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Sample records for vanderbilt adhd diagnostic

  1. [Clinical diagnostics of ADHD in preschool-aged children].

    PubMed

    Merkt, Julia; Petermann, Franz

    2015-03-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence and has many negative consequences for both the child and the family. Early identification of children with ADHD would be helpful for the prevention of long-term consequences. This review appraises questionnaires and clinical interviews that can be used for the diagnosis of ADHD in preschool-aged children (3-5 years). We compare and discuss both German and international methods. The role of questionnaires and clinical interviews in the diagnostic process of ADHD is discussed.

  2. ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ADHD Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Fact Sheet Learn about ADHD and what to do if you have concerns. What is ADHD? Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurobehavioral ...

  3. [Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid mental disorders : ADHD-specific self-rating scales in differential diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Paucke, M; Stark, T; Exner, C; Kallweit, C; Hegerl, U; Strauß, M

    2018-06-18

    It is still unclear how well the established attention deficit-hyperactive disorder (ADHD)-specific rating scales can differentiate between ADHD symptoms and symptoms of other mental disorders. A total of 274 patients with suspected adult ADHD were extensively examined clinically and guideline-conform in an ADHD outpatient clinic. In 190 patients the diagnosis of ADHD could be made with certainty. The patients were also subsequently assessed according to the DSM IV criteria by self-rating scales on current (ADHS-SB, ASRS, CAARS) and retrospective (WURS-K) complaints. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed in order to extract from the questionnaires, which could best distinguish the diagnosis of ADHD from other mental disorders. The results showed that two self-rating scales (WURS-K and ADHS-SB) were sufficient to correctly diagnose ADHD in 83% of the patients examined with a sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 56%. The ADHD-specific self-rating scales are additionally useful for the diagnostic differentiation between ADHD-specific and other psychiatric symptoms in the clinical practice and can improve the safety of the diagnosis.

  4. ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... ADHD? Everyone has trouble at times with paying attention, listening, or waiting. But people with ADHD have ... is a medical condition that affects a person's attention and self-control. Because of ADHD, people have ...

  5. Neuropsychological Measures in the Diagnosis of ADHD in Preschool: Can Developmental Research Inform Diagnostic Practice?

    PubMed

    Merkt, Julia; Siniatchkin, Michael; Petermann, Franz

    2016-03-22

    The diagnosis of ADHD in preschool is challenging. Behavioral ratings are less reliable, but the value of neuropsychological tests in the diagnosis of ADHD has been debated. This article provides an overview of neuropsychological measures utilized in preschoolers with ADHD (3-5 years). In addition, the manuscript discusses the extent to which these measures have been tested for their diagnostic capacity. The diagnostic utility of computerized continuous performance tests and working memory subtests from IQ-batteries has been demonstrated in a number of studies by assessing their psychometric properties, sensitivity, and specificity. However, findings from developmental and basic research attempting to describe risk factors that explain variance in ADHD show the most consistent associations of ADHD with measures of delay aversion. Results from developmental research could benefit studies that improve ADHD diagnosis at the individual level. It might be helpful to consider testing as a structured situation for behavioral observation by the clinician. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. INCLEN diagnostic tool for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (INDT-ADHD): development and validation.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sharmila; Aneja, Satinder; Russell, Paul S S; Gulati, Sheffali; Deshmukh, Vaishali; Sagar, Rajesh; Silberberg, Donald; Bhutani, Vinod K; Pinto, Jennifer M; Durkin, Maureen; Pandey, Ravindra M; Nair, M K C; Arora, Narendra K

    2014-06-01

    To develop and validate INCLEN Diagnostic Tool for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (INDT-ADHD). Diagnostic test evaluation by cross sectional design. Tertiary care pediatric centers. 156 children aged 65-117 months. After randomization, INDT-ADHD and Connors 3 Parent Rating Scale (C3PS) were administered, followed by an expert evaluation by DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria. Psychometric evaluation of diagnostic accuracy, validity (construct, criterion and convergent) and internal consistency. INDT-ADHD had 18 items that quantified symptoms and impairment. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder was identified in 57, 87 and 116 children by expert evaluation, INDT-ADHD and C3PS, respectively. Psychometric parameters of INDT-ADHD for differentiating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and normal children were: sensitivity 87.7%, specificity 97.2%, positive predictive value 98.0% and negative predictive value 83.3%, whereas for differentiating from other neuro-developmental disorders were 87.7%, 42.9%, 58.1% and 79.4%, respectively. Internal consistency was 0.91. INDT-ADHD has a 4-factor structure explaining 60.4% of the variance. Convergent validity with Conner's Parents Rating Scale was moderate (r =0.73, P= 0.001). INDT-ADHD is suitable for diagnosing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Indian children between the ages of 6 to 9 years.

  7. Renovations Preserve History at Vanderbilt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Tom

    1996-01-01

    Vanderbilt University opted to revamp its historic residences, built in the 1920s and 1930s, rather than build new ones. Structural and life-safety deficiencies were corrected. Every one of the halls is accessible to disabled visitors and accommodates disabled residents. (MLF)

  8. [Diagnostic of ADHD in childhood and adolescence with the K-SADS-PL].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Sören; Banaschewski, Tobias; Garbe, Edeltraut; Petermann, Franz; Petermann, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Attention Deficit-/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence, often accompanied by comorbid disorders. A high standard of diagnostic assessment combined with a demand for valid diagnostic instruments is necessary. The K-SADS-PL is an established semi-structured interview, focusing on the categorical assessment of psychiatric disorders. The aim of the following study was to examine specific characteristics of ADHD symptomatology including functional and behavioral assessment. Therefore correlations between the result in a diagnostic interview (K-SADS-PL) and different ADHD-specific instruments were performed. Groups were formed (exposed vs. unexposed), based on the diagnostic finding in the K-SADS-PL. Group-specific test score differences were calculated and compared by multivariate analyses of covariance. Children with ADHD showed a significantly higher impact of conduct and emotional problems than the unexposed group. Health related quality of life was more impaired in children and families suffering from ADHD which refers to the relevance of family-oriented psychotherapy.

  9. Bipolar disorder and ADHD: comorbidity and diagnostic distinctions.

    PubMed

    Marangoni, Ciro; De Chiara, Lavinia; Faedda, Gianni L

    2015-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and bipolar disorder (BD) are neurodevelopmental disorders with onset in childhood and early adolescence, and common persistence in adulthood. Both disorders are often undiagnosed, misdiagnosed, and sometimes over diagnosed, leading to high rates of morbidity and disability. The differentiation of these conditions is based on their clinical features, comorbidity, psychiatric family history course of illness, and response to treatment. We review recent relevant findings and highlight epidemiological, clinical, family history, course, and treatment-response differences that can aid the differential diagnosis of these conditions in an outpatient pediatric setting.

  10. The Structure and Diagnosis of Adult ADHD: An Analysis of Expanded Symptom Criteria from the Adult ADHD Clinical Diagnostic Scale (ACDS)

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Green, Jennifer Greif; Adler, Lenard A.; Barkley, Russell A.; Chatterji, Somnath; Faraone, Stephen V.; Finkelman, Matthew; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Gruber, Michael J.; Jewell, Mark; Russo, Leo J.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Van Brunt, David L.

    2011-01-01

    CONTEXT Controversy exists about the appropriate criteria for a diagnosis of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) OBJECTIVES To examine the structure and symptoms most predictive of DSM-IV adult ADHD. DESIGN Data come from clinical interviews in enriched sub-samples of the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R) (n = 131) and a survey of a large managed healthcare plan (n = 214). The clinician-administered Adult ADHD Clinical Diagnostic Scale (ACDS) was used to assess childhood ADHD and expanded symptoms of current adult ADHD. Analyses examined stability of symptoms from childhood to adulthood, the structure of adult ADHD, and the adult symptoms most predictive of current clinical diagnoses. SETTING The ACDS was administered telephonically by clinical research interviewers with extensive experience in diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD. PARTICIPANTS An enriched sample of community respondents MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES DSM-IV/ACDS diagnoses of adult ADHD RESULTS Almost half (45.7%) of respondents who had childhood ADHD continued to meet full DSM-IV criteria for current adult ADHD, with 94.9% of these cases having current attention-deficit disorder and 34.6% current hyperactivity disorder. Adult persistence was much greater for inattention than hyperactivity-impulsivity. Additional respondents met full criteria for current adult ADHD despite not having met full childhood criteria. A three-factor structure of adult symptoms included executive functioning, inattention-hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Stepwise logistic regression found executive functioning problems to be the most consistent and discriminating predictors of adult DSM-IV/ACDS ADHD. CONCLUSIONS These findings document the greater persistence of inattentive than hyperactive/impulsive childhood symptoms of ADHD in adulthood, but also show that inattention in not specific to ADHD, as it is strongly associated with other adult mental disorders. Executive functioning problems, in

  11. ADHD and Present Hedonism: time perspective as a potential diagnostic and therapeutic tool.

    PubMed

    Weissenberger, S; Klicperova-Baker, M; Zimbardo, P; Schonova, K; Akotia, D; Kostal, J; Goetz, M; Raboch, J; Ptacek, R

    2016-01-01

    The article draws primarily from the behavioral findings (mainly psychiatric and psychological observations) and points out the important relationships between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and time orientation. Specifically, the authors argue that there is a significant overlap between the symptoms of ADHD and Present Hedonism. Present Hedonism is defined by Zimbardo's time perspective theory and assessed by Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. Developmental data on Present Hedonism of males and females in the Czech population sample (N=2201) are also presented. The hypothesis of relationship between ADHD and Present Hedonism is mainly derived from the prevalence of addictive behavior (mainly excessive Internet use, alcohol abuse, craving for sweets, fatty foods, and fast foods), deficits in social learning, and increased aggressiveness both in ADHD and in the population scoring high on Present Hedonism in the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. We conclude that Zimbardo's time perspective offers both: 1) a potential diagnostic tool - the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, particularly its Present Hedonism scale, and 2) a promising preventive and/or therapeutic approach by the Time Perspective Therapy. Time Perspective Therapy has so far been used mainly to treat past negative trauma (most notably, posttraumatic stress disorder); however, it also has value as a potential therapeutic tool for possible behavioral compensation of ADHD.

  12. ADHD and Present Hedonism: time perspective as a potential diagnostic and therapeutic tool

    PubMed Central

    Weissenberger, S; Klicperova-Baker, M; Zimbardo, P; Schonova, K; Akotia, D; Kostal, J; Goetz, M; Raboch, J; Ptacek, R

    2016-01-01

    The article draws primarily from the behavioral findings (mainly psychiatric and psychological observations) and points out the important relationships between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and time orientation. Specifically, the authors argue that there is a significant overlap between the symptoms of ADHD and Present Hedonism. Present Hedonism is defined by Zimbardo’s time perspective theory and assessed by Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. Developmental data on Present Hedonism of males and females in the Czech population sample (N=2201) are also presented. The hypothesis of relationship between ADHD and Present Hedonism is mainly derived from the prevalence of addictive behavior (mainly excessive Internet use, alcohol abuse, craving for sweets, fatty foods, and fast foods), deficits in social learning, and increased aggressiveness both in ADHD and in the population scoring high on Present Hedonism in the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. We conclude that Zimbardo’s time perspective offers both: 1) a potential diagnostic tool – the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, particularly its Present Hedonism scale, and 2) a promising preventive and/or therapeutic approach by the Time Perspective Therapy. Time Perspective Therapy has so far been used mainly to treat past negative trauma (most notably, posttraumatic stress disorder); however, it also has value as a potential therapeutic tool for possible behavioral compensation of ADHD. PMID:27895485

  13. ADHD Diagnosis: As Simple As Administering a Questionnaire or a Complex Diagnostic Process?

    PubMed

    Parker, Ashton; Corkum, Penny

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigated the validity of using the Conners' Teacher and Parent Rating Scales (CTRS/CPRS) or semistructured diagnostic interviews (Parent Interview for Child Symptoms and Teacher Telephone Interview) to predict a best-practices clinical diagnosis of ADHD. A total of 279 children received a clinical diagnosis based on a best-practices comprehensive assessment (including diagnostic parent and teacher interviews, collection of historical information, rating scales, classroom observations, and a psychoeducational assessment) at a specialty ADHD Clinic in Truro, Nova Scotia, Canada. Sensitivity and specificity with clinical diagnosis were determined for the ratings scales and diagnostic interviews. Sensitivity and specificity values were high for the diagnostic interviews (91.8% and 70.7%, respectively). However, while sensitivity of the CTRS/CPRS was relatively high (83.5%), specificity was poor (35.7%). The low specificity of the CPRS/CTRS is not sufficient to be used alone to diagnose ADHD. (J. of Att. Dis. 2016; 20(6) 478-486). © The Author(s) 2013.

  14. Criterion and concurrent validity of Conners Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV (CAADID) Spanish version.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Bosch, Rosa; Richarte, Vanesa; Valero, Sergi; Gómez-Barros, Nuria; Nogueira, Mariana; Palomar, Gloria; Corrales, Montse; Sáez-Francàs, Naia; Corominas, Margarida; Real, Alberto; Vidal, Raquel; Chalita, Pablo J; Casas, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder in adulthood. Its diagnosis requires a retrospective evaluation of ADHD symptoms in childhood, the continuity of these symptoms in adulthood, and a differential diagnosis. For these reasons, diagnosis of ADHD in adults is a complex process which needs effective diagnostic tools. To analyse the criterion validity of the CAADID semi-structured interview, Spanish version, and the concurrent validity compared with other ADHD severity scales. An observational case-control study was conducted on 691 patients with ADHD. They were out-patients treated in a program for adults with ADHD in a hospital. A sensitivity of 98.86%, specificity 67.68%, positive predictive value 90.77% and a negative predictive value 94.87% were observed. Diagnostic precision was 91.46%. The kappa index concordance between the clinical diagnostic interview and the CAADID was 0.88. Good concurrent validity was obtained, the CAADID correlated significantly with WURS scale (r=0.522, P<.01), ADHD Rating Scale (r=0.670, P<.0.1) and CAARS (self-rating version; r=0.656, P<.01 and observer-report r=0.514, P<.01). CAADID is a valid and useful tool for the diagnosis of ADHD in adults for clinical, as well as for research purposes. Copyright © 2012 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. National variation of ADHD diagnostic prevalence and medication use: health care providers and education policies.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Brent D; Scheffler, Richard M; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Levine, Peter; Stone, Susan; Brown, Timothy T; Modrek, Sepideh

    2009-08-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnostic prevalence and medication use vary across U.S. census regions, but little is known about state-level variation. The purpose of this study was to estimate this variation across states and examine whether a state's health care provider characteristics and education policies are associated with this variation. Logistic regression models were estimated with 69,505 children aged four to 17 from the state-stratified and nationally representative 2003 National Survey of Children's Health, conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diagnostic prevalence was higher in the South (odds ratio [OR]=1.42, p<.001) than in the West; among children with ADHD diagnoses, medication use was higher in the South (OR=1.60, p<.01) and the Midwest (OR=1.53, p<.01) versus the West. On these measures, several states differed from the U.S. averages, including some states that, on the basis of the regional patterns found above, would not be expected to differ: Michigan had a high diagnostic prevalence; Vermont, South Dakota, and Nebraska had low diagnostic prevalences; and Connecticut, New Jersey, and Kentucky had low medication rates. Both diagnosis and medication status were associated with the number, age, and type of physicians within a state, particularly pediatricians. However, state education policies were not significantly associated with either diagnostic prevalence or medication rates. To better understand the association between a state's health care provider characteristics and both diagnostic prevalence and medication use, it may be fruitful to examine the content of provider continuing education programs, including the recommendations of major health professional organization guidelines to treat ADHD.

  16. Enhancing ADHD and LD Diagnostic Accuracy Using Career Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dipeolu, Abiola; Hargrave, Stephanie; Storlie, Cassandra A.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals diagnosed with mental health disorders may have work-related difficulties that impact functioning in all life domains. With limited research on the integration of career and mental health counseling, authors used a discriminant function analysis to assess the predictability of accurately identifying diagnostic categories among 258…

  17. Relation between internalizing behaviors, externalizing behaviors, and peer victimization among children with and without ADHD.

    PubMed

    Fogleman, Nicholas D; Leaberry, Kirsten D; Rosen, Paul J; Walerius, Danielle M; Slaughter, Kelly E

    2018-01-12

    The current study explored the concurrent and longitudinal association between internalizing behaviors, externalizing behaviors, and peer victimization among children with and without ADHD. Eighty children (42 ADHD, 38 non-ADHD) ages 8-12 participated in the present study conducted over a 6-month period. During the baseline session, parents completed a structured diagnostic interview and the Vanderbilt ADHD Parent Rating Scale to determine whether their child met criteria for ADHD, and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) to assess their child's internalizing and externalizing behaviors; children completed the Perception of Peer Support Scale (PPSS) to assess experiences of peer victimization. At the 6-month follow-up session, parents completed the CBCL and children completed the PPSS. Concurrently, internalizing behaviors were associated with peer victimization among children with and without ADHD; ADHD moderated this relation, such that internalizing behaviors were more strongly related to peer victimization among children with ADHD. Longitudinally, internalizing behaviors at baseline predicted peer victimization at 6-month follow-up; however, further analyses demonstrated there was a covarying change in internalizing behaviors and peer victimization. These findings suggest internalizing behaviors are related to peer victimization concurrently, and over time, and are associated with increased risk for peer victimization in the presence of ADHD. Additionally, internalizing behaviors and peer victimization appear to share a dynamic relationship; that is, decreases in internalizing behaviors predict similar decreases in peer victimization. No significant relations were observed between externalizing behaviors and peer victimization. Implications and limitations are discussed.

  18. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) profiling tests as diagnostic support for schizophrenia and adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Juselius Baghdassarian, Eva; Nilsson Markhed, Maria; Lindström, Eva; Nilsson, Björn M; Lewander, Tommy

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate the performances of two auditory brainstem response (ABR) profiling tests as potential biomarkers and diagnostic support for schizophrenia and adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), respectively, in an investigator-initiated blinded study design. Male and female patients with schizophrenia (n=26) and adult ADHD (n=24) meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM IV) diagnostic criteria and healthy controls (n=58) comprised the analysis set (n=108) of the total number of study participants (n=119). Coded sets of randomized ABR recordings were analysed by an independent party blinded to clinical diagnoses before a joint code-breaking session. The ABR profiling test for schizophrenia identified schizophrenia patients versus controls with a sensitivity of 84.6% and a specificity of 93.1%. The ADHD test identified patients with adult ADHD versus controls with a sensitivity of 87.5% and a specificity of 91.4%. The ABR profiling tests discriminated schizophrenia and ADHD versus healthy controls with high sensitivity and specificity. The methods deserve to be further explored in larger clinical studies including a broad range of psychiatric disorders to determine their utility as potential diagnostic biomarkers.

  19. Diagnostic overshadowing in a population of children with neurological disabilities: A cross sectional descriptive study on acquired ADHD.

    PubMed

    Hendriksen, J G M; Peijnenborgh, J C A W; Aldenkamp, A P; Vles, J S H

    2015-09-01

    Diagnostic overshadowing refers to the underdiagnosis of comorbid conditions in children with known neurological diagnoses. To demonstrate diagnostic overshadowing we determined the prevalence of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) in a cohort of children with a wide range of neurological disabilities. The study cohort consisted of 685 children (mean age 10.3 years, SD: 3.1; 425 boys and 260 girls) who visited a tertiary outpatient multidisciplinary clinic for neurological learning disabilities. Patients with ADHD were identified by retrospective chart review using DSM-IV criteria. The prevalence of ADHD in this cohort was 38.8% (266 children); of these children only 28.2% (75 children) were diagnosed with ADHD before referral. ADHD is a common problem in children with neurological disabilities and may be underdiagnosed due to overshadowing of somatic, physical or syndromal features of the disability. In our heterogeneous population ADHD was overshadowed in 71.8% of the cases. This finding may have important implications for diagnosis and treatment of mental health needs in children with neurological disabilities. Copyright © 2015 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The impact of study design and diagnostic approach in a large multi-centre ADHD study. Part 1: ADHD symptom patterns

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The International Multi-centre ADHD Genetics (IMAGE) project with 11 participating centres from 7 European countries and Israel has collected a large behavioural and genetic database for present and future research. Behavioural data were collected from 1068 probands with the combined type of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD-CT) and 1446 'unselected' siblings. The aim was to analyse the IMAGE sample with respect to demographic features (gender, age, family status, and recruiting centres) and psychopathological characteristics (diagnostic subtype, symptom frequencies, age at symptom detection, and comorbidities). A particular focus was on the effects of the study design and the diagnostic procedure on the homogeneity of the sample in terms of symptom-based behavioural data, and potential consequences for further analyses based on these data. Methods Diagnosis was based on the Parental Account of Childhood Symptoms (PACS) interview and the DSM-IV items of the Conners' teacher questionnaire. Demographics of the full sample and the homogeneity of a subsample (all probands) were analysed by using robust statistical procedures which were adjusted for unequal sample sizes and skewed distributions. These procedures included multi-way analyses based on trimmed means and winsorised variances as well as bootstrapping. Results Age and proband/sibling ratios differed between participating centres. There was no significant difference in the distribution of gender between centres. There was a significant interaction between age and centre for number of inattentive, but not number of hyperactive symptoms. Higher ADHD symptom frequencies were reported by parents than teachers. The diagnostic symptoms differed from each other in their frequencies. The face-to-face interview was more sensitive than the questionnaire. The differentiation between ADHD-CT probands and unaffected siblings was mainly due to differences in hyperactive/impulsive symptoms. Conclusions

  1. Diagnostic and Demographic Differences Between Incarcerated and Nonincarcerated Youth (Ages 6-15) With ADHD in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Soltis, Samuel L; Probst, Janice; Xirasagar, Sudha; Martin, Amy B; Smith, Bradley H

    2017-05-01

    Analyze diagnostic and demographic factors to identify predictors of delinquency resulting in incarceration within a group of children/adolescents diagnosed with ADHD. The study followed a cohort of 15,472 Medicaid covered children/adolescents with ADHD, ages 6 to 15 inclusive, between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2006. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev. [ DSM-IV-TR]), 2000 Codes were used for qualifying diagnosis codes. Available demographic characteristics included race, sex, and residence. The outcome was incarceration at the South Carolina Department of Juvenile Justice during 2005-2006. Among youth with ADHD, incarceration was more likely among black, male, and urban youth. Children/adolescents with comorbid ODD and/or CD were at greater risk compared with those with ADHD alone. Within ADHD-diagnosed youth, comorbid conditions and demographic characteristics increase the risk of incarceration. Intervention and treatment strategies that address behavior among youth with these characteristics are needed to reduce incarceration.

  2. Prevalence and diagnostic validity of motivational impairments and deficits in visuospatial short-term memory and working memory in ADHD subtypes.

    PubMed

    Dovis, Sebastiaan; Van der Oord, Saskia; Huizenga, Hilde M; Wiers, Reinout W; Prins, Pier J M

    2015-05-01

    Deficits in working memory (WM) and reinforcement sensitivity are thought to give rise to symptoms in the combined (ADHD-C) and inattentive subtype (ADHD-I) of ADHD. Children with ADHD are especially impaired on visuospatial WM, which is composed of short-term memory (STM) and a central executive. Although deficits in visuospatial WM and reinforcement sensitivity appear characteristic of children with ADHD on a group-level, the prevalence and diagnostic validity of these impairments is still largely unknown. Moreover, studies investigating this did not control for the interaction between motivational impairments and cognitive performance in children with ADHD, and did not differentiate between ADHD subtypes. Visuospatial WM and STM tasks were administered in a standard (feedback-only) and a high-reinforcement (feedback + 10 euros) condition, to 86 children with ADHD-C, 27 children with ADHD-I (restrictive subtype), and 62 typically developing controls (aged 8-12). Reinforcement sensitivity was indexed as the difference in performance between the reinforcement conditions. WM and STM impairments were most prevalent in ADHD-C. In ADHD-I, only WM impairments, not STM impairments, were more prevalent than in controls. Motivational impairments were not common (22% impaired) and equally prevalent in both subtypes. Memory and motivation were found to represent independent neuropsychological domains. Impairment on WM, STM, and/or motivation was associated with more inattention symptoms, medication-use, and lower IQ scores. Similar results were found for analyses of diagnostic validity. The majority of children with ADHD-C is impaired on visuospatial WM. In ADHD-I, STM impairments are not more common than in controls. Within both ADHD subtypes only a minority has an abnormal sensitivity to reinforcement.

  3. A Critical Review of ADHD Diagnostic Criteria: What to Address in the "DSM-V"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Allison S.

    2011-01-01

    ADHD is an impairing psychological disorder that predominantly affects children, but also adults to a lesser extent. As a result, a considerable amount of research has been completed in recent years to better understand the nature of the disorder to best treat individuals experiencing symptoms of ADHD. Especially with the publication of the…

  4. Is ADHD Diagnosed in Accord with Diagnostic Criteria? Overdiagnosis and Influence of Client Gender on Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruchmuller, Katrin; Margraf, Jurgen; Schneider, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Unresolved questions exist concerning diagnosis of ADHD. First, some studies suggest a potential overdiagnosis. Second, compared with the male-female ratio in the general population (3:1), many more boys receive ADHD treatment compared with girls (6-9:1). We hypothesized that this occurs because therapists do not adhere to "Diagnostic…

  5. The Wender Utah Rating Scale: Adult ADHD Diagnostic Tool or Personality Index?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, B.D.; Pella, Russell D.; Singh, Ashvind N.; Jones, Glenn N.; Gouvier, Wm. Drew

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) is used to retroactively assess ADHD symptoms. This study sought to determine whether the WURS actually functions as an index of dysfunctional personality traits. Method: Five hundred twenty-two adult participants completed the WURS and at least one of the following measures: Wechsler Adult…

  6. Roosevelt-Vanderbilt alternative transportation system planning study : phase 1

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-08-01

    This plan identifies components of a sustainable and effective alternative transportation system that will provide improved access to, and connections among, the Roosevelt-Vanderbilt National Historic Site units. The goal is to reduce the congestion ...

  7. Roosevelt-Vanderbilt alternative transportation system implementation plan : phase 2

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2004-12-01

    This is the second phase of a plan to identify components of a sustainable and effective alternative transportation system that will provide improved access to, and connections among, the Roosevelt-Vanderbilt National Historic Site units. The goal is...

  8. Diagnosing attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children involved with child protection services: are current diagnostic guidelines acceptable for vulnerable populations?

    PubMed

    Klein, B; Damiani-Taraba, G; Koster, A; Campbell, J; Scholz, C

    2015-03-01

    Children involved with child protection services (CPS) are diagnosed and treated for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) at higher rates than the general population. Children with maltreatment histories are much more likely to have other factors contributing to behavioural and attentional regulation difficulties that may overlap with or mimic ADHD-like symptoms, including language and learning problems, post-traumatic stress disorder, attachment difficulties, mood disorders and anxiety disorders. A higher number of children in the child welfare system are diagnosed with ADHD and provided with psychotropic medications under a group care setting compared with family-based, foster care and kinship care settings. However, children's behavioural trajectories change over time while in care. A reassessment in the approach to ADHD-like symptoms in children exposed to confirmed (or suspected) maltreatment (e.g. neglect, abuse) is required. Diagnosis should be conducted within a multidisciplinary team and practice guidelines regarding ADHD diagnostic and management practices for children in CPS care are warranted both in the USA and in Canada. Increased education for caregivers, teachers and child welfare staff on the effects of maltreatment and often perplexing relationship with ADHD-like symptoms and co-morbid disorders is also necessary. Increased partnerships are needed to ensure the mental well-being of children with child protection involvement. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. ADHD Subtypes and Co-Occurring Anxiety, Depression, and Oppositional-Defiant Disorder: Differences in Gordon Diagnostic System and Wechsler Working Memory and Processing Speed Index Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Chase, Gary A.; Mink, Danielle M.; Stagg, Ryan E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Freedom-from-Distractibility/Working Memory Index (FDI/WMI), Processing Speed Index (PSI), and Gordon Diagnostic System (GDS) scores in ADHD children were examined as a function of subtype and coexisting anxiety, depression, and oppositional-defiant disorder. Method: Participants were 587…

  10. Diagnostic Performance of the CBCL-Attention Problem Scale as a Screening Measure in a Sample of Brazilian Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampert, T. L.; Polanczyk, G.; Tramontina, S.; Mardini, V.; Rohde, L. A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of the Attention Problem Scale of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL-APS) for the screening of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in a sample of Brazilian children and adolescents. Methods: The CBCL-APS was given to 763 children and adolescents. Child psychiatrists using DSM-IV…

  11. ADHD: A Teachers' Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templeton, Rosalyn A.

    This paper provides a brief historical outline of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), its definition, its behavioral characteristics, and a guide to creating successful learning environments for these students. Diagnostic criteria for ADHD are listed and discussed, and incidence figures of 3 to 5 percent of all school-age children are…

  12. Annual Research Review: Reaction time variability in ADHD and autism spectrum disorders: measurement and mechanisms of a proposed trans-diagnostic phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Karalunas, Sarah L.; Geurts, Hilde M.; Konrad, Kerstin; Bender, Stephan; Nigg, Joel T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Intraindividual variability in reaction time (RT) has received extensive discussion as an indicator of cognitive performance, a putative intermediate phenotype of many clinical disorders, and a possible trans-diagnostic phenotype that may elucidate shared risk factors for mechanisms of psychiatric illnesses. Scope and Methodology Using the examples of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), we discuss RT variability. We first present a new meta-analysis of RT variability in ASD with and without comorbid ADHD. We then discuss potential mechanisms that may account for RT variability and statistical models that disentangle the cognitive processes affecting RTs. We then report a second meta-analysis comparing ADHD and non-ADHD children on diffusion model parameters. We consider how findings inform the search for neural correlates of RT variability. Findings Results suggest that RT variability is increased in ASD only when children with comorbid ADHD are included in the sample. Furthermore, RT variability in ADHD is explained by moderate to large increases (d = 0.63–0.99) in the ex-Gaussian parameter τ and the diffusion parameter drift rate, as well as by smaller differences (d = 0.32) in the diffusion parameter of nondecision time. The former may suggest problems in state regulation or arousal and difficulty detecting signal from noise, whereas the latter may reflect contributions from deficits in motor organization or output. The neuroimaging literature converges with this multicomponent interpretation and also highlights the role of top-down control circuits. Conclusion We underscore the importance of considering the interactions between top-down control, state regulation (e.g. arousal), and motor preparation when interpreting RT variability and conclude that decomposition of the RT signal provides superior interpretive power and suggests mechanisms convergent with those implicated using other cognitive

  13. Preschool ADHD: exploring uncertainties in diagnostic validity and utility, and treatment efficacy and safety.

    PubMed

    Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Daley, David; Thompson, Margaret; Swanson, Jim

    2003-07-01

    The current scientific and clinical status of preschool attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and its management is reviewed. Recent clinical and neuropsychological research supporting the utility of the construct will be presented along with a critical analysis of diagnostic issues. The published literature on treatment efficacy (both pharmacological and nonpharmacological) will be reviewed with a special focus on the issue of the safety and side effects of psycho-stimulants. The need for early identification and preventative intervention is indicated but caution should be employed in the use of psychostimulants with this age group.

  14. Implementing the American Academy of Pediatrics attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnostic guidelines in primary care settings.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Laurel K; Weckerly, Jill; Plemmons, Dena; Landsverk, John; Eastman, Sarita

    2004-07-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of the San Diego Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Project (SANDAP) protocol, a pediatric community-initiated quality improvement effort to foster implementation of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnostic guidelines, and to identify any additional barriers to providing evidence-based ADHD evaluative care. Seven research-naïve primary care offices in the San Diego area were recruited to participate. Offices were trained in the SANDAP protocol, which included 1) physician education, 2) a standardized assessment packet for parents and teachers, 3) an ADHD coordinator to assist in collection and collation of the assessment packet components, 4) educational materials for clinicians, parents, and teachers, in the form of handouts and a website, and 5) flowcharts delineating local paths for referral to medical subspecialists, mental health practitioners, and school-based professionals. The assessment packet included the parent and teacher versions of the Vanderbilt ADHD Diagnostic Rating Scales. In this study, we chose a conservative interpretation of the AAP ADHD guidelines for diagnosing ADHD, requiring that a child met criteria for ADHD on both the parent and teacher rating scales. A mixed-method analytic strategy was used to address feasibility and barriers, including quantitative surveys with parents and teachers and qualitative debriefing sessions conducted an average of 3 times per year with pediatricians and office staff members. Between December 2000 and April 2003, 159 children were consecutively enrolled for evaluation of school and/or behavioral problems. Clinically, only 44% of the children met criteria for ADHD on both the parent and teacher scales, and 73.5% of those children were categorized as having the combined subtype. More than 40% of the subjects demonstrated discrepant results on the Vanderbilt scales, with only the parent or teacher endorsing sufficient

  15. Implementing the American Academy of Pediatrics Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Diagnostic Guidelines in Primary Care Settings

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Laurel K.; Weckerly, Jill; Plemmons, Dena; Landsverk, John; Eastman, Sarita

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the feasibility of the San Diego Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Project (SANDAP) protocol, a pediatric community-initiated quality improvement effort to foster implementation of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnostic guidelines, and to identify any additional barriers to providing evidence-based ADHD evaluative care. Methods Seven research-naïve primary care offices in the San Diego area were recruited to participate. Offices were trained in the SANDAP protocol, which included 1) physician education, 2) a standardized assessment packet for parents and teachers, 3) an ADHD coordinator to assist in collection and collation of the assessment packet components, 4) educational materials for clinicians, parents, and teachers, in the form of handouts and a website, and 5) flowcharts delineating local paths for referral to medical subspecialists, mental health practitioners, and school-based professionals. The assessment packet included the parent and teacher versions of the Vanderbilt ADHD Diagnostic Rating Scales. In this study, we chose a conservative interpretation of the AAP ADHD guidelines for diagnosing ADHD, requiring that a child met criteria for ADHD on both the parent and teacher rating scales. A mixed-method analytic strategy was used to address feasibility and barriers, including quantitative surveys with parents and teachers and qualitative debriefing sessions conducted an average of 3 times per year with pediatricians and office staff members. Results Between December 2000 and April 2003, 159 children were consecutively enrolled for evaluation of school and/or behavioral problems. Clinically, only 44% of the children met criteria for ADHD on both the parent and teacher scales, and 73.5% of those children were categorized as having the combined subtype. More than 40% of the subjects demonstrated discrepant results on the Vanderbilt scales, with only the parent or

  16. ADHD Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español ADHD Medicines KidsHealth / For Teens / ADHD Medicines What's in ... en español Medicamentos para el TDAH What Is ADHD Medicine? After someone is diagnosed with ADHD , doctors ...

  17. Psychometric properties of the Japanese version of the Adult Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Self-Report Scale (ASRS-J) and its short scale in accordance with DSM-5 diagnostic criteria.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Toshinobu; Tsuji, Yui; Kurita, Hiroshi

    2017-04-01

    We developed the Japanese version of the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-J) and report its psychometric properties. The ASRS-J and other questionnaires were administered to 48 adults with ADHD, 46 adults with non-ADHD psychiatric disorders, 96 non-clinical adults, and 894 university students. ADHD diagnoses were made using the Japanese semi-structured diagnostic interview for adult ADHD, which is compatible with the DSM-5. The ASRS-J, its subscales, and the short form, all had Cronbach's α values of around 0.80. Total scores on the ASRS-J and the ASRS-J-6 were highly correlated with readministration after a two-week interval. The total and 18 individual item scores in the ASRS-J were significantly higher in the ADHD group than the other three groups. ASRS-J scores were correlated with scores on the Japanese version of Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales-Self Report subscales (0.59≤r≤0.77), with one exception. ASRS-J scores were also correlated (albeit more weakly; r=0.38) with Beck Depression Inventory-II total scores. Employing optimal cut-offs, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the ASRS-J and ASRS-J-6 are all above 0.69. The ASRS-J and ASRS-J-6 showed acceptable psychometric properties, although further study is necessary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The diagnostic utility of behavioral checklists in identifying children with ADHD and children with working memory deficits.

    PubMed

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Gathercole, Susan E; Holmes, Joni; Place, Maurice; Elliott, Julian G; Hilton, Kerry

    2009-09-01

    The present study investigated whether children with ADHD and those with working memory impairments have a common behavioral profile in the classroom. Three teacher checklists were used: the Conners' teacher rating scale (CTRS), the behavior rating inventory of executive function (BRIEF), and the working memory rating scale. The Conners' continuous performance test (CPT) was also included to determine whether there is a correspondence between performance on this widely used cognitive measure of attention deficits and teacher ratings of classroom behavior. All three behavior scales, but not the CPT, were able to successfully discriminate children with ADHD and those with working memory deficits from typically-developing children. Both the CTRS and the BRIEF discriminated a significant proportion of the children with ADHD from those with working memory deficits, indicating that while both groups exhibit behavioral problems in the classroom, they are characterized by differential attention profiles. The children with ADHD were identified on the basis of oppositional and hyperactive behavior, while those with working memory deficits were more inattentive.

  19. The Diagnostic Utility of Behavioral Checklists in Identifying Children with ADHD and Children with Working Memory Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Gathercole, Susan E.; Holmes, Joni; Place, Maurice; Elliott, Julian G.; Hilton, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated whether children with ADHD and those with working memory impairments have a common behavioral profile in the classroom. Three teacher checklists were used: the Conners' teacher rating scale (CTRS), the behavior rating inventory of executive function (BRIEF), and the working memory rating scale. The Conners'…

  20. German validation of the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS) II: reliability, validity, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, H; Kis, B; Hirsch, O; Matthies, S; Hebebrand, J; Uekermann, J; Abdel-Hamid, M; Kraemer, M; Wiltfang, J; Graf, E; Colla, M; Sobanski, E; Alm, B; Rösler, M; Jacob, C; Jans, T; Huss, M; Schimmelmann, B G; Philipsen, A

    2012-07-01

    The German version of the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS) has proven to show very high model fit in confirmative factor analyses with the established factors inattention/memory problems, hyperactivity/restlessness, impulsivity/emotional lability, and problems with self-concept in both large healthy control and ADHD patient samples. This study now presents data on the psychometric properties of the German CAARS-self-report (CAARS-S) and observer-report (CAARS-O) questionnaires. CAARS-S/O and questions on sociodemographic variables were filled out by 466 patients with ADHD, 847 healthy control subjects that already participated in two prior studies, and a total of 896 observer data sets were available. Cronbach's-alpha was calculated to obtain internal reliability coefficients. Pearson correlations were performed to assess test-retest reliability, and concurrent, criterion, and discriminant validity. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC-analyses) were used to establish sensitivity and specificity for all subscales. Coefficient alphas ranged from .74 to .95, and test-retest reliability from .85 to .92 for the CAARS-S, and from .65 to .85 for the CAARS-O. All CAARS subscales, except problems with self-concept correlated significantly with the Barrett Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), but not with the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS). Criterion validity was established with ADHD subtype and diagnosis based on DSM-IV criteria. Sensitivity and specificity were high for all four subscales. The reported results confirm our previous study and show that the German CAARS-S/O do indeed represent a reliable and cross-culturally valid measure of current ADHD symptoms in adults. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. The impact of study design and diagnostic approach in a large multi-centre ADHD study: Part 2: Dimensional measures of psychopathology and intelligence.

    PubMed

    Müller, Ueli C; Asherson, Philip; Banaschewski, Tobias; Buitelaar, Jan K; Ebstein, Richard P; Eisenberg, Jaques; Gill, Michael; Manor, Iris; Miranda, Ana; Oades, Robert D; Roeyers, Herbert; Rothenberger, Aribert; Sergeant, Joseph A; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund Js; Thompson, Margaret; Faraone, Stephen V; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

    2011-04-07

    The International Multi-centre ADHD Genetics (IMAGE) project with 11 participating centres from 7 European countries and Israel has collected a large behavioural and genetic database for present and future research. Behavioural data were collected from 1068 probands with ADHD and 1446 unselected siblings. The aim was to describe and analyse questionnaire data and IQ measures from all probands and siblings. In particular, to investigate the influence of age, gender, family status (proband vs. sibling), informant, and centres on sample homogeneity in psychopathological measures. Conners' Questionnaires, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaires, and Wechsler Intelligence Scores were used to describe the phenotype of the sample. Data were analysed by use of robust statistical multi-way procedures. Besides main effects of age, gender, informant, and centre, there were considerable interaction effects on questionnaire data. The larger differences between probands and siblings at home than at school may reflect contrast effects in the parents. Furthermore, there were marked gender by status effects on the ADHD symptom ratings with girls scoring one standard deviation higher than boys in the proband sample but lower than boys in the siblings sample. The multi-centre design is another important source of heterogeneity, particularly in the interaction with the family status. To a large extent the centres differed from each other with regard to differences between proband and sibling scores. When ADHD probands are diagnosed by use of fixed symptom counts, the severity of the disorder in the proband sample may markedly differ between boys and girls and across age, particularly in samples with a large age range. A multi-centre design carries the risk of considerable phenotypic differences between centres and, consequently, of additional heterogeneity of the sample even if standardized diagnostic procedures are used. These possible sources of variance should be counteracted in

  2. Comorbidity and Phenomenology of Bipolar Disorder in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Eduardo; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the comorbidity of bipolar disorder (BPD) in children with ADHD and to study the psychopathological profile of ADHD children with and without mania. Method: A total of 100 children with ADHD were assessed with a semistructured diagnostic interview and questionnaires of mania, ADHD, and general psychopathology. Results: 8% of…

  3. Secondary Use of Clinical Data: the Vanderbilt Approach

    PubMed Central

    Danciu, Ioana; Cowan, James D.; Basford, Melissa; Wang, Xiaoming; Saip, Alexander; Osgood, Susan; Shirey-Rice, Jana; Kirby, Jacqueline; Harris, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    The last decade has seen an exponential growth in the quantity of clinical data collected nationwide, triggering an increase in opportunities to reuse the data for biomedical research. The Vanderbilt research data warehouse framework consists of identified and de-identified clinical data repositories, fee-for-service custom services, and tools built atop the data layer to assist researchers across the enterprise. Providing resources dedicated to research initiatives benefits not only the research community, but also clinicians, patients and institutional leadership. This work provides a summary of our approach in the secondary use of clinical data for research domain, including a description of key components and a list of lessons learned, designed to assist others assembling similar services and infrastructure. PMID:24534443

  4. The Vanderbilt University nanoscale science and engineering fabrication laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hmelo, Anthony B.; Belbusti, Edward F.; Smith, Mark L.; Brice, Sean J.; Wheaton, Robert F.

    2005-08-01

    Vanderbilt University has realized the design and construction of a 1635 sq. ft. Class 10,000 cleanroom facility to support the wide-ranging research mission associated with the Vanderbilt Institute for Nanoscale Science and Engineering (VINSE). By design we have brought together disparate technologies and researchers formerly dispersed across the campus to work together in a small contiguous space intended to foster interaction and synergy of nano-technologies not often found in close proximity. The space hosts a variety of tools for lithographic patterning of substrates, the deposition of thin films, the synthesis of diamond nanostructures and carbon nanotubes, and a variety of reactive ion etchers for the fabrication of nanostructures on silicon substrates. In addition, a separate 911 sq. ft. chemistry laboratory supports nanocrystal synthesis and the investigation of biomolecular films. The design criteria required an integrated space that would support the scientific agenda of the laboratory while satisfying all applicable code and safety concerns. This project required the renovation of pre-existing laboratory space with minimal disruption to ongoing activities in a mixed-use building, while meeting the requirements of the 2000 edition of the International Building Code for the variety of potentially hazardous processes that have been programmed for the space. In this paper we describe how architectural and engineering challenges were met in the areas of mitigating floor vibration issues, shielding our facility against EMI emanations, design of the contamination control facility itself, chemical storage and handling, toxic gas use and management, as well as mechanical, electrical, plumbing, lab security, fire and laboratory safety issues.

  5. The Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale-Parent Form for assessing ADHD: evaluating diagnostic accuracy and determining optimal thresholds using ROC analysis.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Trevor; Lloyd, Andrew; Joseph, Alain; Weiss, Margaret

    2017-07-01

    The Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale-Parent Form (WFIRS-P) is a 50-item scale that assesses functional impairment on six clinically relevant domains typically affected in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). As functional impairment is central to ADHD, the WFIRS-P offers potential as a tool for assessing functional impairment in ADHD. These analyses were designed to examine the overall performance of WFIRS-P in differentiating ADHD and non-ADHD cases using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. This is the first attempt to empirically determine the level of functional impairment that differentiates ADHD children from normal controls. This observational study comprised 5-19-year-olds with physician-diagnosed ADHD (n = 476) and non-ADHD controls (n = 202). ROC analysis evaluated the ability of WFIRS-P to discriminate between ADHD and non-ADHD, and identified a WFIRS-P cut-off score that optimises correct classification. Data were analysed for the complete sample, for males versus females and for participants in two age groups (5-12 versus 13-19 years). Area under the curve (AUC) was 0.91 (95% confidence interval 0.88-0.93) for the overall WFIRS-P score, suggesting highly accurate classification of ADHD distinct from non-ADHD. Sensitivity (0.83) and specificity (0.85) were maximal for a mean overall WFIRS-P score of 0.65, suggesting that this is an appropriate threshold for differentiation. DeLong's test found no significant differences in AUCs for males versus females or 5-12 versus 13-19 years, suggesting that WFIRS-P is an accurate classifier of ADHD across gender and age. When assessing function, WFIRS-P appears to provide a simple and effective basis for differentiating between individuals with/without ADHD in terms of functional impairment. Disease-specific applications of QOL research.

  6. Validation of the Vanderbilt Holistic Face Processing Test.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao-Chih; Ross, David A; Gauthier, Isabel; Richler, Jennifer J

    2016-01-01

    The Vanderbilt Holistic Face Processing Test (VHPT-F) is a new measure of holistic face processing with better psychometric properties relative to prior measures developed for group studies (Richler et al., 2014). In fields where psychologists study individual differences, validation studies are commonplace and the concurrent validity of a new measure is established by comparing it to an older measure with established validity. We follow this approach and test whether the VHPT-F measures the same construct as the composite task, which is group-based measure at the center of the large literature on holistic face processing. In Experiment 1, we found a significant correlation between holistic processing measured in the VHPT-F and the composite task. Although this correlation was small, it was comparable to the correlation between holistic processing measured in the composite task with the same faces, but different target parts (top or bottom), which represents a reasonable upper limit for correlations between the composite task and another measure of holistic processing. These results confirm the validity of the VHPT-F by demonstrating shared variance with another measure of holistic processing based on the same operational definition. These results were replicated in Experiment 2, but only when the demographic profile of our sample matched that of Experiment 1.

  7. Validation of the Vanderbilt Holistic Face Processing Test

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao-Chih; Ross, David A.; Gauthier, Isabel; Richler, Jennifer J.

    2016-01-01

    The Vanderbilt Holistic Face Processing Test (VHPT-F) is a new measure of holistic face processing with better psychometric properties relative to prior measures developed for group studies (Richler et al., 2014). In fields where psychologists study individual differences, validation studies are commonplace and the concurrent validity of a new measure is established by comparing it to an older measure with established validity. We follow this approach and test whether the VHPT-F measures the same construct as the composite task, which is group-based measure at the center of the large literature on holistic face processing. In Experiment 1, we found a significant correlation between holistic processing measured in the VHPT-F and the composite task. Although this correlation was small, it was comparable to the correlation between holistic processing measured in the composite task with the same faces, but different target parts (top or bottom), which represents a reasonable upper limit for correlations between the composite task and another measure of holistic processing. These results confirm the validity of the VHPT-F by demonstrating shared variance with another measure of holistic processing based on the same operational definition. These results were replicated in Experiment 2, but only when the demographic profile of our sample matched that of Experiment 1. PMID:27933014

  8. European consensus statement on diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD: The European Network Adult ADHD

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood that persists into adulthood in the majority of cases. The evidence on persistence poses several difficulties for adult psychiatry considering the lack of expertise for diagnostic assessment, limited treatment options and patient facilities across Europe. Methods The European Network Adult ADHD, founded in 2003, aims to increase awareness of this disorder and improve knowledge and patient care for adults with ADHD across Europe. This Consensus Statement is one of the actions taken by the European Network Adult ADHD in order to support the clinician with research evidence and clinical experience from 18 European countries in which ADHD in adults is recognised and treated. Results Besides information on the genetics and neurobiology of ADHD, three major questions are addressed in this statement: (1) What is the clinical picture of ADHD in adults? (2) How can ADHD in adults be properly diagnosed? (3) How should ADHD in adults be effectively treated? Conclusions ADHD often presents as an impairing lifelong condition in adults, yet it is currently underdiagnosed and treated in many European countries, leading to ineffective treatment and higher costs of illness. Expertise in diagnostic assessment and treatment of ADHD in adults must increase in psychiatry. Instruments for screening and diagnosis of ADHD in adults are available and appropriate treatments exist, although more research is needed in this age group. PMID:20815868

  9. ADHD in acute care psychiatric inpatients.

    PubMed

    Lines, Katherine L; Sadek, Joseph

    2018-06-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurocognitive disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and motor hyperactivity. The worldwide prevalence of ADHD, in the general adult population, has been estimated to be 2.8%. Patients with ADHD have a high incidence of comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders. Those with a psychiatric disorder as well as ADHD have more psychosocial difficulties than those without ADHD. Despite knowing that ADHD is often comorbid with other psychiatric diagnoses, there are currently no studies elucidating the prevalence of ADHD in the inpatient psychiatric population, nor is there significant information about its impact. The lack of research into this topic suggests more needs to be done in the field of adult ADHD, especially in the inpatient psychiatric population and with respect to impairment in patient function. Knowing the prevalence of ADHD and its impact on quality of life in adult inpatients will help lay the groundwork for effective screening and management. The purpose of this study was to understand the prevalence rates of ADHD among psychiatric acute care inpatients. Other objectives included comparing the quality of life and functioning between patients with a primary psychiatric diagnosis and ADHD (treated or untreated) versus those with a primary psychiatric diagnosis and no ADHD. Thirty-three (N = 31) psychiatric inpatients were screened using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. Those that screened positive for ADHD received a full diagnostic assessment for ADHD. All patients completed the Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale (WFIRS) to assess level of functioning and a Clinical Global Impression of Severity/Improvement Scale (on admission and discharge). Demographic information was also obtained. Of the 31 patients analyzed, 12 had a diagnosis of ADHD (36.4%). The participants diagnosed with ADHD scored significantly higher on the WFIRS, suggesting decreased functioning compared

  10. The ADHD Concomitant Difficulties Scale (ADHD-CDS), a Brief Scale to Measure Comorbidity Associated to ADHD.

    PubMed

    Fenollar-Cortés, Javier; Fuentes, Luis J

    2016-01-01

    Although the critical feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity behavior, the disorder is clinically heterogeneous, and concomitant difficulties are common. Children with ADHD are at increased risk for experiencing lifelong impairments in multiple domains of daily functioning. In the present study we aimed to build a brief ADHD impairment-related tool -ADHD concomitant difficulties scale (ADHD-CDS)- to assess the presence of some of the most important comorbidities that usually appear associated with ADHD such as emotional/motivational management, fine motor coordination, problem-solving/management of time, disruptive behavior, sleep habits, academic achievement and quality of life. The two main objectives of the study were (i) to discriminate those profiles with several and important ADHD functional difficulties and (ii) to create a brief clinical tool that fosters a comprehensive evaluation process and can be easily used by clinicians. The total sample included 399 parents of children with ADHD aged 6-18 years (M = 11.65; SD = 3.1; 280 males) and 297 parents of children without a diagnosis of ADHD (M = 10.91; SD = 3.2; 149 male). The scale construction followed an item improved sequential process. Factor analysis showed a 13-item single factor model with good fit indices. Higher scores on inattention predicted higher scores on ADHD-CDS for both the clinical sample (β = 0.50; p < 0.001) and the whole sample (β = 0.85; p < 0.001). The ROC curve for the ADHD-CDS (against the ADHD diagnostic status) gave an area under the curve (AUC) of.979 (95%, CI = [0.969, 0.990]). The ADHD-CDS has shown preliminary adequate psychometric properties, with high convergent validity and good sensitivity for different ADHD profiles, which makes it a potentially appropriate and brief instrument that may be easily used by clinicians, researchers, and health professionals in dealing with ADHD.

  11. Diagnostic Utility of WISC-IV General Abilities Index and Cognitive Proficiency Index Difference Scores among Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devena, Sarah E.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2012-01-01

    The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition General Abilities Index and Cognitive Proficiency Index have been advanced as possible diagnostic markers of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. This hypothesis was tested with a hospital sample with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 78), a referred but nondiagnosed…

  12. Effectiveness of Neurofeedback Versus Medication in Treatment of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Sudnawa, Khemika Khemakanok; Chirdkiatgumchai, Vilawan; Ruangdaraganon, Nichara; Khongkhatithum, Chaiyos; Udomsubpayakul, Umaporn; Jirayucharoensak, Suwicha; Israsena, Pasin

    2018-06-22

    Neurofeedback (NF) is an operant conditioning procedure that trains participants for self-regulation of brain activity. Previous studies have shown that NF is a promising treatment of ADHD. However, there have been only a few RCT studies comparing effectiveness of NF with medication with various NF protocol and results. The aim of this study was to evaluate theeffectiveness of unipolar electrodeneurofeedback (NF) using theta/beta protocol compared with methylphenidate (MPH) in the treatment of ADHD. Children with newly diagnosed ADHD were randomly organised into NF and MPH groups. Each of children in NF group received 30 sessions of NF. Children in MPH group were prescribed methylphenidate for 12 weeks. Vanderbilt ADHD rating scales were completed by parents and teachers to evaluate ADHD symptoms pre- and post-treatment. Student's t-tests and Cohen's dwere used to compare symptoms between groups and evaluate effect size (ES) of each treatment respectively. Forty children participated in the study. No differences in ADHD baseline symptoms between groups were found. Post-treatment, teachers reported significantly lower ADHD symptoms in the MPH group (p = 0.01), but parents reported no differences betweenthe groups (p = 0.55). MPH demonstrated large ES (Cohen's d 1.30 - 1.69), while NF showed moderate ES (Cohen's d 0.49 - 0.68) for treatment of ADHD symptoms. This study supports NF as a promising alternative treatment for ADHD in children who do not respond or experience significant adverse effects to ADHD medications. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Atomoxetine Treatment of ADHD in Children with Comorbid Tourette Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Thomas J.; Sallee, F. Randy; Gilbert, Donald L.; Dunn, David W.; McCracken, James T.; Coffey, Barbara J.; Budman, Cathy L.; Ricardi, Randall K.; Leonard, Henrietta L.; Allen, Albert J.; Milton, Denai R.; Feldman, Peter D.; Kelsey, Douglas K.; Geller, Daniel A.; Linder, Steven L.; Lewis, Donald W.; Winner, Paul K.; Kurlan, Roger M.; Mintz, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study examines changes in severity of tics and ADHD during atomoxetine treatment in ADHD patients with Tourette syndrome (TS). Method: Subjects (7-17 years old) with ADHD ("Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, DSM-IV") and TS were randomly assigned to double-blind treatment with placebo (n = 56) or atomoxetine…

  14. The Role of Impairment in the Diagnosis of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gathje, Rebecca A.; Lewandowski, Lawrence J.; Gordon, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Current diagnostic criteria for ADHD require the consideration of impairment in making a diagnosis, although clinical and research definitions of ADHD rely more heavily on reported symptoms. This study explored the relationship between impairment and symptoms, variables predictive of impairment, and variation in ADHD identification when…

  15. Anchoring ADHD Symptoms to Mental Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Callie; Dunham, Mardis; Patel, Samir H.; Contreras-Bloomdahl, Susana

    2016-01-01

    "The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5)," requires that symptoms of ADHD must be "developmentally inappropriate" in order for an ADHD diagnosis to be considered. Because the DSM-5 does not specifically outline procedure for determining developmental inappropriateness of behaviors,…

  16. Protocol investigating the clinical utility of an objective measure of activity and attention (QbTest) on diagnostic and treatment decision-making in children and young people with ADHD-'Assessing QbTest Utility in ADHD' (AQUA): a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hall, Charlotte L; Walker, Gemma M; Valentine, Althea Z; Guo, Boliang; Kaylor-Hughes, Catherine; James, Marilyn; Daley, David; Sayal, Kapil; Hollis, Chris

    2014-12-01

    The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) state that young people need to have access to the best evidence-based care to improve outcome. The current 'gold standard' ADHD diagnostic assessment combines clinical observation with subjective parent, teacher and self-reports. In routine practice, reports from multiple informants may be unavailable or contradictory, leading to diagnostic uncertainty and delay. The addition of objective tests of attention and activity may help reduce diagnostic uncertainty and delays in initiating treatment leading to improved outcomes. This trial investigates whether providing clinicians with an objective report of levels of attention, impulsivity and activity can lead to an earlier, and more accurate, clinical diagnosis and improved patient outcome. This multisite randomised controlled trial will recruit young people (aged 6-17 years old) who have been referred for an ADHD diagnostic assessment at Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) and Community Paediatric clinics across England. Routine clinical assessment will be augmented by the QbTest, incorporating a continuous performance test (CPT) and infrared motion tracking of activity. The participant will be randomised into one of two study arms: QbOpen (clinician has immediate access to a QbTest report): QbBlind (report is withheld until the study end). Primary outcomes are time to diagnosis and diagnostic accuracy. Secondary outcomes include clinician's diagnostic confidence and routine clinical outcome measures. Cost-effective analysis will be conducted, alongside a qualitative assessment of the feasibility and acceptability of incorporating QbTest in routine practice. The findings from the study will inform commissioners, clinicians and managers about the feasibility, acceptability, clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of incorporating QbTest into routine diagnostic assessment of young

  17. Integrating and Assessing Structural Competency in an Innovative Prehealth Curriculum at Vanderbilt University

    PubMed Central

    Petty, JuLeigh

    2017-01-01

    Problem Structural competency is a framework for conceptualizing and addressing health-related social justice issues that emphasizes diagnostic recognition of economic and political conditions producing and racializing inequalities in health. Strategies are needed to teach prehealth undergraduate students concepts central to structural competency (e.g., structural inequity, structural racism, structural stigma) and to evaluate their impact. Approach The curriculum for Vanderbilt University’s innovative prehealth major in medicine, health, and society (MHS) was reshaped in 2013 to incorporate structural competency concepts and skills into undergraduate courses. The authors developed the Structural Foundations of Health (SFH) evaluation instrument, with closed- and open-ended questions designed to assess undergraduate students’ core structural competency skills. They piloted the SFH instrument in 2015 with MHS seniors. Outcomes Of the 85 students included in the analysis, most selected one or more structural factors as among the three most important in explaining U.S. regional childhood obesity rates (85%) and racial disparities in heart disease (92%). More than half described individual- or family-level structural factors (66%) or broad social and political factors (56%) as influencing geographic disparities in childhood obesity. Nearly two-thirds (66%) described racial disparities in heart disease as consequences of socioeconomic differences, discrimination/stereotypes, or policies with racial implications. Next Steps Preliminary data suggest that the MHS major trained students to identify and analyze relationships between structural factors and health outcomes. Future research will include a comparison of structural competency skills among MHS students and students in the traditional premedical track and assessment of these skills in incoming first-year students. PMID:28225732

  18. Centralized Oversight of Physician–Scientist Faculty Development at Vanderbilt: Early Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Abigail M.; Morrow, Jason D.; Limbird, Lee E.; Byrne, Daniel W.; Gabbe, Steven G.; Balser, Jeffrey R.; Brown, Nancy J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In 2000, faced with a national concern over the decreasing number of physician–scientists, Vanderbilt School of Medicine established the institutionally funded Vanderbilt Physician–Scientist Development (VPSD) program to provide centralized oversight and financial support for physician–scientist career development. In 2002, Vanderbilt developed the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded Vanderbilt Clinical Research Scholars (VCRS) program using a similar model of centralized oversight. The authors evaluate the impact of the VPSD and VCRS programs on early career outcomes of physician–scientists. Method Physician–scientists who entered the VPSD or VCRS programs from 2000 through 2006 were compared with Vanderbilt physician–scientists who received NIH career development funding during the same period without participating in the VPSD or VCRS programs. Results Seventy-five percent of VPSD and 60% of VCRS participants achieved individual career award funding at a younger age than the comparison cohort. This shift to career development award funding at a younger age among VPSD and VCRS scholars was accompanied by a 2.6-fold increase in the number of new K awards funded and a rate of growth in K-award dollars at Vanderbilt that outpaced the national rate of growth in K-award funding. Conclusions Analysis of the early outcomes of the VPSD and VCRS programs suggests that centralized oversight can catalyze growth in the number of funded physician–scientists at an institution. Investment in this model of career development for physician–scientists may have had an additive effect on the recruitment and retention of talented trainees and junior faculty. PMID:18820531

  19. Measuring impairment when diagnosing adolescent ADHD: Differentiating problems due to ADHD versus other sources.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, Alejandro L; H Sibley, Margaret; Campez, Mileini

    2018-06-01

    The DSM-5 requires clinicians to link ADHD symptoms to clinically meaningful impairments in daily life functioning. Measuring impairment during ADHD assessments may be particularly challenging in adolescence, when ADHD is often not the sole source of a youth's difficulties. Existing impairment rating scales are criticized for not specifying ADHD as the source of impairment in their instructions, leading to potential problems with rating scale specificity. The current study utilized a within subjects design (N = 107) to compare parent report of impairment on two versions of a global impairment measure: one that specified ADHD as the source of impairment (Impairment Rating Scale-ADHD) and a standard version that did not (Impairment Rating Scale). On the standard family impairment item, parents endorsed greater impairment as compared to the IRS-ADHD. This finding was particularly pronounced when parents reported high levels of parenting stress. More severe ADHD symptoms were associated with greater concordance between the two versions. Findings indicate that adolescent family related impairments reported during ADHD assessments may be due to sources other than ADHD symptoms, such as developmental maladjustment. To prevent false positive diagnoses, symptom-specific wording may optimize impairment measures when assessing family functioning in diagnostic assessments for adolescents with ADHD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A Test-Retest Analysis of the Vanderbilt Assessment for Leadership in Education in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minor, Elizabeth Covay; Porter, Andrew C.; Murphy, Joseph; Goldring, Ellen; Elliott, Stephen N.

