groups. Patients were examined 1 day, 10 days, 1 month, 2 months, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year following the surgery. Intraocular pressure (IOP) and the appearance of the bleb were evaluated at each examination. Appearance of the bleb was classified at both the 1 month mark and last examinations into one of three groups: flat and vascularised; elevated avascular; or elevated and not avascular. Results: 92 eyes from 92 patients were included in the study. The preoperative mean IOP was 50.0 (SD 10.5) mm Hg in group A and 48.4 (11.7) in group B (p>0.05). Statistically significant IOP reductions were observed at all periods of follow up. 12 months after surgery, the mean IOP was 17.2 (5.0) mm Hg in group A and 18.3 (8.7) mm Hg in group B (p>0.05). A hypertensive phase occurred in 40.0% in group A and in 46.8% in group B (p>0.05). At the 1 month and the final follow up, the blebs in all eyes were considered elevated and not avascular. The success rate (IOP⩽21 mm Hg) at 1 year after surgery was 70.4% in group A and 77.7% in group B (p>0.05). Overall, 74.2% of the patients achieved an IOP ⩽21 mm Hg and 55.2% an IOP⩽17 mm Hg, with or without additional medication administered to lower IOP. The incidence of complications was similar in both groups. Conclusions: In eyes undergoing Ahmed
Toktas, Faruk; Yavuz, Senol; Ozsin, Kadir K.; Sanri, Umut S.
Objectives: To investigate whether mitral valve repair (MVR) at the time of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in patients with ischemic moderate mitral regurgitation (MR) and coronary artery disease could improve short- and mid-term postoperative outcomes. Methods: Between March 2013 and December 2015, 90 patients with moderate ischemic MR underwent first-time CABG in Bursa Yuksek Ihtisas Training and Research Hospital, Bursa, Turkey. Out of 90 patients, 44 (48.9%) underwent combined CABG+MVR. The remaining 46 (51.1%) underwent CABG alone. Ventricular functions and effort capacities of patients in both groups were evaluated echocardiographically and clinically in the preoperative period, and in the first postoperative year. Results: Postoperative regurgitant volume changes according to preoperative values were -24.76±19 ml/beat in the combined CABG+MVR group, and -8.70±7.2 ml/beat in the CABG alone group (p=0.001). The change of vena contracta width was -3.40±0.2 mm in the combined CABG+MVR group whereas in the CABG alone -1.45±0.7 mm (p=0.019). The changes of left ventricular end-systolic volume index were -30.77±25.9 ml/m2 in the combined CABG+MVR group and -15.6±9.4 ml/m2 in the CABG alone group (p=0.096). Ejection fraction changes in the combined CABG+MVR group was +1.51±5.3% and in the CABG alone group was +1.15±4.3%. No statistically significant difference was found between both groups (p=0.604). Preoperative New York Heart Association class values in the combined CABG+MVR group was 2.18±0.45, and in the CABG alone group was 2.13±0.54. Conclusions: Moderate MR in patients undergoing CABG affects the outcome adversely and it does not reliably improve after CABG alone. Therefore, patients with ischemic moderate MR should undergo simultaneous MVR at the time of CABG. PMID:27464861
Le Bihan, David C S; Della Togna, Dorival Julio; Barretto, Rodrigo B M; Assef, Jorge Eduardo; Machado, Lúcia Romero; Ramos, Auristela Isabel de Oliveira; Abdulmassih Neto, Camilo; Moisés, Valdir Ambrosio; Sousa, Amanda G M R; Campos, Orlando
Left atrial (LA) dilation is associated with worse prognosis in various clinical situations including chronic mitral regurgitation (MR). Real time three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) has allowed a better assessment of LA volumes and function. Little is known about LA size and function in early postoperative period in symptomatic patients with chronic organic MR. We aimed to investigate these aspects. By means of 3DE, 43 patients with symptomatic chronic organic MR were prospectively studied before and 30 days after surgery (repair or bioprosthetic valve replacement). Twenty subjects were studied as controls. Maximum (Vol-max), minimum, and preatrial contraction LA volumes were measured and total, passive, and active LA emptying fractions were calculated. Before surgery patients had higher LA volumes (P < 0.001) but smaller LA emptying fractions than controls (P < 0.01). After surgery there was a reduction in all 3 LA volumes and an increase in active atrial emptying fraction (AAEF). Multivariate analysis showed that independent predictors of early postoperative Vol-max reduction were preoperative diastolic blood pressure (coefficient = -0.004; P = 0.02), lateral mitral annular early diastolic velocity (e') (coefficient = 0.023; P = 0.008), and the mean transmitral diastolic gradient increment (coefficient = -0.035; P < 0.001). Furthermore, e' was also independently associated with AAEF increase (odds ratio = 1.66, P = 0.027). Early LA reverse remodeling and functional improvement occur after successful surgery of symptomatic organic MR regardless of surgical technique. Diastolic blood pressure and transmitral mean gradient augmentation are variables negatively related to Vol-max reduction. Besides, e' is positively correlated with both Vol-max reduction and AAEF increase. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Beatty, Alexis L; Bradley, Steven M; Maynard, Charles; McCabe, James M
Despite guideline recommendations that patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), coronary artery bypass surgery, or valve surgery be referred to cardiac rehabilitation, cardiac rehabilitation is underused. The objective of this study was to examine hospital-level variation in cardiac rehabilitation referral after PCI, coronary artery bypass surgery, and valve surgery. We analyzed data from the Clinical Outcomes Assessment Program, a registry of all nonfederal hospitals performing PCI and cardiac surgery in Washington State. We included eligible PCI, coronary artery bypass surgery, and valve surgery patients from 2010 to 2015. We analyzed PCI and cardiac surgery separately by performing multivariable hierarchical logistic regression for the outcome of cardiac rehabilitation referral at discharge, clustered by hospital. Patient-level covariates included age, sex, race/ethnicity, comorbidities, and procedure indication/status. Cardiac rehabilitation referral was reported in 48% (34 047/71 556) of PCI patients and 91% (21 831/23 972) of cardiac surgery patients. The hospital performing the procedure was a stronger predictor of referral than any individual patient characteristic for PCI (hospital referral range 3%-97%; median odds ratio, 5.94; 95% confidence interval, 4.10-9.49) and cardiac surgery (range 54%-100%; median odds ratio, 7.09; 95% confidence interval, 3.79-17.80). Hospitals having an outpatient cardiac rehabilitation program explained only 10% of PCI variation and 0% of cardiac surgery variation. Cardiac rehabilitation referral at discharge was less prevalent after PCI than cardiac surgery. The strongest predictor of cardiac rehabilitation referral was the hospital performing the procedure. Efforts to improve cardiac rehabilitation referral should focus on increasing referral after PCI, especially in low referral hospitals. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Paredes, Federico A; Cánovas, Sergio J; Gil, Oscar; García-Fuster, Rafael; Hornero, Fernando; Vázquez, Alejandro; Martín, Elio; Mena, Armando; Martínez-León, Juan
The aim of this study was to compare the in-hospital clinical outcomes of minimally invasive, isolated aortic valve replacement vs median sternotomy. Between 2005 and 2012, 615 patients underwent aortic valve replacement at a single institution, 532 by a median sternotomy (E group) and 83 by a J-shaped ministernotomy (M group). No significant differences were found between the E and M groups in terms of age (69.27 [9.31] years vs 69.40 [10.24] years, respectively), logistic EuroSCORE (6.27 [2.91] vs 5.64 [2.17], respectively), size of implanted valve prosthesis (21.94 [2.04] mm vs 21.79 [2.01] mm, respectively), or the incidence of diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, high blood pressure, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Mean cardiopulmonary bypass time was 102.90 (41.68) min for the E group vs 81.37 (25.41) min for the M group (P<.001). Mean cross-clamp time was 77.31 (29.20) min vs 63.45 (17.71) min for the S and M groups, respectively (P<.001). Mortality in the E group was 4.88% (26). There were no deaths in the M group (P<.05). The E group was associated with longer intensive care unit and hospital stays: 4.17 (5.23) days vs 3.22 (2.01) days (P=.045) and 9.58 (7.66) days vs 7.27 (3.83) days (P<.001), respectively. E group patients had more postoperative respiratory complications (42 [8%] vs 1 [1.2%]; P<.05). There were no differences when postoperative hemodynamic, neurologic, and renal complications, systemic infection, and wound infection were analyzed. In terms of morbidity, mortality, and operative times, outcomes after minimally invasive surgery for aortic valve replacement are at least comparable to those achieved with median sternotomy. The length of the hospital stay was reduced by minimally invasive surgery in our single-institution experience. The retrospective nature of this study warrants further randomized prospective trials to validate our results. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights
Sacco Casamassima, Maria Grazia; Wong, Ling Ling; Papandria, Dominic; Abdullah, Fizan; Vricella, Luca A; Cameron, Duke E; Colombani, Paul M
Pectus excavatum (PE) can be associated with congenital and acquired cardiac disorders that also require surgical repair. The timing and specific surgical technique for repair of PE remains controversial. The present study reports the experience of combined repair of PE and open heart surgery at Johns Hopkins Hospital. A retrospective case review was conducted of all patients who presented for repair of PE deformity while undergoing concurrent open heart surgery from 1998 through 2011. A total of 9 patients met inclusion criteria. All patients had a connective tissue disorder. Repair of PE was performed by modified Nuss technique after completion of the cardiac procedure, performed through a median sternotomy. Open heart procedures were either aortic root replacement or mitral valvuloplasty. Eight patients had bar removal after an average period of 30.3 months. No PE recurrence, bar displacement, or upper sternal depression was reported in 7 patients. Postoperatively, 1 patient exhibited pectus carinatum after a separate spinal fusion surgery for scoliosis. One patient died of unrelated cardiac complications before bar removal. Simultaneous repair of PE and open heart surgery is safe and effective. We recommend that the decision to perform a single-stage versus a multistage procedure should be reserved until after the cardiac procedure has been completed. In such cases, the Nuss technique allows for correction of the pectus deformity with good long-term cosmetic and functional results. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jeyhani, Morteza; Shahriari, Shahrokh; Labrosse, Michel; Kadem, Lyes
Approximately 500,000 people in North America suffer from mitral valve regurgitation (MR). MR is a disorder of the heart in which the mitral valve (MV) leaflets do not close securely during systole. Edge-to-edge repair (EtER) technique can be used to surgically treat MR. This technique produces a double-orifice configuration for the MV. Under these un-physiological conditions, flow downstream of the MV forms a double jet structure that may disturb the intraventricular hemodynamics. Abnormal flow patterns following EtER are mainly characterized by high-shear stress and stagnation zones in the left ventricle (LV), which increase the potential of blood component damage. In this study, a custom-made prosthetic bicuspid MV was used to analyze the LV flow patterns after EtER by means of digital particle image velocimetry (PIV). Although the repair of a MV using EtER technique is an effective approach, this study confirms that EtER leads to changes in the LV flow field, including the generation of a double mitral jet flow and high shear stress regions.
Kusajima, Kunio; Fujita, Tomoyuki; Hata, Hiroki; Shimahara, Yusuke; Miura, Sayaka; Kobayashi, Junjiro
Concomitant tricuspid valve surgery with mitral valve surgery is recommended for patients with severe functional tricuspid regurgitation (TR). However, the treatment for 2+ TR (mild TR) remains controversial. Here, we evaluated the long-term results of untreated 2+ TR in patients undergoing mitral valve surgery. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 96 patients with untreated 2+ TR among 885 patients who underwent mitral valve surgery from 2003 to 2010. Exclusion criteria were tricuspid valve surgery (TVS), emergency surgery, primary TR and pacemaker lead through the tricuspid valve. We assessed survival and freedom from heart failure. The freedom from 3+ (moderate) or 4+ (severe) TR was investigated by echocardiographic data at pre- and postoperative week 1, then at 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 postoperative years, which were compared with those in patients who had 2+ TR preoperatively and underwent concomitant TVS in the same period (n = 47). The mean follow-up was 7.1 ± 2.7 years. There was no 30-day mortality. The survival rate was 97.5% at 5 years and 87.5% at 10 years. The independent risk factors for mortality were age (OR 1.2, P = 0.03) and left ventricular ejection fraction (OR 0.9, P = 0.03). Untreated 2+ TR improved transiently within the first postoperative year (P < 0.001), but progressed again in the mid- to long term. Freedom from ≥3+ TR was 64.2% at 5 years and 46.7% at 10 years, which was significantly lower than that from ≥3+ TR in patients who underwent concomitant TVS (P = 0.006). The independent risk factors for TR progression (≥3 + TR) were age (OR 1.1, P = 0.005), atrial fibrillation (OR 2.2, P = 0.04) and tricuspid annular diameter (TAD) index (mm/m(2); OR 1.1, P = 0.02). Receiver operating characteristic curves showed that the optimal TAD index cut-off value was 21.0 for long-term survival [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.72] and 21.2 for TR progression (AUC = 0.64). Although untreated, 2+ TR significantly improved after mitral valve
Chi, Hao; Zhou, Wen-Xiong; Wu, Yao-Yao; Chen, Tong-Yu; Ge, Wen; Yuan, Lan; Shen, Wei-Dong; Zhou, Jia
To determine whether electroacupuncture (EA) intervention combined with general anesthesia (GA) strategy can reduce early post-operative morbidity and medical costs in patients undergoing heart valve replacement operation under cardiopulmonary bypass. A total of 160 heart valve replacement surgery patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass were randomly divided into GA and EA + GA groups (n = 80 in each group). Patients of the GA group were given with intravenous injection of Fentanyl, Midazolam, Vecuronium Bromide, etc. and routine tracheal intubation. EA (3-4 Hz, 2.0-2.2 mA) was applied to bilateral Zhongfu (LU 1), Chize (LU 5) and Ximen (PC 4) beginning about 20 mm before the surgery in the EA + GA group. Endotracheal intubation was not employed but only prepared as a standby for patients of the EA + GA group. The dosage of narcotic drugs, duration of surgery, duration of aertic blockage, rate of cardiac re-beating, volumes of post-operative blood transfusion, discharge volume, cases of post-operative pulmonary infection, vocal cord injury, and the time of first bed-off, first eating and duration in intensive care unit (IOU) residence. etc. were recorded. The successful rates of heart valve replacement surgery were similar in both GA and EA + GA groups. Compared with the GA group, the dosages of Fentanyl, Midazolam and Vecuronium of the EA + GA group were significantly lower (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), the numbers of patients needing blood-transfusion, antibiotics treatment, and suffering from pulmonary infection were fewer, the time of first bed-off and duration of hospitalizetion and IOU residence were considerably shorter (P < 0.05, P < 0.01) and the total medical cost was obviously lower (P < 0.05) in the EA + GA group. EA combined with general anesthesia strategy for heart valve replacement surgery without endotracheal intubation is safe and can reduce post-operative morbidity and medical costs in patients undergoing heart valve replacement surgery under
Grubitzsch, Herko; Christ, Torsten; Melzer, Christoph; Kastrup, Marc; Treskatsch, Sascha; Konertz, Wolfgang
OBJECTIVES Surgery for prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality as well as with increased resource utilization and costs. For risk and cost reduction, an understanding of contributing factors and interrelations is essential. METHODS Out of 1080 heart valve procedures performed between January 2010 and December 2012, 41 patients underwent surgery for PVE. Complete economic data were available for 30 of them (study cohort). The patients' mean age was 64 ± 12 years (range 37–79 years), and 73% were men. The clinical course was reviewed and morbidity, mortality and costs as well as associations between them were analysed. The cost matrix for each individual patient was obtained from the Institute for the Hospital Remuneration System (InEK GmbH, Germany). The median follow-up was 2.6 years [interquartile range (IQR) 3.7 years; 100% complete]. RESULTS Preoperative status was critical (EuroSCORE II >20%) in 43% of patients. Staphylococci were the most common infecting micro-organisms (27%). The operative mortality rate (≤30 days) was 17%. At 1 year, the overall survival rate was 71 ± 9%. At least one disease- or surgery-related complication affected 21 patients (early morbidity 70%), >1 complication affected 12 patients (40%). There was neither a recurrence of endocarditis, nor was a reoperation required. The mean total hospital costs were 42.6 ± 37.4 Thousand Euro (T€), median 25.7 T€, IQR 28.4 T€ and >100 T€ in 10% of cases. Intensive care unit/intermediate care (ICU/IMC) and operation accounted for 40.4 ± 18.6 and 25.7 ± 12.1% of costs, respectively. There was a significant correlation (Pearson's sample correlation coefficient) between total costs and duration of hospital stay (r = 0.83, P < 0.001) and between ICU/IMC costs and duration of ICU/IMC stay (r = 0.97, P < 0.001). The median daily hospital costs were 1.8 T€/day, but >2.4 T€/day in 25% of patients (upper quartile). The following pattern of
Almost 20 years after the first laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair was performed, single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS™) is set to revolutionize minimally invasive surgery. However, the loss of triangulation must be overcome before the technique can be popularized. This study reports the first 100 laparoscopic total extraperitoneal hernia repairs using a single incision. The study cohort comprised 68 patients with a mean age of 44 (range, 18 to 83): 36 unilateral and 32 bilateral hernias. Twelve patients also underwent umbilical hernia repair with the Ventralex patch requiring no additional incisions. A 2.5-cm to 3-cm crescentic incision within the confines of the umbilicus was performed. Standard dissecting instruments and 52-cm/5.5-mm/300 laparoscope were used. Operation times were 50 minutes for unilateral and 80 minutes for bilateral. There was one conversion to conventional 3-port laparoscopic repair and none to open surgery. Outpatient surgery was achieved in all (except one). Analgesic requirements were minimal: 8 Dextropropoxyphene tablets (range, 0 to 20). There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications with a high patient satisfaction score. Single-incision laparoscopic hernia repair is safe and efficient simply by modifying dissection techniques (so-called “inline” and “vertical”). Comparable success can be obtained while negating the risks of bowel and vascular injuries from sharp trocars and achieving improved cosmetic results. PMID:21902942
Baumbach, Hardy; Rustenbach, Christian; Michaelsen, Jens; Hipp, Gernot; Pressmar, Markus; Leinweber, Marco; Franke, Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm
Minimally invasive extracorporeal circulation (MECC) technology was applied predominantly in coronary surgery. Data regarding the application of MECC in minimally invasive valve surgery are missing largely. Patients undergoing isolated minimally invasive mitral or aortic valve procedures were allocated either to conventional extracorporeal circulation (CECC) group (n = 63) or MECC group (n = 105), and their prospectively generated data were analyzed. Demographic data were comparable between the groups regarding age (CECC vs. MECC: 71.0 ± 7.5 vs. 66.2 ± 10.1 years, p = 0.091) and logistic EuroSCORE I (6.2 ± 2.5 vs. 5.4 ± 3.0, p = 0.707). Hospital mortality was one patient in each group (1.6 vs. 1.0%, p = 0.688). The levels of leukocytes were lower in the MECC group (11.6 ± 3.2 vs. 9.4 ± 4.3 109/L, p = 0.040). Levels of platelets (137.2 ± 45.5 vs. 152.4 ± 50.3 109/L, p = 0.015) and hemoglobin (103.3 ± 11.3 vs. 107.3 ± 14.7 g/L, p = 0.017) were higher in the MECC group. Renal function was better preserved (creatinine: 1.1 ± 0.4 vs. 0.9 ± 0.2 mg/dL, p = 0.019). We were able to validate shorter time of postoperative ventilation (9.5 ± 15.1 vs. 6.3 ± 3.4 h, p = 0.054) as well as significantly shorter intensive care unit (ICU) stay (1.8 ± 1.3 vs. 1.2 ± 1.0 d, p = 0.005) for MECC patients. The course of C-reactive protein did not differ between the groups. We were able to prove the feasibility of MECC even in minimally invasive performed mitral and aortic valve procedures. In addition, the use of MECC provides decreased platelet consumption and less hemodilution. The use of MECC in these selected patients lead to a shorter ventilation time and ICU stay. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Esfandiari, Hamed; Shazly, Tarek; Shah, Priyal; Hassanpour, Kiana; Torkian, Pooya; Yaseri, Mehdi; Loewen, Nils A
To evaluate the efficacy and survival rates of same session ab interno trabeculectomy with the trabectome and Ahmed glaucoma valve implant (AT) in comparison to the Ahmed glaucoma valve alone (A). A total of 107 eyes undergoing primary glaucoma surgery were enrolled in this retrospective comparative case series, including 48 eyes which underwent AT and 59 eyes which received A alone. Participants were identified using the procedural terminology codes, and their medical records were reviewed. The primary outcome measure was success defined as IOP > 5 mmHg, ≤ 21 mmHg and ≥ 20% reduction of IOP from baseline at two consecutive visits after 3 months, and no need for glaucoma reoperation. Secondary outcome measures were IOP, the number of glaucoma medications, incidence of a hypertensive phase, and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA). The cumulative probability of success at 1 year was 70% in AT, and 65% in A (p = 0.85). IOP decreased significantly from 26.6 ± 10.1 mmHg at baseline to 14.7 ± 3.3 mmHg at the final follow-up in AT (p = 0.001). The corresponding numbers for A were 27.8 ± 10.2 and 16.7 ± 4.9, respectively (p = 0.001). The final IOP was significantly lower in AT (p = 0.022). The number of medications at baseline was comparable in both groups (2.6 ± 1.2 in AT and 2.5 ± 1.3 in A, p = 0.851). Corresponding number at 1 year visit was 1.2 ± 2 in AT and 2.8 ± 1.8 in A (p = 0.001). The incidence of a hypertensive phase was 18.7% in AT and 35.5% in A (p = 0.05). HP resolved in only 30% of eyes. The criteria for HP resolution were fulfilled in 9 eyes (30%). There was no difference in the rate of resolution of the hypertensive phase between AT and A (33.3 and 28.5%, respectively, p = 0.67). Ahmed glaucoma valve implant with same session trabectome surgery significantly decreased the rate of the hypertensive phase and postoperative IOP as well as the number of glaucoma
Baird, Christopher W; Marx, Gerald R; Borisuk, Michele; Emani, Sitram; del Nido, Pedro J
The spectrum of congenital mitral valve stenosis (MS) consists of a complex of defects that result in obstruction to left ventricular inflow. This spectrum includes patients with underdeveloped left heart structures (Fig. 1) to those with isolated congenital MS. The specific mitral valve defects can further be divided into categories based on the relationship to the mitral valve annulus including valvar, supravalvar and subvalvar components. Clinically, these patients present based on the degree of obstruction, associated mitral regurgitation, secondary pulmonary hypertension, associated lung disease and/or associated cardiac lesions. There are a number of factors that contribute to the successful outcomes in these patients including pre-operative imaging, aggressive surgical techniques and peri-operative management.
