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Sample records for vapor phase hydrolysis

  1. Good Biocompatibility and Sintering Properties of Zirconia Nanoparticles Synthesized via Vapor-phase Hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jigang; Yin, Wenyan; He, Xiao; Wang, Qiang; Guo, Ming; Chen, Shaowei

    2016-01-01

    ZrO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by a vapor-phase hydrolysis process, and characterized in terms of crystalline structures, hardness and microstructures by X-ray diffraction, Vickers hardness test method, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements. Moreover, in vitro cytotoxicity evaluation and hemolysis assay showed that the nanoparticles possessed good biocompatibility. Hardness investigations and AFM measurements indicated that both the sintering temperature and compression force played an important role in determining the physical behaviors (hardness, roughness and density) of flakes of the ZrO2 nanoparticles. When ZrO2 nanoparticles synthesized at 500 °C were pressed into flakes under 6 MPa and sintered at 1400 °C, the resulting flakes exhibited an optimal combination of hardness (534.58 gf·mm−2), roughness (0.07 μm) and density (4.41 g·cm−3). As the Vickers hardness value of human bones is of 315~535 gf·mm−2 and the density of adult femuris about 1.3~1.7 g·cm−3, the experimental results showed that the ZrO2 flakes were comparable to human bones with a higher density. As a result, the synthesized ZrO2 NPs may be useful for biomedical applications, especially for bone repair and replacement in future. PMID:27725744

  2. The Inhibition of Vapor-Phase Corrosion. A Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    vaporization of the inhibitor in a nondissociated molecular form, followed by hydrolysis on the surface of the metal. The products of hydrolysis may...Patent No. 600328) was assigned to Shell in 1945 . Some time ago, camphor was used to protect military materials made of ferrous metals. Naphthalene vapor...reduce moisture, they also "reduce corrosion. More importantly, they decompose as they absorb water, and the decomposition products (as illustrated by

  3. Vapor phase pyrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steurer, Wolfgang

    1992-01-01

    The vapor phase pyrolysis process is designed exclusively for the lunar production of oxygen. In this concept, granulated raw material (soil) that consists almost entirely of metal oxides is vaporized and the vapor is raised to a temperature where it dissociates into suboxides and free oxygen. Rapid cooling of the dissociated vapor to a discrete temperature causes condensation of the suboxides, while the oxygen remains essentially intact and can be collected downstream. The gas flow path and flow rate are maintained at an optimum level by control of the pressure differential between the vaporization region and the oxygen collection system with the aid of the environmental vacuum.

  4. Extraterrestrial material analysis: loss of amino acids during liquid-phase acid hydrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buch, Arnaud; Brault, Amaury; Szopa, Cyril; Freissinet, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    Searching for building blocks of life in extraterrestrial material is a way to learn more about how life could have appeared on Earth. With this aim, liquid-phase acid hydrolysis has been used, since at least 1970 , in order to extract amino acids and other organic molecules from extraterrestrial materials (e.g. meteorites, lunar fines) or Earth analogues (e.g. Atacama desert soil). This procedure involves drastic conditions such as heating samples in 6N HCl for 24 h, either under inert atmosphere/vacuum, or air. Analysis of the hydrolyzed part of the sample should give its total (free plus bound) amino acid content. The present work deals with the influence of the 6N HCl hydrolysis on amino acid degradation. Our experiments have been performed on a standard solution of 17 amino acids. After liquid-phase acid hydrolysis (6N HCl) under argon atmosphere (24 h at 100°C), the liquid phase was evaporated and the dry residue was derivatized with N-Methyl-N-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) and dimethylformamide (DMF), followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. After comparison with derivatized amino acids from the standard solution, a significant reduction of the chromatographic peak areas was observed for most of the amino acids after liquid-phase acid hydrolysis. Furthermore, the same loss pattern was observed when the amino acids were exposed to cold 6N HCl for a short amount of time. The least affected amino acid, i.e. glycine, was found to be 73,93% percent less abundant compared to the non-hydrolyzed standard, while the most affected, i.e. histidine, was not found in the chromatograms after hydrolysis. Our experiments thereby indicate that liquid-phase acid hydrolysis, even under inert atmosphere, leads to a partial or total loss of all of the 17 amino acids present in the standard solution, and that a quick cold contact with 6N HCl is sufficient to lead to a loss of amino acids. Therefore, in the literature, the reported increase

  5. Cd(1-x)Zn(x)O [0.05 ≤x≤ 0.26] synthesized by vapor-diffusion induced hydrolysis and co-nucleation from aqueous metal salt solutions.

    PubMed

    Schwenzer, Birgit; Neilson, James R; Jeffries, Stacie M; Morse, Daniel E

    2011-02-14

    Nanoparticulate Cd(1-x)Zn(x)O (x = 0, 0.05-0.26, 1) is synthesized in a simple two-step synthesis approach. Vapor-diffusion induced catalytic hydrolysis of two molecular precursors at low temperature induces co-nucleation and polycondensation to produce bimetallic layered hydroxide salts (M = Cd, Zn) as precursor materials which are subsequently converted to Cd(1-x)Zn(x)O at 400 °C. Unlike ternary materials prepared by standard co-precipitation procedures, all products presented here containing < 30 mol% Zn(2+) ions are homogeneous in elemental composition on the micrometre scale. This measured compositional homogeneity within the samples, as determined by energy dispersive spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy, is a testimony to the kinetic control achieved by employing slow hydrolysis conditions. In agreement with this observation, the optical properties of the materials obey Vegard's Law for a homogeneous solid solution of Cd(1-x)Zn(x)O, where x corresponds to the values determined by inductively coupled plasma analysis, even though powder X-ray diffraction shows phase separation into a cubic mixed metal oxide phase and a hexagonal ZnO phase at all doping levels.

  6. Phase transformations during the growth of paracetamol crystals from the vapor phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, A. P.; Rubets, V. P.; Antipov, V. V.; Bordei, N. S.

    2014-07-01

    Phase transformations during the growth of paracetamol crystals from the vapor phase are studied by differential scanning calorimetry. It is found that the vapor-crystal phase transition is actually a superposition of two phase transitions: a first-order phase transition with variable density and a second-order phase transition with variable ordering. The latter, being a diffuse phase transition, results in the formation of a new, "pretransition," phase irreversibly spent in the course of the transition, which ends in the appearance of orthorhombic crystals. X-ray diffraction data and micrograph are presented.

  7. Vapor Phase Deposition Using Plasma Spray-PVD™

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Niessen, K.; Gindrat, M.; Refke, A.

    2010-01-01

    Plasma spray—physical vapor deposition (PS-PVD) is a low pressure plasma spray technology to deposit coatings out of the vapor phase. PS-PVD is a part of the family of new hybrid processes recently developed by Sulzer Metco AG (Switzerland) on the basis of the well-established low pressure plasma spraying (LPPS) technology. Included in this new process family are plasma spray—chemical vapor deposition (PS-CVD) and plasma spray—thin film (PS-TF) processes. In comparison to conventional vacuum plasma spraying and LPPS, these new processes use a high energy plasma gun operated at a work pressure below 2 mbar. This leads to unconventional plasma jet characteristics which can be used to obtain specific and unique coatings. An important new feature of PS-PVD is the possibility to deposit a coating not only by melting the feed stock material which builds up a layer from liquid splats, but also by vaporizing the injected material. Therefore, the PS-PVD process fills the gap between the conventional PVD technologies and standard thermal spray processes. The possibility to vaporize feedstock material and to produce layers out of the vapor phase results in new and unique coating microstructures. The properties of such coatings are superior to those of thermal spray and EB-PVD coatings. This paper reports on the progress made at Sulzer Metco to develop functional coatings build up from vapor phase of oxide ceramics and metals.

  8. Vapor-liquid phase separator studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, S. W. K.; Lee, J. M.; Kim, Y. I.; Hepler, W. A.; Frederking, T. H. K.

    1983-01-01

    Porous plugs serve as both entropy rejection devices and phase separation components separating the vapor phase on the downstream side from liquid Helium 2 upstream. The liquid upstream is the cryo-reservoir fluid needed for equipment cooling by means of Helium 2, i.e Helium-4 below its lambda temperature in near-saturated states. The topics outlined are characteristic lengths, transport equations and plug results.

  9. Thermodynamic considerations of the vapor phase reactions in III-nitride metal organic vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiguchi, Kazuki; Shirakawa, Hiroki; Chokawa, Kenta; Araidai, Masaaki; Kangawa, Yoshihiro; Kakimoto, Koichi; Shiraishi, Kenji

    2017-04-01

    We analyzed the metal organic vapor phase epitaxial growth mechanism of the III-nitride semiconductors GaN, AlN, and InN by first-principles calculations and thermodynamic analyses. In these analyses, we investigated the decomposition processes of the group III source gases X(CH3)3 (X = Ga, Al, In) at finite temperatures and determined whether the (CH3)2GaNH2 adduct can be formed or not. The results of our calculations show that the (CH3)2GaNH2 adduct cannot be formed in the gas phase in GaN metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE), whereas, in AlN MOVPE, the formation of the (CH3)2AlNH2 adduct in the gas phase is exclusive. In the case of GaN MOVPE, trimethylgallium (TMG, [Ga(CH3)3]) decomposition into Ga gas on the growth surface with the assistance of H2 carrier gas, instead of the formation of the (CH3)2GaNH2 adduct, occurs almost exclusively. Moreover, in the case of InN MOVPE, the formation of the (CH3)2InNH2 adduct does not occur and it is relatively easy to produce In gas even without H2 in the carrier gas.

  10. Water vapor radiometry research and development phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Resch, G. M.; Chavez, M. C.; Yamane, N. L.; Barbier, K. M.; Chandlee, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the research and development phase for eight dual-channel water vapor radiometers constructed for the Crustal Dynamics Project at the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, and for the NASA Deep Space Network. These instruments were developed to demonstrate that the variable path delay imposed on microwave radio transmissions by atmospheric water vapor can be calibrated, particularly as this phenomenon affects very long baseline interferometry measurement systems. Water vapor radiometry technology can also be used in systems that involve moist air meteorology and propagation studies.

  11. Melt-Vapor Phase Diagram of the Te-S System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volodin, V. N.; Trebukhov, S. A.; Kenzhaliyev, B. K.; Nitsenko, A. V.; Burabaeva, N. M.

    2018-03-01

    The values of partial pressure of saturated vapor of the constituents of the Te-S system are determined from boiling points. The boundaries of the melt-vapor phase transition at atmospheric pressure and in vacuum of 2000 and 100 Pa are calculated on the basis of partial pressures. A phase diagram that includes vapor-liquid equilibrium fields whose boundaries allow us to assess the behavior of elements upon distillation fractioning is plotted. It is established that the separation of elements is possible at the first evaporation-condensation cycle. Complications can be caused by crystallization of a sulfur solid solution in tellurium.

  12. Application of Thioether for Vapor Phase Lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, E. Earl

    1997-01-01

    The objective of these studies was to identify the optimal conditions for vapor phase lubrication using Thioether for both sliding and rolling wear. The important variable include; (1) The component materials including M50 steel, monel and silicon nitride. (2) The vapor concentration and flow rate. (3) The temperature in the range of 600 F to 1500 F. (4) The loads and rolling and/or sliding speeds.

  13. Electrofluid hydrolysis enhances the production of fermentable sugars from corncob via in/reverse-phase induced voltage.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fengfeng; Jin, Yamei; Li, Dandan; Zhou, Yuyi; Guo, Lunan; Zhang, Mengyue; Xu, Xueming; Yang, Na

    2017-06-01

    To improve the economic value of lignocellulosic biomasses, an innovative electrofluidic technology has been applied to the efficient hydrolysis of corncob. The system combines fluidic reactors and induced voltages via magnetoelectric coupling effect. The excitation voltage had a positive impact on reducing sugar content (RSC). But, the increase of voltage frequency at 400-700Hz caused a slight decline of the RSC. Higher temperature limits the electrical effect on the hydrolysis at 70-80°C. The energy efficiency increased under the addition of metallic ions and series of in-phase induced voltage to promote hydrolysis. In addition, the 4-series system with in-phase and reverse-phase induced voltages under the synchronous magnetic flux, exhibited a significant influence on the RSC with a maximum increase of 56%. High throughput could be achieved by increasing series in a compact system. Electrofluid hydrolysis avoids electrochemical reaction, electrode corrosion, and sample contamination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bacterial chemotaxis along vapor-phase gradients of naphthalene.

    PubMed

    Hanzel, Joanna; Harms, Hauke; Wick, Lukas Y

    2010-12-15

    The role of bacterial growth and translocation for the bioremediation of organic contaminants in the vadose zone is poorly understood. Whereas air-filled pores restrict the mobility of bacteria, diffusion of volatile organic compounds in air is more efficient than in water. Past research, however, has focused on chemotactic swimming of bacteria along gradients of water-dissolved chemicals. In this study we tested if and to what extent Pseudomonas putida PpG7 (NAH7) chemotactically reacts to vapor-phase gradients forming above their swimming medium by the volatilization from a spot source of solid naphthalene. The development of an aqueous naphthalene gradient by air-water partitioning was largely suppressed by means of activated carbon in the agar. Surprisingly, strain PpG7 was repelled by vapor-phase naphthalene although the steady state gaseous concentrations were 50-100 times lower than the aqueous concentrations that result in positive chemotaxis of the same strain. It is thus assumed that the efficient gas-phase diffusion resulting in a steady, and possibly toxic, naphthalene flux to the cells controlled the chemotactic reaction rather than the concentration to which the cells were exposed. To our knowledge this is the first demonstration of apparent chemotactic behavior of bacteria in response to vapor-phase effector gradients.

  15. Vapor-phase exchange of perchloroethene between soil and plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Struckhoff, G.C.; Burken, J.G.; Schumacher, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    Tree core concentrations of tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethene, PCE) at the Riverfront Superfund Site in New Haven, MO, were found to mimic the profile of soil phase concentrations. The observed soil-tree core relationship was stronger than that of groundwater PCE to tree core concentrations at the same site. Earlier research has shown a direct, linear relationship between tree core and groundwater concentrations of chlorinated solvents and other organics. Laboratory-scale experiments were performed to elucidate this phenomenon, including determining partitioning coefficients of PCE between plant tissues and air and between plant tissues and water, measured to be 8.1 and 49 L/kg, respectively. The direct relationship of soil to tree core PCE concentrations was hypothesized to be caused by diffusion between tree roots and the soil vapor phase in the subsurface. The central findings of this research are discovering the importance of subsurface vapor-phase transfer for VOCs and uncovering a direct relationship between soil vapor-phase chlorinated solvents and uptake rates that impact contaminant translocation from the subsurface and transfer into the atmosphere. ?? 2005 American Chemical Society.

  16. The generation of HCl in the system CaCl2-H2O: Vapor-liquid relations from 380-500°C

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bischoff, James L.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Fournier, Robert O.

    1996-01-01

    We determined vapor-liquid relations (P-T-x) and derived critical parameters for the system CaCl2-H2O from 380-500??C. Results show that the two-phase region of this system is extremely large and occupies a significant portion of the P-T space to which circulation of fluids in the Earth's crust is constrained. Results also show the system generates significant amounts of HCl (as much as 0.1 mol/kg) in the vapor phase buffered by the liquid at surprisingly high pressures (???230 bars at 380??C, <580 bars at 500??C), presumably by hydrolysis of CaCl2: CaCl2 + 2H2O = Ca(OH)2 + 2HCl. We interpret the abundance of HCl in the vapor as due to its preference for the vapor phase, and by the preference of Ca(OH)2 for either the liquid phase or solid. The recent recognition of the abundance of CaCl2 in deep brines of the Earth's crust and their hydrothermal mobilization makes the hydrolysis of CaCl2 geologically important. The boiling of Ca-rich brines produces abundant HCl buffered by the presence of the liquid at moderate pressures. The resultant Ca(OH)2 generated by this process reacts with silicates to form a variety of alteration products, such as epidote, whereas the vapor produces acid-alteration of rocks through which it ascends.

  17. Stand-off detection of vapor phase explosives by resonance enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlerding, Anneli; Johansson, Ida; Wallin, Sara; Östmark, Henric

    2010-10-01

    Stand-off measurements on nitromethane (NM), 2,4-DNT and 2,4,6-TNT in vapor phase using resonance Raman spectroscopy have been performed. The Raman cross sections for NM, DNT and TNT in vapor phase have been measured in the wavelength range 210-300 nm under laboratory conditions, in order to estimate how large resonance enhancement factors can be achieved for these explosives. The measurements show that the signal is greatly enhanced, up to 250.000 times for 2,4-DNT and 60.000 times for 2,4,6-TNT compared to the non-resonant signal at 532 nm. For NM the resonance enhancement enabled realistic outdoor measurements in vapor phase at 13 m distance. This all indicate a potential for resonance Raman spectroscopy as a stand-off technique for detection of vapor phase explosives.

  18. Nonlinear dynamics of confined thin liquid-vapor bilayer systems with phase change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanatani, Kentaro; Oron, Alexander

    2011-03-01

    We numerically investigate the nonlinear evolution of the interface of a thin liquid-vapor bilayer system confined by rigid horizontal walls from both below and above. The lateral variation of the vapor pressure arising from phase change is taken into account in the present analysis. When the liquid (vapor) is heated (cooled) and gravity acts toward the liquid, the deflection of the interface monotonically grows, leading to a rupture of the vapor layer, whereas nonruptured stationary states are found when the liquid (vapor) is cooled (heated) and gravity acts toward the vapor. In the latter case, vapor-flow-driven convective cells are found in the liquid phase in the stationary state. The average vapor pressure and interface temperature deviate from their equilibrium values once the interface departs from the flat equilibrium state. Thermocapillarity does not have a significant effect near the thermodynamic equilibrium, but becomes important if the system significantly deviates from it.

  19. Vapor phase elemental sulfur amendment for sequestering mercury in contaminated soil

    DOEpatents

    Looney, Brian B.; Denham, Miles E.; Jackson, Dennis G.

    2014-07-08

    The process of treating elemental mercury within the soil is provided by introducing into the soil a heated vapor phase of elemental sulfur. As the vapor phase of elemental sulfur cools, sulfur is precipitated within the soil and then reacts with any elemental mercury thereby producing a reaction product that is less hazardous than elemental mercury.

  20. Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael T.; Harper, Lynn D. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Reduction (VPCAR) teststand and the results of an experimental program designed to evaluate the potential of the technology as a water purification process. In the experimental program the technology is evaluated based upon product water purity, water recovery rate, and power consumption. The experimental work demonstrates that the technology produces high purity product water and attains high water recovery rates at a relatively high specific power consumption. The experimental program was conducted in 3 phases. In phase I an Igepon(TM) soap and water mixture was used to evaluate the performance of an innovative Wiped-Film Rotating-Disk evaporator and associated demister. In phase II a phenol-water solution was used to evaluate the performance of the high temperature catalytic oxidation reactor. In phase III a urine analog was used to evaluate the performance of the combined distillation/oxidation functions of the processor.

  1. Sporicidal Activity of the KMT reagent in its vapor phase against Geobacillus stearothermophilus Spores.

    PubMed

    Kida, Nori; Mochizuki, Yasushi; Taguchi, Fumiaki

    2007-01-01

    In an investigation of the sporicidal activity of the KMT reagent, a vapor phase study was performed using five kinds of carriers contaminated with Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores. When 25 ml of the KMT reagent was vaporized in a chamber (capacity; approximately 95 liters), the 2-step heating method (vaporization by a combination of low temperature and high temperature) showed the most effective sporicidal activity in comparison with the 1-step heating method (rapid vaporization). The 2-step heating method appeared to be related to the sporicidal activity of vaporized KMT reagent, i.e., ethanol and iodine, which vaporized mainly when heated at a low temperature such as 55 C, and acidic water, which vaporized mainly when heated at a high temperature such as 300 C. We proposed that the KMT reagent can be used as a new disinfectant not only in the liquid phase but also in the vapor phase in the same way as peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide.

  2. Investigation of local evaporation flux and vapor-phase pressure at an evaporative droplet interface.

    PubMed

    Duan, Fei; Ward, C A

    2009-07-07

    In the steady-state experiments of water droplet evaporation, when the throat was heating at a stainless steel conical funnel, the interfacial liquid temperature was found to increase parabolically from the center line to the rim of the funnel with the global vapor-phase pressure at around 600 Pa. The energy conservation analysis at the interface indicates that the energy required for evaporation is maintained by thermal conduction to the interface from the liquid and vapor phases, thermocapillary convection at interface, and the viscous dissipation globally and locally. The local evaporation flux increases from the center line to the periphery as a result of multiple effects of energy transport at the interface. The local vapor-phase pressure predicted from statistical rate theory (SRT) is also found to increase monotonically toward the interface edge from the center line. However, the average value of the local vapor-phase pressures is in agreement with the measured global vapor-phase pressure within the measured error bar.

  3. Hydrolysis of glyoxal in water-restricted environments: formation of organic aerosol precursors through formic acid catalysis.

    PubMed

    Hazra, Montu K; Francisco, Joseph S; Sinha, Amitabha

    2014-06-12

    The hydrolysis of glyoxal involving one to three water molecules and also in the presence of a water molecule and formic acid has been investigated. Our results show that glyoxal-diol is the major product of the hydrolysis and that formic acid, through its ability to facilitate intermolecular hydrogen atom transfer, is considerably more efficient than water as a catalyst in the hydrolysis process. Additionally, once the glyoxal-diol is formed, the barrier for further hydrolysis to form the glyoxal-tetrol is effectively reduced to zero in the presence of a single water and formic acid molecule. There are two important implications arising from these findings. First, the results suggest that under the catalytic influence of formic acid, glyoxal hydrolysis can impact the growth of atmospheric aerosols. As a result of enhanced hydrogen bonding, mediated through their polar OH functional groups, the diol and tetrol products are expected to have significantly lower vapor pressure than the parent glyoxal molecule; hence they can more readily partition into the particle phase and contribute to the growth of secondary organic aerosols. In addition, our findings provide insight into how glyoxal-diol and glyoxal-tetrol might be formed under atmospheric conditions associated with water-restricted environments and strongly suggest that the formation of these precursors for secondary organic aerosol growth is not likely restricted solely to the bulk aqueous phase as is currently assumed.

  4. Speciation and quantification of vapor phases in soy biodiesel and waste cooking oil biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chiung-Yu; Lan, Cheng-Hang; Dai, Yu-Tung

    2006-12-01

    This study characterizes the compositions of two biodiesel vapors, soy biodiesel and waste cooking oil biodiesel, to provide a comprehensive understanding of biodiesels. Vapor phases were sampled by purging oil vapors through thermal desorption tubes which were then analyzed by the thermal desorption/GC/MS system. The results show that the compounds of biodiesel vapors can be divided into four groups. They include methyl esters (the main biodiesel components), oxygenated chemicals, alkanes and alkenes, and aromatics. The first two chemical groups are only found in biodiesel vapors, not in the diesel vapor emissions. The percentages of mean concentrations for methyl esters, oxygenated chemicals, alkanes and alkenes, and aromatics are 66.1%, 22.8%, 4.8% and 6.4%, respectively for soy biodiesel, and 35.8%, 35.9%, 27.9% and 0.3%, respectively for waste cooking oil biodiesel at a temperature of 25+/-2 degrees C. These results show that biodiesels have fewer chemicals and lower concentrations in vapor phase than petroleum diesel, and the total emission rates are between one-sixteenth and one-sixth of that of diesel emission, corresponding to fuel evaporative emissions of loading losses of between 106 microg l(-1) and 283 microg l(-1). Although diesels generate more vapor phase emissions, biodiesels still generate considerable amount of vapor emissions, particularly the emissions from methyl esters and oxygenated chemicals. These two chemical groups are more reactive than alkanes and aromatics. Therefore, speciation and quantification of biodiesel vapor phases are important.

  5. Vapor-liquid phase separator permeability results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, S. W. K.; Frederking, T. H. K.

    1981-01-01

    Continued studies are described in the area of vapor-liquid phase separator work with emphasis on permeabilities of porous sintered plugs (stainless steel, nominal pore size 2 micrometer). The temperature dependence of the permeability has been evaluated in classical fluid using He-4 gas at atmospheric pressure and in He-2 on the basis of a modified, thermosmotic permeability of the normal fluid.

  6. Development of Vapor-Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John; Kiss, Mark; Borchers, Bruce; Tleimat, Badawi; Tleimat, Maher; Quinn, Gregory; Fort, James; Nalette, Tim; Baker, Gale; hide

    2007-01-01

    A report describes recent accomplishments of a continuing effort to develop the vapor-phase catalytic ammonia removal (VPCAR) process for recycling wastewater for consumption by humans aboard a spacecraft in transit to Mars.

  7. An Indirect Method for Vapor Pressure and Phase Change Enthalpy Determination by Thermogravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giani, Samuele; Riesen, Rudolf; Schawe, Jürgen E. K.

    2018-07-01

    Vapor pressure is a fundamental property of a pure substance. This property is the pressure of a compound's vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phase (solid or liquid). When phase equilibrium condition is met, phase coexistence of a pure substance involves a continuum interplay of vaporization or sublimation to gas and condensation back to their liquid or solid form, respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques are based on mass loss determination and are well suited for the study of such phenomena. In this work, it is shown that TGA method using a reference substance is a suitable technique for vapor pressure determination. This method is easy and fast because it involves a series of isothermal segments. In contrast to original Knudsen's approach, where the use of high vacuum is mandatory, adopting the proposed method a given experimental setup is calibrated under ambient pressure conditions. The theoretical framework of this method is based on a generalization of Langmuir equation of free evaporation: The real strength of the proposed method is the ability to determine the vapor pressure independently of the molecular mass of the vapor. A demonstration of this method has been performed using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation of state to derive the working equation. This algorithm, however, is adaptive and admits the use of other equations of state. The results of a series of experiments with organic molecules indicate that the average difference of the measured and the literature vapor pressure amounts to about 5 %. Vapor pressure determined in this study spans from few mPa up to several kPa. Once the p versus T diagram is obtained, phase transition enthalpy can additionally be calculated from the data.

  8. FIELD TRAPPING OF SUBSURFACE VAPOR PHASE PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil gas samples from intact soil cores were collected on adsorbents at a field site, then thermally desorbed and analyzed by laboratory gas chromatography (GC). ertical concentration profiles of predominant vapor phase petroleum hydrocarbons under ambient conditions were obtaine...

  9. Vapor-Phase Stoichiometry and Heat Treatment of CdTe Starting Material for Physical Vapor Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Sha, Yi-Gao; Lehoczky, S. L.; Liu, Hao-Chieh; Fang, Rei; Brebrick, R. F.

    1998-01-01

    Six batches of CdTe, having total amounts of material from 99 to 203 g and gross mole fraction of Te, X(sub Te), 0.499954-0.500138, were synthesized from pure Cd and Te elements. The vapor-phase stoichiometry of the assynthesized CdTe batches was determined from the partial pressure of Te2, P(sub Te2) using an optical absorption technique. The measured vapor compositions at 870 C were Te-rich for all of the batches with partial pressure ratios of Cd to Te2, P(sub Cd)/P(sub Te2), ranging from 0.00742 to 1.92. After the heat treatment of baking under dynamic vacuum at 870 C for 8 min, the vapor-phase compositions moved toward that of the congruent sublimation, i.e. P(sub Cd)/P(sub Te2) = 2.0, with the measured P(sub Cd)/P(sub Te2) varying from 1.84 to 3.47. The partial pressure measurements on one of the heat-treated samples also showed that the sample remained close to the congruent sublimation condition over the temperature range 800-880 C.

  10. Phase-field model of vapor-liquid-solid nanowire growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Nan; Upmanyu, Moneesh; Karma, Alain

    2018-03-01

    We present a multiphase-field model to describe quantitatively nanowire growth by the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process. The free-energy functional of this model depends on three nonconserved order parameters that distinguish the vapor, liquid, and solid phases and describe the energetic properties of various interfaces, including arbitrary forms of anisotropic γ plots for the solid-vapor and solid-liquid interfaces. The evolution equations for those order parameters describe basic kinetic processes including the rapid (quasi-instantaneous) equilibration of the liquid catalyst to a droplet shape with constant mean curvature, the slow incorporation of growth atoms at the droplet surface, and crystallization within the droplet. The standard constraint that the sum of the phase fields equals unity and the conservation of the number of catalyst atoms, which relates the catalyst volume to the concentration of growth atoms inside the droplet, are handled via separate Lagrange multipliers. An analysis of the model is presented that rigorously maps the phase-field equations to a desired set of sharp-interface equations for the evolution of the phase boundaries under the constraint of force balance at three-phase junctions (triple points) given by the Young-Herring relation that includes torque term related to the anisotropy of the solid-liquid and solid-vapor interface excess free energies. Numerical examples of growth in two dimensions are presented for the simplest case of vanishing crystalline anisotropy and the more realistic case of a solid-liquid γ plot with cusped minima corresponding to two sets of (10 ) and (11 ) facets. The simulations reproduce many of the salient features of nanowire growth observed experimentally, including growth normal to the substrate with tapering of the side walls, transitions between different growth orientations, and crawling growth along the substrate. They also reproduce different observed relationships between the nanowire growth

  11. A Preliminary Study on the Vapor/Mist Phase Lubrication of a Spur Gearbox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, Wilfredo; Handschuh, Robert F.

    1999-01-01

    Organophosphates have been the primary compounds used in vapor/mist phase lubrication studies involving ferrous bearing material. Experimental results have indicated that the initial formation of an iron phosphate film on a rubbing ferrous surface, followed by the growth (by cationic diffusion) of a lubricious pyrophosphate-type coating over the iron phosphate, is the reason organophosphates work well as vapor/mist phase lubricants. Recent work, however, has shown that this mechanism leads to the depletion of surface iron atoms and to eventual lubrication failure. A new organophosphate formulation was developed which circumvents surface iron depletion. This formulation was tested by generating an iron phosphate coating on an aluminum surface. The new formulation was then used to vapor/mist phase lubricate a spur gearbox in a preliminary study.

  12. Phase-transitional Fe3O4/perfluorohexane Microspheres for Magnetic Droplet Vaporization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ronghui; Zhou, Yang; Zhang, Ping; Chen, Yu; Gao, Wei; Xu, Jinshun; Chen, Hangrong; Cai, Xiaojun; Zhang, Kun; Li, Pan; Wang, Zhigang; Hu, Bing; Ying, Tao; Zheng, Yuanyi

    2017-01-01

    Activating droplets vaporization has become an attractive strategy for ultrasound imaging and physical therapy due to the significant increase in ultrasound backscatter signals and its ability to physically damage the tumor cells. However, the current two types of transitional droplets named after their activation methods have their respective limitations. To circumvent the limitations of these activation methods, here we report the concept of magnetic droplet vaporization (MDV) for stimuli-responsive cancer theranostics by a magnetic-responsive phase-transitional agent. This magnetic-sensitive phase-transitional agent-perfluorohexane (PFH)-loaded porous magnetic microspheres (PFH-PMMs), with high magnetic-thermal energy-transfer capability, could quickly respond to external alternating current (AC) magnetic fields to produce thermal energy and trigger the vaporization of the liquid PFH. We systematically demonstrated MDV both in vitro and in vivo. This novel trigger method with deep penetration can penetrate the air-filled viscera and trigger the vaporization of the phase-transitional agent without the need of pre-focusing lesion. This unique MDV strategy is expected to substantially broaden the biomedical applications of nanotechnology and promote the clinical treatment of tumors that are not responsive to chemical therapies.

  13. Hybrid vapor phase-solution phase growth techniques for improved CZT(S,Se) photovoltaic device performance

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Liang-Yi; Gershon, Talia S.; Haight, Richard A.; Lee, Yun Seog

    2016-12-27

    A hybrid vapor phase-solution phase CZT(S,Se) growth technique is provided. In one aspect, a method of forming a kesterite absorber material on a substrate includes the steps of: depositing a layer of a first kesterite material on the substrate using a vapor phase deposition process, wherein the first kesterite material includes Cu, Zn, Sn, and at least one of S and Se; annealing the first kesterite material to crystallize the first kesterite material; and depositing a layer of a second kesterite material on a side of the first kesterite material opposite the substrate using a solution phase deposition process, wherein the second kesterite material includes Cu, Zn, Sn, and at least one of S and Se, wherein the first kesterite material and the second kesterite material form a multi-layer stack of the absorber material on the substrate. A photovoltaic device and method of formation thereof are also provided.

  14. Gas phase hydrolysis of formaldehyde to form methanediol: impact of formic acid catalysis.

    PubMed

    Hazra, Montu K; Francisco, Joseph S; Sinha, Amitabha

    2013-11-21

    We find that formic acid (FA) is very effective at facilitating diol formation through its ability to reduce the barrier for the formaldehyde (HCHO) hydrolysis reaction. The rate limiting step in the mechanism involves the isomerization of a prereactive collision complex formed through either the HCHO···H2O + FA and/or HCHO + FA···H2O pathways. The present study finds that the effective barrier height, defined as the difference between the zero-point vibrational energy (ZPE) corrected energy of the transition state (TS) and the HCHO···H2O + FA and HCHO + FA···H2O starting reagents, are respectively only ∼1 and ∼4 kcal/mol. These barriers are substantially lower than the ∼17 kcal/mol barrier associated with the corresponding step in the hydrolysis of HCHO catalyzed by a single water molecule (HCHO + H2O + H2O). The significantly lower barrier heights for the formic acid catalyzed pathway reveal a new important role that organic acids play in the gas phase hydrolysis of atmospheric carbonyl compounds.

  15. Continuous Determination of High-Vapor Phase Concentrations of Tetrachloroethylene Using On-Line Mass Spectrometry

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method was developed to determine the vapor concentration of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) at and below its equilibrium vapor phase concentration, 168,000 μg/L (25°C). Vapor samples were drawn by vacuum into a six-port sampling valve and injected through a jet separator into an io...

  16. Hydrolysis rate constants at 10-25 °C can be more than doubled by a short anaerobic pre-hydrolysis at 35 °C.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Gao, R; Naka, A; Hendrickx, T L G; Rijnaarts, H H M; Zeeman, G

    2016-11-01

    Hydrolysis is the first step of the anaerobic digestion of complex wastewater and considered as the rate limiting step especially at low temperature. Low temperature (10-25 °C) hydrolysis was investigated with and without application of a short pre-hydrolysis at 35 °C. Batch experiments were executed using cellulose and tributyrin as model substrates for carbohydrates and lipids. The results showed that the low temperature anaerobic hydrolysis rate constants increased by a factor of 1.5-10, when the short anaerobic pre-hydrolysis at 35 °C was applied. After the pre-hydrolysis phase at 35 °C and decreasing the temperature, no lag phase was observed in any case. Without the pre-hydrolysis, the lag phase for cellulose hydrolysis at 35-10 °C was 4-30 days. Tributyrin hydrolysis showed no lag phase at any temperature. The hydrolysis efficiency of cellulose increased from 40 to 62%, and from 9.6 to 40% after 9.1 days at 15 and 10 °C, respectively, when the pre-hydrolysis at 35 °C was applied. The hydrolysis efficiency of tributyrin at low temperatures with the pre-hydrolysis at 35 °C was similar to those without the pre-hydrolysis. The hydrolytic activity of the supernatant collected from the digestate after batch digestion of cellulose and tributyrin at 35 °C was higher than that of the supernatants collected from the low temperature (≤25 °C) digestates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Vapor-crystal phase transition in synthesis of paracetamol films by vacuum evaporation and condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, A. P.; Rubets, V. P.; Antipov, V. V.; Bordei, N. S.; Zarembo, V. I.

    2014-03-01

    We report on the structural and technological investigations of the vapor-crystal phase transition during synthesis of paracetamol films of the monoclinic system by vacuum evaporation and condensation in the temperature range 220-320 K. The complex nature of the transformation accompanied by the formation of a gel-like phase is revealed. The results are interpreted using a model according to which the vapor-crystal phase transition is not a simple first-order phase transition, but is a nonlinear superposition of two phase transitions: a first-order transition with a change in density and a second-order phase transition with a change in ordering. Micrographs of the surface of the films are obtained at different phases of formation.

  18. Rapid Quantitative Analysis of Naringenin in the Fruit Bodies of Inonotus vaninii by Two-phase Acid Hydrolysis Followed by Reversed Phase-high Performance Liquid Chromatography-ultra Violet.

    PubMed

    Guohua, Xia; Pan, Ruirong; Bao, Rui; Ge, Yanru; Zhou, Cunshan; Shen, Yuping

    2017-01-01

    Sanghuang is one of mystical traditional Chinese medicines recorded earliest 2000 years ago, that included various fungi of Inonotus genus and was well-known for antitumor effect in modern medicine. Inonotus vaninii is grown in natural forest of Northeastern China merely and used as Sanghuang commercially, but it has no quality control specification until now. This study was to establish a rapid method of two-phase acid hydrolysis followed by reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography-ultra violet (RP-HPLC-UV) to quantify naringenin in the fruit body of I. vaninii . Sample solution was prepared by pretreatment of raw material in two-phase acid hydrolysis and the hydrolysis technology was optimized. After reconstitution, analysis was performed using RP-HPLC-UV. The method validation was investigated and the naringenin content of sample and comparison were determined. The naringenin was obtained by two-phase acid hydrolysis method, namely, 10.0 g of raw material was hydrolyzed in 200 mL of 1% sulfuric acid aqueous solution (v/v) and 400 mL of chloroform in oil bath at 110°C for 2 h. Good linearity ( r = 0.9992) was achieved between concentration of analyte and peak area. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of precision was 2.47% and the RSD of naringenin contents for repeatability was 3.13%. The accuracy was supported with recoveries at 96.37%, 97.30%, and 99.31%. The sample solution prepared using the proposed method contained higher content of naringenin than conventional method and was stable for 8 h. Due to the high efficiency of sample preparation and high reliability of the HPLC method, it is feasible to use this method for routine analysis of naringenin in the fungus. A convenient two-phase acid hydrolysis was employed to produce naringenin from raw material, and then an efficient and reliable reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography-ultra violet method was established to monitor naringenin in the fruit bodies of Inonotus vaninii

  19. Transient-pressure analysis in geothermal steam reservoirs with an immobile vaporizing liquid phase

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moench, A.F.; Atkinson, P.G.

    1978-01-01

    A finite-difference model for the radial horizontal flow of steam through a porous medium is used to evaluate transient-pressure behavior in the presence of an immobile vaporizing or condensing liquid phase. Graphs of pressure drawdown and buildup in terms of dimensionless pressure and time are obtained for a well discharging steam at a constant mass flow rate for a specified time. The assumptions are made that the steam is in local thermal equilibrium with the reservoir rocks, that temperature changes are due only to phase change, and that effects of vapor-pressure lowering are negligible. Computations show that when a vaporizing liquid phase is present the pressure drawdown exhibits behavior similar to that observed in noncondensable gas reservoirs, but delayed in time. A theoretical analysis allows for the computation of this delay and demonstrates that it is independent of flow geometry. The response that occurs upon pressure buildup is markedly different from that in a noncondensable gas system. This result may provide a diagnostic tool for establishing the existence of phase-change phenomena within a reservoir. ?? 1979.

  20. Improved thermal lattice Boltzmann model for simulation of liquid-vapor phase change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qing; Zhou, P.; Yan, H. J.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, an improved thermal lattice Boltzmann (LB) model is proposed for simulating liquid-vapor phase change, which is aimed at improving an existing thermal LB model for liquid-vapor phase change [S. Gong and P. Cheng, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 55, 4923 (2012), 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2012.04.037]. First, we emphasize that the replacement of ∇ .(λ ∇ T ) /∇.(λ ∇ T ) ρ cV ρ cV with ∇ .(χ ∇ T ) is an inappropriate treatment for diffuse interface modeling of liquid-vapor phase change. Furthermore, the error terms ∂t 0(T v ) +∇ .(T vv ) , which exist in the macroscopic temperature equation recovered from the previous model, are eliminated in the present model through a way that is consistent with the philosophy of the LB method. Moreover, the discrete effect of the source term is also eliminated in the present model. Numerical simulations are performed for droplet evaporation and bubble nucleation to validate the capability of the model for simulating liquid-vapor phase change. It is shown that the numerical results of the improved model agree well with those of a finite-difference scheme. Meanwhile, it is found that the replacement of ∇ .(λ ∇ T ) /∇ .(λ ∇ T ) ρ cV ρ cV with ∇ .(χ ∇ T ) leads to significant numerical errors and the error terms in the recovered macroscopic temperature equation also result in considerable errors.

  1. Irradiation of fish fillets: Relation of vapor phase reactions to storage quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spinelli, J.; Dollar, A.M.; Wedemeyer, G.A.; Gallagher, E.C.

    1969-01-01

    Fish fillets irradiated under air, nitrogen, oxygen, or carbon dioxide atmospheres developed rancidlike flavors when they were stored at refrigerated temperatures. Packing and irradiating under vacuum or helium prevented development of off-flavors during storage.Significant quantities of nitrate and oxidizing substances were formed when oxygen, nitrogen, or air were present in the vapor or liquid phases contained in a Pyrex glass model system exposed to ionizing radiation supplied by a 60Co source. It was demonstrated that the delayed flavor changes that occur in stored fish fillets result from the reaction of vapor phase radiolysis products and the fish tissue substrates.

  2. Evidence for extreme partitioning of copper into a magmatic vapor phase.

    PubMed

    Lowenstern, J B; Mahood, G A; Rivers, M L; Sutton, S R

    1991-06-07

    The discovery of copper sulfides in carbon dioxide- and chlorine-bearing bubbles in phenocryst-hosted melt inclusions shows that copper resides in a vapor phase in some shallow magma chambers. Copper is several hundred times more concentrated in magmatic vapor than in coexisting pantellerite melt. The volatile behavior of copper should be considered when modeling the volcanogenic contribution of metals to the atmosphere and may be important in the formation of copper porphyry ore deposits.

  3. A rapid hydrolysis method and DABS-Cl derivatization for complete amino acid analysis of octreotide acetate by reversed phase HPLC.

    PubMed

    Akhlaghi, Yousef; Ghaffari, Solmaz; Attar, Hossein; Alamir Hoor, Amir

    2015-11-01

    Octreotide as a synthetic cyclic octapeptide is a somatostatin analog with longer half-life and more selectivity for inhibition of the growth hormone. The acetate salt of octreotide is currently used for medical treatment of somatostatin-related disorders such as endocrine and carcinoid tumors, acromegaly, and gigantism. Octreotide contains both cysteine and tryptophan residues which make the hydrolysis part of its amino acid analysis procedure very challenging. The current paper introduces a fast and additive-free method which preserves tryptophan and cysteine residues during the hydrolysis. Using only 6 M HCl, this hydrolysis process is completed in 30 min at 150 °C. This fast hydrolysis method followed by pre-column derivatization of the released amino acids with 4-N,N-dimethylaminoazobenzene-4'-sulfonyl chloride (DABS-Cl) which takes only 20 min, makes it possible to do the complete amino acid analysis of an octreotide sample in a few hours. The highly stable-colored DABS-Cl derivatives can be detected in 436 nm in a reversed phase chromatographic system, which eliminates spectral interferences to a great extent. The amino acid analysis of octreotide acetate including hydrolysis, derivatization, and reversed phase HPLC determination was validated according to International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) guidelines.

  4. Hydrodynamic and Chemical Modeling of a Chemical Vapor Deposition Reactor for Zirconia Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmonte, T.; Gavillet, J.; Czerwiec, T.; Ablitzer, D.; Michel, H.

    1997-09-01

    Zirconia is deposited on cylindrical substrates by flowing post-discharge enhanced chemical vapor deposition. In this paper, a two dimensional hydrodynamic and chemical modeling of the reactor is described for given plasma characteristics. It helps in determining rate constants of the synthesis reaction of zirconia in gas phase and on the substrate which is ZrCl4 hydrolysis. Calculated deposition rate profiles are obtained by modeling under various conditions and fits with a satisfying accuracy the experimental results. The role of transport processes and the mixing conditions of excited gases with remaining ones are studied. Gas phase reaction influence on the growth rate is also discussed.

  5. Predicting vapor-liquid phase equilibria with augmented ab initio interatomic potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasiuk, Maryna; Sadus, Richard J.

    2017-06-01

    The ability of ab initio interatomic potentials to accurately predict vapor-liquid phase equilibria is investigated. Monte Carlo simulations are reported for the vapor-liquid equilibria of argon and krypton using recently developed accurate ab initio interatomic potentials. Seventeen interatomic potentials are studied, formulated from different combinations of two-body plus three-body terms. The simulation results are compared to either experimental or reference data for conditions ranging from the triple point to the critical point. It is demonstrated that the use of ab initio potentials enables systematic improvements to the accuracy of predictions via the addition of theoretically based terms. The contribution of three-body interactions is accounted for using the Axilrod-Teller-Muto plus other multipole contributions and the effective Marcelli-Wang-Sadus potentials. The results indicate that the predictive ability of recent interatomic potentials, obtained from quantum chemical calculations, is comparable to that of accurate empirical models. It is demonstrated that the Marcelli-Wang-Sadus potential can be used in combination with accurate two-body ab initio models for the computationally inexpensive and accurate estimation of vapor-liquid phase equilibria.

  6. Predicting vapor-liquid phase equilibria with augmented ab initio interatomic potentials.

    PubMed

    Vlasiuk, Maryna; Sadus, Richard J

    2017-06-28

    The ability of ab initio interatomic potentials to accurately predict vapor-liquid phase equilibria is investigated. Monte Carlo simulations are reported for the vapor-liquid equilibria of argon and krypton using recently developed accurate ab initio interatomic potentials. Seventeen interatomic potentials are studied, formulated from different combinations of two-body plus three-body terms. The simulation results are compared to either experimental or reference data for conditions ranging from the triple point to the critical point. It is demonstrated that the use of ab initio potentials enables systematic improvements to the accuracy of predictions via the addition of theoretically based terms. The contribution of three-body interactions is accounted for using the Axilrod-Teller-Muto plus other multipole contributions and the effective Marcelli-Wang-Sadus potentials. The results indicate that the predictive ability of recent interatomic potentials, obtained from quantum chemical calculations, is comparable to that of accurate empirical models. It is demonstrated that the Marcelli-Wang-Sadus potential can be used in combination with accurate two-body ab initio models for the computationally inexpensive and accurate estimation of vapor-liquid phase equilibria.

  7. Self-catalyzed GaAs nanowires on silicon by hydride vapor phase epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhenning; André, Yamina; Dubrovskii, Vladimir G; Bougerol, Catherine; Leroux, Christine; Ramdani, Mohammed R; Monier, Guillaume; Trassoudaine, Agnès; Castelluci, Dominique; Gil, Evelyne

    2017-03-24

    Gold-free GaAs nanowires on silicon substrates can pave the way for monolithic integration of photonic nanodevices with silicon electronic platforms. It is extensively documented that the self-catalyzed approach works well in molecular beam epitaxy but is much more difficult to implement in vapor phase epitaxies. Here, we report the first gallium-catalyzed hydride vapor phase epitaxy growth of long (more than 10 μm) GaAs nanowires on Si(111) substrates with a high integrated growth rate up to 60 μm h -1 and pure zincblende crystal structure. The growth is achieved by combining a low temperature of 600 °C with high gaseous GaCl/As flow ratios to enable dechlorination and formation of gallium droplets. GaAs nanowires exhibit an interesting bottle-like shape with strongly tapered bases, followed by straight tops with radii as small as 5 nm. We present a model that explains the peculiar growth mechanism in which the gallium droplets nucleate and rapidly swell on the silicon surface but then are gradually consumed to reach a stationary size. Our results unravel the necessary conditions for obtaining gallium-catalyzed GaAs nanowires by vapor phase epitaxy techniques.

  8. Comparative Study of Solution Phase and Vapor Phase Deposition of Aminosilanes on Silicon Dioxide Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Amrita R.; Sriram, Rashmi; Carter, Jared A.; Miller, Benjamin L.

    2014-01-01

    The uniformity of aminosilane layers typically used for the modification of hydroxyl bearing surfaces such as silicon dioxide is critical for a wide variety of applications, including biosensors. However, in spite of many studies that have been undertaken on surface silanization, there remains a paucity of easy-to-implement deposition methods reproducibly yielding smooth aminosilane monolayers. In this study, solution- and vapor-phase deposition methods for three aminoalkoxysilanes differing in the number of reactive groups (3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES), 3-aminopropyl methyl diethoxysilane (APMDES) and 3-aminopropyl dimethyl ethoxysilane (APDMES)) were assessed with the aim of identifying methods that yield highly uniform and reproducible silane layers that are resistant to minor procedural variations. Silane film quality was characterized based on measured thickness, hydrophilicity and surface roughness. Additionally, hydrolytic stability of the films was assessed via these thickness and contact angle values following desorption in water. We found that two simple solution-phase methods, an aqueous deposition of APTES and a toluene based deposition of APDMES, yielded high quality silane layers that exhibit comparable characteristics to those deposited via vapor-phase methods. PMID:24411379

  9. The influence of liquid/vapor phase change onto the Nusselt number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Elena-Roxana; Colin, Catherine; Tanguy, Sebastien

    2017-11-01

    In spite of its significant interest in various fields, there is currently a very few information on how an external flow will modify the evaporation or the condensation of a liquid surface. Although most applications involve turbulent flows, the simpler configuration where a laminar superheated or subcooled vapor flow is shearing a saturated liquid interface has still never been solved. Based on a numerical approach, we propose to characterize the interaction between a laminar boundary layer of a superheated or subcooled vapor flow and a static liquid pool at saturation temperature. By performing a full set of simulations sweeping the parameters space, correlations are proposed for the first time on the Nusselt number depending on the dimensionless numbers that characterize both vaporization and condensation. As attended, the Nusselt number decreases or increases in the configurations involving respectively vaporization or condensation. More unexpected is the behaviour of the friction of the vapor flow on the liquid pool, for which we report that it is weakly affected by the phase change, despite the important variation of the local flow structure due to evaporation or condensation.

  10. Superfluid helium 2 liquid-vapor phase separation: Technology assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    A literature survey of helium 2 liquid vapor phase separation is presented. Currently, two types of He 2 phase separators are being investigated: porous, sintered metal plugs and the active phase separator. The permeability K(P) shows consistency in porous plug geometric characterization. Both the heat and mass fluxes increase with K(P). Downstream pressure regulation to adjust for varying heat loads and both temperatures is possible. For large dynamic heat loads, the active phase separator shows a maximum heat rejection rate of up to 2 W and bath temperature stability of 0.1 mK. Porous plug phase separation performance should be investigated for application to SIRTF and, in particular, that plugs of from 10 to the minus ninth square centimeters to 10 to the minus eighth square centimeters in conjunction with downstream pressure regulation be studied.

  11. Comparative study of solution-phase and vapor-phase deposition of aminosilanes on silicon dioxide surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Amrita R; Sriram, Rashmi; Carter, Jared A; Miller, Benjamin L

    2014-02-01

    The uniformity of aminosilane layers typically used for the modification of hydroxyl bearing surfaces such as silicon dioxide is critical for a wide variety of applications, including biosensors. However, in spite of many studies that have been undertaken on surface silanization, there remains a paucity of easy-to-implement deposition methods reproducibly yielding smooth aminosilane monolayers. In this study, solution- and vapor-phase deposition methods for three aminoalkoxysilanes differing in the number of reactive groups (3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES), 3-aminopropyl methyl diethoxysilane (APMDES) and 3-aminopropyl dimethyl ethoxysilane (APDMES)) were assessed with the aim of identifying methods that yield highly uniform and reproducible silane layers that are resistant to minor procedural variations. Silane film quality was characterized based on measured thickness, hydrophilicity and surface roughness. Additionally, hydrolytic stability of the films was assessed via these thickness and contact angle values following desorption in water. We found that two simple solution-phase methods, an aqueous deposition of APTES and a toluene based deposition of APDMES, yielded high quality silane layers that exhibit comparable characteristics to those deposited via vapor-phase methods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Plasma Spray-PVD: A New Thermal Spray Process to Deposit Out of the Vapor Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Niessen, Konstantin; Gindrat, Malko

    2011-06-01

    Plasma spray-physical vapor deposition (PS-PVD) is a low pressure plasma spray technology recently developed by Sulzer Metco AG (Switzerland). Even though it is a thermal spray process, it can deposit coatings out of the vapor phase. The basis of PS-PVD is the low pressure plasma spraying (LPPS) technology that has been well established in industry for several years. In comparison to conventional vacuum plasma spraying (VPS) or low pressure plasma spraying (LPPS), the new proposed process uses a high energy plasma gun operated at a reduced work pressure of 0.1 kPa (1 mbar). Owing to the high energy plasma and further reduced work pressure, PS-PVD is able to deposit a coating not only by melting the feed stock material which builds up a layer from liquid splats but also by vaporizing the injected material. Therefore, the PS-PVD process fills the gap between the conventional physical vapor deposition (PVD) technologies and standard thermal spray processes. The possibility to vaporize feedstock material and to produce layers out of the vapor phase results in new and unique coating microstructures. The properties of such coatings are superior to those of thermal spray and electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) coatings. In contrast to EB-PVD, PS-PVD incorporates the vaporized coating material into a supersonic plasma plume. Owing to the forced gas stream of the plasma jet, complex shaped parts such as multi-airfoil turbine vanes can be coated with columnar thermal barrier coatings using PS-PVD. Even shadowed areas and areas which are not in the line of sight of the coating source can be coated homogeneously. This article reports on the progress made by Sulzer Metco in developing a thermal spray process to produce coatings out of the vapor phase. Columnar thermal barrier coatings made of Yttria-stabilized Zircona (YSZ) are optimized to serve in a turbine engine. This process includes not only preferable coating properties such as strain tolerance and erosion

  13. Wetting phenomenon in the liquid-vapor phase coexistence of a partially miscible Lennard-Jones binary mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Santiago, Guillermo; Díaz-Herrera, Enrique; Moreno Razo, José A.

    2004-03-01

    We have carried out extensive equilibrium MD simulations to study wetting phenomena in the liquid-vapor phase coexistence of a partially miscible binary LJ mixture. We find that in the temperature range 0.60 ≤ T^* < 0.80, the system separates forming a liquid A-liquid B interface in coexistence with the vapor phase. At higher temperatures, 0.80 ≤ T^* < 1.25 the liquid phases are wet by the vapor phase. By studying the behavior of the surface tension as a function of temperature we estimate the wetting transition temperature (WTT) to be T^*_w≃ 0.80. The adsorption of molecules at the liquid-liquid interface shows a discontinuity at about T^*≃ 0.79 suggesting that the wetting transition is a first order phase transition. These results are in agreement with some experiments carried out in fluid binary mixtures. In addition, we estimated the consolute temperature to be T^* _cons≃ 1.25. The calculated phase diagram of the mixture suggest the existence of a tricritical point.

  14. Comparison of cryopreserved human sperm in vapor and liquid phases of liquid nitrogen: effect on motility parameters, morphology, and sperm function.

    PubMed

    Punyatanasakchai, Piyaphan; Sophonsritsuk, Areephan; Weerakiet, Sawaek; Wansumrit, Surapee; Chompurat, Deonthip

    2008-11-01

    To compare the effects of cryopreserved sperm in vapor and liquid phases of liquid nitrogen on sperm motility, morphology, and sperm function. Experimental study. Andrology laboratory at Ramathibodi Hospital, Thailand. Thirty-eight semen samples with normal motility and sperm count were collected from 38 men who were either patients of an infertility clinic or had donated sperm for research. Each semen sample was divided into two aliquots. Samples were frozen with static-phase vapor cooling. One aliquot was plunged into liquid nitrogen (-196 degrees C), and the other was stored in vapor-phase nitrogen (-179 degrees C) for 3 days. Thawing was performed at room temperature. Motility was determined by using computer-assisted semen analysis, sperm morphology was determined by using eosin-methylene blue staining, and sperm function was determined by using a hemizona binding test. Most of the motility parameters of sperm stored in the vapor phase were not significantly different from those stored in the liquid phase of liquid nitrogen, except in amplitude of lateral head displacement. The percentages of normal sperm morphology in both vapor and liquid phases also were not significantly different. There was no significant difference in the number of bound sperm in hemizona between sperm cryopreserved in both vapor and liquid phases of liquid nitrogen. Cryopreservation of human sperm in a vapor phase of liquid nitrogen was comparable to cryopreservation in a liquid phase of liquid nitrogen.

  15. Sol–gel synthesis of MCM-41 silicas and selective vapor-phase modification of their surface

    SciTech Connect

    Roik, N.V., E-mail: roik_nadya@ukr.net; Belyakova, L.A.

    2013-11-15

    Silica particles with uniform hexagonal mesopore architecture were synthesized by template directed sol–gel condensation of tetraethoxysilane or mixture of tetraethoxysilane and (3-chloropropyl)triethoxysilane in a water–ethanol–ammonia solution. Selective functionalization of exterior surface of parent materials was carried out by postsynthetic treatment of template-filled MCM-41 and Cl-MCM-41 with vapors of (3-chloropropyl)triethoxysilane and 1,2-ethylenediamine in vacuum. The chemical composition of obtained mesoporous silicas was estimated by IR spectroscopy and chemical analysis of surface products of reactions. Characteristics of porous structure of resulting materials were determined from the data of X-ray, low-temperature nitrogen ad-desorption and transmission electron microscopy measurements. Obtained results confirm invariability ofmore » highly ordered mesoporous structure of MCM-41 and Cl-MCM-41 after their selective postsynthetic modification in vapor phase. It was proved that proposed method of vapor-phase functionalization of template-filled starting materials is not accompanied by dissolution of the template and chemical modification of pores surface. This provides preferential localization of grafted functional groups onto the exterior surface of mesoporous silicas. - Graphical abstract: Sol–gel synthesis and postsynthetic chemical modification of template-filled MCM-41 and Cl-MCM-41 with (3-chloropropyl)triethoxysilane and 1,2-ethylenediamine in vapor phase. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Synthesis of MCM-41 silica by template directed sol–gel condensation. • Selective vapor-phase functionalization of template-filled silica particles. • Preferential localization of grafted groups onto the exterior surface of mesoporous silicas.« less

  16. Role of Co-Vapors in Vapor Deposition Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Younghee; Ahn, Ki-Jin; Huh, Jinyoung; Shim, Hyeon Woo; Sampath, Gayathri; Im, Won Bin; Huh, Yang–Il; Yoon, Hyeonseok

    2015-01-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy)/cellulose (PPCL) composite papers were fabricated by vapor phase polymerization. Importantly, the vapor-phase deposition of PPy onto cellulose was assisted by employing different co-vapors namely methanol, ethanol, benzene, water, toluene and hexane, in addition to pyrrole. The resulting PPCL papers possessed high mechanical flexibility, large surface-to-volume ratio, and good redox properties. Their main properties were highly influenced by the nature of the co-vaporized solvent. The morphology and oxidation level of deposited PPy were tuned by employing co-vapors during the polymerization, which in turn led to change in the electrochemical properties of the PPCL papers. When methanol and ethanol were used as co-vapors, the conductivities of PPCL papers were found to have improved five times, which was likely due to the enhanced orientation of PPy chain by the polar co-vapors with high dipole moment. The specific capacitance of PPCL papers obtained using benzene, toluene, water and hexane co-vapors was higher than those of the others, which is attributed to the enlarged effective surface area of the electrode material. The results indicate that the judicious choice and combination of co-vapors in vapor-deposition polymerization (VDP) offers the possibility of tuning the morphological, electrical, and electrochemical properties of deposited conducting polymers. PMID:25673422

  17. Overview: Homogeneous nucleation from the vapor phase-The experimental science.

    PubMed

    Wyslouzil, Barbara E; Wölk, Judith

    2016-12-07

    Homogeneous nucleation from the vapor phase has been a well-defined area of research for ∼120 yr. In this paper, we present an overview of the key experimental and theoretical developments that have made it possible to address some of the fundamental questions first delineated and investigated in C. T. R. Wilson's pioneering paper of 1897 [C. T. R. Wilson, Philos. Trans. R. Soc., A 189, 265-307 (1897)]. We review the principles behind the standard experimental techniques currently used to measure isothermal nucleation rates, and discuss the molecular level information that can be extracted from these measurements. We then highlight recent approaches that interrogate the vapor and intermediate clusters leading to particle formation, more directly.

  18. Enhanced Vapor-Phase Diffusion in Porous Media - LDRD Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, C.K.; Webb, S.W.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program at Sandia National Laboratories, an investigation into the existence of enhanced vapor-phase diffusion (EVD) in porous media has been conducted. A thorough literature review was initially performed across multiple disciplines (soil science and engineering), and based on this review, the existence of EVD was found to be questionable. As a result, modeling and experiments were initiated to investigate the existence of EVD. In this LDRD, the first mechanistic model of EVD was developed which demonstrated the mechanisms responsible for EVD. The first direct measurements of EVD have also been conductedmore » at multiple scales. Measurements have been made at the pore scale, in a two- dimensional network as represented by a fracture aperture, and in a porous medium. Significant enhancement of vapor-phase transport relative to Fickian diffusion was measured in all cases. The modeling and experimental results provide additional mechanisms for EVD beyond those presented by the generally accepted model of Philip and deVries (1957), which required a thermal gradient for EVD to exist. Modeling and experimental results show significant enhancement under isothermal conditions. Application of EVD to vapor transport in the near-surface vadose zone show a significant variation between no enhancement, the model of Philip and deVries, and the present results. Based on this information, the model of Philip and deVries may need to be modified, and additional studies are recommended.« less

  19. Space cryogenics components based on the thermomechanical effect - Vapor-liquid phase separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, S. W. K.; Frederking, T. H. K.

    1989-01-01

    Applications of the thermomechanical effect has been qualified including incorporation in large-scale space systems in the area of vapor-liquid phase separation (VLPS). The theory of the porous-plug phase separator is developed for the limit of a high thermal impedance of the solid-state grains. Extensions of the theory of nonlinear turbulent flow are presented based on experimental results.

  20. Vapors-liquid phase separator. [infrared telescope heat sink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederking, T. H. K.; Brown, G. S.; Chuang, C.; Kamioka, Y.; Kim, Y. I.; Lee, J. M.; Yuan, S. W. K.

    1980-01-01

    The use of porous plugs, mostly with in the form of passive devices with constant area were considered as vapor-liquid phase separators for helium 2 storage vessels under reduced gravity. The incorporation of components with variable cross sectional area as a method of flow rate modification was also investigated. A particular device which uses a shutter-type system for area variation was designed and constructed. This system successfully permitted flor rate changes of up to plus or minus 60% from its mean value.

  1. Biodegradation of vapor-phase toluene in unsaturated porous media: Column experiments.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ali M; Wick, Lukas Y; Harms, Hauke; Thullner, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Biodegradation of organic chemicals in the vapor phase of soils and vertical flow filters has gained attention as promising approach to clean up volatile organic compounds (VOC). The drivers of VOC biodegradation in unsaturated systems however still remain poorly understood. Here, we analyzed the processes controlling aerobic VOC biodegradation in a laboratory setup mimicking the unsaturated zone above a shallow aquifer. The setup allowed for diffusive vapor-phase transport and biodegradation of three VOC: non-deuterated and deuterated toluene as two compounds of highly differing biodegradability but (nearly) identical physical and chemical properties, and MTBE as (at the applied experimental conditions) non-biodegradable tracer and internal control. Our results showed for toluene an effective microbial degradation within centimeter VOC transport distances despite high gas-phase diffusivity. Degradation rates were controlled by the reactivity of the compounds while oxic conditions were found everywhere in the system. This confirms hypotheses that vadose zone biodegradation rates can be extremely high and are able to prevent the outgassing of VOC to the atmosphere within a centimeter range if compound properties and site conditions allow for sufficiently high degradation rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of heated vapor-phase acidification on organic carbon concentrations and isotopic values in geologic rock samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, R. Z.; West, A. J.; Yager, J. A.; Rollins, N.; Li, G.; Berelson, W.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon signatures recorded in the modern and geologic rock record can give insight on the Earth's carbon cycle through time. This is especially true for organic carbon (OC), which can help us understand how the biosphere has evolved over Earth's history. However, carbon recorded in rocks is a combination of OC and inorganic carbon (IC) mostly in the form of carbonate minerals. To measure OC, IC must therefore first be removed through a process called "decarbonation." This is often done through a leaching process with hydrochloric acid (HCl). However, three well known problems exist for the decarbonation process: 1) Incomplete removal of IC, 2) Unintentional removal of OC, and 3) Addition of false carbon blank. Currently, vapor (gas) phase removal of OC is preferred to liquid phase treatment because it has been shown that OC is lost to solubilization during liquid phase acidification. Vapor phase treatment is largely thought to avoid the problem of OC loss, but this has not yet been rigorously investigated. This study investigates that assumption and shows that vapor phase treatment can cause unintentional OC loss. We show that vapor phase treatment must be sensitive to rock type and treatment length to produce robust OC isotopic measurements and concentrations.

  3. Liquid-vapor phase equilibria and the thermodynamic properties of 2-methylpropanol- n-alkyl propanoate solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suntsov, Yu. K.; Goryunov, V. A.; Chuikov, A. M.; Meshcheryakov, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    The boiling points of solutions of five binary systems are measured via ebulliometry in the pressure range of 2.05-103.3 kPa. Equilibrium vapor phase compositions, the values of the excess Gibbs energies, enthalpies, and entropies of solution of these systems are calculated. Patterns in the changes of phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties of solutions are established, depending on the compositions and temperatures of the systems. Liquid-vapor equilibria in the systems are described using the equations of Wilson and the NRTL (Non-Random Two-Liquid Model).

  4. Vapor-phase infrared laser spectroscopy: from gas sensing to forensic urinalysis.

    PubMed

    Bartlome, Richard; Rey, Julien M; Sigrist, Markus W

    2008-07-15

    Numerous gas-sensing devices are based on infrared laser spectroscopy. In this paper, the technique is further developed and, for the first time, applied to forensic urinalysis. For this purpose, a difference frequency generation laser was coupled to an in-house-built, high-temperature multipass cell (HTMC). The continuous tuning range of the laser was extended to 329 cm(-1) in the fingerprint C-H stretching region between 3 and 4 microm. The HTMC is a long-path absorption cell designed to withstand organic samples in the vapor phase (Bartlome, R.; Baer, M.; Sigrist, M. W. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 2007, 78, 013110). Quantitative measurements were taken on pure ephedrine and pseudoephedrine vapors. Despite featuring similarities, the vapor-phase infrared spectra of these diastereoisomers are clearly distinguishable with respect to a vibrational band centered at 2970.5 and 2980.1 cm(-1), respectively. Ephedrine-positive and pseudoephedrine-positive urine samples were prepared by means of liquid-liquid extraction and directly evaporated in the HTMC without any preliminary chromatographic separation. When 10 or 20 mL of ephedrine-positive human urine is prepared, the detection limit of ephedrine, prohibited in sports as of 10 microg/mL, is 50 or 25 microg/mL, respectively. The laser spectrometer has room for much improvement; its potential is discussed with respect to doping agents detection.

  5. External fuel vaporization study, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szetela, E. J.; Chiappetta, L.

    1980-01-01

    A conceptual design study was conducted to devise and evaluate techniques for the external vaporization of fuel for use in an aircraft gas turbine with characteristics similar to the Energy Efficient Engine (E(3)). Three vaporizer concepts were selected and they were analyzed from the standpoint of fuel thermal stability, integration of the vaporizer system into the aircraft engine, engine and vaporizer dynamic response, startup and altitude restart, engine performance, control requirements, safety, and maintenance. One of the concepts was found to improve the performance of the baseline E(3) engine without seriously compromising engine startup and power change response. Increased maintenance is required because of the need for frequent pyrolytic cleaning of the surfaces in contact with hot fuel.

  6. Modeling of Gallium Nitride Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyyappan, Meyya; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    A reactor model for the hydride vapor phase epitaxy of GaN is presented. The governing flow, energy, and species conservation equations are solved in two dimensions to examine the growth characteristics as a function of process variables and reactor geometry. The growth rate varies with GaCl composition but independent of NH3 and H2 flow rates. A change in carrier gas for Ga source from H2 to N2 affects the growth rate and uniformity for a fixed reactor configuration. The model predictions are in general agreement with observed experimental behavior.

  7. Phase-transition thresholds and vaporization phenomena for ultrasound phase-change nanoemulsions assessed via high speed optical microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sheeran, Paul S.; Matsunaga, Terry O.; Dayton, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonically activated phase-change contrast agents (PCCAs) based on perfluorocarbon droplets have been proposed for a variety of therapeutic and diagnostic clinical applications. When generated at the nanoscale, droplets may be small enough to exit the vascular space and then be induced to vaporize with high spatial and temporal specificity by externally-applied ultrasound. The use of acoustical techniques for optimizing ultrasound parameters for given applications can be a significant challenge for nanoscale PCCAs due to the contributions of larger outlier droplets. Similarly, optical techniques can be a challenge due to the sub-micron size of nanodroplet agents and resolution limits of optical microscopy. In this study, an optical method for determining activation thresholds of nanoscale emulsions based on the in vitro distribution of bubbles resulting from vaporization of PCCAs after single, short (<10 cycles) ultrasound pulses is evaluated. Through ultra-high-speed microscopy it is shown that the bubbles produced early in the pulse from vaporized droplets are strongly affected by subsequent cycles of the vaporization pulse, and these effects increase with pulse length. Results show that decafluorobutane nanoemulsions with peak diameters on the order of 200 nm can be optimally vaporized with short pulses using pressures amenable to clinical diagnostic ultrasound machines. PMID:23760161

  8. Phase Equilibrium of TiO2 Nanocrystals in Flame-Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changran; Camacho, Joaquin; Wang, Hai

    2018-01-19

    Nano-scale titanium oxide (TiO 2 ) is a material useful for a wide range of applications. In a previous study, we showed that TiO 2 nanoparticles of both rutile and anatase crystal phases could be synthesized over the size range of 5 to 20 nm in flame-assisted chemical vapor deposition. Rutile was unexpectedly dominant in oxygen-lean synthesis conditions, whereas anatase is the preferred phase in oxygen-rich gases. The observation is in contrast to the 14 nm rutile-anatase crossover size derived from the existing crystal-phase equilibrium model. In the present work, we made additional measurements over a wider range of synthesis conditions; the results confirm the earlier observations. We propose an improved model for the surface energy that considers the role of oxygen desorption at high temperatures. The model successfully explains the observations made in the current and previous work. The current results provide a useful path to designing flame-assisted chemical vapor deposition of TiO 2 nanocrystals with controllable crystal phases. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Crystal growth from the vapor phase experiment MA-085

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiedemeir, H.; Sadeek, H.; Klaessig, F. C.; Norek, M.

    1976-01-01

    Three vapor transport experiments on multicomponent systems were performed during the Apollo Soyuz mission to determine the effects of microgravity forces on crystal morphology and mass transport rates. The mixed systems used germanium selenide, tellurium, germanium tetraiodide (transport agent), germanium monosulfide, germanium tetrachloride (transport agent), and argon (inert atmosphere). The materials were enclosed in evacuated sealed ampoules of fused silica and were transported in a temperature gradient of the multipurpose electric furnace onboard the Apollo Soyuz spacecraft. Preliminary evaluation of 2 systems shows improved quality of space grown crystals in terms of growth morphology and bulk perfection. This conclusion is based on a direct comparison of space grown and ground based crystals by means of X-ray diffraction, microscopic, and chemical etching techniques. The observation of greater mass transport rates than predicted for a microgravity environment by existing vapor transport models indicates the existence of nongravity caused transport effects in a reactive solid/gas phase system.

  10. Reduction of degradation in vapor phase transported InP/InGaAsP mushroom stripe lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, H.; Burkhardt, E.G.; Pfister, W.

    1988-10-03

    The rapid degradation rate generally observed in InP/InGaAsP mushroom stripe lasers can be considerably decreased by regrowing the open sidewalls of the active stripe with low-doped InP in a second epitaxial step using the hydride vapor phase transport technique. This technique does not change the fundamental laser parameters like light-current and current-voltage characteristics. Because of this drastic reduction in degradation, the vapor phase epitaxy regrown InP/InGaAsP mushroom laser seems to be an interesting candidate for application in optical communication.

  11. APTS and rGO co-functionalized pyrenated fluorescent nanonets for representative vapor phase nitroaromatic explosive detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Linjuan; Zu, Baiyi; Yang, Zheng; Cao, Hongyu; Zheng, Xuefang; Dou, Xincun

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, flexible PVP/pyrene/APTS/rGO fluorescent nanonets were designed and synthesized via a one-step electrospinning method to detect representative subsaturated nitroaromatic explosive vapor. The functional fluorescent nanonets, which were highly stable in air, showed an 81% quenching efficiency towards TNT vapor (~10 ppb) with an exposure time of 540 s at room temperature. The nice performance of the nanonets was ascribed to the synergistic effects induced by the specific adsorption properties of APTS, the fast charge transfer properties and the effective π-π interaction with pyrene and TNT of rGO. Compared to the analogues of TNT, the PVP/pyrene/APTS/rGO nanonets showed notable selectivity towards TNT and DNT vapors. The explored functionalization method opens up brand new insight into sensitive and selective detection of vapor phase nitroaromatic explosives.For the first time, flexible PVP/pyrene/APTS/rGO fluorescent nanonets were designed and synthesized via a one-step electrospinning method to detect representative subsaturated nitroaromatic explosive vapor. The functional fluorescent nanonets, which were highly stable in air, showed an 81% quenching efficiency towards TNT vapor (~10 ppb) with an exposure time of 540 s at room temperature. The nice performance of the nanonets was ascribed to the synergistic effects induced by the specific adsorption properties of APTS, the fast charge transfer properties and the effective π-π interaction with pyrene and TNT of rGO. Compared to the analogues of TNT, the PVP/pyrene/APTS/rGO nanonets showed notable selectivity towards TNT and DNT vapors. The explored functionalization method opens up brand new insight into sensitive and selective detection of vapor phase nitroaromatic explosives. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Vapor pressure of TNT and its analogues, fluorescence quenching kinetics, fluorescence quenching efficiencies and additional SEM images. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr04960d

  12. Development of C-reactive protein certified reference material NMIJ CRM 6201-b: optimization of a hydrolysis process to improve the accuracy of amino acid analysis.

    PubMed

    Kato, Megumi; Kinumi, Tomoya; Yoshioka, Mariko; Goto, Mari; Fujii, Shin-Ichiro; Takatsu, Akiko

    2015-04-01

    To standardize C-reactive protein (CRP) assays, the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) has developed a C-reactive protein solution certified reference material, CRM 6201-b, which is intended for use as a primary reference material to enable the SI-traceable measurement of CRP. This study describes the development process of CRM 6201-b. As a candidate material of the CRM, recombinant human CRP solution was selected because of its higher purity and homogeneity than the purified material from human serum. Gel filtration chromatography was used to examine the homogeneity and stability of the present CRM. The total protein concentration of CRP in the present CRM was determined by amino acid analysis coupled to isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS-AAA). To improve the accuracy of IDMS-AAA, we optimized the hydrolysis process by examining the effect of parameters such as the volume of protein samples taken for hydrolysis, the procedure of sample preparation prior to the hydrolysis, hydrolysis temperature, and hydrolysis time. Under optimized conditions, we conducted two independent approaches in which the following independent hydrolysis and liquid chromatography-isotope dilution mass spectrometry (LC-IDMS) were combined: one was vapor-phase acid hydrolysis (130 °C, 24 h) and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS) method, and the other was microwave-assisted liquid-phase acid hydrolysis (150 °C, 3 h) and pre-column derivatization liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. The quantitative values of the two different amino acid analyses were in agreement within their uncertainties. The certified value was the weighted mean of the results of the two methods. Uncertainties from the value-assignment method, between-method variance, homogeneity, long-term stability, and short-term stability were taken into account in evaluating the uncertainty for a certified value. The certified value and the

  13. Removal of Oxygen from Electronic Materials by Vapor-Phase Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palosz, Witold

    1997-01-01

    Thermochemical analyses of equilibrium partial pressures over oxides with and without the presence of the respective element condensed phase, and hydrogen, chalcogens, hydrogen chalcogenides, and graphite are presented. Theoretical calculations are supplemented with experimental results on the rate of decomposition and/or sublimation/vaporization of the oxides under dynamic vacuum, and on the rate of reaction with hydrogen, graphite, and chalcogens. Procedures of removal of a number of oxides under different conditions are discussed.

  14. Mixing effects on the kinetics and the dynamics of two-phase enzymatic hydrolysis of hemicellulose for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Sajal Kanti; Chakraborty, Saikat

    2018-07-01

    This work uses a coupled experimental and modeling approach to explore the effects of macro- and micro-mixing on the kinetics and the dynamics of two-phase enzymatic hydrolysis of hemicellulose. Reactor mixing does not alter the non-competitive nature of product inhibition in hemicellulose hydrolysis by endoxylanase, but produces stronger inhibition that reduces the soluble sugar yield by 8-14.5%, as the mixing speed increases from 0 to 200 rpm. The kinetic constants (K m , V max , K x ) assume mass-transfer disguised values at 0-200 rpm. An optimal mixing strategy, comprising of 55-70 min of initial rapid convective macromixing followed by diffusive micromixing (without any macromixing) for the rest of the hydrolysis, increases xylose and reducing sugar yields by 6.3-8% and 13-20%, respectively, over continuous mixing at 200 rpm, for 1-5 mg/ml substrate loading at an optimum enzyme to substrate ratio of 1:20, with an energy saving of 94-96% over 24 h. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Condensed phase conversion and growth of nanorods and other materials instead of from vapor

    DOEpatents

    Geohegan, David B.; Seals, Roland D.; Puretzky, Alex A.; Fan, Xudong

    2010-10-19

    Compositions, systems and methods are described for condensed phase conversion and growth of nanorods and other materials. A method includes providing a condensed phase matrix material; and activating the condensed phase matrix material to produce a plurality of nanorods by condensed phase conversion and growth from the condensed phase matrix material instead of from vapor. The compositions are very strong. The compositions and methods provide advantages because they allow (1) formation rates of nanostructures necessary for reasonable production rates, and (2) the near net shaped production of component structures.

  16. A three-dimensional phase field model for nanowire growth by the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanming; Ryu, Seunghwa; McIntyre, Paul C.; Cai, Wei

    2014-07-01

    We present a three-dimensional multi-phase field model for catalyzed nanowire (NW) growth by the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. The equation of motion contains both a Ginzburg-Landau term for deposition and a diffusion (Cahn-Hilliard) term for interface relaxation without deposition. Direct deposition from vapor to solid, which competes with NW crystal growth through the molten catalyst droplet, is suppressed by assigning a very small kinetic coefficient at the solid-vapor interface. The thermodynamic self-consistency of the model is demonstrated by its ability to reproduce the equilibrium contact angles at the VLS junction. The incorporation of orientation dependent gradient energy leads to faceting of the solid-liquid and solid-vapor interfaces. The model successfully captures the curved shape of the NW base and the Gibbs-Thomson effect on growth velocity.

  17. Mid-infrared laser-absorption diagnostic for vapor-phase fuel mole fraction and liquid fuel film thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, J. M.; Jeffries, J. B.; Hanson, R. K.

    2011-02-01

    A novel two-wavelength mid-infrared laser-absorption diagnostic has been developed for simultaneous measurements of vapor-phase fuel mole fraction and liquid fuel film thickness. The diagnostic was demonstrated for time-resolved measurements of n-dodecane liquid films in the absence and presence of n-decane vapor at 25°C and 1 atm. Laser wavelengths were selected from FTIR measurements of the C-H stretching band of vapor n-decane and liquid n-dodecane near 3.4 μm (3000 cm-1). n-Dodecane film thicknesses <20 μm were accurately measured in the absence of vapor, and simultaneous measurements of n-dodecane liquid film thickness and n-decane vapor mole fraction (300 ppm) were measured with <10% uncertainty for film thicknesses <10 μm. A potential application of the measurement technique is to provide accurate values of vapor mole fraction in combustion environments where strong absorption by liquid fuel or oil films on windows make conventional direct absorption measurements of the gas problematic.

  18. External fuel vaporization study, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szetela, E. J.; Chiappetta, L.

    1981-01-01

    An analytical study was conducted to evaluate the effect of variations in fuel properties on the design of an external fuel vaporizaton system. The fuel properties that were considered included thermal stability, critical temperature, enthalpy a critical conditions, volatility, and viscosity. The design parameters that were evaluated included vaporizer weight and the impact on engine requirement such as maintenance, transient response, performance, and altitude relight. The baseline fuel properties were those of Jet A. The variation in thermal stability was taken as the thermal stability variation for Experimental Referee Broad Specification (ERBS) fuel. The results of the analysis indicate that a change in thermal stability equivalent to that of ERBS would increase the vaporization system weight by 20 percent, decrease oprating time between cleaning by 40 percent and make altitude relight more difficult. An increase in fuel critical temperature of 39 K would require a 40 percent increase in vaporization system weight. The assumed increase in enthalpy and volatility would also increase vaporizer weight by 40 percent and make altitude relight extremely difficult. The variation in fuel viscosity would have a negligible effect on the design parameters.

  19. Water Sorption and Vapor-Phase Deuterium Exchange Studies on Methemoglobin CC, SC, SS, AS, and AA

    PubMed Central

    Killion, Philip J.; Cameron, Bruce F.

    1972-01-01

    Five hemoglobins whose genetic relationship to one another involves one set of alleles, hemoglobins CC, SC, SS, AS, and AA, were studied in the Met form. Two different investigations were conducted at 28°C on these methemoglobins within a McBain gravimetric sorption system: sorption of H2O vapor and vapor-phase deuterium-hydrogen exchange. For each of the five samples there was close agreement between the per cent hydration of polar sites as determined from sorption studies and the maximum per cent of labile hydrogens that were exchanged during the vapor-phase deuterium exchange study. Both studies measured a slight increase in the number of polar sites accessible to H2O or D2O vapor for those samples in which the substituent in the sixth position from the N-terminus of the two β-chains had a positively charged side chain and a slight decrease for those in which the substituent had a negatively charged side chain. The in-exchange of deuterium for hydrogen occurred at a faster observed rate than the out-exchange of hydrogen for deuterium. PMID:5030563

  20. Simplified thermodynamic functions for vapor-liquid phase separation and fountain effect pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, S. W. K.; Hepler, W. A.; Frederking, T. H. K.

    1984-01-01

    He-4 fluid handling devices near 2 K require novel components for non-Newtonian fluid transport in He II. Related sizing of devices has to be based on appropriate thermophysical property functions. The present paper presents simplified equilibrium state functions for porous media components which serve as vapor-liquid phase separators and fountain effect pumps.

  1. Influence of phase transition on the instability of a liquid-vapor interface in a gravitational field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalov, V. V.; Lyubimov, D. V.; Lyubimova, T. P.

    2017-06-01

    This study is concerned with the linear stability of the horizontal interface between thick layers of a viscous heat-conducting liquid and its vapor in a gravitational field subject to phase transition. We consider the case when the hydrostatic base state is consistent with a balanced heat flux at the liquid-vapor interface. The corrections to the growth rate of the most dangerous perturbations and cutoff wave number, characterizing the influence of phase transition on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, are found to be different from the data in the literature. Most of the previous results were obtained in the framework of a quasiequilibrium approximation, which had been shown to conform to the limit of thin media layers under equality of the interface temperature to a saturation temperature. The main difference from the results obtained with the quasiequilibrium approach is new values of the proportionality coefficients that correlate our corrections with the intensity of weak heating. Moreover, at large values of the heat flux rate, when deviations from the approximate linear law are important, the effect of phase transition is limited and does not exceed the size of the vapor viscosity effect.

  2. The mechanism of vapor phase hydration of calcium oxide: implications for CO2 capture.

    PubMed

    Kudłacz, Krzysztof; Rodriguez-Navarro, Carlos

    2014-10-21

    Lime-based sorbents are used for fuel- and flue-gas capture, thereby representing an economic and effective way to reduce CO2 emissions. Their use involves cyclic carbonation/calcination which results in a significant conversion reduction with increasing number of cycles. To reactivate spent CaO, vapor phase hydration is typically performed. However, little is known about the ultimate mechanism of such a hydration process. Here, we show that the vapor phase hydration of CaO formed after calcination of calcite (CaCO3) single crystals is a pseudomorphic, topotactic process, which progresses via an intermediate disordered phase prior to the final formation of oriented Ca(OH)2 nanocrystals. The strong structural control during this solid-state phase transition implies that the microstructural features of the CaO parent phase predetermine the final structural and physicochemical (reactivity and attrition) features of the product hydroxide. The higher molar volume of the product can create an impervious shell around unreacted CaO, thereby limiting the efficiency of the reactivation process. However, in the case of compact, sintered CaO structures, volume expansion cannot be accommodated in the reduced pore volume, and stress generation leads to pervasive cracking. This favors complete hydration but also detrimental attrition. Implications of these results in carbon capture and storage (CCS) are discussed.

  3. Enzymatic hydrolysis, grease permeation, and water barrier properties of zein isolate coated paper.

    PubMed

    Parris, N; Dickey, L C; Wiles, J L; Moreau, R A; Cooke, P H

    2000-03-01

    An inexpensive zein-lipid mixture was isolated from yellow dent, dry-milled corn. Grease permeation through zein isolate applied to brown Kraft paper was found to be independent of loading levels at zein isolate levels above 30 mg/16 in.(2). The data shows that water vapor transmission rates depended on the amount of coating applied. Triacylglycerols were the most abundant lipid in milled corn but were absent in the zein isolate (perhaps due to hydrolysis by lipases). Zein from the paper was hydrolyzed enzymatically and the hydrolysis monitored by SDS-capillary electrophoresis. At an E:S ratio of 1:100 no further increase in the hydrolysate peak occurred after 10 and 30 min for alpha-chymotrypsin and pancreatin 8 x; however, zein and lipid were still present 1 h after hydrolysis by pancreatin 1 x.

  4. Adsorptive Water Removal from Dichloromethane and Vapor-Phase Regeneration of a Molecular Sieve 3A Packed Bed

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The drying of dichloromethane with a molecular sieve 3A packed bed process is modeled and experimentally verified. In the process, the dichloromethane is dried in the liquid phase and the adsorbent is regenerated by water desorption with dried dichloromethane product in the vapor phase. Adsorption equilibrium experiments show that dichloromethane does not compete with water adsorption, because of size exclusion; the pure water vapor isotherm from literature provides an accurate representation of the experiments. The breakthrough curves are adequately described by a mathematical model that includes external mass transfer, pore diffusion, and surface diffusion. During the desorption step, the main heat transfer mechanism is the condensation of the superheated dichloromethane vapor. The regeneration time is shortened significantly by external bed heating. Cyclic steady-state experiments demonstrate the feasibility of this novel, zero-emission drying process. PMID:28539701

  5. Thermal conductivity characteristics of dewatered sewage sludge by thermal hydrolysis reaction.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyoung Woon; Park, Keum Joo; Han, Seong Kuk; Jung, Hee Suk

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantify the thermal conductivity of sewage sludge related to reaction temperature for the optimal design of a thermal hydrolysis reactor. We continuously quantified the thermal conductivity of dewatered sludge related to the reaction temperature. As the reaction temperature increased, the dewatered sludge is thermally liquefied under high temperature and pressure by the thermal hydrolysis reaction. Therefore, the bound water in the sludge cells comes out as free water, which changes the dewatered sludge from a solid phase to slurry in a liquid phase. As a result, the thermal conductivity of the sludge was more than 2.64 times lower than that of the water at 20. However, above 200, it became 0.704 W/m* degrees C, which is about 4% higher than that of water. As a result, the change in physical properties due to thermal hydrolysis appears to be an important factor for heat transfer efficiency. Implications: The thermal conductivity of dewatered sludge is an important factor the optimal design of a thermal hydrolysis reactor. The dewatered sludge is thermally liquefied under high temperature and pressure by the thermal hydrolysis reaction. The liquid phase slurry has a higher thermal conductivity than pure water.

  6. Preventing kinetic roughening in physical vapor-phase-deposited films.

    PubMed

    Vasco, E; Polop, C; Sacedón, J L

    2008-01-11

    The growth kinetics of the mostly used physical vapor-phase deposition techniques -molecular beam epitaxy, sputtering, flash evaporation, and pulsed laser deposition-is investigated by rate equations with the aim of testing their suitability for the preparation of ultraflat ultrathin films. The techniques are studied in regard to the roughness and morphology during early stages of growth. We demonstrate that pulsed laser deposition is the best technique for preparing the flattest films due to two key features [use of (i) a supersaturated pulsed flux of (ii) hyperthermal species] that promote a kinetically limited Ostwald ripening mechanism.

  7. One-Step Extraction and Hydrolysis of Flavonoid Glycosides in Rape Bee Pollen Based on Soxhlet-Assisted Matrix Solid Phase Dispersion.

    PubMed

    Tu, Xijuan; Ma, Shuangqin; Gao, Zhaosheng; Wang, Jing; Huang, Shaokang; Chen, Wenbin

    2017-11-01

    Flavonoids are frequently found as glycosylated derivatives in plant materials. To determine contents of flavonoid aglycones in these matrices, procedures for the extraction and hydrolysis of flavonoid glycosides are required. The current sample preparation method is both labour and time consuming. Develop a modified matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) procedure as an alternative methodology for the one-step extraction and hydrolysis of flavonoid glycosides. HPLC-DAD was applied for demonstrating the one-step extraction and hydrolysis of flavonoids in rape bee pollen. The obtained contents of flavonoid aglycones (quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin) were used for the optimisation and validation of the method. The extraction and hydrolysis were accomplished in one step. The procedure completes in 2 h with silica gel as dispersant, a 1:2 ratio of sample to dispersant, and 60% aqueous ethanol with 0.3 M hydrochloric acid as the extraction solution. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of repeatability were less than 5%, and the recoveries at two fortified levels were between 88.3 and 104.8%. The proposed methodology is simple and highly efficient, with good repeatability and recovery. Compared with currently available methods, the present work has advantages of using less time and labour, higher extraction efficiency, and less consumption of the acid catalyst. This method may have applications for the one-step extraction and hydrolysis of bioactive compounds from plant materials. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SEMICONDUCTOR INJECTION LASERS SELCO-87: Metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy of (GaAl)As for 0.85-μm laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, K.; Bugge, F.; Butzke, G.; Lehmann, L.; Schimko, R.

    1988-11-01

    Metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy was used to grow stripe heterolaser diodes that were hitherto fabricated by liquid phase epitaxy. The main relationships between the growth parameters (partial input pressures, temperatures) and the properties of materials (thicknesses, solid-solution compositions, carrier densities) were investigated. The results were in full agreement with the mechanism of growth controlled by a vapor-phase diffusion. The results achieved routinely in the growth of GaAs are reported. It is shown that double heterostructure laser diodes fabricated by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy compete favorably with those grown so far by liquid phase epitaxy, including their degradation and reliability.

  9. Experimental study of flash boiling spray vaporization through quantitative vapor concentration and liquid temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Gaoming; Hung, David L. S.; Xu, Min

    2014-08-01

    Flash boiling sprays of liquid injection under superheated conditions provide the novel solutions of fast vaporization and better air-fuel mixture formation for internal combustion engines. However, the physical mechanisms of flash boiling spray vaporization are more complicated than the droplet surface vaporization due to the unique bubble generation and boiling process inside a superheated bulk liquid, which are not well understood. In this study, the vaporization of flash boiling sprays was investigated experimentally through the quantitative measurements of vapor concentration and liquid temperature. Specifically, the laser-induced exciplex fluorescence technique was applied to distinguish the liquid and vapor distributions. Quantitative vapor concentration was obtained by correlating the intensity of vapor-phase fluorescence with vapor concentration through systematic corrections and calibrations. The intensities of two wavelengths were captured simultaneously from the liquid-phase fluorescence spectra, and their intensity ratios were correlated with liquid temperature. The results show that both liquid and vapor phase of multi-hole sprays collapse toward the centerline of the spray with different mass distributions under the flash boiling conditions. Large amount of vapor aggregates along the centerline of the spray to form a "gas jet" structure, whereas the liquid distributes more uniformly with large vortexes formed in the vicinity of the spray tip. The vaporization process under the flash boiling condition is greatly enhanced due to the intense bubble generation and burst. The liquid temperature measurements show strong temperature variations inside the flash boiling sprays with hot zones present in the "gas jet" structure and vortex region. In addition, high vapor concentration and closed vortex motion seem to have inhibited the heat and mass transfer in these regions. In summary, the vapor concentration and liquid temperature provide detailed information

  10. Mid-infrared laser-absorption diagnostic for vapor-phase measurements in an evaporating n-decane aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, J. M.; Jeffries, J. B.; Hanson, R. K.

    2009-09-01

    A novel three-wavelength mid-infrared laser-based absorption/extinction diagnostic has been developed for simultaneous measurement of temperature and vapor-phase mole fraction in an evaporating hydrocarbon fuel aerosol (vapor and liquid droplets). The measurement technique was demonstrated for an n-decane aerosol with D 50˜3 μ m in steady and shock-heated flows with a measurement bandwidth of 125 kHz. Laser wavelengths were selected from FTIR measurements of the C-H stretching band of vapor and liquid n-decane near 3.4 μm (3000 cm -1), and from modeled light scattering from droplets. Measurements were made for vapor mole fractions below 2.3 percent with errors less than 10 percent, and simultaneous temperature measurements over the range 300 K< T<900 K were made with errors less than 3 percent. The measurement technique is designed to provide accurate values of temperature and vapor mole fraction in evaporating polydispersed aerosols with small mean diameters ( D 50<10 μ m), where near-infrared laser-based scattering corrections are prone to error.

  11. Substrate-induced phase of a [1]benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene derivative and phase evolution by aging and solvent vapor annealing.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew O F; Geerts, Yves H; Karpinska, Jolanta; Kennedy, Alan R; Resel, Roland; Röthel, Christian; Ruzié, Christian; Werzer, Oliver; Sferrazza, Michele

    2015-01-28

    Substrate-induced phases (SIPs) are polymorphic phases that are found in thin films of a material and are different from the single crystal or "bulk" structure of a material. In this work, we investigate the presence of a SIP in the family of [1]benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene (BTBT) organic semiconductors and the effect of aging and solvent vapor annealing on the film structure. Through extensive X-ray structural investigations of spin coated films, we find a SIP with a significantly different structure to that found in single crystals of the same material forms; the SIP has a herringbone motif while single crystals display layered π-π stacking. Over time, the structure of the film is found to slowly convert to the single crystal structure. Solvent vapor annealing initiates the same structural evolution process but at a greatly increased rate, and near complete conversion can be achieved in a short period of time. As properties such as charge transport capability are determined by the molecular structure, this work highlights the importance of understanding and controlling the structure of organic semiconductor films and presents a simple method to control the film structure by solvent vapor annealing.

  12. EFFECT OF VAPOR-PHASE BIOREACTOR OPERATION ON BIOMASS ACCUMULATION, DISTRIBUTION, AND ACTIVITY. (R826168)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Excess biomass accumulation and activity loss in vapor-phase bioreactors (VPBs) can lead to unreliable long-term operation. In this study, temporal and spatial variations in biomass accumulation, distribution and activity in VPBs treating toluene-contaminated air were monitored o...

  13. Non-Ballistic Vapor-Driven Ejecta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrobel, K. E.; Schultz, P. H.; Heineck, J. T.

    2004-01-01

    Impact-induced vaporization is a key component of early-time cratering mechanics. Previous experimental [1,2] and computational [e.g., 3] studies focused on the generation and expansion of vapor clouds in an attempt to better understand vaporization in hypervelocity impacts. Presented here is a new experimental approach to the study of impact-induced vaporization. The three-dimensional particle image velocimetry (3D PIV) system captures interactions between expanding vapor phases and fine particulates. Particles ejected early in the cratering process may be entrained in expanding gas phases generated at impact, altering their otherwise ballistic path of flight. 3D PIV allows identifying the presence of such non-ballistic ejecta from very early times in the cratering process.

  14. OM-VPE growth of Mg-doped GaAs. [OrganoMetallic-Vapor Phase Epitaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, C. R.; Dietze, W. T.; Ludowise, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    The epitaxial growth of Mg-doped GaAs by the organometallic vapor phase epitaxial process (OM-VPE) has been achieved for the first time. The doping is controllable over a wide range of input fluxes of bis (cyclopentadienyl) magnesium, (C5H5)2Mg, the organometallic precursor to Mg.

  15. Delivery of Epinephrine in the Vapor Phase for the Treatment of Croup.

    PubMed

    Leung, Kitty; Newth, Christopher J L; Hotz, Justin C; O'Brien, Kevin C; Fink, James B; Coates, Allan L

    2016-04-01

    The Vapotherm system delivers high humidity to the airway of patients by using semipermeable tubules where heated liquid water is in contact with air. The humidified air is conducted to the patient via a heated tube. Preliminary clinical observations in infants with croup suggested that epinephrine added to the water supplying the humidity was delivered successfully in the vapor phase. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of the delivery of epinephrine in the vapor phase and to develop the feasibility criteria for a clinical pilot study. Thirty milligrams of epinephrine in a 1-L bag of sterile water was used as the humidification source for a Vapotherm 2000i. The output of the heated circuit was condensed and collected into a small Erlenmeyer flask via a metal coil while the whole collection system was submerged in an ice slurry to maintain the outflow temperature from the flask between 0°C and 2°C. The in vitro system was tested at 40°C with flows of 5, 10, and 15 L/min and L-epinephrine concentrations of 15, 30, and 60 mg/L. Each test was duplicated at each of the six conditions. Academic children's hospital research laboratory. None. None. The system recovered more than 90% of the water vapor from the fully saturated air at 40°C. The epinephrine concentration recovery quantified by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry was 23.9% (27.5-20.4%) (mean and range) of the initial concentration. At flows of 5, 10, and 15 L/min, the delivery of epinephrine would be 1.8, 3.6, and 4.2 μg/min, respectively, which is in the therapeutic range used for parenteral infusion in young children. The Vapotherm system can be used to deliver epinephrine in pharmacological doses to the respiratory system as a vapor and thus as an alternative to droplets by conventional nebulization.

  16. Synthesis of TiO2 Nanoparticles from Ilmenite Through the Mechanism of Vapor-Phase Reaction Process by Thermal Plasma Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samal, Sneha

    2017-11-01

    Synthesis of nanoparticles of TiO2 was carried out by non-transferred arc thermal plasma reactor using ilmenite as the precursor material. The powder ilmenite was vaporized at high temperature in plasma flame and converted to a gaseous state of ions in the metastable phase. On cooling, chamber condensation process takes place on recombination of ions for the formation of nanoparticles. The top-to-bottom approach induces the disintegration of complex ilmenite phases into simpler compounds of iron oxide and titanium dioxide phases. The vapor-phase reaction mechanism was carried out in thermal plasma zone for the synthesis of nanoparticles from ilmenite compound in a plasma reactor. The easy separation of iron particles from TiO2 was taken place in the plasma chamber with deposition of light TiO2 particles at the top of the cooling chamber and iron particles at the bottom. The dissociation and combination process of mechanism and synthesis are studied briefly in this article. The product TiO2 nanoparticle shows the purity with a major phase of rutile content. TiO2 nanoparticles produced in vapor-phase reaction process shows more photo-induced capacity.

  17. Feasibility Study of Vapor-Mist Phase Reaction Lubrication Using a Thioether Liquid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, Wilfredo; Handschuh, Robert F.; Krantz, Timothy L.

    2007-01-01

    A primary technology barrier preventing the operation of gas turbine engines and aircraft gearboxes at higher temperatures is the inability of currently used liquid lubricants to survive at the desired operating conditions over an extended time period. Current state-of-the-art organic liquid lubricants rapidly degrade at temperatures above 300 C; hence, another form of lubrication is necessary. Vapor or mist phase reaction lubrication is a unique, alternative technology for high temperature lubrication. The majority of past studies have employed a liquid phosphate ester that was vaporized or misted, and delivered to bearings or gears where the phosphate ester reacted with the metal surfaces generating a solid lubricious film. This method resulted in acceptable operating temperatures suggesting some good lubrication properties, but the continuous reaction between the phosphate ester and the iron surfaces led to wear rates unacceptable for gas turbine engine or aircraft gearbox applications. In this study, an alternative non-phosphate liquid was used to mist phase lubricate a spur gearbox rig operating at 10,000 rpm under highly loaded conditions. After 21 million shaft revolutions of operation the gears exhibited only minor wear.

  18. Melting and Vaporization of the 1223 Phase in the System (Tl-Pb-Ba-Sr-Ca-Cu-O)

    PubMed Central

    Cook, L. P.; Wong-Ng, W.; Paranthaman, P.

    1996-01-01

    The melting and vaporization of the 1223 [(Tl,Pb):(Ba,Sr):Ca:Cu] oxide phase in the system (Tl-Pb-Ba-Sr-Ca-Cu-O) have been investigated using a combination of dynamic methods (differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetry, effusion) and post-quenching characterization techniques (powder x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry). Vaporization rates, thermal events, and melt compositions were followed as a function of thallia loss from a 1223 stoichiometry. Melting and vaporization equilibria of the 1223 phase are complex, with as many as seven phases participating simultaneously. At a total pressure of 0.1 MPa the 1223 phase was found to melt completely at (980 ± 5) °C in oxygen, at a thallia partial pressure (pTl2O) of (4.6 ± 0.5) kPa, where the quoted uncertainties are standard uncertainties, i.e., 1 estimated standard deviation. The melting reaction involves five other solids and a liquid, nominally as follows: 1223→1212+(Ca,Sr)2CuO3+(Sr,Ca)CuO2+BaPbO3+(Ca,Sr)O+Liquid Stoichiometries of the participating phases have been determined from microchemical analysis, and substantial elemental substitution on the 1212 and 1223 crystallographic sites is indicated. The 1223 phase occurs in equilibrium with liquids from its melting point down to at least 935 °C. The composition of the lowest melting liquid detected for the bulk compositions of this study has been measured using microchemical analysis. Applications to the processing of superconducting wires and tapes are discussed. PMID:27805086

  19. Conductive Textiles via Vapor-Phase Polymerization of 3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene.

    PubMed

    Ala, Okan; Hu, Bin; Li, Dapeng; Yang, Chen-Lu; Calvert, Paul; Fan, Qinguo

    2017-08-30

    We fabricated electrically conductive textiles via vapor-phase polymerization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) layers on cotton, cotton/poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), cotton/Lycra, and PET fabrics. We then measured the electrical resistivity values of such PEDOT-coated textiles and analyzed the effect of water treatment on the electrical resistivity. Additionally, we tested the change in the electrical resistance of the conductive textiles under cyclic stretching and relaxation. Last, we characterized the uniformity and morphology of the conductive layer formed on the fabrics using scanning electron microscopy and electron-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

  20. CRYOCHEM, Thermodynamic Model for Cryogenic Chemical Systems: Solid-Vapor and Solid-Liquid-Vapor Phase Equilibria Toward Applications on Titan and Pluto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, S. P.; Kargel, J. S.; Adidharma, H.; Marion, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    Until in-situ measurements can be made regularly on extraterrestrial bodies, thermodynamic models are the only tools to investigate the properties and behavior of chemical systems on those bodies. The resulting findings are often critical in describing physicochemical processes in the atmosphere, surface, and subsurface in planetary geochemistry and climate studies. The extremely cold conditions on Triton, Pluto and other Kuiper Belt Objects, and Titan introduce huge non-ideality that prevents conventional models from performing adequately. At such conditions, atmospheres as a whole—not components individually—are subject to phase equilibria with their equilibrium solid phases or liquid phases or both. A molecular-based thermodynamic model for cryogenic chemical systems, referred to as CRYOCHEM, the development of which is still in progress, was shown to reproduce the vertical composition profile of Titan's atmospheric methane measured by the Huygens probe (Tan et al., Icarus 2013, 222, 53). Recently, the model was also used to describe Titan's global circulation where the calculated composition of liquid in Ligeia Mare is consistent with the bathymetry and microwave absorption analysis of T91 Cassini fly-by data (Tan et al., 2014, submitted). Its capability to deal with equilibria involving solid phases has also been demonstrated (Tan et al., Fluid Phase Equilib. 2013, 360, 320). With all those previous works done, our attention is now shifting to the lower temperatures in Titan's tropopause and on Pluto's surface, where much technical development remains for CRYOCHEM to assure adequate performance at low temperatures. In these conditions, solid-vapor equilibrium (SVE) is the dominant phase behavior that determines the composition of the atmosphere and the existing ices. Another potential application is for the subsurface phase equilibrium, which also involves liquid, thus three-phase equilibrium: solid-liquid-vapor (SLV). This presentation will discuss the

  1. APTS and rGO co-functionalized pyrenated fluorescent nanonets for representative vapor phase nitroaromatic explosive detection.

    PubMed

    Guo, Linjuan; Zu, Baiyi; Yang, Zheng; Cao, Hongyu; Zheng, Xuefang; Dou, Xincun

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, flexible PVP/pyrene/APTS/rGO fluorescent nanonets were designed and synthesized via a one-step electrospinning method to detect representative subsaturated nitroaromatic explosive vapor. The functional fluorescent nanonets, which were highly stable in air, showed an 81% quenching efficiency towards TNT vapor (∼10 ppb) with an exposure time of 540 s at room temperature. The nice performance of the nanonets was ascribed to the synergistic effects induced by the specific adsorption properties of APTS, the fast charge transfer properties and the effective π-π interaction with pyrene and TNT of rGO. Compared to the analogues of TNT, the PVP/pyrene/APTS/rGO nanonets showed notable selectivity towards TNT and DNT vapors. The explored functionalization method opens up brand new insight into sensitive and selective detection of vapor phase nitroaromatic explosives.

  2. Monitoring of vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Hajaligol, Mohammad R.

    2004-06-01

    An apparatus for monitoring vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a high-temperature environment has an excitation source producing electromagnetic radiation, an optical path having an optical probe optically communicating the electromagnetic radiation received at a proximal end to a distal end, a spectrometer or polychromator, a detector, and a positioner coupled to the first optical path. The positioner can slidably move the distal end of the optical probe to maintain the distal end position with respect to an area of a material undergoing combustion. The emitted wavelength can be directed to a detector in a single optical probe 180.degree. backscattered configuration, in a dual optical probe 180.degree. backscattered configuration or in a dual optical probe 90.degree. side scattered configuration. The apparatus can be used to monitor an emitted wavelength of energy from a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon as it fluoresces in a high temperature environment.

  3. Enzymatic hydrolysis of short-chain lecithin/long-chain phospholipid unilamellar vesicles: sensitivity of phospholipases to matrix phase state.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, N E; Agman, N V; Roberts, M F

    1987-11-17

    Short-chain lecithin/long-chain phospholipid unilamellar vesicles (SLUVs), unlike pure long-chain lecithin vesicles, are excellent substrates for water-soluble phospholipases. Hemolysis assays show that greater than 99.5% of the short-chain lecithin is partitioned in the bilayer. In these binary component vesicles, the short-chain species is the preferred substrate, while the long-chain phospholipid can be treated as an inhibitor (phospholipase C) or poor substrate (phospholipase A2). For phospholipase C Bacillus cereus, apparent Km and Vmax values show that bilayer-solubilized diheptanoylphosphatidylcholine (diheptanoyl-PC) is nearly as good a substrate as pure micellar diheptanoyl-PC, although the extent of short-chain lecithin hydrolysis depends on the phase state of the long-chain lipid. For phospholipase A2 Naja naja naja, both Km and Vmax values show a greater range: in a gel-state matrix, diheptanoyl-PC is hydrolyzed with micellelike kinetic parameters; in a liquid-crystalline matrix, the short-chain lecithin becomes comparable to the long-chain component. Both enzymes also show an anomalous increase in specific activity toward diheptanoyl-PC around the phase transition temperature of the long-chain phospholipid. Since the short-chain lecithin does not exhibit a phase transition, this must reflect fluctuations in head-group area or vertical motions of the short-chain lecithin caused by surrounding long-chain lecithin molecules. These results are discussed in terms of a specific model for SLUV hydrolysis and a general explanation for the "interfacial activation" observed with water-soluble phospholipases.

  4. Comparison of various types of stationary phases in non-aqueous reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of glycerolipids in blackcurrant oil and its enzymatic hydrolysis mixture.

    PubMed

    Lísa, Miroslav; Holcapek, Michal; Sovová, Helena

    2009-11-20

    The selection of column packing during the development of high-performance liquid chromatography method is a crucial step to achieve sufficient chromatographic resolution of analyzed species in complex mixtures. Various stationary phases are tested in this paper for the analysis of complex mixture of triacylglycerols (TGs) in blackcurrant oil using non-aqueous reversed-phase (NARP) system with acetonitrile-2-propanol mobile phase. Conventional C(18) column in the total length of 45 cm is used for the separation of TGs according to their equivalent carbon number, the number and positions of double bonds and acyl chain lengths. The separation of TGs and their more polar hydrolysis products after the partial enzymatic hydrolysis of blackcurrant oil in one chromatographic run is achieved using conventional C(18) column. Retention times of TGs are reduced almost 10 times without the loss of the chromatographic resolution using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography with 1.7 microm C(18) particles. The separation in NARP system on C(30) column shows an unusual phenomenon, because the retention order of TGs changes depending on the column temperature, which is reported for the first time. The commercial monolithic column modified with C(18) is used for the fast analysis of TGs to increase the sample throughput but at cost of low resolution.

  5. Assessment of the Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal (VPCAR) Technology at the MSFC ECLS Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomes, Kristin; Long, David; Carter, Layne; Flynn, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia. Removal (VPCAR) technology has been previously discussed as a viable option for. the Exploration Water Recovery System. This technology integrates a phase change process with catalytic oxidation in the vapor phase to produce potable water from exploration mission wastewaters. A developmental prototype VPCAR was designed, built and tested under funding provided by a National Research. Announcement (NRA) project. The core technology, a Wiped Film Rotating Device (WFRD) was provided by Water Reuse Technologies under the NRA, whereas Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International performed the hardware integration and acceptance test. of the system. Personnel at the-Ames Research Center performed initial systems test of the VPCAR using ersatz solutions. To assess the viability of this hardware for Exploration. Life Support (ELS) applications, the hardware has been modified and tested at the MSFC ECLS Test facility. This paper summarizes the hardware modifications and test results and provides an assessment of this technology for the ELS application.

  6. Use of column V alkyls in organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludowise, M. J.; Cooper, C. B., III

    1982-01-01

    The use of the column V-trialkyls trimethylarsenic (TMAs) and trimethylantimony (TMSb) for the organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OM-VPE) of III-V compound semiconductors is reviewed. A general discussion of the interaction chemistry of common Group III and Group V reactants is presented. The practical application of TMSb and TMAs for OM-VPE is demonstrated using the growth of GaSb, GaAs(1-y)Sb(y), Al(x)Ga(1-x)Sb, and Ga(1-x)In(x)As as examples.

  7. Direct calculation of liquid-vapor phase equilibria from transition matrix Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Errington, Jeffrey R.

    2003-06-01

    An approach for directly determining the liquid-vapor phase equilibrium of a model system at any temperature along the coexistence line is described. The method relies on transition matrix Monte Carlo ideas developed by Fitzgerald, Picard, and Silver [Europhys. Lett. 46, 282 (1999)]. During a Monte Carlo simulation attempted transitions between states along the Markov chain are monitored as opposed to tracking the number of times the chain visits a given state as is done in conventional simulations. Data collection is highly efficient and very precise results are obtained. The method is implemented in both the grand canonical and isothermal-isobaric ensemble. The main result from a simulation conducted at a given temperature is a density probability distribution for a range of densities that includes both liquid and vapor states. Vapor pressures and coexisting densities are calculated in a straightforward manner from the probability distribution. The approach is demonstrated with the Lennard-Jones fluid. Coexistence properties are directly calculated at temperatures spanning from the triple point to the critical point.

  8. A Kinetic Model for GaAs Growth by Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte, Kevin L.; Simon, John; Jain, Nikhil

    2016-11-21

    Precise control of the growth of III-V materials by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) is complicated by the fact that the growth rate depends on the concentrations of nearly all inputs to the reactor and also the reaction temperature. This behavior is in contrast to metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE), which in common practice operates in a mass transport limited regime where growth rate and alloy composition are controlled almost exclusively by flow of the Group III precursor. In HVPE, the growth rate and alloy compositions are very sensitive to temperature and reactant concentrations, which are strong functions of themore » reactor geometry. HVPE growth, particularly the growth of large area materials and devices, will benefit from the development of a growth model that can eventually be coupled with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a specific reactor geometry. In this work, we develop a growth rate law using a Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) analysis, fitting unknown parameters to growth rate data from the literature that captures the relevant kinetic and thermodynamic phenomena of the HVPE process. We compare the L-H rate law to growth rate data from our custom HVPE reactor, and develop quantitative insight into reactor performance, demonstrating the utility of the growth model.« less

  9. An Experimental Visualization and Image Analysis of Electrohydrodynamically Induced Vapor-Phase Silicon Oil Flow under DC Corona Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohyama, Ryu-Ichiro; Fukumoto, Masaru

    A DC corona discharge induced electrohydrodynamic (EHD) flow phenomenon for a multi-phase fluid containing a vapor-phase dielectric liquid in the fresh air was investigated. The experimental electrode system was a simple arrangement of needle-plate electrodes for the corona discharges and high-resistivity silicon oil was used as the vapor-phase liquid enclosure. The qualitative observation of EHD flow patterns was conducted by an optical processing on computer tomography and the time-series of discharge current pulse generations at corona discharge electrode were measured simultaneously. These experimental results were analyzed in relationship between the EHD flow motions and the current pulse generations in synchronization. The current pulses and the EHD flow motions from the corona discharge electrode presented a continuous mode similar to the ionic wind in the fresh air and an intermittent mode. In the intermittent mode, the observed EHD flow motion was synchronized with the separated discharge pulse generations. From these experimental results, it was expected that the existence of silicon oil vapor trapped charges gave an occasion to the intermittent generations of the discharge pulses and the secondary EHD flow.

  10. New mechanism for autocatalytic decomposition of H2CO3 in the vapor phase.

    PubMed

    Ghoshal, Sourav; Hazra, Montu K

    2014-04-03

    In this article, we present high level ab initio calculations investigating the energetics of a new autocatalytic decomposition mechanism for carbonic acid (H2CO3) in the vapor phase. The calculation have been performed at the MP2 level of theory in conjunction with aug-cc-pVDZ, aug-cc-pVTZ, and 6-311++G(3df,3pd) basis sets as well as at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ level. The present study suggests that this new decomposition mechanism is effectively a near-barrierless process at room temperature and makes vapor phase of H2CO3 unstable even in the absence of water molecules. Our calculation at the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ level predicts that the effective barrier, defined as the difference between the zero-point vibrational energy (ZPE) corrected energy of the transition state and the total energy of the isolated starting reactants in terms of bimolecular encounters, is nearly zero for the autocatalytic decomposition mechanism. The results at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ level of calculations suggest that the effective barrier, as defined above, is sensitive to some extent to the levels of calculations used, nevertheless, we find that the effective barrier height predicted at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ level is very small or in other words the autocatalytic decomposition mechanism presented in this work is a near-barrierless process as mentioned above. Thus, we suggest that this new autocatalytic decomposition mechanism has to be considered as the primary mechanism for the decomposition of carbonic acid, especially at its source, where the vapor phase concentration of H2CO3 molecules reaches its highest levels.

  11. Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of AlN on sapphire with low etch pit density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koleske, D. D.; Figiel, J. J.; Alliman, D. L.; Gunning, B. P.; Kempisty, J. M.; Creighton, J. R.; Mishima, A.; Ikenaga, K.

    2017-06-01

    Using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy, methods were developed to achieve AlN films on sapphire with low etch pit density (EPD). Key to this achievement was using the same AlN growth recipe and only varying the pre-growth conditioning of the quartz-ware. After AlN growth, the quartz-ware was removed from the growth chamber and either exposed to room air or moved into the N2 purged glove box and exposed to H2O vapor. After the quartz-ware was exposed to room air or H2O, the AlN film growth was found to be more reproducible, resulting in films with (0002) and (10-12) x-ray diffraction (XRD) rocking curve linewidths of 200 and 500 arc sec, respectively, and EPDs < 100 cm-2. The EPD was found to correlate with (0002) linewidths, suggesting that the etch pits are associated with open core screw dislocations similar to GaN films. Once reproducible AlN conditions were established using the H2O pre-treatment, it was found that even small doses of trimethylaluminum (TMAl)/NH3 on the quartz-ware surfaces generated AlN films with higher EPDs. The presence of these residual TMAl/NH3-derived coatings in metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) systems and their impact on the sapphire surface during heating might explain why reproducible growth of AlN on sapphire is difficult.

  12. Vapor-phase fabrication of β-iron oxide nanopyramids for lithium-ion battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Carraro, Giorgio; Barreca, Davide; Cruz-Yusta, Manuel; Gasparotto, Alberto; Maccato, Chiara; Morales, Julián; Sada, Cinzia; Sánchez, Luis

    2012-12-07

    The other polymorph: A vapor-phase route for the fabrication of β-Fe(2)O(3) nanomaterials on Ti substrates at 400-500 °C is reported. For the first time, the β polymorph is tested as anode for lithium batteries, exhibiting promising performances in terms of Li storage and rate capability. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. [Impact of liquid volume of recycled methanogenic effluent on anaerobic hydrolysis].

    PubMed

    Hao, Li-ping; Lü, Fan; He, Pin-jing; Shao, Li-ming

    2008-09-01

    Methanogenic effluent was recycled to regulate hydrolysis during two-phase anaerobic digestion of organic solid wastes. In order to study the impact of recycled effluent's volume on hydrolysis, four hydrolysis reactors filled with vegetable and flower wastes were constructed, with different liquid volumes of recycled methanogenic effluent, i.e., 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 m3/(m3 x d), respectively. The parameters related to hydrolytic environment (pH, alkalinity, ORP, concentrations of ammonia and reducing sugar), microbial biomass and hydrolysis efficiency (accumulated SCOD, accumulated reducing sugar, and hydrolysis rate constants) were monitored. This research shows that recycling methanogenic effluent into the hydrolysis reactor can enhance its buffer capability and operation stability; higher recycled volume is favorable for microbial anabolism and further promotes hydrolysis. After 9 days of reaction, the accumulated SCOD in the hydrolytic effluent reach 334, 407, 413, 581 mg/g at recycled volumes of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 m3/(m3 x d) and their first-order hydrolysis rate kinetic constants are 0.065, 0.083, 0.089, 0.105 d(-1), respectively.

  14. Sintering behavior of ultrafine silicon carbide powders obtained by vapor phase reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okabe, Y.; Miyachi, K.; Hojo, J.; Kato, A.

    1984-01-01

    The sintering behavior of ultrafine SiC powder with average particle size of about 0.01-0.06 microns produced by a vapor phase reaction of the Me4Si-H2 system was studied at the temperature range of 1400-2050 deg. It was found that the homogeneous dispersion of C on SiC particles is important to remove the surface oxide layer effectively. B and C and inhibitive effect on SiC grain growth.

  15. Ultrahigh-yield growth of GaN via halogen-free vapor-phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Daisuke; Kimura, Taishi

    2018-06-01

    The material yield of Ga during GaN growth via halogen-free vapor-phase epitaxy (HF-VPE) was systematically investigated and found to be much higher than that obtained using conventional hydride VPE. This is attributed to the much lower process pressure and shorter seed-to-source distance, owing to the inherent chemical reactions and corresponding reactor design used for HF-VPE growth. Ultrahigh-yield GaN growth was demonstrated on a 4-in.-diameter sapphire seed substrate.

  16. Fuzzy logic feedback control for fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Tai, Chao; Voltan, Diego S; Keshwani, Deepak R; Meyer, George E; Kuhar, Pankaj S

    2016-06-01

    A fuzzy logic feedback control system was developed for process monitoring and feeding control in fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis of a lignocellulosic biomass, dilute acid-pretreated corn stover. Digested glucose from hydrolysis reaction was assigned as input while doser feeding time and speed of pretreated biomass were responses from fuzzy logic control system. Membership functions for these three variables and rule-base were created based on batch hydrolysis data. The system response was first tested in LabVIEW environment then the performance was evaluated through real-time hydrolysis reaction. The feeding operations were determined timely by fuzzy logic control system and efficient responses were shown to plateau phases during hydrolysis. Feeding of proper amount of cellulose and maintaining solids content was well balanced. Fuzzy logic proved to be a robust and effective online feeding control tool for fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis.

  17. Columnar jointing in vapor-phase-altered, non-welded Cerro Galán Ignimbrite, Paycuqui, Argentina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Heather M.; Lesti, Chiara; Cas, Ray A.F.; Porreca, Massimiliano; Viramonte, Jose G.; Folkes, Christopher B.; Giordano, Guido

    2011-01-01

    Columnar jointing is thought to occur primarily in lavas and welded pyroclastic flow deposits. However, the non-welded Cerro Galán Ignimbrite at Paycuqui, Argentina, contains well-developed columnar joints that are instead due to high-temperature vapor-phase alteration of the deposit, where devitrification and vapor-phase crystallization have increased the density and cohesion of the upper half of the section. Thermal remanent magnetization analyses of entrained lithic clasts indicate high emplacement temperatures, above 630°C, but the lack of welding textures indicates temperatures below the glass transition temperature. In order to remain below the glass transition at 630°C, the minimum cooling rate prior to deposition was 3.0 × 10−3–8.5 × 10−2°C/min (depending on the experimental data used for comparison). Alternatively, if the deposit was emplaced above the glass transition temperature, conductive cooling alone was insufficient to prevent welding. Crack patterns (average, 4.5 sides to each polygon) and column diameters (average, 75 cm) are consistent with relatively rapid cooling, where advective heat loss due to vapor fluxing increases cooling over simple conductive heat transfer. The presence of regularly spaced, complex radiating joint patterns is consistent with fumarolic gas rise, where volatiles originated in the valley-confined drainage system below. Joint spacing is a proxy for cooling rates and is controlled by depositional thickness/valley width. We suggest that the formation of joints in high-temperature, non-welded deposits is aided by the presence of underlying external water, where vapor transfer causes crystallization in pore spaces, densifies the deposit, and helps prevent welding.

  18. Kinetic analysis of butyrylcholinesterase-catalyzed hydrolysis of acetanilides.

    PubMed

    Masson, Patrick; Froment, Marie-Thérèse; Gillon, Emilie; Nachon, Florian; Darvesh, Sultan; Schopfer, Lawrence M

    2007-09-01

    The aryl-acylamidase (AAA) activity of butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) has been known for a long time. However, the kinetic mechanism of aryl-acylamide hydrolysis by BuChE has not been investigated. Therefore, the catalytic properties of human BuChE and its peripheral site mutant (D70G) toward neutral and charged aryl-acylamides were determined. Three neutral (o-nitroacetanilide, m-nitroacetanilide, o-nitrophenyltrifluoroacetamide) and one positively charged (3-(acetamido) N,N,N-trimethylanilinium, ATMA) acetanilides were studied. Hydrolysis of ATMA by wild-type and D70G enzymes showed a long transient phase preceding the steady state. The induction phase was characterized by a hysteretic "burst". This reflects the existence of two enzyme states in slow equilibrium with different catalytic properties. Steady-state parameters for hydrolysis of the three acetanilides were compared to catalytic parameters for hydrolysis of esters giving the same acetyl intermediate. Wild-type BuChE showed substrate activation while D70G displayed a Michaelian behavior with ATMA as with positively charged esters. Owing to the low affinity of BuChE for amide substrates, the hydrolysis kinetics of neutral amides was first order. Acylation was the rate-determining step for hydrolysis of aryl-acetylamide substrates. Slow acylation of the enzyme, relative to that by esters may, in part, be due suboptimal fit of the aryl-acylamides in the active center of BuChE. The hypothesis that AAA and esterase active sites of BuChE are non-identical was tested with mutant BuChE. It was found that mutations on the catalytic serine, S198C and S198D, led to complete loss of both activities. The silent variant (FS117) had neither esterase nor AAA activity. Mutation in the peripheral site (D70G) had the same effect on esterase and AAA activities. Echothiophate inhibited both activities identically. It was concluded that the active sites for esterase and AAA activities are identical, i.e. S198. This excludes

  19. Biodegradation of high concentrations of benzene vapors in a two phase partition stirred tank bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Ali; Golbabaei, Farideh; Neghab, Masoud; Pourmand, Mohammad Reza; Nikpey, Ahmad; Mohammad, Kazem; Mehrnia, Momammad Reza

    2013-01-15

    The present study examined the biodegradation rate of benzene vapors in a two phase stirred tank bioreactor by a bacterial consortium obtained from wastewater of an oil industry refinery house. Initially, the ability of the microbial consortium for degrading benzene was evaluated before running the bioreactor. The gaseous samples from inlet and outlet of bioreactor were directly injected into a gas chromatograph to determine benzene concentrations. Carbone oxide concentration at the inlet and outlet of bioreactor were also measured with a CO2 meter to determine the mineralization rate of benzene. Influence of the second non-aqueous phase (silicon oil) has been emphasized, so at the first stage the removal efficiency (RE) and elimination capacity (EC) of benzene vapors were evaluated without any organic phase and in the second stage, 10% of silicon oil was added to bioreactor media as an organic phase. Addition of silicon oil increased the biodegradation performance up to an inlet loading of 5580 mg/m3, a condition at which, the elimination capacity and removal efficiency were 181 g/m3/h and 95% respectively. The elimination rate of benzene increased by 38% in the presence of 10% of silicone oil. The finding of this study demonstrated that two phase partition bioreactors (TPPBs) are potentially effective tools for the treatment of gas streams contaminated with high concentrations of poorly water soluble organic contaminant, such as benzene.

  20. Formic acid catalyzed hydrolysis of SO3 in the gas phase: a barrierless mechanism for sulfuric acid production of potential atmospheric importance.

    PubMed

    Hazra, Montu K; Sinha, Amitabha

    2011-11-02

    Computational studies at the B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,3pd) and MP2/6-311++G(3df,3pd) levels are performed to explore the changes in reaction barrier height for the gas phase hydrolysis of SO(3) to form H(2)SO(4) in the presence of a single formic acid (FA) molecule. For comparison, we have also performed calculations for the reference reaction involving water assisted hydrolysis of SO(3) at the same level. Our results show that the FA assisted hydrolysis of SO(3) to form H(2)SO(4) is effectively a barrierless process. The barrier heights for the isomerization of the SO(3)···H(2)O···FA prereactive collision complex, which is the rate limiting step in the FA assisted hydrolysis, are found to be respectively 0.59 and 0.08 kcal/mol at the B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,3pd) and MP2/6-311++G(3df,3pd) levels. This is substantially lower than the ~7 kcal/mol barrier for the corresponding step in the hydrolysis of SO(3) by two water molecules--which is currently the accepted mechanism for atmospheric sulfuric acid production. Simple kinetic analysis of the relative rates suggests that the reduction in barrier height facilitated by FA, combined with the greater stability of the prereactive SO(3)···H(2)O···FA collision complex compared to SO(3)···H(2)O···H(2)O and the rather plentiful atmospheric abundance of FA, makes the formic acid mediated hydrolysis reaction a potentially important pathway for atmospheric sulfuric acid production.

  1. Phase diagram of nanoscale alloy particles used for vapor-liquid-solid growth of semiconductor nanowires.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Eli; Sutter, Peter

    2008-02-01

    We use transmission electron microscopy observations to establish the parts of the phase diagram of nanometer sized Au-Ge alloy drops at the tips of Ge nanowires (NWs) that determine their temperature-dependent equilibrium composition and, hence, their exchange of semiconductor material with the NWs. We find that the phase diagram of the nanoscale drop deviates significantly from that of the bulk alloy, which explains discrepancies between actual growth results and predictions on the basis of the bulk-phase equilibria. Our findings provide the basis for tailoring vapor-liquid-solid growth to achieve complex one-dimensional materials geometries.

  2. Low temperature vapor phase digestion of graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Robert A.

    2017-04-18

    A method for digestion and gasification of graphite for removal from an underlying surface is described. The method can be utilized to remove graphite remnants of a formation process from the formed metal piece in a cleaning process. The method can be particularly beneficial in cleaning castings formed with graphite molding materials. The method can utilize vaporous nitric acid (HNO.sub.3) or vaporous HNO.sub.3 with air/oxygen to digest the graphite at conditions that can avoid damage to the underlying surface.

  3. Simultaneous imaging of fuel vapor mass fraction and gas-phase temperature inside gasoline sprays using two-line excitation tracer planar laser-induced fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Zigan, Lars; Trost, Johannes; Leipertz, Alfred

    2016-02-20

    This paper reports for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, on the simultaneous imaging of the gas-phase temperature and fuel vapor mass fraction distribution in a direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) spray under engine-relevant conditions using tracer planar laser-induced fluorescence (TPLIF). For measurements in the spray, the fluorescence tracer 3-pentanone is added to the nonfluorescent surrogate fuel iso-octane, which is excited quasi-simultaneously by two different excimer lasers for two-line excitation LIF. The gas-phase temperature of the mixture of fuel vapor and surrounding gas and the fuel vapor mass fraction can be calculated from the two LIF signals. The measurements are conducted in a high-temperature, high-pressure injection chamber. The fluorescence calibration of the tracer was executed in a flow cell and extended significantly compared to the existing database. A detailed error analysis for both calibration and measurement is provided. Simultaneous single-shot gas-phase temperature and fuel vapor mass fraction fields are processed for the assessment of cyclic spray fluctuations.

  4. The gas phase emitter effect of lanthanum within ceramic metal halide lamps and its dependence on the La vapor pressure and operating frequency

    SciTech Connect

    Ruhrmann, C.; Hoebing, T.; Bergner, A.

    2015-08-07

    The gas phase emitter effect increases the lamp lifetime by lowering the work function and, with it, the temperature of the tungsten electrodes of metal halide lamps especially for lamps in ceramic vessels due to their high rare earth pressures. It is generated by a monolayer on the electrode surface of electropositive atoms of certain emitter elements, which are inserted into the lamp bulb by metal iodide salts. They are vaporized, dissociated, ionized, and deposited by an emitter ion current onto the electrode surface within the cathodic phase of lamp operation with a switched-dc or ac-current. The gas phase emittermore » effect of La and the influence of Na on the emitter effect of La are studied by spatially and phase-resolved pyrometric measurements of the electrode tip temperature, La atom, and ion densities by optical emission spectroscopy as well as optical broadband absorption spectroscopy and arc attachment images by short time photography. An addition of Na to the lamp filling increases the La vapor pressure within the lamp considerably, resulting in an improved gas phase emitter effect of La. Furthermore, the La vapor pressure is raised by a heating of the cold spot. In this way, conditions depending on the La vapor pressure and operating frequency are identified, at which the temperature of the electrodes becomes a minimum.« less

  5. Infrared spectroscopic studies of the conformation in ethyl alpha-haloacetates in the vapor, liquid and solid phases.

    PubMed

    Jassem, Naserallah A; El-Bermani, Muhsin F

    2010-07-01

    Infrared spectra of ethyl alpha-fluoroacetate, ethyl alpha-chloroacetate, ethyl alpha-bromoacetate and ethyl alpha-iodoacetate have been measured in the solid, liquid and vapor phases in the region 4000-200 cm(-1). Vibrational frequency assignment of the observed bands to the appropriate modes of vibration was made. Calculations at DFT B3LYP/6-311+G** level, Job: conformer distribution, using Spartan program '08, release 132 was made to determine which conformers exist in which molecule. The results indicated that the first compound exists as an equilibrium mixture of cis and trans conformers and the other three compounds exist as equilibrium mixtures of cis and gauche conformers. Enthalpy differences between the conformers have been determined experimentally for each compound and for every phase. The values indicated that the trans of the first compound is more stable in the vapor phase, while the cis is the more stable in both the liquid and solid phases. In the other three compounds the gauche is more stable in the vapor and liquid phases, while the cis conformer is the more stable in the solid phase for each of the second and third compound, except for ethyl alpha-iodoacetate, the gauche conformer is the more stable over the three phases. Molar energy of activation Ea and the pseudo-thermodynamic parameters of activation DeltaH(double dagger), DeltaS(double dagger) and DeltaG(double dagger) were determined in the solid phase by applying Arrhenius equation; using bands arising from single conformers. The respective E(a) values of these compounds are 5.1+/-0.4, 6.7+/-0.1, 7.5+/-1.3 and 12.0+/-0.6 kJ mol(-1). Potential energy surface calculations were made at two levels; for ethyl alpha-fluoroacetate and ethyl alpha-chloroacetate; the calculations were established at DFT B3LYP/6-311+G** level and for ethyl alpha-bromoacetate and ethyl alpha-iodoacetate at DFT B3LYP/6-311G* level. The results showed no potential energy minimum exists for the gauche conformer in

  6. In vivo droplet vaporization for occlusion therapy and phase aberration correction.

    PubMed

    Kripfgans, Oliver D; Fowlkes, J Brian; Woydt, Michael; Eldevik, Odd P; Carson, Paul L

    2002-06-01

    The objective was to determine whether a transpulmonary droplet emulsion (90%, <6 microm diameter) could be used to form large gas bubbles (>30 microm) temporarily in vivo. Such bubbles could occlude a targeted capillary bed when used in a large number density. Alternatively, for a very sparse population of droplets, the resulting gas bubbles could serve as point beacons for phase aberration corrections in ultrasonic imaging. Gas bubbles can be made in vivo by acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) of injected, superheated, dodecafluoropentane droplets. Droplets vaporize in an acoustic field whose peak rarefactional pressure exceeds a well-defined threshold. In this new work, it has been found that intraarterial and intravenous injections can be used to introduce the emulsion into the blood stream for subsequent ADV (B- and M-mode on a clinical scanner) in situ. Intravenous administration results in a lower gas bubble yield, possibly because of filtering in the lung, dilution in the blood volume, or other circulatory effects. Results show that for occlusion purposes, a reduction in regional blood flow of 34% can be achieved. Individual point beacons with a +24 dB backscatter amplitude relative to white matter were created by intravenous injection and ADV.

  7. Upright and Inverted Single-Junction GaAs Solar Cells Grown by Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy

    DOE PAGES

    Simon, John; Schulte, Kevin L.; Jain, Nikhil; ...

    2016-10-19

    Hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) is a low-cost alternative to conventional metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) growth of III-V solar cells. In this work, we show continued improvement of the performance of HVPE-grown single-junction GaAs solar cells. We show over an order of magnitude improvement in the interface recombination velocity between GaAs and GaInP layers through the elimination of growth interrupts, leading to increased short-circuit current density and open-circuit voltage compared with cells with interrupts. One-sun conversion efficiencies as high as 20.6% were achieved with this improved growth process. Solar cells grown in an inverted configuration that were removed frommore » the substrate showed nearly identical performance to on-wafer cells, demonstrating the viability of HVPE to be used together with conventional wafer reuse techniques for further cost reduction. As a result, these devices utilized multiple heterointerfaces, showing the potential of HVPE for the growth of complex and high-quality III-V devices.« less

  8. Vapor-phase and particulate-associated pesticides and PCB concentrations in eastern North Dakota air samples

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, S.B.; Miller, D.J.; Louie, P.K.K.

    1996-05-01

    Vapor-phase and suspended particulate (<50 {mu}m) samples were collected on polyurethane foam (PUF) and quartz fiber filters in rural North Dakota to determine the air concentrations of pesticides in an area where agriculture is a primary source of semivolatile pollutants. Samples were collected at two sites from 1992 to 1994 that were at least 0.4 km from the nearest farmed fields and known application of pesticides, and analyzed for 22 different organochlorine, triazine, and acid herbicide pesticides. Fourteen pesticides were found above the detection limits (typically <1 pg/m{sup 3}). Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were much lower (<50 pg/m{supmore » 3} in all cases) than many of the pesticides. These results demonstrate that pesticides are among the most prevalent chlorinated semivolatile pollutants present in rural North Dakota, that significant transport of pesticides occurs both in the vapor-phase and on suspended particulate matter, and that blown soil may be a significant mechanism for introducing pesticides into surface and ground waters. 32 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.« less

  9. Biofiltration - an innovative approach to vapor phase treatment at the Silvex hazardous waste site in Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Hartsfield, B.

    1995-12-31

    Biofiltration is an emerging technology that is being used for vapor phase treatment at the Silvex hazardous waste site. Biofiltration works by directing the off-gas from the groundwater treatment system through a bed of soil, compost or other medium that supports the growth of bacteria. Contaminants are absorbed into the water present in the medium, and are subsequently degraded by the microorganisms. The biofiltration system at the Silvex hazardous waste site has been effective in removing contaminants from the off-gas. The biofiltration system has also been effective in minimizing the odor problem resulting from mercaptans in the off-gas. Biofiltration hasmore » been used for many years at wastewater and industrial plants to control odor and remove organic contaminants. This technology has only recently been used for hazardous waste site cleanups. The hazardous waste literature is now listing biofiltration as a vapor phase treatment technology, along with carbon, thermal oxidation and others.« less

  10. Vapor-phase cristobalite as a durable indicator of magmatic pore structure and halogen degassing: an example from White Island volcano (New Zealand)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ian Schipper, C.; Mandon, Céline; Maksimenko, Anton; Castro, Jonathan M.; Conway, Chris E.; Hauer, Peter; Kirilova, Martina; Kilgour, Geoff

    2017-10-01

    Vesicles in volcanic rocks are physical records of magmatic degassing; however, the interpretation of their textures is complicated by resorption, coalescence, and collapse. We discuss the textural significance of vesicle-hosted vapor-phase cristobalite (high-T, low-P SiO2 polymorph), and its utility as a complement to textural assessments of magmatic degassing, using a representative dacite bomb erupted from White Island volcano (New Zealand) in 1999. Imaging in 2D (SEM) and 3D (CT) shows the bomb to have 56% bulk porosity, almost all of which is connected ( 99%) and devoid of SiO2 phases. The remaining ( 1%) of porosity is in isolated, sub-spherical vesicles that have corroded walls and contain small (< 30 μm across) prismatic vapor-phase cristobalite crystals (98.4 ± 0.4 wt.% SiO2 with diagnostic laser Raman spectra). Halogen degassing models show vapor-phase cristobalite to be indicative of closed-system chlorine and fluorine partitioning into H2O-rich fluid in isolated pores. At White Island, this occurred during shallow (< 100s of meters) ascent and extensive ( 50%) groundmass crystallization associated with slow cooling in a volcanic plug. Pristine textures in this White Island bomb demonstrate the link between pore isolation and vapor-phase cristobalite deposition. We suggest that because these crystals have higher preservation potential than the bubbles in which they form, they can serve as durable, qualitative textural indicators of halogen degassing and pre-quench bubble morphologies in slowly cooled volcanic rocks (e.g., lava flows and domes), even where emplacement mechanisms have overprinted original bubble textures.

  11. Non-catalytic steam hydrolysis of fats

    SciTech Connect

    Deibert, M.C.

    1992-08-28

    Hydrolysis of fats and oils produces fatty acid and glycerol. The catalyzed, liquid phase Colgate-Emry process, state-of-the-art, produces impure products that require extensive energy investment for their purification to commercial grade. Non-catalytic steam hydrolysis may produce products more easily purified. A bench-scale hydrolyzer was designed and constructed to contact descending liquid fat or oil with rising superheated steam. Each of the five stages in the reactor was designed similar to a distillation column stage to promote intimate liquid-gas contact. Degree of hydrolysis achieved in continuous tests using tallow feed were 15% at 280C and 35% at 300C at a tallow-to-steammore » mass feed ratio of 4.2. At a feed ratio of 9.2, the degree of hydrolysis was 21% at 300C. Decomposition was strongly evident at 325C but not at lower temperatures. Soybean oil rapidly polymerized under reaction conditions. Batch tests at 320C produced degrees of hydrolyses of between 44% and 63% using tallow and palm oil feeds. Over 95% fatty acids were present in a clean, readily separated organic portion of the overhead product from most tests. The test reactor had serious hydraulic resistance to liquid down-flow which limited operation to very long liquid residence times. These times are in excess of those that tallow and palm oil are stable at the reaction temperature. Little glycerol and extensive light organics were produced indicating that unexplained competing reactions to hydrolysis occurred in the experimental system. Further tests using an improved reactor will be required.« less

  12. Vapor-phase infrared spectroscopy on solid organic compounds with a pulsed resonant photoacoustic detection scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlome, Richard; Fischer, Cornelia; Sigrist, Markus W.

    2005-08-01

    There is a great need for a low cost and sensitive method to measure infrared spectra of solid organic compounds in the gas phase. To record such spectra, we propose an optical parametric generator-based photoacoustic spectrometer, which emits in the mid-infrared fingerprint region between 3 and 4 microns. In this system, the sample is heated in a vessel before entering a home built photoacoustic cell, where the gaseous molecules are excited by a tunable laser source with a frequency repetition rate that matches the first longitudinal resonance frequency of the photocaoustic cell. In a first phase, we have focused on low-melting point stimulants such as Nikethamide, Mephentermine sulfate, Methylephedrine, Ephedrine and Pseudoephedrine. The vapor-phase spectra of these doping substances were measured between 2800 and 3100 cm-1, where fundamental C-H stretching vibrations take place. Our spectra show notable differences with commercially available condensed phase spectra. Our scheme enables to measure very low vapor pressures of low-melting point (<160 °C) solid organic compounds. Furthermore, the optical resolution of 8 cm-1 is good enough to distinguish closely related chemical structures such as the Ephedra alkaloids Ephedrine and Methylephedrine, but doesn't allow to differentiate diastereoisomeric pairs such as Ephedrine and Pseudoephedrine, two important neurotransmitters which reveal different biological activities. Therefore, higher resolution and a system capable of measuring organic compounds with higher melting points are required.

  13. Analytical solutions for a soil vapor extraction model that incorporates gas phase dispersion and molecular diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Junqi; Goltz, Mark N.

    2017-06-01

    To greatly simplify their solution, the equations describing radial advective/dispersive transport to an extraction well in a porous medium typically neglect molecular diffusion. While this simplification is appropriate to simulate transport in the saturated zone, it can result in significant errors when modeling gas phase transport in the vadose zone, as might be applied when simulating a soil vapor extraction (SVE) system to remediate vadose zone contamination. A new analytical solution for the equations describing radial gas phase transport of a sorbing contaminant to an extraction well is presented. The equations model advection, dispersion (including both mechanical dispersion and molecular diffusion), and rate-limited mass transfer of dissolved, separate phase, and sorbed contaminants into the gas phase. The model equations are analytically solved by using the Laplace transform with respect to time. The solutions are represented by confluent hypergeometric functions in the Laplace domain. The Laplace domain solutions are then evaluated using a numerical Laplace inversion algorithm. The solutions can be used to simulate the spatial distribution and the temporal evolution of contaminant concentrations during operation of a soil vapor extraction well. Results of model simulations show that the effect of gas phase molecular diffusion upon concentrations at the extraction well is relatively small, although the effect upon the distribution of concentrations in space is significant. This study provides a tool that can be useful in designing SVE remediation strategies, as well as verifying numerical models used to simulate SVE system performance.

  14. THE EFFECT OF WATER (VAPOR-PHASE) AND CARBON ON ELEMENTAL MERCURY REMOVAL IN A FLOW REACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of studying the effect of vapor-phase moisture on elemental mercury (Hgo) removal by activated carbon (AC) in a flow reactor. tests involved injecting AC into both a dry and a 4% moisture nitrogen (N2) /Hgo gas stream. A bituminous-coal-based AC (Calgon WP...

  15. Growth of NH4Cl Single Crystal from Vapor Phase in Vertical Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigara, Yutaka; Yoshizawa, Masahito; Fujimura, Tadao

    1983-02-01

    A pure and internally stress-free single crystal of NH4Cl was grown successfully from the vapor phase. The crystal measured 1.6 cmφ× 2 cm and had the disordered CsCl structure, which was stable below 184°C. The crystal was grown in an ampoule in a vertical furnace, in which the vapor was efficiently transported both by diffusion and convection. In line with the growth mechanism of a single crystal, the temperature fluctuation (°C/min) on the growth interface was kept smaller than the product of the temperature gradient (°C/cm) and the growth rate (cm/min). The specific heat of the crystal was measured around -31°C (242 K) during cooling and heating cycles by AC calorimetry. The thermal hysteresis (0.4 K) obtained here was smaller than that (0.89 K) of an NH4Cl crystal grown from its aqueous solution with urea added as a habit modifier.

  16. Integrated system for the destruction of organics by hydrolysis and oxidation with peroxydisulfate

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.; Balazs, G. Bryan; Hsu, Peter; Lewis, Patricia R.; Adamson, Martyn G.

    2000-01-01

    An integrated system for destruction of organic waste comprises a hydrolysis step at moderate temperature and pressure, followed by direct chemical oxidation using peroxydisulfate. This system can be used to quantitatively destroy volatile or water-insoluble halogenated organic solvents, contaminated soils and sludges, and the organic component of mixed waste. The hydrolysis step results in a substantially single phase of less volatile, more water soluble hydrolysis products, thus enabling the oxidation step to proceed rapidly and with minimal loss of organic substrate in the off-gas.

  17. Liquid-phase and vapor-phase dehydration of organic/water solutions

    DOEpatents

    Huang, Yu [Palo Alto, CA; Ly, Jennifer [San Jose, CA; Aldajani, Tiem [San Jose, CA; Baker, Richard W [Palo Alto, CA

    2011-08-23

    Processes for dehydrating an organic/water solution by pervaporation or vapor separation using fluorinated membranes. The processes are particularly useful for treating mixtures containing light organic components, such as ethanol, isopropanol or acetic acid.

  18. An Evaluation of the Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal Process for Use in a Mars Transit Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael; Borchers, Bruce

    1998-01-01

    An experimental program has been developed to evaluate the potential of the Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Reduction (VPCAR) technology for use as a Mars Transit Vehicle water purification system. Design modifications which will be required to ensure proper operation of the VPCAR system in reduced gravity are also evaluated. The VPCAR system is an integrated wastewater treatment technology that combines a distillation process with high temperature catalytic oxidation. The distillation portion of the system utilizes a vapor compression distillation process to provide an energy efficient phase change separation. This portion of the system removes any inorganic salts and large molecular weight, organic contaminates, i.e., non-volatile, from the product water stream and concentrates these contaminates into a byproduct stream. To oxidize the volatile organic compounds and ammonia, a vapor phase, high temperature catalytic oxidizer is used. This catalytic system converts these compounds along with the aqueous product into CO2, H2O, and N2O. A secondary catalytic bed can then be used to reduce the N2O to nitrogen and oxygen (although not evaluated in this study). This paper describes the design specification of the VPCAR process, the relative benefits of its utilization in a Mars Transit Vehicle, and the design modification which will be required to ensure its proper operation in reduced gravity. In addition, the results of an experimental evaluation of the processors is presented. This evaluation presents the processors performance based upon product water purity, water recovery rates, and power.

  19. Vapor Wall Deposition in Chambers: Theoretical Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McVay, R.; Cappa, C. D.; Seinfeld, J.

    2014-12-01

    In order to constrain the effects of vapor wall deposition on measured secondary organic aerosol (SOA) yields in laboratory chambers, Zhang et al. (2014) varied the seed aerosol surface area in toluene oxidation and observed a clear increase in the SOA yield with increasing seed surface area. Using a coupled vapor-particle dynamics model, we examine the extent to which this increase is the result of vapor wall deposition versus kinetic limitations arising from imperfect accommodation of organic species into the particle phase. We show that a seed surface area dependence of the SOA yield is present only when condensation of vapors onto particles is kinetically limited. The existence of kinetic limitation can be predicted by comparing the characteristic timescales of gas-phase reaction, vapor wall deposition, and gas-particle equilibration. The gas-particle equilibration timescale depends on the gas-particle accommodation coefficient αp. Regardless of the extent of kinetic limitation, vapor wall deposition depresses the SOA yield from that in its absence since vapor molecules that might otherwise condense on particles deposit on the walls. To accurately extrapolate chamber-derived yields to atmospheric conditions, both vapor wall deposition and kinetic limitations must be taken into account.

  20. Pollution level and distribution of PCDD/PCDF congeners between vapor phase and particulate phase in winter air of Dalian, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Qin, Songtao; Song, Yu; Xu, Qian; Ni, Yuwen; Chen, Jiping; Zhang, Xueping; Mu, Jim; Zhu, Xiuhua

    2011-06-01

    In December 2009, ambient air was sampled with active high-volume air samplers at two sites: on the roof of the No. l building of Dalian Jiaotong University and on the roof of the building of Dalian Meteorological Observatory. The concentrations and the congeners between vapor phase and particulate phase of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the air were measured. Sample analysis results showed that the concentrations of PCDD/Fs in particulate phase was higher than that in gaseous phase. The ratio of PCDD to PCDF in gaseous phase and particulate phase was lower than 0.4 in all samples. The total I-TEQ value in gaseous phase and particulate phase was 5.5 and 453.8 fg/m(3) at Dalian Jiaotong University, 16.6 and 462.1 fg/m(3) at Dalian Meteorological Observatory, respectively. The I-TEQ value of Dalian atmosphere was 5.5-462.1 fg/m(3) which was lower than international standard, the atmospheric quality in Dalian is better. Copyright © 2011 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. On the existence of vapor-liquid phase transition in dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kundu, M.; Sen, A.; Ganesh, R.

    2014-10-15

    The phenomenon of phase transition in a dusty-plasma system (DPS) has attracted some attention in the past. Earlier Farouki and Hamaguchi [J. Chem. Phys. 101, 9876 (1994)] have demonstrated the existence of a liquid to solid transition in DPS where the dust particles interact through a Yukawa potential. However, the question of the existence of a vapor-liquid (VL) transition in such a system remains unanswered and relatively unexplored so far. We have investigated this problem by performing extensive molecular dynamics simulations which show that the VL transition does not have a critical curve in the pressure versus volume diagram formore » a large range of the Yukawa screening parameter κ and the Coulomb coupling parameter Γ. Thus, the VL phase transition is found to be super-critical, meaning that this transition is continuous in the dusty plasma model given by Farouki and Hamaguchi. We provide an approximate analytic explanation of this finding by means of a simple model calculation.« less

  2. Real-Time Optical Monitoring and Simulations of Gas Phase Kinetics in InN Vapor Phase Epitaxy at High Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, Nikolaus; Woods, Vincent; McCall, Sonya D.; Bachmann, Klaus J.

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the kinetics of nucleation and coalescence of heteroepitaxial thin films is a crucial step in controlling a chemical vapor deposition process, since it defines the perfection of the heteroepitaxial film both in terms of extended defect formation and chemical integrity of the interface. The initial nucleation process also defines the film quality during the later stages of film growth. The growth of emerging new materials heterostructures such as InN or In-rich Ga(x)In(1-x)N require deposition methods operating at higher vapor densities due to the high thermal decomposition pressure in these materials. High nitrogen pressure has been demonstrated to suppress thermal decomposition of InN, but has not been applied yet in chemical vapor deposition or etching experiments. Because of the difficulty with maintaining stochiometry at elevated temperature, current knowledge regarding thermodynamic data for InN, e.g., its melting point, temperature-dependent heat capacity, heat and entropy of formation are known with far less accuracy than for InP, InAs and InSb. Also, no information exists regarding the partial pressures of nitrogen and phosphorus along the liquidus surfaces of mixed-anion alloys of InN, of which the InN(x)P(1-x) system is the most interesting option. A miscibility gap is expected for InN(x)P(1-x) pseudobinary solidus compositions, but its extent is not established at this point by experimental studies under near equilibrium conditions. The extension of chemical vapor deposition to elevated pressure is also necessary for retaining stoichiometric single phase surface composition for materials that are characterized by large thermal decomposition pressures at optimum processing temperatures.

  3. Preparation of water soluble chitosan by hydrolysis using hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zhenqiang; Wu, Shengjun; Chen, Jinhua

    2013-08-01

    Chitosan is not soluble in water, which limits its wide application particularly in the medicine and food industry. In the present study, water soluble chitosan (WSC) was prepared by hydrolyzing chitosan using hydrogen peroxide under the catalysis of phosphotungstic acid in homogeneous phase. Factors affecting hydrolysis were investigated and the optimal hydrolysis conditions were determined. The WSC structure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The resulting products were composed of chitooligosaccharides of DP 2-9. The WSC content of the product and the yield were 94.7% and 92.3% (w/w), respectively. The results indicate that WSC can be effectively prepared by hydrolysis of chitosan using hydrogen peroxide under the catalysis of phosphotungstic acid. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Determination of Methane Hydrate Solubility in the Absence of Vapor Phase by in-situ Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, W.; Chou, I.; Burruss, R.

    2006-12-01

    Prediction of the occurrence, distribution, and evolution of methane hydrate in porous marine sediments requires information on solubilities of methane hydrate in water. Solubilities of methane hydrate in the presence of a vapor phase are well established, but those in the absence of a vapor phase are not well defined with differences up to 30%. We have measured methane concentrations in pure water in equilibrium with sI methane hydrate, in the absence of vapor phase, by in-situ Raman spectroscopy at temperatures (T) from 2 to 20 (± 0.3) °C and pressures (P) at 10, 20, 30, and 40 (± 0.4%) MPa. Methane hydrate was synthesized in a high-pressure capillary optical cell (Chou et al., 2005; Advances in High-Pressure Technology for Geophysical Applications. Ed. J. Chen et al., Chapter 24, p. 475, Elsevier). A small quantity of methane was first loaded in an evacuated cell and then pressurized by water. Hydrate crystals were formed near the liquid-vapor interface near the enclosed end of the optical tube at room T, and were then placed at the center of a USGS-type heating-cooling stage. By adjusting sample P and T, the crystals went through dissolution-formation cycles three to four times in three days until the vapor phase was completely consumed and several crystals (typically 40 x 40 x 10 μm) were formed. These crystals were located at about 200 μm from the enclosed end and were about 20 to 40 μm from each other. Raman spectra were collected for the liquid phase adjacent to hydrate crystals near the enclosed end of the tube. A volumetric decrease in crystal size was observed away from the sampling spot; however, no such volumetric decrease was observed in or near the sampling spot. Therefore, equilibrium was likely established locally within the sampling area. The results are represented by the following linear isobaric equations: 10 MPa: ln [X(CH4)] = 0.06175 T - 6.79507; r2 = 0.9991 (n = 6) 20 MPa: ln [X(CH4)] = 0.06170 T - 6.82816; r2 = 0.9985 (n = 6) 30 MPa

  5. Reaction mechanisms in the organometallic vapor phase epitaxial growth of GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, C. A.; Buchan, N. I.; Stringfellow, G. B.

    1988-01-01

    The decomposition mechanisms of AsH3, trimethylgallium (TMGa), and mixtures of the two have been studied in an atmospheric-pressure flow system with the use of D2 to label the reaction products which are analyzed in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. AsH3 decomposes entirely heterogeneously to give H2. TMGa decomposes by a series of gas-phase steps, involving methyl radicals and D atoms to produce CH3D, CH4, C2H6, and HD. TMGa decomposition is accelerated by the presence of AsH3. When the two are mixed, as in the organometallic vapor phase epitaxial growth of GaAs, both compounds decompose in concert to produce only CH4. A likely model is that of a Lewis acid-base adduct that forms and subsequently eliminates CH4.

  6. Reaction mechanisms in the organometallic vapor phase epitaxial growth of GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, C. A.; Buchan, N. I.; Stringfellow, G. B.

    1988-02-01

    The decomposition mechanisms of AsH3, trimethylgallium (TMGa), and mixtures of the two have been studied in an atmospheric-pressure flow system with the use of D2 to label the reaction products which are analyzed in a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. AsH3 decomposes entirely heterogeneously to give H2. TMGa decomposes by a series of gas-phase steps, involving methyl radicals and D atoms to produce CH3D, CH4, C2H6, and HD. TMGa decomposition is accelerated by the presence of AsH3. When the two are mixed, as in the organometallic vapor phase epitaxial growth of GaAs, both compounds decompose in concert to produce only CH4. A likely model is that of a Lewis acid-base adduct that forms and subsequently eliminates CH4.

  7. Acoustically-Enhanced Direct Contact Vapor Bubble Condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boziuk, Thomas; Smith, Marc; Glezer, Ari

    2017-11-01

    Rate-limited, direct contact vapor condensation of vapor bubbles that are formed by direct steam injection through a nozzle in a quiescent subcooled liquid bath is accelerated using ultrasonic (MHz-range) actuation. A submerged, low power actuator produces an acoustic beam whose radiation pressure deforms the liquid-vapor interface, leading to the formation of a liquid spear that penetrates the vapor bubble to form a vapor torus with a significantly larger surface area and condensation rate. Ultrasonic focusing along the spear leads to the ejection of small, subcooled droplets through the vapor volume that impact the vapor-liquid interface and further enhance the condensation. High-speed Schlieren imaging of the formation and collapse of the vapor bubbles in the absence and presence of actuation shows that the impulse associated with the collapse of the toroidal volume leads to the formation of a turbulent vortex ring in the liquid phase. Liquid motions near the condensing vapor volume are investigated in the absence and presence of acoustic actuation using high-magnification PIV and show the evolution of a liquid jet through the center of the condensing toroidal volume and the formation and advection of vortex ring structures whose impulse appear to increase with temperature difference between the liquid and vapor phases. High-speed image processing is used to assess the effect of the actuation on the temporal and spatial variations in the characteristic scales and condensation rates of the vapor bubbles.

  8. Potentiometric detection of chemical vapors using molecularly imprinted polymers as receptors

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Rongning; Chen, Lusi; Qin, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Ion-selective electrode (ISE) based potentiometric gas sensors have shown to be promising analytical tools for detection of chemical vapors. However, such sensors are only capable of detecting those vapors which can be converted into ionic species in solution. This paper describes for the first time a polymer membrane ISE based potentiometric sensing system for sensitive and selective determination of neutral vapors in the gas phase. A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) is incorporated into the ISE membrane and used as the receptor for selective adsorption of the analyte vapor from the gas phase into the sensing membrane phase. An indicator ion with a structure similar to that of the vapor molecule is employed to indicate the change in the MIP binding sites in the membrane induced by the molecular recognition of the vapor. The toluene vapor is used as a model and benzoic acid is chosen as its indicator. Coupled to an apparatus manifold for preparation of vapor samples, the proposed ISE can be utilized to determine volatile toluene in the gas phase and allows potentiometric detection down to parts per million levels. This work demonstrates the possibility of developing a general sensing principle for detection of neutral vapors using ISEs. PMID:26215887

  9. Detection of vapor-phase organophosphate threats using wearable conformable integrated epidermal and textile wireless biosensor systems.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Rupesh K; Martín, Aida; Nakagawa, Tatsuo; Barfidokht, Abbas; Lu, Xialong; Sempionatto, Juliane R; Lyu, Kay Mengjia; Karajic, Aleksandar; Musameh, Mustafa M; Kyratzis, Ilias L; Wang, Joseph

    2018-03-15

    Flexible epidermal tattoo and textile-based electrochemical biosensors have been developed for vapor-phase detection of organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents. These new wearable sensors, based on stretchable organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) enzyme electrodes, are coupled with a fully integrated conformal flexible electronic interface that offers rapid and selective square-wave voltammetric detection of OP vapor threats and wireless data transmission to a mobile device. The epidermal tattoo and textile sensors display a good reproducibility (with RSD of 2.5% and 4.2%, respectively), along with good discrimination against potential interferences and linearity over the 90-300mg/L range, with a sensitivity of 10.7µA∙cm 3 ∙mg -1 (R 2 = 0.983) and detection limit of 12mg/L in terms of OP air density. Stress-enduring inks, used for printing the electrode transducers, ensure resilience against mechanical deformations associated with textile and skin-based on-body sensing operations. Theoretical simulations are used to estimate the OP air density over the sensor surface. These fully integrated wearable wireless tattoo and textile-based nerve-agent vapor biosensor systems offer considerable promise for rapid warning regarding personal exposure to OP nerve-agent vapors in variety of decentralized security applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Performance Testing of the Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal Engineering Development Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael; Tleimat, Maher; Nalette, Tim; Quinn, Gregory

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the results of performance testing of the Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal (VPCAR) technology. The VPCAR technology is currently being developed by NASA as a Mars transit vehicle water recycling system. NASA has recently completed-a grant-to develop a next generation VPCAR system. This grant concluded with the shipment of the final deliverable to NASA on 8/31/03. This paper presents the results of mass, power, volume, and acoustic measurements for the delivered system. Product water purity analysis for a Mars transit mission and a simulated planetary base wastewater ersatz are also provided.

  11. Improving biomass pyrolysis economics by integrating vapor and liquid phase upgrading

    DOE PAGES

    Iisa, Kristiina; Robichaud, David J.; Watson, Michael J.; ...

    2017-11-24

    Partial deoxygenation of bio-oil by catalytic fast pyrolysis with subsequent coupling and hydrotreating can lead to improved economics and will aid commercial deployment of pyrolytic conversion of biomass technologies. Biomass pyrolysis efficiently depolymerizes and deconstructs solid plant matter into carbonaceous molecules that, upon catalytic upgrading, can be used for fuels and chemicals. Upgrading strategies include catalytic deoxygenation of the vapors before they are condensed (in situ and ex situ catalytic fast pyrolysis), or hydrotreating following condensation of the bio-oil. In general, deoxygenation carbon efficiencies, one of the most important cost drivers, are typically higher for hydrotreating when compared to catalyticmore » fast pyrolysis alone. However, using catalytic fast pyrolysis as the primary conversion step can benefit the entire process chain by: (1) reducing the reactivity of the bio-oil, thereby mitigating issues with aging and transport and eliminating need for multi-stage hydroprocessing configurations; (2) producing a bio-oil that can be fractionated through distillation, which could lead to more efficient use of hydrogen during hydrotreating and facilitate integration in existing petroleum refineries; and (3) allowing for the separation of the aqueous phase. In this perspective, we investigate in detail a combination of these approaches, where some oxygen is removed during catalytic fast pyrolysis and the remainder removed by downstream hydrotreating, accompanied by carbon–carbon coupling reactions in either the vapor or liquid phase to maximize carbon efficiency toward value-driven products (e.g. fuels or chemicals). The economic impact of partial deoxygenation by catalytic fast pyrolysis will be explored in the context of an integrated two-stage process. In conclusion, improving the overall pyrolysis-based biorefinery economics by inclusion of production of high-value co-products will be examined.« less

  12. Improving biomass pyrolysis economics by integrating vapor and liquid phase upgrading

    SciTech Connect

    Iisa, Kristiina; Robichaud, David J.; Watson, Michael J.

    Partial deoxygenation of bio-oil by catalytic fast pyrolysis with subsequent coupling and hydrotreating can lead to improved economics and will aid commercial deployment of pyrolytic conversion of biomass technologies. Biomass pyrolysis efficiently depolymerizes and deconstructs solid plant matter into carbonaceous molecules that, upon catalytic upgrading, can be used for fuels and chemicals. Upgrading strategies include catalytic deoxygenation of the vapors before they are condensed (in situ and ex situ catalytic fast pyrolysis), or hydrotreating following condensation of the bio-oil. In general, deoxygenation carbon efficiencies, one of the most important cost drivers, are typically higher for hydrotreating when compared to catalyticmore » fast pyrolysis alone. However, using catalytic fast pyrolysis as the primary conversion step can benefit the entire process chain by: (1) reducing the reactivity of the bio-oil, thereby mitigating issues with aging and transport and eliminating need for multi-stage hydroprocessing configurations; (2) producing a bio-oil that can be fractionated through distillation, which could lead to more efficient use of hydrogen during hydrotreating and facilitate integration in existing petroleum refineries; and (3) allowing for the separation of the aqueous phase. In this perspective, we investigate in detail a combination of these approaches, where some oxygen is removed during catalytic fast pyrolysis and the remainder removed by downstream hydrotreating, accompanied by carbon–carbon coupling reactions in either the vapor or liquid phase to maximize carbon efficiency toward value-driven products (e.g. fuels or chemicals). The economic impact of partial deoxygenation by catalytic fast pyrolysis will be explored in the context of an integrated two-stage process. In conclusion, improving the overall pyrolysis-based biorefinery economics by inclusion of production of high-value co-products will be examined.« less

  13. On the synthesis of AlPO4-21 molecular sieve by vapor phase transport method and its phase transformation to AlPO4-15 molecular sieve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Hui; Chen, Jingjing; Chen, Xia; Leng, Yixin; Zhong, Jing

    2015-04-01

    An experimental design was applied to the synthesis of AlPO4-21 molecular sieve (AWO structure) by vapor phase transport (VPT) method, using tetramethylguanidine (TMG) as the template. In this study, the effects of crystallization time, crystallization temperature, phosphor content, template content and water content in the synthesis gel were investigated. The materials obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Microstructural analysis of the crystal growth in vapor synthetic conditions revealed a revised crystal growth route from zeolite AlPO4-21 to AlPO4-15 in the presence of the TMG. Homogenous hexagonal prism AlPO4-21 crystals with size of 7 × 3 μm were synthesized at a lower temperature (120 °C), which were completely different from the typical tabular parallelogram crystallization microstructure of AlPO4-21 phase. The crystals were transformed into AlPO4-21 phase with higher crystallization temperature, longer crystallization time, higher P2O5/Al2O3 ratio and higher TMG/Al2O3 ratio.

  14. Phase degradation in BxGa1-xN films grown at low temperature by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunning, Brendan P.; Moseley, Michael W.; Koleske, Daniel D.; Allerman, Andrew A.; Lee, Stephen R.

    2017-04-01

    Using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy, a comprehensive study of BxGa1-xN growth on GaN and AlN templates is described. BGaN growth at high-temperature and high-pressure results in rough surfaces and poor boron incorporation efficiency, while growth at low-temperature and low-pressure (750-900 °C and 20 Torr) using nitrogen carrier gas results in improved surface morphology and boron incorporation up to 7.4% as determined by nuclear reaction analysis. However, further structural analysis by transmission electron microscopy and x-ray pole figures points to severe degradation of the high boron composition films, into a twinned cubic structure with a high density of stacking faults and little or no room temperature photoluminescence emission. Films with <1% triethylboron (TEB) flow show more intense, narrower x-ray diffraction peaks, near-band-edge photoluminescence emission at 362 nm, and primarily wurtzite-phase structure in the x-ray pole figures. For films with >1% TEB flow, the crystal structure becomes dominated by the cubic phase. Only when the TEB flow is zero (pure GaN), does the cubic phase entirely disappear from the x-ray pole figure, suggesting that under these growth conditions even very low boron compositions lead to mixed crystalline phases.

  15. A semi-empirical model for the complete orientation dependence of the growth rate for vapor phase epitaxy - Chloride VPE of GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidel-Salinas, L. K.; Jones, S. H.; Duva, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    A semi-empirical model has been developed to determine the complete crystallographic orientation dependence of the growth rate for vapor phase epitaxy (VPE). Previous researchers have been able to determine this dependence for a limited range of orientations; however, our model yields relative growth rate information for any orientation. This model for diamond and zincblende structure materials is based on experimental growth rate data, gas phase diffusion, and surface reactions. Data for GaAs chloride VPE is used to illustrate the model. The resulting growth rate polar diagrams are used in conjunction with Wulff constructions to simulate epitaxial layer shapes as grown on patterned substrates. In general, this model can be applied to a variety of materials and vapor phase epitaxy systems.

  16. Hydrolysis kinetics in anaerobic degradation of particulate organic material: an overview.

    PubMed

    Vavilin, V A; Fernandez, B; Palatsi, J; Flotats, X

    2008-01-01

    The applicability of different kinetics to the hydrolysis of particulate organic material in anaerobic digestion is discussed. Hydrolysis has traditionally been modelled according to the first-order kinetics. For complex substrate, the first-order kinetics should be modified in order to take into account hardly degradable material. It has been shown that models in which hydrolysis is coupled to the growth of hydrolytic bacteria work well at high or at fluctuant organic loading. In particular, the surface-related two-phase and the Contois models showed good fits to experimental data from a wide range of organic waste. Both models tend to the first-order kinetics at a high biomass-to-waste ratio and, for this reason, they can be considered as more general models. Examples on different inhibition processes that might affect the degradation of solid waste are reported. Acetogenesis or methanogenesis might be the rate-limiting stages in complex waste. In such cases, stimulation of hydrolysis (mechanically, chemically or biologically) may lead to a further inhibition of these stages, which ultimately affects hydrolysis as well. Since the hydrolysis process is characterized by surface and transport phenomena, new developments in spatially distributed models are considered fundamental to provide new insights in this complex process.

  17. Vapor deposition routes to conformal polymer thin films

    PubMed Central

    Moni, Priya; Al-Obeidi, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Vapor phase syntheses, including parylene chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and initiated CVD, enable the deposition of conformal polymer thin films to benefit a diverse array of applications. This short review for nanotechnologists, including those new to vapor deposition methods, covers the basic theory in designing a conformal polymer film vapor deposition, sample preparation and imaging techniques to assess film conformality, and several applications that have benefited from vapor deposited, conformal polymer thin films. PMID:28487816

  18. Chemistry of vaporization of refractory materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilles, P. W.

    1975-01-01

    A discussion is given of the principles of physical chemistry important in vaporization studies, notably the concepts of equilibrium, phase behavior, thermodynamics, solid solution, and kinetics. The important factors influencing equilibrium vaporization phenomena are discussed and illustrated. A proper course of a vaporization study consisting of 9 stages is proposed. The important experimental techniques of Knudsen effusion, Langmuir vaporization and mass spectrometry are discussed. The principles, the factors, the course of a study and the experimental techniques and procedures are illustrated by recent work on the Ti-O system.

  19. Stability limit of liquid water in metastable equilibrium with subsaturated vapors.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Tobias D; Stroock, Abraham D

    2009-07-07

    A pure liquid can reach metastable equilibrium with its subsaturated vapor across an appropriate membrane. This situation is analogous to osmotic equilibrium: the reduced chemical potential of the dilute phase (the subsaturated vapor) is compensated by a difference in pressure between the phases. To equilibrate with subsaturated vapor, the liquid phase assumes a pressure that is lower than its standard vapor pressure, such that the liquid phase is metastable with respect to the vapor phase. For sufficiently subsaturated vapors, the liquid phase can even assume negative pressures. The appropriate membrane for this metastable equilibrium must provide the necessary mechanical support to sustain the difference in pressure between the two phases, limit nonhomogeneous mechanisms of cavitation, and resist the entry of the dilutant (gases) into the pure phase (liquid). In this article, we present a study of the limit of stability of liquid water--the degree of subsaturation at which the liquid cavitates--in this metastable state within microscale voids embedded in hydrogel membranes. We refer to these structures as vapor-coupled voids (VCVs). In these VCVs, we observed that liquid water cavitated when placed in equilibrium with vapors of activity aw,vapairvapor nuclei, and (iv

  20. Vapor-phase concentrations of PAHs and their derivatives determined in a large city: correlations with their atmospheric aerosol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Barrado, Ana Isabel; García, Susana; Sevillano, Marisa Luisa; Rodríguez, Jose Antonio; Barrado, Enrique

    2013-11-01

    Thirteen PAHs, five nitro-PAHs and two hydroxy-PAHs were determined in 55 vapor-phase samples collected in a suburban area of a large city (Madrid, Spain), from January 2008 to February 2009. The data obtained revealed correlations between the concentrations of these compounds and a series of meteorological factors (e.g., temperature, atmospheric pressure) and physical-chemical factors (e.g., nitrogen and sulfur oxides). As a consequence, seasonal trends were observed in the atmospheric pollutants. A "mean sample" for the 14-month period would contain a total PAH concentration of 13835±1625 pg m(-3) and 122±17 pg m(-3) of nitro-PAHs. When the data were stratified by season, it emerged that a representative sample of the coldest months would contain 18900±2140 pg m(-3) of PAHs and 150±97 pg m(-3) of nitro-PAHs, while in an average sample collected in the warmest months, these values drop to 9293±1178 pg m(-3) for the PAHs and to 97±13 pg m(-3) for the nitro-PAHs. Total vapor phase concentrations of PAHs were one order of magnitude higher than concentrations detected in atmospheric aerosol samples collected on the same dates. Total nitro-PAH concentrations were comparable to their aerosol concentrations whereas vapor phase OH-PAHs were below their limits of the detection, indicating these were trapped in airborne particles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. In vitro stereoselective hydrolysis of diacylglycerols by hormone-sensitive lipase.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Jorge A; Ben Ali, Yassine; Abdelkafi, Slim; Mendoza, Lilia D; Leclaire, Julien; Fotiadu, Frédéric; Buono, Gerard; Carrière, Frédéric; Abousalham, Abdelkarim

    2010-01-01

    Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) contributes importantly to the mobilization of fatty acids in adipocytes and shows a substrate preference for the diacylglycerols (DAGs) originating from triacylglycerols. To determine whether HSL shows any stereopreference during the hydrolysis of diacylglycerols, racemic 1,2(2,3)-sn-diolein was used as a substrate and the enantiomeric excess (ee%) of residual 1,2-sn-diolein over 2,3-sn-diolein was measured as a function of DAG hydrolysis. Enantiomeric DAGs were separated by performing chiral-stationary-phase HPLC after direct derivatization from lipolysis product extracts. The fact that the ee% of 1,2-sn-diolein over 2,3-sn-diolein increased with the level of hydrolysis indicated that HSL has a preference for 2,3-sn-diolein as a substrate and therefore a stereopreference for the sn-3 position of dioleoylglycerol. The ee% of 1,2-sn-diolein reached a maximum value of 36% at 42% hydrolysis. Among the various mammalian lipases tested so far, HSL is the only lipolytic carboxylester hydrolase found to have a pronounced stereospecificity for the sn-3 position of dioleoylglycerol.

  2. Flexible, Low-Power Thin-Film Transistors Made of Vapor-Phase Synthesized High-k, Ultrathin Polymer Gate Dielectrics.

    PubMed

    Choi, Junhwan; Joo, Munkyu; Seong, Hyejeong; Pak, Kwanyong; Park, Hongkeun; Park, Chan Woo; Im, Sung Gap

    2017-06-21

    A series of high-k, ultrathin copolymer gate dielectrics were synthesized from 2-cyanoethyl acrylate (CEA) and di(ethylene glycol) divinyl ether (DEGDVE) monomers by a free radical polymerization via a one-step, vapor-phase, initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) method. The chemical composition of the copolymers was systematically optimized by tuning the input ratio of the vaporized CEA and DEGDVE monomers to achieve a high dielectric constant (k) as well as excellent dielectric strength. Interestingly, DEGDVE was nonhomopolymerizable but it was able to form a copolymer with other kinds of monomers. Utilizing this interesting property of the DEGDVE cross-linker, the dielectric constant of the copolymer film could be maximized with minimum incorporation of the cross-linker moiety. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the synthesis of a cyanide-containing polymer in the vapor phase, where a high-purity polymer film with a maximized dielectric constant was achieved. The dielectric film with the optimized composition showed a dielectric constant greater than 6 and extremely low leakage current densities (<3 × 10 -8 A/cm 2 in the range of ±2 MV/cm), with a thickness of only 20 nm, which is an outstanding thickness for down-scalable cyanide polymer dielectrics. With this high-k dielectric layer, organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) and oxide TFTs were fabricated, which showed hysteresis-free transfer characteristics with an operating voltage of less than 3 V. Furthermore, the flexible OTFTs retained their low gate leakage current and ideal TFT characteristics even under 2% applied tensile strain, which makes them some of the most flexible OTFTs reported to date. We believe that these ultrathin, high-k organic dielectric films with excellent mechanical flexibility will play a crucial role in future soft electronics.

  3. An evaluation of the vapor phase catalytic ammonia removal process for use in a Mars transit vehicle.

    PubMed

    Flynn, M; Borchers, B

    1998-01-01

    This article describes the design specification of the Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal (VPCAR) process and the relative benefits of its utilization in a Mars Transit Vehicle application. The VPCAR process is a wastewater treatment technology that combines distillation with high-temperature catalytic oxidation of volatile impurities such as ammonia and organic compounds.

  4. Penicillium expansum Inhibition on Bread by Lemongrass Essential Oil in Vapor Phase.

    PubMed

    Mani López, Emma; Valle Vargas, Georgina P; Palou, Enrique; López Malo, Aurelio

    2018-02-23

    The antimicrobial activity of lemongrass ( Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil (EO) in the vapor phase on the growth of Penicillium expansum inoculated on bread was evaluated, followed by a sensory evaluation of the bread's attributes after EO exposure. The lemongrass EO was extracted from dry leaves of lemongrass by microwave-assisted steam distillation. The chemical composition of the lemongrass EO was determined using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The refractive index and specific gravity of the EO were also determined. Bread was prepared and baked to reach two water activity levels, 0.86 or 0.94, and then 10 μL of P. expansum spore (10 6 spores per mL) suspension was inoculated on the bread surface. Concentrations of lemongrass EO were tested from 125 to 4,000 μL/L air , whereas mold radial growth was measured for 21 days. For sensory evaluation, breads were treated with lemongrass EO vapor at 0, 500, or 1,000 μL/L air for 48 h and tested by 25 untrained panelists. The EO yield was 1.8%, with similar physical properties to those reported previously. Thirteen compounds were the main components in the EO, with citral being the major compound. P. expansum was inhibited for 21 days at 20°C with 750 μL of EO/L air , and its inhibition increased with increasing concentrations of EO. Sensory acceptance of bread exposed to vapor concentrations of 500 or 1,000 μL of EO/L air or without EO was favorable; similar and no significant differences ( P > 0.05) were observed among them.

  5. Vapor phase growth technique of III-V compounds utilizing a preheating step

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Gregory Hammond (Inventor); Zamerowski, Thomas Joseph (Inventor); Buiocchi, Charles Joseph (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    In the vapor phase epitaxy fabrication of semiconductor devices and in particular semiconductor lasers, the deposition body on which a particular layer of the laser is to be grown is preheated to a temperature about 40.degree. to 60.degree. C. lower than the temperature at which deposition occurs. It has been discovered that by preheating at this lower temperature there is reduced thermal decomposition at the deposition surface, especially for semiconductor materials such as indium gallium phosphide and gallium arsenide phosphide. A reduction in thermal decomposition reduces imperfections in the deposition body in the vicinity of the deposition surface, thereby providing a device with higher efficiency and longer lifetime.

  6. Selective detection of vapor phase hydrogen peroxide with phthalocyanine chemiresistors.

    PubMed

    Bohrer, Forest I; Colesniuc, Corneliu N; Park, Jeongwon; Schuller, Ivan K; Kummel, Andrew C; Trogler, William C

    2008-03-26

    The use of hydrogen peroxide as a precursor to improvised explosives has made its detection a topic of critical importance. Chemiresistor arrays comprised of 50 nm thick films of metallophthalocyanines (MPcs) are redox selective vapor sensors of hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide is shown to decrease currents in cobalt phthalocyanine sensors while it increases currents in nickel, copper, and metal-free phthalocyanine sensors; oxidation and reduction of hydrogen peroxide via catalysis at the phthalocyanine surface are consistent with the pattern of sensor responses. This represents the first example of MPc vapor sensors being oxidized and reduced by the same analyte by varying the metal center. Consequently, differential analysis by redox contrast with catalytic amplification using a small array of sensors may be used to uniquely identify peroxide vapors. Metallophthalocyanine chemiresistors represent an improvement over existing peroxide vapor detection technologies in durability and selectivity in a greatly decreased package size.

  7. Environmentally friendly chemical recycling of poly(bisphenol-A carbonate) through phase transfer-catalysed alkaline hydrolysis under microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Tsintzou, Georgia P; Antonakou, Eleni V; Achilias, Dimitris S

    2012-11-30

    The various and widespread uses of polycarbonate (PC) polymers require a meaningful and environmentally friendly disposal method. In this study, depolymerisation of polycarbonate with water in a microwave reactor is suggested as a recycling method. Hydrolysis was investigated in an alkaline (NaOH) solution using a phase-transfer catalyst. All of the experiments were carried out in a sealed microwave reactor, in which the reaction pressure, temperature and microwave power were continuously controlled and recorded. In the hydrolysis products, bisphenol-A monomer was obtained and identified by FTIR measurements. PC degradation higher than 80% can be obtained at 160°C after a microwave irradiation time of either 40 min or 10 min using either a 5 or 10% (w/v) NaOH solution, respectively. GPC, TGA and DSC measurements of the PC residues revealed that surface erosion is the degradation mechanism. First-order reaction kinetics were estimated by implementing a simple kinetic model. Finally, greater than 85% degradation was achieved when waste CDs were treated with the same method. The results confirm the importance of the microwave power technique as a promising recycling method for PC-based waste plastics, resulting in monomer recovery in addition to substantial energy savings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The hydrolysis of polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoagland, P. D.; Fox, S. W.

    1973-01-01

    Thermal polymerization of aspartic acid produces a polysuccinimide (I), a chain of aspartoyl residues. An investigation was made of the alkaline hydrolysis of the imide rings of (I) which converts the polyimide to a polypeptide. The alkaline hydrolysis of polyimides can be expected to be kinetically complex due to increasing negative charge generated by carboxylate groups. For this reason, a diimide, phthaloyl-DL-aspartoyl-beta-alanine (IIA) was synthesized for a progressive study of the hydrolysis of polyimides. In addition, this diimide (IIA) can be related to thalidomide and might be expected to exhibit similar reactivity during hydrolysis of the phthalimide ring.

  9. Methane production and hydrolysis kinetics in the anaerobic degradation of wastewater screenings.

    PubMed

    Cadavid-Rodríguez, L S; Horan, N

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic biodegradability and hydrolysis rates of wastewater screenings were determined using the biochemical methane potential test at 37 °C. The extent and rate of screenings conversion to methane of this complex and particulate substrate were investigated and since two stages of hydrolysis were identified, corresponding to the different types of materials in screenings, a linear and non-linear model was used. No accumulation of intermediary products was observed and so it was possible to use the methane production rate and a linear model to estimate the hydrolysis rate in the first phase of hydrolysis. The measured values of 0.061-0.127 d(-1) are in the range reported for other comparable organic wastes. It was also observed that the inoculum-to-substrate ratio has a large impact on methane production rate of screenings. The difference in biodegradation rates from the materials in screenings and the overall hydrolysis could be represented by the modified Gompertz non-linear model which was able to describe the methane production rate of screenings with a high confidence. Screenings were found to have 52% biodegradability on average and this shows the potential for volatile solids destruction. A two-stage process with an improved hydrolysis rate is proposed to ensure that the full potential of the material is exploited.

  10. Vapor-phase interactions and diffusion of organic solvents in the unsaturated zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roy, W.R.; Griffin, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the interactions and static movement of 37 organic solvents as vapors through the unsaturated soil zone. The physicochemical interactions of the organic vapors with unsaturated soil materials were emphasized with focus on diffusive, and adsorptive interactions. Fick's Law and porous media diffusion coefficients for most of the solvent vapors were either compiled or estimated; coefficients were not available for some of the fluorinated solvents. The adsorption of some of the solvent vapors by silica was concluded to be due to hydrogen bond formation with surface silanol groups. Heats of adsorption data for different adsorbents were also compiled. There were very few data on the adsorption of these solvent vapors by soils, but it appears that the magnitude of adsorption of nonpolar solvents is reduced as the relative humidity of the vapor-solid system is increased. Consequently, the interaction of the vapors may then separated into two processes; (1) gas-water partitioning described by Henry's Law constants, and (2) solid-water adsorption coefficients which may be estimated from liquid-solid partition coefficients (Kd values). ?? 1990 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  11. Non-catalytic steam hydrolysis of fats. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Deibert, M.C.

    1992-08-28

    Hydrolysis of fats and oils produces fatty acid and glycerol. The catalyzed, liquid phase Colgate-Emry process, state-of-the-art, produces impure products that require extensive energy investment for their purification to commercial grade. Non-catalytic steam hydrolysis may produce products more easily purified. A bench-scale hydrolyzer was designed and constructed to contact descending liquid fat or oil with rising superheated steam. Each of the five stages in the reactor was designed similar to a distillation column stage to promote intimate liquid-gas contact. Degree of hydrolysis achieved in continuous tests using tallow feed were 15% at 280C and 35% at 300C at a tallow-to-steammore » mass feed ratio of 4.2. At a feed ratio of 9.2, the degree of hydrolysis was 21% at 300C. Decomposition was strongly evident at 325C but not at lower temperatures. Soybean oil rapidly polymerized under reaction conditions. Batch tests at 320C produced degrees of hydrolyses of between 44% and 63% using tallow and palm oil feeds. Over 95% fatty acids were present in a clean, readily separated organic portion of the overhead product from most tests. The test reactor had serious hydraulic resistance to liquid down-flow which limited operation to very long liquid residence times. These times are in excess of those that tallow and palm oil are stable at the reaction temperature. Little glycerol and extensive light organics were produced indicating that unexplained competing reactions to hydrolysis occurred in the experimental system. Further tests using an improved reactor will be required.« less

  12. Student Understanding of Liquid-Vapor Phase Equilibrium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreaux, Andrew; Campbell, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Student understanding of the equilibrium coexistence of a liquid and its vapor was the subject of an extended investigation. Written assessment questions were administered to undergraduates enrolled in introductory physics and chemistry courses. Responses have been analyzed to document conceptual and reasoning difficulties in sufficient detail to…

  13. Hydride vapor phase epitaxy of AlN using a high temperature hot-wall reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Troy; Mayo, Ashley; Veisi, Zeinab; Lu, Peng; Schmitt, Jason

    2014-10-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) was grown on c-plane sapphire substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). The experiments utilized a two zone inductively heated hot-wall reactor. The surface morphology, crystal quality, and growth rate were investigated as a function of growth temperature in the range of 1450-1575 °C. AlN templates grown to a thickness of 1 μm were optimized with double axis X-ray diffraction (XRD) rocking curve full width half maximums (FWHMs) of 135″ for the (002) and 513″ for the (102).

  14. DNA-Catalyzed Amide Hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Cong; Avins, Joshua L; Klauser, Paul C; Brandsen, Benjamin M; Lee, Yujeong; Silverman, Scott K

    2016-02-24

    DNA catalysts (deoxyribozymes) for a variety of reactions have been identified by in vitro selection. However, for certain reactions this identification has not been achieved. One important example is DNA-catalyzed amide hydrolysis, for which a previous selection experiment instead led to DNA-catalyzed DNA phosphodiester hydrolysis. Subsequent efforts in which the selection strategy deliberately avoided phosphodiester hydrolysis led to DNA-catalyzed ester and aromatic amide hydrolysis, but aliphatic amide hydrolysis has been elusive. In the present study, we show that including modified nucleotides that bear protein-like functional groups (any one of primary amino, carboxyl, or primary hydroxyl) enables identification of amide-hydrolyzing deoxyribozymes. In one case, the same deoxyribozyme sequence without the modifications still retains substantial catalytic activity. Overall, these findings establish the utility of introducing protein-like functional groups into deoxyribozymes for identifying new catalytic function. The results also suggest the longer-term feasibility of deoxyribozymes as artificial proteases.

  15. Re-evaluating the kinetics of ATP hydrolysis during initiation of DNA sliding by Type III restriction enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Tóth, Júlia; Bollins, Jack; Szczelkun, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    DNA cleavage by the Type III restriction enzymes requires long-range protein communication between recognition sites facilitated by thermally-driven 1D diffusion. This ‘DNA sliding’ is initiated by hydrolysis of multiple ATPs catalysed by a helicase-like domain. Two distinct ATPase phases were observed using short oligoduplex substrates; the rapid consumption of ∼10 ATPs coupled to a protein conformation switch followed by a slower phase, the duration of which was dictated by the rate of dissociation from the recognition site. Here, we show that the second ATPase phase is both variable and only observable when DNA ends are proximal to the recognition site. On DNA with sites more distant from the ends, a single ATPase phase coupled to the conformation switch was observed and subsequent site dissociation required little or no further ATP hydrolysis. The overall DNA dissociation kinetics (encompassing site release, DNA sliding and escape via a DNA end) were not influenced by the second phase. Although the data simplifies the ATP hydrolysis scheme for Type III restriction enzymes, questions remain as to why multiple ATPs are hydrolysed to prepare for DNA sliding. PMID:26538601

  16. Chirality-Controlled Growth of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Using Vapor Phase Epitaxy: Mechanistic Understanding and Scalable Production

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-15

    controlled synthesis of single-wall carbon nanotubes. Firstly, we have successfully demonstrated a vapor-phase-epitaxy-analogous general strategy for...preselected chirality. Moreover, we carried out systematic investigations of the chirality-dependent growth kinetics and termination mechanism for the... generally believed that the diameters of the nanotubes are determined by the size of the catalytic metal particles. Unfortunately, attempts to control

  17. Progressing batch hydrolysis process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, J.D.

    1985-01-10

    A progressive batch hydrolysis process is disclosed for producing sugar from a lignocellulosic feedstock. It comprises passing a stream of dilute acid serially through a plurality of percolation hydrolysis reactors charged with feed stock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the cellulose component of the feed stock to glucose. The cooled dilute acid stream containing glucose, after exiting the last percolation hydrolysis reactor, serially fed through a plurality of pre-hydrolysis percolation reactors, charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the hemicellulose component of said feedstock to glucose. The dilute acid stream containing glucose is cooled after it exits the last prehydrolysis reactor.

  18. Crystallization and alkaline hydrolysis of poly(3- hydroxybutyrate) films probed by thermal analysis and infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tapadiya, Asish; Vasanthan, Nadarajah

    2017-09-01

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) is a microbially synthesized polymer, which is often purified by alkaline treatment. The effect of microstructure on alkaline hydrolysis has been studied by varying concentration of base and the temperature. The morphologies of PHB films before and after degradation were evaluated using DSC and FTIR spectroscopy. The hydrolytic degradation study by weight loss measurement revealed that the crystallinity of PHB greatly decreased the hydrolytic ability of PHB. The crystallization of PHB and the effect of base on hydrolysis was investigated by time dependent FTIR spectroscopy. The normalized absorbance of 3010cm -1 and 1183cm -1 were used to characterize the crystalline and the amorphous phases of PHB. FTIR spectroscopy reveal that the extent of hydrolysis decreased with increasing crystallinity. The crotonic acid was detected as a major product after hydrolysis, confirmed by UV/Visible and proton NMR spectroscopy. The normalized absorbance of the crystalline band at 3010cm -1 band remained constant, suggesting that there is no significant change in crystallinity with degradation. The normalized amorphous band at 1183cm -1 showed a decrease in absorbance ratio, suggesting degradation of the amorphous phase. Our data suggests that alkaline hydrolysis depends on concentration of base and the crystallinity of PHB. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Vaporization chemistry of hypo-stoichiometric (U,Pu)O 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanathan, R.; Krishnaiah, M. V.

    2001-04-01

    Calculations were performed on hypo-stoichiometric uranium plutonium di-oxide to examine its vaporization behavior as a function of O/ M ( M= U+ Pu) ratio and plutonium content. The phase U (1- y) Pu yO z was treated as an ideal solid solution of (1- y)UO 2+ yPuO (2- x) such that x=(2- z)/ y. Oxygen potentials for different desired values of y, z, and temperature were used as the primary input to calculate the corresponding partial pressures of various O-, U-, and Pu-bearing gaseous species. Relevant thermodynamic data for the solid phases UO 2 and PuO (2- x) , and the gaseous species were taken from the literature. Total vapor pressure varies with O/M and goes through a minimum. This minimum does not indicate a congruently vaporizing composition. Vaporization behavior of this system can at best be quasi-congruent. Two quasi-congruently vaporizing compositions (QCVCs) exist, representing the equalities (O/M) vapor=(O/M) mixed-oxide and (U/Pu) vapor=(U/Pu) mixed-oxide, respectively. The (O/M) corresponding to QCVC1 is lower than that corresponding to QCVC2, but very close to the value where vapor pressure minimum occurs. The O/M values of both QCVCs increase with decrease in plutonium content. The vaporization chemistry of this system, on continuous vaporization under dynamic condition, is discussed.

  20. Incorporating Phase-Dependent Polarizability in Non-Additive Electrostatic Models for Molecular Dynamics Simulations of the Aqueous Liquid-Vapor Interface.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Brad A; Warren, G Lee; Patel, Sandeep

    2009-02-10

    We discuss a new classical water force field that explicitly accounts for differences in polarizability between liquid and vapor phases. The TIP4P-QDP (4-point transferable intermolecular potential with charge dependent-polarizability) force field is a modification of the original TIP4P-FQ fluctuating charge water force field of Rick et al.(1) that self-consistently adjusts its atomic hardness parameters via a scaling function dependent on the M-site charge. The electronegativity (χ) parameters are also scaled in order to reproduce condensed-phase dipole moments of comparable magnitude to TIP4P-FQ. TIP4P-QDP is parameterized to reproduce experimental gas-phase and select condensed-phase properties. The TIP4P-QDP water model possesses a gas phase polarizability of 1.40 Å(3) and gas-phase dipole moment of 1.85 Debye, in excellent agreement with experiment and high-level ab initio predictions. The liquid density of TIP4P-QDP is 0.9954(±0.0002) g/cm(3) at 298 K and 1 atmosphere, and the enthalpy of vaporization is 10.55(±0.12) kcal/mol. Other condensed-phase properties such as the isobaric heat capacity, isothermal compressibility, and diffusion constant are also calculated within reasonable accuracy of experiment and consistent with predictions of other current state-of-the-art water force fields. The average molecular dipole moment of TIP4P-QDP in the condensed phase is 2.641(±0.001) Debye, approximately 0.02 Debye higher than TIP4P-FQ and within the range of values currently surmised for the bulk liquid. The dielectric constant, ε = 85.8 ± 1.0, is 10% higher than experiment. This is reasoned to be due to the increase in the condensed phase dipole moment over TIP4P-FQ, which estimates ε remarkably well. Radial distribution functions for TIP4P-QDP and TIP4P-FQ show similar features, with TIP4P-QDP showing slightly reduced peak heights and subtle shifts towards larger distance interactions. Since the greatest effects of the phase-dependent polarizability are

  1. Incorporating Phase-Dependent Polarizability in Non-Additive Electrostatic Models for Molecular Dynamics Simulations of the Aqueous Liquid-Vapor Interface

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Brad A.; Warren, G. Lee; Patel, Sandeep

    2012-01-01

    We discuss a new classical water force field that explicitly accounts for differences in polarizability between liquid and vapor phases. The TIP4P-QDP (4-point transferable intermolecular potential with charge dependent-polarizability) force field is a modification of the original TIP4P-FQ fluctuating charge water force field of Rick et al.1 that self-consistently adjusts its atomic hardness parameters via a scaling function dependent on the M-site charge. The electronegativity (χ) parameters are also scaled in order to reproduce condensed-phase dipole moments of comparable magnitude to TIP4P-FQ. TIP4P-QDP is parameterized to reproduce experimental gas-phase and select condensed-phase properties. The TIP4P-QDP water model possesses a gas phase polarizability of 1.40 Å3 and gas-phase dipole moment of 1.85 Debye, in excellent agreement with experiment and high-level ab initio predictions. The liquid density of TIP4P-QDP is 0.9954(±0.0002) g/cm3 at 298 K and 1 atmosphere, and the enthalpy of vaporization is 10.55(±0.12) kcal/mol. Other condensed-phase properties such as the isobaric heat capacity, isothermal compressibility, and diffusion constant are also calculated within reasonable accuracy of experiment and consistent with predictions of other current state-of-the-art water force fields. The average molecular dipole moment of TIP4P-QDP in the condensed phase is 2.641(±0.001) Debye, approximately 0.02 Debye higher than TIP4P-FQ and within the range of values currently surmised for the bulk liquid. The dielectric constant, ε = 85.8 ± 1.0, is 10% higher than experiment. This is reasoned to be due to the increase in the condensed phase dipole moment over TIP4P-FQ, which estimates ε remarkably well. Radial distribution functions for TIP4P-QDP and TIP4P-FQ show similar features, with TIP4P-QDP showing slightly reduced peak heights and subtle shifts towards larger distance interactions. Since the greatest effects of the phase-dependent polarizability are

  2. Impact of enzymatic and alkaline hydrolysis on CBD concentration in urine.

    PubMed

    Bergamaschi, Mateus M; Barnes, Allan; Queiroz, Regina H C; Hurd, Yasmin L; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2013-05-01

    A sensitive and specific analytical method for cannabidiol (CBD) in urine was needed to define urinary CBD pharmacokinetics after controlled CBD administration, and to confirm compliance with CBD medications including Sativex-a cannabis plant extract containing 1:1 ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and CBD. Non-psychoactive CBD has a wide range of therapeutic applications and may also influence psychotropic smoked cannabis effects. Few methods exist for the quantification of CBD excretion in urine, and no data are available for phase II metabolism of CBD to CBD-glucuronide or CBD-sulfate. We optimized the hydrolysis of CBD-glucuronide and/or -sulfate, and developed and validated a GC-MS method for urinary CBD quantification. Solid-phase extraction isolated and concentrated analytes prior to GC-MS. Method validation included overnight hydrolysis (16 h) at 37 °C with 2,500 units β-glucuronidase from Red Abalone. Calibration curves were fit by linear least squares regression with 1/x (2) weighting with linear ranges (r(2) > 0.990) of 2.5-100 ng/mL for non-hydrolyzed CBD and 2.5-500 ng/mL for enzyme-hydrolyzed CBD. Bias was 88.7-105.3 %, imprecision 1.4-6.4 % CV and extraction efficiency 82.5-92.7 % (no hydrolysis) and 34.3-47.0 % (enzyme hydrolysis). Enzyme-hydrolyzed urine specimens exhibited more than a 250-fold CBD concentration increase compared to alkaline and non-hydrolyzed specimens. This method can be applied for urinary CBD quantification and further pharmacokinetics characterization following controlled CBD administration.

  3. Impact of enzymatic and alkaline hydrolysis on CBD concentration in urine

    PubMed Central

    Bergamaschi, Mateus M.; Barnes, Allan; Queiroz, Regina H. C.; Hurd, Yasmin L.

    2013-01-01

    A sensitive and specific analytical method for cannabidiol (CBD) in urine was needed to define urinary CBD pharmacokinetics after controlled CBD administration, and to confirm compliance with CBD medications including Sativex—a cannabis plant extract containing 1:1 Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and CBD. Non-psychoactive CBD has a wide range of therapeutic applications and may also influence psychotropic smoked cannabis effects. Few methods exist for the quantification of CBD excretion in urine, and no data are available for phase II metabolism of CBD to CBD-glucuronide or CBD-sulfate. We optimized the hydrolysis of CBD-glucuronide and/or -sulfate, and developed and validated a GC-MS method for urinary CBD quantification. Solid-phase extraction isolated and concentrated analytes prior to GC-MS. Method validation included overnight hydrolysis (16 h) at 37 °C with 2,500 units β-glucuronidase from Red Abalone. Calibration curves were fit by linear least squares regression with 1/x2 weighting with linear ranges (r2>0.990) of 2.5–100 ng/mL for non-hydrolyzed CBD and 2.5–500 ng/mL for enzyme-hydrolyzed CBD. Bias was 88.7–105.3 %, imprecision 1.4–6.4 % CV and extraction efficiency 82.5–92.7 % (no hydrolysis) and 34.3–47.0 % (enzyme hydrolysis). Enzyme-hydrolyzed urine specimens exhibited more than a 250-fold CBD concentration increase compared to alkaline and non-hydrolyzed specimens. This method can be applied for urinary CBD quantification and further pharmacokinetics characterization following controlled CBD administration. PMID:23494274

  4. Growth kinetics and mass transport mechanisms of GaN columns by selective area metal organic vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xue; Hartmann, Jana; Mandl, Martin; Sadat Mohajerani, Matin; Wehmann, Hergo-H.; Strassburg, Martin; Waag, Andreas

    2014-04-01

    Three-dimensional GaN columns recently have attracted a lot of attention as the potential basis for core-shell light emitting diodes for future solid state lighting. In this study, the fundamental insights into growth kinetics and mass transport mechanisms of N-polar GaN columns during selective area metal organic vapor phase epitaxy on patterned SiOx/sapphire templates are systematically investigated using various pitch of apertures, growth time, and silane flow. Species impingement fluxes on the top surface of columns Jtop and on their sidewall Jsw, as well as, the diffusion flux from the substrate Jsub contribute to the growth of the GaN columns. The vertical and lateral growth rates devoted by Jtop, Jsw and Jsub are estimated quantitatively. The diffusion length of species on the SiOx mask surface λsub as well as on the sidewall surfaces of the 3D columns λsw are determined. The influences of silane on the growth kinetics are discussed. A growth model is developed for this selective area metal organic vapor phase epitaxy processing.

  5. Portable vapor diffusion coefficient meter

    DOEpatents

    Ho, Clifford K [Albuquerque, NM

    2007-06-12

    An apparatus for measuring the effective vapor diffusion coefficient of a test vapor diffusing through a sample of porous media contained within a test chamber. A chemical sensor measures the time-varying concentration of vapor that has diffused a known distance through the porous media. A data processor contained within the apparatus compares the measured sensor data with analytical predictions of the response curve based on the transient diffusion equation using Fick's Law, iterating on the choice of an effective vapor diffusion coefficient until the difference between the predicted and measured curves is minimized. Optionally, a purge fluid can forced through the porous media, permitting the apparatus to also measure a gas-phase permeability. The apparatus can be made lightweight, self-powered, and portable for use in the field.

  6. Composition, diffusion, and antifungal activity of black mustard (Brassica nigra) essential oil when applied by direct addition or vapor phase contact.