    2017-01-01

    The Vanderbilt Assessment for Leadership in Education (VAL-ED) is a 360-degree learning-centered behaviors principal evaluation tool that includes ratings from the principal, supervisors, and teachers. The current study assesses the test-retest reliability of the VAL-ED for a sample of seven school districts as part of multiple validity and…

  1. An Examination of Differential Item Functioning on the Vanderbilt Assessment of Leadership in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polikoff, Morgan S.; May, Henry; Porter, Andrew C.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Goldring, Ellen; Murphy, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    The Vanderbilt Assessment of Leadership in Education is a 360-degree assessment of the effectiveness of principals' learning-centered leadership behaviors. In this report, we present results from a differential item functioning (DIF) study of the assessment. Using data from a national field trial, we searched for evidence of DIF on school level,…

  2. Investigating the Validity and Reliability of the Vanderbilt Assessment of Leadership in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Andrew C.; Polikoff, Morgan S.; Goldring, Ellen B.; Murphy, Joseph; Elliott, Stephen N.; May, Henry

    2010-01-01

    The Vanderbilt Assessment of Leadership in Education (VAL-ED) is a multirater assessment of principals' learning-centered leadership. The instrument was developed based on the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. In this article, we report on the validity and reliability evidence for the VAL-ED accumulated in a national field…

  3. 75 FR 44977 - General Management Plan/Abbreviated Final Environmental Impact Statement, Roosevelt-Vanderbilt...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ... Impact Statement for the General Management Plan (GMP/EIS) for Roosevelt-Vanderbilt National Historic Sites, Hyde Park, New York. The Abbreviated Final GMP/EIS includes an analysis of agency and public comments received on the Draft GMP/EIS with NPS responses, errata sheets detailing editorial corrections to...

  4. Coaching for ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Kevin; Ratey, Nancy; Maynard, Sandy; Sussman, Susan; Wright, Sarah D.

    2010-01-01

    Despite limited scientific study on ADHD coaching as an intervention for adults with ADHD, the field of ADHD coaching has grown significantly and gained popularity in recent years. ADHD coaching is becoming a bona fide profession where one must advance through a rigorous training process, in order to be certified as a professional ADHD coach.…

  5. ADHD Rating Scale-IV: Checklists, Norms, and Clinical Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Danielle

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the "ADHD Rating Scale-IV: Checklist, norms, and clinical interpretation," is a norm-referenced checklist that measures the symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) according to the diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric…

  6. The Vanderbilt Professional Nursing Practice Program, part 3: managing an advancement process.

    PubMed

    Steaban, Robin; Fudge, Mitzie; Leutgens, Wendy; Wells, Nancy

    2003-11-01

    Consistency of performance standards across multiple clinical settings is an essential component of a credible advancement system. Our advancement process incorporates a central committee, composed of nurses from all clinical settings within the institution, to ensure consistency of performance in inpatient, outpatient, and procedural settings. An analysis of nurses advanced during the first 18 months of the program indicates that performance standards are applicable to nurses in all clinical settings. The first article (September 2003) in this 3-part series described the foundation for and the philosophical background of the Vanderbilt Professional Nursing Practice Program (VPNPP), the career advancement program underway at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Part 2 described the development of the evaluation tools used in the VPNPP, the implementation and management of this new system, program evaluation, and improvements since the program's inception. The purpose of this article is to review the advancement process, review the roles of those involved in the process, and to describe outcomes and lessons learned.

  7. MyHealthAtVanderbilt: policies and procedures governing patient portal functionality

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbloom, S Trent; Stenner, Shane P; Anders, Shilo; Muse, Sue; Johnson, Kevin B; Jirjis, Jim; Jackson, Gretchen Purcell

    2011-01-01

    Explicit guidelines are needed to develop safe and effective patient portals. This paper proposes general principles, policies, and procedures for patient portal functionality based on MyHealthAtVanderbilt (MHAV), a robust portal for Vanderbilt University Medical Center. We describe policies and procedures designed to govern popular portal functions, address common user concerns, and support adoption. We present the results of our approach as overall and function-specific usage data. Five years after implementation, MHAV has over 129 800 users; 45% have used bi-directional messaging; 52% have viewed test results and 45% have viewed other medical record data; 30% have accessed health education materials; 39% have scheduled appointments; and 29% have managed a medical bill. Our policies and procedures have supported widespread adoption and use of MHAV. We believe other healthcare organizations could employ our general guidelines and lessons learned to facilitate portal implementation and usage. PMID:21807648

  8. The Vanderbilt Professional Nursing Practice Program: part 1: Growing and supporting professional nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Karen; Eck, Carol; Keck, Becky; Wells, Nancy

    2003-09-01

    Professional practice programs are designed to attract, retain, and reward nurses. This three-part series will describe Vanderbilt's performance-based career advancement system, the Vanderbilt Professional Nursing Practice Program (VPNPP). Part 1 outlines the overall program's foundation, philosophical background, and basic structure. The VPNPP is built upon Benner's work, distinguishing among four levels of practice: novice, competent, proficient, and expert. Work by many in the organization identified the expected behaviors for nurses at each level, which were then used to develop clear process evaluation criteria. Part 2 will examine the performance measurement and evaluation system created to support the program. The process of advancing within the program will be described in part 3.

  9. Enhancing Diversity in Physics: The Fisk-Vanderbilt Masters-to-PhD Bridge Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stassun, Keivan

    2010-03-01

    We describe the Fisk-Vanderbilt Masters-to-PhD Bridge program as a model for partnering with minority-serving institutions to increase the representation of women and minorities earning PhDs in astronomy and related disciplines. Since its inception in 2004, the Fisk-Vanderbilt Bridge program has attracted 30 minority students, 60% of whom are female, and with a retention rate of 94%. When the first Bridge students completed their PhDs in 2010-11, the program will become the top awarder of astronomy PhDs to underrepresented minorities in the United States. Already, Fisk has become the top producer of physics Masters degrees to African Americans. We summarize the program's structure, approach, and research basis with the goal of providing a replicable model for other institutions seeking to build similar collaborative, research-based bridging partnerships.

  10. The ADHD Concomitant Difficulties Scale (ADHD-CDS), a Brief Scale to Measure Comorbidity Associated to ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Fenollar-Cortés, Javier; Fuentes, Luis J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Although the critical feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity behavior, the disorder is clinically heterogeneous, and concomitant difficulties are common. Children with ADHD are at increased risk for experiencing lifelong impairments in multiple domains of daily functioning. In the present study we aimed to build a brief ADHD impairment-related tool -ADHD concomitant difficulties scale (ADHD-CDS)- to assess the presence of some of the most important comorbidities that usually appear associated with ADHD such as emotional/motivational management, fine motor coordination, problem-solving/management of time, disruptive behavior, sleep habits, academic achievement and quality of life. The two main objectives of the study were (i) to discriminate those profiles with several and important ADHD functional difficulties and (ii) to create a brief clinical tool that fosters a comprehensive evaluation process and can be easily used by clinicians. Methods: The total sample included 399 parents of children with ADHD aged 6–18 years (M = 11.65; SD = 3.1; 280 males) and 297 parents of children without a diagnosis of ADHD (M = 10.91; SD = 3.2; 149 male). The scale construction followed an item improved sequential process. Results: Factor analysis showed a 13-item single factor model with good fit indices. Higher scores on inattention predicted higher scores on ADHD-CDS for both the clinical sample (β = 0.50; p < 0.001) and the whole sample (β = 0.85; p < 0.001). The ROC curve for the ADHD-CDS (against the ADHD diagnostic status) gave an area under the curve (AUC) of.979 (95%, CI = [0.969, 0.990]). Discussion: The ADHD-CDS has shown preliminary adequate psychometric properties, with high convergent validity and good sensitivity for different ADHD profiles, which makes it a potentially appropriate and brief instrument that may be easily used by clinicians, researchers, and

  11. A novel base change leading to Hb Vanderbilt [β89(F5)Ser→Arg, AGT>AGA].

    PubMed

    Goodyer, Matthew J; Elhassadi, Ezzat I; Percy, Melanie J; McMullin, Mary F

    2011-01-01

    We describe a high oxygen affinity hemoglobin (Hb) variant (Hb Vanderbilt) as a result of a heterozygous novel base change from T to A at codon 89 (AGT>AGA) leading to an amino acid change from serine to arginine.

  12. ADHD Perspectives: Medicalization and ADHD Connectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Gloria Sunnie

    2012-01-01

    Today's "ADHDscape" is no longer confined to images of fidgety children falling off classroom chairs. Trans-generational images flood popular culture, from "ADHD creator" with entrepreneurial style, to "ADHD troublemaker". Indeed, ADHD's enigmatic characteristics seem to apply as much to crying babies as to forgetful grannies. With the recent…

  13. ADHD and nicotine use in schizophrenia or Asperger syndrome: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Hallerbäck, Maria Unenge; Lugnegård, Tove; Gillberg, Christopher

    2014-07-01

    To examine ADHD prevalence, rating scales, and relationship to nicotine use in adults with schizophrenia or Asperger syndrome. Ninety-five individuals, 41 with schizophrenia and 54 with Asperger syndrome, were included. Self-rating of adult ADHD symptoms with the Wender-Reimherr Adult Attention Deficit Diagnostic Rating Scale (WRAADDS), parent rating of proband's ADHD childhood and adult life symptoms using the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham Questionnaire (SNAP), and report of clinical ADHD diagnosis were included as ADHD measures. Nicotine use data were compared with data from a population sample. In all, 10% of the schizophrenia group and 30% of the Asperger syndrome group had a clinical ADHD diagnosis. Nicotine dependency in the whole sample was closely linked to ADHD. The prevalence of comorbid ADHD was high in schizophrenia and Asperger syndrome. The WRAADDS self-rating scale for ADHD can be one useful tool for assessing comorbid ADHD in these patient groups. © 2012 SAGE Publications.

  14. The building and sustaining of a health care partnership: the Meharry-Vanderbilt Alliance.

    PubMed

    Chatman, Vera Stevens; Buford, Juanita F; Plant, Brynne

    2003-11-01

    The ability of academic health centers (AHCs) to maintain their financial viability and mission in the face of revolutionary changes was broadly discussed during the last decade. Among the suggestions for protecting the future of AHCs was to form strategic alliances to further the missions of education, research, and service. Although the evidence indicates that 55% of strategic alliances fall apart after three years, the Meharry-Vanderbilt Alliance is now beginning its fifth year, and it appears to be growing stronger. This article presents a brief overview of the evolving historical relationship between Meharry Medical College and Vanderbilt University Medical Center-two institutions that share the same fundamental missions but have very different traditions, cultures, resources, and emphases for medical training-and their relationship with Metropolitan General Hospital at Meharry, a public hospital. The characteristics that have distinguished this strategic alliance are its organizational structure, clearly articulated and measurable objectives, an independent central office, and a shared responsibility for the management and provision of clinical services at Nashville General Hospital. The belief that the Meharry-Vanderbilt Alliance is the "right thing to do" has provided a foundation for cooperation at all levels of both AHCs.

  15. External Validation of Bifactor Model of ADHD: Explaining Heterogeneity in Psychiatric Comorbidity, Cognitive Control, and Personality Trait Profiles within DSM-IV ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martel, Michelle M.; Roberts, Bethan; Gremillion, Monica; von Eye, Alexander; Nigg, Joel T.

    2011-01-01

    The current paper provides external validation of the bifactor model of ADHD by examining associations between ADHD latent factor/profile scores and external validation indices. 548 children (321 boys; 302 with ADHD), 6 to 18 years old, recruited from the community participated in a comprehensive diagnostic procedure. Mothers completed the Child…

  16. False Memory in Adults With ADHD: A Comparison Between Subtypes and Normal Controls.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Abdrabo Moghazy; Elfar, Rania Mohamed

    2017-10-01

    To examine the performance on the Deese-Roediger-McDermott task of adults divided into ADHD subtypes and compares their performance to that of healthy controls to examine whether adults with ADHD are more susceptible to the production of false memories under experimental conditions. A total of 128 adults with ADHD (50% females), classified into three Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV-TR) subtypes, were compared with 48 controls. The results indicated that the ADHD participants recalled and recognized fewer studied words than the controls, the ADHD groups produced more false memories than the control group, no differences in either the false positives or the false negatives. The ADHD-combined (ADHD-CT) group recognized significantly more critical words than the control, ADHD-predominantly inattentive (ADHD-IA), and ADHD-predominantly hyperactive-impulsive (ADHD-HI) groups. The ADHD groups recalled and recognized more false positives, were more confident in their false responses, and displayed more knowledge corruption than the controls. The ADHD-CT group recalled and recognized more false positives than the other ADHD groups. The adults with ADHD have more false memories than the controls and that false memory formation varied with the ADHD subtypes.

  17. Occurrence of ADHD in parents of ADHD children in a clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Starck, Martina; Grünwald, Julia; Schlarb, Angelika A

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that there is a large amount of research on childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment and an increasing amount of research on adult ADHD, little is known about the prevalence and influence of parental ADHD. Therefore, this study examined the frequency of parental ADHD in a clinical sample of German children suffering from ADHD. We also tried to find different levels of symptom severity for prognostic relevance. Furthermore, the association between subtypes of ADHD in children and their parents was investigated. In this study, parents of 79 ADHD children were screened for ADHD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition and International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition. The Wender Utah Rating Scale and the ADHS-Self-Report were given to 75 mothers and 49 fathers for retrospective and current symptoms. Frequency of ADHD symptoms and severity groups was calculated and relationship between parental and children's ADHD was tested. ADHD occurrence for mothers of children with ADHD was 41.3%, for fathers 51.0%. About 16.0% of the mothers had a mixed type, 9.3% had a hyperactive-impulsive subtype, and 16.0% had an inattentive subtype. Of the fathers, 18.4% had a mixed type, 10.2% had a hyperactive-impulsive subtype, and 22.4% had an inattentive subtype; 61% of the mothers and 46.9% of the fathers had low symptom severity. Medium symptom severity was reported by 37.7% mothers and 46.9% fathers, while 1.3% of the mothers and 6.2% of the fathers showed severe symptoms. No significant correlation between parental and child diagnoses was observed. As nearly half of the parents suffered from ADHD, these results are a matter of concern in families with ADHD children. Besides parent-child interactions, parental ADHD symptoms might influence parental education style and also effects parent training as well as the child's therapy outcome. In the future, parents should be screened for ADHD

  18. Early developmental, temperamental and educational problems in 'substance use disorder' patients with and without ADHD. Does ADHD make a difference?

    PubMed

    Skutle, Arvid; Bu, Eli Torild Hellandsjø; Jellestad, Finn Konow; van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, Katelijne; Dom, Geert; Verspreet, Sofie; Carpentier, Pieter Jan; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Franck, Johan; Konstenius, Maija; Kaye, Sharlene; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Barta, Csaba; Fatséas, Melina; Auriacombe, Marc; Johnson, Brian; Faraone, Stephen V; Levin, Frances R; Allsop, Steve; Carruthers, Susan; Schoevers, Robert A; Koeter, Maarten W J; van den Brink, Wim; Moggi, Franz; Møller, Merete; van de Glind, Geurt

    2015-12-01

    The prevalence of ADHD among patients with substance use disorder (SUD) is substantial. This study addressed the following research questions: Are early developmental, temperamental and educational problems overrepresented among SUD patients with ADHD compared to SUD patients without ADHD? Do this comorbid group receive early help for their ADHD, and are there signs of self-medicating with illicit central stimulants? An international, multi-centre cross-sectional study was carried out involving seven European countries, with 1205 patients in treatment for SUD. The mean age was 40 years and 27% of the sample was female. All participants were interviewed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus and the Conners' Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV. SUD patients with ADHD ( n  = 196; 16.3% of the total sample) had a significantly slower infant development than SUD patients without ADHD ( n  = 1,009; 83.4%), had greater problems controlling their temperament, and had lower educational attainment. Only 24 (12%) of the current ADHD positive patients had been diagnosed and treated during childhood and/or adolescence. Finally, SUD patients with ADHD were more likely to have central stimulants or cannabis as their primary substance of abuse, whereas alcohol use was more likely to be the primary substance of abuse in SUD patients without ADHD. The results emphasize the importance of early identification of ADHD and targeted interventions in the health and school system, as well as in the addiction field.

  19. Italian Teachers' Knowledge and Perception of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frigerio, Alessandra; Montali, Lorenzo; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2014-01-01

    Teachers' perceptions of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can influence the diagnostic rates of the disorder and the management of children in schools. This study investigated the knowledge and perceptions of ADHD in a sample of 589 Italian primary school teachers using a self-report questionnaire that included the ADHD perceptions…

  20. Association of Parental ADHD and Depression with Externalizing and Internalizing Dimensions of Child Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Mehta, Natasha; Lee, Steve S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the independent association of parental depression and ADHD on three dimensions of child psychopathology among 178 children aged 5 to 10 years. Method: Self-reported measures of parental depression and ADHD as well as rating scales and structure diagnostic interviews of child internalizing, ADHD, and externalizing problems were…

  1. Informativeness of Maternal Reports on the Diagnosis of ADHD: An Analysis of Mother and Youth Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biederman, Joseph; Ball, Sarah W.; Mick, Eric; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Kaiser, Roselinde; Bristol, Elyssa; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated correlates of the diagnosis of ADHD in youth by informant source. Method: Ninety-four pairs of mother reports and youth self-reports on ADHD were independently assessed, using diagnostic interviews from a large study of youth of both genders with and without ADHD. Comparisons were made on measures of interpersonal, school,…

  2. ADHD and Dyscalculia: Evidence for Independent Familial Transmission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monuteaux, Michael C.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Herzig, Kathleen; Navsaria, Neha; Biederman, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The familial relationship between dyscalculia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was assessed. We conducted a familial risk analysis using probands with and without ADHD of both genders and their first-degree relatives. Participants were assessed with structured diagnostic interviews and a cognitive test battery. We found elevated…

  3. Building Global Health Through a Center-Without-Walls: The Vanderbilt Institute for Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Vermund, Sten H.; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V.; Khedkar, Sheetal; Jia, Yujiang; Etherington, Carol; Vergara, Alfredo

    2008-01-01

    The Institute for Global Health at Vanderbilt enables the expansion and coordination of global health research, service, and training, reflecting the university's commitment to improve health services and outcomes in resource-limited settings. Global health encompasses both prevention via public health and treatment via medical care, all nested within a broader community-development context. This has fostered university-wide collaborations to address education, business/economics, engineering, nursing, and language training, among others. The institute is a natural facilitator for team building and has been especially helpful in organizing institutional responses to global health solicitations from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Centers for Disease Control (CDC), and other funding agencies. This center-without-walls philosophy nurtures noncompetitive partnerships among and within departments and schools. With extramural support from the NIH and from endowment and developmental investments from the school of medicine, the institute funds new pilot projects to nurture global educational and research exchanges related to health and development. Vanderbilt's newest programs are a CDC-supported HIV/AIDS service initiative in Africa and an overseas research training program for health science graduate students and clinical fellows. New opportunities are available for Vanderbilt students, staff, and faculty to work abroad in partnership with international health projects through a number of Tennessee institutions now networked with the institute. A center-without-walls may be a model for institutions contemplating strategic investments to better organize service and teaching opportunities abroad, and to achieve greater successes in leveraging extramural support for overseas and domestic work focused on tropical medicine and global health. PMID:18303361

  4. Functional Assessment of the Vanderbilt Multigrasp Myoelectric Hand: A Continuing Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Dalley, Skyler A.; Bennett, Daniel A.; Goldfarb, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a case study involving the functional assessment of the Vanderbilt Multigrasp (VMG) hand prosthesis on a single transradial amputee subject. In particular, a transradial amputee subject performed the Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure (SHAP) using the hand prosthesis and multigrasp myoelectric controller in a series of experimental sessions occurring over a multi-week time span. The subject’s index of function (IoF) improved with each session, although essentially plateaued after the fourth session, resulting in a IoF score of 87, which compares favorably to SHAP scores published in previous studies. PMID:25571412

  5. ADHD and Challenging behaviour in People with Intellectual Disability: should we screen for ADHD?

    PubMed

    Perera, Bhathika; Courtenay, Ken

    2017-09-01

    People with Intellectual Disability (ID) have cognitive impairments that affect their level of functioning the causes of which are multiple and often unknown. Behavioural difficulties are common among people with ID. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is recognised more among people with Intellectual Disability and could be a cause of problem behaviours. Screening and assessing for ADHD in people with ID is difficult because of the paucity of robust assessment tools and diagnostic criteria.

  6. What Is ADHD?

    MedlinePlus

    ... español TDAH What Is ADHD? ADHD stands for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. It is a medical condition. ... in brain development and brain activity that affect attention, the ability to sit still, and self-control. ...

  7. Financial Dependence of Young Adults with Childhood ADHD.

    PubMed

    Altszuler, Amy R; Page, Timothy F; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Coxe, Stefany; Arrieta, Alejandro; Molina, Brooke S G; Pelham, William E

    2016-08-01

    This study used data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS) to evaluate financial outcomes of young adults (YA) with ADHD relative to comparisons. Participants for this study included 309 individuals who had been diagnosed with ADHD (DSM-III-R or DSM-IV) in childhood and 208 comparison YA without childhood ADHD diagnoses (total N = 517) who were followed through age 25. Participants were predominately male (88 %) and Caucasian (84 %). Diagnostic interviews were conducted in childhood. Young adults and their parents reported on financial outcomes and a number of predictor variables. Young adults with ADHD experienced greater financial dependence on family members (p < 0.05) and the welfare system (p < 0.01) and had lower earnings (p < 0.05) than comparisons. ADHD diagnostic status, education attainment, and delinquency were significant predictors of financial outcomes. A projection of lifetime earnings indicated that ADHD group participants could expect to earn $543,000-$616,000 less over their lifetimes than comparisons. Due to the propensity of individuals with ADHD to underreport problems, the data are likely to be underestimates. These findings support the need for interventions to improve labor market outcomes as well as the development of interventions that target the management of personal finances for individuals with ADHD in young adulthood.

  8. Financial Dependence of Young Adults with Childhood ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Altszuler, Amy R.; Page, Timothy F.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Coxe, Stefany; Arrieta, Alejandro; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Pelham, William E.

    2016-01-01

    This study used data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS) to evaluate financial outcomes of young adults (YA) with ADHD relative to comparisons. Participants for this study included 309 individuals who had been diagnosed with ADHD (DSM-III-R or DSM-IV) in childhood and 208 comparison YA without childhood ADHD diagnoses (total N=517) who were followed through age 25. Participants were predominately male (88 %) and Caucasian (84 %). Diagnostic interviews were conducted in childhood. Young adults and their parents reported on financial outcomes and a number of predictor variables. Young adults with ADHD experienced greater financial dependence on family members (p<0.05) and the welfare system (p<0.01) and had lower earnings (p<0.05) than comparisons. ADHD diagnostic status, education attainment, and delinquency were significant predictors of financial outcomes. A projection of lifetime earnings indicated that ADHD group participants could expect to earn $543,000–$616,000 less over their lifetimes than comparisons. Due to the propensity of individuals with ADHD to underreport problems, the data are likely to be underestimates. These findings support the need for interventions to improve labor market outcomes as well as the development of interventions that target the management of personal finances for individuals with ADHD in young adulthood. PMID:26542688

  9. Anxiety Symptoms and Disorders in College Students With ADHD.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Sarah R; Bray, Allison C; Anastopoulos, Arthur D

    2017-01-01

    This study examined anxiety symptoms and disorders in college students with ADHD. Forty-six college students with ADHD and a matched group of students without ADHD participated. Participants completed self-report measures of anxiety symptoms and associated features, including worry, maladaptive beliefs about worry, panic symptoms, social anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and self-efficacy. Participants also completed a diagnostic interview to assess lifetime and current anxiety disorders. Participants with ADHD endorsed more maladaptive beliefs about worry, more obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and poorer self-efficacy compared with comparison participants. There were no group differences in rates of current anxiety disorders. Participants with ADHD were over 2 times more likely than comparison participants to endorse this lifetime history. College students with ADHD are more likely to have a lifetime history of an anxiety disorder and are at greater risk for some anxiety symptoms and associated features.

  10. Evaluation of the ADHD rating scale in youth with autism

    PubMed Central

    Yerys, Benjamin E.; Nissley-Tsiopinis, Jenelle; de Marchena, Ashley; Watkins, Marley W.; Antezana, Ligia; Power, Thomas J.; Schultz, Robert T.

    2016-01-01

    Scientists and clinicians regularly use clinical screening tools for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to assess comorbidity without empirical evidence that these measures are valid in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We examined the prevalence of youth meeting ADHD criteria on the ADHD rating scale fourth edition (ADHD-RS-IV), the relationship of ADHD-RS-IV ratings with participant characteristics and behaviors, and its underlying factor structure in 386 7-17 year olds with ASD without intellectual disability. Expected parent prevalence rates, relationships with age and externalizing behaviors were observed, but confirmatory factor analyses revealed unsatisfactory fits for one-, two-, three-factor models. Exploratory analyses revealed several items cross-loading on multiple factors. Implications of screening ADHD in youth with ASD using current diagnostic criteria are discussed. PMID:27738853

  11. Validity of proposed DSM-5 ADHD impulsivity symptoms in children.

    PubMed

    Ünsel Bolat, Gül; Ercan, Eyüp Sabri; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Bilaç, Öznur; Massuti, Rafael; Uysal Özaslan, Taciser; Bolat, Hilmi; Rohde, Luis Augusto

    2016-10-01

    The American Psychiatric Association (APA) working group on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) proposed the inclusion of four new impulsivity symptoms. However, they were not included in DSM-5 due to the lack of sufficient evidence. The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of the proposed four ADHD impulsivity symptoms with respect to: (a) ADHD factor structure; (b) performance in predicting clinical impairment; (c) specificity for ADHD diagnosis and (d) best symptomatic threshold to predict clinical impairment. The sample comprised 416 children (31 ADHD subjects according to both DSM-IV and proposed DSM-5, 20 ADHD subjects according to just one diagnostic system and 365 controls) from 12 schools. Diagnoses were derived using semi-structured interviews and ADHD rating scales. Results from confirmatory factor analysis indicate that addition of the four new impulsivity items provided a slightly better factor structure if compared to models including only 18 items. Regression analyses showed that only one of the new impulsivity symptoms (impatient) was part of the list of best predictors of impairment. None of the four new impulsivity items was specifically associated with ADHD diagnosis. The best cutoff point in the hyperactivity/impulsivity dimension for predicting impairment did not change significantly. Overall, our findings suggest that the determination on how to best capture impulsivity dimension as part of the ADHD construct needs more investigation and that there is not enough evidence to include these four assessed impulsivity symptoms as part of the ADHD criteria.

  12. ADHD: Tips to Try

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español ADHD: Tips to Try KidsHealth / For Teens / ADHD: Tips to Try Print en español TDAH: Consejos que puedes probar ADHD , short for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder , is a ...

  13. Use of EEG to Diagnose ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Lenartowicz, Agatha; Loo, Sandra K.

    2015-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) has, historically, played a focal role in the assessment of neural function in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We review here the most recent developments in the utility of EEG in the diagnosis of ADHD, with emphasis on the most commonly used and emerging EEG metrics and their reliability in diagnostic classification. Considering the clinical heterogeneity of ADHD and the complexity of information available from the EEG signals, we suggest that considerable benefits are to be gained from multivariate analyses and a focus towards understanding of the neural generators of EEG. We conclude that while EEG cannot currently be used as a diagnostic tool, vast developments in analytical and technological tools in its domain anticipate future progress in its utility in the clinical setting. PMID:25234074

  14. Irritability in ADHD: Associations with depression liability.

    PubMed

    Eyre, Olga; Langley, Kate; Stringaris, Argyris; Leibenluft, Ellen; Collishaw, Stephan; Thapar, Anita

    2017-06-01

    Irritability and the new DSM-5 diagnostic category of Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD) have been conceptualised as related to mood disorder. Irritability is common in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) but little is known about its association with depression risk in this group. This study aims to establish levels of irritability and prevalence of DMDD in a clinical sample of children with ADHD, and examine their association with anxiety, depression and family history of depression. The sample consisted of 696 children (mean age 10.9 years) with a diagnosis of ADHD, recruited from UK child psychiatry and paediatric clinics. Parents completed the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment, a semi-structured diagnostic interview, about their child. This was used to establish prevalence of DMDD, anxiety disorder and depressive disorder, as well as obtain symptom scores for irritability, anxiety and depression. Questionnaires assessed current parental depression, and family history of depression. Irritability was common, with 91% endorsing at least one irritable symptom. 3-month DMDD prevalence was 31%. Children with higher levels of irritability or DMDD were more likely to have comorbid symptoms of anxiety, depression and a family history of depression. Results are based on a clinical sample, so may not be generalizable to children with ADHD in the general population. Irritability and DMDD were common, and were associated with markers of depression liability. Longitudinal studies are needed to examine the association between irritability and depression in youth with ADHD as they get older. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. A Known Group Analysis Validity Study of the Vanderbilt Assessment of Leadership in Education in US Elementary and Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covay Minor, Elizabeth; Porter, Andrew C.; Murphy, Joseph; Goldring, Ellen B.; Cravens, Xiu; Elloitt, Stephen N.

    2014-01-01

    The Vanderbilt Assessment of Leadership in Education (VAL-ED) provides educators with a tool for principal evaluation based on principal, teacher, and supervisor reports of principals' learning-centered leadership. In this study, we conduct a known group analysis as part of a larger argument for the validity of the VAL-ED in US elementary and…

  16. The School for Science and Math at Vanderbilt: An Innovative Research-Based Program for High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eeds, Angela; Vanags, Chris; Creamer, Jonathan; Loveless, Mary; Dixon, Amanda; Sperling, Harvey; McCombs, Glenn; Robinson, Doug; Shepherd, Virginia L.

    2014-01-01

    The School for Science and Math at Vanderbilt (SSMV) is an innovative partnership program between a Research I private university and a large urban public school system. The SSMV was started in 2007 and currently has 101 students enrolled in the program, with a total of 60 students who have completed the 4-yr sequential program. Students attend…

  17. Vanderbilt University Gamma Irradiation of Nano-modified Concrete (2017 Milestone Report)

    SciTech Connect

    Deichert, Geoffrey G.; Linton, Kory D.; Terrani, Kurt A.

    This document outlines the irradiation of concrete specimens in the Gamma Irradiation Facility in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Two gamma irradiation runs were performed in July of 2017 on 18 reference mortar bar specimens, 26 reference cement paste bar specimens, and 28 reference cement paste tab specimens to determine the dose and temperature response of the specimens in the gamma irradiation environment. Specimens from the first two gamma irradiations were surveyed and released to Vanderbilt University. The temperature and dose information obtained informs the test parameters of the final two gamma irradiationsmore » of nano-modified concrete planned for FY 2018.« less

  18. Training the next generation of physician researchers - Vanderbilt Medical Scholars Program.

    PubMed

    Brown, Abigail M; Chipps, Teresa M; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Ware, Lorraine B; Islam, Jessica Y; Finck, Luke R; Barnett, Joey; Hartert, Tina V

    2018-01-04

    As highlighted in recent reports published by the Physician-Scientist Workforce Working Group at the National Institutes of Health, the percentage of physicians conducting research has declined over the past decade. Various programs have been put in place to support and develop current medical student interest in research to alleviate this shortage, including The Vanderbilt University School of Medicine Medical Scholars Program (MSP). This report outlines the long-term program goals and short-term outcomes on career development of MSP alumni, to shed light on the effectiveness of research training programs during undergraduate medical training to inform similar programs in the United States. MSP alumni were asked to complete an extensive survey assessing demographics, accomplishments, career progress, future career plans, and MSP program evaluation. Fifty-five (81%) MSP alumni responded, among whom 12 had completed all clinical training. The demographics of MSP alumni survey respondents are similar to those of all Vanderbilt medical students and medical students at all other Association of American Medical College (AAMC) medical schools. MSP alumni published a mean of 1.9 peer-reviewed manuscripts (95% CI:1.2, 2.5), and 51% presented at national meetings. Fifty-eight percent of respondents reported that MSP participation either changed their career goals or helped to confirm or refine their career goals. Results suggest that the MSP program both prepares students for careers in academic medicine and influences their career choices at an early juncture in their training. A longer follow-up period is needed to fully evaluate the long-term outcomes of some participants.

  19. Shared genetic influences between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) traits in children and clinical ADHD.

    PubMed

    Stergiakouli, Evie; Martin, Joanna; Hamshere, Marian L; Langley, Kate; Evans, David M; St Pourcain, Beate; Timpson, Nicholas J; Owen, Michael J; O'Donovan, Michael; Thapar, Anita; Davey Smith, George

    2015-04-01

    Twin studies and genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA) are not in agreement regarding heritability estimates for behavioral traits in children from the general population. This has sparked a debate on the possible difference in genetic architecture between behavioral traits and psychiatric disorders. In this study, we test whether polygenic risk scores associated with variation in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) trait levels in children from the general population predict ADHD diagnostic status and severity in an independent clinical sample. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with p < .5 from a genome-wide association study of ADHD traits in 4,546 children (mean age, 7 years 7 months) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; general population sample) were selected to calculate polygenic risk scores in 508 children with an ADHD diagnosis (independent clinical sample) and 5,081 control participants. Polygenic scores were tested for association with case-control status and severity of disorder in the clinical sample. Increased polygenic score for ADHD traits predicted ADHD case-control status (odds ratio = 1.17 [95% CI = 1.08-1.28], p = .0003), higher ADHD symptom severity (β = 0.29 [95% CI = 0.04-0.54], p = 0.02), and symptom domain severity in the clinical sample. This study highlights the relevance of additive genetic variance in ADHD, and provides evidence that shared genetic factors contribute to both behavioral traits in the general population and psychiatric disorders at least in the case of ADHD. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Conceptual Structure of the Symptoms of Adult ADHD According to the "DSM-IV" and Retrospective Wender-Utah Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glockner-Rist, Angelika; Pedersen, Anya; Rist, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Adult "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.; "DSM-IV") and retrospective childhood Wender-Utah ADHD criteria are implemented in self-report measures to assess adult ADHD and its required onset in childhood. Yet their dimensional structure and relationship to adult ADHD depressivity is still…

  1. Women and Girls (With ADHD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ADHD Hospital and University ADHD Centers Insurance and Public Benefits The Insurance System Paying for Medications Private Health Insurance Public Health Insurance Disability Benefits Frequently Asked Questions about ADHD Myths and Misunderstandings ...

  2. Peer-Mediated Multimodal Intervention Program for the Treatment of Children with ADHD in India: One-Year Followup

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Sagar; Shah, Devesh; Shah, Kushal; Mehta, Sanjiv; Mehta, Neelam; Mehta, Vivek; Mehta, Vijay; Mehta, Vaishali; Motiwala, Smita; Mehta, Naina; Mehta, Devendra

    2012-01-01

    The objective was to assess the efficacy of a one-year, peer-mediated interventional program consisting of yoga, meditation and play therapy maintained by student volunteers in a school in India. The population consisted of 69 students between the ages of 6 and 11 years, previously identified as having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A program, known as Climb-Up, was initially embedded in the school twice weekly. Local high school student volunteers were then trained to continue to implement the program weekly over the period of one year. Improvements in ADHD symptoms and academic performance were assessed using Vanderbilt questionnaires completed by both parents and teachers. The performance impairment scores for ADHD students assessed by teachers improved by 6 weeks and were sustained through 12 months in 46 (85%) of the enrolled students. The improvements in their Vanderbilt scores assessed by parents were also seen in 92% (P < 0.0001, Wilcoxon). The Climb-Up program resulted in remarkable improvements in the students' school performances that were sustained throughout the year. These results show promise for a cost-effective program that could easily be implemented in any school. PMID:23316384

  3. ADHD and Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Nazeer, Ahsan; Mansour, Miriam; Gross, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that affects the child and adolescent population. It is characterized by impairment in attention/concentration, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, all of which can impact performance of athletes. ADHD treatment within the athletic population is a unique challenge. The research in this field has been relatively limited. The National Collegiate Athletic Association and International Olympic Committee both regulate the use of psychostimulants for treatment of ADHD due to their performance-enhancing effects. In this article, authors have discussed the screening methods, pharmacological treatment, side effects, and behavioral approaches for the treatment of ADHD in adolescent athletes. PMID:24987666

  4. Insights into multimodal imaging classification of ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Colby, John B.; Rudie, Jeffrey D.; Brown, Jesse A.; Douglas, Pamela K.; Cohen, Mark S.; Shehzad, Zarrar

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) currently is diagnosed in children by clinicians via subjective ADHD-specific behavioral instruments and by reports from the parents and teachers. Considering its high prevalence and large economic and societal costs, a quantitative tool that aids in diagnosis by characterizing underlying neurobiology would be extremely valuable. This provided motivation for the ADHD-200 machine learning (ML) competition, a multisite collaborative effort to investigate imaging classifiers for ADHD. Here we present our ML approach, which used structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging data, combined with demographic information, to predict diagnostic status of individuals with ADHD from typically developing (TD) children across eight different research sites. Structural features included quantitative metrics from 113 cortical and non-cortical regions. Functional features included Pearson correlation functional connectivity matrices, nodal and global graph theoretical measures, nodal power spectra, voxelwise global connectivity, and voxelwise regional homogeneity. We performed feature ranking for each site and modality using the multiple support vector machine recursive feature elimination (SVM-RFE) algorithm, and feature subset selection by optimizing the expected generalization performance of a radial basis function kernel SVM (RBF-SVM) trained across a range of the top features. Site-specific RBF-SVMs using these optimal feature sets from each imaging modality were used to predict the class labels of an independent hold-out test set. A voting approach was used to combine these multiple predictions and assign final class labels. With this methodology we were able to predict diagnosis of ADHD with 55% accuracy (versus a 39% chance level in this sample), 33% sensitivity, and 80% specificity. This approach also allowed us to evaluate predictive structural and functional features giving insight into abnormal brain circuitry in

  5. [ADHD and addiction: a complicated liaison].

    PubMed

    Matthys, F; Tremmery, S; Autrique, M; Joostens, P; Möbius, D; Stes, S; Sabbe, B G C

    2012-01-01

    The presence of ADHD has been linked to a 100% increase in a person's chance of developing a substance use disorder. The prevalence of childhood and adult ADHD in substance-abusing populations has been estimated to be three times higher than in the general population. In addiction centres ADHD is often unrecognized and untreated. To describe the obstacles to the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in addicts. Using a historical approach, we analysed the evolution of the diagnostic descriptions of the two disorders, giving attention to the influence of social change and scientific research. The two disorders have developed in remarkably similar ways; people have been and still are much inclined to make moral judgments about these disorders than about other psychic disorders. Neurobiological research has added a extra dimension to the debate on topics such as impulsivity, personal responsibility and free will. It is only recently that ADHD has been recognised as having a place in addiction treatment and, as a result, there is a growing need for explanatory models.

  6. The Mediterranean Diet and ADHD in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Hernández, Alejandra; Alda, José A; Farran-Codina, Andreu; Ferreira-García, Estrella; Izquierdo-Pulido, Maria

    2017-02-01

    Although attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been related to nutrient deficiencies and "unhealthy" diets, to date there are no studies that examined the relationship between the Mediterranean diet and ADHD. We hypothesized that a low adherence to a Mediterranean diet would be positively associated with an increase in ADHD diagnosis. A total of 120 children and adolescents (60 with newly diagnosed ADHD and 60 controls) were studied in a sex- and age-matched case-control study. ADHD diagnosis was made according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. Energy, dietary intake, adherence to a Mediterranean diet, and familial background were measured. Logistic regression was used to determine associations between the adherence to a Mediterranean diet and ADHD. Lower adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with ADHD diagnosis (odds ratio: 7.07; 95% confidence interval: 2.65-18.84; relative risk: 2.80; 95% confidence interval: 1.54-5.25). Both remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders. Lower frequency of consuming fruit, vegetables, pasta, and rice and higher frequency of skipping breakfast and eating at fast-food restaurants were associated with ADHD diagnosis (P < .05). High consumption of sugar, candy, cola beverages, and noncola soft drinks (P < .01) and low consumption of fatty fish (P < .05) were also associated with a higher prevalence of ADHD diagnosis. Although these cross-sectional associations do not establish causality, they raise the question of whether low adherence to a Mediterranean diet might play a role in ADHD development. Our data support the notion that not only "specific nutrients" but also the "whole diet" should be considered in ADHD. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in ADHD Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Coker, Tumaini R.; Elliott, Marc N.; Toomey, Sara L.; Schwebel, David C.; Cuccaro, Paula; Emery, Susan Tortolero; Davies, Susan L.; Visser, Susanna N.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES We examined racial/ethnic disparities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis and medication use and determined whether medication disparities were more likely due to underdiagnosis or undertreatment of African-American and Latino children, or overdiagnosis or overtreatment of white children. METHODS We used a population-based, multisite sample of 4297 children and parents surveyed over 3 waves (fifth, seventh, and 10th grades). Multivariate logistic regression examined disparities in parent-reported ADHD diagnosis and medication use in the following analyses: (1) using the total sample; (2) limited to children with an ADHD diagnosis or symptoms; and (3) limited to children without a diagnosis or symptoms. RESULTS Across all waves, African-American and Latino children, compared with white children, had lower odds of having an ADHD diagnosis and of taking ADHD medication, controlling for sociodemographics, ADHD symptoms, and other potential comorbid mental health symptoms. Among children with an ADHD diagnosis or symptoms, African-American children had lower odds of medication use at fifth, seventh, and 10th grades, and Latino children had lower odds at fifth and 10th grades. Among children who had neither ADHD symptoms nor ADHD diagnosis by fifth grade (and thus would not likely meet ADHD diagnostic criteria at any age), medication use did not vary by race/ethnicity in adjusted analysis. CONCLUSIONS Racial/ethnic disparities in parent-reported medication use for ADHD are robust, persisting from fifth grade to 10th grade. These findings suggest that disparities may be more likely related to underdiagnosis and undertreatment of African-American and Latino children as opposed to overdiagnosis or overtreatment of white children. PMID:27553219

  8. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in ADHD Diagnosis and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Coker, Tumaini R; Elliott, Marc N; Toomey, Sara L; Schwebel, David C; Cuccaro, Paula; Tortolero Emery, Susan; Davies, Susan L; Visser, Susanna N; Schuster, Mark A

    2016-09-01

    We examined racial/ethnic disparities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis and medication use and determined whether medication disparities were more likely due to underdiagnosis or undertreatment of African-American and Latino children, or overdiagnosis or overtreatment of white children. We used a population-based, multisite sample of 4297 children and parents surveyed over 3 waves (fifth, seventh, and 10th grades). Multivariate logistic regression examined disparities in parent-reported ADHD diagnosis and medication use in the following analyses: (1) using the total sample; (2) limited to children with an ADHD diagnosis or symptoms; and (3) limited to children without a diagnosis or symptoms. Across all waves, African-American and Latino children, compared with white children, had lower odds of having an ADHD diagnosis and of taking ADHD medication, controlling for sociodemographics, ADHD symptoms, and other potential comorbid mental health symptoms. Among children with an ADHD diagnosis or symptoms, African-American children had lower odds of medication use at fifth, seventh, and 10th grades, and Latino children had lower odds at fifth and 10th grades. Among children who had neither ADHD symptoms nor ADHD diagnosis by fifth grade (and thus would not likely meet ADHD diagnostic criteria at any age), medication use did not vary by race/ethnicity in adjusted analysis. Racial/ethnic disparities in parent-reported medication use for ADHD are robust, persisting from fifth grade to 10th grade. These findings suggest that disparities may be more likely related to underdiagnosis and undertreatment of African-American and Latino children as opposed to overdiagnosis or overtreatment of white children. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Life Span Studies of ADHD-Conceptual Challenges and Predictors of Persistence and Outcome.

    PubMed

    Caye, Arthur; Swanson, James; Thapar, Anita; Sibley, Margaret; Arseneault, Louise; Hechtman, Lily; Arnold, L Eugene; Niclasen, Janni; Moffitt, Terrie; Rohde, Luis Augusto

    2016-12-01

    There is a renewed interest in better conceptualizing trajectories of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from childhood to adulthood, driven by an increased recognition of long-term impairment and potential persistence beyond childhood and adolescence. This review addresses the following major issues relevant to the course of ADHD in light of current evidence from longitudinal studies: (1) conceptual and methodological issues related to measurement of persistence of ADHD, (2) estimates of persistence rate from childhood to adulthood and its predictors, (3) long-term negative outcomes of childhood ADHD and their early predictors, and (4) the recently proposed new adult-onset ADHD. Estimates of persistence vary widely in the literature, and diagnostic criteria, sample characteristics, and information source are the most important factors explaining variability among studies. Evidence indicates that ADHD severity, comorbid conduct disorder and major depressive disorder, and treatment for ADHD are the main predictors of ADHD persistence from childhood to adulthood. Comorbid conduct disorder and ADHD severity in childhood are the most important predictors of adverse outcomes in adulthood among children with ADHD. Three recent population studies suggested the existence of a significant proportion of individuals who report onset of ADHD symptoms and impairments after childhood. Finally, we highlight areas for improvement to increase our understanding of ADHD across the life span.

  10. College Students with ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... services get help with organizing their schedule and life succeed academically Most people with ADHD are diagnosed before college. However, some people may not recognize the signs and symptoms of ADHD until they are at college. Trying to balance school work and the freedom of living away from home ...

  11. Mathematical Difficulties and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucangeli, Daniela; Cabrele, Silvia

    2006-01-01

    Most of the research on academics and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has focused on reading disorders in children with ADHD rather than difficulties in mathematics. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of studies focusing on students with attention deficit disorders with or without hyperactivity and 1 area of…

  12. ADHD in Adults. [DVD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Russell A.

    2006-01-01

    From leading ADHD authority Dr. Russell A. Barkley, this instructive program integrates information about ADHD with the experiences of adults from different walks of life who suffer from the disorder. Including interviews with these individuals, their family members, and the clinicians who treat them, the program addresses such important topics as…

  13. Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science Center for Computational Imaging XNAT: A multimodal data archive and processing environment.

    PubMed

    Harrigan, Robert L; Yvernault, Benjamin C; Boyd, Brian D; Damon, Stephen M; Gibney, Kyla David; Conrad, Benjamin N; Phillips, Nicholas S; Rogers, Baxter P; Gao, Yurui; Landman, Bennett A

    2016-01-01

    The Vanderbilt University Institute for Imaging Science (VUIIS) Center for Computational Imaging (CCI) has developed a database built on XNAT housing over a quarter of a million scans. The database provides framework for (1) rapid prototyping, (2) large scale batch processing of images and (3) scalable project management. The system uses the web-based interfaces of XNAT and REDCap to allow for graphical interaction. A python middleware layer, the Distributed Automation for XNAT (DAX) package, distributes computation across the Vanderbilt Advanced Computing Center for Research and Education high performance computing center. All software are made available in open source for use in combining portable batch scripting (PBS) grids and XNAT servers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The School Neuropsychology of ADHD: Theory, Assessment, and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Sam; Naglieri, Jack A.

    2008-01-01

    Although the five-part diagnostic criteria of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition, Text Revision" (DSM-IV-TR) for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are behavioral and descriptive in nature, this condition has increasingly been defined as a disorder resulting from impaired behavioral inhibition…

  15. Automating PACS quality control with the Vanderbilt image processing enterprise resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esparza, Michael L.; Welch, E. Brian; Landman, Bennett A.

    2012-02-01

    Precise image acquisition is an integral part of modern patient care and medical imaging research. Periodic quality control using standardized protocols and phantoms ensures that scanners are operating according to specifications, yet such procedures do not ensure that individual datasets are free from corruption; for example due to patient motion, transient interference, or physiological variability. If unacceptable artifacts are noticed during scanning, a technologist can repeat a procedure. Yet, substantial delays may be incurred if a problematic scan is not noticed until a radiologist reads the scans or an automated algorithm fails. Given scores of slices in typical three-dimensional scans and widevariety of potential use cases, a technologist cannot practically be expected inspect all images. In large-scale research, automated pipeline systems have had great success in achieving high throughput. However, clinical and institutional workflows are largely based on DICOM and PACS technologies; these systems are not readily compatible with research systems due to security and privacy restrictions. Hence, quantitative quality control has been relegated to individual investigators and too often neglected. Herein, we propose a scalable system, the Vanderbilt Image Processing Enterprise Resource (VIPER) to integrate modular quality control and image analysis routines with a standard PACS configuration. This server unifies image processing routines across an institutional level and provides a simple interface so that investigators can collaborate to deploy new analysis technologies. VIPER integrates with high performance computing environments has successfully analyzed all standard scans from our institutional research center over the course of the last 18 months.

  16. Differential item functioning analysis of the Vanderbilt Expertise Test for cars

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Woo-Yeol; Cho, Sun-Joo; McGugin, Rankin W.; Van Gulick, Ana Beth; Gauthier, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The Vanderbilt Expertise Test for cars (VETcar) is a test of visual learning for contemporary car models. We used item response theory to assess the VETcar and in particular used differential item functioning (DIF) analysis to ask if the test functions the same way in laboratory versus online settings and for different groups based on age and gender. An exploratory factor analysis found evidence of multidimensionality in the VETcar, although a single dimension was deemed sufficient to capture the recognition ability measured by the test. We selected a unidimensional three-parameter logistic item response model to examine item characteristics and subject abilities. The VETcar had satisfactory internal consistency. A substantial number of items showed DIF at a medium effect size for test setting and for age group, whereas gender DIF was negligible. Because online subjects were on average older than those tested in the lab, we focused on the age groups to conduct a multigroup item response theory analysis. This revealed that most items on the test favored the younger group. DIF could be more the rule than the exception when measuring performance with familiar object categories, therefore posing a challenge for the measurement of either domain-general visual abilities or category-specific knowledge. PMID:26418499

  17. Initial experience with a calculus-based IPLS course at Vanderbilt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutson, M. Shane; Rericha, Erin C.

    2014-03-01

    By implementing research results from the PER community, we have designed a new calculus-based IPLS course and began teaching two sections of this course in Fall 2013, both taught by biological physicists. This course differs from Vanderbilt's other introductory physics offerings in two major ways. First, it seeks to implement PER-based active learning strategies including just-in-time teaching, peer instruction and context-rich problems. The latter are specifically designed within biomedical contexts. Second, the course content has been chosen to closely align with the core competencies delineated in the HHMI-AAMC report Scientific Foundations for Future Physicians. We provide students with a very explicit accounting (in the syllabus) of how this course will contribute to 5 of the 8 SFFP-competencies and 21 of its 37 learning objectives. Throughout the course and associated labs, we make repeated, explicit and hopefully authentic connections between physics and the life sciences. The chosen text reinforces our approach through well-developed biomedical applications of physics concepts. We will report what we've seen work and not work in our first implementation of an IPLS course and detail results regarding student learning and student attitudes towards physics.

  18. Blood Specimens From Patients Referred for Cytogenetic Analysis: Vanderbilt University Experience From 1985 to 1992

    PubMed Central

    BUTLER, MERLIN G.; HAMILL, TRACY

    2017-01-01

    Cytogenetic records were examined from consecutive nononcology blood specimens from 2,821 patients referred for cytogenetic services to Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tenn, from January 1985 to December 1992. We grouped the records according to reasons for referral and diagnoses. The most common reasons for referral were history of multiple abortions/miscarriages (23.3%), possibility of chromosomal abnormality (18.8%), and possible presence of the fragile X syndrome (15.6%). Overall, 2,418 (85.7%) patients were found to have normal chromosomes, and 403 (14.3%) patients were diagnosed with a cytogenetic abnormality. For example, 20 (5.4%) of the 373 males referred for the fragile X syndrome, or 1.4% of all males (20 of 1,428) excluding those with ambiguous genitalia, were diagnosed with this syndrome while 8 (2.1%) of the 373 males had a chromosome abnormality other than the fragile X chromosome. In addition, 85 (70.2%) of 121 males referred for Down syndrome had this syndrome, and only 53 (40.8%) of 130 females referred for Down syndrome had this diagnosis. This study should assist physicians in middle Tennessee and surrounding areas by increasing their awareness of the types and frequencies of cytogenetic diseases and by providing figures for comparison with other regions of the country. PMID:7886528

  19. Differential item functioning analysis of the Vanderbilt Expertise Test for cars.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woo-Yeol; Cho, Sun-Joo; McGugin, Rankin W; Van Gulick, Ana Beth; Gauthier, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The Vanderbilt Expertise Test for cars (VETcar) is a test of visual learning for contemporary car models. We used item response theory to assess the VETcar and in particular used differential item functioning (DIF) analysis to ask if the test functions the same way in laboratory versus online settings and for different groups based on age and gender. An exploratory factor analysis found evidence of multidimensionality in the VETcar, although a single dimension was deemed sufficient to capture the recognition ability measured by the test. We selected a unidimensional three-parameter logistic item response model to examine item characteristics and subject abilities. The VETcar had satisfactory internal consistency. A substantial number of items showed DIF at a medium effect size for test setting and for age group, whereas gender DIF was negligible. Because online subjects were on average older than those tested in the lab, we focused on the age groups to conduct a multigroup item response theory analysis. This revealed that most items on the test favored the younger group. DIF could be more the rule than the exception when measuring performance with familiar object categories, therefore posing a challenge for the measurement of either domain-general visual abilities or category-specific knowledge.

  20. Persistence and Subtype Stability of ADHD Among Substance Use Disorder Treatment Seekers

    PubMed Central

    Kaye, Sharlene; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; van de Glind, Geurt; Levin, Frances R.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Allsop, Steve; Degenhardt, Louisa; Moggi, Franz; Barta, Csaba; Konstenius, Maija; Franck, Johan; Skutle, Arvid; Bu, Eli-Torild; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Kapitány-Fövény, Máté; Schoevers, Robert A.; van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, Katelijne; Carpentier, Pieter-Jan; Dom, Geert; Verspreet, Sofie; Crunelle, Cleo L.; Young, Jesse T.; Carruthers, Susan; Cassar, Joanne; Fatséas, Melina; Auriacombe, Marc; Johnson, Brian; Dunn, Matthew; Slobodin, Ortal; van den Brink, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine ADHD symptom persistence and subtype stability among substance use disorder (SUD) treatment seekers. Method In all, 1,276 adult SUD treatment seekers were assessed for childhood and adult ADHD using Conners’ Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; CAADID). A total of 290 (22.7%) participants met CAADID criteria for childhood ADHD and comprise the current study sample. Results Childhood ADHD persisted into adulthood in 72.8% (n = 211) of cases. ADHD persistence was significantly associated with a family history of ADHD, and the presence of conduct disorder and antisocial personality disorder. The combined subtype was the most stable into adulthood (78.6%) and this stability was significantly associated with conduct disorder and past treatment of ADHD. Conclusion ADHD is highly prevalent and persistent among SUD treatment seekers and is associated with the more severe phenotype that is also less likely to remit. Routine screening and follow-up assessment for ADHD is indicated to enhance treatment management and outcomes. PMID:26922805

  1. Persistence and Subtype Stability of ADHD Among Substance Use Disorder Treatment Seekers.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Sharlene; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; van de Glind, Geurt; Levin, Frances R; Faraone, Stephen V; Allsop, Steve; Degenhardt, Louisa; Moggi, Franz; Barta, Csaba; Konstenius, Maija; Franck, Johan; Skutle, Arvid; Bu, Eli-Torild; Koeter, Maarten W J; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Kapitány-Fövény, Máté; Schoevers, Robert A; van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, Katelijne; Carpentier, Pieter-Jan; Dom, Geert; Verspreet, Sofie; Crunelle, Cleo L; Young, Jesse T; Carruthers, Susan; Cassar, Joanne; Fatséas, Melina; Auriacombe, Marc; Johnson, Brian; Dunn, Matthew; Slobodin, Ortal; van den Brink, Wim

    2016-02-27

    To examine ADHD symptom persistence and subtype stability among substance use disorder (SUD) treatment seekers. In all, 1,276 adult SUD treatment seekers were assessed for childhood and adult ADHD using Conners' Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; CAADID). A total of 290 (22.7%) participants met CAADID criteria for childhood ADHD and comprise the current study sample. Childhood ADHD persisted into adulthood in 72.8% (n = 211) of cases. ADHD persistence was significantly associated with a family history of ADHD, and the presence of conduct disorder and antisocial personality disorder. The combined subtype was the most stable into adulthood (78.6%) and this stability was significantly associated with conduct disorder and past treatment of ADHD. ADHD is highly prevalent and persistent among SUD treatment seekers and is associated with the more severe phenotype that is also less likely to remit. Routine screening and follow-up assessment for ADHD is indicated to enhance treatment management and outcomes. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. The Delinquency Outcomes of Boys with ADHD with and without Comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S.G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Biswas, Aparajita; MacLean, Michael G.; Babinski, Dara E.; Karch, Kathryn M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the association between childhood ADHD and juvenile delinquency by examining data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS), a follow-up study of individuals diagnosed with ADHD in childhood (ages 5–12) and recontacted in adolescence and young adulthood for yearly follow-up (age at first follow-up interview M= 17.26, SD=3.17). Participants were 288 males with childhood ADHD and 209 demographically similar males without ADHD who were recruited into the follow-up study. Delinquency information gathered yearly during the second through eighth follow-up provided a comprehensive history of juvenile delinquency for all participants. Four childhood diagnostic groups [ADHD-only (N=47), ADHD+ODD (N=135), ADHD+CD (N=106), and comparison (N=209)] were used to examine group differences on delinquency outcomes. Analyses were conducted across three dimensions of delinquency (i.e., severity, age of initiation, and variety). Individuals with childhood ADHD+CD displayed significantly worse delinquency outcomes than the other three groups, across almost all indices of offending. When compared to comparison participants, boys with ADHD-only and ADHD+ODD in childhood displayed earlier ages of delinquency initiation, a greater variety of offending, and higher prevalence of severe delinquency. These findings suggest that although childhood ADHD+CD creates the greatest risk for delinquency, boys with ADHD-only and ADHD+ODD also appear at a higher risk for later offending. The patterns of offending that emerged from the PALS are discussed in the context of the relationship between ADHD, comorbidity, and delinquency. PMID:20697799

  3. Symptom Profile of ADHD in Youth With High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Comparative Study in Psychiatrically Referred Populations.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Gagan; Faraone, Stephen V; Wozniak, Janet; Tarko, Laura; Fried, Ronna; Galdo, Maribel; Furtak, Stephannie L; Biederman, Joseph

    2017-08-01

    To compare the clinical presentation of ADHD between youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and ADHD and a sample of youth with ADHD only. A psychiatrically referred sample of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) youth with ADHD attending a specialized ambulatory program for ASD ( n = 107) and a sample of youth with ADHD attending a general child psychiatry ambulatory clinic ( n = 74) were compared. Seventy-six percent of youth with ASD met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV) criteria for ADHD. The clinical presentation of ADHD in youth with ASD was predominantly similar to its typical presentation including age at onset (3.5 ± 1.7 vs. 4.0 ± 1.9; p = .12), distribution of diagnostic subtypes, the qualitative and quantitative symptom profile, and symptom severity. Combined subtype was the most frequent presentation of ADHD in ASD youth. Despite the robust presentation of ADHD, a significant majority of ASD youth with ADHD failed to receive appropriate ADHD treatment (41% vs. 24%; p = .02). A high rate of comorbidity with ADHD was observed in psychiatrically referred youth with ASD, with a clinical presentation typical of the disorder.

  4. Neuropsychological Functioning In College Students with and without ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Weyandt, Lisa L.; Oster, Danielle R.; Gudmundsdottir, Bergljot Gyda; DuPaul, George J.; Anastopoulos, Arthur D.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing numbers of students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are attending college; however, little empirical information is available concerning the functional impairment experienced by these students. Although preliminary studies suggest that college students with ADHD are more likely to experience a variety of psychosocial and academic difficulties compared to their peers without the disorder, findings regarding neuropsychological functioning have been inconsistent with some studies reporting that college students with ADHD perform more poorly on various cognitive and neuropsychological tasks whereas others report no differences compared to non-ADHD peers. The purpose of the present study was to: a) examine the performance of 436 first-year college students with and without ADHD (51.6% female) on measures of executive function (EF) and intelligence; and b) investigate the association of self-reported use of stimulant medication with neuropsychological performance in students with ADHD. Participant data from their first year of involvement in the Trajectories Related to ADHD in College (TRAC) project, a longitudinal study following the 4-year outcomes of college students with and without ADHD, were analyzed. Participants with ADHD performed more poorly on task-based and self-report executive function measures relative to the comparison group. In contrast, no significant group differences in intellectual performance were found. Within the ADHD group, receipt of stimulant medication was associated with improved performance on some neuropsychological tasks, but not for intellectual functioning. Additional analyses also revealed significant group differences in EF based on clinical diagnostic status. Implications of these findings and suggestions for future research are advanced. PMID:27831696

  5. [Substance use disorders and ADHD: an overview of recent Dutch research].

    PubMed

    van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, K; Crunelle, C L; Carpentier, P J

    2013-01-01

    ADHD is an important risk factor for the development of substance use disorders (SUD). To provide an overview of recent Dutch research into the prevalence of ADHD in SUD populations and the neurobiological substrate of the reduced effect of pharmacological treatment of this patient group. We describe three studies: a meta-analysis and meta-regression analysis of the prevalence of ADHD in 6689 SUD patients; a cross-sectional study of the prevalence of ADHD and several other psychiatric disorders in 193 methadon maintenance patients, and finally a study in which the availability and occupation of dopamine transporters before and after methylphenidate treatment were measured using SPECT scans in 24 ADHD patients with and without cocaine addiction. The prevalence of ADHD in SUD patients is estimated to be 23.1% (95% confidence interval 19.4-27.2). This prevalence is influenced by the diagnostic instrument for ADHD and by the substance of abuse: cocaine is associated with a lower ADHD prevalence than other substances. The prevalence found among methadone maintenance patients was similar, namely 24.9%; additional comorbid psychiatric disorders were also frequently present. In the imaging study, lower availability of dopamine transporters and lower occupation by methylphenidate were found in cocaine-dependent ADHD patients than in ADHD patients without SUD. These studies confirm the high prevalence of ADHD in SUD patients, and provide a possible explanation for the reduced efficacy of methylphenidate in this patient population.

  6. Demographic Characteristics and Psychiatric Comorbidity of Children and Adolescents Diagnosed with ADHD in Specialized Healthcare.

    PubMed

    Joelsson, Petteri; Chudal, Roshan; Gyllenberg, David; Kesti, Anna-Kaisa; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Virtanen, Juha-Pekka; Huttunen, Jukka; Ristkari, Terja; Parkkola, Kai; Gissler, Mika; Sourander, Andre

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies have shown an increasing incidence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among children diagnosed in specialized services. This study aims to describe children with ADHD in Finnish specialized healthcare by reporting the demographic characteristics, time trends in diagnosis, psychiatric comorbidity, and the validity of register-based diagnoses. All the singletons born in Finland between 1991 and 2005 and diagnosed with ADHD by 2011 were identified and their psychiatric comorbidity data was obtained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register (FHDR). Parents of 69 patients were interviewed via telephone for a diagnostic validation. A total of 10,409 children were identified with ADHD, with a male: female ratio of 5.3:1 and a psychiatric comorbidity rate of 76.7 %. Of the validation sample 88 % met the diagnostic criteria of ADHD for DSM-IV. There is an increasing trend of ADHD diagnosis among both males and females. Psychiatric comorbidity is common and includes a wide range of disorders among children with ADHD. There was an increase of ADHD diagnoses especially among boys. More attention is needed to detect ADHD among girls in health services. Diagnoses in the FHDR show diagnostic validity and their sociodemographic patterns are in line with previous studies.

  7. Age dependent electroencephalographic changes in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Poil, S-S; Bollmann, S; Ghisleni, C; O'Gorman, R L; Klaver, P; Ball, J; Eich-Höchli, D; Brandeis, D; Michels, L

    2014-08-01

    Objective biomarkers for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) could improve diagnostics or treatment monitoring of this psychiatric disorder. The resting electroencephalogram (EEG) provides non-invasive spectral markers of brain function and development. Their accuracy as ADHD markers is increasingly questioned but may improve with pattern classification. This study provides an integrated analysis of ADHD and developmental effects in children and adults using regression analysis and support vector machine classification of spectral resting (eyes-closed) EEG biomarkers in order to clarify their diagnostic value. ADHD effects on EEG strongly depend on age and frequency. We observed typical non-linear developmental decreases in delta and theta power for both ADHD and control groups. However, for ADHD adults we found a slowing in alpha frequency combined with a higher power in alpha-1 (8-10Hz) and beta (13-30Hz). Support vector machine classification of ADHD adults versus controls yielded a notable cross validated sensitivity of 67% and specificity of 83% using power and central frequency from all frequency bands. ADHD children were not classified convincingly with these markers. Resting state electrophysiology is altered in ADHD, and these electrophysiological impairments persist into adulthood. Spectral biomarkers may have both diagnostic and prognostic value. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Handwriting in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Langmaid, Rebecca A; Papadopoulos, Nicole; Johnson, Beth P; Phillips, James G; Rinehart, Nicole J

    2014-08-01

    Children with ADHD-combined type (ADHD-CT) display fine and gross motor problems, often expressed as handwriting difficulties. This study aimed to kinematically characterize the handwriting of children with ADHD using a cursive letter l's task. In all, 28 boys (7-12 years), 14 ADHD-CT and 14 typically developing (TD), without developmental coordination disorder (DCD) or comorbid autism, wrote a series of four cursive letter l's using a graphics tablet and stylus. Children with ADHD-CT had more inconsistent writing size than did TD controls. In addition, ADHD-CT symptom severity, specifically inattention, predicted poorer handwriting outcomes. In a sample of children with ADHD-CT who do not have DCD or autism, subtle handwriting differences were evident. It was concluded that handwriting might be impaired in children with ADHD in a manner dependent on symptom severity. This may reflect reports of underlying motor impairment in ADHD. © 2011 SAGE Publications.

  9. Learning Disabilities and ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... several areas, including speaking, reading, writing, and doing math. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not a ... Dyscalculia makes it hard for people to understand math. They may also have problems telling time and ...

  10. Noninvasive Brain Stimulation in Pediatric ADHD: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, Belen; Boes, Aaron D.; Laganiere, Simon; Rotenberg, Alexander; Jeurissen, Danique; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders in the pediatric population. The clinical management of ADHD is currently limited by a lack of reliable diagnostic biomarkers and inadequate therapy for a minority of patients that do not respond to standard pharmacotherapy. There is optimism that noninvasive brain stimulation may help to address these limitations. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are two methods of noninvasive brain stimulation that modulate cortical excitability and brain network activity. TMS can be used diagnostically to probe cortical neurophysiology, while daily use of repetitive TMS or tDCS can induce long-lasting and potentially therapeutic changes in targeted networks. In this review we highlight research showing the potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications of TMS and tDCS in pediatric ADHD. We also discuss the safety and ethics of using these tools in the pediatric population. PMID:26661481

  11. Determinants of health after hospital discharge: rationale and design of the Vanderbilt Inpatient Cohort Study (VICS)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The period following hospital discharge is a vulnerable time for patients when errors and poorly coordinated care are common. Suboptimal care transitions for patients admitted with cardiovascular conditions can contribute to readmission and other adverse health outcomes. Little research has examined the role of health literacy and other social determinants of health in predicting post-discharge outcomes. Methods The Vanderbilt Inpatient Cohort Study (VICS), funded by the National Institutes of Health, is a prospective longitudinal study of 3,000 patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndromes or acute decompensated heart failure. Enrollment began in October 2011 and is planned through October 2015. During hospitalization, a set of validated demographic, cognitive, psychological, social, behavioral, and functional measures are administered, and health status and comorbidities are assessed. Patients are interviewed by phone during the first week after discharge to assess the quality of hospital discharge, communication, and initial medication management. At approximately 30 and 90 days post-discharge, interviewers collect additional data on medication adherence, social support, functional status, quality of life, and health care utilization. Mortality will be determined with up to 3.5 years follow-up. Statistical models will examine hypothesized relationships of health literacy and other social determinants on medication management, functional status, quality of life, utilization, and mortality. In this paper, we describe recruitment, eligibility, follow-up, data collection, and analysis plans for VICS, as well as characteristics of the accruing patient cohort. Discussion This research will enhance understanding of how health literacy and other patient factors affect the quality of care transitions and outcomes after hospitalization. Findings will help inform the design of interventions to improve care transitions and post-discharge outcomes. PMID

  12. Peer influence as a potential magnifier of ADHD diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Aronson, Brian

    2016-11-01

    The prevalence of Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is growing in America, but its cause is unclear. Scholars have identified many environmental factors that can cause or confound ADHD diagnosis, but epidemiological studies that try to control for confounding factors still find evidence that rates of ADHD diagnosis are increasing. As a preliminary explanation to ADHD's increasing prevalence, this article examines whether core ADHD diagnostic traits are subject to peer influence. If ADHD diagnosis can be confounded by peer influence, there are several mechanisms that could have caused increased rates of diagnosis. With data drawn from two schools across three waves in the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (n = 2193), the author uses a stochastic actor oriented model to estimate the effect of peer influence on inattention, controlling for alternative network and behavioral causes. Results indicate that respondents have a strong likelihood to modify their self-reports of inattention, a core ADHD trait, to resemble that of their friends. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. ADHD in Tunisian Adolescents: Prevalence and Associated Factors.

    PubMed

    Mhalla, Ahmed; Guedria, Asma; Brahem, Takoua; Amamou, Badii; Sboui, Wiem; Gaddour, Naoufel; Gaha, Lotfi

    2018-01-01

    The aims of the study were to determine the prevalence of ADHD in a population of high school students and to explore the factors associated with this disorder. This was a cross-sectional study that had included 447 high school students. The diagnosis of ADHD was made by the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale translated in Arabic language. The sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were evaluated by a preestablished questionnaire. The self-esteem was assessed by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The prevalence of ADHD was 18.1%. The logistic regression analysis showed an association between the diagnosis of ADHD and the bad relationships with parents (odds ratio [OR] = 16.43; p < 10-3), the presence of personal psychiatric antecedents (OR = 12.16; p < 10-3), internet misuse (OR = 2.39; p = .014), and maltreatment antecedents (OR = 3.16; p = .009). The prevalence of ADHD in this study was one of the highest prevalence reported. The factors associated with ADHD may have diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

  14. The Impact of "DSM-5" A-Criteria Changes on Parent Ratings of ADHD in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Yeguez, Carlos E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) A-criteria for ADHD were expanded to include new descriptors referencing adolescent and adult symptom manifestations. This study examines the effect of these changes on symptom endorsement in a sample of adolescents with ADHD (N = 259; age range = 10.72-16.70).…

  15. Examining the Validity of ADHD as a Diagnosis for Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities: Clinical Presentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neece, Cameron L.; Baker, Bruce L.; Crnic, Keith; Blacher, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Children with intellectual and developmental disabilities are at heightened risk for mental disorders. Using current diagnostic criteria, disruptive behavior disorders, specifically Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), appear to be the most prevalent co-occurring disorders. However, the validity of ADHD as a diagnosis for children and…

  16. Are There Sex Differences in the Predictive Validity of DSM-IV ADHD among Younger Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; Hartung, Cynthia M.; Loney, Jan; Pelham, William E.; Chronis, Andrea M.; Lee, Steve S.

    2007-01-01

    We assessed the predictive validity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in 20 girls and 98 boys who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (4th ed., American Psychiatric Association, 1994) criteria for ADHD at 4 to 6 years of age compared to 24 female and 102 male comparison children. Over the next 8 years,…

  17. Evaluating the Utility of Sluggish Cognitive Tempo in Discriminating among "DSM-IV" ADHD Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Kelly M.; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate how the inclusion of 3 Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) symptoms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) diagnostic criteria influences the external validity of the ADHD subtypes. The sample comprised 228 children (166 boys, 62 girls) ranging in age from 5-18 years who were referred to…

  18. Factor Structure of the Restricted Academic Situation Scale: Implications for ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karama, Sherif; Amor, Leila Ben; Grizenko, Natalie; Ciampi, Antonio; Mbekou, Valentin; Ter-Stepanian, Marina; Lageix, Philippe; Baron, Chantal; Schwartz, George; Joober, Ridha

    2009-01-01

    Background: To study the factor structure of the Restricted Academic Situation Scale (RASS), a psychometric tool used to assess behavior in children with ADHD, 117 boys and 21 girls meeting "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.; "DSM-IV") criteria for ADHD and aged between 6 and 12 years were recruited. Assessments were…

  19. The Relationship between Satisfaction with Life, ADHD Symptoms, and Associated Problems among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Eyjolfsdottir, Gudrun Agusta; Smari, Jakob; Young, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain whether ADHD symptoms, and associated problems, are negatively related to subjective well-being. Method: The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) was completed by 369 university students, along with the Reasoning & Rehabilitation (R&R) ADHD Training Evaluation (RATE), the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of…

  20. What Is the Prevalence of Adult ADHD? Results of a Population Screen of 966 Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    To provide a better estimate of the prevalence of ADHD in adulthood, the authors complete a telephone survey of 966 randomly selected adults. They compute two diagnoses from the survey data. Participants meeting "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.) criteria for both childhood and adulthood are defined as narrow ADHD.…

  1. Are Maternal Smoking and Stress during Pregnancy Related to ADHD Symptoms in Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Alina; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2005-01-01

    Background: There are some indications that maternal lifestyle during pregnancy (smoking and stress) contributes to symptoms of ADHD in children. We prospectively studied whether prenatal exposure to maternal smoking and/or stress is associated with ADHD symptoms and diagnostic criteria (according to DSM-IV) in 7-year-olds. Methods: Nulliparous…

  2. Parent-based diagnosis of ADHD is as accurate as a teacher-based diagnosis of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Bied, Adam; Biederman, Joseph; Faraone, Stephen

    2017-04-01

    To review the literature evaluating the psychometric properties of parent and teacher informants relative to a gold-standard ADHD diagnosis in pediatric populations. We included studies that included both a parent and teacher informant, a gold-standard diagnosis, and diagnostic accuracy metrics. Potential confounds were evaluated. We also assessed the 'OR' and the 'AND' rules for combining informant reports. Eight articles met inclusion criteria. The diagnostic accuracy for predicting gold standard ADHD diagnoses did not differ between parents and teachers. Sample size, sample type, participant drop-out, participant age, participant gender, geographic area of the study, and date of study publication were assessed as potential confounds. Parent and teachers both yielded moderate to good diagnostic accuracy for ADHD diagnoses. Parent reports were statistically indistinguishable from those of teachers. The predictive features of the 'OR' and 'AND' rules are useful in evaluating approaches to better integrating information from these informants.

  3. Agreement between Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, and the proposed DSM-V attention deficit hyperactivity disorder diagnostic criteria: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    There is no empirical literature about the American Psychiatry Association proposed new diagnostic criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study examined the agreement between ADHD diagnosis derived from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), and DSM-V diagnostic criteria. It also reports sensitivity, specificity, and agreement for ADHD diagnosis. A clinical sample of 246 children and adolescents were interviewed face to face using both ADHD diagnostic criteria for DSM-V and DSM-IV by interviewing clinician. Comorbid psychiatric disorders were screened using DSM-IV criteria. The rate of ADHD diagnosis using DSM-V was significantly higher than the rate detected by using DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. The sensitivity of DSM-V diagnostic criteria was 100%, while its specificity was 71.1%. The kappa agreement between DSM-IV and DSM-V was 0.75. In addition, positive predictive value was 85.1%. All the four newly added symptoms to ADHD diagnostic criteria are statistically more common in the children with ADHD than those in the comparison group. However, these symptoms are also very common in the children without ADHD. It is expected that the rate of ADHD would increase using the proposed ADHD DSM-V criteria. Moreover, the newly added symptoms have a low specificity for ADHD diagnosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Variability in ADHD care in community-based pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Jeffery N; Kelleher, Kelly J; Baum, Rebecca; Brinkman, William B; Peugh, James; Gardner, William; Lichtenstein, Phil; Langberg, Joshua

    2014-12-01

    Although many efforts have been made to improve the quality of care delivered to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in community-based pediatric settings, little is known about typical ADHD care in these settings other than rates garnered through pediatrician self-report. Rates of evidence-based ADHD care and sources of variability (practice-level, pediatrician-level, patient-level) were determined by chart reviews of a random sample of 1594 patient charts across 188 pediatricians at 50 different practices. In addition, the associations of Medicaid-status and practice setting (ie, urban, suburban, and rural) with the quality of ADHD care were examined. Parent- and teacher-rating scales were used during ADHD assessment with approximately half of patients. The use of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria was documented in 70.4% of patients. The vast majority (93.4%) of patients with ADHD were receiving medication and only 13.0% were receiving psychosocial treatment. Parent- and teacher-ratings were rarely collected to monitor treatment response or side effects. Further, fewer than half (47.4%) of children prescribed medication had contact with their pediatrician within the first month of prescribing. Most variability in pediatrician-delivered ADHD care was accounted for at the patient level; however, pediatricians and practices also accounted for significant variability on specific ADHD care behaviors. There is great need to improve the quality of ADHD care received by children in community-based pediatric settings. Improvements will likely require systematic interventions at the practice and policy levels to promote change. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Towards operationalising internal distractibility (Mind Wandering) in adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Biederman, Joseph; Fitzgerald, Maura; Uchida, Mai; Spencer, Thomas J; Fried, Ronna; Wicks, Jennifer; Saunders, Alexandra; Faraone, Stephen V

    2017-12-01

    To investigate whether specific symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can help identify ADHD patients with mind wandering. Subjects were adults ages 18-55 of both sexes (n=41) who completed the Mind-Wandering Questionnaire (MWQ) and the ADHD module of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Epidemiologic Version. We used Spearman's rank correlation and Pearson's χ2 analyses to examine associations between the ADHD module and the MWQ and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analyses to evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of the ADHD module. Out of the three ADHD domains, the inattentive ADHD scores had the strongest association with the MWQ (total: r s=0.34, df=39, p=0.03; inattentive: r s=0.38, df=39, p=0.02; Hyperactive: r s=0.17, df=39, p=0.28). Correlation analyses between individual items on the ADHD module and the MWQ showed that two inattention items ('failure to pay attention to detail' and 'trouble following instructions') were positively associated with total scores on the MWQ (p=0.02). These two inattention items had the strongest association with the MWQ (r s=0.45, df=38, p=0.004). ROC analyses showed that the combined score of the two significant inattention items had the highest efficiency (AUC=0.71) in classifying high-level mind wanderers as defined by scores greater than the median split on the MWQ. The combined score of the two inattention items best identified high-level mind wanderers. Results suggest a way to operationalise mind wandering using the symptoms of ADHD.

  6. Understanding ADHD: Symptoms in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding ADHD Symptoms In Children Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table ... hyperactivity, and impulsivity are the key behaviors of ADHD. It is normal for all children to be ...

  7. ADHD Is Highly Prevalent in Patients Seeking Treatment for Cannabis Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Notzon, Daniel P; Pavlicova, Martina; Glass, Andrew; Mariani, John J; Mahony, Amy L; Brooks, Daniel J; Levin, Frances R

    2016-03-31

    To estimate the prevalence of ADHD and determine an effective screening test for ADHD in a population-seeking treatment for cannabis use disorders. The Conners Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview forDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition(DSM-IV; CAADID) was used to generate sensitivity and specificity data for ADHD screening tests, which were then administered to 99 participants seeking treatment for cannabis use disorders to estimate ADHD prevalence. The prevalence estimated from the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) was 45% (sensitivity = 0.88, sensitivity of 0.75), from the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS) 34% (sensitivity = 0.80, specificity = 0.91), from the WURS + CAARS 36% (sensitivity = 0.71, specificity = 0.95), and from the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) 46% (sensitivity = 0.61, specificity = 0.86). The prevalence of ADHD in adults seeking treatment for cannabis use disorders is estimated to be between 34% and 46%. The WURS paired with the CAARS provides excellent sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of ADHD in this population. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Bullying and ADHD: Which Came First and Does it Matter?

    PubMed

    Keder, Robert; Sege, Robert; Raffalli, Peter C; Augustyn, Marilyn

    Aiden, a 13-year-old boy in the sixth grade who is relatively new to your practice, is seen for follow-up after his routine physical last month when you noted concerns for possible attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and gave the family Vanderbilt Scales to complete. Aiden has a family history of ADHD, specific learning disabilities, and mood disorder.His mother reports that she is concerned about how Aiden is doing at school; his teachers are complaining that he is not doing his work, and she is worried that he may be kept back in school. Aiden first began having trouble in the third grade. He was retained in the fourth grade for academic and behavioral reasons. Now his mother has been receiving calls about him not paying attention, distracting others, and staring at his paper. At home, he does not want to do homework and gets very frustrated. In fifth grade, he had a psychoeducational evaluation and was found not eligible for services. His achievement testing showed average scores in reading, math, and writing. Cognitive testing demonstrated average scores for verbal and nonverbal abilities and memory but was significantly below average for processing speed. Aiden continues to have problems now in into the sixth grade.You speak with Aiden in the office and ask him about school. He says, "It's bad. I'm failing." He believes his major problems at school are that he is not doing his homework, he easily becomes frustrated, and he argues with the teachers. He has supportive relationships with his family and friends at school. He gets along well with some of his teachers, noting that he loves his science teacher even though she is tough and "gives hard homework." He describes his history teacher as "annoying." When you ask what he means he states this teacher "Can be not nice and says mean things. She picks on me a lot." His description is consistent with the use of shaming as a behavior he experiences at school.You review the completed parent and teacher

  9. Bullying and ADHD: which came first and does it matter?

    PubMed

    Keder, Robert; Sege, Robert; Raffalli, Peter C; Augustyn, Marilyn

    2013-10-01

    Aiden, a 13-year-old boy in the sixth grade who is relatively new to your practice, is seen for follow-up after his routine physical last month when you noted concerns for possible attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and gave the family Vanderbilt Scales to complete. Aiden has a family history of ADHD, specific learning disabilities, and mood disorder.His mother reports that she is concerned about how Aiden is doing at school; his teachers are complaining that he is not doing his work, and she is worried that he may be kept back in school. Aiden first began having trouble in the third grade. He was retained in the fourth grade for academic and behavioral reasons. Now his mother has been receiving calls about him not paying attention, distracting others, and staring at his paper. At home, he does not want to do homework and gets very frustrated. In fifth grade, he had a psychoeducational evaluation and was found not eligible for services. His achievement testing showed average scores in reading, math, and writing. Cognitive testing demonstrated average scores for verbal and nonverbal abilities and memory but was significantly below average for processing speed. Aiden continues to have problems now in into the sixth grade.You speak with Aiden in the office and ask him about school. He says, "It's bad. I'm failing." He believes his major problems at school are that he is not doing his homework, he easily becomes frustrated, and he argues with the teachers. He has supportive relationships with his family and friends at school. He gets along well with some of his teachers, noting that he loves his science teacher even though she is tough and "gives hard homework." He describes his history teacher as "annoying." When you ask what he means he states this teacher "Can be not nice and says mean things. She picks on me a lot." His description is consistent with the use of shaming as a behavior he experiences at school.You review the completed parent and teacher

  10. Asperger Syndrome: a frequent comorbidity in first diagnosed adult ADHD patients?

    PubMed

    Roy, Mandy; Ohlmeier, Martin D; Osterhagen, Lasse; Prox-Vagedes, Vanessa; Dillo, Wolfgang

    2013-06-01

    Because adult ADHD is often accompanied by psychiatric comorbidities, the diagnostic process should include a thorough investigation for comorbid disorders. Asperger-Syndrome is rarely reported in adult ADHD and commonly little attention is paid to this possible comorbidity. We investigated 53 adult ADHD-patients which visited our out patient clinic for first ADHD-diagnosis (17 females, 36 males; range of age: 18-56 years) for the frequency of a comorbid Asperger-Syndrome. Diagnosis of this autism-spectrum disorder was confirmed by applying the appropriate DSM-IV-criteria. Additionally we tested the power of the two screening-instruments "Autism-spectrum quotient" (AQ) and "Empathy quotient" (EQ) by Baron-Cohen for screening Asperger-Syndrome in adult ADHD. Eight ADHD-patients were diagnosed with a comorbid Asperger-Syndrome (15.1%). The difference in AQ- and EQ-scores between pure ADHD-patients and comorbid patients was analysed, showing significantly higher scores in AQ and significant lower scores in EQ in comorbid patients. Results show that the frequency of Asperger-Syndrome seems to be substantially increased in adult ADHD (versus the prevalence of 0.06% in the general population), indicating that investigators of adult ADHD should also be attentive to autism-spectrum disorders. Especially the AQ seems to be a potential screening instrument for Asperger-Syndrome in adult ADHD-patients.

  11. The School for Science and Math at Vanderbilt: An Innovative Research-Based Program for High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Eeds, Angela; Vanags, Chris; Creamer, Jonathan; Loveless, Mary; Dixon, Amanda; Sperling, Harvey; McCombs, Glenn; Robinson, Doug

    2014-01-01

    The School for Science and Math at Vanderbilt (SSMV) is an innovative partnership program between a Research I private university and a large urban public school system. The SSMV was started in 2007 and currently has 101 students enrolled in the program, with a total of 60 students who have completed the 4-yr sequential program. Students attend the SSMV for one full day per week during the school year and 3–6 wk in the summers following their ninth- to 11th-grade years, with each grade of 26 students coming to the Vanderbilt campus on a separate day. The research-based curriculum focuses on guiding students through the process of learning to develop questions and hypotheses, designing projects and performing analyses, and communicating results of these projects. The SSMV program has elevated the learning outcomes of students as evidenced by increased achievement scores relative to a comparison group of students; has provided a rigorous research-based science, technology, engineering, and mathematics elective curriculum that culminates in a Summer research internship; has produced 27 Intel and Siemens semifinalists and regional finalists over the past 4 yr; and has supported the development of writing and communication skills resulting in regional and national oral presentations and publications in scientific journals. PMID:26086660

  12. ADHD latent class clusters: DSM-IV subtypes and comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Elia, Josephine; Arcos-Burgos, Mauricio; Bolton, Kelly L.; Ambrosini, Paul J.; Berrettini, Wade; Muenke, Maximilian

    2014-01-01

    ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) has a complex, heterogeneous phenotype only partially captured by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria. In this report, latent class analyses (LCA) are used to identify ADHD phenotypes using K-SADS-IVR (Schedule for Affective Disorders & Schizophrenia for School Age Children-IV-Revised) symptoms and symptom severity data from a clinical sample of 500 ADHD subjects, ages 6–18, participating in an ADHD genetic study. Results show that LCA identified six separate ADHD clusters, some corresponding to specific DSM-IV subtypes while others included several subtypes. DSM-IV comorbid anxiety and mood disorders were generally similar across all clusters, and subjects without comorbidity did not aggregate within any one cluster. Age and gender composition also varied. These results support findings from population-based LCA studies. The six clusters provide additional homogenous groups that can be used to define ADHD phenotypes in genetic association studies. The limited age ranges aggregating in the different clusters may prove to be a particular advantage in genetic studies where candidate gene expression may vary during developmental phases. DSM-IV comorbid mood and anxiety disorders also do not appear to increase cluster heterogeneity; however, longitudinal studies that cover period of risk are needed to support this finding. PMID:19900717

  13. Perinatal Problems and Psychiatric Comorbidity Among Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Elizabeth B.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Among two large, independent samples of girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), we examined associations between specific (maternal gestational smoking and drug use, early labor, low birth weight, and infant breathing problems at birth) and cumulative prenatal and perinatal risk factors and psychiatric comorbidity during childhood. Method Data from the (a) Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD, a randomized clinical trial with 579 children aged 7 to 9.9 years with combined-type ADHD, and the (b) Berkeley Girls ADHD Longitudinal Sample, a naturalistic study of 140 girls with ADHD (93 combined-type and 47 inattentive-type) who were first seen when they were 6 to 12 years old, were analyzed separately. In each sample, perinatal risk factors were assessed retrospectively by maternal report, and current childhood psychiatric comorbidity was assessed using maternal report on the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children. Results Consistent findings across these two studies show that infant breathing problems, early labor, and total perinatal problems predicted childhood comorbid depression but not comorbid anxiety or externalizing disorders. These associations remained significant, in both samples, with control of family SES and maternal symptoms of ADHD and depression. Results attenuated slightly with control of the number of child comorbidities plus SES and maternal symptoms. Conclusion Accumulating evidence suggests that perinatal risk factors are important precursors of childhood psychiatric comorbidity and that the association between these risk factors and detrimental psychiatric outcomes cannot be explained by maternal psychiatric symptoms or SES during childhood. PMID:23581554

  14. Predictive Validity of DSM-IV and ICD-10 Criteria for ADHD and Hyperkinetic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Soyoung I.; Schachar, Russell J.; Chen, Shirley X.; Ornstein, Tisha J.; Charach, Alice; Barr, Cathy; Ickowicz, Abel

    2008-01-01

    Background: The goal of this study was to compare the predictive validity of the two main diagnostic schemata for childhood hyperactivity--attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual"-IV) and hyperkinetic disorder (HKD; "International Classification of Diseases"-10th Edition). Methods: Diagnostic criteria for…

  15. External Validation of Bifactor Model of ADHD: Explaining Heterogeneity in Psychiatric Comorbidity, Cognitive Control, and Personality Trait Profiles Within DSM-IV ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Martel, Michelle M.; Roberts, Bethan; Gremillion, Monica; von Eye, Alexander; Nigg, Joel T.

    2011-01-01

    The current paper provides external validation of the bifactor model of ADHD by examining associations between ADHD latent factor/profile scores and external validation indices. 548 children (321 boys; 302 with ADHD), 6 to 18 years old, recruited from the community participated in a comprehensive diagnostic procedure. Mothers completed the Child Behavior Checklist, Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire, and California Q-Sort. Children completed the Stop and Trail-Making Task. Specific inattention was associated with depression/withdrawal, slower cognitive task performance, introversion, agreeableness, and high reactive control; specific hyperactivity-impulsivity was associated with rule-breaking/aggressive behavior, social problems, errors during set-shifting, extraversion, disagreeableness, and low reactive control. It is concluded that the bifactor model provides better explanation of heterogeneity within ADHD than DSM-IV ADHD symptom counts or subtypes. PMID:21735050

  16. ADHD in the College Student: Is Anyone Else Worried?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diller, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    The illegal, non-prescriptive use of prescription stimulants appears to be growing among college students. Recent analyses using "DSM-IV" criteria suggest that this group of misusers may actually represent cases of undiagnosed ADHD. Such analyses, however, are limited by a diagnostic system that is neither contextural nor dimensional. The ADHD…

  17. Treating AD/HD with Hypnosis and Neurotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barabasz, Arreed; Barabasz, Marianne

    2000-01-01

    Presents details of Instant Alert Hypnosis procedure as an adjunct to neurotherapy in the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Discusses AD/HD diagnostic issues, demographics, traditional treatments, neurological basis, EEG assessment, implications for the use of hypnosis, and the efficacy and promise of neurotherapy with and…

  18. Comparison of ADHD Symptom Subtypes as Source-Specific Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Loney, Jan; Sprafkin, Joyce; Salisbury, Helen; Azizian, Allen; Schwartz, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    Background: This study examines differences between the three subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), inattentive (I), hyperactive-impulsive (H), and combined (C), in a heterogeneous sample of 248 boys (ages 6 to 10 years) with emotional and behavioral problems who were recruited for participation in a diagnostic study.…

  19. College Students' Attitudes toward Their ADHD Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chew, Brandi L.; Jensen, Scott A.; Rosen, Lee A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The attitudes of college students with and without ADHD toward peers with ADHD were examined. Method: A total of 196 college students (30 diagnosed with ADHD) anonymously completed four attitude measures. General analyses of attitudes toward peers with ADHD as well as comparisons between those with and without ADHD are made. Results:…

  20. Affect Recognition in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Meghan; Hanford, Russell B.; Fassbender, Catherine; Duke, Marshall; Schweitzer, Julie B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study compared affect recognition abilities between adults with and without ADHD. Method: The sample consisted of 51 participants (34 men, 17 women) divided into 3 groups: ADHD-combined type (ADHD-C; n = 17), ADHD-predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I; n = 16), and controls (n = 18). The mean age was 34 years. Affect recognition…

  1. Structural Covariance Networks in Children with Autism or ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Garcia, R.; Mak, E.; Bullmore, E. T.; Baron-Cohen, S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background While autism and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are considered distinct conditions from a diagnostic perspective, clinically they share some phenotypic features and have high comorbidity. Regardless, most studies have focused on only one condition, with considerable heterogeneity in their results. Taking a dual-condition approach might help elucidate shared and distinct neural characteristics. Method Graph theory was used to analyse topological properties of structural covariance networks across both conditions and relative to a neurotypical (NT; n = 87) group using data from the ABIDE (autism; n = 62) and ADHD-200 datasets (ADHD; n = 69). Regional cortical thickness was used to construct the structural covariance networks. This was analysed in a theoretical framework examining potential differences in long and short-range connectivity, with a specific focus on relation between central graph measures and cortical thickness. Results We found convergence between autism and ADHD, where both conditions show an overall decrease in CT covariance with increased Euclidean distance between centroids compared with a NT population. The 2 conditions also show divergence. Namely, there is less modular overlap between the 2 conditions than there is between each condition and the NT group. The ADHD group also showed reduced cortical thickness and lower degree in hub regions than the autism group. Lastly, the ADHD group also showed reduced wiring costs compared with the autism groups. Conclusions Our results indicate a need for taking an integrated approach when considering highly comorbid conditions such as autism and ADHD. Furthermore, autism and ADHD both showed alterations in the relation between inter-regional covariance and centroid distance, where both groups show a steeper decline in covariance as a function of distance. The 2 groups also diverge on modular organization, cortical thickness of hub regions and wiring cost of the

  2. Structural Covariance Networks in Children with Autism or ADHD.

    PubMed

    Bethlehem, R A I; Romero-Garcia, R; Mak, E; Bullmore, E T; Baron-Cohen, S

    2017-08-01

    While autism and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are considered distinct conditions from a diagnostic perspective, clinically they share some phenotypic features and have high comorbidity. Regardless, most studies have focused on only one condition, with considerable heterogeneity in their results. Taking a dual-condition approach might help elucidate shared and distinct neural characteristics. Graph theory was used to analyse topological properties of structural covariance networks across both conditions and relative to a neurotypical (NT; n = 87) group using data from the ABIDE (autism; n = 62) and ADHD-200 datasets (ADHD; n = 69). Regional cortical thickness was used to construct the structural covariance networks. This was analysed in a theoretical framework examining potential differences in long and short-range connectivity, with a specific focus on relation between central graph measures and cortical thickness. We found convergence between autism and ADHD, where both conditions show an overall decrease in CT covariance with increased Euclidean distance between centroids compared with a NT population. The 2 conditions also show divergence. Namely, there is less modular overlap between the 2 conditions than there is between each condition and the NT group. The ADHD group also showed reduced cortical thickness and lower degree in hub regions than the autism group. Lastly, the ADHD group also showed reduced wiring costs compared with the autism groups. Our results indicate a need for taking an integrated approach when considering highly comorbid conditions such as autism and ADHD. Furthermore, autism and ADHD both showed alterations in the relation between inter-regional covariance and centroid distance, where both groups show a steeper decline in covariance as a function of distance. The 2 groups also diverge on modular organization, cortical thickness of hub regions and wiring cost of the covariance network. Thus, on some network features the

  3. ADHD, Culture and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Ilina

    2008-01-01

    This article is a socio-historical account of the development of the Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) diagnosis and methylphenidate treatment in America, attending particularly to the political and institutional contexts that have supported this development. Historical developments in early-mid-twentieth-century America frame a…

  4. Colour Perception in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banaschewski, Tobias; Ruppert, Sinje; Tannock, Rosemary; Albrecht, Bjorn; Becker, Andreas; Uebel, Henrik; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2006-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with unexplained impairments on speeded naming of coloured stimuli. These deficits may reflect hypofunctioning retinal dopaminergic mechanisms impairing particularly blue-yellow colour discrimination. Colour perception and rapid colour naming ability were investigated in 14 children…

  5. Treating ADHD with Agomelatine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niederhofer, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Agomelatine is a relatively new antidepressant, with affinities to MT1 and MT2 (responsible for the circadian rhythm) as well as to 5-HT2C receptors. Since antidepressants have demonstrated some benefit in the treatment of ADH and because of the fact, that ADHD is often associated with sleep disorders, we assumed, that it might be a…

  6. Age level vs grade level for the diagnosis of ADHD and neurodevelopmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Bonati, Maurizio; Cartabia, Massimo; Zanetti, Michele; Reale, Laura; Didoni, Anna; Costantino, Maria Antonella

    2018-06-06

    A number of worldwide studies have demonstrated that children born later in the school year are more likely to receive an ADHD diagnosis than their same school-year peers. There is, however, variation in findings between countries. We aimed to confirm whether relative age is associated with ADHD diagnosis, with or without comorbidities, and to investigate whether relative age is associated with ADHD type and severity, and if this age relationship is in common with other neurodevelopmental disorder. We used the Lombardy Region's ADHD registry. Data on children aged 6 years and older from September 1, 2011 to December 31, 2017 were considered. We calculated incidence ratios to assess the inter-relations between relative age within the school year, using age at diagnosis of ADHD or of other psychiatric disorder, year of diagnosis, and total number of children born in Lombardy during the corresponding timeframe. Data on ADHD type, severity of diagnosed disorder clinical global impressions-severity scale, and repetition of a school-grade were also considered. 4081 children, 2856 of whom with ADHD, were identified. We confirmed that the cumulative incidence of ADHD diagnosis was greatest for younger children, in particular for boys, for whom the prevalence is greater. The relative age effect was not accounted for by ADHD comorbid disorders, ADHD of combined type or severity. The relative age effect was also observed for children with other neurodevelopmental disorders (without ADHD), with a similar profile as ADHD children: the incidence ratio was 1.78 (95% CI 1.07-2.97; p < 0.0247) for boys diagnosed before age ten. The findings have a potential implication for diagnostic and therapeutic practice, educational advice, and policies, besides to better plan and organize service systems and appropriately inform parents, children, and citizens.

  7. ADHD in childhood epilepsy: Clinical determinants of severity and of the response to methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Rheims, Sylvain; Herbillon, Vania; Villeneuve, Nathalie; Auvin, Stéphane; Napuri, Silvia; Cances, Claude; Berquin, Patrick; Castelneau, Pierre; Nguyen The Tich, Sylvie; Villega, Frédéric; Isnard, Hervé; Nabbout, Rima; Gaillard, Ségolène; Mercier, Catherine; Kassai, Behrouz; Arzimanoglou, Alexis

    2016-07-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is commonly observed in children with epilepsy. However, factors associated with the development of ADHD and which might help to guide its therapeutic management, remain an issue of debate. We conducted a multicenter prospective observational study that included children, aged 6-16 years, with both epilepsy and ADHD according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria. After inclusion, patients entered a 12-16 week follow-up period during which they were either treated with methylphenidate or they did not receive specific ADHD treatment. ADHD was evaluated with the ADHD Rating Scale-IV. One hundred sixty-seven patients were included, of which 91 were seizure-free during the preinclusion baseline period. At inclusion, the ADHD Rating Scale-IV total score was 30.4 ± (standard deviation) 9.2, the inattentive subscore was 17.3 ± 4.4, and the hyperactive subscore was 13.2 ± 6.6. We did not detect any difference of ADHD Rating Scale-IV scores across patients' age or gender, age at epilepsy onset, epilepsy syndrome, seizure frequency, or number of ongoing antiepileptic drugs. Methylphenidate was initiated in 61 patients, including 55 in whom a follow-up evaluation was available. At the last follow-up, 41 patients (75%) treated with methylphenidate and 39 (42%) of those who did not received ADHD therapy demonstrated ≥25% decrease of ADHD Rating Scale-IV total score (p < 0.001). Response to methylphenidate was greater in girls but was not influenced by any epilepsy-related variables. We did not detect any epilepsy-related factor associated with the severity of ADHD. Twenty-five percent of patients did not respond to methylphenidate. A better understanding of the pathologic process that underlies ADHD development in childhood epilepsy might be required to improve therapeutic strategies. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  8. Adult Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    MedlinePlus

    Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Overview Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental health disorder that ... combination of persistent problems, such as difficulty paying attention, hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. Adult ADHD can lead ...

  9. Psychometric analysis of the new ADHD DSM-V derived symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2012-03-20

    Following the agreements on the reformulating and revising of ADHD diagnostic criteria, recently, the proposed revision for ADHD added 4 new symptoms to the hyperactivity and Impulsivity aspect in DSM-V. This study investigates the psychometric properties of the proposed ADHD diagnostic criteria. ADHD diagnosis was made according to DSM-IV. The parents completed the screening test of ADHD checklist of Child Symptom Inventory-4 and the 4 items describing the new proposed symptoms in DSM-V. The confirmatory factor analysis of the ADHD DSM-V derived items supports the loading of two factors including inattentiveness and hyperactivity/impulsivity. There is a sufficient reliability for the items. However, confirmatory factor analysis showed that the three-factor model is better fitted than the two-factor one. Moreover, the results of the exploratory analysis raised some concerns about the factor loading of the four new items. The current results support the two-factor model of the DSM-V ADHD diagnostic criteria including inattentiveness and hyperactivity/impulsivity. However, the four new items can be considered as a third factor.

  10. The Unity and Diversity of Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity in ADHD: Evidence for a General Factor with Separable Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toplak, Maggie E.; Pitch, Ashley; Flora, David B.; Iwenofu, Linda; Ghelani, Karen; Jain, Umesh; Tannock, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    To examine the unity and diversity of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptom domains of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in a clinical sample of adolescents with ADHD. Parents and adolescents were administered a semi-structured diagnostic interview, the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age…

  11. Practice advisory: The utility of EEG theta/beta power ratio in ADHD diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Gloss, David; Varma, Jay K.; Pringsheim, Tamara; Nuwer, Marc R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the evidence for EEG theta/beta power ratio for diagnosing, or helping to diagnose, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods: We identified relevant studies and classified them using American Academy of Neurology criteria. Results: Two Class I studies assessing the ability of EEG theta/beta power ratio and EEG frontal beta power to identify patients with ADHD correctly identified 166 of 185 participants. Both studies evaluated theta/beta power ratio and frontal beta power in suspected ADHD or in syndromes typically included in an ADHD differential diagnosis. A bivariate model combining the diagnostic studies shows that the combination of EEG frontal beta power and theta/beta power ratio has relatively high sensitivity and specificity but is insufficiently accurate. Conclusions: It is unknown whether a combination of standard clinical examination and EEG theta/beta power ratio increases diagnostic certainty of ADHD compared with clinical examination alone. Recommendations: Level B: Clinicians should inform patients with suspected ADHD and their families that the combination of EEG theta/beta power ratio and frontal beta power should not replace a standard clinical evaluation. There is a risk for significant harm to patients from ADHD misdiagnosis because of the unacceptably high false-positive diagnostic rate of EEG theta/beta power ratio and frontal beta power. Level R: Clinicians should inform patients with suspected ADHD and their families that the EEG theta/beta power ratio should not be used to confirm an ADHD diagnosis or to support further testing after a clinical evaluation, unless such diagnostic assessments occur in a research setting. PMID:27760867

  12. The Convergent and Divergent Validity of the Vanderbilt Assessment of Leadership in Education (VAL-ED): Instructional Leadership and Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldring, Ellen; Cravens, Xiu; Porter, Andrew; Murphy, Joseph; Elliott, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the ongoing dialog of whether and how instructional leadership is distinguished conceptually from general leadership notions, such as charisma, and to continue the ongoing psychometric research on the The Vanderbilt Assessment of Leadership in Education (VAL-ED) by examining its convergent and…

  13. The School for Science and Math at Vanderbilt: An Innovative Research-Based Program for High School Students.

    PubMed

    Eeds, Angela; Vanags, Chris; Creamer, Jonathan; Loveless, Mary; Dixon, Amanda; Sperling, Harvey; McCombs, Glenn; Robinson, Doug; Shepherd, Virginia L

    2014-01-01

    The School for Science and Math at Vanderbilt (SSMV) is an innovative partnership program between a Research I private university and a large urban public school system. The SSMV was started in 2007 and currently has 101 students enrolled in the program, with a total of 60 students who have completed the 4-yr sequential program. Students attend the SSMV for one full day per week during the school year and 3-6 wk in the summers following their ninth- to 11th-grade years, with each grade of 26 students coming to the Vanderbilt campus on a separate day. The research-based curriculum focuses on guiding students through the process of learning to develop questions and hypotheses, designing projects and performing analyses, and communicating results of these projects. The SSMV program has elevated the learning outcomes of students as evidenced by increased achievement scores relative to a comparison group of students; has provided a rigorous research-based science, technology, engineering, and mathematics elective curriculum that culminates in a Summer research internship; has produced 27 Intel and Siemens semifinalists and regional finalists over the past 4 yr; and has supported the development of writing and communication skills resulting in regional and national oral presentations and publications in scientific journals. © 2014 A. Eeds et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2014 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  14. Maternal anxiety, depression and sleep disorders before and during pregnancy, and preschool ADHD symptoms in the NINFEA birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Vizzini, L; Popovic, M; Zugna, D; Vitiello, B; Trevisan, M; Pizzi, C; Rusconi, F; Gagliardi, L; Merletti, F; Richiardi, L

    2018-04-18

    Maternal mental disorders have been associated with the risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. Within the context of a mother-child cohort, we examined whether maternal anxiety, depression and sleep disorders are associated with pre-school ADHD symptoms. The study included 3634 singletons from the Italian NINFEA (Nascita e INFanzia: gli Effetti dell'Ambiente') cohort. Maternal doctor-diagnosed anxiety, depression and sleep disorders before and during pregnancy were assessed from the questionnaires completed during pregnancy and 6 months after delivery. Mothers rated child ADHD symptoms at 4 years of age, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Hyperactive-impulsive (ADHD-H), inattentive (ADHD-I) and total ADHD scores were analysed in the models adjusted for child's gender, first-born status, maternal age, education, alcohol consumption and smoking during pregnancy. The total ADHD score at age 4 was associated with maternal lifetime anxiety (17.1% percentage difference in score compared with never; 95% CI 7.3-27.9%), sleep disorders (35.7%; 95% CI 10.7-66.5%) and depression (17.5%; 95% CI 3.2-33.8%). Similar positive associations were observed also for ADHD-H and ADHD-I traits, with slightly attenuated associations between maternal sleep disorders and child ADHD-I score, and maternal depression and both ADHD scores. All the estimates were enhanced when the disorders were active during pregnancy and attenuated for disorders active only during the pre-pregnancy period. Maternal anxiety, depression and sleep disorders are associated with a relative increase in the number of ADHD-H, ADHD-I and total ADHD symptoms in preschoolers.

  15. ADHD Symptoms in Preschool Children: Examining Psychometric Properties using IRT

    PubMed Central

    Purpura, David J.; Wilson, Shauna B.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Clear and empirically supported diagnostic symptoms are important for proper diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders. Unfortunately, symptoms of many disorders presented in the DSM-IV-TR lack sufficient psychometric evaluation. In this study, an Item Response Theory analysis was applied to ratings of the 18 Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms in 268 preschool children. Children (55% boys) in this sample ranged in age from 37 to 74 months; 80.4% were identified as African American, 15.1% Caucasian, and 4.5% other ethnicity. Dichotomous and polytomous scoring methods for rating ADHD symptoms were compared and psychometric properties of these symptoms were calculated. Symptom-level analyses revealed that, in general, the current symptoms provided useful information in diagnosing ADHD in preschool children; however, several symptoms provided redundant information and should be examined further. PMID:20822267

  16. Academic performance in ADHD when controlled for comorbid learning disorders, family income, and parental education in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pastura, Giuseppe Mario Carmine; Mattos, Paulo; Araújo, Alexandra Prufer de Queiroz Campos

    2009-03-01

    Scholastic achievement in a nonclinical sample of ADHD children and adolescents was evaluated taking into consideration variables such as comorbid learning disorders, family income, and parental education which may also be associated with poor academic performance. After screening for ADHD in 396 students, the authors compared academic performance of 26 ADHD individuals and 31 controls paired for gender, age, and intelligence level considering both mathematics and Portuguese language scores. Learning disorders were investigated and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV ) criteria were met using structured interviews. The prevalence of academic underachievement was 2.98 times higher in students with ADHD, the most frequent subtype being predominantly inattentive. Parental educational level, family income, and comorbid learning disorders could not explain the discrepancies between ADHD students and controls. ADHD seems to be associated with poor academic performance even in the absence of comorbid learning disorders, lower family income, and parental educational level.

  17. Distinct frontal lobe morphology in girls and boys with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Dirlikov, Benjamin; Shiels Rosch, Keri; Crocetti, Deana; Denckla, Martha B; Mahone, E Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether frontal lobe cortical morphology differs for boys and girls with ADHD (ages 8-12 years) in comparison to typically developing (TD) peers. Participants included 226 children between the ages of 8-12 including 93 children with ADHD (29 girls) and 133 TD children (42 girls) for which 3T MPRAGE MRI scans were obtained. A fully automated frontal lobe atlas was used to generate functionally distinct frontal subdivisions, with surface area (SA) and cortical thickness (CT) assessed in each region. Analyses focused on overall diagnostic differences as well as examinations of the effect of diagnosis within boys and girls. Girls, but not boys, with ADHD showed overall reductions in total prefrontal cortex (PFC) SA. Localization revealed that girls showed widely distributed reductions in the bilateral dorsolateral PFC, left inferior lateral PFC, right medial PFC, right orbitofrontal cortex, and left anterior cingulate; and boys showed reduced SA only in the right anterior cingulate and left medial PFC. In contrast, boys, but not girls, with ADHD showed overall reductions in total premotor cortex (PMC) SA. Further localization revealed that in boys, premotor reductions were observed in bilateral lateral PMC regions; and in girls reductions were observed in bilateral supplementary motor complex. In line with diagnostic group differences, PMC and PFC SAs were inversely correlated with symptom severity in both girls and boys with ADHD. These results elucidate sex-based differences in cortical morphology of functional subdivisions of the frontal lobe and provide additional evidence of associations among SA and symptom severity in children with ADHD.

  18. Reliability and validity of DS-ADHD: A decision support system on attention deficit hyperactivity disorders.

    PubMed

    Chu, Kuo-Chung; Huang, Yu-Shu; Tseng, Chien-Fu; Huang, Hsin-Jou; Wang, Chih-Huan; Tai, Hsin-Yi

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the reliability of the clinical use of the self-built decision support system, diagnosis-supported attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (DS-ADHD), in an effort to develop the DS-ADHD system, by probing into the development of indicating patterns of past screening support systems for ADHD. The study collected data based on 107 subjects, who were divided into two groups, non-ADHD and ADHD, based on the doctor's determination, using the DSM-IV diagnostic standards. The two groups then underwent Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) and DS-ADHD testing. The survey and testing results underwent one-way ANOVA and split-half method statistical analysis, in order to further understand whether there were any differences between the DS-ADHD and the identification tools used in today's clinical trials. The results of the study are as follows: 1) The ROC area between the TOVA and the clinical identification rate is 0.787 (95% confidence interval: 0.701-0.872); 2) The ROC area between the DS-ADHD and the clinical identification rate is 0.867 (95% confidence interval: 0.801-0.933). The study results show that DS-ADHD has the characteristics of screening for ADHD, based on its reliability and validity. It does not display any statistical differences when compared with TOVA systems that are currently on the market. However, the system is more effective and the accuracy rate is better than TOVA. It is a good tool to screen ADHD not only in Chinese children, but also in western country. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dopamine transporter gene polymorphism in children with ADHD: A pilot study in Indonesian samples.

    PubMed

    Wiguna, Tjhin; Ismail, Raden Irawati; Winarsih, Noorhana Setyawati; Kaligis, Fransiska; Hapsari, Anggia; Budiyanti, Lina; Sekartini, Rini; Rahayu, Susan; Guerrero, Anthony P S

    2017-10-01

    Several studies showed that DAT1 polymorphism closed related with ADHD although the results were not consistently found. Studies in China, South Korea, Japan revealed that 10-repeat allele gave a risk for ADHD. Based on that understanding, this study tried to identify whether the similar polymorphism of DAT1 was also apparent in Indonesian children with ADHD. This was a case - control study. Case was 50 Indonesian origin children with ADHD and without any other mental disorders and metal retardation. Control is Indonesian origin children without ADHD, other mental disorders and mental retardation. ADHD diagnosis was taken after doing the psychiatric interview and observation based on the DSM-IV TR diagnostic criteria for ADHD at the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Out-patient Clinic, Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National Referral Hospital - Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia. DNA isolation, DNA purity and concentration were measured. PCR was done by using a primer based on Homo sapiens solute carrier family 6 (neurotransmitter transporter), member 3 (SLC6A3), RefSeq Gene on chromosome 5 with accession number NG_015885.1. To identify the serial of repeated allele, we used the sequencing technique. There were 47 children with ADHD and 48 children without ADHD that involved in the final analysis. The mean of age amongst ADHD group was 9.18 (2.42) and 8.10 (2.46) years old in non-ADHD group. The 10-repeated allele of DAT1 was the highest proportion in both. This finding was apparently similar with other studies on DAT1 polymorphism across Asian. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationship between polysomnographic sleep architecture and behavior in medication-free children with TS, ADHD, TS and ADHD, and controls.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Robyn J; Chung, Sharon A; Jovanovic, Dragana; Guerra, Randy; Stephens, Brandon; Sandor, Paul; Shapiro, Colin M

    2013-01-01

    To describe the relationship between sleep architecture and behavioral measures in unmedicated children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome (TS), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), TS and comorbid ADHD (TS + ADHD), and healthy controls. The study also set out to examine differences in sleep architecture with each diagnosis. A cross-sectional, 2-night consecutive polysomnographic sleep study was conducted in 90 children. All participants were matched for age, gender, and level of intelligence. Scores on the Child Behavior Checklist delinquency measure were modestly but significantly correlated with the number of movements during REM sleep (r = .36, p = .003). Significant correlations were also noted among the number of total arousals and arousals from slow wave sleep (SWS), and scores on the measures of conduct disorder, hyperactivity/immaturity, and restless/disorganized behaviors. There were a few significant differences in sleep architecture among the diagnostic groups. The ADHD-only group exhibited a significantly higher number of total arousals (p < .01) and arousals from SWS (p < .01) compared with the other three study groups. Our findings indicate that children with TS and/or ADHD and who have more arousals from sleep are significantly more likely to have issues with conduct disorder, hyperactivity/immaturity, and restless/disorganized behavior. It was also noted that having ADHD, alone or comorbid with TS, is associated with a significantly greater number of movements during both non-REM and REM sleep. This study underscores the compelling need for the diagnosis and treatment of any sleep disorders in children with TS and/or ADHD so as to facilitate better management of problem behaviors.

  1. Contemporary Trends in ADHD Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norvilitis, Jill M., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    With many children and adults affected by Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, researchers strive to understand the underpinnings of ADHD and associated factors on both a basic and applied level. The goal of this volume is to explore some of the broad array of research in the field of ADHD. The 12 chapters cover a variety of topics as varied…

  2. Is Attention Impaired in ADHD?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilding, John

    2005-01-01

    Explanations of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in terms of a weakness in Executive Function (EF) or related concepts, such as inhibition, are briefly reviewed. Some alternative views are considered, in particular a proposal by Manly and others that ADHD is a weakness primarily of sustained attention (plus control of attention),…

  3. Adaptations for Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrady, Mart

    2005-01-01

    ADHD is a neurobiological-based brain disorder, most often hereditary, affecting nearly one in twenty students. The ADHD brain functions differently because the area between the frontal lobe and rear lobe is having short-circuit problems and is not transmitting necessary information. The technical part of the disorder does not engage us as…

  4. ADHD: From Intervention to Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaban, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a chronic neurological disorder, is not formally recognized in the educational systems across Canada. As a result, there is little opportunity for collaboration or sharing of information between the medical/research community and the educational system. Because ADHD is not formally identified,…

  5. ADHD: Implications for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branscome, Jennifer; Cunningham, Teddi; Kelley, Heather; Brown, Caitlyn

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this article is to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of ADHD and to provide evidence-based training interventions for school counselors. An overview of basic information about ADHD will be provided, including diagnosis, presentation, causes, prevalence, and common misconceptions. Evidence-based training…

  6. Attention, Task Difficulty, and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel T.

    2005-01-01

    Comments on analysis of attention tasks in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) provided by Wilding (2005)points out that whereas many regulatory functions, including alertness or arousal, appear to be impaired in ADHD, demonstrating basic attention deficits in selection or orienting functions in the disorder has proven difficult. Yet…

  7. Validation of DSM-5 age-of-onset criterion of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults: Comparison of life quality, functional impairment, and family function.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Ju; Lo, Kuan-Wu; Yang, Li-Kuang; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-12-01

    The newly published Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) elevates the threshold of the ADHD age-of-onset criterion from 7 to 12 years. This study evaluated the quality of life and functional impairment of adults with ADHD who had symptoms onset by or after 7 years and examined the mediation effect of family function and anxiety/depression symptoms between ADHD diagnosis and quality of life and functional impairment. We assessed 189 adults with ADHD and 153 non-ADHD controls by psychiatric interview and self-administered reports on the Adult ADHD Quality of Life Scale, Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale, Family APGAR, and Adult Self Report Inventory-4. The ADHD group was divided into early-onset ADHD (onset <7 years, n=147) and late-onset ADHD (onset between 7 and 12 years, n=42). The mediation analysis was conducted to verify the mediating factors from ADHD to functional impairment and quality of life. The late-onset ADHD had more severe functional impairment at work and poorer family support than early-onset ADHD while they had comparable impairment at other domains. Less perceived family support and current anxiety/depressive symptoms partially mediated the link between ADHD diagnosis and quality of life/functional impairment both in early- and late-onset ADHD. Our data support decreased quality of life and increased functional impairment in adult ADHD, regardless of age of onset, and these adverse outcomes may be mediated by family support and anxiety/depression at adulthood. Our findings also imply that the new DSM-5 ADHD criteria do not over-include individuals without impairment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of Neuropsychological Functioning Between Adults With Early- and Late-Onset DSM-5 ADHD.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Ju; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2017-09-01

    We aimed to compare the visually dependent neuropsychological functioning among adults with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) ADHD who recalled symptom onset by and after age 7 and non-ADHD controls. We divided the participants, aged 17 to 40 years, into three groups-(a) ADHD, onset <7 years (early-onset, n = 142); (b) ADHD, onset between 7 and <12 years (late-onset, n = 41); (c) non-ADHD controls ( n = 148)-and compared their neuropsychological functioning, measured by the Cambridge Neuropsychological Testing Automated Battery. Both ADHD groups had deficits in attention and signal detectability, spatial working memory, and short-term spatial memory, but only the early-onset group showed deficits in alertness, set-shifting, and planning after controlling for age, sex, and psychiatric comorbidities. There was no statistical difference between the two ADHD groups in neuropsychological functioning. DSM-5 criteria for diagnosing adult ADHD are not too lax regarding neuropsychological functioning.

  9. A Longitudinal Study of Childhood ADHD and Substance Dependence Disorders in Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Breyer, Jessie L.; Lee, Susanne; Winters, Ken; August, Gerald; Realmuto, George

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood disorder that is associated with many behavioral and social problems. These problems may continue when an individual continues to meet criteria for ADHD as an adult. In this study, we describe the outcome patterns for three different groups: individuals who had ADHD as children, but no longer meet criteria as adults (Childhood-Limited ADHD, n = 71); individuals who met ADHD criteria as children and continue to meet criteria as young adults (Persistent ADHD n = 79); and a control group of individuals who did not meet ADHD diagnostic criteria in childhood or adulthood (n = 69). Groups were compared to examine differences in change in rates of alcohol, marijuana, and nicotine dependence over three time points in young adulthood (mean ages 18, 20 and 22 years). The method used is notable as this longitudinal study followed participants from childhood into young adulthood instead of relying on retrospective self-reports from adult participants. Results indicated that there were no significant group differences in change in rates of substance dependence over time. However, individuals whose ADHD persisted into adulthood were significantly more likely to meet DSM-IV criteria for alcohol, marijuana, and nicotine dependence across the three time points after controlling for age, sex, childhood stimulant medication use, and childhood conduct problems. Implications of these findings, as well as recommendations for future research, are discussed. PMID:24731117

  10. Family Functioning and Parental Bonding During Childhood in Adults Diagnosed With ADHD.

    PubMed

    Montejo, José E; Durán, Mariona; Del Mar Martínez, María; Hilari, Ainoa; Roncalli, Nicoletta; Vilaregut, Anna; Corrales, Montserrat; Nogueira, Mariana; Casas, Miguel; Linares, Juan Luis; Ramos-Quiroga, J Antoni

    2015-08-24

    This work assesses family functioning, parental bonding, and the relationship between the two in adults diagnosed with ADHD. The study used a retrospective, ex post facto design and consisted of 100 adult participants, who were distributed into two groups: with and without diagnosis of ADHD. Two family assessment instruments were applied: the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale short spanish version (FACES-20esp)) and the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). The diagnosis of ADHD was done by using a semistructured interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV) criteria (Conners' Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV [CAADID]). The results showed that higher rigidity and lower emotional connection were significantly associated with ADHD family functioning. Regarding parental bonding, the results showed significant differences only in the care dimension, with the ADHD group reporting lower care than the control group. The results suggest that ADHD families present dysfunctional family functioning with a rigid, separated typology, and parental bonding based on control without affection. © 2015 SAGE Publications.

  11. ADHD and behavioral disorders: Assessment, management, and an update from DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Austerman, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    Behavioral disorders in pediatric patients--primarily attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)--pose a clinical challenge for health care providers to accurately assess, diagnose, and treat. In 2013, updated diagnostic criteria for behavioral disorders were published, including ADHD and a new diagnostic entity: disruptive mood dysregulation disorder. Revised criteria for ADHD includes oldest age for occurrence of symptoms, need for symptoms to be present in more than one setting, and requirement for number of symptoms in those aged 17 and older. Assessment of ADHD relies primarily on the clinical interview, including the medical and social history, along with the aid of objective measures. The clinical course of ADHD is chronic with symptom onset occurring well before adolescence. Most patients have symptoms that continue into adolescence, and some into adulthood. Many patients with ADHD have comorbid disorders such as depression, disruptive behavior disorders, or substance abuse, which need to be addressed first in the treatment plan. Treatment of ADHD relies on a combination of psychopharmacologic, academic, and behavioral interventions, which produce response rates up to 80%. Copyright © 2015 Cleveland Clinic.

  12. Sibling Relationships among Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Pfiffner, Linda J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the quality of sibling relationships among children with ADHD relative to those without ADHD. Additional analyses examined whether externalizing and internalizing problems comorbid with ADHD affected sibling relationships. Method: Participants were 77 children with ADHD and 14 nonproblem control children. Sibling…

  13. Confronting ADHD in the Music Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Patience

    2009-01-01

    Tell-tale signs of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) ADHD and its relative ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder) include an inability to maintain attention, impulsive behaviors, and/or motor restlessness. There are three subcategories of ADHD; for the purpose of this article, the blanket term ADHD applies to all three. A crucial first step…

  14. The Inadequacy of ADHD: A Philosophical Contribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjöberg, Mattias Nilsson; Dahlbeck, Johan

    2018-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a widely spread diagnosis. The dominant paradigm of ADHD is biomedical where ADHD is defined as a brain disorder. At the same time, the legitimacy of the diagnosis is being questioned since it is unclear whether or not ADHD can be deemed a medical disorder in itself. The aim of this article is to…

  15. Quantifying ADHD classroom inattentiveness, its moderators, and variability: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Kofler, Michael J; Rapport, Mark D; Alderson, R Matt

    2008-01-01

    Most classroom observation studies have documented significant deficiencies in the classroom attention of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared to their typically developing peers. The magnitude of these differences, however, varies considerably and may be influenced by contextual, sampling, diagnostic, and observational differences. Meta-analysis of 23 between-group classroom observation studies using weighted regression, publication bias, goodness of fit, best case, and original metric analyses. Across studies, a large effect size (ES = .73) was found prior to consideration of potential moderators. Weighted regression, best case, and original metric estimation indicate that this effect may be an underestimation of the classroom visual attention deficits of children with ADHD. Several methodological factors-classroom environment, sample characteristics, diagnostic procedures, and observational coding schema-differentially affect observed rates of classroom attentive behavior for children with ADHD and typically developing children. After accounting for these factors, children with ADHD were on-task approximately 75% of the time compared to 88% for their classroom peers (ES = 1.40). Children with ADHD were also more variable in their attentive behavior across studies. The present study confirmed that children with ADHD exhibit deficient and more variable visual attending to required stimuli in classroom settings and provided an aggregate estimation of the magnitude of these deficits at the group level. It also demonstrated the impact of situational, sampling, diagnostic, and observational variables on observed rates of on-task behavior.

  16. ADHD and lifestyle habits in Czech adults, a national sample.

    PubMed

    Weissenberger, Simon; Ptacek, Radek; Vnukova, Martina; Raboch, Jiri; Klicperova-Baker, Martina; Domkarova, Lucie; Goetz, Michal

    2018-01-01

    Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been added as a diagnosis to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders version 5 (DSM5) in 2013, thus making ADHD, which has been classically known as a childhood disorder, a life-long disorder. Those suffering from the condition show very specific behavioral traits, which manifest as lifestyle habits; they also show comorbidities that can be the symptoms and/or consequences of certain lifestyles. The targeted population was adults aged 18-65 years. The total sample was 1,012 (507 males and 505 females). The Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS V. 1.1) was administered to evaluate the current symptoms of ADHD and a questionnaire regarding lifestyles that are pertinent to ADHD, exercise, drug use, and diet. An ASRS score of 4-6 points was found in 11.4% of the male population and 9.7% of the female population (5-6 points indicate very high-intensity symptoms). A score of 6, the highest intensity of symptomatology, was found in 1.18% of males and 0.99% of females. Gender differences in scores were not statistically significant. In terms of self-reported lifestyles, we calculated an ordered logistic regression and the odds ratios of those with ASRS scores >4. Those with higher ASRS scores had higher rates of self-reported unhealthy lifestyles and poor diets with high consumption of sweets. We also ascertained a paradoxical finding that is not in line with the current literature on the disorder - lower rates of cigarette smoking among people with higher ADHD symptomatology. Several specific lifestyles were found to be associated with higher ADHD symptoms such as poor diet and cannabis use. Other factors classically associated with the disorder such as cocaine addiction and nicotinism were either insignificant or surprisingly less prominent among the Czech sample. However, ADHD-prone respondents reported to be more physically active, which fits the clinical picture of hyperactivity but contrasts

  17. Korean version of the functional assessment of cancer therapy (FACT)-vanderbilt cystectomy index (VCI): translation and linguistic.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myong; Lee, Hahn Ey; Kim, Sung Han; Cho, Sung Yong; Jeong, Seong Jin; Oh, Seung June; Cookson, Michael S; Ku, Ja Hyeon

    2014-11-30

    To develop a Korean version of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT)-Vanderbilt Cystectomy Index (VCI) from the original English version, with subsequent linguistic validation in Korean patients who underwent radical cystectomy with urinary diversion. Translation and linguistic validation were carried out between January and May of 2013, which consisted of the following stages:(1) permission for translation;(2) forward translation;(3) reconciliation;(4) backward translation;(5) cognitive debriefing and(6) final proof-reading. During the forward translation phases,word as such as "bother","spend time", "support", "coping" and "concern" were adjusted to be more comprehensible to the target population. There conciled Korean version was accepted without certain objections because the original version and the backward translation were almost congruent except for minor differences in a subset of questions. The translation was tested using 5 Korean-speaking subjects. The subjects took an average of 8.2 minutes to complete the questionnaire, without difficulty and found the questionnaire clear and easy to understand. The panel discussed each of the issues raised by subjects and most terms were judged by the panel as to not require further changes because the overall comprehension levels were relatively high and because the translated terms were accurately rendered in the target languages. This report has demonstrated that despite translation difficulties, the linguistic validation of the FACT-VCI in the Korean language was successful. The next step is to assess the psychometric properties of the Korean version of FACT-VCI.

  18. The Vanderbilt Expertise Test Reveals Domain-General and Domain-Specific Sex Effects in Object Recognition

    PubMed Central

    McGugin, Rankin W.; Richler, Jennifer J.; Herzmann, Grit; Speegle, Magen; Gauthier, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Individual differences in face recognition are often contrasted with differences in object recognition using a single object category. Likewise, individual differences in perceptual expertise for a given object domain have typically been measured relative to only a single category baseline. In Experiment 1, we present a new test of object recognition, the Vanderbilt Expertise Test (VET), which is comparable in methods to the Cambridge Face Memory Task (CFMT) but uses eight different object categories. Principal component analysis reveals that the underlying structure of the VET can be largely explained by two independent factors, which demonstrate good reliability and capture interesting sex differences inherent in the VET structure. In Experiment 2, we show how the VET can be used to separate domain-specific from domain-general contributions to a standard measure of perceptual expertise. While domain-specific contributions are found for car matching for both men and women and for plane matching in men, women in this sample appear to use more domain-general strategies to match planes. In Experiment 3, we use the VET to demonstrate that holistic processing of faces predicts face recognition independently of general object recognition ability, which has a sex-specific contribution to face recognition. Overall, the results suggest that the VET is a reliable and valid measure of object recognition abilities and can measure both domain-general skills and domain-specific expertise, which were both found to depend on the sex of observers. PMID:22877929

  19. Building Bridges to Diversity in Graduate Physics & Astronomy: The Fisk-Vanderbilt Masters-to-PhD Bridge Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stassun, Keivan G.

    2006-12-01

    We describe the Fisk-Vanderbilt Masters-to-PhD Bridge program as a successful model for effective partnerships with minority-serving institutions toward significantly broadening the participation of underrepresented groups in the physical sciences. The program couples targeted recruitment with active retention strategies, and is built upon a clearly defined structure that is flexible enough to address individual student needs while maintaining clearly communicated baseline standards for student performance. A key precept of the program’s philosophy is to eliminate passivity in student mentoring; students are deliberately groomed to successfully transition into the PhD program through active involvement in research experiences with future PhD advisers, coursework that demonstrates competency in core PhD subject areas, and frequent interactions with joint mentoring committees. This approach allows student progress and performance to be monitored and evaluated in a more holistic manner than usually afforded by limited metrics such as standardized tests. Since its inception in 2004, the program has attracted a total of 18 underrepresented students, with a retention rate of 90%. Recent research indicates that minority students are nearly twice as likely as non-minority students to seek a Masters degree en route to the PhD. In essence, the Bridge program described here builds upon this increasingly important pathway, with a dedicated mentoring process designed to ensure that the Masters-to-PhD transition is a successful one.

  20. Symptom and performance validity with veterans assessed for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Shura, Robert D; Denning, John H; Miskey, Holly M; Rowland, Jared A

    2017-12-01

    Little is known about attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in veterans. Practice standards recommend the use of both symptom and performance validity measures in any assessment, and there are salient external incentives associated with ADHD evaluation (stimulant medication access and academic accommodations). The purpose of this study was to evaluate symptom and performance validity measures in a clinical sample of veterans presenting for specialty ADHD evaluation. Patients without a history of a neurocognitive disorder and for whom data were available on all measures (n = 114) completed a clinical interview structured on DSM-5 ADHD symptoms, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF), and the Test of Memory Malingering Trial 1 (TOMM1) as part of a standardized ADHD diagnostic evaluation. Veterans meeting criteria for ADHD were not more likely to overreport symptoms on the MMPI-2-RF nor to fail TOMM1 (score ≤ 41) compared with those who did not meet criteria. Those who overreported symptoms did not endorse significantly more ADHD symptoms; however, those who failed TOMM1 did report significantly more ADHD symptoms (g = 0.90). In the total sample, 19.3% failed TOMM1, 44.7% overreported on the MMPI-2-RF, and 8.8% produced both an overreported MMPI-2-RF and invalid TOMM1. F-r had the highest correlation to TOMM1 scores (r = -.30). These results underscore the importance of assessing both symptom and performance validity in a clinical ADHD evaluation with veterans. In contrast to certain other conditions (e.g., mild traumatic brain injury), ADHD as a diagnosis is not related to higher rates of invalid report/performance in veterans. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Kernel Principal Component Analysis for dimensionality reduction in fMRI-based diagnosis of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Gagan S; Asgarian, Nasimeh; Greiner, Russell; Brown, Matthew R G

    2012-01-01

    This study explored various feature extraction methods for use in automated diagnosis of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) from functional Magnetic Resonance Image (fMRI) data. Each participant's data consisted of a resting state fMRI scan as well as phenotypic data (age, gender, handedness, IQ, and site of scanning) from the ADHD-200 dataset. We used machine learning techniques to produce support vector machine (SVM) classifiers that attempted to differentiate between (1) all ADHD patients vs. healthy controls and (2) ADHD combined (ADHD-c) type vs. ADHD inattentive (ADHD-i) type vs. controls. In different tests, we used only the phenotypic data, only the imaging data, or else both the phenotypic and imaging data. For feature extraction on fMRI data, we tested the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), different variants of Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and combinations of FFT and PCA. PCA variants included PCA over time (PCA-t), PCA over space and time (PCA-st), and kernelized PCA (kPCA-st). Baseline chance accuracy was 64.2% produced by guessing healthy control (the majority class) for all participants. Using only phenotypic data produced 72.9% accuracy on two class diagnosis and 66.8% on three class diagnosis. Diagnosis using only imaging data did not perform as well as phenotypic-only approaches. Using both phenotypic and imaging data with combined FFT and kPCA-st feature extraction yielded accuracies of 76.0% on two class diagnosis and 68.6% on three class diagnosis-better than phenotypic-only approaches. Our results demonstrate the potential of using FFT and kPCA-st with resting-state fMRI data as well as phenotypic data for automated diagnosis of ADHD. These results are encouraging given known challenges of learning ADHD diagnostic classifiers using the ADHD-200 dataset (see Brown et al., 2012).

  2. Saccadic movement deficiencies in adults with ADHD tendencies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun-Jeong; Lee, Sangil; Chang, Munseon; Kwak, Ho-Wan

    2015-12-01

    The goal of the present study was to explore deficits in gaze detection and emotional value judgment during a saccadic eye movement task in adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) tendencies. Thirty-two participants, consisting of 16 ADHD tendencies and 16 controls, were recruited from a pool of 243 university students. Among the many problems in adults with ADHDs, our research focused on the deficits in the processing of nonverbal cues, such as gaze direction and the emotional value of others' faces. In Experiment 1, a cue display containing a face with emotional value and gaze direction was followed by a target display containing two faces located on the left and right side of the display. The participant's task was to make an anti-saccade opposite to the gaze direction if the cue face was not emotionally neutral. ADHD tendencies showed more overall errors than controls in making anti-saccades. Based on the hypothesis that the exposure duration of the cue display in Experiment 1 may have been too long, we presented the cue and target display simultaneously to prevent participants from preparing saccades in advance. Participants in Experiment 2 were asked to make either a pro-saccade or an anti-saccade depending on the emotional value of the central cue face. Interestingly, significant group differences were observed for errors of omission and commission. In addition, a significant three-way interaction among groups, cue emotion, and target gaze direction suggests that the emotional recognition and gaze control systems might somehow be interconnected. The result also shows that ADHDs are more easily distracted by a task-irrelevant gaze direction. Taken together, these results suggest that tasks requiring both response inhibition (anti-saccade) and gaze-emotion recognition might be useful in developing a diagnostic test for discriminating adults with ADHDs from healthy adults.

  3. Types of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): baseline characteristics, initial response, and long-term response to treatment with methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Reimherr, Fred W; Marchant, Barrie K; Gift, Thomas E; Steans, Tammy A; Wender, Paul H

    2015-06-01

    Much recent research describes the importance of emotional symptoms in ADHD. While there is no accepted system for including emotionality in diagnosing ADHD, the Wender-Reimherr Adult Attention Deficit Disorder Scale (WRAADDS) provides a tool to facilitate this. It assesses a range of adult ADHD symptoms which load on two factors: inattentive and emotional dysregulation. The consistently high inattentive factor was used to define significant elevation on the more variable emotional dysregulation factor (which contains four WRAADDS domains: hyperactivity/restlessness, temper, affective lability, and emotional over-reactivity) allowing the definition of two ADHD diagnostic types. We compared these two types on a broad range of adult subject characteristics, including response to methylphenidate (MPH) treatment assessed during two clinical trials. Marked impairment in three of the four emotional domains reflected a symptom severity level equivalent to that of the inattentive factor. 59 % met this threshold, defining them as ADHD emotion dysregulation presentation, as opposed to 41 % with ADHD inattentive presentation. Cluster analysis validated these groups by generating similar clusters with 85 % agreement regarding membership. ADHD emotional dysregulation presentation subjects showed more childhood ADHD symptoms, adult symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder, and evidence of personality disorder. Both types showed similar improvement during the double-blind MPH arm of the trials and during a 6-month open-label phase. Based on the presence of symptoms of emotional dysregulation, ADHD in adults can be conceptualized as two types. Impairment and comorbidity in adults with ADHD are largely concentrated in ADHD emotional dysregulation presentation patients.

  4. Brain structural deficits and working memory fMRI dysfunction in young adults who were diagnosed with ADHD in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Roman-Urrestarazu, Andres; Lindholm, Päivi; Moilanen, Irma; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Miettunen, Jouko; Jääskeläinen, Erika; Mäki, Pirjo; Hurtig, Tuula; Ebeling, Hanna; Barnett, Jennifer H; Nikkinen, Juha; Suckling, John; Jones, Peter B; Veijola, Juha; Murray, Graham K

    2016-05-01

    When adolescents with ADHD enter adulthood, some no longer meet disorder diagnostic criteria but it is unknown if biological and cognitive abnorma lities persist. We tested the hypothesis that people diagnosed with ADHD during adolescence present residual brain abnormalities both in brain structure and in working memory brain function. 83 young adults (aged 20-24 years) from the Northern Finland 1986 Birth Cohort were classified as diagnosed with ADHD in adolescence (adolescence ADHD, n = 49) or a control group (n = 34). Only one patient had received medication for ADHD. T1-weighted brain scans were acquired and processed in a voxel-based analysis using permutation-based statistics. A sub-sample of both groups (ADHD, n = 21; controls n = 23) also performed a Sternberg working memory task whilst acquiring fMRI data. Areas of structural difference were used as a region of interest to evaluate the implications that structural abnormalities found in the ADHD group might have on working memory function. There was lower grey matter volume bilaterally in adolescence ADHD participants in the caudate (p < 0.05 FWE corrected across the whole brain) at age 20-24. Working memory was poorer in adolescence ADHD participants, with associated failure to show normal load-dependent caudate activation. Young adults diagnosed with ADHD in adolescence have structural and functional deficits in the caudate associated with abnormal working memory function. These findings are not secondary to stimulant treatment, and emphasise the importance of taking a wider perspective on ADHD outcomes than simply whether or not a particular patient meets diagnostic criteria at any given point in time.

  5. Inattentive/overactive children with histories of profound institutional deprivation compared with standard ADHD cases: a brief report.

    PubMed

    Sonuga-Barke, E J S; Rubia, K

    2008-09-01

    The Inattention/Overactivity/Impulsiveness (I/OA) behavioural cluster diagnostic of ADHD is recognized as a characteristic outcome of early institutional care. We compared the symptom and neuropsychological profiles of children with a history of I/OA and early severe deprivation (D-I/OA: n=13) with standard clinical ADHD cases (S-ADHD; N=20) and children who had experienced deprivation but were not pervasively I/OA (ERA-controls; n=22). The mean age of testing was around 13 years. D-I/OA and ERA-controls were selected from the English and Romanian Adoptees (ERA) study and had spent their early lives in the extremely depriving Romanian institutions of the Ceausescu regime and were later adopted into UK families. ADHD symptoms for male D-I/OA and S-ADHD cases showed marked similarities across symptom domains. In contrast, girls with D-I/OA were more similar to ERA controls than to ADHD cases. Longitudinal data suggested that this was due to a remission of symptoms in D-I/OA girls. Neuropsychological profiles of males and females with D-I/OA, however, were similar: both were more impaired than S-ADHD and ERA controls. Children with D-I/OA were more neuropsychologically impaired than S-ADHD despite the fact that only boys showed a persistent pattern of ADHD symptoms. These results need replication in a larger sample with groups matched for gender.

  6. Methylphenidate Ameliorates Depressive Comorbidity in ADHD Children without any Modification on Differences in Serum Melatonin Concentration between ADHD Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Cubero-Millán, Isabel; Molina-Carballo, Antonio; Machado-Casas, Irene; Fernández-López, Luisa; Martínez-Serrano, Sylvia; Tortosa-Pinto, Pilar; Ruiz-López, Aida; Luna-del-Castillo, Juan-de-Dios; Uberos, José; Muñoz-Hoyos, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients have other associated pathologies, with depressive symptoms as one of the most prevalent. Among the mediators that may participate in ADHD, melatonin is thought to regulate circadian rhythms, neurological function and stress response. To determine (1) the serum baseline daily variations and nocturnal excretion of melatonin in ADHD subtypes and (2) the effect of chronic administration of methylphenidate, as well as the effects on symptomatology, 136 children with ADHD (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision: DSM-IV-TR criteria) were divided into subgroups using the “Children’s Depression Inventory” (CDI). Blood samples were drawn at 20:00 and 09:00 h, and urine was collected between 21:00 and 09:00 h, at inclusion and after 4.61 ± 2.29 months of treatment. Melatonin and its urine metabolite were measured by radioimmunoassay RIA. Factorial analysis was performed using STATA 12.0. Melatonin was higher predominantly in hyperactive-impulsive/conduct disordered children (PHI/CD) of the ADHD subtype, without the influence of comorbid depressive symptoms. Methylphenidate ameliorated this comorbidity without induction of any changes in the serum melatonin profile, but treatment with it was associated with a decrease in 6-s-melatonin excretion in both ADHD subtypes. Conclusions: In untreated children, partial homeostatic restoration of disrupted neuroendocrine equilibrium most likely led to an increased serum melatonin in PHI/CD children. A differential cerebral melatonin metabolization after methylphenidate may underlie some of the clinical benefit. PMID:25257531

  7. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001551.htm Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a problem caused ...

  8. Developmental psychopathology: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Sören; Petermann, Franz

    2009-01-01

    Background Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), formerly regarded as a typical childhood disorder, is now known as a developmental disorder persisting over the lifespan. Starting in preschool-age, symptoms vary depending on the age group affected. Method According to the variability of ADHD-symptoms and the heterogeneity of comorbid psychiatric disorders, a broad review of recent studies was performed. These findings were summarized in a developmental psychopathological model, documenting relevant facts on a timeline. Results Based on a genetic disposition and a neuropsychological deregulation, there is evidence for factors which persist across the lifespan, change age-dependently, or show validity in a specific developmental phase. Qualitative changes can be found for children in preschool-age and adults. Conclusion These differences have implications for clinical practice as they can be used for prevention, diagnostic proceedings, and therapeutic intervention as well as for planning future studies. The present article is a translated and modified version of the German article "Entwicklungspsychopathologie der ADHS", published in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 56, 2008, S. 265-274. PMID:19761584

  9. Developmental psychopathology: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Sören; Petermann, Franz

    2009-09-17

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), formerly regarded as a typical childhood disorder, is now known as a developmental disorder persisting over the lifespan. Starting in preschool-age, symptoms vary depending on the age group affected. According to the variability of ADHD-symptoms and the heterogeneity of comorbid psychiatric disorders, a broad review of recent studies was performed. These findings were summarized in a developmental psychopathological model, documenting relevant facts on a timeline. Based on a genetic disposition and a neuropsychological deregulation, there is evidence for factors which persist across the lifespan, change age-dependently, or show validity in a specific developmental phase. Qualitative changes can be found for children in preschool-age and adults. These differences have implications for clinical practice as they can be used for prevention, diagnostic proceedings, and therapeutic intervention as well as for planning future studies. The present article is a translated and modified version of the German article "Entwicklungspsychopathologie der ADHS", published in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 56, 2008, S. 265-274.

  10. Medical augmentation of labor and the risk of ADHD in offspring: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, Lonny; Wu, Chun Sen; Secher, Niels Jørgen; Obel, Carsten; Juhl, Mette

    2015-03-01

    Oxytocin for labor augmentation is widely used in obstetric care in Western countries. Two recent, smaller studies found opposing results regarding the association between prenatal exposure to oxytocin for labor augmentation and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In Denmark, oxytocin is the medication used for nearly all medical augmentations of labor, and we examined the association between medical augmentation of labor and ADHD in a large cohort study based on national register data. All singletons born after spontaneous onset of labor in Denmark between 2000 and 2008 (N = 546 146) were included in the study. Data from the Danish Medical Birth Registry on medical augmentation of labor (yes/no) were used to identify exposed children. ADHD was defined based on the diagnostic codes of International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, for hyperkinetic disorder and information on dispensed ADHD medication. A multivariate proportional hazards regression model was used to test the association. Among 546 146 deliveries, 26% included medical augmentation of labor, and 0.9% of the children were identified as having ADHD (n = 4617). We found no association between augmentation of labor and ADHD in the offspring (hazard ratio: 1.05 [95% confidence interval: 0.98-1.13]). Our study does not support an association between medical augmentation of labor and ADHD in the child. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Autistic traits in children with ADHD index clinical and cognitive problems.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Miriam; Martin, Joanna; Langley, Kate; Hamshere, Marian; Thapar, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Traits of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) occur frequently in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the significance of their presence in terms of phenotype and underlying neurobiology is not properly understood. This analysis aimed to determine whether higher levels of autistic traits, as measured by the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ), index a more severe presentation in a large, rigorously phenotyped sample of children with ADHD (N=711). Regression analyses were used to examine association of SCQ scores with core ADHD features, clinical comorbidities and cognitive and developmental features, with adjustment for putative confounders. For outcomes showing association with total SCQ score, secondary analyses determined levels of differential association of the three ASD sub-domains. Results suggest that increasing ASD symptomatology within ADHD is associated with a more severe phenotype in terms of oppositional, conduct and anxiety symptoms, lower full-scale IQ, working memory deficits and general motor problems. These associations persisted after accounting for ADHD severity, suggesting that autistic symptomatology independently indexes the severity of comorbid impairments in the context of ADHD. Sub-domain scores did not show unique contributions to most outcomes, except that social deficits were independently associated with oppositional symptoms and repetitive behaviours independently predicted hyperactive-impulsive symptoms and motor problems. It would be worthwhile for clinicians to consider levels of socio-communicative and repetitive traits in those with ADHD who do not meet diagnostic criteria for ASD, as they index higher levels of phenotypic complexity, which may have implications for efficacy of interventions.

  12. Association of ADHD symptoms and social competence with cognitive status in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Rosa; Freire, Carmen; Julvez, Jordi; Fernández, Mariana F; García-Esteban, Raquel; Torrent, Maties; Sunyer, Jordi; Olea, Nicolás

    2013-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the association of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and social competence outcomes with cognitive status in preschool children. The study population was drawn from three birth cohorts belonging to the Spanish INMA (Infancia y Medio Ambiente) project: Menorca (n = 289), Ribera d'Ebre (n = 60), and Granada (n = 108). Children were assessed at the age of 4 years for cognitive functions (McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities, MSCA) by psychologists and for inattention and hyperactivity symptoms (ADHD Criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, ADHD-DSM-IV) and social competence (California Preschool Social Competence Scale) by their teachers. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine potential associations between behavioral outcomes (ADHD symptoms and social competence) and MSCA cognitive outcomes, adjusting for confounders. The presence of general ADHD symptoms (inattention, hyperactivity, or both) and poorer social competence both showed negative associations with cognitive outcomes. When we compared children according to ADHD subtypes, those with inattention symptoms alone and those with both inattention and hyperactivity symptoms showed significantly lower cognitive function scores in comparison to children with no ADHD symptoms. Behavioral dysfunctions in preschoolers may be associated with impairment of cognitive functions.

  13. ADHD severity as it relates to comorbid psychiatric symptomatology in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD).

    PubMed

    Mansour, Rosleen; Dovi, Allison T; Lane, David M; Loveland, Katherine A; Pearson, Deborah A

    2017-01-01

    Comorbid diagnoses identified in pediatric samples have been correlated with a range of outcomes, including greater levels of emotional, behavioral, and educational impairment and the need for more intensive treatment. Given that previous research has documented high levels of comorbid Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), this study closely examines the relationship between parent-reported ADHD symptoms (i.e., Conners' Parent Rating Scale, Revised [CPRS-R]) and the prevalence of additional comorbid psychiatric diagnoses in a pediatric ASD sample (n=99). Regression analyses revealed that greater severity of ADHD symptomatology was significantly related to a greater number of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, as identified using the Diagnostic Interview for Children and adolescents, 4th Edition (DICA-IV). Additionally, more severe ADHD symptoms were also associated with higher levels of symptom severity on Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) syndrome subscales. Interestingly, increasing severity of ASD symptomatology, as measured by the Autism Diagnostic Interview, Revised (ADI-R), was not associated with a higher prevalence of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses or CBCL syndrome severity. Our study concluded that higher levels of ADHD severity-not ASD severity-were associated with a higher prevalence of comorbid psychiatric symptomatology in school-age children with ASD. These findings may encourage clinicians to thoroughly assess ADHD symptomatology in ASD children to better inform treatment planning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessing ADHD symptoms in children and adults: evaluating the role of objective measures.

    PubMed

    Emser, Theresa S; Johnston, Blair A; Steele, J Douglas; Kooij, Sandra; Thorell, Lisa; Christiansen, Hanna

    2018-05-18

    Diagnostic guidelines recommend using a variety of methods to assess and diagnose ADHD. Applying subjective measures always incorporates risks such as informant biases or large differences between ratings obtained from diverse sources. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that ratings and tests seem to assess somewhat different constructs. The use of objective measures might thus yield valuable information for diagnosing ADHD. This study aims at evaluating the role of objective measures when trying to distinguish between individuals with ADHD and controls. Our sample consisted of children (n = 60) and adults (n = 76) diagnosed with ADHD and matched controls who completed self- and observer ratings as well as objective tasks. Diagnosis was primarily based on clinical interviews. A popular pattern recognition approach, support vector machines, was used to predict the diagnosis. We observed relatively high accuracy of 79% (adults) and 78% (children) applying solely objective measures. Predicting an ADHD diagnosis using both subjective and objective measures exceeded the accuracy of objective measures for both adults (89.5%) and children (86.7%), with the subjective variables proving to be the most relevant. We argue that objective measures are more robust against rater bias and errors inherent in subjective measures and may be more replicable. Considering the high accuracy of objective measures only, we found in our study, we think that they should be incorporated in diagnostic procedures for assessing ADHD.

  15. Gambling, Delay, and Probability Discounting in Adults With and Without ADHD.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhijie; Harrow, Sarah-Eve; Song, Xianwen; Rucklidge, Julia J; Grace, Randolph C

    2016-11-01

    We investigated the relationship between impulsivity, as measured by delay and probability discounting, and gambling-related cognitions and behavior in adults with and without ADHD. Adults who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria for ADHD (n = 31) and controls (n = 29) were recruited from the community. All completed an interview that included an assessment of psychiatric disorders, gambling questionnaires, and simulated gambling, delay, and probability discounting tasks. The ADHD group was more likely to meet the criteria for problem gambling and was more impulsive than controls based on a composite discounting measure. ADHD symptoms were correlated with gambling-related cognitions and behavior. Probability, but not delay discounting, explained significant variance in gambling-related measures after controlling for ADHD symptoms. Results confirm an association between adult ADHD and gambling, and suggest that the facets of impulsivity related to risk proneness may be an independent risk factor for problem gambling in this population. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. Multidimensional assessment of homework: an analysis of students with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Mautone, Jennifer A; Marshall, Stephen A; Costigan, Tracy E; Clarke, Angela T; Power, Thomas J

    2012-10-01

    Homework can have beneficial effects for students; however, it presents challenges, particularly for students with attention problems. Although effective homework interventions exist, intervention development and evaluation has been hampered by the lack of psychometrically sound measures. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the construct validity of the Homework Performance Questionnaire (HPQ), Parent and Teacher Versions, in a sample of children with ADHD. A secondary purpose was to examine variations in homework performance as a function of individual characteristics, such as academic achievement, quality of the family-school relationship, and child's diagnostic status. The sample included 91 children (34% female) with ADHD in Grades 2 to 6. Measures included parent and teacher ratings of homework performance and the quality of the parent-teacher relationship as well as direct assessment of child academic achievement and homework performance (i.e., samples of completed assignments). Correlational analyses were used to examine construct validity, and ANOVAs were used to evaluate group differences. Each factor of the HPQ had a significant relationship with other measures of relevant constructs. There were no significant differences in homework performance between groups for ADHD subtype, medication status, or comorbidity, with the exception of learning disability. Children with ADHD and learning disabilities had significantly lower teacher ratings of academic competence. Results of the present study suggest that HPQ scores may be used to make valid inferences about the homework performance of children with attention problems. These rating scales may be helpful in progress monitoring and evaluating intervention effectiveness.

  17. Risk factors of abuse of parents by their ADHD children.

    PubMed

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Jafari, Peyman

    2010-01-01

    It is interesting that there is scant research of abuse of parents by their children and no study was found on the abuse of parents by their attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children. Seventy-four children and adolescents suffering from ADHD and their parents were interviewed. The diagnoses were made according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. A questionnaire was developed to assess the children's abuse toward parents. More than half of the parents are suffering from at least one of the forms of abuse by their ADHD children. Scores of parental abuse were not related to gender. Different types of abuse correlated with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), tic, and separation anxiety disorder (SAD). Fathers' and mothers' age, the level of education, and type of occupation were not risk factors of the abuse scores. ODD and mother's major depressive disorder were predictors of the abuse. There was a very disturbing high rate of abuse by children against parents. There is an interrelation of different forms of abuse. This study contributes to increasing awareness on the abuse of parents by their ADHD children.

  18. Cognitive Deficits and Positively Biased Self-Perceptions in Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    McQuade, Julia D.; Tomb, Meghan; Hoza, Betsy; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Hurt, Elizabeth A.; Vaughn, Aaron J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relation between cognitive deficits and positive bias in a sample of 272 children with and without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; 7–12 years old). Results indicated that children with ADHD with and without biased self-perceptions exhibit differences in specific cognitive deficits (executive processes, working memory, broad attention, and cognitive fluency) compared to each other and to control children. Further, specific cognitive deficits emerged as partial mediators of the relation between ADHD diagnostic status and positive bias. Interestingly, some differences in results emerged based on the domain considered (academic, social, behavioral competence). Results lend initial support to the role of cognitive deficits in the positive bias of some children with ADHD. Implications for future research and intervention are discussed. PMID:20820902

  19. Siblings and Birth Order-Are They Important for the Occurrence of ADHD?

    PubMed

    Reimelt, Charlotte; Wolff, Nicole; Hölling, Heike; Mogwitz, Sabine; Ehrlich, Stefan; Martini, Julia; Roessner, Veit

    2018-05-01

    The associations of birth order, number of siblings, and ADHD was examined. The analysis based on representative, epidemiological data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) study ( N = 13,488). An increased risk for ADHD in firstborn versus youngest born children (odds ratio [OR] = 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.09, 1.58]) and also versus children with no sibling (OR = 1.31, 95% CI [1.03, 1.68]) was revealed, while number of siblings was not associated with ADHD. Results remained stable after controlling for confounders. Firstborn children may receive simultaneously less parental resources and more responsibilities if younger siblings are born. This happens during the vulnerable developmental period of ADHD. In addition, due to higher levels of insecurity, parents are assumed to focus more on potential physical or psychological abnormities in their firstborn children. This may result in a diagnostic bias in firstborn children.

  20. The relationship between satisfaction with life, ADHD symptoms, and associated problems among university students.

    PubMed

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Eyjolfsdottir, Gudrun Agusta; Smari, Jakob; Young, Susan

    2009-05-01

    To ascertain whether ADHD symptoms, and associated problems, are negatively related to subjective well-being. The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) was completed by 369 university students, along with the Reasoning & Rehabilitation (R&R) ADHD Training Evaluation (RATE), the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) Scale for current ADHD symptoms, and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS). The SWLS was negatively correlated with all the other measures, and the strongest correlations were with the Total RATE score. A multiple regression analysis showed that the variables in the study accounted for 22% and 25% of the variance of the SWLS among males and females, respectively. Among males poor social functioning was the best predictor of dissatisfaction with life, whereas among females it was poor emotional control. Both ADHD symptoms and associated problems are significantly related to poorer satisfaction with life.

  1. Machine-based classification of ADHD and nonADHD participants using time/frequency features of event-related neuroelectric activity.

    PubMed

    Öztoprak, Hüseyin; Toycan, Mehmet; Alp, Yaşar Kemal; Arıkan, Orhan; Doğutepe, Elvin; Karakaş, Sirel

    2017-12-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most frequent diagnosis among children who are referred to psychiatry departments. Although ADHD was discovered at the beginning of the 20th century, its diagnosis is still confronted with many problems. A novel classification approach that discriminates ADHD and nonADHD groups over the time-frequency domain features of event-related potential (ERP) recordings that are taken during Stroop task is presented. Time-Frequency Hermite-Atomizer (TFHA) technique is used for the extraction of high resolution time-frequency domain features that are highly localized in time-frequency domain. Based on an extensive investigation, Support Vector Machine-Recursive Feature Elimination (SVM-RFE) was used to obtain the best discriminating features. When the best three features were used, the classification accuracy for the training dataset reached 98%, and the use of five features further improved the accuracy to 99.5%. The accuracy was 100% for the testing dataset. Based on extensive experiments, the delta band emerged as the most contributing frequency band and statistical parameters emerged as the most contributing feature group. The classification performance of this study suggests that TFHA can be employed as an auxiliary component of the diagnostic and prognostic procedures for ADHD. The features obtained in this study can potentially contribute to the neuroelectrical understanding and clinical diagnosis of ADHD. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Validation of the Expanded Versions of the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale v1.1 Symptom Checklist and the Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Michael J; Faraone, Stephen V; Alperin, Samuel; Leon, Terry L; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas J; Adler, Lenard A

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study is to validate the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and Adult ADHD Investigator Symptom Rating Scale (AISRS) expanded versions, including executive function deficits (EFDs) and emotional dyscontrol (EC) items, and to present ASRS and AISRS pilot normative data. Two patient samples (referred and primary care physician [PCP] controls) were pooled together for these analyses. Final analysis included 297 respondents, 171 with adult ADHD. Cronbach's alphas were high for all sections of the scales. Examining histograms of ASRS 31-item and AISRS 18-item total scores for ADHD controls, 95% cutoff scores were 70 and 23, respectively; histograms for pilot normative sample suggest cutoffs of 82 and 26, respectively. (a) ASRS- and AISRS-expanded versions have high validity in assessment of core 18 adult ADHD Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( DSM) symptoms and EFD and EC symptoms. (b) ASRS (31-item) scores 70 to 82 and AISRS (18-item) scores from 23 to 26 suggest a high likelihood of adult ADHD.

  3. Cognitive functioning and family risk factors in relation to symptom behaviors of ADHD and ODD in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Forssman, Linda; Eninger, Lilianne; Tillman, Carin M; Rodriguez, Alina; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2012-05-01

    In this study, the authors investigated whether ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) behaviors share associations with problems in cognitive functioning and/or family risk factors in adolescence. This was done by examining independent as well as specific associations of cognitive functioning and family risk factors with ADHD and ODD behaviors. A sample of 120 adolescents from the general population was assessed on various cognitive tasks. ADHD and ODD behaviors were measured through parental and teacher ratings based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition) criteria. Parents and adolescents provided information regarding measures of family risk factors. The results show that only cognitive functioning was associated with ADHD behaviors, and family risk factors were, independent of cognitive functioning, associated with ODD behaviors. These results suggest that cognitive performance bears a specific significance for ADHD behaviors, whereas family risk factors have specific importance for ODD behaviors.

  4. The clinical presentation of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Niarchou, Maria; Martin, Joanna; Thapar, Anita; Owen, Michael J; van den Bree, Marianne B M

    2015-12-01

    Although attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent psychiatric disorder in children with 22q11.2DS, it remains unclear whether its clinical presentation is similar to that in children with idiopathic ADHD. The aim of this study is to compare the ADHD phenotype in children with and without 22q11.2DS by examining ADHD symptom scores, patterns of psychiatric comorbidity, IQ and gender distribution. Forty-four children with 22q11.2DS and ADHD (mean age = 9.6), 600 clinic children (mean age = 10.8) and 77 children with ADHD from a population cohort (mean age = 10.8) participated in the study. Psychopathology was assessed using parent-report research diagnostic instruments. There was a higher proportion of females in the 22q11.2DS ADHD sample in relation to the clinical sample (χ(2)  = 18.2, P < 0.001). The 22q11.2DS group showed a higher rate of ADHD inattentive subtype (χ(2)  = 114.76, P < 0.001), and fewer hyperactive-impulsive symptoms compared to the clinical group (z = 8.43, P < 0.001). The 22q11.2DS ADHD group parents reported fewer oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder symptoms (z = 6.33, P < 0.001) and a higher rate of generalized anxiety disorder (χ(2)  = 4.56, P = 0.03) in relation to the clinical group. Two percent of the 22q11.2 DS ADHD sample had received ADHD treatment. The results were similar when the 22q11.2 ADHD group was compared to the population cohort ADHD group. The clinical presentation of ADHD and patterns of co-morbidity in 22q11.2DS is different from that in idiopathic ADHD. This could lead to clinical under-recognition of ADHD in this group. Examining psychopathology in 22q11.2DS can provide insights into the genetic origins of psychiatric problems with implications beyond the 22q11.2DS population. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Comparative Study of Children with ADHD Only, Autism Spectrum Disorder + ADHD, and Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder + ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.; Schneider, Jayne

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Identification of differences among children with ADHD only, autism spectrum disorder (ASD)+ADHD, and chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD)+ADHD may lead to better understanding of clinical phenotypes. Method: Children were evaluated using the parent- and teacher-completed questionnaires. Results: All three groups were highly similar in…

  6. The delinquency outcomes of boys with ADHD with and without comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Margaret H; Pelham, William E; Molina, Brooke S G; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Biswas, Aparajita; MacLean, Michael G; Babinski, Dara E; Karch, Kathryn M

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the association between childhood ADHD and juvenile delinquency by examining data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS), a follow-up study of individuals diagnosed with ADHD in childhood (ages 5-12) and recontacted in adolescence and young adulthood for yearly follow-up (age at first follow-up interview M = 17.26, SD = 3.17). Participants were 288 males with childhood ADHD and 209 demographically similar males without ADHD who were recruited into the follow-up study. Delinquency information gathered yearly during the second through eighth follow-up provided a comprehensive history of juvenile delinquency for all participants. Four childhood diagnostic groups [ADHD-only (N = 47), ADHD + ODD (N = 135), ADHD + CD (N = 106), and comparison (N = 209)] were used to examine group differences on delinquency outcomes. Analyses were conducted across three dimensions of delinquency (i.e., severity, age of initiation, and variety). Individuals with childhood ADHD + CD displayed significantly worse delinquency outcomes than the other three groups, across almost all indices of offending. When compared to comparison participants, boys with ADHD-only and ADHD + ODD in childhood displayed earlier ages of delinquency initiation, a greater variety of offending, and higher prevalence of severe delinquency. These findings suggest that although childhood ADHD + CD creates the greatest risk for delinquency, boys with ADHD-only and ADHD + ODD also appear at a higher risk for later offending. The patterns of offending that emerged from the PALS are discussed in the context of the relationship between ADHD, comorbidity, and delinquency.

  7. Analysis of driving histories of ADHD subjects

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-06-01

    The goals of this research were to assess the relationship between early childhood diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and later driving performance. Driving records were obtained for ADHD and comparison subjects who were par...

  8. The Romantic Relationships of Adolescents With ADHD.

    PubMed

    Rokeach, Alan; Wiener, Judith

    2018-01-01

    This study compared the romantic relationships of adolescents with and without ADHD with regard to romantic involvement, relationship content, and relationship quality. A community sample of 58 participants (30 ADHD, 28 Comparison), ages 13 to 18, completed questionnaires assessing various features of romantic relationships. Adolescents with ADHD reported having more romantic partners than their typically developing (TD) peers. Females with ADHD were found to have shorter romantic relationships than TD adolescents while males with ADHD reported their age of first intercourse to be nearly 2 years sooner than TD peers. Irrespective of gender, adolescents with ADHD had nearly double the number of lifetime sexual partners. However, the romantic relationships of adolescents with and without ADHD did not differ on levels of aggression or relationship quality. Given the outcomes associated with poor-quality romantic relationships, comprehensive assessments of adolescents with ADHD should include queries into their romantic relationships.

  9. [ADH/D and impulsiveness: Prevalence of impulse control disorders and other comorbidities, in 81 adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADH/D)].

    PubMed

    Porteret, R; Bouchez, J; Baylé, F J; Varescon, I

    2016-04-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADH/D) is a neuropsychological developmental disorder characterized by pervasive and impairing symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Whereas it is well known in children, there is still little information about ADH/D in adults, including prevalence. Indeed, there are actually no epidemiological studies in France, despite the considerable impact of this disorder in a patient's professional and affective life. Moreover, ADH/D rarely stays isolated, and many comorbidities often complicate the diagnostic investigation. It is well known that the so-called ADH/D is composed of two main categories of symptoms (Attentional Disorder/Hyperactiviy Disorder), but Impulsiveness also remains a major symptom. The aim of this study was to evaluate not only the prevalence of Impulse Control Disorders (ICD) but also psychological and addictive comorbidities among adult patients with ADH/D. A total of 100 patients from specialized consultations of adult ADH/D were evaluated in this study, but only 81 were included after presenting all the clinical criteria of ADH/D. We used the DSM IV-T-R for ADH/D, the Minnesota Impulsive Disorders Interview a semi-structured clinical interview assessing impulse control disorders (ICD) (compulsive buying, trichotillomania, compulsive sexual behaviour, kleptomania, pyromania and intermittent explosive disorder), and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview in order to evaluate psychiatric and addictive comorbidities. More than 90 % of the patients met the early apparition criteria of ADH/D (before 7years). More than half of the patients presented a mixed type of ADH/D (both inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive forms): 55.6 % vs 44.4 % for the inattentive type. The vast majority of patients showed a complete form (with a total of 6 or more symptoms out of 9, of inattentive and/or impulsive-hyperactivity category): 93.8 % and only 6.2 % presented a sub-syndromic form of ADH/D (with

  10. Parent- and Teacher-Reported Symptoms of ADHD in School-Aged Children With Active Epilepsy: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Colin; Atkinson, Patricia; Das, Krishna B; Chin, Richard F M; Aylett, Sarah E; Burch, Victoria; Gillberg, Christopher; Scott, Rod C; Neville, Brian G R

    2017-09-01

    Provide data on the distribution of parent- and teacher-reported symptoms of ADHD in childhood epilepsy and describe coexisting cognitive and behavioral disorders in children with both epilepsy and ADHD. Eighty-five (74% of those eligible) children (5-15 years) in a population-based sample with active epilepsy underwent psychological assessment. The ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-RS-IV) scale was completed by parents ( n = 69) and teachers ( n = 67) of participating children with an IQ > 34. ADHD was diagnosed with respect to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Parents reported significantly more symptoms of ADHD than teachers ( p < .001). Symptoms of inattention were more commonly reported than symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity ( p < .001). Neurobehavioral comorbidity was similar in those with ADHD and non-ADHD with the exception of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and developmental coordination disorder (DCD), which were more common in those with both epilepsy and ADHD. Symptoms of ADHD are very common in childhood epilepsy but prevalence is influenced by informant.

  11. What is the evidence of impaired motor skills and motor control among children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? Systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, M-L; Schoemaker, M M; Albaret, J-M; Geuze, R H

    2014-11-06

    This article presents a review of the studies that have analysed the motor skills of ADHD children without medication and the influence of medication on their motor skills. The following two questions guided the study: What is the evidence of impairment of motor skills and aspects of motor control among children with ADHD aged between 6 and 16 years? What are the effects of ADHD medication on motor skills and motor control? The following keywords were introduced in the main databases: attention disorder and/or ADHD, motor skills and/or handwriting, children, medication. Of the 45 articles retrieved, 30 described motor skills of children with ADHD and 15 articles analysed the influence of ADHD medication on motor skills and motor control. More than half of the children with ADHD have difficulties with gross and fine motor skills. The children with ADHD inattentive subtype seem to present more impairment of fine motor skills, slow reaction time, and online motor control during complex tasks. The proportion of children with ADHD who improved their motor skills to the normal range by using medication varied from 28% to 67% between studies. The children who still show motor deficit while on medication might meet the diagnostic criteria of developmental coordination disorder (DCD). It is important to assess motor skills among children with ADHD because of the risk of reduced participation in activities of daily living that require motor coordination and attention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Structure of Adult ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Lenard A.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Spencer, Thomas J.; Berglund, Patricia; Alperin, Samuel; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2017-01-01

    Although DSM-5 stipulates that symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are the same for adults as children, clinical observations suggest that adults have more diverse deficits than children in higher-level executive functioning and emotional control. Previous psychometric analyses to evaluate these observations have been limited in ways addressed in the current study, which analyzes the structure of an expanded set of adult ADHD symptoms in 3 pooled U.S. samples: a national household sample, a sample of health plan members, and a sample of adults referred for evaluation at an adult ADHD clinic. Exploratory factor analysis found 4 factors representing executive dysfunction/inattention (including, but not limited to, all the DSM-5 inattentive symptoms, with non-DSM symptoms having factor loadings comparable to those of DSM symptoms), hyperactivity, impulsivity, and emotional dyscontrol. Empirically-derived multivariate symptom profiles were broadly consistent with the DSM-5 inattentive-only, hyperactive/impulsive-only, and combined presentations, but with inattention including executive dysfunction/inattention and hyperactivity-only limited to hyperactivity without high symptoms of impulsivity. These results show that executive dysfunction is as central as DSM-5 symptoms to adult ADHD, while emotional dyscontrol is more distinct but prominent resent in the combined presentation of adult ADHD. PMID:28211596

  13. The Energetic Brain: Understanding and Managing ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Cecil R.; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Harrison, Judith R.

    2012-01-01

    ADHD affects millions of people-some 3 to 5% of the general population. Written by a neuroscientist who has studied ADHD, a clinician who has diagnosed and treated it for 30 years, and a special educator who sees it daily, "The Energetic Brain" provides the latest information from neuroscience on how the ADHD brain works and shows how to harness…

  14. The Neurobiological Profile of Girls with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahone, E. Mark; Wodka, Ericka L.

    2008-01-01

    Since boys are more commonly diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) than girls, the majority of theories and published research studies of ADHD have been based on samples comprised primarily (or exclusively) of boys. While psychosocial impairment in girls with ADHD is well established, the neuropsychological and…

  15. Autism and ADHD: Overlapping and Discriminating Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Mayes, Rebecca D.; Molitoris, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Children with ADHD and autism have some similar features, complicating a differential diagnosis. The purpose of our study was to determine the degree to which core ADHD and autistic symptoms overlap in and discriminate between children 2-16 years of age with autism and ADHD. Our study demonstrated that 847 children with autism were easily…

  16. ADHD in Preschool: Approaches and Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Ajay; Squires, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Due to the prevalence of ADHD, there is a need for early intervention at the preschool level to improve children's chance of academic success in later years. Yet few preschool teachers are trained to meet the challenges children with ADHD present. This paper gives a rationale and curriculum for teacher training in ADHD, with an emphasis on Social…

  17. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Adulthood: Concordance and Differences between Self- and Informant Perspectives on Symptoms and Functional Impairment.

    PubMed

    Mörstedt, Beatrice; Corbisiero, Salvatore; Bitto, Hannes; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a severe mental illness, associated with major impairment and a high comorbidity rate. Particularly undiagnosed ADHD in adulthood has serious consequences. Thus, a valid diagnosis is important. In adulthood, the diagnostic process for ADHD is complicated: symptoms may overlap with comorbid disorders, and the onset and progression of the disorder must be reconstructed retrospectively. Guidelines for the diagnostic process recommend the inclusion of additional informant ratings. Research into the relation between self- and informant ratings shows extremely heterogeneous results. The levels of agreement range from low to high. The focus of this study is the concordance and differences between self- and informant ratings on ADHD symptoms and impairments. In this regard, two possible influencing factors (gender and relationship type) are also examined. 114 people participated in this study, 77 with an ADHD diagnosis and 37 without a diagnosis. For all participants, either parents or partners also rated ADHD symptoms and impairments. Small to moderate concordance was found between self- and informant ratings, with females being slightly more concordant than males, particularly for ratings of problems with self-concept. Examination of the consistency within a particular perspective showed that people with ADHD seemed to be unaware of the causal relation between ADHD symptoms and their impairments. A close investigation found almost no influence of gender and relationship type on differences within perspectives. Based on these results, the implications for the diagnostic process are that additional informant information is clearly necessary and helpful.

  18. The descriptive epidemiology of DSM-IV Adult ADHD in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys.

    PubMed

    Fayyad, John; Sampson, Nancy A; Hwang, Irving; Adamowski, Tomasz; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Andrade, Laura H S G; Borges, Guilherme; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Elie G; Lee, Sing; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; O'Neill, Siobhan; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Ten Have, Margreet; Torres, Yolanda; Xavier, Miguel; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Kessler, Ronald C

    2017-03-01

    We previously reported on the cross-national epidemiology of ADHD from the first 10 countries in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. The current report expands those previous findings to the 20 nationally or regionally representative WMH surveys that have now collected data on adult ADHD. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was administered to 26,744 respondents in these surveys in high-, upper-middle-, and low-/lower-middle-income countries (68.5% mean response rate). Current DSM-IV/CIDI adult ADHD prevalence averaged 2.8% across surveys and was higher in high (3.6%)- and upper-middle (3.0%)- than low-/lower-middle (1.4%)-income countries. Conditional prevalence of current ADHD averaged 57.0% among childhood cases and 41.1% among childhood subthreshold cases. Adult ADHD was significantly related to being male, previously married, and low education. Adult ADHD was highly comorbid with DSM-IV/CIDI anxiety, mood, behavior, and substance disorders and significantly associated with role impairments (days out of role, impaired cognition, and social interactions) when controlling for comorbidities. Treatment seeking was low in all countries and targeted largely to comorbid conditions rather than to ADHD. These results show that adult ADHD is prevalent, seriously impairing, and highly comorbid but vastly under-recognized and undertreated across countries and cultures.

