Sample records for vapour phase toxicity

  1. Levels of selected carcinogens and toxicants in vapour from electronic cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Goniewicz, Maciej Lukasz; Knysak, Jakub; Gawron, Michal; Kosmider, Leon; Sobczak, Andrzej; Kurek, Jolanta; Prokopowicz, Adam; Jablonska-Czapla, Magdalena; Rosik-Dulewska, Czeslawa; Havel, Christopher; Jacob, Peyton; Benowitz, Neal

    2014-03-01

    Electronic cigarettes, also known as e-cigarettes, are devices designed to imitate regular cigarettes and deliver nicotine via inhalation without combusting tobacco. They are purported to deliver nicotine without other toxicants and to be a safer alternative to regular cigarettes. However, little toxicity testing has been performed to evaluate the chemical nature of vapour generated from e-cigarettes. The aim of this study was to screen e-cigarette vapours for content of four groups of potentially toxic and carcinogenic compounds: carbonyls, volatile organic compounds, nitrosamines and heavy metals. Vapours were generated from 12 brands of e-cigarettes and the reference product, the medicinal nicotine inhaler, in controlled conditions using a modified smoking machine. The selected toxic compounds were extracted from vapours into a solid or liquid phase and analysed with chromatographic and spectroscopy methods. We found that the e-cigarette vapours contained some toxic substances. The levels of the toxicants were 9-450 times lower than in cigarette smoke and were, in many cases, comparable with trace amounts found in the reference product. Our findings are consistent with the idea that substituting tobacco cigarettes with e-cigarettes may substantially reduce exposure to selected tobacco-specific toxicants. E-cigarettes as a harm reduction strategy among smokers unwilling to quit, warrants further study. (To view this abstract in Polish and German, please see the supplementary files online.).

  2. Vapour phase techniques for deposition of CZTS thin films: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Ramanpreet; Kumar, Sandeep; Singh, Sukhpal

    2018-05-01

    With the surge of thin film photovoltaic technologies in recent years, for cost reduction and increased production there is a need for earth abundant and non-toxic raw materials. Existing thin film solar cells comprising CuInS2 (CIS), CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) and CdTe contain elements that are rare in earth's crust and in case of CdTe toxic. Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS), having Kesterite structure, a direct band gap of 1.4 - 1.5 eV and an absorption coefficient of 104 cm-1 makes a promising candidate for absorber layer in thin film solar cells. So far many physical and chemical techniques have been employed for deposition of CZTS thin films. This review focuses on various vapour phase techniques used for fabrication of films, recent advances in these techniques and their future outlook.

  3. Vapour phase motion in cryogenic systems containing superheated and subcooled liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirichenko, Yu. A.; Chernyakov, P. S.; Seregin, V. E.

    The development of vent pipelines, and venting storage tanks for cryogenic liquids requires the knowledge of the law of motion as well as regularities of vapour content variation in the liquid and heat dissipation by the vapour phase. This is a theoretical study of the effect of superheating (subcooling) of the liquid, relative acceleration and reduced pressure upon the size and velocity of noninteracting vapour bubbles, moving in the liquid, and upon their resistance and heat transfer coefficients.

  4. Solvent vapour monitoring in work space by solid phase micro extraction.

    PubMed

    Li, K; Santilli, A; Goldthorp, M; Whiticar, S; Lambert, P; Fingas, M

    2001-05-07

    Solid phase micro extraction (SPME) is a fast, solvent-less alternative to conventional charcoal tube sampling/carbon disulfide extraction for volatile organic compounds (VOC). In this work, SPME was compared to the active sampling technique in a typical lab atmosphere. Two different types of fibre coatings were evaluated for solvent vapour at ambient concentration. A general purpose 100 microm film polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fibre was found to be unsuitable for VOC work, despite the thick coating. The mixed-phase carboxen/PDMS fibre was found to be suitable. Sensitivity of the SPME was far greater than charcoal sorbent tube method. Calibration studies using typical solvent such as dichloromethane (DCM), benzene (B) and toluene (T) showed an optimal exposure time of 5 min, with a repeatability of less than 20% for a broad spectrum of organic vapour. Minimum detectable amount for DCM is in the range of 0.01 microg/l (0.003 ppmv). Variation among different fibres was generally within 30% at a vapour concentration of 1 microg DCM/l, which was more than adequate for field monitoring purpose. Adsorption characteristics and calibration procedures were studied. An actual application of SPME was carried out to measure background level of solvent vapour at a bench where DCM was used extensively. Agreement between the SPME and the charcoal sampling method was generally within a factor of two. No DCM concentration was found to be above the regulatory limit of 50 ppmv.

  5. Properties of meso-Erythritol; phase state, accommodation coefficient and saturation vapour pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emanuelsson, Eva; Tschiskale, Morten; Bilde, Merete

    2016-04-01

    Introduction Saturation vapour pressure and the associated temperature dependence (enthalpy ΔH), are key parameters for improving predictive atmospheric models. Generally, the atmospheric aerosol community lack experimentally determined values of these properties for relevant organic aerosol compounds (Bilde et al., 2015). In this work we have studied the organic aerosol component meso-Erythritol. Methods Sub-micron airborne particles of meso-Erythritol were generated by nebulization from aqueous solution, dried, and a mono disperse fraction of the aerosol was selected using a differential mobility analyser. The particles were then allowed to evaporate in the ARAGORN (AaRhus Atmospheric Gas phase OR Nano particle) flow tube. It is a temperature controlled 3.5 m long stainless steel tube with an internal diameter of 0.026 m (Bilde et al., 2003, Zardini et al., 2010). Changes in particle size as function of evaporation time were determined using a scanning mobility particle sizer system. Physical properties like air flow, temperature, humidity and pressure were controlled and monitored on several places in the setup. The saturation vapour pressures were then inferred from the experimental results in the MATLAB® program AU_VaPCaP (Aarhus University_Vapour Pressure Calculation Program). Results Following evaporation, meso-Erythriol under some conditions showed a bimodal particle size distribution indicating the formation of particles of two different phase states. The issue of physical phase state, along with critical assumptions e.g. the accommodation coefficient in the calculations of saturation vapour pressures of atmospheric relevant compounds, will be discussed. Saturation vapour pressures from the organic compound meso-Erythritol will be presented at temperatures between 278 and 308 K, and results will be discussed in the context of atmospheric chemistry. References Bilde, M. et al., (2015), Chemical Reviews, 115 (10), 4115-4156. Bilde, M. et. al., (2003

  6. Alcohol vapour detection at the three phase interface using enzyme-conducting polymer composites.

    PubMed

    Winther-Jensen, Orawan; Kerr, Robert; Winther-Jensen, Bjorn

    2014-02-15

    Immobilisation of enzymes on a breathable electrode can be useful for various applications where the three-phase interface between gas or chemical vapour, electrolyte and electrode is crucial for the reaction. In this paper, we report the further development of the breathable electrode concept by immobilisation of alcohol dehydrogenase into vapour-phase polymerised poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) that has been coated onto a breathable membrane. Typical alcohol sensing, whereby the coenzyme β-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) is employed as a redox-mediator, was successfully used as a model reaction for the oxidation of ethanol. This indicates that the ethanol vapour from the backside of the membrane has access to the active enzyme embedded in the electrode. The detecting range of the sensor is suitable for the detection of ethanol in fruit juices and for the baseline breath ethanol concentration of drunken driving. After continuous operation for 4.5h the system only showed a 20% decrease in the current output. The electrodes maintained 62% in current output after being refrigerated for 76 days. This work is continuing the progress of the immobilisation of specific enzymes for certain electrochemical reactions whereby the three-phase interface has to be maintained and/or the simultaneous separation of gas from liquid is required. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Vapour-Phase Processes Control Liquid-Phase Isotope Profiles in Unsaturated Sphagnum Moss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, T. W.; Yi, Y.; Price, J. S.; Whittington, P. N.

    2009-05-01

    Seminal work in the early 1980s clearly established the basis for predicting patterns of heavy-isotope enrichment of pore waters in soils undergoing evaporation. A key feature of the process under steady-state conditions is the development of stable, convex-upward profiles whose shape is controlled by the balance between downward-diffusing heavy isotopologues concentrated by evaporative enrichment at the surface and the upward capillary flow of bulk water that maintains the evaporative flux. We conducted an analogous experiment to probe evaporation processes within 20-cm columns of unsaturated, living and dead (but undecomposed) Sphagnum moss evaporating under controlled conditions, while maintaining a constant water table. The experiment provided striking evidence of the importance of vapour-liquid mass and isotope exchange in the air-filled pores of the Sphagnum columns, as evidenced by the rapid development of hydrologic and isotopic steady-state within hours, rather than days, i.e., an order of magnitude faster than possible by liquid-phase processes alone. This is consistent with the notion that vapour-phase processes effectively "short-circuit" mass and isotope fluxes within the Sphagnum columns, as proposed also in recent characterizations of water dynamics in transpiring leaves. Additionally, advection-diffusion modelling of our results supports independent estimates of the effective liquid-phase diffusivities of the respective heavy water isotopologues, 2.380 x 10-5 cm2 s-1 for 1H1H18O and 2.415 x 10-5 cm2 s-1 for 1H2H16O, which are in notably good agreement with the "default" values that are typically assumed in soil and plant water studies.

  8. Liquid and vapour-phase antifungal activities of selected essential oils against candida albicans: microscopic observations and chemical characterization of cymbopogon citratus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Use of essential oils for controlling Candida albicans growth has gained significance due to the resistance acquired by pathogens towards a number of widely-used drugs. The aim of this study was to test the antifungal activity of selected essential oils against Candida albicans in liquid and vapour phase and to determine the chemical composition and mechanism of action of most potent essential oil. Methods Minimum Inhibitory concentration (MIC) of different essential oils in liquid phase, assayed through agar plate dilution, broth dilution & 96-well micro plate dilution method and vapour phase activity evaluated through disc volatilization method. Reduction of C. albicans cells with vapour exposure was estimated by kill time assay. Morphological alteration in treated/untreated C. albicans cells was observed by the Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and chemical analysis of the strongest antifungal agent/essential oil has been done by GC, GC-MS. Results Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oil exhibited the strongest antifungal effect followed by mentha (Mentha piperita) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) essential oil. The MIC of lemon grass essential oil in liquid phase (288 mg/l) was significantly higher than that in the vapour phase (32.7 mg/l) and a 4 h exposure was sufficient to cause 100% loss in viability of C. albicans cells. SEM/AFM of C. albicans cells treated with lemon grass essential oil at MIC level in liquid and vapour phase showed prominent shrinkage and partial degradation, respectively, confirming higher efficacy of vapour phase. GC-MS analysis revealed that lemon grass essential oil was dominated by oxygenated monoterpenes (78.2%); α-citral or geranial (36.2%) and β-citral or neral (26.5%), monoterpene hydrocarbons (7.9%) and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (3.8%). Conclusion Lemon grass essential oil is highly effective in vapour phase against C. albicans, leading to deleterious morphological

  9. Surface and Thin Film Analysis during Metal Organic Vapour Phase Epitaxial Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Wolfgang

    2007-06-01

    In-situ analysis of epitaxial growth is the essential ingredient in order to understand the growth process, to optimize growth and last but not least to monitor or even control the epitaxial growth on a microscopic scale. In MBE (molecular beam epitaxy) in-situ analysis tools existed right from the beginning because this technique developed from Surface Science technology with all its electron based analysis tools (LEED, RHEED, PES etc). Vapour Phase Epitaxy, in contrast, remained for a long time in an empirical stage ("alchemy") because only post growth characterisations like photoluminescence, Hall effect and electrical conductivity were available. Within the last two decades, however, optical techniques were developed which provide similar capabilities as in MBE for Vapour Phase growth. I will discuss in this paper the potential of Reflectance Anisotropy Spectroscopy (RAS) and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE) for the growth of thin epitaxial semiconductor layers with zincblende (GaAs etc) and wurtzite structure (GaN etc). Other techniques and materials will be also mentioned.

  10. A vapour phase assay for evaluating the antimicrobial activities of essential oils against bovine respiratory bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Amat, S; Baines, D; Alexander, T W

    2017-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a new assay for the evaluation of the antimicrobial activities of essential oils (EOs) in vapour phase and to demonstrate the antimicrobial activities of commercial EOs against BRPs. To achieve the first objective, a microtube cap containing 100 μl of EO was embedded in an agar plate. An agar plug (diameter 13 mm) inoculated with a bacterial suspension containing10 8  CFU per ml was then placed over the cap and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Subsequently, bacteria were recovered from the agar plug by immersion in 5 ml of broth for 10 min, followed by vortexing for 30 s, and the broths were then plated for enumeration. To demonstrate the usefulness of the assay, nine commercial EOs derived from the following specific plants: ajowan, carrot seed, cinnamon leaf, citronella, fennel, ginger grass, lavender, rosemary and thyme were first evaluated for their vapour phase antimicrobial activities against Mannheimia haemolytica serotype 1. Selected EOs were further tested against Pasteurella multocida and Histophilus somni. The EOs of ajowan, thyme and cinnamon leaf completely or partially inhibited BRPs growth. This new assay provided reproducible results on the vapour phase antimicrobial activities of EOs against BRPs. These results support further study of EOs as a potential mitigation strategy against BRPs. In this study, we present a new vapour phase assay for evaluating the antimicrobial activities of essential oils (EO) against bovine respiratory pathogens (BRPs). Using this assay, we identified EOs, such as ajowan, thyme and cinnamon leaf, that can effectively inhibit growth of the BRPs Mannheimia haemolytica serotype 1, Pasteurella multocida and Histophilus somni. This is the first study to demonstrate the vapour phase antimicrobial activity of EOs against BRPs. © 2017 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology Reproduced with the permission of the Minister of the

  11. Emission characteristics and vapour/particulate phase distributions of PCDD/F in a hazardous waste incinerator under transient conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Cen, Kefa; Ni, Mingjiang; Li, Xiaodong

    2018-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) emission characteristics and vapour/particulate phase partitions under three continued operation conditions, i.e. shut-down, start-up and after start-up, were investigated by sampling stack gas. The results indicated that the PCDD/F emission levels were 0.40–18.03 ng I-TEQ Nm−3, much higher than the annual monitoring level (0.016 ng I-TEQ Nm−3). Additionally, the PCDD/F emission levels in start-up were higher than the other two conditions. Furthermore, the PCDD/F congener profiles differed markedly between shut-down and start-up, and the chlorination degree of PCDD/F increased in shut-down and decreased evidently in start-up. Moreover, PCDD/F vapour/particulate phase distributions varied significantly under three transient conditions. The PCDD/F vapour phase proportion decreased as the shut-down process continued, then increased as the start-up process proceeded, finally more than 98% of the PCDD/F congeners were distributed in the vapour phase after start-up. The correlations between log(Cv/Cs) versus log pL0 of each PCDD/F congener in stack gas were disorganized in shut-down, and trend to a linear distribution after start-up. Besides, polychlorinated biphenyl emissions show behaviour similar to that of PCDD/F, and the lower chlorinated congeners have a stronger relationship with 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs, such as M1CB and D2CB. PMID:29410821

  12. A Theoretical Study of Vapour Phase Nucleation of the Rocket Propellant N2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, P.

    2003-05-01

    The residual vapour of a rocket fuel at the venting stage develops a potential aerodynamic problem which is linked with the vapour phase nucleation phenomena of the propellant. This study, based entirely on molecular treatment, addresses the problem by focusing specifically on the N2O4 propellant which is used in the ARIANE flight. The phenomenon is examined by considering the thermodynamic free energies of N2O4 clusters, leading to the evaluation of nucleation flux rates of critical nuclei at incipient nucleation. Preliminary examinations of the kinetics of flux pulses provide basic explanation from a molecular perspective.

  13. Vapours of US and EU Market Leader Electronic Cigarette Brands and Liquids Are Cytotoxic for Human Vascular Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Putzhammer, Raphaela; Doppler, Christian; Jakschitz, Thomas; Heinz, Katharina; Förste, Juliane; Danzl, Katarina; Messner, Barbara; Bernhard, David

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to provide toxicological data on e-cigarette vapours of different e-cigarette brands and liquids from systems viewed as leaders in the e-cigarette market and to compare e-cigarette vapour toxicity to the toxicity of conventional strong high-nicotine cigarette smoke. Using an adapted version of a previously constructed cigarette smoke constituent sampling device, we collected the hydrophilic fraction of e-cigarette vapour and exposed human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to the mixture of compounds present in the vapour of 4 different single-use e-cigarettes, 6 different liquid vapours produced by the same refillable e-cigarette, and one e-cigarette with an exchangeable liquid cartridge. After incubation of cells with various concentrations and for various periods of time we analysed cell death induction, proliferation rates, the occurrence of intra-cellular reactive oxygen species, cell morphology, and we also measured e-cigarette heating coil temperatures. Overall, conventional cigarette smoke extract showed the most severe impact on endothelial cells. However, some e-cigarette vapour extracts showed high cytotoxicity, inhibition of cell proliferation, and alterations in cell morphology, which were comparable to conventional high-nicotine cigarettes. The vapours generated from different liquids using the same e-cigarette show substantial differences, pointing to the liquids as an important source for toxicity. E-cigarette vapour-mediated induction of oxidative stress was significant in one out of the 11 analysed vapours. There is a high variability in the acute cytotoxicity of e-cigarette vapours depending on the liquid and on the e-cigarettes used. Some products showed toxic effects close to a conventional high-nicotine cigarette. Liquid nicotine, menthol content, and the formation of acute intracellular reactive oxygen species do not seem to be the central elements in e-cigarette vapour toxicity.

  14. Vapours of US and EU Market Leader Electronic Cigarette Brands and Liquids Are Cytotoxic for Human Vascular Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Putzhammer, Raphaela; Doppler, Christian; Jakschitz, Thomas; Heinz, Katharina; Förste, Juliane; Danzl, Katarina; Messner, Barbara; Bernhard, David

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to provide toxicological data on e-cigarette vapours of different e-cigarette brands and liquids from systems viewed as leaders in the e-cigarette market and to compare e-cigarette vapour toxicity to the toxicity of conventional strong high-nicotine cigarette smoke. Using an adapted version of a previously constructed cigarette smoke constituent sampling device, we collected the hydrophilic fraction of e-cigarette vapour and exposed human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to the mixture of compounds present in the vapour of 4 different single-use e-cigarettes, 6 different liquid vapours produced by the same refillable e-cigarette, and one e-cigarette with an exchangeable liquid cartridge. After incubation of cells with various concentrations and for various periods of time we analysed cell death induction, proliferation rates, the occurrence of intra-cellular reactive oxygen species, cell morphology, and we also measured e-cigarette heating coil temperatures. Overall, conventional cigarette smoke extract showed the most severe impact on endothelial cells. However, some e-cigarette vapour extracts showed high cytotoxicity, inhibition of cell proliferation, and alterations in cell morphology, which were comparable to conventional high-nicotine cigarettes. The vapours generated from different liquids using the same e-cigarette show substantial differences, pointing to the liquids as an important source for toxicity. E-cigarette vapour-mediated induction of oxidative stress was significant in one out of the 11 analysed vapours. There is a high variability in the acute cytotoxicity of e-cigarette vapours depending on the liquid and on the e-cigarettes used. Some products showed toxic effects close to a conventional high-nicotine cigarette. Liquid nicotine, menthol content, and the formation of acute intracellular reactive oxygen species do not seem to be the central elements in e-cigarette vapour toxicity. PMID:27351725

  15. Enhanced water vapour flow in silica microchannels and interdiffusive water vapour flow through anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Wenwen; McKenzie, David R.

    2015-12-01

    Enhanced liquid water flows through carbon nanotubes reinvigorated the study of moisture permeation through membranes and micro- and nano-channels. The study of water vapour through micro-and nano-channels has been neglected even though water vapour is as important as liquid water for industry, especially for encapsulation of electronic devices. Here we measure moisture flow rates in silica microchannels and interdiffusive water vapour flows in anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) membrane channels for the first time. We construct theory for the flow rates of the dominant modes of water transport through four previously defined standard configurations and benchmark it against our new measurements. The findings show that measurements of leak behaviour made using other molecules, such as helium, are not reliable. Single phase water vapour flow is overestimated by a helium measurement, while Washburn or capillary flow is underestimated or for all channels when boundary slip applies, to an extent that depends on the slip length for the liquid phase flows.

  16. Analysis of particle and vapour phase PAHs from the personal air samples of bus garage workers exposed to diesel exhaust.

    PubMed

    Kuusimaki, