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Sample records for vanderbilt road birmingham

  1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH WEST, BIRMINGHAM PORT ROAD DON DRENNAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH WEST, BIRMINGHAM PORT ROAD DON DRENNAN OVERPASS IN FOREGROUND, TCI-US STEEL ENSLEY WORKS IN THE BACKGROUND. - Tennessee Coal & Iron Company, Ensley Works, West of residential & commercial districts, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  2. 77 FR 66541 - Safety Zone; Alliance Road Bridge Demolition; Black Warrior River, Locust Fork; Birmingham, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Alliance Road Bridge Demolition; Black... navigable waters during the demolition of the Alliance Road Bridge (Co. Rd. 61). Entry into, transiting or... their intentions to start the process to demolish the Alliance Road Bridge on September 24,...

  3. The Learning Technology Center at Vanderbilt University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bransford, John

    1994-01-01

    Describes the Vanderbilt University (Tennessee) Learning Technology Center, including profile of the center's personnel; description of representative projects, such as the Jasper-Woodbury Problem Solving Series, a multimedia literacy program for grades K-3, and the Adult Literacy Program; and a list of 14 representative publications by center…

  4. A Trojan Horse in Birmingham

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarker, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    "Trojan Horse" has become journalistic shorthand for an apparent attempt by a small group in East Birmingham to secure control of local non-faith schools and impose policies and practices in keeping with the very conservative (Salafist and Wahhabi) version of Islam which they hold. In this article, Pat Yarker gives an account of two…

  5. Reflections on a Degree Initiative: The UK's Birmingham Royal Ballet Dancers Enter the University of Birmingham

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benn, Tansin

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides an opportunity to share experiences and perceptions of the first 5 years of a degree programme for professional dancers. A partnership developed in the mid-1990s between the UK's Birmingham Royal Ballet and the University of Birmingham, Westhill (now School of Education), to provide a part-time, post-experience, flexible study…

  6. Desegregation in Birmingham, Alabama: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bynum, Effie; And Others

    In May 1974, a five member study team from Teachers College, Columbia University spent four and one-half days in Birmingham, Alabama, for the purpose of (1) collecting information that describes the desegregation process as it evolved, (2) interviewing principals, administrators, teachers, students and community leaders relative to their…

  7. 77 FR 2127 - Birmingham Terminal Railway, L.L.C.-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Birmingham Southern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-13

    ... Surface Transportation Board Birmingham Terminal Railway, L.L.C.--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Birmingham Southern Railroad Company Birmingham Terminal Railway, L.L.C. (BHRR), a noncarrier, has filed a... Transtar, Inc., is a Class III terminal and switching carrier. This transaction is related to...

  8. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH WEST, BIRMINGPORT ROAD AND DON DRENNEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH WEST, BIRMINGPORT ROAD AND DON DRENNEN OVERPASS IN FOREGROUND, TCI-US STEEL ENSLEY WORKS OPEN HEARTH (RUINS) IN THE BACKGROUND. - Tennessee Coal & Iron Company, Ensley Works, West of residential & commercial districts, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  9. Secondary Use of Clinical Data: the Vanderbilt Approach

    PubMed Central

    Danciu, Ioana; Cowan, James D.; Basford, Melissa; Wang, Xiaoming; Saip, Alexander; Osgood, Susan; Shirey-Rice, Jana; Kirby, Jacqueline; Harris, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    The last decade has seen an exponential growth in the quantity of clinical data collected nationwide, triggering an increase in opportunities to reuse the data for biomedical research. The Vanderbilt research data warehouse framework consists of identified and de-identified clinical data repositories, fee-for-service custom services, and tools built atop the data layer to assist researchers across the enterprise. Providing resources dedicated to research initiatives benefits not only the research community, but also clinicians, patients and institutional leadership. This work provides a summary of our approach in the secondary use of clinical data for research domain, including a description of key components and a list of lessons learned, designed to assist others assembling similar services and infrastructure. PMID:24534443

  10. Validation of the Vanderbilt Holistic Face Processing Test

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao-Chih; Ross, David A.; Gauthier, Isabel; Richler, Jennifer J.

    2016-01-01

    The Vanderbilt Holistic Face Processing Test (VHPT-F) is a new measure of holistic face processing with better psychometric properties relative to prior measures developed for group studies (Richler et al., 2014). In fields where psychologists study individual differences, validation studies are commonplace and the concurrent validity of a new measure is established by comparing it to an older measure with established validity. We follow this approach and test whether the VHPT-F measures the same construct as the composite task, which is group-based measure at the center of the large literature on holistic face processing. In Experiment 1, we found a significant correlation between holistic processing measured in the VHPT-F and the composite task. Although this correlation was small, it was comparable to the correlation between holistic processing measured in the composite task with the same faces, but different target parts (top or bottom), which represents a reasonable upper limit for correlations between the composite task and another measure of holistic processing. These results confirm the validity of the VHPT-F by demonstrating shared variance with another measure of holistic processing based on the same operational definition. These results were replicated in Experiment 2, but only when the demographic profile of our sample matched that of Experiment 1. PMID:27933014

  11. Electron bunch length measurement at the Vanderbilt FEL

    SciTech Connect

    Amirmadhi, F.; Brau, C.A.; Mendenhall, M.

    1995-12-31

    During the past few years, a number of experiments have been performed to demonstrate the possibility to extract the longitudinal charge distribution from spectroscopic measurements of the coherent far-infrared radiation emitted as transition radiation or synchrotron radiation. Coherent emission occurs in a spectral region where the wavelength is comparable to or longer than the bunch length, leading to an enhancement of the radiation intensity that is on the order of the number of particles per bunch, as compared to incoherent radiation. This technique is particularly useful in the region of mm and sub-mm bunch lengths, a range where streak-cameras cannot be used for beam diagnostics due to their limited time resolution. Here we report on experiments that go beyond the proof of principle of this technique by applying it to the study and optimization of FEL performance. We investigated the longitudinal bunch length of the Vanderbilt FEL by analyzing the spectrum of coherent transition radiation emitted by the electron bunches. By monitoring the bunch length while applying a bunch-compression technique, the amount of the compression could be easily observed. This enabled us to perform a systematic study of the FEL performance, especially gain and optical pulse width, as a function of the longitudinal electron distribution in the bunch. The results of this study will be presented and discussed.

  12. AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST ALONG RED MOUNTAIN TOWARD THE BIRMINGHAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST ALONG RED MOUNTAIN TOWARD THE BIRMINGHAM CITY CENTER WITH U.S. HIGHWAY 280 (BOTTOM LEFT TO CENTER) AND THE HIGHWAY CUT (CENTER RIGHT). - Red Mountain Cut National Natural Landmark, U.S. 280 at Red Mountain, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  13. VIEW LOOKING WEST, HARDIETYNES IN MIDDLE GROUND, BIRMINGHAM AREA 'MAX' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING WEST, HARDIE-TYNES IN MIDDLE GROUND, BIRMINGHAM AREA 'MAX' BUS FACILITY IN FOREGROUND. 10TH AVENUE TO THE LEFT, US 280 IN BACKGROUND. - Hardie-Tynes Manufacturing Company, 800 Twenty-eighth Street, North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  14. VIEW LOOKING WEST TOWARD BIRMINGHAM CITY CENTER, HARDIETYNES FOUNDRY IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING WEST TOWARD BIRMINGHAM CITY CENTER, HARDIE-TYNES FOUNDRY IN FOREGROUND, RED MOUNTAIN IN FAR LEFT HORIZON, US 280 RUNNING HORIZONTAL, I20-59 RUNNING VERTICAL. - Hardie-Tynes Manufacturing Company, 800 Twenty-eighth Street, North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  15. Upgrade to the Birmingham Irradiation Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dervan, P.; French, R.; Hodgson, P.; Marin-Reyes, H.; Parker, K.; Wilson, J.; Baca, M.

    2015-10-01

    The Birmingham Irradiation Facility was developed in 2013 at the University of Birmingham using the Medical Physics MC40 cyclotron. It can achieve High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) fluences of 1015 (1 MeV neutron equivalent (neq)) cm-2 in 80 s with proton beam currents of 1 μA and so can evaluate effectively the performance and durability of detector technologies and new components to be used for the HL-LHC. Irradiations of silicon sensors and passive materials can be carried out in a temperature controlled cold box which moves continuously through the homogenous beamspot. This movement is provided by a pre-configured XY-axis Cartesian robot scanning system. In 2014 the cooling system and cold box were upgraded from a recirculating glycol chiller system to a liquid nitrogen evaporative system. The new cooling system achieves a stable temperature of -50 °C in 30 min and aims to maintain sub-0 °C temperatures on the sensors during irradiations. This paper reviews the design, development, commissioning and performance of the new cooling system.

  16. Water supply of the Birmingham area, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, W.H.; Ivey, J.B.; Billingsley, G.A.

    1953-01-01

    Sufficient water is available in the streams of the area surrounding Birmingham to supply any foreseeable demand; however, to utilize these streams impounding reservoirs and rather long supply lines will be required. Moderate supplies of ground water are available from wells, springs, and mines. The average water use in the area, not including reclaimed and recirculated water, was about 157 mgd during 1951. About 55 mgd was used for domestic or commercial purposes, and 102 mgd was used for industrial purposes. The .quantity of water withdrawn would have to be much greater if a considerable amount of reclaimed and recirculated water had not been used. The Birmingham water-supply systems are used at almost full capacity, and plans are being considered by the city to expand its supply greatly. An estimated 4 mgd of ground water from wells and springs is used for municipal supplies, and 8 mgd is used for industrial purposes. Smaller amounts of ground water are used for irrigation and rural supply. Individual springs in the area are capable of yielding as much as 750 gpm and wells as much as 500 gpm. Some water from worked and abandoned coal and iron mines is used for .public and industrial supplies. One of the conclusions reached by the ground-water study is that ground water has not been fully developed in wells and springs of the area and that mine water which would have to be treated for most municipal and industrial purposes is a potential source of water. Generally, the surface water in the Birmingham. area is of better quality than ground water. Surface water is low in dissolved mineral matter and is extremely soft. Some of the streams carry excessive quantities of iron. Village and Valley Creeks carry some surface pollution making the water unsuitable for many uses. Ground water in this area is usually low in color and ranges in temperature from 62 ? to 72 ?F. Water from limestone, dolomite, and chert usually is moderately to extremely hard. Calcium, magnesium

  17. Resistant hypertension and the Birmingham Hypertension Square.

    PubMed

    Felmeden, D C; Lip, G Y

    2001-06-01

    Recent guidelines for the treatment of hypertension place great emphasis on tighter blood pressure control, especially in the presence of hypertensive target organ damage and diabetes. In order to achieve these treatment targets, more patients will require a combination of antihypertensive medications. However, resistant hypertension may have many possible underlying causes, and clinicians should appreciate how to detect and tackle these potential problems. Effective and synergistic combinations are therefore of vital importance, especially in patients with resistant hypertension. The choice of rational first- and second-line drugs that act in synergy could lead to better blood pressure management as well as significant financial savings for health care resources. The use of the Birmingham Hypertension Square for the optimum choice of add-in drugs for the treatment of resistant hypertension may aid management.

  18. INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND CASTING FOREMAN OBSERVING OPERATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND CASTING FOREMAN OBSERVING OPERATION TO ENSURE MAXIMUM PRODUCTION AND QUALITY. - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  19. INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND A 4' DUCTILE IRON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW WITH CASTING MACHINE AND A 4' DUCTILE IRON PIPE BEING CENTRIFUGALLY CAST, AS OPERATOR WATCHES TO ENSURE QUALITY. - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  20. RadNet Air Data From Birmingham, AL

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Birmingham, AL from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  1. 75 FR 3695 - Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Commission has before it a petition for rulemaking filed...

  2. 75 FR 10692 - Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Birmingham, AL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Commission has before it a petition for rulemaking filed...

  3. Investigating the Validity and Reliability of the Vanderbilt Assessment of Leadership in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Andrew C.; Polikoff, Morgan S.; Goldring, Ellen B.; Murphy, Joseph; Elliott, Stephen N.; May, Henry

    2010-01-01

    The Vanderbilt Assessment of Leadership in Education (VAL-ED) is a multirater assessment of principals' learning-centered leadership. The instrument was developed based on the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. In this article, we report on the validity and reliability evidence for the VAL-ED accumulated in a national field…

  4. An Examination of Differential Item Functioning on the Vanderbilt Assessment of Leadership in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polikoff, Morgan S.; May, Henry; Porter, Andrew C.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Goldring, Ellen; Murphy, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    The Vanderbilt Assessment of Leadership in Education is a 360-degree assessment of the effectiveness of principals' learning-centered leadership behaviors. In this report, we present results from a differential item functioning (DIF) study of the assessment. Using data from a national field trial, we searched for evidence of DIF on school level,…

  5. 75 FR 44977 - General Management Plan/Abbreviated Final Environmental Impact Statement, Roosevelt-Vanderbilt...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ... Doc No: 2010-18705] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service General Management Plan/Abbreviated Final Environmental Impact Statement, Roosevelt-Vanderbilt National Historic Sites, Hyde Park, NY AGENCY: National Park Service, Department of the Interior. ACTION: Notice of Availability of...

  6. Birmingham's new dental school and hospital - A real Peter Pan of dentistry.

    PubMed

    Chapple, I L C

    2016-09-23

    A look at the history of Birmingham Dental Hospital which, since it was first founded in 1858 as Birmingham Dental Dispensary, has moved six times, the sixth move being to its new Pebble Mill site on 1 April 2016.

  7. Back to the basics: Birmingham, Alabama, measurement and scale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handley, L.R.; Lockwood, C.M.; Handley, N.

    2005-01-01

    Back to the Basics: Birmingham, Alabama is the fourth in a series of workshops that focus on teaching foundational map reading and spatial differentiation skills. It is the second published exercise from the Back to the Basics series developed by the Wetland Education through Maps and Aerial Photography (WETMAAP) Program (see Journal of Geography 103, 5: 226-230). Like its predecessor, the current exercise is modified from the Birmingham Back to the Basics workshop offered during the annual National Council for Geographic Education meeting. The focus of this exercise is on scale and measurement, foundational skills for spatial thinking and analysis. ?? 2005 National Council for Geographic Education.

  8. Back to the Basics: Birmingham, Alabama, Measurement and Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handley, Lawrence R.; Lockwood, Catherine M.; Handley, Nathan

    2005-01-01

    "Back to the Basics: Birmingham, Alabama" is the fourth in a series of workshops that focus on teaching foundational map reading and spatial differentiation skills. It is the second published exercise from the Back to the Basics series developed by the Wetland Education through Maps and Aerial Photography (WETMAAP) Program (see…

  9. School Tax Increase During Hard Times: The Birmingham Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cody, Wilmer S.

    The Birmingham (Alabama) school district regressed from a model system in 1926 to a poorly equipped, underfunded one in 1975. In that year, however, in spite of recession and joblessness, the citizens voted a $3 million tax increase for schools. The success of the election may be traced to several factors. Citizens were concerned about the…

  10. Dorothy's Wars: School Leadership during the Birmingham Blitz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousmaniere, Kate

    2016-01-01

    This essay examines the school leadership experiences of an infant school head teacher in Birmingham, England, during the Second World War. Drawing on the letters of Dorothy Walker, the essay offers insights into school leadership wartime deprivations. The impact of an international war on the home front was not head teacher Dorothy Walker's only…

  11. The Crisis Interview: Richard Arrington, Mayor of Birmingham, Alabama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, A. Peter

    1990-01-01

    Birmingham, like many cities, is losing its White middle class and is pressed to provide services for those who remain. The city's survival will depend on meeting specific educational goals. The mayor would welcome a Democratic president whose policies would focus on cities. (DM)

  12. Alabama University Professor's View of the Birmingham Bombing Trial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents the views of Alabama university scholars regarding the historical significance of the 2001 trial of Thomas Blanton for his role in the Ku Klux Klan bombing of the Sixteenth Street Baptist church in Birmingham, Alabama thet killed four girls. Their discussions note the need to examine the American judicial system, the weak case against Mr.…

  13. The Fisk-Vanderbilt Masters-to-PhD Bridge Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellovary, Jillian M.; Stassun, Keivan; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Montez, Rodolfo; Myers Stroud, Dina; Burger, Arnold

    2015-01-01

    We describe the Fisk-Vanderbilt Masters-to-PhD Bridge program as a successful model for effective partnerships with minority-serving institutions toward addressing the problem of the underrepresentation of minorities in the physical sciences. Since 2004 the program has admitted 79 students, 68 of them underrepresented minorities (48% female), with a retention rate to STEM Ph.D. programs of 82% (compared to the national average of 50%). We summarize the main features of the program including two of its core strategies: (1) partnering a minority-serving institution and a major research university through collaborative research, and (2) using the master's degree as a deliberate stepping stone to the PhD. We specifically discuss our mentoring and student tracking strategies, and note that a large number of our materials available online as part of the Bridge Program Architects Toolkit: http://www.vanderbilt.edu/gradschool/bridge/tools.htm.

  14. Enhancing Diversity in Physics: The Fisk-Vanderbilt Masters-to-PhD Bridge Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stassun, Keivan

    2010-03-01

    We describe the Fisk-Vanderbilt Masters-to-PhD Bridge program as a model for partnering with minority-serving institutions to increase the representation of women and minorities earning PhDs in astronomy and related disciplines. Since its inception in 2004, the Fisk-Vanderbilt Bridge program has attracted 30 minority students, 60% of whom are female, and with a retention rate of 94%. When the first Bridge students completed their PhDs in 2010-11, the program will become the top awarder of astronomy PhDs to underrepresented minorities in the United States. Already, Fisk has become the top producer of physics Masters degrees to African Americans. We summarize the program's structure, approach, and research basis with the goal of providing a replicable model for other institutions seeking to build similar collaborative, research-based bridging partnerships.

  15. The Vanderbilt Professional Nursing Practice Program, part 3: managing an advancement process.

    PubMed

    Steaban, Robin; Fudge, Mitzie; Leutgens, Wendy; Wells, Nancy

    2003-11-01

    Consistency of performance standards across multiple clinical settings is an essential component of a credible advancement system. Our advancement process incorporates a central committee, composed of nurses from all clinical settings within the institution, to ensure consistency of performance in inpatient, outpatient, and procedural settings. An analysis of nurses advanced during the first 18 months of the program indicates that performance standards are applicable to nurses in all clinical settings. The first article (September 2003) in this 3-part series described the foundation for and the philosophical background of the Vanderbilt Professional Nursing Practice Program (VPNPP), the career advancement program underway at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Part 2 described the development of the evaluation tools used in the VPNPP, the implementation and management of this new system, program evaluation, and improvements since the program's inception. The purpose of this article is to review the advancement process, review the roles of those involved in the process, and to describe outcomes and lessons learned.

  16. The Vanderbilt Professional Nursing Practice Program, part 2: Integrating a professional advancement and performance evaluation system.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Nancy F; Duvanich, Mary; Foss, Julie; Wells, Nancy

    2003-10-01

    Developing a performance-based advancement system requires evaluation tools that capture essential behaviors and outcomes reflective of key nursing functions. To ensure relevance to clinical practice and enhance buy-in from nursing staff, the behaviors and outcomes were defined by a broad cross-section of nursing staff and administrators. The first article (September 2003) in this 3-part series described the foundation for and the philosophical background of the Vanderbilt Professional Nursing Practice Program (VPNPP), the career advancement program under way at Vanderbilt University Medical Center. This second article describes the development of the evaluation tools used in the VPNPP, the implementation and management of this new system, program evaluation, and improvements since the inception of the program. Additionally, the authors present the challenges and lessons we learned in development and implementation of a dynamic evaluation system that supports our career advancement program. The process of advancing within the program will be described in part 3.

  17. Building learning communities: evolution of the colleges at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Amy; Cutrer, William; Moutsios, Sandi; Heavrin, Benjamin; Pilla, Michael; Eichbaum, Quentin; Rodgers, Scott

    2013-09-01

    Learning communities, which are an emerging trend in medical education, create a foundation for professional and academic development through the establishment of longitudinal relationships between students and faculty. In this article, the authors describe the robust learning community system at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, which encompasses wellness, career planning, professional development, and academics.The Vanderbilt Advisory Colleges Program introduced in 2006 initially focused on two goals: promoting wellness and providing career advising. In the 2011-2012 academic year, the focus of the colleges expanded to incorporate an enhanced level of personal career advising and an academic component. In the four-year College Colloquium course, faculty selected as college mentors teach the medical humanities and lead sessions dedicated to student professional development in the areas of leadership, research, and service-learning. This academic and professional development program builds on the existing strengths of the colleges and has transformed the colleges into learning communities.The authors reflect on lessons learned and discuss future plans. They report that internal data and data from the Association of American Medical Colleges Medical School Graduation Questionnaire support consistently high and increasing satisfaction among Vanderbilt medical students, across the metrics of personal counseling, faculty mentoring, and career planning.

  18. AERIAL VIEW OF MC WANE CAST IRON PIPE, LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW OF MC WANE CAST IRON PIPE, LOOKING WEST TO BIRMINGHAM CITY CENTER. I-20-59 RUNNING DIAGONALLY FROM RIGHT MIDDLE GROUND. L&N RAILROAD TRACKS IN FOREGROUND. - McWane Cast Iron Pipe, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  19. Vanderbilt University

    SciTech Connect

    Ramayya, A.V.; Hamilton, J.H.; Bindra, K.

    1995-08-01

    An experiment identifying gamma-ray transitions in {sup 183}Hg using {gamma}-{gamma} and recoil-{gamma} coincidences has been performed at the FMA and published. Five bands were observed, of which two are associated with the [624]9/2{sup +} orbital and exhibit signature splitting. Two other bands which do not show signature splitting have been associated with the [514]7/2{sup -} orbital and exhibit transition energies almost identical to bands with the same configuration in {sup 185}Hg. New experiments on identification of bands in {sup 181}Hg and an in-beam study of conversion electrons from {sup 183}Hg have been performed in 1994. Three bands were identified for the first time in {sup 181}Hg. A mini-orange electron spectrometer was used in a test run where background were investigated. One member of the collaboration, K. Bindra, who is a Ph.D. student, and a new student, L. Brown, have been working full-time under the direction of Cary Davids. K. Bindra has now graduated.

  20. Building Global Health Through a Center-Without-Walls: The Vanderbilt Institute for Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Vermund, Sten H.; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V.; Khedkar, Sheetal; Jia, Yujiang; Etherington, Carol; Vergara, Alfredo

    2008-01-01

    The Institute for Global Health at Vanderbilt enables the expansion and coordination of global health research, service, and training, reflecting the university's commitment to improve health services and outcomes in resource-limited settings. Global health encompasses both prevention via public health and treatment via medical care, all nested within a broader community-development context. This has fostered university-wide collaborations to address education, business/economics, engineering, nursing, and language training, among others. The institute is a natural facilitator for team building and has been especially helpful in organizing institutional responses to global health solicitations from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Centers for Disease Control (CDC), and other funding agencies. This center-without-walls philosophy nurtures noncompetitive partnerships among and within departments and schools. With extramural support from the NIH and from endowment and developmental investments from the school of medicine, the institute funds new pilot projects to nurture global educational and research exchanges related to health and development. Vanderbilt's newest programs are a CDC-supported HIV/AIDS service initiative in Africa and an overseas research training program for health science graduate students and clinical fellows. New opportunities are available for Vanderbilt students, staff, and faculty to work abroad in partnership with international health projects through a number of Tennessee institutions now networked with the institute. A center-without-walls may be a model for institutions contemplating strategic investments to better organize service and teaching opportunities abroad, and to achieve greater successes in leveraging extramural support for overseas and domestic work focused on tropical medicine and global health. PMID:18303361

  1. Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science Center for Computational Imaging XNAT: A multimodal data archive and processing environment.

    PubMed

    Harrigan, Robert L; Yvernault, Benjamin C; Boyd, Brian D; Damon, Stephen M; Gibney, Kyla David; Conrad, Benjamin N; Phillips, Nicholas S; Rogers, Baxter P; Gao, Yurui; Landman, Bennett A

    2016-01-01

    The Vanderbilt University Institute for Imaging Science (VUIIS) Center for Computational Imaging (CCI) has developed a database built on XNAT housing over a quarter of a million scans. The database provides framework for (1) rapid prototyping, (2) large scale batch processing of images and (3) scalable project management. The system uses the web-based interfaces of XNAT and REDCap to allow for graphical interaction. A python middleware layer, the Distributed Automation for XNAT (DAX) package, distributes computation across the Vanderbilt Advanced Computing Center for Research and Education high performance computing center. All software are made available in open source for use in combining portable batch scripting (PBS) grids and XNAT servers.

  2. The Library of Birmingham Project: Lifelong Learning for the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blewitt, John; Gambles, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The Library of Birmingham (LoB) is a 193 million British pounds project designed to provide a new space for lifelong learning and knowledge growth, a physical and virtual portal for Birmingham's citizens to the wider world. In cooperation with a range of private, public, and third-sector bodies, as well as individual citizens, the library, due to…

  3. 40 CFR 81.41 - Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.41 Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Alabama) has been revised to consist of...

  4. 40 CFR 81.41 - Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.41 Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Alabama) has been revised to consist of...

  5. The Rule of Law and Civil Disobedience: The Case behind King's Letter from a Birmingham Jail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Fifty years ago, the Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. wrote his "Letter from a Birmingham Jail." In exploring the story of the events behind the essay, and the Supreme Court case that resulted, "Walker v. Birmingham", 399 U.S. 307 (1967), educators will find a pedagogically powerful lens through which to review the seminal…

  6. 40 CFR 81.41 - Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.41 Section 81.41 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.41 Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Alabama) has been revised to consist of...

  7. 40 CFR 81.41 - Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.41 Section 81.41 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.41 Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Alabama) has been revised to consist of...

  8. 40 CFR 81.41 - Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.41 Section 81.41 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.41 Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Alabama) has been revised to consist of...

  9. The Vanderbilt University fast track to IAIMS: transition from planning to implementation.

    PubMed Central

    Stead, W W; Borden, R; Bourne, J; Giuse, D; Giuse, N; Harris, T R; Miller, R A; Olsen, A J

    1996-01-01

    Vanderbilt University Medical Center is implementing an Integrated Advanced Information Management System (IAIMS) using a fast-track approach. The elapsed time between start-up and completion of implementation will be 7.5 years. The Start-Up and Planning phases of the project are complete. The Implementation phase asks one question: How does an organization create an environment that redirects and coordinates a variety of individual activities so that they come together to provide an IAIMS? Four answers to this question are being tested. First, design resources to be "scalable"--i.e., capable of supporting enterprise-wide use. Second, provide information technology planning activities as ongoing core functions that direct local efforts. Third, design core infrastructure resources to be both reusable and expandable at the local level. Fourth, use milestones to measure progress toward selected endpoints to permit early refinement of plans and strategies. PMID:8880678

  10. The Vanderbilt School-Based Counseling Program: An Interagency, Primary-Care Model of Mental Health Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catron, Thomas; Weiss, Bahr

    1994-01-01

    The Vanderbilt School-Based Counseling Program in Nashville, Tennessee, increases access to mental health services for children from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds via a primary care model delivering on-site services. Possible interventions include psychotherapy, parent skill training, behavioral and psychiatric consultation to staff…

  11. A Known Group Analysis Validity Study of the Vanderbilt Assessment of Leadership in Education in US Elementary and Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covay Minor, Elizabeth; Porter, Andrew C.; Murphy, Joseph; Goldring, Ellen B.; Cravens, Xiu; Elloitt, Stephen N.

    2014-01-01

    The Vanderbilt Assessment of Leadership in Education (VAL-ED) provides educators with a tool for principal evaluation based on principal, teacher, and supervisor reports of principals' learning-centered leadership. In this study, we conduct a known group analysis as part of a larger argument for the validity of the VAL-ED in US elementary and…

  12. The School for Science and Math at Vanderbilt: An Innovative Research-Based Program for High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eeds, Angela; Vanags, Chris; Creamer, Jonathan; Loveless, Mary; Dixon, Amanda; Sperling, Harvey; McCombs, Glenn; Robinson, Doug; Shepherd, Virginia L.

    2014-01-01

    The School for Science and Math at Vanderbilt (SSMV) is an innovative partnership program between a Research I private university and a large urban public school system. The SSMV was started in 2007 and currently has 101 students enrolled in the program, with a total of 60 students who have completed the 4-yr sequential program. Students attend…

  13. 77 FR 2131 - Watco Holdings, Inc.-Continuance in Control Exemption-Birmingham Terminal Railway, L.L.C.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-13

    ... Surface Transportation Board Watco Holdings, Inc.--Continuance in Control Exemption-- Birmingham Terminal... pursuant to 49 CFR 1180.2(d)(2) to continue in control of Birmingham Terminal Railway, L.L.C. (BHRR), upon... notice of exemption in Docket No. FD 35578, Birmingham Terminal Railway, L.L.C.--Acquisition...

  14. Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science Center for Computational Imaging XNAT: A multimodal data archive and processing environment

    PubMed Central

    Harrigan, Robert L.; Yvernault, Benjamin C.; Boyd, Brian D.; Damon, Stephen M.; Gibney, Kyla David; Conrad, Benjamin N.; Phillips, Nicholas S.; Rogers, Baxter P.; Gao, Yurui; Landman, Bennett A.

    2015-01-01

    The Vanderbilt University Institute for Imaging Science (VUIIS) Center for Computational Imaging (CCI) has developed a database built on XNAT housing over a quarter of a million scans. The database provides framework for (1) rapid prototyping, (2) large scale batch processing of images and (3) scalable project management. The system uses the web-based interfaces of XNAT and RedCAP to allow for graphical interaction. A python middleware layer, the Distributed Automation for XNAT (DAX) package, distributes computation across the Vanderbilt Advanced Computing Center for Research and Education high performance computing center. All software are made available in open source for use in combining portable batch scripting (PBS) grids and XNAT servers. PMID:25988229

  15. Automating PACS quality control with the Vanderbilt image processing enterprise resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esparza, Michael L.; Welch, E. Brian; Landman, Bennett A.

    2012-02-01

    Precise image acquisition is an integral part of modern patient care and medical imaging research. Periodic quality control using standardized protocols and phantoms ensures that scanners are operating according to specifications, yet such procedures do not ensure that individual datasets are free from corruption; for example due to patient motion, transient interference, or physiological variability. If unacceptable artifacts are noticed during scanning, a technologist can repeat a procedure. Yet, substantial delays may be incurred if a problematic scan is not noticed until a radiologist reads the scans or an automated algorithm fails. Given scores of slices in typical three-dimensional scans and widevariety of potential use cases, a technologist cannot practically be expected inspect all images. In large-scale research, automated pipeline systems have had great success in achieving high throughput. However, clinical and institutional workflows are largely based on DICOM and PACS technologies; these systems are not readily compatible with research systems due to security and privacy restrictions. Hence, quantitative quality control has been relegated to individual investigators and too often neglected. Herein, we propose a scalable system, the Vanderbilt Image Processing Enterprise Resource (VIPER) to integrate modular quality control and image analysis routines with a standard PACS configuration. This server unifies image processing routines across an institutional level and provides a simple interface so that investigators can collaborate to deploy new analysis technologies. VIPER integrates with high performance computing environments has successfully analyzed all standard scans from our institutional research center over the course of the last 18 months.

  16. A comprehensive medical student wellness program--design and implementation at Vanderbilt School of Medicine.

    PubMed

    Drolet, Brian C; Rodgers, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Research suggests that student burnout and mental illness are increasing in U.S. medical schools. In response, students and administrators developed the Vanderbilt Medical Student (VMS) Wellness Program to promote student health and well-being through coordination of many new and existing resources. This program consists of three core components: The Advisory College Program, The Student Wellness Committee, and VMS LIVE. Each of the core components includes separate and unique individual programs, but each of these three components collaborates with the other two to accomplish the broad wellness goal of maximizing student health, happiness, and potential. The VMS Wellness Program has had early success with substantial growth and outstanding student buy-in since its inception in 2005. Preliminary data indicate that nearly every student has participated in at least two components of the VMS Wellness Program. In addition to participation, student response has been highly satisfactory, as evidenced by their positive feedback. The VMS Wellness Program is the first published model of a comprehensive medical student wellness initiative. The development and design of the program described in this article may serve as a framework for other institutions.

  17. W.M. Keck-Vanderbilt Free-Electron Laser Center facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabella, William E.; Feng, Bibo; Kozub, John A.; Piston, David W.

    2002-04-01

    The W.M. Keck-Vanderbilt Free-electron Laser Center operates a reliable free-electron laser (FEL) that is used in human surgical trials, as well as in basic and applied sciences. The wavelength of the FEL is tunable from 2.1 micrometers to 9.6 micrometers , delivering above 50 mJ per macropulse with a repetition rate of 30 Hz. For soft tissue surgery, especially neurosurgery and surgery on the optic nerve, a wavelength of 6.45 micrometers has been found to ablate with little collateral damage. The free-electron laser beam is delivered to experiments approximately 2000 hours each year. The Center also supports several other tools useful for biomedical experiments: an optical parametric generator laser system with tunable wavelength similar to the free- electron laser except it has much lower average power; a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer to characterize samples; several devices for in vivo imaging including an optical coherence tomography setup, a two-photon fluorescent confocal microscope, and a cooled, integrating camera capable of imaging luciferin-luciferase reactions within the body of a mouse. The Center also houses a tunable, monochromatic x-ray source based on Compton backscattering of a laser off of a relativistic electron beam.

  18. Differential item functioning analysis of the Vanderbilt Expertise Test for cars

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Woo-Yeol; Cho, Sun-Joo; McGugin, Rankin W.; Van Gulick, Ana Beth; Gauthier, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The Vanderbilt Expertise Test for cars (VETcar) is a test of visual learning for contemporary car models. We used item response theory to assess the VETcar and in particular used differential item functioning (DIF) analysis to ask if the test functions the same way in laboratory versus online settings and for different groups based on age and gender. An exploratory factor analysis found evidence of multidimensionality in the VETcar, although a single dimension was deemed sufficient to capture the recognition ability measured by the test. We selected a unidimensional three-parameter logistic item response model to examine item characteristics and subject abilities. The VETcar had satisfactory internal consistency. A substantial number of items showed DIF at a medium effect size for test setting and for age group, whereas gender DIF was negligible. Because online subjects were on average older than those tested in the lab, we focused on the age groups to conduct a multigroup item response theory analysis. This revealed that most items on the test favored the younger group. DIF could be more the rule than the exception when measuring performance with familiar object categories, therefore posing a challenge for the measurement of either domain-general visual abilities or category-specific knowledge. PMID:26418499

  19. Differential item functioning analysis of the Vanderbilt Expertise Test for cars.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woo-Yeol; Cho, Sun-Joo; McGugin, Rankin W; Van Gulick, Ana Beth; Gauthier, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The Vanderbilt Expertise Test for cars (VETcar) is a test of visual learning for contemporary car models. We used item response theory to assess the VETcar and in particular used differential item functioning (DIF) analysis to ask if the test functions the same way in laboratory versus online settings and for different groups based on age and gender. An exploratory factor analysis found evidence of multidimensionality in the VETcar, although a single dimension was deemed sufficient to capture the recognition ability measured by the test. We selected a unidimensional three-parameter logistic item response model to examine item characteristics and subject abilities. The VETcar had satisfactory internal consistency. A substantial number of items showed DIF at a medium effect size for test setting and for age group, whereas gender DIF was negligible. Because online subjects were on average older than those tested in the lab, we focused on the age groups to conduct a multigroup item response theory analysis. This revealed that most items on the test favored the younger group. DIF could be more the rule than the exception when measuring performance with familiar object categories, therefore posing a challenge for the measurement of either domain-general visual abilities or category-specific knowledge.

  20. TRI Analysis of Community-Scale Pollution Prevention Activities: North Birmingham, Alabama (PDF)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This analysis compared TRI data about pollution prevention and waste management activities from facilities located in North Birmingham with facilities in the same industry sectors that are located elsewhere in the country.

  1. Fish assemblage responses to urban intensity gradients in contrasting metropolitan areas: Birmingham, Alabama and Boston, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meador, M.R.; Coles, J.F.; Zappia, H.

    2005-01-01

    We examined fish assemblage responses to urban intensify gradients in two contrasting metropolitan areas: Birmingham, Alabama (BIR) and Boston, Massachusetts (BOS). Urbanization was quantified by using an urban intensity index (UII) that included multiple stream buffers and basin land uses, human population density, and road density variables. We evaluated fish assemblage responses by using species richness metrics and detrended correspondence analyses (DCA). Fish species richness metrics included total fish species richness, and percentages of endemic species richness, alien species, and fluvial specialist species. Fish species richness decreased significantly with increasing urbanization in BIR (r = -0.82, P = 0.001) and BOS (r = -0.48, P = 0.008). Percentages of endemic species richness decreased significantly with increasing urbanization only in BIR (r = - 0.71, P = 0.001), whereas percentages of fluvial specialist species decreased significantly with increasing urbanization only in BOS (r = -0.56, P = 0.002). Our DCA results for BIR indicate that highly urbanized fish assemblages are composed primarily of largescale stoneroller Campostoma oligolepis, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, and creek chub Semotilus atromaculatus, whereas the highly urbanized fish assemblages in BOS are dominated by yellow perch Perca flavescens, bluegill Lefomis macrochirus, yellow bullhead Ameiurus natalis, largemouth bass, pumpkinseed L. gibbosus, brown bullhead A. nebulosus, and redfin pickerel Esox americanus. Differences in fish assemblage responses to urbanization between the two areas appear to be related to differences in nutrient enrichment, habitat alterations, and invasive species. Because species richness can increase or decrease with increasing urbanization, a general response model is not applicable. Instead, response models based on species' life histories, behavior, and autecologies offer greater potential for understanding fish assemblage responses to

  2. Final report of the Department of Energy pilot internship program on radioactive waste at Vanderbilt University (September 1, 1993-08/31, 1994)

    SciTech Connect

    Frank Parker

    1999-08-31

    This final report summarizes Vanderbilt's ten year program in radioactive waste management. The report describes the interns selected for the program, the interns' course of study, and their assignments.

  3. Constraining Middle Pleistocene Glaciations in Birmingham, England; Using Optical Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) Dating.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, S. M.; Gibbard, P. L.; Bateman, M. D.; Boreham, S.

    2014-12-01

    Birmingham is built on a complex sequence of Middle Pleistocene sediments, representing at least three lowland glaciations (MIS12, MIS6, and MIS2). British Geological Survey mapping accounts 75% of the land mass as Quaternary deposits; predominantly glacial-sandy tills, glacial-fluvial sands, clays and organic silts and peats. Understanding the age of fluvial-glacial outwash, related to specific glaciations, is critical in establishing a Geochronology of Birmingham. Shotton (1953) found a series of Middle Pleistocene glacial sediments, termed the Wolstonian, intermediate in age between MIS11 and MIS5e Interglacial's. Uncertainty surrounding the relation to East Anglian sequences developed by Rose (1987) implies Birmingham sequences should be referred to MIS12. Despite this, younger Middle Pleistocene glacial sequences occur in Birmingham, yet uncertainty has deepened over our understanding of the complex, inaccessible sediments, especially as deposits have similar extent with MIS2 sequences. Five Optical Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dates from three sites around Birmingham have been sampled. East of Birmingham, ice advanced from the Irish Sea and later the North East. In Wolston, a sample of outwash sand, associated with the Thurssington Till, is dated. In Meriden, two samples of outwash sands, associated with a distal Oadby Till, are dated. West of Birmingham, ice advanced from the Welsh Ice Sheet. In Seisdon, two samples of an Esker and outwash sand, associated with a Ridgeacre Till, are dated. Correlation of OSL dates provide an important constraint on understanding the history of Birmingham. Using GSI3D modeling to correlate geochronology and sedimentology, the significance of OSL dating can be understood within the complex sequences (and regional stratigraphy), complimented by Cosmogenic and Palynology dates taken in South West and North East. OSL dating on Birmingham's outwash sands, deposited by extensive repeated Middle Pleistocene glaciations, asserts the

  4. Automating PACS Quality Control with the Vanderbilt Image Processing Enterprise Resource

    PubMed Central

    Esparza, Michael L.; Welch, E. Brian; Landman, Bennett A.

    2011-01-01

    Precise image acquisition is an integral part of modern patient care and medical imaging research. Periodic quality control using standardized protocols and phantoms ensures that scanners are operating according to specifications, yet such procedures do not ensure that individual datasets are free from corruption–for example due to patient motion, transient interference, or physiological variability. If unacceptable artifacts are noticed during scanning, a technologist can repeat a procedure. Yet, substantial delays may be incurred if a problematic scan is not noticed until a radiologist reads the scans or an automated algorithm fails. Given scores of slices in typical three-dimensional scans and wide-variety of potential use cases, a technologist cannot practically be expected inspect all images. In large-scale research, automated pipeline systems have had great success in achieving high throughput. However, clinical and institutional workflows are largely based on DICOM and PACS technologies; these systems are not readily compatible with research systems due to security and privacy restrictions. Hence, quantitative quality control has been relegated to individual investigators and too often neglected. Herein, we propose a scalable system, the Vanderbilt Image Processing Enterprise Resource–VIPER, to integrate modular quality control and image analysis routines with a standard PACS configuration. This server unifies image processing routines across an institutional level and provides a simple interface so that investigators can collaborate to deploy new analysis technologies. VIPER integrates with high performance computing environments has successfully analyzed all standard scans from our institutional research center over the course of the last 18 months. PMID:24357910

  5. Integrating and Assessing Structural Competency in an Innovative Prehealth Curriculum at Vanderbilt University

    PubMed Central

    Petty, JuLeigh

    2017-01-01

    Problem Structural competency is a framework for conceptualizing and addressing health-related social justice issues that emphasizes diagnostic recognition of economic and political conditions producing and racializing inequalities in health. Strategies are needed to teach prehealth undergraduate students concepts central to structural competency (e.g., structural inequity, structural racism, structural stigma) and to evaluate their impact. Approach The curriculum for Vanderbilt University’s innovative prehealth major in medicine, health, and society (MHS) was reshaped in 2013 to incorporate structural competency concepts and skills into undergraduate courses. The authors developed the Structural Foundations of Health (SFH) evaluation instrument, with closed- and open-ended questions designed to assess undergraduate students’ core structural competency skills. They piloted the SFH instrument in 2015 with MHS seniors. Outcomes Of the 85 students included in the analysis, most selected one or more structural factors as among the three most important in explaining U.S. regional childhood obesity rates (85%) and racial disparities in heart disease (92%). More than half described individual- or family-level structural factors (66%) or broad social and political factors (56%) as influencing geographic disparities in childhood obesity. Nearly two-thirds (66%) described racial disparities in heart disease as consequences of socioeconomic differences, discrimination/stereotypes, or policies with racial implications. Next Steps Preliminary data suggest that the MHS major trained students to identify and analyze relationships between structural factors and health outcomes. Future research will include a comparison of structural competency skills among MHS students and students in the traditional premedical track and assessment of these skills in incoming first-year students. PMID:28225732

  6. The Vanderbilt Memory & Aging Project: Study Design and Baseline Cohort Overview

    PubMed Central

    Jefferson, Angela L.; Gifford, Katherine A.; Acosta, Lealani Mae Y.; Bell, Susan P.; Donahue, Manus J.; Davis, L. Taylor; Gottlieb, JoAnn; Gupta, Deepak K.; Hohman, Timothy J.; Lane, Elizabeth M.; Libon, David J.; Mendes, Lisa A.; Niswender, Kevin; Pechman, Kimberly R.; Rane, Swati; Ruberg, Frederick L.; Su, Yan Ru; Zetterberg, Henrik; Liu, Dandan

    2016-01-01

    Background Vascular health factors frequently co-occur with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A better understanding of how systemic vascular and cerebrovascular health intersects with clinical and pathological AD may inform prevention and treatment opportunities. Objective To establish the Vanderbilt Memory & Aging Project, a case-control longitudinal study investigating vascular health and brain aging, and describe baseline methodology and participant characteristics. Methods From September 2012 to November 2014, 335 participants age 60–92 were enrolled, including 168 individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, 73 ± 8 years, 41% female) and 167 age-, sex-, and race-matched cognitively normal controls (NC, 72 ± 7 years, 41% female). At baseline, participants completed a physical and frailty examination, fasting blood draw, neuropsychological assessment, echocardiogram, cardiac MRI, and brain MRI. A subset underwent 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and lumbar puncture for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection. Results As designed, participant groups were comparable for age (p = 0.31), sex (p = 0.95), and race (p = 0.65). MCI participants had greater Framingham Stroke Risk Profile scores (p = 0.008), systolic blood pressure values (p = 0.008), and history of left ventricular hypertrophy (p = 0.04) than NC participants. As expected, MCI participants performed worse on all neuropsychological measures (p-values<0.001), were more likely to be APOE ε4 carriers (p = 0.02), and had enhanced CSF biomarkers, including lower Aβ42 (p = 0.02), higher total tau (p = 0.004), and higher p-tau (p = 0.02) compared to NC participants. Conclusion Diverse sources of baseline and longitudinal data will provide rich opportunities to investigate pathways linking vascular and cerebrovascular health, clinical and pathological AD, and neurodegeneration contributing to novel strategies to delay or prevent cognitive decline. PMID:26967211

  7. Birmingham Urban Climate Change with Neighbourhood Estimates of Environmental Risk (buccaneer)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassett, R.; Thornes, J.; Cai, X.; Rees, R.

    2011-12-01

    The BUCCANEER project is a knowledge transfer partnership between the University of Birmingham and Birmingham City Council to help ensure that the city is prepared for the impacts of climate change. The project will equip service areas such as planners and health protection agencies with the necessary information and tools needed to adapt. UK climate projections indicate a 3.7oC temperature increase for Birmingham, UK by 2080 (medium emissions scenario). The 2003 heat-wave that caused over 2000 deaths in England and Wales will become an average summer by 2040. By the end of the century, the 2003 heat wave will be considered a cool summer. The dense urban fabric of Birmingham, the UK's second largest city, creates a warming effect when compared to surrounding rural areas. Past studies have found the nature of this urban heat island (UHI) to be related to city size, moisture availability, land-use, anthropogenic emissions, building materials and geometry. The UHI effect can lead to heat stress and air pollution problems which are a major health concern. Birmingham's UHI is not currently modelled. More specifically the UK climate projections treat Birmingham as a homogeneous slab of grassland. The inclusions of the urban areas in a climate model will show an intensification of the likely heat risk in future projections. In the present study, the JULES (Joint UK Land Environment Simulator) model has been setup and run for Birmingham and surrounding areas. The UHI was found to be greater than 3.5oC in Birmingham when modelled during heat waves. The model's performance is evaluated against data from two UK Met Office standard sites: Edgbaston (urban) and Winterbourne (rural). The temperatures predicted by the model over a 12 month (2010) simulation show a strong correlation with the observations. The model also reproduces the diurnal UHI intensity averaged over a year reasonably well. The model evaluation is also complemented by a data set of tiny-tag data logger

  8. Preliminary water table map of surficial aquifer, Birmingham-Bessemer, Alabama from ADEM environmental assessment database

    SciTech Connect

    Bearce, D.N.; Neilson, M.J. . Geology Dept.); Carter, S.A. )

    1994-03-01

    The Birmingham-Bessemer metropolitan area lies in the Birmingham-Big Canoe Valley physiographic district of the Alabama Valley and Ridge and is underlain mainly by a lower Paleozoic (Cambrian to Ordovician) sequence of folded and faulted carbonate and minor clastic sedimentary rocks. In the birmingham area, the valley is bounded to the southeast by Red Mountain, a NE-trending cuesta capped by SE-dipping middle Paleozoic shales and sandstones, and to the northwest by Sand Mountain, along the southeast side of which the lower Paleozoic carbonates are thrust-faulted northwestward over upper Paleozoic clastic rocks. The valley is drained by Village and Valley Creeks, which flow generally to the southwest. Previous studies of groundwater in the Birmingham area have dealt with flow within the carbonates and have described both water-table and confined aquifers. This study concentrates on the surficial aquifer, the clay-silt residual soil above carbonate rocks, in the Birmingham-Bessemer metropolitan area. A water table map covering approximately 50 square miles has been prepared from data contained in 66 individual contamination site reports submitted to the Alabama Department of Environmental Management by various geotechnical and environmental firms during the past 10 years. Water table data used in map preparation were collected during all seasons, and at many sites collections were one-time events. All water table data from each site were averaged for this study. Data from several sites show water table fluctuations of as much as 4 feet from summer to winter.

  9. The PM10 fraction of road dust in the UK and India: Characterization, source profiles and oxidative potential.

    PubMed

    Pant, Pallavi; Baker, Stephen J; Shukla, Anuradha; Maikawa, Caitlin; Godri Pollitt, Krystal J; Harrison, Roy M

    2015-10-15

    Most studies of road dust composition have sampled a very wide range of particle sizes, but from the perspective of respiratory exposure to resuspended dusts, it is the PM10 fraction which is of most importance. The PM10 fraction of road dust samples was collected at two sites in Birmingham, UK (major highway and road tunnel) and one site in New Delhi, India. Dust loadings were found to be much higher for New Delhi compared to Birmingham, while concentrations of several species were much higher in the case of Birmingham. Detailed chemical source profiles were prepared for both cities and previously generated empirical factors for source attribution to brake wear, tyre wear, and crustal dust were successfully applied to the UK sites. However, 100% of the mass for the Indian site could not be accounted for using these factors. This study highlights the need for generation of local empirical estimation factors for non-exhaust vehicle emissions. A limited number of bulk road dust and brake pad samples were also characterized. Oxidative potential (OP) was also determined for a limited number of PM10 and bulk road dust samples, and Cu was found to be a factor significantly associated with OP in PM10 and bulk road dust.

  10. The School for Science and Math at Vanderbilt: An Innovative Research-Based Program for High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Eeds, Angela; Vanags, Chris; Creamer, Jonathan; Loveless, Mary; Dixon, Amanda; Sperling, Harvey; McCombs, Glenn; Robinson, Doug

    2014-01-01

    The School for Science and Math at Vanderbilt (SSMV) is an innovative partnership program between a Research I private university and a large urban public school system. The SSMV was started in 2007 and currently has 101 students enrolled in the program, with a total of 60 students who have completed the 4-yr sequential program. Students attend the SSMV for one full day per week during the school year and 3–6 wk in the summers following their ninth- to 11th-grade years, with each grade of 26 students coming to the Vanderbilt campus on a separate day. The research-based curriculum focuses on guiding students through the process of learning to develop questions and hypotheses, designing projects and performing analyses, and communicating results of these projects. The SSMV program has elevated the learning outcomes of students as evidenced by increased achievement scores relative to a comparison group of students; has provided a rigorous research-based science, technology, engineering, and mathematics elective curriculum that culminates in a Summer research internship; has produced 27 Intel and Siemens semifinalists and regional finalists over the past 4 yr; and has supported the development of writing and communication skills resulting in regional and national oral presentations and publications in scientific journals. PMID:26086660

  11. The Vanderbilt EB Factory: Development of Light Curve Analysis Tools for Precision Stellar Astrophysics with Kepler Eclipsing Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stassun, Keivan; Paegert, M.; De Lee, N. M.; Cargile, P.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the Vanderbilt EB Factory is to develop an end-to-end computational pipeline that allows automatic processing of massive amounts of light curve data -- from period finding, to object classification, to determination of the stellar physical properties -- in order to find the most scientifically interesting eclipsing binaries (EBs) and to permit accurate modeling of these EBs for detailed tests and benchmarking of theoretical stellar evolution models. We are integrating the most successful algorithms into a single, cohesive workflow environment, and are applying this 'EB Factory' to the full public Kepler dataset to find and characterize new "benchmark grade" EBs, and will disseminate both the enhanced data products from this pipeline and the pipeline itself to the broader NASA science community, especially other Kepler mission researchers. More generally, we are developing the EB Factory as a flexible, open source, modular framework in order to permit simple modifications by other users for a wide array of other types of variable stars of interest, such as RR Lyraes. Finally, we will present our developing suite of light-curve analysis tools available to the community from the Vanderbilt Initiative in Data-intensive Astrophysics (VIDA), including the Filtergraph instant data portal service, and the web-based LCchopper and LCanimator light-curve analysis services.

  12. The School for Science and Math at Vanderbilt: An Innovative Research-Based Program for High School Students.

    PubMed

    Eeds, Angela; Vanags, Chris; Creamer, Jonathan; Loveless, Mary; Dixon, Amanda; Sperling, Harvey; McCombs, Glenn; Robinson, Doug; Shepherd, Virginia L

    2014-01-01

    The School for Science and Math at Vanderbilt (SSMV) is an innovative partnership program between a Research I private university and a large urban public school system. The SSMV was started in 2007 and currently has 101 students enrolled in the program, with a total of 60 students who have completed the 4-yr sequential program. Students attend the SSMV for one full day per week during the school year and 3-6 wk in the summers following their ninth- to 11th-grade years, with each grade of 26 students coming to the Vanderbilt campus on a separate day. The research-based curriculum focuses on guiding students through the process of learning to develop questions and hypotheses, designing projects and performing analyses, and communicating results of these projects. The SSMV program has elevated the learning outcomes of students as evidenced by increased achievement scores relative to a comparison group of students; has provided a rigorous research-based science, technology, engineering, and mathematics elective curriculum that culminates in a Summer research internship; has produced 27 Intel and Siemens semifinalists and regional finalists over the past 4 yr; and has supported the development of writing and communication skills resulting in regional and national oral presentations and publications in scientific journals.

  13. INTERIOR VIEW WITH ANNEALING OVEN AND OPERATOR ENSURING THAT ALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW WITH ANNEALING OVEN AND OPERATOR ENSURING THAT ALL ENTERING PIPE IS STRAIGHT AND THAT THE CORE HAS BEEN REMOVED FROM THE BELL END OF EACH PIPE - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  14. INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, TOWARDS CUPOLA WHERE SCRAP METAL AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, TOWARDS CUPOLA WHERE SCRAP METAL AND OTHER COMPONENTS ARE MELTED TO CREATE DUCTILE IRON. BRIGHT FLASH IN BACKGROUND RESULTS FROM MOLTEN METAL (DUCTILE IRON) BEING POURED FROM CUPOLA INTO TRANSFER LADLE - McWane Cast Iron Pipe Company, Pipe Casting Area, 1201 Vanderbilt Road, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  15. Language, Literacy, and Social Justice: The Experiences of Bangladeshi Women in Birmingham, UK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackledge, Adrian

    1999-01-01

    Presents a study of the literacy practices and attitudes of Bangladeshi families in Birmingham, England. Particular focus is on the extent to which the mothers of 18 6-year-old Bangladeshi children were able to support their children's school-related literacy learning. (Author/VWL)

  16. "I May Be Crackin', But Um Fackin": Racial Humor in "The Watsons Go To Birmingham--1963"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNair, Jonda C.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the utilization of racial humor in Christopher Paul Curtis' novel, "The Watsons Go To Birmingham--1963." The theoretical perspectives that inform the analysis include critical race theory and humor theory. The results of the analysis reveal that the use of humor in this book is influenced to a significant degree by race and…

  17. Birmingham and central Alabama area seen in Earth Resources Exp. Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A vertical view of the Birmingham and central Alabama area is seen in this Skylab 4 Earth Resources Experiment Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) infrared photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The Birminham industrial complex, with a population of nearly 850,000, is the light gray area nestled in the valley between the northeast-trending ridges that rae prominent topographic features in the southern Appalachian Mountains. The narrow ridges and adjacent valleys reflect folded and faulted sedimentary rocks. Bankhead lake, formed by a dam on the Black Warrior River, appears as bright blue west of Birmingham. Two lakes are formed by dams on the Goosa River East of Birmingham. Federal and state highways appear as thin white lines and are easily identified. Power line clearings are visible in the center of the picture along the Goosa River, and can be traced northwestward to northern parts of Birmingham. The predominant deep red color of the picture is d

  18. Opportunistic Collaboration: Unlocking the Archives of the Birmingham Institute of Art and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everitt, Sian

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To review a small specialist repository's strategic and opportunistic approach to utilising collaborative regional and national digital initiatives to increase access. The Birmingham Institute of Art and Design (BIAD) Archives activity is evaluated to determine whether a project-based approach recognises and meets the needs of historians,…

  19. Proceedings of the Undergraduate Mathematics Teaching Conference (Birmingham, England, September 3-6, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egerton, Patricia, Ed.

    The 27th Undergraduate Mathematics Teaching Conference took place in September of 2001 at the University of Birmingham. Major topics of the conference included preparing a teaching portfolio, engineering mathematics should be taught by engineers, issues in teaching discrete mathematics, action research, study skills, and issues for web-delivered…

  20. Title IX and Retaliation: The Impact of "Jackson v. Birmingham Board of Education" on Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melear, Kerry Brian

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, the United States Supreme Court rendered a closely divided opinion that extends the protections against discrimination provided by Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 to include a private cause of action for retaliation in "Jackson v. Birmingham Board of Education." Therefore, "whistleblowers," or employees who report allegedly…

  1. Listening to Students: Customer Journey Mapping at Birmingham City University Library and Learning Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Judith; Eade, Eleanor

    2013-01-01

    Birmingham City University's Library and Learning Resources' strategic aim is to improve student satisfaction. A key element is the achievement of the Customer Excellence Standard. An important component of the standard is the mapping of services to improve quality. Library and Learning Resources has developed a methodology to map these…

  2. The Work of Teachers and Others in and around a Birmingham Slum School 1891-1920

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Susannah

    2009-01-01

    The "Floodgate Street area" was a notorious slum district in the city of Birmingham in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. This article presents a case study, drawing on the rich archival sources available for this area, to examine the language that local authority and voluntary workers used to describe the local area, and…

  3. Bringing "The Watsons Go to Birmingham, 1963" to the Middle School Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Marshall; Comer, Melissa

    1999-01-01

    Argues that Christopher Paul Curtis' 1996 book, "The Watsons Go to Birmingham, 1963," lends itself to a variety of instructional strategies and classroom uses for grades 5-8. Offers a brief synopsis of the book; notes positive teacher and student reactions; offers ideas for incorporating the book into content areas; discusses assessment; and…

  4. The Sociopolitical Context of Education in Post-Civil Rights Birmingham

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loder-Jackson, Tondra L.

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on scholarship from the politics and history of education, narrative and archival data, and the author's emic perspectives, this article examines social and political transformations in the Birmingham City Schools (BCS) and some of the surrounding metropolitan school districts during the pre- and post-classical phases of the American civil…

  5. The Consequences of the Trojan Horse Affair and a Possible Way Forward for Birmingham

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Sarah; Hatcher, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The UK government seized the opportunity of the Trojan Horse affair to launch a damaging Islamophobic attack, eagerly relayed by a racist press, on the Muslim community in Birmingham and beyond, abusing Ofsted and the Prevent strategy as blatant instruments of ideologically-driven policy. The various reports found no evidence of radicalisation or…

  6. Review of the fetal radiation doses received from {sup 59}Fe kinetic studies at Vanderbilt University in the 1940`S

    SciTech Connect

    Stabin, M.G.; Stubbs, J.B.; Russell, J.R.

    1997-05-01

    Fetal radiation dose estimates were calculated for women who received oral administrations of {sup 59}Fe at Vanderbilt University in the 1940`s. A similar dosimetry analysis was performed by Dyer and Brill in 1972; the availability of recently developed physical models of the pregnant female at different stages of gestation and of a new kinetic model for iron metabolism afforded an opportunity to re-evaluate these doses. Radiation dose estimates for the fetus (and fetal liver in three cases) were calculated for a number of oral and intravenous studies using these new models and the available data about the original experiments. The total fetal doses do not appear to have exceeded a few hundred microgray (a few tens of millirad) for the majority of the study subjects. Considerable uncertainty exists, however, in the amount of activity administered to these subjects. 16 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Re-Envisioning the Professional Doctorate for Educational Leadership and Higher Education Leadership: Vanderbilt University's Peabody College Ed.D. Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caboni, Timothy C.; Proper, Eve

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the process by which the faculty of the Department of Leadership, Policy and Organizations at Vanderbilt University's Peabody College conceived and implemented a new doctoral program designed for senior education practitioners. The authors describe the organizational context in which decisions were made. Next, they explain…

  8. The Convergent and Divergent Validity of the Vanderbilt Assessment of Leadership in Education (VAL-ED): Instructional Leadership and Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldring, Ellen; Cravens, Xiu; Porter, Andrew; Murphy, Joseph; Elliott, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the ongoing dialog of whether and how instructional leadership is distinguished conceptually from general leadership notions, such as charisma, and to continue the ongoing psychometric research on the The Vanderbilt Assessment of Leadership in Education (VAL-ED) by examining its convergent and…

  9. Village Creek: An Architectural and Historical Resources Survey of the Village Creek Project Neighborhoods, City of Birmingham, Jefferson County, Alabama.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    Brown *, cleaner, Birmingham News is 3976 1952 John L. Fraser*, laborer 16 3978 1952 Jeff Davis*, inspector, Stockham Valves and Fittings 17 3980 1952...fireman (c) 52 1536 1932 Joseph Fuller, laborer (c) 53 1532 1952 Mamie L. Brown , presser, Simon M ogilner (in 󈧿) 53 1534 " 1951 John H. Worshaim...82 = I... 7:-7...-. PC - Figure 38. Victorian Cottage, 1416 Apalachee Street, Kiondyke, East Birmingham ...... . ........... ....... .84 Figure 39

  10. Distributed road assessment system

    DOEpatents

    Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W

    2014-03-25

    A system that detects damage on or below the surface of a paved structure or pavement is provided. A distributed road assessment system includes road assessment pods and a road assessment server. Each road assessment pod includes a ground-penetrating radar antenna array and a detection system that detects road damage from the return signals as the vehicle on which the pod is mounted travels down a road. Each road assessment pod transmits to the road assessment server occurrence information describing each occurrence of road damage that is newly detected on a current scan of a road. The road assessment server maintains a road damage database of occurrence information describing the previously detected occurrences of road damage. After the road assessment server receives occurrence information for newly detected occurrences of road damage for a portion of a road, the road assessment server determines which newly detected occurrences correspond to which previously detected occurrences of road damage.

  11. The Vanderbilt Expertise Test reveals domain-general and domain-specific sex effects in object recognition.

    PubMed

    McGugin, Rankin W; Richler, Jennifer J; Herzmann, Grit; Speegle, Magen; Gauthier, Isabel

    2012-09-15

    Individual differences in face recognition are often contrasted with differences in object recognition using a single object category. Likewise, individual differences in perceptual expertise for a given object domain have typically been measured relative to only a single category baseline. In Experiment 1, we present a new test of object recognition, the Vanderbilt Expertise Test (VET), which is comparable in methods to the Cambridge Face Memory Task (CFMT) but uses eight different object categories. Principal component analysis reveals that the underlying structure of the VET can be largely explained by two independent factors, which demonstrate good reliability and capture interesting sex differences inherent in the VET structure. In Experiment 2, we show how the VET can be used to separate domain-specific from domain-general contributions to a standard measure of perceptual expertise. While domain-specific contributions are found for car matching for both men and women and for plane matching in men, women in this sample appear to use more domain-general strategies to match planes. In Experiment 3, we use the VET to demonstrate that holistic processing of faces predicts face recognition independently of general object recognition ability, which has a sex-specific contribution to face recognition. Overall, the results suggest that the VET is a reliable and valid measure of object recognition abilities and can measure both domain-general skills and domain-specific expertise, which were both found to depend on the sex of observers.

  12. Installation restoration program: UST removal report. 117th Refueling Wing, Alabama Air National Guard, Birmingham Airport, Birmingham, Alabama and 226th Combat Information Systems Group, Martin Air National Guard Station, Gadsden Airport, Gadsden, Alabama. Volume II. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The Installation Restoration Program was initiated by the Air National Guard (ANG) to evaluate potential contamination to the environment caused by past practices at its installations. During the 1987 Preliminary Assessment (PA), ten abandoned underground storage tanks (USTs) were identified at nine sites. During the 1991 Site Investigation, surveys found four USTs at four sites and none at the other sites. The UST at Gadsden was removed in November 1989. Three USTs were removed at Birmingham in January 1991. Remaining soil was below Alabama Department of Environmental Management`s (ADEM) corrective action limit of 100 ppm total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) for the Gadsden UST and UST 380 at Birmingham. For USTs 120 and 130 at Birmingham, remaining soil was above ADEM`s corrective action limit, but believed to be limited to soils immediately adjacent to the tank pits. The report recommends no further action be taken at any of the UST sites.

  13. Installation restoration program: UST removal report. 117th Refueling Wing, Alabama Air National Guard, Birmingham Airport, Birmingham, Alabama and 226th Combat Information Systems Group, Martin Air National Guard Station, Gadsden Airport, Gadsden, Alabama. Volume I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The Installation Restoration Program was initiated by the Air National Guard (ANG) to evaluate potential contamination to the environment caused by past practices at its installations. During the 1987 Preliminary Assessment (PA), ten abandoned underground storage tanks (USTs) were identified at nine sites. During the 1991 Site Investigation, surveys found four USTs at four sites and none at the other sites. The UST at Gadsden was removed in November 1989. Three USTs were removed at Birmingham in January 1991. Remaining soil was below Alabama Department of Environmental Management`s (ADEM) corrective action limit of 100 ppm total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) for the Gadsden UST and UST 380 at Birmingham. For USTs 120 and 130 at Birmingham, remaining soil was above ADEM`s corrective action limit, but believed to be limited to soils immediately adjacent to the tank pits. The report recommends no further action be taken at any of the UST sites.

  14. Performance of the Birmingham Solar-Oscillations Network (BiSON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, S. J.; Howe, R.; Chaplin, W. J.; Davies, G. R.; Elsworth, Y. P.

    2016-01-01

    The Birmingham Solar-Oscillations Network (BiSON) has been operating with a full complement of six stations since 1992. Over 20 years later, we look back on the network history. The meta-data from the sites have been analysed to assess performance in terms of site insolation, with a brief look at the challenges that have been encountered over the years. We explain how the international community can gain easy access to the ever-growing dataset produced by the network, and finally look to the future of the network and the potential impact of nearly 25 years of technology miniaturisation.

  15. Fixation of a Periprosthetic Intertrochanteric Hip Fracture below a Birmingham Hip Resurfacing

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald, J.; Robinson, A.; Brown, I.

    2014-01-01

    This case report involves a 56-year-old female (Mrs X) with a traumatic intertrochanteric hip fracture with subtrochanteric extension below a previous Birmingham hip resurfacing. Periprosthetic fractures following hip resurfacing are usually subcapital and treated with a revision or conservative management. We present an unusual surgical problem with an interesting solution stabilising the fracture using a proximal femoral locking compression plate (LCP). Eight months following surgery the patient is able to walk pain free and there is good fixation and stability. PMID:24995142

  16. An Evaluation of the Timing and Use of Healthcare during Pregnancy in Birmingham, UK and Pretoria, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Openshaw, Mark Robert; Bomela, Hlwelekazi N; Pretlove, Sam

    2011-01-01

    Objective. A pilot study to compare the rates of antenatal healthcare use in Birmingham, UK and Pretoria, South Africa, and identify differences in knowledge and perception of antenatal healthcare. Subjects. 62 women, 31 at each location <24 hours after delivery. Results. Women from Birmingham use healthcare services earlier (P ≤ .0001) and more often during pregnancy (P ≤ .0001). Women from Birmingham identified more conditions that may affect pregnancy (median 6 versus 3 reasons) and were less aware of HIV. In addition they perceived antenatal healthcare as relatively more important for advice and reassurance about pregnancy, whilst women from Pretoria had more problems with transport and clinic overcrowding. Conclusions. Increasing education on the importance of antenatal healthcare and medical problems during pregnancy may help improve antenatal healthcare use in Pretoria. Improving transport links and overcrowding in clinics in Pretoria may also help increase use. Measuring maternal outcomes and confirming these findings in a larger population are important for future studies.

  17. Early Indians Use Jones Valley. (Reading for "The South: Birmingham Case Study and the South as a Region". Grade Five (Unit IV) Project Social Studies.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    Readings designed to accompany Unit IV, (ED 069 562) which is intended for fifth grade students, describe the Birmingham region from 1812 to 1872. Nine themes in the study illustrate settlement in the valley, early growth in Birmingham, and the changing use of the area in terms of different perceptions of natural resources. Technical advancement…

  18. The Birmingham Urban Climate Laboratory—A high density, urban meteorological dataset, from 2012-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Elliott L.; Young, Duick T.; Chapman, Lee; Muller, Catherine; Grimmond, C. S. B.; Cai, Xiao-Ming

    2016-06-01

    There is a paucity of urban meteorological observations worldwide, hindering progress in understanding and mitigating urban meteorological hazards and extremes. High quality urban datasets are required to monitor the impacts of climatological events, whilst providing data for evaluation of numerical models. The Birmingham Urban Climate Laboratory was established as an exemplar network to meet this demand for urban canopy layer observations. It comprises of an array of 84 wireless air temperature sensors nested within a coarser array of 24 automatic weather stations, with observations available between June 2012 and December 2014. data routinely underwent quality control, follows the ISO 8601 naming format and benefits from extensive site metadata. The data have been used to investigate the structure of the urban heat island in Birmingham and its associated societal and infrastructural impacts. The network is now being repurposed into a testbed for the assessment of crowd-sourced and satellite data, but the original dataset is now available for further analysis, and an open invitation is extended for its academic use.

  19. The Birmingham Urban Climate Laboratory—A high density, urban meteorological dataset, from 2012–2014

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Elliott L.; Young, Duick T.; Chapman, Lee; Muller, Catherine; Grimmond, C.S.B.; Cai, Xiao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of urban meteorological observations worldwide, hindering progress in understanding and mitigating urban meteorological hazards and extremes. High quality urban datasets are required to monitor the impacts of climatological events, whilst providing data for evaluation of numerical models. The Birmingham Urban Climate Laboratory was established as an exemplar network to meet this demand for urban canopy layer observations. It comprises of an array of 84 wireless air temperature sensors nested within a coarser array of 24 automatic weather stations, with observations available between June 2012 and December 2014. data routinely underwent quality control, follows the ISO 8601 naming format and benefits from extensive site metadata. The data have been used to investigate the structure of the urban heat island in Birmingham and its associated societal and infrastructural impacts. The network is now being repurposed into a testbed for the assessment of crowd-sourced and satellite data, but the original dataset is now available for further analysis, and an open invitation is extended for its academic use. PMID:27272103

  20. Washboard Road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElwaine, Jim; Dalziel, Stuart; Taberlet, Nicolas; Morris, Stephen

    2006-11-01

    The tendency of unpaved road surfaces to develop lateral ripples (``washboard'' or ``corrugated'' road) is annoyingly familiar to drivers on dry gravel roads. Similar ripples are well known on railroad tracks and many other rolling or sliding, load bearing surfaces. Our approach combined laboratory experiments, soft-particle direct numerical simulations and simple nonlinear dynamics models. The experiment consisted of a rotating table 60 cm in radius with a thick layer of sand forming a roadbed around the circumference. A 6 cm radius hard rubber wheel, with a support stationary in the lab frame, rolled on the sand layer. We varied the speed of the table and the details of the suspension of the wheel. The onset of the ripple pattern exhibits a sharp threshold and was strongly subcritical with a large hysteresis as a function of the speed of the table. The ripple pattern appears as small patches of travelling waves which eventually spread to the entire circumference. The ripples move slowly in the driving direction. Interesting secondary dynamics of the saturated ripples were observed. All of these effects are captured qualitatively by a 2D soft particle simulations. The simulations clearly indicate that neither compaction nor particle size segregation are crucial for the appearance of the ripples, and we present a simple model to describe the wavelength and amplitude of the ripples.

  1. Extremism and Neo-Liberal Education Policy: A Contextual Critique of the Trojan Horse Affair in Birmingham Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, James

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers new insights into the effects of neo-liberal education policies on some Muslim majority schools in Birmingham. It critically reveals how the implementation of neo-liberal education policies, pursued by both Labour and Conservative Governments, has contributed to the failure of some mechanisms of school leadership and governance.…

  2. "A Creative Psalm of Brotherhood": The (De)Constructive Play in Martin Luther King's "Letter from Birmingham Jail"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaipa, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Scholars have celebrated the spoken word in King's "Letter from Birmingham Jail," but they have overlooked the significance of the Letter's writing. In this essay I closely read King's act of writing the Letter, along with the figures of speech he employs in it, and I show how both--by enacting the mass media's ability to cross contexts--are…

  3. 78 FR 47778 - Verizon Business Networks Services, Inc. Senior Analysts-Sales Impletmentation (SA-SI) Birmingham...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... Employment and Training Administration Verizon Business Networks Services, Inc. Senior Analysts-Sales Impletmentation (SA-SI) Birmingham, Alabama; Verizon Business Networks Services, Inc. Senior Analysts-Sales Impletmentation (SA-SI) Service Program Delivery Division San Francisco, California; Verizon Business...

  4. Bridging the Legacy of Activism across Generations: Life Stories of African American Educators in Post-Civil Rights Birmingham

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loder-Jackson, Tondra L.

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study takes account of the salience of activism in informing the worldviews and professional practices of a multigenerational sample of 42 African American educators in Birmingham, Alabama. Framed by life course, Black feminist thought, and hip-hop educational research perspectives, the study highlights how the participants…

  5. Women Secondary Head Teachers: Alive and Well in Birmingham at the Beginning of the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Kay

    2009-01-01

    Far from being an "endangered species" (Edwards & Lyons, 1994), moving towards extinction, women secondary head teachers are alive and well in Birmingham. While the national picture in England and Wales showed 29.8 per cent of secondary head teachers were women in 2005, this research identifies extensive regional differences. In…

  6. The South: Birmingham Case Study, and The South as a Region. Grade Five (Unit IV). Resource Unit. Project Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    A case study on Birmingham is presented in the first part of this resource unit on regional studies designed for fifth graders. The objective of the sequent occupance unit is to illustrate the impact which the discovery and utilization of a large natural resource, namely, iron ore, can have on the development of a city, in the hope that students…

  7. Recent results and experience with the Birmingham MC40 irradiation facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allport, P.; Baca, M.; Briglin, D.; Broughton, J.; Canavan, R.; Chisholm, A.; Gonella, L.; Knights, P.; Nikolopoulos, K.; Parker, D.; Price, T.; Thomas, J.; Wilson, J.; Affolder, A.; Casse, G.; Dervan, P.; Greenall, A.; Tsurin, I.; Wonsak, S.; Dixon, S.; Edwards, S.; French, R.; Hodgson, P.; Kemp-Russell, P.; Kourlitis, E.; Marin-Reyes, H.; Parker, K.

    2017-03-01

    Operational experience with the recently upgraded irradiation facility at the University of Birmingham is presented. This is based around the high intensity area of the MC40 medical cyclotron providing proton energies between 3 and 38 MeV and currents ranging from tens of fA to A. Accurate dosimetry for displacement damage and total ionizing dose, using a combination of techniques, is offered. Irradiations are carried out in a temperature controlled chamber that can be scanned through the beam, with the possibility for the devices to be biased, clocked, and read-out. Fluence up to several 1016 1 MeV neq/cm2 and GRad ionizing dose can be delivered within a day.

  8. The Birmingham abortion clinic bombing: preparing for an escalation of violence.

    PubMed

    1998-02-01

    Reproductive healthcare clinics and hospitals that perform abortions are facing increased security concerns following the latest major incident of violence directed at such facilities--the January 29 bombing of a Birmingham, AL, abortion clinic that killed an off-duty police officer and seriously wounded a nurse. As of publication date, the FBI had issued an arrest warrant and was still searching for Eric Robert Rudolph, 31, as a suspect in the bombing, the first fatal one of an abortion clinic. A $100,000 reward is being offered to anyone providing information that leads to his arrest and conviction. This report will provide further details on abortion clinical violence and additional information on how such facilities--whether freestanding or hospital based--can better protect themselves.

  9. Do Place and Time Make a Difference? Examining Quality of Life Among Homeless Persons in Northwest Arkansas and Birmingham.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Gail; Fitzpatrick, Kevin

    2017-04-01

    This study examines the role that life chances and choices play in determining quality of life among homeless people. Given the prominent negative impact of homelessness, this paper specifically examines the impact of length of time homeless and location on adverse quality of life. OLS regression examined quality of life among 264 homeless adults living in Northwest Arkansas and Birmingham, Alabama. Analysis shows no significant impact of life choices on quality of life but a significant impact of life chances including strong social ties and mastery of fate, on adverse quality of life. Length of time homeless was related to adverse quality of life, but location was not, indicating that the homeless experience with regards to subjective quality of life did not vary significantly between Birmingham and Northwest Arkansas.

  10. More Than What We Had: An Architectural and Historical Documentation of the Village Creek Project Neighborhoods Birmingham, Alabama

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-27

    Jemison , Sr. early on and managed by the Sessions Land Company between 1902 and 1916 (Figure 6). Hudgins and White (1985:48) observe that there was a...begin to settle within its boundaries. The subdivision was laid out along a streetcar line operated by Jemison between Birmingham and Ensley and it was...Robert Jemison , Jr. Jemison had purchased the Roebucks Springs tract in 1909 as an acquisition for the East Lake Land Company. The latter, which was

  11. 2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  12. 5. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, deck view. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  13. 4. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, elevation view. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  14. Urbanization effects on stream habitat characteristics in Boston, Massachusetts; Birmingham, Alabama; and Salt Lake City, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Short, T.M.; Giddings, E.M.P.; Zappia, H.; Coles, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    Relations between stream habitat and urban land-use intensity were examined in 90 stream reaches located in or near the metropolitan areas of Salt Lake City, Utah (SLC); Birmingham, Alabama (BIR); and Boston, Massachusetts (BOS). Urban intensity was based on a multi-metric index (urban intensity index or UII) that included measures of land cover, socioeconomic organization, and urban infrastructure. Twenty-eight physical variables describing channel morphology, hydraulic properties, and streambed conditions were examined. None of the habitat variables was significantly correlated with urbanization intensity in all three study areas. Urbanization effects on stream habitat were less apparent for streams in SLC and BIR, owing to the strong influence of basin slope (SLC) and drought conditions (BIR) on local flow regimes. Streamflow in the BOS study area was not unduly influenced by similar conditions of climate and physiography, and habitat conditions in these streams were more responsive to urbanization. Urbanization in BOS contributed to higher discharge, channel deepening, and increased loading of fine-grained particles to stream channels. The modifying influence of basin slope and climate on hydrology of streams in SLC and BIR limited our ability to effectively compare habitat responses among different urban settings and identify common responses that might be of interest to restoration or water management programs. Successful application of land-use models such as the UII to compare urbanization effects on stream habitat in different environmental settings must account for inherent differences in natural and anthropogenic factors affecting stream hydrology and geomorphology. The challenge to future management of urban development is to further quantify these differences by building upon existing models, and ultimately develop a broader understanding of urbanization effects on aquatic ecosystems. ?? 2005 by the American Fisheries Society.

  15. Mock-up experiment at Birmingham University for BNCT project of Osaka University--Neutron flux measurement with gold foil.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, S; Sakai, M; Yoshihashi, S; Manabe, M; Zushi, N; Murata, I; Hoashi, E; Kato, I; Kuri, S; Oshiro, S; Nagasaki, M; Horiike, H

    2015-12-01

    Mock-up experiment for development of accelerator based neutron source for Osaka University BNCT project was carried out at Birmingham University, UK. In this paper, spatial distribution of neutron flux intensity was evaluated by foil activation method. Validity of the design code system was confirmed by comparing measured gold foil activities with calculations. As a result, it was found that the epi-thermal neutron beam was well collimated by our neutron moderator assembly. Also, the design accuracy was evaluated to have less than 20% error.

  16. Increasing Diversity at the PhD Level in Astronomy: The Fisk-Vanderbilt Masters-to-PhD Bridge Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stassun, Keivan; Holley-Bockelmann, K.; Berlind, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    We briefly review the current status of underrepresented minorities in the physical sciences: The underrepresentation of Black-, Hispanic-, and Native-Americans is an order of magnitude problem. We then describe the Fisk-Vanderbilt Masters-to-PhD Bridge program as a successful model for effective partnerships with minority-serving institutions toward addressing this problem. Since 2004 the program has admitted 60 students, 54 of them underrepresented minorities (60% female), with a retention rate of 92%. The program leads the nation in master’s degrees in physics for African Americans, is one of the top ten producers of physics master’s degrees among all US citizens in general, and has become the nation’s top producer of underrepresented minority PhDs in physics, astronomy, and materials science. We summarize the main features of the program including two of its core strategies: (1) partnering a minority-serving institution and a major research university through collaborative research, and (2) using the master’s degree as a deliberate stepping stone to the PhD. We also specifically discuss one of the emerging core theories of the program: the concept of properly identifying students with 'unrealized or unrecognized potential'. We discuss our methods to recognize and select for unrealized potential during the admissions process, and how we cultivate that unrealized potential toward development of successful scientists and leaders.

  17. Enhancing Diversity at the PhD Level in Physics: The Fisk-Vanderbilt Masters-to-PhD Bridge Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stassun, Keivan

    2011-04-01

    We very briefly review the current status of underrepresented minorities in the physical sciences: The underrepresentation of Black-, Hispanic-, and Native-Americans is an order of magnitude problem. We then describe the Fisk-Vanderbilt Masters-to-PhD Bridge program as a successful model for effective partnerships with minority-serving institutions toward addressing this problem. Since 2004 the program has admitted 42 students, 37 of them underrepresented minorities (60% female), with a retention rate of 92%. The program is on pace to become the nation's top producer of underrepresented minority PhDs in physics, astronomy, and materials science. Already, the program leads the nation in master's degrees in physics for African Americans, and is one of the top ten producers of physics master's degrees among all US citizens in general. We summarize the main features of the program including two of its core strategies: (1) partnering a minority-serving institution and a major research university through collaborative research, and (2) using the master's degree as a deliberate stepping stone to the PhD. We also specifically discuss one of the emerging core theories of the program: the concept of students with ``unrealized or unrecognized potential.'' We discuss our methods to recognize and select for unrealized potential during the admissions process, and how we cultivate that unrealized potential toward development of successful scientists and leaders. Funding support from NSF PAARE grant AST-0849736.

  18. 7. LASSEN PARK ROAD BRIDGE AT SULFUR WORKS. NOTE ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. LASSEN PARK ROAD BRIDGE AT SULFUR WORKS. NOTE ROAD TRAVERSING DISTANT RIDGE BEYOND BRIDGE. SEEN FROM WEST OF HIGHWAY FROM OLD HIGHWAY LOOP. LOOKING E. - Lassen Park Road, Mineral, Tehama County, CA

  19. Vehicular road influence areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huertas, María E.; Huertas, José I.; Valencia, Alexander

    2017-02-01

    Vehicle operation over paved and unpaved roads is an emission source that significantly contributes to air pollution. Emissions are derived from vehicle exhaust pipes and re-suspension of particulate matter generated by wind erosion and tire to road surface interactions. Environmental authorities require a methodology to evaluate road impact areas, which enable managers to initiate counter-measures, particularly under circumstances where historic meteorological and/or air quality data is unavailable. The present study describes an analytical and experimental work developed to establish a simplified methodology to estimate the area influenced by vehicular roads. AERMOD was chosen to model pollutant dispersion generated by two roads of common attributes (straight road over flat terrain) under the effects of several arbitrary chosen weather conditions. The resulting pollutant concentration vs. Distance curves collapsed into a single curve when concentration and distance were expressed as dimensionless numbers and this curve can be described by a beta distribution function. This result implied that average concentration at a given distance was proportional to emission intensity and that it showed minor sensitivity to meteorological conditions. Therefore, road influence was defined by the area adjacent to the road limited by distance at which the beta distribution function equaled the limiting value specified by the national air quality standard for the pollutant under consideration.

  20. Roads to Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauer, Ezra

    1991-01-01

    Contends that the level of safety built into roads is largely unpremeditated and that roads and highways are not as safe as they might be. Discusses practices, standards, and deficiencies in highway and traffic safety related to geometric design and traffic engineering. Recommends increased transportation engineering professionalism and public…

  1. Gym for Free: The Short-Term Impact of an Innovative Public Health Policy on the Health and Wellbeing of Residents in a Deprived Constituency in Birmingham, UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabiee, Fatemeh; Robbins, Anne; Khan, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: This paper describes the process, impact and outcomes of an innovative health policy project entitled Gym for Free in Birmingham, UK. Objectives: To explore the short-term effectiveness of the pilot scheme in relation to access, utilisation, perceived benefits and sustainability. Design: Cross-sectional study using survey and focus…

  2. The Catastrophic State of Catastrophic Health Care Coverage. Hearing before the Special Committee on Aging. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (Birmingham, Alabama).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Special Committee on Aging.

    This document presents witnesses' testimonies and prepared statements from the Senate hearing held in Birmingham, Alabama to alert the public to the problems associated with catastrophic illness; learn what community services exist for older adults; and clarify what requirements for services, research, and education must be met to formulate an…

  3. Pop-up Library at the University of Birmingham: Extending the Reach of an Academic Library by Taking "The Library" to the Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, James; Bull, Stephen; Cooper, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Aligning with student engagement and promotional strategies, a Pop-Up Library project was initiated at the University of Birmingham. This involved setting up temporary, staffed stalls in different locations across campus in order to informally communicate with students and effectively take "the Library" to them. This article discusses…

  4. The prevalence of food insecurity and associated factors among households with children in Head Start programs in Houston, Texas and Birmingham, Alabama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study measured food security and hunger of households enrolled in Head Start in Houston, Texas, and Birmingham, Alabama and assessed factors that could affect food security. Interviewers collected data from primary caregivers on demographic characteristics, dietary intake, and the six-item US f...

  5. Management of Older Inpatients Who Refuse Nonpsychiatric Medication Within Birmingham and Solihull Mental Health NHS Foundation Trust

    PubMed Central

    Umotong, Eno

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The effects of poor medication compliance are well documented and include increased morbidity, early mortality, and financial costs to the society. According to national guidelines, when a competent patient refuses medication, the doctor on duty has a responsibility to ensure the patient understands their proposed course of action. The aims of this audit were to evaluate whether this consultation was taking place within older in-patient units across Birmingham and Solihull Mental Health NHS Foundation Trust when patients refuse nonpsychiatric medicines. Poor compliance was defined as more than five refusals of a nonpsychiatric medication over a 4-week period. A discussion with the duty doctor occurred in 75% of cases (27/36), which resulted in a change in prescription or compliance in 59% (16/27 patients). After patient refusal of medication, a consultation with the duty doctor is likely to improve compliance and uncover salient issues particularly in regards to capacity and drug suitability. PMID:27893528

  6. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 91-213-2123, G. T. Jones Tire and Battery Distributing Inc. , Birmingham, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Gittleman, J.; Estacio, P.; O'Brien, D.; Montopoli, M.

    1991-06-01

    In response to a request for technical assistance from the Alabama Health Department, possible hazardous working conditions at the G.T. Jones Tire and Battery Distributing Company (SIC-5093), Birmingham, Alabama were evaluated. The company employed 15 persons in battery breaking and recycling. Twelve of the workers had blood lead (7439921) levels over 60 micrograms/deciliter (microg/dl) and the average of the last three blood levels exceeded 50microg/dl for 13 of the employees. Blood lead levels greater than 60 were associated with biochemical evidence of impaired heme synthesis and impaired renal function. Fourteen workers had elevated zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels over 100microg/dl consistent with moderate lead poisoning. Three had ZPPs over 600 microg/dl, consistent with severe lead poisoning. The authors conclude that a health hazard existed from overexposure to lead. The authors recommend measures to reduce exposures.

  7. 14. VIEW OF NORTHSOUTH ROAD WHICH PARALLELS ROAD TO HATCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF NORTH-SOUTH ROAD WHICH PARALLELS ROAD TO HATCH ADIT (FEATURE B-28). NOTE MODERN 'LAY DOWN' FENCE ON ROAD. ROAD LIES TO THE WEST OF THE HATCH ADIT AND PHOTOGRAPH IS VIEW TO THE SOUTH. (OCTOBER, 1995) - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  8. Seerley Road Fire Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A barn caught fire at on Seerley Road, Indianapolis. Five storage drums believed to contain metallic potassium were involved in the fire. EPA will perform additional sampling as part of removal operations and safe offsite transportation.

  9. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  10. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, L.M.

    1998-05-05

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find at the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was not heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past. 2 figs.

  11. [A review on road ecology].

    PubMed

    Li, Yuehui; Hu, Yuanman; Li, Xiuzhen; Xiao, Duning

    2003-03-01

    Roads are a widespread and increasing feature of most landscapes, and have great ecological effects, e.g., increased mortality of animals and plants and habitat loss from road construction, alteration of the physical and chemical environment, and changes in roadsides vegetation. The great impact on animal population includes road-kills, limiting population, road avoidance causing home arrange shift, modification of movement pattern and barrier effect subdividing habitat and populations. Roads alter landscape spatial pattern and interrupt horizontal ecological flows strongly. These impacts can be assayed by indices of road density, road-effect zone and road location. Furthermore, important applications of road ecology to planning, conservation and management are essential and potential. Road ecology presents us a surprising frontier of ecology.

  12. Effect of telephone health coaching (Birmingham OwnHealth) on hospital use and associated costs: cohort study with matched controls

    PubMed Central

    Tunkel, Sarah; Blunt, Ian; Bardsley, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To test the effect of a telephone health coaching service (Birmingham OwnHealth) on hospital use and associated costs. Design Analysis of person level administrative data. Difference-in-difference analysis was done relative to matched controls. Setting Community based intervention operating in a large English city with industry. Participants 2698 patients recruited from local general practices before 2009 with heart failure, coronary heart disease, diabetes, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; and a history of inpatient or outpatient hospital use. These individuals were matched on a 1:1 basis to control patients from similar areas of England with respect to demographics, diagnoses of health conditions, previous hospital use, and a predictive risk score. Intervention Telephone health coaching involved a personalised care plan and a series of outbound calls usually scheduled monthly. Median length of time enrolled on the service was 25.5 months. Control participants received usual healthcare in their areas, which did not include telephone health coaching. Main outcome measures Number of emergency hospital admissions per head over 12 months after enrolment. Secondary metrics calculated over 12 months were: hospital bed days, elective hospital admissions, outpatient attendances, and secondary care costs. Results In relation to diagnoses of health conditions and other baseline variables, matched controls and intervention patients were similar before the date of enrolment. After this point, emergency admissions increased more quickly among intervention participants than matched controls (difference 0.05 admissions per head, 95% confidence interval 0.00 to 0.09, P=0.046). Outpatient attendances also increased more quickly in the intervention group (difference 0.37 attendances per head, 0.16 to 0.58, P<0.001), as did secondary care costs (difference £175 per head, £22 to £328, P=0.025). Checks showed that we were unlikely to have missed reductions in

  13. View southwest along Brown Road showing residential and commercial buildings ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest along Brown Road showing residential and commercial buildings on the north and south sides of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  14. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M.

    1999-01-01

    Disclosed are improvments to a rapid road repair vehicle comprising an improved cleaning device arrangement, two dispensing arrays for filling defects more rapidly and efficiently, an array of pre-heaters to heat the road way surface in order to help the repair material better bond to the repaired surface, a means for detecting, measuring, and computing the number, location and volume of each of the detected surface imperfection, and a computer means schema for controlling the operation of the plurality of vehicle subsystems. The improved vehicle is, therefore, better able to perform its intended function of filling surface imperfections while moving over those surfaces at near normal traffic speeds.

  15. Ambulance call-outs and response times in Birmingham and the impact of extreme weather and climate change.

    PubMed

    Thornes, John Edward; Fisher, Paul Anthony; Rayment-Bishop, Tracy; Smith, Christopher

    2014-03-01

    Although there has been some research on the impact of extreme weather on the number of ambulance call-out incidents, especially heat waves, there has been very little research on the impact of cold weather on ambulance call-outs and response times. In the UK, there is a target response rate of 75% of life threatening incidents (Category A) that must be responded to within 8 min. This paper compares daily air temperature data with ambulance call-out data for Birmingham over a 5-year period (2007-2011). A significant relationship between extreme weather and increased ambulance call-out and response times can clearly be shown. Both hot and cold weather have a negative impact on response times. During the heat wave of August 2003, the number of ambulance call-outs increased by up to a third. In December 2010 (the coldest December for more than 100 years), the response rate fell below 50% for 3 days in a row (18 December-20 December 2010) with a mean response time of 15 min. For every reduction of air temperature by 1°C there was a reduction of 1.3% in performance. Improved weather forecasting and the take up of adaptation measures, such as the use of winter tyres, are suggested for consideration as management tools to improve ambulance response resilience during extreme weather. Also it is suggested that ambulance response times could be used as part of the syndromic surveillance system at the Health Protection Agency.

  16. Effects of urbanization on benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in contrasting environmental settings: Boston, Massachusetts; Birmingham, Alabama; and Salt Lake City, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cuffney, T.F.; Zappia, H.; Giddings, E.M.P.; Coles, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    Responses of invertebrate assemblages along gradients of urban intensity were examined in three metropolitan areas with contrasting climates and topography (Boston, Massachusetts; Birmingham, Alabama; Salt Lake City, Utah). Urban gradients were defined using an urban intensity index (UII) derived from basin-scale population, infrastructure, land-use, land-cover, and socioeconomic characteristics. Responses based on assemblage metrics, indices of biotic integrity (B-IBI), and ordinations were readily detected in all three urban areas and many responses could be accurately predicted simply using regional UIIs. Responses to UII were linear and did not indicate any initial resistance to urbanization. Richness metrics were better indicators of urbanization than were density metrics. Metrics that were good indicators were specific to each study except for a richness-based tolerance metric (TOLr) and one B-IBI. Tolerances to urbanization were derived for 205 taxa. These tolerances differed among studies and with published tolerance values, but provided similar characterizations of site conditions. Basin-scale land-use changes were the most important variables for explaining invertebrate responses to urbanization. Some chemical and instream physical habitat variables were important in individual studies, but not among studies. Optimizing the study design to detect basin-scale effects may have reduced the ability to detect local-scale effects. ?? 2005 by the American Fisheries Society.

  17. 24. OLD TIOGA ROAD VIEW, NOW MAY LAKE ROAD , ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. OLD TIOGA ROAD VIEW, NOW MAY LAKE ROAD , AT SNOW FLAT. MOUNT HOFFMAN AT CENTER REAR. LOOKING NW. GIS: N-37 49 34.6 / W-119 29 58.2 - Tioga Road, Between Crane Flat & Tioga Pass, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  18. Classification of road surface profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Rouillard, V.; Bruscella, B.; Sek, M.

    2000-02-01

    This paper introduces a universal classification methodology for discretely sampled sealed bituminous road profile data for the study of shock and vibrations related to the road transportation process. Data representative of a wide variety of Victorian (Australia) road profiles were used to develop a universal classification methodology with special attention to their non-Gaussian and nonstationary properties. This resulted in the design of computer software to automatically detect and extract transient events from the road spatial acceleration data as well as to identify segments of the constant RMS level enabling transients to be analyzed separately from the underlying road process. Nine universal classification parameters are introduced to describe road profile spatial acceleration based on the statistical characteristics of the transient amplitude and stationary RMS segments. Results from this study are aimed at the areas of road transport simulation as well as road surface characterization.

  19. On the Road

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mary Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Veteran development officers say the experience of visiting and traveling to different places or countries often feels like an endless cycle of getting lost, missing flights, and eating midnight dinners from hotel vending machines. Despite ongoing travel challenges, experienced road warriors have learned how to maximize their effectiveness,…

  20. Road-Cleaning Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    Roadways are literally soaked with petrochemical byproducts, oils, gasoline, and other volatile substances that eventually run off into sewers and end up in rivers, waterways, and other undesirable places. Can the roads be cleaned of these wastes, with their proper disposal? Can vehicles, robots, or other devices be designed that could be driven…

  1. The Road Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shaughnessy, Molly

    2016-01-01

    "Children have the potential to create a world we cannot imagine. This is our hope." In choosing Montessori, O'Shaughnessy says that we are choosing the road less traveled. We are choosing education as an aid to life. We are choosing an approach that respects the innate and unique potential of each child and that calls upon us to serve…

  2. View southeast to Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing the Israel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast to Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing the Israel Putnam Memorial - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  3. [Supervising road safety in Peru].

    PubMed

    Sagástegui, Freddy

    2010-06-01

    In this article some problems in road safety are described, which have been detected by the Ombudsman of Peru, as part of its role of public administration supervisor, amongst these problems we mention: lack of and inadequate elaboration of the statistics on road traffic accidents, the inconsistency of the National Council for Road Security and the lack of responsibility of the local and regional governments reflected by the lack of application of the National Plan of Road Safety. Facing this, the Ombudsman suggests that the State develops a rigorous statistical system, strengthens the National Council of Road Safety and that the different sectors of the government develop the mentioned National Plan.

  4. Can we prevent road rage?

    PubMed

    Asbridge, Mark; Smart, Reginald G; Mann, Robert E

    2006-04-01

    Road rage has become a serious concern in many countries, and preventive efforts are required. This article reviews what can be done to prevent road rage by exploring potential prevention avenues in five areas. First, legal changes aimed at increasing the penalties for road rage behavior could be instituted, drawing on models from aggressive-driving or impaired-driving laws. A second approach would involve the adoption of court programs for convicted road ragers. Third, car redesign offers a means of reducing crime through environmental design. Fourth, mass media education could be implemented to inform drivers of the risk from road rage and how to avoid situations that facilitate road rage. Finally, prevention efforts could be directed to long-term societal changes that emphasize structural modifications, such as reducing congestion on the roads, reduced driver stress, or promoting public transportation. The strengths and weaknesses of these strategies are discussed.

  5. Including the urban heat island in spatial heat health risk assessment strategies: a case study for Birmingham, UK

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Heatwaves present a significant health risk and the hazard is likely to escalate with the increased future temperatures presently predicted by climate change models. The impact of heatwaves is often felt strongest in towns and cities where populations are concentrated and where the climate is often unintentionally modified to produce an urban heat island effect; where urban areas can be significantly warmer than surrounding rural areas. The purpose of this interdisciplinary study is to integrate remotely sensed urban heat island data alongside commercial social segmentation data via a spatial risk assessment methodology in order to highlight potential heat health risk areas and build the foundations for a climate change risk assessment. This paper uses the city of Birmingham, UK as a case study area. Results When looking at vulnerable sections of the population, the analysis identifies a concentration of "very high" risk areas within the city centre, and a number of pockets of "high risk" areas scattered throughout the conurbation. Further analysis looks at household level data which yields a complicated picture with a considerable range of vulnerabilities at a neighbourhood scale. Conclusions The results illustrate that a concentration of "very high" risk people live within the urban heat island, and this should be taken into account by urban planners and city centre environmental managers when considering climate change adaptation strategies or heatwave alert schemes. The methodology has been designed to be transparent and to make use of powerful and readily available datasets so that it can be easily replicated in other urban areas. PMID:21682872

  6. Validation of solar-cycle changes in low-degree helioseismic parameters from the Birmingham Solar-Oscillations Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, R.; Davies, G. R.; Chaplin, W. J.; Elsworth, Y. P.; Hale, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    We present a new and up-to-date analysis of the solar low-degree p-mode parameter shifts from the Birmingham Solar-Oscillations Network over the past 22 years, up to the end of 2014. We aim to demonstrate that they are not dominated by changes in the asymmetry of the resonant peak profiles of the modes and that the previously published results on the solar-cycle variations of mode parameters are reliable. We compare the results obtained using a conventional maximum-likelihood estimation algorithm and a new one based on the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique, both taking into account mode asymmetry. We assess the reliability of the solar-cycle trends seen in the data by applying the same analysis to artificially generated spectra. We find that the two methods are in good agreement. Both methods accurately reproduce the input frequency shifts in the artificial data and underestimate the amplitude and width changes by a small amount, around 10 per cent. We confirm earlier findings that the frequency and line width are positively correlated, and the mode amplitude anticorrelated, with the level of solar activity, with the energy supplied to the modes remaining essentially unchanged. For the mode asymmetry the correlation with activity is marginal, but the MCMC algorithm gives more robust results than the MLE (Maximum-Likelihood Estimate). The magnitude of the parameter shifts is consistent with earlier work. There is no evidence that the frequency changes we see arise from changes in the asymmetry, which would need to be much larger than those observed in order to give the observed frequency shift.

  7. Preliminary findings on the reliability and validity of the Cantonese Birmingham Cognitive Screen in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiaoping; Chen, Haobo; Bickerton, Wai-Ling; Lau, Johnny King Lam; Kong, Anthony Pak Hin; Rotshtein, Pia; Guo, Aihua; Hu, Jianxi; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2015-01-01

    Background There are no currently effective cognitive assessment tools for patients who have suffered stroke in the People’s Republic of China. The Birmingham Cognitive Screen (BCoS) has been shown to be a promising tool for revealing patients’ poststroke cognitive deficits in specific domains, which facilitates more individually designed rehabilitation in the long run. Hence we examined the reliability and validity of a Cantonese version BCoS in patients with acute ischemic stroke, in Guangzhou. Method A total of 98 patients with acute ischemic stroke were assessed with the Cantonese version of the BCoS, and an additional 133 healthy individuals were recruited as controls. Apart from the BCoS, the patients also completed a number of external cognitive tests, including the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Test (MoCA), Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Albert’s cancellation test, the Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, and six gesture matching tasks. Cutoff scores for failing each subtest, ie, deficits, were computed based on the performance of the controls. The validity and reliability of the Cantonese BCoS were examined, as well as interrater and test–retest reliability. We also compared the proportions of cases being classified as deficits in controlled attention, memory, character writing, and praxis, between patients with and without spoken language impairment. Results Analyses showed high test–retest reliability and agreement across independent raters on the qualitative aspects of measurement. Significant correlations were observed between the subtests of the Cantonese BCoS and the other external cognitive tests, providing evidence for convergent validity of the Cantonese BCoS. The screen was also able to generate measures of cognitive functions that were relatively uncontaminated by the presence of aphasia. Conclusion This study suggests good reliability and validity of the Cantonese version of the BCoS. The Cantonese BCoS is a very promising

  8. Electricity Consumption Risk Map - The use of Urban Climate Mapping for smarter analysis: Case study for Birmingham, UK.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes Azevedo, Juliana; Burghardt, René; Chapman, Lee; Katzchner, Lutz; Muller, Catherine L.

    2015-04-01

    Climate is a key driving factor in energy consumption. However, income, vegetation, building mass structure, topography also impact on the amount of energy consumption. In a changing climate, increased temperatures are likely to lead to increased electricity consumption, affecting demand, distribution and generation. Furthermore, as the world population becomes more urbanized, increasing numbers of people will need to deal with not only increased temperatures from climate change, but also from the unintentional modification of the urban climate in the form of urban heat islands. Hence, climate and climate change needs to be taken into account for future urban planning aspects to increase the climate and energy resilience of the community and decrease the future social and economic costs. Geographical Information Systems provide a means to create urban climate maps as part of the urban planning process. Geostatistical analyses linking these maps with demographic and social data, enables a geo-statistical analysis to identify linkages to high-risk groups of the community and vulnerable areas of town and cities. Presently, the climatope classification is oriented towards thermal aspects and the ventilation quality (roughness) of the urban areas but can also be adapted to take into account other structural "environmental factors". This study aims to use the climatope approach to predict areas of potential high electricity consumption in Birmingham, UK. Several datasets were used to produce an average surface temperature map, vegetation map, land use map, topography map, building height map, built-up area roughness calculations, an average air temperature map and a domestic electricity consumption map. From the correlations obtained between the layers it is possible to average the importance of each factor and create a map for domestic electricity consumption to understand the influence of environmental aspects on spatial energy consumption. Based on these results city

  9. Jejunal free flap for reconstruction of pharyngeal defects in patients with head and neck cancer-the Birmingham experience.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rachel J; Parmar, Satyesh; Praveen, Prav; Martin, Tim; Pracy, Paul; Jennings, Chris; Simms, Malcolm

    2014-02-01

    We retrospectively audited operative complications, success of flaps, and speech and swallowing outcomes in patients with head and neck cancer who had reconstruction with jejunal free tissue transfer to the pharynx. A total of 104 patients had jejunal free flaps between 1987 and 2009 at University Hospital, Birmingham. Management was by a multidisciplinary team, and the same vascular surgeon did all the anastomoses. We investigated the relations between patients, operative factors, and postoperative complications, and noted the ischaemic time of the flaps and coexisting conditions of the patients. Outcomes measured included initial and final survival rates of flaps, donor and recipient site complications, and speech and swallowing outcomes on discharge and up to 2 years postoperatively. Of the 104 patients, 14 (13%) had initial flap complications but overall flap survival was 97%. A total of 11 (11%) patients developed a fistula at a mean of 15 days postoperatively and 11 (11%) had minor donor site complications. A total of 95 (91%) were able to resume oral diet on discharge. Of the 44 who were followed up on discharge, 32 (73%) were able to maintain oral intake at 2 years and 31 (70%) could use their voice in everyday situations. The jejunal free flap enables the tumour to be removed, and reconstruction and restoration of function to be done in a single operation using tissue that is versatile. The operation is associated with low morbidity at the donor and recipient sites, and results in good speech and swallowing outcomes. The flap can also be used to reconstruct pharyngolaryngeal defects.

  10. Road Traffic Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckenbauer, Thomas

    Road traffic is the most interfering noise source in developed countries. According to a publication of the European Union (EU) at the end of the twentieth century [1], about 40% of the population in 15 EU member states is exposed to road traffic noise at mean levels exceeding 55 dB(A). Nearly 80 million people, 20% of the population, are exposed to levels exceeding 65 dB(A) during daytime and more than 30% of the population is exposed to levels exceeding 55 dB(A) during night time. Such high noise levels cause health risks and social disorders (aggressiveness, protest, and helplessness), interference of communication and disturbance of sleep; the long- and short-term consequences cause adverse cardiovascular effects, detrimental hormonal responses (stress hormones), and possible disturbance of the human metabolism (nutrition) and the immune system. Even performance at work and school could be impaired.

  11. Simulator of Road Tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danišovič, Peter; Schlosser, František; Šrámek, Juraj; Rázga, Martin

    2015-05-01

    A Tunnel Traffic & Operation Simulator is a device of the Centre of Transport Research at the University of Žilina. The Simulator allows managing technological equipment of virtual two-tube highway tunnel, which is interconnected with simulation of vehicle traffic in tunnel. Changes of the traffic-operation states and other equipment are reflecting at the simulated traffic, as well as simulations of various emergency events in traffic initiate changes in tunnel detecting and measuring devices. It is thus possible to simulate emergency states, which can be affected by various faults of technology as well as by climatic conditions. The solutions can be found in irreplaceable experiences of Slovak road tunnel operators, changes of trafficoperation states, visualizations of operator technological display screens, technological devices labelling in order to increase operational safety of road tunnels.

  12. Tweets on the Road

    PubMed Central

    Lenormand, Maxime; Tugores, Antònia; Colet, Pere; Ramasco, José J.

    2014-01-01

    The pervasiveness of mobile devices, which is increasing daily, is generating a vast amount of geo-located data allowing us to gain further insights into human behaviors. In particular, this new technology enables users to communicate through mobile social media applications, such as Twitter, anytime and anywhere. Thus, geo-located tweets offer the possibility to carry out in-depth studies on human mobility. In this paper, we study the use of Twitter in transportation by identifying tweets posted from roads and rails in Europe between September 2012 and November 2013. We compute the percentage of highway and railway segments covered by tweets in 39 countries. The coverages are very different from country to country and their variability can be partially explained by differences in Twitter penetration rates. Still, some of these differences might be related to cultural factors regarding mobility habits and interacting socially online. Analyzing particular road sectors, our results show a positive correlation between the number of tweets on the road and the Average Annual Daily Traffic on highways in France and in the UK. Transport modality can be studied with these data as well, for which we discover very heterogeneous usage patterns across the continent. PMID:25141161

  13. Experiments on Washboard Road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Stephen; Taberlet, Nicolas; McElwaine, James; Dalziel, Stuart

    2007-03-01

    Granular surfaces to develop lateral ripples (so-called ``washboard" or ``corrugated" road) under the action of rolling wheels. Similar ripples are observed on railroad tracks and many other rolling, load bearing surfaces. Our aim was to investigate this instability of the flat road surface from the point of view of driven, dissipative granular dynamics. We report the results of both laboratory experiments and soft-particle direct numerical simulations. The experiment consisted of a rotating table 60 cm in radius with a thick layer of sand forming a roadbed around the circumference. A 6 cm radius hard rubber wheel, with a support stationary in the lab frame, rolled on the sand layer. We varied the speed of the table, the details of the grains and the suspension of the wheel. The ripple pattern appears as small patches of travelling waves which eventually spread to the entire circumference. The ripples drift slowly in the driving direction. Interesting secondary dynamics of the saturated ripples were observed, as well as various ripple creation and destruction events. The wavelength of the ripples can be quantized by the finite circumference of the road. All of these effects are captured qualitatively by 2D soft particle simulations in which a disk rolls over a 2D bed of polydisperse particles in a periodic box.

  14. 25. White Plains Road Bridge in foreground; Unionport Road Bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. White Plains Road Bridge in foreground; Unionport Road Bridge in background. Van Nest, Bronx Co., NY. Sec. 4207, MP 12.75./78. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New Jersey/New York & New York/Connecticut State Lines, New York County, NY

  15. Streets ahead on safety: young people's participation in decision-making to address the European road injury 'epidemic'.

    PubMed

    Kimberlee, Richard

    2008-05-01

    This paper reports on Birmingham City Council's Streets Ahead on Safety project which aims to improve road safety and quality of life in an area of multiple deprivation where 87 000 people from largely Asian, immigrant backgrounds live. A third of residents are under 16 years old and 58% self-define their religion as Muslim. The area has a poor traffic accident record leading to high levels of killed or seriously injured children. Child accidental injury in Europe is reaching 'epidemic' proportions, requiring innovative, ameliorative approaches to redress. Existing UK school-based road safety initiatives rarely extend beyond the 'tokenistic', but this project endeavoured to encourage a highway authority, engineers and road safety officers to provide local young people with opportunities to participate in decision-making in the belief that the active engagement of young service users would lead to more effective and sustainable solutions to accident prevention. Embracing the city's ratification of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989), this project promoted young people's participation in decision-making around engineering plans for their local community. The project included 405 young people aged 9-11 years who conducted environmental audits, interactive road safety awareness and citizenship training, and engaged as decision-makers. Successful outcomes include increased knowledge of road and community safety issues, and the establishment of young people as stakeholders in the development of their own safety and active engagement with service providers in the development of engineering proposals. This paper highlights the potential dynamics of participation and the dilemmas it poses for relationships between service users and providers, and outlines some of the barriers confronted by young people in learning to be active participants.

  16. View southwest along Route Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing commercial ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest along Route Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing commercial and residential buildings on the east and west sides of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  17. Scale invariance in road networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalapala, Vamsi; Sanwalani, Vishal; Clauset, Aaron; Moore, Cristopher

    2006-02-01

    We study the topological and geographic structure of the national road networks of the United States, England, and Denmark. By transforming these networks into their dual representation, where roads are vertices and an edge connects two vertices if the corresponding roads ever intersect, we show that they exhibit both topological and geographic scale invariance. That is, we show that for sufficiently large geographic areas, the dual degree distribution follows a power law with exponent 2.2⩽α⩽2.4 , and that journeys, regardless of their length, have a largely identical structure. To explain these properties, we introduce and analyze a simple fractal model of road placement that reproduces the observed structure, and suggests a testable connection between the scaling exponent α and the fractal dimensions governing the placement of roads and intersections.

  18. Road safety performance indicators for the interurban road network.

    PubMed

    Yannis, George; Weijermars, Wendy; Gitelman, Victoria; Vis, Martijn; Chaziris, Antonis; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Azevedo, Carlos Lima

    2013-11-01

    Various road safety performance indicators (SPIs) have been proposed for different road safety research areas, mainly as regards driver behaviour (e.g. seat belt use, alcohol, drugs, etc.) and vehicles (e.g. passive safety); however, no SPIs for the road network and design have been developed. The objective of this research is the development of an SPI for the road network, to be used as a benchmark for cross-region comparisons. The developed SPI essentially makes a comparison of the existing road network to the theoretically required one, defined as one which meets some minimum requirements with respect to road safety. This paper presents a theoretical concept for the determination of this SPI as well as a translation of this theory into a practical method. Also, the method is applied in a number of pilot countries namely the Netherlands, Portugal, Greece and Israel. The results show that the SPI could be efficiently calculated in all countries, despite some differences in the data sources. In general, the calculated overall SPI scores were realistic and ranged from 81 to 94%, with the exception of Greece where the SPI was relatively lower (67%). However, the SPI should be considered as a first attempt to determine the safety level of the road network. The proposed method has some limitations and could be further improved. The paper presents directions for further research to further develop the SPI.

  19. Vitiligo road map.

    PubMed

    Lee, Brian W; Schwartz, Robert A; Hercogová, Jana; Valle, Yan; Lotti, Torello M

    2012-01-01

    Vitiligo is a depigmenting disorder stemming from melanocyte loss or dysfunction. It has a complex, multifaceted etiology. We constructed a "vitiligo road map," consisting of basic science, clinical, and treatment components, in order to better portray our current understanding of vitiligo pathogenesis and reflect upon novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets for future research. The melanocyte map elaborates on the molecular processes and intracellular signaling pathways initiated by various external autocrine/paracrine factors in representing normal melanocyte homeostatic functions modulating its viability, proliferation, differentiation, dendricity, migration, and melanogenic processes. This vitiligo map identifies known inducers/triggers of vitiligo onset and progression that cultivate a microenvironment for melanocyte disappearance, real or functional. This map describes the molecular mechanisms of currently utilized clinical and experimental treatments of vitiligo that facilitate repigmentation.

  20. Silk Roads or Steppe Roads? The Silk Roads in World History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, David

    2000-01-01

    Explores the prehistory of the Silk Roads, reexamines their structure and history in the classical era, and explores shifts in their geography in the last one thousand years. Explains that a revised understanding of the Silk Roads demonstrates how the Afro-Eurasian land mass has been linked by networks of exchange since the Bronze Age. (CMK)

  1. 4. General view of road with grey birch trees looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. General view of road with grey birch trees looking E. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Heintooga Round Bottom Road & Balsam Mountain Road, Between Blue Ridge Parkway & Big Cove Road, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  2. Physiological profiles of elite off-road and road cyclists.

    PubMed

    Wilber, R L; Zawadzki, K M; Kearney, J T; Shannon, M P; Disalvo, D

    1997-08-01

    There are minimal scientific data describing international caliber off-road cyclists (mountain bikers), particularly as they compare physiologically with international caliber road cyclists. Elite female (N = 10) and male (N = 10) athletes representing the United States National Off-Road Bicycle Association (NORBA) Cross-Country Team were compared with elite female (N = 10) and male (N = 10) athletes representing the United States Cycling Federation (USCF) National Road Team. Submaximal and maximal exercise responses were evaluated during the "championship" phase of the training year when athletes were in peak condition. All physiological tests were conducted at 1860 m. Among the female athletes, physiological responses at lactate threshold (LT) and during maximal exercise (MAX) were similar between NORBA and USCF cyclists with two exceptions: 1) USCF cyclists demonstrated a significantly greater (P < 0.05) absolute (16%) and relative (10%) maximal aerobic power, and 2) MAX heart rate was significantly higher (P < 0.05) for the USCF athletes (6%). Among the male athletes, physiological responses at LT and MAX were similar between NORBA and USCF cyclists with two exceptions: 1) USCF cyclists produced significantly greater (P < 0.05) absolute (18%) and relative (16%) power at LT, and 2) USCF cyclists produced significantly greater (P < 0.05) absolute (12%) and relative (10%) power at MAX. These data suggest that, in general, elite off-road cyclists possess physiological profiles that are similar to elite road cyclists.

  3. The contribution of on-road studies of road user behaviour to improving road safety.

    PubMed

    Lenné, Michael G

    2013-09-01

    For over 40 years transport safety researchers have been using methods of vehicle instrumentation to gain greater insights into the factors that contribute to road user crash risk and the associated crash factors. In the previous decade in particular the widespread availability of lower cost and more advanced methods of vehicle instrumentation and recording technologies are supporting the increasing number of on-road research studies worldwide. The design of these studies ranges from multi-method studies using instrumented test vehicles and defined driving routes, to field operational tests, through to much larger and more naturalistic studies. It is timely to assess the utility of these methods for studying the influences of driver characteristics and states, the design and operation of the road system, and the influences of in-vehicle technologies on behaviour and safety for various road user groups. This special issue considers the extent to which on-road studies using vehicle instrumentation have been used to advance knowledge across these areas of road safety research. The papers included in this issue illustrate how research using instrumented test vehicles continues to generate new knowledge, and how the larger scale United States and European naturalistic and field operational test studies are providing a wealth of data about road user behaviour in real traffic. This is balanced with a number of studies that present methodological developments in data collection and analysis methods that, while promising, need further validation. The use of on-road methods to accurately describe the behaviours occurring in everyday real-world conditions, to quantify risks for safety critical events, and an improved understanding of the factors that contribute to risk, clearly has huge potential to promote further road trauma reductions.

  4. Road traffic injuries: a stocktaking.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Dinesh

    2008-08-01

    Once we accept that road traffic injury control is a public health problem, and that we have an ethical responsibility to arrange for the safety of individuals, then it follows that health and medical professionals have to assume responsibility for participating in efforts to control this pandemic. Over 1.2 million people die of road traffic crashes annually. Road traffic injuries are among the second to the sixth leading causes of death in the age groups 15-60 years in all countries around the world. Control of road traffic injuries is going to require very special efforts as patterns are different in high- and lower-income countries, and while some countermeasures are applicable internationally, others will need further research and innovation. We will need to focus on the safety of pedestrians, bicyclists and motorcyclists, speed control, and prevention of driving under the influence of alcohol.

  5. Road Rage: What's Driving It?

    PubMed

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2010-07-01

    Up to one-third of community participants report being perpetrators of road rage, indicating that various forms of road rage are relatively commonplace. However, only two percent or less of incidents culminate in serious damage to persons or vehicles. The most common offenders appear to be young and male. A number of factors may contribute to road rage, including environmental factors (e.g., greater number of miles driven per day, traffic density), nonspecific psychological factors (e.g., displaced aggression, attribution of blame to others), and bona fide Axis I and II disorders. The most common Axis I disorders appear to be related to alcohol and substance misuse, whereas possible Axis II disorders include borderline and antisocial personality disorders. Being aware of these contributory factors to road rage may improve general clinical awareness of the nature and treatment of perpetrators.

  6. Perceived density of road maps.

    PubMed

    Schwartz-Chassidim, Hadas; Meyer, Joachim; Parmet, Yisrael; Rogatka, Efrat; Amzaleg, Ohad

    2014-11-01

    Maps should be designed so that users can comprehend and use the information. Display decisions, such as choosing the scale at which an area is shown, depend on properties of the displayed information such as the perceived density (PD) of the information. Taking a psychophysical approach we suggest that the PD of information in a road map is related to the scale and properties of the mapped area. 54 participants rated the PD of 60 maps from different regions. We provide a simple model that predicts the PD of electronic road map displays, using the logarithm of the number of roads, the logarithm of the number of junctions and the length of the shown roads. The PD model was cross-validated using a different set of 60 maps (n = 44). The model can be used for automatically adjusting display scales and for evaluating map designs, considering the required PD to perform a map-related task.

  7. The Dilemma of Mountain Roads

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountain roads and trails are proliferating throughout developing Southeast Asia with severe but largely unrecognized long-term consequences related to effects of landslides and surface erosion on communities and downstream resources.

  8. Road Weather and Connected Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisano, P.; Boyce, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    On average, there are over 5.8 M vehicle crashes each year of which 23% are weather-related. Weather-related crashes are defined as those crashes that occur in adverse weather or on slick pavement. The vast majority of weather-related crashes happen on wet pavement (74%) and during rainfall (46%). Connected vehicle technologies hold the promise to transform road-weather management by providing improved road weather data in real time with greater temporal and geographic accuracy. This will dramatically expand the amount of data that can be used to assess, forecast, and address the impacts that weather has on roads, vehicles, and travelers. The use of vehicle-based measurements of the road and surrounding atmosphere with other, more traditional weather data sources, and create road and atmospheric hazard products for a variety of users. The broad availability of road weather data from mobile sources will vastly improve the ability to detect and forecast weather and road conditions, and will provide the capability to manage road-weather response on specific roadway links. The RWMP is currently demonstrating how weather, road conditions, and related vehicle data can be used for decision making through an innovative Integrated Mobile Observations project. FHWA is partnering with 3 DOTs (MN, MI, & NV) to pilot these applications. One is a mobile alerts application called the Motorists Advisories and Warnings (MAW) and a maintenance decision support application. These applications blend traditional weather information (e.g., radar, surface stations) with mobile vehicle data (e.g., temperature, brake status, wiper status) to determine current weather conditions. These weather conditions, and other road-travel-relevant information, are provided to users via web and phone applications. The MAW provides nowcasts and short-term forecasts out to 24 hours while the EMDSS application can provide forecasts up to 72 hours in advance. The three DOTs have placed readers and external

  9. Observations of Novae From ROAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambsch, F.-J.

    2014-12-01

    The author discusses observations of galactic novae and some extragalactic supernovae from his remote observatory ROAD (Remote Observatory Atacama Desert) he commenced in August 2011 with Nova Lupi 2011 (PR Lup). The observed novae are mainly chosen according to AAVSO Alert Notices and AAVSO Special Notices as published on their website. Examples of dense observations of different novae are presented. The focus goes to the different behaviors of their light curves. It also demonstrates the capability of the remote observatory ROAD.

  10. Road safety and road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Mansuri, Farah A.; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H.; Zalat, Marwa M.; Qabshawi, Reem I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the changing trends and crucial preventive approaches to road traffic accidents (RTAs) adopted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 2.5 decades, and to analyze aspects previously overlooked. Methods: This systematic review was based on evidence of RTAs in KSA. All articles published during the last 25 years on road traffic accident in KSA were analyzed. This study was carried out from December 2013 to May 2014 in the Department of Family and Community Medicine, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, KSA. Results: Road traffic accidents accounted for 83.4% of all trauma admissions in 1984-1989, and no such overall trend was studied thereafter. The most frequently injured body regions as reported in the latest studies were head and neck, followed by upper and lower extremities, which was found to be opposite to that of the studies reported earlier. Hospital data showed an 8% non-significant increase in road accident mortalities in contrast to police records of a 27% significant reduction during the years 2005-2010. Excessive speeding was the most common cause reported in all recent and past studies. Conclusion: Disparity was common in the type of reporting of RTAs, outcome measures, and possible causes over a period of 2.5 decade. All research exclusively looked into the drivers’ faults. A sentinel surveillance of road crashes should be kept in place in the secondary and tertiary care hospitals for all regions of KSA. PMID:25828277

  11. Extracting Road Vector Data from Raster Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Yao-Yi; Knoblock, Craig A.

    Raster maps are an important source of road information. Because of the overlapping map features (e.g., roads and text labels) and the varying image quality, extracting road vector data from raster maps usually requires significant user input to achieve accurate results. In this paper, we present an accurate road vectorization technique that minimizes user input by combining our previous work on extracting road pixels and road-intersection templates to extract accurate road vector data from raster maps. Our approach enables GIS applications to exploit the road information in raster maps for the areas where the road vector data are otherwise not easily accessible, such as the countries of the Middle East. We show that our approach requires minimal user input and achieves an average of 93.2% completeness and 95.6% correctness in an experiment using raster maps from various sources.

  12. Encapsulating Urban Traffic Rhythms into Road Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junjie; Wei, Dong; He, Kun; Gong, Hang; Wang, Pu

    2014-01-01

    Using road GIS (geographical information systems) data and travel demand data for two U.S. urban areas, the dynamical driver sources of each road segment were located. A method to target road clusters closely related to urban traffic congestion was then developed to improve road network efficiency. The targeted road clusters show different spatial distributions at different times of a day, indicating that our method can encapsulate dynamical travel demand information into the road networks. As a proof of concept, when we lowered the speed limit or increased the capacity of road segments in the targeted road clusters, we found that both the number of congested roads and extra travel time were effectively reduced. In addition, the proposed modeling framework provided new insights on the optimization of transport efficiency in any infrastructure network with a specific supply and demand distribution. PMID:24553203

  13. Road Nail: Experimental Solar Powered Intelligent Road Marking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samardžija, Dragan; Teslić, Nikola; Todorović, Branislav M.; Kovač, Erne; Isailović, Đorđe; Miladinović, Bojan

    2012-03-01

    Driving in low visibility conditions (night time, fog or heavy precipitation) is particularly challenging task with an increased probability of traffic accidents and possible injuries. Road Nail is a solar powered intelligent road marking system of wirelessly networked signaling devices that improve driver safety in low visibility conditions along hazardous roadways. Nails or signaling devices are autonomous nodes with capability to accumulate energy, exchange wireless messages, detect approaching vehicles and emit signalization light. We have built an experimental test-bed that consists of 20 nodes and a cellular gateway. Implementation details of the above system, including extensive measurements and performance evaluations in realistic field deployments are presented. A novel distributed network topology discovery scheme is proposed which integrates both sensor and wireless communication aspects, where nodes act autonomously. Finally, integration of the Road Nail system with the cellular network and the Internet is described.

  14. A global strategy for road building.

    PubMed

    Laurance, William F; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Sloan, Sean; O'Connell, Christine S; Mueller, Nathan D; Goosem, Miriam; Venter, Oscar; Edwards, David P; Phalan, Ben; Balmford, Andrew; Van Der Ree, Rodney; Arrea, Irene Burgues

    2014-09-11

    The number and extent of roads will expand dramatically this century. Globally, at least 25 million kilometres of new roads are anticipated by 2050; a 60% increase in the total length of roads over that in 2010. Nine-tenths of all road construction is expected to occur in developing nations, including many regions that sustain exceptional biodiversity and vital ecosystem services. Roads penetrating into wilderness or frontier areas are a major proximate driver of habitat loss and fragmentation, wildfires, overhunting and other environmental degradation, often with irreversible impacts on ecosystems. Unfortunately, much road proliferation is chaotic or poorly planned, and the rate of expansion is so great that it often overwhelms the capacity of environmental planners and managers. Here we present a global scheme for prioritizing road building. This large-scale zoning plan seeks to limit the environmental costs of road expansion while maximizing its benefits for human development, by helping to increase agricultural production, which is an urgent priority given that global food demand could double by mid-century. Our analysis identifies areas with high environmental values where future road building should be avoided if possible, areas where strategic road improvements could promote agricultural development with relatively modest environmental costs, and 'conflict areas' where road building could have sizeable benefits for agriculture but with serious environmental damage. Our plan provides a template for proactively zoning and prioritizing roads during the most explosive era of road expansion in human history.

  15. Photogrammetric Techniques for Road Surface Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knyaz, V. A.; Chibunichev, A. G.

    2016-06-01

    The quality and condition of a road surface is of great importance for convenience and safety of driving. So the investigations of the behaviour of road materials in laboratory conditions and monitoring of existing roads are widely fulfilled for controlling a geometric parameters and detecting defects in the road surface. Photogrammetry as accurate non-contact measuring method provides powerful means for solving different tasks in road surface reconstruction and analysis. The range of dimensions concerned in road surface analysis can have great variation from tenths of millimetre to hundreds meters and more. So a set of techniques is needed to meet all requirements of road parameters estimation. Two photogrammetric techniques for road surface analysis are presented: for accurate measuring of road pavement and for road surface reconstruction based on imagery obtained from unmanned aerial vehicle. The first technique uses photogrammetric system based on structured light for fast and accurate surface 3D reconstruction and it allows analysing the characteristics of road texture and monitoring the pavement behaviour. The second technique provides dense 3D model road suitable for road macro parameters estimation.

  16. Building lunar roads - An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutledge, Bennett

    The problems involved in constructing lunar roads are explored. The main challenges are airlessness, low gravity, and solar effects, especially temperature extremes. Also involved are the expense of delivering equipment and material to the job site (especially for bridges and other structures), obtaining skilled labor, and providing maintenance. The lunar road will most likely be gravel, but with the size of the material closer to cobblestone to reduce scattering. They will probably be very winding, even on the flats, and feature numerous bridges and some cuts. This traffic will be mostly automatic or teleoperated cargo carriers with a handful of shirtsleeve-pressurized 'passenger cars' large enough to live in for several days.

  17. Fine particulate matter source apportionment for the Chemical speciation Trends Network site at Birmingham, Alabama, using Positive Matrix Factorization.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Karsten; Jayanty, R K M; Flanagan, James B

    2008-01-01

    The Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) receptor model version 1.1 was used with data from the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) Chemical Speciation Trends Network (STN) to estimate source contributions to ambient PM2.5 in a highly industrialized urban setting in the southeastern United States. Model results consistently resolved 10 factors that are interpreted as two secondary, five industrial, one motor vehicle, one road dust, and one biomass burning sources. The STN dataset is generally not corrected for field blank levels, which are significant in the case of organic carbon (OC). Estimation of primary OC using the elemental carbon (EC) tracer method applied on a seasonal basis significantly improved the model's performance. Uniform increase of input data uncertainty and exclusion of a few outlier samples (associated with high potassium) further improved the model results. However, it was found that most PMF factors did not cleanly represent single source types and instead are "contaminated" by other sources, a situation that might be improved by controlling rotational ambiguity within the model. Secondary particulate matter formed by atmospheric processes, such as sulfate and secondary OC, contribute the majority of ambient PM2.5 and exhibit strong seasonality (37 +/- 10% winter vs. 55 +/- 16% summer average). Motor vehicle emissions constitute the biggest primary PM2.5 mass contribution with almost 25 +/- 2% long-term average and winter maximum of 29 +/- 11%. PM2.5 contributions from the five identified industrial sources vary little with season and average 14 +/- 1.3%. In summary, this study demonstrates the utility of the EC tracer method to effectively blank-correct the OC concentrations in the STN dataset. In addition, examination of the effect of input uncertainty estimates on model results indicates that the estimated uncertainties currently being provided with the STN data may be somewhat lower than the levels needed for optimum modeling results.

  18. The legacy of chlorinated solvents in the Birmingham aquifer, UK: Observations spanning three decades and the challenge of future urban groundwater development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivett, Michael O.; Turner, Ryan J.; Glibbery (née Murcott), Penny; Cuthbert, Mark O.

    2012-10-01

    Licensed abstraction well data collected during 1986-2008 from a total of 77 wells mainly located at industrial sites combined with historic land use data from 1975 has allowed insight into the legacy of chlorinated solvent contamination in the Birmingham aquifer that underlies the UK's second largest city. This legacy, expected to be reasonably symptomatic of those occurring in other urban aquifers, was characterised by: dominance of parent solvents, particularly TCE (trichloroethene) that widely exceeded drinking-water quality criteria; greater TCE occurrence in wells in proximity to increased historic land use by the metal/engineering solvent-user industry (the relationship providing a first-pass indicator of future resource development potential); regional groundwater vulnerability controls; well abstraction changes (over months to decades) influential of observed concentration transients and anticipated plume capture or release; persistence of contamination over decades (with less soluble PCE (perchloroethene) showing increased persistence relative to TCE) that was reasonably ascribed to slow contaminant release from DNAPL (dense non-aqueous phase liquid) sources and, or low permeability layers; presence of dechlorination products arising from solvent (bio)degradation, although this key attenuation process appeared to have moderate to weak influence regionally on plumes; and, inadvertent, but significant solvent mass removal from the aquifer by industrial abstractions. Key challenges to realising future urban groundwater development were identified based on the observed legacy and well capture zone simulations. Despite the extensive contamination of the aquifer, it should still be possible to develop wells of high (several megalitres per day) capacity for drinking water supply (or other lower grade uses) without the requirement for solvent treatment. In those areas with higher risk of contamination, our dataset, together with application of emergent risk

  19. The legacy of chlorinated solvents in the Birmingham aquifer, UK: observations spanning three decades and the challenge of future urban groundwater development.

    PubMed

    Rivett, Michael O; Turner, Ryan J; Glibbery Née Murcott, Penny; Cuthbert, Mark O

    2012-10-01

    Licensed abstraction well data collected during 1986-2008 from a total of 77 wells mainly located at industrial sites combined with historic land use data from 1975 has allowed insight into the legacy of chlorinated solvent contamination in the Birmingham aquifer that underlies the UK's second largest city. This legacy, expected to be reasonably symptomatic of those occurring in other urban aquifers, was characterised by: dominance of parent solvents, particularly TCE (trichloroethene) that widely exceeded drinking-water quality criteria; greater TCE occurrence in wells in proximity to increased historic land use by the metal/engineering solvent-user industry (the relationship providing a first-pass indicator of future resource development potential); regional groundwater vulnerability controls; well abstraction changes (over months to decades) influential of observed concentration transients and anticipated plume capture or release; persistence of contamination over decades (with less soluble PCE (perchloroethene) showing increased persistence relative to TCE) that was reasonably ascribed to slow contaminant release from DNAPL (dense non-aqueous phase liquid) sources and, or low permeability layers; presence of dechlorination products arising from solvent (bio)degradation, although this key attenuation process appeared to have moderate to weak influence regionally on plumes; and, inadvertent, but significant solvent mass removal from the aquifer by industrial abstractions. Key challenges to realising future urban groundwater development were identified based on the observed legacy and well capture zone simulations. Despite the extensive contamination of the aquifer, it should still be possible to develop wells of high (several megalitres per day) capacity for drinking water supply (or other lower grade uses) without the requirement for solvent treatment. In those areas with higher risk of contamination, our dataset, together with application of emergent risk

  20. Gravel Roads: Maintenance and Design Manual

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This manual was developed with a major emphasis on the maintenance of gravel roads, including some basic design elements. The purpose of the manual is to provide clear and helpful information for doing a better job of maintaining gravel roads.

  1. 35. PRATER GRADE ROAD VIEW, FACING NW. NOTE WEATHERING STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. PRATER GRADE ROAD VIEW, FACING NW. NOTE WEATHERING STEEL RAIL AND ROAD CUT IN DISTANCE. MONTEZUMA VALLEY OVERLOOK IS JUST TO RIGHT OF DISTANT ROAD CUT. - Mesa Verde National Park Main Entrance Road, Cortez, Montezuma County, CO

  2. 3. ENVIRONMENT, FROM SOUTH, SHOWING RIVER ROAD RIDGE CARRYING CASSELMAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. ENVIRONMENT, FROM SOUTH, SHOWING RIVER ROAD RIDGE CARRYING CASSELMAN RIVER ROAD OVER CASSELMAN RIVER - River Road Bridge, Crossing Casselman River on Casselman River Road, Grantsville, Garrett County, MD

  3. 1. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING AT GLENDALE ROAD CROSSING OF DEEP CREEK LAKE (PHOTOGRAPH BY RUTHVAN MORROW) - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  4. 2. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING GLENDALE ROAD BRIDGE WITHIN ITS SETTING AT GLENDALE ROAD CROSSING OF DEEP CREEK LAKE (PHOTOGRAPH BY RUTHVAN MORROW) - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  5. 2. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF WHITE ROCK ROAD, VIEW OF PROJECT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF WHITE ROCK ROAD, VIEW OF PROJECT AREA LOOKING TOWARD ELEVATED INTERSECTION OF LATROBE ROAD; VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Placerville Road, White Rock Road between Clarksville & White Rock, El Dorado Hills, El Dorado County, CA

  6. 6. ELEVATED, OBLIQUE VIEW OF INTERSECTION INFRASTRUCTURE AT LATROBE ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. ELEVATED, OBLIQUE VIEW OF INTERSECTION INFRASTRUCTURE AT LATROBE ROAD AND WHITE ROCK ROAD; VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Placerville Road, White Rock Road between Clarksville & White Rock, El Dorado Hills, El Dorado County, CA

  7. 1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF WHITE ROCK ROAD, VIEW OF PROJECT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF WHITE ROCK ROAD, VIEW OF PROJECT AREA WITH INTERSECTION OF LATROBE ROAD SEEN IN UPPER LEFT; VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Placerville Road, White Rock Road between Clarksville & White Rock, El Dorado Hills, El Dorado County, CA

  8. Old Big Oak Flat Road at intersection with New Tioga ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Old Big Oak Flat Road at intersection with New Tioga Road. Note gate for road to Tamarack Campground - Big Oak Flat Road, Between Big Oak Flat Entrance & Merced River, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  9. Pollution-free road lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreuder, Duco A.

    They relate to reducing road accidents and some forms of crime but also enhance the social safety of residents and pedestrians and the amenity for residents. Road traffic in developing countries is much more hazardous than in industrialized countries. Accident rates in 'low' income countries may be as much as 35 times higher than in 'high' income countries. Thus, it might be much more cost-effective to light roads in the developing world than in the industrialized world. Fighting light pollution is more pressing in developing countries as most of the major high-class astronomical observatories are there. Astronomical observations are disturbed by light from outdoor lighting installations, part of which is scattered in the atmosphere to form 'sky glow'. The International Lighting Commission CIE has published a Technical Report giving general guidance for lighting designers and policy makers on the reduction of the sky glow. Lighting improves visibility, essential for almost all human activity. However, light that hits the road contributes to visibility only if it is reflected. In poorly designed lighting equipment much of the lumen output of the lamps is sent directly upwards. This can be avoided by properly defined light fittings. The light output of fittings is determined by their optical quality and by the installation maintenance factor. Open fittings are to be preferred. If mounted horizontally, they make street lighting with the least light pollution.

  10. 49 CFR 391.31 - Road test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Road test. 391.31 Section 391.31 Transportation... COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Tests § 391.31 Road test. (a) Except as provided in subpart G, a... test and has been issued a certificate of driver's road test in accordance with this section. (b)...

  11. HOW FAR TO THE NEAREST ROAD?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increases in impervious surface area lead to declines in chemical and biological indicators of water quality .Roads are an important aspect of impervious surface, and distance to roads is an indicator of the potential threat to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Although roads a...

  12. Image feature based GPS trace filtering for road network generation and road segmentation

    DOE PAGES

    Yuan, Jiangye; Cheriyadat, Anil M.

    2015-10-19

    We propose a new method to infer road networks from GPS trace data and accurately segment road regions in high-resolution aerial images. Unlike previous efforts that rely on GPS traces alone, we exploit image features to infer road networks from noisy trace data. The inferred road network is used to guide road segmentation. We show that the number of image segments spanned by the traces and the trace orientation validated with image features are important attributes for identifying GPS traces on road regions. Based on filtered traces , we construct road networks and integrate them with image features to segmentmore » road regions. Lastly, our experiments show that the proposed method produces more accurate road networks than the leading method that uses GPS traces alone, and also achieves high accuracy in segmenting road regions even with very noisy GPS data.« less

  13. Image feature based GPS trace filtering for road network generation and road segmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Jiangye; Cheriyadat, Anil M.

    2015-10-19

    We propose a new method to infer road networks from GPS trace data and accurately segment road regions in high-resolution aerial images. Unlike previous efforts that rely on GPS traces alone, we exploit image features to infer road networks from noisy trace data. The inferred road network is used to guide road segmentation. We show that the number of image segments spanned by the traces and the trace orientation validated with image features are important attributes for identifying GPS traces on road regions. Based on filtered traces , we construct road networks and integrate them with image features to segment road regions. Lastly, our experiments show that the proposed method produces more accurate road networks than the leading method that uses GPS traces alone, and also achieves high accuracy in segmenting road regions even with very noisy GPS data.

  14. Road Traffic Accidents in Kazakhstan

    PubMed Central

    AUBAKIROVA, Alma; KOSSUMOV, Alibek; IGISSINOV, Nurbek

    2013-01-01

    Background: The article provides the analysis of death rates in road traffic accidents in Kazakhstan from 2004 to 2010 and explores the use of sanitary aviation. Methods: Data of fatalities caused by road traffic accidents were collected and analysed. Descriptive and analytical methods of epidemiology and biomedical statistics were applied. Results: Totaly 27,003 people died as a result of road traffic accidents in this period. The death rate for the total population due to road traffic accidents was 25.0±2.10/0000. The death rate for men was (38.3±3.20/0000), which was higher (P<0.05) than that for women (12.6±1.10/0000). High death rates in the entire male population were identified among men of 30–39 years old, whereas the highest rates for women were attributed to the groups of 50–59 years old and 70–79 years old. In time dynamics, death rates tended to decrease: the total population (Tdec=−2.4%), men (Tdec=−2.3%) and women (Tdec=−1.4%). When researching territorial relevance, the rates were established as low (to 18.30/0000), average (between 18.3 and 24.00/0000) and high (from 24.00/0000 and above). Thus, the regions with high rates included Akmola region (24.30/0000), Mangistau region (25.90/0000), Zhambyl region (27.30/0000), Almaty region (29.30/0000) and South Kazakhstan region (32.40/0000). Conclusion: The identified epidemiological characteristics of the population deaths rates from road traffic accidents should be used in integrated and targeted interventions to enhance prevention of injuries in accidents. PMID:23641400

  15. Perception of road accident causes.

    PubMed

    Vanlaar, Ward; Yannis, George

    2006-01-01

    A theoretical two-dimensional model on prevalence and risk was developed. The objective of this study was to validate this model empirically to answer three questions: How do European drivers perceive the importance of several causes of road accidents? Are there important differences in perceptions between member states? Do these perceptions reflect the real significance of road accident causes? Data were collected from 23 countries, based on representative national samples of at least 1000 respondents each (n=24,372). Face-to-face interviews with fully licensed, active car drivers were conducted using a questionnaire containing closed answer questions. Respondents were asked to rate 15 causes of road accidents, each using a six-point ordinal scale. The answers were analyzed by calculating Kendall's tau for each pair of items to form lower triangle similarity matrices per country and for Europe as a whole. These matrices were then used as the input files for an individual difference scaling to draw a perceptual map of the 15 items involved. The hypothesized model on risk and prevalence fits the data well and enabled us to answer the three questions of concern. The subject space of the model showed that there are no relevant differences between the 23 countries. The group space of the model comprises four quadrants, each containing several items (high perceived risk/low perceived prevalence items; high perceived risk/high perceived prevalence items; low perceived risk/high perceived prevalence items and low perceived risk/low perceived prevalence items). Finally, perceptions of the items driving under the influence of alcohol, drugs and medicines and driving using a handheld or hands-free mobile phone are discussed with regard to their real significance in causing road accidents. To conclude, individual difference scaling offers some promising possibilities to study drivers' perception of road accident causes.

  16. 2. VIEW OF SWITCHBACKS IN FORESTA ROAD (OLD DAVIS CUTOFF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF SWITCHBACKS IN FORESTA ROAD (OLD DAVIS CUT-OFF ROAD). NOTE FORESTA ROAD BRIDGE IN LOWER LEFT. ROAD CURVE HIDDEN IN TREES AT CENTER. NOTE ROAD CUT AT LEFT. LOOKING SSW. GIS: N-37"40'47.4"/W-119"47'22.2 - Foresta Road, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  17. Birth prevalence of malformations in members of different ethnic groups and in the offspring of matings between them, in Birmingham, England.

    PubMed Central

    Leck, I; Lancashire, R J

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES--The aims were: (1) to compare the birth prevalence of malformations in different ethnic groups and (2) to explore the reasons for the ethnic variations found by examining birth prevalence in the offspring of matings between ethnic groups. DESIGN--Analysis of data from a register of malformations and register of births. SETTING--Birmingham, England. SUBJECTS--A total of 432,778 infants (including stillbirths) born in 1960-84. MAIN RESULTS--Significant differences (p < 0.01) between ethnic groups were exhibited by the birth prevalence of neural tube defects (NTD), cleft palate, cleft lip, oesophageal atresia/fistula, hypospadias, hip dislocation, clubfoot, polydactyly, and syndactyly. In the offspring of matings between parents of European and Caribbean origin, the birth prevalence of NTD, cleft lip, hypospadias, hip dislocation, polydactyly, and syndactyly seemed more likely to be influenced by the ethnicity of both parents than by that of the mother alone. The reverse was true for the birth prevalence of NTD in subjects with one parent of Irish origin and on of British. CONCLUSIONS--Genetic differences may be responsible for Europeans being at lower risk of polydactyly and at higher risk of NTD, cleft lip, hypospadias, hip dislocation, and syndactyly than Caribbeans. Variations in the intrauterine environment are more likely to account for NTD being more common in Irish than in British subjects. PMID:7798046

  18. The same substitution, glutamic acid----lysine at position 501, occurs in three alloalbumins of Asiatic origin: albumins Vancouver, Birmingham, and Adana.

    PubMed Central

    Huss, K; Madison, J; Ishioka, N; Takahashi, N; Arai, K; Putnam, F W

    1988-01-01

    A strategy is described for identifying structural changes in genetic variants of human serum albumin (alloalbumins). By use of this strategy we have determined an amino acid substitution in three alloalbumins of Asiatic origin. The same amino acid exchange, glutamic acid----lysine at position 501, occurs in albumins Vancouver and Birmingham, both from families that migrated from northern India, and also in albumin Adana from Turkey. This exchange corresponds to a single base mutation in the codon GAG to AAG and accords with the slow mobility of the three albumins at pH 8.6. Each of the three alloalbumins had been reported to be a new variant, yet they have the same substitution. These results emphasize the need for structural study of genetic variants that have been differentiated only by nonspecific physical criteria such as dye binding and electrophoretic mobility. We know of no other description of the substitution involved in an alloalbumin originating from the Indian subcontinent. However, the same change of glutamic acid----lysine at position 501 may be present in several other named variants reported for populations in north India and the surrounding regions. Images PMID:2901102

  19. Association Between Neighborhood Disadvantage and Hypertension Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control in Older Adults: Results From the University of Alabama at Birmingham Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Virginia J.; McClure, Leslie A.; Buys, Katie Crawford; Sawyer, Patricia; Allman, Richard M.; Levitan, Emily B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the effect of neighborhood disadvantage (ND) on older adults’ prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension. Methods. Data were from the University of Alabama at Birmingham Study of Aging, an observational study of 1000 community-dwelling Black and White Alabamians aged 65 years and older, in 1999 to 2001. We assessed hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control with blood pressure measurements and self-report data. We assessed ND with US Census data corresponding with participants’ census tracts, created tertiles of ND, and fit models with generalized estimating equations via a logit link function with a binomial distribution. Adjusted models included variables assessing personal advantage and disadvantage, place-based factors, sociodemographics, comorbidities, and health behaviors. Results. Living in mid-ND (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2, 2.1) and high-ND tertiles (AOR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.3, 2.3) was associated with higher hypertension prevalence, and living in high-ND tertiles was associated with lower odds of controlled hypertension (AOR = 0.6; 95% CI = 0.4, 0.6). In adjusted models, ND was not associated with hypertension awareness or treatment. Conclusions. These findings show that neighborhood environmental factors matter for hypertension outcomes and suggest the importance of ND for hypertension management in older adults. PMID:25322309

  20. Quantitative risk assessment of exposures to butadiene in EU occupational settings based on the University of Alabama at Birmingham epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Sielken, Robert L; Valdez-Flores, Ciriaco

    2013-03-01

    The excess risks due to 1,3-butadiene (BD) inhalation in EU occupational settings are quantified for leukemia, AML, CLL, CML, lymphoid neoplasms, and myeloid neoplasms. The most recent data from the University of Alabama at Birmingham epidemiological study of North American workers in the styrene-butadiene rubber industry are modeled. The number of high-intensity tasks (HITs) and other exposure covariates may be more important predictors than cumulative BD ppm-years alone. For example, all of the 71 leukemia decedents in the UAB study who were exposed to BD had some BD HITs. None of the 1192 exposed workers without BD HITs had leukemia mortalities. The authors' best estimate (consolidated over all endpoints) of the average occupational BD exposure concentration for 45 years of exposure starting at age 20 corresponding to an added risk of 1/10,000 by age 70 is 7.2 ppm. Cumulative BD ppm-years is not statistically significantly associated with CML, AML, or myeloid neoplasms or (after any one of eight exposure covariates is included in the modeling) leukemia. The statistical significance of the slopes for leukemia, CLL, and lymphoid neoplasms unadjusted for covariate effects disappears when modeling is restricted to person years with less than 200 cumulative BD ppm-years.

  1. The effect of 'running-in' on the tribology and surface morphology of metal-on-metal Birmingham hip resurfacing device in simulator studies.

    PubMed

    Vassiliou, K; Elfick, A P D; Scholes, S C; Unsworth, A

    2006-02-01

    It is well documented that hard bearing combinations show a running-in phenomenon in vitro and there is also some evidence of this from retrieval studies. In order to investigate this phenomenon, five Birmingham hip resurfacing devices were tested in a hip wear simulator. One of these (joint 1) was also tested in a friction simulator before, during, and after the wear test and surface analysis was conducted throughout portions of the testing. The wear showed the classical running in with the wear rate falling from 1.84 mm3 per 10(6) cycles for the first 10(6) cycles of testing to 0.24 mm3 per 10(6) cycles over the final 2 x 10(6) cycles of testing. The friction tests suggested boundary lubrication initially, but at 1 x 10(6) cycles a mixed lubrication regime was evident. By 2 x 10(6) cycles the classical Stribeck curve had formed, indicating a considerable contribution from the fluid film at higher viscosities. This continued to be evident at both 3 x 10(6) and 5 x 10(6) cycles. The surface study complements these findings.

  2. Road Safety Barriers, the Need and Influence on Road Traffic Accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butāns, Ž.; Gross, K. A.; Gridnevs, A.; Karzubova, E.

    2015-11-01

    Constantly increasing intensity of road traffic and the allowed speed limits seem to impose stronger requirements on road infrastructure and use of road safety systems. One of the ways to improve road safety is the use of road restraint systems. Road safety barriers allow not only reducing the number of road traffic accidents, but also lowering the severity of accidents. The paper provides information on the technical requirements of road safety barriers. Various types of road safety barriers and their selection criteria for different types of road sections are discussed. The article views an example of a road traffic accident, which is also modelled by PC-Crash computer program. The given example reflects a road accident mechanism in case of a car-to-barrier collision, and provides information about the typical damage to the car and the barrier. The paper describes an impact of the road safety barrier type and its presence on the road traffic accident mechanism. Implementation and maintenance costs of different barrier types are viewed. The article presents a discussion on the necessity to use road safety barriers, as well as their optimal choice.

  3. Measuring Road Network Vulnerability with Sensitivity Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jun-qiang, Leng; Long-hai, Yang; Liu, Wei-yi; Zhao, Lin

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development of a method for road network vulnerability analysis, from the perspective of capacity degradation, which seeks to identify the critical infrastructures in the road network and the operational performance of the whole traffic system. This research involves defining the traffic utility index and modeling vulnerability of road segment, route, OD (Origin Destination) pair and road network. Meanwhile, sensitivity analysis method is utilized to calculate the change of traffic utility index due to capacity degradation. This method, compared to traditional traffic assignment, can improve calculation efficiency and make the application of vulnerability analysis to large actual road network possible. Finally, all the above models and calculation method is applied to actual road network evaluation to verify its efficiency and utility. This approach can be used as a decision-supporting tool for evaluating the performance of road network and identifying critical infrastructures in transportation planning and management, especially in the resource allocation for mitigation and recovery. PMID:28125706

  4. Quarry Haul Road Ecological Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    This biological survey was performed to document the summer flora and fauna found along the haul road constructed as part of the remedial action for the quarry bulk waste. State and Federal species listed as threatened or endangered were noted if encountered while surveying. Sampling locations were equally spaced along the quarry haul road, and a survey for vegetation and birds conducted at each location. Bird observations were conducted as breeding bird surveys once in June of 1991, and again in June of 1992. Each year's survey includes two observations in the early morning and one late in the evening. Vegetation surveys were conducted in 1991 using quadrants and transects. mammal, reptile, and amphibian sightings were noted as encountered.

  5. Roads, railways, and childhood cancers

    PubMed Central

    Knox, E G

    2006-01-01

    Study objectives To locate geographical sources of engine exhaust emissions in Great Britain and to link them with the birth addresses of children dying from cancer. To estimate the cancer initiating roles of nearby roads and railways and to measure effective ranges. Design Birth and death addresses of all children born between 1955 and 1980 in Great Britain, and dying from leukaemia or other cancer during those years, were linked to locations of railway stations, bus stations, ferry terminals, railways, roads, canals, and rivers. Nearest distances to births and deaths were measured, and migration data relating to children who had moved house were analysed. Excesses of close to hazard birth addresses, compared with close to hazard death addresses, indicate a high prenatal or early postnatal risk of cancer initiation. Setting and subjects Child cancer birth and death addresses and their map references were extracted from an earlier inquiry. Map references of putative hazards were downloaded from the Ordnance Survey national digital map of Great Britain. These data are recorded to a precision of one metre and have ground accuracies around 20 metres. Main results Significant birth excesses were found within short distances of bus stations, railway stations, ferries, railways, and A,B class roads, with a relative risk of 2.1 within 100 m, tapering to neutral after 3.0 km. About 24% of child cancers were attributable to these joint birth proximities. Roads exerted the major effect. Conclusions Child cancer initiations are strongly determined by prenatal or early postnatal exposures to engine exhaust gases, probably through maternal inhalation and accumulation of carcinogens over many months. The main active substance is probably 1,3‐butadiene. PMID:16415262

  6. High-Luminance Road Surfaces,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    properties and anorthosites are lighter in color. The field tests have confirmed the positive effect of a light-colored road surface or a light- colored...possibilities of using some light-colored rock materials that could not previously have been recommended, 7 including anorthosites and quartzites. The former...values (%) with a reflect: i meter on wet agregate specimens, size fraction 0.149 - 0.2 ,7 mm. Aggregate Luminosity (% of MgO white) Anorthosite 45

  7. First Person Singular: Building the Road as We Travel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    After completing a law degree at the University of Birmingham when I was 20 and not really knowing what I wanted to do, except that it was not law, I became an English as a foreign language (EFL) teacher accidentally through signing up as a volunteer with the British United Nations Association (BUNA), roughly equivalent to the US Peace Corps.…

  8. Seismic risk assessment for road in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyfur, Mona Foralisa; Pribadi, Krishna S.

    2016-05-01

    Road networks in Indonesia consist of 446,000 km of national, provincial and local roads as well as toll highways. Indonesia is one of countries that exposed to various natural hazards, such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, etc. Within the Indonesian archipelago, several global tectonic plates interact, such as the Indo-Australian, Pacific, Eurasian, resulting in a complex geological setting, characterized by the existence of seismically active faults and subduction zones and a chain of more than one hundred active volcanoes. Roads in Indonesia are vital infrastructure needed for people and goods movement, thus supporting community life and economic activities, including promoting regional economic development. Road damages and losses due to earthquakes have not been studied widely, whereas road disruption caused enormous economic damage. The aim of this research is to develop a method to analyse risk caused by seismic hazard to roads. The seismic risk level of road segment is defined using an earthquake risk index, adopting the method of Earthquake Disaster Risk Index model developed by Davidson (1997). Using this method, road segments' risk level can be defined and compared, and road risk map can be developed as a tool for prioritizing risk mitigation programs for road networks in Indonesia.

  9. Investigation of Water Quality and Aquatic-Community Structure in Village and Valley Creeks, City of Birmingham, Jefferson County, Alabama 2000-01

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPherson, A. K.

    2002-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a 16-month investigation of water quality, aquatic-community structure, bed sediment, and fish tissue in Village and Valley Creeks, two urban streams that drain areas of residential, commercial, and industrial land use in Birmingham, Alabama. Water-quality data were collected between February 2000 and March 2001 at four sites on Village Creek, three sites on Valley Creek, and at two reference sites near Birmingham, Fivemile Creek and Little Cahaba River, that drain less urbanized areas. The occurrence and distribution of chemical constituents in the water column and bed sediment provided an initial assessment of water quality in the streams. Aquatic-community structure, physical condition of fish, and analysis of fish tissue provided an indication of the cumulative effects of the water quality on the aquatic biota. Degraded water quality was seen at the more urbanized sites on Village and Valley Creeks. Elevated concentrations of nutrients, bacteria, trace elements, and organic contaminants were detected in the water column. Trace-element priority pollutants, pesticides, and other organic compounds were detected in higher concentrations in bed sediment and fish tissue at the Village and Valley Creek sites than at the reference site. The richness and density of the fish and benthic-invertebrate communities indicate that the integrity of the aquatic communities in Village and Valley Creeks is poor in comparison to that observed at the two reference sites. Correlations between land use and aquatic-community structure, water quality, bed sediment, and fish tissue were observed. The abundance of mayflies and the number of EPT (ephemeroptera, plecoptera, tricoptera) taxa were negatively correlated with industrial land use. The abundance of midges (an indicator of poor water quality) was positively correlated with industrial land use; the percentage of mosquitofishes (a tolerant species) was positively correlated with commercial land

  10. Investigation of water quality and aquatic-community structure in Village and Valley Creeks, City of Birmingham, Jefferson County, Alabama, 2000-01

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McPherson, Ann K.; Abrahamsen, Thomas A.; Journey, Celeste

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a 16-month investigation of water quality, aquatic-community structure, bed sediment, and fish tissue in Village and Valley Creeks, two urban streams that drain areas of highly intensive residential, commercial, and industrial land use in Birmingham, Alabama. Water-quality data were collected between February 2000 and March 2001 at four sites on Village Creek, three sites on Valley Creek, and at two reference sites near Birmingham?Fivemile Creek and Little Cahaba River, both of which drain less-urbanized areas. Stream samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, fecal bacteria, trace and major elements, pesticides, and selected organic constituents. Bed-sediment and fish-tissue samples were analyzed for trace and major elements, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and additional organic compounds. Aquatic-community structure was evaluated by conducting one survey of the fish community and in-stream habitat and two surveys of the benthic-invertebrate community. Bed-sediment and fish-tissue samples, benthic-invertebrates, and habitat data were collected between June 2000 and October 2000 at six of the nine water-quality sites; fish communities were evaluated in April and May 2001 at the six sites where habitat and benthic-invertebrate data were collected. The occurrence and distribution of chemical constituents in the water column and bed sediment provided an initial assessment of water quality in the streams. The structure of the aquatic communities, the physical condition of the fish, and the chemical analyses of fish tissue provided an indication of the cumulative effects of water quality on the aquatic biota. Water chemistry was similar at all sites, characterized by strong calcium-bicarbonate component and magnesium components. Median concentrations of total nitrogen and total phosphorus were highest at the headwaters of Valley Creek and lowest at the reference site on Fivemile Creek. In Village Creek, median

  11. Birmingham COPD Cohort: a cross-sectional analysis of the factors associated with the likelihood of being in paid employment among people with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Kiran K; Jordan, Rachel E; Siebert, W Stanley; Sadhra, Steven S; Fitzmaurice, David A; Sitch, Alice J; Ayres, Jon G; Adab, Peymané

    2017-01-01

    Background Employment rates among those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are lower than those without COPD, but little is known about the factors that affect COPD patients’ ability to work. Methods Multivariable analysis of the Birmingham COPD Cohort Study baseline data was used to assess the associations between lifestyle, clinical, and occupational characteristics and likelihood of being in paid employment among working-age COPD patients. Results In total, 608 of 1,889 COPD participants were of working age, of whom 248 (40.8%) were in work. Older age (60–64 years vs 30–49 years: odds ratio [OR] =0.28; 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.12–0.65), lower educational level (no formal qualification vs degree/higher level: OR =0.43; 95% CI =0.19–0.97), poorer prognostic score (highest vs lowest quartile of modified body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise (BODE) score: OR =0.10; 95% CI =0.03–0.33), and history of high occupational exposure to vapors, gases, dusts, or fumes (VGDF; high VGDF vs no VGDF exposure: OR =0.32; 95% CI =0.12–0.85) were associated with a lower probability of being employed. Only the degree of breathlessness of BODE was significantly associated with employment. Conclusion This is the first study to comprehensively assess the characteristics associated with employment in a community sample of people with COPD. Future interventions should focus on managing breathlessness and reducing occupational exposures to VGDF to improve the work capability among those with COPD. PMID:28138233

  12. Modern and fossil contributions to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in PM₂.₅ from North Birmingham, Alabama in the southeastern U.S.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li; Zheng, Mei; Ding, Xiang; Edgerton, Eric S; Reddy, Christopher M

    2012-02-07

    Analyzing the radiocarbon ((14)C) content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in atmospheric particulate matter can provide estimates on the source contributions from biomass burning versus fossil fuel. The relative importance of these two sources to ambient PAHs varies considerably across regions and even countries, and hence there is a pressing need to apportion these sources. In this study, we advanced the radiocarbon analysis from bulk carbon to compound class specific radiocarbon analysis (CCSRA) to determine Δ(14)C and δ(13)C values of PAHs in PM(2.5) samples for investigating biomass burning and fossil fuel source contributions to PAHs from one of the Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH) sites in North Birmingham (BHM), Alabama during winter (December 2004-February 2005) and summer (June-August 2005) by accelerator mass spectrometry. To compare our ambient samples to known sources, we collected and analyzed fenceline samples from the vicinity of a coke plant in BHM. As expected, PAHs from the coke plant fenceline samples had very low radiocarbon levels. Its Δ(14)C varied from -990 to -970‰, indicating that 97 to 99% were of fossil source. PAHs in the ambient PM(2.5) had Δ(14)C from -968 to -911 ‰, indicating that 92-97% of PAHs were from fossil fuel combustion. These levels indicated the dominance of fossil sources of ambient PAHs. The radiocarbon level of ambient PAHs was higher in winter than in summer. Winter samples exhibited depleted δ(13)C value and enriched Δ(14)C value because of the increased contribution of PAHs from biomass burning source. However, biomass burning contributed more to heavier PAHs (modern source accounting for 6-8%) than lighter ones with a modern contribution of 3%.

  13. The prognostic significance of the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS) with systemic vasculitis patients transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU)

    PubMed Central

    Biscetti, Federico; Carbonella, Angela; Parisi, Federico; Bosello, Silvia Laura; Schiavon, Franco; Padoan, Roberto; Gremese, Elisa; Ferraccioli, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Systemic vasculitides represent a heterogeneous group of diseases that share clinical features including respiratory distress, renal dysfunction, and neurologic disorders. These diseases may often cause life-threatening complications requiring admission to an intensive care unit (ICU). The aim of the study was to evaluate the validity and responsiveness of Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS) score to predict survival in patients with systemic vasculitides admitted to ICU. A retrospective study was carried out from 2004 to 2014 in 18 patients with systemic vasculitis admitted to 2 different Rheumatology divisions and transferred to ICU due to clinical worsening, with a length of stay beyond 24 hours. We found that ICU mortality was significantly associated with higher BVAS scores performed in the ward (P = 0.01) and at the admission in ICU (P = 0.01), regardless of the value of Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) scores (P = 0.50). We used receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to evaluate the possible cutoff value for the BVAS in the ward and in ICU and we found that a BVAS > 8 in the ward and that a BVAS > 10 in ICU might be a useful tool to predict in-ICU mortality. BVAS appears to be an excellent tool for assessing ICU mortality risk of systemic vasculitides patients admitted to specialty departments. Our experience has shown that performing the assessment at admission to the ward is more important than determining the evaluation before the clinical aggravation causing the transfer to ICU. PMID:27902615

  14. Invasive Brown Treesnake movements at road edges indicate road-crossing avoidance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siers, Shane R; Savidge, Julie S; Reed, Robert N.

    2014-01-01

    Roads have significant impacts on the dispersal of wildlife. Although this poses a threat to the abundance and diversity of desirable flora and fauna, it also affords some opportunity for enhancing control of invasive species. Roads are the most common terrain features that may affect the rate of landscape-scale movements of invasive Brown Treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) throughout Guam. We radio tracked 45 free-ranging Brown Treesnakes in close proximity to two roads in Guam and recorded instances where daily relocations of snakes spanned roads. Then we reconstructed observed movement histories with randomized turning angles, which served as a useful null hypothesis for assessing the effect of roads or road edge habitat on Brown Treesnake movement patterns. Random walk simulations demonstrated that Brown Treesnakes crossed these roads at a rate far lower than would be expected if snake movement was random with respect to roads and road edge habitat. We discuss two alternative hypotheses for these results: 1) habitat gaps posed by roads physically or behaviorally restrict snake movement; or 2) road edges provide preferred foraging habitat from which snakes are reluctant to depart. Because roads often form the boundaries of jurisdictional and management units, the effects of roads on the movement of invasive Brown Treesnakes will influence the prospects for success of future landscape-level suppression efforts.

  15. The road plan model: Information model for planning road building activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azinhal, Rafaela K.; Moura-Pires, Fernando

    1994-01-01

    The general building contractor is presented with an information model as an approach for deriving a high-level work plan of construction activities applied to road building. Road construction activities are represented in a Road Plan Model (RPM), which is modeled in the ISO standard STEP/EXPRESS and adopts various concepts from the GARM notation. The integration with the preceding road design stage and the succeeding phase of resource scheduling is discussed within the framework of a Road Construction Model. Construction knowledge is applied to the road design and the terrain model of the surrounding road infrastructure for the instantiation of the RPM. Issues regarding the implementation of a road planner application supporting the RPM are discussed.

  16. Automatic Construction of Hierarchical Road Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Weiping

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes an automated method of constructing a hierarchical road network given a single dataset, without the presence of thematic attributes. The method is based on a pattern graph which maintains nodes and paths as junctions and through-traffic roads. The hierarchy is formed incrementally in a top-down fashion for highways, ramps, and major roads directly connected to ramps; and bottom-up for the rest of major and minor roads. Through reasoning and analysis, ramps are identified as unique characteristics for recognizing and assembling high speed roads. The method makes distinctions on the types of ramps by articulating their connection patterns with highways. Major and minor roads will be identified by both quantitative and qualitative analysis of spatial properties and by discovering neighbourhood patterns revealed in the data. The result of the method would enrich data description and support comprehensive queries on sorted exit or entry points on highways and their related roads. The enrichment on road network data is important to a high successful rate of feature matching for road networks and to geospatial data integration.

  17. 23. Road view at Jim Camp Wash. Note Rainbow Museum ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Road view at Jim Camp Wash. Note Rainbow Museum at rear. Road is on east-west axis here as original design of Rainbow Museum area. Long Logs Road to left foreground. Park Road to right foreground. Looking W. - Petrified Forest National Park Roads & Bridges, Holbrook, Navajo County, AZ

  18. Road Network Generalization Based on Float CAR Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Cheng; Li, Wenjing; Jia, Hongguo

    2016-06-01

    Road generalization is not only helpful to simplify complicated road networks but can also satisfy the needs of reasonable display of roads under varying scales, thus offering basis for updating and grading urban roads. This paper proposes a selection method for road network generalization by integrating road-associated vehicle trajectory dynamic properties and road features and calculating the importance of urban roads. First of all, the location and motion information of floating vehicles are associated to relevant roads to generate the dynamic properties of roads. Then, the dynamic and static properties of roads are analyzed, and the cluster analysis is conducted to the trajectory points at road intersections to obtain the importance of some road intersections there are vehicles passing by. Afterwards, the weights of roads are calculated using the dominance rough set, the roads are ranked by weight and the practical significance of ranking results is analyzed. Finally, the selection rules for the basic framework of road network are determined to meet with different requirements and guarantee both connectivity and completeness of road networks. The results show that the relative importance of roads is made clear by taking advantage of the rough set and the generalized road network highlights the distribution and connection of urban main roads.

  19. Altitude and Configuration of the Potentiometric Surface in the Crystalline and Metasedimentary Rocks in Birmingham, Newlin, Pennsbury, and Pocopson Townships and parts of East Marlborough and Kennett Townships, Chester County, Pennsylvania, June 1994 through November 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Charles R.; Wettstein, William C.; Aichele, Steven S.; Joyce, James; Schneider, Frank M.

    1996-01-01

    A map showing ground-water levels in crystalline and metasedimentary rocks in Birmingham, Newlin, Pennsbury, and Pocopson Townships and parts of East Marlborough and Kennett Townships, Chester County, Pennsylvania, was constructed from water levels measured in wells from June 1994 through November 1995. Pre-1994 measurements were incorporated on the map to provide control in areas where more recent data were not available. Because little ground-water development has occurred in the areas where pre-1994 water levels were used, levels are assumed to be the same in 1994 and 1995 as they were when the measurement was made.

  20. Road analysis: a tool for cost-effective rehabilitation measures for Finnish roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roimela, Petri; Salmenkaita, Seppo; Maijala, Pekka; Saarenketo, Timo

    2000-04-01

    Public funding for road network maintenance has decreased 30% during the last few years in Finland. Reduced resources, together with the current rehabilitation strategies, will in the long term result in increasing deterioration of the Finnish road network. For this reason road rehabilitation funding should be focused more specifically on those roads and road sections requiring measures and these measures should be optimized to ensure that only the specific problem structure will be repaired. Roadscanners Oy, in cooperation with the Finnish National Road Administration (Finnra), has developed a new and effective Road Analysis technique to survey the condition of roads and road networks. Road Analysis is based on the integrated analysis of the measured data collected from the road under survey. The basic survey methods used in Road Analysis include Ground Penetrating Data (GPR), falling weight deflectometer (FWD), roughness and rutting measurements, pavement distress mapping and GPS-positioning, as well as reference drilling based on preliminary GPR data analysis. The collected road survey data is processed, interpreted, analyzed and classified using Road Doctor software, specifically developed for this purpose. GPR measurements in road analysis are carried out using a 400 MHz ground-coupled antenna and a 1.0 GHz horn antenna. Horn antenna data is used to measure the thickness of the pavement and base course layers, as well as to evaluate their quality based on their dielectric properties. The 400 MHz ground-coupled data is used to estimate the thickness of the pavement structure and embankment. Ground-coupled antenna data is used for subgrade quality estimations and in evaluating the causes of subgrade- related frost defects. GPR data also provides important location information about special structures, such as steel reinforcements, cables and pipelines. Road Analysis includes a classification of the critical elements affecting the lifetime of the road: (1

  1. Scaling roads and wildlife: The Cinderella principle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bissonette, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    It is clear that a reduction in both direct and indirect effects of roads and road networks must be the goal of management agencies. However, increased permeability of roaded landscapes can only be achieved by up-front planning and subsequent mitigative actions. The key is to understand that roads must be made permeable to the movement of animals. More profoundly, ecosystem services, i.e., clean water, clean air, uncontaminated soil, natural landscapes, recreation opportunities, abundant wildlife, and life sustaining ecological processes must not be seriously impacted. In other words, quality of life as measured by ecosystem services should be a major component of the planning process when roads are constructed or improved. Mitigative structures exist to increase permeability of roads. Wildlife overpasses and underpasses, often referred to as ecoducts or green bridges, with associated structures to enable larger animals to exit the road right of way, e.g., earthen escape ramps (BISSONETTE and HAMMER, 2001), various culvert designs for smaller animals including badger pipes and amphibian and reptile tunnels, and fish ladders are but a small sampling of the structures already in place around the world. What is needed is attention to the big picture. Landscapes need to be reconnected and made more permeable. Responsible agencies and organizations need to be aggressive about promoting mitigations and a conservation ethic into road planning. Only with a broad based effort between a concerned public, a database to work from, and a willingness of responsible agencies, will the now very large virtual footprint of roads and road networks be reduced to more closely approximate the physical footprint. By embracing the Cinderella Principle of making the virtual shoe fit more closely the actual physical footprint of roads, we will be able to achieve a closer connection with ecological harmony with its resultant effect of abundant wildlife.

  2. Global collaboration on road traffic injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Peden, Margie

    2005-06-01

    Worldwide, nearly 1.2 million people are killed in road traffic crashes every year and 20 million to 50 million more are injured or disabled. These injuries account for 2.1% of global mortality and 2.6% of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost. Low- and middle-income countries account for about 85% of the deaths and 90% of the DALYs lost annually. Without appropriate action, by 2020, road traffic injuries are predicted to be the third leading contributor to the global burden of disease. The economic cost of road traffic crashes is enormous. Globally it is estimated that US$518 billion is spent on road traffic crashes with low- and middle-income countries accounting for US$65 billion--more than these countries receive in development assistance. But these costs are just the tip of the iceberg. For everyone killed, injured or disabled by a road traffic crash there are countless others deeply affected. Many families are driven into poverty by the expenses of prolonged medical care, loss of a family breadwinner or the added burden of caring for the disabled. There is an urgent need for global collaboration on road traffic injury prevention. Since 2000, WHO has stepped up its response to the road safety crisis by firstly developing a 5-year strategy for road traffic injury prevention and following this by dedicating World Health Day 2004 to road safety and launching the WHO/World Bank World Report on Road Traffic Injury Prevention at the global World Health Day event in Paris, France. This short article highlights the main messages from the World Report and the six recommendations for action on road safety at a national and international level. It goes on to briefly discuss other international achievements since World Health Day and calls for countries to take up the challenge of implementing the recommendations of the World Report.

  3. Do roads reduce painted turtle (Chrysemys picta) populations?

    PubMed

    Dorland, Alexandra; Rytwinski, Trina; Fahrig, Lenore

    2014-01-01

    Road mortality is thought to be a leading cause of turtle population decline. However, empirical evidence of the direct negative effects of road mortality on turtle population abundance is lacking. The purpose of this study was to provide a strong test of the prediction that roads reduce turtle population abundance. While controlling for potentially confounding variables, we compared relative abundance of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) in 20 ponds in Eastern Ontario, 10 as close as possible to high traffic roads (Road sites) and 10 as far as possible from any major roads (No Road sites). There was no significant effect of roads on painted turtle relative abundance. Furthermore, our data do not support other predictions of the road mortality hypothesis; we observed neither a higher relative frequency of males to females at Road sites than at No Road sites, nor a lower average body size of turtles at Road than at No Road sites. We speculate that, although roads can cause substantial adult mortality in turtles, other factors, such as release from predation on adults and/or nests close to roads counter the negative effect of road mortality in some populations. We suggest that road mitigation for painted turtles can be limited to locations where turtles are forced to migrate across high traffic roads due, for example, to destruction of local nesting habitat or seasonal drying of ponds. This conclusion should not be extrapolated to other species of turtles, where road mortality could have a larger population-level effect than on painted turtles.

  4. 2. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, road view before first ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, road view before first stop. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  5. 11. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, boulders along road after ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, boulders along road after stop 13. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  6. 16. Bridge at Old Road S looking ESE. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Bridge at Old Road S looking ESE. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  7. 6. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, road view after stop ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, road view after stop four. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  8. BEACH ROAD SHOWING THE LAWN WITH KIAWE TREES BETWEEN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BEACH ROAD SHOWING THE LAWN WITH KIAWE TREES BETWEEN THE ROAD AND THE BEACH. BEACH ROAD IS 14' WIDE. VIEW FACING SOUTH. - Hickam Field, Fort Kamehameha Historic Housing, Along Worchester Avenue & Hope Street, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  9. 17. RETAINING WALL CRIBBING AND ROAD VIEW, LOOKING IN SOUTHWARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. RETAINING WALL CRIBBING AND ROAD VIEW, LOOKING IN SOUTHWARD DIRECTION OF TRAVEL BELOW DIAMOND PEAK. ROAD SIGN NOTES SWITCHBACK SEEN IN CA-270-14 TO CA-270-16. LOOKING ESE. - Lassen Park Road, Mineral, Tehama County, CA

  10. 2. Deep Creek Road, old bridge at campground entrance. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Deep Creek Road, old bridge at campground entrance. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Deep Creek Road, Between Park Boundary near Bryson City & Deep Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  11. 1. Deep Creek Road, picnic pavilion Great Smoky Mountains ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Deep Creek Road, picnic pavilion - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Deep Creek Road, Between Park Boundary near Bryson City & Deep Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  12. 7. OBLIQUE VIEW OF CULVERT UNDER LATROBE ROAD WEST OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. OBLIQUE VIEW OF CULVERT UNDER LATROBE ROAD WEST OF THE WHITE ROCK RD. INTERSECTION; VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Placerville Road, White Rock Road between Clarksville & White Rock, El Dorado Hills, El Dorado County, CA

  13. 4. View of Building 802 from the access road, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View of Building 802 from the access road, facing northwest. - Naval Air Station Fallon, 100-man Fallout Shelter, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  14. 36 CFR 212.5 - Road system management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 261. (b) Road system—(1) Identification of road system. For each national forest, national grassland.... Responsible officials must review the road system on each National Forest and Grassland and identify the...

  15. 36 CFR 212.5 - Road system management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 261. (b) Road system—(1) Identification of road system. For each national forest, national grassland.... Responsible officials must review the road system on each National Forest and Grassland and identify the...

  16. 36 CFR 212.5 - Road system management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 261. (b) Road system—(1) Identification of road system. For each national forest, national grassland.... Responsible officials must review the road system on each National Forest and Grassland and identify the...

  17. 36 CFR 212.5 - Road system management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 261. (b) Road system—(1) Identification of road system. For each national forest, national grassland.... Responsible officials must review the road system on each National Forest and Grassland and identify the...

  18. 36 CFR 212.5 - Road system management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 261. (b) Road system—(1) Identification of road system. For each national forest, national grassland.... Responsible officials must review the road system on each National Forest and Grassland and identify the...

  19. 28. Stream view of revetment wall on Newfound Gap Road ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Stream view of revetment wall on Newfound Gap Road looking S. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Newfound Gap Road, Between Gatlinburg, TN & Cherokee, NC, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  20. 17. HIGHWAY 190 ROAD VIEW AT FURNACE CREEK INN. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. HIGHWAY 190 ROAD VIEW AT FURNACE CREEK INN. NOTE ABANDONED GAS STATION ON LEFT AND ROAD TO BADWATER AT LEFT IN BACKGROUND. LOOKING WSW. - Death Valley National Park Roads, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  1. 11. GAS STATION AND OLD ROAD ALIGNMENT, FACING S. VISITOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. GAS STATION AND OLD ROAD ALIGNMENT, FACING S. VISITOR CENTER BEHIND TREES. SAME CAMERA POSITION AS AZ-45-10. - South Entrance Road, Between South park boundary & Village Loop Road, Grand Canyon, Coconino County, AZ

  2. BOOK REVIEW OF "ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF ROADS"

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the world, roads have become a permanent part of our environment. The ecological effects of roads and traffic are as consequential as other topical issues such as losses in biological diversity and damage by exotic and invasive species. However, this issue has usuall...

  3. HOW FAR TO THE NEAREST ROAD?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological impacts from roads may be the rule rather than the exception in most watersheds of the conterminous United States. We measured total area, and forestland area located within nine distances of the nearest road of any type in each of 2,108 watersheds nationwide. Overall,...

  4. 14 CFR 151.89 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Roads. 151.89 Section 151.89 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.89 Roads. (a) Federal-aid Airport Program...

  5. 14 CFR 151.89 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Roads. 151.89 Section 151.89 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.89 Roads. (a) Federal-aid Airport Program...

  6. 14 CFR 151.89 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Roads. 151.89 Section 151.89 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.89 Roads. (a) Federal-aid Airport Program...

  7. 14 CFR 151.89 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Roads. 151.89 Section 151.89 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.89 Roads. (a) Federal-aid Airport Program...

  8. Pollutant characteristics of road deposited sediments collected by road sweeping.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Gun; Kim, Hyun-Seop; Kang, Hee-Man; Ko, Seok-Oh

    2016-01-01

    Road deposited sediments (RDS) swept from highways in South Korea were characterized to quantitatively evaluate the reduction in non-point source pollutants by sweeping. The swept RDS consisted primarily of sand (63 μm to 2 mm) particles (80.34 ± 8.33% of total weight) highly contaminated by organics, nutrients and heavy metals. The average concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), volatile solids (VS), total nitrogen (T-N), and total phosphorus (T-P) were 20.17 ± 9.13, 1.04 ± 0.62, 39.92 ± 16.55, 1.99 ± 0.96, and 0.54 ± 0.19 g kg(-1) (±one standard deviation), respectively, for 63 μm to 2 mm RDS. The concentrations of the pollutants were high for RDS smaller than 63 μm, but most of the mass was associated with the 63 μm to 2 mm RDS. The results suggest that the pollutants associated with RDS swept from highways originated mainly from engine wear, exhaust emissions, and tire wear. These results were different from the RDS on roads in residential and commercial areas, where natural particles and brake wear contribute significantly to RDS. In addition, the reductions in TOC, BOD, VS, T-N, T-P, Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, and As based on the swept RDS measurements were calculated to be 3,355.3, 175.1, 6,621.4, 323.0, 88.3, 30.3, 13.7, 1.0, 303.4, 11,198.7, and 0.4 g km(-1), respectively.

  9. Wildlife friendly roads: the impacts of roads on wildlife in urban areas and potential remedies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riley, Seth P D; Brown, Justin L.; Sikich, Jeff A.; Schoonmaker, Catherine M.; Boydston, Erin E.

    2014-01-01

    Roads are one of the most important factors affecting the ability of wildlife to live and move within an urban area. Roads physically replace wildlife habitat and often reduce habitat quality nearby, fragment the remaining habitat, and cause increased mortality through vehicle collisions. Much ecological research on roads has focused on whether animals are successfully crossing roads, or if the road is a barrier to wildlife movement, gene flow, or functional connectivity. Roads can alter survival and reproduction for wildlife, even among species such as birds that cross roads easily. Here we examine the suite of potential impacts of roads on wildlife, but we focus particularly on urban settings. We report on studies, both in the literature and from our own experience, that have addressed wildlife and roads in urban landscapes. Although road ecology is a growing field of study, relatively little of this research, and relatively few mitigation projects, have been done in urban landscapes. We also draw from the available science on road impacts in rural areas when urban case studies have not fully addressed key topics.

  10. Unofficial Road Building in the Brazilian Amazon: Dilemmas and Models for Road Governance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perz, Stephen G.; Overdevest, Christine; Caldas, Marcellus M.; Walker, Robert T.; Arima, Eugenio Y.

    2007-01-01

    Unofficial roads form dense networks in landscapes, generating a litany of negative ecological outcomes, but unofficial roads in frontier areas are also instrumental in local livelihoods and community development. This trade-off poses dilemmas for the governance of unofficial roads. Unofficial road building in frontier areas of the Brazilian Amazon illustrates the challenges of 'road governance.' Both state-based and community based governance models exhibit important liabilities for governing unofficial roads. Whereas state-based governance has experienced difficulties in adapting to specific local contexts and interacting effectively with local interest groups, community-based governance has a mixed record owing to social inequalities and conflicts among local interest groups. A state-community hybrid model may offer more effective governance of unofficial road building by combining the oversight capacity of the state with locally grounded community management via participatory decision-making.

  11. BRICS: opportunities to improve road safety.

    PubMed

    Hyder, Adnan A; Vecino-Ortiz, Andres I

    2014-06-01

    Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa--the countries known as BRICS--are currently undergoing a deep epidemiological transition that is mainly driven by rapid economic growth and technological change. The changes being observed in the distribution of the burden of diseases and injuries--such as recent increases in the incidence of road traffic injuries--are matters of concern. BRICS may need stronger institutional capacity to address such changes in a timely way. In this paper, we present data on road traffic injuries in BRICS and illustrate the enormous challenge that these countries currently face in reducing the incidence of such injuries. There is an urgent need to improve road safety indicators in every country constituting BRICS. It is imperative for BRICS to invest in system-wide road safety interventions and reduce the mortality and morbidity from road traffic injuries.

  12. Age-related changes in conventional road versus off-road triathlon performance.

    PubMed

    Lepers, Romuald; Stapley, Paul J

    2011-08-01

    The aims of this study were: (i) to analyze age-related declines in swimming, cycling, and running performances for road-based and off-road triathlons, and (ii) to compare age-related changes in these three disciplines between road-based and off-road triathlons. Swimming, cycling, running and total time performances of the top five males between 20 and 70 years of age (in 5-year intervals) were analyzed for short distance road-based (1.5 km swim, 40 km cycle, and 10 km run) and off-road (1.5 km swim, 30 km mountain bike, and 11 km trail run) triathlons at the 2009 World Championships. Independently of age, there was a lesser age-related decline in cycling performance (P < 0.01) compared to running and swimming for road-based triathlon. In contrast, age-related decline did not differ between the three locomotion modes for off-road triathlon. With advancing age, the performance decline was less pronounced (P < 0.01) for road-based than for off-road triathlon in swimming (≥65 years), cycling (≥50 years), running (≥60 years), and total event (≥55 years) times, respectively. These results suggest that the rate of the decline in performance for off-road triathlon is greater than for road-based triathlon, indicating that the type of discipline (road vs. mountain bike cycling and road vs. trail running) exerts an important influence on the magnitude of the age-associated changes in triathlon performance.

  13. Chickamauga National Military Park Tour Roads, Gordon's Slough Bridge, At ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Chickamauga National Military Park Tour Roads, Gordon's Slough Bridge, At the confluence of Alexander's Bridge Road and Gordon's Slough, southeast of Alexander's Bridge, Fort Oglethorpe, Catoosa County, GA

  14. A statistical model for road surface friction forecasting applying optical road weather measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hippi, M.; Juga, I.; Nurmi, P.

    2009-09-01

    Road surface friction is defined as the grip between car tyre and underlying surface. Poor friction often plays a crucial role in wintertime car accidents. Friction can decrease dramatically during snowfall or when wet road surface temperature falls below zero. Even a thin layer of ice or snow can decrease friction substantially increasing the risk of accidents. Many studies have shown that road surface temperature, road conditions and friction can fluctuate dramatically within short distances under specific weather situations. Friction or grip can be improved with road maintenance activities like salting and gritting. Salting will melt the ice or snow layer, whereas gritting will improve the grip. Salting is effective only above -5C temperatures. Light snowfall together with low temperatures can result in very slippery driving conditions. Finnish Road Administration's observing network covers c. 500 road weather stations in Finland. Almost 100 of them are equipped with optical sensors (in winter 2008-2009). The number of optical sensors has increased remarkably during past few years. The optical measuring devices are Vaisala DSC111 sensors which measure the depth of water, snow and ice on the road surface and also produce an estimate of the state of road and prevailing friction. Observation data from road weather stations with optical sensors were collected from winter 2007/08, and a couple of representative (from a weather perspective) stations were selected for detailed statistical analysis. The purpose of the study was to find a statistical relationship between the observed values and, especially, the correlation between friction and other road weather parameters. Consequently, a model based on linear regression was developed. With the model friction being the dependent variable, the independent variables having highest correlations were the composite of ice and snow (water content) on the road, and the road surface temperature. In the case of a wet road

  15. Recommendations for road surface dressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidance is provided for the preparation of specifications needed to cater to the wide range of traffic conditions and types of surfaces likely to be encountered on country lanes as well as other motorways. Both chippings and binders are considered as well as their application. Topics covered include surface preparation; application of the binder; spraying time; joining strips of sprayed binder; applying chips; rolling; and traffic management during and after operations. Special areas discussed include heavily trafficked high speed roads; hard shoulders; open-textured and porous bituminous surfaces; unbound surfaces; sealing roadbases, subgrades, and subbases; bituminous mist sprays; high stressed sites (epoxy resin based systems); the treatment of fatted surface dressings; and the control of materials and workmanship. Procedures for measuring hardness, and the rate of spread of spray binders and of chippings are included.

  16. Linkages between unpaved forest roads and streambed sediment: why context matters in directing road restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Black, Tom A.; Thomas, Cameron; Luce, Charlie H.; Rieman, Bruce; Cissel, Richard; Carlson, Anne; Hendrickson, Shane; Archer, Eric K.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Unpaved forest roads remain a pervasive disturbance on public lands and mitigating sediment from road networks remains a priority for management agencies. Restoring roaded landscapes is becoming increasingly important for many native coldwater fishes that disproportionately rely on public lands for persistence. However, effectively targeting restoration opportunities requires a comprehensive understanding of the effects of roads across different ecosystems. Here, we combine a review and a field study to evaluate the status of knowledge supporting the conceptual framework linking unpaved forest roads with streambed sediment. Through our review, we specifically focused on those studies linking measures of the density of forest roads or sediment delivery with empirical streambed sediment measures. Our field study provides an example of a targeted effort of linking spatially explicit estimates of sediment production with measures of streambed sediment. Surprisingly, our review uncovered few studies (n = 8) that empirically tested the conceptual framework linking unpaved forest roads and streambed sediment, and the results varied considerably. Field results generally supported the conceptual model that unpaved forest roads can control streambed sediment quality, but demonstrated high-spatial variability in the effects of forest roads on streambed sediment and the need to address hotspots of sediment sources. The importance of context in the effects of forest roads is apparent in both our review and field data, suggesting the need for in situ studies to avoid misdirected restoration actions.

  17. Bearing Capacity Assessment on low Volume Roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zariņš, A.

    2015-11-01

    A large part of Latvian road network consists of low traffic volume roads and in particular of roads without hard pavement. Unbounded pavements shows serious problems in the form of rutting and other deformations, which finally lead to weak serviceability and damage of the road structure after intensive exploitation periods. Traditionally, these problems have been associated with heavy goods transport, overloaded vehicles and their impact. To find the specific damaging factors causing road pavement deformations and evaluate their prevention possibilities, and establish conditions that will allow doing it, the study was carried out. The tire pressure has been set as the main factor of load. Two different tire pressures have been used in tests and their impacts were compared. The comparison was done using deflection measurements with LWD together with dielectric constant measurements in a road structure using percometer. Measurements were taken in the upper pavement structure layers at different depths during full-scale loading and in different moisture/temperature conditions. Advisable load intensity and load factors for heavy traffic according to road conditions were set based on the study results.

  18. Robust road detection in shadow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Kaiyue; Xia, Siyu; Zhang, Junkang; Qin, A. Kai

    2016-07-01

    Image-based road detection is a vital task for many real-world applications, such as autonomous driving and obstacle detection. We propose a method for segmenting road regions from a single image based on horizon line estimation and clustering technology. The key idea is to leverage normalized cross correlation to search for the line separating the road image. Additionally, we divide the lower part of the road image into several identical parts horizontally and utilize a density-peak clustering algorithm in terms of gray and HSV value of each pixel. Clustering results are further labeled as road and nonroad based on the assumption that two adjacent horizontal parts share similar clustering size and average gray value. For road images with shadows, we also propose a new shadow-free space derived from HSV space. By calculating maximum entropy and reconstructing images, we show that shadows are eliminated to achieve better road detection. Experimental results on four datasets and shadow images demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of our method.

  19. Non-Official Roads Dilemma in Amazonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perz, Stephen G.; Arima, Eugenio; Souza, Carlos, Jr.; Caldas, Marcellus; Brandao, Amintas de O., Jr.; Araujo de Souza, Francisco Kennedy; Walker, Robert

    2005-01-01

    At the beginning of this millennium, "non-official" roads predominate in Amazonia. The opening of these roads, a phenomenon that has not been studied in depth, represents a major dilemma - it generates environmental and social impacts, but it helps to reduce the isolation of the communities in Amazonia and to improve the quality of life for those rural populations. The combined positive and negative aspects of this dilemma mean that it is a matter of crucial importance for the government at last to do a proper job in building these roads; if this is disregarded, in the future, the environment and the Brazilians living in that region will be at risk.

  20. Sustainable road safety: a new (?) neighbourhood road pattern that saves VRU lives.

    PubMed

    Wei, Vicky Feng; Lovegrove, Gord

    2012-01-01

    Both the UN (2007) and World Health Organizations (2004) have declared the enormous social and economic burden imposed on society by injuries due to road collisions as a major global problem. While the road safety problem is not new, this prominent global declaration sends an important signal of frustration regarding progress to date on reducing road collisions. It is clear that governments, communities, businesses and the public must discover ways of reducing this burden, especially as it relates to vulnerable road users (VRUs), typically meaning pedestrian and bicyclist road users. Recent comparisons of global VRU collisions statistics suggest that, in addition to mixed land use density, the layout of neighbourhood roads plays a vital role in the encouragement of walkable, safe and quiet, yet accessible and sustainable communities. The purpose of this paper was to: The Dutch Sustainable Road Safety (SRS) Program has produced a number of innovative land use and transportation initiatives for vehicular road users as well as non-vehicular VRUs. Following from the Dutch initiatives, these new 3-way offset, and fused grid neighbourhood patterns appear to not only have positive effects in encouraging mode split (i.e. increasing walking and bicycling, and transit), slowing traffic, and reducing energy consumption and GHG emissions; but also, to hold potential to improve road safety. To test the road safety hypothesis, UBCO researchers evaluated the level of road safety relative to five neighbourhood patterns - grid, culs-de-sac, and Dutch Sustainable Road Safety (SRS) (or limited access), 3-way offset, and fused grid networks. Analysis using standard transportation planning methodology revealed that they would maintain both mobility and accessibility. Analysis using standard road safety analysis methodology further revealed that these 3-way offset, and fused grid patterns would significantly improve road safety levels by as much as 60% compared to prevalent patterns (i

  1. Air Pollution in Road Tunnels

    PubMed Central

    Waller, R. E.; Commins, B. T.; Lawther, P. J.

    1961-01-01

    As a part of a study of pollution of the air by motor vehicles, measurements have been made in two London road tunnels during periods of high traffic density. The concentrations of smoke and polycyclic hydrocarbons found there are much higher than the average values in Central London, but they are of the same order of magnitude as those occurring during temperature inversions on winter evenings when smoke from coal fires accumulates at a low level. An attempt has been made to relate the concentration of each pollutant to the type and amount of traffic. Both diesel and petrol vehicles make some contribution to the amounts of smoke and polycyclic hydrocarbons found in the tunnels, but in the case of smoke, fluoranthene, 1: 2-benzpyrene, pyrene, and 3: 4-benzpyrene, the concentrations appear to be more closely related to the density of diesel traffic than to that of petrol traffic. The concentrations of lead and carbon monoxide have also been determined, and these are very closely related to the density of petrol traffic. During the morning and evening rush hours the mean concentration of carbon monoxide was just over 100 p.p.m. and peak values up to 500 p.p.m. were recorded at times. Oxides of nitrogen were determined in some of the experiments and there was always much more nitric oxide than nitrogen dioxide. Eye irritation was experienced but its cause was not investigated. The concentration of pollution in the tunnels does not appear to be high enough to create any special hazards for short-term exposures. The amosphere at peak periods may become very dirty and unpleasant and the concentration of carbon monoxide would be sufficient to produce some effect over a period of several hours' continuous exposure. The total emission of pollution from road vehicles must still be small in comparison with that from coal fires, but the effect of traffic on the concentration of smoke, polycyclic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and lead in the air of city streets deserves

  2. 10. VIEW OF ALIGNMENT FOR COULTERVILLE ROAD AND MERCED RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF ALIGNMENT FOR COULTERVILLE ROAD AND MERCED RIVER CANYON. NOTE ROAD CUT FOR NEW BIG OAK FLAT ROAD AT CENTER DISTANCE. LOOKING N. GIS: N-37 42 45.5 / W-119 43 24.7 - Coulterville Road, Between Foresta & All-Weather Highway, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  3. 9. VIEW OF WHITE ROCK ROAD INDICATING CULVERT LOCATION (SEE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF WHITE ROCK ROAD INDICATING CULVERT LOCATION (SEE ROAD ANGLE POINT ON RIGHT) WITH LATROBE RD, INTERSECTION IN DISTANCE (LEFT OF CENTER); VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Placerville Road, White Rock Road between Clarksville & White Rock, El Dorado Hills, El Dorado County, CA

  4. 3. VIEW OF WHITE ROCK ROAD FROM THE INTERSECTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF WHITE ROCK ROAD FROM THE INTERSECTION OF HIDDEN RIVER WAY (LEFT FOREGROUND) TOWARD ELEVATED INTERSECTION WITH LATROBE ROAD (AT RIGHT HORIZON); VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Placerville Road, White Rock Road between Clarksville & White Rock, El Dorado Hills, El Dorado County, CA

  5. 4. ENVIRONMENT, FROM NORTH, SHOWING RIVER ROAD BRIDGE CARRYING CASSELMAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. ENVIRONMENT, FROM NORTH, SHOWING RIVER ROAD BRIDGE CARRYING CASSELMAN RIVER ROAD OVER CASSELMAN RIVER, WITH MARYLAND GEOLOGICAL SURVEY STREAM-GAUGING STATION AT NORTHEAST CORNER OF BRIDGE - River Road Bridge, Crossing Casselman River on Casselman River Road, Grantsville, Garrett County, MD

  6. 6. OLD AND NEW TIOGA ROAD. NOTE REMNANTS OF OLD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. OLD AND NEW TIOGA ROAD. NOTE REMNANTS OF OLD ROAD ON LEFT. NOTE ROAD CUT ON CANYON WALL IN CENTER REAR. LOOKING NNE. GIS: N-37 56 19.5 / W-119 13 53.3 - Tioga Road, Between Crane Flat & Tioga Pass, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  7. View of New Big Oak Flat Road seen from Old ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of New Big Oak Flat Road seen from Old Wawona Road near location of photograph HAER CA-148-17. Note road cuts, alignment, and tunnels. Devils Dance Floor at left distance. Looking northwest - Big Oak Flat Road, Between Big Oak Flat Entrance & Merced River, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  8. 30 CFR 784.24 - Road systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... materials, cuts, fill embankments, culverts, bridges, drainage ditches, low-water crossings, and drainage structures; (2) Contain the drawings and specifications of each proposed road that is located in the...

  9. 30 CFR 817.150 - Roads: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... erosion, siltation, and the air pollution attendant to erosion, including road dust and dust occurring on... traffic; (2) Removing all bridges and culverts unless approved as part of the postmining land use;...

  10. 30 CFR 816.150 - Roads: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... erosion, siltation, and the air pollution attendant to erosion, including road dust as well as dust... traffic; (2) Removing all bridges and culverts unless approved as part of the postmining land use;...

  11. Design of Road Pavement Using Recycled Aggregate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remišová, Eva; Decký, Martin; Mikolaš, Milan; Hájek, Matej; Kovalčík, Luboš; Mečár, Martin

    2016-10-01

    The presented article gives special attention to codified clauses of the road construction law, the relevant clauses of the standards and technical regulations to design and control the quality of recycled aggregate constructions. The article also presents the authors’ suggestions to design of earth constructions and pavements of roads according to the Slovak technical standards, technical regulations and objectively determined results of research and development of road infrastructure. The article presents a comparison of the mechanical characteristics measurements of the structural layers of road pavements built from the recycled and natural aggregate. It also presents correlation functions of results obtained from in situ and in laboratory CBR (Californian Bearing Ratio) measuring, representing the world's most widely used control method of bearing capacity of mentioned construction layers.

  12. HCEI Road Map: 2011 Edition (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Braccio, R.; Finch, P.

    2011-08-01

    This road map outlines the 2011 key goals and strategies of the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative, was founded based on a Memorandum of Understanding between the State of Hawaii and the U.S. Department of Energy in 2008.

  13. Movie Trailer: 'Road to the Red Planet'

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA and the European Space Agency have announced three new joint science missions to Mars, including one that will return to Earth with a sample taken from the Martian surface. "Road to the Red Pl...

  14. On the road performance tests of electric test vehicle for correlation with road load simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dustin, M. O.; Slavik, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    A dynamometer (road load simulator) is used to test and evaluate electric vehicle propulsion systems. To improve correlation between system tests on the road load simulator and on the road, similar performance tests are conducted using the same vehicle. The results of track tests on the electric propulsion system test vehicle are described. The tests include range at constant speeds and over SAE J227a driving cycles, maximum accelerations, maximum gradability, and tire rolling resistance determination. Road power requirements and energy consumption were also determined from coast down tests.

  15. On-the-road performance tests of electric test vehicle for correlation with road load simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Dustin, M.O.; Slavik, R.J.

    1982-08-01

    A special purpose dynamometer (Road Load Simulator) is being used at NASA Lewis Research Center to test and evaluate electric vehicle propulsion systems developed under DOE's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program. To improve correlation between system tests on the Road Load Simulator and on the road, similar performance tests are being conducted using the same vehicle. The results of track tests on the Lewis electric propulsion system test vehicle are described in this report. The tests include range at constant speeds and over SAE J227a driving cycles, maximum accelerations, maximum gradability, and tire rolling resistance determination. Road power requirements and energy consumption were also determined from coast-down tests.

  16. Conceptual design and analysis of roads and road construction machinery for initial lunar base operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sines, Jeffrey L.; Banks, Joel; Efatpenah, Keyanoush

    1990-01-01

    Recent developments have made it possible for scientists and engineers to consider returning to the Moon to build a manned lunar base. The base can be used to conduct scientific research, develop new space technology, and utilize the natural resources of the Moon. Areas of the base will be separated, connected by a system of roads that reduce the power requirements of vehicles traveling on them. Feasible road types for the lunar surface were analyzed and a road construction system was designed for initial lunar base operations. A model was also constructed to show the system configuration and key operating features. The alternate designs for the lunar road construction system were developed in four stages: analyze and select a road type; determine operations and machinery needed to produce the road; develop machinery configurations; and develop alternates for several machine components. A compacted lunar soil road was selected for initial lunar base operations. The only machinery required to produce this road were a grader and a compactor. The road construction system consists of a main drive unit which is used for propulsion, a detachable grader assembly, and a towed compactor.

  17. How Effective Is Road Mitigation at Reducing Road-Kill? A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rytwinski, Trina; Soanes, Kylie; Jaeger, Jochen A. G.; Fahrig, Lenore; Findlay, C. Scott; Houlahan, Jeff; van der Ree, Rodney; van der Grift, Edgar A

    2016-01-01

    Road traffic kills hundreds of millions of animals every year, posing a critical threat to the populations of many species. To address this problem there are more than forty types of road mitigation measures available that aim to reduce wildlife mortality on roads (road-kill). For road planners, deciding on what mitigation method to use has been problematic because there is little good information about the relative effectiveness of these measures in reducing road-kill, and the costs of these measures vary greatly. We conducted a meta-analysis using data from 50 studies that quantified the relationship between road-kill and a mitigation measure designed to reduce road-kill. Overall, mitigation measures reduce road-kill by 40% compared to controls. Fences, with or without crossing structures, reduce road-kill by 54%. We found no detectable effect on road-kill of crossing structures without fencing. We found that comparatively expensive mitigation measures reduce large mammal road-kill much more than inexpensive measures. For example, the combination of fencing and crossing structures led to an 83% reduction in road-kill of large mammals, compared to a 57% reduction for animal detection systems, and only a 1% for wildlife reflectors. We suggest that inexpensive measures such as reflectors should not be used until and unless their effectiveness is tested using a high-quality experimental approach. Our meta-analysis also highlights the fact that there are insufficient data to answer many of the most pressing questions that road planners ask about the effectiveness of road mitigation measures, such as whether other less common mitigation measures (e.g., measures to reduce traffic volume and/or speed) reduce road mortality, or to what extent the attributes of crossing structures and fences influence their effectiveness. To improve evaluations of mitigation effectiveness, studies should incorporate data collection before the mitigation is applied, and we recommend a

  18. STUDY ON GEO-CODING OF ROAD EVENTS USING ROAD NAMES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minami, Yoshitaka; Sekimoto, Yoshihide; Nakajo, Satoru; Sibasaki, Ryosuke

    Recently, services with geospatial information have expanding rapidly. In case of road map, it has become increasingly important to represent various information such as stores, road works, traffic controls, accidents and positions of cars and people, because of the popularization of a vehicle and pedestrian navigation system. However, in Japan, coordinates that identify position from Japanese address is not on a road but on city block. So it is very important to identify the position on the road that various information indicates. Then, in this study, the geocoding technology was examined to specify the position on the road for the improvement and the upgrade of the convenience of service that used geospatial information. The method that used the location information and route information was invented about the identifying position on the road. Data targeted related information on road events in the process where the road structure was changed. In addition, the method at this identifying position was applied to information related to the road, the ratio of the accuracy and each accuracy was calculated, and application to service was examined.

  19. Road Surfaces And Earthquake Engineering: A Theoretical And Experimental Study

    SciTech Connect

    Pratico, Filippo Giammaria

    2008-07-08

    As is well known, road surfaces greatly affect vehicle-road interaction. As a consequence, road surfaces have a paramount influence on road safety and pavement management systems. On the other hand, earthquakes produce deformations able to modify road surface structure, properties and performance. In the light of these facts, the main goal of this paper has been confined into the modelling of road surface before, during and after the seismic event. The fundamentals of road surface texture theory have been stated in a general formulation. Models in the field of road profile generation and theoretical properties, before, during and after the earthquake, have been formulated and discussed. Practical applications can be hypothesised in the field of vehicle-road interaction as a result of road surface texture derived from deformations and accelerations caused by seismic or similar events.

  20. IAU South West Asian ROAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, Areg; Azatyan, Naira; Farmanyan, Sona; Mikayelyan, Gor

    2016-10-01

    Armenia is hosting the IAU South West Asian (SWA) Regional Office of Astronomy for Development (ROAD). It is a county of ancient astronomy and is also rich in modern astronomical facilities and infrastructures, hence may successfully serve as a regional center for various activities. Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) has 2.6m and 1m Schmidt, as well as a number of smaller telescopes that are an observational basis for joint projects and collaborations. Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO) is hosting astronomical databases, such as the Digitized First Byurakan Survey (DFBS) and may also serve as a basis for development of VO structures in this region. Recently we have conducted a number of new activities; a meeting on ``Relation of Astronomy to other Sciences, Culture and Society" (RASCS) was organized by BAO and Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS) in Oct 2014 in Byurakan. Activities related to Archaeoastronomy and Astronomy in Culture (AAC) were initiated as well. Discussions on future Armenian-Iranian collaboration in astronomy were carried out, including an Armenian-Iranian Astronomical Workshop held in Oct 2015 in Byurakan. Similar workshops have been carried out between BAO and Abastumani Astronomical Observatory (AbAO, Georgia) since 1974.

  1. Explaining the road accident risk: weather effects.

    PubMed

    Bergel-Hayat, Ruth; Debbarh, Mohammed; Antoniou, Constantinos; Yannis, George

    2013-11-01

    This research aims to highlight the link between weather conditions and road accident risk at an aggregate level and on a monthly basis, in order to improve road safety monitoring at a national level. It is based on some case studies carried out in Work Package 7 on "Data analysis and synthesis" of the EU-FP6 project "SafetyNet-Building the European Road Safety Observatory", which illustrate the use of weather variables for analysing changes in the number of road injury accidents. Time series analysis models with explanatory variables that measure the weather quantitatively were used and applied to aggregate datasets of injury accidents for France, the Netherlands and the Athens region, over periods of more than 20 years. The main results reveal significant correlations on a monthly basis between weather variables and the aggregate number of injury accidents, but the magnitude and even the sign of these correlations vary according to the type of road (motorways, rural roads or urban roads). Moreover, in the case of the interurban network in France, it appears that the rainfall effect is mainly direct on motorways--exposure being unchanged, and partly indirect on main roads--as a result of changes in exposure. Additional results obtained on a daily basis for the Athens region indicate that capturing the within-the-month variability of the weather variables and including it in a monthly model highlights the effects of extreme weather. Such findings are consistent with previous results obtained for France using a similar approach, with the exception of the negative correlation between precipitation and the number of injury accidents found for the Athens region, which is further investigated. The outlook for the approach and its added value are discussed in the conclusion.

  2. LIDAR Surveys for Road Design in Thailand

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-01

    25th ACRS 2004 Chiang Mai, Thailand 167 New Generation of Sensors and Applications A-4.6 LIDAR SURVEYS FOR... LiDAR , DEM, Road design, Pilot project, Thailand, NBIA ABSTRACT Concerned with environmental and drainage problems associated with road...as hilly, unstable terrain. LiDAR technology is of great interest to DOH as its use can make them save enormous amounts of time and money by providing

  3. Road Network Conflation Based on Radar Tracks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, but this process is extremely slow and laborious. Automatic transformation of images into digital road maps is...Likelihood Estimator NIMA National Imagery and Mapping Agency SAR Synthetic Aperture Radar STAP Space-Time Adaptive Processing USGS United States Geological Survey 27 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited. ...ROAD NETWORK CONFLATION BASED ON RADAR TRACKS SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY APRIL 2014 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT APPROVED FOR PUBLIC

  4. Improving Snow Roads and Airstrips in Antarctica

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    in Antarctica Sung M. Lee, Wilbur M. Haas, Robert L. Brown and Albert F. Wuori -LECTE ALIG2 2 1989 Prepared for DIVISION OF POLAR PROGRAMS NATIONAL...Snow Roads and Airstrips in Antarctica 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Lee, Sung M., Haas, Wilbur M., Brown, Robert L. and Wuori, Albert F. 13a. TYPE OF REPORT...identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Aircraft skiway Snow roads Antarctica Snow runways 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and

  5. Traumatic aortic incompetence following road traffic accident

    PubMed Central

    Irving, J. B.

    1974-01-01

    This case report describes the presentation and treatment of a case of aortic incompetence, resulting from a road traffic accident. The relevant literature is briefly reviewed. Aortic incompetence due to trauma has been described following non-penetrating chest injuries, such as kicks from horses (Barie, 1881), falls from heights and crushing accidents (Kissane, Koons and Clark, 1948; Levine, Roberts and Morrow, 1962). Despite the frequency of road traffic accidents, there have been no recent reports of traumatic aortic valve damage. PMID:4467876

  6. Child Victim Witness Protection Act of 1985. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Juvenile Justice of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session on S. 1156 (Birmingham, AL, September 3, 1985; Washington, DC, November 19, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

    This document presents the texts of two Senate hearings on S. 1156, the Child Victim Witness Protection Act of 1985. The text of the first hearing, held in Birmingham, Alabama, contains the text of S. 1156 and an opening statement by Senator Denton which summarizes the overall policy behind the bill. A statement by Senator McConnell is included.…

  7. Road Scene Analysis using Trinocular Stereo Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushima, Kousuke; Matsuura, Hiroto; Kijima, Yoshitaka; Hu, Zhencheng; Uchimura, Keiichi

    Road scene analysis in 3D driving environment, which aims to detect objects from continuously changing background, is vital for driver assitance system and Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) applications. Laser or millimeter wave radars have shown good performance in measuring relative speed and distance in highway driving environment. However the accuracy of these systems decreases in an urban traffic environment as more confusion occurs due to the factors such as parking vehicles, guardrails, poles and motorcycles. A stereovision based sensing system provides an effective supplement to radar-based road scene analysis with its much wider field of view and more accurate lateral information. This paper presents an efficient solution for road scene analysis using a trinocular stereo vision based algorithm. In this algorithm, trinocular stereo vision detects all types of objects in road scene. And “U-V-disparity" concept is employed to analyze 3D geometric feature of road scene. The proposed algorithm has been tested on real road scenes and experimental results verified its efficiency.

  8. Teaching Young Children to Cross Roads Safely

    PubMed Central

    Oxley, Jennifer; Congiu, Melinda; Whelan, Michelle; D’Elio, Angelo; Charlton, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Road safety education is considered essential to teach children to interact with traffic safely. Many programs, however, do not consider the separate component skills of the road-crossing task, the functional and behavioural factors that may put some children at increased risk, and the most beneficial methods to transfer knowledge to improved behaviour in real-world environments. A targeted and practical training program using a simulated road environment has been developed and evaluated amongst primary school children using a randomised controlled trial. Significant reductions in proportion of critically incorrect road-crossing responses were found immediately after training (56%) and one-month post-training (47%) by the case group compared with pre-training responses, and relative to any changes in responses of the control group. The beneficial effects were greater for younger children, females, children with less well developed perceptual, attentional and cogntive skills, and those with little traffic exposure. The effects of the training program on other outcome measures (proportion of missed opportunity responses, decision time and safety rating responses) were less clear but showed some beneficial effects. This paper discusses the use of the simulated training program, a novel and safe way, to improve road crossing decisions. It is suggested that improvements can be made to child pedestrian education by providing tailored and practical programs that target the component skills of road-crossing decisions and improve essential skills through intensive training and feedback on known risk factors. PMID:19026238

  9. Inhalation of road dust by human subjects.

    PubMed

    Takishima, T; Nakamura, M; Sasaki, M; Miyano, M; Yamaya, M; Sasaki, H

    1987-11-01

    We measured pneumomagnetic field strength (PMFS) in 42 healthy control subjects living in districts of Northern Japan with low levels of road dust pollution and in 39 healthy subjects living in areas with high levels of road dust pollution. Suspended road dust produced by studded tires increases from 30 micrograms/m3 during the summer season to levels as high as 400 micrograms/m3 during the snow season in the downtown areas of Sendai, Japan. Road dust retained in the lungs, containing 3% iron, was magnetized from the surface of the chest wall, and PMFS was measured. Three to 5 sequential PMFS measurements were made in each subject in March and October of 1984 and 1985, and in March 1986. The PMFS in control subjects in March 1984 was 37 +/- 14 pico-Tesla (mean +/- SD) and did not significantly differ from the PMFS in October 1984 or that in March 1985. In March 1984, the PMFS of the subjects in highly polluted areas was 95 +/- 100 pico-Tesla (mean +/- SD) and was significantly higher than that of control subjects (p less than 0.01) and subsequently decreased in March 1985 and in March 1986, corresponding to a decrease in suspended road dust brought about by a campaign to eliminate the use of studded tires. Our findings suggest that some road dust caused by studded tires is retained in the lungs.

  10. Do Roads Reduce Painted Turtle (Chrysemys picta) Populations?

    PubMed Central

    Dorland, Alexandra; Rytwinski, Trina; Fahrig, Lenore

    2014-01-01

    Road mortality is thought to be a leading cause of turtle population decline. However, empirical evidence of the direct negative effects of road mortality on turtle population abundance is lacking. The purpose of this study was to provide a strong test of the prediction that roads reduce turtle population abundance. While controlling for potentially confounding variables, we compared relative abundance of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) in 20 ponds in Eastern Ontario, 10 as close as possible to high traffic roads (Road sites) and 10 as far as possible from any major roads (No Road sites). There was no significant effect of roads on painted turtle relative abundance. Furthermore, our data do not support other predictions of the road mortality hypothesis; we observed neither a higher relative frequency of males to females at Road sites than at No Road sites, nor a lower average body size of turtles at Road than at No Road sites. We speculate that, although roads can cause substantial adult mortality in turtles, other factors, such as release from predation on adults and/or nests close to roads counter the negative effect of road mortality in some populations. We suggest that road mitigation for painted turtles can be limited to locations where turtles are forced to migrate across high traffic roads due, for example, to destruction of local nesting habitat or seasonal drying of ponds. This conclusion should not be extrapolated to other species of turtles, where road mortality could have a larger population-level effect than on painted turtles. PMID:24858065

  11. Road rage and road traffic accidents among commercial vehicle drivers in Lahore, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, M A; Shaikh, I A; Siddiqui, Z

    2012-04-01

    Road rage and road traffic accidents increase the burden of morbidity and mortality in a population. A cross-sectional survey with convenience sampling was conducted among commercial vehicle drivers in Lahore, Pakistan (n = 901) to record their behaviours/experiences regarding road rage and road traffic accidents. Respondents were asked about incidents of shouting/cursing/rude gestures or threats to physically hurt the person/vehicle, by others or themselves, in the previous 24 hours or 3 months, and their involvement in road traffic accidents in the previous 12 months. Auto-rickshaw drivers were significantly more likely to report various road rage experiences/behaviours and involvement in accidents compared with bus and wagon drivers. A total of 112 respondents (12.4%) reported being involved in a road traffic accident in the previous 12 months but traffic police did not record the accident in 52.7% of cases. The results of this study underline the need to improve road safety in Pakistan.

  12. Monitoring and assessing global impacts of roads and off-road vehicle traffic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid increases in the number of vehicles, urban sprawl, exurban development and infrastructure development for energy and water have led to dramatic increases in both the size and extent of the global road network. Anecdotal evidence suggests that off-road vehicle traffic has also increased in many...

  13. Road to evolution? Local adaptation to road adjacency in an amphibian (Ambystoma maculatum).

    PubMed

    Brady, Steven P

    2012-01-01

    The network of roads on the landscape is vast, and contributes a suite of negative ecological effects on adjacent habitats, ranging from fragmentation to contamination by runoff. In addition to the immediate consequences faced by biota living in roaded landscapes, road effects may further function as novel agents of selection, setting the stage for contemporary evolutionary changes in local populations. Though the ecological consequences of roads are well described, evolutionary outcomes remain largely unevaluated. To address these potential responses in tandem, I conducted a reciprocal transplant experiment on early life history stages of a pool-breeding salamander. My data show that despite a strong, negative effect of roadside pools on salamander performance, populations adjacent to roads are locally adapted. This suggests that the response of species to human-altered environments varies across local populations, and that adaptive processes may mediate this response.

  14. Road to evolution? Local adaptation to road adjacency in an amphibian (Ambystoma maculatum)

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Steven P.

    2012-01-01

    The network of roads on the landscape is vast, and contributes a suite of negative ecological effects on adjacent habitats, ranging from fragmentation to contamination by runoff. In addition to the immediate consequences faced by biota living in roaded landscapes, road effects may further function as novel agents of selection, setting the stage for contemporary evolutionary changes in local populations. Though the ecological consequences of roads are well described, evolutionary outcomes remain largely unevaluated. To address these potential responses in tandem, I conducted a reciprocal transplant experiment on early life history stages of a pool-breeding salamander. My data show that despite a strong, negative effect of roadside pools on salamander performance, populations adjacent to roads are locally adapted. This suggests that the response of species to human-altered environments varies across local populations, and that adaptive processes may mediate this response. PMID:22355748

  15. Road Lane Detection by Discriminating Dashed and Solid Road Lanes Using a Visible Light Camera Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Toan Minh; Hong, Hyung Gil; Vokhidov, Husan; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing need for road lane detection used in lane departure warning systems and autonomous vehicles, many studies have been conducted to turn road lane detection into a virtual assistant to improve driving safety and reduce car accidents. Most of the previous research approaches detect the central line of a road lane and not the accurate left and right boundaries of the lane. In addition, they do not discriminate between dashed and solid lanes when detecting the road lanes. However, this discrimination is necessary for the safety of autonomous vehicles and the safety of vehicles driven by human drivers. To overcome these problems, we propose a method for road lane detection that distinguishes between dashed and solid lanes. Experimental results with the Caltech open database showed that our method outperforms conventional methods. PMID:27548176

  16. Multispectral Image Road Extraction Based Upon Automated Map Conflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin

    Road network extraction from remotely sensed imagery enables many important and diverse applications such as vehicle tracking, drone navigation, and intelligent transportation studies. There are, however, a number of challenges to road detection from an image. Road pavement material, width, direction, and topology vary across a scene. Complete or partial occlusions caused by nearby buildings, trees, and the shadows cast by them, make maintaining road connectivity difficult. The problems posed by occlusions are exacerbated with the increasing use of oblique imagery from aerial and satellite platforms. Further, common objects such as rooftops and parking lots are made of materials similar or identical to road pavements. This problem of common materials is a classic case of a single land cover material existing for different land use scenarios. This work addresses these problems in road extraction from geo-referenced imagery by leveraging the OpenStreetMap digital road map to guide image-based road extraction. The crowd-sourced cartography has the advantages of worldwide coverage that is constantly updated. The derived road vectors follow only roads and so can serve to guide image-based road extraction with minimal confusion from occlusions and changes in road material. On the other hand, the vector road map has no information on road widths and misalignments between the vector map and the geo-referenced image are small but nonsystematic. Properly correcting misalignment between two geospatial datasets, also known as map conflation, is an essential step. A generic framework requiring minimal human intervention is described for multispectral image road extraction and automatic road map conflation. The approach relies on the road feature generation of a binary mask and a corresponding curvilinear image. A method for generating the binary road mask from the image by applying a spectral measure is presented. The spectral measure, called anisotropy-tunable distance (ATD

  17. Geophysical methods for road construction and maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasul, Hedi; Karlson, Caroline; Jamali, Imran; Earon, Robert; Olofsson, Bo

    2015-04-01

    Infrastructure, such as road transportation, is a vital in civilized societies; which need to be constructed and maintained regularly. A large part of the project cost is attributed to subsurface conditions, where unsatisfactory conditions could increase either the geotechnical stabilization measures needed or the design cost itself. A way to collect information of the subsurface and existing installations which can lead to measures reducing the project cost and damage is to use geophysical methods during planning, construction and maintenance phases. The moisture in road layers is an important factor, which will affect the bearing capacity of the construction as well as the maintenances. Moisture in the road is a key factor for a well-functioning road. On the other hand the excessive moisture is the main reason of road failure and problems. From a hydrological point of view geophysical methods could help road planners identify the water table, geological strata, pollution arising from the road and the movement of the pollution before, during and after construction. Geophysical methods also allow road planners to collect valuable data for a large area without intrusive investigations such as with boreholes, i.e. minimizing the environmental stresses and costs. However, it is important to specify the investigation site and to choose the most appropriate geophysical method based on the site chosen and the objective of the investigation. Currently, numerous construction and rehabilitation projects are taking places around the world. Many of these projects are focused on infrastructural development, comprising both new projects and expansion of the existing infrastructural network. Geophysical methods can benefit these projects greatly during all phases. During the construction phase Ground Penetrating radar (GPR) is very useful in combination with Electrical Resistivity (ER) for detecting soil water content and base course compaction. However, ER and Electromagnetic

  18. Road rage among drug dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Benavidez, Daniela C; Flores, Antonio Marcos; Fierro, Inmaculada; Alvarez, F Javier

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of alcohol, cocaine and cannabis is associated with aggressive behaviour, being a victim of injuries from various causes, and suffering traffic accidents. On the other hand, there is a significant association between road rage and traffic accidents, yet this has not been studied in persons suffering a substance dependence disorder. This study analyses the prevalence of road rage in substance dependent patients undergoing treatment. 100 patients randomly selected at an outpatient treatment centre were included in the study. 63% of the patients had experienced road rage in the year prior to the interview, and 18% were serious perpetrators. There was a higher frequency among drivers and those who were starting treatment for cocaine and cocaine+heroin. The study shows that road rage is very frequent among patients with disorders due to substance dependence who are undergoing treatment, in particular the most severe form ("serious perpetrators"). Special attention should be addressed to the issue of driving and road rage during the treatment of these patients.

  19. Risk management model in road transport systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhapov, R. L.; Nikolaeva, R. V.; Gatiyatullin, M. H.; Makhmutov, M. M.

    2016-08-01

    The article presents the results of a study of road safety indicators that influence the development and operation of the transport system. Road safety is considered as a continuous process of risk management. Authors constructed a model that relates the social risks of a major road safety indicator - the level of motorization. The model gives a fairly accurate assessment of the level of social risk for any given level of motorization. Authors calculated the dependence of the level of socio-economic costs of accidents and injured people in them. The applicability of the concept of socio-economic damage is caused by the presence of a linear relationship between the natural and economic indicators damage from accidents. The optimization of social risk is reduced to finding the extremum of the objective function that characterizes the economic effect of the implementation of measures to improve safety. The calculations make it possible to maximize the net present value, depending on the costs of improving road safety, taking into account socio-economic damage caused by accidents. The proposed econometric models make it possible to quantify the efficiency of the transportation system, allow to simulate the change in road safety indicators.

  20. Predicting road accidents: Structural time series approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junus, Noor Wahida Md; Ismail, Mohd Tahir

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, the model for occurrence of road accidents in Malaysia between the years of 1970 to 2010 was developed and throughout this model the number of road accidents have been predicted by using the structural time series approach. The models are developed by using stepwise method and the residual of each step has been analyzed. The accuracy of the model is analyzed by using the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and the best model is chosen based on the smallest Akaike information criterion (AIC) value. A structural time series approach found that local linear trend model is the best model to represent the road accidents. This model allows level and slope component to be varied over time. In addition, this approach also provides useful information on improving the conventional time series method.

  1. Assessment of rockfall risk along roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budetta, P.

    2004-03-01

    This paper contains a method for the analysis of rockfall risk along roads and motorways. The method is derived from the Rockfall Hazard Rating System (RHRS) developed by Pierson et al. (1990) at the Oregon State Highway Division. The RHRS provides a rational way to make informed decisions on where and how to spend construction funds. Exponential scoring functions are used to represent the increases, respectively, in hazard and in vulnerability that are reflected in the nine categories forming the classification. The resulting total score contains the essential elements regarding the evaluation of the degree of the exposition to the risk along roads. In the modified method, the ratings for the categories "ditch effectiveness", "geologic characteristic", "volume of rockfall/block size", "climate and water circulation" and "rockfall history" have been rendered more easy and objective. The main modifications regard the introduction of Slope Mass Rating by Romana (1985, 1988, 1991) improving the estimate of the geologic characteristics, of the volume of the potentially unstable blocks and the underground water circulation. Other modifications regard the scoring for the categories "decision sight distance" and "road geometry". For these categories, the Italian National Council's standards (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche - CNR) have been used (CNR, 1980). The method must be applied in both the traffic directions because the percentage of reduction in the decision sight distance greatly affects the results. An application of the modified method to a 2km long section of the Sorrentine road (no 145) in Southern Italy was developed. A high traffic intensity affects the entire section of the road and rockfalls periodically cause casualties, as well as a large amount of damage and traffic interruptions. The method was applied to seven cross sections of slopes adjacent to the Sorrentine road. For these slopes, the analysis shows that the risk is unacceptable and it should

  2. Effects of roads on survival of San Clemente Island foxes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snow, N.P.; Andelt, W.F.; Stanley, T.R.; Resnik, J.R.; Munson, L.

    2012-01-01

    Roads generate a variety of influences on wildlife populations; however, little is known about the effects of roads on endemic wildlife on islands. Specifically, road-kills of island foxes (Urocyon littoralis) on San Clemente Island (SCI), Channel Islands, California, USA are a concern for resource managers. To determine the effects of roads on island foxes, we radiocollared foxes using a 3-tiered sampling design to represent the entire population in the study area, a sub-population near roads, and a sub-population away from roads on SCI. We examined annual survival rates using nest-survival models, causes of mortalities, and movements for each sample. We found the population had high annual survival (0.90), although survival declined with use of road habitat, particularly for intermediate-aged foxes. Foxes living near roads suffered lower annual survival (0.76), resulting from high frequencies of road-kills (7 of 11 mortalities). Foxes living away from roads had the highest annual survival (0.97). Road-kill was the most prominent cause of mortality detected on SCI, which we estimated as killing 3-8% of the population in the study area annually. Based on movements, we were unable to detect any responses by foxes that minimized their risks from roads. The probabilities of road-kills increased with use of the road habitat, volume of traffic, and decreasing road sinuosity. We recommend that managers should attempt to reduce road-kills by deterring or excluding foxes from entering roads, and attempting to modify behaviors of motorists to be vigilant for foxes. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  3. Measurement and dimension of road fatality in Brunei.

    PubMed

    Haque, Mohammed Ohidul

    2011-03-01

    In this article, we have investigated the pattern of road fatality in Brunei. It is seen from this analysis that road fatality in Brunei was one of the highest in the world in the early 1990s, but has been significantly reduced over the years, and is now one of the lowest in the world. Preliminary investigation shows that young male drivers are responsible for most road fatalities in Brunei. We have also fitted a linear regression model and found that road fatality is significantly positively related to people aged 18-24 years and new registered vehicles, both of which are expected to grow with the growth of population and economic development. Hence, road fatality in Brunei is also expected to grow unless additional effective road safety countermeasures are introduced and implemented to reduce road toll. Negative coefficient is observed for trend variable, indicating the reduction of road fatality due to the combined effects of improvements of vehicle safety, road design, medical facilities and road safety awareness among road user groups. However, short-term road fatality analysis based on monthly data indicates that the coefficient of the trend variable is positive, implying that in recent months road fatalities are increasing in Brunei, which is supported by media reports. We have compared Brunei's road fatality data with Australia, Singapore and Malaysia and found that Brunei's road fatality rate is lower than Singapore and Malaysia, but higher than Australia. This indicates that there are still opportunities to reduce road fatalities in Brunei if additional effective road safety strategies are implemented like in Australia without interfering in the economic and social development of Brunei.

  4. Erosion and sediment delivery following removal of forest roads

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madej, Mary Ann

    2001-01-01

    Erosion control treatments were applied to abandoned logging roads in California, with the goal of reducing road-related sediment input to streams and restoring natural hydrologic patterns on the landscape. Treatment of stream crossings involved excavating culverts and associated road fill and reshaping streambanks. A variety of techniques were applied to road benches, which included decompacting the road surface, placing unstable road fill in more stable locations, and re-establishing natural surface drainage patterns. Following treatment and a 12-year recurrence-interval storm, some road reaches and excavated stream crossings showed evidence of mass movement failures, gullying, bank erosion and channel incision. Post-treatment erosion from excavated stream crossings was related to two variables: a surrogate for stream power (drainage area × channel gradient) and the volume of fill excavated from the channel. Post-treatment erosion on road reaches was related to four explanatory variables: method of treatment, hillslope position (upper, mid-slope or lower), date of treatment, and an interaction term (hillslope position × method of treatment). Sediment delivery from treated roads in upper, middle and lower hillslope positions was 10, 135 and 550 m3 of sediment per kilometre of treated roads, respectively. In contrast, inventories of almost 500 km of forest roads in adjacent catchments indicate that untreated roads produced 1500 to 4700 m3 of sediment per kilometre of road length. Erosion from 300 km of treated roads contributed less than 2 per cent of the total sediment load of Redwood Creek during the period 1978 to 1998. Although road removal treatments do not completely eliminate erosion associated with forest roads, they do substantially reduce sediment yields from abandoned logging roads.

  5. Driving and off-road impairments underlying failure on road testing in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Devos, Hannes; Vandenberghe, Wim; Tant, Mark; Akinwuntan, Abiodun E; De Weerdt, Willy; Nieuwboer, Alice; Uc, Ergun Y

    2013-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) affects driving ability. We aimed to determine the most critical impairments in specific road skills and in clinical characteristics leading to failure on a road test in PD. In this cross-sectional study, certified driving assessment experts evaluated specific driving skills in 104 active, licensed drivers with PD using a standardized, on-road checklist and issued a global decision of pass/fail. Participants also completed an off-road evaluation assessing demographic features, disease characteristics, motor function, vision, and cognition. The most important driving skills and off-road predictors of the pass/fail outcome were identified using multivariate stepwise regression analyses. Eighty-six (65%) passed and 36 (35%) failed the on-road driving evaluation. Persons who failed performed worse on all on-road items. When adjusted for age and gender, poor performances on lateral positioning at low speed, speed adaptations at high speed, and left turning maneuvers yielded the best model that determined the pass/fail decision (R(2) = 0.56). The fail group performed poorer on all motor, visual, and cognitive tests. Measures of visual scanning, motor severity, PD subtype, visual acuity, executive functions, and divided attention were independent predictors of pass/fail decisions in the multivariate model (R(2) = 0.60). Our study demonstrated that failure on a road test in PD is determined by impairments in specific driving skills and associated with deficits in motor, visual, executive, and visuospatial functions. These findings point to specific driving and off-road impairments that can be targeted in multimodal rehabilitation programs for drivers with PD.

  6. A combined road weather forecast system to prevent road ice formation in the Adige Valley (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Napoli, Claudia; Piazza, Andrea; Antonacci, Gianluca; Todeschini, Ilaria; Apolloni, Roberto; Pretto, Ilaria

    2016-04-01

    Road ice is a dangerous meteorological hazard to a nation's transportation system and economy. By reducing the pavement friction with vehicle tyres, ice formation on pavements increases accident risk and delays travelling times thus posing a serious threat to road users' safety and the running of economic activities. Keeping roads clear and open is therefore essential, especially in mountainous areas where ice is likely to form during the winter period. Winter road maintenance helps to restore road efficiency and security, and its benefits are up to 8 times the costs sustained for anti-icing strategies [1]. However, the optimization of maintenance costs and the reduction of the environmental damage from over-salting demand further improvements. These can be achieved by reliable road weather forecasts, and in particular by the prediction of road surface temperatures (RSTs). RST is one of the most important parameters in determining road surface conditions. It is well known from literature that ice forms on pavements in high-humidity conditions when RSTs are below 0°C. We have therefore implemented an automatic forecast system to predict critical RSTs on a test route along the Adige Valley complex terrain, in the Italian Alps. The system considers two physical models, each computing heat and energy fluxes between the road and the atmosphere. One is Reuter's radiative cooling model, which predicts RSTs at sunrise as a function of surface temperatures at sunset and the time passed since then [2]. One is METRo (Model of the Environment and Temperature of Roads), a road weather forecast software which also considers heat conduction through road material [3]. We have applied the forecast system to a network of road weather stations (road weather information system, RWIS) installed on the test route [4]. Road and atmospheric observations from RWIS have been used as initial conditions for both METRo and Reuter's model. In METRo observations have also been coupled to

  7. 11. COULTERVILLE ROAD AT ROCK SLIDE AREA WITH HWY 140 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. COULTERVILLE ROAD AT ROCK SLIDE AREA WITH HWY 140 AT REAR. LOOKING NNE. GIS: N-37 43 04.7 / W-119 43 00.3 - Coulterville Road, Between Foresta & All-Weather Highway, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  8. 8. VIEW OF THE FAN HOUSE FROM THE MINE ROAD, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF THE FAN HOUSE FROM THE MINE ROAD, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

  9. 23. Surrender interview site, showing Pemberton Avenue concrete slab road ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Surrender interview site, showing Pemberton Avenue concrete slab road type with gutter (asphalt construction typical on Union and Confederate Avenues), view to the sw. - Vicksburg National Military Park Roads & Bridges, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  10. 3. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, WIRE MILL ROAD BRIDGE UNDER CONSTRUCTION, CA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, WIRE MILL ROAD BRIDGE UNDER CONSTRUCTION, CA. 1935. COLLECTION CONNECTICUT DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION. - Merritt Parkway, Wire Mill Road Bridge, Spanning Merritt Parkway, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  11. 12. WORLD'S FAMOUS TREE HOUSE AND ROAD VIEW. SOUTH OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. WORLD'S FAMOUS TREE HOUSE AND ROAD VIEW. SOUTH OF PIERCY, HUMBOLDT COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. LOOKING SW. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  12. 1. View north along old section of New Bridge Road, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View north along old section of New Bridge Road, western estate wall and Temple of Love to right - A. I. Du Pont Estate, Junction of State Route 141 & Rockland Road, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  13. 3. ELEVATION. FROM SOUTH WITH CANAL PRISM. Canal Road ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. ELEVATION. FROM SOUTH WITH CANAL PRISM. - Canal Road Bridge, Canal Road spanning Delaware Canal Diversion, Locks 22 & 23 in Delaware Canal State Park in Williams Township, Raubsville, Northampton County, PA

  14. 1. TUCKERTON WIRELESS, RADIO ROAD, PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF CONCRETE FOUNDATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. TUCKERTON WIRELESS, RADIO ROAD, PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF CONCRETE FOUNDATION OF RADIO STANTION WITH WIRELESS BUILDING AND SMOKESTACK IN BACKGROUND, LOOKING NORTH - Town of Tuckerton, U.S. Highway 9 & County Road 539, Tuckerton, Ocean County, NJ

  15. PEDESTRIAN UNDERPASS AT CRESCENT ROAD AND ROOSEVELT CENTER FROM NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PEDESTRIAN UNDERPASS AT CRESCENT ROAD AND ROOSEVELT CENTER FROM NORTH. NOTE DALE WINLING, 2005 SALLY KRESS TOMPKINS FELLOW, WALKING THROUGH UNDERPASS. - Old Greenbelt, Crescent Road and Southway, Greenbelt, Prince George's County, MD

  16. 9. STONE SLAB CULVERT UNDER CARRIAGE ROAD AT HORSESHOE CURVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. STONE SLAB CULVERT UNDER CARRIAGE ROAD AT HORSESHOE CURVE NEAR GIANT SLIDE TRAIL MARKER ON AROUND-THE-MOUNTAIN LOOP. - Rockefeller Carriage Roads, Mount Desert Island, Bar Harbor, Hancock County, ME

  17. 26. LONE CONE AND OLD ROAD GRADE TO LEFT SEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. LONE CONE AND OLD ROAD GRADE TO LEFT SEEN FROM PARKING LOT ADJACENT TO LAUNDROMAT AT MOREFIELD CAMPGROUND STORE, FACING NW. - Mesa Verde National Park Main Entrance Road, Cortez, Montezuma County, CO

  18. 2. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, VIEW TO WEST ROCKS ROAD BRIDGE, CA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, VIEW TO WEST ROCKS ROAD BRIDGE, CA. 1940. COLLECTION CONNECTICUT DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION. - Merritt Parkway, West Rocks Road Bridge, Spanning Merritt Parkway, Norwalk, Fairfield County, CT

  19. 7. SOUTH PORTAL. VIEW TO SOUTHSOUTHEAST Milwaukee Road Railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. SOUTH PORTAL. VIEW TO SOUTH-SOUTHEAST - Milwaukee Road Railroad Overpass, Spanning Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul, & Pacific Railroad Grade (Milwaukee Road) at Orange Street, Missoula, Missoula County, MT

  20. 1. OVERVIEW, EAST SIDE. VIEW TO WESTNORTHWEST Milwaukee Road ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERVIEW, EAST SIDE. VIEW TO WEST-NORTHWEST - Milwaukee Road Railroad Overpass, Spanning Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul, & Pacific Railroad Grade (Milwaukee Road) at Orange Street, Missoula, Missoula County, MT

  1. 2. EAST SIDE. VIEW TO WESTNORTHWEST Milwaukee Road Railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EAST SIDE. VIEW TO WEST-NORTHWEST - Milwaukee Road Railroad Overpass, Spanning Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul, & Pacific Railroad Grade (Milwaukee Road) at Orange Street, Missoula, Missoula County, MT

  2. 13. View of historic district looking northeast, with road to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View of historic district looking northeast, with road to left and Ogeechee River in background - Richmond Hill Plantation, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  3. 22. View of historic district looking northeast; road in foreground ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. View of historic district looking northeast; road in foreground and Ogeechee River in background - Richmond Hill Plantation, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  4. 8. JAMESTOWN ISLAND LOOP ROAD, VIEW TO NORTHEAST OF WINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. JAMESTOWN ISLAND LOOP ROAD, VIEW TO NORTHEAST OF WINE MAKING SIGN (STOP 5). NOTE WICKET MADE OF VINES IN FOREGROUND. - Jamestown Island Loop Road, Jamestown Island, Jamestown, James City County, VA

  5. 29. ROAD TO SUMMIT SHOWING VISITOR OVERLOOK AND SCIENCE CITY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. ROAD TO SUMMIT SHOWING VISITOR OVERLOOK AND SCIENCE CITY, FROM ATOP WHITE HILL. NOTE THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL REMAINS OF WHAT APPEARS TO BE A CIRCULAR SHELTER AT LOWER RIGHT. - Haleakala National Park Roads, Pukalani, Maui County, HI

  6. 3. ROAD TO SUMMIT SHOWING VISITOR OVERLOOK AND SCIENCE CITY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. ROAD TO SUMMIT SHOWING VISITOR OVERLOOK AND SCIENCE CITY, FROM ATOP WHITE HILL. NOTE THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL REMAINS OF WHAT APPEARS TO BE A CIRCULAR SHELTER AT LOWER RIGHT. - Haleakala National Park Roads, Pukalani, Maui County, HI

  7. CLOSE UP VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH UNLOADER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CLOSE UP VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH UNLOADER AND CRUSHING MILL WING IN THE FOREGROUND. VIEW FROM THE NORTHEAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  8. VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF MILL FROM KEKAHA ROAD, WITH SUGAR BIN, CANE CLEANING PLANT AND CRUSHING MILL TO THE FORE. VIEW FROM THE EAST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  9. ESTATE ROAD WITH LONGLEAF PINE AND WIREGRASS HABITAT, NORTH OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ESTATE ROAD WITH LONGLEAF PINE AND WIREGRASS HABITAT, NORTH OF NURSERY ROAD AND WEST OF HIGHWAY 87, FACING SOUTHEAST - Overhills, Fort Bragg Military Reservation, Approximately 15 miles NW of Fayetteville, Overhills, Harnett County, NC

  10. View of Old Big Oak Flat Road in Talus Slope. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Old Big Oak Flat Road in Talus Slope. Bridal Veil Falls at center distance. Looking east - Big Oak Flat Road, Between Big Oak Flat Entrance & Merced River, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  11. 76. VIEW OF SECOND WEAPONS STORAGE AREA ALONG SERVICE ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    76. VIEW OF SECOND WEAPONS STORAGE AREA ALONG SERVICE ROAD SHOWING BUILDINGS 338-333 LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  12. View north from USFS Road 300; portal of Fowler Lode ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north from USFS Road 300; portal of Fowler Lode Adit - Steamboat Mine, Southeast slope of Steamboat Mountain, west of the junction of Forest Service Roads 1000300 and 1000365, Jacksonville, Jackson County, OR

  13. 5. GLACIER POINT ROAD VIEW AT SENTINEL DOME PARKING AREA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GLACIER POINT ROAD VIEW AT SENTINEL DOME PARKING AREA. LOOKING E. GIS: N-37 42 43.8 / W-119 35 12.1 - Glacier Point Road, Between Chinquapin Flat & Glacier Point, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  14. 20. AVENUE OF THE GIANTS, OLD HIGHWAY 101, ROAD VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. AVENUE OF THE GIANTS, OLD HIGHWAY 101, ROAD VIEW .5 MILE NORTH OF MIRANDA. HUMBOLDT COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. LOOKING NW. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  15. 69. AVENUE OF THE GIANTS, OLD HIGHWAY 101, ROAD VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. AVENUE OF THE GIANTS, OLD HIGHWAY 101, ROAD VIEW 1.5 MILES NORTH OF MIRANDA. HUMBOLDT COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. LOOKING N. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  16. 68. AVENUE OF THE GIANTS, OLD HIGHWAY 101, ROAD VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. AVENUE OF THE GIANTS, OLD HIGHWAY 101, ROAD VIEW .5 MILE NORTH OF MIRANDA. HUMBOLDT COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. LOOKING NW. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  17. 28. ROAD VIEW OF HIGHWAY 267 SOUTH OF GRAPEVINE ENTRANCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. ROAD VIEW OF HIGHWAY 267 SOUTH OF GRAPEVINE ENTRANCE STATION. NOTE ENTRANCE STATION IN DISTANCE. LOOKING NW. (SAME AS CA-300-7.) - Death Valley National Park Roads, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  18. Behavior of road accidents: Structural time series approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junus, Noor Wahida Md; Ismail, Mohd Tahir; Arsad, Zainudin

    2014-12-01

    Road accidents become a major issue in contributing to the increasing number of deaths. Few researchers suggest that road accidents occur due to road structure and road condition. The road structure and condition may differ according to the area and volume of traffic of the location. Therefore, this paper attempts to look up the behavior of the road accidents in four main regions in Peninsular Malaysia by employing a structural time series (STS) approach. STS offers the possibility of modelling the unobserved component such as trends and seasonal component and it is allowed to vary over time. The results found that the number of road accidents is described by a different model. Perhaps, the results imply that the government, especially a policy maker should consider to implement a different approach in ways to overcome the increasing number of road accidents.

  19. 10. View along graveyard road to the west, valley of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. View along graveyard road to the west, valley of Ewing's attack, stockade redan is visible in distance to the middle and left. - Vicksburg National Military Park Roads & Bridges, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  20. OVERALL VIEW OF MILL YARD FROM HALEKO ROAD. QUONSET WAREHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF MILL YARD FROM HALEKO ROAD. QUONSET WAREHOUSE IN LEFT FOREGROUND, BOILING HOUSE IN MIDDLE, WAREHOUSE AND ELECTRIC SHOP TO THE RIGHT. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

  1. 12. HALEMAUMAUUWEKAHUNA ROAD AT SOUTHWEST RIM OF KILAUEA CRATER, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. HALEMAUMAU-UWEKAHUNA ROAD AT SOUTHWEST RIM OF KILAUEA CRATER, SHOWING HEAVY FILL AND ROCK BANK. LOOKING EAST. FROM SUPERINTENDENT'S MONTHLY REPORT, JANUARY 1934. - Mauna Loa Road, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  2. Along Middle Fork Road toward North Fork of the Crazy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Along Middle Fork Road toward North Fork of the Crazy Woman Creek Bridge, view to west - North Fork of Crazy Woman Creek Bridge, Spanning North Fork of Crazy Woman Creek at Middle Fork Road, Buffalo, Johnson County, WY

  3. OVERVIEW OF GOLD HILL MILL, ROAD, AND WARM SPRINGS CAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF GOLD HILL MILL, ROAD, AND WARM SPRINGS CAMP BUILDINGS, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST. THE FUNCTION OF THE FLAT AREA AT CENTER RIGHT IS UNKNOWN. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  4. How Long Do the Dead Survive on the Road? Carcass Persistence Probability and Implications for Road-Kill Monitoring Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Sara M.; Carvalho, Filipe; Mira, António

    2011-01-01

    Background Road mortality is probably the best-known and visible impact of roads upon wildlife. Although several factors influence road-kill counts, carcass persistence time is considered the most important determinant underlying underestimates of road mortality. The present study aims to describe and model carcass persistence variability on the road for different taxonomic groups under different environmental conditions throughout the year; and also to assess the effect of sampling frequency on the relative variation in road-kill estimates registered within a survey. Methodology/Principal Findings Daily surveys of road-killed vertebrates were conducted over one year along four road sections with different traffic volumes. Survival analysis was then used to i) describe carcass persistence timings for overall and for specific animal groups; ii) assess optimal sampling designs according to research objectives; and iii) model the influence of road, animal and weather factors on carcass persistence probabilities. Most animal carcasses persisted on the road for the first day only, with some groups disappearing at very high rates. The advisable periodicity of road monitoring that minimizes bias in road mortality estimates is daily monitoring for bats (in the morning) and lizards (in the afternoon), daily monitoring for toads, small birds, small mammals, snakes, salamanders, and lagomorphs; 1 day-interval (alternate days) for large birds, birds of prey, hedgehogs, and freshwater turtles; and 2 day-interval for carnivores. Multiple factors influenced the persistence probabilities of vertebrate carcasses on the road. Overall, the persistence was much lower for small animals, on roads with lower traffic volumes, for carcasses located on road lanes, and during humid conditions and high temperatures during the wet season and dry seasons, respectively. Conclusion/Significance The guidance given here on monitoring frequencies is particularly relevant to provide conservation and

  5. Simulating the effects of forest roads on watershed hydrology

    SciTech Connect

    Wigmosta, Mark S.; Perkins, William A.

    2001-12-01

    The Distributed Hydrology-Soil-Vegetation Model (DHSVM) was enhanced to represent the interception and redirection of surface and subsurface flow by road cuts and stream channels. Two channel networks are imposed in vector form on the DHSVM grid: one representing roads, the other representing streams. Impacts of the road network on channel flows are modeled explicitly; road location and geometry, along with soil moisture, determine the timing and volume of intercepted water, while road drainage characteristics and culvert placement determine the flow path and travel time to the channel system. The active road drainage/channel network may expand and contract as grid cell water tables rise and fall below their channel beds. The model was applied to a 10-km2 experimental watershed to study the influence of road network design on streamflow characteristics. It was demonstrated that even where the road network produces minor changes in streamflow at the basin outlet, subsurface flow interception by roads could alter significantly streamflow in tributary channels. The impact of the road network on channel flows was shown to vary during a storm based on the road design, storm characteristics, topography, local geology, and soil moisture conditions. The impact occurs earlier in a storm when the road network diverts flow into the drainage rather than out of it. When flows are redirected into a channel, the road contributing area quickly increases the current total contributing area for the channel, causing a proportional increase in discharge. If the road design allows some water to pass under the road, there may be only minor impacts early in the storm with increasing impact as watertables rise and subsurface flow begins to be intercepted. When flows are redirected out of the natural drainage the impact is not felt until the channel contributing area extends upslope to the road system.

  6. Road shape recognition based on scene self-similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postnikov, Vassili V.; Krohina, Darya A.; Prun, Victor E.

    2015-02-01

    A method of determining of the road shape and direction is proposed. The road can potentially have curved shape as well as be seen unclearly due to weather effects or relief features. The proposed method uses video taken from frontal camera that is rigidly placed in car as an input data. The method is based on self-similarity of typical road image, i.e. the smaller image inside the road is close to downscaled initial image.

  7. 24 CFR 1710.210 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Roads. 1710.210 Section 1710.210 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  8. 24 CFR 1710.110 - Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Roads. 1710.110 Section 1710.110 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  9. 25 CFR 265.3 - Roads prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Roads prohibited. 265.3 Section 265.3 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HERITAGE PRESERVATION ESTABLISHMENT OF ROADLESS AND WILD AREAS..., unless the requirements of fire protection, commercial use for the Indians' benefit or actual needs...

  10. 25 CFR 265.3 - Roads prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roads prohibited. 265.3 Section 265.3 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HERITAGE PRESERVATION ESTABLISHMENT OF ROADLESS AND WILD AREAS..., unless the requirements of fire protection, commercial use for the Indians' benefit or actual needs...

  11. 25 CFR 265.3 - Roads prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Roads prohibited. 265.3 Section 265.3 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HERITAGE PRESERVATION ESTABLISHMENT OF ROADLESS AND WILD AREAS..., unless the requirements of fire protection, commercial use for the Indians' benefit or actual needs...

  12. 25 CFR 265.3 - Roads prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Roads prohibited. 265.3 Section 265.3 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HERITAGE PRESERVATION ESTABLISHMENT OF ROADLESS AND WILD AREAS..., unless the requirements of fire protection, commercial use for the Indians' benefit or actual needs...

  13. 25 CFR 265.3 - Roads prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Roads prohibited. 265.3 Section 265.3 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HERITAGE PRESERVATION ESTABLISHMENT OF ROADLESS AND WILD AREAS..., unless the requirements of fire protection, commercial use for the Indians' benefit or actual needs...

  14. 30 CFR 817.150 - Roads: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for transporting coal or spoil; (ii) Frequently used for access or other purposes for a period in... erosion, siltation, and the air pollution attendant to erosion, including road dust and dust occurring on... public or private property, including the prevention or mitigation of adverse effects on lands within...

  15. 30 CFR 816.150 - Roads: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for transporting coal or spoil; (ii) Frequently used for access or other purposes for a period in... erosion, siltation, and the air pollution attendant to erosion, including road dust as well as dust... public or private property, including the prevention or mitigation of adverse effects on lands within...

  16. 30 CFR 780.37 - Road systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (a) Plans and drawings. Each applicant for a surface coal mining and reclamation permit shall submit plans and drawings for each road, as defined in § 701.5 of this chapter, to be constructed, used, or maintained within the proposed permit area. The plans and drawings shall— (1) Include a map,...

  17. 30 CFR 784.24 - Road systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... systems. (a) Plans and drawings. Each applicant for an underground coal mining and reclamation permit shall submit plans and drawings for each road, as defined in § 701.5 of this chapter, to be constructed, used, or maintained within the proposed permit area. The plans and drawings shall— (1) Include a...

  18. Road traffic noise, sleep and mental health.

    PubMed

    Sygna, Karin; Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Aamodt, Geir; Oftedal, Bente; Krog, Norun Hjertager

    2014-05-01

    This study examines the relationship between road traffic noise, self-reported sleep quality and mental health. The study is cross-sectional and based on data from a survey conducted in Oslo, Norway, in 2000. Psychological distress (Hopkins Symptom Checklist, HSCL-25) was measured along with self-reported somatic health, sleep quality, noise sensitivity and socioeconomic variables. Questionnaire data were combined with modeled estimates of noise exposure. The total study sample consisted of 2898 respondents. After adjustment for potential confounders and stratifying for sleep quality, we found a positive, but not statistically significant association between noise exposure and symptoms of psychological distress among participants with poor sleep quality (slope=0.06, 95% CI: -0.02 to 0.13, per 10 dB increase in noise exposure). In the same sleep quality group, we found a borderline statistically significant association between noise exposure and a symptom level indicating a probable mental disorder (HSCL≥1.55) (odds ratio=1.47, 95% CI: 0.99-1.98, per 10 dB increase in noise exposure). We found no association between road traffic noise and mental health among subjects reporting good and medium sleep quality. The results suggest that road traffic noise may be associated with poorer mental health among subjects with poor sleep. Individuals with poor sleep quality may be more vulnerable to effects of road traffic noise on mental health than individuals with better sleep quality.

  19. 30 CFR 816.151 - Primary roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... (1) To minimize erosion, a primary road shall be located, insofar as is practicable, on the most... installed as designed, and maintained in a free and operating condition and to prevent or control erosion at... authority shall ensure that low-water crossings are designed, constructed, and maintained to prevent...

  20. 30 CFR 817.151 - Primary roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... erosion, a primary road shall be located, insofar as is practicable, on the most stable available surface... maintained in a free and operating condition and to prevent or control erosion at inlets and outlets; (3... ensure that low-water crossings are designed, constructed, and maintained to prevent erosion of...

  1. 30 CFR 817.151 - Primary roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... erosion, a primary road shall be located, insofar as is practicable, on the most stable available surface... maintained in a free and operating condition and to prevent or control erosion at inlets and outlets; (3... ensure that low-water crossings are designed, constructed, and maintained to prevent erosion of...

  2. 30 CFR 817.151 - Primary roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... erosion, a primary road shall be located, insofar as is practicable, on the most stable available surface... maintained in a free and operating condition and to prevent or control erosion at inlets and outlets; (3... ensure that low-water crossings are designed, constructed, and maintained to prevent erosion of...

  3. 30 CFR 817.151 - Primary roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... erosion, a primary road shall be located, insofar as is practicable, on the most stable available surface... maintained in a free and operating condition and to prevent or control erosion at inlets and outlets; (3... ensure that low-water crossings are designed, constructed, and maintained to prevent erosion of...

  4. 30 CFR 816.151 - Primary roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... (1) To minimize erosion, a primary road shall be located, insofar as is practicable, on the most... installed as designed, and maintained in a free and operating condition and to prevent or control erosion at... authority shall ensure that low-water crossings are designed, constructed, and maintained to prevent...

  5. 30 CFR 816.151 - Primary roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... (1) To minimize erosion, a primary road shall be located, insofar as is practicable, on the most... installed as designed, and maintained in a free and operating condition and to prevent or control erosion at... authority shall ensure that low-water crossings are designed, constructed, and maintained to prevent...

  6. 30 CFR 816.151 - Primary roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (1) To minimize erosion, a primary road shall be located, insofar as is practicable, on the most... installed as designed, and maintained in a free and operating condition and to prevent or control erosion at... authority shall ensure that low-water crossings are designed, constructed, and maintained to prevent...

  7. "Dispersion modeling approaches for near road

    EPA Science Inventory

    Roadway design and roadside barriers can have significant effects on the dispersion of traffic-generated pollutants, especially in the near-road environment. Dispersion models that can accurately simulate these effects are needed to fully assess these impacts for a variety of app...

  8. Medical Concerns among Wheelchair Road Racers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Santos F.

    1989-01-01

    Results of a questionnaire administered to 43 wheelchair road racers suggest that their medical problems may lead to complications while training or racing. The study looked at the effects of training, injuries, bladder management, medications, and spasms. Sports medicine professionals are provided with information on handling disabled athletes.…

  9. Synthesis Road Map Problems in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaller, Chris P.; Graham, Kate J.; Jones, T. Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Road map problems ask students to integrate their knowledge of organic reactions with pattern recognition skills to "fill in the blanks" in the synthesis of an organic compound. Students are asked to identify familiar organic reactions in unfamiliar contexts. A practical context, such as a medicinally useful target compound, helps…

  10. Walking in Balance on the Red Road.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thin Elk, Gene

    1993-01-01

    Native American who entered treatment for alcohol abuse and found that conventional cures did not address cultural clash of being Indian in Eurocentric society describes alcohol prevention and treatment program rooted in traditional Indian values and ceremonies. Describes "The Red Road," holistic approach which uses culture as therapy and…

  11. Subjective Response to Road Traffic Noise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, I. D.; Langdon, F. J.

    A study consisting of acoustic measurements at fourteen sites in the London area and 1200 interviews dealing with the effects of the noise conditions prevailing at each of these sites has been carried out with the object of developing acceptability criteria for traffic noise from roads in residential areas. Dissatisfaction with the noise…

  12. Road to Reality with Roger Penrose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szybka, Sebastian; Eckstein, Michal; McCabe, Gordon; Presnell, Stuart; Ladyman, James

    2015-05-01

    Where does the road to reality lie? This fundamental question is addressed in this collection of essays by physicists and philosophers, inspired by the original ideas of Sir Roger Penrose. The topics range from black holes and quantum information to the very nature of mathematical cognition itself.

  13. Regulation of Traffic Lights at Road Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutolo, Alfredo; Manzo, Rosanna; Rarità, Luigi

    2009-08-01

    In this work, we aim to investigate the effects of traffic lights regulation at road junctions, modelled by a fluid dynamic approach. Numerical simulations prove that it is possible to plan some optimization strategies for green and red phases for networks consisting of more nodes.

  14. Road crashes involving animals in Australia.

    PubMed

    Rowden, Peter; Steinhardt, Dale; Sheehan, Mary

    2008-11-01

    Each year in Australia many thousands of collisions occur between motor vehicles and animals, resulting in considerable vehicle repair costs, injury to persons, and loss of animal life. This paper reviews animal-related road crashes in Australia and presents data from the in-depth Rural and Remote Road Safety Study in North Queensland for serious casualties (n=33) resulting from direct impact with an animal or swerving to avoid an animal on public roads. These crash types accounted for 5.5% of all eligible on-road serious casualties in the study and, hence, are considered to be an important issue that requires particular attention within rural and remote areas. Kangaroos and wallabies were the predominant species involved in these crashes (44.8%). Consistent with international studies, night-time travel was found to be a significant risk factor when comparing animal-related crashes to other serious injury crashes in the study. There were also a significantly higher proportion of motorcyclists (51.7%) than other vehicle occupants involved in animal-related serious crashes compared to all other serious injury crashes. Data matching to official Government records found underreporting of animal-related crashes to be an issue of concern. These findings are discussed in terms of countermeasures suitable for the Australian context and the need for consistent crash reporting across jurisdictions.

  15. Road safety in the Eastern Mediterranean Region--findings from the Global Road Safety Status Report.

    PubMed

    Soori, H; Hussain, S J; Razzak, J A

    2011-10-01

    A secondary data analysis using the Global Status Report on Road Safety (GSRRS) was carried out to assess the epidemiology of road traffic injuries (RTIs) and preventive strategies in the Eastern Mediterranean egion (EMR). EMR countries ranked equal first in the world for the highest number of fatalities due to RTIs (32.2 per 100 000 population). The region had about 4% of the world's vehicles with 0.097 registered vehicles per person. The number of injured cases in EMR was 210.1 per 100 000 population. Only 15% of EMR countries had a funded, independent, multisectoral body for road safety. Only 25% had mandatory seat-belt laws for both front-seat and rear-seat passengers, 60% had mandatory helmet laws for both drivers and passengers of motorized two-wheelers and 10% had child restraint laws. Road safety in EMR countries needs more attention and consideration.

  16. 7. ALIGNMENT OF ABANDONED COULTERVILLE ROAD IN FORESTA AT FALLEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. ALIGNMENT OF ABANDONED COULTERVILLE ROAD IN FORESTA AT FALLEN TREE IN CENTER REAR. FOREGROUND MARKS TURN OF NEW ROAD FROM FORESTA TO HIGHWAY 120. LOOKING E. GIS: N-37 42 16.6 / W-119 44 00.3 - Coulterville Road, Between Foresta & All-Weather Highway, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  17. 6. VIEW OF COULTERVILLE ROAD AT BIG MEADOW IN FORESTA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF COULTERVILLE ROAD AT BIG MEADOW IN FORESTA. INTERSECTION WITH DAVIS CUT-OFF ROAD AT LEFT. LOOKING W. GIS: N-37 42 09.3 / W-119 44 59.8 - Coulterville Road, Between Foresta & All-Weather Highway, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  18. 9. VIEW FROM MANY PARKS CURVE (ON TRAIL RIDGE ROAD) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW FROM MANY PARKS CURVE (ON TRAIL RIDGE ROAD) OF HORSESHOE PARK, SHOWING FALL RIVER ROAD FAINTLY AT LEFT AT BASE OF SHEEP MOUNTAIN AND CROSSING ALLUVIAL FAN FROM LAWN LAKE FLOOD. - Fall River Road, Between Estes Park & Fall River Pass, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

  19. Emergency presentations by vulnerable road users: implications for injury prevention

    PubMed Central

    Meuleners, L B; Lee, A H; Haworth, C

    2006-01-01

    Most emergency presentations by vulnerable road users were the result of collisions that did not involve a motor vehicle. Many injuries occurred off‐road without police attendance. Hence, reliance on official police records would underestimate the magnitude and scope of these injuries. Suggestions to provide a safer road environment are given. PMID:16461413

  20. View of blind curve along National Old Trails Road, about ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of blind curve along National Old Trails Road, about 1,000 feet from top, facing north. - La Bajada Historic Trails and Roads, Approximately 1 mile East/Northeast of intersection of State Highway 16 and Indian Service Road 841, La Bajada, Santa Fe County, NM

  1. 14. VIEW FROM TUNDRA CURVES (ON TRAIL RIDGE ROAD) SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW FROM TUNDRA CURVES (ON TRAIL RIDGE ROAD) SHOWING FALL RIVER ROAD RISING FROM BENEATH CHAPIN PASS (AT EXTREME RIGHT) TO FALL RIVER PASS (FAR LEFT). - Fall River Road, Between Estes Park & Fall River Pass, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

  2. 40 CFR 1066.315 - Dynamometer road-load setting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dynamometer road-load setting. 1066... POLLUTION CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Coastdown § 1066.315 Dynamometer road-load setting. Determine dynamometer road-load settings for chassis testing by following SAE J2264 (incorporated by reference in §...

  3. 36 CFR 254.33 - Road rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Road rights-of-way. 254.33 Section 254.33 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS Conveyance of Small Tracts § 254.33 Road rights-of-way. (a) Reserved or acquired road...

  4. 36 CFR 254.33 - Road rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Road rights-of-way. 254.33 Section 254.33 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS Conveyance of Small Tracts § 254.33 Road rights-of-way. (a) Reserved or acquired road...

  5. 36 CFR 254.33 - Road rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Road rights-of-way. 254.33 Section 254.33 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS Conveyance of Small Tracts § 254.33 Road rights-of-way. (a) Reserved or acquired road...

  6. 36 CFR 254.33 - Road rights-of-way.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Road rights-of-way. 254.33 Section 254.33 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS Conveyance of Small Tracts § 254.33 Road rights-of-way. (a) Reserved or acquired road...

  7. 7. VIEW OF WEAPONS DELIVERY ROAD CULVERT OF LOWER DIAGONAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF WEAPONS DELIVERY ROAD CULVERT OF LOWER DIAGONAL NO. 1 DRAIN, LOOKING 522 EAST OF NORTH. - Truckee-Carson Irrigation District, Lower Diagonal No. 1 Drain, Bounded by West Gate Road & Weapons Delivery Road, Naval Air Station Fallon, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  8. 5. VIEW OF WEST GATE ROAD CULVERT OF LOWER DIAGONAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF WEST GATE ROAD CULVERT OF LOWER DIAGONAL NO. 1 DRAIN, LOOKING 323' EAST OF NORTH. - Truckee-Carson Irrigation District, Lower Diagonal No. 1 Drain, Bounded by West Gate Road & Weapons Delivery Road, Naval Air Station Fallon, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  9. 6. VIEW OF WEST GATE ROAD CULVERT OF LOWER DIAGONAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF WEST GATE ROAD CULVERT OF LOWER DIAGONAL NO. 1 DRAIN, LOOKING 2502 EAST OF NORTH. - Truckee-Carson Irrigation District, Lower Diagonal No. 1 Drain, Bounded by West Gate Road & Weapons Delivery Road, Naval Air Station Fallon, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  10. View northeast from USFS Road 300; Fowler Lode Adit portal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northeast from USFS Road 300; Fowler Lode Adit portal on left (location of original "steamboat pocket" on slope to right, above the road cut) - Steamboat Mine, Southeast slope of Steamboat Mountain, west of the junction of Forest Service Roads 1000300 and 1000365, Jacksonville, Jackson County, OR

  11. The Public Purpose in a High-Road Manufacturing Workforce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luria, Daniel

    1997-01-01

    Presents recent data on 2,700 manufacturing plants that employ fewer than 500 employees. Suggests that low-road shops (i.e., those that are not very systematic, modern, or distinctive) outperform high-road shops. Argues that community colleges currently provide training geared toward low-road plants, but that they should shift their focus toward…

  12. 3. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF OVERSEERS COTTAGE AT 110 CORINTH ROAD. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF OVERSEERS COTTAGE AT 110 CORINTH ROAD. NOTE ORIGINAL WOOD SIDING, PORCH POSTS, AND STEPS. ORIGINALLY THIS HOUSE SAT ON BRICK PIERS WITH WOOD LATTICE BETWEEN. THE FOUNDATION HAS NOW BEEN INFILLED WITH BRICK. - 110 Corinth Road (House), 110 Corinth Road, Hogansville, Troup County, GA

  13. 36 CFR 13.702 - Off-Road Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Off-Road Vehicles. 13.702 Section 13.702 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...-Road Vehicles. The use of off-road vehicles for purposes of reindeer grazing may be permitted...

  14. 36 CFR 13.702 - Off-Road Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Off-Road Vehicles. 13.702 Section 13.702 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...-Road Vehicles. The use of off-road vehicles for purposes of reindeer grazing may be permitted...

  15. 36 CFR 13.702 - Off-Road Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Off-Road Vehicles. 13.702 Section 13.702 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...-Road Vehicles. The use of off-road vehicles for purposes of reindeer grazing may be permitted...

  16. 36 CFR 13.702 - Off-Road Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Off-Road Vehicles. 13.702 Section 13.702 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...-Road Vehicles. The use of off-road vehicles for purposes of reindeer grazing may be permitted...

  17. A Study on the Influence of Speed on Road Roughness Sensing: The SmartRoadSense Case †

    PubMed Central

    Alessandroni, Giacomo; Carini, Alberto; Lattanzi, Emanuele; Freschi, Valerio; Bogliolo, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    SmartRoadSense is a crowdsensing project aimed at monitoring the conditions of the road surface. Using the sensors of a smartphone, SmartRoadSense monitors the vertical accelerations inside a vehicle traveling the road and extracts a roughness index conveying information about the road conditions. The roughness index and the smartphone GPS data are periodically sent to a central server where they are processed, associated with the specific road, and aggregated with data measured by other smartphones. This paper studies how the smartphone vertical accelerations and the roughness index are related to the vehicle speed. It is shown that the dependence can be locally approximated with a gamma (power) law. Extensive experimental results using data extracted from SmartRoadSense database confirm the gamma law relationship between the roughness index and the vehicle speed. The gamma law is then used for improving the SmartRoadSense data aggregation accounting for the effect of vehicle speed. PMID:28178224

  18. A Study on the Influence of Speed on Road Roughness Sensing: The SmartRoadSense Case.

    PubMed

    Alessandroni, Giacomo; Carini, Alberto; Lattanzi, Emanuele; Freschi, Valerio; Bogliolo, Alessandro

    2017-02-07

    SmartRoadSense is a crowdsensing project aimed at monitoring the conditions of the road surface. Using the sensors of a smartphone, SmartRoadSense monitors the vertical accelerations inside a vehicle traveling the road and extracts a roughness index conveying information about the road conditions. The roughness index and the smartphone GPS data are periodically sent to a central server where they are processed, associated with the specific road, and aggregated with data measured by other smartphones. This paper studies how the smartphone vertical accelerations and the roughness index are related to the vehicle speed. It is shown that the dependence can be locally approximated with a gamma (power) law. Extensive experimental results using data extracted from SmartRoadSense database confirm the gamma law relationship between the roughness index and the vehicle speed. The gamma law is then used for improving the SmartRoadSense data aggregation accounting for the effect of vehicle speed.

  19. Experimental analysis of the structure-borne tyre/road noise due to road discontinuities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kindt, P.; Berckmans, D.; De Coninck, F.; Sas, P.; Desmet, W.

    2009-11-01

    Tyre/road noise has become the major source of traffic noise in urban regions. Although tyre/road noise has been studied for decades, little can be found in the literature about the noise resulting from crossing road discontinuities such as expansion joints, railway crossings, and potholes. Both vehicle interior and exterior noise can reach significant peak levels as a result of crossing such a pavement discontinuity. This paper presents an experimental analysis of the generating phenomena of structure borne tyre/road noise due to a road discontinuity. Both exterior and interior tyre/road noise are considered. The influence of driving speed, cleat dimension, inflation pressure, tyre temperature and preload onto the noise generating phenomena is investigated. A novel test setup was designed and built at the K.U. Leuven Noise and Vibration Engineering Laboratory in order to measure the structural and acoustic response of a tyre rolling over a cleat. The vehicle interior noise is analysed by means of a test circuit cleat test.

  20. A suite of tools for monitoring and assessing impacts of road networks and off-road vehicle activity on rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite increasing amounts of transportation related activities on rangelands globally, few tools exist for assessing and monitoring impacts of roads, road networks and off-road vehicle traffic. This is in part due to an historical emphasis on grazing issues in rangelands and the complexity of monit...

  1. Assessing impacts of roads: application of a standard assessment protocol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duniway, Michael C.; Herrick, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive management of road networks depends on timely data that accurately reflect the impacts those systems are having on ecosystem processes and associated services. In the absence of reliable data, land managers are left with little more than observations and perceptions to support management decisions of road-associated disturbances. Roads can negatively impact the soil, hydrologic, plant, and animal processes on which virtually all ecosystem services depend. The Interpreting Indicators of Rangeland Health (IIRH) protocol is a qualitative method that has been demonstrated to be effective in characterizing impacts of roads. The goal of this study were to develop, describe, and test an approach for using IIRH to systematically evaluate road impacts across large, diverse arid and semiarid landscapes. We developed a stratified random sampling approach to plot selection based on ecological potential, road inventory data, and image interpretation of road impacts. The test application on a semiarid landscape in southern New Mexico, United States, demonstrates that the approach developed is sensitive to road impacts across a broad range of ecological sites but that not all the types of stratification were useful. Ecological site and road inventory strata accounted for significant variability in the functioning of ecological processes but stratification based on apparent impact did not. Analysis of the repeatability of IIRH applied to road plots indicates that the method is repeatable but consensus evaluations based on multiple observers should be used to minimize risk of bias. Landscape-scale analysis of impacts by roads of contrasting designs (maintained dirt or gravel roads vs. non- or infrequently maintained roads) suggests that future travel management plans for the study area should consider concentrating traffic on fewer roads that are well designed and maintained. Application of the approach by land managers will likely provide important insights into

  2. Small-scale geodiversity and dirt road management, Ede (NL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk

    2016-04-01

    A large part of the countryside roads on the Pleistocene sands of The Netherlands are dirt roads. Most are footpaths, but a small percentage are relatively heavily used by motorized vehicles. These latter roads are a cause subject of debate. Puddles and potholes develop during periods of wet weather, while dust whirls from the roads form during spells of dry weather as do washboard ripples. They cause problems for people living along these roads and tourists (walkers and bikers. The community of Ede (NL), like many other communities on the sand, wants to keep its 80 km of dirt roads because of the natural values they harbour as well as for their characteristic landscape quality and cultural heritage value. A part of the dirt roads in Ede is heavily used. In 2009, the community of Ede developed a decision model to support management of the dirt roads. Ede acknowledges that each dirt road is unique and asks for a tailor-made solution. Road maintenance measures include grading, making a camber, digging pits, applying loam or sandy loam. If problems become too large, one-way traffic can be an option. In more and more cases the dirt roads are barred for motorized through traffic (Gemeente Ede, 2009). As a reconnaissance we have studied the dirt roads of the Horabos/Horalaan over the last year. Incidentally we looked at other parts of the main Horalaan and the footpaths in the adjacent forest of Hoekelum. All dirt roads lie near the top of a Saalian push-moraine in which the upper course of dry valleys are present. Some results of the reconnaissance: - Most dirt roads sections in the Horabos lie lower than the surrounding terrain; - The problems develop in a short period of time during special weather conditions; - Certain dirt road sections e.g. those sections crossing a slight depression are quickly developing potholes; - Even a small slope of the road (< 2 degrees) causes water to flow over the road and form rills in the pavement. On preferential spots the rills

  3. Roads Investments, Spatial Intensification and Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, Alexander; Robalino, Juan; Walker, Robert; Aldrich, Steven; Caldas, Marcellus; Reis, Eustaquio; Perz, Stephen; Bohrer, Claudio; Arima, Eugenio; Laurance, William; Kibry, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the impact of road investments on deforestation is part of a complete evaluation of the expansion of infrastructure for development. We find evidence of spatial spillovers from roads in the Brazilian Amazon: deforestation rises in the census tracts that lack roads but are in the same county as and within 100 km of a tract with a new paved or unpaved road. At greater distances from the new roads the evidence is mixed, including negative coefficients of inconsistent significance between 100 and 300 km, and if anything, higher neighbor deforestation at distances over 300 km.

  4. TA-59 North Parking Lot and Pajarito Road Corridor Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide traffic engineering services for the TA-59 North Parking Lot/Pajarito Road corridor Analysis at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The following tasks were accomplished to assess the development of the north parking lot and Pajarito Road in the vicinity of TA-59: conducted turning-movement counts from 7 AM to 9 AM and from 4 PM to 6 PM at the Pajarito Road/TA-59 intersection; conducted a parking supply and demand survey for all the parking lots within TA-59 on half-hour intervals between 0600--1800 (6 AM to 6 PM); conducted mid-day directional speed study along Pajarito Road, just east or south of the TA-59/Pajarito Road intersection; conducted peak hour gap study on Pajarito Road in the vicinity of TA-59; reviewed the TA-59 Parking Lot North of Pajarito Road, FY-94 Weapons GPP Short List Candidate {number_sign}9 report and other documents pertaining to past transportation studies; reassigned current turning-movement volumes with a 100 space parking lot being built on the north side of Pajarito Road; prepared traffic projections for the Pajarito Road/TA-59 intersection according to the proposed development on the north side of Pajarito Road that would employee 246 people; and assigned pedestrian crossing volumes between the northern lot/future development site and areas south of Pajarito Road.

  5. Unofficial Road Building in the Amazon: Socioeconomic and Biophysical Explanations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perz, Stephen G.; Caldas, Marcellus M.; Arima, Eugenio; Walker, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Roads have manifold social and environmental impacts, including regional development, social conflicts and habitat fragmentation. 'Road ecology' has emerged as an approach to evaluate the various ecological and hydrological impacts of roads. This article aims to complement road ecology by examining the socio-spatial processes of road building itself. Focusing on the Brazilian Amazon, a heavily-studied context due to forest fragmentation by roads, the authors consider non-state social actors who build 'unofficial roads' for the purpose of gaining access to natural resources to support livelihoods and community development. They examine four case studies of roads with distinct histories in order to explain the socio-spatial processes behind road building in terms of profit maximization, land tenure claims, co-operative and conflictive political ecologies, and constraints as well as opportunities afforded by the biophysical environment. The study cases illustrate the need for a multi-pronged theoretical approach to understanding road building, and call for more attention to the role of non-state actors in unofficial road construction.

  6. Machine Learning Based Road Detection from High Resolution Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Ye; Wang, Guofeng; Hu, Xiangyun

    2016-06-01

    At present, remote sensing technology is the best weapon to get information from the earth surface, and it is very useful in geo- information updating and related applications. Extracting road from remote sensing images is one of the biggest demand of rapid city development, therefore, it becomes a hot issue. Roads in high-resolution images are more complex, patterns of roads vary a lot, which becomes obstacles for road extraction. In this paper, a machine learning based strategy is presented. The strategy overall uses the geometry features, radiation features, topology features and texture features. In high resolution remote sensing images, the images cover a great scale of landscape, thus, the speed of extracting roads is slow. So, roads' ROIs are firstly detected by using Houghline detection and buffering method to narrow down the detecting area. As roads in high resolution images are normally in ribbon shape, mean-shift and watershed segmentation methods are used to extract road segments. Then, Real Adaboost supervised machine learning algorithm is used to pick out segments that contain roads' pattern. At last, geometric shape analysis and morphology methods are used to prune and restore the whole roads' area and to detect the centerline of roads.

  7. Vision Zero--a road safety policy innovation.

    PubMed

    Belin, Matts-Åke; Tillgren, Per; Vedung, Evert

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine Sweden's Vision Zero road safety policy. In particular, the paper focuses on how safety issues were framed, which decisions were made, and what are the distinctive features of Vision Zero. The analysis reveals that the decision by the Swedish Parliament to adopt Vision Zero as Sweden's road safety policy was a radical innovation. The policy is different in kind from traditional traffic safety policy with regard to problem formulation, its view on responsibility, its requirements for the safety of road users, and the ultimate objective of road safety work. The paper briefly examines the implications of these findings for national and global road safety efforts that aspire to achieving innovative road safety policies in line with the Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011-2020, declared by the United Nations General Assembly in March 2010.

  8. New Roads and Human Health: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Matt; Petticrew, Mark; Ogilvie, David; Hamilton, Val

    2003-01-01

    We sought to synthesize evidence of the health effects of construction of new roads by systematically reviewing observational studies of such effects. We included and critically appraised 32 studies. The review suggested that out-of-town bypasses decrease injuries on main roads through or around towns, although more robust evidence is needed on effects on secondary roads. New major urban roads have statistically insignificant effects on injury incidence. New major roads between towns decrease injuries. Out-of-town bypasses reduce disturbance and community severance in towns but increase them elsewhere. Major urban roads increase disturbance and severance. More robust research is needed in this area, particularly regarding effects of new roads on respiratory health, mental health, access to health services, and physical activity. PMID:12948964

  9. Road zone effects in small-mammal communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bissonette, J.A.; Rosa, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Our study focused on the putative effects of roads on small-mammal communities in a high desert region of southern Utah. Specifically, we tested whether or not roads create adjacent zones characterized by lower small- mammal densities, abundance, and diversity. We sampled abundance of small mammals at increasing distances from Interstate 15 during two summers. We recorded 11 genera and 13 species. We detected no clear abundance, density, or diversity effects relative to distance from the road. Only two of 13 species were never captured near roads. The abundance of the remaining 11 small mammal species was either similar at different distances from the road or higher closer to the road. We conclude that although roads may act as barriers and possible sources of mortality, adjacent zones of vegetation often provide favorable microhabitat in the desert landscape for many small mammals. ?? 2009 by the author(s).

  10. FWFA Optimization based Decision Support System for Road Traffic Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utama, D. N.; Zaki, F. A.; Munjeri, I. J.; Putri, N. U.

    2017-01-01

    Several ways and efforts have been already conducted to formally solve the road traffic congestion. However, the objective strategy type of road traffic engineering could not be proven truly. Try and error is one inefficient way in road traffic engineering to degrade the level of congestion. The combination between fuzzy-logic and water flow algorithm methods (called FWFA) was used as a main method to construct the decision support system (DSS) for selecting the objective strategy in road traffic engineering. The proposed DSS can suggest the most optimal strategy decision in road traffic engineering. Here, a main traffic road of Juanda in area Ciputat, Tangerang Selatan, province Banten, Indonesia; was selected as a research object in this study. The constructed DSS for road traffic engineering was structurally delivered in this paper.

  11. New roads and human health: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Egan, Matt; Petticrew, Mark; Ogilvie, David; Hamilton, Val

    2003-09-01

    We sought to synthesize evidence of the health effects of construction of new roads by systematically reviewing observational studies of such effects. We included and critically appraised 32 studies. The review suggested that out-of-town bypasses decrease injuries on main roads through or around towns, although more robust evidence is needed on effects on secondary roads. New major urban roads have statistically insignificant effects on injury incidence. New major roads between towns decrease injuries. Out-of-town bypasses reduce disturbance and community severance in towns but increase them elsewhere. Major urban roads increase disturbance and severance. More robust research is needed in this area, particularly regarding effects of new roads on respiratory health, mental health, access to health services, and physical activity.

  12. Injuries to pedestrians in road traffic accidents.

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, R. M.; Turner, W. H.; Duthie, R. B.; Wilde, B. R.

    1988-01-01

    Although there have been many reports on injuries to occupants of cars in road traffic accidents, there have been few prospective studies of injuries to pedestrians in such accidents. For this reason a two year prospective study of pedestrians in road traffic accidents in the Oxford region was carried out. The incidence of death in pedestrians was significantly higher than in car occupants or motorcyclists. The principal determinant of death was the weight of the vehicle concerned. The most common site of injury was the head because of a high incidence of brief concussion, but the most common site of serious injuries was the leg. Injuries to all regions of the body increased with age and with the weight of the vehicle in the collision. Accidents most often concerned young children or the elderly. PMID:3147003

  13. Field trips along the Geological Transpyrenean Road

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgio, Marion; Dekeyser, Dominique; Richert, Jean Paul; Gruneisen, Pierre; Vazquez-Prada, Diego; Lacazedieu, Annie

    2015-04-01

    GeolVal association, www.geolval.fr , in collaboration with Geoambiente association, created a serie of pedagogical explanations about Pyrenees landscapes along the road from France to Spain, linking the towns of Pau, Oloron,Jaca and Mallos de Riglos. It was a ten years work that lasted in 2008. http://www.routetranspyreneenne.com/home_f.php We can now use this "treasure" with tourists, students and mix some landscapes explanations from a road site with a little field trip along mountain in order to "touch" the rocks. We are working about the importance of field in the way the students understand geosciences and try to organize field trips that aim to simplify and make concrete some key concepts. We also began an interactive software version of this work, presented through a pilot application, made in collaboration with Total petroleum firm.

  14. The "homogamy" of road rage revisited.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Lynne D; Indermaur, David W

    2008-01-01

    The principle of homogamy, the tendency for victims and offenders to share behavioral and demographic characteristics, has been applied to various forms of violent crime. This article explores how this principle relates to types of "road rage" using a survey of 1208 Australian drivers. Two-thirds of drivers who perpetrated violent forms of road rage also reported being victims of the same crime, providing support for the homogamy thesis. Perpetrators were predominantly young males with low socioeconomic status who lacked the ability to control their temper. Perpetrator-victims were more likely than other victims to have a history of driving violations and higher levels of general aggression and report more frequent aggressive driving behaviors. The implications for theories of violence are discussed.

  15. Metropolitan Road Traffic Simulation on FPGAs.

    SciTech Connect

    Tripp J. L.; Mortveit, H. S.; Hansson, A. A.; Gokhale, M.

    2005-01-01

    This work demonstrates that road traffic simulation of entire metropolitan areas is possible with reconfigurable supercomputing that combines 64-bit microprocessors and FPGAs in a high bandwidth, low latency interconnect. Previously, traffic simulation on FPGAs was limited to very short road segments or required a very large number of FPGAs. Our data streaming approach overcomes scaling issues associated with direct implementations and still allows for high-level parallelism by dividing the data sets between hardware and software across the reconfigurable supercomputer. Using one FPGA on the Cray XD1 supercomputer, we are able to achieve a 34.4 x speed up over the AMD microprocessor. System integration issues must be optimized to exploit this speedup in the overall simulation.

  16. Predicting Road Conditions with Internet Search.

    PubMed

    Askitas, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Traffic congestion is an important problem both on an individual and on a societal level and much research has been done to explain and prevent their emergence. There are currently many systems which provide a reasonably good picture of actual road traffic by employing either fixed measurement points on highways or so called "floating car data" i.e. by using velocity and location data from roaming, networked, GPS enabled members of traffic. Some of these systems also offer forecasting of road conditions based on such historical data. To my knowledge there is as yet no system which offers advance notice on road conditions based on a signal which is guaranteed to occur in advance of these conditions and this is the novelty of this paper. Google Search intensity for the German word stau (i.e. traffic jam) peaks 2 hours ahead of the number of traffic jam reports as reported by the ADAC, a well known German automobile club and the largest of its kind in Europe. This is true both in the morning (7 am to 9 am) and in the evening (4 pm to 6 pm). The main result of this paper is then that after controlling for time-of-day and day-of-week effects we can still explain a significant additional portion of the variation of the number of traffic jam reports with Google Trends and we can thus explain well over 80% of the variation of road conditions using Google search activity. A one percent increase in Google stau searches implies a .4 percent increase of traffic jams. Our paper is a proof of concept that aggregate, timely delivered behavioural data can help fine tune modern societies and prompts for more research with better, more disaggregated data in order to also achieve practical solutions.

  17. A road map for implementing systems engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, F.F.; Bentz, B.; Bahill, A.T.

    1997-02-01

    Studies by academia, industry, and government indicate that applying a sound systems engineering process to development programs is an important tool for preventing cost and schedule overruns and performance deficiencies. There is an enormous body of systems engineering knowledge. Where does one start? How can the principles of systems engineering be applied in the Sandia environment? This road map is intended to be an aid to answering these questions.

  18. A Road Towards High Temperature Superconductors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2013-0040 A Road Towards High Temperature Superconductors Guy Deutscher Tel Aviv University Research... Superconductors 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8655-10-1-3011 5b. GRANT NUMBER Grant 10-3011 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S...issue in trying to make useful high temperature superconductors is obviously to discover superconductivity at higher temperatures. But there is also

  19. Predicting Road Conditions with Internet Search

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Traffic congestion is an important problem both on an individual and on a societal level and much research has been done to explain and prevent their emergence. There are currently many systems which provide a reasonably good picture of actual road traffic by employing either fixed measurement points on highways or so called “floating car data” i.e. by using velocity and location data from roaming, networked, GPS enabled members of traffic. Some of these systems also offer forecasting of road conditions based on such historical data. To my knowledge there is as yet no system which offers advance notice on road conditions based on a signal which is guaranteed to occur in advance of these conditions and this is the novelty of this paper. Google Search intensity for the German word stau (i.e. traffic jam) peaks 2 hours ahead of the number of traffic jam reports as reported by the ADAC, a well known German automobile club and the largest of its kind in Europe. This is true both in the morning (7 am to 9 am) and in the evening (4 pm to 6 pm). The main result of this paper is then that after controlling for time-of-day and day-of-week effects we can still explain a significant additional portion of the variation of the number of traffic jam reports with Google Trends and we can thus explain well over 80% of the variation of road conditions using Google search activity. A one percent increase in Google stau searches implies a .4 percent increase of traffic jams. Our paper is a proof of concept that aggregate, timely delivered behavioural data can help fine tune modern societies and prompts for more research with better, more disaggregated data in order to also achieve practical solutions. PMID:27571518

  20. Energy recovery for a road vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarulescu, R.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper the author analyse the possibility of fluid energy recovery, generated from a road vehicle through the aerodynamic impact. The suggested dynamic recovery system use an axial wind turbine, bended with the vehicle. Also, are presented the benefits (economic and energetic) and the disadvantages (constructive and functional) in the base of a calculus statement, with original parts. The results of some numeric calculus for a concrete opportunity are hopeful, the degree of recovery (in fluid - mechanic - electric conversion) tending to 40%.

  1. GNSS-based Road User Charging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrhovski, Drazen; Moore, Terry; Bennett, Lloyd

    2004-01-01

    The last few years have seen a rapid growth of applications based on positioning information provided by satellite positioning systems. In transport management and control, satellite positioning has proven to be the most promising means for spatial location data collection. With the GPS modernisation programme well underway, and the recent developments of the Galileo project, even more GNSS-based applications are to be expected in the future. One such GNSS-based application is the use of position and velocity information as the prime input to a road user charging (RUC) scheme. However, navigation in urban environments raises a number of problems. Most important are the difficulties related to signal obstruction by features such as tall buildings, urban canyons, bridges and trees, as well as the effects of multipath caused by signal reflections from buildings and other vehicles. Given the inevitable limitations of road trials, the use of simulation modelling to assess the present and future satellite positioning systems' performance to support urban RUC seems indispensable. The main objective of the research undertaken at the University of Nottingham Institute of Engineering Surveying and Space Geodesy (IESSG), and the Nottingham Centre for Infrastructure (NCI), was to develop a tool to simulate GPS for Satellite Positioning-based Road User Charging (SPRUC). In this regard, an existing GPS simulator was modified to rectify one of its major weaknesses, namely the inability to address properly the change in non-static GPS measurements with respect to changes in built environment. For this purpose, state-of-the-art Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software was used to complement the simulator, and consequently a seamless interface between the two software has been developed. Finally, in order to provide a prime input to the simulator, field tests have been undertaken and significant amounts of GPS data were collected. Statistics were also derived for positioning

  2. Structural reliability of road accidents reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Wach, Wojciech

    2013-05-10

    Reconstruction of road accidents combines objective and subjective action. The former concerns science, the latter assessment of human behavior in the context of objective findings. It is not uncommon for experts equipped with an arsenal of tools to obtain similar results of calculations, but to present radically different conclusions about the cause of the accident. The use of sophisticated methods of uncertainty analysis does not guarantee improvement in quality of reconstruction, because, increasingly, the most serious source of reduced reliability of reconstruction is problems in logical inference. In the article the structure of uncertainty and reliability of accident reconstruction was described. A definition of reliability of road accident reconstruction based on the theory of conditional probability and Bayesian network, as a function of modeling, data and expert reliability (defined in the text) was proposed. The uncertainty of reconstruction was made dependent only on the uncertainty of the data. This separation makes it possible to conduct a qualitative and quantitative analysis of reconstruction reliability and to analyze its sensitivity to component parameters, independently of the uncertainty analysis. An example of calculation was presented. The proposed formalism constitutes a tool helpful to explain, among other things, the paradox of reliable reconstruction despite its uncertain results or unreliable reconstruction despite high precision of results. This approach is of great importance in the reconstruction of road accidents, which goes far beyond the analysis of a single, homogeneous subsystem.

  3. Performance analysis of robust road sign identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Nursabillilah M.; Mustafah, Y. M.; Rashid, N. K. A. M.

    2013-12-01

    This study describes performance analysis of a robust system for road sign identification that incorporated two stages of different algorithms. The proposed algorithms consist of HSV color filtering and PCA techniques respectively in detection and recognition stages. The proposed algorithms are able to detect the three standard types of colored images namely Red, Yellow and Blue. The hypothesis of the study is that road sign images can be used to detect and identify signs that are involved with the existence of occlusions and rotational changes. PCA is known as feature extraction technique that reduces dimensional size. The sign image can be easily recognized and identified by the PCA method as is has been used in many application areas. Based on the experimental result, it shows that the HSV is robust in road sign detection with minimum of 88% and 77% successful rate for non-partial and partial occlusions images. For successful recognition rates using PCA can be achieved in the range of 94-98%. The occurrences of all classes are recognized successfully is between 5% and 10% level of occlusions.

  4. Driver behaviour profiles for road safety analysis.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Adrian B; Greaves, Stephen P; Bliemer, Michiel C J

    2015-03-01

    Driver behaviour is a contributing factor in over 90 percent of road crashes. As a consequence, there is significant benefit in identifying drivers who engage in unsafe driving practices. Driver behaviour profiles (DBPs) are introduced here as an approach for evaluating driver behaviour as a function of the risk of a casualty crash. They employ data collected using global positioning system (GPS) devices, supplemented with spatiotemporal information. These profiles are comprised of common risk scores that can be used to compare drivers between each other and across time and space. The paper details the development of these DBPs and demonstrates their use as an input into modelling the factors that influence driver behaviour. The results show that even having controlled for the influence of the road environment, these factors remain the strongest predictors of driver behaviour suggesting different spatiotemporal environments elicit a variety of psychological responses in drivers. The approach and outcomes will be of interest to insurance companies in enhancing the risk-profiling of drivers with on-road driving and government through assessing the impacts of behaviour-change interventions.

  5. Road accidents and business cycles in Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-López, Jesús; Marrero, Gustavo A; González, Rosa Marina; Leal-Linares, Teresa

    2016-11-01

    This paper explores the causes behind the downturn in road accidents in Spain across the last decade. Possible causes are grouped into three categories: Institutional factors (a Penalty Point System, PPS, dating from 2006), technological factors (active safety and passive safety of vehicles), and macroeconomic factors (the Great recession starting in 2008, and an increase in fuel prices during the spring of 2008). The PPS has been blessed by incumbent authorities as responsible for the decline of road fatalities in Spain. Using cointegration techniques, the GDP growth rate, the fuel price, the PPS, and technological items embedded in motor vehicles appear to be statistically significantly related with accidents. Importantly, PPS is found to be significant in reducing fatal accidents. However, PPS is not significant for non-fatal accidents. In view of these results, we conclude that road accidents in Spain are very sensitive to the business cycle, and that the PPS influenced the severity (fatality) rather than the quantity of accidents in Spain. Importantly, technological items help explain a sizable fraction in accidents downturn, their effects dating back from the end of the nineties.

  6. Road safety legislation in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Híjar, Martha; Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo; Inclán-Valadez, Cristina; Silveira-Rodrigues, Eugênia Maria

    2012-07-01

    Legislating five of the main risk factors for road traffic injuries (RTIs), as much as enforcing the law, is essential in forging an integral culture of road safety. Analysis of the level of progression in law enforcement allows for an evaluation of the state of world regions. A secondary analysis of the 2009 Global status report on road safety: time for action survey was undertaken to evaluate legislation on five risk factors (speed management, drinking and driving, motorcycle helmet use, seatbelt use, and use of child restraints) in the Americas. Laws were classified depending on their level of progression: the existence of legislation, whether the legislation is adequate, a level of law enforcement > 6 (on a scale of 0-10), and whether the law is considered comprehensive. A descriptive analysis was performed. The totality of the countries has national or subnational legislation for at least one of the five risk factors. However, 63% have laws on the five risk factors studied, and none of them has comprehensive laws for all five. Seatbelt use appears to be the most extended enforced legislation, while speeding laws appear to be the least enforced. There are positive efforts that should be recognized in the region. However, the region stands in different stages of progression. Law enforcement remains the main issue to be tackled. Laws should be based on evidence about what is already known to be effective.

  7. Dust emissions from unpaved roads on the Colorado Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duniway, M.; Flagg, C.; Belnap, J.

    2013-12-01

    On the Colorado Plateau, elevated levels of aeolian dust have become a major land management and policy concern due to its influence on climate, weather, terrestrial ecosystem dynamics, landscape development and fertility, melting of snow and ice, air quality, and human health. Most desert soil surfaces are stabilized by plants, rocks, and/or physical or biological soil crusts, but once disturbed, sediment production from these surfaces can increase dramatically. Road development and use is a common surface disturbing activity in the region. The extent and density of roads and road networks is rapidly increasing due to continued energy exploration, infrastructure development, and off-highway recreation activities. Though it is well known that unpaved roads produce dust, the relative contribution of dust from existing roads or the implications of future road development to regional dust loading is unknown. To address this need, we have initiated a multifaceted research effort to evaluating dust emissions from unpaved roads regionally. At 34 sites arranged across various road surfaces and soil textures in southeastern Utah, we are: 1) monitoring dust emissions, local wind conditions, and vehicle traffic and 2) evaluating fugitive dust potential using a portable wind tunnel and measuring road characteristics that affect dust production. We will then 3) develop a GIS-based model that integrates results from 1 & 2 to estimate potential dust contributions from current and future scenarios of regional road development. Passive, horizontal sediment traps were installed at three distances downwind from the road edge. One control trap was placed upwind of the samplers to account for local, non-road dust emissions. An electronic vehicle counter and anemometer were also installed at monitoring sites. Dust samples were collected every three months at fixed heights, 15 cm up to 100 cm above the soil surface, from March 2010 to the present. Threshold friction velocities (TFV

  8. Road network safety evaluation using Bayesian hierarchical joint model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Huang, Helai

    2016-05-01

    Safety and efficiency are commonly regarded as two significant performance indicators of transportation systems. In practice, road network planning has focused on road capacity and transport efficiency whereas the safety level of a road network has received little attention in the planning stage. This study develops a Bayesian hierarchical joint model for road network safety evaluation to help planners take traffic safety into account when planning a road network. The proposed model establishes relationships between road network risk and micro-level variables related to road entities and traffic volume, as well as socioeconomic, trip generation and network density variables at macro level which are generally used for long term transportation plans. In addition, network spatial correlation between intersections and their connected road segments is also considered in the model. A road network is elaborately selected in order to compare the proposed hierarchical joint model with a previous joint model and a negative binomial model. According to the results of the model comparison, the hierarchical joint model outperforms the joint model and negative binomial model in terms of the goodness-of-fit and predictive performance, which indicates the reasonableness of considering the hierarchical data structure in crash prediction and analysis. Moreover, both random effects at the TAZ level and the spatial correlation between intersections and their adjacent segments are found to be significant, supporting the employment of the hierarchical joint model as an alternative in road-network-level safety modeling as well.

  9. Automated Road Extraction from High Resolution Multispectral Imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Doucette, Peter J.; Agouris, Peggy; Stefanidis, Anthony

    2004-12-01

    Road networks represent a vital component of geospatial data sets in high demand, and thus contribute significantly to extraction labor costs. Multispectral imagery has only recently become widely available at high spatial resolutions, and modeling spectral content has received limited consideration for road extraction algorithms. This paper presents a methodology that exploits spectral content for fully automated road centerline extraction. Preliminary detection of road centerline pixel candidates is performed with Anti-parallel-edge Centerline Extraction (ACE). This is followed by constructing a road vector topology with a fuzzy grouping model that links nodes from a self-organized mapping of the ACE pixels. Following topology construction, a self-supervised road classification (SSRC) feedback loop is implemented to automate the process of training sample selection and refinement for a road class, as well deriving practical spectral definitions for non-road classes. SSRC demonstrates a potential to provide dramatic improvement in road extraction results by exploiting spectral content. Road centerline extraction results are presented for three 1m color-infrared suburban scenes, which show significant improvement following SSRC.

  10. Development and assessment of road weather information in Seoul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sanghoo; Lee, Jonghak; Kim, Mingyu; Choi, Youngjean

    2016-04-01

    Road-based transport is essential for populations operating in large urban environments. Driving conditions are impacted by the intensity of rainfall. However, rainfall is not directly measured on roads. In this study, we evaluated road weather prediction accuracy using representative rainfall days in Seoul, South Korea, during 2013.Data were collected by 190 weather stations, of which 33 were located within 20 meters of a road and were used as model validation sites, while the remaining 157 were used as model fitting sites. Inverse distance weighting (IDW) and ordinary kriging (OK) based on variograms were considered for interpolation. We used the bias, root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), and correlation coefficient (CC) as the prediction performance criteria. The prediction performance of OK was higher than that of IDW. As expected, prediction performance increased when the number of rainfall observations increased. We also simulated road conditions using the accumulated historical rainfall data. Generating road information for the entire urban road network is very expensive; therefore, 177,599 road positions were reproduced from 22,184 road link units. Finally, safe driving speeds were calculated from simulated rainfall, stopping distance, and visibility distance.We hope that the results of this study will provide a basis for the safety information given to road users.

  11. Cost of Crashes Related to Road Conditions, United States, 2006

    PubMed Central

    Zaloshnja, Eduard; Miller, Ted R.

    2009-01-01

    This is the first study to estimate the cost of crashes related to road conditions in the U.S. To model the probability that road conditions contributed to the involvement of a vehicle in the crash, we used 2000–03 Large Truck Crash Causation Study (LTCCS) data, the only dataset that provides detailed information whether road conditions contributed to crash occurrence. We applied the logistic regression results to a costed national crash dataset in order to calculate the probability that road conditions contributed to the involvement of a vehicle in each crash. In crashes where someone was moderately to seriously injured (AIS-2-6) in a vehicle that harmfully impacted a large tree or medium or large non-breakaway pole, or if the first harmful event was collision with a bridge, we changed the calculated probability of being road-related to 1. We used the state distribution of costs of fatal crashes where road conditions contributed to crash occurrence or severity to estimate the respective state distribution of non-fatal crash costs. The estimated comprehensive cost of traffic crashes where road conditions contributed to crash occurrence or severity was $217.5 billion in 2006. This represented 43.6% of the total comprehensive crash cost. The large share of crash costs related to road design and conditions underlines the importance of these factors in highway safety. Road conditions are largely controllable. Road maintenance and upgrading can prevent crashes and reduce injury severity. PMID:20184840

  12. Vision Sensor-Based Road Detection for Field Robot Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Keyu; Li, Jian; An, Xiangjing; He, Hangen

    2015-01-01

    Road detection is an essential component of field robot navigation systems. Vision sensors play an important role in road detection for their great potential in environmental perception. In this paper, we propose a hierarchical vision sensor-based method for robust road detection in challenging road scenes. More specifically, for a given road image captured by an on-board vision sensor, we introduce a multiple population genetic algorithm (MPGA)-based approach for efficient road vanishing point detection. Superpixel-level seeds are then selected in an unsupervised way using a clustering strategy. Then, according to the GrowCut framework, the seeds proliferate and iteratively try to occupy their neighbors. After convergence, the initial road segment is obtained. Finally, in order to achieve a globally-consistent road segment, the initial road segment is refined using the conditional random field (CRF) framework, which integrates high-level information into road detection. We perform several experiments to evaluate the common performance, scale sensitivity and noise sensitivity of the proposed method. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method exhibits high robustness compared to the state of the art. PMID:26610514

  13. Geomorphological aspects of road construction in a cold environment, Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seppälä, Matti

    1999-12-01

    Traditionally, road alignments followed easy landscapes and suitable landforms. When traffic and the size and weight of vehicles increased and higher speeds were used, straighter roads were required; the easygoing relief could not always be used, and problems arose. Road contractors could save money in building and maintenance costs by considering the geomorphic facts. The examples from Finland document why road construction is very expensive in the conditions generated by severe winters. In Finland, more paved roads cross the Arctic Circle than in the whole of North America. This paper gives examples of geomorphic elements affecting road construction in a cold environment: eskers, drumlins, plains of late and postglacial glaciolacustrine and marine sediments, mires, steep rock cliffs, river channels and ice-dams, fluvial erosion, and palsas. Solutions to these problems include removal of frost sensible materials and replacement by more favorable sediments. Road surfaces, kept snow-free in the wintertime, are subjected to deep freezing. The maintenance of roads can be supported with some solutions that affect snowdrift and icing problems, avoidance of geomorphic factors that cause problems, and by using natural processes to help people. Some examples of how road construction affects geomorphic processes and vice versa are provided. For example, bridges block moving river ice, and on special occasions, road banks cause icing.

  14. Road Maintenance and Rehabilitation Program Using Functional and Structural Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setianingsih, A. I.; Sangaji, S.; Setyawan, A.

    2017-02-01

    Road sector development policy in Bangka Belitung emphasis on equitable development, which is opening up new areas for industrial development zones of potential marine and coastal tourism, so that having an impact on the budget priority to build a new road. This led to a minimal budget provided for the maintenance of the existing road. This study aimed to evaluate the condition of the pavement both functionally and structurally, the growth of traffic density and the availability of existing road maintenance costs. Then, to analyze the influence of existing road conditions, traffic density and road maintenance costs to the type of road maintenance management. The results are compared with the results of the existing maintenance conducted by the Public Works Department of Bangka Belitung province. Evaluation of pavement conditions consists of visual assessment of pavement condition using IRI, pavement condition assessment functionally with deflection method using test data tool Benkelman Beam (BB) and the actual traffic load. IRI value, deflections and traffic growth gained from years 2011-2015 subsequently created regression models to obtain the relationship and the correlation coefficient. The analysis showed that using the same relative magnitude of the budget from 2011 to 2015, giving priority to the maintenance of the road with good conditions capable of providing the road with a steady state of 100%. Recommendations can be given that maintain the road with good conditions reflecting that preservation provide maximum results with the more efficient maintenance cost.

  15. Examining Road Traffic Mortality Status in China: A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Schwebel, David C.; Li, Li; Hu, Guoqing

    2016-01-01

    Background Data from the Chinese police service suggest substantial reductions in road traffic injuries since 2002, but critics have questioned the accuracy of those data, especially considering conflicting data reported by the health department. Methods To address the gap between police and health department data and to determine which may be more accurate, we conducted a simulation study based on the modified Smeed equation, which delineates a non-linear relation between road traffic mortality and the level of motorization in a country or region. Our goal was to simulate trends in road traffic mortality in China and compare performances in road traffic safety management between China and 13 other countries. Results Chinese police data indicate a peak in road traffic mortalities in 2002 and a significant and a gradual decrease in population-based road traffic mortality since 2002. Health department data show the road traffic mortality peaked in 2012. In addition, police data suggest China’s road traffic mortality peaked at a much lower motorization level (0.061 motor vehicles per person) in 2002, followed by a reduction in mortality to a level comparable to that of developed countries. Simulation results based on health department data suggest high road traffic mortality, with a mortality peak in 2012 at a moderate motorization level (0.174 motor vehicles per person). Comparisons to the other 13 countries suggest the health data from China may be more valid than the police data. Conclusion Our simulation data indicate China is still at a stage of high road traffic mortality, as suggested by health data, rather than a stage of low road traffic mortality, as suggested by police data. More efforts are needed to integrate safety into road design, improve road traffic management, improve data quality, and alter unsafe behaviors of pedestrians, drivers and passengers in China. PMID:27071008

  16. Effects of winter road grooming on bison in YNP

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bjornlie, Daniel D; Garrott, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of winter recreation—specifically snowmobiling—on wildlife in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) have become high-profile management issues. The road grooming needed to support oversnow travel in YNP is also being examined for its effects on bison (Bison bison) ecology. Data were collected from November 1997 through May 1998 and from December 1998 through May 1999 on the effects of road grooming on bison in Madison–Gibbon–Firehole (MGF) area of YNP Peak bison numbers occurred during late March—early April and were strongly correlated with the snow water equivalent measurements in the Hayden Valley area (1997–1998: r* = 0.62, p:0.001: 1998–1999: r2 = 0.64, P-0.001). Data from an infrared trail monitor on the Mary Mountain trail between the Hayden and Firehole valleys suggest that this trail is the sole corridor for major bison distributional shifts between these locations. Of the 28,293 observations of individual bison made during the study, 8% were traveling and 69% were foraging. These percentages were nearly identical during the period of winter road grooming (7% and 68%, respectively). During this period, 77% of bison foraging activity and 12% of bison traveling activity involved displacing snow. Most travel took place off roads (P<0.001), Bison utilized geothermal features, a network of trails they established, and river and stream banks for travel. Bison road use was negatively correlated with road grooming, with peak use in April and lowest use during the road-grooming period. Bison in the MGF area of YNF neither seek out nor avoid groomed roads. The minimal use of roads compared to off-road areas, the short distances traveled on the roads, the decreased use of roads during the over snow vehicle (OSV) season, and the increased costs of negative interactions with OSVs suggest that grooming roads during winter does not have a major influence on bison ecology.

  17. [Road traffic injuries in Mexico: evidences to strengthen the Mexican road safety strategy].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo; Híjar, Martha; Celis, Alfredo; Hidalgo-Solórzano, Elisa

    2014-05-01

    Based on a review of secondary data and the scientific literature and an analysis of the ENSANut-2012 database, the current study provides a comprehensive overview of the current burden of road traffic injuries (RTI) in Mexico and analyzes the country's social response to RTI. The high collision, injury, mortality, and disability rates associated with this public health problem represent a high cost for Mexican society, especially for families. The paper argues that the Mexican response has focused on vehicle occupants while overlooking vulnerable road users and has prioritized strategies with limited effectiveness. Although the country's existing legislation addresses the main risk factors, enforcement has been limited. Finally, the paper makes some recommendations for strengthening the Mexican strategy to prevent RTI, such as safe, equitable, healthy, and sustainable mobility for all types of road users. Despite some strides in RTI prevention, there are still challenges and opportunities to be addressed in the future.

  18. The road most travelled: the geographic distribution of road traffic injuries in England

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Both road safety campaigns and epidemiological research into social differences in road traffic injury risk often assume that road traffic injuries occur close to home. While previous work has examined distance from home to site of collision for child pedestrians in local areas, less is known about the geographic distribution of road traffic injuries from other modes. This study explores the distribution of the distance between home residence and collision site (crash distance) by mode of transport, geographic area, and social characteristics in England. Methods Using 10 years of road casualty data collected by the police, we examined the distribution of crash distance by age, sex, injury severity, area deprivation, urban/rural status, year, day of week, and, in London only, ethnic group. Results 54% of pedestrians, 39% of cyclists, 17% of powered two-wheeler riders and 16% of car occupants were injured within 1 km of home. 82% of pedestrians, 83% of cyclists, 54% of powered two-wheeler and 53% of car occupants were injured within 5 km of home. We found some social and geographic differences in crash distance: for all transport modes injuries tended to occur closer to home in more deprived or urban areas; younger and older pedestrians and cyclists were also injured closer to home. Crash distance appears to have increased over time for pedestrian, cyclist and car occupant injuries, but has decreased over time for powered two-wheeler injuries. Conclusions Injuries from all travel modes tend to occur quite close to home, supporting assumptions made in epidemiological and road safety education literature. However, the trend for increasing crash distance and the social differences identified may have methodological implications for future epidemiological studies on social differences in injury risk. PMID:23738624

  19. Who is in control of road safety? A STAMP control structure analysis of the road transport system in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Paul M; Read, Gemma J M; Stevens, Nicholas J

    2016-11-01

    Despite significant progress, road trauma continues to represent a global safety issue. In Queensland (Qld), Australia, there is currently a focus on preventing the 'fatal five' behaviours underpinning road trauma (drug and drink driving, distraction, seat belt wearing, speeding, and fatigue), along with an emphasis on a shared responsibility for road safety that spans road users, vehicle manufacturers, designers, policy makers etc. The aim of this article is to clarify who shares the responsibility for road safety in Qld and to determine what control measures are enacted to prevent the fatal five behaviours. This is achieved through the presentation of a control structure model that depicts the actors and organisations within the Qld road transport system along with the control and feedback relationships that exist between them. Validated through a Delphi study, the model shows a diverse set of actors and organisations who share the responsibility for road safety that goes beyond those discussed in road safety policies and strategies. The analysis also shows that, compared to other safety critical domains, there are less formal control structures in road transport and that opportunities exist to add new controls and strengthen existing ones. Relationships that influence rather than control are also prominent. Finally, when compared to other safety critical domains, the strength of road safety controls is brought into question.

  20. Road detection in spaceborne SAR images using genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Byoungki; Jang, JeongHun; Hong, KiSang

    2000-08-01

    This paper presents a technique for detection of roads in a spaceborne SAR image using a genetic algorithm. Roads in a spaceborne SAR image can be modelled as curvilinear structures with some thickness. Curve segments, which represent candidate positions of roads, are extracted from the image using a curvilinear structure detector, and roads are detected accurately by grouping those curve segments. For this purpose, we designed a grouping method based on a genetic algorithm (GA), which is one of the global optimization methods, combined perceptual grouping factors with it, and tried to reduce its overall computational cost by introducing an operation of thresholding and a concept of region growing. To detect roads more accurately, postprocessing, including noisy curve segment removal, is performed after grouping. We applied our method to ERS-1 SAR images that have a resolution of about 30 meters, and the experimental results show that our method can detect roads accurately, and is much faster than a globally applied GA approach.

  1. Effects of road mortality and mitigation measures on amphibian populations.

    PubMed

    Beebee, Trevor J C

    2013-08-01

    Road mortality is a widely recognized but rarely quantified threat to the viability of amphibian populations. The global extent of the problem is substantial and factors affecting the number of animals killed on highways include life-history traits and landscape features. Secondary effects include genetic isolation due to roads acting as barriers to migration. Long-term effects of roads on population dynamics are often severe and mitigation methods include volunteer rescues and under-road tunnels. Despite the development of methods that reduce road kill in specific locations, especially under-road tunnels and culverts, there is scant evidence that such measures will protect populations over the long term. There also seems little likelihood that funding will be forthcoming to ameliorate the problem at the scale necessary to prevent further population declines.

  2. ANALYSIS OF GROUP MAINTENANCE STRATEGY -ROAD PAVEMENT AND SEWERAGE PIPES-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimoto, Keishi; Sugimoto, Yasuaki; Miyamoto, Shinya; Nada, Hideki; Hosoi, Yoshihiko

    Recently, it is critical to manage deteriorating sewerage and road facilities efficiently and strategically. Since the sewerage pipes are mostly installed under road pavement, the works for the replacement of the sewerage pipes are partially common to the works for the road. This means that the replacement cost can be saved by coordinating the timing of the replacements by sewerage pipe and road pavement. The purpose of the study is to develop the model based on Markov decision process to derive the optimal group maintenance policy so as to minimize lifecycle cost. Then the model is applied to case study area and demonstrated to estimate the lifecycle cost using statistical data such as pipe replacement cost, road pavement rehabilitation cost, and state of deterioration of pipes and road pavement.

  3. Road marking features extraction using the VIAPIX® system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaddah, W.; Ouerhani, Y.; Alfalou, A.; Desthieux, M.; Brosseau, C.; Gutierrez, C.

    2016-07-01

    Precise extraction of road marking features is a critical task for autonomous urban driving, augmented driver assistance, and robotics technologies. In this study, we consider an autonomous system allowing us lane detection for marked urban roads and analysis of their features. The task is to relate the georeferencing of road markings from images obtained using the VIAPIX® system. Based on inverse perspective mapping and color segmentation to detect all white objects existing on this road, the present algorithm enables us to examine these images automatically and rapidly and also to get information on road marks, their surface conditions, and their georeferencing. This algorithm allows detecting all road markings and identifying some of them by making use of a phase-only correlation filter (POF). We illustrate this algorithm and its robustness by applying it to a variety of relevant scenarios.

  4. Road landslide information management and forecasting system base on GIS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei Dong; Du, Xiang Gang; Xie, Cui Ming

    2009-09-01

    Take account of the characters of road geological hazard and its supervision, it is very important to develop the Road Landslides Information Management and Forecasting System based on Geographic Information System (GIS). The paper presents the system objective, function, component modules and key techniques in the procedure of system development. The system, based on the spatial information and attribute information of road geological hazard, was developed and applied in Guizhou, a province of China where there are numerous and typical landslides. The manager of communication, using the system, can visually inquire all road landslides information based on regional road network or on the monitoring network of individual landslide. Furthermore, the system, integrated with mathematical prediction models and the GIS's strongpoint on spatial analyzing, can assess and predict landslide developing procedure according to the field monitoring data. Thus, it can efficiently assists the road construction or management units in making decision to control the landslides and to reduce human vulnerability.

  5. CROCKETT BARN AND BLOCKHOUSE FROM SOUTH FORT CASEY ROAD, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CROCKETT BARN AND BLOCKHOUSE FROM SOUTH FORT CASEY ROAD, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. The Crockett blockhouse was moved from its original location to a tract of land along South Fort Casey Road in 1938, making it more accessible to tourists. During the same year it was given to the Daughters of the Pioneers of Washington and restored by Works Progress Administration crews. - Crockett Farm, 1056 Fort Casey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  6. 1988 Year End Report for Road Following at Carnegie Mellon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    regions and uncertainty. After the low-resolution obstacle detection was demonstrated as part of the Navlab, it was ported to 4 Martin Marietta. Work in...of Road Scenes Using an Active Sensor." Terrain Mapping: The algorithms that build a terrain description made of polygonal regions have been...the pixels in the image into regions . The road is detected by finding the set of regions which, grouped together, best match the road shape. UNSCARF

  7. Lidar Based Off-road Negative Obstacle Detection and Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    Lidar Based Off-road Negative Obstacle Detection and Analysis Jacoby Larson SPAWAR Systems Center Pacific 53560 Hull St. San Diego, CA 92152...terrain. Much research has been done in the way of obstacle avoidance, terrain classification, and path planning, but still so few UGV systems can...accurately traverse off-road environments at high speeds autonomously. One of the most dangerous hazards found off- road are negative obstacles , mainly

  8. Unpaved road dust management, a successful practitioner’s handbook

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, David; Kociolek, Angela; Surdahl, Roger; Bolander, Peter; Drewes, Bruce; Duran, Matthew; Fay, Laura; Huntington, George; James, David; Milne, Clark; Nahra, Mark; Scott, Andrew; Vitale, Bob; Williams, Bethany

    2013-01-01

    This handbook provides broad programmatic aspects of unpaved road management. It is based on observations made during a national scan tour and provides useful and insightful excerpts of realworld examples and includes practical how-to instructions for determining what type of treatment may be needed for different situations. It ultimately strives to encourage road managers to think broadly about the process of unpaved road management rather than just focusing on a specific type of chemical treatment.

  9. Effect of Vehicle Characteristics on Unpaved Road Dust Emissions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    monitoring system is shown in Fig. 1. Each downwind tower was instrumented with four DustTraks (Model 8520, TSI Inc., St. Paul , MN) configured to measure... Pitchford , M., 2003a. Vehicle based road dust emissions measurement (III): effect of speed, traffic volume, location, and season on PM10 road dust emissions...Atmospheric Environment 37, 4583–4593. Etyemezian, V., Kuhns, H., Gillies, J., Green, M., Pitchford , M., Watson, J., 2003b. Vehicle based road dust

  10. Road traffic accidents and policy interventions in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bong-Min; Kim, Jinhyun

    2003-01-01

    The high rate of road traffic crashes, in conjunction with the absence of order on the road, has long been considered a critical social problem in Korea. The Korean public seems to agree that high priority ought to be placed on policies for improving road safety. Using data from government sources, this study describes what has happened in the area of road traffic crashes since 1970, the causes of traffic crashes, and the relative importance of traffic injuries as a cause of death in Korea. Road traffic crashes in Korea increased nearly eight-fold, from 37,000 in 1970 to 290,481 in 2000. The fatalities increased three-fold and injuries ten-fold over the same period. Road traffic injuries were the leading cause of death for people under 29. However, through multiple policy interventions, partly in response to the 2002 FIFA World Cup, about two thousand road traffic deaths and nine thousand traffic-related disabilities were averted in 2001 alone. The policy interventions included enforcement of penalties for seven risky driving behaviours, including drunk driving and speeding, installation of traffic-monitoring cameras, financial rewards for citizens who reported traffic violations, introduction of a road safety evaluation system, correction of accident black spots in existing roads, and road safety education programs. Through multiple policy interventions, road traffic crashes in Korea were reduced in a relatively short time period, along with their associated injuries and fatalities. However, road traffic crashes still pose a major public health problem, threatening the quality of life of the Korean people.

  11. Large Roads Reduce Bat Activity across Multiple Species

    PubMed Central

    Kitzes, Justin; Merenlender, Adina

    2014-01-01

    Although the negative impacts of roads on many terrestrial vertebrate and bird populations are well documented, there have been few studies of the road ecology of bats. To examine the effects of large roads on bat populations, we used acoustic recorders to survey bat activity along ten 300 m transects bordering three large highways in northern California, applying a newly developed statistical classifier to identify recorded calls to the species level. Nightly counts of bat passes were analyzed with generalized linear mixed models to determine the relationship between bat activity and distance from a road. Total bat activity recorded at points adjacent to roads was found to be approximately one-half the level observed at 300 m. Statistically significant road effects were also found for the Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis), big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus), hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus), and silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans). The road effect was found to be temperature dependent, with hot days both increasing total activity at night and reducing the difference between activity levels near and far from roads. These results suggest that the environmental impacts of road construction may include degradation of bat habitat and that mitigation activities for this habitat loss may be necessary to protect bat populations. PMID:24823689

  12. Behavioral responses of wolves to roads: scale-dependent ambivalence

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Lindsey; Wabakken, Petter; Sand, Håkan; Liberg, Olof

    2014-01-01

    Throughout their recent recovery in several industrialized countries, large carnivores have had to cope with a changed landscape dominated by human infrastructure. Population growth depends on the ability of individuals to adapt to these changes by making use of new habitat features and at the same time to avoid increased risks of mortality associated with human infrastructure. We analyzed the summer movements of 19 GPS-collared resident wolves (Canis lupus L.) from 14 territories in Scandinavia in relation to roads. We used resource and step selection functions, including >12000 field-checked GPS-positions and 315 kill sites. Wolves displayed ambivalent responses to roads depending on the spatial scale, road type, time of day, behavioral state, and reproductive status. At the site scale (approximately 0.1 km2), they selected for roads when traveling, nearly doubling their travel speed. Breeding wolves moved the fastest. At the patch scale (10 km2), house density rather than road density was a significant negative predictor of wolf patch selection. At the home range scale (approximately 1000 km2), breeding wolves increased gravel road use with increasing road availability, although at a lower rate than expected. Wolves have adapted to use roads for ease of travel, but at the same time developed a cryptic behavior to avoid human encounters. This behavioral plasticity may have been important in allowing the successful recovery of wolf populations in industrialized countries. However, we emphasize the role of roads as a potential cause of increased human-caused mortality. PMID:25419085

  13. Road networks predict human influence on Amazonian bird communities.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sadia E; Lees, Alexander C; Moura, Nárgila G; Gardner, Toby A; Barlow, Jos; Ferreira, Joice; Ewers, Robert M

    2014-11-22

    Road building can lead to significant deleterious impacts on biodiversity, varying from direct road-kill mortality and direct habitat loss associated with road construction, to more subtle indirect impacts from edge effects and fragmentation. However, little work has been done to evaluate the specific effects of road networks and biodiversity loss beyond the more generalized effects of habitat loss. Here, we compared forest bird species richness and composition in the municipalities of Santarém and Belterra in Pará state, eastern Brazilian Amazon, with a road network metric called 'roadless volume (RV)' at the scale of small hydrological catchments (averaging 3721 ha). We found a significant positive relationship between RV and both forest bird richness and the average number of unique species (species represented by a single record) recorded at each site. Forest bird community composition was also significantly affected by RV. Moreover, there was no significant correlation between RV and forest cover, suggesting that road networks may impact biodiversity independently of changes in forest cover. However, variance partitioning analysis indicated that RV has partially independent and therefore additive effects, suggesting that RV and forest cover are best used in a complementary manner to investigate changes in biodiversity. Road impacts on avian species richness and composition independent of habitat loss may result from road-dependent habitat disturbance and fragmentation effects that are not captured by total percentage habitat cover, such as selective logging, fire, hunting, traffic disturbance, edge effects and road-induced fragmentation.

  14. Hampton roads regional Water-Quality Monitoring Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porter, Aaron J.; Jastram, John D.

    2016-12-02

    IntroductionHow much nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended solids are contributed by the highly urbanized areas of the Hampton Roads region in Virginia to Chesapeake Bay? The answer to this complex question has major implications for policy decisions, resource allocations, and efforts aimed at restoring clean waters to Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries. To quantify the amount of nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended solids delivered to the bay from this region, the U.S. Geological Survey has partnered with the Hampton Roads Sanitation District (HRSD), in cooperation with the Hampton Roads Planning District Commission (HRPDC), to conduct a water-quality monitoring program throughout the Hampton Roads region.

  15. 5. VIEW FROM SLIGHTLY FARTHER DOWN SERVICE ROAD, LOOKING SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW FROM SLIGHTLY FARTHER DOWN SERVICE ROAD, LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT ELECTRICITY SUPPLY BUILDING, LABORATORY, AND OFFICE. - Standard Lime & Stone Quarry, County Route 27, Millville, Jefferson County, WV

  16. Global Progress in Road Injury Mortality since 2010

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Peishan; Schwebel, David C.; Huang, Helai; Li, Li; Li, Jun; Hu, Guoqing

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to examine progress in global road injury mortality since the initiation of Global Plan for the Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011–2020. We examined annual percent changes in age-adjusted road traffic mortality using data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Association between changes in road traffic mortality and legislative efforts in individual nations was explored using data from Global Status Reports on Road Safety 2013 and 2015. We found that global age-adjusted mortality, both overall and for user-specific road traffic injuries, decreased significantly between 2010 and 2013 (annual percent change in rates range from -1.43% to -0.99%). Developed countries witnessed a larger decrease than developing countries in both overall and user-specific road mortality (about 2.0–4.6 times). However, there were substantial disparities within developed countries and within developing countries, with some countries seeing large reductions in mortality rates and others seeing none. The annual percent change in road traffic mortality during 2010–2013 was significantly correlated with total national law enforcement score (Spearman rs = -0.38). We concluded that results highlight the need for continued effort to reduce the burden of road injury mortality, especially in LMIC countries. PMID:27727318

  17. Automatic road edge detection from Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabo, Carlos; García-Cortés, Silverio; Menéndez-Díaz, Agustín.; Ordoñez, Celestino

    2016-11-01

    In this article we present an algorithm for automatic road edge detection from MLS (Mobile Laser Scanning) data. The method takes advantage of linear structures derived from MLS point clouds. These lines are extracted from the point cloud and grouped following geometric restrictions. Then, the outlines of the groups are extracted as road edges. Finally, a moving window filter is applied to those points in order to remove outliers and delineate the road edge. The method was tested on an 800m stretch of road, and the results were checked through visual inspection. Correctness and completeness were 99.1% and 97.5%, respectively.

  18. Large roads reduce bat activity across multiple species.

    PubMed

    Kitzes, Justin; Merenlender, Adina

    2014-01-01

    Although the negative impacts of roads on many terrestrial vertebrate and bird populations are well documented, there have been few studies of the road ecology of bats. To examine the effects of large roads on bat populations, we used acoustic recorders to survey bat activity along ten 300 m transects bordering three large highways in northern California, applying a newly developed statistical classifier to identify recorded calls to the species level. Nightly counts of bat passes were analyzed with generalized linear mixed models to determine the relationship between bat activity and distance from a road. Total bat activity recorded at points adjacent to roads was found to be approximately one-half the level observed at 300 m. Statistically significant road effects were also found for the Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis), big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus), hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus), and silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans). The road effect was found to be temperature dependent, with hot days both increasing total activity at night and reducing the difference between activity levels near and far from roads. These results suggest that the environmental impacts of road construction may include degradation of bat habitat and that mitigation activities for this habitat loss may be necessary to protect bat populations.

  19. Spatial resolution requirements for automated cartographic road extraction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benjamin, S.; Gaydos, L.

    1990-01-01

    Ground resolution requirements for detection and extraction of road locations in a digitized large-scale photographic database were investigated. A color infrared photograph of Sunnyvale, California was scanned, registered to a map grid, and spatially degraded to 1- to 5-metre resolution pixels. Road locations in each data set were extracted using a combination of image processing and CAD programs. These locations were compared to a photointerpretation of road locations to determine a preferred pixel size for the extraction method. Based on road pixel omission error computations, a 3-metre pixel resolution appears to be the best choice for this extraction method. -Authors

  20. Analysis of dynamic road risk for pedestrian evacuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Nan; Huang, Hong; Su, Boni; Zhao, Jinlong

    2015-07-01

    Knowing the dynamic road risk for pedestrian evacuation and having an efficient evacuation plan play a very important role in the serious disasters such as earthquake, tsunami and hurricane. In this paper, the dynamic road risk for pedestrian evacuation in a densely populated area of Beijing was studied with consideration of different influencing factors. Firstly, the eight influencing factors including road width, node degree, safety betweenness, road resistor coefficient, building threat, pedestrian counterflow, illegal vehicle parking and traffic flow were considered to assess the road risk for pedestrian evacuation. Secondly, based on complex network theory, electric circuit theory and real situation of the roads, the comprehensive assessment function for road risk was developed quantitatively based on the eight influencing factors. Thirdly, we analyzed road risk for pedestrian evacuation considering different situations: current condition, regular condition, and optimal condition; the risk distribution maps were drawn to directly show the risk level. Through assessments, the roads with high risk for pedestrian evacuation were found, and an optimized evacuation plan was obtained and analyzed. This mathematical model can guide the emergency evacuation in real time. The process and the results are essential for improving the efficiency of evacuations which should considerably reduce the possibility of injuries, deaths and other losses in the disaster.

  1. A theoretical perspective on road safety communication campaigns.

    PubMed

    Elvik, Rune

    2016-12-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical perspective on road safety communication campaigns, which may help in identifying the conditions under which such campaigns can be effective. The paper proposes that, from a theoretical point of view, it is reasonable to assume that road user behaviour is, by and large, subjectively rational. This means that road users are assumed to behave the way they think is best. If this assumption is accepted, the best theoretical prediction is that road safety campaigns consisting of persuasive messages only will have no effect on road user behaviour and accordingly no effect on accidents. This theoretical prediction is not supported by meta-analyses of studies that have evaluated the effects of road safety communication campaigns. These analyses conclude that, on the average, such campaigns are associated with an accident reduction. The paper discusses whether this finding can be explained theoretically. The discussion relies on the distinction made by many modern theorists between bounded and perfect rationality. Road user behaviour is characterised by bounded rationality. Hence, if road users can gain insight into the bounds of their rationality, so that they see advantages to themselves of changing behaviour, they are likely to do so. It is, however, largely unknown whether such a mechanism explains why some road safety communication campaigns have been found to be more effective than others.

  2. Road networks predict human influence on Amazonian bird communities

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Sadia E.; Lees, Alexander C.; Moura, Nárgila G.; Gardner, Toby A.; Barlow, Jos; Ferreira, Joice; Ewers, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Road building can lead to significant deleterious impacts on biodiversity, varying from direct road-kill mortality and direct habitat loss associated with road construction, to more subtle indirect impacts from edge effects and fragmentation. However, little work has been done to evaluate the specific effects of road networks and biodiversity loss beyond the more generalized effects of habitat loss. Here, we compared forest bird species richness and composition in the municipalities of Santarém and Belterra in Pará state, eastern Brazilian Amazon, with a road network metric called ‘roadless volume (RV)’ at the scale of small hydrological catchments (averaging 3721 ha). We found a significant positive relationship between RV and both forest bird richness and the average number of unique species (species represented by a single record) recorded at each site. Forest bird community composition was also significantly affected by RV. Moreover, there was no significant correlation between RV and forest cover, suggesting that road networks may impact biodiversity independently of changes in forest cover. However, variance partitioning analysis indicated that RV has partially independent and therefore additive effects, suggesting that RV and forest cover are best used in a complementary manner to investigate changes in biodiversity. Road impacts on avian species richness and composition independent of habitat loss may result from road-dependent habitat disturbance and fragmentation effects that are not captured by total percentage habitat cover, such as selective logging, fire, hunting, traffic disturbance, edge effects and road-induced fragmentation. PMID:25274363

  3. Effects of roads on small mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, L.W.; Geis, A.D.

    1983-01-01

    (1) The study was designed to determine the effects of roads on the diversity, spatial distribution, and density of small mammals. (2) Forty species of small mammal (5859 individuals) were snap-trapped in the study. Data resulted from 144 360 trap-nights of effort for an average of 4.06 captures per 100 trap-nights. (3) Small mammal community structure and density were both influenced by roads. Community structure in right-of-way (ROW) habitat was different from that in adjacent habitat. Five species did not prefer ROW habitat: the golden mouse, dusky-footed woodrat, brush mouse, pinon mouse, and California red-backed vole. However, there were more species present in ROW habitat than in adjacent habitat. Grassland species generally preferred ROW habitat and many less habitat-specific species were distributed in ROW and adjacent habitat. (4) Small mammal density (all species combined) was greater in interstate ROW habitat than in adjacent habitat. This was also true individually for the eastern harvest mouse, white-footed mouse, meadow vole, prairie vole, vagrant shrew. Townsend's vole, and California vole. Small mammal density was less in county road ROWs than in adjacent habitat, probably because of the small size of these areas. The data indicate that ROW habitat and its accompanying edge are attractive no: only to grassland species but also to many less habitat-specific species that make use of the ROW-edge-adjacent habitat complex. (5) Mortality on interstate highways was greatest for those species with highest densities in ROW habitat, and did not appear to be detrimental to populations of these species.

  4. Road safety issues for bus transport management.

    PubMed

    Cafiso, Salvatore; Di Graziano, Alessandro; Pappalardo, Giuseppina

    2013-11-01

    Because of the low percentage of crashes involving buses and the assumption that public transport improves road safety by reducing vehicular traffic, public interest in bus safety is not as great as that in the safety of other types of vehicles. It is possible that less attention is paid to the significance of crashes involving buses because the safety level of bus systems is considered to be adequate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of bus managers with respect to safety issues and the potential effectiveness of various technologies in achieving higher safety standards. Bus managers were asked to give their opinions on safety issues related to drivers (training, skills, performance evaluation and behaviour), vehicles (maintenance and advanced devices) and roads (road and traffic safety issues) in response to a research survey. Kendall's algorithm was used to evaluate the level of concordance. The results showed that the majority of the proposed items were considered to have great potential for improving bus safety. The data indicated that in the experience of the participants, passenger unloading and pedestrians crossing near bus stops are the most dangerous actions with respect to vulnerable users. The final results of the investigation showed that start inhibition, automatic door opening, and the materials and internal architecture of buses were considered the items most strongly related to bus passenger safety. Brake assistance and vehicle monitoring systems were also considered to be very effective. With the exception of driver assistance systems for passenger and pedestrian safety, the perceptions of the importance of other driver assistance systems for vehicle monitoring and bus safety were not unanimous among the bus company managers who participated in this survey. The study results showed that the introduction of new technologies is perceived as an important factor in improving bus safety, but a better understanding

  5. A queuing model for road traffic simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Guerrouahane, N.; Aissani, D.; Bouallouche-Medjkoune, L.; Farhi, N.

    2015-03-10

    We present in this article a stochastic queuing model for the raod traffic. The model is based on the M/G/c/c state dependent queuing model, and is inspired from the deterministic Godunov scheme for the road traffic simulation. We first propose a variant of M/G/c/c state dependent model that works with density-flow fundamental diagrams rather than density-speed relationships. We then extend this model in order to consider upstream traffic demand as well as downstream traffic supply. Finally, we show how to model a whole raod by concatenating raod sections as in the deterministic Godunov scheme.

  6. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, S.M.

    1995-10-01

    The goal of the Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) Project is the development and demonstration of a system to meet the unique needs of the DOE for rapid, accurate analysis of a wide variety of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface waters. This laboratory system has been designed to provide the field and laboratory analytical equipment necessary to detect and quantify radionuclides, organics, heavy metals and other inorganic compounds. The laboratory system consists of a set of individual laboratory modules deployable independently or as an interconnected group to meet each DOE site`s specific needs.

  7. Wide-angle vision for road views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, F.; Fehrs, K.-K.; Hartmann, G.; Klette, R.

    2013-03-01

    The field-of-view of a wide-angle image is greater than (say) 90 degrees, and so contains more information than available in a standard image. A wide field-of-view is more advantageous than standard input for understanding the geometry of 3D scenes, and for estimating the poses of panoramic sensors within such scenes. Thus, wide-angle imaging sensors and methodologies are commonly used in various road-safety, street surveillance, street virtual touring, or street 3D modelling applications. The paper reviews related wide-angle vision technologies by focusing on mathematical issues rather than on hardware.

  8. On the Road to Safety and Health. A Manual for Road Crews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapnick, Ellen P.

    This occupational safety and health handbook is designed for use as an educational tool in safety and health training classes for road workers. The first of six major sections, Caution Work Ahead, identifies principles of controlling hazards and discusses how the law can help improve safety and health conditions. Section 2 describes three common…

  9. Neighborhood Social Inequalities in Road Traffic Injuries: The Influence of Traffic Volume and Road Design

    PubMed Central

    Gauvin, Lise; Plante, Céline; Fournier, Michel; Morency, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the extent to which differential traffic volume and road geometry can explain social inequalities in pedestrian, cyclist, and motor vehicle occupant injuries across wealthy and poor urban areas. Methods. We performed a multilevel observational study of all road users injured over 5 years (n = 19 568) at intersections (n = 17 498) in a large urban area (Island of Montreal, Canada). We considered intersection-level (traffic estimates, major roads, number of legs) and area-level (population density, commuting travel modes, household income) characteristics in multilevel Poisson regressions that nested intersections in 506 census tracts. Results. There were significantly more injured pedestrians, cyclists, and motor vehicle occupants at intersections in the poorest than in the richest areas. Controlling for traffic volume, intersection geometry, and pedestrian and cyclist volumes greatly attenuated the event rate ratios between intersections in the poorest and richest areas for injured pedestrians (−70%), cyclists (−44%), and motor vehicle occupants (−44%). Conclusions. Roadway environment can explain a substantial portion of the excess rate of road traffic injuries in the poorest urban areas. PMID:22515869

  10. Road salt emissions: A comparison of measurements and modelling using the NORTRIP road dust emission model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denby, B. R.; Ketzel, M.; Ellermann, T.; Stojiljkovic, A.; Kupiainen, K.; Niemi, J. V.; Norman, M.; Johansson, C.; Gustafsson, M.; Blomqvist, G.; Janhäll, S.; Sundvor, I.

    2016-09-01

    De-icing of road surfaces is necessary in many countries during winter to improve vehicle traction. Large amounts of salt, most often sodium chloride, are applied every year. Most of this salt is removed through drainage or traffic spray processes but a certain amount may be suspended, after drying of the road surface, into the air and will contribute to the concentration of particulate matter. Though some measurements of salt concentrations are available near roads, the link between road maintenance salting activities and observed concentrations of salt in ambient air is yet to be quantified. In this study the NORTRIP road dust emission model, which estimates the emissions of both dust and salt from the road surface, is applied at five sites in four Nordic countries for ten separate winter periods where daily mean ambient air measurements of salt concentrations are available. The model is capable of reproducing many of the salt emission episodes, both in time and intensity, but also fails on other occasions. The observed mean concentration of salt in PM10, over all ten datasets, is 4.2 μg/m3 and the modelled mean is 2.8 μg/m3, giving a fractional bias of -0.38. The RMSE of the mean concentrations, over all 10 datasets, is 2.9 μg/m3 with an average R2 of 0.28. The mean concentration of salt is similar to the mean exhaust contribution during the winter periods of 2.6 μg/m3. The contribution of salt to the kerbside winter mean PM10 concentration is estimated to increase by 4.1 ± 3.4 μg/m3 for every kg/m2 of salt applied on the road surface during the winter season. Additional sensitivity studies showed that the accurate logging of salt applications is a prerequisite for predicting salt emissions, as well as good quality data on precipitation. It also highlights the need for more simultaneous measurements of salt loading together with ambient air concentrations to help improve model parameterisations of salt and moisture removal processes.

  11. Gender Effects in Young Road Users on Road Safety Attitudes, Behaviors and Risk Perception

    PubMed Central

    Cordellieri, Pierluigi; Baralla, Francesca; Ferlazzo, Fabio; Sgalla, Roberto; Piccardi, Laura; Giannini, Anna Maria

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated gender-related effects on road safety attitudes in 2681 young drivers (1458 males, 54.4%; aged 18–22) who filled out several scales assessing attitudes toward road safety issues, driving behavior in specific hypothetical situations, accident risk perception, and concerns about such a risk. We focused only on young drivers to better understand the role of gender in road safety attitudes in a period of life in which risky behaviors are widespread for males and females. Indeed, there is still no agreement as to the nature of these gender differences. According to some authors, the effects of gender on being involved in a crash due to driving skills are either non-existent or largely explained by differences in alcohol consumption. In our study, we found gender differences in road safety attitudes (i.e., “negative attitude toward traffic rules and risky driving”; “negative attitude toward drugs and alcohol” and “tolerance toward speeding”) and in driver behavior (i.e., “errors in inattentive driving” and “driving violations”). This result is consistent in all drivers coming from nine different European countries. Our analyses yielded an important finding concerning risk perception. The results indicate that the level of risk perception during driving is the same for males and females. However, these two groups differ in the level of concern about this risk, with males being less concerned about the risk of a road accident. This suggests that the main difference between these two groups is not strictly related to judgment of the perceived risk probability but rather to the level of concern experienced about the consequences of the risk. This difference between risk perception and worry could explain differences in the frequency of car accidents in the two groups. The present findings may provide new insights for the development of gender-based prevention programs. PMID:27729877

  12. Effect on road traffic injuries of criminalizing road traffic offences: a time–series study

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Katherine; Santamariña-Rubio, Elena; Borrell, Carme

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the effect of criminalizing some traffic behaviours, after the reform of the Spanish penal code in 2007, on the number of drivers involved in injury collisions and of people injured in traffic collisions in Spain. Methods This study followed an interrupted times–series design in which the number of drivers involved in injury collisions and of people injured in traffic collisions in Spain before and after the criminalization of offences were compared. The data on road traffic injuries in 2000–2009 were obtained from the road traffic collision database of the General Traffic Directorate. The dependent variables were stratified by sex, age, injury severity, type of road user, road type and time of collision. Quasi-Poisson regression models were fitted with adjustments for time trend, seasonality, previous interventions and national fuel consumption. Findings The overall number of male drivers involved in injury collisions dropped (relative risk, RR: 0.93; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.89–0.97) after the reform of the penal code, but among women no change was observed (RR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.95–1.03). In addition, 13 891 men (P < 0.01) were prevented from being injured. Larger reductions were observed among young male drivers and among male motorcycle or moped riders than among the drivers of other vehicles. Conclusion The findings suggest that criminalizing certain traffic behaviours can improve road safety by reducing both the number of drivers involved in injury collisions and the number of people injured in such collisions. PMID:21673858

  13. Case study: the Argentina Road Safety Project: lessons learned for the decade of action for road safety, 2011-2020.

    PubMed

    Raffo, Veronica; Bliss, Tony; Shotten, Marc; Sleet, David; Blanchard, Claire

    2013-12-01

    This case study of the Argentina Road Safety Project demonstrates how the application of World Bank road safety project guidelines focused on institution building can accelerate knowledge transfer, scale up investment and improve the focus on results. The case study highlights road safety as a development priority and outlines World Bank initiatives addressing the implementation of the World Report on Road Traffic Injury's recommendations and the subsequent launch of the Decade of Action for Road Safety, from 2011-2020. The case study emphasizes the vital role played by the lead agency in ensuring sustainable road safety improvements and promoting the shift to a 'Safe System' approach, which necessitated the strengthening of all elements of the road safety management system. It summarizes road safety performance and institutional initiatives in Argentina leading up to the preparation and implementation of the project. We describe the project's development objectives, financing arrangements, specific components and investment staging. Finally, we discuss its innovative features and lessons learned, and present a set of supplementary guidelines, both to assist multilateral development banks and their clients with future road safety initiatives, and to encourage better linkages between the health and transportation sectors supporting them.

  14. Urban road extraction based on shadow removal and road clues detection from high resolution RGB aerial image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herumurti, Darlis; Uchimura, Keiichi; Koutaki, Gou; Uemura, Takumi

    2014-10-01

    In urban areas, the shadow cast by buildings, trees along the road, abundant objects and complex image texture make the extraction of the road on very high Resolution RGB aerial image very difficult and challenging. We propose a method of road extraction from RGB aerial image in the followings steps: Shadow removal, enhanced sobel transform, keypoints extraction based on Maximally Stable Extremal Regions (MSER), feature extraction based on Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF) and road construction based on multi-resolution segmentation. The experimental results show that the proposed method achieves a good result.

  15. Determination of road dust loadings and chemical characteristics using resuspension.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianhua; Wang, Wei; Liu, Hongjie; Ren, Lihong

    2012-03-01

    The contribution of fugitive dust from traffic to air pollution can no longer be ignored in China. In order to obtain the road dust loadings and to understand the chemical characteristics of PM(10) and PM(2.5) from typical road dust, different paved roads in eight districts of Beijing were selected for dust collection during the four seasons of 2005. Ninety-eight samples from 28 roads were obtained. The samples were resuspended using equipment assembled to simulate the rising process of road dust caused by the wind or wheels in order to obtain the PM(10) and PM(2.5) filter samples. The average road dust loading was 3.82 g m(-2), with the highest of 24.22 g m(-2) being in Hutongs in the rural-urban continuum during winter. The road dust loadings on higher-grade roads were lower than those on lower-grade roads. Attention should be paid to the pollution in the rural-urban continuum areas. The sums of element abundances measured were 16.17% and 18.50% for PM(10) and PM(2.5) in road dust. The average abundances of OC and EC in PM(10) and PM(2.5) in road dust were 11.52%, 2.01% and 12.50%, 2.06%, respectively. The abundance of elements, water-soluble ions, and OC, EC in PM(10) and PM(2.5) resuspended from road dust did not change greatly with seasons and road types. The soil dust, construction dust, dust emitted from burning coal, vehicle exhaust, and deposition of particles in the air were the main sources of road dust in Beijing. Affected by the application of snow-melting agents in Beijing during winter, the amount of Cl( - ) and Na( + ) was much higher during that time than in the other seasons. This will have a certain influence on roads, bridges, vegetations, and groundwater.

  16. Road rage experience and behavior: vehicle, exposure, and driver factors.

    PubMed

    Smart, Reginald; Stoduto, Gina; Mann, Robert; Adlaf, Edward

    2004-12-01

    Road rage has generated increasing public concern. Research has shown that victimization and perpetration of road rage is more common among males and younger drivers. We aimed to extend the understanding of determinants of road rage to driving exposure and vehicle factors, based on a 20022003 population survey of 1,631 regular drivers in Ontario, Canada. Regression analyses revealed that number of times drivers reported experiencing road rage in the previous 12 months was significantly greater for males, younger respondents, and those residing in Toronto. Also, victimization was significantly greater for drivers who did all their driving on busy roads and increased with number of kilometers driven on a typical week; however, type of vehicle driven was not significant. Number of times road rage perpetration was reported in the past 12 months was significantly greater for males, younger respondents, and those residing in Toronto, and lower for those in the Eastern and Northern region. Road rage perpetration increased significantly with number of weekly kilometers driven and was significantly greater for drivers who are always on busy roads and lower for those who never drive on busy roads, and higher for high-performance vehicle drivers. Even after controlling for driving exposure, road rage victimization and perpetration were highest for drivers in Toronto, where the pace of life may be more demanding. As expected, high-performance vehicle drivers reported more road rage perpetration. These individuals may experience more frustration when they are prevented from using the full performance capacities of their vehicles by crowded urban roadways.

  17. Sweat Farm Road Fire in Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Dense plumes of blue-white smoke billowed from the Sweat Farm Road Fire in southern Georgia on April 19, 2007, when the Landsat 5 satellite captured this detailed image. The fire started on April 16, when a tree fell on a power line and, fanned by strong winds, quickly exploded into a major fire. By April 19, the fire had forced officials to close several roads, including U.S. Highway 1, and to evacuate hundreds of people from the perimeter of the city of Waycross, the silver cluster along the top edge of the image. The nearness of the fire is evident in the dark brown, charred land just south of the city. The active fire front is along the south edge of the burned area, where the flames are eating into the dark green hardwood forests, pine plantations, and shrubs in Okefenokee Swamp. Because of the difficult terrain, the fire and the adjoining Big Turnaround Complex fire are expected to burn until significant rain falls, said the morning report issued by the Southern Area Coordination Center on May 4. 'In the long term, the burning of the swamp will ultimately benefit the swamp wilderness habitat, which is a fire-dependent ecosystem,' said a press release issued from the Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge on May 4. Such ecosystems require fire to remain healthy. In the case of southern pine forests, many pine species need fire to remove litter from the ground and release soil nutrients so that new seedlings can grow.

  18. Distribution of green infrastructure along walkable roads ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Low-income and minority neighborhoods frequently lack healthful resources to which wealthier communities have access. Though important, the addition of facilities such as recreation centers can be costly and take time to implement. Urban green infrastructure, such as street trees and other green space, can be a low-cost alternative to promote frequency and duration of outdoor physical activity. Street trees and other green space may increase outdoor physical activity levels by providing shade, improving aesthetics, and promoting social engagement. Though street trees and green space provide many benefits and are publicly accessible at all times, these resources are not evenly distributed between neighborhoods. An objective analysis of street tree cover and green space in 6,407 block groups across 10 urban areas was conducted using fine-scale land cover data. Distribution of green infrastructure was then analyzed by minority status, income, car ownership, housing density, and employment density. The objective measure of street tree cover and green space is based on 1-meter resolution land cover data from the U.S. EPA-led EnviroAtlas. Tree cover was analyzed along each side of walkable road centerlines in the areas where sidewalks are estimated to be. Green space was calculated within 25 meters of road centerlines. Percent tree cover and green space per city block were then summarized to census block group (CBG). CBG demographics from the U.S. Census and built env

  19. Road traffic injuries: social change and development.

    PubMed

    Borowy, Iris

    2013-01-01

    In the course of the twentieth century road traffic injuries (RTIs) became a major public health burden. RTI deaths first increased in high-income countries and declined after the 1970s, and they soared in low- and middle-income countries from the 1980s onwards. As motorisation took off in North America and then spread to Europe and to the rest of the world discussions on RTIs have reflected and influenced international interpretations of the costs and benefits of 'development', as conventionally understood. Using discourse analysis, this paper explores how RTIs have been constructed in ways that have served regional and global development agendas and how 'development' has been (re-)negotiated through the discourse of RTIs and vice versa. For this purpose, this paper analyses a selection of key publications of organisations in charge of international health or transport and places them in the context of (a) the surrounding scientific discussion of the period and (b) of relevant data regarding RTI mortality, development funding, and road and other transport infrastructure. Findings suggest that constructions of RTIs have shifted from being a necessary price to be paid for development to being a sign of development at an early stage or of an insufficiently coordinated development. In recent years, RTI discussions have raised questions about development being misdirected and in need of fundamental rethinking. At present, discussions are believed to be at a crossroads between different evaluations of developmental conceptualisations for the future.

  20. Peer Pressure Road Trip 2012 - A Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popnoe, Olivia

    2012-10-01

    Each year since 2005 the Angelo State University SPS ``Peer Pressure Team'' has travelled for a week in May to promote physics and other sciences for grades K-12. This year, the Peer Pressure Team visited schools in West Texas and New Mexico. This was the first year the team has traveled outside of Texas, inspired by the SPS 2012 theme ``Physics Beyond Borders.'' The purpose of the Road Tours is to encourage an interest in science in children in grades K-12 and give experience in presenting and explaining physics to the undergraduate volunteers. The schools attended are carefully selected based on socioeconomic need and an underrepresentation in physics, as well as other sciences. During this week, the Peer Pressure Team saw about 1,500 students over 10 shows. Surveys were given to teachers post-demonstration to have students complete and return so the Team could gauge the effectiveness of the outreach program. In addition, the surveys allow the Team to determine which demonstrations had the most impact. We present the details of this year's road trip with the results and analysis of the survey data.

  1. Road loads acting on manual wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    VanSickle, D P; Cooper, R A; Boninger, M L

    2000-09-01

    A barrier to performing more in-depth analyzes during the wheelchair design process is a lack of dynamic reaction force and moment data, and the instrumentation to collect this data. Instrumentation was developed to collect the dynamic force and moment data. New data collections methodologies and analysis techniques were implemented to facilitate computer-aided-engineering for wheelchair designs. Data were collected during standardized wheelchair fatigue tests, while driving over a simulated road course within a laboratory, and while driving in the community. Seventeen subjects participated in this study. Based upon the three test conditions, a pseudo-statistical distribution of the force and moment data at both a caster and rear wheel was developed. The key parameters describing the distribution and the extremums of the data (minima and maxima) were compared using analysis of variance. The results showed that the force and moment distributions and extreme values were similar for the both sets of human trials (i.e., simulated road course and field trials). However, the standardized testing (i.e., wheelchair fatigue testing) differed from both human trials. The force/moment data gathered during this study are suitable for inputs in finite element analysis and dynamic modeling. Our results suggest that the fatigue tests should be modified to change the magnitude and increase the frequency of the forces and moments imparted on the wheelchair. The data reported from this study can be used to improve wheelchair standards and to facilitate computer-aided-engineer in wheelchair design.

  2. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, S.M.

    1995-04-01

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities around the country have, over the years, become contaminated with radionuclides and a range of organic and inorganic wastes. Many of the DOE sites encompass large land areas and were originally sited in relatively unpopulated regions of the country to minimize risk to surrounding populations. In addition, wastes were sometimes stored underground at the sites in 55-gallon drums, wood boxes or other containers until final disposal methods could be determined. Over the years, these containers have deteriorated, releasing contaminants into the surrounding environment. This contamination has spread, in some cases polluting extensive areas. The DOE would benefit greatly if it had reliable, road transportable, fully independent laboratory systems that could perform on-site the full range of analyses required. The goal of the Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) project is the development and demonstration of a system to meet the unique needs of the DOE for rapid, accurate analysis of a wide variety of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soils, ground water and surface waters. This document describes the requirements for such a laboratory.

  3. "Dispersion modeling approaches for near road | Science ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Roadway design and roadside barriers can have significant effects on the dispersion of traffic-generated pollutants, especially in the near-road environment. Dispersion models that can accurately simulate these effects are needed to fully assess these impacts for a variety of applications. For example, such models can be useful for evaluating the mitigation potential of roadside barriers in reducing near-road exposures and their associated adverse health effects. Two databases, a tracer field study and a wind tunnel study, provide measurements used in the development and/or validation of algorithms to simulate dispersion in the presence of noise barriers. The tracer field study was performed in Idaho Falls, ID, USA with a 6-m noise barrier and a finite line source in a variety of atmospheric conditions. The second study was performed in the meteorological wind tunnel at the US EPA and simulated line sources at different distances from a model noise barrier to capture the effect on emissions from individual lanes of traffic. In both cases, velocity and concentration measurements characterized the effect of the barrier on dispersion.This paper presents comparisons with the two datasets of the barrier algorithms implemented in two different dispersion models: US EPA’s R-LINE (a research dispersion modelling tool under development by the US EPA’s Office of Research and Development) and CERC’s ADMS model (ADMS-Urban). In R-LINE the physical features reveal

  4. On-road vehicle detection: a review.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zehang; Bebis, George; Miller, Ronald

    2006-05-01

    Developing on-board automotive driver assistance systems aiming to alert drivers about driving environments, and possible collision with other vehicles has attracted a lot of attention lately. In these systems, robust and reliable vehicle detection is a critical step. This paper presents a review of recent vision-based on-road vehicle detection systems. Our focus is on systems where the camera is mounted on the vehicle rather than being fixed such as in traffic/driveway monitoring systems. First, we discuss the problem of on-road vehicle detection using optical sensors followed by a brief review of intelligent vehicle research worldwide. Then, we discuss active and passive sensors to set the stage for vision-based vehicle detection. Methods aiming to quickly hypothesize the location of vehicles in an image as well as to verify the hypothesized locations are reviewed next. Integrating detection with tracking is also reviewed to illustrate the benefits of exploiting temporal continuity for vehicle detection. Finally, we present a critical overview of the methods discussed, we assess their potential for future deployment, and we present directions for future research.

  5. Vanderbilt free electron laser project in biomedical and materials research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haglund, Richard F.; Tolk, N. H.

    1988-06-01

    The Medical Free Electron Laser Program was awarded to develop, construct and operate a free-electron laser facility dedicated to biomedical and materials studies, with particular emphases on: fundamental studies of absorption and localization of electromagnetic energy on and near material surfaces, especially through electronic and other selective, non-statistical processes; non-thermal photon-materials interactions (e.g., electronic bond-breaking or vibrational energy transfer) in physical and biological materials as well as in long-wavelength biopolymer dynamics; development of FEL-based methods to study drug action and to characterize biomolecular properties and metabolic processes in biomembranes; clinical applications in otolaryngology, neurosurgery, ophthalmology and radiology stressing the use of the laser for selective laser-tissue, laser-cellular and laser-molecule interactions in both therapeutic and diagnostic modalities.

  6. The Kennedy Center: An Integral Component of the Vanderbilt Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burish, Thomas G.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the work of the John F. Kennedy Center for Research on Human Development, which for three decades has promoted interdisciplinary research on developmental disabilities. The paper describes how the Kennedy Center is an integral part of both the educational community and the surrounding civic community at the Peabody College of Vanderbilt…

  7. South Perimeter Road, view to the east. One and twocar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South Perimeter Road, view to the east. One- and two-car garages are visible at left; a row of citrus trees separate the road from a ball field at right; and a weather station is in the right foreground - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Building No. 1 (House), 30601 Wellton-Mohawk Drive, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  8. 9. COULTERVILLE ROAD VIEW AND MERCED RIVER CANYON. NOTE CUT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. COULTERVILLE ROAD VIEW AND MERCED RIVER CANYON. NOTE CUT FACE OF STANDING ROCK AT RIGHT. LOOKING N. GIS: N-37 42 52.1 / W-119 43 17.5 - Coulterville Road, Between Foresta & All-Weather Highway, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  9. 8. VIEW OF REMNANTS OF COULTERVILLE ROAD BELOW FORESTA. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF REMNANTS OF COULTERVILLE ROAD BELOW FORESTA. NOTE ASPHALT AT LEFT CENTER. NOTE RETAINING WALL AT RIGHT REAR. LOOKING NW. GIS: N-37 42 40.6 / W-119 43 27.6 - Coulterville Road, Between Foresta & All-Weather Highway, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  10. HORSESHOE CURVE IN GLACIER POINT ROAD NEAR GLACIER POINT. HALF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HORSESHOE CURVE IN GLACIER POINT ROAD NEAR GLACIER POINT. HALF DOME AT CENTER REAR. SAME VIEW AT CA-157-2. LOOKING NNE. GIS: N-37' 43 44.3 / W-119 34 14.1 - Glacier Point Road, Between Chinquapin Flat & Glacier Point, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  11. 2. HORSESHOE CURVE IN GLACIER POINT ROAD NEAR GLACIER POINT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. HORSESHOE CURVE IN GLACIER POINT ROAD NEAR GLACIER POINT. HALF DOME AT CENTER REAR. LOOKING NNE. GIS N-37 43 44.3 / W-119 34 14.1 - Glacier Point Road, Between Chinquapin Flat & Glacier Point, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  12. 9. SOUTHERLY VIEW OF THE ACCESS ROAD TO THE DOWNSTREAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. SOUTHERLY VIEW OF THE ACCESS ROAD TO THE DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF BIG DALTON DAM EXTENDING FROM THE DAM TO THE FOOTBRIDGE. VIEW FROM BIG DALTON DAM SHOWING THE TOE WEIR IN FOREGROUND AND FOOTBRIDGE IN BACKGROUND. - Big Dalton Dam, 2600 Big Dalton Canyon Road, Glendora, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. 5. WESTERLY VIEW OF THE ACCESS ROAD TO THE DOWNSTREAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. WESTERLY VIEW OF THE ACCESS ROAD TO THE DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF BIG TUJUNGA DAM EXTENDING FROM THE DAM TO THE FOOTBRIDGE. VIEW FROM BIG TUJUNGA DAM CREST SHOWING THE END OF PLUNGE POOL IN FOREGROUND AND FOOTBRIDGE IN BACKGROUND. - Big Tujunga Dam, 809 West Big Tujunga Road, Sunland, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 9. NORTHEAST VIEW OF THE ACCESS ROAD TO THE DOWNSTREAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. NORTHEAST VIEW OF THE ACCESS ROAD TO THE DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF BIG TUJUNGA DAM EXTENDING FROM THE DAM TO THE FOOTBRIDGE. BIG TUJUNGA DAM SPILLWAY BRIDGE IN BACKGROUND. - Big Tujunga Dam, 809 West Big Tujunga Road, Sunland, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. Impacts of roads and hunting on central African rainforest mammals.

    PubMed

    Laurance, William E; Croes, Barbara M; Tchignoumba, Landry; Lahm, Sally A; Alonso, Alfonso; Lee, Michelle E; Campbell, Patrick; Ondzeano, Claude

    2006-08-01

    Road expansion and associated increases in bunting pressure are a rapidly growing threat to African tropical wildlife. In the rainforests of southern Gabon, we compared abundances of larger (>1 kg) mammal species at varying distances from forest roads and between hunted and unhunted treatments (comparing a 130-km2 oil concession that was almost entirely protected from bunting with nearby areas outside the concession that had moderate hunting pressure). At each of 12 study sites that were evenly divided between hunted and unhunted areas, we established standardized 1-km transects at five distances (50, 300, 600, 900, and 1200 m) from an unpaved road, and then repeatedly surveyed mammals during the 2004 dry and wet seasons. Hunting had the greatest impact on duikers (Cephalophus spp.), forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus), and red river hogs (Potamochoerus porcus), which declined in abundance outside the oil concession, and lesser effects on lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and carnivores. Roads depressed abundances of duikers, sitatungas (Tragelaphus spekei gratus), and forest elephants (Loxondonta africana cyclotis), with avoidance of roads being stronger outside than inside the concession. Five monkey species showed little response to roads or hunting, whereas some rodents and pangolins increased in abundance outside the concession, possibly in response to greater forest disturbance. Our findings suggest that even moderate hunting pressure can markedly alter the structure of mammal communities in central Africa. Roads had the greatest impacts on large and small ungulates, with the magnitude of road avoidance increasing with local hunting pressure.

  16. Identifying Roads and Trains Under Canopy Using Lidar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited IDENTIFYING ROADS AND...identifying roads and trails hidden under dense jungle and forest canopies. The four analyzed regions include the Elkhorn Slough in Central California ...canopies. The four analyzed regions include the Elkhorn Slough in Central California (2005), Kahuku Training Area on the North side of Oahu Island in Hawaii

  17. 46 CFR 7.75 - Savannah River/Tybee Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Savannah River/Tybee Roads. 7.75 Section 7.75 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.75 Savannah River/Tybee Roads. A line drawn from the southwesternmost extremity of...

  18. 46 CFR 7.75 - Savannah River/Tybee Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Savannah River/Tybee Roads. 7.75 Section 7.75 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.75 Savannah River/Tybee Roads. A line drawn from the southwesternmost extremity of...

  19. 46 CFR 7.75 - Savannah River/Tybee Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Savannah River/Tybee Roads. 7.75 Section 7.75 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.75 Savannah River/Tybee Roads. A line drawn from the southwesternmost extremity of...

  20. 46 CFR 7.75 - Savannah River/Tybee Roads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Savannah River/Tybee Roads. 7.75 Section 7.75 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.75 Savannah River/Tybee Roads. A line drawn from the southwesternmost extremity of...