  19. The descriptive epidemiology of DSM-IV Adult ADHD in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Fayyad, John; Sampson, Nancy A.; Hwang, Irving; Adamowski, Tomasz; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Andrade, Laura H. S. G.; Borges, Guilherme; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Karam, Elie G.; Lee, Sing; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; O’Neill, Siobhan; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Have, Margreet ten; Torres, Yolanda; Xavier, Miguel; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2017-01-01

    We previously reported on the cross-national epidemiology of ADHD from the first 10 countries in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. The current report expands those previous findings to the 20 nationally or regionally representative WMH surveys that have now collected data on adult ADHD. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was administered to 26,744 respondents in these surveys in high-, upper-middle-, and low-/lower-middle-income countries (68.5% mean response rate). Current DSM-IV/CIDI adult ADHD prevalence averaged 2.8% across surveys and was higher in high (3.6%)- and upper-middle (3.0%)- than low-/lower-middle (1.4%)-income countries. Conditional prevalence of current ADHD averaged 57.0% among childhood cases and 41.1% among childhood subthreshold cases. Adult ADHD was significantly related to being male, previously married, and low education. Adult ADHD was highly comorbid with DSM-IV/CIDI anxiety, mood, behavior, and substance disorders and significantly associated with role impairments (days out of role, impaired cognition, and social interactions) when controlling for comorbidities. Treatment seeking was low in all countries and targeted largely to comorbid conditions rather than to ADHD. These results show that adult ADHD is prevalent, seriously impairing, and highly comorbid but vastly under-recognized and undertreated across countries and cultures. PMID:27866355

  20. The prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in the United States: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Adler, Lenard; Barkley, Russell; Biederman, Joseph; Conners, C. Keith; Demler, Olga; Faraone, Stephen V.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Howes, Mary J.; Secnik, Kristina; Spencer, Thomas; Ustun, T. Bedirhan; Walters, Ellen E.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Despite growing interest in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), little is known about prevalence or correlates. METHODS A screen for adult ADHD was included in a probability sub-sample (n = 3199) of 18–44 year old respondents in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R), a nationally representative household survey that used a lay-administered diagnostic interview to assess a wide range of DSM-IV disorders. Blinded clinical follow-up interviews of adult ADHD were carried out with 154 NCS-R respondents, over-sampling those with a positive screen. Multiple imputation (MI) was used to estimate prevalence and correlates of clinician-assessed adult ADHD. RESULTS Estimated prevalence of current adult ADHD is 4.4%. Significant correlates include being male, previously married, unemployed, and Non-Hispanic White. Adult ADHD is highly comorbid with many other NCS-R/DSM-IV disorders and is associated with substantial role impairment. The majority of cases are untreated, although many obtain treatment for other comorbid mental and substance disorders. CONCLUSIONS Efforts are needed to increase the detection and treatment of adult ADHD. Research is needed to determine whether effective treatment would reduce the onset, persistence, and severity of disorders that co-occur with adult ADHD. PMID:16585449

  1. Parent training for preschool ADHD: A randomized controlled trial of specialized and generic programs

    PubMed Central

    Abikoff, Howard B.; Thompson, Margaret; Laver-Bradbury, Cathy; Long, Nicholas; Forehand, Rex L.; Brotman, Laurie Miller; Klein, Rachel G.; Reiss, Philip; Huo, Lan; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    Background The ‘New Forest Parenting Package’ (NFPP), an 8-week home-based intervention for parents of preschoolers with ADHD, fosters constructive parenting to target ADHD-related dysfunctions in attention and impulse control.Although NFPP has improved parent and laboratory measures of ADHD in community samples of children with ADHD-like problems, its efficacy in a clinical sample, and relative to an active treatment comparator, is unknown. The aims are to evaluate the short and long-term efficacy and generalization effects of NFPP compared to an established clinic-based parenting intervention for treating noncompliant behavior (‘Helping the Noncompliant Child’ [HNC]) in young children with ADHD. Methods A randomized controlled trial with three parallel arms was the design for this study. 164 3-4-year-olds, 73.8% male, meeting DSM-IV ADHD diagnostic criteria were randomized to NFPP (N = 67), HNC (N = 63), or wait-list control (WL, N = 34). All participants were assessed at post-treatment. NFPP and HNC participants were assessed at follow-up in the next school year. Primary outcomes were ADHD ratings by teachers blind to and uninvolved in treatment, and by parents. Secondary ADHD outcomes included clinician assessments, and laboratory measures of on-task behavior and delay of gratification. Other outcomes included parent and teacher ratings of oppositional behavior, and parenting measures. (Trial name: Home-Based Parent Training in ADHD Preschoolers; Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01320098; URL: http://www/clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01320098). Results In both treatment groups, children's ADHD and ODD behaviors, as well as aspects of parenting, were rated improved by parents at the end of treatment compared to controls. Most of these gains in the children's behavior and in some parenting practices were sustained at follow-up. However, these parent-reported improvements were not corroborated by teacher ratings or objective observations. NFPP

  2. Distinct effects of childhood ADHD and cannabis use on brain functional architecture in young adults.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Clare; Castellanos, F Xavier; Tomaselli, Olivia; Lisdahl, Krista; Tamm, Leanne; Jernigan, Terry; Newman, Erik; Epstein, Jeffery N; Molina, Brooke S G; Greenhill, Laurence L; Potkin, Steven G; Hinshaw, Stephen; Swanson, James M

    2017-01-01

    One of the most salient long-term implications of a childhood diagnosis of ADHD is an increased risk for substance use, abuse, or dependence in adolescence and adulthood. The extent to which cannabis use affects ADHD-related alterations in brain functional organization is unknown, however. To address this research gap, we recruited a sample of 75 individuals aged 21-25 years with and without a childhood diagnosis of ADHD Combined Type, who were either frequent users or non-users of cannabis. These participants have been followed longitudinally since age 7-9.9 years as part of a large multi-site longitudinal study of ADHD, the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA). We examined task-independent intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) within 9 functional networks using a 2 × 2 design, which compared four groups of participants: (1) individuals with a childhood diagnosis of ADHD who currently use cannabis ( n  = 23); (2) individuals with ADHD who do not currently use cannabis ( n  = 22); (3) comparisons who currently use cannabis ( n  = 15); and (4) comparisons who do not currently use cannabis ( n  = 15). The main effects of childhood ADHD were primarily weakened iFC in networks supporting executive function and somatomotor control. Contrary to expectations, effects of cannabis use were distinct from those of diagnostic group and no interactions were observed. Exploratory brain-behavior analyses suggested that ADHD-related effects were primarily linked with poorer neurocognitive performance. Deficits in the integrity of functional networks supporting executive function and somatomotor control are consistent with the phenotypic and neurocognitive features of ADHD. Our data suggest that cannabis use does not exacerbate ADHD-related alterations, but this finding awaits replication in a larger sample. Longitudinal neuroimaging studies are urgently required to delineate the neurodevelopmental cascade that culminates in positive and negative

  3. [Is emotional dysregulation a component of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?].

    PubMed

    Villemonteix, T; Purper-Ouakil, D; Romo, L

    2015-04-01

    the ventral striatum. Morphological alterations of the amygdala have also been reported in previous structural studies in children with ADHD. Emotional lability can result from different neurobiological mechanisms. In particular, bottom-up and top-down processes can be opposed. Bottom-up related emotional dysregulation involves an increased emotional reactivity, and is thought to be linked to the automatic evaluative activity of the amygdala. Top-down mechanisms are associated with the regulation of such activity, and rely on a prefrontal network including the lateral prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex and the orbitofrontal cortex. Since various neuropsychological impairments and alterations in multiple brain networks have been implicated in the etiology of ADHD, contemporary models emphasize its neuropsychological heterogeneity. It is therefore likely that some but not all children with ADHD will exhibit neurobiological alterations in circuits dedicated to emotional regulation, possibly at different levels. Future research will have to identify the different causal pathways and to decide whether emotional lability represents a criterion to subtype ADHD diagnoses. Emotional dysregulation is now known to play a causal role regarding ADHD symptomatology. Along with executive functioning, reaction time variability and potentially delay aversion, emotional dysregulation should therefore be included in future theoretical models of ADHD, as well as in clinical practice when identifying the major impairments in this diagnostic group and when deciding therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Chronic Pain and Associated Factors in India and Nepal: A Pilot Study of the Vanderbilt Global Pain Survey.

    PubMed

    Walters, Jenna L; Baxter, Kelly; Chapman, Hannah; Jackson, Tracy; Sethuramachandran, Adinarayanan; Couldridge, Marcus; Joshi, Hem Raj; Kundra, Pankaj; Liu, Xulei; Nair, Divya; Sullivan, Bonnie; Shotwell, Matthew S; Jense, Ryan J; Kassebaum, Nicholas J; McQueen, K A Kelly

    2017-11-01

    Evaluation and treatment of chronic pain worldwide are limited by the lack of standardized assessment tools incorporating consistent definitions of pain chronicity and specific queries of known social and psychological risk factors for chronic pain. The Vanderbilt Global Pain Survey (VGPS) was developed as a tool to address these concerns, specifically in the low- and middle-income countries where global burden is highest. The VGPS was developed using standardized and cross-culturally validated metrics, including the Brief Pain Inventory and World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale, as well as the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, the Fibromyalgia Survey Questionnaire along with queries about pain attitudes to assess the prevalence of chronic pain and disability along with its psychosocial and emotional associations. The VGPS was piloted in both Nepal and India over a 1-month period in 2014, allowing for evaluation of this tool in 2 distinctly diverse cultures. Prevalence of chronic pain in Nepal and India was consistent with published data. The Nepali cohort displayed a pain point prevalence of 48%-50% along with some form of disability present in approximately one third of the past 30 days. Additionally, 11% of Nepalis recorded pain in 2 somatic sites and 39% of those surveyed documented a history of a traumatic event. In the Indian cohort, pain point prevalence was approximately 24% to 41% based on the question phrasing, and any form of disability was present in 6 of the last 30 days. Of the Indians surveyed, 11% reported pain in 2 somatic sites, with only 4% reporting a previous traumatic event. Overall, Nepal had significantly higher chronic pain prevalence, symptom severity, widespread pain, and self-reported previous traumatic events, yet lower reported pain severity. Our findings confirm prevalent chronic pain, while revealing pertinent cultural differences and survey limitations that will inform future assessment strategies. Specific areas for

  5. Cognitive behavioral therapy for adolescents with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Antshel, Kevin M; Olszewski, Amy K

    2014-10-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often persists into adolescence and has the same functional impairments as were present during childhood. Medications lessen ADHD symptoms yet do not reliably affect functioning. Thus, there exists a great need for psychosocial treatments in adolescents with ADHD. Nonetheless, relative to the vast literature that has been reported on children with ADHD, much less data have been reported about psychosocial interventions for adolescents with ADHD. Cognitive behavioral therapy interventions that are being used with adolescents rely more on traditional behavioral principles than cognitive therapy tenets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Impaired visuomotor adaptation in adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Kurdziel, Laura B F; Dempsey, Katherine; Zahara, Mackenzie; Valera, Eve; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2015-04-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent psychiatric disorder in children that often continues into adulthood. It has been suggested that motor impairments in ADHD are associated with underlying cerebellar pathology. If such is the case, individuals with ADHD should be impaired on motor tasks requiring healthy cerebellar function. To test this, we compared performance of individuals with ADHD and ADHD-like symptoms with non-ADHD controls on a visuomotor adaptation task known to be impaired following cerebellar lesions. Participants adapted reaching movements to a visual representation that was rotated by 30°. Individuals with ADHD and those with ADHD-like symptoms took longer to correct the angle of movement once the rotation was applied relative to controls. However, post-adaptation residual effect did not differ for individuals with ADHD and ADHD-like symptoms compared to the control group. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that mild cerebellar deficits are evident in the motor performance of adults with ADHD.

  7. Development of the Subtle ADHD Malingering Screener.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Sujith; Holmes, Erin R; Rosenthal, Meagen; Banahan, Benjamin F; Young, John; Bentley, John P

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a subtle self-report scale-the Subtle ADHD Malingering Screener (SAMS)-to screen for malingering among individuals reporting symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study employed a cross-sectional experimental design with an ADHD group, a control group-comprising individuals without ADHD-and a malingering group-comprising individuals without ADHD who were instructed to feign ADHD in their responses. Factor analysis and psychometric testing were conducted to develop a final scale that could distinguish the malingering from the other groups. A 10-item, two-factor solution was obtained for the SAMS, with a sensitivity of 90.3% and specificity of 80.1%. The SAMS presents an innovative approach to help reduce overdiagnosis of ADHD and misuse of prescription stimulants. The efficient, straightforward form of the measure particularly enhances its potential application in both medical and psychosocial clinical settings.

  8. Neuropsychological Performance Patterns of Adult ADHD Subtypes.

    PubMed

    LeRoy, Amy; Jacova, Claudia; Young, Caedy

    2018-05-01

    Neuropsychological performance patterns associated with adult ADHD subtypes are unknown. The aim of the current systematic review was to identify and synthesize available literature regarding neuropsychological performance associated with adult ADHD subtypes. Searches were completed using the databases PsycINFO and PubMed for studies published before March 2017 addressing adult ADHD subtypes and neuropsychological performance. Data characterizing the neuropsychological tests utilized in each study were obtained and sorted into eight domains. To summarize the results of all comparisons (ADHD subtype compared with control, or to each other), we counted the proportion of tests within each domain with significant group differences. We deemed four domains informative in differentiating ADHD subtypes from controls. Of these, memory was the only domain that held promise in distinguishing ADHD-Inattentive and ADHD-Combined. Limitations of the available literature are highlighted and recommendations for future research are provided.

  9. Coaching for College Students with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Prevatt, Frances

    2016-12-01

    Evidence suggests that ADHD can impair academic achievement in college students and throughout the life span. College students with ADHD are an at-risk population who might benefit from interventions. An offshoot of CBT-oriented therapy that has grown significantly and gained popularity in recent years is ADHD coaching. ADHD coaching is a psychosocial intervention that helps individuals develop skills, strategies, and behaviors to cope with the core impairments associated with ADHD. Most coaching programs are primarily based on a CBT approach and target planning, time management, goal setting, organization, and problem solving. This paper describes ADHD coaching for college students and discusses how coaching is different from standard CBT treatment. This is followed by a review of empirical studies of the effectiveness of ADHD coaching for college students. Finally, some specific considerations and procedures used in coaching are described.

  10. Does a child's language ability affect the correspondence between parent and teacher ratings of ADHD symptoms?

    PubMed

    Gooch, Debbie; Maydew, Harriet; Sears, Claire; Norbury, Courtenay Frazier

    2017-04-05

    Rating scales are often used to identify children with potential Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), yet there are frequently discrepancies between informants which may be moderated by child characteristics. The current study asked whether correspondence between parent and teacher ratings on the Strengths and Weakness of ADHD symptoms and Normal behaviour scale (SWAN) varied systematically with child language ability. Parent and teacher SWAN questionnaires were returned for 200 children (aged 61-81 months); 106 had low language ability (LL) and 94 had typically developing language (TL). After exploring informant correspondence (using Pearson correlation) and the discrepancy between raters, we report inter-class correlation coefficients, to assess inter-rater reliability, and Cohen's kappa, to assess agreement regarding possible ADHD caseness. Correlations between informant ratings on the SWAN were moderate. Children with LL were rated as having increased inattention and hyperactivity relative to children with TL; teachers, however, rated children with LL as having more inattention than parents. Inter-rater reliability of the SWAN was good and there were no systematic differences between the LL and TL groups. Case agreement between parent and teachers was fair; this varied by language group with poorer case agreement for children with LL. Children's language abilities affect the discrepancy between informant ratings of ADHD symptomatology and the agreement between parents and teachers regarding potential ADHD caseness. The assessment of children's core language ability would be a beneficial addition to the ADHD diagnostic process.

  11. Self-Esteem, Self-Efficacy, and Resources in Adults With ADHD.

    PubMed

    Newark, Patricia Elizabeth; Elsässer, Marina; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to shed light on therapy-relevant factors, such as self-esteem, self-efficacy, and resources in adults with ADHD in comparison with a healthy control group. A total of 43 adults who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR) criteria for ADHD in adulthood were matched with a nonclinical sample in terms of age and gender. All participants (N = 86) were assessed with self-ratings: Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, General Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale, and Dick's Resources Checklist. Adults with ADHD showed lower levels of self-esteem and self-efficacy when compared with the control group. The authors found some, but not all, of the resources of adults with ADHD to be reduced. In other words, people with ADHD seem to possess specific resources. Our results have important implications for the treatment of adult ADHD and suggest that specific therapy programs should include resources-oriented modules for enhancing self-esteem, self-efficacy, and fostering strengths. © The Author(s) 2012.

  12. Iranian Children With ADHD and Mental Health of Their Mothers: The Role of Stress.

    PubMed

    Babakhanian, Mohammadreza; Sayar, Soraya; Babakhanian, Masaudeh; Mohammadi, Gholamreza

    2016-03-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a psychiatric disorder that can result in stress for the mother, resulting in poor health. The current study, conducted in 2012, aims to assess stress among forty-six Iranian mothers of ADHD children (Group 1) who were admitted to a psychiatric center in Tehran with forty-six Iranian mothers of normal children (Group 2) in 2012. The Child Symptom Inventory-4 (CSI-4), the child behavior checklist (CBCL) and the parental stress index-short form (PSI/SF) were completed. Data was analyzed using the Levene test and the independent t-test in SPSS Version 18. With the exception of mood, ADHD children had more problems in attention compared with normal children. As a result, mothers of ADHD children had more stress compared with the controls. ADHD can impair a mother's mental health by inducing stress. Specific diagnostic and treatment programs should be designed and tailored for the mothers of ADHD children in order to decrease stress.

  13. Iranian Children With ADHD and Mental Health of Their Mothers: The Role of Stress

    PubMed Central

    Babakhanian, Mohammadreza; Sayar, Soraya; Babakhanian, Masaudeh; Mohammadi, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a psychiatric disorder that can result in stress for the mother, resulting in poor health. Objectives The current study, conducted in 2012, aims to assess stress among forty-six Iranian mothers of ADHD children (Group 1) who were admitted to a psychiatric center in Tehran with forty-six Iranian mothers of normal children (Group 2) in 2012. Materials and Methods The Child Symptom Inventory-4 (CSI-4), the child behavior checklist (CBCL) and the parental stress index-short form (PSI/SF) were completed. Data was analyzed using the Levene test and the independent t-test in SPSS Version 18. Results With the exception of mood, ADHD children had more problems in attention compared with normal children. As a result, mothers of ADHD children had more stress compared with the controls. Conclusions ADHD can impair a mother’s mental health by inducing stress. Specific diagnostic and treatment programs should be designed and tailored for the mothers of ADHD children in order to decrease stress. PMID:27284276

  14. DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF ADHD DURING ADOLESCENCE IN THE PRIMARY CARE SETTING: REVIEW AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Brahmbhatt, Khyati; Hilty, Donald M.; Hah, Mina; Han, Jaesu; Angkustsiri, Kathy; Schweitzer, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic neurodevelopmental disorder with a worldwide prevalence of about 5% in school age children. Objective The goal of this review is to assist primary care providers (PCPs) in diagnosing and treating ADHD in adolescents. Methods PubMed, PsychInfo and Science Citation Index databases were searched from March 1990–2015 with the key words: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, primary care/pediatrics and children/adolescents, abstracts addressing diagnosis and/or treatment with 105 citations identified including supplementary treatment guidelines/books. Results Adolescent ADHD presents with significant disturbances in attention, academic performance and family relationships with unique issues associated with this developmental period. Diagnostic challenges include the variable symptom presentation during adolescence, complex differential diagnosis and limited training and time for PCPs to conduct thorough evaluations. The evidence-base for treatments in adolescence in comparison to those in children or adults with ADHD is relatively weak. Providers should be cognizant of prevention, early identification and treatment of conditions associated with ADHD that emerge during adolescence as substance use disorders. Conclusions Adolescent ADHD management for the PCP is complex, requires further research, and perhaps new primary care-psychiatric models, to assist in determining the optimal care for patients at this critical period. PMID:27209327

  15. Parenting Stress and Youth Symptoms among Girls with and without ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Chanelle T.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2017-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective To examine the aspects of parenting stress—parental distress [PD] and parental stress due to dysfunctional interactions [PSDI]—reported by mothers of girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in both childhood and adolescence and to understand their associations with internalizing and externalizing symptoms in adolescence. Design The diverse sample comprised 120 girls with ADHD and 81 age- and ethnicity-matched comparison girls, evaluated at ages 6–12 years and followed prospectively for 5 years. Basic demographics, oppositionality, childhood behavioral outcomes and symptoms, and key parenting practice were covaried in the analyses. Results Longitudinally, PD during the participants’ childhood was positively associated with adolescent externalizing and internalizing behaviors, even when statistically controlling for parallel childhood behaviors. PSDI during adolescence was associated with contemporaneous adolescent depressive symptoms and externalizing behaviors, but PD was associated with only internalizing behaviors. With respect to moderation by diagnostic group, PSDI (in childhood) was associated with adolescent internalizing symptoms only in girls with ADHD. However, associations between PD in childhood and internalizing behaviors were stronger in the comparison than the ADHD sample. Conclusions Minimizing early dysfunctional interactions might reduce internalizing behaviors in girls with ADHD. Interventions targeting parental distress may be beneficial for girls, regardless of ADHD status. PMID:29308056

  16. Attention and response control in ADHD. Evaluation through integrated visual and auditory continuous performance test.

    PubMed

    Moreno-García, Inmaculada; Delgado-Pardo, Gracia; Roldán-Blasco, Carmen

    2015-03-03

    This study assesses attention and response control through visual and auditory stimuli in a primary care pediatric sample. The sample consisted of 191 participants aged between 7 and 13 years old. It was divided into 2 groups: (a) 90 children with ADHD, according to diagnostic (DSM-IV-TR) (APA, 2002) and clinical (ADHD Rating Scale-IV) (DuPaul, Power, Anastopoulos, & Reid, 1998) criteria, and (b) 101 children without a history of ADHD. The aims were: (a) to determine and compare the performance of both groups in attention and response control, (b) to identify attention and response control deficits in the ADHD group. Assessments were carried out using the Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test (IVA/CPT, Sandford & Turner, 2002). Results showed that the ADHD group had visual and auditory attention deficits, F(3, 170) = 14.38; p < .01, deficits in fine motor regulation (Welch´s t-test = 44.768; p < .001) and sensory/motor activity (Welch'st-test = 95.683, p < .001; Welch's t-test = 79.537, p < .001). Both groups exhibited a similar performance in response control, F(3, 170) = .93, p = .43.Children with ADHD showed inattention, mental processing speed deficits, and loss of concentration with visual stimuli. Both groups yielded a better performance in attention with auditory stimuli.

  17. Cultural Proficiency: A Hispanic Woman with ADHD--A Case Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waite, Roberta; Ramsay, J. Russell

    2010-01-01

    Background: Guidelines for assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of ADHD have been drawn from research focused primarily on Caucasian males generating, in part, the need to redress health disparities. Diagnostic criteria may therefore be limited, especially regarding gender differences and other associated cultural, familial, socio-environmental,…

  18. Self-Regulation and Inhibition in Comorbid ADHD Children: An Evaluation of Executive Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarkis, Stephanie Moulton; Sarkis, Elias H.; Marshall, David; Archer, James

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between executive function and comorbid diagnoses in ADHD children is examined. One hundred six children between 7 and 15 years of age are assessed using the Tower of London (TOL), a test of executive function, and the Kiddie Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia, Present and Lifetime Version, a diagnostic interview.…

  19. Parent-Child Joint Picture-Book Reading among Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Melinda A.; Lorch, Elizabeth P.; Milich, Richard; Hagans, Neomia

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Children with AD/HD exhibit two disparate areas of difficulty: disrupted interactions with parents and significant problems in story comprehension. This study links these two difficulties by examining parent-child joint picture-book reading to determine whether there were diagnostic group differences in parent and child storytelling.…

  20. Dose Response Effects of Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate Treatment in Adults with ADHD: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Spencer, Thomas J.; Kollins, Scott H.; Glatt, Stephen J.; Goodman, David

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore dose-response effects of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) treatment for ADHD. Method: This was a 4-week, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, forced-dose titration study in adult participants, aged 18 to 55 years, meeting "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., text rev.)…

  1. Co-Occurrence of ADHD and High IQ: A Case Series Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordeiro, Mara L.; Farias, Antonio C.; Cunha, Alexandre; Benko, Cassia R.; Farias, Lucilene G.; Costa, Maria T.; Martins, Leandra F.; McCracken, James T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The validity of a diagnosis of ADHD in children with a high intelligence quotient (IQ) remains controversial. Using a multidisciplinary approach, rigorous diagnostic criteria, and worldwide-validated psychometric instruments, we identified a group of children attending public schools in southern Brazil for co-occurrence of high IQ and…

  2. Quantifying ADHD Classroom Inattentiveness, Its Moderators, and Variability: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kofler, Michael J.; Rapport, Mark D.; Alderson, R. Matt

    2008-01-01

    Background: Most classroom observation studies have documented significant deficiencies in the classroom attention of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared to their typically developing peers. The magnitude of these differences, however, varies considerably and may be influenced by contextual, sampling, diagnostic,…

  3. Untreated ADHD in Adults: Are There Sex Differences in Symptoms, Comorbidity, and Impairment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Kirsten; Levander, Sten

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To analyze sex differences among adult, never-treated patients referred for central stimulant treatment of ADHD. Method: Data for 600 consecutive patients from northern Norway referred for evaluation by an expert team during 7 years were analyzed. General background information, diagnostic and social history, and symptom profiles were…

  4. Examining the Dimensionality of ADHD Symptomatology in Young Adults Using Factor Analysis and Outcome Prediction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Tara E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Current diagnostic criteria specify that ADHD involves difficulties with inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity. Researchers using factor analysis have consistently found support for an inattention factor in both children and adults. Findings have been mixed regarding whether hyperactivity and impulsivity reflect one or two…

  5. EEG Neurofeedback for ADHD: Double-Blind Sham-Controlled Randomized Pilot Feasibility Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, L. Eugene; Lofthouse, Nicholas; Hersch, Sarah; Pan, Xueliang; Hurt, Elizabeth; Bates, Bethany; Kassouf, Kathleen; Moone, Stacey; Grantier, Cara

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Preparing for a definitive randomized clinical trial (RCT) of neurofeedback (NF) for ADHD, this pilot trial explored feasibility of a double-blind, sham-controlled design and adherence/palatability/relative effect of two versus three treatments/week. Method: Unmedicated 6- to 12-year-olds with "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of…

  6. WISC-IV Profiles Are Associated with Differences in Symptomatology and Outcome in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thaler, Nicholas S.; Bello, Danielle T.; Etcoff, Lewis M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The current study investigated the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) cluster profiles of children with ADHD to examine the association between IQ profiles and diagnostic frequency, symptomatology, and outcome in this population. Method: Hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted on 189 children with a…

  7. Benefits for employees with children with ADHD: findings from the Collaborative Employee Benefit Study.

    PubMed

    Perrin, James M; Fluet, Chris; Kuhlthau, Karen A; Anderson, Betsy; Wells, Nora; Epstein, Susan; Allen, Debby; Tobias, Carol

    2005-02-01

    Parents of most children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are employed. Employers have interest in decreasing employee absenteeism and improving workplace productivity, partly through employee benefits. The authors interviewed employers to (1) determine how they view the needs of employees with children with ADHD and (2) identify benefits that might help employees with children with ADHD. The authors carried out a systematic interview study of mainly family-friendly, large employers in four U.S. urban markets (Boston, Cleveland, Miami, Seattle). Multidisciplinary interview teams used a protocol to gather basic company information, benefit philosophy, current insurance and other employee benefits, and knowledge of ADHD and its impacts on employees. Initially, the interview team and then the larger project team reviewed all protocols for common themes. The authors interviewed staff of 41 employers (human resource managers, work/life program directors, benefits directors). Only 15 of 41 interviewees knew about ADHD, its prevalence, or its effects on parents. They had little knowledge of how differences in managed behavioral health may affect families' access to diagnostic and treatment services for ADHD, although most had experience with primary care management of depression among employees. Employers offer a variety of other benefits, including work/life and employee assistance programs, occasionally providing employees help with caring for a child with a mental health condition, on-site parent training programs, or assistance with child care. Other potentially useful employee benefits include flexible work and leave policies and information and referral services that can link parents with community programs. Although employers have limited awareness of ADHD and its potential effect on employees' work, this study identified opportunities to improve both health insurance and other benefits for employees with children with ADHD.

  8. Is ADHD an early stage in the development of borderline personality disorder?

    PubMed

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Simonsen, Erik

    2014-07-01

    Several studies report associations between adults with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and a history of attention-deficit hyperactivity (ADHD) symptoms in childhood. To explore the association between BPD and a history of ADHD in childhood. A comprehensive search of EMBASE, PsychInfo and Medline and hand-searching yielded 238 "hits". Fifteen articles were found to have sufficient quality and relevance to be included in the final review. The data were considered in six possible explanatory psychopathological models of the association between ADHD and BPD. Most of the 15 articles showed a statistical association between ADHD and BPD. The data, most strongly provided a basis for the hypotheses that ADHD is either an early developmental stage of BPD, or that the two disorders share an environmental and genetic aetiology. Furthermore, one of the disorders seems to give a synergic effect, reinforce the other or complicate the disorders. In one prospective study, the risk factor for children with ADHD to develop BPD was as high as odds ratio 13.16. No studies have looked at treatment of ADHD as a mediator of the risk for BPD. Many studies pointed at shared aetiology or the risk for development of one disorder, when the other disorder is present. The data do not evaluate how treatment factors or other factors mediate the risk or how overlap of diagnostic criteria adds to the statistical association. More research is much needed, in particular studies looking at early intervention and which treatment of ADHD that might prevent later development of BPD.

  9. Within-Family Effects of Smoking during Pregnancy on ADHD: the Importance of Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Marceau, Kristine; Cinnamon Bidwell, L; Karoly, Hollis C; Evans, Allison Schettini; Todorov, Alexandre A; Palmer, Rohan H; Heath, Andrew C; Knopik, Valerie S

    2018-05-01

    We sought to test within- and between- family associations of smoking during pregnancy (SDP) and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms using a structured interview based on the conventional Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) symptoms and the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-Symptoms and Normal-Behavior (SWAN) scale, which is a population based measure that grew out of the notion that an ADHD diagnosis exists on the extreme end of a continuum of normative behaviors and includes both above- and below- average performance on attention and activity. We used a sibling-comparison approach in a sample of 173 families including siblings aged 7-16 years (52% male) drawn from the state of Missouri, USA, wherein mothers smoked during one pregnancy but not the other. There was a within-family effect of smoking during pregnancy on SWAN hyperactivity/impulsivity and SWAN total ADHD behaviors. The associations between SDP and DSM-IV-based ADHD symptom dimensions as well as SWAN inattention were explained by familial confounds. These findings suggest that SDP exerts a potentially causal effect on increased ADHD hyperactive/impulsive behaviors and that this SDP effect is best captured when hyperactivity/impulsivity is assessed more normatively across the population, rather than specifically assessing problematic behaviors via DSM symptoms. Thus, any potentially causal effect of SDP on ADHD symptom dimensions may be restricted to hyperactive/impulsive behaviors rather than inattention, and normative, non-DSM-IV based behavioral measures may provide a more sensitive test of mechanisms of SDP-ADHD symptom associations, particularly in non-clinical samples.

  10. ADHD symptoms in non-treatment seeking young adults: relationship with other forms of impulsivity.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; Ioannidis, Konstantinos; Leppink, Eric W; Niaz, Faiza; Redden, Sarah A; Grant, Jon E

    2017-02-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been associated with various manifestations of impulsivity in adults, including elevated rates of other impulsive disorders, substance use, questionnaire-based impulsivity scores, and inhibitory dysregulation on neurocognitive tests. The relationship between ADHD and all these other forms of impulsivity has yet to be explored within the context of a single comprehensive study. A total of 423 young adults, who gambled ≥5 times in the preceding year, were recruited using media advertisements and undertook detailed assessment including structured psychiatric interview, questionnaires, and neurocognitive tests. Participants with ADHD symptoms were identified using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale Screener (ASRS-V1.1) and were compared to controls using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). ADHD symptoms were found in 20.3% of the sample, but only 7.3% of these subjects had ever received a formal diagnosis. ADHD symptoms were associated with significantly lower quality of life, lower self-esteem, higher emotional dysregulation, higher impulsivity questionnaire scores, more problematic Internet use, greater occurrence of psychiatric disorders, and impaired stop-signal reaction times. Of these variables, stop-signal reaction times and Barratt attentional impulsiveness were the strongest predictors of group classification. ADHD symptoms are common and under-diagnosed in young adults who gamble, and are most strongly linked with certain other types of impulsivity (questionnaire- and cognitive-based measures) and with emotional dysregulation, suggesting that these are each important considerations in understanding the pathophysiology of the disorder, but also potential treatment targets. It is necessary to question whether treatment for adult ADHD could be enhanced by considering self-esteem, emotional reactivity, and impaired inhibitory control as specific treatment targets, in addition to the core diagnostic

  11. ADHD patients fail to maintain task goals in face of subliminally and consciously induced cognitive conflicts.

    PubMed

    Gohil, K; Bluschke, A; Roessner, V; Stock, A-K; Beste, C

    2017-07-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients have been reported to display deficits in action control processes. While it is known that subliminally and consciously induced conflicts interact and conjointly modulate action control in healthy subjects, this has never been investigated for ADHD. We investigated the (potential) interaction of subliminally and consciously triggered response conflicts in children with ADHD and matched healthy controls using neuropsychological methods (event-related potentials; ERPs) to identify the involved cognitive sub-processes. Unlike healthy controls, ADHD patients showed no interaction of subliminally and consciously triggered response conflicts. Instead, they only showed additive effects as their behavioural performance (accuracy) was equally impaired by each conflict and they showed no signs of task-goal shielding even in cases of low conflict load. Of note, this difference between ADHD and controls was not rooted in early bottom-up attentional stimulus processing as reflected by the P1 and N1 ERPs. Instead, ADHD showed either no or reversed modulations of conflict-related processes and response selection as reflected by the N2 and P3 ERPs. There are fundamental differences in the architecture of cognitive control which might be of use for future diagnostic procedures. Unlike healthy controls, ADHD patients do not seem to be endowed with a threshold which allows them to maintain high behavioural performance in the face of low conflict load. ADHD patients seem to lack sufficient top-down attentional resources to maintain correct response selection in the face of conflicts by shielding the response selection process from response tendencies evoked by any kind of distractor.

  12. Is hyperactivity ubiquitous in ADHD or dependent on environmental demands? Evidence from meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kofler, Michael J.; Raiker, Joseph S.; Sarver, Dustin E.; Wells, Erica L.; Soto, Elia F.

    2016-01-01

    Hyperactivity, or excess gross motor activity, is considered a core and ubiquitous characteristic of ADHD. Alternate models question this premise, and propose that hyperactive behavior reflects, to a large extent, purposeful behavior to cope with environmental demands that interact with underlying neurobiological vulnerabilities. The present review critically evaluates the ubiquity and environmental modifiability of hyperactivity in ADHD through meta-analysis of 63 studies of mechanically measured activity level in children, adolescents, and adults with ADHD relative to typically developing (TD) groups. Random effects models corrected for publication bias confirmed elevated gross motor activity in ADHD (d = 0.86); surprisingly, neither participant age (child vs. adult) nor the proportion of each ADHD sample diagnosed with the Inattentive subtype/presentation moderated this effect. In contrast, activity level assessed during high cognitive load conditions in general (d = 1.14) and high executive functioning demands in particular (d = 1.39) revealed significantly higher effect sizes than activity level during low cognitive load (d = 0.36) and in-class schoolwork (d = 0.50) settings. Low stimulation environments, more rigorous diagnostic practices, actigraph measurement of movement frequency and intensity, and ADHD samples that included fewer females were also associated with larger effects. Overall, the results are inconsistent with DSM-5 and ADHD models that a) describe hyperactivity as ubiquitous behavior, b) predict a developmental decline in hyperactivity, or c) differentiate subtypes/presentations according to perceived differences in hyperactive behavior. Instead, results suggest that the presence and magnitude of hyperactive behavior in ADHD may be influenced to a considerable extent by environmental factors in general, and cognitive/executive functioning demands in particular. PMID:27131918

  13. ADHD Psychosocial Treatments: Generalization Reconsidered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abikoff, Howard

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral interventions have demonstrated clinical utility in improving the behavior of children with ADHD, especially in specialized therapeutic milieus (Pelham et al., 2000). Improvements in children's target behaviors often occur in the treatment settings where contingencies are in place and delivered consistently. However, generalization of…

  14. Exercise: Applications to Childhood ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigal, Sharon B.; Emmerson, Natasha; Gehricke, Jean-G.; Galassetti, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    ADHD is the most common neurobehavioral disorder of childhood, presenting with pervasive and impairing symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, or a combination. The leading hypothesis of the underlying physiology of this disorder of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity is based on catecholamine dysfunction. Pharmacotherapy…

  15. Comorbidity of Migraine with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Riise, Trond; Lund, Anders; Dilsaver, Steven C.; Hundal, Oivind; Oedegaard, Ketil J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate how often drugs used to treat migraine and ADHD are prescribed to the same patients to assess, indirectly, the comorbidity of these disorders. Method: We used data from the Norwegian prescription database for 2006, including the total Norwegian population (N = 4,640,219). Results:…

  16. Genetic Insights Into ADHD Biology.

    PubMed

    Hayman, Victoria; Fernandez, Thomas V

    2018-01-01

    ADHD is a neurobiological disorder with a large worldwide prevalence causing significant impairment in children, adolescents, and adults. While there is general agreement about genetic contributions toward the disorder, progress in leveraging genetics to learn more about the biology and risk factors for ADHD has been limited. In this perspective, we identified 105 genes from the literature showing at least nominal statistical significance in association with ADHD. We analyzed these genes for enrichment in biological pathways and in known interacting biological networks. We also analyzed the expression patterns of candidate genes across brain regions and across periods of human development. From our analysis, we identify 14 genes that cluster within an interactive gene network, with enrichment in nitric oxide synthase and alpha-1 adrenergic pathways. Furthermore, these genes show enrichment for expression in the cerebellum during childhood through young adulthood, and in the cortex in adolescence and young adulthood. Gene discovery holds great potential for elucidating the unknown biological underpinnings of ADHD. Genome-wide sequencing efforts are underway and are likely to provide important insights that can be leveraged for new treatments and interventions.

  17. Is ADHD a "Real" Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Michael; Lynch, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In many western countries, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has achieved celebrity status, such that it probably no longer requires introduction. The disorder is a global phenomenon, spreading rapidly as result of the increasing dominance internationally of US psychiatric models, the need for new markets for major pharmaceutical…

  18. Are ADHD Kids More Creative?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fugate, C. Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Unfortunately, there are many students that feel "stupid" in classrooms all around the country. They know they are gifted, but their ADHD and co-occurring conditions can make them feel isolated and alone. This is hard not only for the children, but for the parents who may feel powerless in helping their child know how special he or she…

  19. The Impact of DSM-5 A-Criteria Changes on Parent Ratings of ADHD in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Margaret H; Yeguez, Carlos E

    2018-01-01

    Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) A-criteria for ADHD were expanded to include new descriptors referencing adolescent and adult symptom manifestations. This study examines the effect of these changes on symptom endorsement in a sample of adolescents with ADHD (N = 259; age range = 10.72-16.70). Parent ratings were collected and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR) and DSM-5 endorsement of ADHD symptoms were compared. Under the DSM-5, there were significant increases in reported inattention, but not hyperactivity/impulsivity (H/I) symptoms, with specific elevations for certain symptoms. The average adolescent met criteria for less than one additional symptom under the DSM-5, but the correlation between ADHD symptoms and impairment was attenuated when using the DSM-5 items. Impulsivity items appeared to represent adolescent deficits better than hyperactivity items. Results were not moderated by demographic factors. In a sample of adolescents with well-diagnosed DSM-IV-TR ADHD, developmental symptom descriptors led parents to endorse slightly more symptoms of inattention, but this elevation is unlikely to be clinically meaningful.

  20. Randomized Controlled Trial of Osmotic-Release Methylphenidate with CBT in Adolescents with ADHD and Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Riggs, Paula D.; Winhusen, Theresa; Davies, Robert D.; Leimberger, Jeffrey D.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan; Klein, Constance; Macdonald, Marilyn; Lohman, Michelle; Bailey, Genie L.; Haynes, Louise; Jaffee, William B.; Hodgkins, Candace; Whitmore, Elizabeth; Trello-Rishel, Kathlene; Tamm, Leanne; Acosta, Michelle C.; Royer-Malvestuto, Charlotte; Subramaniam, Geetha; Fishman, Marc; Holmes, Beverly W.; Kaye, Mary Elyse; Vargo, Mark A.; Woody, George E.; Nunes, Edward V.; Liu, David

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of osmotic-release methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) compared to placebo for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and impact on substance treatment outcomes in adolescents concurrently receiving cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for substance use disorders (SUD). Method 16-week randomized controlled multi-site trial of OROS-MPH + CBT versus placebo + CBT in 303 adolescents (aged 13-18), meeting DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for ADHD and SUD. Primary outcomes: (1) ADHD- clinician-administered ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS), adolescent informant; (2) Substance- adolescent reported days of use in the past 28 days. Secondary outcome measures included parent ADHD-RS and weekly urine drug screens (UDS). Results There were no group differences on reduction in ADHD-RS scores (OROS-MPH: −19.2, 95% confidence interval [CI], −17.1 to −21.2; placebo,−21.2, 95% CI, −19.1 to −23.2) or reduction in days of substance use (OROS-MPH: −5.7 days, 95% CI, 4.0-7.4; placebo: −5.2 days, 95% CI, 3.5-7.0). Some secondary outcomes favored OROS-MPH including lower parent ADHD-RS scores at 8 (mean difference [md]=4.4, 95% CI, 0.8-7.9) and 16 weeks (md=6.9; 95% CI, 2.9-10.9) and more negative UDS in OROS-MPH (mean=3.8) compared to placebo (mean=2.8; P=0.04). Conclusions OROS-MPH did not show greater efficacy than placebo for ADHD or on reduction in substance use in adolescents concurrently receiving individual CBT for co-occurring SUD. However, OROS-MPH was relatively well tolerated and was associated with modestly greater clinical improvement on some secondary ADHD and substance outcome measures. PMID:21871372

  1. Parents, ADHD and the internet.

    PubMed

    Terbeck, Sylvia; Chesterman, L Paul

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the potential impact of using the internet on medical consultations by analysing the attitudes, attributions, and emotional responses of parents who have been informed by specialists that their child does not have attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to examine the nature of the feedback they obtained from members of online internet support groups. Over 40,000 messages from the five most popular international internet forums discussing children with ADHD were analysed. Messages from parents who reported that they had seen at least one specialist (e.g. paediatrician, psychiatrist or psychologist) because of their concerns that their child had ADHD were identified. The children included boys and girls with an age range from 2 to 16 years. Of these, we analysed messages where the parents additionally reported that the specialist had excluded a diagnosis of ADHD. Using these criteria, 91 messages from parents who had consulted over 200 different specialists and 398 replies to these messages were identified for content analysis. The replies to concerned parents were analysed to determine whether they were offered impartial advice. A majority of the parents reported that they did not believe the specialist and were unhappy about their child not being diagnosed with ADHD. They expressed dissatisfaction with the professional's opinions and the implication that their child's conduct was caused by their poor parenting skills. Importantly, 87.6 % of the responses that these parents received, from other members of online forums, reinforced the parent's negative attitude towards the professional's judgement. It was generally suggested that the parents should not believe the expert and should seek a further opinion. The use of the internet may encourage "doctor shopping" and mistrust in health services. Medical professionals and others may need to be aware of this, and parents may need more support than is generally

  2. ADHD and Depression Symptoms in Parent Couples Predict Response to Child ADHD and ODD Behavior.

    PubMed

    Wymbs, Brian T; Dawson, Anne E; Egan, Theresa E; Sacchetti, Gina M; Tams, Sean T; Wymbs, Frances A

    2017-04-01

    Parents of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) often have elevated ADHD and depressive symptoms, both of which increase the risk of ineffective parenting and interparental discord. However, little is known about whether child ADHD/ODD behavior and parent ADHD or depressive symptoms uniquely or synergistically predict the quality of parenting and interparental communication during triadic (mother-father-child) interactions. Ninety parent couples, including 51 who have children diagnosed with ADHD, were randomly assigned to interact with a 9-12 year-old confederate child (84 % male) exhibiting either ADHD/ODD-like behavior or typical behavior. Parents reported their own ADHD and depressive symptoms, and parents and observers rated the quality of parenting and interparental communication during the interaction. Actor-partner interdependence modeling indicated that child ADHD/ODD behavior predicted less positive and more negative parenting and communication, independent of adult ADHD and depressive symptoms. Parent couples including two parents with elevated ADHD communicated more positively while managing children exhibiting ADHD/ODD behavior than couples managing children behaving typically or couples with only one parent with elevated ADHD symptoms. Couples including one parent with, and one parent without, elevated ADHD or depressive symptoms parented less positively and more negatively, and communicated more negatively, when managing children exhibiting ADHD/ODD behavior than when managing children behaving typically. Taken together, depending on the similarity of ADHD and depressive symptom levels in parent couples, adults managing children exhibiting ADHD/ODD behavior may parent or communicate positively or negatively. Findings highlight the need to consider the psychopathology of both parents when treating children with ADHD in two-parent homes.

  3. Central Processing Energetic Factors Mediate Impaired Motor Control in ADHD Combined Subtype but Not in ADHD Inattentive Subtype

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egeland, Jens; Ueland, Torill; Johansen, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often impaired in visuomotor tasks. However, little is known about the contribution of modal impairment in motor function relative to central processing deficits or whether different processes underlie the impairment in ADHD combined (ADHD-C) versus ADHD inattentive (ADHD-I)…

  4. Prospective Association of Childhood Attention-deficit/hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Substance Use and Abuse/Dependence: A Meta-Analytic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Steve S.; Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Flory, Kate; Liu, Rebecca; Glass, Kerrie

    2011-01-01

    Given the clinical and public health significance of substance disorders and the need to identify their early risk factors, we examined the association of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with substance use (e.g., nicotine, alcohol) and abuse/dependence outcomes (nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, other). To strengthen a potential causal inference, we meta-analyzed longitudinal studies that prospectively followed children with and without ADHD into adolescence or adulthood. Children with ADHD were significantly more likely to have ever used nicotine and other substances, but not alcohol. Children with ADHD were also more likely to develop disorders of abuse/dependence for nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and other substances (i.e., unspecified). Sex, age, race, publication year, sample source, and version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) used to diagnose ADHD did not significantly moderate the associations with substance outcomes that yielded heterogeneous effect sizes. These findings suggest that children with ADHD are significantly more likely to develop substance use disorders than children without ADHD and that this increased risk is robust to demographic and methodological differences that varied across the studies. Finally, few studies addressed ADHD and comorbid disruptive behavior disorders (DBD), thus preventing a formal meta-analytic review. However, we qualitatively summarize the results of these studies and conclude that comorbid DBD complicates inferences about the specificity of ADHD effects on substance use outcomes. PMID:21382538

  5. Does Anxiety Modify the Risk for, or Severity of, Conduct Problems Among Children With Co-Occurring ADHD: Categorical and Dimensional and Analyses.

    PubMed

    Danforth, Jeffrey S; Doerfler, Leonard A; Connor, Daniel F

    2017-08-01

    The goal was to examine whether anxiety modifies the risk for, or severity of, conduct problems in children with ADHD. Assessment included both categorical and dimensional measures of ADHD, anxiety, and conduct problems. Analyses compared conduct problems between children with ADHD features alone versus children with co-occurring ADHD and anxiety features. When assessed by dimensional rating scales, results showed that compared with children with ADHD alone, those children with ADHD co-occurring with anxiety are at risk for more intense conduct problems. When assessment included a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV) diagnosis via the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children-Epidemiologic Version (K-SADS), results showed that compared with children with ADHD alone, those children with ADHD co-occurring with anxiety neither had more intense conduct problems nor were they more likely to be diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder. Different methodological measures of ADHD, anxiety, and conduct problem features influenced the outcome of the analyses.

  6. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms in Pediatric Narcolepsy: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lecendreux, Michel; Lavault, Sophie; Lopez, Régis; Inocente, Clara Odilia; Konofal, Eric; Cortese, Samuele; Franco, Patricia; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the frequency, severity, and associations of symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with narcolepsy with and without cataplexy. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Four French national reference centers for narcolepsy. Patients: One hundred eight consecutively referred children aged younger than 18 y with narcolepsy, with (NwC, n = 86) or without cataplexy (NwoC, n = 22), and 67 healthy controls. Interventions: The participants, their families, and sleep specialists completed a structured interview and questionnaires about sleep, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and ADHD symptoms (ADHD-rating scale based upon Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision [DSM-IV-TR] symptoms), and use of psychostimulants for the treatment of narcolepsy (administered in 68.2%). Polysomnographic measures were collected. Measurements and Results: Clinically significant levels of ADHD symptoms were found in 4.8% of controls compared with 35.3% in patients with NwoC (P < 0.001) and 19.7% in patients with NwC (P < 0.01). Total ADHD scores were 6.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.5, 9.0) in controls compared with 14.2 (95% CI: 10.6, 18.9; P < 0.001), in patients with NwoC and 12.2 (95% CI: 9.8, 15.3; P < 0.01) in patients with NwC; subscores of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity were also significantly higher in both narcolepsy groups compared with controls. No difference was found between the NwC and NwoC groups for any ADHD measure. ADHD symptom severity was associated with increased levels of sleepiness, fatigue, and insomnia. Compared with the 34 untreated patients, the 73 patients treated with psychostimulants (modafinil in 91%) showed a trend toward lower narcolepsy symptoms but not lower ADHD symptoms. Conclusions: Pediatric patients with narcolepsy have high levels of treatment-resistant attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. The optimal treatment for

  7. Testing the specificity of executive functioning impairments in adolescents with ADHD, ODD/CD and ASD.

    PubMed

    Carter Leno, Virginia; Chandler, Susie; White, Pippa; Pickles, Andrew; Baird, Gillian; Hobson, Chris; Smith, Anna B; Charman, Tony; Rubia, Katya; Simonoff, Emily

    2017-12-09

    Current diagnostic systems conceptualise attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as separate diagnoses. However, all three demonstrate executive functioning (EF) impairments. Whether these impairments are trans-diagnostic or disorder-specific remains relatively unexplored. Four groups of 10-16 year-olds [typically developing (TD; N = 43), individuals clinically diagnosed with ADHD (N = 21), ODD/CD (N = 26) and ASD (N = 41)] completed Go/NoGo and Switch tasks. Group differences were tested using analysis of co-variance (ANCOVA) including age, IQ, sex, conduct problems and ADHD symptoms as co-variates. Results indicated some disorder-specificity as only the ASD group demonstrated decreased probability of inhibition in the Go/NoGo task compared to all other groups. However, shared impairments were also found; all three diagnostic groups demonstrated increased reaction time variability (RTV) compared to the TD group, and both the ODD/CD and the ASD group demonstrated increased premature responses. When controlling for ADHD symptoms and conduct problems, group differences in RTV were no longer significant; however, the ASD group continued to demonstrate increased premature responses. No group differences were found in cognitive flexibility in the Switch task. A more varied response style was present across all clinical groups, although this appeared to be accounted for by sub-threshold ODD/CD and ADHD symptoms. Only the ASD group was impaired in response inhibition and premature responsiveness relative to TD adolescents. The findings suggest that some EF impairments typically associated with ADHD may also be found in individuals with ASD.

  8. Maternal ADHD, parenting, and psychopathology among mothers of adolescents with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Babinski, Dara E.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S.G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Wymbs, Brian T.; Sibley, Margaret H.; Derefinko, Karen J.; Kuriyan, Aparajita B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study describes the parenting and psychopathology of mothers with ADHD of adolescents with ADHD (MCA), non-ADHD mothers of adolescents with ADHD (CA), and non-ADHD mothers of adolescents without ADHD (COMP). Method Two sets of pairwise comparisons: 1) COMP vs. CA and 2) CA vs. MCA were conducted. We hypothesized that CA would experience greater distress in parenting and psychopathology compared to COMP, and that MCA would experience even more impairment compared to CA. Results Few differences emerged in comparisons of CA and COMP, with the exception of CA reporting greater parent-adolescent conflict and internalizing problems. In contrast, differences consistently emerged in comparisons of MCA and CA showing more difficulty for MCA in parenting and psychopathology. Conclusion These findings underscore the need for treatments that address parental ADHD when adolescent ADHD is the intended target. PMID:23160485

  9. Social Skills in Adults with AD/HD

    MedlinePlus

    ... ADHD Hospital and University ADHD Centers Insurance and Public Benefits The Insurance System Paying for Medications Private Health ... but on some level, people do weigh the costs and benefits of being in relationships. Many with ADHD are ...

  10. Causes of ADHD | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding ADHD Causes of ADHD Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Scientists ... research discounts this theory than supports it. Diagnosing ADHD Children mature at different rates and have different ...

  11. Treating ADHD | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding ADHD Treating ADHD Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Currently available treatments aim at reducing the symptoms of ADHD and improving functioning. Treatments include medication, various types ...

  12. Adults with ADHD | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding ADHD Adults with ADHD Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Some ... as clear cut as symptoms seen in children. ADHD Research The expansion of knowledge in genetics, brain ...

  13. Alexithymia, emotion processing and social anxiety in adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Edel, M-A; Rudel, A; Hubert, C; Scheele, D; Brüne, M; Juckel, G; Assion, Hans-Jörg

    2010-09-24

    given sparse research on the issue, this study sought to shed light upon the interactions of alexithymia, emotion processing, and social anxiety in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). 73 German adults with ADHD according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria participated. We used the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) to assess alexithymia, the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) to assess different features of social anxiety, and we applied the German "Experience of Emotions Scalerdquor; (SEE) to measure emotion processing. 40% of the sample were found to meet the DSM-IV criteria of social anxiety disorder, and about 22% were highly alexithymic according to a TAS-20 total score ≥ 61; however, the mean TAS-20 total score of 50.94 ± 9.3 was not much higher than in community samples. Alexithymic traits emerged to be closely linked to emotion processing problems, particularly 'difficulty accepting own emotions', and to social anxiety features. our findings suggest interactions of alexithymia, emotion processing dysfunction, and social anxiety in adults with ADHD, which may entail the therapeutic implication to thoroughly instruct these patients to identify, accept, communicate, and regulate their emotions to aid reducing interaction anxiety.

  14. Alexithymia, emotion processing and social anxiety in adults with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective Given sparse research on the issue, this study sought to shed light upon the interactions of alexithymia, emotion processing, and social anxiety in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Subjects and methods 73 German adults with ADHD according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria participated. We used the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) to assess alexithymia, the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) to assess different features of social anxiety, and we applied the German 'Experience of Emotions Scale' (SEE) to measure emotion processing. Results 40% of the sample were found to meet the DSM-IV criteria of social anxiety disorder, and about 22% were highly alexithymic according to a TAS-20 total score ≥ 61; however, the mean TAS-20 total score of 50.94 ± 9.3 was not much higher than in community samples. Alexithymic traits emerged to be closely linked to emotion processing problems, particularly 'difficulty accepting own emotions', and to social anxiety features. Discussion/conclusion Our findings suggest interactions of alexithymia, emotion processing dysfunction, and social anxiety in adults with ADHD, which may entail the therapeutic implication to thoroughly instruct these patients to identify, accept, communicate, and regulate their emotions to aid reducing interaction anxiety. PMID:20952350

  15. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Young Children: Predictors of Diagnostic Stability

    PubMed Central

    Sideridis, Georgios D.; Prock, Lisa Albers; Sheridan, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The goals of this study were (1) to provide estimates of diagnostic stability for a sample of young children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) after undergoing comprehensive multidisciplinary assessments and (2) to identify baseline child and family characteristics that predict diagnostic stability over time. METHODS: Children aged 3 to 6 years, 11 months consecutively diagnosed with ADHD after multidisciplinary consultations at a tertiary care clinic between 2003 and 2008 were recontacted in 2012 and 2013 (N = 120). At follow-up, the primary outcome was the proportion of children who continued to meet diagnostic criteria for ADHD. To identify predictors of diagnostic stability, logistic regression models were used. In addition, a latent class model was used to independently classify subjects into distinct clusters. RESULTS: In this cohort, 70.4% of the children contacted at follow-up continued to meet diagnostic criteria for ADHD. Predictors of diagnostic stability included externalizing and internalizing symptoms at baseline, parental history of psychopathology, and family socioeconomic status. The latent class model independently identified 3 distinct profiles: (1) children who no longer met ADHD criteria; (2) children with persistent ADHD and high parental psychopathology; and (3) children with persistent ADHD and low family socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS: Young children who underwent comprehensive developmental and psychological assessments before receiving an ADHD diagnosis, had higher rates of diagnostic stability than in previous studies of community samples. Child and family factors that predict diagnostic stability have the potential to guide treatment planning for children diagnosed with ADHD before 7 years of age. PMID:24639272

  16. Diagnostic Efficiency of Symptoms for Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldman, Irwin D.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.

    1991-01-01

    Examined diagnostic efficiency of symptoms for experimentally diagnosed oppositional defiant disorder (OD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in 102 elementary-age boys. Findings from teacher ratings revealed that, on average, ADHD symptoms were as useful as OD symptoms as exclusion criteria for OD, whereas OD symptoms were nearly…

  17. Are treatment results for eating disorders affected by ADHD symptoms? A one-year follow-up of adult females.

    PubMed

    Svedlund, Nils Erik; Norring, Claes; Ginsberg, Ylva; von Hausswolff-Juhlin, Yvonne

    2018-05-02

    To explore the influence of self-reported Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms on recovery rate at 1-year follow-up in an unselected group of patients in a specialized eating disorder (ED) clinic. Four hundred forty-three adult females with an ED were assessed with the ADHD Self-Report Scale for Adults (ASRS-screener), and for demographic variables and ED symptoms. Recovery was registered at 1-year follow-up. A high degree of ADHD symptoms at baseline was predictive for nonrecovery of ED at 1-year follow-up in patients with loss of control over eating, bingeing, or purging. The presence of inattentive ADHD symptoms was stronger associated with nonrecovery than hyperactive/impulsive symptoms. A high degree of ADHD symptoms may have a negative impact on recovery in ED. Screening/diagnostic evaluation of ADHD in all loss of control over eating/bingeing/purging ED patients and studies of the effect of implementing ADHD-treatment strategies in this patient group are recommended. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  18. ADHD knowledge, misconceptions, and treatment acceptability.

    PubMed

    Sciutto, Mark J

    2015-02-01

    Despite the availability of several effective treatments, many children with ADHD do not receive adequate services. A variety of factors may influence help-seeking behavior among families of children with ADHD. This study explores two factors that may influence help-seeking decisions: knowledge and misconceptions of ADHD and treatment acceptability. A total of 196 participants completed measures of ADHD knowledge and use of information sources prior to rating the acceptability of two interventions: stimulant medication and sugar elimination diets. Higher levels of ADHD misconceptions were associated with lower acceptance of medication and higher acceptance of dietary interventions. However, analysis of individual misconceptions suggests that specific misconceptions are differentially related to perceptions of individual treatments. It may be important for clinicians to assess and deliberately target specific misconceptions as part of treatment for ADHD. © 2013 SAGE Publications.

  19. Teachers' Knowledge of ADHD, Treatments for ADHD, and Treatment Acceptability: An Initial Investigation. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vereb, Rebecca L.; DiPerna, James C.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to begin to explore the relationship among teachers' knowledge of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), knowledge of common treatments for ADHD, and acceptability of different approaches to treatment for ADHD (medication and behavior management). Relationships also were explored between these variables and…

  20. Brief Report: Adaptive Functioning in Children with ASD, ADHD and ASD + ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashwood, Karen L.; Tye, Charlotte; Azadi, Bahare; Cartwright, Sally; Asherson, Philip; Bolton, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. Children with ASD and ADHD demonstrate deficits in adaptive functioning, yet pure and comorbid groups have not been directly compared. Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales (VABS-II) data were examined in boys with ASD (n = 17), ADHD (n = 31) and…

  1. Cardiac Reactivity and Stimulant Use in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders with Comorbid ADHD Versus ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bink, M.; Popma, A.; Bongers, I. L.; van Boxtel, G. J. M.; Denissen, A.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.

    2015-01-01

    A large number of youngsters with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) display comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. However, previous studies are not conclusive whether psychophysiological correlates, like cardiac reactivity, are different for ASD with comorbid ADHD (ASD+) compared to ADHD. Therefore, the current study…

  2. Examining Autistic Traits in Children with ADHD: Does the Autism Spectrum Extend to ADHD?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grzadzinski, Rebecca; Di Martino, Adriana; Brady, Emily; Mairena, Maria Angeles; O'Neale, Matthew; Petkova, Eva; Lord, Catherine; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2011-01-01

    We examined to what extent increased parent reports of autistic traits in some children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are the result of ADHD-related symptoms or qualitatively similar to the core characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Results confirm the presence of a subgroup of children with ADHD and elevated…

  3. Resting-State Neurophysiological Activity Patterns in Young People with ASD, ADHD, and ASD + ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shephard, Elizabeth; Tye, Charlotte; Ashwood, Karen L.; Azadi, Bahar; Asherson, Philip; Bolton, Patrick F.; McLoughlin, Grainne

    2018-01-01

    Altered power of resting-state neurophysiological activity has been associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which commonly co-occur. We compared resting-state neurophysiological power in children with ASD, ADHD, co-occurring ASD + ADHD, and typically developing controls. Children with ASD…

  4. Comparing ADHD in Velocardiofacial Syndrome to Idiopathic ADHD: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antshel, Kevin M.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Fremont, Wanda; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Kates, Wendy R.; Doyle, Alysa; Mick, Eric; Biederman, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Background: Children with velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), a contiguous deletion syndrome, have an increased prevalence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: The authors compared youth with VCFS+ADHD (from the SUNY Upstate VCFS Research Program) to those with ADHD but not VCFS (from the Massachusetts General…

  5. Maternal ADHD symptoms, personality, and parenting stress: Differences between mothers of children with ADHD and mothers of comparison children

    PubMed Central

    Algorta, Guillermo Perez; Kragh, Carolyn A.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Swanson, James M.; Hetchman, Lily; Copley, LaRae M.; Lowe, Matthew; Jensen, Peter S.

    2017-01-01

    Mothers raising a child with ADHD can experience high parenting stress. Mothers’ personality traits and own ADHD symptoms could also affect parenting stress. 430 biological mothers from the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA mothers) and 237 of a local normative comparison group (LNCG mothers) were evaluated at baseline. Interactions were tested between mothers’ group and maternal personality/ADHD symptoms related to parenting stress. Compared to LNCG, MTA mothers had higher parenting stress, self-reported ADHD, neuroticism, and lower conscientiousness and agreeableness. When personality and ADHD were evaluated together, ADHD symptoms interacted with mothers’ group: high maternal ADHD was positively associated with parenting stress for LNCG but not MTA mothers. Personality traits or ADHD characteristics do not appear operative for the high parenting stress of mothers of a child with ADHD. However, high maternal ADHD or low conscientiousness are associated with stress levels similar to raising a child with ADHD. PMID:25525155

  6. Resting-State Neurophysiological Activity Patterns in Young People with ASD, ADHD, and ASD + ADHD.

    PubMed

    Shephard, Elizabeth; Tye, Charlotte; Ashwood, Karen L; Azadi, Bahar; Asherson, Philip; Bolton, Patrick F; McLoughlin, Grainne

    2018-01-01

    Altered power of resting-state neurophysiological activity has been associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which commonly co-occur. We compared resting-state neurophysiological power in children with ASD, ADHD, co-occurring ASD + ADHD, and typically developing controls. Children with ASD (ASD/ASD + ADHD) showed reduced theta and alpha power compared to children without ASD (controls/ADHD). Children with ADHD (ADHD/ASD + ADHD) displayed decreased delta power compared to children without ADHD (ASD/controls). Children with ASD + ADHD largely presented as an additive co-occurrence with deficits of both disorders, although reduced theta compared to ADHD-only and reduced delta compared to controls suggested some unique markers. Identifying specific neurophysiological profiles in ASD and ADHD may assist in characterising more homogeneous subgroups to inform treatment approaches and aetiological investigations.

  7. Choice-impulsivity in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): A meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Patros, Connor H G; Alderson, R Matt; Kasper, Lisa J; Tarle, Stephanie J; Lea, Sarah E; Hudec, Kristen L

    2016-02-01

    Impulsive behavior is a core DSM-5 diagnostic feature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) that is associated with several pejorative outcomes. Impulsivity is multidimensional, consisting of two sub-constructs: rapid-response impulsivity and reward-delay impulsivity (i.e., choice-impulsivity). While previous research has extensively examined the presence and implications of rapid-response impulsivity in children with ADHD, reviews of choice-impulsive behavior have been both sparse and relatively circumscribed. This review used meta-analytic methods to comprehensively examine between-group differences in choice-impulsivity among children and adolescents with and without ADHD. Twenty-eight tasks (from 26 studies), consisting of 4320 total children (ADHD=2360, TD=1,960), provided sufficient information to compute an overall between-group effect size for choice-impulsivity performance. Results revealed a medium-magnitude between-group effect size (g=.47), suggesting that children and adolescents with ADHD exhibited moderately increased impulsive decision-making compared to TD children and adolescents. Further, relative to the TD group, children and adolescents with ADHD exhibited similar patterns of impulsive decision-making across delay discounting and delay of gratification tasks. However, the use of single-informant diagnostic procedures relative to multiple informants yielded larger between-group effects, and a similar pattern was observed across samples that excluded females relative to samples that included females. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Organisation of services for managing ADHD.

    PubMed

    Coghill, D R

    2017-10-01

    There is considerable variation in practice, both between and with different countries in the management of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Whilst there is no one optimal model of service organisation there are general principles of care that can be introduced to reduce this variability. There are frequent debates and discussions about which professional group is best placed to manage ADHD at different points in the life cycle. Who delivers care is however less important than ensuring that training schemes provide adequate exposure, training and experience to both the core and non-core skills required to provide a comprehensive package of care. Most evidence-based guidelines recommend a multi-modal, multi-professional and multi-agency approach. Many also promote the use of both stepped care and shared care approaches for the management of ADHD. As most of those with ADHD continue to have ADHD-related problems into adulthood, it is important to consider how best to transition care into adulthood and think about who should deliver care to adults with ADHD. Young people with ADHD should generally be transferred to adult mental health services if they continue to have significant symptoms of ADHD or other coexisting conditions that require treatment. Unfortunately services for adults with ADHD remain relatively scarce across much of the world and some adult psychiatrists remain unsure of the diagnosis and uncertain about the appropriate use of ADHD medications in adults, but there is a strong case for increased services for adults. ADHD is on the one hand easy to treat; it is much more difficult to treat well. Although optimised care for ADHD requires routine measurement of outcomes, this often does not happen in routine clinical practice. Focusing on optimising symptoms and minimising adverse effects can significantly improve both short- and long-term outcomes.

  9. Distinct neuropsychological subgroups in typically developing youth inform heterogeneity in children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Fair, Damien A.; Bathula, Deepti; Nikolas, Molly A.; Nigg, Joel T.

    2012-01-01

    Research and clinical investigations in psychiatry largely rely on the de facto assumption that the diagnostic categories identified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) represent homogeneous syndromes. However, the mechanistic heterogeneity that potentially underlies the existing classification scheme might limit discovery of etiology for most developmental psychiatric disorders. Another, perhaps less palpable, reality may also be interfering with progress—heterogeneity in typically developing populations. In this report we attempt to clarify neuropsychological heterogeneity in a large dataset of typically developing youth and youth with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), using graph theory and community detection. We sought to determine whether data-driven neuropsychological subtypes could be discerned in children with and without the disorder. Because individual classification is the sine qua non for eventual clinical translation, we also apply support vector machine-based multivariate pattern analysis to identify how well ADHD status in individual children can be identified as defined by the community detection delineated subtypes. The analysis yielded several unique, but similar subtypes across both populations. Just as importantly, comparing typically developing children with ADHD children within each of these distinct subgroups increased diagnostic accuracy. Two important principles were identified that have the potential to advance our understanding of typical development and developmental neuropsychiatric disorders. The first tenet suggests that typically developing children can be classified into distinct neuropsychological subgroups with high precision. The second tenet proposes that some of the heterogeneity in individuals with ADHD might be “nested” in this normal variation. PMID:22474392

  10. ADHD and executive functioning deficits in OCD youths who hoard.

    PubMed

    Park, Jennifer M; Samuels, Jack F; Grados, Marco A; Riddle, Mark A; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Goes, Fernando S; Cullen, Bernadette; Wang, Ying; Krasnow, Janice; Murphy, Dennis L; Rasmussen, Steven A; McLaughlin, Nicole C; Piacentini, John; Pauls, David L; Stewart, S Evelyn; Shugart, Yin-Yao; Maher, Brion; Pulver, Ann E; Knowles, James A; Greenberg, Benjamin D; Fyer, Abby J; McCracken, James T; Nestadt, Gerald; Geller, Daniel A

    2016-11-01

    Hoarding is common among youth with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), with up to 26% of OCD youth exhibiting hoarding symptoms. Recent evidence from adult hoarding and OCD cohorts suggests that hoarding symptoms are associated with executive functioning deficits similar to those observed in subjects with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, while hoarding behavior often onsets during childhood, there is little information about executive function deficits and ADHD in affected children and adolescents. The study sample included 431 youths (ages 6-17 years) diagnosed with OCD who participated in the OCD Collaborative Genetics Study and the OCD Collaborative Genetics Association Study and completed a series of clinician-administered and parent report assessments, including diagnostic interviews and measures of executive functioning (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning; BRIEF) and hoarding severity (Hoarding Rating Scale-Interview; HRS-I). 113 youths (26%) had clinically significant levels of hoarding compulsions. Youths with and without hoarding differed significantly on most executive functioning subdomains and composite indices as measured by the parent-rated BRIEF. Groups did not differ in the frequency of full DSM-IV ADHD diagnoses; however, the hoarding group had significantly greater number of inattention and hyperactivity symptoms compared to the non-hoarding group. In multivariate models, we found that overall BRIEF scores were related to hoarding severity, adjusting for age, gender and ADHD symptoms. These findings suggest an association between hoarding and executive functioning deficits in youths with OCD, and assessing executive functioning may be important for investigating the etiology and treatment of children and adolescents with hoarding and OCD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tube DysfunctionStrep ThroatAnemiaHyperthyroidismOpioid AddictionDiabetesCroup Home Diseases and Conditions Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Condition Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity ...

  12. Risky decision making in adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Matthies, S; Philipsen, A; Svaldi, J

    2012-09-01

    Risky decision making and disadvantageous choices constitute core characteristics of patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Consequences include negative psychosocial and health-related outcomes. However, risky decision making and its interrelations with emotional states in ADHD are poorly understood. Therefore, the authors investigated risky decision making without and after boredom induction in adults with and without ADHD. In study 1, ADHD patients (n = 15) and age/education matched controls (CG; n = 16) were compared on the Game of Dice Task (GDT), an established task measuring decision making in unambiguous situations. In study 2, ADHD patients (n = 14) and CG (n = 13) underwent boredom induction prior to the GDT. In study 1, ADHD patients selected the disadvantageous alternatives significantly more often than CG. In study 2, no significant group differences were found due to an increase in risky decision making in CG following the boredom induction. Even if severity of depression did not affect our results, it may be necessary to compare GDT responses in ADHD patients with and without current depression. Risk as a motor of disadvantageous decision making needs to be taken into account in therapeutic contexts as a maintenance factor of dysfunctional behaviour. The findings of study 2 are in line with postulated alterations of emotional state adjustment in ADHD. The link between decisions making and emotional regulation in ADHD needs further attention in research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cognitive behavioral treatment outcomes in adolescent ADHD.

    PubMed

    Antshel, Kevin M; Faraone, Stephen V; Gordon, Michael

    2014-08-01

    To assess the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for managing adolescent ADHD. A total of 68 adolescents with ADHD and associated psychiatric comorbidities completed a manualized CBT treatment protocol. The intervention used in the study was a downward extension of the Safren et al. program for adults with ADHD who have symptoms unresolved by medication. Outcome variables consisted of narrow band (ADHD) and broadband (e.g., mood, anxiety, conduct) symptom measures (Behavior Assessment System for Children-2nd edition and ADHD-Rating Scales) as well as functioning measures (parent/teacher ratings and several ecologically real-world measures). Treatment effects emerged on the medication dosage, parent rating of pharmacotherapy adherence, adolescent self-report of personal adjustment (e.g., self-esteem), parent and teacher ratings of inattentive symptoms, school attendance, school tardiness, parent report of peer, family and academic functioning and teacher report of adolescent relationship with teacher, academic progress, and adolescent self-esteem. Adolescents with ADHD with oppositional defiant disorder were rated by parents and teachers as benefiting less from the CBT intervention. Adolescents with ADHD and comorbid anxiety/depression were rated by parents and teachers as benefiting more from the CBT intervention. A downward extension of an empirically validated adult ADHD CBT protocol can benefit some adolescents with ADHD. © 2012 SAGE Publications.

  14. Cognitive responses to stress, depression, and anxiety and their relationship to ADHD symptoms in first year psychology students.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Sandra J; Harrison, Allyson G

    2013-01-01

    To explore the relationship between levels of reported depression, anxiety, and stress with scores on the Conners's Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS). Information was obtained from 84 1st-year psychology students using the CAARS, the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), and the Life Experiences Survey (LES). Approximately 23%, 18%, and 12% of students scored above critical values on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., DSM-IV) Inattention Symptoms, the DSM-IV ADHD Symptoms Total, and the Inattention/Restlessness subscales, respectively. CAARS scores were positively related to reported levels of depression, anxiety, and stress, which accounted for significant variance among the three subscales. Only 5% of participants scored above recommended critical values on the ADHD index; however, a significant amount of the variance on this measure was also attributable to the DASS. Mood symptoms such as depression, anxiety, and stress may obscure correct attribution of cause in those being evaluated for ADHD.

  15. An 'integrative neuroscience' perspective on ADHD: linking cognition, emotion, brain and genetic measures with implications for clinical support.

    PubMed

    Williams, Leanne M; Tsang, Tracey W; Clarke, Simon; Kohn, Michael

    2010-10-01

    There remains a translational gap between research findings and their implementation in clinical practice that applies to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as to other major disorders of brain health in childhood, adolescence and adulthood. Research studies have identified potential 'markers' to support diagnostic, functional assessment and treatment decisions, but there is little consensus about these markers. Of these potential markers, cognitive measures of thinking functions, such as sustaining attention and associated electrical brain activity, show promise in complementing the clinical management process. Emerging evidence highlights the relevance of emotional, as well as thinking, functions to ADHD. Here, we outline an integrative neuroscience framework for ADHD that offers one means to bring together cognitive measures of thinking functions with measures of emotion, and their brain and genetic correlates. Understanding these measures and the relationships between them is a first step towards the development of tools that will help to assess the heterogeneity of ADHD, and aid in tailoring treatment choices.

  16. Comparison of brain volume abnormalities between ADHD and conduct disorder in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Michael C.; Haney-Caron, Emily

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies of brain structure abnormalities in conduct disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) samples have been limited owing to cross-comorbidity, preventing clear understanding of which structural brain abnormalities might be specific to or shared by each disorder. To our knowledge, this study was the first direct comparison of grey and white matter volumes in diagnostically “pure” (i.e., no comorbidities) conduct disorder and ADHD samples. Methods Groups of adolescents with noncormobid conduct disorder and with noncomorbid, combined-subtype ADHD were compared with age- and sex-matched controls using DARTEL voxel-based analysis of T1-weighted brain structure images. Analysis of variance with post hoc analyses compared whole brain grey and white matter volumes among the groups. Results We included 24 adolescents in each study group. There was an overall 13% reduction in grey matter volume in adolescents with conduct disorder, reflecting numerous frontal, temporal, parietal and subcortical deficits. The same grey matter regions typically were not abnormal in those with ADHD. Deficits in frontal lobe regions previously identified in studies of patients with ADHD either were not detected, or group differences from controls were not as strong as those between the conduct disorder and control groups. White matter volume measurements did not differentiate conduct disorder and ADHD. Limitations Our modest sample sizes prevented meaningful examination of individual features of ADHD or conduct disorder, such as aggression, callousness, or hyperactive versus inattentive symptom subtypes. Conclusion The evidence supports theories of frontotemporal abnormalities in adolescents with conduct disorder, but raises questions about the prominence of frontal lobe and striatal structural abnormalities in those with noncomorbid, combined-subtype ADHD. The latter point is clinically important, given the widely held belief that ADHD is

  17. Neurocognitive and Behavioral Predictors of Math Performance in Children with and without ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Antonini, Tanya N.; O’Brien, Kathleen M.; Narad, Megan E.; Langberg, Joshua M.; Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeff N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined neurocognitive and behavioral predictors of math performance in children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Neurocognitive and behavioral variables were examined as predictors of 1) standardized mathematics achievement scores,2) productivity on an analog math task, and 3) accuracy on an analog math task. Results: Children with ADHD had lower achievement scores but did not significantly differ from controls on math productivity or accuracy. N-back accuracy and parent-rated attention predicted math achievement. N-back accuracy and observed attention predicted math productivity. Alerting scores on the Attentional Network Task predicted math accuracy. Mediation analyses indicated that n-back accuracy significantly mediated the relationship between diagnostic group and math achievement. Conclusion: Neurocognition, rather than behavior, may account for the deficits in math achievement exhibited by many children with ADHD. PMID:24071774

  18. Neurocognitive and Behavioral Predictors of Math Performance in Children With and Without ADHD.

    PubMed

    Antonini, Tanya N; Kingery, Kathleen M; Narad, Megan E; Langberg, Joshua M; Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N

    2016-02-01

    This study examined neurocognitive and behavioral predictors of math performance in children with and without ADHD. Neurocognitive and behavioral variables were examined as predictors of (a) standardized mathematics achievement scores, (b) productivity on an analog math task, and (c) accuracy on an analog math task. Children with ADHD had lower achievement scores but did not significantly differ from controls on math productivity or accuracy. N-back accuracy and parent-rated attention predicted math achievement. N-back accuracy and observed attention predicted math productivity. Alerting scores on the attentional network task predicted math accuracy. Mediation analyses indicated that n-back accuracy significantly mediated the relationship between diagnostic group and math achievement. Neurocognition, rather than behavior, may account for the deficits in math achievement exhibited by many children with ADHD. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. The Fisk-Vanderbilt Masters-to-PhD Bridge Program: A Model for Broadening Participation of Underrepresented Groups in the Physical Sciences through Effective Partnerships with Minority-Serving Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stassun, Keivan Guadalupe; Burger, Arnold; Lange, Sheila Edwards

    2010-01-01

    We describe the Fisk-Vanderbilt Masters-to-PhD Bridge program as a successful model for effective partnerships with minority-serving institutions toward significantly broadening the participation of underrepresented groups in the physical sciences. The program couples targeted recruitment with active retention strategies, and is built upon a…

  20. Substance Use in Undergraduate Students With Histories of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): The Role of Impulsivity.

    PubMed

    Egan, Theresa E; Dawson, Anne E; Wymbs, Brian T

    2017-08-24

    Emerging adulthood (18-25 years old) is regarded as a time of identity exploration that includes a peak in risky behaviors, such as substance use and misuse. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is also associated with greater levels of risky behaviors, including substance use and misuse; however, there is a lack of research on substance use by emerging adults with ADHD, in particular the potential mechanisms that may facilitate this risk. The present study builds on the existing research regarding the association between ADHD and substance use by examining roles of multiple facets of impulsivity in facilitating this association during emerging adulthood. In a sample of 197 undergraduate students (24 students with an ADHD diagnostic history), we assessed for components of impulsivity (e.g., urgency, sensation-seeking) and rates of alcohol abuse, tobacco use, cannabis use, illicit drug use, and stimulant medication misuse within the past year. Findings indicate that facets of impulsivity, as a whole, explained the association between an ADHD diagnostic history and both illicit drug use and alcohol abuse such that students with ADHD histories tended to report higher levels of impulsivity, which increased risk of alcohol abuse and illicit drug use. Higher levels of specific facets of impulsivity, particularly negative urgency, also facilitated associations between having ADHD and engaging in most forms of substance use tested herein. Conclusions/Importance: Specific facets of impulsivity appear to be important mediators of the association between ADHD and substance use, and should be considered as potential targets of substance use interventions for this population.

  1. Practitioner Review: What have we learnt about the causes of ADHD?

    PubMed Central

    Thapar, Anita; Cooper, Miriam; Eyre, Olga; Langley, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its possible causes still attract controversy. Genes, pre and perinatal risks, psychosocial factors and environmental toxins have all been considered as potential risk factors. Method This review (focussing on literature published since 1997, selected from a search of PubMed) critically considers putative risk factors with a focus on genetics and selected environmental risks, examines their relationships with ADHD and discusses the likelihood that these risks are causal as well as some of the main implications. Results No single risk factor explains ADHD. Both inherited and noninherited factors contribute and their effects are interdependent. ADHD is familial and heritable. Research into the inherited and molecular genetic contributions to ADHD suggest an important overlap with other neurodevelopmental problems, notably, autism spectrum disorders. Having a biological relative with ADHD, large, rare copy number variants, some small effect size candidate gene variants, extreme early adversity, pre and postnatal exposure to lead and low birth weight/prematurity have been most consistently found as risk factors, but none are yet known to be definitely causal. There is a large literature documenting associations between ADHD and a wide variety of putative environmental risks that can, at present, only be regarded as correlates. Findings from research designs that go beyond simply testing for association are beginning to contest the robustness of some environmental exposures previously thought to be ADHD risk factors. Conclusions The genetic risks implicated in ADHD generally tend to have small effect sizes or be rare and often increase risk of many other types of psychopathology. Thus, they cannot be used for prediction, genetic testing or diagnostic purposes beyond what is predicted by a family history. There is a need to consider the possibility of parents and siblings being similarly affected and how this

  2. Changes and challenges: managing ADHD in a fast-paced world.

    PubMed

    Manos, Michael J; Tom-Revzon, Catherine; Bukstein, Oscar G; Crismon, M Lynn

    2007-11-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) impairs the lives of both children and adults. Undiagnosed and untreated, ADHD may have serious lifelong consequences. Research has identified diagnostic clues, neurotransmitter pathways, and psychiatric comorbidities related to ADHD, as well as effective pharmacologic, behavioral, and psychosocial interventions. Stimulant agents have been the foundation of ADHD therapy for more than 50 years. Availability of new extended-release (XR or ER) and longer-acting (LA) formulations and novel agents allows for wider and more individualized treatment choices. Side effects of stimulants are generally mild, short lived, and responsive to adjustments in dosage or timing. Outcomes in ADHD treatment can be improved with the use of clear treatment guidelines and tools to aid clinicians in implementing them efficiently and effectively. The Texas Children's Medication Algorithm Project (CMAP) provides a system of algorithm-driven treatment decisions that is evidence based and easy to implement. To (1) review the psychological components of attention, the neurotransmitter pathways associated with ADHD, and the array of therapeutic options for ADHD, with an emphasis on the most recent introductions to the therapeutic armamentarium; (2) discuss the rare psychiatric and cardiovascular side effects associated with stimulants; (3) review abuse liability, comorbidities, and suggested approaches to these issues; and (4) review the development and use of CMAP and offer resources for its implementation in clinical practice. The pathophysiology of ADHD is linked to dysfunction of fronto-subcortical networks and dysregulation of dopaminergic, noradrenergic, and nicotinic neurotransmitter systems. An additive effect of multiple genes as well as environmental influences contributes to the clinical picture. Treatment with stimulants and nonstimulants has proven effective in different subgroups, with the effectiveness of specific agents most likely

  3. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms in Pediatric Narcolepsy: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Lecendreux, Michel; Lavault, Sophie; Lopez, Régis; Inocente, Clara Odilia; Konofal, Eric; Cortese, Samuele; Franco, Patricia; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the frequency, severity, and associations of symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with narcolepsy with and without cataplexy. Cross-sectional survey. Four French national reference centers for narcolepsy. One hundred eight consecutively referred children aged younger than 18 y with narcolepsy, with (NwC, n = 86) or without cataplexy (NwoC, n = 22), and 67 healthy controls. The participants, their families, and sleep specialists completed a structured interview and questionnaires about sleep, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and ADHD symptoms (ADHD-rating scale based upon Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision [DSM-IV-TR] symptoms), and use of psychostimulants for the treatment of narcolepsy (administered in 68.2%). Polysomnographic measures were collected. Clinically significant levels of ADHD symptoms were found in 4.8% of controls compared with 35.3% in patients with NwoC (P < 0.001) and 19.7% in patients with NwC (P < 0.01). Total ADHD scores were 6.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.5, 9.0) in controls compared with 14.2 (95% CI: 10.6, 18.9; P < 0.001), in patients with NwoC and 12.2 (95% CI: 9.8, 15.3; P < 0.01) in patients with NwC; subscores of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity were also significantly higher in both narcolepsy groups compared with controls. No difference was found between the NwC and NwoC groups for any ADHD measure. ADHD symptom severity was associated with increased levels of sleepiness, fatigue, and insomnia. Compared with the 34 untreated patients, the 73 patients treated with psychostimulants (modafinil in 91%) showed a trend toward lower narcolepsy symptoms but not lower ADHD symptoms. Pediatric patients with narcolepsy have high levels of treatment-resistant attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. The optimal treatment for ADHD symptoms in these patients warrants further evaluation in longitudinal intervention studies.

  4. The Impact of Inattention, Hyperactivity/Impulsivity Symptoms, and Executive Functions on Learning Behaviors of Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Colomer, Carla; Berenguer, Carmen; Roselló, Belén; Baixauli, Inmaculada; Miranda, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Children diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk of experiencing lower academic achievement compared to their peers without ADHD. However, we have a limited understanding of the mechanisms underlying this association. Both the symptoms of the disorder and the executive functions can negatively influence learning behaviors, including motivation, attitude toward learning, or persistence, key aspects of the learning process. The first objective of this study was to compare different components of learning behaviors in children diagnosed with ADHD and typically developing (TD) children. The second objective was to analyze the relationships among learning behaviors, executive functioning, and symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity in both groups. Participants were 35 children diagnosed with ADHD and 37 with TD (7–11 years old), matched on age and IQ. The teachers filled out the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and the Learning Behaviors Scale, which evaluates Competence/motivation, Attitude toward learning, Attention/persistence, and Strategy/flexibility. In addition, parents and teachers filled out the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for ADHD. ANOVAs showed significant differences between children with ADHD and TD children on all the learning behaviors. Moreover, in both the ADHD and TD groups, the behavioral regulation index of the BRIEF predicted the search for strategies, and the metacognition index was a good predictor of motivation. However, attitude toward learning was predicted by metacognition only in the group with ADHD. Therefore, the executive functions had greater power than the typical symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity in predicting learning behaviors of children with ADHD. The findings are in line with other studies that support the influence of the executive functions on performance, highlighting the importance of including their development as a top priority from early ages in the

  5. An international qualitative study of ability and disability in ADHD using the WHO-ICF framework.

    PubMed

    Mahdi, Soheil; Viljoen, Marisa; Massuti, Rafael; Selb, Melissa; Almodayfer, Omar; Karande, Sunil; de Vries, Petrus J; Rohde, Luis; Bölte, Sven

    2017-10-01

    This is the third in a series of four cross-cultural empirical studies designed to develop International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, and Children and Youth version, ICF(-CY) Core Sets for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). To explore the perspectives of individuals diagnosed with ADHD, self-advocates, immediate family members and professional caregivers on relevant areas of impairment and functional abilities typical for ADHD across the lifespan as operationalized by the ICF(-CY). A qualitative study using focus group discussions or semi-structured interviews of 76 participants, divided into 16 stakeholder groups. Participants from five countries (Brazil, India, Saudi Arabia, South Africa and Sweden) were included. A deductive qualitative content analysis was conducted to extract meaningful functioning and disability concepts from verbatim material. Extracted concepts were then linked to ICF(-CY) categories by independent researchers using a standardized linking procedure. In total, 82 ICF(-CY) categories were identified, of which 32 were related to activities and participation, 25 to environmental factors, 23 to body functions and 2 to body structures. Participants also provided opinions on experienced positive sides to ADHD. A high level of energy and drive, creativity, hyper-focus, agreeableness, empathy, and willingness to assist others were the most consistently reported strengths associated with ADHD. Stakeholder perspectives highlighted the need to appraise ADHD in a broader context, extending beyond diagnostic criteria into many areas of ability and disability as well as environmental facilitators and barriers. This qualitative study, along with three other studies (comprehensive scoping review, expert survey and clinical study), will provide the scientific basis to define ICF(-CY) Core Sets for ADHD, from which assessment tools can be derived for use in clinical and research setting, as well as in health care

  6. ADHD Symptoms, Autistic Traits, and Substance Use and Misuse in Adult Australian Twins

    PubMed Central

    De Alwis, Duneesha; Agrawal, Arpana; Reiersen, Angela M; Constantino, John N; Henders, Anjali; Martin, Nicholas G; Lynskey, Michael T

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder frequently co-occur. Several studies show increased risk of substance use disorders in ADHD, yet there is limited information related to how ADHD symptoms, autistic traits, and their combined effects are associated with nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis use and use disorders in the general population. Method: Cross-sectional interview and self-report questionnaire data from 3,080 young adult Australian twins (mean age 31.9 years) were used to assess ADHD symptoms, autistic traits, substance use, and substance use disorders. Substance use disorders—based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria—were assessed in the full sample as well as in those who reported substance use. Logistic regression analyses were used for comparing the associations between ADHD symptoms, autistic traits, substance use, and substance misuse after conduct disorder, sex, age, and zygosity were controlled for. Results: Greater ADHD symptoms and autistic traits scores were associated with elevated levels of regular smoking; cannabis use; and nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis use disorders, even after conduct disorder was adjusted for. In contrast, for alcohol use, those with high autistic traits scores were less likely to report drinking to intoxication. However, upon initiation, and similar to the findings for nicotine and cannabis, they were at elevated risk for developing alcohol dependence. Conclusions: Increased liability to ADHD and elevated autistic traits scores were associated with substance use and misuse, with the exception of alcohol use. Given the social underpinnings of drinking, persons with autistic traits may be less likely to engage in it; however, upon engagement in drinking, their vulnerability to alcohol dependence is elevated. PMID:24650814

  7. ADHD symptoms, autistic traits, and substance use and misuse in adult Australian twins.

    PubMed

    De Alwis, Duneesha; Agrawal, Arpana; Reiersen, Angela M; Constantino, John N; Henders, Anjali; Martin, Nicholas G; Lynskey, Michael T

    2014-03-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder frequently co-occur. Several studies show increased risk of substance use disorders in ADHD, yet there is limited information related to how ADHD symptoms, autistic traits, and their combined effects are associated with nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis use and use disorders in the general population. Cross-sectional interview and self-report questionnaire data from 3,080 young adult Australian twins (mean age 31.9 years) were used to assess ADHD symptoms, autistic traits, substance use, and substance use disorders. Substance use disorders-based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria-were assessed in the full sample as well as in those who reported substance use. Logistic regression analyses were used for comparing the associations between ADHD symptoms, autistic traits, substance use, and substance misuse after conduct disorder, sex, age, and zygosity were controlled for. Greater ADHD symptoms and autistic traits scores were associated with elevated levels of regular smoking; cannabis use; and nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis use disorders, even after conduct disorder was adjusted for. In contrast, for alcohol use, those with high autistic traits scores were less likely to report drinking to intoxication. However, upon initiation, and similar to the findings for nicotine and cannabis, they were at elevated risk for developing alcohol dependence. Increased liability to ADHD and elevated autistic traits scores were associated with substance use and misuse, with the exception of alcohol use. Given the social underpinnings of drinking, persons with autistic traits may be less likely to engage in it; however, upon engagement in drinking, their vulnerability to alcohol dependence is elevated.

  8. Is there any relationship between ADHD symptoms and choosing sports education at the university?

    PubMed

    Gökçen, Cem; Unal, Ahmet; Alpak, Gökay; Cöpoglu, Umit Sertan; Abakay, Ugur; Bayar, Hasan; Bülbül, Feridun

    2013-01-01

    The goal of our study was to compare the incidence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) observed in students at the School of Physical Education and Sports (SPES), which is a school that provides higher education in athletics, with that observed in students studying in other departments of the university. Our hypothesis was that people with ADHD most commonly turn to sports. The study enrolled 318 (75.7% of 420) students who were studying in the SPES of Gaziantep University; 277 students from the medical, nursing, administration, and engineering faculties were enrolled to serve as a control group. All students enrolled in the study were informed about the study before the lesson, and the students who agreed to participate provided written consent. Scales used in this study were: a sociodemographic information form which was prepared by the investigators, the Wender-Utah Rating Scale (WURS), and the Adult ADD/ADHD DSM-IV Based Diagnostic Screening and Rating Scale (ADD/ADHD). WURS scores were significantly higher (25.07 +/- 15.15 versus 21.37 +/- 14.28; p = 0.002) in the SPES group than the control group. In addition, the percentage of subjects with a WURS score above the cut-off of 36 was higher in the SPES group than the control group (22.4% versus 15.2%; p: 0.028). The two groups were not significantly different in terms of the subscales of the ADD/ADHD scale. A correlation was found between the educational achievement of the students in the SPES group and the ADD/ADHD-inattention subscale (r = .111, p = 0.015) and WURS scale (r = .113, p = 0.011). More systematic studies with larger samples in this domain will be useful in obtaining a clearer picture regarding professional attraction of people with ADHD to sports.

  9. Molecular genetics research in ADHD: ethical considerations concerning patients' benefit and resource allocation.

    PubMed

    Rothenberger, Lillian Geza

    2012-12-01

    Immense resource allocations have led to great data output in genetic research. Concerning ADHD resources spent on genetic research are less than those spent on clinical research. But there are successful efforts made to increase support for molecular genetics research in ADHD. Concerning genetics no evidence based conclusive results have significant impact on prevention, diagnosis or treatment yet. With regard to ethical aspects like the patients' benefit and limited resources the question arises if it is indicated to think about a new balance of resource allocation between molecular genetics and non-genetics research in ADHD. An ethical reflection was performed focusing on recent genetic studies and reviews based on a selective literature search. There are plausible reasons why genetic research results in ADHD are somehow disappointing for clinical practice so far. Researchers try to overcome these gaps systematically, without knowing what the potential future benefits for the patients might be. Non-genetic diagnostic/therapeutic research may lead to clinically relevant findings within a shorter period of time. On the other hand, non-genetic research in ADHD may be nurtured by genetic approaches. But, with the latter there exist significant risks of harm like stigmatization and concerns regarding data protection. Isolated speeding up resources of genetic research in ADHD seems questionable from an ethical point of view. There is a need to find a new balance of resource allocation between genetic and non-genetic research in ADHD, probably by integrating genetics more systematically into clinical research. A transdisciplinary debate is recommended. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Relationship Between Sleep Problems and Quality of Life in Children With ADHD.

    PubMed

    Yürümez, Esra; Kılıç, Birim Günay

    2016-01-01

    drugs for sleepiness are used. Usage of standardized and valid diagnostic criteria, exclusion of adolescence, gender, socioeconomic level, primary sleep problems, medical disorders and low IQ level, making allowances for effect of comorbidities and having compared with the control group are the important methodological features of this study. The most important limitation of this study is small sample size that makes the findings less generalizable to other groups of children with ADHD, and another one is not having used objective measurements together with subjective measurements. In conclusion, these results underscore the importance of screening all children who have a symptom constellation suggestive of ADHD for sleep problems that may either play a causative role or exacerbate the clinical appearance of ADHD in a given child. Correct evaluation and treatment of sleep problems increase the life quality of family and child and also decrease the severity of ADHD symptoms. © The Author(s) 2013.

  11. Testing for Neuropsychological Endophenotypes in Siblings Discordant for ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Bidwell, L. Cinnamon; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.; Pennington, Bruce F.

    2007-01-01

    Objective Neurocognitive deficits associated with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may be useful intermediate endophenotypes for determining specific genetic pathways that contribute to ADHD. Methods This study administered 17 measures from prominent neuropsychological theories of ADHD (executive function, processing speed, arousal regulation and motivation/delay aversion) in dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs discordant for ADHD and control twin pairs (ages 8–18) in order to compare performance between twins affected with ADHD (n = 266), their unaffected co-twins (n = 228), and control children from twin pairs without ADHD or learning difficulties (n = 332). Results ADHD subjects show significant impairment on executive function, processing speed, and response variability measures compared to control subjects. Unaffected cotwins of ADHD subjects are significantly impaired on nearly all the same measures as their ADHD siblings, even when subclinical symptoms of ADHD are controlled. Conclusion Executive function, processing speed, and response variability deficits may be useful endophenotypes for genetic studies of ADHD. PMID:17585884

  12. Optimal management of ADHD in older adults.

    PubMed

    Torgersen, Terje; Gjervan, Bjorn; Lensing, Michael B; Rasmussen, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    The manifestation of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among older adults has become an interesting topic of interest due to an increasing number of adults aged 50 years and older (≥50 years) seeking assessment for ADHD. Unfortunately, there is a lack of research on ADHD in older adults, and until recently only a few case reports existed. A systematic search was conducted in the databases Medline/PubMed and PsycINFO in order to identify studies regarding ADHD in adults ≥50 years. ADHD persists into older ages in many patients, but the prevalence of patients fulfilling the criteria for the diagnosis at age ≥50 years is still unknown. It is reason to believe that the prevalence is falling gradually with age, and that the ADHD symptom level is significantly lower in the age group 70-80 years than the group 50-60 years. There is a lack of controlled studies of ADHD medication in adults ≥50 years, but this review suggests that many patients aged ≥50 years experience beneficial effects of pharmacological treatment. The problem with side effects and somatic complications may rise to a level that makes pharmacotherapy for ADHD difficult after the age of 65 years. Physical assessment prior to initiation of ADHD medication in adults ≥50 years should include a thorough clinical examination, and medication should be titrated with low doses initially and with a slow increase. In motivated patients, different psychological therapies alone or in addition to pharmacotherapy should be considered. It is essential when treating older adult patients with ADHD to provide good support based on knowledge and understanding of how ADHD symptoms have affected health, quality of life, and function through the life span. Individualized therapy for each elderly patient should be recommended to balance risk-benefit ratio when pharmacotherapy is considered to be a possible treatment.

  13. Hierarchy and Psychometric Properties of ADHD Symptoms in Spanish Children: An Application of the Graded Response Model

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Victor B.; Nuñez, Daniel E.; Martínez-Molina, Agustín; Ponce, Fernando P.; Arias, Benito

    2016-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) diagnostic criteria assume that the 18 symptoms carry the same weight in an Attention Deficit with Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) diagnosis and bear the same discriminatory capacity. However, it is reasonable to think that symptoms may differ in terms of severity and even in the reliability with they represent the disorder. To test this hypothesis, the aim of this study was to calibrate in a sample of Spanish children (age 4–7; n = 784) a scale for assessing the symptoms of ADHD proposed by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, IV-TR within the framework of Item Response Theory. Samejima’s Graded Response Model was used as a method for estimating the item difficulty and discrimination parameters. The results showed that ADHD subscales (Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity / Impulsivity) had good psychometric properties and had also a good fit to the model. However, relevant differences between symptoms were observed at the level of severity, informativeness and reliability for the assessment of ADHD. This finding suggests that it would be useful to identify the symptoms that are more important than the others with regard to diagnosing ADHD. PMID:27736911

  14. Hierarchy and Psychometric Properties of ADHD Symptoms in Spanish Children: An Application of the Graded Response Model.

    PubMed

    Arias, Victor B; Nuñez, Daniel E; Martínez-Molina, Agustín; Ponce, Fernando P; Arias, Benito

    2016-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) diagnostic criteria assume that the 18 symptoms carry the same weight in an Attention Deficit with Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) diagnosis and bear the same discriminatory capacity. However, it is reasonable to think that symptoms may differ in terms of severity and even in the reliability with they represent the disorder. To test this hypothesis, the aim of this study was to calibrate in a sample of Spanish children (age 4-7; n = 784) a scale for assessing the symptoms of ADHD proposed by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, IV-TR within the framework of Item Response Theory. Samejima's Graded Response Model was used as a method for estimating the item difficulty and discrimination parameters. The results showed that ADHD subscales (Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity / Impulsivity) had good psychometric properties and had also a good fit to the model. However, relevant differences between symptoms were observed at the level of severity, informativeness and reliability for the assessment of ADHD. This finding suggests that it would be useful to identify the symptoms that are more important than the others with regard to diagnosing ADHD.

  15. Comparison of the burden of illness for adults with ADHD across seven countries: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Brod, Meryl; Pohlman, Betsy; Lasser, Robert; Hodgkins, Paul

    2012-05-14

    The purpose of this study was to expand the understanding of the burden of illness experienced by adults with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) living in different countries and treated through different health care systems. Fourteen focus groups and five telephone interviews were conducted in seven countries in North America and Europe, comprised of adults who had received a diagnosis of ADHD. The countries included Canada, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, United Kingdom, and United States (two focus groups in each country). There were 108 participants. The focus groups were designed to elicit narratives of the experience of ADHD in key domains of symptoms, daily life, and social relationships. Consonant with grounded theory, the transcripts were analyzed using descriptive coding and then themed into larger domains. Participants' statements regarding the presentation of symptoms, childhood experience, impact of ADHD across the life course, addictive and risk-taking behavior, work and productivity, finances, relationships and psychological health impacts were similarly themed across all seven countries. These similarities were expressed through the domains of symptom presentation, childhood experience, medication treatment issues, impacts in adult life and across the life cycle, addictive and risk-taking behavior, work and productivity, finances, psychological and social impacts. These data suggest that symptoms associated with adult ADHD affect individuals similarly in different countries and that the relevance of the diagnostic category for adults is not necessarily limited to certain countries and sociocultural milieus.

  16. Comparison of the burden of illness for adults with ADHD across seven countries: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to expand the understanding of the burden of illness experienced by adults with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) living in different countries and treated through different health care systems. Methods Fourteen focus groups and five telephone interviews were conducted in seven countries in North America and Europe, comprised of adults who had received a diagnosis of ADHD. The countries included Canada, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, United Kingdom, and United States (two focus groups in each country). There were 108 participants. The focus groups were designed to elicit narratives of the experience of ADHD in key domains of symptoms, daily life, and social relationships. Consonant with grounded theory, the transcripts were analyzed using descriptive coding and then themed into larger domains. Results Participants’ statements regarding the presentation of symptoms, childhood experience, impact of ADHD across the life course, addictive and risk-taking behavior, work and productivity, finances, relationships and psychological health impacts were similarly themed across all seven countries. These similarities were expressed through the domains of symptom presentation, childhood experience, medication treatment issues, impacts in adult life and across the life cycle, addictive and risk-taking behavior, work and productivity, finances, psychological and social impacts. Conclusions These data suggest that symptoms associated with adult ADHD affect individuals similarly in different countries and that the relevance of the diagnostic category for adults is not necessarily limited to certain countries and sociocultural milieus. PMID:22583562

  17. Trauma exposure in children with and without ADHD: prevalence and functional impairment in a community-based study of 6-8-year-old Australian children.

    PubMed

    Schilpzand, Elizabeth J; Sciberras, Emma; Alisic, Eva; Efron, Daryl; Hazell, Philip; Jongeling, Brad; Anderson, Vicki; Nicholson, Jan M

    2018-06-01

    Both ADHD and trauma exposure are common childhood problems, but there are few empirical data regarding the association between the two conditions. The aims of this study were to compare lifetime prevalence of trauma exposure in children with and without ADHD, and to explore the association between trauma exposure and outcomes in children with ADHD. Children aged 6-8 years with ADHD (n = 179) and controls (n = 212) recruited from 43 schools were assessed for ADHD, trauma exposure and comorbid mental health disorders using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children IV. Outcome data were collected by direct child assessment, parent report and teacher-report, and included ADHD symptom severity, internalizing and externalizing problems, quality of life, and academic functioning. Logistic and linear regression models were used to examine differences adjusted for child and family socio-demographics. Children with ADHD were more likely than controls to have ever experienced a traumatic event (27 vs 16%; OR: 1.99; 95% CI 1.21, 3.27). This difference remained significant in the adjusted model (OR: 1.76, 95% CI 1.03, 3.01) accounting for child factors (age and gender) and family socio-demographic factors (parent age, parent high school completion and single parent status). Among those with ADHD, trauma-exposed children had higher parent-reported ADHD severity and more externalizing problems than non-exposed children, however, this effect attenuated in adjusted model. Children with ADHD were more likely to have experienced a traumatic event than controls. The high prevalence of trauma exposure in our sample suggests that clinicians should evaluate for trauma histories in children presenting with ADHD.

  18. Mediators and Moderators of the Relation Between Parental ADHD Symptomatology and the Early Development of Child ADHD and ODD Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Breaux, Rosanna P.; Brown, Hallie R.; Harvey, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined mediators and moderators of the relation between parental ADHD symptomatology and the development of child attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms across the preschool years. Participants included 258 (138 boys) 3-year-old children (M = 44.13 months, SD = 3.39) with and without behavior problems and their parents who took part in a 3-year longitudinal study. Maternal ADHD symptoms predicted later ADHD symptoms in children, controlling for early child symptomatology. Both family history of ADHD and paternal comorbid psychopathology predicted later child ADHD and ODD symptoms, but they did not account for the association between maternal and child ADHD symptoms. Although paternal ADHD symptoms were associated with age 3 child ADHD symptoms, they did not significantly predict later child ADHD symptoms controlling for early symptomatology. Family adversity moderated the relation between maternal ADHD and child ADHD symptoms, such that the relation between maternal and child ADHD symptoms was stronger for families with less adversity. Maternal overreactive parenting mediated the relation between maternal ADHD symptoms and later child ADHD and ODD symptoms. Our findings suggest that targeting paternal comorbid psychopathology and maternal parenting holds promise for attenuating the effects of parental ADHD on children’s ADHD. PMID:27752934

  19. Trends in Medication Treatment for ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castle, Lon; Aubert, Ronald E.; Verbrugge, Robert R.; Khalid, Mona; Epstein, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study examines demographic trends in the use of medications to treat ADHD in adult and pediatric populations. Method: Using pharmacy claims data for a large population of commercially insured Americans, the study measures ADHD treatment prevalence and drug use from 2000 to 2005. Results: In 2005, 4.4% of children (ages 0 to 19) and…

  20. What Parents Should Know about ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullet, Dianna R.; Rinn, Anne N.

    2016-01-01

    Some gifted children suffer from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), a neurodevelopmental disorder that impairs a child's functioning. For a diagnosis of ADHD, children under the age of 17 must display at least six symptoms of inattention or hyperactivity/impulsivity in at least two different settings (school and home, for example),…

  1. Classroom Management and the ADHD Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colberg, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Meeting the academic needs of a student with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) can be taxing on teachers and students. This research highlights classroom management strategies that general education teachers might include in their teaching to support the academic growth students with ADHD, while continuing to support all students in…

  2. Friendship Characteristics of Children With ADHD.

    PubMed

    Marton, Imola; Wiener, Judith; Rogers, Maria; Moore, Chris

    2015-10-01

    This study explored the friendship characteristics of 8 to 12 year old children with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Friendship characteristics included number of nominated and corroborated friends, duration of friendships, amount of contact with friends, and the proportion of friends with learning and behavioral problems. The sample comprised 92 children, 50 with a diagnosis of ADHD and 42 comparison children. While children with ADHD did not differ from comparison children in the number of friends they nominated, parents and teachers of children with ADHD were less likely to corroborate that these friendships existed. The friendships of children with ADHD were also shorter in duration. While children with ADHD were indistinguishable from comparison children with regards to the amount of telephone contact with friends, they spent less time with friends outside of school than comparison children. Children with ADHD had a higher proportion of friends with learning and behavior problems. While children with ADHD differ from comparison children in the above friendship characteristics, it is promising that they still fall within the average range for the number of corroborated friendships and they demonstrate adequate stability in their friendships. © 2012 SAGE Publications.

  3. ADHD and Problem-Solving in Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports a small-scale study to determine whether there is a difference in problem-solving abilities, from a play perspective, between individuals who are diagnosed as ADHD and are on medication and those not on medication. Ten children, five of whom where on medication and five not, diagnosed as ADHD predominantly inattentive type, were…

  4. The Relationship between ADHD and Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orendorff, Kimberly A.

    2009-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common disorder that is often identified when a child first enters school. About 2% of boys and girls in our population are diagnosed with the disorder (Kaufmann, 2000). Although ADHD is the most frequent reason that children are referred to a mental health professional, the diagnosis of ADHD…

  5. Intervention Strategies for Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPaul, George J.; White, George P.

    2005-01-01

    The authors describe three types of ADHD behavior that affect from 3 percent to 7 percent of elementary school children, mostly boys. They recommend supplementing stimulant medication with behavior modification strategies, at home and school, to improve ADHD students' social skills and school performance.

  6. Decision Making in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montyla, Timo; Still, Johanna; Gullberg, Stina; Del Missier, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined decision-making competence in ADHD by using multiple decision tasks with varying demands on analytic versus affective processes. Methods: Adults with ADHD and healthy controls completed two tasks of analytic decision making, as measured by the Adult Decision-Making Competence (A-DMC) battery, and two affective…

  7. Detection of Feigned ADHD in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sollman, Myriam J.; Ranseen, John D.; Berry, David T. R.

    2010-01-01

    Significant motivations and incentives exist for young-adult students to seek a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). With ADHD information readily accessible on the Internet, today's students are likely to be symptom educated prior to evaluation. This may result in false-positive diagnoses, particularly when students are…

  8. Oppositional Defiant Disorder in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimherr, Frederick W.; Marchant, Barrie K.; Olsen, John L.; Wender, Paul H.; Robison, Reid J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is the most common comorbid condition in childhood ADHD. This trial was prospectively designed to explore ODD symptoms in ADHD adults. Method: A total of 86 patients in this placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS) were categorized based on the presence of ODD…

  9. Heart Rate and Reinforcement Sensitivity in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luman, Marjolein; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Hyde, Christopher; van Meel, Catharina S.; Sergeant, Joseph A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Both theoretical and clinical accounts of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) implicate a dysfunctional reinforcement system. This study investigated heart rate parameters in response to feedback associated with reward and response cost in ADHD children and controls aged 8 to 12. Methods: Heart rate responses (HRRs)…

  10. Rethinking a Right Hemisphere Deficit in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, T. Sigi; Loo, Sandra K.; Zaidel, Eran; Hanada, Grant; Macion, James; Smalley, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Early observations from lesion studies suggested right hemisphere (RH) dysfunction in ADHD. However, a strictly right-lateralized deficit has not been well supported. An alternatively view suggests increased R greater than L asymmetry of brain function and abnormal interhemispheric interaction. If true, RH pathology in ADHD should…

  11. Agomelatine Treatment with Adolescents with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niederhofer, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Antidepressants, in particular Atomextine, along with stimulants have demonstrated benefit in the treatment of ADHD. Agomelatine is a new antidepressant with additional affinities to the melatonergic system. As ADHD has been associated with sleep disorders, it is assumed that Agomelatiine might serve as a therapeutic alternative to…

  12. Treatment of adult ADHD: a clinical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Geffen, Josh; Forster, Kieran

    2017-01-01

    Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has moved from the blurred edge of clinical focus to clear recognition as a prevalent and significant disorder in its own right. It is a relatively common comorbidity which if identified and treated may open the door to better outcomes for hard-to-treat patients. Conversely, failure to identify and treat adult ADHD is linked to negative outcomes. The recognition of the importance of adult ADHD in a subset of our patients challenges us to overcome our anxiety about this diagnosis and prevent the societal marginalization of vulnerable patients. Adult ADHD responds well to integrated pharmacological and psychotherapeutic intervention. Its treatment responsiveness reduces disability and allows the comorbidity which is typically present to be addressed. Mastering this challenge can make the diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD a rewarding experience. PMID:29344341

  13. Effects of extended release methylphenidate treatment on ratings of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and associated behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders and ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Deborah A; Santos, Cynthia W; Aman, Michael G; Arnold, L Eugene; Casat, Charles D; Mansour, Rosleen; Lane, David M; Loveland, Katherine A; Bukstein, Oscar G; Jerger, Susan W; Factor, Perry; Vanwoerden, Salome; Perez, Evelyn; Cleveland, Lynne A

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the behavioral effects of four doses of psychostimulant medication, combining extended-release methylphenidate (MPH) in the morning with immediate-release MPH in the afternoon. The sample comprised 24 children (19 boys; 5 girls) who met American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), and had significant symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This sample consisted of elementary school-age, community-based children (mean chronological age=8.8 years, SD=1.7; mean intelligence quotient [IQ]=85; SD=16.8). Effects of four dose levels of MPH on parent and teacher behavioral ratings were investigated using a within-subject, crossover, placebo-controlled design. MPH treatment was associated with significant declines in hyperactive and impulsive behavior at both home and school. Parents noted significant declines in inattentive and oppositional behavior, and improvements in social skills. No exacerbation of stereotypies was noted, and side effects were similar to those seen in typically developing children with ADHD. Dose response was primarily linear in the dose range studied. The results of this study suggest that MPH formulations are efficacious and well-tolerated for children with ASD and significant ADHD symptoms.

  14. Effects of Extended Release Methylphenidate Treatment on Ratings of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Associated Behavior in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and ADHD Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Cynthia W.; Aman, Michael G.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Casat, Charles D.; Mansour, Rosleen; Lane, David M.; Loveland, Katherine A.; Bukstein, Oscar G.; Jerger, Susan W.; Factor, Perry; Vanwoerden, Salome; Perez, Evelyn; Cleveland, Lynne A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the behavioral effects of four doses of psychostimulant medication, combining extended-release methylphenidate (MPH) in the morning with immediate-release MPH in the afternoon. Method The sample comprised 24 children (19 boys; 5 girls) who met American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), and had significant symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This sample consisted of elementary school-age, community-based children (mean chronological age=8.8 years, SD=1.7; mean intelligence quotient [IQ]=85; SD=16.8). Effects of four dose levels of MPH on parent and teacher behavioral ratings were investigated using a within-subject, crossover, placebo-controlled design. Results MPH treatment was associated with significant declines in hyperactive and impulsive behavior at both home and school. Parents noted significant declines in inattentive and oppositional behavior, and improvements in social skills. No exacerbation of stereotypies was noted, and side effects were similar to those seen in typically developing children with ADHD. Dose response was primarily linear in the dose range studied. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that MPH formulations are efficacious and well-tolerated for children with ASD and significant ADHD symptoms. PMID:23782128

  15. The Academic Experience of Male High School Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Kristine M.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Sibley, Margaret H.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Yu, Jihnhee; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Biswas, Aparajita; Babinski, Dara E.; Karch, Kathryn M.

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the high school academic experience of adolescents with and without childhood ADHD using data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS). Participants were 326 males with childhood ADHD and 213 demographically similar males without ADHD who were recruited at the start of the follow-up study. Data were collected yearly…

  16. Giftedness and ADHD: Identification, Misdiagnosis, and Dual Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullet, Dianna R.; Rinn, Anne N.

    2015-01-01

    Many gifted characteristics overlap the symptoms of attention deficity-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The potential for the misdiagnosis of giftedness as ADHD exists, but so does the potential for a dual diagnosis of giftedness and ADHD. A decade after the misdiagnosis of giftedness as ADHD was first investigated we examine lessons learned…

  17. Sustained and Focused Attention Deficits in Adult ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchetta, Natalie D. J.; Hurks, Petra P. M.; De Sonneville, Leo M. J.; Krabbendam, Lydia; Jolles, Jelle

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the specificity of deficits in focused attention and sustained attention in adults with ADHD and to evaluate the effect of comorbidity. Method: Twenty-eight adults with ADHD without comorbidity were compared with 28 ADHD outpatients with comorbidity. Two control groups were used: 68 adults referred for ADHD but with another…

  18. Alerting, Orienting, and Executive Attention in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullane, Jennifer C.; Corkum, Penny V.; Klein, Raymond M.; McLaughlin, Elizabeth N.; Lawrence, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the alerting, orienting, and executive attention abilities of children with ADHD and their typically developing (TD) peers using a modified version of the adult attention network test (ANT-I). Method: A total of 25 children with ADHD, Combined Type (ADHD-C, mean age = 9.20 years), 20 children with ADHD,…

  19. Iron and ADHD: Time to Move beyond Serum Ferritin Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donfrancesco, Renato; Parisi, Pasquale; Vanacore, Nicola; Martines, Francesca; Sargentini, Vittorio; Cortese, Samuele

    2013-01-01

    Objective: (a) To compare serum ferritin levels in a sample of stimulant-naive children with ADHD and matched controls and (b) to assess the association of serum ferritin to ADHD symptoms severity, ADHD subtypes, and IQ. Method: The ADHD and the control groups included 101 and 93 children, respectively. Serum ferritin levels were determined with…

  20. Reexamining the Familial Association between Asthma and ADHD in Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammerness, Paul; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Gallo, Lauren; Murphy, Heather; Biederman, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study is to further evaluate the association between asthma and ADHD, addressing issues of familiality in female probands. A case control study of referred ADHD proband girls, controls, and relatives are used. Participants include 140 ADHD proband girls and 122 non-ADHD comparisons, with 417 and 369 first-degree biological…

  1. Integration of an EEG biomarker with a clinician's ADHD evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Steven M; Rugino, Thomas A; Hornig, Mady; Stein, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    clinician's ADHD evaluation could help improve diagnostic accuracy from 61% to 88%. Conclusions The EEG-based assessment aid may help improve accuracy of ADHD diagnosis by supporting greater criterion E certainty. PMID:25798338

  2. Childhood executive function inventory (CHEXI): a promising measure for identifying young children with ADHD?

    PubMed

    Thorell, Lisa B; Eninger, Lilianne; Brocki, Karin C; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated whether the Childhood Executive Function Inventory (CHEXI) can discriminate between young children fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and normally developing children. Unlike other executive function rating instruments, the CHEXI focuses specifically on inhibitory control and working memory, without including items that overlap with the diagnostic criteria of ADHD. The CHEXI was found to discriminate very well between children fulfilling the criteria for ADHD and normally developing children, also when controlling for the effect of IQ and socioeconomic status (SES). Both sensitivity and specificity of the two CHEXI subscales were shown to be high using either parent or teacher ratings. The highest overall classification rate was found for parent ratings on the inhibition subscale, with sensitivity and specificity reaching 93.3. To summarize, the CHEXI should be considered a promising measure for identifying young children with ADHD, although it is for future research to determine whether the CHEXI can be successfully used to also discriminate between different psychopathological groups.

  3. Thirty-day self-reported risky driving behaviors of ADHD and non-ADHD drivers.

    PubMed

    Rosenbloom, Tova; Wultz, Boaz

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to compare differences in reported risky driving behaviors of drivers - males and females - having and not having Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), by using a checklist of driving behaviors based on the Driving Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ). Unlike the studies which employ the DBQ by asking the subjects to fill the questionnaire once, in this present study, the participants were asked to report their behaviors on a daily basis for 30 consequent days. The checklist included two factors of risky driving behavior: Violation and Faults. Thirty-eight drivers - 10 males and 9 females with ADHD, and 9 males and 10 females without ADHD (N-ADHD) as control groups - participated in the study. The results showed that the mean of the unsafe behaviors of ADHD was higher, i.e., less safe driving, compared to that of N-ADHD. However, a statistically significant effect was found only between male ADHD and male N-ADHD for the Faults. In order to check the effect of the length of the study, the 30 days duration of the research was divided into three consecutive periods. The reported driving habits of the female ADHD showed safer behaviors than those of the males. Unlike the findings of N-ADHD of both genders, which showed a tendency towards safer driving reports in the three periods, both genders of the ADHD showed higher rates of Faults, i.e., a decrease in safety driving reports, in the three periods. The findings suggest that ADHD drivers differ from the N-ADHD drivers in making driving mistakes, i.e., Faults, due to their lack of sustained attention, but not in making Violations. However, some of the results in the present study were not very strong. Possible explanations for this as well as methodological considerations are discussed, and further research is suggested. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Inhibition, Reinforcement Sensitivity and Temporal Information Processing in ADHD and ADHD+ODD: Evidence of a Separate Entity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luman, Marjolein; van Noesel, Steffen J. P.; Papanikolau, Alky; Van Oostenbruggen-Scheffer, Janneke; Veugelers, Diane; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2009-01-01

    This study compared children with ADHD-only, ADHD+ODD and normal controls (age 8-12) on three key neurocognitive functions: response inhibition, reinforcement sensitivity, and temporal information processing. The goal was twofold: (a) to investigate neurocognitive impairments in children with ADHD-only and children with ADHD+ODD, and (b) to test…

  5. Cognitive Neuroscience of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Its Clinical Translation

    PubMed Central

    Rubia, Katya

    2018-01-01

    This review focuses on the cognitive neuroscience of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies and on recent clinically relevant applications such as fMRI-based diagnostic classification or neuromodulation therapies targeting fMRI deficits with neurofeedback (NF) or brain stimulation. Meta-analyses of fMRI studies of executive functions (EFs) show that ADHD patients have cognitive-domain dissociated complex multisystem impairments in several right and left hemispheric dorsal, ventral and medial fronto-cingulo-striato-thalamic and fronto-parieto-cerebellar networks that mediate cognitive control, attention, timing and working memory (WM). There is furthermore emerging evidence for abnormalities in orbital and ventromedial prefrontal and limbic areas that mediate motivation and emotion control. In addition, poor deactivation of the default mode network (DMN) suggests an abnormal interrelationship between hypo-engaged task-positive and poorly “switched off” hyper-engaged task-negative networks, both of which are related to impaired cognition. Translational cognitive neuroscience in ADHD is still in its infancy. Pattern recognition analyses have attempted to provide diagnostic classification of ADHD using fMRI data with respectable classification accuracies of over 80%. Necessary replication studies, however, are still outstanding. Brain stimulation has been tested in heterogeneously designed, small numbered proof of concept studies targeting key frontal functional impairments in ADHD. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) appears to be promising to improve ADHD symptoms and cognitive functions based on some studies, but larger clinical trials of repeated stimulation with and without cognitive training are needed to test clinical efficacy and potential costs on non-targeted functions. Only three studies have piloted NF of fMRI-based frontal dysfunctions in ADHD using fMRI or near

  6. Cognitive Neuroscience of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Its Clinical Translation.

    PubMed

    Rubia, Katya

    2018-01-01

    This review focuses on the cognitive neuroscience of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies and on recent clinically relevant applications such as fMRI-based diagnostic classification or neuromodulation therapies targeting fMRI deficits with neurofeedback (NF) or brain stimulation. Meta-analyses of fMRI studies of executive functions (EFs) show that ADHD patients have cognitive-domain dissociated complex multisystem impairments in several right and left hemispheric dorsal, ventral and medial fronto-cingulo-striato-thalamic and fronto-parieto-cerebellar networks that mediate cognitive control, attention, timing and working memory (WM). There is furthermore emerging evidence for abnormalities in orbital and ventromedial prefrontal and limbic areas that mediate motivation and emotion control. In addition, poor deactivation of the default mode network (DMN) suggests an abnormal interrelationship between hypo-engaged task-positive and poorly "switched off" hyper-engaged task-negative networks, both of which are related to impaired cognition. Translational cognitive neuroscience in ADHD is still in its infancy. Pattern recognition analyses have attempted to provide diagnostic classification of ADHD using fMRI data with respectable classification accuracies of over 80%. Necessary replication studies, however, are still outstanding. Brain stimulation has been tested in heterogeneously designed, small numbered proof of concept studies targeting key frontal functional impairments in ADHD. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) appears to be promising to improve ADHD symptoms and cognitive functions based on some studies, but larger clinical trials of repeated stimulation with and without cognitive training are needed to test clinical efficacy and potential costs on non-targeted functions. Only three studies have piloted NF of fMRI-based frontal dysfunctions in ADHD using fMRI or near

  7. Exploring the relationship between ADHD symptoms and prison breaches of discipline amongst youths in four Scottish prisons.

    PubMed

    Gordon, V; Williams, D J; Donnelly, P D

    2012-04-01

    To explore the relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms (inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity) and violent and non-violent prison breaches of discipline in incarcerated male youths aged 18-21 years. A case-control study of 169 male youth offenders incarcerated in Scottish prisons and classified as 'symptomatic' or 'non-symptomatic' of inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive ADHD symptoms. ADHD symptoms were measured using the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales-Self Report: Long Version, and prison breaches of discipline were gathered from the Scottish Prison Service's Prisoner Records System. Youths who were symptomatic of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) ADHD total symptoms had a significantly higher number of prison breaches of discipline than those who were non-symptomatic. Youths who were symptomatic of DSM-IV hyperactive/impulsive symptoms had a significantly higher number of violent and non-violent prison breaches of discipline than those who were non-symptomatic. However, no such significant difference was found between youths who were symptomatic and non-symptomatic of DSM-IV inattentive symptoms. Young male offenders who are symptomatic of ADHD have a higher number of prison breaches of discipline. In particular, symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity are associated with breaches of both a violent and non-violent nature. Implications of such symptoms on rehabilitation and recidivism are discussed. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Neurobiological support to the diagnosis of ADHD in stimulant-naïve adults: pattern recognition analyses of MRI data.

    PubMed

    Chaim-Avancini, T M; Doshi, J; Zanetti, M V; Erus, G; Silva, M A; Duran, F L S; Cavallet, M; Serpa, M H; Caetano, S C; Louza, M R; Davatzikos, C; Busatto, G F

    2017-12-01

    In adulthood, the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been subject of recent controversy. We searched for a neuroanatomical signature associated with ADHD spectrum symptoms in adults by applying, for the first time, machine learning-based pattern classification methods to structural MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data obtained from stimulant-naïve adults with childhood-onset ADHD and healthy controls (HC). Sixty-seven ADHD patients and 66 HC underwent high-resolution T1-weighted and DTI acquisitions. A support vector machine (SVM) classifier with a non-linear kernel was applied on multimodal image features extracted on regions of interest placed across the whole brain. The discrimination between a mixed-gender ADHD subgroup and individually matched HC (n = 58 each) yielded area-under-the-curve (AUC) and diagnostic accuracy (DA) values of up to 0.71% and 66% (P = 0.003) respectively. AUC and DA values increased to 0.74% and 74% (P = 0.0001) when analyses were restricted to males (52 ADHD vs. 44 HC). Introvert personality traits showed independent risk effects on suicidality regardless of diagnosis status. Among high risk individuals with suicidal thoughts, higher neuroticism tendency is further associated with increased risk of suicide attempt. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Measurement and structural invariance of parent ratings of ADHD and ODD symptoms across gender for American and Malaysian children.

    PubMed

    Burns, G Leonard; Walsh, James A; Gomez, Rapson; Hafetz, Nina

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the measurement (configural, metric, scalar, and residual) and structural (factor variance, factor covariance, and factor means) invariance of parent ratings of the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder - inattention (ADHD-IN), ADHD - hyperactivity/impulsivity (ADHD-HI), and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms as described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) across boys and girls. In an American pediatric sample (N = 1,015) and a Malaysian elementary school-age sample (N = 928), there was strong support for configural, metric, scalar, residual, factor variance, and covariance invariance across gender within each sample. Both American and Malaysian boys had significantly higher scores on the ADHD-IN and ADHD-HI factor means than did girls, whereas only in the American sample did boys score significantly higher on the ODD factor than did girls. The implications of the results for the study of gender, ethnic, and cultural differences associated with ADHD and ODD are discussed. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved

  10. Time perception deficit in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Yang, Binrang; Chan, Raymond C K; Zou, Xiaobing; Jing, Jin; Mai, Jianning; Li, Jing

    2007-09-19

    Time perception deficit has been demonstrated in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by using time production and time reproduction tasks. The impact of motor demand, however, has not yet been fully examined. The current study, which is reported herein, aimed to investigate the pure time perception of Chinese children with ADHD by using a duration discrimination task. A battery of tests that were specifically designed to measure time perception and other related abilities, such as inhibition, attention, and working memory, was administered to 40 children with ADHD and to 40 demographically matched healthy children. A repeated measure MANOVA indicated that children with ADHD showed significantly higher discrimination thresholds than did healthy controls, and there was an interaction effect between group and duration. Pairwise comparison indicated that children with ADHD were less accurate in discriminating duration at either target duration. Working memory (Corsi blocks task) was related to the discrimination threshold at a duration of 800 ms after controlling for full-scale IQ (FIQ) in the ADHD group, but this did not survive the Bonferroni correction. The results indicated that children with ADHD may have perceptual deficits in time discrimination. They needed a greater difference between the comparison and target intervals to discriminate the short, median, and long durations reliably. This study provides further support for the existence of a generic time perception deficit, which is probably due to the involvement of a dysfunctional fronto-striato-cerebellar network in this capacity, especially the presence of deficits in basic internal timing mechanisms.

  11. Dental Age Difference in Children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Wadhwa, Puneet; Yu, Qingzhao; Zhu, Han; Townsend, Janice A

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if changes in dental development are associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or ADHD medications. This retrospective chart review evaluated the dental age of 128 patients between 6 and 16 years of age using the Demirjian method from the following two groups a) children with ADHD b) unaffected children. The ADHD group was further stratified into four groups according to the medication type. The impact of ADHD on dental age difference (the difference between dental age and chronologic age) was analyzed using T-test and the association between medication type and dental age difference was analyzed through one way ANOVA. The mean difference between estimated dental age and chronologic age (dental age difference) for all subjects was 0.80 years. There was no significant dental age difference in subjects with ADHD and the control group (0.78±1.28vs. 0.84 ±1.09 years respectively; P=0.75) and there was no significant difference in dental age difference and type of medication (P=0.84). No significant difference was found between children with ADHD and unaffected children with respect to dental age difference. No significant differences were found in dental age difference in the four medication groups.

  12. Differentiating Co-Occurring Behavior Problems in Children with ADHD: Patterns of Emotional Reactivity and Executive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graziano, Paulo A.; McNamara, Joseph P.; Geffken, Gary R.; Reid, Adam M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective:This study examined whether "top-down" and "bottom-up" control processes can differentiate children with ADHD who exhibit co-occurring aggression and/or internalizing symptoms. Method: Participants included 74 children ("M" age = 10.7 years) with a "Diagnostic and Statistical…

  13. ADHD Symptoms Moderate the Relation between ASD Status and Internalizing Symptoms in 3-6-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Beverly J.; Manangan, Christen N.; Dauterman, Hayley A.; Davis, Heather N.

    2014-01-01

    The current study sought to understand the relation between diagnostic status (autism spectrum disorders [ASD] versus typically developing) and internalizing problems in children with and without co-occurring attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Participants were 88 children, ages 3:0-6:11, their parents and teachers. Findings…

  14. Executive Functioning Heterogeneity in Pediatric ADHD.

    PubMed

    Kofler, Michael J; Irwin, Lauren N; Soto, Elia F; Groves, Nicole B; Harmon, Sherelle L; Sarver, Dustin E

    2018-04-28

    Neurocognitive heterogeneity is increasingly recognized as a valid phenomenon in ADHD, with most estimates suggesting that executive dysfunction is present in only about 33%-50% of these children. However, recent critiques question the veracity of these estimates because our understanding of executive functioning in ADHD is based, in large part, on data from single tasks developed to detect gross neurological impairment rather than the specific executive processes hypothesized to underlie the ADHD phenotype. The current study is the first to comprehensively assess heterogeneity in all three primary executive functions in ADHD using a criterion battery that includes multiple tests per construct (working memory, inhibitory control, set shifting). Children ages 8-13 (M = 10.37, SD = 1.39) with and without ADHD (N = 136; 64 girls; 62% Caucasian/Non-Hispanic) completed a counterbalanced series of executive function tests. Accounting for task unreliability, results indicated significantly improved sensitivity and specificity relative to prior estimates, with 89% of children with ADHD demonstrating objectively-defined impairment on at least one executive function (62% impaired working memory, 27% impaired inhibitory control, 38% impaired set shifting; 54% impaired on one executive function, 35% impaired on two or all three executive functions). Children with working memory deficits showed higher parent- and teacher-reported ADHD inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptoms (BF 10  = 5.23 × 10 4 ), and were slightly younger (BF 10  = 11.35) than children without working memory deficits. Children with vs. without set shifting or inhibitory control deficits did not differ on ADHD symptoms, age, gender, IQ, SES, or medication status. Taken together, these findings confirm that ADHD is characterized by neurocognitive heterogeneity, while suggesting that contemporary, cognitively-informed criteria may provide improved precision for identifying a

  15. Pathways from Birth Weight to ADHD Symptoms through Fluid Reasoning in Youth with or without Intellectual Disability.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Julia E; Lee, Steve S; Loo, Sandra K; Yuhan, Joshua W; Baker, Bruce L

    2018-05-01

    Although individual differences in fluid reasoning reliably mediate predictions of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms from birth weight in youth with typical cognitive development (TD), it is unknown if this indirect effect operates similarly in the development of ADHD symptoms secondary to intellectual disability (ID). Thus, we evaluated mediation by fluid reasoning in a longitudinal sample of 163 youth (45% female) with (n = 52) or without (n = 111) ID who were followed prospectively from age 5 to age 13. At age 9, youth completed the Arithmetic subtest of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, a measure of fluid reasoning. At ages 9 and 13, mothers and teachers separately rated youth ADHD symptoms and mothers completed a diagnostic interview. Mediation was tested via path analysis with bootstrapped confidence intervals, and moderated mediation estimated whether indirect effects differed between ID and TD youth or based on youth IQ. Controlling for demographic factors and age 9 ADHD symptoms, age 9 Arithmetic mediated birth weight and multi-method/informant age 13 ADHD symptoms, such that birth weight positively predicted Arithmetic, which negatively predicted ADHD symptoms. Neither ID status nor IQ moderated the observed indirect effect through Arithmetic, suggesting that it was similar for ID and TD youth as well as across the range of youth IQs. These findings support previous evidence that fluid reasoning, as measured by Arithmetic, may causally mediate birth weight and ADHD symptoms, and suggest that this pathway operates similarly with respect to the development of ADHD symptoms in youth with ID.

  16. A smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment of parental behavioral consistency: Associations with parental stress and child ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Li, James J; Lansford, Jennifer E

    2018-06-01

    Inconsistent parental discipline is a robust correlate of child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, but few studies have considered the role of inconsistent positive parenting on ADHD, as well as the effects of stress on negative and positive parental consistency. This study advanced a novel ecological momentary assessment (EMA) using participant smartphones to measure parental consistency, and examined its associations with family, social, and parenting-related dimensions of stress and child ADHD symptoms. Participants were 184 kindergartners with and without ADHD and their parents. Harsh and warm dimensions of parental behavior were assessed using questionnaires, observations, and an EMA administered through parents' smartphones, which measured parent-child behaviors every day for a period of 1 week. Family, social, and parenting-related stress were assessed from questionnaires, and child ADHD symptoms were assessed from a fully structured diagnostic interview with the parent. Child ADHD symptoms were associated with variability in warm parenting behaviors, and higher levels of parenting-related stress were related to greater variability in harsh parenting behaviors. No significant interactions were detected between parental stress and child ADHD on parental variability. These findings suggest that different factors influence the consistency in parenting behavior, depending on whether positive parenting or negative parenting is assessed. Parent-based treatment programs for children with ADHD should include a stronger focus on reducing stress from parenting (e.g., teaching coping skills for parents), as this may lead to greater consistency in parental behavior more generally, and presumably better child outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Commonalities in EEG Spectral Power Abnormalities Between Women With ADHD and Women With Bipolar Disorder During Rest and Cognitive Performance.

    PubMed

    Rommel, Anna-Sophie; Kitsune, Glenn L; Michelini, Giorgia; Hosang, Georgina M; Asherson, Philip; McLoughlin, Gráinne; Brandeis, Daniel; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2016-11-01

    While attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and bipolar disorder (BD) denote distinct psychiatric conditions, diagnostic delineation is impeded by considerable symptomatic overlap. Direct comparisons across ADHD and BD on neurophysiological measures are limited. They could inform us on impairments that are specific to or shared between the disorders and, therefore, potential biomarkers that may aid in the identification of the diagnostic boundaries. Our aim was to test whether quantitative EEG (QEEG) identifies differences or similarities between women with ADHD and women with BD during resting-state and task conditions. QEEG activity was directly compared between 20 ADHD, 20 BD and 20 control women during an eyes-open resting-state condition (EO) and a cued continuous performance task (CPT-OX). Both ADHD (t 38  = 2.50, p = 0.017) and BD (t 38  = 2.54, p = 0.018) participants showed higher absolute theta power during EO than controls. No significant differences emerged between the two clinical groups. While control participants showed a task-related increase in absolute theta power from EO to CPT-OX (t 19  = -3.77, p = 0.001), no such change in absolute theta power was observed in the ADHD (t 19  = -0.605, p = 0.553) or BD (t 19  = 1.82, p = 0.084) groups. Our results provide evidence for commonalities in brain dysfunction between ADHD and BD. Absolute theta power may play a role as a marker of neurobiological processes in both disorders.

  18. Investigating the Impact of Cognitive Load and Motivation on Response Control in Relation to Delay Discounting in Children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Mary K; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Rosch, Keri S

    2017-10-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by deficits in impulse control across a range of behaviors, from simple actions to those involving complex decision-making (e.g., preference for smaller-sooner versus larger later rewards). This study investigated whether changes in motor response control with increased cognitive load and motivational contingencies are associated with decision-making in the form of delay discounting among 8-12 year old children with and without ADHD. Children with ADHD (n = 26; 8 girls) and typically developing controls (n = 40; 11 girls) completed a standard go/no-go (GNG) task, a GNG task with motivational contingencies, a GNG task with increased cognitive load, and two measures of delay discounting: a real-time task in which the delays and immediately consumable rewards are experienced in real-time, and a classic task involving choices about money at longer delays. Children with ADHD, particularly girls, exhibited greater delay discounting than controls during the real-time discounting task, whereas diagnostic groups did not significantly differ on the classic discounting task. The effect of cognitive load on response control was uniquely associated with greater discounting on the real-time task for children with ADHD, but not for control children. The effect of motivational contingencies on response control was not significantly associated with delay discounting for either diagnostic group. The findings from this study help to inform our understanding of the factors that influence deficient self-control in ADHD, suggesting that impairments in cognitive control may contribute to greater delay discounting in ADHD.

  19. Comorbidity of ADHD and subsequent bipolar disorder among adolescents and young adults with major depression: a nationwide longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mu-Hong; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Li, Cheng-Ta; Lin, Wei-Chen; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Pan, Tai-Long; Su, Tung-Ping; Bai, Ya-Mei

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have found that attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood and adolescence is associated with an increased risk of major depression and bipolar disorder in later life. However, the effect of ADHD comorbidity on the diagnostic conversion to bipolar disorder among patients with major depression is still uncertain. Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 58,023 subjects < 30 years of age who had major depression with (n = 1,193) or without (n = 56,830) ADHD comorbidity between the years 2000 and 2008 were enrolled in our study. Subjects who developed bipolar disorder during the follow-up to the end of 2011 were identified. Adolescents and young adults who had major depression with ADHD comorbidity had an increased incidence of subsequent bipolar disorder (18.9% versus 11.2%, p < 0.001) compared to those without ADHD. Cox regression analysis showed that ADHD comorbidity was an independent risk factor (hazard ratio = 1.50, 95% confidence interval 1.30-1.72) predicting subsequent bipolar disorder among those with major depression, adjusting for demographic data and psychiatric comorbidities. Patients with comorbid diagnoses of major depression and ADHD had an increased risk of diagnostic conversion to bipolar disorder compared to those who had major depression alone. Further studies would be required to validate this finding and to investigate the possible underlying mechanisms. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Summer treatment programs for youth with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Fabiano, Gregory A; Schatz, Nicole K; Pelham, William E

    2014-10-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) require intensive treatments to remediate functional impairments and promote the development of adaptive skills. The summer treatment program (STP) is an exemplar of intensive treatment of ADHD. STP intervention components include a reward and response-cost point system, time-out, use of antecedent control (clear commands, establishment of rules and routines), and liberal praise and rewards for appropriate behavior. Parents also participate in parent management training programming to learn how to implement similar procedures within the home setting. There is strong evidence supporting the efficacy of the STP as an intervention for ADHD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of behavioral profiles for anxiety-related comorbidities including ADHD and selective mutism in children.

    PubMed

    Levin-Decanini, Tal; Connolly, Sucheta D; Simpson, David; Suarez, Liza; Jacob, Suma

    2013-09-01

    Elucidating differences in social-behavioral profiles of children with comorbid presentations, utilizing caregiver as well as teacher reports, will refine our understanding of how contextual symptoms vary across anxiety-related disorders. In our pediatric anxiety clinic, the most frequent diagnoses and comorbidities were mixed anxiety (MA; ≥ 1 anxiety disorder; N = 155), anxiety with comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (MA/ADHD, N = 47) and selective mutism (SM, N = 48). Behavioral measures (CPRS, CTRS) were analyzed using multiple one-way multivariate analyses of covariance tests. Differences between the three diagnostic groups were examined using completed parent and teacher reports (N = 135, 46, and 48 for MA, MA/ADHD, and SM groups, respectively). Comparisons across the MA, MA/ADHD, and SM groups indicate a significant multivariate main effect of group for caregiver and teacher responses (P < 0.01). Caregivers reported that children with SM are similar in profile to those with MA, and both groups were significantly different from the MA/ADHD group. Teachers reported that children with SM had more problems with social behaviors than with the MA or MA/ADHD groups. Further comparison indicates a significant main effect of group (P < 0.001), such that children with SM have the greatest differences in behavior observed by teachers versus caregivers. Clinical profiles between MA/ADHD, MA, and SM groups varied, illustrating the importance of multi-rater assessment scales to capture subtle distinctions and to inform treatment planning given that comorbidities occur frequently in children who present with anxiety. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Comparison of Behavioral Profiles for Anxiety-Related Comorbidities including ADHD and Selective Mutism in Children

    PubMed Central

    Levin-Decanini, Tal; Connolly, Sucheta D.; Simpson, David; Suarez, Liza; Jacob, Suma

    2013-01-01

    Background Elucidating differences in social-behavioral profiles of children with comorbid presentations, utilizing caregiver as well as teacher reports, will refine our understanding of how contextual symptoms vary across anxiety-related disorders. Methods In our pediatric anxiety clinic, the most frequent diagnoses and comorbidities were mixed anxiety (MA; ≥ 1 anxiety disorder; N = 155), anxiety with comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (MA/ADHD, N = 47) and selective mutism (SM, N = 48). Behavioral measures (CPRS, CTRS) were analyzed using multiple one-way multivariate analyses of covariance tests. Differences between the three diagnostic groups were examined using completed parent and teacher reports (N = 135, 46 and 48 for MA, MA/ADHD and SM groups, respectively). Results Comparisons across the MA, MA/ADHD and SM groups indicate a significant multivariate main effect of group for caregiver and teacher responses (p < 0.01). Caregivers reported that children with SM are similar in profile to those with MA, and both groups were significantly different from the MA/ADHD group. Teachers reported that children with SM had more problem social behaviors than either the MA or MA/ADHD groups. Further comparison indicates a significant main effect of group (p < 0.001), such that children with SM have the greatest differences in behavior observed by teachers versus caregivers. Conclusions Clinical profiles between MA/ADHD, MA and SM groups varied, illustrating the importance of multi-rater assessment scales to capture subtle distinctions and to inform treatment planning given that comorbidities occur frequently in children who present with anxiety. PMID:23526795

  3. Hyperactivity in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Impairing Deficit or Compensatory Behavior?

    PubMed

    Sarver, Dustin E; Rapport, Mark D; Kofler, Michael J; Raiker, Joseph S; Friedman, Lauren M

    2015-10-01

    Excess gross motor activity (hyperactivity) is considered a core diagnostic feature of childhood ADHD that impedes learning. This view has been challenged, however, by recent models that conceptualize excess motor activity as a compensatory mechanism that facilitates neurocognitive functioning in children with ADHD. The current study investigated competing model predictions regarding activity level's relation with working memory (WM) performance and attention in boys aged 8-12 years (M = 9.64, SD = 1.26) with ADHD (n = 29) and typically developing children (TD; n = 23). Children's phonological WM and attentive behavior were objectively assessed during four counterbalanced WM tasks administered across four separate sessions. These data were then sequenced hierarchically based on behavioral observations of each child's gross motor activity during each task. Analysis of the relations among intra-individual changes in observed activity level, attention, and performance revealed that higher rates of activity level predicted significantly better, but not normalized WM performance for children with ADHD. Conversely, higher rates of activity level predicted somewhat lower WM performance for TD children. Variations in movement did not predict changes in attention for either group. At the individual level, children with ADHD and TD children were more likely to be classified as reliably Improved and Deteriorated, respectively, when comparing their WM performance at their highest versus lowest observed activity level. These findings appear most consistent with models ascribing a functional role to hyperactivity in ADHD, with implications for selecting behavioral treatment targets to avoid overcorrecting gross motor activity during academic tasks that rely on phonological WM.

  4. Fatigue in an adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder population: A trans-diagnostic approach.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Denise C; Dittner, Antonia J; Rimes, Katharine A; Chalder, Trudie

    2017-03-01

    Trans-diagnostic approaches suggest that key cognitive and behavioural processes maintain symptoms across a wide range of mental health disorders. Fatigue is a common clinical feature of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood; however, empirical data supporting its prevalence are lacking. This study aimed to collate outcomes from outpatient services to (1) investigate the prevalence of fatigue in adults with ADHD, (2) examine symptoms of ADHD in adults with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), and (3) consider secondary clinical characteristics common to both disorder groups. Measures of self-reported fatigue were compared across groups of adults with ADHD (N = 243), CFS (N = 86), and healthy controls (HC) (N = 211) using a between-subjects cross-sectional design. Groups were also compared on secondary clinical measures of functional impairment, mood, anxiety, sleep, self-efficacy, and their beliefs about the acceptability of expressing emotions. The ADHD group were significantly more fatigued than HC with 62% meeting criteria for fatigue caseness. ADHD symptoms were significantly greater in the CFS group than in HC. ADHD and CFS groups did not differ significantly on measures of functional impairment, mood, and self-efficacy. No significant differences were detected on measures of anxiety when items relating to physical restlessness were removed from the analysis. Adults with ADHD experience greater fatigue than HC. Adults with CFS and ADHD share many trans-diagnostic clinical characteristics, including difficulties with low mood, anxiety, and reduced self-efficacy, which impact upon their overall functioning. Further research is required to investigate extraneous factors mediating fatigue severity in these clinical groups. Fatigue is a common clinical feature of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood. Evidence-based interventions for chronic fatigue syndrome could be adapted to address fatigue in ADHD in adults.

  5. Vanderbilt free-electron-laser project in biomedical and materials research. Annual report, 1 February 1987-31 January 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Haglund, R.F.; Tolk, N.H.

    The Medical Free Electron Laser Program was awarded to develop, construct and operate a free-electron laser facility dedicated to biomedical and materials studies, with particular emphases on: fundamental studies of absorption and localization of electromagnetic energy on and near material surfaces, especially through electronic and other selective, non-statistical processes; non-thermal photon-materials interactions (e.g., electronic bond-breaking or vibrational energy transfer) in physical and biological materials as well as in long-wavelength biopolymer dynamics; development of FEL-based methods to study drug action and to characterize biomolecular properties and metabolic processes in biomembranes; clinical applications in otolaryngology, neurosurgery, ophthalmology and radiology stressing the usemore » of the laser for selective laser-tissue, laser-cellular and laser-molecule interactions in both therapeutic and diagnostic modalities.« less

  6. Neurodevelopmental Disorders (ASD and ADHD): DSM-5, ICD-10, and ICD-11.

    PubMed

    Doernberg, Ellen; Hollander, Eric

    2016-08-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders, specifically autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have undergone considerable diagnostic evolution in the past decade. In the United States, the current system in place is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), whereas worldwide, the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) serves as a general medical system. This review will examine the differences in neurodevelopmental disorders between these two systems. First, we will review the important revisions made from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) to the DSM-5, with respect to ASD and ADHD. Next, we will cover the similarities and differences between ASD and ADHD classification in the DSM-5 and the ICD-10, and how these differences may have an effect on neurodevelopmental disorder diagnostics and classification. By examining the changes made for the DSM-5 in 2013, and critiquing the current ICD-10 system, we can help to anticipate and advise on the upcoming ICD-11, due to come online in 2017. Overall, this review serves to highlight the importance of progress towards complementary diagnostic classification systems, keeping in mind the difference in tradition and purpose of the DSM and the ICD, and that these systems are dynamic and changing as more is learned about neurodevelopmental disorders and their underlying etiology. Finally this review will discuss alternative diagnostic approaches, such as the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative, which links symptom domains to underlying biological and neurological mechanisms. The incorporation of new diagnostic directions could have a great effect on treatment development and insurance coverage for neurodevelopmental disorders worldwide.

  7. Family characteristics of anxious ADHD children: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Kepley, Hayden O; Ostrander, Rick

    2007-02-01

    To investigate the family environments of children in a community sample with ADHD and co-occurring anxiety. Family Environment Scale, Behavioral Assessment System for Children, and Structured Clinical Interview are administered to parents of children with ADHD with and without anxiety. ADHD families are uniformly less cohesive and expressive and possess more conflict than families representing the community sample. In contrast to community or nonanxious ADHD families, anxious ADHD families do not encourage independence and tend to be distinctly less assertive, self-sufficient, and autonomous. Although anxious and nonanxious ADHD children tend to have a uniformly high incidence of maternal ADHD, mothers of anxious ADHD children tend to display a much higher incidence of substance/alcohol abuse than either nonanxious or community participants. Findings are consistent with the notion that an insular, dependent, and somewhat controlling family environment characterizes families of children with ADHD and comorbid childhood anxiety.

  8. Faststats: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)* Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... visits Number of visits to physician offices with attention deficit disorder as the primary diagnosis: 10.9 ...

  9. Focusing on ADHD - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... September 2014 Print this issue Focusing on ADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder En español Send us your ... kid. But some kids have such trouble paying attention, staying focused, and finishing tasks that it interferes ...

  10. ADHD: A Travel Guide to Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Dawn

    1997-01-01

    Uses "travel itinerary" structure to provide advice on teaching children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Covers such areas as consulting the experts, "landing without frustration" (modifying assignments and materials to match learning styles and abilities), "mapping and orientation" (providing…

  11. Activity in children with ADHD during waiting situations in the classroom: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Antrop, Inge; Buysse, Ann; Roeyers, Herbert; Van Oost, Paulette

    2005-03-01

    According to the optimal stimulation theory and the delay aversion hypothesis, children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience difficulties when they are confronted with low levels of stimulation and delay, respectively. This study investigated the activity level of children with ADHD during waiting situations in the classroom. Three series of hypothesis were made: (1) with respect to the comparison between waiting and non-waiting intervals, (2) with respect to the effects of non-temporal stimulation, and (3) with respect to the effects of temporal stimulation on behaviour during waiting. The activity level of 14 children with ADHD and 14 control children between the ages of 6 and 11 years was observed during two non-waiting class situations and three waiting situations: without any stimulation, in the presence of nontemporal stimulation and in the presence of temporal stimulation. Both groups of children obtained higher activity scores for all behavioural dimensions during waiting compared with non-waiting situations. The results further revealed additive effects of waiting and diagnostic group on behaviour. Additional nontemporal stimulation during waiting affected the behaviour of all children for most behavioural characteristics. For noisiness, additive effects were also found for diagnostic group and either non-temporal stimulation or temporal stimulation. For restlessness, a trend for an interaction effect between diagnostic group and nontemporal stimulation was found. The findings have clear implications for school observations within an assessment protocol.

  12. Noninvasive Brain Stimulation in Pediatric Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Review.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Belen; Boes, Aaron D; Laganiere, Simon; Rotenberg, Alexander; Jeurissen, Danique; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2016-05-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders in the pediatric population. The clinical management of ADHD is currently limited by a lack of reliable diagnostic biomarkers and inadequate therapy for a minority of patients who do not respond to standard pharmacotherapy. There is optimism that noninvasive brain stimulation may help to address these limitations. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation are 2 methods of noninvasive brain stimulation that modulate cortical excitability and brain network activity. Transcranial magnetic stimulation can be used diagnostically to probe cortical neurophysiology, whereas daily use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation or transcranial direct current stimulation can induce long-lasting and potentially therapeutic changes in targeted networks. In this review, we highlight research showing the potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications of transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation in pediatric ADHD. We also discuss the safety and ethics of using these tools in the pediatric population. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. The anatomy of decision support during inpatient care provider order entry (CPOE): Empirical observations from a decade of CPOE experience at Vanderbilt

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Randolph A.; Waitman, Lemuel R.; Chen, Sutin; Rosenbloom, S. Trent

    2006-01-01

    The authors describe a pragmatic approach to the introduction of clinical decision support at the point of care, based on a decade of experience in developing and evolving Vanderbilt’s inpatient “WizOrder” care provider order entry (CPOE) system. The inpatient care setting provides a unique opportunity to interject CPOE-based decision support features that restructure clinical workflows, deliver focused relevant educational materials, and influence how care is delivered to patients. From their empirical observations, the authors have developed a generic model for decision support within inpatient CPOE systems. They believe that the model’s utility extends beyond Vanderbilt, because it is based on characteristics of end-user workflows and on decision support considerations that are common to a variety of inpatient settings and CPOE systems. The specific approach to implementing a given clinical decision support feature within a CPOE system should involve evaluation along three axes: what type of intervention to create (for which the authors describe 4 general categories); when to introduce the intervention into the user’s workflow (for which the authors present 7 categories), and how disruptive, during use of the system, the intervention might be to end-users’ workflows (for which the authors describe 6 categories). Framing decision support in this manner may help both developers and clinical end-users plan future alterations to their systems when needs for new decision support features arise. PMID:16290243

  14. Increasing Diversity at the PhD Level in Astronomy: The Fisk-Vanderbilt Masters-to-PhD Bridge Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stassun, Keivan; Holley-Bockelmann, K.; Berlind, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    We briefly review the current status of underrepresented minorities in the physical sciences: The underrepresentation of Black-, Hispanic-, and Native-Americans is an order of magnitude problem. We then describe the Fisk-Vanderbilt Masters-to-PhD Bridge program as a successful model for effective partnerships with minority-serving institutions toward addressing this problem. Since 2004 the program has admitted 60 students, 54 of them underrepresented minorities (60% female), with a retention rate of 92%. The program leads the nation in master’s degrees in physics for African Americans, is one of the top ten producers of physics master’s degrees among all US citizens in general, and has become the nation’s top producer of underrepresented minority PhDs in physics, astronomy, and materials science. We summarize the main features of the program including two of its core strategies: (1) partnering a minority-serving institution and a major research university through collaborative research, and (2) using the master’s degree as a deliberate stepping stone to the PhD. We also specifically discuss one of the emerging core theories of the program: the concept of properly identifying students with 'unrealized or unrecognized potential'. We discuss our methods to recognize and select for unrealized potential during the admissions process, and how we cultivate that unrealized potential toward development of successful scientists and leaders.

  15. Cannabis use and adult ADHD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Fergusson, David M; Boden, Joseph M

    2008-05-01

    The present study examined the associations between cannabis use in adolescence and young adulthood and self-reported adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in adulthood. A 25-year prospective longitudinal study of the health, development, and adjustment of a birth cohort of 1265 New Zealand children. Measures included assessments of adolescent and young adult cannabis use and ADHD symptoms at age 25, measures of childhood socioeconomic disadvantage, family adversity, childhood and early adolescent behavioural adjustment and cognitive ability, and adolescent and young adult other drug use. Cannabis use by age 25 was significantly (p<.0001) associated with increasing self-reported adult ADHD symptoms at age 25. Adjustment of the association for potentially confounding factors from childhood and early adolescence reduced the magnitude of the association, but it remained statistically significant (p<.0001). However, control for the mediating effects of other drug use in adolescence and early adulthood reduced the association between cannabis use and adult ADHD symptoms to statistical non-significance (p>.20). The current study suggested that the association between cannabis use and adult ADHD symptoms was mediated by other substance use that was associated with cannabis use. The results suggest that cannabis use leads to other drug use, which in turn leads to increased ADHD symptoms. However, it should be noted that the potential influence of such factors as genetic predispositions may still be unaccounted for.

  16. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Epilepsy and Primary ADHD: Differences in Symptom Dimensions and Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Ekinci, Ozalp; Okuyaz, Çetin; Erdoğan, Semra; Gunes, Serkan; Ekinci, Nuran; Kalınlı, Merve; Teke, Halenur; Direk, Meltem Çobanoğulları

    2017-12-01

    We aimed to (1) compare quality of life (QOL) among children with epilepsy, epilepsy and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and primary ADHD and (2) compare ADHD symptom dimensions and subtypes between children with epilepsy-ADHD and primary ADHD. A total of 140 children; 53 with epilepsy, 35 with epilepsy-ADHD, and 52 with primary ADHD were included. KINDL-R (quality of life measure), Turgay DSM-IV Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale (T-DSM-IV-S), and Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS) were completed. Neurology clinic charts were reviewed for epilepsy-related variables. Children with epilepsy-ADHD had the lowest (poorest) KINDL-R total scores. Epilepsy-ADHD group had more inattentiveness symptoms, whereas primary ADHD group had more hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms. The frequencies of ADHD combined and inattentiveness subtypes were 60% and 40% in children with epilepsy-ADHD and 80.7% and 19.3% in children with primary ADHD, respectively ( P = .034). ADHD in epilepsy is associated with a significantly poor quality of life and predominantly inattentiveness symptoms.

  17. Low Working Memory rather than ADHD Symptoms Predicts Poor Academic Achievement in School-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Simone, Ashley N; Marks, David J; Bédard, Anne-Claude; Halperin, Jeffrey M

    2018-02-01

    This study examined whether working memory (WM), inattentive symptoms, and/or hyperactive/impulsive symptoms significantly contributed to academic, behavioral, and global functioning in 8-year-old children. One-hundred-sixty 8-year-old children (75.6% male), who were originally recruited as preschoolers, completed subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition, Integrated and Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Second Edition to assess WM and academic achievement, respectively. Teachers rated children's academic and behavioral functioning using the Vanderbilt Rating Scale. Global functioning, as rated by clinicians, was assessed by the Children's Global Assessment Scale. Multiple linear regressions were completed to determine the extent to which WM (auditory-verbal and visual-spatial) and/or inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptom severity significantly contributed to academic, behavioral, and/or global functioning. Both auditory-verbal and visual-spatial WM but not ADHD symptom severity, significantly and independently contributed to measures of academic achievement (all p < 0.01). In contrast, both WM and inattention symptoms (p < 0.01), but not hyperactivity-impulsivity (p > 0.05) significantly contributed to teacher-ratings of academic functioning. Further, inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity (p < 0.04), but not WM (p > 0.10) were significantly associated with teacher-ratings of behavioral functioning and clinician-ratings of global functioning. Taken together, it appears that WM in children may be uniquely related to academic skills, but not necessarily to overall behavioral functioning.

  18. Reliability and validity of a semi-structured DSM-based diagnostic interview module for the assessment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in adult psychiatric outpatients.

    PubMed

    Gorlin, Eugenia I; Dalrymple, Kristy; Chelminski, Iwona; Zimmerman, Mark

    2016-08-30

    Despite growing recognition that the symptoms and functional impairments of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) persist into adulthood, only a few psychometrically sound diagnostic measures have been developed for the assessment of ADHD in adults, and none have been validated for use in a broad treatment-seeking psychiatric sample. The current study presents the reliability and validity of a semi-structured DSM-based diagnostic interview module for ADHD, which was administered to 1194 adults presenting to an outpatient psychiatric practice. The module showed excellent internal consistency and interrater reliability, good convergent and discriminant validity (as indexed by relatively high correlations with self-report measures of ADHD and ADHD-related constructs and little or no correlation with other, non-ADHD symptom domains), and good construct validity (as indexed by significantly higher rates of psychosocial impairment and self-reported family history of ADHD in individuals who meet criteria for an ADHD diagnosis). This instrument is thus a reliable and valid diagnostic tool for the detection of ADHD in adults presenting for psychiatric evaluation and treatment. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. The Role of ADHD in Academic Adversity: Disentangling ADHD Effects from Other Personal and Contextual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience significant academic difficulties that can lead to numerous negative academic consequences. With a focus on adverse academic outcomes, this study seeks to disentangle variance attributable to ADHD from variance attributable to salient personal and contextual covariates.…

  20. Reconstituting the ADHD Girl: Accomplishing Exclusion and Solidifying a Biomedical Identity in an ADHD Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjörne, Eva; Evaldsson, Ann-Carita

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we explore what happens to young people labelled as having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) after they have been excluded from mainstream class and placed in a special class. More specifically, we focus on how a specific disability identity is locally accomplished and ascribed to a girl placed in an ADHD class…

  1. Perception of Nonverbal Social Cues by Regular Education, ADHD, and ADHD/LD Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Cathy W.; Peterson, Andrea D.; Webster, Raymond E.; Bolen, Larry M.; Brown, Michael B.

    1999-01-01

    Study examined ability of attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) children with and without learning disability to perceive nonverbal social cues. ADHD/LD children demonstrated significant difficulty in comparison to their peers in effectively perceiving paralanguage cues. This group also showed significant improvement on the Postures and…

  2. A randomised controlled trial of combined EEG feedback and methylphenidate therapy for the treatment of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Yang, Li; Zhuo, Chuan-jun; Wang, Yu-Feng

    2013-08-22

    To evaluate the efficacy of combined methylphenidate and EEG feedback treatment for children with ADHD. Forty patients with ADHD were randomly assigned to the combination group (methylphenidate therapy and EEG feedback training) or control group (methylphenidate therapy and non-feedback attention training) in a 1:1 ratio using the double-blind method. These patients, who met the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria and were aged between 7 and 16 years, had obtained optimal therapeutic effects by titrating the methylphenidate dose prior to the trial. The patients were assessed using multiple parameters at baseline, after 20 treatment sessions, after 40 treatment sessions, and in 6-month follow-up studies. Compared to the control group, patients in the combination group had reduced ADHD symptoms and improved in related behavioural and brain functions. The combination of EEG feedback and methylphenidate treatment is more effective than methylphenidate alone. The combined therapy is especially suitable for children and adolescents with ADHD who insufficiently respond to single drug treatment or experience drug side effects.

  3. Neuropsychological Profiles on the WAIS-IV of Adults With ADHD.

    PubMed

    Theiling, Johanna; Petermann, Franz

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the pattern of neuropsychological profiles on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV (WAIS-IV) for adults With ADHD relative to randomly matched controls and to assess overall intellectual ability discrepancies of the Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) and the General Ability Index (GAI). In all, 116 adults With ADHD and 116 controls between 16 and 71 years were assessed. Relative to controls, adults With ADHD show significant decrements in subtests with working memory and processing speed demands with moderate to large effect sizes and a higher GAI in comparison with the FSIQ. This suggests first that deficits identified with previous WAIS versions are robust in adults With ADHD and remain deficient when assessed with the WAIS-IV; second that the WAIS-IV reliably differentiates between patients and controls; and third that a reduction of the FSIQ is most likely due to a decrement in working memory and processing speed abilities. The findings have essential implications for the diagnostic process. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Controversy, Developmental Mechanisms, and Multiple Levels of Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hinshaw, Stephen P

    2018-05-07

    Controversy abounds regarding the symptom dimensions of attention problems, impulsivity, and hyperactivity, developmentally extreme and impairing levels of which compose the diagnostic category of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). I highlight causal factors, underlying mechanisms, developmental trajectories, and female manifestations of ADHD, integrating the psychobiological underpinnings of this syndrome with contextual factors related to its clinical presentation, impairments, and soaring increases in diagnosed prevalence. Indeed, despite strong heritability, ADHD is expressed via transactional patterns of influence linked to family-, school-, peer-, neighborhood-, and policy-related factors. Moreover, intervention strategies must take into account both pharmacologic and behavioral modalities if the goal is to enhance competencies, rather than symptom reduction per se. A comprehensive understanding of ADHD mandates multiple levels of analysis-spanning genes, neurotransmission, brain pathways, individual skill levels, family socialization, peer relationships, and educational and cultural forces-which must be integrated and synthesized to surpass reductionist accounts, reduce stigma, and maximize the impact of prevention- and intervention-related efforts.

  5. Preliminary data suggesting the efficacy of attention training for school-aged children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N; Peugh, James L; Nakonezny, Paul A; Hughes, Carroll W

    2013-04-01

    A pilot randomized clinical trial was conducted to examine the initial efficacy of Pay Attention!, an intervention training sustained, selective, alternating, and divided attention, in children diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). After a diagnostic and baseline evaluation, school-aged children with ADHD were randomized to receive 16 bi-weekly sessions of Pay Attention! (n=54) or to a waitlist control group (n=51). Participants completed an outcome evaluation approximately 12 weeks after their baseline evaluation. Results showed significant treatment effects for parent and clinician ratings of ADHD symptoms, child self-report of ability to focus, and parent ratings of executive functioning. Child performance on neuropsychological tests showed significant treatment-related improvement on strategic planning efficiency, but no treatment effects were observed on other neuropsychological outcomes. Treatment effects were also not observed for teacher ratings of ADHD. These data add to a growing body of literature supporting effects of cognitive training on attention and behavior, however, additional research is warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Exploring help-seeking for ADHD symptoms: a mixed-methods approach.

    PubMed

    Bussing, Regina; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka E; Gary, Faye; Mason, Dana M; Garvan, Cynthia W

    2005-01-01

    Gender and race differences in treatment rates for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are well documented but poorly understood. Using a mixed-methods approach, this study examines parental help-seeking steps for elementary school students at high risk for ADHD. Parents of 259 students (male/female, African American/Caucasian) identified as being at high risk for ADHD completed diagnostic interviews and provided detailed accounts of help-seeking activities since they first became concerned about their child. Help-seeking steps (n=1,590) were analyzed using two methods: inductive analysis based on grounded theory, and deductive quantitative analysis of coded data derived from application of the network-episode model, merged subsequently with demographic and other characteristics. The inductive analysis revealed unique parental perceptions of their children's sick role and of the agents of identification and intervention for each of the four groups. Deductive analysis showed significant variations by race and gender in consultation experiences, in the person or entity being consulted and in the transactions occurring in the consultation, and in illness careers. ADHD symptoms are interpreted as having different implications for the sick role and the intervention, dependent on a child's gender and race. Educational interventions need to address cultural stereotypes contributing to inequitable access to treatment.

  7. Preschool Inhibitory Control Predicts ADHD Group Status and Inhibitory Weakness in School.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Lisa A; Schneider, Heather; Mahone, E Mark

    2017-12-26

    Discriminative utility of performance measures of inhibitory control was examined in preschool children with and without ADHD to determine whether performance measures added to diagnostic prediction and to prediction of informant-rated day-to-day executive function. Children ages 4-5 years (N = 105, 61% boys; 54 ADHD, medication-naïve) were assessed using performance measures (Auditory Continuous Performance Test for Preschoolers-Commission errors, Conflicting Motor Response Test, NEPSY Statue) and caregiver (parent, teacher) ratings of inhibition (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool version). Performance measures and parent and teacher reports of inhibitory control significantly and uniquely predicted ADHD group status; however, performance measures did not add to prediction of group status beyond parent reports. Performance measures did significantly predict classroom inhibitory control (teacher ratings), over and above parent reports of inhibitory control. Performance measures of inhibitory control may be adequate predictors of ADHD status and good predictors of young children's classroom inhibitory control, demonstrating utility as components of clinical assessments. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Preliminary data suggesting the efficacy of attention training for school-aged children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Peugh, James L.; Nakonezny, Paul A.; Hughes, Carroll W.

    2013-01-01

    A pilot randomized clinical trial was conducted to examine the initial efficacy of Pay Attention!, an intervention training sustained, selective, alternating, and divided attention, in children diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). After a diagnostic and baseline evaluation, school-aged children with ADHD were randomized to receive 16 bi-weekly sessions of Pay Attention! (n = 54) or to a waitlist control group (n = 51). Participants completed an outcome evaluation approximately 12 weeks after their baseline evaluation. Results showed significant treatment effects for parent and clinician ratings of ADHD symptoms, child self-report of ability to focus, and parent ratings of executive functioning. Child performance on neuropsychological tests showed significant treatment-related improvement on strategic planning efficiency, but no treatment effects were observed on other neuropsychological outcomes. Treatment effects were also not observed for teacher ratings of ADHD. These data add to a growing body of literature supporting effects of cognitive training on attention and behavior, however, additional research is warranted. PMID:23219490

  9. Internet Gaming Disorder Explains Unique Variance in Psychological Distress and Disability After Controlling for Comorbid Depression, OCD, ADHD, and Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Pearcy, Benjamin T D; McEvoy, Peter M; Roberts, Lynne D

    2017-02-01

    This study extends knowledge about the relationship of Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) to other established mental disorders by exploring comorbidities with anxiety, depression, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and assessing whether IGD accounts for unique variance in distress and disability. An online survey was completed by a convenience sample that engages in Internet gaming (N = 404). Participants meeting criteria for IGD based on the Personal Internet Gaming Disorder Evaluation-9 (PIE-9) reported higher comorbidity with depression, OCD, ADHD, and anxiety compared with those who did not meet the IGD criteria. IGD explained a small proportion of unique variance in distress (1%) and disability (3%). IGD accounted for a larger proportion of unique variance in disability than anxiety and ADHD, and a similar proportion to depression. Replications with clinical samples using longitudinal designs and structured diagnostic interviews are required.

  10. Interaction of recalled parental ADHD symptoms and rearing behavior with current attachment and emotional dysfunction in adult offspring with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Edel, Marc-Andreas; Juckel, Georg; Brüne, Martin

    2010-06-30

    Research into attachment and emotion regulation has shown that children with ADHD are at risk of developing attachment disorders and emotion regulation disturbances, which in part may be due to the rearing style of their parents. No such data exists for adults with persistent ADHD. We hypothesized that current attachment style and emotion processing of adult patients with ADHD may be influenced by the presence of parental ADHD symptoms when the now adult patients were children, assuming that ADHD symptoms of parents have an impact on their parenting style. We examined recalled parental ADHD symptoms and rearing style as well as current attachment and emotion regulation abilities in a sample of 73 adults with ADHD using several self-rating instruments. Recalled prevalence of ADHD symptoms in the mother, and less so in the father, of adult patients with ADHD was significantly associated with partly adverse parental rearing styles, current attachment problems in romantic partnerships and emotion regulation disturbances compared with adult ADHD patients without possibly affected parent. ADHD symptoms in parents of children with ADHD may present a risk factor for attachment problems and poor emotion regulation when ADHD children are grown.

  11. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): The Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Signs Treating ADHD Reprints For More Information Share Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): The Basics Download PDF ... Overview Do you find it hard to pay attention? Do you feel the need to move constantly ...

  12. Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Data and Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Note: Javascript is disabled ... claims to understand diagnosis and treatment patterns for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). On this page you ...

  13. Do firstborn children have an increased risk of ADHD?

    PubMed

    Marín, Adela Masana; Seco, Fernando Lopez; Serrano, Susana Martí; García, Silvia Acosta; Gaviria Gómez, Ana Milena; Ney, Inti

    2014-10-01

    Although previous reports have found no birth-order influence on ADHD risk, the authors hypothesize that being the firstborn is a risk factor for developing ADHD. They selected all of the currently treated ADHD outpatients (n = 748) from our database. Families with adopted sons, nonnuclear families, and families with only one child and with sons (affected or unaffected) younger than 6 or older than 18 years were excluded. A total of 181 families with 213 ADHD sons met the inclusion criteria. We used all siblings without a clinical diagnosis of ADHD and who had no contact with our service as our unaffected controls (n = 173). The bivariate analysis showed that ADHD was associated with birth order and that firstborn children had nearly twice the ADHD risk of children with other birth orders. birth order can be an ADHD risk factor in clinical samples. © 2012 SAGE Publications.

  14. Dealing with ADHD: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Dealing with ADHD: ... Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, ADHD Resource Center Consumer Updates on Children’s Health Research Flash: FDA Scientists ...

  15. Theory of Mind and Empathy in Children With ADHD.

    PubMed

    Maoz, Hagai; Gvirts, Hila Z; Sheffer, Maya; Bloch, Yuval

    2017-05-01

    The current study compared empathy and theory of mind (ToM) between children with ADHD and healthy controls, and assessed changes in ToM among children with ADHD following administration of methylphenidate (MPH). Twenty-four children with ADHD (mean age = 10.3 years) were compared with 36 healthy controls. All children completed the interpersonal reactivity index (IRI), a self-reported empathy questionnaire, and performed the "faux-pas" recognition task (FPR). Children with ADHD performed the task with and without MPH. Children with ADHD showed significantly lower levels of self-reported empathy on most IRI subscales. FPR scores were significantly lower in children with ADHD and were improved, following the administration of MPH, to a level equal to that found in healthy controls. Children with ADHD show impaired self-reported empathy and FPR when compared with healthy controls. Stimulants improve FPR in children with ADHD to a level equal to that in healthy controls.

  16. Co-morbidity and patterns of care in stimulant-treated children with ADHD in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Faber, Adrianne; Kalverdijk, Luuk J; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T W; Hugtenburg, Jacqueline G; Minderaa, Ruud B; Tobi, Hilde

    2010-02-01

    This study aimed at investigating the use of psychosocial interventions and psychotropic co-medication among stimulant-treated children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in relation to the presence of psychiatric co-morbidity. Stimulant users younger than 16 years were identified in 115 pharmacies and a questionnaire was sent to their stimulant prescribing physician. Of 773 questionnaires sent out, 556 were returned and were suitable for analysis (72%). The results are based on 510 questionnaires concerning stimulant-treated children for whom a diagnosis of ADHD was reported. Of the 510 children diagnosed with ADHD, 31% had also received one or more other psychiatric diagnoses, mainly pervasive developmental disorder or oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder. We found an association between the presence of co-morbidity and the use of psychosocial interventions for the child (P < 0.001) and the parents (P < 0.001). In the ADHD-only group, 26% did not receive any form of additional interventions, while psychosocial interventions varied from 8 to 18% in children with ADHD and psychiatric co-morbidity. The presence of diagnostic co-morbidity was also associated with the use of psychotropic co-medication (overall, P = 0.012) and antipsychotics (P < 0.001). Stimulant-treated youths with ADHD and psychiatric co-morbidity received more psychosocial interventions and psychotropic co-medication than children with ADHD-only. The type of psychosocial interventions and psychotropic co-medication received by the children and their parents, depended on the specific co-morbid psychiatric disorder being present.

  17. Spanish validation of the adult Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale (ADHD-RS): relevance of clinical subtypes.

    PubMed

    Richarte, Vanesa; Corrales, Montserrat; Pozuelo, Marian; Serra-Pla, Juanfran; Ibáñez, Pol; Calvo, Eva; Corominas, Margarida; Bosch, Rosa; Casas, Miquel; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni

    Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has a prevalence between 2.5% and 4% of the general adult population. Over the past few decades, self-report measures have been developed for the current evaluation of adult ADHD. The ADHD-RS is a 18-items scale self-report version for assessing symptoms for ADHD DSM-IV. A validation of Spanish version of the ADHD-RS was performed. The sample consisted of 304 adult with ADHD and 94 controls. A case control study was carried out (adult ADHD vs. non ADHD). The diagnosis of ADHD was evaluated with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I) and the Conners Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV (CAADID-II). To determinate the internal validity of the two dimensions structure of ADHD-RS an exploratory factor analysis was performed. The α-coefficients were taken as a measure of the internal consistency of the dimensions considered. A logistic regression study was carried out to evaluate the model in terms of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV). Average age was 33.29 (SD=10.50) and 66% of subjects were men (there were no significant differences between the two groups). Factor analysis was done with a principal component analysis followed by a normalized varimax rotation. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy tests was .868 (remarkable) and the Bartlett's test of sphericity was 2 (153)=1,835.76, P<.0005, indicating the appropriateness of the factor analysis. This two-factor model accounted for 37.81% of the explained variance. The α-coefficient of the two factors was .84 and .82. The original strategy proposed 24 point for cut-off: sensitivity (81.9%), specificity (74.7%), PPV (50.0%), NPV (93.0%), kappa coefficient .78 and area under the curve (AUC) .89. The new score strategy proposed by our group suggests different cut-off for different clinical presentations. The 24 point is the best cut-off for ADHD combined presentation

  18. Associations Between Adverse Childhood Experiences and ADHD Diagnosis and Severity.

    PubMed

    Brown, Nicole M; Brown, Suzette N; Briggs, Rahil D; Germán, Miguelina; Belamarich, Peter F; Oyeku, Suzette O

    Although identifying adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) among children with behavioral disorders is an important step in providing targeted therapy and support, little is known about the burden of ACEs among children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We described the prevalence of ACEs in children with and without ADHD, and examined associations between ACE type, ACE score, and ADHD diagnosis and severity. Using the 2011 to 2012 National Survey of Children's Health, we identified children aged 4 to 17 years whose parents indicated presence and severity of ADHD, and their child's exposure to 9 ACEs. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate associations between ACEs, ACE score, and parent-reported ADHD and ADHD severity, adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. In our sample (N = 76,227, representing 58,029,495 children), children with ADHD had a higher prevalence of each ACE compared with children without ADHD. Children who experienced socioeconomic hardship (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21-1.59), divorce (aOR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.16-1.55), familial mental illness (aOR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.26-1.90), neighborhood violence (aOR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.23-1.75), and incarceration (aOR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.12-1.72) were more likely to have ADHD. A graded relationship was observed between ACE score and ADHD. Children with ACE scores of 2, 3, and ≥4 were significantly more likely to have moderate to severe ADHD. Children with ADHD have higher ACE exposure compared with children without ADHD. There was a significant association between ACE score, ADHD, and moderate to severe ADHD. Efforts to improve ADHD assessment and management should consider routinely evaluating for ACEs. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Stimulant medications for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) improve memory of emotional stimuli in ADHD-diagnosed college students.

    PubMed

    Maul, J; Advokat, C

    2013-04-01

    Stimulant medications do not improve the academic achievement of ADHD diagnosed undergraduates. One reason may be that stimulant-induced sympathetic arousal might impair memory. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a study between September 2011 and March 2012, to compare medicated (n=12) and non-medicated (n=11) ADHD diagnosed undergraduates, with non-ADHD students (n=12). All participants were presented with an audiovisual narrative that included an emotional segment, and answered questions about the story one week later. All groups remembered the emotional segment significantly better than the neutral segments. Non-medicated ADHD students recalled less of both segments than the medicated ADHD or non-ADHD groups, which did not differ from each other. Stimulants improved memory in ADHD students, and did not impair the relative retention of emotional, as opposed to neutral information. Stimulant-induced arousal cannot explain the academic deficit of ADHD undergraduates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Recent developments in the genetics of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Oliver; Kittel-Schneider, Sarah; Reif, Andreas

    2018-05-02

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental psychiatric disorder which affects children and adults. ADHD is one of the psychiatric disorders with the strongest genetic basis according to familial, twin and SNP-based epidemiological studies. In this review, we provide an update of recent insights in the genetic basis of ADHD. We discuss recent progress from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) looking at common variants as well as rare copy number variations (CNVs). New analysis of gene groups, so-called functional ontologies, provide some insight into the gene networks afflicted, pointing to the role of neurodevelopmentally expressed gene-networks. Bioinformatic methods such as functional enrichment analysis and protein-protein network analysis are used to highlight biological processes of likely relevance to the aetiology of ADHD. Additionally, CNVs seem to map on important pathways implicated in synaptic signalling and neurodevelopment. While some candidate gene associations of e.g. neurotransmitter receptors and signalling have been replicated, they do not seem to explain significant variance in recent GWAS. We discuss insights from recent case-control SNP-GWAS which gave whole-genome significant SNPs in ADHD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Childhood Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Colin J.

    2011-01-01

    ADHD and epilepsy common are both common childhood disorders and both can have significant negative consequences on a child's behavioural, learning, and social development. Both conditions can co-occur and population studies suggest that the prevalence of ADHD in childhood epilepsy is between 12 and 17%. The prevalence of epilepsy in ADHD is lower…

  2. Time out of Mind: Temporal Perspective in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carelli, Maria G.; Wiberg, Britt

    2012-01-01

    Objective: ADHD is often associated with difficulties in planning and time management. In this study, the authors examined the hypothesis that these functional problems in ADHD reflect systematic biases in temporal orientation. Method: To test this hypothesis, adults with ADHD (n = 30) and healthy controls (n = 60) completed the Swedish version of…

  3. Understanding ADHD: A Practical Guide for Teachers and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, William N.

    This book is intended as a practical guide for parents and teachers in managing children or students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Specific strategies and techniques are presented that will facilitate learning for individuals with ADHD in both the home and school environment. Chapters include: "ADHD at Home and in the…

  4. The Problem with ADHD: Researchers' Constructions and Parents' Accounts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajo, Bora; Cohen, David

    2013-01-01

    An enduring controversy over the nature of ADHD complicates parents' decisions regarding children likely to be diagnosed with the condition. Using a fallibilist perspective, this review examines how researchers construe ADHD and acknowledge the controversy. From a systematic literature search of empirical reports using parents of ADHD-diagnosed…

  5. Training Raters to Assess Adult ADHD: Reliability of Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Lenard A.; Spencer, Thomas; Faraone, Stephen V.; Reimherr, Fred W.; Kelsey, Douglas; Michelson, David; Biederman, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The standardization of ADHD ratings in adults is important given their differing symptom presentation. The authors investigated the agreement and reliability of rater standardization in a large-scale trial of atomoxetine in adults with ADHD. Training of 91 raters for the investigator-administered ADHD Rating Scale (ADHDRS-IV-Inv) occurred prior to…

  6. Study Urges Treatment of Parents of ADHD Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Treatment for many young children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) should also include treatment for their parents, according to new research from the University of Maryland's ADHD Program. In conducting one of the first systematic studies of pre-school children with ADHD, the research team found that parents of children with…

  7. ADHD: Misconceptions and the Four Rules of Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutscher, Martin L.

    2008-01-01

    Contrary to popular opinion, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not just about hyperactive people who have short attention spans. ADHD is a disorder that involves difficult problems on a wide range of "executive dysfunction," a wide range of co-occuring conditions, and family problems. People need to recognize that ADHD is not just…

  8. ADHD in Indian Elementary Classrooms: Understanding Teacher Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Neena

    2013-01-01

    ADHD in India is culturally viewed as a school specific condition. Parents perceive accessing child psychiatric services as stigmatizing and prefer educational interventions for ADHD. There is a crucial need for research that restructures information and intervention paradigms about ADHD within a school context. The objectives of the present study…

  9. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in ADHD Diagnosis by Kindergarten Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Paul L.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Farkas, George; Maczuga, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Background: Whether and to what extent racial/ethnic disparities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis occur by kindergarten entry is currently unknown. We investigated risk factors associated with an ADHD diagnosis by kindergarten entry generally, and specifically whether racial/ethnic disparities in ADHD diagnosis occur by…

  10. Family Characteristics of Anxious ADHD Children: Preliminary Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kepley, Hayden O.; Ostrander, Rick

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the family environments of children in a community sample with ADHD and co-occurring anxiety. Method: Family Environment Scale, Behavioral Assessment System for Children, and Structured Clinical Interview are administered to parents of children with ADHD with and without anxiety. Results: ADHD families are uniformly less…

  11. Pragmatic Deficits and Social Impairment in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staikova, Ekaterina; Gomes, Hilary; Tartter, Vivien; McCabe, Allyssa; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Impaired social functioning has been well documented in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Existing treatments for ADHD are effective for managing core symptoms, but have limited effectiveness at improving social skills, suggesting that social deficits in ADHD may not be directly related to core symptoms…

  12. Screening for ADHD in an Adult Social Phobia Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortberg, Ewa; Tilfors, Kerstin; Bejerot, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Recent studies have suggested a link between a primary anxiety disorder and ADHD. Method: A total of 39 participants with a primary diagnosis of social phobia were compared with 178 patients with ADHD and 88 patients with other psychiatric disorders on measures for childhood and adult ADHD (the Wender Utah Rating Scale and the Adult…

  13. Preservice Teachers' Perceptions of Neuroscience, Medicine, and Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zambo, Debby; Zambo, Ron; Sidlik, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Neuroscience is revealing how the brains of individuals with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) function, and advances in medicine are leading to treatments. This study investigated preservice teachers' knowledge and beliefs about students with ADHD. The majority of preservice teachers knew someone with ADHD, which, along with courses…

  14. What Can ADHD without Comorbidity Teach Us about Comorbidity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeda, Toshinobu; Ambrosini, Paul J.; deBerardinis, Rachel; Elia, Josephine

    2012-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric comorbidity in ADHD is frequent, impairing and poorly understood. In this report, characteristics of comorbid and comorbid-free ADHD subjects are investigated in an attempt to identify differences that could potentially advance our understanding of risk factors. In a clinically-referred ADHD cohort of 449 youths (ages 6-18), age,…

  15. Perceptions of Greek Female Adolescents with ADHD Regarding Family Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liontou, Magdalini

    2016-01-01

    Acknowledging that the ADHD literature is shaped by male experiences, the purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of female adolescents with ADHD and the impact of the label in their family relationships. Four Greek adolescents aged 13-18 with a diagnosis of combined-type ADHD were interviewed through a purposive criterion…

  16. Vigilance and Sustained Attention in Children and Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver; Walitza, Susanne; Sontag, Thomas A.; Laufkotter, Rainer; Linder, Martin; Lange, Klaus W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The present article tests the hypothesis of a sustained attention deficit in children and adults suffering from ADHD. Method: Vigilance and sustained attention of 52 children with ADHD and 38 adults with ADHD were assessed using a computerized vigilance task. Furthermore, the attentional performance of healthy children (N = 52) and…

  17. Variability of Attention Processes in ADHD: Observations from the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapport, Mark D.; Kofler, Michael J.; Alderson, R. Matt; Timko, Thomas M., Jr.; DuPaul, George J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Classroom- and laboratory-based efforts to study the attentional problems of children with ADHD are incongruent in elucidating attentional deficits; however, none have explored within- or between-minute variability in the classroom attentional processing in children with ADHD. Method: High and low attention groups of ADHD children…

  18. Cognitive Deficits in Adults with ADHD Go beyond Comorbidity Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Katiane L.; Guimaraes-da-Silva, Paula O.; Grevet, Eugenio H.; Victor, Marcelo M.; Salgado, Carlos A. I.; Vitola, Eduardo S.; Mota, Nina R.; Fischer, Aline G.; Contini, Veronica; Picon, Felipe A.; Karam, Rafael G.; Belmonte-de-Abreu, Paulo; Rohde, Luis A.; Bau, Claiton H. D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study addresses if deficits in cognitive, attention, and inhibitory control performance in adults with ADHD are better explained by the disorder itself or by comorbid conditions. Method Adult patients with ADHD ("n" = 352) and controls ("n" = 94) were evaluated in the ADHD program of a tertiary hospital. The…

  19. Predictors of Postural Stability in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Objective: As children with ADHD who have more inattention problems are more frequently with fine motor problems, it is not clear whether postural balance problems are associated with different subtypes of ADHD. This study investigates the predictors of postural stability in children with ADHD considering the covariant factors of age, gender, and…

  20. Functional Impairment and Occupational Outcome in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjervan, Bjorn; Torgersen, Terje; Nordahl, Hans M.; Rasmussen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Objective: ADHD is associated with poor functional outcomes. The objectives were to investigate the prevalence of functional impairment and occupational status in a clinically referred sample of adults with ADHD and explore factors predicting occupational outcome. Method: A sample of 149 adults with a confirmed diagnosis of ADHD participated in…

  1. PDD Symptoms in ADHD, an Independent Familial Trait?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijmeijer, J. S.; Hoekstra, P. J.; Minderaa, R. B.; Buitelaar, J. K.; Altink, M. E.; Buschgens, C. J. M.; Fliers, E. A.; Rommelse, N. N. J.; Sergeant, J. A.; Hartman, C. A.

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate whether subtle PDD symptoms in the context of ADHD are transmitted in families independent of ADHD, and whether PDD symptom familiality is influenced by gender and age. The sample consisted of 256 sibling pairs with at least one child with ADHD and 147 healthy controls, aged 5-19 years. Children who…

  2. Evaluation of the ADHD Rating Scale in Youth with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerys, Benjamin E.; Nissley-Tsiopinis, Jenelle; de Marchena, Ashley; Watkins, Marley W.; Antezana, Ligia; Power, Thomas J.; Schultz, Robert T.

    2017-01-01

    Scientists and clinicians regularly use clinical screening tools for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to assess comorbidity without empirical evidence that these measures are valid in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We examined the prevalence of youth meeting ADHD criteria on the ADHD rating scale fourth edition…

  3. Impulsivity in College Students with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jessica A.

    2010-01-01

    Impulsivity is the cardinal symptom of ADHD. It is estimated that ADHD is present in eighteen percent of children and in four percent of adults. The present study repeats and extends a previous study (Gray, Breier, Foorman, & Fletcher, 2002) that measured impulsivity in adolescents with and without ADHD, which found higher false alarm rates…

  4. Medications Do Not Necessarily Normalize Cognition in ADHD Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gualtieri, C. Thomas; Johnson, Lynda G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Although ADHD medications are effective for the behavioral components of the disorder, little information exists concerning their effects on cognition, especially in community samples. Method: A cross-sectional study of ADHD patients treated with three different ADHD drugs was conducted. Patients' performance on a computerized…

  5. Longer Eye Contact Improves ADHD Children's Compliance with Parents' Commands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapalka, G. M.

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of eye contact in reducing ADHD children's problems with compliance. Seventy-six parents of ADHD boys between ages 5 and 10 were randomized into two treatment groups and a control group. Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed that, as hypothesized, eye contact was effective in reducing ADHD children's problems with…

  6. Teachers' Perceptions of Young Children with ADHD in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Yonghee

    2008-01-01

    This study examined Korean early childhood teachers' understanding of behavioural characteristics of children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), difficulties about and concerns for children with ADHD, the kinds of support for which teachers looked, experiences teachers had with the parents of children with ADHD, and…

  7. ADHD and Poor Motor Performance from a Family Genetic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fliers, Ellen; Vermeulen, Sita; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Altink, Marieke; Buschgens, Cathelijne; Rommelse, Nanda; Faraone, Stephen; Sergeant, Joseph; Buitelaar, Jan; Franke, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of the data from a genetics study of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their affected or unaffected siblings finds that ADHD-affected children had significantly more motor problems than their unaffected siblings. It is concluded that there is a common basis between ADHD and motor problems that may be due to…

  8. Motorsports Involvement among Adolescents and Young Adults with Childhood ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wymbs, Brian T.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Belendiuk, Katherine A.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; Walther, Christine A. P.; Cheong, Jee Won; McGinley, James S.; Marshal, Michael P.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Pelham, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Although children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for impulsive, health-endangering behavior, few studies have examined nonsubstance, use-related risk-taking behaviors. This study examined whether adolescents and young adults with ADHD histories were more likely than those without ADHD histories to report frequent…

  9. [The Development of Quality Indicators for Management of Patients with ADHD in Social Paediatrics].

    PubMed

    Skrundz, M; Borusiak, P; Hameister, K A; Geraedts, M

    2015-12-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with an estimated prevalence of 5% and its increased risk for comorbidities is of significant relevance for the health care system and is as well of socio-political significance. There is a lack of established methods for the evaluation of the diagnostic and therapeutic treatment of the patients. In this study, we have developed a set of evidence- and consensus-based meaningful indicators for the treatment of children with ADHD. Following a thorough examination of the literature and published Guidelines, a first set of 90 quality indicators was created after redundancy reduction and addition of newly developed indicators. The further development of the indicator set was based on a modified version of the 2-step RAND/UCLA expert evaluation method. After assessment in 2 rounds of ratings, a set of 39 homogeneously positively rated indicators was established. 28 indicators apply to the quality of the diagnostic and therapeutic process, 4 to structural conditions and 3 rely on outcome. This is the first study covering the aspect of quality measurement in children with developmental disorders, especially ADHD. For the next step a pilot evaluation is necessary to complete the evaluation of the quality indicators. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Diagnostic utility of brain activity flow patterns analysis in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Biederman, J; Hammerness, P; Sadeh, B; Peremen, Z; Amit, A; Or-Ly, H; Stern, Y; Reches, A; Geva, A; Faraone, S V

    2017-05-01

    A previous small study suggested that Brain Network Activation (BNA), a novel ERP-based brain network analysis, may have diagnostic utility in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study we examined the diagnostic capability of a new advanced version of the BNA methodology on a larger population of adults with and without ADHD. Subjects were unmedicated right-handed 18- to 55-year-old adults of both sexes with and without a DSM-IV diagnosis of ADHD. We collected EEG while the subjects were performing a response inhibition task (Go/NoGo) and then applied a spatio-temporal Brain Network Activation (BNA) analysis of the EEG data. This analysis produced a display of qualitative measures of brain states (BNA scores) providing information on cortical connectivity. This complex set of scores was then fed into a machine learning algorithm. The BNA analysis of the EEG data recorded during the Go/NoGo task demonstrated a high discriminative capacity between ADHD patients and controls (AUC = 0.92, specificity = 0.95, sensitivity = 0.86 for the Go condition; AUC = 0.84, specificity = 0.91, sensitivity = 0.76 for the NoGo condition). BNA methodology can help differentiate between ADHD and healthy controls based on functional brain connectivity. The data support the utility of the tool to augment clinical examinations by objective evaluation of electrophysiological changes associated with ADHD. Results also support a network-based approach to the study of ADHD.

  11. Knowledge of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Attitudes toward Teaching Children with ADHD: The Role of Teaching Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Donnah L.; Watt, Susan E.; Noble, William; Shanley, Dianne C.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and attitudes toward teaching children with ADHD are compared across stages of Australian teachers' careers. Relative to pre-service teachers with (n = 218) and without (n = 109) teaching experience, in-service teachers (n = 127) show more overall knowledge of ADHD, more knowledge of…

  12. Depression and Anxiety among Transitioning Adolescents and College Students with ADHD, Dyslexia, or Comorbid ADHD/Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jason M.; Gregg, Noel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate depressive and anxious symptomatology among transitioning adolescents and college students with ADHD, dyslexia, or comorbid ADHD/dyslexia. Method: Transitioning adolescents and college students with these disorders along with a non-ADHD/dyslexia college sample completed self-report measures of depression and anxiety.…

  13. Children with ADHD Symptoms Show Decreased Activity in Ventral Striatum during the Anticipation of Reward, Irrespective of ADHD Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Hulst, Branko M.; de Zeeuw, Patrick; Bos, Dienke J.; Rijks, Yvonne; Neggers, Sebastiaan F. W.; Durston, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Background: Changes in reward processing are thought to be involved in the etiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as other developmental disorders. In addition, different forms of therapy for ADHD rely on reinforcement principles. As such, improved understanding of reward processing in ADHD could eventually lead to…

  14. Temporal Stability of ADHD in the High-IQ Population: Results from the MGH Longitudinal Family Studies of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antshel, Kevin M.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Maglione, Katherine; Doyle, Alysa; Fried, Ronna; Seidman, Larry; Biederman, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to establish the relationship between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity (ADHD) disorder and high-IQ children and whether ADHD has a high predictive value among youths with high-IQ. Results further supported the hypothesis for the predictive validity of ADHD in high-IQ youths.

  15. [Legal aspects of hyperkinetic disorders/ADHD].

    PubMed

    Hässler, F; Reis, O; Buchmann, J; Bohne-Suraj, S

    2008-07-01

    With a prevalence of 2-6%, hyperkinetic disorders (F 90, ICD-10) and disturbances of activity and attention (F 90.0, ADHD, ICD-10) are among the psychiatric disorders most commonly diagnosed in children, adolescents, and adults. Children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD suffer from hyperactivity and deficits in attention and impulse control. Adults usually have problems focusing on one goal, maintaining their attention, modulating emotions effectively, structuring their tasks, and controlling impulses and in executive functions. Legal implications derive from core symptoms and from treatment with stimulants governed by legislation on narcotics. This paper discusses juridical aspects of ADHD in connection with the administration of medication at school, trips abroad within and outside the Schengen area, driving, competitive sports, military service, the increased risk of delinquency, the individual capacity to incur criminal responsibility, developmental criteria for the ability to act responsibly, and modalities for withdrawal treatment or treatment during detention.

  16. Motor regulation problems and pain in adults diagnosed with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most children who are diagnosed with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have moderate-to-severe motor problems using the Motor Function Neurological Assessment battery (MFNU). The MFNU focuses on specific muscle adjustment problems associated with ADHD, especially motor inhibition problems and high muscle tone. Here we investigated whether adults with ADHD/hyperkinetic disorder (HKD) have similar motor problems. In our clinical experience, adults with ADHD often complain about back, shoulder, hip, and leg pain. We also investigate reported pain in adults with ADHD. Methods Twenty-five adult outpatients diagnosed with ADHD/HKD who were responders to methylphenidate (MPH) were compared to 23 non-ADHD controls on 16 MFNU subtests and using a ‘total score’ (‘TS’) parameter. The MFNU test leader was blinded to group identity. The two groups were also compared using the Pain Drawing and Numerical Pain Rating Scale. Results The adult ADHD group had significantly (p < .001) more motor problems (higher TS) than controls. On the muscle regulation subtests, 36–96% of the ADHD group showed ‘moderate’ to ‘severe’ problems compared to 13–52% of the control group, and 80% of the ADHD group reported widespread pain. Highly significant differences were found between the ADHD and control groups for the variables ‘pain level’ (p < .001) and ‘pain location’ (p < .001). Significant correlations were found between TS and ‘pain location’ and between TS and ‘pain level’. Conclusions These findings suggest that similar to children with ADHD, adults diagnosed with ADHD also have motor inhibition problems and heightened muscle tone. The presence of significantly higher pain levels and more widespread pain in the ADHD group compared to non-ADHD controls might indicate that pain is a long-term secondary effect of heightened muscle tone and restricted movement that can be demonstrated in children and adults by the MFNU

  17. ADHD Correlates, Comorbidity, and Impairment in Community and Treated Samples of Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Shrout, Patrick E.; Ramírez, Rafael; Bravo, Milagros; Alegría, Margarita; Martínez-Taboas, Alfonso; Chávez, Ligia; Rubio-Stipec, Maritza; García, Pedro; Ribera, Julio C.; Canino, Glorisa

    2013-01-01

    Patterns of correlates, comorbidity and impairment associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and youth were examined in representative samples from the community and from treatment facilities serving medically indigent youth in Puerto Rico. Information from caretakers and youths was obtained using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, (version IV), measures of global impairment, and a battery of potential correlates. In the community (N=1,896) and the treated samples (N=763), 7.5 and 26.2% of the children, respectively, met criteria for DSM-IVADHD in the previous year. Although the prevalence rates and degree of impairment differed, the general patterns of correlates, comorbidity and impairment were similar in both populations. The exceptions were associated with conduct disorder, anxiety, impairment in the ADHD comorbid group, and age factors that appeared to be related to selection into treatment. PMID:17505876

  18. Occupational issues of adults with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background ADHD is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that persists into adulthood. Its symptoms cause impairments in a number of social domains, one of which is employment. We wish to produce a consensus statement on how ADHD affects employment. Methods This consensus development conference statement was developed as a result of a joint international meeting held in July 2010. The consensus committee was international in scope (United Kingdom, mainland Europe, United Arab Emirates) and consisted of individuals from a broad range of backgrounds (Psychiatry, Occupational Medicine, Health Economists, Disability Advisors). The objectives of the conference were to discuss some of the occupational impairments adults with ADHD may face and how to address these problems from an inclusive perspective. Furthermore the conference looked at influencing policy and decision making at a political level to address impaired occupational functioning in adults with ADHD and fears around employing people with disabilities in general. Results The consensus was that there were clear weaknesses in the current arrangements in the UK and internationally to address occupational difficulties. More so, Occupational Health was not wholly integrated and used as a means of making positive changes to the workplace, but rather as a superfluous last resort that employers tried to avoid. Furthermore the lack of cross professional collaboration on occupational functioning in adults with ADHD was a significant problem. Conclusions Future research needs to concentrate on further investigating occupational functioning in adults with ADHD and pilot exploratory initiatives and tools, leading to a better and more informed understanding of possible barriers to employment and potential schemes to put in place to address these problems. PMID:23414364

  19. ADHD Medication and Substance-Related Problems.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Patrick D; Chang, Zheng; Hur, Kwan; Gibbons, Robert D; Lahey, Benjamin B; Rickert, Martin E; Sjölander, Arvid; Lichtenstein, Paul; Larsson, Henrik; D'Onofrio, Brian M

    2017-09-01

    Substance use disorders are major contributors to excess mortality among individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), yet associations between pharmacological ADHD treatment and substance-related problems remain unclear. This study investigated concurrent and long-term associations between ADHD medication treatment and substance-related events. The authors analyzed 2005-2014 commercial health care claims from 2,993,887 (47.2% female) adolescent and adult ADHD patients. Within-individual analyses compared the risk of substance-related events (i.e., emergency department visits related to substance use disorders) during months in which patients received prescribed stimulant medication or atomoxetine relative to the risk during months in which they did not. In adjusted within-individual comparisons, relative to periods in which patients did not receive ADHD medication, male patients had 35% lower odds of concurrent substance-related events when receiving medication (odds ratio=0.65, 95% CI=0.64-0.67), and female patients had 31% lower odds of concurrent substance-related events (odds ratio=0.69, 95% CI=0.67-0.71). Moreover, male patients had 19% lower odds of substance-related events 2 years after medication periods (odds ratio=0.81, 95% CI=0.78-0.85), and female patients had 14% lower odds of substance-related events 2 years after medication periods (odds ratio=0.86, 95% CI= 0.82-0.91). Sensitivity analyses supported most findings but were less consistent for long-term associations among women. These results provide evidence that receiving ADHD medication is unlikely to be associated with greater risk of substance-related problems in adolescence or adulthood. Rather, medication was associated with lower concurrent risk of substance-related events and, at least among men, lower long-term risk of future substance-related events.

  20. Home environment: association with hyperactivity/impulsivity in children with ADHD and their non-ADHD siblings

    PubMed Central

    Mulligan, Aisling; Anney, Richard; Butler, Louise; O’Regan, Myra; Richardson, Thomas; Tulewicz, Edyta Maria; Fitzgerald, Michael; Gill, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objective We wished to ascertain if there is an association between symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and home environment in children with ADHD and non-ADHD siblings, controlling for other environmental measures. Method 96 children with ADHD combined type (ADHD-CT) and their siblings participated in the study. Parent and teacher Conners’ rating scales were completed and home environment was assessed using the Middle Childhood and Early Adolescent Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME). ADHD symptoms were assessed for correlation with HOME in children with ADHD-CT and non-ADHD siblings and multiple regression analysis was used to control for gender, socio-economic status, exposure to nicotine, exposure to alcohol in utero, birth weight, gestational age, pregnancy and perinatal risk factors. The presence of oppositional disorders was assessed for association with HOME score in those with ADHD-CT. The multiple regression analysis was repeated controlling for environmental factors and for oppositional disorders in those with ADHD-CT. Oppositional symptoms were assessed for correlation with HOME score in non-ADHD siblings. Results Teacher-rated hyperactive/impulsive scores correlated with HOME (r = −.27, p <.01) in children with ADHD-CT. This association remained significant when other environmental factors and oppositional disorders were controlled for. Environmental factors and gender contributed to 30% of the variance of ADHD symptoms in ADHD-CT. Parent-rated hyperactive/impulsive scores also correlated with HOME (r = −.28, p < .05) for non-ADHD siblings. An association between HOME and diagnosis of oppositional defiant disorder or CD was found for children with ADHD-CT and between HOME and oppositional symptoms in non-ADHD siblings. Conclusions The home environment has a small but significant association with hyperactive/impulsive symptoms in children with ADHD-CT and non-ADHD siblings. This association remained

  1. Transitions and Motivations for Substance Misuse in Prison Inmates With ADHD and Conduct Disorder: Validation of a New Instrument.

    PubMed

    Young, Susan; González, Rafael A; Wolff, Kim; Mutch, Laura; Malet-Lambert, Isabella; Gudjonsson, Gisli H

    2017-01-01

    There is a reasonable theoretical base for understanding the possible causes and motivations behind substance misuse and its dependency. There is a need for a reliable and valid measure that delineates the markers of substance use from its initiation and identifies different motivations for drug use transitioning, maintenance, and dependency. We addressed this gap in the United Kingdom by examining and validating the Substance Transitions in Addiction Rating Scale (STARS). For this review, 390 male prisoners were screened for conduct disorder and assessed with a clinical diagnostic interview for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). They completed the four STARS subscales regarding their substance use. Exploratory structural equation modeling was performed to assess the STARS structure and to derive factors to assess validity against ADHD and conduct disorder diagnostic categories. Each of the subscales produced meaningful and reliable factors that supported the self-medication and behavioral disinhibition hypotheses of substance use motivation. The findings robustly show that ADHD is significantly associated with the need for coping as a way of managing primary and comorbid symptoms, but not conduct disorder. The findings were strongest for the combined ADHD type. STARS has a great potential to further the understanding of the motivation behind substance use and its dependency in different populations.

  2. The role of ADHD associated genes in neurodevelopment.

    PubMed

    Dark, Callum; Homman-Ludiye, Jihane; Bryson-Richardson, Robert J

    2018-06-15

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder of childhood. It is primarily characterised by high levels of activity, inattention, and impulsivity, and has strong negative impacts on academic functioning. Children with ADHD show a reduction in volume, and hypoactivity, in a range of brain regions. The underlying mechanisms behind these phenotypes are unknown, however, variants in several genes with known roles in neurodevelopment are associated with ADHD. In this review we discuss how these ADHD associated genes contribute to neurodevelopment, and how variants in these genes could give rise to the neurological phenotypes seen in ADHD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [ADHD in adults: identifying, experiencing, comprehending].

    PubMed

    Schuster, Ingrid; Schwitzer, Georg Oliver; Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Bitriol, Thomas; Müller, Markus; Plattner, Barbara; Conca, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    In former times ADHD was seen as a children`s disease, nowadays it is assured, that 4 % of adults suffer from ADHD. By today`s state of research there are a lot of factors of influence according to the biopsychosocial model. For the development of mentalization and ability of reflexion, difficult early relationships, mistreatment or other traumatisations are characteristically relevant. In this paper the authors want to point to the interaction and the correlation of neurobiological, psychodynamic and psychosocial influences and to discuss the multifactorial development of this disease pattern. By the use of a multidimensional approach there could be additional therapeutic possibilities considering the patient individually and integrated.

  4. How 'core' are motor timing difficulties in ADHD? A latent class comparison of pure and comorbid ADHD classes.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Jolanda M J; Hartman, Catharina A; Thissen, Andrieke J A M; Oerlemans, Anoek M; Luman, Marjolein; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2016-04-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have motor timing difficulties. This study examined whether affected motor timing accuracy and variability are specific for ADHD, or that comorbidity with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) contributes to these motor timing difficulties. An 80-trial motor timing task measuring accuracy (μ), variability (σ) and infrequent long response times (τ) in estimating a 1-s interval was administered to 283 children and adolescents (8-17 years) from both a clinic and population based sample. They were divided into four latent classes based on the SCQ and L data. These classes were: without behavioral problems 'Normal-class' (n = 154), with only ADHD symptoms 'ADHD-class' (n = 49), and two classes with both ASD and ADHD symptoms; ADHD(+ASD)-class (n = 39) and ASD(+ADHD)-class (n = 41). The pure ADHD-class did not deviate from the Normal class on any of the motor timing measures (mean RTs 916 and 925 ms, respectively). The comorbid ADHD(+ASD) and ASD(+ADHD) classes were significantly less accurate (more time underestimations) compared to the Normal class (mean RTs 847 and 870 ms, respectively). Variability in motor timing was reduced in the younger children in the ADHD(+ASD) class, which may reflect a tendency to rush the tedious task. Only patients with more severe behavioral symptoms show motor timing deficiencies. This cannot merely be explained by high ADHD severity with ASD playing no role, as ADHD symptom severity in the pure ADHD-class and the ASD(+ADHD) class was highly similar, with the former class showing no motor timing deficits.

  5. Personality profiles in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Perroud, Nader; Hasler, Roland; Golay, Nicolas; Zimmermann, Julien; Prada, Paco; Nicastro, Rosetta; Aubry, Jean-Michel; Ardu, Stefano; Herrmann, François R; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; Baud, Patrick

    2016-06-14

    Previous studies suggested that the presence of ADHD in children and young adolescents may affect the development of personality. Whether or not the persistence of ADHD in adult life is associated with distinct personality patterns is still matter for debate. To address this issue, we compared the profiles of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) that assesses personality dimensions in 119 adults ADHD and 403 controls. ANCOVA were used to examine group differences (controls vs. ADHD and ADHD inattentive type vs. ADHD combined + hyperactive/impulsive types) in Temperaments and Characters. Partial correlation coefficients were used to assess correlation between TCI and expression and severity of symptoms of ADHD. High novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA) and self-transcendence (ST) scores as well as low self-directedness (SD) and cooperativeness (C) scores were associated with ADHD diagnosis. Low SD was the strongest personality trait associated with adult ADHD. Cases with the ADHD inattentive type showed higher HA and lower SD scores compared to the combined and hyperactive/impulsive types. High HA scores correlated with inattention symptoms whereas high NS and ST scores were related to hyperactive symptoms. Finally low SD and high NS were associated with increased ADHD severity. Distinct temperaments were associated with inattentive versus hyperactive/impulsive symptoms supporting the heterogeneous nature of the disorder.

  6. Reading Performance of Young Adults With ADHD Diagnosed in Childhood.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Ana; Mercader, Jessica; Fernández, M Inmaculada; Colomer, Carla

    2017-02-01

    To study reading performance of young adults with ADHD and its relation with executive functioning. Thirty young adults with a childhood diagnosis of ADHD and 30 with normal development (ND) were compared on reading accuracy, fluency, and comprehension. Furthermore, ADHD with reading disabilities (ADHD+RD) and ADHD without reading disabilities (ADHD-RD) subgroups were compared using self-report and informant-report versions of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult version (BRIEF-A). Adults with ADHD obtained significantly worse results than the ND adults on reading speed, responses to literal questions, and a cloze test. Although the comparison of the ADHD+RD and ADHD-RD groups did not show significant differences on the BRIEF-A subscales, the ADHD+RD group surpassed the critical percentile (85) on more subscales, with working memory and metacognition especially affected. The findings point out that reading should be assessed in individuals with ADHD as part of their evaluation to design effective early interventions.

  7. The joint effect of bilingualism and ADHD on executive functions.

    PubMed

    Mor, Billy; Yitzhaki-Amsalem, Sarin; Prior, Anat

    2015-06-01

    The current study investigated the combined effect of ADHD, previously associated with executive function (EF) deficits, and of bilingualism, previously associated with EF enhancement, on EF. Eighty University students, Hebrew monolinguals and Russian Hebrew bilinguals, with and without ADHD participated. Inhibition tasks were a Numeric Stroop task and a Simon arrows task. Shifting tasks were the Trail Making Test (TMT) and a task-switching paradigm. Participants with ADHD performed worse than controls, but we did not find a bilingual advantage in EF. The negative impact of ADHD was more pronounced for bilinguals than for monolinguals, but only in interference suppression tasks. Bilingual participants with ADHD had the lowest performance. Bilingualism might prove to be an added burden for adults with ADHD, leading to reduced EF abilities. Alternatively, the current findings might be ascribed to over- or under-diagnosis of ADHD due to cultural differences between groups. These issues should be pursued in future research. © 2014 SAGE Publications.

  8. Evaluating Dopamine Reward Pathway in ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Volkow, Nora D.; Wang, Gene-Jack; Kollins, Scott H.; Wigal, Tim L.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Telang, Frank; Fowler, Joanna S.; Zhu, Wei; Logan, Jean; Ma, Yeming; Pradhan, Kith; Wong, Christopher; Swanson, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Context Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)—characterized by symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity—is the most prevalent childhood psychiatric disorder that frequently persists into adulthood, and there is increasing evidence of reward-motivation deficits in this disorder. Objective To evaluate biological bases that might underlie a reward/motivation deficit by imaging key components of the brain dopamine reward pathway (mesoaccumbens). Design, Setting, and Participants We used positron emission tomography to measure dopamine synaptic markers (transporters and D2/D3 receptors) in 53 nonmedicated adults with ADHD and 44 healthy controls between 2001–2009 at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Main Outcome Measures We measured specific binding of positron emission tomographic radioligands for dopamine transporters (DAT) using [11C]cocaine and for D2/D3 receptors using [11C]raclopride, quantified as binding potential (distribution volume ratio −1). Results For both ligands, statistical parametric mapping showed that specific binding was lower in ADHD than in controls (threshold for significance set at P<.005) in regions of the dopamine reward pathway in the left side of the brain. Region-of-interest analyses corroborated these findings. The mean (95% confidence interval [CI] of mean difference) for DAT in the nucleus accumbens for controls was 0.71 vs 0.63 for those with ADHD (95% CI, 0.03–0.13, P=.004) and in the midbrain for controls was 0.16 vs 0.09 for those with ADHD (95% CI, 0.03–0.12; P ≤ .001); for D2/D3 receptors, the mean accumbens for controls was 2.85 vs 2.68 for those with ADHD (95% CI, 0.06–0.30, P=.004); and in the midbrain, it was for controls 0.28 vs 0.18 for those with ADHD (95% CI, 0.02–0.17, P=.01). The analysis also corroborated differences in the left caudate: the mean DAT for controls was 0.66 vs 0.53 for those with ADHD (95% CI, 0.04–0.22; P=.003) and the mean D2/D3 for controls was 2.80 vs 2.47 for

  9. The decisions regarding ADHD management (DRAMa) study: uncertainties and complexities in assessment, diagnosis and treatment, from the clinician's point of view.

    PubMed

    Kovshoff, Hanna; Williams, Sarah; Vrijens, May; Danckaerts, Marina; Thompson, Margaret; Yardley, Lucy; Hodgkins, Paul; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S

    2012-02-01

    Clinical decision making is influenced by a range of factors and constitutes an inherently complex task. Here we present results from the decisions regarding ADHD management (DRAMa) study in which we undertook a thematic analysis of clinicians' experiences and attitudes to assessment, diagnosis and treatment of ADHD. Fifty prescribing child psychiatrists and paediatricians from Belgium and the UK took part in semi-structured interviews about their decisions regarding the assessment, diagnosis and treatment of ADHD. Interviews were transcribed and processed using thematic analysis and the principles of grounded theory. Clinicians described the assessment and diagnostic process as inherently complicated and requiring time and experience to piece together the accounts of children made by multiple sources and through the use of varying information gathering techniques. Treatment decisions were viewed as a shared process between families, children, and the clinician. Published guidelines were viewed as vague, and few clinicians spoke about the use of symptom thresholds or specific impairment criteria. Furthermore, systematic or operationalised criteria to assess treatment outcomes were rarely used. Decision making in ADHD is regarded as a complicated, time consuming process which requires extensive use of clinical impression, and involves a partnership with parents. Clinicians want to separate biological from environmental causal factors to understand the level of impairment and the subsequent need for a diagnosis of ADHD. Clinical guidelines would benefit from revisions to take into account the real-world complexities of clinical decision making for ADHD.

  10. Standardised assessment of functioning in ADHD: consensus on the ICF Core Sets for ADHD.

    PubMed

    Bölte, Sven; Mahdi, Soheil; Coghill, David; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Granlund, Mats; Holtmann, Martin; Karande, Sunil; Levy, Florence; Rohde, Luis A; Segerer, Wolfgang; de Vries, Petrus J; Selb, Melissa

    2018-02-12

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with significant impairments in social, educational, and occupational functioning, as well as specific strengths. Currently, there is no internationally accepted standard to assess the functioning of individuals with ADHD. WHO's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-child and youth version (ICF) can serve as a conceptual basis for such a standard. The objective of this study is to develop a comprehensive, a common brief, and three age-appropriate brief ICF Core Sets for ADHD. Using a standardised methodology, four international preparatory studies generated 132 second-level ICF candidate categories that served as the basis for developing ADHD Core Sets. Using these categories and following an iterative consensus process, 20 ADHD experts from nine professional disciplines and representing all six WHO regions selected the most relevant categories to constitute the ADHD Core Sets. The consensus process resulted in 72 second-level ICF categories forming the comprehensive ICF Core Set-these represented 8 body functions, 35 activities and participation, and 29 environmental categories. A Common Brief Core Set that included 38 categories was also defined. Age-specific brief Core Sets included a 47 category preschool version for 0-5 years old, a 55 category school-age version for 6-16 years old, and a 52 category version for older adolescents and adults 17 years old and above. The ICF Core Sets for ADHD mark a milestone toward an internationally standardised functional assessment of ADHD across the lifespan, and across educational, administrative, clinical, and research settings.

  11. Examination of Neurological Subtle Signs in ADHD as a Clinical Tool for the Diagnosis and Their Relationship to Spatial Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrin, Maite; Vance, Alasdair

    2012-01-01

    Background: Neurological subtle signs (NSS) are minor neurological abnormalities that have been shown to be increased in a number of neurodevelopmental conditions. For attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), it remains unclear whether NSS may aid the clinical diagnostic process. Methods: This study explored the association of total and…

  12. Auditory and Visual Attention Performance in Children With ADHD: The Attentional Deficiency of ADHD Is Modality Specific.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hung-Yu; Hsieh, Hsieh-Chun; Lee, Posen; Hong, Fu-Yuan; Chang, Wen-Dien; Liu, Kuo-Cheng

    2017-08-01

    This study explored auditory and visual attention in children with ADHD. In a randomized, two-period crossover design, 50 children with ADHD and 50 age- and sex-matched typically developing peers were measured with the Test of Various Attention (TOVA). The deficiency of visual attention is more serious than that of auditory attention in children with ADHD. On the auditory modality, only the deficit of attentional inconsistency is sufficient to explain most cases of ADHD; however, most of the children with ADHD suffered from deficits of sustained attention, response inhibition, and attentional inconsistency on the visual modality. Our results also showed that the deficit of attentional inconsistency is the most important indicator in diagnosing and intervening in ADHD when both auditory and visual modalities are considered. The findings provide strong evidence that the deficits of auditory attention are different from those of visual attention in children with ADHD.

  13. ADHD and academic performance: why does ADHD impact on academic performance and what can be done to support ADHD children in the classroom?

    PubMed

    Daley, D; Birchwood, J

    2010-07-01

    This paper reviews the relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and academic performance. First, the relationship at different developmental stages is examined, focusing on pre-schoolers, children, adolescents and adults. Second, the review examines the factors underpinning the relationship between ADHD and academic underperformance: the literature suggests that it is the symptoms of ADHD and underlying cognitive deficits not co-morbid conduct problems that are at the root of academic impairment. The review concludes with an overview of the literature examining strategies that are directed towards remediating the academic impairment of individuals with ADHD.

  14. Rejection Sensitivity and Social Outcomes of Young Adult Men with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canu, Will H.; Carlson, Caryn L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been consistently linked to social maladjustment. This study investigated whether elevated rejection sensitivity (RS) could contribute to the relational problems that adults with ADHD encounter. Method: Undergraduate men in ADHD-Combined Type (ADHD-C; n = 31), ADHD-Primarily…

  15. Association of Anxiety and ODD/CD in Children with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Aguirre, Vincent P.; Lee, Steve S.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to examine levels of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) in four groups of children: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) only, anxiety only, ADHD and anxiety, and controls (i.e., non-ADHD youth). Although children with ADHD exhibit more ODD and CD than non-ADHD youth, it is unknown if…

  16. Ability of College Students to Simulate ADHD on Objective Measures of Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booksh, Randee Lee; Pella, Russell D.; Singh, Ashvind N.; Gouvier, William Drew

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the ability of college students to simulate ADHD symptoms on objective and self-report measures and the relationship between knowledge of ADHD and ability to simulate ADHD. Method: Undergraduate students were assigned to a control or a simulated ADHD malingering condition and compared with a clinical AD/HD group.…

  17. Is the Inattentive Subtype of ADHD Different from the Combined/Hyperactive Subtype?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grizenko, Natalie; Paci, Michael; Joober, Ridha

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the ADHD combined/hyperactive subtype (ADHD/CH) to the ADHD inattentive subtype (ADHD/I) on the level of comorbidity, treatment response, and possible etiological factors. Method: A total of 371 clinically referred children diagnosed with ADHD aged between 6 and 12 years are recruited for a double-blind, placebo-controlled…

  18. Better efficacy for the osmotic release oral system methylphenidate among poor adherents to immediate-release methylphenidate in the three ADHD subtypes.

    PubMed

    Chou, Wen-Jiun; Chou, Miao-Chun; Tzang, Ruu-Fen; Hsu, Ya-Chen; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chen, Shin-Jaw; Wu, Yu-Yu; Huang, Ya-Fen; Liang, Hsin-Yi; Cheng, Helen

    2009-04-01

    To determine factors for switching to osmotic release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) among poor adherents to immediate-release methylphenidate (IR-MPH); and to compare the efficacy of OROS-MPH on the three attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subtypes in a multi-site prospective observational study in Taiwan. The sample included 240 children with ADHD, aged 6-16 years, who were poor adherents to IR-MPH, 137 of whom were switched to OROS-MPH. The child psychiatrists diagnosed the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition) ADHD subtypes and assessed the medical history, adherence, side-effects, global ADHD severity, and family/school effectiveness. Parents reported their child's behavioral symptoms. The determinants for an OROS-MPH switch were higher dosage, shorter treatment and thrice-daily administration of IR-MPH, and more severe inattention symptoms. Hyperactivity and oppositional symptoms were greater in the ADHD combined and hyperactive-impulsive subtypes than the inattentive subtype. Switching to OROS-MPH significantly improved behavioral symptoms and family/school measures, and this was most evident in the ADHD-combined group, followed by the ADHD-inattentive group. Inattention influenced not only academic performance, but also overall classroom behaviors and the parent-child relationship, with the latter two also influenced by oppositional symptoms. This study suggests better efficacy for the OROS-MPH among poor adherents to IR-MPH; however, its effectiveness varied across the three ADHD subtypes (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00460720).

  19. Adjustment to College in Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabiner, David L.; Anastopoulos, Arthur D.; Costello, Jane; Hoyle, Rick H.; Swartzwelder, H. Scott

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine college adjustment in students reporting an ADHD diagnosis and the effect of medication treatment on students' adjustment. Method: 1,648 first-semester freshmen attending a public and a private university completed a Web-based survey to examine their adjustment to college. Results: Compared with 200 randomly selected control…

  20. Atypical Alpha Asymmetry in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, T. Sigi; Smalley, Susan L.; Hanada, Grant; Macion, James; McCracken, James T.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: A growing body of literature suggests atypical cerebral asymmetry and interhemispheric interaction in ADHD. A common means of assessing lateralized brain function in clinical populations has been to examine the relative proportion of EEG alpha activity (8-12 Hz) in each hemisphere (i.e., alpha asymmetry). Increased rightward alpha…

  1. ADHD, Science and the Common Man

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colley, Bill

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a response is made to the assertion that discourses surrounding attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are dominated by those who choose to frame such difficulties within a biomedical paradigm, and that valid alternative explanations are often marginalised as a result. It is suggested, however, that if such a discontinuity…

  2. ADHD: Behavioral, Educational, and Medication Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPaul, George J.; White, George P.

    2006-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disruptive behavior disorder which is characterized by levels of inattention (e.g., difficulty in concentrating on schoolwork), impulsivity (e.g., frequently interrupting conversations or activities), and/or overactivity (e.g., difficulty remaining seated when required to do so) that are well…

  3. Emotion Understanding in Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Da Fonseca, David; Seguier, Valerie; Santos, Andreia; Poinso, Francois; Deruelle, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Several studies suggest that children with ADHD tend to perform worse than typically developing children on emotion recognition tasks. However, most of these studies have focused on the recognition of facial expression, while there is evidence that context plays a major role on emotion perception. This study aims at further investigating emotion…

  4. Building Bridges with Students Who Have ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medoff, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    "Baxter pushed me away every moment that we worked together, He was rude, sarcastic, and often downright mean. He got up and walked away every time I asked him to do something he didn't want to, which was ... everything." That's how Lisa Medoff describes the 4th grade boy whom she tutored twice a week to help him manage his ADHD. Despite…

  5. ADHD in the Classroom: Effective Intervention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPaul, George J.; Weyandt, Lisa L.; Janusis, Grace M.

    2011-01-01

    School-related difficulties are commonly associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This article describes effective school-based intervention strategies including behavioral interventions, modifications to academic instruction, and home-school communication programs. One overlooked aspect of treatment of children with ADHD…

  6. Treating ADHD with Hypnosis and Neurotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barabasz, Arreed; Barabasz, Marianne

    Traditional diagnosis procedures for Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may lead to over-diagnosis and are fraught with complications because the target behavioral symptoms are found in a variety of other disorders. Traditional treatments consisting of powerful side effect laden psychostimulant drugs…

  7. Future Directions in ADHD Etiology Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel T.

    2012-01-01

    Reviews salient emerging themes in the scientific literature related to identifying etiology and pathophysiology of ADHD. While bypassing the need for new treatment research, the review highlights three themes. First, recognition of the epigenetic effects is expected to revitalize the search for and mapping of early environmental influences on the…

  8. The Neuro Bureau ADHD-200 Preprocessed repository.

    PubMed

    Bellec, Pierre; Chu, Carlton; Chouinard-Decorte, François; Benhajali, Yassine; Margulies, Daniel S; Craddock, R Cameron

    2017-01-01

    In 2011, the "ADHD-200 Global Competition" was held with the aim of identifying biomarkers of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and structural MRI (s-MRI) data collected on 973 individuals. Statisticians and computer scientists were potentially the most qualified for the machine learning aspect of the competition, but generally lacked the specialized skills to implement the necessary steps of data preparation for rs-fMRI. Realizing this barrier to entry, the Neuro Bureau prospectively collaborated with all competitors by preprocessing the data and sharing these results at the Neuroimaging Informatics Tools and Resources Clearinghouse (NITRC) (http://www.nitrc.org/frs/?group_id=383). This "ADHD-200 Preprocessed" release included multiple analytical pipelines to cater to different philosophies of data analysis. The processed derivatives included denoised and registered 4D fMRI volumes, regional time series extracted from brain parcellations, maps of 10 intrinsic connectivity networks, fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation, and regional homogeneity, along with grey matter density maps. The data was used by several teams who competed in the ADHD-200 Global Competition, including the winning entry by a group of biostaticians. To the best of our knowledge, the ADHD-200 Preprocessed release was the first large public resource of preprocessed resting-state fMRI and structural MRI data, and remains to this day the only resource featuring a battery of alternative processing paths. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Substance Use in College Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooney, Mary; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Yoon, Yesel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The college years represent a developmental transition during which the initiation and escalation of heavy drinking set the stage for lifelong difficulties with alcohol and other drugs. Evidence from studies of adolescents and young adults with ADHD suggests that college students with the disorder may be uniquely vulnerable to alcohol-…

  10. The Kids behind the Label: Understanding ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Trudy

    2010-01-01

    Educators are confronted every day with local, state, and federal mandates; large class sizes; lack of resources; high-stakes tests; and diversity of all kinds. Throw into that mix a youngster with attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) and it's no wonder that teachers are frustrated and at a loss for what to do. Professionals define ADHD…

  11. ADHD medication use following FDA risk warnings.

    PubMed

    Barry, Colleen L; Martin, Andres; Busch, Susan H

    2012-09-01

    In 2006, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) investigated cardiac and psychiatric risks associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication use. To examine how disclosure of safety risks affected pediatric ADHD use, and to assess news media coverage of the issue to better understand trends in treatment patterns. We used the AHRQ's Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), a nationally representative household panel survey, to calculate unadjusted rates of pediatric ADHD use from 2002 to 2008 overall and by parents' education. We examined whether children (ages 0 to 20) filled a prescription for any ADHD medication during the calendar year. Next, we used content analysis methods to analyze news coverage of the issue in 10 high-circulation newspapers, the 3 major television networks and a major cable news network in the U.S. We examined 6 measures capturing information conveyed on risk and benefits of ADHD medication use. No declines in medication use following FDA safety warnings overall or by parental education level were observed. News media coverage was relatively balanced in its portrayal of the risks and benefits of ADHD medication use by children. ADHD risk warnings were not associated with large declines in medication use, and balanced news coverage may have contributed to the treatment patterns observed. Self-reported surveys like the MEPS rely on the recall of respondents and may be subject to reporting bias. However, the validity of these data is supported by their consistency with other data on drug use from other sources. These findings are in direct contrast to the substantial declines in use observed after pediatric antidepressant risk warnings in the context of a news media environment that emphasized risks over benefits. Our findings are relevant to the ongoing discussion about improving the FDA's ability to monitor drug safety. Safety warnings occur amid ongoing concern that the agency has insufficient authority and

  12. Time-on-task effects in children with and without ADHD: depletion of executive resources or depletion of motivation?

    PubMed

    Dekkers, Tycho J; Agelink van Rentergem, Joost A; Koole, Alette; van den Wildenberg, Wery P M; Popma, Arne; Bexkens, Anika; Stoffelsen, Reino; Diekmann, Anouk; Huizenga, Hilde M

    2017-12-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized by deficits in their executive functioning and motivation. In addition, these children are characterized by a decline in performance as time-on-task increases (i.e., time-on-task effects). However, it is unknown whether these time-on-task effects should be attributed to deficits in executive functioning or to deficits in motivation. Some studies in typically developing (TD) adults indicated that time-on-task effects should be interpreted as depletion of executive resources, but other studies suggested that they represent depletion of motivation. We, therefore, investigated, in children with and without ADHD, whether there were time-on-task effects on executive functions, such as inhibition and (in)attention, and whether these were best explained by depletion of executive resources or depletion of motivation. The stop-signal task (SST), which generates both indices of inhibition (stop-signal reaction time) and attention (reaction time variability and errors), was administered in 96 children (42 ADHD, 54 TD controls; aged 9-13). To differentiate between depletion of resources and depletion of motivation, the SST was administered twice. Half of the participants was reinforced during second task performance, potentially counteracting depletion of motivation. Multilevel analyses indicated that children with ADHD were more affected by time-on-task than controls on two measures of inattention, but not on inhibition. In the ADHD group, reinforcement only improved performance on one index of attention (i.e., reaction time variability). The current findings suggest that time-on-task effects in children with ADHD occur specifically in the attentional domain, and seem to originate in both depletion of executive resources and depletion of motivation. Clinical implications for diagnostics, psycho-education, and intervention are discussed.

  13. Contributions of parental alcoholism, prenatal substance exposure, and genetic transmission to child ADHD risk: a female twin study.

    PubMed

    Knopik, Valerie S; Sparrow, Elizabeth P; Madden, Pamela A F; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Hudziak, James J; Reich, Wendy; Slutske, Wendy S; Grant, Julia D; McLaughlin, Tara L; Todorov, Alexandre; Todd, Richard D; Heath, Andrew C

    2005-05-01

    Genetic influences have been shown to play a major role in determining the risk of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In addition, prenatal exposure to nicotine and/or alcohol has also been suggested to increase risk of the disorder. Little attention, however, has been directed to investigating the roles of genetic transmission and prenatal exposure simultaneously. Diagnostic telephone interview data from parents of Missouri adolescent female twin pairs born during 1975-1985 were analyzed. Logistic regression models were fitted to interview data from a total of 1936 twin pairs (1091 MZ and 845 DZ pairs) to determine the relative contributions of parental smoking and drinking behavior (both during and outside of pregnancy) as risk factors for DSM-IV ADHD. Structural equation models were fitted to determine the extent of residual genetic and environmental influences on ADHD risk while controlling for effects of prenatal and parental predictors on risk. ADHD was more likely to be diagnosed in girls whose mothers or fathers were alcohol dependent, whose mothers reported heavy alcohol use during pregnancy, and in those with low birth weight. Controlling for other risk factors, risk was not significantly increased in those whose mothers smoked during pregnancy. After allowing for effects of prenatal and childhood predictors, 86% of the residual variance in ADHD risk was attributable to genetic effects and 14% to non-shared environmental influences. Prenatal and parental risk factors may not be important mediators of influences on risk with much of the association between these variables and ADHD appearing to be indirect.

  14. Relationship between endophenotype and phenotype in ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Rommelse, Nanda NJ; Altink, Marieke E; Martin, Neilson C; Buschgens, Cathelijne JM; Faraone, Stephen V; Buitelaar, Jan K; Sergeant, Joseph A; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2008-01-01

    Background It has been hypothesized that genetic and environmental factors relate to psychiatric disorders through the effect of intermediating, vulnerability traits called endophenotypes. The study had a threefold aim: to examine the predictive validity of an endophenotypic construct for the ADHD diagnosis, to test whether the magnitude of group differences at the endophenotypic and phenotypic level is comparable, and to investigate whether four factors (gender, age, IQ, rater bias) have an effect (moderation or mediation) on the relation between endophenotype and phenotype. Methods Ten neurocognitive tasks were administered to 143 children with ADHD, 68 non-affected siblings, and 120 control children (first-borns) and 132 children with ADHD, 78 non-affected siblings, and 113 controls (second-borns) (5 – 19 years). The task measures have been investigated previously for their endophenotypic viability and were combined to one component which was labeled 'the endophenotypic construct': one measure representative of endophenotypic functioning across several domains of functioning. Results The endophenotypic construct classified children with moderate accuracy (about 50% for each of the three groups). Non-affected children differed as much from controls at the endophenotypic as at the phenotypic level, but affected children displayed a more severe phenotype than endophenotype. Although a potentially moderating effect (age) and several mediating effects (gender, age, IQ) were found affecting the relation between endophenotypic construct and phenotype, none of the effects studied could account for the finding that affected children had a more severe phenotype than endophenotype. Conclusion Endophenotypic functioning is moderately predictive of the ADHD diagnosis, though findings suggest substantial overlap exists between endophenotypic functioning in the groups of affected children, non-affected siblings, and controls. Results suggest other factors may be crucial and

  15. Epigenetics in Developmental Disorder: ADHD and Endophenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Trevor; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Blum, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Heterogeneity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with complex interactive operations of genetic and environmental factors, is expressed in a variety of disorder manifestations: severity, co-morbidities of symptoms, and the effects of genes on phenotypes. Neurodevelopmental influences of genomic imprinting have set the stage for the structural-physiological variations that modulate the cognitive, affective, and pathophysiological domains of ADHD. The relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors provide rapidly proliferating insights into the developmental trajectory of the condition, both structurally and functionally. Parent-of-origin effects seem to support the notion that genetic risks for disease process debut often interact with the social environment, i.e., the parental environment in infants and young children. The notion of endophenotypes, markers of an underlying liability to the disorder, may facilitate detection of genetic risks relative to a complex clinical disorder. Simple genetic association has proven insufficient to explain the spectrum of ADHD. At a primary level of analysis, the consideration of epigenetic regulation of brain signalling mechanisms, dopamine, serotonin, and noradrenaline is examined. Neurotrophic factors that participate in the neurogenesis, survival, and functional maintenance of brain systems, are involved in neuroplasticity alterations underlying brain disorders, and are implicated in the genetic predisposition to ADHD, but not obviously, nor in a simple or straightforward fashion. In the context of intervention, genetic linkage studies of ADHD pharmacological intervention have demonstrated that associations have fitted the “drug response phenotype,” rather than the disorder diagnosis. Despite conflicting evidence for the existence, or not, of genetic associations between disorder diagnosis and genes regulating the structure and function of neurotransmitters and brain-derived neurotrophic

  16. Under diagnosis of adult ADHD: cultural influences and societal burden.

    PubMed

    Asherson, Philip; Akehurst, Ron; Kooij, J J Sandra; Huss, Michael; Beusterien, Kathleen; Sasané, Rahul; Gholizadeh, Shadi; Hodgkins, Paul

    2012-07-01

    To explore the literature focusing on cultural influences in the diagnosis of adult ADHD and respective societal burden. A review of the literature over the past 10 years was performed using OVID. Although numerous articles focused on diagnosis and burden of adult ADHD, few focused on cultural factors influencing diagnosis. Like other mental health disorders, cultural and social perspectives contribute to our understanding of adult ADHD and may play a significant role in the diagnosis and varying acceptance of the condition. Moreover, adults with ADHD may underestimate the impact of ADHD symptoms, and in many cases have learned to compensate for ADHD related impairments by choosing lifestyles that help compensate for symptoms. Some adults with ADHD may appear to function well, however they may expend excessive amounts of energy to overcome impairments; and they may be distressed by ongoing symptoms such as restlessness, mood instability and low self-esteem. Research shows that ADHD can be detrimental to many areas of life including work, daily activities, social and family relationships and psychological and physical well-being. Patient-reported impairments in productivity due to poor time management, procrastination, and distractibility can translate into significant indirect costs and decreased quality of life. ADHD in adults is also associated with increased accidents, medical resource utilization, antisocial behaviour and drug alcohol abuse. The substantial societal burden of adult ADHD highlights the importance of providing a better understanding of the factors that contribute to accurate diagnosis and of improving the low recognition of the disorder in many world regions.

  17. Characteristics of undiagnosed children with parent-reported ADHD behaviour.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Kathrine Bang; Ravn, Mette Holmelin; Arnfred, Jon; Olsen, Jørn; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka; Obel, Carsten

    2018-02-01

    There is an ongoing public debate on the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in which critics have claimed that the disorder is over-diagnosed, while the potential under-diagnosis of children with ADHD has received little attention. In this study we estimate the number of children with parent-reported ADHD behaviour at age 7 and absence of recorded ADHD diagnosis through adolescence, and investigate whether socio-demographic characteristics of this group differed from the children diagnosed with ADHD during follow-up. Our study was based on data from the Danish National Birth Cohort, where parents of 51,527 children completed questionnaires, including the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). ADHD diagnosis was identified through Danish registers and parent-reported ADHD behaviour by the specific SDQ subscale. Socio-demographic predictors of positive parent-reported SDQ ADHD behaviour and absence of recorded ADHD diagnosis in their children were examined using logistic regression analyses. Children with parent-reported ADHD behaviour and no diagnosis (1.3%) were more likely to be girls (OR 1.83; 95% CI 1.45; 2.29), more likely to have mothers with a low socioeconomic status (OR high vs. low 1.49; 95% CI 1.10; 2.02), and to live in certain regions of the country (OR: Capital vs. Southern: 2.04; 95% CI 1.51; 2.73) than children with an ADHD diagnosis. The children showed markedly impairments on all the SDQ subscales. The results demonstrate a considerable number of children with ADHD symptoms who potentially go undetected and underline the influence of socio-demographic factors in the pathway to a diagnosis of ADHD.

  18. Multisensory integration and ADHD-like traits: Evidence for an abnormal temporal integration window in ADHD.

    PubMed

    Panagiotidi, Maria; Overton, Paul G; Stafford, Tom

    2017-11-01

    Abnormalities in multimodal processing have been found in many developmental disorders such as autism and dyslexia. However, surprisingly little empirical work has been conducted to test the integrity of multisensory integration in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The main aim of the present study was to examine links between symptoms of ADHD (as measured using a self-report scale in a healthy adult population) and the temporal aspects of multisensory processing. More specifically, a Simultaneity Judgement (SJ) and a Temporal Order Judgement (TOJ) task were used in participants with low and high levels of ADHD-like traits to measure the temporal integration window and Just-Noticeable Difference (JND) (respectively) between the timing of an auditory beep and a visual pattern presented over a broad range of stimulus onset asynchronies. The Point of Subjective Similarity (PSS) was also measured in both cases. In the SJ task, participants with high levels of ADHD-like traits considered significantly fewer stimuli to be simultaneous than participants with high levels of ADHD-like traits, and the former were found to have significantly smaller temporal windows of integration (although no difference was found in the PSS in the SJ or TOJ tasks, or the JND in the latter). This is the first study to identify an abnormal temporal integration window in individuals with ADHD-like traits. Perceived temporal misalignment of two or more modalities can lead to distractibility (e.g., when the stimulus components from different modalities occur separated by too large of a temporal gap). Hence, an abnormality in the perception of simultaneity could lead to the increased distractibility seen in ADHD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation into Brazilian Portuguese of the Vanderbilt Head and Neck Symptom Survey version 2.0 (VHNSS 2.0) for the assessment of oral symptoms in head and neck cancer patients submitted to radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Eliane Marçon; Carvalho, André Lopes; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo; Nunes, João Soares; Paiva, Bianca Sakamoto Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Patients submitted to radiotherapy for the treatment of head and neck cancer have several symptoms, predominantly oral. The Vanderbilt Head and Neck Symptom Survey version 2.0 is an American tool developed to evaluate oral symptoms in head and neck cancer patients submitted to radiotherapy. The aim of the present study was to translate the Vanderbilt Head and Neck Symptom Survey version 2.0 into Brazilian Portuguese and cross-culturally adapt this tool for subsequent validation and application in Brazil. A method used for the translation and cultural adaptation of tools, which included independent translations, synthesis of the translations, back-translations, expert committee, and pre-test, was used. The pre-test was performed with 37 head and neck cancer patients, who were divided into four groups, to assess the relevance and understanding of the assessed items. Data were submitted to descriptive statistical analysis. The overall mean of the content validity index was 0.79 for semantic and idiomatic equivalence, and it was higher than 0.8 for cultural and conceptual equivalence. The cognitive interview showed that patients were able to paraphrase the items, and considered them relevant and easily understood. The tool was translated and cross-culturally adapted to be used in Brazil. The authors believe this translation is suited for validation. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. How Substance Users With ADHD Perceive the Relationship Between Substance Use and Emotional Functioning.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, John T; Weisner, Thomas S; Jensen, Peter S; Murray, Desiree W; Molina, Brooke S G; Arnold, Eugene L; Hechtman, Lily; Swanson, James M; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Victor, Elizabeth C; Kollins, Scott H; Wells, Karen C; Belendiuk, Katherine A; Blonde, Andrew; Nguyen, Celeste; Ambriz, Lizeth; Nguyen, Jenny L

    2017-02-01

    Although substance use (SU) is elevated in ADHD and both are associated with disrupted emotional functioning, little is known about how emotions and SU interact in ADHD. We used a mixed qualitative-quantitative approach to explore this relationship. Narrative comments were coded for 67 persistent (50 ADHD, 17 local normative comparison group [LNCG]) and 25 desistent (20 ADHD, 5 LNCG) substance users from the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA) adult follow-up (21.7-26.7 years-old). SU persisters perceived SU positively affects emotional states and positive emotional effects outweigh negative effects. No ADHD group effects emerged. Qualitative analysis identified perceptions that cannabis enhanced positive mood for ADHD and LNCG SU persisters, and improved negative mood and ADHD for ADHD SU persisters. Perceptions about SU broadly and mood do not differentiate ADHD and non-ADHD SU persisters. However, perceptions that cannabis is therapeutic may inform ADHD-related risk for cannabis use.