Patzelt, Johannes; Zhang, Yingying; Seizer, Peter; Magunia, Harry; Henning, Andreas; Riemlova, Veronika; Patzelt, Tara A E; Hansen, Marc; Haap, Michael; Riessen, Reimer; Lausberg, Henning; Walker, Tobias; Reutershan, Joerg; Schlensak, Christian; Grasshoff, Christian; Simon, Dan I; Rosenberger, Peter; Schreieck, Juergen; Gawaz, Meinrad; Langer, Harald F
This study sought to evaluate a ventilation maneuver to facilitate percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair (PMVR) and its effects on heart geometry. In patients with challenging anatomy, the application of PMVR is limited, potentially resulting in insufficient reduction of mitral regurgitation (MR) or clip detachment. Under general anesthesia, however, ventilation maneuvers can be used to facilitate PMVR. A total of 50 consecutive patients undergoing PMVR were included. During mechanical ventilation, different levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) were applied, and parameters of heart geometry were assessed using transesophageal echocardiography. We found that increased PEEP results in elevated central venous pressure. Specifically, central venous pressure increased from 14.0 ± 6.5 mm Hg (PEEP 3 mm Hg) to 19.3 ± 5.9 mm Hg (PEEP 20 mm Hg; p < 0.001). As a consequence, the reduced pre-load resulted in reduction of the left ventricular end-systolic diameter from 43.8 ± 10.7 mm (PEEP 3 mm Hg) to 39.9 ± 11.0 mm (PEEP 20 mm Hg; p < 0.001), mitral valve annulus anterior-posterior diameter from 32.4 ± 4.3 mm (PEEP 3 mm Hg) to 30.5 ± 4.4 mm (PEEP 20 mm Hg; p < 0.001), and the medio-lateral diameter from 35.4 ± 4.2 mm to 34.1 ± 3.9 mm (p = 0.002). In parallel, we observed a significant increase in leaflet coaptation length from 3.0 ± 0.8 mm (PEEP 3 mm Hg) to 5.4 ± 1.1 mm (PEEP 20 mm Hg; p < 0.001). The increase in coaptation length was more pronounced in MR with functional or mixed genesis. Importantly, a coaptation length >4.9 mm at PEEP of 10 mm Hg resulted in a significant reduction of PMVR procedure time (152 ± 49 min to 116 ± 26 min; p = 0.05). In this study, we describe a novel ventilation maneuver improving mitral valve coaptation length during the PMVR procedure, which facilitates clip positioning. Our observations could help to improve PMVR therapy and could make nonsurgical candidates accessible to PMVR therapy, particularly in
von Segesser, L K; Stauffer, J C; Delabays, A; Chassot, P G
Tricuspid regurgitation is relatively common. Due to the progress made in echocardiography, its diagnosis is in general made readily and in reliable fashion. Basically one has to distinguish between functional tricuspid valve regurgitation due to volume and/or pressure overload of the right ventricle with intact valve structures versus tricuspid valve regurgitation due to pathologic valve structures. The clear identification of the regurgitation mechanism is of prime importance for the treatment. Functional tricuspid valve regurgitation can often be improved by medical treatment of heart failure, and eventually a tricuspid valve plasty can solve the problem. However, the presence of pathologic tricuspid valve structures makes in general more specific plastic surgical procedures and even prosthetic valve replacements necessary. A typical example for a structural tricuspid valve regurgitation is the case of a traumatic papillary muscle rupture. Due to the sudden onset, this pathology is not well tolerated and requires in general surgical reinsertion of the papillary muscle. In contrast, tricuspid valve regurgitation resulting from chronic pulmonary embolism with pulmonary artery hypertension, can be improved by pulmonary artery thrombendarteriectomy and even completely cured with an additional tricuspid annuloplasty. However, tricuspid regurgitations due to terminal heart failure are not be addressed with surgery directed to tricuspid valve repair or replacement. Heart transplantation, dynamic cardiomyoplasty or mechanical circulatory support should be evaluated instead.
Liu, Fei; Xu, Dong; Zhang, Kefeng; Zhang, Jian
This study aims to explore the effects of tranexamic acid on the coagulation indexes of patients undergoing heart valve replacement surgery under the condition of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). One hundred patients who conformed to the inclusive criteria were selected and divided into a tranexamic acid group and a non-tranexamic acid group. They all underwent heart valve replacement surgery under CPB. Patients in the tranexamic acid group were intravenously injected with 1 g of tranexamic acid (100 mL) at the time point after anesthesia induction and before skin incision and at the time point after the neutralization of heparin. Patients in the non-tranexamic acid group were given 100 mL of normal saline at corresponding time points, respectively. Then the coagulation indexes of the two groups were analyzed. The activated blood clotting time (ACT) of the two groups was within normal scope before CPB, while four coagulation indexes including prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), international normalized ratio (INR), and fibrinogen (FIB) had significant increases after surgery; the PT and INR of the tranexamic acid group had a remarkable decline after surgery. All the findings suggest that the application of tranexamic acid in heart valve replacement surgery under CPB can effectively reduce intraoperative and postoperative blood loss. © The Author(s) 2016.
Liu, Fei; Xu, Dong; Zhang, Kefeng; Zhang, Jian
This study aims to explore the effects of tranexamic acid on the coagulation indexes of patients undergoing heart valve replacement surgery under the condition of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). One hundred patients who conformed to the inclusive criteria were selected and divided into a tranexamic acid group and a non-tranexamic acid group. They all underwent heart valve replacement surgery under CPB. Patients in the tranexamic acid group were intravenously injected with 1 g of tranexamic acid (100 mL) at the time point after anesthesia induction and before skin incision and at the time point after the neutralization of heparin. Patients in the non-tranexamic acid group were given 100 mL of normal saline at corresponding time points, respectively. Then the coagulation indexes of the two groups were analyzed. The activated blood clotting time (ACT) of the two groups was within normal scope before CPB, while four coagulation indexes including prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), international normalized ratio (INR), and fibrinogen (FIB) had significant increases after surgery; the PT and INR of the tranexamic acid group had a remarkable decline after surgery. All the findings suggest that the application of tranexamic acid in heart valve replacement surgery under CPB can effectively reduce intraoperative and postoperative blood loss. PMID:27694613
Kyo, S; Miyamoto, N; Yokote, Y; Ueda, K; Takamoto, S; Omoto, R
Complete rupture of a papillary muscle following acute myocardial infarction is a severe complication that is typically associated with acute left ventricular failure, pulmonary edema, and relentless clinical deterioration. The reported mortality rates without surgical intervention is almost 90%, therefore, prompt operation without prolonged attempts at medical stabilization is the key to decrease operative mortality. Although the complete coronary revascularization in conjunction with mitral valve replacement is advocated in the western medical academic society, there is only a few case of conjunct surgery has been reported in Japan. Three successful cases of conjunct surgery of mitral valve replacement and coronary complete revascularization in acute phase within one week from the onset of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are described. There were one male and two female patients with an average age of 60-year-old (range 48-67), who developed cardiogenic shock and admitted to our hospital. The average interval between onset of AMI and the appearance of mitral regurgitation (MR) was 38 hours, and that of the appearance of MR and admission was 40 hours. Surgeries were performed within 26 hours (average 13 hours) after admission. The mitral valve was replaced with a mechanical valve (St. Jude Medical Valve) and a complete coronary revasculatization was done using saphenous vein graft. The average period of operation time and aortic cross clamping time were 6 hours 22 minutes and 109 minutes respectively. The average number of coronary grafting was 2.3 (range 1-3). Postoperative recovery from cardiogenic shock was uneventful in all three patients. The average periods of ICU stay and hospital stay were 5 days and 43 days respectively. All patients have regained their social activities with mean follow up period of 52 months. Since ischemic heart disease remains the leading cause of death in such patients, it is suggested that complete coronary revascularization
Deo, Salil V; Hasin, Tal; Altarabsheh, Salah E; McKellar, Stephen H; Shah, Ishan K; Durham, Lucian; Stulak, John M; Daly, Richard C; Park, Soon J; Joyce, Lyle D
Severe tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is present in nearly half the patients undergoing implant of a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) and its correction confers better long-term outcome. To compare the early and late results of tricuspid valve repair (TVrpr) or replacement (TVR) with LVAD implant. Sixty-four from a cohort of 126 patients had a concomitant tricuspid valve procedure; 48 (75%) underwent a TVrpr whereas 16 (25%) had TVR. All preoperative hemodynamic parameters including the mean TR grade (TVrpr; 3.6 vs. TVR; 3.7) were comparable (p = 0.7). The mean TR grade was 1.6 ± 1.5 for the remaining 62 patients who did not have a concomitant tricuspid valve procedure, with 4/62 (6%) having severe TR (p < 0.0001). Cardiopulmonary bypass time was longer for patients undergoing TVR (p = 0.01). There was a significant reduction in right atrial pressure for the entire cohort (p < 0.01) and the postoperative right atrial pressure was not statistically different between TVrpr (13.6 ± 4.6) and TVR (11.6 ± 4.3; p = 0.6. Postoperative intensive care unit stay was comparable as was the duration of inotropic support (p = 0.5) or need for temporary right ventricular mechanical support. In-hospital mortality (12%) was not different between groups. The mean time for LVAD support was 12.3 ± 9.71 months and the last transthoracic echocardiographic examination was performed at mean intervals of 13.8 ± 10.8 months (TVrpr) and 11.8 ± 7.6 months (TVR; p = 0.47). Reduction in TR grade was similar between groups (p = 0.27). Late mortality (p = 1.00) was comparable in both groups. Using log-rank analysis, there was no significant difference in the estimated survival between TVrpr and TVR (p = 0.88). TVrpr repair at the time of LVAD implant is effective in correcting TR even at the end of one year of follow-up. The choice to repair or replace does not affect the clinical outcome. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Orban, Martin; Braun, Daniel; Sonne, Carolin; Orban, Mathias; Thaler, Raffael; Grebmer, Christian; Lesevic, Hasema; Schömig, Albert; Mehilli, Julinda; Massberg, Steffen; Hausleiter, Jörg
To evaluate the characteristics and clinical outcome of patients with new formation of left ventricular (LV) thrombus after percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair. Between 2009 and 2012 we intended to treat 150 patients with severe mitral regurgitation (MR) with percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair in our centre. Post-procedural transthoracic echocardiographic examinations scheduled during the hospital stay revealed the new formation of LV thrombi in three out of 150 patients. All three patients suffered from end-stage systolic heart failure with a LV ejection fraction (LVEF) below 20% and were successfully treated in terms of MR reduction (reduction of at least two MR grades). No thrombus formation was observed in patients with a LVEF >20% treated in our centre (a total of 136 patients). The frequency of new LV thrombus formation in the cohort of patients with a LVEF ≤20% treated in our centre was 21% (three out of 14 patients). New formation of LV thrombus was detected in patients with severely depressed LVEF (≤20%) after successful reduction of MR following percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair. This phenomenon could be a play of chance, but percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair using the MitraClip¨ system is a new procedure. Special care is needed when performing new procedures, and the unexpected post-procedural finding of LV thrombus formation in approximately 20% in this cohort is worth reporting.
Hansen, T B; Zwisler, A D; Berg, S K; Sibilitz, K L; Thygesen, L C; Doherty, P; Søgaard, R
Owing to a lack of evidence, patients undergoing heart valve surgery have been offered exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) since 2009 based on recommendations for patients with ischaemic heart disease in Denmark. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of CR on the costs of healthcare use and sick leave among heart valve surgery patients over 12 months post surgery. We conducted a nationwide survey on the CR participation of all patients having undergone valve surgery between 1 January 2011 and 30 June 2011 (n=667). Among the responders (n=500, 75%), the resource use categories of primary and secondary healthcare, prescription medication and sick leave were analysed for CR participants (n=277) and non-participants (n=223) over 12 months. A difference-in-difference analysis was undertaken. All estimates were presented as the means per patient (95% CI) based on non-parametric bootstrapping of SEs. Total costs during the 12 months following surgery were €16 065 per patient (95% CI 13 730 to 18 399) in the CR group and €15 182 (12 695 to 17 670) in the non-CR group. CR led to 5.6 (2.9 to 8.3, p<0.01) more outpatient visits per patient. No statistically significant differences in other cost categories or total costs €1330 (-4427 to 7086, p=0.65) were found between the groups. CR, as provided in Denmark, can be considered cost neutral. CR is associated with more outpatient visits, but CR participation potentially offsets more expensive outpatient visits. Further studies should investigate the benefits of CR to heart valve surgery patients as part of a formal cost-utility analysis.
Perrotti, Andrea; Vaislic, Claude; Chocron, Sidney
The preoperative and surgical management of a giant left ventricular pseudoaneurysm(LVP) associated with aortic valve replacement in a 76 year old male Jehovah’s Witness patient is reported. The satisfactory recovery observed in this patient demonstrates the feasibility of this complex surgical procedure even in this particular patient population. PMID:25478494
Rao, Aparna; Wallang, Batriti; Padhy, Tapas Ranjan; Mittal, Ruchi; Sharma, Savitri
To report a case of late postoperative endophthalmitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and conjunctival necrosis by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Mycobacterium fortuitum following Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) surgery in a young patient. Case report of a 13-year-old boy with purulent exudates and extensive conjunctival necrosis two months following amniotic membrane graft and conjunctival closure (for conjunctival retraction post AGV for secondary glaucoma). The conjunctiva showed extensive necrosis causing exposure of the tube and plate associated with frank exudates in the area adjoining the plate and anterior chamber mandating explantation of the plate along with intravitreal antibiotics. The vitreous aspirate grew Streptococcus pneumoniae while Streptococcus pneumoniae with Mycobacterium fortuitum was isolated from the explanted plate. Despite adequate control of infection following surgery, the final visual outcome was poor owing to disc pallor. Conjunctival necrosis and retraction post-AGV can cause late postoperative co-infections by fulminant and slow-growing organisms. A close follow-up is therefore essential in these cases to prevent sight-threatening complications.
Galloway, Aubrey C.; Grossi, Eugene A.; Bizekis, Costas S.; Ribakove, Greg; Ursomanno, Patricia; Delianides, Julie; Baumann, F. Gregory; Spencer, Frank C.; Colvin, Stephen B.
Objective To analyze the effectiveness of new techniques of mitral valve reconstruction (MVR) that have evolved over the last decade, such as aggressive anterior leaflet repair and minimally invasive surgery using an endoaortic balloon occluder. Summary Background Data MVR via conventional sternotomy has been an established treatment for mitral insufficiency for over 20 years, primarily for the treatment of patients with posterior leaflet prolapse. Methods Between June 1980 and June 2001, 1,195 consecutive patients had MVR with ring annuloplasty. Conventional sternotomy was used in 843 patients, minimally invasive surgery in 352 (since June 1996). Anterior leaflet repair was performed in 374 patients, with increasing use over the last 10 years. Follow-up was 100% complete (mean 4.6 years, range 0.5–20.5). Results Hospital mortality was 4.7% overall and 1.4% for isolated MVR (1.1% for minimally invasive surgery vs. 1.6% for conventional sternotomy;P = .4). Multivariate analysis showed the factors predictive of increased operative risk to be age, NYHA functional class, concomitant procedures, and previous cardiac surgery. The 5-year results for freedom from cardiac death, reoperation, and valve-related complications among the 782 patients with degenerative etiology are, respectively, as follows (P > .05 for all end points): for anterior leaflet repair, 93%, 94%, 90%; for no anterior leaflet repair, 91%, 92%, 91%; for minimally invasive surgery, 97%, 89%, 93%; and for conventional sternotomy, 93%, 94%, 90%. Conclusions These findings indicate that late results of MVR after minimally invasive surgery and after anterior leaflet repair are equivalent to those achievable with conventional sternotomy and posterior leaflet repair. These options significantly expand the range of patients suitable for mitral valve repair surgery and give further evidence to support wider use of minimally invasive techniques. PMID:12192315
Segal, Scott; Fox, John A.; Eltzschig, Holger K.; Shernan, Stanton K.
Objective Acute mitral stenosis (MS) following mitral valve (MV) repair is a rare but severe complication. We hypothesize that intraoperative echocardiography can be utilized to diagnose iatrogenic MS immediately after MV repair. Methods The medical records of 552 consecutive patients undergoing MV repair at a single institution were reviewed. Post-cardiopulmonary bypass peak and mean transmitral pressure gradients (TMPG), and pressure half time (PHT) were obtained from intraoperative transesophageal echocardiographic (TEE) examinations in each patient. Results Nine patients (9/552 = 1.6%) received a reoperation for primary MS, prior to hospital discharge. Interestingly, all of these patients already showed intraoperative post-CPB mean and peak TMPGs that were significantly higher compared to values for those who did not: 10.7±4.8 mmHg vs 2.9±1.6 mmHg; p<0.0001 and 22.9±7.9 mmHg vs 7.6±3.7 mmHg; p<0.0001, respectively. However, PHT varied considerably (87±37 ms; range: 20–439 ms) within the entire population, and only weakly predicted the requirement for reoperation (113±56 vs. 87±37 ms, p = 0.034). Receiver operating characteristic curves showed strong discriminating ability for mean gradients (AUC = 0.993) and peak gradients (area under the curve, AUC = 0.996), but poor performance for PHT (AUC = 0.640). A value of ≥7 mmHg for mean, and ≥17 mmHg for peak TMPG, best separated patients who required reoperation for MS from those who did not. Conclusions Intraoperative TEE diagnosis of a peak TMPG ≥17 mmHg or mean TMPG ≥7 mmHg immediately following CPB are suggestive of clinically relevant MS after MV repair. PMID:22087230
Lee, Chih-Hsien; Wei, Jeng
The prevalence of end-stage heart failure (HF) is on the increase, however, the availability of donor hearts remains limited. Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are increasingly being used for treating patients with end-stage HF. LVADs are not only used as a bridge to transplantation but also as a destination therapy. HeartMate II, a new-generation, continuous-flow LVAD (cf-LVAD), is currently an established treatment option for patients with HF. Technological progress and increasing implantation of cf-LVADs have significantly improved survival in patients with end-stage HF. Here we report a case of a patient with end-stage HF who was successfully supported using cf-LVAD implantation with adjuvant tricuspid valve repair in a general district hospital.
Grubitzsch, Herko; Christ, Torsten; Melzer, Christoph; Kastrup, Marc; Treskatsch, Sascha; Konertz, Wolfgang
Surgery for prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality as well as with increased resource utilization and costs. For risk and cost reduction, an understanding of contributing factors and interrelations is essential. Out of 1080 heart valve procedures performed between January 2010 and December 2012, 41 patients underwent surgery for PVE. Complete economic data were available for 30 of them (study cohort). The patients' mean age was 64 ± 12 years (range 37-79 years), and 73% were men. The clinical course was reviewed and morbidity, mortality and costs as well as associations between them were analysed. The cost matrix for each individual patient was obtained from the Institute for the Hospital Remuneration System (InEK GmbH, Germany). The median follow-up was 2.6 years [interquartile range (IQR) 3.7 years; 100% complete]. Preoperative status was critical (EuroSCORE II >20%) in 43% of patients. Staphylococci were the most common infecting micro-organisms (27%). The operative mortality rate (≤30 days) was 17%. At 1 year, the overall survival rate was 71 ± 9%. At least one disease- or surgery-related complication affected 21 patients (early morbidity 70%), >1 complication affected 12 patients (40%). There was neither a recurrence of endocarditis, nor was a reoperation required. The mean total hospital costs were 42.6 ± 37.4 Thousand Euro (T€), median 25.7 T€, IQR 28.4 T€ and >100 T€ in 10% of cases. Intensive care unit/intermediate care (ICU/IMC) and operation accounted for 40.4 ± 18.6 and 25.7 ± 12.1% of costs, respectively. There was a significant correlation (Pearson's sample correlation coefficient) between total costs and duration of hospital stay (r = 0.83, P < 0.001) and between ICU/IMC costs and duration of ICU/IMC stay (r = 0.97, P < 0.001). The median daily hospital costs were 1.8 T€/day, but >2.4 T€/day in 25% of patients (upper quartile). The following pattern of associations was identified
Meagher, H; Clarke Moloney, M; Grace, P A
The aim of this study is to assess the outcome of conservative management of infected mesh grafts following abdominal wall hernia repair. This study retrospectively examined the charts of patients who developed mesh-site infection following surgery for abdominal hernia repair to determine how effective conservative management in the form of antibiotics and wound management was on the resolution of infection and wound healing. Over a period of 30 months, 13 patients developed infected mesh grafts post-hernia repair surgery. Twelve patients were successfully treated conservatively with local wound care and antibiotics if clinically indicated. One patient returned to theatre to have the infected mesh removed. Of the patients that healed eleven were treated with negative pressure wound therapy (VAC(®)). This series of case studies indicate that conservative management of abdominal wall-infected hernia mesh cases is likely to be successful.
Borisenko, Oleg; Haude, Michael; Hoppe, Uta C; Siminiak, Tomasz; Lipiecki, Janusz; Goldberg, Steve L; Mehta, Nawzer; Bouknight, Omari V; Bjessmo, Staffan; Reuter, David G
To determine the cost-effectiveness of the percutaneous mitral valve repair (PMVR) using Carillon® Mitral Contour System® (Cardiac Dimensions Inc., Kirkland, WA, USA) in patients with congestive heart failure accompanied by moderate to severe functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) compared to the prolongation of optimal medical treatment (OMT). Cost-utility analysis using a combination of a decision tree and Markov process was performed. The clinical effectiveness was determined based on the results of the Transcatheter Implantation of Carillon Mitral Annuloplasty Device (TITAN) trial. The mean age of the target population was 62 years, 77% of the patients were males, 64% of the patients had severe FMR and all patients had New York Heart Association functional class III. The epidemiological, cost and utility data were derived from the literature. The analysis was performed from the German statutory health insurance perspective over 10-year time horizon. Over 10 years, the total cost was €36,785 in the PMVR arm and €18,944 in the OMT arm. However, PMVR provided additional benefits to patients with an 1.15 incremental quality-adjusted life years (QALY) and an 1.41 incremental life years. The percutaneous procedure was cost-effective in comparison to OMT with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of €15,533/QALY. Results were robust in the deterministic sensitivity analysis. In the probabilistic sensitivity analysis with a willingness-to-pay threshold of €35,000/QALY, PMVR had a 84 % probability of being cost-effective. Percutaneous mitral valve repair may be cost-effective in inoperable patients with FMR due to heart failure.