    PubMed

    Mejía-Garibay, Beatriz; Palou, Enrique; López-Malo, Aurelio

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we characterized the essential oil (EO) of black mustard (Brassica nigra) and quantified its antimicrobial activity, when applied by direct contact into the liquid medium or by exposure in the vapor phase (in laboratory media or in a bread-type product), against the growth of Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ochraceus, or Penicillium citrinum. Allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC) was identified as the major component of B. nigra EO with a concentration of 378.35 mg/ml. When B. nigra EO was applied by direct contact into the liquid medium, it inhibited the growth of A. ochraceus and P. citrinum when the concentration was 2 μl/ml of liquid medium (MIC), while for A. niger, a MIC of B. nigra EO was 4 μl/ml of liquid medium. Exposure of molds to B. nigra EO in vapor phase showed that 41.1 μl of B. nigra EO per liter of air delayed the growth of P. citrinum and A. niger by 10 days, while A. ochraceus growth was delayed for 20 days. Exposure to concentrations ≥ 47 μl of B. nigra EO per liter of air (MIC) inhibited the growth of tested molds by 30 days, and they were not able to recover after further incubation into an environment free of EO (fungicidal effect). Adsorbed AITC was quantified by exposing potato dextrose agar to B. nigra EO in a vapor phase, exhibiting that AITC was retained at least 5 days when testing EO at its MIC or with higher concentrations. Mustard EO MIC was also effective against the evaluated molds inhibiting their growth for 30 days in a bread-type product when exposed to EO by vapor contact, demonstrating its antifungal activity.

  7. Vapor-phase polymerization of poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanofibers on carbon cloth as electrodes for flexible supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Dong, Mengyang; Zhang, Junxian; Li, Yingzhi; Zhang, Qinghua

    2016-09-23

    In this study, an evaporative vapor-phase polymerization approach was employed to fabricate vertically aligned poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanofibers on the surface of carbon cloth (CC). Optimized reaction conditions can obtain well distributed and uniform layers of high-aspect-ratio PEDOT nanofibers on CC. The hierarchical PEDOT/CC structure as a freestanding electrode exhibits good electrochemical properties. As a flexible symmetric supercapacitor, the PEDOT/CC hybrid electrode displays a specific areal capacitance of 201.4 mF cm(-2) at 1 mA cm(-2), good flexibility with a higher value (204.6 mF cm(-2)) in the bending state, and a good cycling stability of 92.4% after 1000 cycles. Moreover, the device shows a maximum energy density of 4.0 Wh kg(-1) (with a power density of 3.2 kW kg(-1)) and a maximum power density of 4.2 kW kg(-1) (with an energy density of 3.1 Wh kg(-1)). The results demonstrate that PEDOT may be a promising material for storage devices through a simple and efficient vapor-phase polymerization process with precisely controlled reaction conditions.

  8. Vapor-phase polymerization of poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanofibers on carbon cloth as electrodes for flexible supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xin; Dong, Mengyang; Zhang, Junxian; Li, Yingzhi; Zhang, Qinghua

    2016-09-01

    In this study, an evaporative vapor-phase polymerization approach was employed to fabricate vertically aligned poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanofibers on the surface of carbon cloth (CC). Optimized reaction conditions can obtain well distributed and uniform layers of high-aspect-ratio PEDOT nanofibers on CC. The hierarchical PEDOT/CC structure as a freestanding electrode exhibits good electrochemical properties. As a flexible symmetric supercapacitor, the PEDOT/CC hybrid electrode displays a specific areal capacitance of 201.4 mF cm-2 at 1 mA cm-2, good flexibility with a higher value (204.6 mF cm-2) in the bending state, and a good cycling stability of 92.4% after 1000 cycles. Moreover, the device shows a maximum energy density of 4.0 Wh kg-1 (with a power density of 3.2 kW kg-1) and a maximum power density of 4.2 kW kg-1 (with an energy density of 3.1 Wh kg-1). The results demonstrate that PEDOT may be a promising material for storage devices through a simple and efficient vapor-phase polymerization process with precisely controlled reaction conditions.

  9. Tunnel Junction Development Using Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Ptak, Aaron J.; Simon, John D.; Schulte, Kevin L.

    We demonstrate for the first time III-V tunnel junctions grown using hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) with peak tunneling currents >8 A/cm 2, sufficient for operation of a multijunction device to several hundred suns of concentration. Multijunction solar cells rely on tunneling interconnects between subcells to enable series connection with minimal voltage loss, but tunnel junctions have never been shown using the HVPE growth method. HVPE has recently reemerged as a low-cost growth method for high-quality III-V materials and devices, including the growth of high-efficiency III-V solar cells. We previously showed single-junction GaAs solar cells with conversion efficiencies of ~24%more » with a path forward to equal or exceed the practical efficiency limits of crystalline Si. Moving to a multijunction device structure will allow for even higher efficiencies with minimal impact on cost, necessitating the development of tunnel interconnects. Here in this paper, we demonstrate the performance of both isolated HVPE-grown tunnel junctions, as well as single-junction GaAs solar cell structures with a tunnel junction incorporated into the contact region. We observe no degradation in device performance compared to a structure without the added junction.« less

  10. Tunnel Junction Development Using Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy

    DOE PAGES

    Ptak, Aaron J.; Simon, John D.; Schulte, Kevin L.; ...

    2017-10-18

    We demonstrate for the first time III-V tunnel junctions grown using hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) with peak tunneling currents >8 A/cm 2, sufficient for operation of a multijunction device to several hundred suns of concentration. Multijunction solar cells rely on tunneling interconnects between subcells to enable series connection with minimal voltage loss, but tunnel junctions have never been shown using the HVPE growth method. HVPE has recently reemerged as a low-cost growth method for high-quality III-V materials and devices, including the growth of high-efficiency III-V solar cells. We previously showed single-junction GaAs solar cells with conversion efficiencies of ~24%more » with a path forward to equal or exceed the practical efficiency limits of crystalline Si. Moving to a multijunction device structure will allow for even higher efficiencies with minimal impact on cost, necessitating the development of tunnel interconnects. Here in this paper, we demonstrate the performance of both isolated HVPE-grown tunnel junctions, as well as single-junction GaAs solar cell structures with a tunnel junction incorporated into the contact region. We observe no degradation in device performance compared to a structure without the added junction.« less

  11. Prediction of the vapor pressure and vaporization enthalpy of 1-n-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium-bis-(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) amide ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Diedenhofen, Michael; Klamt, Andreas; Marsh, Kenneth; Schäfer, Ansgar

    2007-09-07

    The vapor pressures and vaporization enthalpies of a series of 1-n-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium-bis-(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) amide ionic liquids have been predicted with two different approaches using the COSMO-RS method and quantum chemical gas phase calculations. While the calculated enthalpies are in good agreement with the experimental data, COSMO-RS seems to underestimate the vapor pressures by roughly 0.5-4 log units dependent on the IL and approach used.

  12. Numerical Modeling of Liquid-Vapor Phase Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esmaeeli, Asghar; Arpaci, Vedat S.

    2001-01-01

    We implemented a two- and three-dimensional finite difference/front tracking technique to solve liquid-vapor phase change problems. The mathematical and the numerical features of the method were explained in great detail in our previous reports, Briefly, we used a single formula representation which incorporated jump conditions into the governing equations. The interfacial terms were distributed as singular terms using delta functions so that the governing equations would be the same as conventional conservation equations away from the interface and in the vicinity of the interface they would provide correct jump conditions. We used a fixed staggered grid to discretize these equations and an unstructured grid to explicitly track the front. While in two dimensions the front was simply a connection of small line segments, in three dimensions it was represented by a connection of small triangular elements. The equations were written in conservative forms and during the course of computations we used regriding to control the size of the elements of the unstructured grid. Moreover, we implemented a coalescence in two dimensions which allowed the merging of different fronts or two segments of the same front when they were sufficiently close. We used our code to study thermocapillary migration of bubbles, burst of bubbles at a free surface, buoyancy-driven interactions of bubbles, evaporation of drops, rapid evaporation of an interface, planar solidification of an undercooled melt, dendritic solidification, and a host of other problems cited in the reference.

  13. The Vapor-phase Multi-stage CMD Test for Characterizing Contaminant Mass Discharge Associated with VOC Sources in the Vadose Zone: Application to Three Sites in Different Lifecycle Stages of SVE Operations

    PubMed Central

    Brusseau, M.L.; Mainhagu, J.; Morrison, C.; Carroll, K.C.

    2015-01-01

    Vapor-phase multi-stage contaminant mass discharge (CMD) tests were conducted at three field sites to measure mass discharge associated with contaminant sources located in the vadose zone. The three sites represent the three primary stages along the soil vapor extraction (SVE) operations lifecycle- pre/initial-SVE, mid-lifecycle, and near-closure. A CMD of 32 g/d was obtained for a site at which soil vapor SVE has been in operation for approximately 6 years, and for which mass removal is currently in the asymptotic stage. The contaminant removal behavior exhibited for the vapor extractions conducted at this site suggests that there is unlikely to be a significant mass of non-vapor-phase contaminant (e.g., DNAPL, sorbed phase) remaining in the advective domains, and that most remaining mass is likely located in poorly accessible domains. Given the conditions for this site, this remaining mass is hypothesized to be associated with the low-permeability (and higher water saturation) region in the vicinity of the saturated zone and capillary fringe. A CMD of 25 g/d was obtained for a site wherein SVE has been in operation for several years but concentrations and mass-removal rates are still relatively high. A CMD of 270 g/d was obtained for a site for which there were no prior SVE operations. The behavior exhibited for the vapor extractions conducted at this site suggest that non-vapor-phase contaminant mass (e.g., DNAPL) may be present in the advective domains. Hence, the asymptotic conditions observed for this site most likely derive from a combination of rate-limited mass transfer from DNAPL (and sorbed) phases present in the advective domain as well as mass residing in lower-permeability (“non-advective”) regions. The CMD values obtained from the tests were used in conjunction with a recently developed vapor-discharge tool to evaluate the impact of the measured CMDs on groundwater quality. PMID:26047819

  14. The vapor-phase multi-stage CMD test for characterizing contaminant mass discharge associated with VOC sources in the vadose zone: Application to three sites in different lifecycle stages of SVE operations.

    PubMed

    Brusseau, M L; Mainhagu, J; Morrison, C; Carroll, K C

    2015-08-01

    Vapor-phase multi-stage contaminant mass discharge (CMD) tests were conducted at three field sites to measure mass discharge associated with contaminant sources located in the vadose zone. The three sites represent the three primary stages of the soil vapor extraction (SVE) operations lifecycle-pre/initial-SVE, mid-lifecycle, and near-closure. A CMD of 32g/d was obtained for a site at which soil vapor SVE has been in operation for approximately 6years, and for which mass removal is currently in the asymptotic stage. The contaminant removal behavior exhibited for the vapor extractions conducted at this site suggests that there is unlikely to be a significant mass of non-vapor-phase contaminant (e.g., DNAPL, sorbed phase) remaining in the advective domains, and that most remaining mass is likely located in poorly accessible domains. Given the conditions for this site, this remaining mass is hypothesized to be associated with the low-permeability (and higher water saturation) region in the vicinity of the saturated zone and capillary fringe. A CMD of 25g/d was obtained for a site wherein SVE has been in operation for several years but concentrations and mass-removal rates are still relatively high. A CMD of 270g/d was obtained for a site for which there were no prior SVE operations. The behavior exhibited for the vapor extractions conducted at this site suggest that non-vapor-phase contaminant mass (e.g., DNAPL) may be present in the advective domains. Hence, the asymptotic conditions observed for this site most likely derive from a combination of rate-limited mass transfer from DNAPL (and sorbed) phases present in the advective domain as well as mass residing in lower-permeability ("non-advective") regions. The CMD values obtained from the tests were used in conjunction with a recently developed vapor-discharge tool to evaluate the impact of the measured CMDs on groundwater quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Shock-and-Release to the Liquid-Vapor Phase Boundary: Experiments and Applications to Planetary Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Sarah

    2017-06-01

    Shock-induced vaporization was a common process during the end stages of terrestrial planet formation and transient features in extra-solar systems are attributed to recent giant impacts. At the Sandia Z Machine, my collaborators and I are conducting experiments to study the shock Hugoniot and release to the liquid-vapor phase boundary of major minerals in rocky planets. Current work on forsterite, enstatite and bronzite and previous results on silica, iron and periclase demonstrate that shock-induced vaporization played a larger role during planet formation than previously thought. I will provide an overview of the experimental results and describe how the data have changed our views of planetary impact events in our solar system and beyond. Sandia National Laboratories is a multiprogram laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. This work is supported by the Z Fundamental Science Program at Sandia National Laboratories, DOE-NNSA Grant DE- NA0002937, NASA Grant # NNX15AH54G, and UC Multicampus-National Lab Collaborative Research and Training Grant #LFR-17-449059.

  16. Accumulation of Background Impurities in Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy Grown GaN Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usikov, Alexander; Soukhoveev, Vitali; Kovalenkov, Oleg; Syrkin, Alexander; Shapovalov, Liza; Volkova, Anna; Ivantsov, Vladimir

    2013-08-01

    We report on accumulation of background Si and O impurities measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) at the sub-interfaces in undoped, Zn- and Mg-doped multi-layer GaN structures grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) on sapphire substrates with growth interruptions. The impurities accumulation is attributed to reaction of ammonia with the rector quartz ware during the growth interruptions. Because of this effect, HVPE-grown GaN layers had excessive Si and O concentration on the surface that may hamper forming of ohmic contacts especially in the case of p-type layers and may complicate homo-epitaxial growth of a device structure.

  17. DFT STUDY OF THE HYDROLYSIS OF SOME S-TRIAZINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of atrazine and related 2-chloro-s-triazines to the corresponding 2-hydroxy-s-triazines was investigated using the B3LYP hybrid density functional theory method. Gas-phase calculations were performed at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p)//B3LYP/6-31G* level of ...

  18. Thermodynamic Properties of Nitrogen Including Liquid and Vapor Phases from 63K to 2000K with Pressures to 10,000 Bar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobsen, Richard T.; Stewart, Richard B.

    1973-01-01

    Tables of thermodynamic properties of nitrogen are presented for the liquid and vapor phases for temperatures from the freezing line to 2000K and pressures to 10,000 bar. The tables include values of density, internal energy, enthalpy, entropy, isochoric heat capacity, isobaric heat capacity velocity of sound, the isotherm derivative, and the isochor derivative. The thermodynamic property tables are based on an equation of state, P=P (p,T), which accurately represents liquid and gaseous nitrogen for the range of pressures and temperatures covered by the tables. Comparisons of property values calculated from the equation of state with measured values for P-p-T, heat capacity, enthalpy, latent heat, and velocity of sound are included to illustrate the agreement between the experimental data and the tables of properties presented here. The coefficients of the equation of state were determined by a weighted least squares fit to selected P-p-T data and, simultaneously, to isochoric heat capacity data determined by corresponding states analysis from oxygen data, and to data which define the phase equilibrium criteria for the saturated liquid and the saturated vapor. The vapor pressure equation, melting curve equation, and an equation to represent the ideal gas heat capacity are also presented. Estimates of the accuracy of the equation of state, the vapor pressure equation, and the ideal gas heat capacity equation are given. The equation of state, derivatives of the equation, and the integral functions for calculating derived thermodynamic properties are included.

  19. Glass fibers and vapor phase components of cigarette smoke as cofactors in experimental respiratory tract carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Feron, V J; Kuper, C F; Spit, B J; Reuzel, P G; Woutersen, R A

    1985-01-01

    Syrian golden hamsters were given intratracheal instillations of glass fibers with or without BP suspended in saline, once a fortnight for 52 weeks; the experiment was terminated at week 85. No tumors of the respiratory tract were observed in hamsters treated with glass fibers alone. There was no indication that glass fibers enhanced the development of respiratory tract tumors induced by BP. In another study Syrian golden hamsters were exposed to fresh air or to a mixture of 4 major vapor phase components of cigarette smoke, viz. isoprene (800----700 ppm), methyl chloride (1000----900 ppm), methyl nitrite (200----190 ppm) and acetaldehyde (1400----1200 ppm) for a period of at most 23 months. Some of the animals were also given repeated intratracheal instillations of BP or norharman in saline. Laryngeal tumors were found in 7/31 male and 6/32 female hamsters exposed only to the vapor mixture, whereas no laryngeal tumors occurred in controls. The tumor response of the larynx most probably has to be ascribed entirely to the action of acetaldehyde. Simultaneous treatment with norharman or BP did not affect the tumor response of the larynx. Acetaldehyde may occur in the vapor phase of cigarette smoke at levels up to 2000 ppm. Chronic inhalation exposure of rats to acetaldehyde at levels of 0 (controls), 750, 1500 or 3000----1000 ppm resulted in a high incidence of nasal carcinomas, both squamous cell carcinomas of the respiratory epithelium and adenocarcinomas of the olfactory epithelium. It was discussed that acetaldehyde may significantly contribute to the induction of bronchogenic cancer by cigarette smoke in man. No evidence was obtained for a role of isoprene, methyl chloride or methyl nitrite in the induction of lung cancer by cigarette smoke.

  20. Method of varying a characteristic of an optical vertical cavity structure formed by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    DOEpatents

    Hou, Hong Q.; Coltrin, Michael E.; Choquette, Kent D.

    2001-01-01

    A process for forming an array of vertical cavity optical resonant structures wherein the structures in the array have different detection or emission wavelengths. The process uses selective area growth (SAG) in conjunction with annular masks of differing dimensions to control the thickness and chemical composition of the materials in the optical cavities in conjunction with a metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) process to build these arrays.

  1. Theoretical Investigation of the Structural Stabilities of Ceria Surfaces and Supported Metal Nanocluster in Vapor and Aqueous Phases

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Zhibo; Liu, Ning; Chen, Biaohua

    Understanding the structural stability and dynamics at the interface between the solid metal oxide and aqueous phase is significant in a variety of industrial applications including heterogeneous catalysis and environmental remediation. In the present work, the stabilities of three low-index ceria (CeO2) surfaces, i.e., (111), (110) and (100) in vapor and aqueous phases were studied using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Gibbs surface free energies as a function of temperature, water partial pressure, and water coverages were calculated using DFT based atomistic thermodynamic approach. On the basis of surface free energies, the morphology andmore » exposed surface structures of the CeO2 nanoparticle were predicted using Wulff construction principle. It is found that the partially hydroxylated (111) and (100) are two major surface structures of CeO2 nanoparticles in vapor phase at ambient temperature (300 K). As the temperature increases, the fully dehydrated (111) surface gradually becomes the most dominant surface structure. While in aqueous phase, the exposed surface of the CeO2 nanoparticle is dominated by the hydroxylated (110) structure at 393 K. Finally, the morphology and stability of a cuboctahedron Pt13 nanocluster supported on CeO2 surfaces in both gas and aqueous phases were investigated. In gas phase, the supported Pt13 nanocluster has the tendency to wetting the CeO2 surface due to the strong metal-support interaction. The calculated interaction energies suggest the CeO2(110) surface provides the best stability for the Pt13 nanocluster. The CeO2 supported Pt13 nanoclusters are oxidized. Compared to the gas phase, the morphology of the CeO2 supported Pt13 nanocluster is less distorted due to the solvation effect provided by surrounding water molecules in aqueous phase. More electrons are transferred from the Pt13 nanocluster to the CeO2 support, implying the supported Pt13 nanocluster is

  2. Migration of carbon nanotubes from liquid phase to vapor phase in the refrigerant-based nanofluid pool boiling

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The migration characteristics of carbon nanotubes from liquid phase to vapor phase in the refrigerant-based nanofluid pool boiling were investigated experimentally. Four types of carbon nanotubes with the outside diameters from 15 to 80 nm and the lengths from 1.5 to 10 μm were used in the experiments. The refrigerants include R113, R141b and n-pentane. The oil concentration is from 0 to 10 wt.%, the heat flux is from 10 to 100 kW·m-2, and the initial liquid-level height is from 1.3 to 3.4 cm. The experimental results indicate that the migration ratio of carbon nanotube increases with the increase of the outside diameter or the length of carbon nanotube. For the fixed type of carbon nanotube, the migration ratio decreases with the increase of the oil concentration or the heat flux, and increases with the increase of the initial liquid-level height. The migration ratio of carbon nanotube increases with the decrease of dynamic viscosity of refrigerant or the increase of liquid phase density of refrigerant. A model for predicting the migration ratio of carbon nanotubes in the refrigerant-based nanofluid pool boiling is proposed, and the predictions agree with 92% of the experimental data within a deviation of ±20%. PMID:21711730

  3. Model for the Vaporization of Mixed Organometallic Compounds in the Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition of High Temperature Superconducting Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meng, Guangyao; Zhou, Gang; Schneider, Roger L.; Sarma, Bimal K.; Levy, Moises

    1993-01-01

    A model of the vaporization and mass transport of mixed organometallics from a single source for thin film metalorganic chemical vapor deposition is presented. A stoichiometric gas phase can be obtained from a mixture of the organometallics in the desired mole ratios, in spite of differences in the volatilities of the individual compounds. Proper film composition and growth rates are obtained by controlling the velocity of a carriage containing the organometallics through the heating zone of a vaporizer.

  4. Chemical Species in the Vapor Phase of Hanford Double-Shell Tanks: Potential Impacts on Waste Tank Corrosion Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Felmy, Andrew R.; Qafoku, Odeta; Arey, Bruce W.

    2010-09-22

    The presence of corrosive and inhibiting chemicals on the tank walls in the vapor space, arising from the waste supernatant, dictate the type and degree of corrosion that occurs there. An understanding of how waste chemicals are transported to the walls and the affect on vapor species from changing supernatant chemistry (e.g., pH, etc.), are basic to the evaluation of risks and impacts of waste changes on vapor space corrosion (VSC). In order to address these issues the expert panel workshop on double-shell tank (DST) vapor space corrosion testing (RPP-RPT-31129) participants made several recommendations on the future data and modelingmore » needs in the area of DST corrosion. In particular, the drying of vapor phase condensates or supernatants can form salt or other deposits at the carbon steel interface resulting in a chemical composition at the near surface substantially different from that observed directly in the condensates or the supernatants. As a result, over the past three years chemical modeling and experimental studies have been performed on DST supernatants and condensates to predict the changes in chemical composition that might occur as condensates or supernatants equilibrate with the vapor space species and dry at the carbon steel surface. The experimental studies included research on both the chemical changes that occurred as the supernatants dried as well as research on how these chemical changes impact the corrosion of tank steels. The chemical modeling and associated experimental studies were performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the research on tank steel corrosion at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This report presents a summary of the research conducted at PNNL with special emphasis on the most recent studies conducted in FY10. An overall summary of the project results as well as their broader implications for vapor space corrosion of the DST’s is given at the end of this report.« less

  5. Characterization of Hydrolysis Kinetics in Staged Anaerobic Digestion of Wastewater Treatment Sludge.

    PubMed

    Zamanzadeh, Mirzaman; Parker, Wayne J

    2018-01-01

      The hydrolysis of mixed primary and secondary sludges in two-stage anaerobic digestion was evaluated and compared with conventional single-stage digestion, using various temperature-phased configurations of M1-M2, M1-T3, T1-T2, and T1-M3. A dual hydrolysis model best described the hydrolysis in all tests. This model was also able to consistently estimate the readily and slowly fractions of particulate chemical oxygen demand (COD) of raw sludge used in the tests. The hydrolysis kinetic coefficients (Khyd_s and Khyd_r) estimated for the mesophilic digesters were significantly greater in the short hydraulic retention time (HRT) M1 digester than those of the extended HRT digesters. Conversely, at thermophilic temperatures only Khyd_r was greater in short HRT T1 digester when compared to the extended HRT digesters. The increased Khyd_r and reduced Khyd_s values due to staging effect were explained with surface reaction models and endogenous decay. The temperature dependency of Khyd_s and Khyd_r was also explored in the staged digesters.

  6. Non-aqueous phase liquid spreading during soil vapor extraction

    PubMed Central

    Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Hunt, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Many non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) are expected to spread at the air – water interface, particularly under non-equilibrium conditions. In the vadose zone, this spreading should increase the surface area for mass transfer and the efficiency of volatile NAPL recovery by soil vapor extraction (SVE). Observations of spreading on water wet surfaces led to a conceptual model of oil spreading vertically above a NAPL pool in the vadose zone. Analysis of this model predicts that spreading can enhance the SVE contaminant recovery compared to conditions where the liquid does not spread. Experiments were conducted with spreading volatile oils hexane and heptane in wet porous media and capillary tubes, where spreading was observed at the scale of centimeters. Within porous medium columns up to a meter in height containing stagnant gas, spreading was less than ten centimeters and did not contribute significantly to hexane volatilization. Water film thinning and oil film pinning may have prevented significant oil film spreading, and thus did not enhance SVE at the scale of a meter. The experiments performed indicate that volatile oil spreading at the field scale is unlikely to contribute significantly to the efficiency of SVE. PMID:14734243

  7. Spontaneous formation of GaN/AlN core-shell nanowires on sapphire by hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trassoudaine, Agnès; Roche, Elissa; Bougerol, Catherine; André, Yamina; Avit, Geoffrey; Monier, Guillaume; Ramdani, Mohammed Réda; Gil, Evelyne; Castelluci, Dominique; Dubrovskii, Vladimir G.

    2016-11-01

    Spontaneous GaN/AlN core-shell nanowires with high crystal quality were synthesized on sapphire substrates by vapor-liquid-solid hydride vapor phase epitaxy (VLS-HVPE) without any voluntary aluminum source. Deposition of aluminum is difficult to achieve in this growth technique which uses metal-chloride gaseous precursors: the strong interaction between the AlCl gaseous molecules and the quartz reactor yields a huge parasitic nucleation on the walls of the reactor upstream the substrate. We open up an innovative method to produce GaN/AlN structures by HVPE, thanks to aluminum etching from the sapphire substrate followed by redeposition onto the sidewalls of the GaN core. The paper presents the structural characterization of GaN/AlN core-shell nanowires, speculates on the growth mechanism and discusses a model which describes this unexpected behavior.

  8. Rare-earth-doped optical-fiber core deposition using full vapor-phase SPCVD process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnini, A.; Robin, T.; Cadier, B.; Aka, G.; Caurant, D.; Gotter, T.; Guyon, C.; Pinsard, E.; Guitton, P.; Laurent, A.; Montron, R.

    2017-02-01

    One key parameter in the race toward ever-higher power fiber lasers remains the rare earth doped optical core quality. Modern Large Mode Area (LMA) fibers require a fine radial control of the core refractive index (RI) close to the silica level. These low RI are achieved with multi-component materials that cannot be readily obtained using conventional solution doping based Modified Chemical Vapor Deposition (MCVD) technology. This paper presents a study of such optical material obtained through a full-vapor phase Surface Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition (SPCVD). The SPCVD process generates straight glassy films on the inner surface of a thermally regulated synthetic silica tube under vacuum. The first part of the presented results points out the feasibility of ytterbium-doped aluminosilicate fibers by this process. In the second part we describe the challenge controlling the refractive index throughout the core diameter when using volatile fluorine to create efficient LMA fiber profiles. It has been demonstrated that it is possible to counter-act the loss of fluorine at the center of the core by adjusting the core composition locally. Our materials yielded, when used in optical fibers with numerical apertures ranging from 0.07 to 0.09, power conversion efficiency up to 76% and low background losses below 20 dB/km at 1100nm. Photodarkening has been measured to be similar to equivalent MCVD based fibers. The use of cerium as a co-dopant allowed for a complete mitigation of this laser lifetime detrimental effect. The SPCVD process enables high capacity preforms and is particularly versatile when it comes to radial tailoring of both rare earth doping level and RI. Large core diameter preforms - up to 4mm - were successfully produced.

  9. Phase degradation in B xGa 1–xN films grown at low temperature by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    DOE PAGES

    Gunning, Brendan P.; Moseley, Michael W.; Koleske, Daniel D.; ...

    2016-11-01

    Using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy, a comprehensive study of B xGa 1-xN growth on GaN and AlN templates is described. BGaN growth at high-temperature and high-pressure results in rough surfaces and poor boron incorporation efficiency, while growth at low-temperature and low-pressure (750–900 °C and 20 Torr) using nitrogen carrier gas results in improved surface morphology and boron incorporation up to ~7.4% as determined by nuclear reaction analysis. However, further structural analysis by transmission electron microscopy and x-ray pole figures points to severe degradation of the high boron composition films, into a twinned cubic structure with a high density of stackingmore » faults and little or no room temperature photoluminescence emission. Films with <1% triethylboron (TEB) flow show more intense, narrower x-ray diffraction peaks, near-band-edge photoluminescence emission at ~362 nm, and primarily wurtzite-phase structure in the x-ray pole figures. For films with >1% TEB flow, the crystal structure becomes dominated by the cubic phase. As a result, only when the TEB flow is zero (pure GaN), does the cubic phase entirely disappear from the x-ray pole figure, suggesting that under these growth conditions even very low boron compositions lead to mixed crystalline phases.« less

  10. Phase degradation in B xGa 1–xN films grown at low temperature by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Gunning, Brendan P.; Moseley, Michael W.; Koleske, Daniel D.

    Using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy, a comprehensive study of B xGa 1-xN growth on GaN and AlN templates is described. BGaN growth at high-temperature and high-pressure results in rough surfaces and poor boron incorporation efficiency, while growth at low-temperature and low-pressure (750–900 °C and 20 Torr) using nitrogen carrier gas results in improved surface morphology and boron incorporation up to ~7.4% as determined by nuclear reaction analysis. However, further structural analysis by transmission electron microscopy and x-ray pole figures points to severe degradation of the high boron composition films, into a twinned cubic structure with a high density of stackingmore » faults and little or no room temperature photoluminescence emission. Films with <1% triethylboron (TEB) flow show more intense, narrower x-ray diffraction peaks, near-band-edge photoluminescence emission at ~362 nm, and primarily wurtzite-phase structure in the x-ray pole figures. For films with >1% TEB flow, the crystal structure becomes dominated by the cubic phase. As a result, only when the TEB flow is zero (pure GaN), does the cubic phase entirely disappear from the x-ray pole figure, suggesting that under these growth conditions even very low boron compositions lead to mixed crystalline phases.« less

  11. Macroscopic modeling of heat and water vapor transfer with phase change in dry snow based on an upscaling method: Influence of air convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calonne, N.; Geindreau, C.; Flin, F.

    2015-12-01

    At the microscopic scale, i.e., pore scale, dry snow metamorphism is mainly driven by the heat and water vapor transfer and the sublimation-deposition process at the ice-air interface. Up to now, the description of these phenomena at the macroscopic scale, i.e., snow layer scale, in the snowpack models has been proposed in a phenomenological way. Here we used an upscaling method, namely, the homogenization of multiple-scale expansions, to derive theoretically the macroscopic equivalent modeling of heat and vapor transfer through a snow layer from the physics at the pore scale. The physical phenomena under consideration are steady state air flow, heat transfer by conduction and convection, water vapor transfer by diffusion and convection, and phase change (sublimation and deposition). We derived three different macroscopic models depending on the intensity of the air flow considered at the pore scale, i.e., on the order of magnitude of the pore Reynolds number and the Péclet numbers: (A) pure diffusion, (B) diffusion and moderate convection (Darcy's law), and (C) strong convection (nonlinear flow). The formulation of the models includes the exact expression of the macroscopic properties (effective thermal conductivity, effective vapor diffusion coefficient, and intrinsic permeability) and of the macroscopic source terms of heat and vapor arising from the phase change at the pore scale. Such definitions can be used to compute macroscopic snow properties from 3-D descriptions of snow microstructures. Finally, we illustrated the precision and the robustness of the proposed macroscopic models through 2-D numerical simulations.

  12. Development of an acoustic wave based biosensor for vapor phase detection of small molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubbs, Desmond

    For centuries scientific ingenuity and innovation have been influenced by Mother Nature's perfect design. One of her more elusive designs is that of the sensory olfactory system, an array of highly sensitive receptors responsible for chemical vapor recognition. In the animal kingdom this ability is magnified among canines where ppt (parts per trillion) sensitivity values have been reported. Today, detection dogs are considered an essential part of the US drug and explosives detection schemes. However, growing concerns about their susceptibility to extraneous odors have inspired the development of highly sensitive analytical detection tools or biosensors known as "electronic noses". In general, biosensors are distinguished from chemical sensors in that they use an entity of biological origin (e.g. antibody, cell, enzyme) immobilized onto a surface as the chemically-sensitive film on the device. The colloquial view is that the term "biosensors" refers to devices which detect the presence of entities of biological origin, such as proteins or single-stranded DNA and that this detection must take place in a liquid. Our biosensor utilizes biomolecules, specifically IgG monoclonal antibodies, to achieve molecular recognition of relatively small molecules in the vapor phase.

  13. Performance assessment instrument to assess the senior high students' psychomotor for the salt hydrolysis material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahadi, Firman, Harry; Yulina, Erlis

    2016-02-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop a performance assessment instrument for assessing the competence of psychomotor high school students on salt hydrolysis concepts. The design used in this study was the Research & Development which consists of three phases: development, testing and application of instruments. Subjects in this study were high school students in class XI science, which amounts to 93 students. In the development phase, seven validators validated 17 tasks instrument. In the test phase, we divided 19 students into three-part different times to conduct performance test in salt hydrolysis lab work and observed by six raters. The first, the second, and the third groups recpectively consist of five, six, and eight students. In the application phase, two raters observed the performance of 74 students in the salt hydrolysis lab work in several times. The results showed that 16 of 17 tasks of performance assessment instrument developed can be stated to be valid with CVR value of 1,00 and 0,714. While, the rest was not valid with CVR value was 0.429, below the critical value (0.622). In the test phase, reliability value of instrument obtained were 0,951 for the five-student group, 0,806 for the six-student group and 0,743 for the eight-student group. From the interviews, teachers strongly agree with the performance instrument developed. They stated that the instrument was feasible to use for maximum number of students were six in a single observation.

  14. Influence of mass diffusion on the stability of thermophoretic growth of a solid from the vapor phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castillo, J. L.; Garcia-Ybarra, P. L.; Rosner, D. E.

    1991-01-01

    The stability of solid planar growth from a binary vapor phase with a condensing species dilute in a carrier gas is examined when the ratio of depositing to carrier species molecular mass is large and the main diffusive transport mechanism is thermal diffusion. It is shown that a deformation of the solid-gas interface induces a deformation of the gas phase isotherms that increases the thermal gradients and thereby the local mass deposition rate at the crests and reduces them at the valleys. The initial surface deformation is enhanced by the modified deposition rates in the absence of appreciable Fick/Brownian diffusion and interfacial energy effects.

  15. Production of higher quality bio-oils by in-line esterification of pyrolysis vapor

    DOEpatents

    Hilten, Roger Norris; Das, Keshav; Kastner, James R; Bibens, Brian P

    2014-12-02

    The disclosure encompasses in-line reactive condensation processes via vapor phase esterification of bio-oil to decease reactive species concentration and water content in the oily phase of a two-phase oil, thereby increasing storage stability and heating value. Esterification of the bio-oil vapor occurs via the vapor phase contact and subsequent reaction of organic acids with ethanol during condensation results in the production of water and esters. The pyrolysis oil product can have an increased ester content and an increased stability when compared to a condensed pyrolysis oil product not treated with an atomized alcohol.

  16. Environmentally friendly method to grow wide-bandgap semiconductor aluminum nitride crystals: Elementary source vapor phase epitaxy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, PeiTsen; Funato, Mitsuru; Kawakami, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) has attracted increasing interest as an optoelectronic material in the deep ultraviolet spectral range due to its wide bandgap of 6.0 eV (207 nm wavelength) at room temperature. Because AlN bulk single crystals are ideal device substrates for such applications, the crystal growth of bulky AlN has been extensively studied. Two growth methods seem especially promising: hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) and sublimation. However, the former requires hazardous gases such as hydrochloric acid and ammonia, while the latter needs extremely high growth temperatures around 2000 °C. Herein we propose a novel vapor-phase-epitaxy-based growth method for AlN that does not use toxic materials; the source precursors are elementary aluminum and nitrogen gas. To prepare our AlN, we constructed a new growth apparatus, which realizes growth of AlN single crystals at a rate of ~18 μm/h at 1550 °C using argon as the source transfer via the simple reaction Al + 1/2N2 → AlN. This growth rate is comparable to that by HVPE, and the growth temperature is much lower than that in sublimation. Thus, this study opens up a novel route to achieve environmentally friendly growth of AlN. PMID:26616203

  17. Evaluation of the Antibacterial Potential of Liquid and Vapor Phase Phenolic Essential Oil Compounds against Oral Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chi-Hao; Ko, Shun-Yao; Chen, Michael Yuanchien; Shih, Yin-Hua; Shieh, Tzong-Ming; Chuang, Li-Chuan; Wu, Ching-Yi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the antibacterial activities of the phenolic essential oil (EO) compounds hinokitiol, carvacrol, thymol, and menthol against oral pathogens. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Streptococcus mutans, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and Escherichia. coli were used in this study. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), bacterial growth curves, temperature and pH stabilities, and synergistic effects of the liquid and vapor EO compounds were tested. The MIC/MBC of the EO compounds, ranging from the strongest to weakest, were hinokitiol (40–60 μg/mL/40-100 μg/mL), thymol (100–200 μg/mL/200-400 μg/mL), carvacrol (200–400 μg/mL/200-600 μg/mL), and menthol (500-more than 2500 μg/mL/1000-more than 2500 μg/mL). The antibacterial activities of the four EO phenolic compound based on the agar diffusion test and bacterial growth curves showed that the four EO phenolic compounds were stable under different temperatures for 24 h, but the thymol activity decreased when the temperature was higher than 80°C. The combination of liquid carvacrol with thymol did not show any synergistic effects. The activities of the vaporous carvacrol and thymol were inhibited by the presence of water. Continual violent shaking during culture enhanced the activity of menthol. Both liquid and vaporous hinokitiol were stable at different temperatures and pH conditions. The combination of vaporous hinokitiol with zinc oxide did not show synergistic effects. These results showed that the liquid and vapor phases of hinokitiol have strong anti-oral bacteria abilities. Hinokitiol has the potential to be applied in oral health care products, dental materials, and infection controls to exert antimicrobial activity. PMID:27681039

  18. Ionic Vapor Composition in Critical and Supercritical States of Strongly Interacting Ionic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Chaban, Vitaly V; Prezhdo, Oleg V

    2016-05-12

    The critical point, CP (T, P), of the phase diagram quantifies the minimum amount of kinetic energy needed to prevent a substance from existing in a condensed phase. Therefore, the CP is closely related to the properties of the fluid far below the critical temperature. Approaches designed to predict thermophysical properties of a system necessarily aim to provide reliable estimates of the CP. Vice versa, CP estimation is impossible without knowledge of the vapor phase behavior. We report ab initio Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics (BOMD) simulations of sodium and potassium chlorides, NaCl and KCl, at and above their expected CPs. We advance the present knowledge regarding the existence of ionic species in the vapor phase by establishing significant percentages of atomic clusters: 29-30% in NaCl and 34-38% in KCl. A neutral pair of counterions is the most abundant cluster in the ionic vapors (ca. 35% of all vaporized ions exist in this form). Unexpectedly, an appreciable fraction of clusters is charged. The ionic vapor composition is determined by the vapor density, rather than the nature of the alkali ion. The previously suggested CPs of NaCl and KCl appear overestimated, based on the present simulations. The reported results offer essential insights into the ionic fluid properties and assist in development of thermodynamic theories. The ab initio BOMD method has been applied to investigate the vapor phase composition of an ionic fluid for the first time.

  19. Physics-based agent to simulant correlations for vapor phase mass transport.

    PubMed

    Willis, Matthew P; Varady, Mark J; Pearl, Thomas P; Fouse, Janet C; Riley, Patrick C; Mantooth, Brent A; Lalain, Teri A

    2013-12-15

    Chemical warfare agent simulants are often used as an agent surrogate to perform environmental testing, mitigating exposure hazards. This work specifically addresses the assessment of downwind agent vapor concentration resulting from an evaporating simulant droplet. A previously developed methodology was used to estimate the mass diffusivities of the chemical warfare agent simulants methyl salicylate, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, di-ethyl malonate, and chloroethyl phenyl sulfide. Along with the diffusivity of the chemical warfare agent bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, the simulant diffusivities were used in an advection-diffusion model to predict the vapor concentrations downwind from an evaporating droplet of each chemical at various wind velocities and temperatures. The results demonstrate that the simulant-to-agent concentration ratio and the corresponding vapor pressure ratio are equivalent under certain conditions. Specifically, the relationship is valid within ranges of measurement locations relative to the evaporating droplet and observation times. The valid ranges depend on the relative transport properties of the agent and simulant, and whether vapor transport is diffusion or advection dominant. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Bioeffects due to acoustic droplet vaporization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bull, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    Encapsulated micro- and nano-droplets can be vaporized via ultrasound, a process termed acoustic droplet vaporization. Our interest is primarily motivated by a developmental gas embolotherapy technique for cancer treatment. In this methodology, infarction of tumors is induced by selectively formed vascular gas bubbles that arise from the acoustic vaporization of vascular microdroplets. Additionally, the microdroplets may be used as vehicles for localized drug delivery, with or without flow occlusion. In this talk, we examine the dynamics of acoustic droplet vaporization through experiments and theoretical/computational fluid mechanics models, and investigate the bioeffects of acoustic droplet vaporization on endothelial cells and in vivo. Early timescale vaporization events, including phase change, are directly visualized using ultra-high speed imaging, and the influence of acoustic parameters on droplet/bubble dynamics is discussed. Acoustic and fluid mechanics parameters affecting the severity of endothelial cell bioeffects are explored. These findings suggest parameter spaces for which bioeffects may be reduced or enhanced, depending on the objective of the therapy. This work was supported by NIH grant R01EB006476.

  1. Frequency response of a vaporization process to distorted acoustic disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidmann, M. F.

    1972-01-01

    The open-loop response properties expressed as the mass vaporized in phase and out of phase with the pressure oscillations were numerically evaluated for a vaporizing n-heptane droplet. The evaluation includes the frequency dependence introduced by periodic oscillation in droplet mass and temperature. A given response was achieved over a much broader range of frequency with harmonically distorted disturbances than with sinusoidal disturbances. The results infer that distortion increases the probability of incurring spontaneous and triggered instability in any rocket engine combustor by broadening the frequency range over which the vaporization process can support an instability.

  2. Esculin hydrolysis by Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Edberg, S C; Pittman, S; Singer, J M

    1977-08-01

    Literature reports disagree concerning esculin hydrolysis in the family Enterobacteriaceae. A total of 2,490 strains of the family were investigated for esculin hydrolysis by two methods, the esculin spot test and the PathoTec incubation strip, which measures constitutive enzyme, and five growth-supporting methods, which determine both constitutive and inducible enzymes. The five growth-supporting media studied were: Vaughn-Levine, the standard esculin hydrolysis medium (P. R. Edwards and W. H. Ewing, Identification of Enterobacteriaceae, 3rd ed., 1972); Vaughn-Levine without iron; Vaughn-Levine without Andrade's indicator; and bile-esculin medium. Growth media were incubated at 35 degrees C and checked every 24 h for 120 h. On growth media, 0.3% of Escherichia coli were positive in 24 h, 34% in 48 h, and 61% in 120 h. No strains were positive on the "nongrowth" tests. It appeared that the esculin hydrolysis enzyme(s) of E. coli was inducible rather than constitutive. All esculin hydrolyzers, which yielded positive tests on "constitutive tests" and 24-h tests, were limited to the genera Klebsiella, Enterobacter, and Serratia and species of Proteus vulgaris, Proteus rettgeri, and Citrobacter diversus. When used with standardized inoculum size and incubation time, the esculin hydrolysis test is very useful for differentiation within the family Enterobacteriaceae.

  3. Esculin hydrolysis by Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed Central

    Edberg, S C; Pittman, S; Singer, J M

    1977-01-01

    Literature reports disagree concerning esculin hydrolysis in the family Enterobacteriaceae. A total of 2,490 strains of the family were investigated for esculin hydrolysis by two methods, the esculin spot test and the PathoTec incubation strip, which measures constitutive enzyme, and five growth-supporting methods, which determine both constitutive and inducible enzymes. The five growth-supporting media studied were: Vaughn-Levine, the standard esculin hydrolysis medium (P. R. Edwards and W. H. Ewing, Identification of Enterobacteriaceae, 3rd ed., 1972); Vaughn-Levine without iron; Vaughn-Levine without Andrade's indicator; and bile-esculin medium. Growth media were incubated at 35 degrees C and checked every 24 h for 120 h. On growth media, 0.3% of Escherichia coli were positive in 24 h, 34% in 48 h, and 61% in 120 h. No strains were positive on the "nongrowth" tests. It appeared that the esculin hydrolysis enzyme(s) of E. coli was inducible rather than constitutive. All esculin hydrolyzers, which yielded positive tests on "constitutive tests" and 24-h tests, were limited to the genera Klebsiella, Enterobacter, and Serratia and species of Proteus vulgaris, Proteus rettgeri, and Citrobacter diversus. When used with standardized inoculum size and incubation time, the esculin hydrolysis test is very useful for differentiation within the family Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:330558

  4. Vapor-phase hydrothermal transformation of HTiOF3 intermediates into {001} faceted anatase single-crystalline nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Porun; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Haimin; An, Taicheng; Yang, Huagui; Tang, Zhiyong; Cai, Weiping; Zhao, Huijun

    2012-12-07

    For the first time, a facile, one-pot hydrofluoric acid vapor-phase hydrothermal (HF-VPH) method is demonstrated to directly grow single-crystalline anatase TiO(2) nanosheets with 98.2% of exposed {001} faceted surfaces on the Ti substrate via a distinctive two-stage formation mechanism. The first stage produces a new intermediate crystal (orthorhombic HTiOF(3) ) that is transformed into anatase TiO(2) nanosheets during the second stage. The findings reveal that the HF-VPH reaction environment is unique and differs remarkably from that of liquid-phase hydrothermal processes. The uniqueness of the HF-VPH conditions can be readily used to effectively control the nanostructure growth. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. New Density Functional Approach for Solid-Liquid-Vapor Transitions in Pure Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocher, Gabriel; Provatas, Nikolas

    2015-04-01

    A new phase field crystal (PFC) type theory is presented, which accounts for the full spectrum of solid-liquid-vapor phase transitions within the framework of a single density order parameter. Its equilibrium properties show the most quantitative features to date in PFC modeling of pure substances, and full consistency with thermodynamics in pressure-volume-temperature space is demonstrated. A method to control either the volume or the pressure of the system is also introduced. Nonequilibrium simulations show that 2- and 3-phase growth of solid, vapor, and liquid can be achieved, while our formalism also allows for a full range of pressure-induced transformations. This model opens up a new window for the study of pressure driven interactions of condensed phases with vapor, an experimentally relevant paradigm previously missing from phase field crystal theories.

  6. Numerical prediction of kinetic model for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose using DAE-QMOM approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil, N. M.; Wang, Q.

    2016-06-01

    Bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass consists of three fundamental processes; pre-treatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation. In enzymatic hydrolysis phase, the enzymes break the cellulose chains into sugar in the form of cellobiose or glucose. A currently proposed kinetic model for enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose that uses population balance equation (PBE) mechanism was studied. The complexity of the model due to integrodifferential equations makes it difficult to find the analytical solution. Therefore, we solved the full model of PBE numerically by using DAE-QMOM approach. The computation was carried out using MATLAB software. The numerical results were compared to the asymptotic solution developed in the author's previous paper and the results of Griggs et al. Besides confirming the findings were consistent with those references, some significant characteristics were also captured. The PBE model for enzymatic hydrolysis process can be solved using DAE-QMOM method. Also, an improved understanding of the physical insights of the model was achieved.

  7. Organosolv pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis of poplars: I. enzyme hydrolysis of cellulosic residues

    SciTech Connect

    Chum, H.L.; Johnson, D.K.; Black, S.

    1988-01-01

    Aspen (Populus tremuloides) and black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) organosolv pulps produced in a wide range of solvent composition (between 30 and 70% by volume of methanol) and catalysts (H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/) such that the cooking liquor pH less than or equal to 3 are easily digested by enzymes. The total yields of hydrolysis residues (pulps) are in the 40-60% range; the acid-catalyzed delignification followed by enzyme hydrolysis can generate 70-88% of the original six-carbon sugars contained in the wood. Glucomannan and arabinogalactan are dissolved in to the pulping liquor in the pH range of 2-4.5. Lowermore » pH (less than or equal to 3) leads to additional solubilization of six-carbon sugars. These sugars may be fermented directly. From the insoluble hydrolysis residues, 36-41% conversions of wood into fermentable sugars were obtained after enzyme hydrolysis; the starting feedstocks contain 50.8 and 46.6% hexosans, respectively, for aspen and black cottonwood. The kinetics of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose can be formally treated as two simultaneous pseudo-first-order reactions in which fast and slow hydrolysis of cellulose occur. Correlations between the glucan digestibility and the effect of the pretreatment have been made. The higher residual xylan content reduces the amount of the rapidly hydrolyzable glucan fraction and lowers the glucan digestibility. The proposed simple kinetic treatment is very helpful in assessing the effect of the pretreatment on pulp enzyme hydrolyzability.« less

  8. Synthesis of graphene nanoribbons from amyloid templates by gallium vapor-assisted solid-phase graphitization

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, Katsuhisa, E-mail: k.murakami@bk.tsukuba.ac.jp; Dong, Tianchen; Kajiwara, Yuya

    2014-06-16

    Single- and double-layer graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with widths of around 10 nm were synthesized directly onto an insulating substrate by solid-phase graphitization using a gallium vapor catalyst and carbon templates made of amyloid fibrils. Subsequent investigation revealed that the crystallinity, conductivity, and carrier mobility were all improved by increasing the temperature of synthesis. The carrier mobility of the GNR synthesized at 1050 °C was 0.83 cm{sup 2}/V s, which is lower than that of mechanically exfoliated graphene. This is considered to be most likely due to electron scattering by the defects and edges of the GNRs.

  9. Estimated vapor pressure for WTP process streams

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, J.; Poirier, M.

    Design assumptions during the vacuum refill phase of the Pulsed Jet Mixers (PJMs) in the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) equate the vapor pressure of all process streams to that of water when calculating the temperature at which the vacuum refill is reduced or eliminated. WTP design authority asked the authors to assess this assumption by performing calculations on proposed feed slurries to calculate the vapor pressure as a function of temperature. The vapor pressure was estimated for each WTP waste group. The vapor pressure suppression caused by dissolved solids is much greater than the increase caused bymore » organic components such that the vapor pressure for all of the waste group compositions is less than that of pure water. The vapor pressure for each group at 145°F ranges from 81% to 98% of the vapor pressure of water. If desired, the PJM could be operated at higher temperatures for waste groups with high dissolved solids that suppress vapor pressure. The SO4 group with the highest vapor pressure suppression could be operated up to 153°F before reaching the same vapor pressure of water at 145°F. However, most groups would reach equivalent vapor pressure at 147 to 148°F. If any of these waste streams are diluted, the vapor pressure can exceed the vapor pressure of water at mass dilution ratios greater than 10, but the overall effect is less than 0.5%.« less

  10. Investigating Vaporization of Silica through Laser Driven Shock Wave Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, R. G.; Swift, D. C.; Stewart, S. T.; Smith, R.; Bolme, C. A.; Spaulding, D. K.; Hicks, D.; Eggert, J.; Collins, G.

    2010-12-01

    Giant impacts melt and vaporize a significant amount of the bolide and target body. However, our ability to determine how much melt or vapor a given impact creates depends strongly on our understanding of the liquid-vapor phase boundary of geologic materials. Our current knowledge of the liquid-vapor equilibrium for one of the most important minerals, SiO2, is rather limited due to the difficulty of performing experiments in this area of phase space. In this study, we investigate the liquid-vapor coexistence region by shocking quartz into a supercritical fluid state and allowing it to adiabatically expand to a state on the liquid-vapor phase boundary. Although shock compression and release has been used to study the liquid-vapor equilibrium of metals [1], few attempts have been made at studying geologic materials by this method [2]. Shock waves were produced by direct ablation of the quartz sample using the Jupiter Laser Facility of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Steady shock pressures of 120-360 GPa were produced in the quartz samples: high enough to force the quartz into a supercritical fluid state. As the shock wave propagates through the sample, we measure the shock velocity using a line imaging velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR) and shock temperature using a streaked optical pyrometer (SOP). When the shock wave reaches the free surface of the sample, the material adiabatically expands. Upon breakout of the shock at the free surface, the SOP records a distinct drop in radiance due to the lower temperature of the expanded material. For a subset of experiments, a LiF window is positioned downrange of the expanding silica. When the expanding silica impacts the LiF window, the velocity at the interface between the expanding silica and LiF window is measured using the VISAR. From the shock velocity measurements, we accurately determine the shocked state in the quartz. The post-shock radiance measurements are used to constrain the

  11. Enzymatic saccharification of pretreated wheat straw: comparison of solids-recycling, sequential hydrolysis and batch hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Pihlajaniemi, Ville; Sipponen, Satu; Sipponen, Mika H; Pastinen, Ossi; Laakso, Simo

    2014-02-01

    In the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose materials, the recycling of the solid residue has previously been considered within the context of enzyme recycling. In this study, a steady state investigation of a solids-recycling process was made with pretreated wheat straw and compared to sequential and batch hydrolysis at constant reaction times, substrate feed and liquid and enzyme consumption. Compared to batch hydrolysis, the recycling and sequential processes showed roughly equal hydrolysis yields, while the volumetric productivity was significantly increased. In the 72h process the improvement was 90% due to an increased reaction consistency, while the solids feed was 16% of the total process constituents. The improvement resulted primarily from product removal, which was equally efficient in solids-recycling and sequential hydrolysis processes. No evidence of accumulation of enzymes beyond the accumulation of the substrate was found in recycling. A mathematical model of solids-recycling was constructed, based on a geometrical series. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Numerical simulation of superheated vapor bubble rising in stagnant liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samkhaniani, N.; Ansari, M. R.

    2017-09-01

    In present study, the rising of superheated vapor bubble in saturated liquid is simulated using volume of fluid method in OpenFOAM cfd package. The surface tension between vapor-liquid phases is considered using continuous surface force method. In order to reduce spurious current near interface, Lafaurie smoothing filter is applied to improve curvature calculation. Phase change is considered using Tanasawa mass transfer model. The variation of saturation temperature in vapor bubble with local pressure is considered with simplified Clausius-Clapeyron relation. The couple velocity-pressure equation is solved using PISO algorithm. The numerical model is validated with: (1) isothermal bubble rising and (2) one-dimensional horizontal film condensation. Then, the shape and life time history of single superheated vapor bubble are investigated. The present numerical study shows vapor bubble in saturated liquid undergoes boiling and condensation. It indicates bubble life time is nearly linear proportional with bubble size and superheat temperature.

  13. Interfacial nonequilibrium and Bénard-Marangoni instability of a liquid-vapor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margerit, J.; Colinet, P.; Lebon, G.; Iorio, C. S.; Legros, J. C.

    2003-10-01

    We study Bénard-Marangoni instability in a system formed by a horizontal liquid layer and its overlying vapor. The liquid is lying on a hot rigid plate and the vapor is bounded by a cold parallel plate. A pump maintains a reduced pressure in the vapor layer and evacuates the vapor. This investigation is undertaken within the classical quasisteady approximation for both the vapor and the liquid phases. The two layers are separated by a deformable interface. Temporarily frozen temperature and velocity distributions are employed at each instant for the stability analysis, limited to infinitesimal disturbances (linear regime). We use irreversible thermodynamics to model the phase change under interfacial nonequilibrium. Within this description, the interface appears as a barrier for transport of both heat and mass. Hence, in contrast with previous studies, we consider the possibility of a temperature jump across the interface, as recently measured experimentally. The stability analysis shows that the interfacial resistances to heat and mass transfer have a destabilizing influence compared to an interface that is in thermodynamic equilibrium. The role of the fluctuations in the vapor phase on the onset of instability is discussed. The conditions to reduce the system to a one phase model are also established. Finally, the influence of the evaporation parameters and of the presence of an inert gas on the marginal stability curves is discussed.

  14. Re-entrant phase behavior for systems with competition between phase separation and self-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhardt, Aleks; Williamson, Alexander J.; Doye, Jonathan P. K.; Carrete, Jesús; Varela, Luis M.; Louis, Ard A.

    2011-03-01

    In patchy particle systems where there is a competition between the self-assembly of finite clusters and liquid-vapor phase separation, re-entrant phase behavior can be observed, with the system passing from a monomeric vapor phase to a region of liquid-vapor phase coexistence and then to a vapor phase of clusters as the temperature is decreased at constant density. Here, we present a classical statistical mechanical approach to the determination of the complete phase diagram of such a system. We model the system as a van der Waals fluid, but one where the monomers can assemble into monodisperse clusters that have no attractive interactions with any of the other species. The resulting phase diagrams show a clear region of re-entrance. However, for the most physically reasonable parameter values of the model, this behavior is restricted to a certain range of density, with phase separation still persisting at high densities.

  15. Critical points of metal vapors

    SciTech Connect

    Khomkin, A. L., E-mail: alhomkin@mail.ru; Shumikhin, A. S.

    2015-09-15

    A new method is proposed for calculating the parameters of critical points and binodals for the vapor–liquid (insulator–metal) phase transition in vapors of metals with multielectron valence shells. The method is based on a model developed earlier for the vapors of alkali metals, atomic hydrogen, and exciton gas, proceeding from the assumption that the cohesion determining the basic characteristics of metals under normal conditions is also responsible for their properties in the vicinity of the critical point. It is proposed to calculate the cohesion of multielectron atoms using well-known scaling relations for the binding energy, which are constructed for mostmore » metals in the periodic table by processing the results of many numerical calculations. The adopted model allows the parameters of critical points and binodals for the vapor–liquid phase transition in metal vapors to be calculated using published data on the properties of metals under normal conditions. The parameters of critical points have been calculated for a large number of metals and show satisfactory agreement with experimental data for alkali metals and with available estimates for all other metals. Binodals of metals have been calculated for the first time.« less

  16. Optical properties of bulk gallium nitride single crystals grown by chloride-hydride vapor-phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agyekyan, V. F.; Borisov, E. V.; Serov, A. Yu.; Filosofov, N. G.

    2017-12-01

    A gallium nitride crystal 5 mm in thickness was grown by chloride-hydride vapor-phase epitaxy on a sapphire substrate, from which the crystal separated during cooling. At an early stage, a three-dimensional growth mode was implemented, followed by a switch to a two-dimensional mode. Spectra of exciton reflection, exciton luminescence, and Raman scattering are studied in several regions characteristic of the sample. Analysis of these spectra and comparison with previously obtained data for thin epitaxial GaN layers with a wide range of silicon doping enabled conclusions about the quality of the crystal lattice in these characteristic regions.

  17. Vapor-liquid coexistence of the Stockmayer fluid in nonuniform external fields.

    PubMed

    Samin, Sela; Tsori, Yoav; Holm, Christian

    2013-05-01

    We investigate the structure and phase behavior of the Stockmayer fluid in the presence of nonuniform electric fields using molecular simulation. We find that an initially homogeneous vapor phase undergoes a local phase separation in a nonuniform field due to the combined effect of the field gradient and the fluid vapor-liquid equilibrium. This results in a high-density fluid condensing in the strong field region. The system polarization exhibits a strong field dependence due to the fluid condensation.

  18. A sharp interface method for compressible liquid–vapor flow with phase transition and surface tension

    SciTech Connect

    Fechter, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.fechter@iag.uni-stuttgart.de; Munz, Claus-Dieter, E-mail: munz@iag.uni-stuttgart.de; Rohde, Christian, E-mail: Christian.Rohde@mathematik.uni-stuttgart.de

    The numerical approximation of non-isothermal liquid–vapor flow within the compressible regime is a difficult task because complex physical effects at the phase interfaces can govern the global flow behavior. We present a sharp interface approach which treats the interface as a shock-wave like discontinuity. Any mixing of fluid phases is avoided by using the flow solver in the bulk regions only, and a ghost-fluid approach close to the interface. The coupling states for the numerical solution in the bulk regions are determined by the solution of local two-phase Riemann problems across the interface. The Riemann solution accounts for the relevantmore » physics by enforcing appropriate jump conditions at the phase boundary. A wide variety of interface effects can be handled in a thermodynamically consistent way. This includes surface tension or mass/energy transfer by phase transition. Moreover, the local normal speed of the interface, which is needed to calculate the time evolution of the interface, is given by the Riemann solution. The interface tracking itself is based on a level-set method. The focus in this paper is the description of the two-phase Riemann solver and its usage within the sharp interface approach. One-dimensional problems are selected to validate the approach. Finally, the three-dimensional simulation of a wobbling droplet and a shock droplet interaction in two dimensions are shown. In both problems phase transition and surface tension determine the global bulk behavior.« less

  19. DETERMINING HOW VAPOR PHASE MTBE REACHES GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA Region 2 and ORD have funded a RARE project for FY 2005/2006 to evaluate the prospects that MTBE (and other fuel components) in vapors that escape from an underground storage tank (UST) can find its way to ground water produced by monitoring wells at a gasoline filling statio...

  20. Chemical vapor deposition reactor. [providing uniform film thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chern, S. S.; Maserjian, J. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An improved chemical vapor deposition reactor is characterized by a vapor deposition chamber configured to substantially eliminate non-uniformities in films deposited on substrates by control of gas flow and removing gas phase reaction materials from the chamber. Uniformity in the thickness of films is produced by having reactive gases injected through multiple jets which are placed at uniformally distributed locations. Gas phase reaction materials are removed through an exhaust chimney which is positioned above the centrally located, heated pad or platform on which substrates are placed. A baffle is situated above the heated platform below the mouth of the chimney to prevent downdraft dispersion and scattering of gas phase reactant materials.

  1. Oxidation/vaporization of silicide coated columbium base alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, F. J.; Stearns, C. A.

    1971-01-01

    Mass spectrometric and target collection experiments were made at 1600 K to elucidate the mode of oxidative vaporization of two columbium alloys, fused-slurry-coated with a complex silicide former (Si-20Cr-Fe). At oxygen pressures up to 0.0005 torr the major vapor component detected by mass spectrometry for oxidized samples was gaseous silicon monoxide. Analysis of condensates collected at oxygen pressures of 0.1, 1.0 and 10 torr revealed that chromium-, silicon-, iron- and tungsten- containing species were the major products of vaporization. Equilibrium thermochemical diagrams were constructed for the metal-oxygen system corresponding to each constituent metal in both the coating and base alloy. The major vaporizing species are expected to be the gaseous oxides of chromium, silicon, iron and tungsten. Plots of vapor phase composition and maximum vaporization rate versus oxygen pressure were calculated for each coating constituent. The major contribution to weight loss by vaporization at oxygen pressures above 1 torr was shown to be the chromium-containing species.

  2. Uptake rate constants and partition coefficients for vapor phase organic chemicals using semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cranor, W.L.; Alvarez, D.A.; Huckins, J.N.; Petty, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    To fully utilize semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) as passive samplers in air monitoring, data are required to accurately estimate airborne concentrations of environmental contaminants. Limited uptake rate constants (kua) and no SPMD air partitioning coefficient (Ksa) existed for vapor-phase contaminants. This research was conducted to expand the existing body of kinetic data for SPMD air sampling by determining kua and Ksa for a number of airborne contaminants including the chemical classes: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, brominated diphenyl ethers, phthalate esters, synthetic pyrethroids, and organophosphate/organosulfur pesticides. The kuas were obtained for 48 of 50 chemicals investigated and ranged from 0.03 to 3.07??m3??g-1??d-1. In cases where uptake was approaching equilibrium, Ksas were approximated. Ksa values (no units) were determined or estimated for 48 of the chemicals investigated and ranging from 3.84E+5 to 7.34E+7. This research utilized a test system (United States Patent 6,877,724 B1) which afforded the capability to generate and maintain constant concentrations of vapor-phase chemical mixtures. The test system and experimental design employed gave reproducible results during experimental runs spanning more than two years. This reproducibility was shown by obtaining mean kua values (n??=??3) of anthracene and p,p???-DDE at 0.96 and 1.57??m3??g-1??d-1 with relative standard deviations of 8.4% and 8.6% respectively.

  3. Impact of recycled effluent on the hydrolysis during anaerobic digestion of vegetable and flower waste.

    PubMed

    Lü, F; He, P J; Hao, L P; Shao, L M

    2008-01-01

    Two trials were established to investigate the effect of recycled effluent on hydrolysis during anaerobic co-digestion of vegetable and flower waste. Trial I evaluated the effect by regulating the flow rate of recycled effluent, while Trial II regulated the ratio of hydrolytic effluent to methanogenic effluent, which were recycled to hydrolysis reactor. Results showed that the recirculation of methanogenic effluent could enhance the buffer capability and operation stability of hydrolysis reactor. Higher recycled flow rate was favourable for microbial anabolism and further promoted hydrolysis. After 9 days of hydrolysis, the cumulative SCOD in the hydrolytic effluent reached 334, 407, 413, 581 mg/g at recycled flow rates of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 m3/(m3 x d), respectively. It was feasible to recycling a mixture of hydrolytic and methanogenic effluent to the hydrolysis reactor. This research showed that partially introducing hydrolytic effluent into the recycled liquid could enhance hydrolysis, while excessive recirculation of hydrolytic effluent will inhibit the hydrolysis. The flow ratio 1:3 of hydrolytic to methanogenic effluent was found to provide the highest hydrolysis efficiency and degradation rate of lignocelluloses-type biomass, among four ratios of 0:1, 1:3, 1:1 and 3:1. Under this regime, after 9 days of hydrolysis, the cumulative TOC and TN in the hydrolytic effluent reached 162 mg/g and 15 mg/g, the removal efficiency of TS, VS, C and cellulose in the solid phase were 60.66%, 62.88%, 58.35% and 49.12%, respectively. The flow ratio affected fermentation pathways, i.e. lower ratio favoured propionic acid fermentation and the generation of lactic acid while higher ratio promoted butyric acid fermentation. IWA Publishing 2008.

  4. Heterogeneously entrapped, vapor-rich melt inclusions record pre-eruptive magmatic volatile contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele-MacInnis, Matthew; Esposito, Rosario; Moore, Lowell R.; Hartley, Margaret E.

    2017-04-01

    Silicate melt inclusions (MI) commonly provide the best record of pre-eruptive H2O and CO2 contents of subvolcanic melts, but the concentrations of CO2 and H2O in the melt (glass) phase within MI can be modified by partitioning into a vapor bubble after trapping. Melt inclusions may also enclose vapor bubbles together with the melt (i.e., heterogeneous entrapment), affecting the bulk volatile composition of the MI, and its post-entrapment evolution. In this study, we use numerical modeling to examine the systematics of post-entrapment volatile evolution within MI containing various proportions of trapped vapor from zero to 95 volume percent. Modeling indicates that inclusions that trap only a vapor-saturated melt exhibit significant decrease in CO2 and moderate increase in H2O concentrations in the melt upon nucleation and growth of a vapor bubble. In contrast, inclusions that trap melt plus vapor exhibit subdued CO2 depletion at equivalent conditions. In the extreme case of inclusions that trap mostly the vapor phase (i.e., CO2-H2O fluid inclusions containing trapped melt), degassing of CO2 from the melt is negligible. In the latter scenario, the large fraction of vapor enclosed in the MI during trapping essentially serves as a buffer, preventing post-entrapment modification of volatile concentrations in the melt. Hence, the glass phase within such heterogeneously entrapped, vapor-rich MI records the volatile concentrations of the melt at the time of trapping. These numerical modeling results suggest that heterogeneously entrapped MI containing large vapor bubbles represent amenable samples for constraining pre-eruptive volatile concentrations of subvolcanic melts.

  5. Building blocks for the solution phase synthesis of oligonucleotides: regioselective hydrolysis of 3',5'-Di-O-levulinylnucleosides using an enzymatic approach.

    PubMed

    García, Javier; Fernández, Susana; Ferrero, Miguel; Sanghvi, Yogesh S; Gotor, Vicente

    2002-06-28

    A short and convenient synthesis of 3'- and 5'-O-levulinyl-2'-deoxynucleosides has been developed from the corresponding 3',5'-di-O-levulinyl derivatives by regioselective enzymatic hydrolysis, avoiding several tedious chemical protection/deprotection steps. Thus, Candida antartica lipase B (CAL-B) was found to selectively hydrolyze the 5'-levulinate esters, furnishing 3'-O-levulinyl-2'-deoxynucleosides 3 in >80% isolated yields. On the other hand, immobilized Pseudomonas cepacia lipase (PSL-C) and Candida antarctica lipase A (CAL-A) exhibit the opposite selectivity toward the hydrolysis at the 3'-position, affording 5'-O-levulinyl derivatives 4 in >70% yields. A similar hydrolysis procedure was successfully extended to the synthesis of 3'- and 5'-O-levulinyl-protected 2'-O-alkylribonucleosides 7 and 8. This work demonstrates for the first time application of commercial CAL-B and PSL-C toward regioselective hydrolysis of levulinyl esters with excellent selectivity and yields. It is noteworthy that protected cytidine and adenosine base derivatives were not adequate substrates for the enzymatic hydrolysis with CAL-B, whereas PSL-C was able to accommodate protected bases during selective hydrolysis. In addition, we report an improved synthesis of dilevulinyl esters using a polymer-bound carbodiimide as a replacement for dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC), thus considerably simplifying the workup for esterification reactions.

  6. Procedure 5 Quality Assurance Requirements For Vapor Phase Mercury Continuous Emissions Monitoring Systems And Sorbent Trap Monitoring Systems Used For Compliance Determination At Stationary Sources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Promulgated quality assurance Procedure 5 Quality Assurance Requirements For Vapor Phase Mercury Continuous Emissions Monitoring Systems And Sorbent Trap Monitoring Systems Used For Compliance Determination At Stationary Sources

  7. Is enzymatic hydrolysis a reliable analytical strategy to quantify glucuronidated and sulfated polyphenol metabolites in human fluids?

    PubMed

    Quifer-Rada, Paola; Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M

    2017-07-19

    Phenolic compounds are present in human fluids (plasma and urine) mainly as glucuronidated and sulfated metabolites. Up to now, due to the unavailability of standards, enzymatic hydrolysis has been the method of choice in analytical chemistry to quantify these phase II phenolic metabolites. Enzymatic hydrolysis procedures vary in enzyme concentration, pH and temperature; however, there is a lack of knowledge about the stability of polyphenols in their free form during the process. In this study, we evaluated the stability of 7 phenolic acids, 2 flavonoids and 3 prenylflavanoids in urine during enzymatic hydrolysis to assess the suitability of this analytical procedure, using three different concentrations of β-glucuronidase/sulfatase enzymes from Helix pomatia. The results indicate that enzymatic hydrolysis negatively affected the recovery of the precursor and free-form polyphenols present in the sample. Thus, enzymatic hydrolysis does not seem an ideal analytical strategy to quantify glucuronidated and sulfated polyphenol metabolites.

  8. Method for the generation of variable density metal vapors which bypasses the liquidus phase

    DOEpatents

    Kunnmann, Walter; Larese, John Z.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for producing a metal vapor that includes the steps of combining a metal and graphite in a vessel to form a mixture; heating the mixture to a first temperature in an argon gas atmosphere to form a metal carbide; maintaining the first temperature for a period of time; heating the metal carbide to a second temperature to form a metal vapor; withdrawing the metal vapor and the argon gas from the vessel; and separating the metal vapor from the argon gas. Metal vapors made using this method can be used to produce uniform powders of the metal oxide that have narrow size distribution and high purity.

  9. A Kinetic Study of DDGS Hemicellulose Acid Hydrolysis and NMR Characterization of DDGS Hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hanchi; Liu, Shijie

    2015-09-01

    Liquid hot water (LHW) extraction was used as a pretreatment method to separate the hemicellulose fraction from dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS) into liquid phase. Acid hydrolysis using 3.264 % w/w sulfuric acid at 130 °C was performed to convert polysaccharides in LHW extract to monosaccharides. The structure characterization of DDGS in anomeric carbon region based on proton NMR and heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) during acid hydrolysis was studied in this work. It reveals that the sugar units in DDGS hemicelluloses are constructed with (1-4)-β-D-xylopyranose and α-L-arabinofuranosyl residues. A kinetic model is included to explain the changing concentration of monomer, oligomer, and sugar units. The model was further tested based on the changing concentration of five carbon sugar units during hydrolysis.

  10. Predicting the growth of S i3N4 nanowires by phase-equilibrium-dominated vapor-liquid-solid mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yongliang; Cai, Jing; Yang, Lijun; Wu, Qiang; Wang, Xizhang; Hu, Zheng

    2017-09-01

    Nanomaterial synthesis is experiencing a profound evolution from empirical science ("cook-and-look") to prediction and design, which depends on the deep insight into the growth mechanism. Herein, we report a generalized prediction of the growth of S i3N4 nanowires by nitriding F e28S i72 alloy particles across different phase regions based on our finding of the phase-equilibrium-dominated vapor-liquid-solid (PED-VLS) mechanism. All the predictions about the growth of S i3N4 nanowires, and the associated evolutions of lattice parameters and geometries of the coexisting Fe -Si alloy phases, are experimentally confirmed quantitatively. This progress corroborates the general validity of the PED-VLS mechanism, which could be applied to the design and controllable synthesis of various one-dimensional nanomaterials.

  11. Progressing batch hydrolysis process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, John D.

    1986-01-01

    A progressive batch hydrolysis process for producing sugar from a lignocellulosic feedstock, comprising passing a stream of dilute acid serially through a plurality of percolation hydrolysis reactors charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the cellulose component of the feedstock to glucose; cooling said dilute acid stream containing glucose, after exiting the last percolation hydrolysis reactor, then feeding said dilute acid stream serially through a plurality of prehydrolysis percolation reactors, charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the hemicellulose component of said feedstock to glucose; and cooling the dilute acid stream containing glucose after it exits the last prehydrolysis reactor.

  12. Passive Vaporizing Heat Sink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knowles, TImothy R.; Ashford, Victor A.; Carpenter, Michael G.; Bier, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    A passive vaporizing heat sink has been developed as a relatively lightweight, compact alternative to related prior heat sinks based, variously, on evaporation of sprayed liquids or on sublimation of solids. This heat sink is designed for short-term dissipation of a large amount of heat and was originally intended for use in regulating the temperature of spacecraft equipment during launch or re-entry. It could also be useful in a terrestrial setting in which there is a requirement for a lightweight, compact means of short-term cooling. This heat sink includes a hermetic package closed with a pressure-relief valve and containing an expendable and rechargeable coolant liquid (e.g., water) and a conductive carbon-fiber wick. The vapor of the liquid escapes when the temperature exceeds the boiling point corresponding to the vapor pressure determined by the setting of the pressure-relief valve. The great advantage of this heat sink over a melting-paraffin or similar phase-change heat sink of equal capacity is that by virtue of the =10x greater latent heat of vaporization, a coolant-liquid volume equal to =1/10 of the paraffin volume can suffice.

  13. Defect reduction of SiNx embedded m-plane GaN grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Seohwi; Kim, Minho; So, Byeongchan; Yoo, Geunho; Jang, Jongjin; Lee, Kyuseung; Nam, Okhyun

    2014-12-01

    Nonpolar (1 0 -1 0) m-plane GaN has been grown on m-plane sapphire substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). We studied the defect reduction of m-GaN with embedded SiNx interlayers deposited by ex-situ metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The full-width at half-maximum values of the X-ray rocking curves for m-GaN with embedded SiNx along [1 1 -2 0]GaN and [0 0 0 1]GaN were reduced to 528 and 1427 arcs, respectively, as compared with the respective values of 947 and 3170 arcs, of m-GaN without SiNx. Cross-section transmission electron microscopy revealed that the basal stacking fault density was decreased by approximately one order to 5×104 cm-1 due to the defect blocking of the embedded SiNx. As a result, the near band edge emission intensities of the room-temperature and low-temperature photoluminescence showed approximately two-fold and four-fold improvement, respectively.

  14. Advanced Life Support Water Recycling Technologies Case Studies: Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal and Direct Osmotic Concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Design for microgravity has traditionally not been well integrated early on into the development of advanced life support (ALS) technologies. NASA currently has a many ALS technologies that are currently being developed to high technology readiness levels but have not been formally evaluated for microgravity compatibility. Two examples of such technologies are the Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal Technology and the Direct Osmotic Concentration Technology. This presentation will cover the design of theses two systems and will identify potential microgravity issues.

  15. Optimizing the thermophilic hydrolysis of grass silage in a two-phase anaerobic digestion system.

    PubMed

    Orozco, A M; Nizami, A S; Murphy, J D; Groom, E

    2013-09-01

    Thermophilic hydrolysis of grass silage (GS) at 55 °C with organic loading rates (OLRs) of 6.5, 5, 2.5 and 1.0 kg VS m(-3) days(-1) and hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 10, 6, 4 and 2 days were evaluated in 12 glass bioreactors side by side. The hydrolytic process was measured by variation in pH, volatile solids (VS), VS destruction, soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), hydrolysis and acidification yields. Biological methane potential (BMP) assays were carried out to measure the upper limit for methane production of grass silage with different hydrolytic pretreatments at mesophilic temperature (37 °C). The optimum methane yield of 368 LN CH4 kg(-1) VS was obtained at an OLR of 1 kg VS m(-3)days(-1) and a HRT of 4 days, showing an increase of 30% in the methane potential in comparison to non-hydrolysed GS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Vaporization of a mixed precursors in chemical vapor deposition for YBCO films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Gang; Meng, Guangyao; Schneider, Roger L.; Sarma, Bimal K.; Levy, Moises

    1995-01-01

    Single phase YBa2Cu3O7-delta thin films with T(c) values around 90 K are readily obtained by using a single source chemical vapor deposition technique with a normal precursor mass transport. The quality of the films is controlled by adjusting the carrier gas flow rate and the precursor feed rate.

  17. Application of ion chromatography to the study of hydrolysis of some halogenated hydrocarbons at ambient temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterson, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    The application of ion chromatography to the study of very slow rates of hydrolysis of some halogenated hydrocarbons was investigated. The halide concentrations in the aqueous phase of mixtures of a carbonate buffer (pH = 10.3) and either chloroform (CHC13) or fluorotrichloromethane (CFC13) after aging for various lengths of time at room temperature, were determined by ion chromatography. Hydrolysis of CHC13 caused the C1(-) concentration to increase by about 1500 ppb per day. On the other hand neither the F(-) or C1(-) concentration in the CFC13 mixture increased by as much as 1 ppb per day. The magnitude of errors in the determination of halides prevented any firm conclusions regarding hydrolysis in this mixture. However, these results were used to show how ion chromatography could expedite identification of the hydrolyzing substance as well as investigations of hydrolysis mechanisms.

  18. Thin film solar cells grown by organic vapor phase deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan

    Organic solar cells have the potential to provide low-cost photovoltaic devices as a clean and renewable energy resource. In this thesis, we focus on understanding the energy conversion process in organic solar cells, and improving the power conversion efficiencies via controlled growth of organic nanostructures. First, we explain the unique optical and electrical properties of organic materials used for photovoltaics, and the excitonic energy conversion process in donor-acceptor heterojunction solar cells that place several limiting factors of their power conversion efficiency. Then, strategies for improving exciton diffusion and carrier collection are analyzed using dynamical Monte Carlo models for several nanostructure morphologies. Organic vapor phase deposition is used for controlling materials crystallization and film morphology. We improve the exciton diffusion efficiency while maintaining good carrier conduction in a bulk heterojunction solar cell. Further efficiency improvement is obtained in a novel nanocrystalline network structure with a thick absorbing layer, leading to the demonstration of an organic solar cell with 4.6% efficiency. In addition, solar cells using simultaneously active heterojunctions with broad spectral response are presented. We also analyze the efficiency limits of single and multiple junction organic solar cells, and discuss the challenges facing their practical implementations.

  19. Vapor-phase catalytic oxidesulfurization (ODS) of organosulfur compounds over supported metal oxide catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sukwon

    Sulfur in transportation fuels remains a leading source of SOx emissions from vehicle engines and is a major source of air pollution. The very low levels of sulfur globally mandated for transportation fuels in the near future cannot be achieved by current practices of hydrodesulfurization (HDS) for sulfur removal, which operate under severe conditions (high T, P) and use valuable H2. Novel vapor-phase catalytic oxidesulfurization (ODS) processes of selectively oxidizing various organosulfur compounds (carbonyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide (DMS), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), thiophene, 2,5-dimenthylthiophene) typically found in various industrial streams (e.g., petroleum refining, pulp and paper) into valuable chemical intermediates (H 2CO, CO, H2, maleic anhydride and concentrated SO2) has been extensively studied. This research has primarily focused on establishing the fundamental kinetics and mechanisms of these selective oxidation reactions over well-defined supported metal oxide catalysts. The selective oxidation reactions of COS + O2 → CO + SO2; 2CS2 + 5O2 → 2CO + 4SO2; CH3SH + 2O 2 → H2CO + SO2 + H2O; C4 H4S + 3O2 → C4H2O 3 + H2O + SO2; were studied. Raman spectroscopy revealed that the supported metal oxide phases were 100% dispersed on the oxide substrate. All the catalysts were highly active and selective for the oxidesulfurization of carbonyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, methanethiol, and thiophene between 290--330°C, 230--270°C, 350--400°C, and 250--400°C, respectively and did not deactivate. The TOFs (turnover frequency, normalized activity per active catalytic site) for all ODS reactions over supported vanadia catalysts, only containing molecularly dispersed surface vanadia species, varied within one order of magnitude and revealed the V-O-Support bridging bond was involved in the critical rate-determining kinetic steps. The surface reaction mechanism for each reaction was revealed by in situ IR (infrared) and

  20. Temperature phased anaerobic digestion increases apparent hydrolysis rate for waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Ge, Huoqing; Jensen, Paul D; Batstone, Damien J

    2011-02-01

    It is well established that waste activated sludge with an extended sludge age is inherently slow to degrade with a low extent of degradation. Pre-treatment methods can be used prior to anaerobic digestion to improve the efficiency of activated sludge digestion. Among these pre-treatment methods, temperature phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) is one promising method with a relatively low energy input and capital cost. In this study, an experimental thermophilic (50-70 °C)-mesophilic system was compared against a control mesophilic-mesophilic system. The thermophilic-mesophilic system achieved 41% and 48% volatile solids (VS) destruction during pre-treatment of 60 °C and 65 °C (or 70 °C) respectively, compared to 37% in the mesophilic-mesophilic TPAD system. Solubilisation in the first stage was enhanced during thermophilic pre-treatment (15% at 50 °C and 27% at 60 °C, 65 °C and 70 °C) over mesophilic pre-treatment (7%) according to a COD balance. This was supported by ammonia-nitrogen measurements. Model based analysis indicated that the mechanism for increased performance was due to an increase in hydrolysis coefficient under thermophilic pre-treatment of 60 °C (0.5 ± 0.1 d(-1)), 65 °C (0.7 ± 0.2 d(-1)) and 70 °C (0.8 ± 0.2 d(-1)) over mesophilic pre-treatment (0.2 ± 0.1 d(-1)), and thermophilic pre-treatment at 50 °C (0.12 ± 0.06 d(-1)). © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Trapping of water vapor from an atmosphere by condensed silicate matter formed by high-temperature pulse vaporization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerasimov, M. V.; Dikov, Yu. P.; Yakovlev, O. I.; Wlotzka, F.

    1993-01-01

    The origin of planetary atmospheres is thought to be the result of bombardment of a growing planet by massive planetesimals. According to some models, the accumulation of released water vapor and/or carbon dioxide can result in the formation of a dense and hot primordial atmosphere. Among source and sink processes of atmospheric water vapor the formation of hydroxides was considered mainly as rehydration of dehydrated minerals (foresterite and enstatite). From our point of view, the formation of hydroxides is not limited to rehydration. Condensation of small silicate particles in a spreading vapor cloud and their interaction with a wet atmosphere can also result in the origin of hydrated phases which have no genetic connections with initial water bearing minerals. We present results of two experiments of a simulated interaction of condensed silicate matter which originated during vaporization of dry clinopyroxene in a wet helium atmosphere.

  2. The hydrolysis of proteins by microwave energy

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, Sam A.; Jassie, Lois; Kingston, H. M.

    1991-01-01

    Microwave energy, at manually-adjusted, partial power settings has been used to hydrolyse bovine serum albumin at 125 °C. Hydrolysis was complete within 2 h, except for valine and isoleucine which were completely liberated within 4 h. The aminoacid destruction was less than that observed at similar hydrolysis conditions with other methods and complete hydrolysis was achieved more rapidly. These results provide a basis for automating the process of amino-acid hydrolysis. PMID:18924889

  3. Hydrolysis of Indole-3-Acetic Acid Esters Exposed to Mild Alkaline Conditions 1

    PubMed Central

    Baldi, Bruce G.; Maher, Barbara R.; Cohen, Jerry D.

    1989-01-01

    Ester conjugates of indole-3-acetic acid are hydrolyzed easily in basic solutions; however, quantitative data have not been available on the relationship between pH and rate of hydrolysis of the known ester conjugates. The use of basic conditions during extraction or purification of IAA by several laboratories suggested that a more systematic analysis of this process was needed. In this report we present data indicating: (a) that measurable hydrolysis of IAA-glucose (from standard solutions) and IAA-esters (from maize kernel extracts) occurs with only a few hours of treatment at pH 9 or above; (b) that the lability of some ester conjugates is even greater than that of IAA-glucose; and (c) that ester hydrolysis of standard compounds, IAA-glucose and IAA-p-nitrophenol, occurs in the `three phase extraction system' proposed by Liu and Tillberg ([1983] Physiol Plant 57: 441-447). These data indicate that the potential for problems with inadvertent hydrolysis of ester conjugates of IAA exists even at moderate pH values and in the multiphase system where exposure to basic conditions was thought to be limited. PMID:16667049

  4. Infrared analysis of vapor phase deposited tricresylphosphate (TCP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, Wilfredo; Hanyaloglu, Bengi; Graham, Earl E.

    1994-01-01

    Infrared transmission was employed to study the formation of a lubricating film deposited on two different substrates at 700 C. The deposit was formed from tricresylphosphate vapors and collected onto a NaCl substrate and on an iron coated NaCl substrate. Analysis of the infrared data suggests that a metal phosphate is formed initially, followed by the formation of organophosphorus polymeric compounds.

  5. Impacts of microalgae pre-treatments for improved anaerobic digestion: thermal treatment, thermal hydrolysis, ultrasound and enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Ometto, Francesco; Quiroga, Gerardo; Pšenička, Pavel; Whitton, Rachel; Jefferson, Bruce; Villa, Raffaella

    2014-11-15

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) of microalgae is primarily inhibited by the chemical composition of their cell walls containing biopolymers able to resist bacterial degradation. Adoption of pre-treatments such as thermal, thermal hydrolysis, ultrasound and enzymatic hydrolysis have the potential to remove these inhibitory compounds and enhance biogas yields by degrading the cell wall, and releasing the intracellular algogenic organic matter (AOM). This work investigated the effect of four pre-treatments on three microalgae species, and their impact on the quantity of soluble biomass released in the media and thus on the digestion process yields. The analysis of the composition of the soluble COD released and of the TEM images of the cells showed two main degradation actions associated with the processes: (1) cell wall damage with the release of intracellular AOM (thermal, thermal hydrolysis and ultrasound) and (2) degradation of the cell wall constituents with the release of intracellular AOM and the solubilisation of the cell wall biopolymers (enzymatic hydrolysis). As a result of this, enzymatic hydrolysis showed the greatest biogas yield increments (>270%) followed by thermal hydrolysis (60-100%) and ultrasounds (30-60%). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Neutral fat hydrolysis and long-chain fatty acid oxidation during anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse wastewater.

    PubMed

    Masse, L; Massé, D I; Kennedy, K J; Chou, S P

    2002-07-05

    Neutral fat hydrolysis and long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) oxidation rates were determined during the digestion of slaughterhouse wastewater in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors operated at 25 degrees C. The experimental substrate consisted of filtered slaughterhouse wastewater supplemented with pork fat particles at various average initial sizes (D(in)) ranging from 60 to 450 microm. At the D(in) tested, there was no significant particle size effect on the first-order hydrolysis rate. The neutral fat hydrolysis rate averaged 0.63 +/- 0.07 d(-1). LCFA oxidation rate was modelled using a Monod-type equation. The maximum substrate utilization rate (kmax) and the half-saturation concentration (Ks) averaged 164 +/- 37 mg LCFA/L/d and 35 +/- 31 mg LCFA/L, respectively. Pork fat particle degradation was mainly controlled by LCFA oxidation rate and, to a lesser extent, by neutral fat hydrolysis rate. Hydrolysis pretreatment of fat-containing wastewaters and sludges should not substantially accelerate their anaerobic treatment. At a D(in) of 450 microm, fat particles were found to inhibit methane production during the initial 20 h of digestion. Inhibition of methane production in the early phase of digestion was the only significant effect of fat particle size on anaerobic digestion of pork slaughterhouse wastewater. Soluble COD could not be used to determine the rate of lipid hydrolysis due to LCFA adsorption on the biomass.

  7. Characterization of solution-phase and gas-phase reactions in on-line electrochemistry-thermospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Volk, K J; Yost, R A; Brajter-Toth, A

    1989-07-14

    Electrochemistry was used on-line with high-performance liquid chromatography-thermospray tandem mass spectrometry to provide insight into the solution-phase decomposition reactions of electrochemically generated oxidation products. Products formed during electrooxidation were monitored as the electrode potential was varied. The solution reactions which follow the initial electron transfer at the electrode are affected by the vaporizer tip temperature of the thermospray probe and the composition of the thermospray buffer. Either hydrolysis or ammonolysis reactions of the initial electrochemical oxidation products can occur with pH 7 ammonium acetate buffer. Both the electrochemically generated and the synthesized disulfide of 6-thiopurine decompose under thermospray conditions to produce 6-thiopurine and purine-6-sulfinate. Solution-phase studies indicate that nucleophilic and electrophilic substitution reactions with purine-6-sulfinate result in the formation of purine, adenine, and hypoxanthine. Products were identified and characterized by tandem mass spectrometry. This work shows the first example of high-performance liquid chromatography used on-line with electrochemistry to separate stable oxidation products prior to analysis by thermospray tandem mass spectrometry. In addition, solution-phase and gas-phase studies with methylamine show that the site of the nucleophilic and electrophilic reactions is probably inside the thermospray probe. Most importantly, these results also show that the on-line combination of electrochemistry with thermospray tandem mass spectrometry provides valuable information about redox and associated chemical reactions of biological molecules such as the structures of intermediates or products as well as providing insight into reaction pathways.

  8. Identification of vapor-phase chemical warfare agent simulants and rocket fuels using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Stearns, Jaime A.; McElman, Sarah E.; Dodd, James A.

    2010-05-01

    Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to the identification of security threats is a growing area of research. This work presents LIBS spectra of vapor-phase chemical warfare agent simulants and typical rocket fuels. A large dataset of spectra was acquired using a variety of gas mixtures and background pressures and processed using partial least squares analysis. The five compounds studied were identified with a 99% success rate by the best method. The temporal behavior of the emission lines as a function of chamber pressure and gas mixture was also investigated, revealing some interesting trends that merit further study.

  9. First-order wetting transition at a liquid-vapor interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, J. W.; Moldover, M. R.

    1983-01-01

    Evidence from reflectance and contact angle measurements is presented that three-phase mixtures of i-C3H7OH-C7F14 exhibit a first-order wetting phase transition at the liquid-vapor interface at 38 C. Equilibration phenomena support this interpretation. Ellipsometry was used to measure the apparent thickness of the intruding layer in the three-phase mixture. At temperatures slightly above the wetting temperature T(w), the intruding layer's thickness is several hundred angstroms and its variation with temperature is extremely weak. Below T(w), three-phase contact can occur between the vapor and both the upper and lower liquid phases; one of the angles which characterizes this contact has a very simple temperature dependence. The thickness of the intruding layer, monitored as the solutions approached equilibrium, is found to depend quite weakly on the height spanned by the upper liquid phase in the vicinity of a first-order wetting transition.

  10. Vapor Phase Hydrogenolysis of Furanics Utilizing Reduced Cobalt Mixed Metal Oxide Catalysts

    DOE PAGES

    Sulmonetti, Taylor P.; Hu, Bo; Ifkovits, Zachary; ...

    2017-03-21

    Vapor phase hydrogenolysis of both furfuryl alcohol and furfural were investigated over reduced Co based mixed metal oxides derived from the calcination of a layered double hydroxide precursor. Although a reduced cobalt aluminate sample displays promising selectivity towards 2-methylfuran (2-MF) production, the addition of an Fe dopant into the oxide matrix significantly enhances the activity and selectivity per gram of catalyst. Approximately 82% 2-MF yield is achieved at high conversion when furfuryl alcohol is fed into the reactor at 180 °C over the reduced 3Co-0.25Fe-0.75Al catalyst. Based on structural characterization studies including TPR, XPS, and in-situ XAS it is suggestedmore » that Fe facilitates the reduction of Co, allowing for formation of more metallic species. Altogether, this study demonstrates that non-precious metal catalysts offer promise for the selective conversion of a key biomass oxygenate to a proposed fuel additive.« less

  11. The 2nd phase of the LEANDRE program: Water-vapor DIAL measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quaglia, P.; Bruneau, D.; Pelon, J.

    1992-01-01

    As a follow-on of the backscattered lidar, a differential absorption lidar (LEANDRE 2) is now being developed as part of the LEANDRE program for airborne meteorological studies. The primary measurement objective of LEANDRE 2 is water vapor. Pressure and temperature measurements are aimed at a second stage. The goals are to obtain a horizontal resolution of a few hundred meters for a vertical resolution of less than a hundred meters, with an absolute accuracy of 10 percent for humidity measurement. As compatibility is an important feature between the 2 first phases of LEANDRE, most of the LEANDRE 1 sub-system will be used and adapted for LEANDRE 2. For example, detection electronics, central computer, detectors and telescope will be the same. However, important modifications have to be done on the laser source, and spectral control has to be added. Most of the work is thus devoted to those developments, and the status is presented here.

  12. Vapor-phase-processed fluorinated self-assembled monolayer for organic thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Jeongkyun; Lee, Changhee; Kwak, Jeonghun; Jung, Byung Jun; Kim, Hyeok

    2015-09-01

    A vapor-phase-processed fluorinated silazane self-assembled monolayer (SAM), 1,3-bis(trifluoropropyl)-1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisilazane (FPDS), was introduced as a surface modifier for pentacene-based organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs). A remarkable improvement in the field effect mobility from 0.25 cm2/Vs (without SAM-treatment) to 0.42 cm2/Vs (with FPDS-treatment) was observed, which was attributed to the better pentacene growth on a hydrophobic surface. A significant reduction in the contact resistance was also observed by FPDS treatment due to the improved bulk conductivity and diminished charge trapping at the gate dielectric surface by the SAM treatment. In addition, FPDS treatment efficiently improved the bias stability of the OTFTs; the drain-to-source current degradation by the bias stress was greatly reduced from 80% to 50% by FPDS treatment, and the characteristic time for charge trapping of the FPDS treated OTFTs was approximately one order of magnitude larger than that of the OTFTs without SAM treatment.

  13. Phase equilibrium measurements on nine binary mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Wilding, W.V.; Giles, N.F.; Wilson, L.C.

    1996-11-01

    Phase equilibrium measurements have been performed on nine binary mixtures. The PTx method was used to obtain vapor-liquid equilibrium data for the following systems at two temperatures each: (aminoethyl)piperazine + diethylenetriamine; 2-butoxyethyl acetate + 2-butoxyethanol; 2-methyl-2-propanol + 2-methylbutane; 2-methyl-2-propanol + 2-methyl-2-butene; methacrylonitrile + methanol; 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane + hydrogen chloride; 2-(hexyloxy)ethanol + ethylene glycol; butane + ammonia; propionaldehyde + butane. Equilibrium vapor and liquid phase compositions were derived form the PTx data using the Soave equation of state to represent the vapor phase and the Wilson or the NRTL activity coefficient model to represent the liquid phase. A large immiscibility region existsmore » in the butane + ammonia system at 0 C. Therefore, separate vapor-liquid-liquid equilibrium measurements were performed on this system to more precisely determine the miscibility limits and the composition of the vapor phase in equilibrium with the two liquid phases.« less

  14. Thermodynamic analysis of trimethylgallium decomposition during GaN metal organic vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiguchi, Kazuki; Shirakawa, Hiroki; Chokawa, Kenta; Araidai, Masaaki; Kangawa, Yoshihiro; Kakimoto, Koichi; Shiraishi, Kenji

    2018-04-01

    We analyzed the decomposition of Ga(CH3)3 (TMG) during the metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) of GaN on the basis of first-principles calculations and thermodynamic analysis. We performed activation energy calculations of TMG decomposition and determined the main reaction processes of TMG during GaN MOVPE. We found that TMG reacts with the H2 carrier gas and that (CH3)2GaH is generated after the desorption of the methyl group. Next, (CH3)2GaH decomposes into (CH3)GaH2 and this decomposes into GaH3. Finally, GaH3 becomes GaH. In the MOVPE growth of GaN, TMG decomposes into GaH by the successive desorption of its methyl groups. The results presented here concur with recent high-resolution mass spectroscopy results.

  15. Field emission and photoluminescence characteristics of ZnS nanowires via vapor phase growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yongqin; Wang, Mingwei; Chen, Xihong; Ni, Saili; Qiang, Weijing

    2007-05-01

    Large-area ZnS nanowires were synthesized through a vapor phase deposition method. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy results show that the products are composed of single crystalline ZnS nanowires with a cubic structure. The nanowires have sharp tips and are distributed uniformly on silicon substrates. The diameter of the bases is in the range of 320-530 nm and that of the tips is around 20-30 nm. The strong ultraviolet emission in the photoluminescence spectra also demonstrates that the ZnS nanowires are of high crystalline perfection. Field emission measurements reveal that the ZnS nanowires have a fairly low threshold field, which may be ascribed to their very sharp tips, rough surfaces and high crystal quality. The perfect field emission ability of the ZnS nanowires makes them a promising candidate for the fabrication of flexible cold cathodes.

  16. Vapor-liquid nucleation: the solid touch.

    PubMed

    Yarom, Michal; Marmur, Abraham

    2015-08-01

    Vapor-liquid nucleation is a ubiquitous process that has been widely researched in many disciplines. Yet, case studies are quite scattered in the literature, and the implications of some of its basic concepts are not always clearly stated. This is especially noticeable for heterogeneous nucleation, which involves a solid surface in touch with the liquid and vapor. The current review attempts to offer a comprehensive, though concise, thermodynamic discussion of homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation in vapor-liquid systems. The fundamental concepts of nucleation are detailed, with emphasis on the role of the chemical potential, and on intuitive explanations whenever possible. We review various types of nucleating systems and discuss the effect of the solid geometry on the characteristics of the new phase formation. In addition, we consider the effect of mixing on the vapor-liquid equilibrium. An interesting sub-case is that of a non-volatile solute that modifies the chemical potential of the liquid, but not of the vapor. Finally, we point out topics that need either further research or more exact, accurate presentation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Kinetics of monofluorophosphate hydrolysis in a bacterial test plaque in situ.

    PubMed

    Tenuta, L M A; Del Bel Cury, A A; Tabchoury, C P M; Moi, G P; Silva, W J; Cury, J A

    2010-01-01

    Models to evaluate the anticaries potential of fluoride (F) formulations containing monofluorophosphate (MFP) should consider the release of F ion to the oral environment by its enzymatic hydrolysis. This was tested in situ, using a test plaque of a strain of Streptococcus mutans which presents high MFPase activity at pH 5.0. The test plaque was exposed to non-F or MFP (1,450 microg F/g) dentifrices and the fluid phase of the plaque was analyzed after 15, 30, 45 and 75 min. MFP concentration in the plaque fluid decreased over time after exposure to MFP dentifrice, but F ion reached 134.9 +/- 32.0 microM at 15 min and decreased significantly only at 75 min, suggesting continuous MFP hydrolysis by the test plaque. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Low temperature synthesis of nano alpha-alumina powder by two-step hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Ting; Guo, Xiaode, E-mail: guoxiaodenj@sina.com; Zhang, Xiang

    Highlights: • The nano α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with good dispersion was prepared by two-step hydrolysis. • α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders were added as seed particles in the hydrolysis. • This article indicated that the glucose could impel the γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} transformed to α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} directly. • This article indicated that the addictive of α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} seed could improve the phase transformation rate of γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • In this article, the pure α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} could be obtained by calcining at 1000 °C for 1.5 h. - Abstract: The ultral fine alpha-alumina powdermore » has been successfully synthesized via two-step hydrolysis of aluminum isopropoxide. Glucose and polyvinyl pyrrolidone were used as surfactants during the appropriate processing step. The alpha-alumina powder was used as seed particles. Several synthesis parameters, such as the amount of seeds, surfactants, and calcination temperature, were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), Thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The experimental results showed that glucose greatly lower the phase transformation temperature of alpha-alumina by impelling the gamma-alumina transformed to alpha-alumina directly, and the seed could improve the phase transformation rate of alpha-alumina, the polyvinylpyrrolidone have an effect on preventing excessive grain growth and agglomeration of alpha-alumina powder. Comparatively well dispersed alpha-alumina powder with particle size less than 50 nm can be synthesized through this method after calcinations at 1000 °C for 2 h.« less

  19. Hydrolysis Batteries: Generating Electrical Energy during Hydrogen Absorption.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Rui; Chen, Jun; Fu, Kai; Zheng, Xinyao; Wang, Teng; Zheng, Jie; Li, Xingguo

    2018-02-19

    The hydrolysis reaction of aluminum can be decoupled into a battery by pairing an Al foil with a Pd-capped yttrium dihydride (YH 2 -Pd) electrode. This hydrolysis battery generates a voltage around 0.45 V and leads to hydrogen absorption into the YH 2 layer. This represents a new hydrogen absorption mechanism featuring electrical energy generation during hydrogen absorption. The hydrolysis battery converts 8-15 % of the thermal energy of the hydrolysis reaction into usable electrical energy, leading to much higher energy efficiency compared to that of direct hydrolysis. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Stabilization of the cubic phase of HfO2 by Y addition in films grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauwel, E.; Dubourdieu, C.; Holländer, B.; Rochat, N.; Ducroquet, F.; Rossell, M. D.; Van Tendeloo, G.; Pelissier, B.

    2006-07-01

    Addition of yttrium in HfO2 thin films prepared on silicon by metal organic chemical vapor deposition is investigated in a wide compositional range (2.0-99.5at.%). The cubic structure of HfO2 is stabilized for 6.5at.%. The permittivity is maximum for yttrium content of 6.5-10at.%; in this range, the effective permittivity, which results from the contribution of both the cubic phase and silicate phase, is of 22. These films exhibit low leakage current density (5×10-7A /cm2 at -1V for a 6.4nm film). The cubic phase is stable upon postdeposition high temperature annealing at 900°C under NH3.

  1. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for the hydrolysis complexes of cisplatin: implications for the hydrolysis process of platinum complexes.

    PubMed

    Feifan, Xie; Pieter, Colin; Jan, Van Bocxlaer

    2017-07-01

    Non-enzyme-dependent hydrolysis of the drug cisplatin is important for its mode of action and toxicity. However, up until today, the hydrolysis process of cisplatin is still not completely understood. In the present study, the hydrolysis of cisplatin in an aqueous solution was systematically investigated by using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry coupled to liquid chromatography. A variety of previously unreported hydrolysis complexes corresponding to monomeric, dimeric and trimeric species were detected and identified. The characteristics of the Pt-containing complexes were investigated by using collision-induced dissociation (CID). The hydrolysis complexes demonstrate distinctive and correlative CID characteristics, which provides tools for an informative identification. The most frequently observed dissociation mechanism was sequential loss of NH 3 , H 2 O and HCl. Loss of the Pt atom was observed as the final step during the CID process. The formation mechanisms of the observed complexes were explored and experimentally examined. The strongly bound dimeric species, which existed in solution, are assumed to be formed from the clustering of the parent compound and its monohydrated or dihydrated complexes. The role of the electrospray process in the formation of some of the observed ions was also evaluated, and the electrospray ionization-related cold clusters were identified. The previously reported hydrolysis equilibria were tested and subsequently refined via a hydrolysis study resulting in a renewed mechanistic equilibrium system of cisplatin as proposed from our results. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Integrated atomic layer deposition and chemical vapor reaction for the preparation of metal organic framework coatings for solid-phase microextraction Arrow.

    PubMed

    Lan, Hangzhen; Salmi, Leo D; Rönkkö, Tuukka; Parshintsev, Jevgeni; Jussila, Matti; Hartonen, Kari; Kemell, Marianna; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa

    2018-09-18

    New chemical vapor reaction (CVR) and atomic layer deposition (ALD)-conversion methods were utilized for preparation of metal organic frameworks (MOFs) coatings of solid phase microextraction (SPME) Arrow for the first time. With simple, easy and convenient one-step reaction or conversion, four MOF coatings were made by suspend ALD iron oxide (Fe 2 O 3 ) film or aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) film above terephthalic acid (H 2 BDC) or trimesic acid (H 3 BTC) vapor. UIO-66 coating was made by zirconium (Zr)-BDC film in acetic acid vapor. As the first documented instance of all-gas phase synthesis of SPME Arrow coatings, preparation parameters including CVR/conversion time and temperature, acetic acid volume, and metal oxide film/metal-ligand films thickness were investigated. The optimal coatings exhibited crystalline structures, excellent uniformity, satisfactory thickness (2-7.5 μm), and high robustness (>80 times usage). To study the practical usefulness of the coatings for the extraction, several analytes with different chemical properties were tested. The Fe-BDC coating was found to be the most selective and sensitive for the determination of benzene ring contained compounds due to its highly hydrophobic surface and unsaturated metal site. UIO-66 coating was best for small polar, aromatic, and long chain polar compounds owing to its high porosity. The usefulness of new coatings were evaluated for gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) determination of several analytes, present in wastewater samples at three levels of concentration, and satisfactory results were achieved. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. ALMA long baseline phase calibration using phase referencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaki, Yoshiharu; Matsushita, Satoki; Fomalont, Edward B.; Corder, Stuartt A.; Nyman, Lars-Åke; Dent, William R. F.; Philips, Neil M.; Hirota, Akihiko; Takahashi, Satoko; Vila-Vilaro, Baltasar; Nikolic, Bojan; Hunter, Todd R.; Remijan, Anthony; Vlahakis, Catherine

    2016-08-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is the world's largest millimeter/submillimeter telescope and provides unprecedented sensitivities and spatial resolutions. To achieve the highest imaging capabilities, interferometric phase calibration for the long baselines is one of the most important subjects: The longer the baselines, the worse the phase stability becomes because of turbulent motions of the Earth's atmosphere, especially, the water vapor in the troposphere. To overcome this subject, ALMA adopts a phase correction scheme using a Water Vapor Radiometer (WVR) to estimate the amount of water vapor content along the antenna line of sight. An additional technique is phase referencing, in which a science target and a nearby calibrator are observed by turn by quickly changing the antenna pointing. We conducted feasibility studies of the hybrid technique with the WVR phase correction and the antenna Fast Switching (FS) phase referencing (WVR+FS phase correction) for the ALMA 16 km longest baselines in cases that (1) the same observing frequency both for a target and calibrator is used, and (2) higher and lower frequencies for a target and calibrator, respectively, with a typical switching cycle time of 20 s. It was found that the phase correction performance of the hybrid technique is promising where a nearby calibrator is located within roughly 3◦ from a science target, and that the phase correction with 20 s switching cycle time significantly improves the performance with the above separation angle criterion comparing to the 120 s switching cycle time. The currently trial phase calibration method shows the same performance independent of the observing frequencies. This result is especially important for the higher frequency observations because it becomes difficult to find a bright calibrator close to an arbitrary sky position. In the series of our experiments, it is also found that phase errors affecting the image quality come from not only

  4. Direct detection of RDX vapor using a conjugated polymer network.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, Deepti; Dichtel, William R

    2013-06-05

    1,3,5-Trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a principal component of plastic explosives used in acts of terrorism and within improvised explosive devices, among others. Approaches to detect RDX compatible with remote, "stand-off" sampling that do not require preconcentration strategies, such as the swabs commonly employed in airports, will benefit military and civilian security. Such detection remains a significant challenge because RDX is 10(3) less volatile than 1,3,5-trinitrotoluene (TNT), corresponding to a parts-per-trillion vapor pressure under ambient conditions. Therefore, while fluorescence quenching of conjugated polymers is sufficiently sensitive to detect TNT vapors, RDX vapor detection is undemonstrated. Here we report a cross-linked phenylene vinylene polymer network whose fluorescence is quenched by trace amounts of RDX introduced from solution or the vapor phase. Fluorescence quenching is reduced, but remains significant, when partially degraded RDX is employed, suggesting that the polymer responds to RDX itself. The polymer network also responds to TNT and PETN similarly introduced from solution or the vapor phase. Pure solvents, volatile amines, and the outgassed vapors from lipstick or sunscreen do not quench polymer fluorescence. The established success of TNT sensors based on fluorescence quenching makes this a material of interest for real-world explosive sensors and will motivate further interest in cross-linked polymers and framework materials for sensing applications.

  5. Interface amorphization in hexagonal boron nitride films on sapphire substrate grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xu; Nitta, Shugo; Pristovsek, Markus; Liu, Yuhuai; Nagamatsu, Kentaro; Kushimoto, Maki; Honda, Yoshio; Amano, Hiroshi

    2018-05-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) films directly grown on c-plane sapphire substrates by pulsed-mode metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy exhibit an interlayer for growth temperatures above 1200 °C. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy shows that this interlayer is amorphous, while the crystalline h-BN layer above has a distinct orientational relationship with the sapphire substrate. Electron energy loss spectroscopy shows the energy-loss peaks of B and N in both the amorphous interlayer and the overlying crystalline h-BN layer, while Al and O signals are also seen in the amorphous interlayer. Thus, the interlayer forms during h-BN growth through the decomposition of the sapphire at elevated temperatures.

  6. An electron diffraction study of alkali chloride vapors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mawhorter, R. J.; Fink, M.; Hartley, J. G.

    1985-01-01

    A study of monomers and dimers of the four alkali chlorides NaCl, KCl, RbCl, and CsCl in the vapor phase using the counting method of high energy electron diffraction is reported. Nozzle temperatures from 850-960 K were required to achieve the necessary vapor pressures of approximately 0.01 torr. Using harmonic calculations for the monomer and dimer 1 values, a consistent set of structures for all four molecules was obained. The corrected monomer distances reproduce the microwave values very well. The experiment yields information on the amount of dimer present in the vapor, and these results are compared with thermodynamic values.

  7. The effect of pH on hydrolysis, cross-linking and barrier properties of starch barriers containing citric acid.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Erik; Menzel, Carolin; Johansson, Caisa; Andersson, Roger; Koch, Kristine; Järnström, Lars

    2013-11-06

    Citric acid cross-linking of starch for e.g. food packaging applications has been intensely studied during the last decade as a method of producing water-insensitive renewable barrier coatings. We managed to improve a starch formulation containing citric acid as cross-linking agent for industrial paper coating applications by adjusting the pH of the starch solution. The described starch formulations exhibited both cross-linking of starch by citric acid as well as satisfactory barrier properties, e.g. fairly low OTR values at 50% RH that are comparable with EVOH. Furthermore, it has been shown that barrier properties of coated papers with different solution pH were correlated to molecular changes in starch showing both hydrolysis and cross-linking of starch molecules in the presence of citric acid. Hydrolysis was shown to be almost completely hindered at solution pH≥4 at curing temperatures≤105 °C and at pH≥5 at curing temperatures≤150 °C, whereas cross-linking still occurred to some extent at pH≤6.5 and drying temperatures as low as 70 °C. Coated papers showed a minimum in water vapor transmission rate at pH 4 of the starch coating solution, corresponding to the point where hydrolysis was effectively hindered but where a significant degree of cross-linking still occurred. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Liquid-Vapor Equilibrium of Multicomponent Cryogenic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, W. Reid; Calado, Jorge C. G.; Zollweg, John A.

    1990-01-01

    Liquid-vapor and solid-vapor equilibria at low to moderate pressures and low temperatures are important in many solar system environments, including the surface and clouds of Titan, the clouds of Uranus and Neptune, and the surfaces of Mars and Triton. The familiar cases of ideal behavior are limiting cases of a general thermodynamic representation for the vapor pressure of each component in a homogeneous multicomponent system. The fundamental connections of laboratory measurements to thermodynamic models are through the Gibbs-Duhem relation and the Gibbs-Helmholtz relation. Using laboratory measurements of the total pressure, temperature, and compositions of the liquid and vapor phases at equilibrium, the values of these parameters can be determined. The resulting model for vapor-liquid equilibrium can then conveniently and accurately be used to calculate pressures, compositions, condensation altitudes, and their dependencies on changing climatic conditions. A specific system being investigated is CH4-C2H6-N2, at conditions relevant to Titan's surface and atmosphere. Discussed are: the modeling of existing data on CH4-N2, with applications to the composition of Titan's condensate clouds; some new measurements on the CH4-C2H6 binary, using a high-precision static/volumetric system, and on the C2H6-N2 binary, using the volumetric system and a sensitive cryogenic flow calorimeter; and describe a new cryogenic phase-equilibrium vessel with which we are beginning a detailed, systematic study of the three constituent binaries and the ternary CH4-C2H6-N2 system at temperatures ranging from 80 to 105 K and pressures from 0.1 to 7 bar.

  9. Non-aqueous phase cold vapor generation and determination of trace cadmium by atomic fluorescence spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lei, Zirong; Chen, Luqiong; Hu, Kan; Yang, Shengchun; Wen, Xiaodong

    2018-06-05

    Cold vapor generation (CVG) of cadmium was firstly accomplished in non-aqueous media by using solid reductant of potassium borohydride (KBH 4 ) as a derivation reagent. The mixture of surfactant Triton X-114 micelle and octanol was innovatively used as the non-aqueous media for the CVG and atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) was used for the elemental determination. The analyte ions were firstly extracted into the non-aqueous media from the bulk aqueous phase of analyte/sample solution via a novelly established ultrasound-assisted rapidly synergistic cloud point extraction (UARS-CPE) process and then directly mixed with the solid redcutant KBH 4 to generate volatile elemental state cadmium in a specially designed reactor, which was then rapidly transported to a commercial atomic fluorescence spectrometer for detection. Under the optimal conditions, the limit of detection (LOD) for cadmium was 0.004 μg L -1 . Compared to conventional hydride generation (HG)-AFS, the efficiency of non-aqueous phase CVG and the analytical performance of the developed system was considerably improved. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Universal adsorption at the vapor-liquid interface near the consolute point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, James W.

    1990-01-01

    The ellipticity of the vapor-liquid interface above mixtures of methylcyclohexane (C7H14) and perfluoromethylcyclohexane (C7F14) has been measured near the consolute point T(c) = 318.6 K. The data are consistent with a model of the interface that combines a short-ranged density-vs height profile in the vapor phase with a much longer-ranged composition-versus-height profile in the liquid. The value of the free parameter produced by fitting the model to the data is consistent with results from two other simple mixtures and a mixture of a polymer and solvent. This experiment combines precision ellipsometry of the vapor-liquid interface with in situ measurements of refractive indices of the liquid phases, and it precisely locates the consolute point.

  11. Long-term stable water vapor permeation barrier properties of SiN/SiCN/SiN nanolaminated multilayers grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition at extremely low pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Bum Ho, E-mail: bhchoi@kitech.re.kr; Lee, Jong Ho

    2014-08-04

    We investigated the water vapor permeation barrier properties of 30-nm-thick SiN/SiCN/SiN nanolaminated multilayer structures grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition at 7 mTorr. The derived water vapor transmission rate was 1.12 × 10{sup −6} g/(m{sup 2} day) at 85 °C and 85% relative humidity, and this value was maintained up to 15 000 h of aging time. The X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the nanolaminated film was composed of an amorphous phase. A mixed phase was observed upon performing high resolution transmission electron microscope analysis, which indicated that a thermodynamically stable structure was formed. It was revealed amorphous SiN/SiCN/SiN multilayer structures that are freemore » from intermixed interface defects effectively block water vapor permeation into active layer.« less

  12. Trihalomethane hydrolysis in drinking water at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Lu; Yang, Hong-Wei; Wang, Xiao-Mao; Karanfil, Tanju; Xie, Yuefeng F

    2015-07-01

    Hydrolysis could contribute to the loss of trihalomethanes (THMs) in the drinking water at elevated temperatures. This study was aimed at investigating THM hydrolysis pertaining to the storage of hot boiled water in enclosed containers. The water pH value was in the range of 6.1-8.2 and the water temperature was varied from 65 to 95 °C. The effects of halide ions, natural organic matter, and drinking water matrix were investigated. Results showed that the hydrolysis rates declined in the order following CHBrCl2 > CHBr2Cl > CHBr3 > CHCl3. THM hydrolysis was primarily through the alkaline pathway, except for CHCl3 in water at relatively low pH value. The activation energies for the alkaline hydrolysis of CHCl3, CHBrCl2, CHBr2Cl and CHBr3 were 109, 113, 115 and 116 kJ/mol, respectively. No hydrolysis intermediates could accumulate in the water. The natural organic matter, and probably other constituents, in drinking water could substantially decrease THM hydrolysis rates by more than 50%. When a drinking water was at 90 °C or above, the first order rate constants for THM hydrolysis were in the magnitude of 10(-2)‒10(-1) 1/h. When the boiled real tap water was stored in an enclosed container, THMs continued increasing during the first few hours and then kept decreasing later on due to the competition between hydrolysis and further formation. The removal of THMs, especially brominated THMs, by hydrolysis would greatly reduce one's exposure to disinfection by-products by consuming the boiled water stored in enclosed containers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Metal-boride phase formation on tungsten carbide (WC-Co) during microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Jamin M.; Catledge, Shane A.

    2016-02-01

    Strengthening of cemented tungsten carbide by boriding is used to improve the wear resistance and lifetime of carbide tools; however, many conventional boriding techniques render the bulk carbide too brittle for extreme conditions, such as hard rock drilling. This research explored the variation in metal-boride phase formation during the microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process at surface temperatures from 700 to 1100 °C. We showed several well-adhered metal-boride surface layers consisting of WCoB, CoB and/or W2CoB2 with average hardness from 23 to 27 GPa and average elastic modulus of 600-730 GPa. The metal-boride interlayer was shown to be an effective diffusion barrier against elemental cobalt; migration of elemental cobalt to the surface of the interlayer was significantly reduced. A combination of glancing angle X-ray diffraction, electron dispersive spectroscopy, nanoindentation and scratch testing was used to evaluate the surface composition and material properties. An evaluation of the material properties shows that plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited borides formed at substrate temperatures of 800 °C, 850 °C, 900 °C and 1000 °C strengthen the material by increasing the hardness and elastic modulus of cemented tungsten carbide. Additionally, these boride surface layers may offer potential for adhesion of ultra-hard carbon coatings.

  14. ESTIMATION OF PHOSPHATE ESTER HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS - ALKALINE HYDROLYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) chemical reactivity models were extended to allow the calculation of alkaline hydrolysis rate constants of phosphate esters in water. The rate is calculated from the energy difference between the initial and transition state...

  15. The influence of cosolvent and heat on the solubility and reactivity of organophosphorous pesticide DNAPL alkaline hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Muff, Jens; MacKinnon, Leah; Durant, Neal D; Bennedsen, Lars Frausing; Rügge, Kirsten; Bondgaard, Morten; Pennell, Kurt

    2016-11-01

    The presented research concerned the compatibility of cosolvents with in situ alkaline hydrolysis (ISAH) for treatment of organophosphorous (OPP) pesticide contaminated sites. In addition, the influence of moderate temperature heat increments was studied as a possible enhancement method. A complex dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) of primarily parathion (~50 %) and methyl parathion (~15 %) obtained from the Danish Groyne 42 site was used as a contaminant source, and ethanol and propan-2-ol (0, 25, and 50 v/v%) was used as cosolvents in tap water and 0.34 M NaOH. Both cosolvents showed OPP solubility enhancement at 50 v/v% cosolvent content, with slightly higher OPP concentrations reached with propan-2-ol. Data on hydrolysis products did not show a clear trend with respect to alkaline hydrolysis reactivity in the presence of cosolvents. Results indicated that the hydrolysis rate of methyl-parathion (MP3) decreased with addition of cosolvent, whereas the hydrolysis rate of ethyl-parathion (EP3) remained constant, and overall indications were that the hydrolysis reactions were limited by the rate of hydrolysis rather than NAPL dissolution. In addition to cosolvents, the influence of low-temperature heating on ISAH was studied. Increasing reaction temperature from 10 to 30 °C provided an average rate of hydrolysis enhancement by a factor of 1.4-4.8 dependent on the base of calculation. When combining 50 v/v% cosolvent addition and heating to 30 °C, EP3 solubility was significantly enhanced and results for O,O-diethyl-thiophosphoric acid (EP2 acid) showed a significant enhancement of hydrolysis as well. However, this could not be supported by para-nitrophenol (PNP) data indicating the instability of this product in the presence of cosolvent.

  16. Impact vaporization: Late time phenomena from experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, P. H.; Gault, D. E.

    1987-01-01

    While simple airflow produced by the outward movement of the ejecta curtain can be scaled to large dimensions, the interaction between an impact-vaporized component and the ejecta curtain is more complicated. The goal of these experiments was to examine such interaction in a real system involving crater growth, ejection of material, two phased mixtures of gas and dust, and strong pressure gradients. The results will be complemented by theoretical studies at laboratory scales in order to separate the various parameters for planetary scale processes. These experiments prompt, however, the following conclusions that may have relevance at broader scales. First, under near vacuum or low atmospheric pressures, an expanding vapor cloud scours the surrounding surface in advance of arriving ejecta. Second, the effect of early-time vaporization is relatively unimportant at late-times. Third, the overpressure created within the crater cavity by significant vaporization results in increased cratering efficiency and larger aspect ratios.

  17. Microwave Pretreatment For Hydrolysis Of Cellulose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullingford, Hatice S.; George, Clifford E.; Lightsey, George R.

    1993-01-01

    Microwave pretreatment enhances enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic wastes into soluble saccharides used as feedstocks for foods, fuels, and other products. Low consumption of energy, high yield, and low risk of proposed hydrolysis process incorporating microwave pretreatment makes process viable alternative to composting.

  18. Hydrolysis kinetics of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside oligomers from flaxseed.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jian-Ping; Li, Xin; Xu, Shi-Ping; Wang, Jiang-Hai; Liu, Xin

    2008-11-12

    Flaxseed is the richest dietary source of the lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) and contains the largest amount of SDG oligomers, which are often hydrolyzed to break the ester linkages for the release of SDG and the glycosidic bonds for the release of secoisolariciresinol (SECO). The alkaline hydrolysis reaction kinetics of SDG oligomers from flaxseed and the acid hydrolysis process of SDG and other glucosides were investigated. For the kinetic modeling, a pseudo-first-order reaction was assumed. The results showed that the alkaline hydrolysis of SDG oligomers followed first-order reaction kinetics under mild alkaline hydrolytic conditions and that the concentration of sodium hydroxide had a strong influence on the activation energy of the alkaline hydrolysis of SDG oligomers. The results also indicated that the main acid hydrolysates of SDG included secoisolariciresinol monoglucoside (SMG), SECO, and anhydrosecoisolariciresinol (anhydro-SECO) and that the extent and the main hydrolysates of the acid hydrolysis reaction depended on the acid concentration, hydrolysis temperature, and time. In addition, the production and change of p-coumaric acid glucoside, ferulic acid glucoside and their methyl esters and p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and their methyl esters during the process of hydrolysis was also investigated.

  19. Effect of hydrolysis on identifying prenatal cannabis exposure

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Teresa R.; Barnes, Allan J.

    2011-01-01

    Identification of prenatal cannabis exposure is important due to potential cognitive and behavioral consequences. A two-dimensional gas chromatography–mass spectrometry method for cannabinol, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), 8β,11-dihydroxy-THC, and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) quantification in human meconium was developed and validated. Alkaline, enzymatic, and enzyme–alkaline tandem hydrolysis conditions were optimized with THC- and THCCOOH-glucuronide reference standards. Limits of quantification ranged from 10 to 15 ng/g, and calibration curves were linear to 500 ng/g. Bias and intra-day and inter-day imprecision were <12.3%. Hydrolysis efficiencies were analyte-dependent; THC-glucuronide was effectively cleaved by enzyme, but not base. Conversely, THCCOOH-glucuronide was most sensitive to alkaline hydrolysis. Enzyme–alkaline tandem hydrolysis maximized efficiency for both glucuronides. Identification of cannabinoid-positive meconium specimens nearly doubled following alkaline and enzyme–alkaline hydrolysis. Although no 11-OH-THC glucuronide standard is available, enzymatic hydrolysis improved 11-OH-THC detection in authentic specimens. Maximal identification of cannabis-exposed neonates and the widest range of cannabis biomarkers are achieved with enzyme–alkaline tandem hydrolysis. PMID:20517601

  20. Monitoring of Diisopropyl Fluorophosphate Hydrolysis by Fluoride-Selective Polymeric Films Using Absorbance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Madhumati; Wang, Lin; Wild, James R.; Meyeroff, Mark E.; Simonian, Aleksandr L.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a novel system for the detection and quantification of organofluorophosphonates (OFP) has been developed by using an optical sensing polymeric membrane to detect the fluoride ions produced upon OFP hydrolysis. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP), a structural analogue of Type G Chemical Warfare Agents such as Sarin (GB) and Soman (GD), is used as the surrogate target analyte. An optical sensing fluoride-ion-selective polymeric film was formulated from plasticized PVC containing aluminum(III) octaethylporphyrin and ETH 7075 chromoionophore (Al[OEP]-ETH 7075). Selected formulations were used to detect the fluoride ions produced by the catalytic hydrolysis of DFP by the enzyme organophosphate hydrolase (OPH, EC 3.1.8.1). The changes in absorbance that corresponded to the deprotonated state of chromoionophore within the film results from simultaneous co-extraction of fluoride and protons as DFP hydrolysis takes place in the solution phase in contact with the film. The developed sensing system demonstrates excellent sensitivity for concentrations as low as 0.1 µM DFP. PMID:20441875

  1. Hydrolysis of alkaline pretreated banana peel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatmawati, A.; Gunawan, K. Y.; Hadiwijaya, F. A.

    2017-11-01

    Banana peel is one of food wastes that are rich in carbohydrate. This shows its potential as fermentation substrate including bio-ethanol. This paper presented banana peel alkaline pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. The pretreatment was intended to prepare banana peel in order to increase hydrolysis performance. The alkaline pretreatment used 10, 20, and 30% w/v NaOH solution and was done at 60, 70 and 80°C for 1 hour. The hydrolysis reaction was conducted using two commercial cellulose enzymes. The reaction time was varied for 3, 5, and 7 days. The best condition for pretreatment process was one conducted using 30% NaOH solution and at 80°C. This condition resulted in cellulose content of 90.27% and acid insoluble lignin content of 2.88%. Seven-day hydrolysis time had exhibited the highest reducing sugar concentration, which was7.2869 g/L.

  2. Acid hydrolysis of cellulose to yield glucose

    DOEpatents

    Tsao, George T.; Ladisch, Michael R.; Bose, Arindam

    1979-01-01

    A process to yield glucose from cellulose through acid hydrolysis. Cellulose is recovered from cellulosic materials, preferably by pretreating the cellulosic materials by dissolving the cellulosic materials in Cadoxen or a chelating metal caustic swelling solvent and then precipitating the cellulose therefrom. Hydrolysis is accomplished using an acid, preferably dilute sulfuric acid, and the glucose is yielded substantially without side products. Lignin may be removed either before or after hydrolysis.

  3. Formation, Evaporation, and Hydrolysis of Organic Nitrates from Nitrate Radical Oxidation of Monoterpenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, N. L.; Takeuchi, M.; Eris, G.; Berkemeier, T.; Boyd, C.; Nah, T.; Xu, L.

    2017-12-01

    Organic nitrates play an important role in the cycling of NOx and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, yet their formation mechanisms and fates remain highly uncertain. The interactions of biogenic VOCs with NO3 radicals represent a direct way for positively linking anthropogenic and biogenic emissions. Results from ambient studies suggest that organic nitrates have a relatively short lifetime, though corresponding laboratory data are limited. SOA and organic nitrates produced at night may evaporate the following morning due to increasing temperatures or dilution of semi-volatile compounds. Once formed, organic nitrates can also undergo hydrolysis in the presence of particle water. In this work, we investigate the formation, evaporation, and hydrolysis of organic nitrates generated from the nitrate radical oxidation of a-pinene, b-pinene, and limonene. Experiments are conducted in the Georgia Environmental Chamber facility (GTEC) under dry and humid conditions and different temperatures. Experiments are also designed to probe different peroxy radical pathways (RO2+HO2 vs RO2+NO3). Speciated gas-phase and particle-phase organic nitrates are continuously monitored by a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols High Resolution Time-of-Flight Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (FIGAERO-HR-ToF-CIMS). Bulk aerosol composition is measured by a High Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). A large suite of highly oxygenated gas- and particle-phase organic nitrates are formed rapidly. We find a resistance to aerosol evaporation when it is heated. The extent of organic nitrate hydrolysis in the humid experiments is evaluated. The dynamics of the speciated organic nitrates over the course of the experiments will also be discussed. Results from this chamber study provide fundamental data for understanding the dynamics of organic nitrate aerosols over its atmospheric lifetime.

  4. Enzymatic hydrolysis of biomimetic bacterial cellulose-hemicellulose composites.

    PubMed

    Penttilä, Paavo A; Imai, Tomoya; Hemming, Jarl; Willför, Stefan; Sugiyama, Junji

    2018-06-15

    The production of biofuels and other chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass is limited by the inefficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis. Here a biomimetic composite material consisting of bacterial cellulose and wood-based hemicelluloses was used to study the effects of hemicelluloses on the enzymatic hydrolysis with a commercial cellulase mixture. Bacterial cellulose synthesized in the presence of hemicelluloses, especially xylan, was found to be more susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis than hemicellulose-free bacterial cellulose. The reason for the easier hydrolysis could be related to the nanoscale structure of the substrate, particularly the packing of cellulose microfibrils into ribbons or bundles. In addition, small-angle X-ray scattering was used to show that the average nanoscale morphology of bacterial cellulose remained unchanged during the enzymatic hydrolysis. The reported easier enzymatic hydrolysis of bacterial cellulose produced in the presence of wood-based xylan offers new insights to overcome biomass recalcitrance through genetic engineering. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Metalorganic Vapor-Phase Epitaxy Growth Parameters for Two-Dimensional MoS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, M.; Grundmann, A.; Lin, Y.-R.; Andrzejewski, D.; Kümmell, T.; Bacher, G.; Heuken, M.; Kalisch, H.; Vescan, A.

    2018-02-01

    The influence of the main growth parameters on the growth mechanism and film formation processes during metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) of two-dimensional MoS2 on sapphire (0001) have been investigated. Deposition was performed using molybdenum hexacarbonyl and di- tert-butyl sulfide as metalorganic precursors in a horizontal hot-wall MOVPE reactor from AIXTRON. The structural properties of the MoS2 films were analyzed by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. It was found that a substrate prebake step prior to growth reduced the nucleation density of the polycrystalline film. Simultaneously, the size of the MoS2 domains increased and the formation of parasitic carbonaceous film was suppressed. Additionally, the influence of growth parameters such as reactor pressure and surface temperature is discussed. An upper limit for these parameters was found, beyond which strong parasitic deposition or incorporation of carbon into MoS2 took place. This carbon contamination became significant at reactor pressure above 100 hPa and temperature above 900°C.

  6. Acceptance Testing of the Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal Engineering Development Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John; Kliss, Mark; Tleimat, Maher; Quinn, Gregory; Fort, James; Nalette, Tim; Baker, Gale

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the results of acceptance testing of the Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal (VPCAR) technology. The VPCAR technology is currently being developed by NASA as a Mars transit vehicle water recycling system. NASA has recently completed a grant to develop a next generation VPCAR system. This grant was peer reviewed and funded through the Advanced Life Support (ALS) National Research Announcement (NRA). The grant funded a contract with Water Reuse Technology Inc. to construct an engineering development unit. This contract concluded with the shipment of the final deliverable to NASA on 8/31/03. The objective of the acceptance testing was to characterize the performance of this new system. This paper presents the results of mass power, and volume measurements for the delivered system. In addition, product water purity analysis for a Mars transit mission and a planetary base wastewater ersatz are provided. Acoustic noise levels, interface specifications and system reliability results are also discussed. An assessment of the readiness of the technology for human testing and recommendations for future improvements are provided.

  7. Seeded Physical Vapor Transport of Cadmium-Zinc Telluride Crystals: Growth and Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palosz, W.; George, M. A.; Collins, E. E.; Chen, K.-T.; Zhang, Y.; Burger, A.

    1997-01-01

    Crystals of Cd(1-x)Zn(x)Te with x = 0.2 and 40 g in weight were grown on monocrystalline cadmium-zinc telluride seeds by closed-ampoule physical vapor transport with or without excess (Cd + Zn) in the vapor phase. Two post-growth cool-down rates were used. The crystals were characterized using low temperature photoluminescence, atomic force microscopy, chemical etching, X-ray diffraction and electrical measurements. No formation of a second, ZnTe-rich phase was observed.

  8. High-resolution discrete absorption spectrum of α-methallyl free radical in the vapor phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayrakçeken, Fuat; Telatar, Ziya; Arı, Fikret; Tunçyürek, Lale; Karaaslan, İpek; Yaman, Ali

    2006-09-01

    The α-methallyl free radical is formed in the flash photolysis of 3-methylbut-1-ene, and cis-pent-2-ene in the vapor phase, and then subsequent reactions have been investigated by kinetic spectroscopy and gas-liquid chromatography. The photolysis flash was of short duration and it was possible to follow the kinetics of the radicals' decay, which occurred predominantly by bimolecular recombination. The measured rate constant for the α-methallyl recombination was (3.5 ± 0.3) × 10 10 mol -1 l s -1 at 295 ± 2 K. The absolute extinction coefficients of the α-methallyl radical are calculated from the optical densities of the absorption bands. Detailed analysis of related absorption bands and lifetime measurements in the original α-methallyl high-resolution discrete absorption spectrum image were also carried out by image processing techniques.

  9. Cluster Free Energies from Simple Simulations of Small Numbers of Aggregants: Nucleation of Liquid MTBE from Vapor and Aqueous Phases.

    PubMed

    Patel, Lara A; Kindt, James T

    2017-03-14

    We introduce a global fitting analysis method to obtain free energies of association of noncovalent molecular clusters using equilibrated cluster size distributions from unbiased constant-temperature molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Because the systems simulated are small enough that the law of mass action does not describe the aggregation statistics, the method relies on iteratively determining a set of cluster free energies that, using appropriately weighted sums over all possible partitions of N monomers into clusters, produces the best-fit size distribution. The quality of these fits can be used as an objective measure of self-consistency to optimize the cutoff distance that determines how clusters are defined. To showcase the method, we have simulated a united-atom model of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in the vapor phase and in explicit water solution over a range of system sizes (up to 95 MTBE in the vapor phase and 60 MTBE in the aqueous phase) and concentrations at 273 K. The resulting size-dependent cluster free energy functions follow a form derived from classical nucleation theory (CNT) quite well over the full range of cluster sizes, although deviations are more pronounced for small cluster sizes. The CNT fit to cluster free energies yielded surface tensions that were in both cases lower than those for the simulated planar interfaces. We use a simple model to derive a condition for minimizing non-ideal effects on cluster size distributions and show that the cutoff distance that yields the best global fit is consistent with this condition.

  10. Predicting the enthalpies of melting and vaporization for pure components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esina, Z. N.; Korchuganova, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    A mathematical model of the melting and vaporization enthalpies of organic components based on the theory of thermodynamic similarity is proposed. In this empirical model, the phase transition enthalpy for the homological series of n-alkanes, carboxylic acids, n-alcohols, glycols, and glycol ethers is presented as a function of the molecular mass, the number of carbon atoms in a molecule, and the normal transition temperature. The model also uses a critical or triple point temperature. It is shown that the results from predicting the melting and vaporization enthalpies enable the calculation of binary phase diagrams.

  11. A low phase noise microwave frequency synthesis for a high-performance cesium vapor cell atomic clock

    SciTech Connect

    François, B.; Boudot, R.; Calosso, C. E.

    2014-09-15

    We report the development, absolute phase noise, and residual phase noise characterization of a 9.192 GHz microwave frequency synthesis chain devoted to be used as a local oscillator in a high-performance cesium vapor cell atomic clock based on coherent population trapping (CPT). It is based on frequency multiplication of an ultra-low phase noise 100 MHz oven-controlled quartz crystal oscillator using a nonlinear transmission line-based chain. Absolute phase noise performances of the 9.192 GHz output signal are measured to be −42, −100, −117 dB rad{sup 2}/Hz and −129 dB rad{sup 2}/Hz at 1 Hz, 100 Hz, 1 kHz, and 10 kHz offset frequencies, respectively. Comparedmore » to current results obtained in a state-of-the-art CPT-based frequency standard developed at LNE-SYRTE, this represents an improvement of 8 dB and 10 dB at f = 166 Hz and f = 10 kHz, respectively. With such performances, the expected Dick effect contribution to the atomic clock short term frequency stability is reported at a level of 6.2 × 10{sup −14} at 1 s integration time, that is a factor 3 higher than the atomic clock shot noise limit. Main limitations are pointed out.« less

  12. Bioethanol production: an integrated process of low substrate loading hydrolysis-high sugars liquid fermentation and solid state fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysis residue.

    PubMed

    Chu, Qiulu; Li, Xin; Ma, Bin; Xu, Yong; Ouyang, Jia; Zhu, Junjun; Yu, Shiyuan; Yong, Qiang

    2012-11-01

    An integrated process of enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation was investigated for high ethanol production. The combination of enzymatic hydrolysis at low substrate loading, liquid fermentation of high sugars concentration and solid state fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysis residue was beneficial for conversion of steam explosion pretreated corn stover to ethanol. The results suggested that low substrate loading hydrolysis caused a high enzymatic hydrolysis yield; the liquid fermentation of about 200g/L glucose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae provided a high ethanol concentration which could significantly decrease cost of the subsequent ethanol distillation. A solid state fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysis residue was combined, which was available to enhance ethanol production and cellulose-to-ethanol conversion. The results of solid state fermentation demonstrated that the solid state fermentation process accompanied by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Theoretical study of the composition pulling effect in InGaN metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inatomi, Yuya; Kangawa, Yoshihiro; Ito, Tomonori; Suski, Tadeusz; Kumagai, Yoshinao; Kakimoto, Koichi; Koukitu, Akinori

    2017-07-01

    The composition pulling effect in metalorganic vapor-phase InGaN epitaxy was theoretically investigated by thermodynamic analysis. The excess energies of biaxial-strained In x Ga1- x N were numerically calculated using empirical interatomic potentials considering different situations: (i) coherent growth on GaN(0001), (ii) coherent growth on In0.2Ga0.8N(0001), and (iii) bulk growth. Using the excess energies, the excess chemical potentials of InN and GaN alloys were computed. Our results show that compressive strain suppresses In incorporation, whereas tensile strain promotes it. Moreover, assuming chemical equilibrium, the relationship between the solid composition and the growth conditions was predicted. The results successfully reproduced the typical composition pulling effect.

  14. Vaporization and recondensation dynamics of indocyanine green-loaded perfluoropentane droplets irradiated by a short pulse laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jaesok; Chen, Xucai; Villanueva, Flordeliza S.; Kim, Kang

    2016-12-01

    Phase-transition droplets have been proposed as promising contrast agents for ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging. Short pulse laser activated perfluorocarbon-based droplets, especially when in a medium with a temperature below their boiling point, undergo phase changes of vaporization and recondensation in response to pulsed laser irradiation. Here, we report and discuss the vaporization and recondensation dynamics of perfluoropentane droplets containing indocyanine green in response to a short pulsed laser with optical and acoustic measurements. To investigate the effect of temperature on the vaporization process, an imaging chamber was mounted on a temperature-controlled water reservoir and then the vaporization event was recorded at 5 million frames per second via a high-speed camera. The high-speed movies show that most of the droplets within the laser beam area expanded rapidly as soon as they were exposed to the laser pulse and immediately recondensed within 1-2 μs. The vaporization/recondensation process was consistently reproduced in six consecutive laser pulses to the same area. As the temperature of the media was increased above the boiling point of the perfluoropentane, the droplets were less likely to recondense and remained in a gas phase after the first vaporization. These observations will help to clarify the underlying processes and eventually guide the design of repeatable phase-transition droplets as a photoacoustic imaging contrast agent.

  15. Directly relating gas-phase cluster measurements to solution-phase hydrolysis, the absolute standard hydrogen electrode potential, and the absolute proton solvation energy.

    PubMed

    Donald, William A; Leib, Ryan D; O'Brien, Jeremy T; Williams, Evan R

    2009-06-08

    Solution-phase, half-cell potentials are measured relative to other half-cell potentials, resulting in a thermochemical ladder that is anchored to the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE), which is assigned an arbitrary value of 0 V. A new method for measuring the absolute SHE potential is demonstrated in which gaseous nanodrops containing divalent alkaline-earth or transition-metal ions are reduced by thermally generated electrons. Energies for the reactions 1) M(H(2)O)(24)(2+)(g) + e(-)(g)-->M(H(2)O)(24)(+)(g) and 2) M(H(2)O)(24)(2+)(g) + e(-)(g)-->MOH(H(2)O)(23)(+)(g) + H(g) and the hydrogen atom affinities of MOH(H(2)O)(23)(+)(g) are obtained from the number of water molecules lost through each pathway. From these measurements on clusters containing nine different metal ions and known thermochemical values that include solution hydrolysis energies, an average absolute SHE potential of +4.29 V vs. e(-)(g) (standard deviation of 0.02 V) and a real proton solvation free energy of -265 kcal mol(-1) are obtained. With this method, the absolute SHE potential can be obtained from a one-electron reduction of nanodrops containing divalent ions that are not observed to undergo one-electron reduction in aqueous solution.

  16. Directly Relating Gas-Phase Cluster Measurements to Solution-Phase Hydrolysis, the Absolute Standard Hydrogen Electrode Potential, and the Absolute Proton Solvation Energy

    PubMed Central

    Donald, William A.; Leib, Ryan D.; O’Brien, Jeremy T.; Williams, Evan R.

    2009-01-01

    Solution-phase, half-cell potentials are measured relative to other half-cell potentials, resulting in a thermochemical ladder that is anchored to the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE), which is assigned an arbitrary value of 0 V. A new method for measuring the absolute SHE potential is demonstrated in which gaseous nanodrops containing divalent alkaline-earth or transition-metal ions are reduced by thermally generated electrons. Energies for the reactions 1) M-(H2O)242+(g)+e−(g)→M(H2O)24+(g) and 2) M(H2O)242+(g)+e−(g)→MOH(H2O)23+(g)+H(g) and the hydrogen atom affinities of MOH(H2O)23+(g) are obtained from the number of water molecules lost through each pathway. From these measurements on clusters containing nine different metal ions and known thermochemical values that include solution hydrolysis energies, an average absolute SHE potential of +4.29 V vs. e−(g) (standard deviation of 0.02 V) and a real proton solvation free energy of −265 kcal mol−1 are obtained. With this method, the absolute SHE potential can be obtained from a one-electron reduction of nanodrops containing divalent ions that are not observed to undergo one-electron reduction in aqueous solution. PMID:19440999

  17. Porous single-phase NiTi processed under Ca reducing vapor for use as a bone graft substitute.

    PubMed

    Bertheville, Bernard

    2006-03-01

    Porous nickel-titanium alloys (NiTi, nitinol) have recently attracted attention in clinical surgery because they are a very interesting alternative to the more brittle and less machinable conventional porous Ca-based ceramics. The main remaining limitations come from the chemical homogeneity of the as-processed porous nickel-titanium alloys, which always contain undesired secondary Ti- and Ni-rich phases. These are known to weaken the NiTi products, to favor their cavitation corrosion and to decrease their biocompatibility. Elemental nickel must also be avoided because it could give rise to several adverse tissue reactions. Therefore, the synthesis of porous single-phase NiTi alloys by using a basic single-step sintering procedure is an important step towards the processing of safe implant materials. The sintering process used in this work is based on a vapor phase calciothermic reduction operating during the NiTi compound formation. The as-processed porous nickel-titanium microstructure is single-phase and shows a uniformly open pore distribution with porosity of about 53% and pore diameters in the range 20-100 microm. Furthermore, due to the process, fine CaO layers grow on the NiTi outer and inner surfaces, acting as possible promoting agents for the ingrowth of bone cells at the implantation site.

  18. Water-Vapor-Mediated Close-Spaced Vapor Transport Growth of Epitaxial Gallium Indium Phosphide Films on Gallium Arsenide Substrates

    DOE PAGES

    Greenaway, Ann L.; Bachman, Benjamin F.; Boucher, Jason W.; ...

    2018-01-12

    Ga 1–xIn xP is a technologically important III–V ternary semiconductor widely utilized in commercial and record-efficiency solar cells. We report the growth of Ga 1–xIn xP by water-vapor-mediated close-spaced vapor transport. Because growth of III–V semiconductors in this system is controlled by diffusion of metal oxide species, we find that congruent transport from the mixed powder source requires complete annealing to form a single alloy phase. Growth from a fully alloyed source at water vapor concentrations of ~7000 ppm in H 2 at 850 °C affords smooth films with electron mobility of 1070 cm 2 V –1 s –1 andmore » peak internal quantum efficiency of ~90% for carrier collection in a nonaqueous photoelectrochemical test cell.« less

  19. Water-Vapor-Mediated Close-Spaced Vapor Transport Growth of Epitaxial Gallium Indium Phosphide Films on Gallium Arsenide Substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Greenaway, Ann L.; Bachman, Benjamin F.; Boucher, Jason W.

    Ga 1–xIn xP is a technologically important III–V ternary semiconductor widely utilized in commercial and record-efficiency solar cells. We report the growth of Ga 1–xIn xP by water-vapor-mediated close-spaced vapor transport. Because growth of III–V semiconductors in this system is controlled by diffusion of metal oxide species, we find that congruent transport from the mixed powder source requires complete annealing to form a single alloy phase. Growth from a fully alloyed source at water vapor concentrations of ~7000 ppm in H 2 at 850 °C affords smooth films with electron mobility of 1070 cm 2 V –1 s –1 andmore » peak internal quantum efficiency of ~90% for carrier collection in a nonaqueous photoelectrochemical test cell.« less

  20. Site- and species-specific hydrolysis rates of heroin.

    PubMed

    Szöcs, Levente; Orgován, Gábor; Tóth, Gergő; Kraszni, Márta; Gergó, Lajos; Hosztafi, Sándor; Noszál, Béla

    2016-06-30

    The hydroxide-catalyzed non-enzymatic, simultaneous and consecutive hydrolyses of diacetylmorphine (DAM, heroin) are quantified in terms of 10 site- and species-specific rate constants in connection with also 10 site- and species-specific acid-base equilibrium constants, comprising all the 12 coexisting species in solution. This characterization involves the major and minor decomposition pathways via 6-acetylmorphine and 3-acetylmorphine, respectively, and morphine, the final product. Hydrolysis has been found to be 18-120 times faster at site 3 than at site 6, depending on the status of the amino group and the rest of the molecule. Nitrogen protonation accelerates the hydrolysis 5-6 times at site 3 and slightly less at site 6. Hydrolysis rate constants are interpreted in terms of intramolecular inductive effects and the concomitant local electron densities. Hydrolysis fraction, a new physico-chemical parameter is introduced and determined to quantify the contribution of the individual microspecies to the overall hydrolysis. Hydrolysis fractions are depicted as a function of pH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Detection of water vapor on Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, H. P.; Fink, U.; Treffers, R.; Gautier, T. N., III

    1975-01-01

    High-altitude (12.4 km) spectroscopic observations of Jupiter at 5 microns from the NASA 91.5 cm airborne infrared telescope have revealed 14 absorptions assigned to the rotation-vibration spectrum of water vapor. Preliminary analysis indicates a mixing ratio about 1 millionth for the vapor phase of water. Estimates of temperature (greater than about 300 K) and pressure (less than 20 atm) suggest observation of water deep in Jupiter's hot spots responsible for its 5 micron flux. Model-atmosphere calculations based on radiative-transfer theory may change these initial estimates and provide a better physical picture of Jupiter's atmosphere below the visible cloud tops.

  2. Enzymatic hydrolysis of potato pulp.

    PubMed

    Lesiecki, Mariusz; Białas, Wojciech; Lewandowicz, Grażyna

    2012-01-01

    Potato pulp constitutes a complicated system of four types of polysaccharides: cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin and starch. Its composition makes it a potential and attractive raw material for the production of the second generation bioethanol. The aim of this research project was to assess the usefulness of commercial enzymatic preparations for the hydrolysis of potato pulp and to evaluate the effectiveness of hydrolysates obtained in this way as raw materials for ethanol fermentation. Sterilised potato pulp was subjected to hydrolysis with commercial enzymatic preparations. The effectiveness of the preparations declared as active towards only one fraction of potato pulp (separate amylase, pectinase and cellulase activity) and mixtures of these preparations was analysed. The monomers content in hydrolysates was determined using HPLC method. The application of amylolytic enzymes for potato pulp hydrolysis resulted in the release of only 18% of raw material with glucose as the dominant (77%) constituent of the formed product. In addition, 16% galactose was also determined in it. The hydrolysis of the cellulose fraction yielded up to 35% raw material and the main constituents of the obtained hydrolysate were glucose (46%) and arabinose (40%). Simultaneous application of amylolytic, cellulolytic and pectinolytic enzymes turned out to be the most effective way of carrying out the process as its efficiency in this case reached 90%. The obtained hydrolysate contained 63% glucose, 25% arabinose and 12% other simple substances. The application of commercial enzymatic preparations made it possible to perform potato pulp hydrolysis with 90% effectiveness. This was achieved by the application of a complex of amylolytic, cellulolytic and pectinolytic enzymes and the hydrolysate obtained in this way contained, primarily, glucose making it a viable substrate for ethanol fermentation.

  3. Highly resistive C-doped hydride vapor phase epitaxy-GaN grown on ammonothermally crystallized GaN seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwinska, Malgorzata; Piotrzkowski, Ryszard; Litwin-Staszewska, Elzbieta; Sochacki, Tomasz; Amilusik, Mikolaj; Fijalkowski, Michal; Lucznik, Boleslaw; Bockowski, Michal

    2017-01-01

    GaN crystals were grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) and doped with C. The seeds were high-structural-quality ammonothermally crystallized GaN. The grown crystals were highly resistive at 296 K and of high structural quality. High-temperature Hall effect measurements revealed p-type conductivity and a deep acceptor level in the material with an activation energy of 1 eV. This is in good agreement with density functional theory calculations based on hybrid functionals as presented by the Van de Walle group. They obtained an ionization energy of 0.9 eV when C was substituted for N in GaN and acted as a deep acceptor.

  4. Vacuum distillation: vapor filtered-catalytic oxidation water reclamation system utilizing radioisotopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honegger, R. J.; Remus, G. A.; Kurg, E. K.

    1971-01-01

    The development of a functional model water reclamation system is discussed. The system produces potable water by distillation from the urine and respiration-perspiration condensate at the normal rate generated by four men. Basic processes employed are vacuum distillation, vapor filtration, vapor phase catalytic oxidation, and condensation. The system is designed to use four 75-watt isotope heaters for distillation thermal input, and one 45-watt isotope for the catalytic oxidation unit. The system is capable of collecting and storing urine, and provides for stabilizing the urine by chemical pretreatment. The functional model system is designed for operation in a weightless condition with liquid-vapor phase separators for the evaporator still, and centrifugal separators for urine collection and vapor condensation. The system provides for storing and dispensing reclaimed potable water. The system operates in a batch mode for 40 days, with urine residues accumulating in the evaporator. The evaporator still and residue are removed to storage and replaced with a fresh still for the next 40-day period.

  5. Effect of thermal hydrolysis pre-treatment on anaerobic digestion of municipal biowaste: a pilot scale study in China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yingjun; Takaoka, Masaki; Wang, Wei; Liu, Xiao; Oshita, Kazuyuki

    2013-07-01

    Co-digestion of wasted sewage sludge, restaurant kitchen waste, and fruit-vegetable waste was carried out in a pilot plant with thermal hydrolysis pre-treatment. Steam was used as heat source for thermal hydrolysis. It was found 38.3% of volatile suspended solids were dissolved after thermal hydrolysis, with digestibility increased by 115%. These results were more significant than those from lab studies using electricity as heat source due to more uniform heating. Anaerobic digesters were then operated under organic loading rates of about 1.5 and 3 kg VS/(m³ d). Little difference was found for digesters with and without thermal pre-treatment in biogas production and volatile solids removal. However, when looking into the digestion process, it was found digestion rate was almost doubled after thermal hydrolysis. Digester was also more stable with thermal hydrolysis pre-treatment. Less volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were accumulated and the VFAs/alkalinity ratio was also lower. Batch experiments showed the lag phase can be eliminated by thermal pre-treatment, implying the advantage could be more significant under a shorter hydraulic retention time. Moreover, it was estimated energy cost for thermal hydrolysis can be partly balanced by decreasing viscosity and improving dewaterability of the digestate. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. CFD Modeling of LNG Spill: Humidity Effect on Vapor Dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannissi, S. G.; Venetsanos, A. G.; Markatos, N.

    2015-09-01

    The risks entailed by an accidental spill of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) should be indentified and evaluated, in order to design measures for prevention and mitigation in LNG terminals. For this purpose, simulations are considered a useful tool to study LNG spills and to understand the mechanisms that influence the vapor dispersion. In the present study, the ADREA-HF CFD code is employed to simulate the TEEX1 experiment. The experiment was carried out at the Brayton Fire Training Field, which is affiliated with the Texas A&M University system and involves LNG release and dispersion over water surface in open- obstructed environment. In the simulation the source was modeled as a two-phase jet enabling the prediction of both the vapor dispersion and the liquid pool spreading. The conservation equations for the mixture are solved along with the mass fraction for natural gas. Due to the low prevailing temperatures during the spill ambient humidity condenses and this might affect the vapor dispersion. This effect was examined in this work by solving an additional conservation equation for the water mass fraction. Two different models were tested: the hydrodynamic equilibrium model which assumes kinetic equilibrium between the phases and the non hydrodynamic equilibrium model, in order to assess the effect of slip velocity on the prediction. The slip velocity is defined as the difference between the liquid phase and the vapor phase and is calculated using the algebraic slip model. Constant droplet diameter of three different sizes and a lognormal distribution of the droplet diameter were applied and the results are discussed and compared with the measurements.

  7. Stochastic molecular model of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose for ethanol production

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During cellulosic ethanol production, cellulose hydrolysis is achieved by synergistic action of cellulase enzyme complex consisting of multiple enzymes with different mode of actions. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose is one of the bottlenecks in the commercialization of the process due to low hydrolysis rates and high cost of enzymes. A robust hydrolysis model that can predict hydrolysis profile under various scenarios can act as an important forecasting tool to improve the hydrolysis process. However, multiple factors affecting hydrolysis: cellulose structure and complex enzyme-substrate interactions during hydrolysis make it diffucult to develop mathematical kinetic models that can simulate hydrolysis in presence of multiple enzymes with high fidelity. In this study, a comprehensive hydrolysis model based on stochastic molecular modeling approch in which each hydrolysis event is translated into a discrete event is presented. The model captures the structural features of cellulose, enzyme properties (mode of actions, synergism, inhibition), and most importantly dynamic morphological changes in the substrate that directly affect the enzyme-substrate interactions during hydrolysis. Results Cellulose was modeled as a group of microfibrils consisting of elementary fibrils bundles, where each elementary fibril was represented as a three dimensional matrix of glucose molecules. Hydrolysis of cellulose was simulated based on Monte Carlo simulation technique. Cellulose hydrolysis results predicted by model simulations agree well with the experimental data from literature. Coefficients of determination for model predictions and experimental values were in the range of 0.75 to 0.96 for Avicel hydrolysis by CBH I action. Model was able to simulate the synergistic action of multiple enzymes during hydrolysis. The model simulations captured the important experimental observations: effect of structural properties, enzyme inhibition and enzyme loadings on the

  8. Pressure control in interfacial systems: Atomistic simulations of vapor nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchio, S.; Meloni, S.; Giacomello, A.; Valeriani, C.; Casciola, C. M.

    2018-02-01

    A large number of phenomena of scientific and technological interest involve multiple phases and occur at constant pressure of one of the two phases, e.g., the liquid phase in vapor nucleation. It is therefore of great interest to be able to reproduce such conditions in atomistic simulations. Here we study how popular barostats, originally devised for homogeneous systems, behave when applied straightforwardly to heterogeneous systems. We focus on vapor nucleation from a super-heated Lennard-Jones liquid, studied via hybrid restrained Monte Carlo simulations. The results show a departure from the trends predicted for the case of constant liquid pressure, i.e., from the conditions of classical nucleation theory. Artifacts deriving from standard (global) barostats are shown to depend on the size of the simulation box. In particular, for Lennard-Jones liquid systems of 7000 and 13 500 atoms, at conditions typically found in the literature, we have estimated an error of 10-15 kBT on the free-energy barrier, corresponding to an error of 104-106 s-1σ-3 on the nucleation rate. A mechanical (local) barostat is proposed which heals the artifacts for the considered case of vapor nucleation.

  9. Referred Air Method 25E: Determination of a Vapor Phase Organic Concentration in Waste Samples

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This method is applicable for determining the vapor pressure of waste. The headspace vapor of the sample is analyzed for carbon content by a headspace analyzer, which uses a flame ionization detector (FID).

  10. ESTIMATION OF PHOSPHATE ESTER HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS. I. ALKALINE HYDROLYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) chemical reactivity models were extended to allow the calculation of alkaline hydrolysis rate constants of phosphate esters in water. The rate is calculated from the energy difference between the initial and transition state...

  11. Local Time Variation of Water Vapor on Mars using TES Aerobraking Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlShamsi, M. R.; AlJanaahi, A. A.; Smith, M. D.; Altunaiji, E. S.; Edwards, C. S.

    2016-12-01

    During the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) aerobraking phase, the spacecraft was in a large elliptical orbit that enabled the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument to sample many local times of Mars. The observed TES aerobraking spectra during that phase cover the time range between Mars Year 23, Ls=180° and Mars Year 24, Ls=30°. These TES aerobraking spectra have never been analyzed to study local time variations on Mars. Through radiative transfer modeling of the spectra, surface and atmospheric temperature, dust and water ice optical depth, and water vapor were retrieved. Specifically, the water vapor retrievals during aerobraking have similar seasonal and latitudinal trends to those in other Mars years observed by TES. These retrievals show somewhat higher water vapor during the morning hours (09:00-12:00) than in the afternoon (12:00-17:00) during southern summer (Ls=270°-330°) and little variation as a function of local time for southern fall (Ls=0°-30°). These retrievals show water vapor has a positive correlation with surface pressure (or negative correlation with altitude) indicating that water vapor is mixed in the lowest 10-20 km.

  12. Performance enhancement of hybrid solar cells through chemical vapor annealing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yue; Zhang, Genqiang

    2010-05-12

    Improvement in power conversion efficiency has been observed in cadmium selenide nanorods/poly(3-hexylthiophene) hybrid solar cells through benzene-1,3-dithiol chemical vapor annealing. Phosphor NMR studies of the nanorods and TEM/AFM characterizations of the morphology of the blended film showed that the ligand exchange reaction and related phase separation happening during the chemical vapor annealing are responsible for the performance enhancement.

  13. Ion channeling studies on mixed phases formed in metalorganic chemical vapor deposition grown Mg-doped GaN on Al2O3(0001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaravel, B.; Luo, E. Z.; Xu, J. B.; Wilson, I. H.; Fong, W. K.; Wang, L. S.; Surya, C.

    2000-01-01

    Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and ion channeling were used to determine the relative quantities of wurtzite and zinc-blende phases in metalorganic chemical vapor deposition grown Mg-doped GaN(0001) on an Al2O3(0001) substrate with a GaN buffer layer. Offnormal axial channeling scans were used. High-resolution x-ray diffraction measurements also confirmed the presence of mixed phases. The in-plane orientation was found to be GaN[11¯0]‖GaN[112¯0]‖Al2O3[112¯0]. The effects of rapid thermal annealing on the relative phase content, thickness and crystalline quality of the GaN epilayer were also studied.

  14. Hydrolysis reactor for hydrogen production

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Thomas A.; Matthews, Michael A.

    2012-12-04

    In accordance with certain embodiments of the present disclosure, a method for hydrolysis of a chemical hydride is provided. The method includes adding a chemical hydride to a reaction chamber and exposing the chemical hydride in the reaction chamber to a temperature of at least about 100.degree. C. in the presence of water and in the absence of an acid or a heterogeneous catalyst, wherein the chemical hydride undergoes hydrolysis to form hydrogen gas and a byproduct material.

  15. Water-Assisted Vapor Deposition of PEDOT Thin Film.

    PubMed

    Goktas, Hilal; Wang, Xiaoxue; Ugur, Asli; Gleason, Karen K

    2015-07-01

    The synthesis and characterization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) using water-assisted vapor phase polymerization (VPP) and oxidative chemical vapor deposition (oCVD) are reported. For the VPP PEDOT, the oxidant, FeCl3 , is sublimated onto the substrate from a heated crucible in the reactor chamber and subsequently exposed to 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) monomer and water vapor in the same reactor. The oCVD PEDOT was produced by introducing the oxidant, EDOT monomer, and water vapor simultaneously to the reactor. The enhancement of doping and crystallinity is observed in the water-assisted oCVD thin films. The high doping level observed at UV-vis-NIR spectra for the oCVD PEDOT, suggests that water acts as a solubilizing agent for oxidant and its byproducts. Although the VPP produced PEDOT thin films are fully amorphous, their conductivities are comparable with that of the oCVD produced ones. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Subatmospheric vapor pressures evaluated from internal-energy measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte-Garza, H. A.; Magee, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    Vapor pressures were evaluated from measured internal-energy changes in the vapor+liquid two-phase region, Δ U (2). The method employed a thermodynamic relationship between the derivative quantity (ϖ U (2)/ϖ V) T and the vapor pressure ( p σ) and its temperature derivative (ϖ p/ϖ T)σ. This method was applied at temperatures between the triple point and the normal boiling point of three substances: 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R134a), pentafluoroethane (R125), and difluoromethane (R32). Agreement with experimentally measured vapor pressures near the normal boiling point (101.325 kPa) was within the experimental uncertainty of approximately ±0.04 kPa (±0.04%). The method was applied to R134a to test the thermodynamic consistency of a published p-p-T equation of state with an equation for p σ for this substance. It was also applied to evaluate published p σ data which are in disagreement by more than their claimed uncertainty.

  17. Significance of vapor phase chemical reactions on CVD rates predicted by chemically frozen and local thermochemical equilibrium boundary layer theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, Suleyman A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper investigates the role played by vapor-phase chemical reactions on CVD rates by comparing the results of two extreme theories developed to predict CVD mass transport rates in the absence of interfacial kinetic barrier: one based on chemically frozen boundary layer and the other based on local thermochemical equilibrium. Both theories consider laminar convective-diffusion boundary layers at high Reynolds numbers and include thermal (Soret) diffusion and variable property effects. As an example, Na2SO4 deposition was studied. It was found that gas phase reactions have no important role on Na2SO4 deposition rates and on the predictions of the theories. The implications of the predictions of the two theories to other CVD systems are discussed.

  18. ZnO/Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2 solar cells prepared by vapor phase Zn doping

    DOEpatents

    Ramanathan, Kannan; Hasoon, Falah S.; Asher, Sarah E.; Dolan, James; Keane, James C.

    2007-02-20

    A process for making a thin film ZnO/Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2 solar cell without depositing a buffer layer and by Zn doping from a vapor phase, comprising: depositing Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2 layer on a metal back contact deposited on a glass substrate; heating the Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2 layer on the metal back contact on the glass substrate to a temperature range between about 100.degree. C. to about 250.degree. C.; subjecting the heated layer of Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2 to an evaporant species from a Zn compound; and sputter depositing ZnO on the Zn compound evaporant species treated layer of Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2.

  19. Fate of sulfur mustard on soil: Evaporation, degradation, and vapor emission.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyunsook; Kah, Dongha; Chan Lim, Kyoung; Lee, Jin Young

    2017-01-01

    After application of sulfur mustard to the soil surface, its possible fate via evaporation, degradation following absorption, and vapor emission after decontamination was studied. We used a laboratory-sized wind tunnel, thermal desorber, gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance ( 13 C NMR) for systematic analysis. When a drop of neat HD was deposited on the soil surface, it evaporated slowly while being absorbed immediately into the matrix. The initial evaporation or drying rates of the HD drop were found to be power-dependent on temperature and initial drop volume. Moreover, drops of neat HD, ranging in size from 1 to 6 μL, applied to soil, evaporated at different rates, with the smaller drops evaporating relatively quicker. HD absorbed into soil remained for a month, degrading eventually to nontoxic thiodiglycol via hydrolysis through the formation of sulfonium ions. Finally, a vapor emission test was performed for HD contaminant after a decontamination process, the results of which suggest potential risk from the release of trace chemical quantities of HD into the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The temporal power spectrum of atmospheric fluctuations due to water vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay, O. P.

    1997-05-01

    Irregular variations in the refractivity of the atmosphere cause fluctuations in the phase measured by interferometers, limiting the spatial resolution that can be obtained. For frequencies up to the far infrared, water vapor is the dominant cause of the variations. The temporal power spectrum of the phase fluctuations is needed to assess correction schemes such as phase referencing using a nearby calibrator and water vapor radiometry. A model is developed for the temporal power spectrum of phase fluctuations measured by an interferometer through a layer of Kolmogorov turbulence of arbitrary thickness. It is found that both the orientation of the baseline with respect to the wind direction and the elevation of the observations can have a large effect on the temporal power spectrum. Plots of the spectral density distribution, where the area under the curve is proportional to phase power, show that substantial contributions from length scales as long as 100 times the interferometer baseline are possible. The model is generally consistent with data from the 12-GHz phase monitor at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory, and allows the data to be extrapolated to an arbitrary baseline, observing frequency and elevation. There is some evidence that there can be more than one component of turbulence present at a given time for the Owens Valley. The validity of the frozen turbulence assumption and the geometrical optics approximation is discussed and found to be reasonable under most conditions. The models and data presented here form the basis of an analysis of phase calibration and water vapor radiometry \\cite[(Lay 1997)]{lay96}.

  1. Environmentally Compatible Vapor-Phase Corrosion Inhibitor for Space Shuttle Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, Howard L.; Hall, Phillip B.

    2003-01-01

    USA-SRB Element is responsible for the assembly and refurbishment of the non-motor components of the SRB as part of Space Shuttle. Thrust Vector Control (TVC) frames structurally support components of the TVC system located in the aft skirt of the SRB. TVC frames are exposed to the seacoast environment after refurbishment and, also, to seawater immersion after splashdown, and during tow-back to CCAFS-Hangar AF refurbishment facilities. During refurbishment operations it was found that numerous TVC frames were experiencing internal corrosion and coating failures, both from salt air and seawater intrusions. Inspectors using borescopes would visually examine the internal cavities of the complicated aluminum alloy welded tubular structure. It was very difficult for inspectors to examine cavity corners and tubing intersections and particularly, to determine the extent of the corrosion and coating anomalies. Physical access to TVC frame internal cavities for corrosion removal and coating repair was virtually impossible, and an improved method using a Liquid (water based) Vapor-phase Corrosion Inhibitor (LVCI) for preventing initiation of new corrosion, and mitigating and/or stopping existing corrosion growth was recommended in lieu of hazardous paint solvents and high VOC / solvent based corrosion inhibitors. In addition, the borescopic inspection method used to detect corrosion, and/or coating anomalies had severe limitations because of part geometry, and an improved non-destructive inspection (NDI) method using Neutron Radiography (N-Ray) was also recommended.

  2. Environmentally Compatible Vapor-Phase Corrosion Inhibitor for Space Shuttle Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, Howard L.; Hall, Phillip B.; Martin, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    USA-SRB Element is responsible for the assembly and refurbishment of the non-motor components of the SRB as part of Space Shuttle. Thrust Vector Control (TVC) frames structurally support components of the TVC system located in the aft skirt of the SRB (Solid Rocket Booster). TVC frames are exposed to the seacoast environment after refurbishment and, also, to seawater immersion after splashdown, and during tow-back to CCAFS-Hangar AF refurbishment facilities. During refurbishment operations it was found that numerous TVC frames were experiencing internal corrosion and coating failures, both from salt air and seawater intrusions. Inspectors using borescopes would visually examine the internal cavities of the complicated aluminum alloy welded tubular structure. It was very difficult for inspectors to examine cavity corners and tubing intersections and particularly. to determine the extent of the corrosion and coating anomalies. Physical access to TVC frame internal cavities for corrosion removal and coating repair was virtually impossible, and an improved method using a Liquid (water based) Vapor-phase Corrosion Inhibitor (LVCI) for preventing initiation of new corrosion, and mitigating and/or stopping existing corrosion growth was recommended in lieu of hazardous paint solvents and high VOC/solvent based corrosion inhibitors. In addition, the borescopic inspection method used to detect corrosion, and/or coating anomalies had severe limitations because of part geometry, and an improved non-destructive inspection (NDI) method using Neutron Radiography (N-Ray) was also recommended.

  3. Environmentally Compatible Vapor-Phase Corrosion Inhibitor for Space Shuttle Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, Howard L.; Hall, Phillip B.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    USA-SRB Element is responsible for the assembly and refurbishment of the non-motor components of the SRB as part of Space Shuttle. Thrust Vector Control (TVC) frames structurally support components of the TVC system located in the aft skirt of the SRB. TVC frames are exposed to the seacoast environment after refurbishment and, also, to seawater immersion after splashdown, and during tow-back to CCAFS-Hangar AF refurbishment facilities. During refurbishment operations it was found that numerous TVC frames were experiencing internal corrosion and coating failures, both from salt air and seawater intrusions. Inspectors using borescopes would visually examine the internal cavities of the complicated aluminum alloy welded tubular structure. It was very difficult for inspectors to examine cavity corners and tubing intersections and particularly, to determine the extent of the corrosion and coating anomalies. Physical access to TVC frame internal cavities for corrosion removal and coating repair was virtually impossible, and an improved method using a Liquid (water based) Vapor-phase Corrosion Inhibitor (LVCI) for preventing initiation of new corrosion, and mitigating and/or stopping existing corrosion growth was recommended in lieu of hazardous paint solvents and high VOC/solvent based corrosion inhibitors. In addition, the borescopic inspection method used to detect corrosion, and/or coating anomalies had severe limitations because of part geometry, and an improved non-destructive inspection (NDI) method using Neutron Radiography (N-Ray) was also recommended.

  4. Supramolecular Complexes Formed by the Self-assembly of Hydrophobic Bis(Zn(2+)-cyclen) Complexes, Copper, and Di- or Triimide Units for the Hydrolysis of Phosphate Mono- and Diesters in Two-Phase Solvent Systems (Cyclen=1,4,7,10-Tetraazacyclododecane).

    PubMed

    Hisamatsu, Yosuke; Miyazawa, Yuya; Yoneda, Kakeru; Miyauchi, Miki; Zulkefeli, Mohd; Aoki, Shin

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported on supramolecular complexes 4 and 5, formed by the 4 : 4 : 4 or 2 : 2 : 2 assembly of a dimeric zinc(II) complex (Zn2L(1)) having 2,2'-bipyridyl linker, dianion of cyanuric acid (CA) or 5,5-diethylbarbituric acid (Bar), and copper(II) ion (Cu(2+)) in an aqueous solution. The supermolecule 4 possesses Cu2(μ-OH)2 centers and catalyzes hydrolysis of phosphate monoester dianion, mono(4-nitrophenyl)phosphate (MNP), at neutral pH. In this manuscript, we report on design and synthesis of hydrophobic supermolecules 9 and 10 by 4 : 4 : 4 and 2 : 2 : 2 self-assembly of hydrophobic Zn2L(2) and Zn2L(3) containing long alkyl chains, CA or Bar, and Cu(2+) and their phosphatase activity for the hydrolysis of MNP and bis(4-nitrophenyl)phosphate (BNP) in two-phase solvent systems. We assumed that the Cu2(μ-OH)2 active sites of 9 and 10 would be more stable in organic solvent than in aqueous solution and that product inhibition of the supermolecules might be avoided by the release of HPO4(2-) into the aqueous layer. The findings indicate that 9 and 10 exhibit phosphatase activity in the two-phase solvent system, although catalytic turnover was not observed. Furthermore, the hydrolysis of BNP catalyzed by the hydrophobic 2 : 2 : 2 supermolecules in the two-phase solvent system is described.

  5. Single crystal growth in spin-coated films of polymorphic phthalocyanine derivative under solvent vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Higashi, T.; Ohmori, M.; Ramananarivo, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    The effects of solvent vapor on spin-coated films of a polymorphic phthalocyanine derivative were investigated. Growth of single crystal films via redissolving organic films under solvent vapor was revealed by in situ microscopic observations of the films. X-ray diffraction measurement of the films after exposing to solvent vapor revealed the phase transition of polymorphs under solvent vapor. The direction of crystal growth was clarified by measuring the crystal orientation in a grown monodomain film. The mechanism of crystal growth based on redissolving organic films under solvent vapor was discussed in terms of the different solubilities of the polymorphs.

  6. Isolation and purification of arctigenin from Fructus Arctii by enzymatic hydrolysis combined with high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Xi, Xingjun; Wang, Mei; Fan, Li; Geng, Yanling; Wang, Xiao

    2014-02-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis pretreatment combined with high-speed counter-current chromatography for the transformation and isolation of arctigenin from Fructus Arctii was successfully developed. In the first step, the extract solution of Fructus Arctii was enzymatic hydrolyzed by β-glucosidase. The optimal hydrolysis conditions were 40°C, pH 5.0, 24 h of hydrolysis time, and 1.25 mg/mL β-glucosidase concentration. Under these conditions, the content of arctigenin was transformed from 2.60 to 12.59 mg/g. In the second step, arctigenin in the hydrolysis products was separated and purified by high-speed counter-current chromatography with a two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (10:25:15:20, v/v), and the fraction was analyzed by HPLC, ESI-MS, and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Finally, 102 mg of arctigenin with a purity of 98.9% was obtained in a one-step separation from 200 mg of hydrolyzed sample. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. NOVEL CERAMIC-ORGANIC VAPOR PERMEATION MEMBRANES FOR VOC REMOVAL - PHASE II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vapor permeation with highly permeable and organic-selective membranes is becoming an increasingly popular technique for preventing VOC emissions that are generated by a variety of stationary sources, including solvent and surface coating operations, gasoline storage operat...

  8. Process Parameters on the Crystallization and Morphology of Hydroxyapatite Powders Prepared by a Hydrolysis Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Moo-Chin; Hon, Min-Hsiung; Chen, Hui-Ting; Yen, Feng-Lin; Hung, I.-Ming; Ko, Horng-Huey; Shih, Wei-Jen

    2013-07-01

    The effects of process parameters on the crystallization and morphology of hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, HA) powders synthesized from dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (CaHPO4·2H2O, DCPD) using a hydrolysis method have been investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) were used to characterize the synthesized powders. When DCPD underwent hydrolysis in 2.5 NaOH solution (Na(aq)) at 303 K to 348 K (30 °C to 75 °C) for 1 hour, the XRD results revealed that HA was obtained for all the as-dried samples. The SEM morphology of the HA powders for DCPD hydrolysis produced at 348 K (75 °C) shows regular alignment and a short rod shape with a size of 200 nm in length and 50 nm in width. With DCPD hydrolysis in 2.5 M NaOH(aq) holding at 348 K (75 °C) for 1 to 24 hours, XRD results demonstrated that all samples were HA and no other phases could be detected. Moreover, the XRD results also show that all the as-dried powders still maintained the HA structure when DCPD underwent hydrolysis in 0.1 to 5 M NaOH(aq) at 348 K (75 °C) for 1 hour. Otherwise, the full transformation from HA to octa-calcium phosphate (OCP, Ca8H2(PO4)6·5H2O) occurred when hydrolysis happened in 10 M NaOH(aq). FT-IR spectra analysis revealed that some carbonated HA (Ca10(PO4)6(CO3), CHA) had formed. The SEM morphology results show that the 60 to 65 nm width of the uniformly long rods with regular alignment formed in the HA powder aggregates when DCPD underwent hydrolysis in 2.5 M NaOH(aq) at 348 K (75 °C) for 1 hour.

  9. Island dynamics and anisotropy during vapor phase epitaxy of m-plane GaN

    DOE PAGES

    Perret, Edith; Xu, Dongwei; Highland, M. J.; ...

    2017-12-04

    Using in situ grazing-incidence x-ray scattering, we have measured the diffuse scattering from islands that form during layer-by-layer growth of GaN by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy on the (10more » $$\\bar{1}$$0) m-plane surface. The diffuse scattering is extended in the (0001) in-plane direction in reciprocal space, indicating a strong anisotropy with islands elongated along [1$$\\bar{2}$$10] and closely spaced along [0001]. This is confirmed by atomic force microscopy of a quenched sample. Islands were characterized as a function of growth rate F and temperature. Furthermore, the island spacing along [0001] observed during the growth of the first monolayer obeys a power-law dependence on growth rate F -n, with an exponent n=0.25±0.02. Our results are in agreement with recent kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, indicating that elongated islands result from the dominant anisotropy in step edge energy and not from surface diffusion anisotropy. The observed power-law exponent can be explained using a simple steady-state model, which gives n = 1/4.« less

  10. Vapor Phase Synthesis of Organometal Halide Perovskite Nanowires for Tunable Room-Temperature Nanolasers.

    PubMed

    Xing, Jun; Liu, Xin Feng; Zhang, Qing; Ha, Son Tung; Yuan, Yan Wen; Shen, Chao; Sum, Tze Chien; Xiong, Qihua

    2015-07-08

    Semiconductor nanowires have received considerable attention in the past decade driven by both unprecedented physics derived from the quantum size effect and strong isotropy and advanced applications as potential building blocks for nanoscale electronics and optoelectronic devices. Recently, organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have been shown to exhibit high optical absorption coefficient, optimal direct band gap, and long electron/hole diffusion lengths, leading to high-performance photovoltaic devices. Herein, we present the vapor phase synthesis free-standing CH3NH3PbI3, CH3NH3PbBr3, and CH3NH3PbIxCl3(-x) perovskite nanowires with high crystallinity. These rectangular cross-sectional perovskite nanowires have good optical properties and long electron hole diffusion length, which ensure adequate gain and efficient optical feedback. Indeed, we have demonstrated optical-pumped room-temperature CH3NH3PbI3 nanowire lasers with near-infrared wavelength of 777 nm, low threshold of 11 μJ/cm(2), and a quality factor as high as 405. Our research advocates the promise of optoelectronic devices based on organic-inorganic perovskite nanowires.

  11. Island dynamics and anisotropy during vapor phase epitaxy of m-plane GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Perret, Edith; Xu, Dongwei; Highland, M. J.

    Using in situ grazing-incidence x-ray scattering, we have measured the diffuse scattering from islands that form during layer-by-layer growth of GaN by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy on the (1010) m-plane surface. The diffuse scattering is extended in the (0001) in-plane direction in reciprocal space, indicating a strong anisotropy with islands elongated along [1210] and closely spaced along [0001]. This is confirmed by atomic force microscopy of a quenched sample. Islands were characterized as a function of growth rate F and temperature. The island spacing along [0001] observed during the growth of the first monolayer obeys a power-law dependence on growthmore » rate F-n, with an exponent n = 0:25 + 0.02. The results are in agreement with recent kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, indicating that elongated islands result from the dominant anisotropy in step edge energy and not from surface diffusion anisotropy. The observed power-law exponent can be explained using a simple steady-state model, which gives n = 1/4.« less

  12. Island dynamics and anisotropy during vapor phase epitaxy of m-plane GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Perret, Edith; Xu, Dongwei; Highland, M. J.

    Using in situ grazing-incidence x-ray scattering, we have measured the diffuse scattering from islands that form during layer-by-layer growth of GaN by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy on the (10more » $$\\bar{1}$$0) m-plane surface. The diffuse scattering is extended in the (0001) in-plane direction in reciprocal space, indicating a strong anisotropy with islands elongated along [1$$\\bar{2}$$10] and closely spaced along [0001]. This is confirmed by atomic force microscopy of a quenched sample. Islands were characterized as a function of growth rate F and temperature. Furthermore, the island spacing along [0001] observed during the growth of the first monolayer obeys a power-law dependence on growth rate F -n, with an exponent n=0.25±0.02. Our results are in agreement with recent kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, indicating that elongated islands result from the dominant anisotropy in step edge energy and not from surface diffusion anisotropy. The observed power-law exponent can be explained using a simple steady-state model, which gives n = 1/4.« less

  13. Short-time ultrasonication treatment in enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass

    Treesearch

    Zengqian Shi; Zhiyong Cai; Siqun Wang; Qixin Zhong; Joseph J. Bozell

    2013-01-01

    To improve the conversion of enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass in an energy-efficient manner, two shorttime ultrasonication strategies were applied on six types of biomass with different structures and components. The strategies include pre-sonication before the hydrolysis and intermittent sonication during the ongoing hydrolysis. The microstructures of each type of...

  14. Reaction kinetics of cellulose hydrolysis in subcritical and supercritical water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olanrewaju, Kazeem Bode

    converting cellulose to fermentable sugars in subcritical and supercritical water differs because of the difference in their activation energies. Cellulose and starch were both hydrolyzed in micro- and tubular reactors and at subcritical and supercritical conditions. Due to the difficulty involved in generating an aqueous based dissolved cellulose and having it reacted in subcritical water, dissolved starch was used instead. Better yield of water soluble hydrolysates, especially fermentable sugars, were observed from the hydrolysis of cellulose and dissolved starch in subcritical water than at supercritical conditions. The concluding phase of this project focuses on establishing the mode of scission of cellulose chains in the hydrothermal reactor. This was achieved by using the simulated degradation pattern generated based on different scission modes to fingerprint the degradation pattern obtained from experiment.

  15. Elimination of macrostep-induced current flow nonuniformity in vertical GaN PN diode using carbon-free drift layer grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujikura, Hajime; Hayashi, Kentaro; Horikiri, Fumimasa; Narita, Yoshinobu; Konno, Taichiro; Yoshida, Takehiro; Ohta, Hiroshi; Mishima, Tomoyoshi

    2018-04-01

    In vertical GaN PN diodes (PNDs) grown entirely by metal–organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), large current nonuniformity was observed. This nonuniformity was induced by macrosteps on the GaN surface through modulation of carbon incorporation into the n-GaN crystal. It was eliminated in a hybrid PND consisting of a carbon-free n-GaN layer grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) and an MOCVD-regrown p-GaN layer. The hybrid PND showed a fairly low on-resistance (2 mΩ cm2) and high breakdown voltage (2 kV) even without a field plate electrode. These results clearly indicated the strong advantages of the HVPE-grown drift layer for improving power device performance, uniformity, and yield.

  16. Preparation of freestanding GaN wafer by hydride vapor phase epitaxy on porous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xian; Li, Peng; Liang, Renrong; Xiao, Lei; Xu, Jun; Wang, Jing

    2018-05-01

    A freestanding GaN wafer was prepared on porous Si (111) substrate using hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). To avoid undesirable effects of the porous surface on the crystallinity of the GaN, a GaN seed layer was first grown on the Si (111) bare wafer. A pattern with many apertures was fabricated in the GaN seed layer using lithography and etching processes. A porous layer was formed in the Si substrate immediately adjacent to the GaN seed layer by an anodic etching process. A 500-μm-thick GaN film was then grown on the patterned GaN seed layer using HVPE. The GaN film was separated from the Si substrate through the formation of cracks in the porous layer caused by thermal mismatch stress during the cooling stage of the HVPE. Finally, the GaN film was polished to obtain a freestanding GaN wafer.

  17. Vapor phase polymerization deposition of conducting polymer/graphene nanocomposites as high performance electrode materials.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yajie; Li, Shibin; Zhang, Luning; Xu, Jianhua; Yang, Wenyao; Jiang, Yadong

    2013-05-22

    In this paper, we report chemical vapor phase polymerization (VPP) deposition of novel poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)/graphene nanocomposites as solid tantalum electrolyte capacitor cathode films. The PEDOT/graphene films were successfully prepared on porous tantalum pentoxide surface as cathode films through the VPP procedure. The results indicated that the high conductivity nature of PEDOT/graphene leads to the decrease of cathode films resistance and contact resistance between PEDOT/graphene and carbon paste. This nanocomposite cathode film based capacitor showed ultralow equivalent series resistance (ESR) ca. 12 mΩ and exhibited better capacitance-frequency performance than the PEDOT based capacitor. The leakage current investigation revealed that the device encapsulation process does not influence capacitor leakage current, indicating the excellent mechanical strength of PEDOT-graphene films. The graphene showed a distinct protection effect on the dielectric layer from possible mechanical damage. This high conductivity and mechanical strength graphene based conducting polymer nanocomposites indicated a promising application future for organic electrode materials.

  18. Thermogravimetric study of vapor pressure of TATP synthesized without recrystallization.

    PubMed

    Mbah, Jonathan; Knott, Debra; Steward, Scott

    2014-11-01

    This study aims at characterizing the vapor pressure signatures generated by triacetone triperoxide (TATP) that was synthesized without recrystallization by thermogravimmetric analysis (TGA) for exploitation by standoff detection technologies of explosive devices. The thermal behavior of the nonrecrystallized sample was compared with reported values. Any phase change, melting point and decomposition identification were studied by differential scanning calorimeter. Vapor pressures were estimated by the Langmuir method of evaporation from an open surface in a vacuum. Vapor pressures of TATP at different temperatures were calculated using the linear logarithmic relationship obtained from benzoic acid reference standard. Sublimation of TATP was found to follow apparent zero-order kinetics and sublimes at steady rates at 298 K and above. While the enthalpy of sublimation found, 71.7 kJ mol(-1), is in agreement with reported values the vapor pressures deviated significantly. The differences in the vapor pressures behavior are attributable to the synthesis pathway chosen in this study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Air-stable hydrogen generation materials and enhanced hydrolysis performance of MgH2-LiNH2 composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Miaolian; Ouyang, Liuzhang; Liu, Jiangwen; Wang, Hui; Shao, Huaiyu; Zhu, Min

    2017-08-01

    Hydrolysis of materials in water can be a promising solution of onsite hydrogen generation for realization of hydrogen economy. In this work, it was the first time that the MgH2-LiNH2 composites were explored as air-stable hydrolysis system for hydrogen generation. The MgH2-LiNH2 composites with different composition ratios were synthesized by ball milling with various durations and the hydrogen generation performances of the composite samples were investigated and compared. X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy techniques were adopted to elucidate the performance improvement mechanisms. The hydrolysis properties of MgH2 were found to be significantly enhanced by the introduction of LiNH2. The 4MgH2-LiNH2 composite ball milled for 5 h can generate 887.2 mL g-1 hydrogen in 1 min and 1016 mL g-1 in 50 min, one of the best results so far for Mg based hydrolysis materials. The LiOH·H2O and NH4OH phases of hydrolysis products from LiNH2 may prevent formation of Mg(OH)2 passivation layer on the surface and supply enough channels for hydrolysis of MgH2. The MgH2-LiNH2 composites appeared to be very stable in air and no obvious negative effect on kinetics and hydrogen generation yield was observed. These good performances demonstrate that the studied MgH2-LiNH2 composites can be a promising and practicable hydrogen generation system.

  20. A "User-Friendly" Program for Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Da Silva, Francisco A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Described is a computer software package suitable for teaching and research in the area of multicomponent vapor-liquid equilibrium. This program, which has a complete database, can accomplish phase-equilibrium calculations using various models and graph the results. (KR)

  1. Kinetics and mechanism of imazosulfuron hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Morrica, P; Barbato, F; Della Iacovo, R; Seccia, S; Ungaro, F

    2001-08-01

    Knowledge of the kinetics and pathways of hydrolytic degradation is crucial to the prediction of the fate and transport mechanism of chemicals. This work first describes the kinetics of the chemical hydrolysis of imazosulfuron, a new sulfonylurea herbicide, and evaluates the results to propose a degradation pathway. The hydrolysis of imazosulfuron has been studied in aqueous buffers both within the pH range 1.9-12.3 at ambient temperature (thermostated at 25 +/- 2 degrees C) and at pH 3.6 within the temperature range of 15-55 degrees C. The hydrolysis rate of imazosulfuron was characterized by a first-order kinetics, pH- and temperature-dependent, and accelerated by acidic conditions and higher temperatures. The calculated half-lives at pH 4.5 and 5.9 were 36.5 and 578 days, respectively. At pH 6.6, 7.4, 9.2, and 12.3 no significant change in imazosulfuron concentration was observed after 150 days. Half-lives were much lower at pH <4 (= imazosulfuron pK(a)), at which they ranged from 3.3 to 6.3 days. Moreover, a change in temperature from 15 to 25 degrees C in acidic conditions (pH 3.6) decreased the half-life of imazosulfuron by a factor of approximately 4.0; in any case, a 3-5-fold increase in the rate of hydrolysis was found for each 10 degrees C increase in temperature. In acidic conditions the only hydrolysis products were the two molecules resulting from the cleavage of the sulfonylurea bridge.

  2. NOVEL CERAMIC-ORGANIC VAPOR PERMEATION MEMBRANES FOR VOC REMOVAL - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vapor permeation holds much promise for becoming a highly efficient means of preventing VOC emissions that are now generated by a variety of stationary sources, including solvent and surface coating operations, gasoline storage operations, and printing operations. A limitation of...

  3. Vapor deposition in basaltic stalactites, Kilauea, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, A. K.; Mohrig, D. C.; Welday, E. E.

    Basaltic stalacties suspended from the ceiling of a large lava tube at Kilauea, Hawaii, have totally enclosed vesicles whose walls are covered with euhedral FeTi oxide and silicate crystals. The walls of the vesicles and the exterior surfaces of stalactites are Fe and Ti enriched and Si depleted compared to common basalt. Minerals in vesicles have surface ornamentations on crystal faces which include alkali-enriched, aluminosilicate glass(?) hemispheres. No sulfide-, chloride-, fluoride-, phosphate- or carbonate-bearing minerals are present. Minerals in the stalactites must have formed by deposition from an iron oxide-rich vapor phase produced by the partial melting and vaporization of wall rocks in the tube.

  4. Vapor-liquid phase equilibria of water modelled by a Kim-Gordon potential

    SciTech Connect

    Maerzke, K A; McGrath, M J; Kuo, I W

    2009-03-16

    Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to investigate the properties of a frozen-electron-density (or Kim-Gordon, KG) model of water along the vapor-liquid coexistence curve. Because of its theoretical basis, such a KG model provides for seamless coupling to Kohn-Sham density functional theory for use in mixed quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) implementations. The Gibbs ensemble simulations indicate rather limited transferability of such a simple KG model to other state points. Specifically, a KG model that was parameterized by Barker and Sprik to the properties of liquid water at 300 K, yields saturated vapor pressures and a critical temperature thatmore » are significantly under- and over-estimated, respectively.« less

  5. Vapor-Phase Deposition and Modification of Metal-Organic Frameworks: State-of-the-Art and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Stassen, Ivo; De Vos, Dirk; Ameloot, Rob

    2016-10-04

    Materials processing, and thin-film deposition in particular, is decisive in the implementation of functional materials in industry and real-world applications. Vapor processing of materials plays a central role in manufacturing, especially in electronics. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a class of nanoporous crystalline materials on the brink of breakthrough in many application areas. Vapor deposition of MOF thin films will facilitate their implementation in micro- and nanofabrication research and industries. In addition, vapor-solid modification can be used for postsynthetic tailoring of MOF properties. In this context, we review the recent progress in vapor processing of MOFs, summarize the underpinning chemistry and principles, and highlight promising directions for future research. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Comparison of Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Acid Hydrolysis of Sterol Glycosides from Foods Rich in Δ(7)-Sterols.

    PubMed

    Münger, Linda H; Jutzi, Sabrina; Lampi, Anna-Maija; Nyström, Laura

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we present the difference in sterol composition of extracted steryl glycosides (SG) hydrolyzed by either enzymatic or acid hydrolysis. SG were analyzed from foods belonging to the plant families Cucurbitaceae (melon and pumpkin seeds) and Amaranthaceae (amaranth and beetroot), both of which are dominated by Δ(7)-sterols. Released sterols were quantified by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and identified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All Δ(7)-sterols identified (Δ(7)-stigmastenyl, spinasteryl, Δ(7)-campesteryl, Δ(7)-avenasteryl, poriferasta-7,25-dienyl and poriferasta-7,22,25-trienyl glucoside) underwent isomerization under acidic conditions and high temperature. Sterols with an ethylidene or methylidene side chain were found to form multiple artifacts. The artifact sterols coeluted with residues of incompletely isomerized Δ(7)-sterols, or Δ(5)-sterols if present, and could be identified as Δ(8(14))-sterols on the basis of relative retention time, and their MS spectra as trimethylsilyl (TMS) and acetate derivatives. For instance, SG from melon were composed of 66% Δ(7)-stigmastenol when enzymatic hydrolysis was performed, whereas with acid hydrolysis only 8% of Δ(7)-stigmastenol was determined. The artifact of Δ(7)-stigmastenol coeluted with residual non-isomerized spinasterol, demonstrating the high risk of misinterpretation of compositional data obtained after acid hydrolysis. Therefore, the accurate composition of SG from foods containing sterols with a double bond at C-7 can only be obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis or by direct analysis of the intact SG.

  7. Quantification of natural vapor fluxes of trichloroethene in the unsaturated zone at Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, James A.; Tisdale, Amy K.; Cho, H. Jean

    1996-01-01

    The upward flux of trichloroethene (TCE) vapor through the unsaturated zone above a contaminated, water-table aquifer at Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey, has been studied under natural conditions over a 12-month period. Vertical gas-phase diffusion fluxes were estimated indirectly by measuring the TCE vapor concentration gradient in the unsaturated zone and using Fick's law to calculate the flux. The total gas-phase flux (e.g., the sum of diffusion and advection fluxes) was measured directly with a vertical flux chamber (VFC). In many cases, the upward TCE vapor flux was several orders of magnitude greater than the upward TCE diffusion flux, suggesting that mechanisms other than steady-state vapor diffusion are contributing to the vertical transport of TCE vapors through the unsaturated zone. The measured total flux of TCE vapor from the subsurface to the atmosphere is approximately 50 kg/yr and is comparable in magnitude to the removal rate of TCE from the aquifer by an existing pump-and-treat system and by discharge into a nearby stream. The net upward flux of TCE is reduced significantly during a storm event, presumably due to the mass transfer of TCE from the soil gas to the infiltrating rainwater and its subsequent downward advection. Several potential problems associated with the measurement of total gas-phase fluxes are discussed.

  8. Deep-level transient spectroscopy studies of Ni- and Zn-diffused vapor-phase-epitaxy n-GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partin, D. L.; Chen, J. W.; Milnes, A. G.; Vassamillet, L. F.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents deep-level transient spectroscopy studies of Ni- and Zn-diffused vapor-phase epitaxy n-GaAs. Nickel diffused into VPE n-GaAs reduces the hole diffusion length L sub p from 4.3 to 1.1 microns. Deep-level transient spectroscopy was used to identify energy levels in Ni-diffused GaAs; the as-grown VPE GaAs contains traces of these levels and an electron trap. Ni diffusion reduces the concentration of this level by an amount that matches the increase in concentration of each of the two Ni-related levels. A technique for measuring minority-carrier capture cross sections was developed, which indicates that L sub p in Ni-diffused VPE n-GaAs is controlled by the E sub c - 0.39 eV defect level.

  9. Morphological, compositional, and geometrical transients of V-groove quantum wires formed during metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimastrodonato, Valeria; Pelucchi, Emanuele; Zestanakis, Panagiotis A.; Vvedensky, Dimitri D.

    2013-07-01

    We present a theoretical model of the formation of self-limited (Al)GaAs quantum wires within V-grooves on GaAs(001) substrates during metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy. We identify the facet-dependent rates of the kinetic processes responsible for the formation of the self-limiting profile, which is accompanied by Ga segregation along the axis perpendicular to the bottom of the original template, and analyze their interplay with the facet geometry in the transient regime. A reduced model is adopted for the evolution of the patterned profile, as determined by the angle between the different crystallographic planes as a function of the growth conditions. Our results provide a comprehensive phenomenological understanding of the self-ordering mechanism on patterned surfaces which can be harnessed for designing the quantum optical properties of low-dimensional systems.

  10. Hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids by phospholipases of rat liver lysosomes

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Donald E.; Irvine, Robin F.; Dawson, Rex M. C.

    1979-01-01

    (1) The hydrolysis of 32P- or myo-[2-3H]inositol-labelled rat liver microsomal phospholipids by rat liver lysosomal enzymes has been studied. (2) The relative rates of hydrolysis of phospholipids at pH4.5 are: sphingomyelin>phosphatidylethanolamine>phosphatidylcholine> phosphatidylinositol. (3) The predominant products of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine hydrolysis are their corresponding lyso-compounds, indicating a slow rate of total deacylation. (4) Ca2+ inhibits the hydrolysis of all phospholipids, though only appreciably at high (>5mm) concentration. The hydrolysis of sphingomyelin is considerably less sensitive to Ca2+ than that of glycerophospholipids. (5) Analysis of the water-soluble products of phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis (by using myo-[3H]inositol-labelled microsomal fraction as a substrate) produced evidence that more than 95% of the product is phosphoinositol, which was derived by direct cleavage from phosphatidylinositol, rather than by hydrolysis of glycerophosphoinositol. (6) This production of phosphoinositol, allied with negligible lysophosphatidylinositol formation and a detectable accumulation of diacylglycerol, indicates that lysosomes hydrolyse membrane phosphatidylinositol almost exclusively in a phospholipase C-like manner. (7) Comparisons are drawn between the hydrolysis by lysosomal enzymes of membrane substrates and that of pure phospholipid substrates, and also the possible role of phosphatidylinositol-specific lysosomal phospholipase C in cellular phosphatidylinositol catabolism is discussed. PMID:508301

  11. Determination of vapor pressures for nonpolar and semipolar organic compounds from gas chromatographic retention data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinckley, D.A.; Bidleman, T.F.; Foreman, W.T.; Tuschall, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    Vapor pressures for nonpolar and moderately polar organochlorine, pyrethroid, and organophosphate insecticides, phthalate esters, and organophosphate flame retardants were determined by capillary gas chromatography (GC). Organochlorines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with known liquid-phase vapor pressures (P??L) (standard compounds) were chromatographed along with two reference compounds n-C20 (elcosane) and p,p???-DDT on a 1.0-m-long poly(dimethylsiloxane) bonded-phase (BP-1) column to determine their vapor pressures by GC (P??GC). A plot of log P??L vs log P??GC for standard compounds was made to establish a correlation between measured and literature values, and this correlation was then used to compute P??L of test compounds from their measured P??GC. P??L of seven major components of technical chlordane, endosulfan and its metabolites, ??-hexachlorocyclohexane, mirex, and two components of technical toxaphene were determined by GC. This method provides vapor pressures within a factor of 2 of average literature values for nonpolar compounds, similar to reported interlaboratory precisions of vapor pressure determinations. GC tends to overestimate vapor pressures of moderately polar compounds. ?? 1990 American Chemical Society.

  12. Partition and fate analysis of fluoroquinolones in sewage sludge during anaerobic digestion with thermal hydrolysis pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Liu, Huajie; Xue, Yonggang; Wang, Hongyang; Dai, Xiaohu

    2017-03-01

    Fluoroquinolones (FQs) are broad-spectrum synthetic antibiotics that play an important role in the treatment of serious bacterial infections. FQs can reach wastewater treatment plants from different routes, and eventually accumulate in activated sludge. In this study, a solid-phase extraction (SPE) with HPLC-FLD detection method was utilized to investigate the partition and fate of FQs in digested sludge when thermal hydrolysis was used as pretreatment. As a result, thermal hydrolysis showed minor effects on the fate of FQs in batch anaerobic digestion processes, while anaerobic digestion alone removed >60% FQs and finally assisted in the mitigation of the inhibitory effects to microbial communities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Vapor-dominated zones within hydrothermal systems: evolution and natural state

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, S.E.; Sorey, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    Three conceptual models illustrate the range of hydrothermal systems in which vapor-dominated conditions are found. The first model (model I) represents a system with an extensive near-vaporstatic vapor-dominated zone and limited liquid throughflow and is analogous to systems such as The Geysers, California. Models II and III represent systems with significant liquid throughflow and include steam-heated discharge features at higher elevations and high-chloride springs at lower elevations connected to and fed by a single circulation system at depth. In model II, as in model I, the vapor-dominated zone has a near-vaporstatic vertical pressure gradient and is generally underpressured with respect to local hydrostatic pressure. The vapor-dominated zone in model III is quite different, in that phase separation takes place at pressures close to local hydrostatic and the overall pressure gradient is near hydrostatic. -from Authors

  14. Stepwise hydrolysis to improve carbon releasing efficiency from sludge.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongbo; Wang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Ling; Yu, Tiantian; Fu, Bo; Liu, He

    2017-08-01

    Based on thermal alkaline hydrolysis (TAH), a novel strategy of stepwise hydrolysis was developed to improve carbon releasing efficiency from waste activated sludge (WAS). By stepwise increasing hydrolysis intensity, conventional sludge hydrolysis (the control) was divided into four stages for separately recovering sludge carbon sources with different bonding strengths, namely stage 1 (60 °C, pH 6.0-8.0), stage 2 (80 °C, pH 6.0-8.0), stage 3 (80 °C, pH 10.0) and stage 4 (90 °C, pH 12.0). Results indicate stepwise hydrolysis could enhance the amount of released soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) for almost 2 times, from 7200 to 14,693 mg/L, and the released carbon presented better biodegradability, with BOD/COD of 0.47 and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) yield of 0.37 g VFAs/g SCOD via anaerobic fermentation. Moreover, stepwise hydrolysis also improved the dewaterability of hydrolyzed sludge, capillary suction time (CST) reducing from 2500 to 1600 s. Economic assessment indicates stepwise hydrolysis shows less alkali demand and lower thermal energy consumption than those of the control. Furthermore, results of this study help support the concepts of improving carbon recovery in wastewater by manipulating WAS composition and the idea of classifiably recovering the nutrients in WAS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cellulase stability, adsorption/desorption profiles and recycling during successive cycles of hydrolysis and fermentation of wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Ana Cristina; Felby, Claus; Gama, Miguel

    2014-03-01

    The potential of enzymes recycling after hydrolysis and fermentation of wheat straw under a variety of conditions was investigated, monitoring the activity of the enzymes in the solid and liquid fractions, using low molecular weight substrates. A significant amount of active enzymes could be recovered by recycling the liquid phase. In the early stage of the process, enzyme adsorb to the substrate, then gradually returning to the solution as the saccharification proceeds. At 50°C, normally regarded as an acceptable operational temperature for saccharification, the enzymes (Celluclast) significantly undergo thermal deactivation. The hydrolysis yield and enzyme recycling efficiency in consecutive recycling rounds can be increased by using high enzyme loadings and moderate temperatures. Indeed, the amount of enzymes in the liquid phase increased with its thermostability and hydrolytic efficiency. This study contributes towards developing effective enzymes recycling strategies and helping to reduce the enzyme costs on bioethanol production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Initial Stage of Aerosol Formation from Oversaturated Vapors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lushnikov, A. A.; Zagainov, V. A.; Lyubovtseva, Yu. S.

    2018-03-01

    The formation of aerosol particles from oversaturated vapor was considered assuming that the stable nuclei of the new phase contain two (dimers) or three (trimers) condensing vapor molecules. Exact expressions were derived and analyzed for the partition functions of the dimer and trimer suspended in a carrier gas for the rectangular well and repulsive core intermolecular potentials. The equilibrium properties of these clusters and the nucleation rate of aerosol particles were discussed. The bound states of clusters were introduced using a limitation on their total energy: molecular clusters with a negative total energy were considered to exclude configurations with noninteracting fragments.

  17. Tracing Water Vapor and Ice During Dust Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krijt, Sebastiaan; Ciesla, Fred J.; Bergin, Edwin A.

    2016-12-01

    The processes that govern the evolution of dust and water (in the form of vapor or ice) in protoplanetary disks are intimately connected. We have developed a model that simulates dust coagulation, dust dynamics (settling, turbulent mixing), vapor diffusion, and condensation/sublimation of volatiles onto grains in a vertical column of a protoplanetary disk. We employ the model to study how dust growth and dynamics influence the vertical distribution of water vapor and water ice in the region just outside the radial snowline. Our main finding is that coagulation (boosted by the enhanced stickiness of icy grains) and the ensuing vertical settling of solids results in water vapor being depleted, but not totally removed, from the region above the snowline on a timescale commensurate with the vertical turbulent mixing timescale. Depending on the strength of the turbulence and the temperature, the depletion can reach factors of up to ˜50 in the disk atmosphere. In our isothermal column, this vapor depletion results in the vertical snowline moving closer to the midplane (by up to 2 gas scale heights) and the gas-phase {{C}}/{{O}} ratio above the vertical snowline increasing. Our findings illustrate the importance of dynamical effects and the need for understanding coevolutionary dynamics of gas and solids in planet-forming environments.

  18. Structure and phase behavior of a confined nanodroplet composed of the flexible chain molecules.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soon-Chul; Kim, Eun-Young; Seong, Baek-Seok

    2011-04-28

    A polymer density functional theory has been employed for investigating the structure and phase behaviors of the chain polymer, which is modelled as the tangentially connected sphere chain with an attractive interaction, inside the nanosized pores. The excess free energy of the chain polymer has been approximated as the modified fundamental measure-theory for the hard spheres, the Wertheim's first-order perturbation for the chain connectivity, and the mean-field approximation for the van der Waals contribution. For the value of the chemical potential corresponding to a stable liquid phase in the bulk system and a metastable vapor phase, the flexible chain molecules undergo the liquid-vapor transition as the pore size is reduced; the vapor is the stable phase at small volume, whereas the liquid is the stable phase at large volume. The wide liquid-vapor coexistence curve, which explains the wide range of metastable liquid-vapor states, is observed at low temperature. The increase of temperature and decrease of pore size result in a narrowing of liquid-vapor coexistence curves. The increase of chain length leads to a shift of the liquid-vapor coexistence curve towards lower values of chemical potential. The coexistence curves for the confined phase diagram are contained within the corresponding bulk liquid-vapor coexistence curve. The equilibrium capillary phase transition occurs at a higher chemical potential than in the bulk phase.

  19. The Hydrolysis of Carbonyl Sulfide at Low Temperature: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shunzheng; Yi, Honghong; Tang, Xiaolong; Jiang, Shanxue; Gao, Fengyu; Zhang, Bowen; Zuo, Yanran; Wang, Zhixiang

    2013-01-01

    Catalytic hydrolysis technology of carbonyl sulfide (COS) at low temperature was reviewed, including the development of catalysts, reaction kinetics, and reaction mechanism of COS hydrolysis. It was indicated that the catalysts are mainly involved metal oxide and activated carbon. The active ingredients which can load on COS hydrolysis catalyst include alkali metal, alkaline earth metal, transition metal oxides, rare earth metal oxides, mixed metal oxides, and nanometal oxides. The catalytic hydrolysis of COS is a first-order reaction with respect to carbonyl sulfide, while the reaction order of water changes as the reaction conditions change. The controlling steps are also different because the reaction conditions such as concentration of carbonyl sulfide, reaction temperature, water-air ratio, and reaction atmosphere are different. The hydrolysis of carbonyl sulfide is base-catalyzed reaction, and the force of the base site has an important effect on the hydrolysis of carbonyl sulfide. PMID:23956697

  20. Atomic layer deposited cobalt oxide: An efficient catalyst for NaBH{sub 4} hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nandi, Dip K.; Manna, Joydev; Dhara, Arpan

    2016-01-15

    Thin films of cobalt oxide are deposited by atomic layer deposition using dicobalt octacarbonyl [Co{sub 2}(CO){sub 8}] and ozone (O{sub 3}) at 50 °C on microscope glass substrates and polished Si(111) wafers. Self-saturated growth mechanism is verified by x-ray reflectivity measurements. As-deposited films consist of both the crystalline phases; CoO and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} that gets converted to pure cubic-Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase upon annealing at 500 °C under ambient condition. Elemental composition and uniformity of the films is examined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary ion-mass spectroscopy. Both as-deposited and the annealed films have been successfully tested as a catalyst formore » hydrogen evolution from sodium borohydride hydrolysis. The activation energy of the hydrolysis reaction in the presence of the as-grown catalyst is found to be ca. 38 kJ mol{sup −1}. Further implementation of multiwalled carbon nanotube, as a scaffold layer, improves the hydrogen generation rate by providing higher surface area of the deposited catalyst.« less

  1. A process for producing lignin and volatile compounds from hydrolysis liquor.

    PubMed

    Khazraie, Tooran; Zhang, Yiqian; Tarasov, Dmitry; Gao, Weijue; Price, Jacquelyn; DeMartini, Nikolai; Hupa, Leena; Fatehi, Pedram

    2017-01-01

    Hot water hydrolysis process is commercially applied for treating wood chips prior to pulping or wood pellet production, while it produces hydrolysis liquor as a by-product. Since the hydrolysis liquor is dilute, the production of value-added materials from it would be challenging. In this study, acidification was proposed as a viable method to extract (1) furfural and acetic acid from hot water hydrolysis liquor and (2) lignin compounds from the liquor. The thermal properties of the precipitates made from the acidification of hydrolysis liquor confirmed the volatile characteristics of precipitates. Membrane dialysis was effective in removing inorganic salts associated with lignin compounds. The purified lignin compounds had a glass transition temperature (Tg) of 180-190 °C, and were thermally stable. The results confirmed that lignin compounds present in hot water hydrolysis liquor had different characteristics. The acidification of hydrolysis liquor primarily removed the volatile compounds from hydrolysis liquor. Based on these results, a process for producing purified lignin and precipitates of volatile compounds was proposed.

  2. Biomineralization of U(VI) phosphate promoted by microbially-mediated phytate hydrolysis in contaminated soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salome, Kathleen R.; Beazley, Melanie J.; Webb, Samuel M.; Sobecky, Patricia A.; Taillefert, Martial

    2017-01-01

    The bioreduction of uranium may immobilize a significant fraction of this toxic contaminant in reduced environments at circumneutral pH. In oxic and low pH environments, however, the low solubility of U(VI)-phosphate minerals also makes them good candidates for the immobilization of U(VI) in the solid phase. As inorganic phosphate is generally scarce in soils, the biomineralization of U(VI)-phosphate minerals via microbially-mediated organophosphate hydrolysis may represent the main immobilization process of uranium in these environments. In this study, contaminated sediments were incubated aerobically in two pH conditions to examine whether phytate, a naturally-occurring and abundant organophosphate in soils, could represent a potential phosphorous source to promote U(VI)-phosphate biomineralization by natural microbial communities. While phytate hydrolysis was not evident at pH 7.0, nearly complete hydrolysis was observed both with and without electron donor at pH 5.5, suggesting indigenous microorganisms express acidic phytases in these sediments. While the rate of hydrolysis of phytate generally increased in the presence of uranium, the net rate of inorganic phosphate production in solution was decreased and inositol phosphate intermediates were generated in contrast to similar incubations conducted without uranium. These findings suggest uranium stress enhanced the phytate-metabolism of the microbial community, while simultaneously inhibiting phosphatase production and/or activity by the indigenous population. Finally, phytate hydrolysis drastically decreased uranium solubility, likely due to formation of ternary sorption complexes, U(VI)-phytate precipitates, and U(VI)-phosphate minerals. Overall, the results of this study provide evidence for the ability of natural microbial communities to liberate phosphate from phytate in acidic sediments, possibly as a detoxification mechanism, and demonstrate the potential utility of phytate-promoted uranium

  3. QCM gas phase detection with ceramic materials--VOCs and oil vapors.

    PubMed

    Latif, Usman; Rohrer, Andreas; Lieberzeit, Peter A; Dickert, Franz L

    2011-06-01

    Titanate sol-gel layers imprinted with carbonic acids were used as sensitive layers on quartz crystal microbalance. These functionalized ceramics enable us detection of volatile organic compounds such as ethanol, n-propanol, n-butanol, n-hexane, n-heptane, n-/iso-octane, and n-decane. Variation of the precursors (i.e., tetrabutoxy titanium, tetrapropoxy titanium, tetraethoxy titanium) allows us to tune the sensitivity of the material by a factor of 7. Sensitivity as a function of precursors leads to selective inclusion of n-butanol vapors down to 1 ppm. The selectivity of materials is optimized to differentiate between isomers, e.g., n- and iso-octane. The results can be rationalized by correlating the sensor effects of hydrocarbons with the Wiener index. A mass-sensitive sensor based on titanate layer was also developed for monitoring emanation of degraded engine oil. Heating the sensor by a meander avoids vapor condensation. Thus, a continuously working oil quality sensor was designed.

  4. 21 CFR 573.940 - Silicon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.940 Silicon dioxide. The food additive silicon dioxide may be safely used in animal feed in accordance with the following conditions: (a) The food additive is manufactured by vapor phase hydrolysis or...

  5. 21 CFR 573.940 - Silicon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.940 Silicon dioxide. The food additive silicon dioxide may be safely used in animal feed in accordance with the following conditions: (a) The food additive is manufactured by vapor phase hydrolysis or...

  6. 21 CFR 573.940 - Silicon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.940 Silicon dioxide. The food additive silicon dioxide may be safely used in animal feed in accordance with the following conditions: (a) The food additive is manufactured by vapor phase hydrolysis or...

  7. 21 CFR 573.940 - Silicon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.940 Silicon dioxide. The food additive silicon dioxide may be safely used in animal feed in accordance with the following conditions: (a) The food additive is manufactured by vapor phase hydrolysis or...

  8. 21 CFR 573.940 - Silicon dioxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.940 Silicon dioxide. The food additive silicon dioxide may be safely used in animal feed in accordance with the following conditions: (a) The food additive is manufactured by vapor phase hydrolysis or...

  9. Measuring Vapor Pressure with an Isoteniscope: A Hands-on Introduction to Thermodynamic Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Wenqian; Haslam, Andrew J.; Macey, Andrew; Shah, Umang V.; Brechtelsbauer, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    Characterization of the vapor pressure of a volatile liquid or azeotropic mixture, and its fluid phase diagram, can be achieved with an isoteniscope and an industrial grade digital pressure sensor using the experimental method reported in this study. We describe vapor-pressure measurements of acetone and n-hexane and their azeotrope, and how the…

  10. Electron transfer precedes ATP hydrolysis during nitrogenase catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Duval, Simon; Danyal, Karamatullah; Shaw, Sudipta; Lytle, Anna K.; Dean, Dennis R.; Hoffman, Brian M.; Antony, Edwin; Seefeldt, Lance C.

    2013-01-01

    The biological reduction of N2 to NH3 catalyzed by Mo-dependent nitrogenase requires at least eight rounds of a complex cycle of events associated with ATP-driven electron transfer (ET) from the Fe protein to the catalytic MoFe protein, with each ET coupled to the hydrolysis of two ATP molecules. Although steps within this cycle have been studied for decades, the nature of the coupling between ATP hydrolysis and ET, in particular the order of ET and ATP hydrolysis, has been elusive. Here, we have measured first-order rate constants for each key step in the reaction sequence, including direct measurement of the ATP hydrolysis rate constant: kATP = 70 s−1, 25 °C. Comparison of the rate constants establishes that the reaction sequence involves four sequential steps: (i) conformationally gated ET (kET = 140 s−1, 25 °C), (ii) ATP hydrolysis (kATP = 70 s−1, 25 °C), (iii) Phosphate release (kPi = 16 s−1, 25 °C), and (iv) Fe protein dissociation from the MoFe protein (kdiss = 6 s−1, 25 °C). These findings allow completion of the thermodynamic cycle undergone by the Fe protein, showing that the energy of ATP binding and protein–protein association drive ET, with subsequent ATP hydrolysis and Pi release causing dissociation of the complex between the Feox(ADP)2 protein and the reduced MoFe protein. PMID:24062462

  11. Solid- and vapor-phase antimicrobial activities of six essential oils: susceptibility of selected foodborne bacterial and fungal strains.

    PubMed

    López, P; Sánchez, C; Batlle, R; Nerín, C

    2005-08-24

    The antimicrobial activity of essential oils (EOs) of cinnamon (Cinnamon zeylanicum), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), basil (Ocimum basillicum), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), dill (Anethum graveolens), and ginger (Zingiber officinalis) was evaluated over a range of concentrations in two types of contact tests (solid and vapor diffusion). The EOs were tested against an array of four Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Listeria monocytogenes), four Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella choleraesuis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and three fungi (a yeast, Candida albicans, and two molds, Penicillium islandicum and Aspergillus flavus). The rationale for this work was to test the possibility of creating a protective atmosphere by using natural compounds that could extend the shelf life of packaged foodstuffs while minimizing organoleptic alterations. In the solid diffusion tests, cinnamon and clove gave the strongest (and very similar) inhibition, followed by basil and rosemary, with dill and ginger giving the weakest inhibition. The fungi were the most sensitive microorganisms, followed by the Gram-positive bacterial strains. The Gram-negative strain P. aeruginosa was the least inhibited. The composition of the atmosphere generated by the EOs, and their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), were determined using a disk volatilization method, in which no inhibition from rosemary or basil was observed. Cinnamon and clove, once again, gave similar results for every microorganism. As a general rule, MIC (fungi) < MIC (bacteria) with no clear differences between Gram-positive or -negative strains except for P. aeruginosa, which was not inhibited by any of the EOs in the vapor phase. The atmosphere generated from the EOs was analyzed by means of solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry. Differences among the volatiles in the EOs

  12. Esculin hydrolysis by Vibrio vulnificus.

    PubMed

    Tison, D L

    1986-01-01

    A clinical isolate of Vibrio vulnificus was found to hydrolyze esculin when tested on bile-esculin-azide agar during the initial characterization of the strain. Reports in the literature of esculin hydrolysis by V. vulnificus are conflicting. We tested herein 52 strains of V. vulnificus from clinical and environmental sources for the ability to hydrolyze esculin. Seventy-eight percent of the strains hydrolyzed esculin on bile-esculin-azide agar, whereas all strains of V. vulnificus tested were positive for esculin hydrolysis in a noninhibitory medium, whereas some strains failed to hydrolyze esculin on media containing inhibitory compounds.

  13. Heteroepitaxial growth of 3-5 semiconductor compounds by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition for device applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collis, Ward J.; Abul-Fadl, Ali

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to design, install and operate a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition system which is to be used for the epitaxial growth of 3-5 semiconductor binary compounds, and ternary and quaternary alloys. The long-term goal is to utilize this vapor phase deposition in conjunction with existing current controlled liquid phase epitaxy facilities to perform hybrid growth sequences for fabricating integrated optoelectronic devices.

  14. Beer Law Constants and Vapor Pressures of HgI2 over HgI2(s,l)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Zhu, Shen; Ramachandran, N.; Burger, A.

    2002-01-01

    Optical absorption spectra of the vapor phase over HgI2(s,l) were measured at sample temperatures between 349 and 610 K for wavelengths between 200 and 600 nm. The spectra show the samples sublimed congruently into HGI2 without any observed Hg or I2 absorption spectra. The Beer's Law constants for 15 wavelengths between 200 and 440 nm were derived. From these constants the vapor pressure of HgI2, P, was found to be a function of temperature for the liquid and the solid beta-phases: ln P(atm) = -7700/T(K) + 12.462 (liquid phase) and ln P(atm) = -10150/T(K) + 17.026 (beta-phase). The expressions match the enthalpies of vaporization and sublimation of 15.30 and 20.17 kcal/mole respectively, for the liquid and the beta-phase HgI2. The difference in the enthalpies gives an enthalpy of fusion of 4.87 kcal/mole, and the intersection of the two expressions gives a melting point of 537 K.

  15. Cultivation of Scenedesmus obliquus in liquid hydrolysate from flash hydrolysis for nutrient recycling

    PubMed Central

    Barbera, Elena; Sforza, Eleonora; Kumar, Sandeep; Morosinotto, Tomas; Bertucco, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The production of biofuels from microalgae is associated with high demands of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) required for growth. Recycling nutrients from the residual biomass is essential to obtain a sustainable production. In this work, the aqueous phase obtained from flash hydrolysis of Scenedesmus sp. was used as cultivation medium for a microalga of the same genus, to assess the feasibility of this technique for nutrient recycling purposes. Batch and continuous cultivations were carried out, to determine growth performances in this substrate compared to standard media, and verify if a stable biomass production could be obtained. In continuous experiments, the effect of hydrolysate inlet concentration and of residence time were assessed to optimize nutrient supply in relation to productivity. Results obtained show that nutrient recycling is feasible by treating biomass with flash hydrolysis, and Scenedesmus is capable of recycling large amounts of recovered nutrients. PMID:26868157

  16. Correlations between water-soluble organic aerosol and water vapor: a synergistic effect from biogenic emissions?

    PubMed

    Hennigan, Christopher J; Bergin, Michael H; Weber, Rodney J

    2008-12-15

    Ground-based measurements of meteorological parameters and water-soluble organic carbon in the gas(WSOCg) and particle (WSOCp) phases were carried out in Atlanta, Georgia, from May to September 2007. Fourteen separate events were observed throughout the summer in which WSOCp and water vapor concentrations were highly correlated (average WSOCp-water vapor r = 0.92); however, for the entire summer, no well-defined relationship existed between the two. The correlation events, which lasted on average 19 h, were characterized by a wide range of WSOCp and water vapor concentrations. Several hypotheses for the correlation are explored, including heterogeneous liquid phase SOA formation and the co-emission of biogenic VOCs and water vapor. The data provide supporting evidence for contributions from both and suggest the possibility of a synergistic effect between the co-emission of water vapor and VOCs from biogenic sources on SOA formation. Median WSOCp concentrations were also correlated with elemental carbon (EC), although this correlation extended over the entire summer. Despite the emission of water vapor from anthropogenic mobile sources and the WSOCp-EC correlation, mobile sources were not considered a potential cause for the WSOCp-water vapor correlations because of their low contribution to the water vapor budget. Meteorology could perhaps have influenced the WSOCp-EC correlation, but other factors are implicated as well. Overall, the results suggest that the temperature-dependent co-emission of water vapor through evapotranspiration and SOA precursor-VOCs by vegetation may be an important process contributing to SOA in some environments.

  17. Phase Transition Enthalpy Measurements of Organic and Organometallic Compounds. Sublimation, Vaporization and Fusion Enthalpies From 1880 to 2015. Part 1. C1 - C10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acree, William; Chickos, James S.

    2016-09-01

    A compendium of phase change enthalpies published in 2010 is updated to include the period 1880-2015. Phase change enthalpies including fusion, vaporization, and sublimation enthalpies are included for organic, organometallic, and a few inorganic compounds. Part 1 of this compendium includes organic compounds from C1 to C10. Part 2 of this compendium, to be published separately, will include organic and organometallic compounds from C11 to C192. Sufficient data are presently available to permit thermodynamic cycles to be constructed as an independent means of evaluating the reliability of the data. Temperature adjustments of phase change enthalpies from the temperature of measurement to the standard reference temperature, T = 298.15 K, and a protocol for doing so are briefly discussed.

  18. Nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite ceramics prepared by hydrolysis in polyol medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mechay, Abderrahmen; Feki, Hafed E. L.; Schoenstein, Fréderic; Jouini, Noureddine

    2012-07-01

    This Letter describes a new approach for the synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles, which involves precipitation and hydrolysis reactions conducted in polyol medium. In fact, ammonium-hydrogen phosphate and calcium nitrate were dissolved in polyol, and then heated at the boiling point of the polyol (ethane1, 2diol or propane1, 2diol). Besides, the phase and composition of the polycrystalline were studied by TGA/DTA, FT-IR, TEM and XRD techniques. The nanoparticles thus obtained present interesting morphological characters varying from needle to very thin platelet. Moreover, the hydroxyapatite prepared in ployol shows higher cristallinity in comparison with that obtained by other 'chimie douce' methods.

  19. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOEpatents

    Davies, John P.; Larson, Ronald A.; Goodrich, Lorenzo D.; Hall, Harold J.; Stoddard, Billy D.; Davis, Sean G.; Kaser, Timothy G.; Conrad, Frank J.

    1995-01-01

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet.

  20. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOEpatents

    Davies, J.P.; Larson, R.A.; Goodrich, L.D.; Hall, H.J.; Stoddard, B.D.; Davis, S.G.; Kaser, T.G.; Conrad, F.J.

    1995-09-26

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet. 10 figs.

  1. Optimization of hydrolysis conditions for bovine plasma protein using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyun-Woo; Jung, Eun-Young; Go, Gwang-Woong; Kim, Gap-Don; Joo, Seon-Tea; Yang, Han-Sul

    2015-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to establish optimal conditions for the hydrolysis of bovine plasma protein. Response surface methodology was used to model and optimize responses [degree of hydrolysis (DH), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and Fe(2+)-chelating activity]. Hydrolysis conditions, such as hydrolysis temperature (46.6-63.4 °C), hydrolysis time (98-502 min), and hydrolysis pH (6.32-9.68) were selected as the main processing conditions in the hydrolysis of bovine plasma protein. Optimal conditions for maximum DH (%), DPPH radical-scavenging activity (%) and Fe(2+)-chelating activity (%) of the hydrolyzed bovine plasma protein, were respectively established. We discovered the following three conditions for optimal hydrolysis of bovine plasma: pH of 7.82-8.32, temperature of 54.1 °C, and time of 338.4-398.4 min. We consequently succeeded in hydrolyzing bovine plasma protein under these conditions and confirmed the various desirable properties of optimal hydrolysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Heat Pipe Vapor Dynamics. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Issacci, Farrokh

    1990-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of the vapor flow in heat pipes is investigated at startup and during operational transients. The vapor is modeled as two-dimensional, compressible viscous flow in an enclosure with inflow and outflow boundary conditions. For steady-state and operating transients, the SIMPLER method is used. In this method a control volume approach is employed on a staggered grid which makes the scheme very stable. It is shown that for relatively low input heat fluxes the compressibility of the vapor flow is low and the SIMPLER scheme is suitable for the study of transient vapor dynamics. When the input heat flux is high or the process under a startup operation starts at very low pressures and temperatures, the vapor is highly compressible and a shock wave is created in the evaporator. It is shown that for a wide range of input heat fluxes, the standard methods, including the SIMPLER scheme, are not suitable. A nonlinear filtering technique, along with the centered difference scheme, are then used for shock capturing as well as for the solution of the cell Reynolds-number problem. For high heat flux, the startup transient phase involves multiple shock reflections in the evaporator region. Each shock reflection causes a significant increase in the local pressure and a large pressure drop along the heat pipe. Furthermore, shock reflections cause flow reversal in the evaporation region and flow circulations in the adiabatic region. The maximum and maximum-averaged pressure drops in different sections of the heat pipe oscillate periodically with time because of multiple shock reflections. The pressure drop converges to a constant value at steady state. However, it is significantly higher than its steady-state value at the initiation of the startup transient. The time for the vapor core to reach steady-state condition depends on the input heat flux, the heat pipe geometry, the working fluid, and the condenser conditions. However, the vapor transient time, for an Na

  3. VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS

    SciTech Connect

    Eric M. Suuberg; Vahur Oja

    1997-07-01

    This project had as its main focus the determination of vapor pressures of coal pyrolysis tars. It involved performing measurements of these vapor pressures and from them, developing vapor pressure correlations suitable for use in advanced pyrolysis models (those models which explicitly account for mass transport limitations). This report is divided into five main chapters. Each chapter is a relatively stand-alone section. Chapter A reviews the general nature of coal tars and gives a summary of existing vapor pressure correlations for coal tars and model compounds. Chapter B summarizes the main experimental approaches for coal tar preparation and characterization whichmore » have been used throughout the project. Chapter C is concerned with the selection of the model compounds for coal pyrolysis tars and reviews the data available to us on the vapor pressures of high boiling point aromatic compounds. This chapter also deals with the question of identifying factors that govern the vapor pressures of coal tar model materials and their mixtures. Chapter D covers the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary cellulose tars. Chapter E discusses the results of the main focus of this study. In summary, this work provides improved understanding of the volatility of coal and cellulose pyrolysis tars. It has resulted in new experimentally verified vapor pressure correlations for use in pyrolysis models. Further research on this topic should aim at developing general vapor pressure correlations for all coal tars, based on their molecular weight together with certain specific chemical characteristics i.e. hydroxyl group content.« less

  4. Beer Law Constants and Vapor Pressures of HgI2 over HgI2(s,l)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Zhu, Shen; Ramachandran, N.; Burger, A.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The optical absorption spectra of the vapor phase over HgI2(s,l) were measured for wavelengths between 200 and 600 nm. The spectra show that the sample sublimed congruently into HgI2 with no Hg or I2 absorption spectrum observed. The Beer's Law constants for 15 wavelengths between 200 and 440 nm were determined. From these constants the vapor pressure of H912, P, was established as a function of temperatures for the liquid and the solid Beta-phases. The expressions correspond to the enthalpies of vaporization and sublimation of 15.30 and 20.17 Kcal/mole, respectively, for the liquid and the Beta-phase HgI2. The difference in the enthalpies gives an enthalpy of fusion of 4.87 Kcal/mole and the intersection of the two expressions gives a melting point of 537 K.

  5. On Localized Vapor Pressure Gradients Governing Condensation and Frost Phenomena.

    PubMed

    Nath, Saurabh; Boreyko, Jonathan B

    2016-08-23

    Interdroplet vapor pressure gradients are the driving mechanism for several phase-change phenomena such as condensation dry zones, interdroplet ice bridging, dry zones around ice, and frost halos. Despite the fundamental nature of the underlying pressure gradients, the majority of studies on these emerging phenomena have been primarily empirical. Using classical nucleation theory and Becker-Döring embryo formation kinetics, here we calculate the pressure field for all possible modes of condensation and desublimation in order to gain fundamental insight into how pressure gradients govern the behavior of dry zones, condensation frosting, and frost halos. Our findings reveal that in a variety of phase-change systems the thermodynamically favorable mode of nucleation can switch between condensation and desublimation depending upon the temperature and wettability of the surface. The calculated pressure field is used to model the length of a dry zone around liquid or ice droplets over a broad parameter space. The long-standing question of whether the vapor pressure at the interface of growing frost is saturated or supersaturated is resolved by considering the kinetics of interdroplet ice bridging. Finally, on the basis of theoretical calculations, we propose that there exists a new mode of frost halo that is yet to be experimentally observed; a bimodal phase map is developed, demonstrating its dependence on the temperature and wettability of the underlying substrate. We hope that the model and predictions contained herein will assist future efforts to exploit localized vapor pressure gradients for the design of spatially controlled or antifrosting phase-change systems.

  6. Structural and optical inhomogeneities of Fe doped GaN grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malguth, E.; Hoffmann, A.; Phillips, M. R.

    2008-12-01

    We present the results of cathodoluminescence experiments on a set of Fe doped GaN samples with Fe concentrations of 5×1017, 1×1018, 1×1019, and 2×1020 cm-3. These specimens were grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy with different concentrations of Fe. The introduction of Fe is found to promote the formation of structurally inhomogeneous regions of increased donor concentration. We detect a tendency of these regions to form hexagonal pits at the surface. The locally increased carrier concentration leads to enhanced emission from the band edge and the internal T41(G)-A61(S) transition of Fe3+. In these areas, the luminescence forms a finely structured highly symmetric pattern, which is attributed to defect migration along strain-field lines. Fe doping is found to quench the yellow defect luminescence band and to enhance the blue luminescence band due to the lowering of the Fermi level and the formation of point defects, respectively.

  7. Hydride vapor phase GaN films with reduced density of residual electrons and deep traps

    SciTech Connect

    Polyakov, A. Y., E-mail: aypolyakov@gmail.com; Smirnov, N. B.; Govorkov, A. V.

    2014-05-14

    Electrical properties and deep electron and hole traps spectra are compared for undoped n-GaN films grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) in the regular process (standard HVPE samples) and in HVPE process optimized for decreasing the concentration of residual donor impurities (improved HVPE samples). It is shown that the residual donor density can be reduced by optimization from ∼10{sup 17} cm{sup −3} to (2–5) × 10{sup 14} cm{sup −3}. The density of deep hole traps and deep electron traps decreases with decreased donor density, so that the concentration of deep hole traps in the improved samples is reduced to ∼5 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −3} versusmore » 2.9 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −3} in the standard samples, with a similar decrease in the electron traps concentration.« less

  8. Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial growth of red and infrared vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, R. P.; Lott, J. A.; Lear, K. L.; Choquette, K. D.; Crawford, M. H.; Kilcoyne, S. P.; Figiel, J. J.

    1994-12-01

    Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) is used for the growth of vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) diodes. MOVPE exhibits a number of important advantages over the more commonly-used molecular-beam epitaxial (MBE) techniques, including ease of continuous compositional grading and carbon doping for low-resistance p-type distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs), higher growth rates for rapid throughput and greater versatility in choice of materials and dopants. Planar gain-guided red VCSELs based on AlGaInP/AlGaAs heterostructures lase continuous-wave at room temperature, with voltage thresholds between 2.5 and 3 V and maximum power outputs of over 0.3 mW. Top-emitting infra-red (IR) VCSELs exhibit the highest power-conversion (wall-plug) efficiencies (21%), lowest threshold voltage (1.47 V), and highest single mode power (4.4 mW from an 8 μm device) yet reported. These results establish MOVPE as a preferred growth technique for this important new family of photonic devices.

  9. Order parameter free enhanced sampling of the vapor-liquid transition using the generalized replica exchange method.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qing; Kim, Jaegil; Straub, John E

    2013-03-14

    The generalized Replica Exchange Method (gREM) is extended into the isobaric-isothermal ensemble, and applied to simulate a vapor-liquid phase transition in Lennard-Jones fluids. Merging an optimally designed generalized ensemble sampling with replica exchange, gREM is particularly well suited for the effective simulation of first-order phase transitions characterized by "backbending" in the statistical temperature. While the metastable and unstable states in the vicinity of the first-order phase transition are masked by the enthalpy gap in temperature replica exchange method simulations, they are transformed into stable states through the parameterized effective sampling weights in gREM simulations, and join vapor and liquid phases with a succession of unimodal enthalpy distributions. The enhanced sampling across metastable and unstable states is achieved without the need to identify a "good" order parameter for biased sampling. We performed gREM simulations at various pressures below and near the critical pressure to examine the change in behavior of the vapor-liquid phase transition at different pressures. We observed a crossover from the first-order phase transition at low pressure, characterized by the backbending in the statistical temperature and the "kink" in the Gibbs free energy, to a continuous second-order phase transition near the critical pressure. The controlling mechanisms of nucleation and continuous phase transition are evident and the coexistence properties and phase diagram are found in agreement with literature results.

  10. High quality factor whispering gallery modes from self-assembled hexagonal GaN rods grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Tessarek, C; Sarau, G; Kiometzis, M; Christiansen, S

    2013-02-11

    Self-assembled GaN rods were grown on sapphire by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy using a simple two-step method that relies first on a nitridation step followed by GaN epitaxy. The mask-free rods formed without any additional catalyst. Most of the vertically aligned rods exhibit a regular hexagonal shape with sharp edges and smooth sidewall facets. Cathodo- and microphotoluminescence investigations were carried out on single GaN rods. Whispering gallery modes with quality factors greater than 4000 were measured demonstrating the high morphological and optical quality of the self-assembled GaN rods.

  11. The enzymic hydrolysis of amygdalin

    PubMed Central

    Haisman, D. R.; Knight, D. J.

    1967-01-01

    Chromatographic examination has shown that the enzymic hydrolysis of amygdalin by an almond β-glucosidase preparation proceeds consecutively: amygdalin was hydrolysed to prunasin and glucose; prunasin to mandelonitrile and glucose; mandelonitrile to benzaldehyde and hydrocyanic acid. Gentiobiose was not formed during the enzymic hydrolysis. The kinetics of the production of mandelonitrile and hydrocyanic acid from amygdalin by the action of the β-glucosidase preparation favour the probability that three different enzymes are involved, each specific for one hydrolytic stage, namely, amygdalin lyase, prunasin lyase and hydroxynitrile lyase. Cellulose acetate electrophoresis of the enzyme preparation showed that it contained a number of enzymically active components. PMID:4291788

  12. Electron microscopy investigation of gallium oxide micro/nanowire structures synthesized via vapor phase growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Xu, J; Wang, R M; Yu, D P

    2004-01-01

    Large-scale micro/nanosized Ga(2)O(3) structures were synthesized via a simple vapor p9hase growth method. The morphology of the as-grown structures varied from aligned arrays of smooth nano/microscale wires to composite and complex microdendrites. We present evidence that the formation of the observed structure depends strongly on its position relative to the source materials (the concentration distribution) and on the growth temperature. A growth model is proposed, based on the vapor-solid (VS) mechanism, which can explain the observed morphologies.

  13. Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation of 532 nm radiation in 25 degrees -rotated, x-cut, near-stoichiometric, lithium tantalate fabricated by vapor transport equilibration.

    PubMed

    Hum, D S; Route, R K; Fejer, M M

    2007-04-15

    Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation of 532 nm radiation in 25 degrees -rotated, x-cut, near-stoichiometric lithium tantalate has been performed. Using a face-normal topology for frequency conversion applications allows scalable surface area to avoid surface and volume damage in high-power interactions. First-order, quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation was achieved using near-stoichiometric lithium tantalate fabricated by vapor transport equilibration. These crystals supported 1 J of 1064 nm radiation and generated 21 mJ of 532 nm radiation from a 7 ns, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser within a factor of 4.2 of expectation.

  14. Enthalpy of Vaporization and Vapor Pressures: An Inexpensive Apparatus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battino, Rubin; Dolson, David A.; Hall, Michael A.; Letcher, Trevor M.

    2007-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive method to determine the enthalpy of vaporization of liquids by measuring vapor pressure as a function of temperature is described. The vapor pressures measured with the stopcock cell were higher than the literature values and those measured with the sidearm rubber septum cell were both higher and lower than literature…

  15. The solubility of gallium oxide in vapor and two-phase fluid filtration in hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bychkov, Andrew; Matveeva, Svetlana; Nekrasov, Stanislav

    2010-05-01

    The solubility of gallium and aluminum oxides in gas phase in the system Ga2O3 (Al2O3)-HCl-H2O was studied at 150-350°C and pressure up to saturated vapor. The concentration of gallium increases with the increasing of HCl pressure. The formulae of gallium gaseous specie was determined as GaOHCl2. The constant of gallium oxide solubility reaction was calculated at 150, 200, 250, 300 and 350°C. The concentration of aluminum in gas phase is insignificant in the same conditions. The possibility of gallium transportation in gas phase with small quantity of Al allow to divide this elements in hydrothermal processes with gas phase. The Ga/Al ratio in muscovite can be used as the indicator of gas phase separation and condensation. This indicator was not considered in the geochemical literature earlier. The separation of gas and liquid phases was determined in Akchatau (Kazahstan) and Spokoinoe (Russia) greisen W deposit by carbon isotope fractionation of carbon dioxide in fluid inclusion. The important feature of both ore mains is heterogenization and boiling of ore-forming fluids. Greisen ore bodies are formed as a result of strongly focused solution flow in the T-P gradient fields. It is possible to divide ore bodies of Akchatau in two types: muscovite and quartz. Muscovite type veins are thin and have small metasyntactic zone. Quartz type veins are localized in fault with large vertical extent (500 m) and content the large quantity of wolframite. These veins formed in condition of significant pressure decreasing from 2.5 to 0.5 kbar with fluid boiling. Gas and liquid phase separation specifies the vertical zonality of quartz type veins. The gas phase with the high gallium concentration is separated from a flow of liquid phase. Liquid phase react with the granites forming greisen metasomatites. Condensation of the gas phase in upper parts of massive produces the increasing of Ga/Al ratio in muscovite 3-5 times more, then in granites and bottom part of vein (from 2×10

  16. The effect of carrier gas flow rate and source cell temperature on low pressure organic vapor phase deposition simulation by direct simulation Monte Carlo method

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Takao; Ueda, Noriaki

    2013-01-01

    The process of low pressure organic vapor phase deposition (LP-OVPD) controls the growth of amorphous organic thin films, where the source gases (Alq3 molecule, etc.) are introduced into a hot wall reactor via an injection barrel using an inert carrier gas (N2 molecule). It is possible to control well the following substrate properties such as dopant concentration, deposition rate, and thickness uniformity of the thin film. In this paper, we present LP-OVPD simulation results using direct simulation Monte Carlo-Neutrals (Particle-PLUS neutral module) which is commercial software adopting direct simulation Monte Carlo method. By estimating properly the evaporation rate with experimental vaporization enthalpies, the calculated deposition rates on the substrate agree well with the experimental results that depend on carrier gas flow rate and source cell temperature. PMID:23674843

  17. Untrapping Kinetically Trapped Ions: The Role of Water Vapor and Ion-Source Activation Conditions on the Gas-Phase Protomer Ratio of Benzocaine Revealed by Ion-Mobility Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xia, Hanxue; Attygalle, Athula B

    2017-12-01

    The role of water vapor in transforming the thermodynamically preferred species of protonated benzocaine to the less favored protomer was investigated using helium-plasma ionization (HePI) in conjunction with ion-mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS). The IM arrival-time distribution (ATD) recorded from a neat benzocaine sample desorbed to the gas phase by a stream of dry nitrogen and ionized by HePI showed essentially one peak for the O-protonated species. However, when water vapor was introduced to the enclosed ion source, within a span of about 150 ms the ATD profile changed completely to one dominated by the N-protonated species. Under spray-based ionization conditions, the nature and composition of the solvents have been postulated to play a decisive role in defining the manifested protomer ratios. In reality, the solvent vapors present in the ion source (particularly the ambient humidity) indirectly dictate the gas-phase ratio of the protomers. Evidently, the gas-phase protomer ratio established at the confinement of the ions is readjusted by the ion-activation that takes place during the transmission of ions to the vacuum. Although it has been repeatedly stated that ions can retain a "memory" of their solution structures because they can be kinetically trapped, and thereby represent their solution-based stabilities, we show that the initial airborne ions can undergo significant transformations in the transit through the intermediate vacuum zones between the ion source and the mass detector. In this context, we demonstrate that the kinetically trapped N-protomer of benzocaine can be untrapped by reducing the humidity of the enclosed ion source. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  18. Untrapping Kinetically Trapped Ions: The Role of Water Vapor and Ion-Source Activation Conditions on the Gas-Phase Protomer Ratio of Benzocaine Revealed by Ion-Mobility Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Hanxue; Attygalle, Athula B.

    2017-12-01

    The role of water vapor in transforming the thermodynamically preferred species of protonated benzocaine to the less favored protomer was investigated using helium-plasma ionization (HePI) in conjunction with ion-mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS). The IM arrival-time distribution (ATD) recorded from a neat benzocaine sample desorbed to the gas phase by a stream of dry nitrogen and ionized by HePI showed essentially one peak for the O-protonated species. However, when water vapor was introduced to the enclosed ion source, within a span of about 150 ms the ATD profile changed completely to one dominated by the N-protonated species. Under spray-based ionization conditions, the nature and composition of the solvents have been postulated to play a decisive role in defining the manifested protomer ratios. In reality, the solvent vapors present in the ion source (particularly the ambient humidity) indirectly dictate the gas-phase ratio of the protomers. Evidently, the gas-phase protomer ratio established at the confinement of the ions is readjusted by the ion-activation that takes place during the transmission of ions to the vacuum. Although it has been repeatedly stated that ions can retain a "memory" of their solution structures because they can be kinetically trapped, and thereby represent their solution-based stabilities, we show that the initial airborne ions can undergo significant transformations in the transit through the intermediate vacuum zones between the ion source and the mass detector. In this context, we demonstrate that the kinetically trapped N-protomer of benzocaine can be untrapped by reducing the humidity of the enclosed ion source. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. Enhanced hydrolysis of cellulose hydrogels by morphological modification.

    PubMed

    Alfassi, Gilad; Rein, Dmitry M; Cohen, Yachin

    2017-11-01

    Cellulose is one of the most abundant bio-renewable materials on earth, yet the potential of cellulosic bio-fuels is not fully exploited, primarily due to the high costs of conversion. Hydrogel particles of regenerated cellulose constitute a useful substrate for enzymatic hydrolysis, due to their porous and amorphous structure. This article describes the influence of several structural aspects of the cellulose hydrogel on its hydrolysis. The hydrogel density was shown to be directly proportional to the cellulose concentration in the initial solution, thus affecting its hydrolysis rate. Using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, we show that the hydrogel particles in aqueous suspension exhibit a dense external surface layer and a more porous internal network. Elimination of the external surface layer accelerated the hydrolysis rate by up to sixfold and rendered the process nearly independent of cellulose concentration. These findings may be of practical relevance to saccharification processing costs, by reducing required solvent quantities and enzyme load.

  20. Energetic approach of biomass hydrolysis in supercritical water.

    PubMed

    Cantero, Danilo A; Vaquerizo, Luis; Mato, Fidel; Bermejo, M Dolores; Cocero, M José

    2015-03-01

    Cellulose hydrolysis can be performed in supercritical water with a high selectivity of soluble sugars. The process produces high-pressure steam that can be integrated, from an energy point of view, with the whole biomass treating process. This work investigates the integration of biomass hydrolysis reactors with commercial combined heat and power (CHP) schemes, with special attention to reactor outlet streams. The innovation developed in this work allows adequate energy integration possibilities for heating and compression by using high temperature of the flue gases and direct shaft work from the turbine. The integration of biomass hydrolysis with a CHP process allows the selective conversion of biomass into sugars with low heat requirements. Integrating these two processes, the CHP scheme yield is enhanced around 10% by injecting water in the gas turbine. Furthermore, the hydrolysis reactor can be held at 400°C and 23 MPa using only the gas turbine outlet streams. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of protonation on the mechanism of phosphate monoester hydrolysis and comparison with the hydrolysis of nucleoside triphosphate in biomolecular motors.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Hammad Ali; Rani, Sadaf; Fatima, Tabeer; Kiani, Farooq Ahmad; Fischer, Stefan

    2017-11-01

    Hydrolysis of phosphate groups is a crucial reaction in living cells. It involves the breaking of two strong bonds, i.e. the O a H bond of the attacking water molecule, and the PO l bond of the substrate (O a and O l stand for attacking and leaving oxygen atoms). Mechanism of the hydrolysis reaction can proceed either by a concurrent or a sequential mechanism. In the concurrent mechanism, the breaking of O a H and PO l bonds occurs simultaneously, whereas in the sequential mechanism, the O a H and PO l bonds break at different stages of the reaction. To understand how protonation affects the mechanism of hydrolysis of phosphate monoester, we have studied the mechanism of hydrolysis of protonated and deprotonated phosphate monoester at M06-2X/6-311+G**//M06-2X/6-31+G*+ZPE level of theory (where ZPE stands for zero point energy). Our calculations show that in both protonated and deprotonated cases, the breaking of the water O a H bond occurs before the breaking of the PO l bond. Because the two events are not separated by a stable intermediate, the mechanism can be categorized as semi-concurrent. The overall energy barrier is 41kcalmol -1 in the unprotonated case. Most (5/6th) of this is due to the initial breaking of the water O a H bond. This component is lowered from 34 to 25kcalmol -1 by adding one proton to the phosphate. The rest of the overall energy barrier comes from the subsequent breaking of the PO l bond and is not sensitive to protonation. This is consistent with previous findings about the effect of triphosphate protonation on the hydrolysis, where the equivalent protonation (on the γ-phosphate) was seen to lower the barrier of breaking the water O a H bond and to have little effect on the PO l bond breaking. Hydrolysis pathways of phosphate monoester with initial breaking of the PO l bond could not be found here. This is because the leaving group in phosphate monoester cannot be protonated, unlike in triphosphate hydrolysis, where protonation of the

  2. Stability of commercial glucanase and β-glucosidase preparations under hydrolysis conditions.

    PubMed

    Rosales-Calderon, Oscar; Trajano, Heather L; Duff, Sheldon J B

    2014-01-01

    The cost of enzymes makes enzymatic hydrolysis one of the most expensive steps in the production of lignocellulosic ethanol. Diverse studies have used commercial enzyme cocktails assuming that change in total protein concentration during hydrolysis was solely due to adsorption of endo- and exoglucanases onto the substrate. Given the sensitivity of enzymes and proteins to media conditions this assumption was tested by evaluating and modeling the protein concentration of commercial cocktails at hydrolysis conditions. In the absence of solid substrate, the total protein concentration of a mixture of Celluclast 1.5 L and Novozyme 188 decreased by as much as 45% at 50 °C after 4 days. The individual cocktails as well as a mixture of both were stable at 20 °C. At 50 °C, the protein concentration of Celluclast 1.5 was relatively constant but Novozyme 188 decreased by as much as 77%. It was hypothesized that Novozyme 188 proteins suffer a structural change at 50 °C which leads to protein aggregation and precipitation. Lyophilized β-glucosidase (P-β-glucosidase) at 50 °C exhibited an aggregation rate which was successfully modeled using first order kinetics (R (2) = 0.97). By incorporating the possible presence of chaperone proteins in Novozyme 188, the protein aggregation observed for this cocktail was successfully modeled (R (2) = 0.96). To accurately model the increasing protein stability observed at high cocktail loadings, the model was modified to include the presence of additives in the cocktail (R (2) = 0.98). By combining the measurement of total protein concentration with the proposed Novozyme 188 protein aggregation model, the endo- and exoglucanases concentration in the solid and liquid phases during hydrolysis can be more accurately determined. This methodology can be applied to various systems leading to optimization of enzyme loading by minimizing the excess of endo- and exoglucanases. In addition, the monitoring of endo- and exoglucanases

  3. Stability of commercial glucanase and β-glucosidase preparations under hydrolysis conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rosales-Calderon, Oscar; Duff, Sheldon J.B.

    2014-01-01

    The cost of enzymes makes enzymatic hydrolysis one of the most expensive steps in the production of lignocellulosic ethanol. Diverse studies have used commercial enzyme cocktails assuming that change in total protein concentration during hydrolysis was solely due to adsorption of endo- and exoglucanases onto the substrate. Given the sensitivity of enzymes and proteins to media conditions this assumption was tested by evaluating and modeling the protein concentration of commercial cocktails at hydrolysis conditions. In the absence of solid substrate, the total protein concentration of a mixture of Celluclast 1.5 L and Novozyme 188 decreased by as much as 45% at 50 °C after 4 days. The individual cocktails as well as a mixture of both were stable at 20 °C. At 50 °C, the protein concentration of Celluclast 1.5 was relatively constant but Novozyme 188 decreased by as much as 77%. It was hypothesized that Novozyme 188 proteins suffer a structural change at 50 °C which leads to protein aggregation and precipitation. Lyophilized β-glucosidase (P-β-glucosidase) at 50 °C exhibited an aggregation rate which was successfully modeled using first order kinetics (R2 = 0.97). By incorporating the possible presence of chaperone proteins in Novozyme 188, the protein aggregation observed for this cocktail was successfully modeled (R2 = 0.96). To accurately model the increasing protein stability observed at high cocktail loadings, the model was modified to include the presence of additives in the cocktail (R2 = 0.98). By combining the measurement of total protein concentration with the proposed Novozyme 188 protein aggregation model, the endo- and exoglucanases concentration in the solid and liquid phases during hydrolysis can be more accurately determined. This methodology can be applied to various systems leading to optimization of enzyme loading by minimizing the excess of endo- and exoglucanases. In addition, the monitoring of endo- and exoglucanases concentrations can be

  4. Steady-state, cavityless, multimode superradiance in a cold vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, Joel A.; Gauthier, Daniel J.

    2012-07-01

    We demonstrate steady-state, mirrorless superradiance in a cold vapor pumped by weak optical fields. Beyond a critical pump intensity of 1 mW/cm2, the vapor spontaneously transforms into a spatially self-organized state: a density grating forms. Scattering of the pump beams off this grating generates a pair of new, intense optical fields that act back on the vapor to enhance the atomic organization. We map out experimentally the superradiant phase transition boundary and show that it is well described by our theoretical model. The resulting superradiant emission is nearly coherent, persists for several seconds, displays strong temporal correlations between the various modes, and has a coherence time of several hundred μs. This system therefore has applications in fundamental studies of many-body physics with long-range interactions as well as all-optical and quantum information processing.

  5. The Validation of Vapor Phase Hydrogen Peroxide Microbial Reduction for Planetary Protection and a Proposed Vacuum Process Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Shirley; Barengoltz, Jack; Kern, Roger; Koukol, Robert; Cash, Howard

    2006-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, in conjunction with the NASA Planetary Protection Officer, has selected the vapor phase hydrogen peroxide sterilization process for continued development as a NASA approved sterilization technique for spacecraft subsystems and systems. The goal is to include this technique, with an appropriate specification, in NPR 8020.12C as a low temperature complementary technique to the dry heat sterilization process.To meet microbial reduction requirements for all Mars in-situ life detection and sample return missions, various planetary spacecraft subsystems will have to be exposed to a qualified sterilization process. This process could be the elevated temperature dry heat sterilization process (115 C for 40 hours) which was used to sterilize the Viking lander spacecraft. However, with utilization of such elements as highly sophisticated electronics and sensors in modern spacecraft, this process presents significant materials challenges and is thus an undesirable bioburden reduction method to design engineers. The objective of this work is to introduce vapor hydrogen peroxide (VHP) as an alternative to dry heat microbial reduction to meet planetary protection requirements.The VHP process is widely used by the medical industry to sterilize surgical instruments and biomedical devices, but high doses of VHP may degrade the performance of flight hardware, or compromise material properties. Our goal for this study was to determine the minimum VHP process conditions to achieve microbial reduction levels acceptable for planetary protection.

  6. Petroleum Vapor Intrusion

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    One type of vapor intrusion is PVI, in which vapors from petroleum hydrocarbons such as gasoline, diesel, or jet fuel enter a building. Intrusion of contaminant vapors into indoor spaces is of concern.

  7. Gas-liquid chromatography with a volatile "stationary" liquid phase.

    PubMed

    Wells, P S; Zhou, S; Parcher, J F

    2002-05-01

    A unique type of gas-liquid chromatography is described in which both mobile and "stationary" phases are composed of synthetic mixtures of helium and carbon dioxide. At temperatures below the critical point of the binary mixture and pressures above the vapor pressure of pure liquid carbon dioxide, helium and carbon dioxide can form two immiscible phases over extended composition ranges. A binary vapor phase enriched in helium can act as the mobile phase for chromatographic separations, whereas a CO2-rich liquid in equilibrium with the vapor phase, but condensed on the column wall, can act as a pseudostationary phase. Several examples of chromatographic separations obtained in "empty" capillary columns with no ordinary stationary liquid phase illustrate the range of conditions that produce such separations. In addition, several experiments are reported that confirm the proposed two-phase hypothesis. The possible consequences of the observed chromatographic phenomenon in the field of supercritical fluid chromatography with helium headspace carbon dioxide are discussed.

  8. Rapid spot test for the determination of esculin hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Edberg, S C; Gam, K; Bottenbley, C J; Singer, J M

    1976-08-01

    Esculin hydrolysis is a useful test in the differentiation of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria covering a wide spectrum of aerobes, facultative anaerobes, and anaerobes. Commonly utilized methods require a minimum of 18 h of incubation in broth or agar medium and utilize the production of a brown-black compound, due to the combination of ferric ions with the hydrolysis product esculetin, as indicator. A procedure is presented that requires 15 to 30 min for completion and utilizes fluorescence loss as the indicator of hydrolysis. Esculin fluoresces at 366 nm, whereas the hydrolysis product esculetin does not. Over 1,400 strains of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria were tested. There was 98.4% of correlation between the spot test and esculin broth and 97% correlation with the bile-esculin agar.

  9. Preparation of mesoporous nanofibers by vapor phase synthesis: control of mesopore structures with the aid of co-surfactants.

    PubMed

    Min, Sa Hoon; Bae, Joonwon; Jang, Jyongsik; Lee, Kyung Jin

    2013-06-28

    Mesoporous nanofibers (MSNFs) can be fabricated in the pores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane using diverse methods. Among them vapor phase synthesis (VPS) provides several advantages over sol-gel or evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) based methods. One powerful advantage is that we can employ multiple surfactants as structural directing agents (SDAs) simultaneously. By adopting diverse pairs of SDAs, we can control the mesopore structures, i.e. pore size, surface area, and even the morphology of mesostructures. Here, we used F127 as a main SDA, which is relatively robust (thus, difficult to change the mesopore structures), and added a series of cationic co-surfactants to observe the systematical changes in their mesostructure with respect to the chain length of the co-surfactant.

  10. Preparation of mesoporous nanofibers by vapor phase synthesis: control of mesopore structures with the aid of co-surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Sa Hoon; Bae, Joonwon; Jang, Jyongsik; Lee, Kyung Jin

    2013-06-01

    Mesoporous nanofibers (MSNFs) can be fabricated in the pores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane using diverse methods. Among them vapor phase synthesis (VPS) provides several advantages over sol-gel or evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) based methods. One powerful advantage is that we can employ multiple surfactants as structural directing agents (SDAs) simultaneously. By adopting diverse pairs of SDAs, we can control the mesopore structures, i.e. pore size, surface area, and even the morphology of mesostructures. Here, we used F127 as a main SDA, which is relatively robust (thus, difficult to change the mesopore structures), and added a series of cationic co-surfactants to observe the systematical changes in their mesostructure with respect to the chain length of the co-surfactant.

  11. An instrument for in situ coherent x-ray studies of metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitrides

    DOE PAGES

    Ju, Guangxu; Highland, Matthew J.; Yanguas-Gil, Angel; ...

    2017-03-21

    Here, we describe an instrument that exploits the ongoing revolution in synchrotron sources, optics, and detectors to enable in situ studies of metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) growth of III-nitride materials using coherent x-ray methods. The system includes high-resolution positioning of the sample and detector including full rotations, an x-ray transparent chamber wall for incident and diffracted beam access over a wide angular range, and minimal thermal sample motion, giving the sub-micron positional stability and reproducibility needed for coherent x-ray studies. The instrument enables surface x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy, microbeam diffraction, and coherent diffraction imaging of atomic-scale surface and filmmore » structure and dynamics during growth, to provide fundamental understanding of MOVPE processes.« less

  12. An instrument for in situ coherent x-ray studies of metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitrides.

    PubMed

    Ju, Guangxu; Highland, Matthew J; Yanguas-Gil, Angel; Thompson, Carol; Eastman, Jeffrey A; Zhou, Hua; Brennan, Sean M; Stephenson, G Brian; Fuoss, Paul H

    2017-03-01

    We describe an instrument that exploits the ongoing revolution in synchrotron sources, optics, and detectors to enable in situ studies of metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) growth of III-nitride materials using coherent x-ray methods. The system includes high-resolution positioning of the sample and detector including full rotations, an x-ray transparent chamber wall for incident and diffracted beam access over a wide angular range, and minimal thermal sample motion, giving the sub-micron positional stability and reproducibility needed for coherent x-ray studies. The instrument enables surface x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy, microbeam diffraction, and coherent diffraction imaging of atomic-scale surface and film structure and dynamics during growth, to provide fundamental understanding of MOVPE processes.

  13. An instrument for in situ coherent x-ray studies of metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy of III-nitrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Guangxu; Highland, Matthew J.; Yanguas-Gil, Angel; Thompson, Carol; Eastman, Jeffrey A.; Zhou, Hua; Brennan, Sean M.; Stephenson, G. Brian; Fuoss, Paul H.

    2017-03-01

    We describe an instrument that exploits the ongoing revolution in synchrotron sources, optics, and detectors to enable in situ studies of metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) growth of III-nitride materials using coherent x-ray methods. The system includes high-resolution positioning of the sample and detector including full rotations, an x-ray transparent chamber wall for incident and diffracted beam access over a wide angular range, and minimal thermal sample motion, giving the sub-micron positional stability and reproducibility needed for coherent x-ray studies. The instrument enables surface x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy, microbeam diffraction, and coherent diffraction imaging of atomic-scale surface and film structure and dynamics during growth, to provide fundamental understanding of MOVPE processes.

  14. Vaporization of SiO2 and MgSiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stixrude, L. P.; Xiao, B.

    2016-12-01

    Vaporization of SiO2 and MgSiO3B Xiaoa and L Stixrude*a, a Department of Earth Sciences, University College London, WC1E 6BT London, UK *presenting author, email: l.stixrude@ucl.ac.uk Vaporization is an important process in Earth's earliest evolution during which giant impacts are thought to have produced a transient silicate atmosphere. As experimental data are very limited, little is known of the near-critical vaporization of Earth's major oxide components: MgO and SiO2. We have performed novel ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of vapor-liquid coexistence in the SiO2 and MgSiO3 systems. The simulations, based on density functional theory using the VASP code, begin with a suitably prepared liquid slab embedded in a vacuum. During the dynamical trajectory in the canonical ensemble, we see spontaneous vaporization, leading eventually to a steady-state chemical equilibrium between the two coexisting phases. We locate the liquid-vapor critical point at 6600 K and 0.40 g/cm3 for MgSiO3 and 5300 K and 0.43 g/cm3 for SiO2. By carefully examining the trajectories, we determine the composition and speciation of the vapor. For MgSiO3, We find that the vapor is significantly richer in Mg, O, and atomic (non-molecular) species than extrapolation of low-temperature experimental data has suggested. These results will have important implications for our understanding of the initial chemistry of the Earth and Moon and the initial thermal state of Earth.

  15. Thermal and chemical stabilization of ethylene/vinyl acetate/vinyl alcohol (EVA-OH) terpolymers under nitroplasticizer environments

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Dali; Hubbard, Kevin M.; Henderson, Kevin C.; ...

    2014-09-17

    Here, we compare the aging behaviors of cross-linked ethylene/vinyl acetate/vinyl alcohol terpolymers, also referred to as EVA-OH, when they are either immersed in nitroplasticizer (NP) liquid or exposed to NP vapor at different temperatures. And while thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry are used to probe the thermal stability of aged NP and polymers, Fourier transform infrared, gel permeation chromatography, ultra-violet/vis, and nuclear magnetic resonance are used to probe their structural changes over the aging process. Our study confirms that NP degrades through C[BOND]N cleavage, and releases HONO molecules at a slightly elevated temperature (<75°C). As these molecules accumulate inmore » the vapor phase, they react among themselves to create an acidic environment. Therefore, these chemical constituents in the NP vapor significantly accelerate the hydrolysis of EVA-OH polymer. When the hydrolysis occurs in both vinyl acetate and urethane groups and the scission at the cross-linker progresses, EVA-OH becomes vulnerable to further degradation in the NP vapor environment. Finally, through the comprehensive characterization, the possible degradation mechanisms of the terpolymers are proposed.« less

  16. Carbon-supported bimetallic Pd–Fe catalysts for vapor-phase hydrodeoxygenation of guaiacol

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Junming; Karim, Ayman M.; Zhang, He

    2013-10-01

    Abstract Carbon supported metal catalysts (Cu/C, Fe/C, Pd/C, Pt/C, PdFe/C and Ru/C) have been prepared, characterized and tested for vapor-phase hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of guaiacol (GUA) at atmospheric pressure. Phenol was the major intermediate on all catalysts. Over the noble metal catalysts saturation of the aromatic ring was the major pathway observed at low temperature (250 °C), forming predominantly cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol. Substantial ring opening reaction was observed on Pt/C and Ru/C at higher reaction temperatures (e.g., 350 °C). Base metal catalysts, especially Fe/C, were found to exhibit high HDO activity without ring-saturation or ring-opening with the main products being benzene,more » phenol along with small amounts of cresol, toluene and trimethylbenzene (TMB). A substantial enhancement in HDO activity was observed on the PdFe/C catalysts. Compared with Fe/C, the yield to oxygen-free aromatic products (i.e., benzene/toluene/TMB) on PdFe/C increased by a factor of four at 350 °C, and by approximately a factor of two (83.2% versus 43.3%) at 450 °C. The enhanced activity of PdFe/C is attributed to the formation of PdFe alloy as evidenced by STEM, EDS and TPR.« less

  17. Correlations for Vapor Nucleating Critical Embryo Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnusson, Lars-Erik; Koropchak, John A.; Anisimov, Michael P.; Poznjakovskiy, Valeriy M.; de la Mora, Juan Fernandez

    2003-12-01

    Condensation nucleation light scattering detection in principle works by converting the effluent of the chromatographic separation into an aerosol and then selectively evaporating the mobile phase, leaving less volatile analytes and nonvolatile impurities as dry aerosol particles. The dry particles produced are then exposed to an environment that is saturated with the vapors of an organic solvent (commonly n-butanol). The blend of aerosol particles and organic vapor is then cooled so that conditions of vapor supersaturation are achieved. In principle, the vapor then condenses onto the dry particles, growing each particle (ideally) from as small as a few nanometers in diameter into a droplet with a diameter up to about 10 μm. The grown droplets are then passed through a beam of light, and the light scattered by the droplets is detected and used as the detector response. This growth and detection step is generally carried out using commercial continuous-flow condensation nucleus counters. In the present research, the possibility of using other fluids than the commonly used n-butanol is investigated. The Kelvin equation and the Nucleation theorem [Anisimov et al. (1978)] are used to evaluate a range of fluids for efficacy of growing small particles by condensation nucleation. Using the available experimental data on vapor nucleation, the correlations of Kelvin diameters (the critical embryo sizes) and the bulk surface tension with dielectric constants of working liquids are found. A simple method for choosing the most efficient fluid, within a class of fluids, for growth of small particles is suggested.

  18. Heat storage system utilizing phase change materials government rights

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, Ival O.

    2000-09-12

    A thermal energy transport and storage system is provided which includes an evaporator containing a mixture of a first phase change material and a silica powder, and a condenser containing a second phase change material. The silica powder/PCM mixture absorbs heat energy from a source such as a solar collector such that the phase change material forms a vapor which is transported from the evaporator to the condenser, where the second phase change material melts and stores the heat energy, then releases the energy to an environmental space via a heat exchanger. The vapor is condensed to a liquid which is transported back to the evaporator. The system allows the repeated transfer of thermal energy using the heat of vaporization and condensation of the phase change material.

  19. Hydrolysis of dilute acid-pretreated cellulose under mild hydrothermal conditions.

    PubMed

    Chimentão, R J; Lorente, E; Gispert-Guirado, F; Medina, F; López, F

    2014-10-13

    The hydrolysis of dilute acid-pretreated cellulose was investigated in a conventional oven and under microwave heating. Two acids--sulfuric and oxalic--were studied. For both hydrothermal conditions (oven and microwave) the resultant total organic carbon (TOC) values obtained by the hydrolysis of the cellulose pretreated with sulfuric acid were higher than those obtained by the hydrolysis of the cellulose pretreated with oxalic acid. However, the dicarboxylic acid exhibited higher hydrolytic efficiency towards glucose. The hydrolysis of cellulose was greatly promoted by microwave heating. The Rietveld method was applied to fit the X-ray patterns of the resultant cellulose after hydrolysis. Oxalic acid preferentially removed the amorphous region of the cellulose and left the crystalline region untouched. On the other hand, sulfuric acid treatment decreased the ordering of the cellulose by partially disrupting its crystalline structure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Vapor-liquid phase behavior of a size-asymmetric model of ionic fluids confined in a disordered matrix: The collective-variables-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patsahan, O. V.; Patsahan, T. M.; Holovko, M. F.

    2018-02-01

    We develop a theory based on the method of collective variables to study the vapor-liquid equilibrium of asymmetric ionic fluids confined in a disordered porous matrix. The approach allows us to formulate the perturbation theory using an extension of the scaled particle theory for a description of a reference system presented as a two-component hard-sphere fluid confined in a hard-sphere matrix. Treating an ionic fluid as a size- and charge-asymmetric primitive model (PM) we derive an explicit expression for the relevant chemical potential of a confined ionic system which takes into account the third-order correlations between ions. Using this expression, the phase diagrams for a size-asymmetric PM are calculated for different matrix porosities as well as for different sizes of matrix and fluid particles. It is observed that general trends of the coexistence curves with the matrix porosity are similar to those of simple fluids under disordered confinement, i.e., the coexistence region gets narrower with a decrease of porosity and, simultaneously, the reduced critical temperature Tc* and the critical density ρi,c * become lower. At the same time, our results suggest that an increase in size asymmetry of oppositely charged ions considerably affects the vapor-liquid diagrams leading to a faster decrease of Tc* and ρi,c * and even to a disappearance of the phase transition, especially for the case of small matrix particles.

  1. Development of vapor phase hydrogen peroxide sterilization process for spacecraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, N.; Schubert, W.; Knight, J.; Quigley, M.; Forsberg, G.; Ganapathi, G.; Yarbrough, C.; Koukol, R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper will present test data and discussion on the work we are conducting at JPL to address the following issues: 1) efficacy of sterilization process; 2) diffusion of hydrogen peroxide under sterilization process conditions into hard to reach places; 3) materials and components compatibility with the sterilization process and 4) development of methodology to protect sensitive components from hydrogen peroxide vapor.

  2. Alkaline thermal sludge hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Neyens, E; Baeyens, J; Creemers, C

    2003-02-28

    The waste activated sludge (WAS) treatment of wastewater produces excess sludge which needs further treatment prior to disposal or incineration. A reduction in the amount of excess sludge produced, and the increased dewaterability of the sludge are, therefore, subject of renewed attention and research. A lot of research covers the nature of the sludge solids and associated water. An improved dewaterability requires the disruption of the sludge cell structure. Previous investigations are reviewed in the paper. Thermal hydrolysis is recognized as having the best potential to meet the objectives and acid thermal hydrolysis is most frequently used, despite its serious drawbacks (corrosion, required post-neutralization, solubilization of heavy metals and phosphates, etc.). Alkaline thermal hydrolysis has been studied to a lesser extent, and is the subject of the detailed laboratory-scale research reported in this paper. After assessing the effect of monovalent/divalent cations (respectively, K(+)/Na(+) and Ca(2+)/Mg(2+)) on the sludge dewaterability, only the use of Ca(2+) appears to offer the best solution. The lesser effects of K(+), Na(+) and Mg(2+) confirm previous experimental findings. As a result of the experimental investigations, it can be concluded that alkaline thermal hydrolysis using Ca(OH)(2) is efficient in reducing the residual sludge amounts and in improving the dewaterability. The objectives are fully met at a temperature of 100 degrees C; at a pH approximately 10 and for a 60-min reaction time, where all pathogens are moreover killed. Under these optimum conditions, the rate of mechanical dewatering increases (the capillary suction time (CST) value is decreased from approximately 34s for the initial untreated sample to approximately 22s for the hydrolyzed sludge sample) and the amount of DS to be dewatered is reduced to approximately 60% of the initial untreated amount. The DS-content of the dewatered cake will be increased from 28 (untreated) to 46

  3. Estimation of hydrolysis rate constants for carbamates ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Cheminformatics based tools, such as the Chemical Transformation Simulator under development in EPA’s Office of Research and Development, are being increasingly used to evaluate chemicals for their potential to degrade in the environment or be transformed through metabolism. Hydrolysis represents a major environmental degradation pathway; unfortunately, only a small fraction of hydrolysis rates for about 85,000 chemicals on the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) inventory are in public domain, making it critical to develop in silico approaches to estimate hydrolysis rate constants. In this presentation, we compare three complementary approaches to estimate hydrolysis rates for carbamates, an important chemical class widely used in agriculture as pesticides, herbicides and fungicides. Fragment-based Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSARs) using Hammett-Taft sigma constants are widely published and implemented for relatively simple functional groups such as carboxylic acid esters, phthalate esters, and organophosphate esters, and we extend these to carbamates. We also develop a pKa based model and a quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR) model, and evaluate them against measured rate constants using R square and root mean square (RMS) error. Our work shows that for our relatively small sample size of carbamates, a Hammett-Taft based fragment model performs best, followed by a pKa and a QSPR model. This presentation compares three comp

  4. Gastric protein hydrolysis of raw and roasted almonds in the growing pig.

    PubMed

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Drechsler, Krista C; Montoya, Carlos A; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, R Paul

    2016-11-15

    Gastric protein hydrolysis may influence gastric emptying rate and subsequent protein digestibility in the small intestine. This study examined the gastric hydrolysis of dietary protein from raw and roasted almonds in the growing pig as a model for the adult human. The gastric hydrolysis of almond proteins was quantified by performing tricine-sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and subsequent image analysis. There was an interaction between digestion time, stomach region, and almond type for gastric protein hydrolysis (p<0.05). Gastric emptying rate of protein was a significant (p<0.05) covariate in the gastric protein hydrolysis. In general, greater gastric protein hydrolysis was observed in raw almonds (compared to roasted almonds), hypothesized to be related to structural changes in almond proteins during roasting. Greater gastric protein hydrolysis was observed in the distal stomach (compared to the proximal stomach), likely related to the lower pH in the distal stomach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The hydrolysis kinetics of monobasic and dibasic aminoalkyl esters of ketorolac.

    PubMed

    Qandil, Amjad M; Jamhawi, Noor M; Tashtoush, Bassam M; Al-Ajlouni, Ahmad M; Idkaidek, Nasir M; Obaidat, Aiman A

    2013-09-01

    Six aminoethyl and aminobutyl esters of ketorolac containing 1-methylpiperazine (MPE and MPB), N-acetylpiperazine (APE and APB) or morpholine (ME and MB), were synthesized and their hydrolysis kinetics were studied. The hydrolysis was studied at pH 1 to 9 (for MPE, APE and ME) and pH 1 to 8 (for MPB, APB and MB) in aqueous phosphate buffer (0.16 M) with ionic strength (0.5 M) at 37°C. Calculation of k(obs), construction of the pH-rate profiles and determination of the rate equations were performed using KaleidaGraph® 4.1. The hydrolysis displays pseudo-first order kinetics and the pH-rate profiles shows that the aminobutyl esters, MPE, APB and MB, are the most stable. The hydrolysis of the ethyl esters MPE, APE and ME, depending on the pH, is either fast and catalyzed by the hydroxide anion or slow and uncatalyzed for the diprotonated, monoprotonated and nonprotonated forms. The hydrolysis of the butyl esters showed a similar profile, albeit it was also catalyzed by hydronium cation. In addition, the hydroxide anion is 105 more effective in catalyzing the hydrolysis than the hydronium cation. The hydrolysis pattern of the aminoethyl esters is affected by the number and pKa of its basic nitrogen atoms. The monobasic APE and ME, show a similar hydrolysis pattern that is different than the dibasic MPE. The length of the side chain and the pKa of the basic nitrogen atoms in the aminoethyl moiety affect the mechanism of hydrolysis as the extent of protonation at a given pH is directly related to the pKa.

  6. Rapid spot test for the determination of esculin hydrolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Edberg, S C; Gam, K; Bottenbley, C J; Singer, J M

    1976-01-01

    Esculin hydrolysis is a useful test in the differentiation of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria covering a wide spectrum of aerobes, facultative anaerobes, and anaerobes. Commonly utilized methods require a minimum of 18 h of incubation in broth or agar medium and utilize the production of a brown-black compound, due to the combination of ferric ions with the hydrolysis product esculetin, as indicator. A procedure is presented that requires 15 to 30 min for completion and utilizes fluorescence loss as the indicator of hydrolysis. Esculin fluoresces at 366 nm, whereas the hydrolysis product esculetin does not. Over 1,400 strains of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria were tested. There was 98.4% of correlation between the spot test and esculin broth and 97% correlation with the bile-esculin agar. Images PMID:787006

  7. A reference data set for validating vapor pressure measurement techniques: homologous series of polyethylene glycols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krieger, Ulrich K.; Siegrist, Franziska; Marcolli, Claudia; Emanuelsson, Eva U.; Gøbel, Freya M.; Bilde, Merete; Marsh, Aleksandra; Reid, Jonathan P.; Huisman, Andrew J.; Riipinen, Ilona; Hyttinen, Noora; Myllys, Nanna; Kurtén, Theo; Bannan, Thomas; Percival, Carl J.; Topping, David

    2018-01-01

    To predict atmospheric partitioning of organic compounds between gas and aerosol particle phase based on explicit models for gas phase chemistry, saturation vapor pressures of the compounds need to be estimated. Estimation methods based on functional group contributions require training sets of compounds with well-established saturation vapor pressures. However, vapor pressures of semivolatile and low-volatility organic molecules at atmospheric temperatures reported in the literature often differ by several orders of magnitude between measurement techniques. These discrepancies exceed the stated uncertainty of each technique which is generally reported to be smaller than a factor of 2. At present, there is no general reference technique for measuring saturation vapor pressures of atmospherically relevant compounds with low vapor pressures at atmospheric temperatures. To address this problem, we measured vapor pressures with different techniques over a wide temperature range for intercomparison and to establish a reliable training set. We determined saturation vapor pressures for the homologous series of polyethylene glycols (H - (O - CH2 - CH2)n - OH) for n = 3 to n = 8 ranging in vapor pressure at 298 K from 10-7 to 5×10-2 Pa and compare them with quantum chemistry calculations. Such a homologous series provides a reference set that covers several orders of magnitude in saturation vapor pressure, allowing a critical assessment of the lower limits of detection of vapor pressures for the different techniques as well as permitting the identification of potential sources of systematic error. Also, internal consistency within the series allows outlying data to be rejected more easily. Most of the measured vapor pressures agreed within the stated uncertainty range. Deviations mostly occurred for vapor pressure values approaching the lower detection limit of a technique. The good agreement between the measurement techniques (some of which are sensitive to the mass

  8. Hydrolysis of diacylglycerols by lipoprotein lipase.

    PubMed

    Morley, N H; Kuksis, A; Buchnea, D; Myher, J J

    1975-05-10

    Enantiomeric diacylglycerols were emulsified, mole for mole, with lyso(1-acyl) lecithin and were hydrolyzed with lipoprotein lipase in NH4Cl-beef serum albumin buffer at pH 8.6 after a brief incubation with delipidated rat serum. The enzyme was prepared from lyophilized and dialyzed bovine skim milk in a 4 percent solution. The course of hydrolysis for each set of enantiomers was determined by gas-liquid chromatography of the masses of the diacylglycerols remaining or monoacylglycerols released in the medium between 0 and 15 min. The majority of sets of sn-1,2- and 2,3-diacylglycerols, including an isotope-labeled true enantiomeric set which was assessed by mass spectrometry, demonstrated preference by the enzyme for lipolysis at position 1 but with less specificity than previously was shown in sn-triacylglycerol hydrolysis. The results preclude the possibility that the predominance of sn-2,3-diacylglycerol intermediates during triacylglycerol hydrolysis is due solely to a preferential breakdown of the 1,2-isomers and reinforce the conclusion that lipoprotein lipase is specific for position 1.

  9. Glucose Starvation Inhibits Autophagy via Vacuolar Hydrolysis and Induces Plasma Membrane Internalization by Down-regulating Recycling*

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Michael J.; Martinez-Marquez, Jorge Y.; Prosser, Derek C.; Ganser, Laura R.; Buelto, Destiney; Wendland, Beverly; Duncan, Mara C.

    2014-01-01

    Cellular energy influences all aspects of cellular function. Although cells can adapt to a gradual reduction in energy, acute energy depletion poses a unique challenge. Because acute depletion hampers the transport of new energy sources into the cell, the cell must use endogenous substrates to replenish energy after acute depletion. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, glucose starvation causes an acute depletion of intracellular energy that recovers during continued glucose starvation. However, how the cell replenishes energy during the early phase of glucose starvation is unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of pathways that deliver proteins and lipids to the vacuole during glucose starvation. We report that in response to glucose starvation, plasma membrane proteins are directed to the vacuole through reduced recycling at the endosomes. Furthermore, we found that vacuolar hydrolysis inhibits macroautophagy in a target of rapamycin complex 1-dependent manner. Accordingly, we found that endocytosis and hydrolysis are required for survival in glucose starvation, whereas macroautophagy is dispensable. Together, these results suggest that hydrolysis of components delivered to the vacuole independent of autophagy is the cell survival mechanism used by S. cerevisiae in response to glucose starvation. PMID:24753258

  10. Modeling of autocatalytic hydrolysis of adefovir dipivoxil in solid formulations.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ying; Zhang, Yan; Xiang, Bingren; Deng, Haishan; Wu, Jingfang

    2011-04-01

    The stability and hydrolysis kinetics of a phosphate prodrug, adefovir dipivoxil, in solid formulations were studied. The stability relationship between five solid formulations was explored. An autocatalytic mechanism for hydrolysis could be proposed according to the kinetic behavior which fits the Prout-Tompkins model well. For the classical kinetic models could hardly describe and predict the hydrolysis kinetics of adefovir dipivoxil in solid formulations accurately when the temperature is high, a feedforward multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network was constructed to model the hydrolysis kinetics. The build-in approaches in Weka, such as lazy classifiers and rule-based learners (IBk, KStar, DecisionTable and M5Rules), were used to verify the performance of MLP. The predictability of the models was evaluated by 10-fold cross-validation and an external test set. It reveals that MLP should be of general applicability proposing an alternative efficient way to model and predict autocatalytic hydrolysis kinetics for phosphate prodrugs.

  11. Direct observation of the evolution of a seafloor 'black smoker' from vapor to brine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Von Damm, Karen L.; Buttermore, L.G.; Oosting, S.E.; Bray, A.M.; Fornari, D.J.; Lilley, M.D.; Shanks, Wayne C.

    1997-01-01

    A single hydrothermal vent, 'F' vent, occurring on very young crust at 9??16.8???N, East Pacific Rise, was sampled in 1991 and 1994. In 1991, at the measured temperature of 388??C and seafloor pressure of 258 bar, the fluids from this vent were on the two-phase curve for seawater. These fluids were very low in chlorinity and other dissolved species, and high in gases compared to seawater and most sampled seafloor hydrothermal vent fluids. In 1994, when this vent was next sampled, it had cooled to 351??C and was venting fluids ???1.5 times seawater chlorinity. This is the first reported example of a single seafloor hydrothermal vent evolving from vapor to brine. The 1991 and 1994 fluids sampled from this vent are compositionally conjugate pairs to one another. These results support the hypothesis that vapor-phase fluids vent in the early period following a volcanic eruption, and that the liquid-phase brines are stored within the oceanic crust, and vent at a later time, in this case 3 years. These results demonstrate that the venting of brines can occur in the same location, in fact from the same sulfide edifice, where the vapor-phase fluids vented previously.

  12. Stepwise mechanism and H2O-assisted hydrolysis in atomic layer deposition of SiO2 without a catalyst.

    PubMed

    Fang, Guo-Yong; Xu, Li-Na; Wang, Lai-Guo; Cao, Yan-Qiang; Wu, Di; Li, Ai-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a powerful deposition technique for constructing uniform, conformal, and ultrathin films in microelectronics, photovoltaics, catalysis, energy storage, and conversion. The possible pathways for silicon dioxide (SiO2) ALD using silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) and water (H2O) without a catalyst have been investigated by means of density functional theory calculations. The results show that the SiCl4 half-reaction is a rate-determining step of SiO2 ALD. It may proceed through a stepwise pathway, first forming a Si-O bond and then breaking Si-Cl/O-H bonds and forming a H-Cl bond. The H2O half-reaction may undergo hydrolysis and condensation processes, which are similar to conventional SiO2 chemical vapor deposition (CVD). In the H2O half-reaction, there are massive H2O molecules adsorbed on the surface, which can result in H2O-assisted hydrolysis of the Cl-terminated surface and accelerate the H2O half-reaction. These findings may be used to improve methods for the preparation of SiO2 ALD and H2O-based ALD of other oxides, such as Al2O3, TiO2, ZrO2, and HfO2.

  13. Stepwise mechanism and H2O-assisted hydrolysis in atomic layer deposition of SiO2 without a catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Guo-Yong; Xu, Li-Na; Wang, Lai-Guo; Cao, Yan-Qiang; Wu, Di; Li, Ai-Dong

    2015-02-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a powerful deposition technique for constructing uniform, conformal, and ultrathin films in microelectronics, photovoltaics, catalysis, energy storage, and conversion. The possible pathways for silicon dioxide (SiO2) ALD using silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4) and water (H2O) without a catalyst have been investigated by means of density functional theory calculations. The results show that the SiCl4 half-reaction is a rate-determining step of SiO2 ALD. It may proceed through a stepwise pathway, first forming a Si-O bond and then breaking Si-Cl/O-H bonds and forming a H-Cl bond. The H2O half-reaction may undergo hydrolysis and condensation processes, which are similar to conventional SiO2 chemical vapor deposition (CVD). In the H2O half-reaction, there are massive H2O molecules adsorbed on the surface, which can result in H2O-assisted hydrolysis of the Cl-terminated surface and accelerate the H2O half-reaction. These findings may be used to improve methods for the preparation of SiO2 ALD and H2O-based ALD of other oxides, such as Al2O3, TiO2, ZrO2, and HfO2.

  14. Hydrolysis mechanism of methyl parathion evidenced by Q-Exactive mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Caixiang; Liao, Xiaoping; Luo, Yinwen; Wu, Sisi; Wang, Jianwei

    2015-12-01

    Organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs), a kind of widely used pesticides, are currently attracting great attention due to their adverse effects on human central nervous systems, particularly in children. Although the hydrolysis behavior of OPPs has been studied well, its hydrolysis mechanism remained controversial, especially at various pH conditions, partly due to their relatively complex structures and abundant moieties that were prone to be attacked by nucleophiles. The Q-Exactive mass spectrometer, part of those hybrid high-resolution mass spectrometers (HRMS), was used to determine hydrolysis products of methyl parathion (MP), a kind of OPPs in situ buffer aqueous solution with pH ranging from 1 to 13 in this study. Most of the complex hydrolysis products of MP were identified due to the high sensitivity and accuracy of HRMS. The results demonstrated that the hydrolysis rate and pathway of MP were strong pH dependent. With the increase of pH, the hydrolysis rate of MP increased, and two different reaction mechanisms were identified: SN (2)@P pathway dominated the hydrolysis process at high pH (e.g., pH ≥ 11) while SN (2)@C was the main behavior at low pH (e.g., pH ≤ 9). This study helps understand the hydrolysis mechanism of OPPs at various pH and extends the use of Q-Exactive mass spectrometry in identifying organic pollutants and their degradation products in environmental matrices.

  15. Hydrolysis of amphenicol and macrolide antibiotics: Chloramphenicol, florfenicol, spiramycin, and tylosin.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Shannon M; Ullman, Jeffrey L; Teel, Amy L; Watts, Richard J

    2015-09-01

    Antibiotics that enter the environment can present human and ecological health risks. An understanding of antibiotic hydrolysis rates is important for predicting their environmental persistence as biologically active contaminants. In this study, hydrolysis rates and Arrhenius constants were determined as a function of pH and temperature for two amphenicol (chloramphenicol and florfenicol) and two macrolide (spiramycin and tylosin) antibiotics. Antibiotic hydrolysis rates in pH 4-9 buffer solutions at 25°C, 50°C, and 60°C were quantified, and degradation products were characterized. All of the antibiotics tested remained stable and exhibited no observable hydrolysis under ambient conditions typical of aquatic ecosystems. Acid- and base-catalyzed hydrolysis occurred at elevated temperatures (50-60°C), and hydrolysis rates increased considerably below pH 5 and above pH 8. Hydrolysis rates also increased approximately 1.5- to 2.9-fold for each 10°C increase in temperature. Based on the degradation product masses found, the functional groups that underwent hydrolysis were alkyl fluoride, amide, and cyclic ester (lactone) moieties; some of the resultant degradation products may remain bioactive, but to a lesser extent than the parent compounds. The results of this research demonstrate that amphenicol and macrolide antibiotics persist in aquatic systems under ambient temperature and pH conditions typical of natural waters. Thus, these antibiotics may present a risk in aquatic ecosystems depending on the concentration present. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. InAs nanowires grown by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) employing PS/PMMA diblock copolymer nanopatterning.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yinggang; Kim, Tae Wan; Xiong, Shisheng; Mawst, Luke J; Kuech, Thomas F; Nealey, Paul F; Dai, Yushuai; Wang, Zihao; Guo, Wei; Forbes, David; Hubbard, Seth M; Nesnidal, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Dense arrays of indium arsenide (InAs) nanowire materials have been grown by selective-area metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy (SA-MOVPE) using polystyrene-b-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS/PMMA) diblock copolymer (DBC) nanopatterning technique, which is a catalyst-free approach. Nanoscale openings were defined in a thin (~10 nm) SiNx layer deposited on a (111)B-oriented GaAs substrate using the DBC process and CF4 reactive ion etching (RIE), which served as a hard mask for the nanowire growth. InAs nanowires with diameters down to ~ 20 nm and micrometer-scale lengths were achieved with a density of ~ 5 × 10(10) cm(2). The nanowire structures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, which indicate twin defects in a primary zincblende crystal structure and the absence of threading dislocation within the imaged regions.

  17. Study on the technology of compound enzymatic hydrolysis of whole passion fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu-xia; Duan, Zhen-hua; Kang, Chao; Zhu, Xiang-hao; Li, Ding-jin

    2017-12-01

    Fresh Whole Passion Fruit was used as raw material, The enzymatic hydrolysis technology of Passion Fruit by Complex enzyme were studied, The effects of enzyme dosage, Enzyme ratio(cellulose: pectinase), pH, temperature and time on the hydrolysis were investigated by single-tests and orthogonal tests, the hydrolysis indicators of single-factor tests and orthogonal tests were juice yield. The optimal hydrolysis conditions of Passion Fruit by Complex enzyme were enzyme dosage 0.12%, Enzyme ratio 5:1, hydrolysis temperature 50°C, pH4.0 and time 3.5 h. Under such conditions, juice yield of Passion Fruit was 92.91%.

  18. Vapor phase synthesis of compound semiconductors, from thin films to nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarigiannis, Demetrius

    A counterflow jet reactor was developed to study the gas-phase decomposition kinetics of organometallics used in the vapor phase synthesis of compound semiconductors. The reactor minimized wall effects by generating a reaction zone near the stagnation point of two vertically opposed counterflowing jets. Smoke tracing experiments were used to confirm the stability of the flow field and validate the proposed heat, mass and flow models of the counterflow jet reactor. Transport experiments using ethyl acetate confirmed the overall mass balance for the system and verified the ability of the model to predict concentrations at various points in the reactor under different flow conditions. Preliminary kinetic experiments were performed with ethyl acetate and indicated a need to redesign the reactor. The counterflow jet reactor was adapted for the synthesis of ZnSe nanoparticles. Hydrogen selenide was introduced through one jet and dimethylzinc-triethylamine through the other. The two precursors reacted in a region near the stagnation zone and polycrystalline particles of zinc selenide were reproducibly synthesized at room temperature and collected for analysis. Raman spectroscopy confirmed that the particles were crystalline zinc selenide, Morphological analysis using SEM clearly showed the presence of aggregates of particles, 40 to 60 nanometers in diameter. Analysis by TEM showed that the particles were polycrystalline in nature and composed of smaller single crystalline nanocrystallites, five to ten nanometers in diameter. The particles in the aggregate had the appearance of being sintered together. To prevent this sintering, a split inlet lower jet was designed to introduce dimethylzinc through the inner tube and a surface passivator through the outer one. This passivating agent appeared to prevent the particles from agglomerating. An existing MOVPE reactor for II-VI thin film growth was modified to grow III-V semiconductors. A novel new heater was designed and built

  19. Overview: MURI Center on spectroscopic and time domain detection of trace explosives in condensed and vapor phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spicer, James B.; Dagdigian, Paul; Osiander, Robert; Miragliotta, Joseph A.; Zhang, Xi-Cheng; Kersting, Roland; Crosley, David R.; Hanson, Ronald K.; Jeffries, Jay

    2003-09-01

    The research center established by Army Research Office under the Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative program pursues a multidisciplinary approach to investigate and advance the use of complementary analytical techniques for sensing of explosives and/or explosive-related compounds as they occur in the environment. The techniques being investigated include Terahertz (THz) imaging and spectroscopy, Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) and Resonance Enhanced Multiphoton Ionization (REMPI). This suite of techniques encompasses a diversity of sensing approaches that can be applied to detection of explosives in condensed phases such as adsorbed species in soil or can be used for vapor phase detection above the source. Some techniques allow for remote detection while others have highly specific and sensitive analysis capabilities. This program is addressing a range of fundamental, technical issues associated with trace detection of explosive related compounds using these techniques. For example, while both LIBS and THz can be used to carry-out remote analysis of condensed phase analyte from a distance in excess several meters, the sensitivities of these techniques to surface adsorbed explosive-related compounds are not currently known. In current implementations, both CRDS and REMPI require sample collection techniques that have not been optimized for environmental applications. Early program elements will pursue the fundamental advances required for these techniques including signature identification for explosive-related compounds/interferents and trace analyte extraction. Later program tasks will explore simultaneous application of two or more techniques to assess the benefits of sensor fusion.

  20. Bioabatement with hemicellulase supplementation to reduce enzymatic hydrolysis inhibitors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Removal of inhibitory compounds by bioabatement, combined with xylan hydrolysis, enables effective cellulose hydrolysis of pretreated corn stover, for fermentation of the sugars to fuel ethanol or other products. The fungus Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL30616 eliminates most enzyme and fermentation inhi...

  1. Vapor Bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosperetti, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews the fundamental physics of vapor bubbles in liquids. Work on bubble growth and condensation for stationary and translating bubbles is summarized and the differences with bubbles containing a permanent gas stressed. In particular, it is shown that the natural frequency of a vapor bubble is proportional not to the inverse radius, as for a gas bubble, but to the inverse radius raised to the power 2/3. Permanent gas dissolved in the liquid diffuses into the bubble with strong effects on its dynamics. The effects of the diffusion of heat and mass on the propagation of pressure waves in a vaporous bubbly liquid are discussed. Other topics briefly touched on include thermocapillary flow, plasmonic nanobubbles, and vapor bubbles in an immiscible liquid.

  2. The Biological and Toxicological Activity of Gases and Vapors

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Moreno, Ricardo; Gil-Lostes, Javier; Acree, William E.; Cometto-Muñiz, J. Enrique; Cain, William S.

    2010-01-01

    A large amount of data on the biological and toxicological activity of gases and vapors has been collected from the literature. Processes include sensory irritation thresholds, the Alarie mouse test, inhalation anesthesia, etc. It is shown that a single equation using only five descriptors (properties of the gases and vapors) plus a set of indicator variables for the given processes can correlate 643 biological and non-lethal toxicological activities of ‘non-reactive’ compounds with a standard deviation of 0.36 log unit. The equation is scaled to sensory irritation thresholds obtained by the procedure of Cometto-Muñiz, and Cain, and provides a general equation for the prediction of sensory irritation thresholds in man. It is suggested that differences in biological/toxicological activity arise primarily from transport from the gas phase to a receptor phase or area, except for odor detection thresholds where interaction with a receptor(s) is important. PMID:19913608

  3. Accelerated hydrolysis of substituted cellulose for potential biofuel production: kinetic study and modeling.

    PubMed

    Mu, Bingnan; Xu, Helan; Yang, Yiqi

    2015-11-01

    In this work, kinetics of substitution accelerated cellulose hydrolysis with multiple reaction stages was investigated to lay foundation for mechanism study and molecular design of substituting compounds. High-efficiency hydrolysis of cellulose is critical for cellulose-based bioethanol production. It is known that, substitution could substantially decrease activation energy and increase reaction rate of acidic hydrolysis of glycosidic bonds in cellulose. However, reaction kinetics and mechanism of the accelerated hydrolysis were not fully revealed. In this research, it was proved that substitution therefore accelerated hydrolysis only occurred in amorphous regions of cellulose fibers, and was a process with multiple reaction stages. With molar ratio of substitution less than 1%, the overall hydrolysis rate could be increased for around 10 times. We also quantified the relationship between the hydrolysis rate of individual reaction stage and its major influences, including molar ratio of substitution, activation energy of acidic hydrolysis, pH and temperature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Atomization and vaporization characteristics of airblast fuel injection inside a venturi tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, H.; Chue, T.-H.; Lai, M.-C.; Tacina, R. R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental and numerical characterization of the capillary fuel injection, atomization, dispersion, and vaporization of liquid fuel in a coflowing air stream inside a single venturi tube. The experimental techniques used are all laser-based. Phase Doppler analyzer was used to characterize the atomization and vaporization process. Planar laser-induced fluorescence visualizations give good qualitative picture of the fuel droplet and vapor distribution. Limited quantitative capabilities of the technique are also demonstrated. A modified version of the KIVA-II was used to simulate the entire spray process, including breakup and vaporization. The advantage of venturi nozzle is demonstrated in terms of better atomization, more uniform F/A distribution, and less pressure drop. Multidimensional spray calculations can be used as a design tool only if care is taken for the proper breakup model, and wall impingement process.

  5. Steady boiling of vapor bubbles in rectangular channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajaev, Vladimir S.; Homsy, George M.

    2000-11-01

    We consider vapor bubbles in microchannels in which the vapor is produced by a heater element and condenses in cooler parts of the interface. The free boundary problem is formulated for a long steady-state bubble in a rectangular channel with a heated bottom. The shape of the liquid-vapor interface is described using lubrication-type equations in the regime in which the vapor phase fills most of the cross-section. Contact lines may be present, marking the transitions between molecularly thin films and macroscopic ones. The main parameters are the differences between heater, saturation, and top wall temperatures. The equations are solved numerically over a range of parameter values with an integral condition requiring the evaporation near the heater to balance condensation in colder areas of the interface. Depending on the temperature, the side walls can be either dry or covered with a liquid film; we identify criteria for these two different regimes. The asymptotic method breaks down in the limit when capillary condensation becomes important near the bubble top and a different approach is used to determine the shape of the bubble in this limit. Solutions here involve localized regions of large mass fluxes, which are asymptotically matched to capillary-statics regions where the heat transfer is negligible.

  6. Phase Transition Enthalpy Measurements of Organic and Organometallic Compounds and Ionic Liquids. Sublimation, Vaporization, and Fusion Enthalpies from 1880 to 2015. Part 2. C11-C192

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acree, William; Chickos, James S.

    2017-03-01

    The second part of this compendium concludes with a collection of phase change enthalpies of organic molecules inclusive of C11-C192 reported over the period 1880-2015. Also included are phase change enthalpies including fusion, vaporization, and sublimation enthalpies for organometallic, ionic liquids, and a few inorganic compounds. Paper I of this compendium, published separately, includes organic compounds from C1 to C10 and describes a group additivity method for evaluating solid, liquid, and gas phase heat capacities as well as temperature adjustments of phase changes. Paper II of this compendium also includes an updated version of a group additivity method for evaluating total phase change entropies which together with the fusion temperature can be useful in estimating total phase change enthalpies. Other uses include application in identifying potential substances that either form liquid or plastic crystals or exhibit additional phase changes such as undetected solid-solid transitions or behave anisotropically in the liquid state.

  7. Enhanced quality thin film Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 for semiconductor device applications by vapor-phase recrystallization

    DOEpatents

    Tuttle, John R.; Contreras, Miguel A.; Noufi, Rommel; Albin, David S.

    1994-01-01

    Enhanced quality thin films of Cu.sub.w (In,Ga.sub.y)Se.sub.z for semiconductor device applications are fabricated by initially forming a Cu-rich, phase-separated compound mixture comprising Cu(In,Ga):Cu.sub.x Se on a substrate to form a large-grain precursor and then converting the excess Cu.sub.x Se to Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 by exposing it to an activity of In and/or Ga, either in vapor In and/or Ga form or in solid (In,Ga).sub.y Se.sub.z. Alternatively, the conversion can be made by sequential deposition of In and/or Ga and Se onto the phase-separated precursor. The conversion process is preferably performed in the temperature range of about 300.degree.-600.degree. C., where the Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 remains solid, while the excess Cu.sub.x Se is in a liquid flux. The characteristic of the resulting Cu.sub.w (In,Ga).sub.y Se.sub.z can be controlled by the temperature. Higher temperatures, such as 500.degree.-600.degree. C., result in a nearly stoichiometric Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2, whereas lower temperatures, such as 300.degree.-400.degree. C., result in a more Cu-poor compound, such as the Cu.sub.z (In,Ga).sub.4 Se.sub.7 phase.

  8. Enhanced quality thin film Cu(In,Ga)Se[sub 2] for semiconductor device applications by vapor-phase recrystallization

    DOEpatents

    Tuttle, J.R.; Contreras, M.A.; Noufi, R.; Albin, D.S.

    1994-10-18

    Enhanced quality thin films of Cu[sub w](In,Ga[sub y])Se[sub z] for semiconductor device applications are fabricated by initially forming a Cu-rich, phase-separated compound mixture comprising Cu(In,Ga):Cu[sub x]Se on a substrate to form a large-grain precursor and then converting the excess Cu[sub x]Se to Cu(In,Ga)Se[sub 2] by exposing it to an activity of In and/or Ga, either in vapor In and/or Ga form or in solid (In,Ga)[sub y]Se[sub z]. Alternatively, the conversion can be made by sequential deposition of In and/or Ga and Se onto the phase-separated precursor. The conversion process is preferably performed in the temperature range of about 300--600 C, where the Cu(In,Ga)Se[sub 2] remains solid, while the excess Cu[sub x]Se is in a liquid flux. The characteristic of the resulting Cu[sub w](In,Ga)[sub y]Se[sub z] can be controlled by the temperature. Higher temperatures, such as 500--600 C, result in a nearly stoichiometric Cu(In,Ga)Se[sub 2], whereas lower temperatures, such as 300--400 C, result in a more Cu-poor compound, such as the Cu[sub z](In,Ga)[sub 4]Se[sub 7] phase. 7 figs.

  9. Mechanism of 1,4,5,8-naphthalene tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride hydrolysis and formation in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Barros, T C; Cuccovia, I M; Farah, J P S; Masini, J C; Chaimovich, H; Politi, M J

    2006-01-07

    The study of highly conjugated, carbonyl-containing molecules such as 1,4,5,8-naphthalene tetracarboxylic dianhydride, III, is of interest since reactivity differences and transmission of electronic effects through the conjugated framework can be evidenced. The kinetics of hydrolysis of III in aqueous solution were determined from 5 M acid to pH 10. In basic solution hydrolysis of III yields, sequentially, 1,4,5,8-naphthalene diacid monoanhydride, II, and 1,4,5,8-naphthalene tetracarboxylic acid, I. The second order rate constant for alkaline hydrolysis is 200 fold higher for the first ring opening. The water-catalyzed hydrolysis of III yields a pH-dependent mixture of ionic forms of I and II. The rate constant for water-catalyzed hydrolysis of III is 25 fold higher than that for II. In concentrated acid the rates for reaching equilibrium (I, II and III) increase and III is the major product. The pK(a)s of I (3.24, 5.13 and 6.25) and II (3.05, 5.90) were determined by potentiometric, fluorescence and UV spectroscopy titrations and by quantitative fit of the kinetic and equilibrium data. The apparent, pH-dependent, equilibrium constants, K(EqII), for anhydride formation between I and II were obtained from the UV spectra. The quantitative fit of kinetic and equilibrium data are consistent with the assumption that anhydride formation only proceeds with the fully protonated species for both I and II and permitted the estimation of the equilibrium constants for anhydride formation, K(EqII). The value of K(EqII) (I <==> II) between pH 1 and 6 was ca. 5. Geometry optimization calculations in the gas phase of the reactions of III in alkaline, neutral and acid conditions, at the DFT level of theory, gave electronic distributions that were qualitatively consistent with the experimental results.

  10. Vacuum vapor deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poorman, Richard M. (Inventor); Weeks, Jack L. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for vapor deposition of a thin metallic film utilizing an ionized gas arc directed onto a source material spaced from a substrate to be coated in a substantial vacuum while providing a pressure differential between the source and the substrate so that, as a portion of the source is vaporized, the vapors are carried to the substrate. The apparatus includes a modified tungsten arc welding torch having a hollow electrode through which a gas, preferably inert, flows and an arc is struck between the electrode and the source. The torch, source, and substrate are confined within a chamber within which a vacuum is drawn. When the arc is struck, a portion of the source is vaporized and the vapors flow rapidly toward the substrate. A reflecting shield is positioned about the torch above the electrode and the source to ensure that the arc is struck between the electrode and the source at startup. The electrode and the source may be confined within a vapor guide housing having a duct opening toward the substrate for directing the vapors onto the substrate.

  11. Sub-Equimolar Hydrolysis and Condensation of Organophosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, Todd M.; Kinnan, Mark K.; Wilson, Brendan W.

    We characterized the in-situ hydrolysis and subsequent condensation reaction of the chemical agent simulant diethyl chlorophosphate (DECP) by high-resolution 31P NMR spectroscopy following the addition of water in sub-equimolar concentrations. Moreover, the identification and quantification of the multiple pyrophosphate and larger polyphosphate chemical species formed through a series of self-condensation reactions are reported. Finally, the DECP hydrolysis kinetics and distribution of breakdown species was strongly influenced by the water concentration and reaction temperature.

  12. Sub-Equimolar Hydrolysis and Condensation of Organophosphates

    DOE PAGES

    Alam, Todd M.; Kinnan, Mark K.; Wilson, Brendan W.; ...

    2016-07-16

    We characterized the in-situ hydrolysis and subsequent condensation reaction of the chemical agent simulant diethyl chlorophosphate (DECP) by high-resolution 31P NMR spectroscopy following the addition of water in sub-equimolar concentrations. Moreover, the identification and quantification of the multiple pyrophosphate and larger polyphosphate chemical species formed through a series of self-condensation reactions are reported. Finally, the DECP hydrolysis kinetics and distribution of breakdown species was strongly influenced by the water concentration and reaction temperature.

  13. Hydrolysis of the amorphous cellulose in cotton-based paper.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Catherine H; Whitmore, Paul M; Morris, Hannah R; Bier, Mark E

    2008-04-01

    Hydrolysis of cellulose in Whatman no. 42 cotton-based paper was studied using gel permeation chromatography (GPC), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and uniaxial tensile testing to understand the course and kinetics of the reaction. GPC results suggested that scission reactions passed through three stages. Additionally, the evolution of soluble oligomers in the ESI-MS data and the steady course of strength loss showed that the hydrolysis reaction occurred at a constant rate. These findings are explained with a more detailed description of the cellulose hydrolysis, which includes multiple chain scissions on amorphous segments. The breaks occur with increasing frequency near the ends of amorphous segments, where chains protrude from crystalline domains. Oligomers unattached to crystalline domains are eventually created. Late-stage reactions near the ends of amorphous segments produce a kinetic behavior that falsely suggests that hydrolysis had ceased. Monte Carlo simulations of cellulose degradation corroborated the experimental findings.

  14. Evaluation of hydrolysis-esterification biodiesel production from wet microalgae.

    PubMed

    Song, Chunfeng; Liu, Qingling; Ji, Na; Deng, Shuai; Zhao, Jun; Li, Shuhong; Kitamura, Yutaka

    2016-08-01

    Wet microalgae hydrolysis-esterification route has the advantage to avoid the energy-intensive units (e.g. drying and lipid extraction) in the biodiesel production process. In this study, techno-economic evaluation of hydrolysis-esterification biodiesel production process was carried out and compared with conventional (usually including drying, lipid extraction, esterification and transesterification) biodiesel production process. Energy and material balance of the conventional and hydrolysis-esterification processes was evaluated by Aspen Plus. The simulation results indicated that drying (2.36MJ/L biodiesel) and triolein transesterification (1.89MJ/L biodiesel) are the dominant energy-intensive stages in the conventional route (5.42MJ/L biodiesel). By contrast, the total energy consumption of hydrolysis-esterification route can be reduced to 1.81MJ/L biodiesel, and approximately 3.61MJ can be saved to produce per liter biodiesel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An Assessment of the Technical Readiness of the Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal Process (VPCAR) Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael

    2000-01-01

    This poster provides an assessment of the technical readiness of the Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal Process (VPCAR). The VPCAR technology is a fully regenerative water recycling technology designed specifically for applications such as a near term Mars exploration mission. The VPCAR technology is a highly integrated distillation/catalytic oxidation based water processor. It is designed to accept a combined wastewater stream (urine, condensate, and hygiene) and produces potable water in a single process step which requires -no regularly scheduled re-supply or maintenance for a 3 year mission. The technology is designed to be modular and to fit into a volume comparable to a single International Space Station Rack (when sized for a crew of 6). This poster provides a description of the VPCAR technology and a summary of the current performance of the technology. Also provided are the results of two separate NASA sponsored system trade studies which investigated the potential payback of further development of the VPCAR technology.

  16. Organic-inorganic field effect transistor with SnI-based perovskite channel layer using vapor phase deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushima, Toshinori; Yasuda, Takeshi; Fujita, Katsuhiko; Tsutsui, Tetsuo

    2003-11-01

    High field-effect hole mobility of (formula available in paper)and threshold voltage is -3.2 V) in organic-inorganic layered perovskite film (formula available in paper)prepared by a vapor phase deposition technique have been demonstrated through the octadecyltrichlorosilane treatment of substrate. Previously, the (formula available in paper)films prepared on the octadecyltrichlorosilane-covered substrates using a vapor evaporation showed not only intense exciton absorption and photoluminescence in the optical spectroscopy but also excellent crystallinity and large grain structure in X-ray and atomic force microscopic studies. Especially, the (formula available in paper)structure in the region below few nm closed to the surface of octadecyltrichlorosilane monolayer was drastically improved in comparison with that on the non-covered substrate. Though our initial (formula available in paper)films via a same sequence of preparation of (formula available in paper)and octadecyltrichlorosilane monolayer did not show the field-effect properties because of a lack of spectral, structural, and morphological features. The unformation of favorable (formula available in paper)structure in the very thin region, that is very important for the field-effect transistors to transport electrons or holes, closed to the surface of non-covered (formula available in paper)dielectric layer was also one of the problems for no observation of them. By adding further optimization and development, such as deposition rate of perovskite, substrate heating during deposition, and tuning device architecture, with hydrophobic treatment, the vacuum-deposited (formula available in paper)have achieved above-described high performance in organic-inorganic hybrid transistors.

  17. Rapid enzymatic hydrolysis using a novel recombinant β-glucuronidase in benzodiazepine urinalysis.

    PubMed

    Morris, Ayodele A; Chester, Scot A; Strickland, Erin C; McIntire, Gregory L

    2014-10-01

    Only trace amounts of parent benzodiazepines are present in urine following extensive metabolism and conjugation. Thus, hydrolysis of glucuronides is necessary for improved detection. Enzyme hydrolysis is preferred to retain identification specificity, but can be costly and time-consuming. The assessment of a novel recombinant β-glucuronidase for rapid hydrolysis in benzodiazepine urinalysis is presented. Glucuronide controls for oxazepam, lorazepam and temazepam were treated with IMCSzyme™ recombinant β-glucuronidase. Hydrolysis efficiency was assessed at 55°C and at room temperature (RT) using the recommended optimum pH. Hydrolysis efficiency for four other benzodiazepines was evaluated solely with positive patient samples. Maximum hydrolysis of glucuronide controls at 5 min at RT (mean analyte recovery ≥ 94% for oxazepam and lorazepam and ≥ 80% for temazepam) was observed. This was considerably faster than the optimized 30 min incubation time for the abalone β-glucuronidase at 65°C. Mean analyte recovery increased at longer incubation times at 55°C for temazepam only. Total analyte in patient samples compared well to targets from abalone hydrolysis after recombinant β-glucuronidase hydrolysis at RT with no incubation. Some matrix effect, differential reactivity, conjugation variability and transformation impacting total analyte recovery were indicated. The unique potential of the IMCSzyme™ recombinant β-glucuronidase was demonstrated with fast benzodiazepine hydrolysis at RT leading to decreased processing time without the need for heat activation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Effects of water vapor on flue gas conditioning in the electric fields with corona discharge.

    PubMed

    Liqiang, Qi; Yajuan, Zhang

    2013-07-15

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) removal via pulsed discharge nonthermal plasma in the absence of ammonia was investigated to determine how electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) can effectively collect particulate matter less than 2.5μm in diameter from flue gas. SO2 removal increased as water vapor concentration increased. In a wet-type plasma reactor, directing a gas-phase discharge plasma toward the water film surface significantly enhanced the liquid-phase oxidation of HSO3(-) to SO4(2-). Comparisons of various absorbents revealed that the hydroxyl radical is a key factor in plasma-induced liquid-phase reactions. The resistivity, size distribution, and cohesive force of fly ash at different water vapor contents were measured using a Bahco centrifuge, which is a dust electrical resistivity test instrument, as well as a cohesive force test apparatus developed by the researchers. When water vapor content increased by 5%, fly ash resistivity in flue gas decreased by approximately two orders of magnitude, adhesive force and size increased, and specific surface area decreased. Therefore, ESP efficiency increased. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Mechanistic kinetic models of enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis-A review.

    PubMed

    Jeoh, Tina; Cardona, Maria J; Karuna, Nardrapee; Mudinoor, Akshata R; Nill, Jennifer

    2017-07-01

    Bioconversion of lignocellulose forms the basis for renewable, advanced biofuels, and bioproducts. Mechanisms of hydrolysis of cellulose by cellulases have been actively studied for nearly 70 years with significant gains in understanding of the cellulolytic enzymes. Yet, a full mechanistic understanding of the hydrolysis reaction has been elusive. We present a review to highlight new insights gained since the most recent comprehensive review of cellulose hydrolysis kinetic models by Bansal et al. (2009) Biotechnol Adv 27:833-848. Recent models have taken a two-pronged approach to tackle the challenge of modeling the complex heterogeneous reaction-an enzyme-centric modeling approach centered on the molecularity of the cellulase-cellulose interactions to examine rate limiting elementary steps and a substrate-centric modeling approach aimed at capturing the limiting property of the insoluble cellulose substrate. Collectively, modeling results suggest that at the molecular-scale, how rapidly cellulases can bind productively (complexation) and release from cellulose (decomplexation) is limiting, while the overall hydrolysis rate is largely insensitive to the catalytic rate constant. The surface area of the insoluble substrate and the degrees of polymerization of the cellulose molecules in the reaction both limit initial hydrolysis rates only. Neither enzyme-centric models nor substrate-centric models can consistently capture hydrolysis time course at extended reaction times. Thus, questions of the true reaction limiting factors at extended reaction times and the role of complexation and decomplexation in rate limitation remain unresolved. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1369-1385. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Epitaxial growth of three dimensionally structured III-V photonic crystal via hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Qiye; Kim, Honggyu; Zhang, Runyu

    2015-12-14

    Three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals are one class of materials where epitaxy, and the resultant attractive electronic properties, would enable new functionalities for optoelectronic devices. Here we utilize self-assembled colloidal templates to fabricate epitaxially grown single crystal 3D mesostructured GaxIn1-xP (GaInP) semiconductor photonic crystals using hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). The epitaxial relationship between the 3D GaInP and the substrate is preserved during the growth through the complex geometry of the template as confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. XRD reciprocal space mapping of the 3D epitaxial layer further demonstrates the film to be nearly fullymore » relaxed with a negligible strain gradient. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reflection measurement indicates the optical properties of the photonic crystal which agree with finite difference time domain simulations. This work extends the scope of the very few known methods for the fabrication of epitaxial III-V 3D mesostructured materials to the well-developed HVPE technique.« less

  1. Epitaxial growth of three dimensionally structured III-V photonic crystal via hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Qiye; Kim, Honggyu; Zhang, Runyu

    2015-12-14

    Three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals are one class of materials where epitaxy, and the resultant attractive electronic properties, would enable new functionalities for optoelectronic devices. Here we utilize self-assembled colloidal templates to fabricate epitaxially grown single crystal 3D mesostructured Ga{sub x}In{sub 1−x}P (GaInP) semiconductor photonic crystals using hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). The epitaxial relationship between the 3D GaInP and the substrate is preserved during the growth through the complex geometry of the template as confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. XRD reciprocal space mapping of the 3D epitaxial layer further demonstrates the film to bemore » nearly fully relaxed with a negligible strain gradient. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reflection measurement indicates the optical properties of the photonic crystal which agree with finite difference time domain simulations. This work extends the scope of the very few known methods for the fabrication of epitaxial III-V 3D mesostructured materials to the well-developed HVPE technique.« less

  2. Preparation of 2-in.-diameter (001) β-Ga2O3 homoepitaxial wafers by halide vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieu, Quang Tu; Wakimoto, Daiki; Koishikawa, Yuki; Sasaki, Kohei; Goto, Ken; Konishi, Keita; Murakami, Hisashi; Kuramata, Akito; Kumagai, Yoshinao; Yamakoshi, Shigenobu

    2017-11-01

    The homoepitaxial growth of thick β-Ga2O3 layers on 2-in.-diameter (001) wafers was demonstrated by halide vapor phase epitaxy. Growth rates of 3 to 4 µm/h were confirmed for growing intentionally Si-doped n-type layers. A homoepitaxial layer with an average thickness and carrier concentration of 10.9 µm and 2.7 × 1016 cm-3 showed standard deviations of 1.8 µm (16.5%) and 0.5 × 1016 cm-3 (19.7%), respectively. Ni Schottky barrier diodes fabricated directly on a 5.3-µm-thick homoepitaxial layer with a carrier concentration of 3.4 × 1016 cm-3 showed reasonable reverse and forward characteristics, i.e., breakdown voltages above 200 V and on-resistances of 3.8-7.7 mΩ cm2 at room temperature.

  3. Enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass by Kitasatospora sp. to produce xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, Nanik; Jannah, Alifah Mafatikhul; Lisdiyanti, Puspita; Prasetya, Bambang; Yopi

    2017-11-01

    The optimizations of enzymatic hydrolysis to produce of xylo-oligosaccharides (XOs) from three different lignocellulosic biomasses were investigated. Sugarcane bagasse, oil palm empty fruit bunch, and rice straw contain rich hemicelluloses especially hetero-xylan which can be hydrolyzes by endo-xylanase enzyme. Enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse by endo-xylanase from Kitasatospora sp. was optimum at temperature hydrolysis 30 °C using 16 U of enzyme concentrations and 4 % substrate concentrations, while oil palm empty fruit bunchwas optimum at temperature hydrolysis 30 °C using 16 U of enzyme concentrations and 5 % substrate concentrations, and rice straw was optimum at 40 °C temperature hydrolysis using 16 U of enzyme concentrations and 4 % substrate concentrations. The hydrolysis products were analyzed by TLC and HPLC. The main product hydrolysis for sugarcane bagasse, oil palm empty fruit bunch and rice straw are xylobiose.

  4. Internal Hydrolysis Indicator for Sample Specific Monitoring of β-Glucuronidase Activity.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Lacy L; Flint, Noah A; Ma, Vinh; Hill, Brandy M; Clark, Chantry J; Strathmann, Frederick G

    2017-06-01

    Metabolized forms of benzodiazepines (benzos) can cause issues with mass spectrometry identification. Benzodiazepines undergo a process called glucuronidation during metabolism that attaches a glucuronic acid for increased solubility. Often in clinical testing an enzymatic hydrolysis step is implemented to increase the sensitivity of benzodiazepines by hydrolyzing β-D-glucuronic acid from benzodiazepine-glucuronide conjugates in urine samples using the β-Glucuronidase enzyme. In this study resorufin β-D-glucuronide, a substrate of the β-Glucuronidase enzyme, was added to patient samples to determine if proper hydrolysis had occurred. The presence of resorufin as an Internal Hydrolysis Indicator (IHI) shows the activity and efficiency of the enzyme in each patient sample. Synthetic/patient urine samples were obtained and mixed with hydrolysis buffer containing resorufin β-D-glucuronide. The β-Glucuronidase enzyme was used to hydrolyze the benzodiazepine analytes as well as resorufin β-D-glucuronide. The enzymatic hydrolysis addition increased the positivity rate of benzodiazepines by 42.5%. The β-Glucuronidase substrate resorufin (IHI) displayed variability in area counts between patient samples. Comparative studies with internal standards and resorufin (IHI) showed no correlation between recovery and analyte variability. Hydrolysis reactions greatly improved the sensitivity of benzodiazepines by liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis. The large variation in resorufin (IHI) area counts amongst patient samples indicates possible variability in enzymatic hydrolysis activity. The enzymatic hydrolysis step is a part of the extraction procedure and should be controlled for in each patient sample. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Temperature-difference-driven mass transfer through the vapor from a cold to a warm liquid.

    PubMed

    Struchtrup, Henning; Kjelstrup, Signe; Bedeaux, Dick

    2012-06-01

    Irreversible thermodynamics provides interface conditions that yield temperature and chemical potential jumps at phase boundaries. The interfacial jumps allow unexpected transport phenomena, such as the inverted temperature profile [Pao, Phys. Fluids 14, 306 (1971)] and mass transfer from a cold to a warm liquid driven by a temperature difference across the vapor phase [Mills and Phillips, Chem. Phys. Lett. 372, 615 (2002)]. Careful evaluation of the thermodynamic laws has shown [Bedeaux et al., Physica A 169, 263 (1990)] that the inverted temperature profile is observed for processes with a high heat of vaporization. In this paper, we show that cold to warm mass transfer through the vapor from a cold to a warm liquid is only possible when the heat of evaporation is sufficiently small. A necessary criterium for the size of the mass transfer coefficient is given.

  6. Pumped two-phase heat transfer loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelstein, Fred

    1988-01-01

    A pumped loop two-phase heat transfer system, operating at a nearly constant temperature throughout, includes several independently operating grooved capillary heat exchanger plates supplied with working fluid through independent flow modulation valves connected to a liquid supply line, a vapor line for collecting vapor from the heat exchangers, a condenser between the vapor and the liquid lines, and a fluid circulating pump between the condenser and the heat exchangers.

  7. Theoretical studies of the ATP hydrolysis mechanism of myosin.

    PubMed

    Okimoto, N; Yamanaka, K; Ueno, J; Hata, M; Hoshino, T; Tsuda, M

    2001-11-01

    The ATP hydrolysis mechanism of myosin was studied using quantum chemical (QM) and molecular dynamics calculations. The initial model compound for QM calculations was constructed on the basis of the energy-minimized structure of the myosin(S1dc)-ATP complex, which was determined by molecular mechanics calculations. The result of QM calculations suggested that the ATP hydrolysis mechanism of myosin consists of a single elementary reaction in which a water molecule nucleophilically attacked gamma-phosphorus of ATP. In addition, we performed molecular dynamics simulations of the initial and final states of the ATP hydrolysis reaction, that is, the myosin-ATP and myosin-ADP.Pi complexes. These calculations revealed roles of several amino acid residues (Lys185, Thr186, Ser237, Arg238, and Glu459) in the ATPase pocket. Lys185 maintains the conformation of beta- and gamma-phosphate groups of ATP by forming the hydrogen bonds. Thr186 and Ser237 are coordinated to a Mg(2+) ion, which interacts with the phosphates of ATP and therefore contributes to the stabilization of the ATP structure. Arg238 and Glu459, which consisted of the gate of the ATPase pocket, retain the water molecule acting on the hydrolysis at the appropriate position for initiating the hydrolysis.

  8. Probe for measurement of velocity and density of vapor in vapor plume

    DOEpatents

    Berzins, Leon V.; Bratton, Bradford A.; Fuhrman, Paul W.

    1997-01-01

    A probe which directs a light beam through a vapor plume in a first direction at a first angle ranging from greater than 0.degree. to less than 90.degree., reflecting the light beam back through the vapor plume at a 90.degree. angle, and then reflecting the light beam through the vapor plume a third time at a second angle equal to the first angle, using a series of mirrors to deflect the light beam while protecting the mirrors from the vapor plume with shields. The velocity, density, temperature and flow direction of the vapor plume may be determined by a comparison of the energy from a reference portion of the beam with the energy of the beam after it has passed through the vapor plume.

  9. Proposed Method for Estimating Health-Promoting Glucosinolates and Hydrolysis Products in Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) Using Relative Transcript Abundance.

    PubMed

    Becker, Talon M; Jeffery, Elizabeth H; Juvik, John A

    2017-01-18

    Due to the importance of glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products in human nutrition and plant defense, optimizing the content of these compounds is a frequent breeding objective for Brassica crops. Toward this goal, we investigated the feasibility of using models built from relative transcript abundance data for the prediction of glucosinolate and hydrolysis product concentrations in broccoli. We report that predictive models explaining at least 50% of the variation for a number of glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products can be built for prediction within the same season, but prediction accuracy decreased when using models built from one season's data for prediction of an opposing season. This method of phytochemical profile prediction could potentially allow for lower phytochemical phenotyping costs and larger breeding populations. This, in turn, could improve selection efficiency for phase II induction potential, a type of chemopreventive bioactivity, by allowing for the quick and relatively cheap content estimation of phytochemicals known to influence the trait.

  10. Solid-vapor interactions: influence of environmental conditions on the dehydration of carbamazepine dihydrate.

    PubMed

    Surana, Rahul; Pyne, Abira; Suryanarayanan, Raj

    2004-12-31

    The goal of this research was a phenomenological study of the effect of environmental factors on the dehydration behavior of carbamazepine dihydrate. Dehydration experiments were performed in an automated vapor sorption apparatus under a variety of conditions, and weight loss was monitored as a function of time. In addition to lattice water, carbamazepine dihydrate contained a significant amount of physically bound water. Based on the kinetics of water loss, it was possible to differentiate between the removal of physically bound water and the lattice water. The activation energy for the 2 processes was 44 and 88 kJ/mol, respectively. As expected, the dehydration rate of carbamazepine dihydrate decreased with an increase in water vapor pressure. While dehydration at 0% relative humidity (RH) resulted in an amorphous anhydrate, the crystallinity of the anhydrate increased as a function of the RH of dehydration. A method was developed for in situ crystallinity determination of the anhydrate formed. Dehydration in the presence of the ethanol vapor was a 2-step process, and the fraction dehydrated at each step was a function of the ethanol vapor pressure. We hypothesize the formation of an intermediate lower hydrate phase with unknown water stoichiometry. An increase in the ethanol vapor pressure first led to a decrease in the dehydration rate followed by an increase. In summary, the dehydration behavior of carbamazepine dihydrate was evaluated at different vapor pressures of water and ethanol. Using the water sorption apparatus, it was possible to (1) differentiate between the removal of physically bound and lattice water, and (2) develop a method for quantifying, in situ, the crystallinity of the product (anhydrate) phase.

  11. Vapor Intrusion

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Vapor intrusion occurs when there is a migration of volatile chemicals from contaminated groundwater or soil into an overlying building. Volatile chemicals can emit vapors that may migrate through subsurface soils and into indoor air spaces.

  12. Chemical vapor deposition modeling: An assessment of current status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, Suleyman A.

    1991-01-01

    The shortcomings of earlier approaches that assumed thermochemical equilibrium and used chemical vapor deposition (CVD) phase diagrams are pointed out. Significant advancements in predictive capabilities due to recent computational developments, especially those for deposition rates controlled by gas phase mass transport, are demonstrated. The importance of using the proper boundary conditions is stressed, and the availability and reliability of gas phase and surface chemical kinetic information are emphasized as the most limiting factors. Future directions for CVD are proposed on the basis of current needs for efficient and effective progress in CVD process design and optimization.

  13. Linearization of calibration curves by aerosol carrier effect of CCl 4 vapor in electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kántor, Tibor; de Loos-Vollebregt, Margaretha T. C.

    2005-03-01

    Carbon tetrachloride vapor as gaseous phase modifier in a graphite furnace electrothermal vaporizer (GFETV) converts heavy volatile analyte forms to volatile and medium volatile chlorides and produces aerosol carrier effect, the latter being a less generally recognized benefit. However, the possible increase of polyatomic interferences in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (GFETV-ICP-MS) by chlorine and carbon containing species due to CCl 4 vapor introduction has been discouraging with the use of low resolution, quadrupole type MS equipment. Being aware of this possible handicap, it was aimed at to investigate the feasibility of the use of this halogenating agent in ICP-MS with regard of possible hazards to the instrument, and also to explore the advantages under these specific conditions. With sample gas flow (inner gas flow) rate not higher than 900 ml min -1 Ar in the torch and 3 ml min -1 CCl 4 vapor flow rate in the furnace, the long-term stability of the instrument was ensured and the following benefits by the halocarbon were observed. The non-linearity error (defined in the text) of the calibration curves (signal versus mass functions) with matrix-free solution standards was 30-70% without, and 1-5% with CCl 4 vapor introduction, respectively, at 1 ng mass of Cu, Fe, Mn and Pb analytes. The sensitivity for these elements increased by 2-4-fold with chlorination, while the relative standard deviation (RSD) was essentially the same (2-5%) for the two cases in comparison. A vaporization temperature of 2650 °C was required for Cr in Ar atmosphere, while 2200 °C was sufficient in Ar + CCl 4 atmosphere to attain complete vaporization. Improvements in linear response and sensitivity were the highest for this least volatile element. The pyrolytic graphite layer inside the graphite tube was protected by the halocarbon, and tube life time was further increased by using traces of hydrocarbon vapor in the external sheath gas of the graphite furnace. Details

  14. Process development of starch hydrolysis using mixing characteristics of Taylor vortices.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Hayato; Horie, Takafumi; Hubacz, Robert; Ohmura, Naoto; Shimoyamada, Makoto

    2017-04-01

    In food industries, enzymatic starch hydrolysis is an important process that consists of two steps: gelatinization and saccharification. One of the major difficulties in designing the starch hydrolysis process is the sharp change in its rheological properties. In this study, Taylor-Couette flow reactor was applied to continuous starch hydrolysis process. The concentration of reducing sugar produced via enzymatic hydrolysis was evaluated by varying operational variables: rotational speed of the inner cylinder, axial velocity (reaction time), amount of enzyme, and initial starch content in the slurry. When Taylor vortices were formed in the annular space, efficient hydrolysis occurred because Taylor vortices improved the mixing of gelatinized starch with enzyme. Furthermore, a modified inner cylinder was proposed, and its mixing performance was numerically investigated. The modified inner cylinder showed higher potential for enhanced mixing of gelatinized starch and the enzyme than the conventional cylinder.

  15. Characterization of Acoustic Droplet Vaporization Using MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, David; Allen, Steven; Hernandez-Garcia, Luis; Bull, Joseph

    2013-11-01

    Acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) is the selective vaporization of liquid droplets to form larger gas bubbles. The ADV process is currently being researched for biomedical applications such as gas embolotherapy, drug delivery, and phase-change contrast agents. In this study an albumin encapsulated dodecafluoropentane (DDFP, CAS: 678-26-2) microdroplet suspension was vaporized using a single element focused (f/2, D = 19 mm) 3.5 MHz transducer (Panametrics A321S, Olympus, Waltham, MA). The resulting DDFP bubble clouds were imaged using both bright field microscopy and MRI (Varian 7T, Agilent Technologies Inc., Santa Clara, CA). Field distortions due to DDFP bubble generation were characterized against the bright field images as a function of acoustic power and bubble cloud size. Experimentally a direct correlation between bubble cloud dimensions generated and field distortions seen in the MRI was observed. Additionally, MR velocimetry was used to measure the flow field resulting from ADV. The field distortions due to the bubbles were further characterized by modeling Maxwell's equations using COMSOL (COMSOL Inc., Burlington, MA). The ability to characterize ADV with alternative imaging modalities may prove useful in further development of ADV based biomedical therapies.

  16. Hydrolysis of polycarbonate in sub-critical water in fused silica capillary reactor with in situ Raman spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pan, Z.; Chou, I-Ming; Burruss, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    The advantages of using fused silica capillary reactor (FSCR) instead of conventional autoclave for studying chemical reactions at elevated pressure and temperature conditions were demonstrated in this study, including the allowance for visual observation under a microscope and in situ Raman spectroscopic characterization of polycarbonate and coexisting phases during hydrolysis in subcritical water.

  17. Effects of pH buffering agents on the anaerobic hydrolysis acidification stage of kitchen waste.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaya; Zang, Bing; Gong, Xiaoyan; Liu, Yu; Li, Guoxue

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated effects of initial pH buffering agents on the lab-scale anaerobic hydrolysis acidification stage of kitchen waste (KW). Different cheap, available and suitable buffering agents (NaOH(s), NaOH(l), CaO(s)-NaOH, KOH(l)-NaOH, K 2 HPO 4 (s)-KOH, Na 2 CO 3 (s)-NaOH) were added under optimal adjusting mode (first two days: per 16h, after: one time per day) which was obtained in previous work. The effects of buffering agents were evaluated according to indexes of pH, VFAs, NH 4 + -N, TS, VS, VS/TS, TS and VS removal rate. The results showed treatment 5 with adding K 2 HPO 4 -KOH buffering agents had the most stable pH (6.7-7.0). Also treatment 5, 2, 4 and 6 provided stable pH ranging in 5-8. Among the treatments, treatment 6 with adding Na 2 CO 3 as initial buffering agents and 10mol/L NaOH as regulator was chosen as the optimal mode for highest VFAs content (44.05g/L) with high acetic acid and butyrate acid proportion (42.64%), TS and VS removal rate (44.84% and 58.67%, respectively), low VS/TS ratio (58.55), fewer adding dosage and low adjusting frequency. The VFAs content of treatment 6 at the end of hydrolysis acidification stage could be used for methanogenic phase of anaerobic two-phase digestion. Thus, treatment 6 (adding Na 2 CO 3 as initial buffering agents and 10mol/L NaOH as regulator) with highest VFAs content and TS and VS removal rate could be considered using in anaerobic hydrolysis acidification stage pH adjustment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition (PS-PVD) of Ceramics for Protective Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harder, Bryan J.; Zhu, Dongming

    2011-01-01

    In order to generate advanced multilayer thermal and environmental protection systems, a new deposition process is needed to bridge the gap between conventional plasma spray, which produces relatively thick coatings on the order of 125-250 microns, and conventional vapor phase processes such as electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) which are limited by relatively slow deposition rates, high investment costs, and coating material vapor pressure requirements. The use of Plasma Spray - Physical Vapor Deposition (PS-PVD) processing fills this gap and allows thin (< 10 microns) single layers to be deposited and multilayer coatings of less than 100 microns to be generated with the flexibility to tailor microstructures by changing processing conditions. Coatings of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) were applied to NiCrAlY bond coated superalloy substrates using the PS-PVD coater at NASA Glenn Research Center. A design-of-experiments was used to examine the effects of process variables (Ar/He plasma gas ratio, the total plasma gas flow, and the torch current) on chamber pressure and torch power. Coating thickness, phase and microstructure were evaluated for each set of deposition conditions. Low chamber pressures and high power were shown to increase coating thickness and create columnar-like structures. Likewise, high chamber pressures and low power had lower growth rates, but resulted in flatter, more homogeneous layers

  19. Hydride vapor phase epitaxy and characterization of high-quality ScN epilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Oshima, Yuichi, E-mail: OSHIMA.Yuichi@nims.go.jp; Víllora, Encarnación G.; Shimamura, Kiyoshi

    2014-04-21

    The heteroepitaxial growth of ScN films was investigated on various substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). Single crystalline mirror-like ScN(100) and ScN(110) layers were successfully deposited on r- and m-plane sapphire substrates, respectively. Homogeneous stoichiometric films (N/Sc ratio 1.01 ± 0.10) up to 40 μm in thickness were deposited. Their mosaicity drastically improved with increasing the film thickness. The band gap was determined by optical methods to be 2.06 eV. Impurity concentrations including H, C, O, Si, and Cl were investigated through energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and secondary ion mass spectrometry. As a result, it was found that the presence of impurities wasmore » efficiently suppressed in comparison with that of HVPE-grown ScN films reported in the past, which was possible thanks to the home-designed corrosion-free HVPE reactor. Room-temperature Hall measurements indicated that the residual free electron concentrations ranged between 10{sup 18}–10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}, which was markedly lower than the reported values. The carrier mobility increased monotonically with the decreasing in carrier concentration, achieving the largest value ever reported, 284 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} at n = 3.7 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup −3}.« less

  20. Ab initio study of the alkaline hydrolysis of a thio-β-lactam structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coll, Miguel; Frau, Juan; Vilanova, Bartolomé; Donoso, Josefa; Muñoz, Francisco

    2000-08-01

    The alkaline hydrolysis of a thio-β-lactam in the gas phase was examined in the light of RHF and DFT ab initio calculations. The solvent effect was considered via IPCM computations. The tetrahedral intermediate for the thio-β-lactam studied is unstable, so the compound evolves directly to the corresponding thio-azethidin-2-one open ring with cleavage of the C-S bond. The end-products obtained bear a carbamate group, which suggests that the thio-β-lactam might be an effective inhibitor for β-lactamases.