Zanobini, Marco; Ricciardi, Gabriella; Mammana, Francesco Liborio; Kassem, Samer; Poggio, Paolo; Di Minno, Alessandro; Cavallotti, L; Saccocci, Matteo
Leaflet resection represents the reference standard for surgical treatment of mitral valve (MV) regurgitation. New approaches recently proposed place emphasis on respecting, rather than resecting, the leaflet tissue to avoid the drawbacks of the 'resection' approach. The lateral dislocation of mid portion of mitral posterior leaflet (P2) technique for MV repair is a nonresectional technique in which the prolapsed P2 segment is sutured to normal P1 segment. Our study evaluates the effectiveness of this technique. We performed the procedure on seven patients. Once ring annular sutures were placed, the prolapsed P2 segment was dislocated toward the normal P1 segment with a rotation of 90° and without any resection. If present, residual clefts between P2 and P3 segments were closed. Once the absence of residual mitral regurgitation is confirmed by saline pressure test, ring annuloplasty was completed. The valve was evaluated using transesophageal echocardiography in the operating room and by transthoracic echocardiography before discharge. At the last follow-up visit, transthoracic echocardiography revealed no mitral regurgitation and normal TRANSVALVULAR gradients. The lateral dislocation of P2 is an easily fine-tuned technique for isolated P2 prolapse, with the advantage of short aortic cross-clamp and cardiopulmonary bypass times. We think it might be very favorable in older and frail patients. Long-term follow-up is necessary to assess the durability of this technique.
Rankin, Adam; Moore, John; Bainbridge, Daniel; Peters, Terry
In the past ten years, numerous new surgical and interventional techniques have been developed for treating heart valve disease without the need for cardiopulmonary bypass. Heart valve repair is now being performed in a blood-filled environment, reinforcing the need for accurate and intuitive imaging techniques. Previous work has demonstrated how augmenting ultrasound with virtual representations of specific anatomical landmarks can greatly simplify interventional navigation challenges and increase patient safety. These techniques often complicate interventions by requiring additional steps taken to manually define and initialize virtual models. Furthermore, overlaying virtual elements into real-time image data can also obstruct the view of salient image information. To address these limitations, a system was developed that uses real-time volumetric ultrasound alongside magnetically tracked tools presented in an augmented virtuality environment to provide a streamlined navigation guidance platform. In phantom studies simulating a beating-heart navigation task, procedure duration and tool path metrics have achieved comparable performance to previous work in augmented virtuality techniques, and considerable improvement over standard of care ultrasound guidance.
Lomivorotov, Vladimir V; Efremov, Sergey M; Boboshko, Vladimir A; Nikolaev, Dmitry A; Vedernikov, Pavel E; Shilova, Anna N; Lomivorotov, Vladimir N; Karaskov, Alexander M
The study aim was to detect the most sensitive nutritional screening tool and to assess its prognostic value with regards to an adverse clinical course in patients with heart valve disease undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). This prospective cohort study included 441 adult patients who were screened using four nutritional screening tools: Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002); Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST); Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA); and Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire (SNAQ). Nutritional assessment was performed using a Subjective Global Assessment (SGA). In-hospital mortality, postoperative complications, and duration of hospital stay were each analyzed. With regards to the detection of malnutrition, the sensitivities of MUST, SNAQ, MNA and NRS-2002 were 100%, 92%, 84.6% and 43.6%, respectively. Malnutrition identified by MUST and MNA were associated with postoperative complications (OR 1.63, p = 0.033 and OR 1.6, p = 0.035) and prolonged hospitalization (OR 1.57, p = 0.048 and OR 1.7, p = 0.02). According to multivariate logistic regression analysis, along with well-known age and duration of CPB, malnutrition identified by MUST and MNA was associated with a risk of development of complications (OR 1.6, p = 0.049 and OR 1.6, p = 0.04, respectively). The sensitivities of SNAQ, MUST, NRS-2002 and MNA with regards to postoperative complications were 26.8%, 28.8%, 10%, and 31.6%, respectively. The MUST tool is preferable with regards to the detection of malnutrition. Both, MUST and MNA independently predicted postoperative complications. SNAQ and NRS-2002 proved insensitive with regards to the postoperative course among patients with heart valve disease who were scheduled for cardiothoracic surgery.
Xu, Jia-Rui; Zhuang, Ya-Min; Liu, Lan; Shen, Bo; Wang, Yi-Mei; Luo, Zhe; Teng, Jie; Wang, Chun-Sheng; Ding, Xiao-Qiang
Objective To evaluate the impact of the renal dysfunction (RD) type and change of postoperative cardiac function on the risk of developing acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients who underwent cardiac valve surgery. Method Reversible renal dysfunction (RRD) was defined as preoperative RD in patients who had not been initially diagnosed with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Cardiac function improvement (CFI) was defined as postoperative left ventricular ejection function – preoperative left ventricular ejection function (ΔEF) >0%, and cardiac function not improved (CFNI) as ΔEF ≤0%. Results Of the 4,805 (94%) cardiac valve surgery patients, 301 (6%) were RD cases. The AKI incidence in the RRD group (n=252) was significantly lower than in the CKD group (n=49) (36.5% vs 63.3%, P=0.018). The AKI and renal replacement therapy incidences in the CFI group (n=174) were significantly lower than in the CFNI group (n=127) (33.9% vs 50.4%, P=0.004; 6.3% vs 13.4%, P=0.037). After adjustment for age, gender, and other confounding factors, CKD and CKD + CFNI were identified as independent risk factors for AKI in all patients after cardiac valve surgery. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the risk factors for postoperative AKI in preoperative RD patients were age, gender (male), hypertension, diabetes, chronic heart failure, cardiopulmonary bypass time (every 1 min added), and intraoperative hypotension, while CFI after surgery could reduce the risk. Conclusion For cardiac valve surgery patients, preoperative CKD was an independent risk factor for postoperative AKI, but RRD did not add to the risk. Improved postoperative cardiac function can significantly reduce the risk of postoperative AKI. PMID:29184415
Pugliese, P; Pantani, P; Lusa, A M; Nuti, R; Bongiovanni, M; Conti, F; Biasi, C; Pigini, F; Palmisano, D
Mitral and tricuspid valve asymmetric annular dilation represents the most important mechanism which produces insufficiency. Recent computerized in vitro and in vivo three-dimensional models have been developed in order to better understand the competing factors (annular dilation, displacement of papillary muscles, left and right ventricular geometry). The leading cause of mitral and tricuspid competence is a sphincteric action of both annuli, during systole and diastole, the loss of which produces asymmetric dilation and therefore the absence of cusp coaptation. The Cosgrove-Edwards dynamic ring corrects, alone or in combination with other procedures on the valves, this patho-anatomic feature in a physiological way by restoring the normal annular dimensions and the sphincteric movements during the cardiac cycle. Between June 1998 and May 1999, 30 adult patients underwent mitral (n = 20, Group I) or tricuspid valve repair (n = 10, Group II). Regurgitation was due to a degenerative disease in 13 Group I patients and to ischemic (n = 3), congenital (n = 2) or dilated cardiomyopathy (n = 2) in the others. In Group II the leading cause of insufficiency was functional regurgitation in 7 patients and organic in 3. Associated procedures were carried out in 4 Group I patients and in all Group II patients. Regurgitation was evaluated by transesophageal echocardiography before, during and 3 months after operation. The maximal regurgitant area (MRA) and the grade of insufficiency were evaluated using the equation: MRA < 2 cm2 = grade 0, MRA > 2 < 4 cm2 = 1+, MRA > 4 < 7 cm2 = grade 2+, MRA > 7 < 10 cm2 = 3+, MRA > 10 cm2 = 4+. The operative mortality was 0%. One Group I patient died 3 months after operation due to bronchopneumonia. No patient was reoperated on for plasty failure in both groups during the follow-up. Mitral insufficiency was absent (grade 0) in 17 Group I patients and mild (grade 1+) in 3 at the end of operation. At 3-month postoperative transesophageal
Patzelt, Johannes; Zhang, Yingying; Magunia, Harry; Jorbenadze, Rezo; Droppa, Michal; Ulrich, Miriam; Cai, Shanglang; Lausberg, Henning; Walker, Tobias; Wengenmayer, Tobias; Rosenberger, Peter; Schreieck, Juergen; Seizer, Peter; Gawaz, Meinrad; Langer, Harald F
Successful percutaneous mitral valve repair (PMVR) in patients with severe mitral regurgitation (MR) causes changes in hemodynamics. Echocardiographic calculation of cardiac output (CO) has not been evaluated in the setting of PMVR, so far. Here we evaluated hemodynamics before and after PMVR with the MitraClip system using pulmonary artery catheterization, transthoracic (TTE) and transesophageal (TEE) echocardiography. 101 patients with severe MR not eligible for conventional surgery underwent PMVR. Hemodynamic parameters were determined during and after the intervention. We evaluated changes in CO and pulmonary artery systolic pressure before and after PMVR. CO was determined with invasive parameters using the Fick method (COi) and by a combination of TTE and TEE (COe). All patients had successful clip implantation, which was associated with increased COi (from 4.6±1.4l/min to 5.4±1.6l/min, p<0.001). Furthermore, pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) showed a significant decrease after PMVR (47.6±16.1 before, 44.7±15.5mmHg after, p=0.01). In accordance with invasive measurements, COe increased significantly (COe from 4.3±1.7l/min to 4.8±1.7l/min, p=0.003). Comparing both methods to calculate CO, we observed good agreement between COi and COe using Bland Altman plots. CO increased significantly after PMVR as determined by echocardiography based and invasive calculation of hemodynamics during PMVR. COe shows good agreement with COi before and after the intervention and, thus, represents a potential non-invasive method to determine CO in patients with MR not accessible by conventional surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yucel, Selcuk; Sanli, Ahmet; Kukul, Erdal; Karaguzel, Gungor; Melikoglu, Mustafa; Guntekin, Erol
Midline dorsal plication is an efficient and safe surgical technique to correct chordee. We investigated the efficacy of midline dorsal plication for recurrent chordee in complicated hypospadias reoperations. We retrospectively evaluated the charts of 25 boys who underwent reoperation between 1999 and 2004 due to complications of primary hypospadias repair other than meatal stenosis. A total of 15 cases were initially managed elsewhere for primary repair or complications. The etiology of recurrent chordee was defined at surgical correction. When recurrent chordee was noted a midline dorsal plication was performed. Of 25 patients 10 had previously undergone chordee repair. Nine of these patients were observed to have recurrent chordee and 1 had de novo chordee. A total of 10 patients had recurrent or delayed onset chordee. Mean patient age at primary repair was 6.28 years (range 1 to 33). Mean age at last operation for chordee was 15.9 years (range 4 to 66). Mean interval to recurrent chordee was 6 years (range 1 to 16), excluding a 66-year-old blind patient who did not know when recurrent chordee developed. Five patients had chordee recur before puberty at a mean interval of 2.6 years. Mean reoperation rate was 2.4 for recurrent chordee cases and 2.6 for chordee-free cases. Mean followup after midline dorsal plication for recurrent chordee repair was 22 months (range 8 to 56), while mean followup in pubertal and postpubertal cases was 20 months. No recurrence of chordee or surgery related morbidity was observed after recurrent chordee repair by midline dorsal plication. Chordee may recur during puberty following successful chordee repair. The midline dorsal plication technique is simple, efficient and safe even in patients who have undergone multiple surgeries for hypospadias and chordee repair.
Leone, Alessandro; Bruno, Piergiorgio; Cammertoni, Federico; Massetti, Massimo
Valve-sparing operations for the treatment of aortic root disease with a structurally normal aortic valve are increasingly performed as they avoid prosthesis-related complications. Short- and long-term results are critically dependent on perfect intraoperative restoration of valve anatomy and function. Residual aortic regurgitation is the main cause of early failure, and it is the most common motive for reoperation. However, intraoperative morphofunctional valve assessment requires expertise, and only transesophageal echocardiography can provide reliable information. We describe a simple, economic, reproducible hydrostatic test to intraoperatively evaluate valve competency under direct visualization. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cools, Bjorn; Brown, Stephen C; Heying, Ruth; Jansen, Katrijn; Boshoff, Derize E; Budts, Werner; Gewillig, Marc
Pulmonary regurgitation (PR) following surgery of the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) is not innocent and leads to significant right heart dysfunction over time. Recent studies have demonstrated that percutaneous valves can be implanted in conduit free outflow tracts with good outcomes. To evaluate in patients with severe PR--anticipated to require future pulmonary valve replacement--the feasibility and safety of pre-stenting dilated non-stenotic patched conduit-free right ventricular outflow tracts before excessive dilation occurs, followed by percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation (PPVI). Twenty seven patients were evaluated, but only 23 were deemed suitable based on the presence of an adequate retention zone ≤ 24 mm defined by semi-compliant balloon interrogation of the RVOT. A 2 step procedure was performed: first the landing zone was prepared by deploying a bare stent, followed 2 months later by valve implantation. RVOT pre-stenting with an open cell bare metal stent (Andrastent XXL range) was performed at a median age of 13.0 years (range: 6.0-44.9) with a median weight of 44.3 kg (range: 20.0-88.0). Ninety six percent (22/23) of patients proceeded to PPVI a median of 2.4 months (range: 1.4-3.4) after initial pre-stent placement. Twenty one Melody valves and one 26 mm Edwards SAPIEN™ valve were implanted. Complications consisted of embolization of prestent (n = 1), scrunching (n = 4) and mild stent dislocation (n = 2). During follow-up, no stent fractures were observed and right ventricular dimensions decreased significantly. Post-surgical conduit-free non-stenotic RVOT with free pulmonary regurgitation can be treated percutaneously with a valved stent if anatomical (predominantly size) criteria are met. In experienced hands, the technique is feasible with low morbidity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Synergistic Utility of Brain Natriuretic Peptide and Left Ventricular Global Longitudinal Strain in Asymptomatic Patients With Significant Primary Mitral Regurgitation and Preserved Systolic Function Undergoing Mitral Valve Surgery.
Alashi, Alaa; Mentias, Amgad; Patel, Krishna; Gillinov, A Marc; Sabik, Joseph F; Popović, Zoran B; Mihaljevic, Tomislav; Suri, Rakesh M; Rodriguez, L Leonardo; Svensson, Lars G; Griffin, Brian P; Desai, Milind Y
In asymptomatic patients with ≥3+ mitral regurgitation and preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction who underwent mitral valve surgery, we sought to discover whether baseline LV global longitudinal strain (LV-GLS) and brain natriuretic peptide provided incremental prognostic utility. Four hundred and forty-eight asymptomatic patients (61±12 years and 69% men) with ≥3+ primary mitral regurgitation and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction, who underwent mitral valve surgery (92% repair) at our center between 2005 and 2008, were studied. Baseline clinical and echocardiographic data (including LV-GLS using Velocity Vector Imaging, Siemens, PA) were recorded. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons score was calculated. The primary outcome was death. Mean Society of Thoracic Surgeons score, left ventricular ejection fraction, mitral effective regurgitant orifice, indexed LV end-diastolic volume, and right ventricular systolic pressure were 4±1%, 62±3%, 0.55±0.2 cm(2), 58±13 cc/m(2), and 37±15 mm Hg, respectively. Forty-five percent of patients had flail. Median log-transformed BNP and LV-GLS were 4.04 (absolute brain natriuretic peptide: 60 pg/dL) and -20.7%. At 7.7±2 years, death occurred in 41 patients (9%; 0% at 30 days). On Cox analysis, a higher Society of Thoracic Surgeons score (hazard ratio 1.55), higher baseline right ventricular systolic pressure (hazard ratio 1.11), more abnormal LV-GLS (hazard ratio 1.17), and higher median log-transformed BNP (hazard ratio 2.26) were associated with worse longer-term survival (all P<0.01). Addition of LV-GLS and median log-transformed BNP to a clinical model (Society of Thoracic Surgeons score and baseline right ventricular systolic pressure) provided incremental prognostic utility (χ(2) for longer-term mortality increased from 31-47 to 61; P<0.001). In asymptomatic patients with significant primary mitral regurgitation and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction who underwent mitral valve
Fucci, Carlo; Faggiano, Pompilio; Nardi, Matilde; D'Aloia, Antonio; Coletti, Giuseppe; De Cicco, Giuseppe; Latini, Leonardo; Vizzardi, Enrico; Lorusso, Roberto
Barlow disease represents a surgical challenge for mitral valve repair (MR) in the presence of mitral insufficiency (MI) with multiple regurgitant jets. We hereby present our mid-term experience using a modified edge-to-edge technique to address this peculiar MI. From March 2003 till December 2010, 25 consecutive patients (mean age 54 ± 7 years, 14 males) affected by severe Barlow disease with multiple regurgitant jets were submitted to MR. Preoperative transesophageal echo (TEE) in all the cases showed at least 2 regurgitant jets, involving one or both leaflets in more than one segment. In all the patients, a triple orifice valve (TOV) repair with annuloplasty was performed. Intra-operative TEE and postoperative transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) were carried out to evaluate results of the TOV repair. There was no in-hospital death and one late death (non-cardiac related). At intra-operative TEE, the three orifices showed a mean total valve area of 2.9 ± 0.1cm(2) (range 2.5-3.3 cm(2)) with no residual regurgitation (2 cases of trivial MI) and no sign of valve stenosis (mean transvalvular gradient 4.6 ± 1.5 mmHg). At follow up (mean 38 ± 22 months), TTE showed favourable MR and no recurrence of significant MI (6 cases of trivial and 1 of mild MI). Stress TTE was performed in 5 cases showing persistent effective valve function (2 cases of trivial MI at peak exercise). All the patients showed significant NYHA functional class improvement. This report indicates that the TOV technique is effective in correcting complex Barlow mitral valves with multiple jets. Further studies are required to confirm long-term applicability and durability in more numerous clinical cases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Currie, Maria E; Trejos, Ana Luisa; Rayman, Reiza; Chu, Michael W A; Patel, Rajni; Peters, Terry; Kiaii, Bob B
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of three-dimensional (3D) binocular, stereoscopic, and two-dimensional (2D) monocular visualization on robotics-assisted mitral valve annuloplasty versus conventional techniques in an ex vivo animal model. In addition, we sought to determine whether these effects were consistent between novices and experts in robotics-assisted cardiac surgery. A cardiac surgery test-bed was constructed to measure forces applied during mitral valve annuloplasty. Sutures were passed through the porcine mitral valve annulus by the participants with different levels of experience in robotics-assisted surgery and tied in place using both robotics-assisted and conventional surgery techniques. The mean time for both the experts and the novices using 3D visualization was significantly less than that required using 2D vision (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in the maximum force applied by the novices to the mitral valve during suturing (P = 0.7) and suture tying (P = 0.6) using either 2D or 3D visualization. The mean time required and forces applied by both the experts and the novices were significantly less using the conventional surgical technique than when using the robotic system with either 2D or 3D vision (P < 0.001). Despite high-quality binocular images, both the experts and the novices applied significantly more force to the cardiac tissue during 3D robotics-assisted mitral valve annuloplasty than during conventional open mitral valve annuloplasty. This finding suggests that 3D visualization does not fully compensate for the absence of haptic feedback in robotics-assisted cardiac surgery.
Ross, J W; Preston, M R
Advanced laparoscopic surgery marked the beginning of minimally invasive pelvic surgery. This technique lead to the development of laparoscopic hysterectomy, colposuspension, paravaginal repair, uterosacral suspension, and sacrocolpopexy without an abdominal incision. With laparoscopy there is a significant decrease in postoperative pain, shorter length of hospital stay, and a faster return to normal activities. These advantages made laparoscopy very appealing to patients. Advanced laparoscopy requires a special set of surgical skills and in the early phase of development training was not readily available. Advanced laparoscopy was developed by practicing physicians, instead of coming down through the more usual academic channels. The need for special training did hinder widespread acceptance. Nonetheless by physician to physician training and society training courses it has continued to grow and now has been incorporated in most medical school curriculums. In the last few years there has been new interest in laparoscopy because of the development of robotic assistance. The 3D vision and 720 degree articulating arms with robotics have made suture intensive procedures much easier. Laparosco-pic robotic-assisted sacrocolpopexy is in the reach of most surgeons. This field is so new that there is very little data to evaluate at this time. There are short comings with laparoscopy and even with robotic-assisted procedures it is not the cure all for pelvic floor surgery. Laparoscopic procedures are long and many patients requiring pelvic floor surgery have medical conditions preventing long anesthesia. Minimally invasive vaginal surgery has developed from the concept of tissue replacement by synthetic mesh. Initially sheets of synthetic mesh were tailored by physicians to repair the anterior and posterior vaginal compartment. The use of mesh by general surgeons for hernia repair has served as a model for urogynecology. There have been rapid improvements in biomaterials
Monshizadeh, R; Haimovici, R
1. Idiopathic macular hole was once thought to be an untreatable disorder. During the past several years, surgical techniques have evolved that allow for closure of the macular hole, with restoration of vision in many cases. 2. Perfluorocarbon liquids are an important class of compounds that are under investigation for use in vitreoretinal surgery. The use of these compounds facilitates the performance of intraocular surgical maneuvers in certain difficult-to-manage vitreoretinal disorders. These substances have a high specific gravity and are able to displace water within the eye, facilitating reattachment of the retina in certain types of retinal detachments such as those associated with proliferative vitreoretinopathy and giant retinal tears. PFCLs also aid in the removal of intravitreal lens fragments or foreign bodies and in the repositioning or removal of dislocated intraocular lenses. 3. Ophthalmic nurses and technicians can play an important role in initial screening for these patients. Detection of symptoms may lead to early diagnosis of idiopathic macular hole and subsequent treatment. Patient education emphasizing topics such as the importance of strict postoperative face-down head positioning may be critical for successful surgery.
Engelhardt, Sandy; Kolb, Silvio; De Simone, Raffaele; Karck, Matthias; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Wolf, Ivo
Mitral valve annuloplasty describes a surgical procedure where an artificial prosthesis is sutured onto the anatomical structure of the mitral annulus to re-establish the valve's functionality. Choosing an appropriate commercially available ring size and shape is a difficult decision the surgeon has to make intraoperatively according to his experience. In our augmented-reality framework, digitalized ring models are superimposed onto endoscopic image streams without using any additional hardware. To place the ring model on the proper position within the endoscopic image plane, a pose estimation is performed that depends on the localization of sutures placed by the surgeon around the leaflet origins and punctured through the stiffer structure of the annulus. In this work, the tissue penetration points are tracked by the real-time capable Lucas Kanade optical flow algorithm. The accuracy and robustness of this tracking algorithm is investigated with respect to the question whether outliers influence the subsequent pose estimation. Our results suggest that optical flow is very stable for a variety of different endoscopic scenes and tracking errors do not affect the position of the superimposed virtual objects in the scene, making this approach a viable candidate for annuloplasty augmented reality-enhanced decision support.
Chirouze, Catherine; Alla, François; Fowler, Vance G.; Sexton, Daniel J.; Corey, G. Ralph; Chu, Vivian H.; Wang, Andrew; Erpelding, Marie-Line; Durante-Mangoni, Emanuele; Fernández-Hidalgo, Nuria; Giannitsioti, Efthymia; Hannan, Margaret M.; Lejko-Zupanc, Tatjana; Miró, José M.; Muñoz, Patricia; Murdoch, David R.; Tattevin, Pierre; Tribouilloy, Christophe; Hoen, Bruno; Clara, Liliana; Sanchez, Marisa; Nacinovich, Francisco; Oses, Pablo Fernandez; Ronderos, Ricardo; Sucari, Adriana; Thierer, Jorge; Casabé, José; Cortes, Claudia; Altclas, Javier; Kogan, Silvia; Spelman, Denis; Athan, Eugene; Harris, Owen; Kennedy, Karina; Tan, Ren; Gordon, David; Papanicolas, Lito; Eisen, Damon; Grigg, Leeanne; Street, Alan; Korman, Tony; Kotsanas, Despina; Dever, Robyn; Jones, Phillip; Konecny, Pam; Lawrence, Richard; Rees, David; Ryan, Suzanne; Feneley, Michael P.; Harkness, John; Jones, Phillip; Ryan, Suzanne; Jones, Phillip; Ryan, Suzanne; Jones, Phillip; Post, Jeffrey; Reinbott, Porl; Ryan, Suzanne; Gattringer, Rainer; Wiesbauer, Franz; Andrade, Adriana Ribas; de Brito, Ana Cláudia Passos; Guimarães, Armenio Costa; Grinberg, Max; Mansur, Alfredo José; Siciliano, Rinaldo Focaccia; Strabelli, Tania Mara Varejao; Vieira, Marcelo Luiz Campos; de Medeiros Tranchesi, Regina Aparecida; Paiva, Marcelo Goulart; Fortes, Claudio Querido; de Oliveira Ramos, Auristela; Ferraiuoli, Giovanna; Golebiovski, Wilma; Lamas, Cristiane; Santos, Marisa; Weksler, Clara; Karlowsky, James A.; Keynan, Yoav; Morris, Andrew M.; Rubinstein, Ethan; Jones, Sandra Braun; Garcia, Patricia; Cereceda, M; Fica, Alberto; Mella, Rodrigo Montagna; Barsic, Bruno; Bukovski, Suzana; Krajinovic, Vladimir; Pangercic, Ana; Rudez, Igor; Vincelj, Josip; Freiberger, Tomas; Pol, Jiri; Zaloudikova, Barbora; Ashour, Zainab; El Kholy, Amani; Mishaal, Marwa; Rizk, Hussien; Aissa, Neijla; Alauzet, Corentine; Alla, Francois; Campagnac, Catherine; Doco-Lecompte, Thanh; Selton-Suty, Christine; Casalta, Jean-Paul; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Habib, Gilbert; Raoult, Didier; Thuny, Franck; Delahaye, François; Delahaye, Armelle; Vandenesch, Francois; Donal, Erwan; Donnio, Pierre Yves; Michelet, Christian; Revest, Matthieu; Tattevin, Pierre; Violette, Jérémie; Chevalier, Florent; Jeu, Antoine; Sorel, Claire; Tribouilloy, Christophe; Bernard, Yvette; Chirouze, Catherine; Hoen, Bruno; Leroy, Joel; Plesiat, Patrick; Naber, Christoph; Neuerburg, Carl; Mazaheri, Bahram; Naber, Christoph; Neuerburg, Carl; Athanasia, Sofia; Giannitsioti, Efthymia; Mylona, Elena; Paniara, Olga; Papanicolaou, Konstantinos; Pyros, John; Skoutelis, Athanasios; Sharma, Gautam; Francis, Johnson; Nair, Lathi; Thomas, Vinod; Venugopal, Krishnan; Hannan, Margaret; Hurley, John; Gilon, Dan; Israel, Sarah; Korem, Maya; Strahilevitz, Jacob; Rubinstein, Ethan; Strahilevitz, Jacob; Casillo, Roberta; Cuccurullo, Susanna; Dialetto, Giovanni; Durante-Mangoni, Emanuele; Irene, Mattucci; Ragone, Enrico; Tripodi, Marie Françoise; Utili, Riccardo; Cecchi, Enrico; De Rosa, Francesco; Forno, Davide; Imazio, Massimo; Trinchero, Rita; Tebini, Alessandro; Grossi, Paolo; Lattanzio, Mariangela; Toniolo, Antonio; Goglio, Antonio; Raglio, Annibale; Ravasio, Veronica; Rizzi, Marco; Suter, Fredy; Carosi, Giampiero; Magri, Silvia; Signorini, Liana; Baban, Tania; Kanafani, Zeina; Kanj, Souha S.; Yasmine, Mohamad; Abidin, Imran; Tamin, Syahidah Syed; Martínez, Eduardo Rivera; Soto Nieto, Gabriel Israel; van der Meer, Jan T.M.; Chambers, Stephen; Holland, David; Morris, Arthur; Raymond, Nigel; Read, Kerry; Murdoch, David R.; Dragulescu, Stefan; Ionac, Adina; Mornos, Cristian; Butkevich, O.M.; Chipigina, Natalia; Kirill, Ozerecky; Vadim, Kulichenko; Vinogradova, Tatiana; Edathodu, Jameela; Halim, Magid; Lum, Luh-Nah; Tan, Ru-San; Lejko-Zupanc, Tatjana; Logar, Mateja; Mueller-Premru, Manica; Commerford, Patrick; Commerford, Anita; Deetlefs, Eduan; Hansa, Cass; Ntsekhe, Mpiko; Almela, Manuel; Armero, Yolanda; Azqueta, Manuel; Castañeda, Ximena; Cervera, Carlos; del Rio, Ana; Falces, Carlos; Garcia-de-la-Maria, Cristina; Fita, Guillermina; Gatell, Jose M.; Marco, Francesc; Mestres, Carlos A.; Miró, José M.; Moreno, Asuncion; Ninot, Salvador; Paré, Carlos; Pericas, Joan; Ramirez, Jose; Rovira, Irene; Sitges, Marta; Anguera, Ignasi; Font, Bernat; Guma, Joan Raimon; Bermejo, Javier; Bouza, Emilio; Fernández, Miguel Angel Garcia; Gonzalez-Ramallo, Victor; Marín, Mercedes; Muñoz, Patricia; Pedromingo, Miguel; Roda, Jorge; Rodríguez-Créixems, Marta; Solis, Jorge; Almirante, Benito; Fernandez-Hidalgo, Nuria; Tornos, Pilar; de Alarcón, Arístides; Parra, Ricardo; Alestig, Eric; Johansson, Magnus; Olaison, Lars; Snygg-Martin, Ulrika; Pachirat, Orathai; Pachirat, Pimchitra; Pussadhamma, Burabha; Senthong, Vichai; Casey, Anna; Elliott, Tom; Lambert, Peter; Watkin, Richard; Eyton, Christina; Klein, John L.; Bradley, Suzanne; Kauffman, Carol; Bedimo, Roger; Chu, Vivian H.; Corey, G. Ralph; Crowley, Anna Lisa; Douglas, Pamela; Drew, Laura; Fowler, Vance G.; Holland, Thomas; Lalani, Tahaniyat; Mudrick, Daniel; Samad, Zaniab; Sexton, Daniel; Stryjewski, Martin; Wang, Andrew; Woods, Christopher W.; Lerakis, Stamatios; Cantey, Robert; Steed, Lisa; Wray, Dannah; Dickerman, Stuart A.; Bonilla, Hector; DiPersio, Joseph; Salstrom, Sara-Jane; Baddley, John; Patel, Mukesh; Peterson, Gail; Stancoven, Amy; Afonso, Luis; Kulman, Theresa; Levine, Donald; Rybak, Michael; Cabell, Christopher H.; Baloch, Khaula; Chu, Vivian H.; Corey, G. Ralph; Dixon, Christy C.; Fowler, Vance G.; Harding, Tina; Jones-Richmond, Marian; Pappas, Paul; Park, Lawrence P.; Redick, Thomas; Stafford, Judy; Anstrom, Kevin; Athan, Eugene; Bayer, Arnold S.; Cabell, Christopher H.; Chu, Vivian H.; Corey, G. Ralph; Fowler, Vance G.; Hoen, Bruno; Karchmer, A. W.; Miró, José M.; Murdoch, David R.; Sexton, Daniel J.; Wang, Andrew; Bayer, Arnold S.; Cabell, Christopher H.; Chu, Vivian; Corey, G. Ralph; Durack, David T.; Eykyn, Susannah; Fowler, Vance G.; Hoen, Bruno; Miró, José M.; Moreillon, Phillipe; Olaison, Lars; Raoult, Didier; Rubinstein, Ethan; Sexton, Daniel J.
Background. The impact of early valve surgery (EVS) on the outcome of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) prosthetic valve infective endocarditis (PVIE) is unresolved. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between EVS, performed within the first 60 days of hospitalization, and outcome of SA PVIE within the International Collaboration on Endocarditis–Prospective Cohort Study. Methods. Participants were enrolled between June 2000 and December 2006. Cox proportional hazards modeling that included surgery as a time-dependent covariate and propensity adjustment for likelihood to receive cardiac surgery was used to evaluate the impact of EVS and 1-year all-cause mortality on patients with definite left-sided S. aureus PVIE and no history of injection drug use. Results. EVS was performed in 74 of the 168 (44.3%) patients. One-year mortality was significantly higher among patients with S. aureus PVIE than in patients with non–S. aureus PVIE (48.2% vs 32.9%; P = .003). Staphylococcus aureus PVIE patients who underwent EVS had a significantly lower 1-year mortality rate (33.8% vs 59.1%; P = .001). In multivariate, propensity-adjusted models, EVS was not associated with 1-year mortality (risk ratio, 0.67 [95% confidence interval, .39–1.15]; P = .15). Conclusions. In this prospective, multinational cohort of patients with S. aureus PVIE, EVS was not associated with reduced 1-year mortality. The decision to pursue EVS should be individualized for each patient, based upon infection-specific characteristics rather than solely upon the microbiology of the infection causing PVIE. PMID:25389255
Chirouze, Catherine; Alla, François; Fowler, Vance G; Sexton, Daniel J; Corey, G Ralph; Chu, Vivian H; Wang, Andrew; Erpelding, Marie-Line; Durante-Mangoni, Emanuele; Fernández-Hidalgo, Nuria; Giannitsioti, Efthymia; Hannan, Margaret M; Lejko-Zupanc, Tatjana; Miró, José M; Muñoz, Patricia; Murdoch, David R; Tattevin, Pierre; Tribouilloy, Christophe; Hoen, Bruno
The impact of early valve surgery (EVS) on the outcome of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) prosthetic valve infective endocarditis (PVIE) is unresolved. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between EVS, performed within the first 60 days of hospitalization, and outcome of SA PVIE within the International Collaboration on Endocarditis-Prospective Cohort Study. Participants were enrolled between June 2000 and December 2006. Cox proportional hazards modeling that included surgery as a time-dependent covariate and propensity adjustment for likelihood to receive cardiac surgery was used to evaluate the impact of EVS and 1-year all-cause mortality on patients with definite left-sided S. aureus PVIE and no history of injection drug use. EVS was performed in 74 of the 168 (44.3%) patients. One-year mortality was significantly higher among patients with S. aureus PVIE than in patients with non-S. aureus PVIE (48.2% vs 32.9%; P = .003). Staphylococcus aureus PVIE patients who underwent EVS had a significantly lower 1-year mortality rate (33.8% vs 59.1%; P = .001). In multivariate, propensity-adjusted models, EVS was not associated with 1-year mortality (risk ratio, 0.67 [95% confidence interval, .39-1.15]; P = .15). In this prospective, multinational cohort of patients with S. aureus PVIE, EVS was not associated with reduced 1-year mortality. The decision to pursue EVS should be individualized for each patient, based upon infection-specific characteristics rather than solely upon the microbiology of the infection causing PVIE. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Lee, Yeong Seok; Jeong, Jeung Yeol; Park, Chan-Deok; Kang, Seung Gyoon; Yoo, Jae Chul
A retear is a significant clinical problem after rotator cuff repair. However, no study has evaluated the retear rate with regard to the extent of footprint coverage. To evaluate the preoperative and intraoperative factors for a retear after rotator cuff repair, and to confirm the relationship with the extent of footprint coverage. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Data were retrospectively collected from 693 patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair between January 2006 and December 2014. All repairs were classified into 4 types of completeness of repair according to the amount of footprint coverage at the end of surgery. All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after a mean postoperative duration of 5.4 months. Preoperative demographic data, functional scores, range of motion, and global fatty degeneration on preoperative MRI and intraoperative variables including the tear size, completeness of rotator cuff repair, concomitant subscapularis repair, number of suture anchors used, repair technique (single-row or transosseous-equivalent double-row repair), and surgical duration were evaluated. Furthermore, the factors associated with failure using the single-row technique and transosseous-equivalent double-row technique were analyzed separately. The retear rate was 7.22%. Univariate analysis revealed that rotator cuff retears were affected by age; the presence of inflammatory arthritis; the completeness of rotator cuff repair; the initial tear size; the number of suture anchors; mean operative time; functional visual analog scale scores; Simple Shoulder Test findings; American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores; and fatty degeneration of the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and subscapularis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed patient age, initial tear size, and fatty degeneration of the supraspinatus as independent risk factors for a rotator cuff retear. Multivariate logistic regression analysis of the single-row group
Habib, G; Tribouilloy, C; Thuny, F; Giorgi, R; Brahim, A; Amazouz, M; Remadi, J-P; Nadji, G; Casalta, J-P; Coviaux, F; Avierinos, J-F; Lescure, X; Riberi, A; Weiller, P-J; Metras, D; Raoult, D
Objectives: To identify the prognostic markers of a bad outcome in a large population of 104 patients with prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE), and to study the influence of medical versus surgical strategy on outcome in PVE and thus to identify patients for whom surgery may be beneficial. Design: Multicentre study. Methods and results: Among 104 patients, 22 (21%) died in hospital. Factors associated with in-hospital death were severe co-morbidity (6% of survivors v 41% of those who died, p = 0.05), renal failure (28% v 45%, p = 0.05), moderate to severe regurgitation (22% v 54%, p = 0.006), staphylococcal infection (16% v 54%, p = 0.001), severe heart failure (22% v 64%, p = 0.001), and occurrence of any complication (60% v 90%, p = 0.05). By multivariate analysis, severe heart failure (odds ratio 5.5) and Staphylococcus aureus infection (odds ratio 6.1) were the only independent predictors of in-hospital death. Among 82 in-hospital survivors, 21 (26%) died during a 32 month follow up. A Cox proportional hazards model identified early PVE, co-morbidity, severe heart failure, staphylococcus infection, and new prosthetic dehiscence as independent predictors of long term mortality. Mortality was not significantly different between surgical and non-surgical patients (17% v 25%, respectively, not significant). However, both in-hospital and long term mortality were reduced by a surgical approach in high risk subgroups of patients with staphylococcal PVE and complicated PVE. Conclusions: Firstly, PVE not only carries a high in-hospital mortality risk but also is associated with high long term mortality and needs close follow up after the initial episode. Secondly, congestive heart failure, early PVE, staphylococcal infection, and complicated PVE are associated with a bad outcome. Thirdly, subgroups of patients could be identified for whom surgery is associated with a better outcome: patients with staphylococcal and complicated PVE
Toprak, Cuneyt; Kahveci, Gokhan; Kilicgedik, Alev; Pala, Selcuk; Kirma, Cevat; Tabakci, Mehmet Mustafa; Inanir, Mehmet; Esen, Ali Metin
The goal of this study was to determine changes in left atrial (LA) function with two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2DSTE) and real-time full-volume three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) after percutaneous mitral valve repair with the MitraClip system. Furthermore, we investigated whether baseline and/or changes in LA function after MitraClip repair had any impact on prognosis. A total of 25 consecutive patients (age: 57±12 years, 76% male) with moderate-to-severe or severe mitral regurgitation (MR) were included. Patients underwent 2DSTE and RT3DE before the clip implantation and after the 12-month follow-up. Prognostic data were also recorded via the use of telephone calls and follow-up visits for 12 months after the procedure. Compared with the baseline, the LA reservoir strain (LA-Res) (7.66±4.3% vs 11.15±7.5%, P<.001) and LA contraction strain (LA-Pump) (4.64±4.3% vs 7.63±5.8%, P=.001) improved significantly after MitraClip repair; significant improvements were also seen in three-dimensional (3D) minimum LA volume index (LAV min) and maximum LA volume index (LAV max). On the other hand, conventional LA indices did not change. In total, eleven major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were observed at the 1-year follow-up. In univariate analyses, the preprocedural echocardiographic parameters that were associated with the MACE within 1 year after MitraClip repair were 3D-LAV min and LA-Res. Furthermore, these indices significantly correlated with improved functional parameters and MR reduction. In conclusion, a successful MitraClip procedure can reverse the process of LA remodeling within 12 months, and this can be detected by 2DSTE and RT3DE. Also, patients with preprocedural lower LA-Res and higher 3D-LAV min had the worst prognoses at the 1-year follow-up. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Cho, Nam Su; Yi, Jin Woong; Lee, Bong Gun; Rhee, Yong Girl
Only a few studies have provided homogeneous analysis of open revision surgery after a failed arthroscopic Bankart procedure. Open Bankart revision surgery will be effective in a failed arthroscopic anterior stabilization but inevitably results in a loss of range of motion, especially external rotation. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Twenty-six shoulders that went through traditional open Bankart repair as revision surgery after a failed arthroscopic Bankart procedure for traumatic anterior shoulder instability were enrolled for this study. The mean patient age at the time of revision surgery was 24 years (range, 16-38 years), and the mean duration of follow-up was 42 months (range, 25-97 months). The preoperative mean range of motion was 173 degrees in forward flexion and 65 degrees in external rotation at the side. After revision surgery, the ranges measured 164 degrees and 55 degrees, respectively (P = .024 and .012, respectively). At the last follow-up, the mean Rowe score was 81 points, with 88.5% of the patients reporting good or excellent results. After revision surgery, redislocation developed in 3 shoulders (11.5%), all of which had an engaging Hill-Sachs lesion and associated hyperlaxity (2+ or greater laxity on the sulcus sign). Open revision Bankart surgery for a failed arthroscopic Bankart repair can provide a satisfactory outcome, including a low recurrence rate and reliable functional return. In open revision Bankart surgery after failed stabilization for traumatic anterior shoulder instability, the surgeon should keep in mind the possibility of a postoperative loss of range of motion and a thorough examination for not only a Bankart lesion but also other associated lesions, including a bone defect or hyperlaxity, to lower the risk of redislocation.
Figueroa, Francisco; Figueroa, David; Espregueira-Mendes, João
Graft size in hamstring autograft anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery is an important factor directly related to failure. Most of the evidence in the field suggests that the size of the graft in hamstring autograft ACL reconstruction matters when the surgeon is trying to avoid failures. The exact graft diameter needed to avoid failures is not absolutely clear and could depend on other factors, but newer studies suggest than even increases of 0.5 mm up to a graft size of 10 mm are beneficial for the patient. There is still no evidence to recommend the use of grafts > 10 mm. Several methods – e.g. folding the graft in more strands – that are simple and reproducible have been published lately to address the problem of having an insufficient graft size when performing an ACL reconstruction. Due to the evidence presented, we think it is necessary for the surgeon to have them in his or her arsenal before performing an ACL reconstruction. There are obviously other factors that should be considered, especially age. Therefore, a larger graft size should not be taken as the only goal in ACL reconstruction. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2018;3:93-97. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.3.170038 PMID:29657850
Figueroa, Francisco; Figueroa, David; Espregueira-Mendes, João
Graft size in hamstring autograft anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery is an important factor directly related to failure. Most of the evidence in the field suggests that the size of the graft in hamstring autograft ACL reconstruction matters when the surgeon is trying to avoid failures.The exact graft diameter needed to avoid failures is not absolutely clear and could depend on other factors, but newer studies suggest than even increases of 0.5 mm up to a graft size of 10 mm are beneficial for the patient. There is still no evidence to recommend the use of grafts > 10 mm.Several methods - e.g. folding the graft in more strands - that are simple and reproducible have been published lately to address the problem of having an insufficient graft size when performing an ACL reconstruction. Due to the evidence presented, we think it is necessary for the surgeon to have them in his or her arsenal before performing an ACL reconstruction.There are obviously other factors that should be considered, especially age. Therefore, a larger graft size should not be taken as the only goal in ACL reconstruction. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2018;3:93-97. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.3.170038.
Barr, Justin; Cherry, Kenneth J; Rich, Norman M
Vascular surgery in World War II has long been defined by DeBakey and Simeone's classic 1946 article describing arterial repair as exceedingly rare. They argued ligation was and should be the standard surgical response to arterial trauma in war. We returned to and analyzed the original records of World War II military medical units housed in the National Archives and other repositories in addition to consulting published accounts to determine the American practice of vascular surgery in World War II. This research demonstrates a clear shift from ligation to arterial repair occurring among American military surgeons in the last 6 months of the war in the European Theater of Operations. These conclusions not only highlight the role of war as a catalyst for surgical change but also point to the dangers of inaccurate history in stymieing such advances.
Kuwelker, Saatchi Mahesh; Shetty, Devi Prasad; Dalvi, Bharat
Tricuspid valve (TV) injury following transcatheter closure of perimembranous ventricular septal defect (PMVSD) with Amplatzer ductal occluder I (ADO I), requiring surgical repair, is rare. We report two cases of TV tear involving the anterior and septal leaflets following PMVSD closure using ADO I. In both the patients, the subvalvular apparatus remained unaffected. The patients presented with severe tricuspid regurgitation (TR) 6 weeks and 3 months following the device closure. They underwent surgical repair with patch augmentation of the TV leaflets. Postoperatively, both are asymptomatic with a mild residual TR. PMID:28163430
Furuichi, Yuko; Shimizu, Jun; Sakamoto, Atsuhiro
We experienced anesthesia for total arch and descending aorta replacement and aortic valve replacement for post-repair aneurysm of coarctation of aorta and aortic stenosis. Because there was possibility that post coarctectomy syndrome would occur after repair of coarctation of aorta, administration of depressor that acts on renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and careful observation were needed postoperatively. In consideration of the development of collateral vessels, preoperative imaging evaluation was added and operative method in cardiopulmonary bypass was adjusted. Careful preoperative evaluation is very important in cardiac anesthesia.
Zakrzewski, Dariusz; Janas, Jadwiga; Heretyk, Hanna; Stepińska, Janina
Diabetes type 2 (DM) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are linked with a 3-fold increased risk of renal failure after heart valve surgery. The increase of proinflammatory cytokines is detected in patients with DM or IGT, moreover cardiac surgery promotes the proinflammatory response, which may be responsible for the development of postoperative kidney failure. To assess the impact of perioperative pro- and antiinflammatory reaction after heart valve surgery and other clinical parameters on the risk of postoperative acute kidney injury in patients with DM or IGT. Thirty patients with DM or IGT, without fibrate or statin treatment, with a mean LDL-cholesterol below 129 mg/dL, ejection fraction > 45%, in NYHA class II and III, referred for surgery due to acquired heart valve disease entered the study. Patients with acute or chronic inflammatory conditions, coronary artery disease or creatinine clearance below 50 mL/min were excluded. Serum creatinine, glycosylated hemoglobin, LDL-cholesterol and interleukin-10 as well as TNF-alpha were assessed before surgery. Interleukin-10 and TNF-alpha were also measured 4 hours after weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass. Moreover, serum creatinine and hemoglobin were measured 18 +/- 2 hours after surgery. The relationship between postoperative creatinine clearance, its postoperative change and other parameters was assessed. These parameters included: age, weight and body mass index, pre- and postoperative serum level of TNF-alpha and interleukin-10, preoperative concentration of LDL-cholesterol and glycosylated hemoglobin, duration of cardiopulmonary bypass and postoperative hemoglobin. The significant postoperative decrease of creatinine clearance was noted in the study group. Eight (27%) patients developed postoperative kidney failure, of them 2 (6.5%) patients required hemodialysis. The level of TNF-alpha and interleukin-10 increased significantly postoperatively. A significant correlation between duration of cardiopulmonary
De Groot-de Laat, Lotte E; Ren, Ben; McGhie, Jackie; Oei, Frans B S; Raap, Goris Bol; Bogers, J J C; Geleijnse, Marcel L
Mitral regurgitation (MR) is a common disorder for which mitral valve surgery is an established therapy. Although surgical indications are clearly defined for the management of valvular heart disease, a gap exists between current guidelines and their effective application. The study aim was to provide an insight into the diagnostic information provided for cardiac surgeons before performing mitral valve surgery. The source documents and echocardiographic studies of 100 patients, referred by nine hospitals, were screened for arguments for MR severity justifying referral for surgery. Details of the documented MR mechanism, mitral annulus (MA) size, tricuspid regurgitation (TR) severity and annulus size were also noted. According to the referring physician, MR was severe in 83% and moderate-to-severe in 17%. In the great majority of patients (98%) the MR mechanism was mentioned, although specific information on the prolapsing scallops was available in only 17% of cases. The recommended primary determinants of MR severity, vena contracta and proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) were measured in only 22% and 31% of patients, respectively. In 94% of patients with available PISA information this was described only qualitatively. Correct image expansion using the zoom mode was performed in only 25% of these patients, and a correct adaptation of the Nyquist limit in only 6%. Tricuspid annulus measurements guiding the need for concomitant tricuspid valvuloplasty in patients with less than severe TR were reported in only 6% of patients. These data demonstrate a clear and important gap between current guidelines and real-world practice with regards to the echocardiographic diagnostic information provided to the surgeon before performing mitral valve surgery.
... valves in gas/vapor and light liquid service. (4) If the percent of valves leaking is greater than 2.0... Industry for which Construction, Reconstruction, or Modification Commenced After January 5, 1981, and on or... periods with the percent of valves leaking equal to or less than 2.0, an owner or operator may begin to...
... valves in gas/vapor and light liquid service. (4) If the percent of valves leaking is greater than 2.0... Industry for which Construction, Reconstruction, or Modification Commenced After January 5, 1981, and on or... periods with the percent of valves leaking equal to or less than 2.0, an owner or operator may begin to...
... valves in gas/vapor and light liquid service. (4) If the percent of valves leaking is greater than 2.0... Industry for which Construction, Reconstruction, or Modification Commenced After January 5, 1981, and on or... periods with the percent of valves leaking equal to or less than 2.0, an owner or operator may begin to...
Ahad, Samir; Baumbach, Hardy; Hill, Stephan; Franke, Ulrich F. W.
Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has gained increasing popularity for high-risk patients with symptomatic aortic valve stenosis. A concomitant coronary artery disease leads to a complicated management and an increased perioperative risk. This case report describes the successful total arterial coronary revascularization of the left anterior descending and the left marginal branch of the circumflex artery utilizing the left internal mammary artery (LIMA) and left radial artery in off-pump technique in combination with the transapical transcatheter aortic valve implantation via minimally invasive anterolateral access in the fifth intercostal space. PMID:24221960
Mangram, Alicia; Oguntodu, Olakunle F; Rodriguez, Francisco; Rassadi, Roozbeh; Haley, Michael; Shively, Cynthia J; Dzandu, James K
Laparoscopic preperitoneal hernia repair with mesh has been reported to result in improved patient outcomes. However, there are few published data on the use of a totally extraperitoneal (TEP) approach. The purpose of this study was to present our experience and evaluate early outcomes of TEP inguinal hernia repair with self-adhesive mesh. This cohort study was a retrospective review of patients who underwent laparoscopic TEP inguinal hernial repair from April 4, 2010, through July 22, 2014. Data assessed were age, sex, body mass index (BMI), hernia repair indications, hernia type, pain, paresthesia, occurrence (bilateral or unilateral), recurrence, and patient satisfaction. Descriptive and regression analyses were performed. Six hundred forty patients underwent laparoscopic preperitoneal hernia surgery with self-adhesive mesh. The average age was 56 years, nearly all were men (95.8%), and the mean BMI was 26.2 kg/m(2). Cases involved primary hernia more frequently than recurrent hernia (94% vs 6%; P < .05). After surgery, 92% of the patients reported no more than minimal pain, <1% reported paresthesia, and 0.2% had early recurrence. There were 7 conversions to an open procedure. The patients had no adverse reactions to anesthesia and no bladder injury. Postoperative acute pain or recurrence was not explained by demographics, BMI, or preoperative pain. There were significant associations of hernia side, recurrence, occurrence, and sex with composite end points. Nearly all patients (98%) were satisfied with the outcome. The use of self-adhesive, Velcro-type mesh in laparoscopic TEP inguinal hernia repair is associated with reduced pain; low rates of early recurrence, infection, and hematoma; and improved patient satisfaction.
Oguntodu, Olakunle F.; Rodriguez, Francisco; Rassadi, Roozbeh; Haley, Michael; Shively, Cynthia J.; Dzandu, James K.
Background and Objectives: Laparoscopic preperitoneal hernia repair with mesh has been reported to result in improved patient outcomes. However, there are few published data on the use of a totally extraperitoneal (TEP) approach. The purpose of this study was to present our experience and evaluate early outcomes of TEP inguinal hernia repair with self-adhesive mesh. Methods: This cohort study was a retrospective review of patients who underwent laparoscopic TEP inguinal hernial repair from April 4, 2010, through July 22, 2014. Data assessed were age, sex, body mass index (BMI), hernia repair indications, hernia type, pain, paresthesia, occurrence (bilateral or unilateral), recurrence, and patient satisfaction. Descriptive and regression analyses were performed. Results: Six hundred forty patients underwent laparoscopic preperitoneal hernia surgery with self-adhesive mesh. The average age was 56 years, nearly all were men (95.8%), and the mean BMI was 26.2 kg/m2. Cases involved primary hernia more frequently than recurrent hernia (94% vs 6%; P < .05). After surgery, 92% of the patients reported no more than minimal pain, <1% reported paresthesia, and 0.2% had early recurrence. There were 7 conversions to an open procedure. The patients had no adverse reactions to anesthesia and no bladder injury. Postoperative acute pain or recurrence was not explained by demographics, BMI, or preoperative pain. There were significant associations of hernia side, recurrence, occurrence, and sex with composite end points. Nearly all patients (98%) were satisfied with the outcome. Conclusion: The use of self-adhesive, Velcro-type mesh in laparoscopic TEP inguinal hernia repair is associated with reduced pain; low rates of early recurrence, infection, and hematoma; and improved patient satisfaction. PMID:25587212
Yaghnam, Ibrahim; Thomas, Dominique; Rosenblatt, Peter; Chughtai, Bilal
Pelvic organ prolapse (POP), the descent of one or more pelvic organs, occurs in an estimated 40 to 60% of parous women. Conventional transvaginal surgery for POP has been plagued with high failure rates. The purpose was to determine the safety and feasibility of robotic transvaginal POP surgery. The da Vinci Surgical Robot, SI was used in the POP surgical procedures. There were two cadavers (aged 18 and 78 years of age; BMI 17.2 and 19.2 respectively). POP-Q scores before intervention were stage 1 for both cadavers. The visualization of anatomical landmarks and the placement of sutures at these locations were successful. Robotic transvaginal POP is a feasible option for POP surgery. Further studies are warranted to determine the role of robotic transvaginal POP repair.
Barbero, Cristina; Ricci, Davide; Cura Stura, Erik; Pellegrini, Augusto; Marchetto, Giovanni; ElQarra, Suad; Boffini, Massimo; Passera, Roberto; Valentini, Maria Consuelo; Rinaldi, Mauro
Recent data have highlighted a higher rate of neurological injuries in minimal invasive mitral valve surgery (MIMVS) compared with the standard sternotomy approach; therefore, the role of specific clamping techniques and perfusion strategies on the occurrence of this complication is a matter of discussion in the medical literature. The purpose of this trial is to prospectively evaluate major, minor and silent neurological events in patients undergoing right mini-thoracotomy mitral valve surgery using retrograde perfusion and an endoaortic clamp or a transthoracic clamp. A prospective, blinded, randomized controlled study on the rate of neurological embolizations during MIMVS started at the University of Turin in June 2014. Major, minor and silent neurological events are being investigated through standard neurological evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging assessment. The magnetic resonance imaging protocol includes conventional sequences for the morphological and quantitative assessment and nonconventional sequences for the white matter microstructural evaluation. Imaging studies are performed before surgery as baseline assessment and on the third postoperative day and, in patients who develop postoperative ischemic lesions, after 6 months. Despite recent concerns raised about the endoaortic setting with retrograde perfusion, we expect to show equivalence in terms of neurological events of this technique compared with the transthoracic clamp in a selected cohort of patients. With the first results expected in December 2016 the findings would be of help in confirming the efficacy and safety of MIMVS. ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT02818166 . Registered on 8 February 2016 - trial retrospectively registered.
Costache, Victor S; Moldovan, Horatiu; Arsenescu, Catalina; Costache, Andreea
Surgical aortic valve replacement (sAVR) has been a safe, effective and time-proven technique and is still the standard of care all over the world for aortic valve treatment. The vast majority of centers perform this procedure by doing a median sternotomy with several disadvantages. While many others specialties went minimally invasive decades ago, in cardiovascular field transcatheter valve implantation was the first minimally invasive valvular procedure that gained rapid worldwide acceptance. Transcatheter valve replacement (TAVR) is now marketed as a procedure that should be performed under local anesthesia, by an interventional cardiologist via trans femoral route with no other healthcare professional invited to the patient selection or case planning. An increasing number of surgeons are promoting minimally invasive aortic valve replacement, which is gaining grounds, especially with the help of the new sutureless valve technology. With these two new technologies emerging, legitimate questions arise and need to be answered - which has the longest durability, lower complication rate and lower overall mortality.
Santana, Eduardo Félix Martins; Moron, Antônio Fernandes; Barbosa, Maurício Mendes; Milani, Herbene Jose Figuinha; Sarmento, Stephanno Gomes Pereira; Araujo Júnior, Edward; Rolo, Liliam Cristine; Cavalheiro, Sérgio
The aim of this study was to assess fetal hemodynamics during intrauterine open surgery for myelomeningocele (MMC) repair by describing fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring in detail related to each part of the procedure. A study was performed with 57 fetuses submitted to intrauterine MMC repair between the 24th and 27th week of gestation. Evaluations of FHR were made in specific periods: before anesthesia, after anesthesia, at the beginning of laparotomy, during uterus abdominal withdrawal, hysterotomy, neurosurgery (before incision, during early skin manipulation, spinal cord releasing, and at the end of neurosurgery), abdominal cavity reintroduction, and abdominal closure, and at the end of surgery. Means ± standard deviations of FHR were established for each period, and analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to assess differences between these periods. The mean differences were assessed with 95% confidence intervals and were analyzed by Tukey's multiple comparison test. The mean FHR during the specific periods mentioned above was 140.2, 140, 139.2, 138.8, 135.1, 133.9, 123.1, 134.0, 134.5, 137.9, and 139.9 bpm, respectively (p < 0.0001). Comparing the different periods, the highest frequencies were observed in the initial and final moments. The neurosurgery stage presents lower frequencies, especially during the release of the spinal cord. FHR monitoring revealed interesting findings in terms of physiological fetal changes during MMC repair, especially during neurosurgery, which was the most critical period. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Lucchese, Gianluca; Rossetti, Lucia; Faggian, Giuseppe; Luciani, Giovanni B
Temporary tricuspid valve detachment improves the operative view of certain congenital ventricular septal defects (VSDs), but its long-term effects on tricuspid valve function are still debated. From 2002 through 2012, we performed a prospective study of 68 children (mean age, 1.28 ± 1.01 yr) who underwent transatrial closure of VSDs following temporary tricuspid valve detachment. Sixty patients had conoventricular and 8 had mid-muscular VSDs. All were in sinus rhythm. Seventeen patients had systemic pulmonary artery pressures. Preoperative echocardiograms showed trivial-to-mild tricuspid regurgitation in 62 patients and tricuspid dysplasia with severe regurgitation in 6 patients. Patients were clinically and echocardiographically monitored at 30 postoperative days, 3 months, 6 months, every 6 months thereafter for the first 2 years, and then once a year. No in-hospital or late death was observed at the median follow-up evaluation of 5.9 years. Mean intensive care unit and hospital stays were 1.6 ± 1.1 and 7.3 ± 2.7 days, respectively. Residual small VSDs occurred in 3 patients, and temporary atrioventricular block in one. After VSD repair, 62 patients (91%) had trivial or mild tricuspid regurgitation, and 6 moderate. Five of these last had severe tricuspid regurgitation preoperatively and had undergone additional tricuspid valve repair during the procedure. The grade of residual tricuspid regurgitation remained stable postoperatively, and no tricuspid stenosis was documented. All patients were in New York Heart Association class I at follow-up. Temporary tricuspid valve detachment is a simple and useful method for a complete visualization of certain VSDs without incurring substantial tricuspid dysfunction.
Rossetti, Lucia; Faggian, Giuseppe; Luciani, Giovanni B.
Temporary tricuspid valve detachment improves the operative view of certain congenital ventricular septal defects (VSDs), but its long-term effects on tricuspid valve function are still debated. From 2002 through 2012, we performed a prospective study of 68 children (mean age, 1.28 ± 1.01 yr) who underwent transatrial closure of VSDs following temporary tricuspid valve detachment. Sixty patients had conoventricular and 8 had mid-muscular VSDs. All were in sinus rhythm. Seventeen patients had systemic pulmonary artery pressures. Preoperative echocardiograms showed trivial-to-mild tricuspid regurgitation in 62 patients and tricuspid dysplasia with severe regurgitation in 6 patients. Patients were clinically and echocardiographically monitored at 30 postoperative days, 3 months, 6 months, every 6 months thereafter for the first 2 years, and then once a year. No in-hospital or late death was observed at the median follow-up evaluation of 5.9 years. Mean intensive care unit and hospital stays were 1.6 ± 1.1 and 7.3 ± 2.7 days, respectively. Residual small VSDs occurred in 3 patients, and temporary atrioventricular block in one. After VSD repair, 62 patients (91%) had trivial or mild tricuspid regurgitation, and 6 moderate. Five of these last had severe tricuspid regurgitation preoperatively and had undergone additional tricuspid valve repair during the procedure. The grade of residual tricuspid regurgitation remained stable postoperatively, and no tricuspid stenosis was documented. All patients were in New York Heart Association class I at follow-up. Temporary tricuspid valve detachment is a simple and useful method for a complete visualization of certain VSDs without incurring substantial tricuspid dysfunction. PMID:27777518
Javadzadegan, Hassan; Javadzadegan, Amir; Mehdizadeh Baghbani, Jafar
Although valve repair is applied routinely nowadays, particularly for mitral regurgitation (MR) or tricuspid regurgitation (TR), valve replacement using prosthetic valves is also common especially in adults. Unfortunately the valve with ideal hemodynamic performance and long-term durability without increasing the risk of bleeding due to long-term anticoagulant therapy has not been introduced. Therefore, patients and physicians must choose either bioprosthetic or mechanical valves. Currently, there is an increasing clinical trend of using bioprosthetic valves instead of mechanical valves even in young patients apparently because of their advantages. Seventy patients undergone valvular replacement using bioprosthetic valves were evaluated by ECG and Echocardiography to assess the rhythm and ejection fracture. Mean follow-up time was 33 months (min 9, max 92). Mortality rate was 25.9% (n=18) within 8 years of follow-up. Statistical analysis showed a significant relation between atrial fibrillation rhythm and mortality (P=0.02). Morbidities occurred in 30 patients (42.8%). Significant statistical relation was found between the morbidities and age over 65 years old (P=0.005). In follow-up period, 4 cases (5.7%) underwent re-operation due to global valve dysfunction. Our study shows that using biprosthetic valve could reduce the risk of morbidity occurrence in patient who needs valve replacement. However, if medical treatments fail, patients should be referred for surgery. This would reduce the risk of mortality because of lower incident of complications such as atrial fibrillation and morbidities due to younger patients' population.
Hontanilla, B; Vidal, A
Peripheral nerve lesions are one of the most frequent causes of chronic incapacity. Upper or lower limb palsies due to brachial or lumbar plexus injuries, facial paralysis and nerve lesions caused by systemic diseases are one of the major goals of plastic and reconstructive surgery. However, the poor results obtained in repaired peripheral nerves during the Second World War lead to a pessimist vision of peripheral nerve repair. Nevertheless, a well understanding of microsurgical principles in reconstruction and molecular biology of nerve regeneration have improved the clinical results. Thus, although the results obtained are quite far from perfect, these procedures give to patients a hope in the recuperation of their lesions and then on function. Technical aspects in nerve repair are well established; the next step is to manipulate the biology. In this article we will comment the biological processes which appear in peripheral nerve regeneration, we will establish the main concepts on peripheral nerve repair applied in facial paralysis cases and, finally, we will proportionate some ideas about how clinical practice could be affected by manipulation of the peripheral nerve biology.
Renner, Jochen; Lorenzen, Ulf; Borzikowsky, Christoph; Schoeneich, Felix; Cremer, Jochen; Haneya, Assad; Hensler, Johannes; Panholzer, Bernd; Huenges, Katharina; Broch, Ole
Unilateral pulmonary oedema (UPE) is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication that has been described after minimally invasive mitral valve surgery (MICS). Over the last 8 years, we have witnessed, in our institution, several cases of severe UPE requiring immediate postoperative extracorporeal life support after MICS. Reviewing the available literature, data regarding this complication after MICS are rare. Consequently, we decided to retrospectively analyse patients scheduled for MICS in our institution. After approval by our institutional review board, 256 MICS patients were analysed. As a primary end-point, we defined a newly developed UPE, radiographically evident within the first 24 h postoperatively. Secondary end-points were length of stay in the intensive care unit, length of stay in the hospital and in-hospital mortality. Chest radiographs were analysed by an independent consultant of radiology. Fifty-one (19.9%) patients showed increased right-sided pulmonary vascular congestion in the 1st postoperative chest radiography performed in the intensive care unit. Five (1.95%) patients immediately required extracorporeal life support after admission to the intensive care unit. Cardiopulmonary bypass time was significantly longer in the UPE group [UPE vs non-UPE 213 (49) vs 196 (43) min; P = 0.013]. More patients with UPE showed a preoperative increase of C-reactive protein >0.4265 mg/dl (P = 0.05). Logistic regression analysis identified a preoperative increase in C-reactive protein >0.4265 mg/dl as well as a prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass time (odds ratio 1.009, 95% confidence level 1.002-1.016; P = 0.014) independent risk factors, significantly associated with the development of UPE (odds ratio 2.583, 95% confidence interval 1.275-5.233; P = 0.008), a prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass time (odds ratio 1.009, 95% confidence interval 1.002-1.016; P = 0.014). The presence of pulmonary hypertension (odds ratio 0.273, 95
Lamas, Cristiane da Cruz; Ramos, Rosana Grandelle; Lopes, Gabriel Quintino; Santos, Marisa Silva; Golebiovski, Wilma Felix; Weksler, Clara; Ferraiuoli, Giovanna Ianini D'Almeida; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Lepidi, Hubert; Raoult, Didier
PCR was used to detect Coxiella burnetii and Bartonella spp in heart valves obtained during the period 1998-2009 from patients operated on for blood culture-negative endocarditis in a cardiac surgery hospital in Brazil. Of the 51 valves tested, 10 were PCR-positive; two were positive for Bartonella and one for C. burnetii. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Peng, Lihong; Tang, Shijie; Li, Qin
To observe the effects of intense pulsed light (IPL) and lattice CO 2 laser treatment on scar evolution following cleft lip repair. Fifty cleft lip repair patients were enrolled in this study. Twenty-five patients used conventional approach with scar cream massage combined with silica gel products after operation. While other 25 patients which received IPL and lattice CO 2 laser treatments. The treatments commenced 1 week after removal of stitches and observation of scar hyperplasia. Scar evolution was evaluated with the Vancouver scar scale (VSS) by postoperative photographs. Relative to the conventional approach, the laser treatments showed improved scar softening and flattening. These differences were reflected in the groups' significantly different VSS scores. Intense pulsed light combined with lattice CO 2 laser treatment can improve cleft lip surgery scar pliability and appearance, while alleviating children from having to endure the pain of scar massage. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Duff, M; Mofidi, R; Nixon, S J
In September 2004 the NICE institute revised its guidelines on the management of primary inguinal hernias to include laparoscopic repair of unilateral hernias. While published trials have confirmed the equal efficacy of the two approaches, it is not clear what impact a switch to laparoscopic repairs would have on resources and patient throughput in a Day Surgery Unit. All elective hernia repairs performed in a one-year period were considered. Data were obtained from operation notes, discharge summaries and out-patient records. Operating times are routinely documented in theatre. Of the 351 operations studied, 150 were performed laparoscopically predominantly by an extraperitoneal (TEP)approach. Six required conversion to an open procedure. There was no significant difference in operating times, total theatre time or recovery room times between the two groups (51 min, 75 min and 34 min for the laparoscopic group and 53 min, 74 min and 31 min for the open repair group). Among the laparoscopic repair group there were 48 bilateral hernias and 20 recurrent hernias while 190 of the 201 open repairs were for primary unilateral hernias. Rates of overnight stay and immediate complications were similar between the groups though haematoma was more common following open repair (7 vs 2). There is no difference in theatre times, immediate complication rates or rates of overnight stay between open and laparoscopic repair of inguinal hernia. Routine laparoscopic repair of primary unilateral inguinal hernia is a viable alternative within the Day Surgery Unit.
Salci, H; Bayram, A S; Gorgul, O S
Retrospective study of the outcomes of Heimlich valve drainage in dogs. Medical records of the past 3 years were retrospectively reviewed. Heimlich valve drainage was used in 34 dogs (median body weight 30 +/- 5 kg): lobectomy (n = 15), pneumonectomy (n = 9), intrathoracic oesophageal surgery (n = 2), diaphragmatic hernia repair (n = 1), traumatic open pneumothorax (n = 2), bilobectomy (n = 2), ligation of the thoracic duct (n = 1), and chylothorax and pneumothorax (n = 1 each). Evacuation of air and/or fluid from the pleural cavity was performed with the Heimlich valve following thoracostomy tube insertion. During drainage, the dogs were closely monitored for possible respiratory failure. Termination of Heimlich valve drainage was controlled with underwater seal drainage and assessed with thoracic radiography. Negative intrathoracic pressure was provided in 29 dogs without any complications. Post pneumonectomy respiratory syncope and post lobectomy massive hemothorax, which did not originate from the Heimlich valve, were the only postoperative complications. Dysfunction of the valve diaphragm, open pneumothorax and intrathoracic localisation of an acute gastric dilatation-volvulus syndrome caused by a left-sided diaphragmatic hernia following pneumonectomy were the Heimlich valve drainage complications. The Heimlich valve can be used as a continuous drainage device in dogs, but the complications reported here should be considered by veterinary practitioners.
Little, Stephen H; Popma, Jeffrey J; Kleiman, Neal S; Deeb, G Michael; Gleason, Thomas G; Yakubov, Steven J; Checuti, Stan; O'Hair, Daniel; Bajwa, Tanvir; Mumtaz, Mubashir; Maini, Brijeshwar; Hartman, Alan; Katz, Stanley; Robinson, Newell; Petrossian, George; Heiser, John; Merhi, William; Moore, B Jane; Li, Shuzhen; Adams, David H; Reardon, Michael J
Patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis and severe mitral regurgitation or severe tricuspid regurgitation were excluded from the major transcatheter aortic valve replacement trials. We studied these 2 subgroups in patients at extreme risk for surgery in the prospective, nonrandomized, single-arm CoreValve US Expanded Use Study. The primary end point was all-cause mortality or major stroke at 1 year. A favorable medical benefit was defined as a Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire overall summary score greater than 45 at 6 months and greater than 60 at 1 year and with a less than 10-point decrease from baseline. There were 53 patients in each group. Baseline characteristics for the severe mitral regurgitation and severe tricuspid regurgitation cohorts were age 84.2 ± 6.4 years and 84.9 ± 6.5 years; male, 29 (54.7%) and 22 (41.5%), and mean Society of Thoracic Surgeons score 9.9% ± 5.0% and 9.2% ± 4.0%, respectively. Improvement in valve regurgitation from baseline to 1 year occurred in 72.7% of the patients with severe mitral regurgitation and in 61.8% of patients with severe tricuspid regurgitation. A favorable medical benefit occurred in 31 of 47 patients (66.0%) with severe mitral regurgitation and 33 of 47 patients (70.2%) with severe tricuspid regurgitation at 6 months, and in 25 of 44 patients (56.8%) with severe mitral regurgitation and 24 of 45 patients (53.3%) with severe tricuspid regurgitation at 1 year. All-cause mortality or major stroke for the severe mitral regurgitation and severe tricuspid regurgitation cohorts were 11.3% and 3.8% at 30 days and 21.0% and 19.2% at 1 year, respectively. There were no major strokes in either group at 1 year. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement in patients with severe mitral regurgitation or severe tricuspid regurgitation is reasonable and safe and leads to improvement in atrioventricular valve regurgitation. Copyright © 2018 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks are relatively common following spinal surgery. A midline dural tear in the spine is readily repaired by direct application of sutures; however, far-lateral or ventral dural tears are problematic. Fat is an ideal sealant because it is impermeable to water. In this paper the author reports his experience with using fat grafts for the prevention or repair of CSF leaks and proposes a technique in which a large sheet of fat, harvested from the patient's subcutaneous layer, is used to cover not only the dural tear(s) but all of the exposed dura and is tucked into the lateral recess. This procedure prevents CSF from seeping around the fat, which may be tacked to the dura with a few sutures. Fibrin glue is spread on the surface of the fat and is further covered with Surgicel or Gelfoam. For ventral dural tears (associated with procedures in which disc material is excised), fat is packed into the disc space to seal off the ventral dural leak. Dural suture lines following spinal intradural exploration are prophylatically protected from CSF leakage in the same manner. With one exception, 27 dural tears noted during 1650 spinal procedures were successfully repaired using this technique. There was one case of postoperative CSF leakage in 140 cases in which intradural exploration for tumor or other lesions was undertaken. Both postoperative CSF leaks were controlled by applying additional skin sutures. The use of a fat graft is recommended as a rapid, effective means of prevention and repair of CSF leaks following spinal surgery.
Bothe, Wolfgang; Diab, Mahmoud; Ostermann, Romanus; Schwarzer, Michael; Woelfel, Luisa; Bischoff, Sabine; Schubert, Harald
In quadrupeds, the three-dimensional orientation of the heart with respect to the thorax is fundamentally different from that in humans. In this study, we assessed the best surgical approach to the tricuspid valve in sheep. Firstly, different surgical access sites to the tricuspid valve were tested in sheep cadavers, the anatomy was analyzed, and the optimal surgical approach to the tricuspid valve was determined. Secondly - along with cardiopulmonary bypass and cardioplegic arrest -the chosen approach was tested in six adult sheep in vivo. Anatomical analyses revealed that a left thoracotomy provided optimal access to the aorta and left heart. However, visualization of the right heart was significantly impaired. In contrast, a right thoracotomy provided good access to the right heart, but the ascending aorta was difficult to approach. Therefore, in the in vivo studies, arterial cannulation was performed through a carotid (n = 4) or femoral (n = 2) artery. In conclusion, a right-sided thoracotomy allows good visualization of all components of the tricuspid valve complex in sheep, but not of the ascending aorta. Consequently, peripheral vessels are preferred for arterial cannulation. This work may stimulate the investigation of pathomechanisms and/or novel treatment options for tricuspid valve pathologies. PMID:27456775
Huang, Shih-Wei; Wu, Chin-Wen; Lin, Li-Fong; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Lin, Hui-Wen
Gout commonly involves joint inflammation, and clinical epidemiological studies on involved tendons are scant. Rotator cuff tears are the most common cause of shoulder disability, and surgery is one of the choices often adopted to regain previous function. To investigate the risk of receiving rotator cuff repair surgery among patients with gout and to analyze possible risk factors to design an effective prevention strategy. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. The authors studied a 7-year longitudinal follow-up of patients from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005 (LHID2005). This included a cohort of patients who received a diagnosis of gout during 2004-2008 (gout cohort) and a cohort matched by propensity scores (control cohort). A 2-stage approach that used the National Health Interview Survey 2005 was used to obtain missing confounding variables from the LHID2005. The crude hazard ratio (HR) and adjusted HR were estimated between the gout and control cohorts. The gout and control cohorts comprised 32,723 patients with gout and 65,446 people matched at a ratio of 1:2. The incidence of rotator cuff repair was 31 and 18 per 100,000 person-years in the gout and control cohorts, respectively. The crude HR for rotator cuff repair in the gout cohort was 1.73 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23-2.44; P < .01) during the 7-year follow-up period. After adjustment for covariates by use of the 2-stage approach, the propensity score calibration-adjusted HR was 1.60 (95% CI, 1.12-2.29; P < .01) in the gout cohort. Further analysis revealed that the adjusted HR was 1.73 (95% CI, 1.20-2.50; P < .001) among patients with gout who did not take hypouricemic medication and 2.70 (95% CI, 1.31-5.59; P < .01) for patients with gout aged 50 years or younger. Patients with gout, particularly those aged 50 years or younger and without hypouricemic medication control, are at a relatively higher risk of receiving rotator cuff repair surgery. Strict control of uric acid
Sareyyupoglu, Basar; Bhama, Jay; Bonde, Pramod; Thacker, Jnanesh; Bermudez, Christian; Gries, Cynthia; Crespo, Maria; Johnson, Bruce; Pilewski, Joseph; Toyoda, Yoshiya
Background: Concomitant tricuspid valve repair (TVR) and double lung transplantation (DLTx) has been a surgical option at our institution since 2004 in an attempt to improve the outcome of DLTx for end-stage pulmonary hypertension, severe tricuspid regurgitation, and right ventricle (RV) dysfunction. This study is a review of that single institutional experience. Methods: Consecutive cases of concomitant TVR and DLTx performed between 2004 and 2009 (TVR group, n = 20) were retrospectively compared with cases of DLTx alone for severe pulmonary hypertension without TVR (non-TVR group, n = 58). Results: There was one in-hospital death in the TVR group. The 90-day and 1- and 3-year survival rates for the TVR group were 90%, 75%, and 65%, respectively, which were not significantly different from those for the non-TVR group. The TVR group required less inotropic support and less prolonged mechanical ventilation in the ICU. Follow-up echocardiography demonstrated immediate elimination of both volume and pressure overload in the RV and tricuspid regurgitation in the TVR group. Notably, there was a significantly lower incidence of primary graft dysfunction following transplantation in the TVR group (P < .05). Pulmonary functional improvement shown by an FEV1 increase after 6 months was also significantly better in the TVR group (40% vs 20%, P < .05). Conclusions: Combined TVR and DLTx procedures were successfully performed without an increase in morbidity or mortality and contributed to decreased primary graft dysfunction. In our experience, this combined operative approach achieves clinical outcomes equal or superior to the outcomes seen in DLTx patients without RV dysfunction and severe tricuspid regurgitation. PMID:21700686
Javadikasgari, Hoda; Mihaljevic, Tomislav; Suri, Rakesh M; Svensson, Lars G; Navia, Jose L; Wang, Robert Z; Tappuni, Bassman; Lowry, Ashley M; McCurry, Kenneth R; Blackstone, Eugene H; Desai, Milind Y; Mick, Stephanie L; Gillinov, A Marc
At a center where surgeons favor mitral valve (MV) repair for all subsets of leaflet prolapse, we compared results of patients undergoing repair for simple versus complex degenerative MV disease. From January 1985 to January 2016, 6153 patients underwent primary isolated MV repair for degenerative disease, 3101 patients underwent primary isolated MV repair for simple disease (posterior prolapse), and 3052 patients underwent primary isolated MV repair for complex disease (anterior or bileaflet prolapse), based on preoperative echocardiographic images. Logistic regression analysis was used to generate propensity scores for risk-adjusted comparisons (n = 2065 matched pairs). Durability was assessed by longitudinal recurrence of mitral regurgitation and reoperation. Compared with patients with simple disease, those undergoing repair of complex pathology were more likely to be younger and female (both P values < .0001) but with similar symptoms (P = .3). The most common repair technique was ring/band annuloplasty (3055/99% simple vs 3000/98% complex; P = .5), followed by leaflet resection (2802/90% simple vs 2249/74% complex; P < .0001). Among propensity-matched patients, recurrence of severe mitral regurgitation 10 years after repair was 6.2% for simple pathology versus 11% for complex pathology (P = .007), reoperation at 18 years was 6.3% for simple pathology versus 11% for complex pathology, and 20-year survival was 62% for simple pathology versus 61% for complex pathology (P = .6). Early surgical intervention has become more common in patients with degenerative MV disease, regardless of valve prolapse complexity or symptom status. Valve repair was associated with similarly low operative risk and time-related survival but less durability in complex disease. Lifelong annual echocardiographic surveillance after MV repair is recommended, particularly in patients with complex disease. Copyright © 2018 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery
Mayr, Benedikt; Firschke, Christian; Erlebach, Magdalena; Bleiziffer, Sabine; Krane, Markus; Joner, Michael; Herold, Ulf; Nöbauer, Christian; Lange, Rüdiger; Deutsch, Marcus-André
Simultaneous surgical off-pump coronary revascularization and transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) as a hybrid procedure may be a therapeutic option for patients with a TAVI indication who are not suitable for percutaneous coronary intervention and for patients who have an indication for combined surgical aortic valve implantation and coronary artery bypass grafting but present with a porcelain aorta. Early outcomes of these patients are analysed in this study. From February 2011 to April 2017, hybrid TAVI/off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) was performed in 12 (60%) patients, hybrid TAVI/minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass in 6 (30%) patients and staged TAVI/OPCAB in 2 (10%) patients. Endpoints of this study were 30-day mortality, device success and postoperative adverse events as defined by the updated Valve Academic Research Consortium (VARC-2). The median age at the time of surgery was 77 years [interquartile range (IQR), 70-81] with a median logistic EuroSCORE and Society of Thoracic Surgeons' Predicted Risk score of 16.1% (IQR, 9.3-28.1) and 3.9% (IQR, 2.2-5.6), respectively. The median Synergy between PCI with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery score was 16.5 (IQR, 9.8-22.8). TAVI implantation routes were transaortic in 9 (45%) patients, transapical and transfemoral in 5 (25%) patients each and transsubclavian in 1 (5%) patient. Complete myocardial revascularization was achieved in 75% of patients. Device success rate was 100%. Paravalvular aortic regurgitation did not exceed mild in any patient. Stroke/transient ischaemic attack, vascular complications and myocardial infarction were not observed. Re-exploration for bleeding was required in 1 (5%) patient. Thirty-day mortality was 0%. Hybrid OPCAB/MIDCAB and TAVI prove to be a safe and effective alternative treatment option in selected higher risk patients.
Snodgrass, W; Bush, N C
The primary aim of this report was to compare urethroplasty complications for primary distal and proximal repairs with those after 1, 2, 3, and 4 or more re-operations. Prospectively collected data on consecutive hypospadias repairs (tubularized incised plate (TIP), inlay, two-stage graft) from 2000 to 2015 were reviewed. Isolated fistula closures were excluded. Extracted information included patient age, meatal location, repair type, primary vs. re-operative surgery, number of prior operations, any testosterone use, glans width, and urethroplasty complications. Pre-operative testosterone stimulation was used during the study period until 2012. Initially, it was given for a subjectively small-appearing glans, but from 2008 to 2012 use was determined by glans width <14 mm. Patients initially managed elsewhere were queried for any testosterone treatment. The number of prior operations was determined by patient history and confirmed by review of records. Calibrations, dilations, cystoscopies, and/or isolated skin revisions were not considered as prior urethroplasty operations. Multiple logistic regression was performed for all patients, and for the subset of patients undergoing re-operation, using stepwise regression for the following potential risk factors: meatal location (distal vs. midshaft/proximal), number of prior surgeries (0, 1, 2, 3, ≥4), pre-operative testosterone use (yes/no), small glans (<14 vs. ≥14), surgery type (TIP, inlay and two-stage graft), and age (continuous in months), with P-values <0.05 considered statistically significant. In contrast to the 135/1085 (12%) complication rate in patients undergoing primary distal and proximal TIP repair, re-operative urethroplasty complications occurred in 61/191 (32%) TIP, 16/46 (35%) inlay, and 49/124 (40%) two-stage repairs, P<0.0001. Data regarding testosterone use was available for 1490 (96%) patients. A total of 139 received therapy, of which 65 (46%) had urethroplasty complications vs. 229 of 1351
Fraser, Robert J; Ritz, Marc; Matteo, Addolorata C Di; Vozzo, Rosalie; Kwiatek, Monika; Foreman, Robert; Stanley, Brendan; Walsh, Jack; Burnett, Jim; Jury, Paul; Dent, John
AIM: To investigate distal small bowel motility and lipid absorption in patients following elective abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair surgery. METHODS: Nine patients (aged 35-78 years; body mass index (BMI) range: 23-36 kg/m2) post-surgery for AAA repair, and seven healthy control subjects (20-50 years; BMI range: 21-29 kg/m2) were studied. Continuous distal small bowel manometry was performed for up to 72 h, during periods of fasting and enteral feeding (Nutrison®). Recordings were analyzed for the frequency, origin, length of migration, and direction of small intestinal burst activity. Lipid absorption was assessed on the first day and the third day post surgery in a subset of patients using the 13C-triolein-breath test, and compared with healthy controls. Subjects received a 20-min intraduodenal infusion of 50 mL liquid feed mixed with 200 μL 13C-triolein. End-expiratory breath samples were collected for 6 h and analyzed for 13CO2 concentration. RESULTS: The frequency of burst activity in the proximal and distal small intestine was higher in patients than in healthy subjects, under both fasting and fed conditions (P < 0.005). In patients there was a higher proportion of abnormally propagated bursts (71% abnormal), which began to normalize by d 3 (25% abnormal) post-surgery. Lipid absorption data was available for seven patients on d 1 and four patients on d 3 post surgery. In patients, absorption on d 1 post-surgery was half that of healthy control subjects (AUC 13CO2 1 323 ± 244 vs 2 646 ±365; P < 0.05, respectively), and was reduced to the one-fifth that of healthy controls by d 3 (AUC 13CO2 470 ± 832 vs 2 646 ± 365; P < 0.05, respectively). CONCLUSION: Both proximal and distal small intestinal motor activity are transiently disrupted in critically ill patients immediately after major surgery, with abnormal motility patterns extending as far as the ileum. These motor disturbances may contribute to impaired absorption
Kim, Hyung-Kwan; Kim, Yong-Jin; Kim, Kwang-Il; Jo, Sang-Ho; Kim, Ki-Bong; Ahn, Hyuk; Sohn, Dae-Won; Oh, Byung-Hee; Lee, Myoung-Mook; Park, Young-Bae; Choi, Yun-Shik
Atrial fibrillation (AF) has been reported to be a predisposing factor for the progression of TR in patients with previous mitral or combined mitral/aortic valve surgery. We hypothesized that the maze operation (MAZE) can prevent the progression of tricuspid regurgitation (TR) in these patients. We analyzed 170 patients (age, 45.5+/-10.9 years) who had undergone mitral or combined mitral/aortic valve surgery. On the basis of preoperative rhythm, patients were divided into 3 groups; GrI was composed of 44 patients with sinus rhythm, GrII of 48 who had undergone MAZE, and GrIII of 78 with AF who had not undergone MAZE. Echocardiographic examinations were performed before, immediately after, and 92.2+/-17.2 (range, 50 to 131) months after surgery. Preoperative and immediate postoperative clinical and echocardiographic parameters were similar among the groups. Insignificant TR at the immediate postoperative examination worsened with time in 7.3% of GrI (3 of 41), 12.8% of GrII (6 of 47), and 38.8% of GrIII (26 of 67) patients at the final examination (P=0.63 for GrI versus GrII, P=0.001 for GrI versus GrIII, P=0.005 for GrII versus GrIII). The incidence of significant TR at the final echocardiographic examination was higher in GrIII (39.7%) compared with GrI (9.1%) and GrII (14.6%) (P=0.001 for GrI versus GrIII, P=0.005 for GrII versus GrIII), whereas GrI and GrII did not show any difference (P=0.63). By multivariate analysis, the only factor identified to prevent TR progression was the group factor (GrI and GrII versus GrIII, P=0.002 and P=0.005, respectively). In a subgroup analysis of GrII according to the presence or absence of atrial mechanical activity, the absence of atrial mechanical activity was identified as an independent parameter for the progression of TR (P=0.001). AF predisposes patients undergoing mitral valve surgery to the progression of TR, which can be prevented by MAZE. This additional benefit of MAZE is largely dependent on the restoration and
Byamugisha, Josaphat; El Ayadi, Alison; Obore, Susan; Mwanje, Haruna; Kakaire, Othman; Barageine, Justus; Lester, Felicia; Butrick, Elizabeth; Korn, Abner; Nalubwama, Hadija; Knight, Sharon; Miller, Suellen
Obstetric fistula is a debilitating birth injury that affects an estimated 2-3 million women globally, most in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. The urinary and/or fecal incontinence associated with fistula affects women physically, psychologically and socioeconomically. Surgical management of fistula is available with clinical success rates ranging from 65-95 %. Previous research on fistula repair outcomes has focused primarily on clinical outcomes without considering the broader goal of successful reintegration into family and community. The objectives for this study are to understand the process of family and community reintegration post fistula surgery and develop a measurement tool to assess long-term success of post-surgical family and community reintegration. This study is an exploratory sequential mixed-methods design including a preliminary qualitative component comprising in-depth interviews and focus group discussions to explore reintegration to family and community after fistula surgery. These results will be used to develop a reintegration tool, and the tool will be validated within a small longitudinal cohort (n = 60) that will follow women for 12 months after obstetric fistula surgery. Medical record abstraction will be conducted for patients managed within the fistula unit. Ethical approval for the study has been granted. This study will provide information regarding the success of family and community reintegration among women returning home after obstetric fistula surgery. The clinical and research community can utilize the standardized measurement tool in future studies of this patient population.
.../vapor and light liquid service. (4) If the percent of valves leaking is greater than 2.0, the owner or... Industry for Which Construction, Reconstruction, or Modification Commenced After November 7, 2006 § 60.483... percent of valves leaking equal to or less than 2.0, an owner or operator may begin to skip 1 of the...
.../vapor and light liquid service. (4) If the percent of valves leaking is greater than 2.0, the owner or... Industry for Which Construction, Reconstruction, or Modification Commenced After November 7, 2006 § 60.483... percent of valves leaking equal to or less than 2.0, an owner or operator may begin to skip 1 of the...
.../vapor and light liquid service. (4) If the percent of valves leaking is greater than 2.0, the owner or... Industry for Which Construction, Reconstruction, or Modification Commenced After November 7, 2006 § 60.483... percent of valves leaking equal to or less than 2.0, an owner or operator may begin to skip 1 of the...
Faridi, Kamil F; Popma, Jeffrey J; Strom, Jordan B; Shen, Changyu; Choi, Eunhee; Yeh, Robert W
The MitraClip device for percutaneous mitral valve repair was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in the United States in October 2013. Few studies have evaluated national outcomes after this procedure in routine clinical practice. We identified adults aged ≥18 years who received percutaneous mitral valve repair from November 2013 to December 2014 in the Nationwide Readmissions Database, a publicly available administrative claims database. Procedural volumes, number of performing hospitals, individual hospital volumes, in-hospital mortality rate, and 30-day hospital readmission rate were determined. Patient demographics, clinical comorbidities, and hospital characteristics were analyzed using logistic regression to determine risk factors for in-hospital death and 30-day readmission. We identified 879 cases performed in the first 14 months after device approval (mean age ± SD, 75.0 ± 13.1 years; 45% women). The number of performing hospitals increased by 5.7-fold (23 to 132), although mean individual hospital volumes remained small (6.2 ± 10.4 cases per hospital). In-hospital all-cause mortality was 3.3% and was associated with higher number of clinical comorbidities. The rate of 30-day readmission was 14.6%, and 6.6% of patients died during rehospitalization. Increased procedural experience was associated with a nonsignificant trend toward reduced hospital readmission after multivariable adjustment (p = 0.08). In conclusion, use of percutaneous mitral valve repair in the United States early after approval increased steadily over time, although individual hospital volumes remained low. More than 1 in 7 patients who underwent this procedure are readmitted within 30 days of discharge. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dennis, Alexis C; Wilson, Sarah M; Mosha, Mary V; Masenga, Gileard G; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Terroso, Korrine E; Watt, Melissa H
Objective An obstetric fistula is a childbirth injury resulting in uncontrollable leakage of urine and/or feces and can lead to physical and psychological challenges, including social isolation. Prior to and after fistula repair surgery, social support can help a woman to reintegrate into her community. The aim of this study was to preliminarily examine the experiences of social support among Tanzanian women presenting with obstetric fistula in the periods immediately preceding obstetric fistula repair surgery and following reintegration. Patients and methods The study used a mixed-methods design to analyze cross-sectional surveys (n=59) and in-depth interviews (n=20). Results Women reported widely varying levels of social support from family members and partners, with half of the sample reporting overall high levels of social support. For women experiencing lower levels of support, fistula often exacerbated existing problems in relationships, sometimes directly causing separation or divorce. Many women were assertive and resilient with regard to advocating for their fistula care and relationship needs. Conclusion Our data suggest that while some women endure negative social experiences following an obstetric fistula and require additional resources and services, many women report high levels of social support from family members and partners, which may be harnessed to improve the holistic care for patients. PMID:27660492
The seven pillars of governance established by the National Health Service in the United Kingdom provide a useful framework for the process of introducing new procedures to a hospital. Drawing from local experience, the author present guidance for institutions considering establishing a minimal access mitral valve program. The seven pillars of governance apply to the practice of minimally invasive mitral valve surgery, based on the principle of patient-centred practice. The author delineate the benefits of minimally invasive mitral valve surgery in terms of: "clinical effectiveness", including reduced length of hospital stay, "risk management effectiveness", including conversion to sternotomy and aortic dissection, "patient experience" including improved cosmesis and quicker recovery, and the effectiveness of communication, resources and strategies in the implementation of minimally invasive mitral valve surgery. Finally, the author have identified seven learning curves experienced by surgeons involved in introducing a minimal access mitral valve program. The learning curves are defined as: techniques of mitral valve repair, Transoesophageal Echocardiography-guided cannulation, incisions, instruments, visualization, aortic occlusion and cardiopulmonary bypass strategies. From local experience, the author provide advice on how to reduce the learning curves, such as practising with the specialised instruments and visualization techniques during sternotomy cases. Underpinning the NHS pillars are the principles of systems awareness, teamwork, communication, ownership and leadership, all of which are paramount to performing any surgery but more so with minimal access surgery, as will be highlighted throughout this paper.
The seven pillars of governance established by the National Health Service in the United Kingdom provide a useful framework for the process of introducing new procedures to a hospital. Drawing from local experience, the author present guidance for institutions considering establishing a minimal access mitral valve program. The seven pillars of governance apply to the practice of minimally invasive mitral valve surgery, based on the principle of patient-centred practice. The author delineate the benefits of minimally invasive mitral valve surgery in terms of: “clinical effectiveness”, including reduced length of hospital stay, “risk management effectiveness”, including conversion to sternotomy and aortic dissection, “patient experience” including improved cosmesis and quicker recovery, and the effectiveness of communication, resources and strategies in the implementation of minimally invasive mitral valve surgery. Finally, the author have identified seven learning curves experienced by surgeons involved in introducing a minimal access mitral valve program. The learning curves are defined as: techniques of mitral valve repair, Transoesophageal Echocardiography-guided cannulation, incisions, instruments, visualization, aortic occlusion and cardiopulmonary bypass strategies. From local experience, the author provide advice on how to reduce the learning curves, such as practising with the specialised instruments and visualization techniques during sternotomy cases. Underpinning the NHS pillars are the principles of systems awareness, teamwork, communication, ownership and leadership, all of which are paramount to performing any surgery but more so with minimal access surgery, as will be highlighted throughout this paper. PMID:24349981
Boudoulas, Konstantinos Dean; Ravi, Yazhini; Garcia, Daniel; Saini, Uksha; Sofowora, Gbemiga G.; Gumina, Richard J.; Sai-Sudhakar, Chittoor B.
Aim: While the incidence of rheumatic heart disease has declined dramatically over the last half-century, the number of valve surgeries has not changed. This study was undertaken to define the most common type of valvular heart disease requiring surgery today, and determine in-hospital surgical mortality and length-of-stay (LOS) for isolated aortic or mitral valve surgery in a United States tertiary-care hospital. Methods: Patients with valve surgery between January 2002 to June 2008 at The Ohio State University Medical Center were studied. Patients only with isolated aortic or mitral valve surgery were analyzed. Results: From 915 patients undergoing at least aortic or mitral valve surgery, the majority had concomitant cardiac proce-dures mostly coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG); only 340 patients had isolated aortic (n=204) or mitral (n=136) valve surgery. In-hospital surgical mortality for mitral regurgitation (n=119), aortic stenosis (n=151), aortic insufficiency (n=53) and mitral stenosis (n=17) was 2.5% (replacement 3.4%; repair 1.6%), 3.9%, 5.6% and 5.8%, respectively (p=NS). Median LOS for aortic insufficiency, aortic stenosis, mitral regurgitation, and mitral stenosis was 7, 8, 9 (replacement 11.5; repair 7) and 11 days, respectively (p<0.05 for group). In-hospital surgical mortality for single valve surgery plus CABG was 10.2% (p<0.005 compared to single valve surgery). Conclusions: Aortic stenosis and mitral regurgitation are the most common valvular lesions requiring surgery today. Surgery for isolated aortic or mitral valve disease has low in-hospital mortality with modest LOS. Concomitant CABG with valve surgery increases mortality substantially. Hospital analysis is needed to monitor quality and stimulate improvement among Institutions. PMID:24339838
Zbýň, S; Stelzeneder, D; Welsch, G H; Negrin, L L; Juras, V; Mayerhoefer, M E; Szomolanyi, P; Bogner, W; Domayer, S E; Weber, M; Trattnig, S
To compare the sodium normalized mean signal intensity (NMSI) values between patients after bone marrow stimulation (BMS) and matrix-associated autologous chondrocyte transplantation (MACT) cartilage repair procedures. Nine BMS and nine MACT patients were included. Each BMS patient was matched with one MACT patient according to age [BMS 36.7 ± 10.7 (mean ± standard deviation) years; MACT 36.9 ± 10.0 years], postoperative interval (BMS 33.5 ± 25.3 months; MACT 33.2 ± 25.7 months), and defect location. All magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements were performed on a 7 T system. Proton images served for morphological evaluation of repair tissue using the magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue (MOCART) scoring system. Sodium NMSI values in the repair area and morphologically normal cartilage were calculated. Clinical outcome was assessed right after MRI. Analysis of covariance, t-tests, and Pearson correlation coefficients were evaluated. Sodium NMSI was significantly lower in BMS (P = 0.004) and MACT (P = 0.006) repair tissue, compared to reference cartilage. Sodium NMSI was not different between the reference cartilage in MACT and BMS patients (P = 0.664), however it was significantly higher in MACT than in BMS repair tissue (P = 0.028). Better clinical outcome was observed in BMS than in MACT patients. There was no difference between MOCART scores for MACT and BMS patients (P = 0.915). We did not observe any significant correlation between MOCART score and sodium repair tissue NMSI (r = -0.001; P = 0.996). Our results suggest higher glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content, and therefore, repair tissue of better quality in MACT than in BMS patients. Sodium imaging might be beneficial in non-invasive evaluation of cartilage repair surgery efficacy. Copyright © 2012 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Krenzien, Felix; Matia, Ivan; Wiltberger, Georg; Hau, Hans-Michael; Freitas, Bruno; Moche, Michael; Schmelzle, Moritz; Jonas, Sven; Fellmer, Peter T
Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has been suggested in several studies to be superior to open surgery repair (OSR) for the treatment of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (rAAAs), but this finding might be affected by selection bias based on aneurysm morphology and patient characteristics. We tested rAAA anatomy according to EVAR suitability in patients undergoing OSR to assess the impact on mortality. This retrospective analysis reports on 83 patients with rAAAs treated between November 2002 and July 2013. Pre-operative computed tomography (CT) scans were evaluated based on EVAR suitability and were determined by blinded independent reviewers. CT scans were lacking due to acquisition in an external institution with no availability (n = 9) or solely ultrasound evaluations (n = 8). In addition patient characteristics and outcomes were assessed. All patients who underwent OSR and who had available preoperative CT scans were included in the study (n = 66). In summary, 42 % of the patients (28/66; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 30.5 - 54.4) were considered eligible for EVAR according to pre-operative CT scans and 58 % of the patients (38/66; 95 % CI, 45.6 - 69.5) were categorized as unsuitable for endovascular repair. Patients suitable for EVAR had a significantly lower prevalence of in-hospital deaths (25 % [7/28]; 95 % CI, 9 - 41) in contrast to patients unsuitable for EVAR (53 % [20/38]; 95 % CI, 36.8 - 68.5; p = 0.02). EVAR-suitable patients had a highly significant mortality reduction undergoing OSR. Thus, the present study proposes that EVAR suitability is a positive predictor for survival after open repair of rAAA.
Kalem, Mahmut; Şahin, Ercan; Songür, Murat; Zehir, Sinan; Armangil, Mehmet; Demirtaş, Mehmet A
This experimental study investigates the effectiveness of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (Dualmesh®, Gore Medical, Flagstaff, AZ, USA), sodium hyaluronate-carboxymethyl cellulose (Seprafilm®, Genzyme, Cambridge, MA, USA), and polysiloxane (silicone) as anti-adhesive barriers for inhibition of fibrosis in the subacromial area following rotator cuff repair. Rabbit rotator cuff tenotomy and repair was conducted on 24 rabbits in 4 groups: control (Group A), Dualmesh® (Group B), Seprafilm® (Group C), and silicone (Group D). Anti-adhesive barrier materials were sutured over the repaired rotator cuff. Macroscopic and histological evaluations were made at the end of the sixth postoperative week. Macroscopic evaluation revealed that minimal adhesion occurred in the control and silicone groups, while the Seprafilm® and Dualmesh® groups showed evidence of fibrosis. Microscopic evaluation revealed diffuse fibrosis and collagen accumulation in the Dualmesh® and Seprafilm® groups, whereas minimal collagen deposition and inflammatory cell reaction was found among the silicone and control groups. Significant differences were found between the silicone and Dualmesh® (p=0.001) and silicone and Seprafilm® groups (p=0.002), as well as between the control and Dualmesh® (p=0.002) and control and Seprafilm® groups (p=0.002). Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE/Dualmesh®) and sodium hyaluronate carboxymethyl cellulose (SH-CMC/Seprafilm®) did not prevent or attenuate postoperative subacromial fibrosis following cuff tear repair. Nor did silicone prevent or attenuate fibrosis. More detailed research is needed for development of an effective anti-adhesive barrier for use after rotator cuff tear surgery.
Huang, Shih-Wei; Wang, Wei-Te; Chou, Lin-Chuan; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Chen, Yi-Wen; Lin, Hui-Wen
Rotator cuff tears are the most common cause of shoulder disability in people older than 50years, and surgical intervention is usually required for restoring functioning. However, in patients undergoing rotator cuff repair surgery, patients with DM had poorer functional outcomes than those without DM, and hence, DM is one of the possible risks factor for rotator cut off tear. The aim of this population-based study was to investigate the relationship between DM and the risk of rotator cuff tear in patients receiving rotator cuff repair surgery. In this retrospective longitudinal population-based 7-year cohort study, we investigated the risk of rotator cuff repair surgery in patients with DM. We performed a case-control matched analysis by using data from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. Patients were enrolled on the basis of the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnostic codes for DM between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2007. The prevalence and the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of a rotator cuff repair surgery in patients with and without DM were estimated according to the Cox proportional hazard regression analysis using the frailty model. The DM and non-DM cohorts comprised 58,652 patients with DM and 117,304 (1:2) patients without DM after matching for age and sex. The incidence of rotator cuff repair surgery was 41 per 100,000 and 26 per 100,000 person-years in the DM and non-DM cohorts, respectively. The HR of rotator cuff repair surgery during the follow-up period was 1.56 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.25-1.93, p<0.001) for patients with DM. After adjustment for covariates, the adjusted HR of rotator cuff repair surgery was 1.33 (95% CI, 1.05-1.68, p<0.001) in the DM cohort. DM is an independent risk factor for rotator cuff tear repair surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Clinical trial design principles and endpoint definitions for transcatheter mitral valve repair and replacement: part 1: clinical trial design principles: A consensus document from the mitral valve academic research consortium.
Stone, Gregg W; Vahanian, Alec S; Adams, David H; Abraham, William T; Borer, Jeffrey S; Bax, Jeroen J; Schofer, Joachim; Cutlip, Donald E; Krucoff, Mitchell W; Blackstone, Eugene H; Généreux, Philippe; Mack, Michael J; Siegel, Robert J; Grayburn, Paul A; Enriquez-Sarano, Maurice; Lancellotti, Patrizio; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Kappetein, Arie Pieter
2015. For permissions please email: firstname.lastname@example.org. This article is being published concurrently in Journal of the American College of Cardiology . The articles are identical except for minor stylistic and spelling differences in keeping with each journal's style. Either citation can be used when citing this article.  Stone GW, Vahanian AS, Adams DH, Abraham WT, Borer JS et al. Clinical trial design principles and endpoint definitions for transcatheter mitral valve repair and replacement: Part 1: Clinical Trial Design Principles. J Am Coll Cardiol 2015;66:278–307. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2015.05.046.
Maslow, Andrew; Casey, Paula; Poppas, Athena; Schwartz, Carl; Singh, Arun
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes for elderly (> or =80 years) patients undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR) with or without coronary artery bypass graft surgery (AVR/CABG). The authors hypothesized that the mortalities of AVR and AVR/CABG are lower than that predicted by published risk scores. A retrospective analysis of data from a single-hospital database. Single tertiary care, private practice. Consecutive patients undergoing AVR or AVR/CABG. Two hundred sixty-one elderly (> or =80 years) patients undergoing isolated AVR (145) or AVR/CABG (116) were evaluated. The majority (94.6%) underwent AVR for aortic valve stenosis. Outcomes were recorded and compared between the 2 surgical procedures with predicted mortalities based on published risk assessment scoring systems. The overall short-term mortality for the elderly group was 6.1% (AVR 5.5% and AVR/CABG 6.9%). The median long-term survival was 6.8 years. There were no significant differences in either morbidity or mortality between the AVR and AVR/CABG groups. Although predicted mortalities were similar for each surgical procedure, they overestimated observed outcome by up to 4-fold. Short- and long-term mortality was low for this group of elderly patients undergoing AVR or AVR/CABG and not significantly different between the 2 surgical groups. Predicted outcomes were worse than that observed, consistent with the hypothesis, and supportive of a more aggressive surgical treatment for aortic valve disease in the elderly patient. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Liu, Lan; Xu, Yongfeng; Huang, Zhu; Wang, Xiaoyu
Researches have shown anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agent is effective in treating neovascular eye diseases. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) injection combined trabeculectomy in the treatment of neovascular glaucoma (NVG), and compared it with Ahmed valve surgery. Thirty-six NVG patients (37 eyes) from the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang medical college, between January 1, 2014 and January 31, 2015, were included in this prospective, interventional clinical study. Eighteen NVG eyes were given IVR injection one week before trabeculectomy. Ahmed valve implantation surgery was performed in nineteen eyes. Ocular pain, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP) and surgical complications were evaluated before and after the surgery. IOP was significantly decreased following IVR injection combined trabeculectomy treatment (baseline 57.1 ± 8.9 mmHg; week 1, 15.2 ± 4.3 mmHg p = 0.000; month 1, 16.9 ± 2.1 mmHg p = 0.000; month 3, 20.3 ± 7.7 mmHg p = 0.000; month 6, 19.7 ± 7.3 mmHg p = 0.000). There was a significant, though modest, BCVA improvement in sighted eyes of IVR group (baseline 2.42 ± 0.68, W1 1.80 ± 0.91, P = 0.013; M1 1.77 ± 0.93, p = 0.011). IVR injection combined trabeculectomy had less postoperative complications and lower failure ratio than Ahmed surgery (IVR 5.6 %, Ahmed 31.6 %). The study revealed that IVR injection combined trabeculectomy was an effective and safe treatment for NVG. Compared with Ahmed surgery, IVR injection combined trabeculectomy had less complications and higher success ratio. (Chinese Clinical Registry, TRN ChiCTR-OPN-16008147, 3/24/2016, retrospectively registered).
Mahmood, Feroze; Karthik, Swaminathan; Subramaniam, Balachundhar; Panzica, Peter J; Mitchell, John; Lerner, Adam B; Jervis, Karinne; Maslow, Andrew D
To study the feasibility of using 3-dimensional (3D) echocardiography in the operating room for mitral valve repair or replacement surgery. To perform geometric analysis of the mitral valve before and after repair. Prospective observational study. Academic, tertiary care hospital. Consecutive patients scheduled for mitral valve surgery. Intraoperative reconstruction of 3D images of the mitral valve. One hundred and two patients had 3D analysis of their mitral valve. Successful image reconstruction was performed in 93 patients-8 patients had arrhythmias or a dilated mitral valve annulus resulting in significant artifacts. Time from acquisition to reconstruction and analysis was less than 5 minutes. Surgeon identification of mitral valve anatomy was 100% accurate. The study confirms the feasibility of performing intraoperative 3D reconstruction of the mitral valve. This data can be used for confirmation and communication of 2-dimensional data to the surgeons by obtaining a surgical view of the mitral valve. The incorporation of color-flow Doppler into these 3D images helps in identification of the commissural or perivalvular location of regurgitant orifice. With improvements in the processing power of the current generation of echocardiography equipment, it is possible to quickly acquire, reconstruct, and manipulate images to help with timely diagnosis and surgical planning.
Komatsu, Hiroko; Yagasaki, Kaori; Shoda, Rie; Chung, Younghui; Iwata, Takashi; Sugiyama, Juri; Fujii, Takuma
Fertility preservation is important for women of reproductive age with cervical cancer. The underlying reasons behind suboptimal reproductive results after successful fertility-preserving surgery have not yet been fully revealed. The objective of this study was to explore the experience of fertility preservation with radical trachelectomy from the perspective of women with cervical cancer. We conducted interviews with women with cervical cancer who underwent radical trachelectomy using a Grounded Theory methodology with a theoretical framework of symbolic interactionism. Our findings articulate a process in which feminine identity is first threatened by a diagnosis of cancer, then repaired by fertility preservation with radical trachelectomy, and finally reconstructed after the surgery, through interactions with self, others, and external events in women with cervical cancer. Feeling incomplete as a woman because of the loss of the uterus was a critical factor in the women's feeling that their feminine identity was threatened. Thus, fertility preservation was significant for these women. The meaning of fertility preservation varied among the women, and their life perspectives were therefore distinct after the surgery. Women with cervical cancer who undergo radical trachelectomy experience an identity transformation process, and child bearing is not the only expected outcome of fertility preservation. Nurses should coordinate care through the cancer trajectory. Understanding the identity transformation process helps nurses to assess patients' needs and provide appropriate individual care.
Han, Kichang; Yang, Dong Hyun; Shin, So Youn; Kim, Namkug; Kang, Joon-Won; Kim, Dae-Hee; Song, Jong-Min; Kang, Duk-Hyun; Song, Jae-Kwan; Kim, Joon Bum; Jung, Sung-Ho; Choo, Suk Jung; Chung, Cheol Hyun; Lee, Jae Won; Lim, Tae-Hwan
To investigate the cardiac computed tomographic (CT) findings and clinical implications of subprosthetic pannus in patients who have undergone aortic valve replacement. The institutional review board approved this retrospective study, and the need to obtain written informed consent was waived. From April 2011 to March 2012, 88 patients (mean age, 63 years; 45 men) with a prosthetic aortic valve who underwent cardiac CT were retrospectively selected. Dynamic cardiac CT images were analyzed by using a multiplanar reformatted technique. The presence or absence of subprosthetic pannus and its extent were evaluated at cardiac CT. The geometric orifice area and the effective orifice area of each prosthetic valve were measured to enable analysis of the pannus encroachment ratio in the systolic phase. Hemodynamic parameters at echocardiography, including mean transprosthetic pressure gradient (MTPG), were compared between patients with and those without pannus. The encroachment ratio and the MTPG were correlated by using the Spearman test to evaluate the relationship between the two variables. Seventeen patients (19%) had subprosthetic pannus at cardiac CT. In patients with subprosthetic pannus, MTPG, peak pressure gradient, transvalvular peak velocity, and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were significantly higher than in patients without pannus (MTPG: 28.1 mm Hg ± 19.8 [standard deviation] vs 14.0 mm Hg ± 6.5, P = .004; peak pressure gradient: 53.1 mm Hg ± 38.4 vs 26.1 mm Hg ± 11.4, P = .004; transvalvular peak velocity: 3.3 m/sec ± 1.3 vs 2.5 m/sec ± 0.5; and LVEF: 64.7% ± 7.4 vs 56.8% ± 10.5, P = .004). A high MTPG (≥40 mm Hg) was observed in four patients at echocardiography, and subprosthetic panni were identified at CT in all four patients. In patients with increased MTPGs, the encroachment ratio by subprosthetic pannus at CT was significantly higher than that in patients with MTPGs of less than 40 mm Hg (42.7 ± 13.3 vs 7.6 ± 3, P = .012
Park, John Jungpa; Lang, Christopher C; Manson, Lynn; Brackenbury, Edward T
An 81-year-old female Jehovah’s Witness (JW) patient with severe aortic stenosis required aortic valve replacement (AVR). However, the patient’s religious beliefs precluded the use of primary blood components. Since the definitive treatment of AVR required bloodless open heart surgery, careful peri-operative plans were set forth by a multi-disciplinary team involving the cardiothoracic surgeon, haematologist and anaesthetist. The patient went on to successfully recover postoperatively. This case highlights: 1) The importance of carefully navigating through the most recent clinical and ethical protocol involved in the surgical management of JW’s. 2) The importance of preparing individually tailored pre, intra and postoperative plans that are delivered through a multi-disciplinary clinical team to ensure the best and safest possible outcomes. PMID:22665474
Rassaf, Tienush; Balzer, Jan; Rammos, Christos; Zeus, Tobias; Hellhammer, Katharina; v Hall, Silke; Wagstaff, Rabea; Kelm, Malte
In patients with mitral regurgitation (MR), changes in cardiac stroke volume, and thus renal preload and afterload may affect kidney function. Percutaneous mitral valve repair (PMVR) with the MitraClip® system can be a therapeutic alternative to surgical valve repair. The influence of MitraClip® therapy on renal function and clinical outcome parameters is unknown. Sixty patients with severe MR underwent PMVR using the MitraClip® system in an open-label observational study. Patients were stratified according to their renal function. All clips have been implanted successfully. Effective reduction of MR by 2-3 grades acutely improved KDOQI class. Lesser MR reduction (MR reduction of 0-1 grades) led to worsening of renal function in patients with pre-existing normal or mild (KDOQI 1-2) compared to severe (KDOQI 3-4) renal dysfunction. Reduction of MR was associated with improvement in Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ), NYHA-stadium, and 6-minute walk test. Successful PMVR was associated with an improvement in renal function. The improvement in renal function was associated with the extent of MR reduction and pre-existing kidney dysfunction. Our data emphasize the relevance of PVMR to stabilize the cardiorenal axis in patients with severe MR. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lenkin, Andrey I; Zaharov, Viktor I; Lenkin, Pavel I; Smetkin, Alexey A; Bjertnaes, Lars J; Kirov, Mikhail Y
In cardiac surgery, the choice of temperature regimen during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) remains a subject of debate. Hypothermia reduces tissue metabolic demands, but may impair the autoregulation of cerebral blood flow and contribute to neurological morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two different temperature regimens during CPB on the systemic oxygen transport and the cerebral oxygenation during surgical correction of acquired heart diseases. In a prospective study, we randomized 40 adult patients with combined valvular disorders requiring surgical correction of two or more valves into two groups: (i) a normothermic (NMTH) group (n = 20), in which the body core temperature was maintained at 36.6°C during CPB and (ii) a hypothermic (HPTH) group (n = 20), in which the body was cooled to a core temperature of 32°C maintained throughout the period of CPB. The systemic oxygen transport and the cerebral oxygen saturation (SctO2) were assessed by means of a PiCCO2 haemodynamic monitor and a cerebral oximeter, respectively. All the patients received standard perioperative monitoring. We assessed haemodynamic and oxygen transport parameters, the duration of mechanical ventilation and the length of the ICU and the hospital stays. During CPB, central venous oxygen saturation was significantly higher in the HPTH group but SctO2 was increased in the NMTH group (P < 0.05). Cardiac index, systemic oxygen delivery and consumption increased postoperatively in both groups. However, oxygen delivery and consumption were significantly higher in the NMTH group (P < 0.05). The duration of respiratory support and the length of ICU and hospital stays did not differ between the groups. During combined valve surgery, normothermic CPB provides lower central venous oxygen saturation, but increases cerebral tissue oxygenation when compared with the hypothermic regimen.
Furukawa, Nobuyuki; Scholtz, Werner; Haas, Nikolaus; Ensminger, Stephan; Gummert, Jan; Börgermann, Jochen
An 81-year-old man with high-grade aortic valve stenosis and status post-coronary artery bypass grafting and supracoronary replacement of the ascending aorta was referred for transcatheter aortic valve implantation. He was in New York Heart Association class III and had dyspnea. After appropriate screening, we implanted a 29-mm SAPIEN XT valve (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA USA) through a transapical approach because of severe peripheral arterial occlusive disease. Postinterventional aortography revealed correct positioning and function of the valve and free coronary ostia but contrast extravasation in the vicinity of the interposed vascular prosthesis, resulting in severe luminal narrowing. We chose to manage the stenosis with an endovascular stent. After stenting, extravascular compression was markedly reduced, and the pressure gradient disappeared. The patient was discharged home on the 20th postoperative day. Three months later, computed tomography depicted correct positioning of both grafts. The patient's general health is good, and he is now in New York Heart Association class II. This case illustrates a complication of transcatheter aortic valve implantation specific for patients with an ascending aortic graft. Although stenting may be a good solution, as depicted by this case, self-expanding transcatheter aortic valves should be preferred in patients with ascending aortic grafts to avoid the described complication.
Inguinal hernia repair (IHR) with prosthetic mesh implantation is the most common procedure in general surgery, and may be performed using either an open or laparoscopic approach. This paper provides an overview of contemporary tension-free IHR techniques and materials, and illustrates the expected postoperative imaging findings and iatrogenic injuries. Emphasis is placed on multidetector CT, which represents the ideal modality to comprehensively visualize the operated groin region and deeper intra-abdominal structures. CT consistently depicts seroma, mesh infections, hemorrhages, bowel complications and urinary bladder injuries, and thus generally provides a consistent basis for therapeutic choice. Since radiologists are increasingly requested to investigate suspected iatrogenic complications, this paper aims to provide an increased familiarity with early CT studies after IHR, including complications and normal postoperative appearances such as focal pseudolesions, in order to avoid misinterpretation and inappropriate management. PMID:27460285
Spangler, Emily L; Beck, Adam W
The Society for Vascular Surgery Vascular Quality Initiative is a patient safety organization and a collection of procedure-based registries that can be utilized for quality improvement initiatives and clinical outcomes research. The Vascular Quality Initiative consists of voluntary participation by centers to collect data prospectively on all consecutive cases within specific registries which physicians and centers elect to participate. The data capture extends from preoperative demographics and risk factors (including indications for operation), through the perioperative period, to outcomes data at up to 1-year of follow-up. Additionally, longer-term follow-up can be achieved by matching with Medicare claims data, providing long-term longitudinal follow-up for a majority of patients within the Vascular Quality Initiative registries. We present the unique characteristics of the Vascular Quality Initiative registries and highlight important insights gained specific to open and endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nagdyman, Nicole; Ewert, Peter; Komoda, Takeshi; Alexi-Meskisvili, Vladimir; Weng, Yuguo; Berger, Felix; Hetzer, Roland
Since 1988, a modified repair technique has been used at the authors' institution to treat patients with Ebstein's anomaly. This technique restructures the valve mechanism at the level of the true tricuspid annulus by using the most mobile leaflet for valve closure, without plication of the atrialized chamber. A total of 19 patients had additional attachment of the anterior right ventricular wall to the interventricular septum (Sebening's stitch) and reconstruction of the tricuspid valve as a double-orifice valve. The long-term results of the study are presented. Between 1988 and 2008, tricuspid valve repair was performed in 50 patients with Ebstein's anomaly (33 females, 17 males; median age 22 years; range: 0.6 to 60 years), at the authors' institution. The median follow up was 68 months (range: 5 to 238) months. Details of the survival rate, reoperations, NYHA class, maximal VO2, right ventricular function (velocity-time integral pulmonary artery (VTI-PA)), and tricuspid valve insufficiency were documented. No patient deaths occurred during surgery; the early mortality was 7.1%, and late mortality 2.4%. Those patients who died were all aged > 50 years, and in NYHA class III or IV. No additional patient deaths have occurred since 2004. Four reoperations were necessary. Both, the NYHA class and tricuspid valve insufficiency were improved significantly (from 3.1 to 1.8; p < 0.001 and from 3.2 to 1.9; p < 0.001, respectively). The VTI-PA was increased significantly, with a stable heart rate (p = 0.01). No aneurysm of the right ventricle was observed. The long-term follow up demonstrated good clinical results in tricuspid repair, without plication of the right ventricle, even in cases where tricuspid valve replacement was discussed. Modifications seemed to support these results. Surgery in older patients with a progressive NYHA class seemed to carry a higher operative mortality.
Aburawi, Elhadi H; Souid, Abdul-Kader; Liuba, Petru; Zoubeidi, Taoufik; Pesonen, Erkki
In adults, impaired myocardial repolarization and increased risk of arrhythmia are known consequences of open heart surgery. Little is known, however, about post-operative consequences of cardiopulmonary bypass surgery in children. The aim of this study was to assess ventricular repolarization and coronary perfusion after bypass surgery for atrial septal defect (ASD) repair in children. Twelve patients with ASD were assessed one day before and 5-6 days after ASD repair. Myocardial repolarization (corrected QT interval, QTc, QT dispersion, QTd, and PQ interval) was determined on 12-lead electrocardiograms. Coronary flow in proximal left anterior descending artery (peak flow velocity in diastole, PFVd) was assessed by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography. Ten of the 12 (83%) children had normal myocardial repolarization before and after surgery. After surgery, QTc increased 1-9% in 5 (42%) patients, decreased 2-11% in 5 (42%) patients and did not change in 2 (16%) patients. Post-op QTc positively correlated with bypass time (R=0.686, p=0.014) and changes in PFVd (R=0.741, p=0.006). After surgery, QTd increased 33-67% in 4 (33%) patients, decreased 25-50% in 6 patients (50%) and did not change in 2 (16%) patients. After surgery, PQ interval increased 5-30% in 4 (33%) patients, decreased 4-29% in 6 (50%) patients and did not change in 1 (8%) patient. Post-op PQ positively correlated with bypass time (R=0.636, p=0.027). As previously reported, PFVd significantly increased after surgery (p<0.001). Changes in QTc, PQ and PFVd are common in young children undergoing surgery for ASD repair. Post-op QTc significantly correlates with bypass time, suggesting prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass may impair ventricular repolarization. Post-op QTc significantly correlates with PFVd changes, suggesting increased coronary flow may also impair ventricular repolarization. The clinical significance and reversibility of these alternations require further investigations.
Teramoto, Chikao; Kawaguchi, Osamu; Araki, Yoshimori; Yoshikawa, Masaharu; Uchida, Wataru; Takemura, Gennta; Makino, Naoki
In patients with Marfan syndrome, cardiovascular complication due to aortic dissection represents the primary cause of death. Iatrogenic acute aortic dissection during cardiac surgery is a rare, but serious adverse event. A 51-year-old woman with Marfan syndrome underwent elective aortic surgery and mitral valve reconstruction surgery for the enlarged aortic root and severe mitral regurgitation. We replaced the aortic root and ascending aorta based on reimplantation technique. During subsequent mitral valve reconstruction, we found the heart pushed up from behind. Trans-esophageal echocardiography revealed a dissecting flap in the thoracic descending aorta. There was just weak signal of blood flow in the pseudolumen. We did not add any additional procedures such as an arch replacement. Cardio-pulmonary bypass was successfully discontinued. After protamine sulfate administration and blood transfusion, blood flow in the pseudolumen disappeared. The patient was successfully discharged from the hospital on 33th postoperative day without significant morbidities.
Kelley, Anthony R (Inventor)
The present invention is an intelligent flow control valve which may be inserted into the flow coming out of a pipe and activated to provide a method to stop, measure, and meter flow coming from the open or possibly broken pipe. The intelligent flow control valve may be used to stop the flow while repairs are made. Once repairs have been made, the valve may be removed or used as a control valve to meter the amount of flow from inside the pipe. With the addition of instrumentation, the valve may also be used as a variable area flow meter and flow controller programmed based upon flowing conditions. With robotic additions, the valve may be configured to crawl into a desired pipe location, anchor itself, and activate flow control or metering remotely.
Vijfhuize, S; Deden, A C; Costerus, S A; Sloots, C E J; Wijnen, R M H
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a congenital life-threatening condition requiring surgical repair in the neonatal period. Minimal access surgery (MAS) is gaining ground on the classical open approach by laparotomy or thoracotomy as it minimizes damage to the abdominal or thoracic wall. Using an open review of the literature, we aimed to determine whether MAS is safe and effective in treating CDH. Furthermore, we provide selection criteria for the optimal surgical approach, laid down in a decision algorithm. An online search of MEDLINE was performed (May 2012), followed by a citations search. All study types except case reports describing open and/or MAS repair of Bochdalek CDH were eligible. Primary outcome data, for example, surgical complications and mortality, were recorded, as well as secondary outcome measures, for example, operative time, duration of postoperative ventilation, tolerance of enteral nutrition, and total length of stay (LOS) in hospital. Analysis was performed in accordance with the standards of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. We identified 15 relevant studies, 5 of them describing MAS only and 10 comparing MAS to open repair of CDH. Numbers of included patients and selection criteria for MAS varied widely. Most studies have methodological limitations, such as the use of retrospective data or historical control groups. ECMO treatment and patch use were more frequent in the open repair group (both p < 0.0001). Recurrence risk seemed to be increased in the MAS group. The need for conversion in MAS series ranged widely, from 3.4 to 75.0%. The risk of general surgical complications did not vary between groups. Mortality seemed to be less in the MAS group. Operative time seemed to be longer in the MAS group. Duration of postoperative ventilation and total LOS appeared to be reduced in this group and patients returned quicker to enteral nutrition. We demonstrate that MAS for diaphragmatic hernia appears to
Dunlay, Shannon M; Deo, Salil V; Park, Soon J
Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is common in patients with heart failure undergoing left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation. Whether the TR should be surgically managed at the time of LVAD surgery is controversial. We searched SCOPUS, Web of Science, Ovid EMBASE, and Ovid MEDLINE (through May 10, 2014) for randomized controlled trials and observational studies comparing postoperative outcomes in patients treated with LVAD with concomitant tricuspid valve surgery (TVS) compared with LVAD alone. Six observational studies including 3,249 patients compared outcomes following LVAD + TVS versus LVAD. Four studies were single-center and most did not adjust for potential confounders. Addition of TVS prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass times by an average of 31 minutes (three studies, 95% CI 20-42). There was no difference in need for right ventricular assist device (six studies, HR 1.42, 95% CI 0.54-3.76), acute renal failure (four studies, HR 1.07, 95% CI 0.55-2.10), or early mortality (six studies, HR 1.28, 95% CI 0.78-2.08) in patients treated with LVAD + TVS versus LVAD alone. TVS prolongs cardiopulmonary bypass times, but available data demonstrate no significant association with early postoperative outcomes. However, differences in baseline risk of patients treated with TVS versus not limit our ability to draw conclusions.
Left atrial volume index as a predictor for persistent left ventricular dysfunction after aortic valve surgery in patients with chronic aortic regurgitation: the role of early postoperative echocardiography.
Cho, In-Jeong; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Hong, Geu-Ru; Heo, Ran; Sung, Ji Min; Lee, Sang-Eun; Chang, Byung-Chul; Shim, Chi Young; Ha, Jong-Won; Chung, Namsik
This study aimed to explore whether echocardiographic measurements during the early postoperative period can predict persistent left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) after aortic valve surgery in patients with chronic aortic regurgitation (AR). We prospectively recruited 54 patients (59 ± 12 years) with isolated chronic severe AR who subsequently underwent aortic valve surgery. Standard transthoracic echocardiography was performed before the operation, during the early postoperative period (≤2 weeks), and then 1 year after the surgery. Twelve patients with preoperative LVSD demonstrated LVSD at early after the surgery. Of the 42 patients without LVSD at preoperative echocardiography, 15 patients (36%) developed early postoperative LVSD after surgical correction. All 27 patients without LVSD at early postoperative echocardiography maintained LV function at 1 year after surgery. In the other 27 patients with postoperative LVSD, 17 patients recovered from LVSD and 10 patients did not at 1 year after surgery. Multiple logistic analysis demonstrated that postoperative left atrial volume index (LAVI) was the only independent predictor for persistent LVSD at 1 year after surgery in patients with postoperative LVSD (OR 1.180, 95% CI, 1.003-1.390, P = 0.046). The optimal LAVI cutoff value (>34.9 mL/m(2) ) had a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 88% for the prediction of persistent LVSD. Prevalence of early postoperative LVSD was relatively high, even in the patients without LVSD at preoperative echocardiography. Postoperative LAVI could be useful to predict persistent LVSD after aortic valve surgery in patients with early postoperative LVSD. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Leppäniemi, Ari K; Mentula, Panu J; Streng, Mari H; Koivikko, Mika P; Handolin, Lauri E
Management of severe liver injuries has evolved to include the options for nonoperative management and damage control surgery. The present study analyzes the criteria for choosing between nonoperative management and early surgery, and definitive repair versus damage control strategy during early surgery. In a retrospective analysis of 144 patients with severe (AAST grade III-V) liver injuries (94% blunt trauma), early laparotomy was performed in 50 patients. Initial management was nonoperative in 94 blunt trauma patients with 8 failures. Uni- and multivariate analyses were used to calculate predictor odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Factors associated with early laparotomy in blunt trauma included shock on admission, associated grade IV-V splenic injury, grade IV-V head injury, and grade V liver injury. Only shock was an independent predictor (OR, 26.1; 95% CI, 8.9-77.1; P < 0.001). The presence of a grade IV-V splenic injury predicted damage control strategy (OR infinite; P = 0.021). Failed nonoperative management was associated with grade IV-V splenic injury (OR, 14.00; 95% CI, 1.67-117.55), and shock (OR, 6.82; 95% CI, 1.49-31.29). The hospital mortality rate was 15%; 8 of 21 deaths were liver-related. Shock (OR, 9.3; 95% CI, 2.4-35.8; P = 0.001) and severe head injury (OR, 9.25; 95% CI, 3.0-28.9; P = 0.000) were independent predictors for mortality. In patients with severe liver injury, associated severe splenic injury favors early laparotomy and damage control strategy. Patients who arrive in shock or have an associated severe splenic injury should not be managed nonoperatively. In addition to severe head injury, uncontrollable bleeding from the liver injury is still a major cause of early death.
Park, Jae-Hyun; Choi, Jai Ho; Kim, Young-Il; Kim, Sung Won
Objective Complete sellar floor reconstruction is critical to avoid postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage during transsphenoidal surgery. Recently, the pedicled nasoseptal flap has undergone many modifications and eventually proved to be valuable and efficient. However, using these nasoseptal flaps in all patients who undergo transsphenoidal surgery, including those who had none or only minor CSF leakage, appears to be overly invasive and time-consuming. Methods Patients undergoing endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal tumor surgery within a 5 year-period were reviewed. Since 2009, we classified the intraoperative CSF leakage into grades from 0 to 3. Sellar floor reconstruction was tailored to each leak grade. We did not use any tissue grafts such as abdominal fat and did not include any procedures of CSF diversions such as lumbar drainage. Results Among 200 cases in 188 patients (147 pituitary adenoma and 41 other pathologies), intraoperative CSF leakage was observed in 27.4% of 197 cases : 14.7% Grade 1, 4.6% Grade 2a, 3.0% Grade 2b, and 5.1% Grade 3. Postoperative CSF leakage was observed in none of the cases. Septal bone buttress was used for Grade 1 to 3 leakages instead of any other foreign materials. Pedicled nasoseptal flap was used for Grades 2b and 3 leakages. Unused septal bones and nasoseptal flaps were repositioned. Conclusion Modified classification of intraoperative CSF leaks and tailored repair technique in a multilayered fashion using an en-bloc harvested septal bone and vascularized nasoseptal flaps is an effective and reliable method for the prevention of postoperative CSF leaks. PMID:26279811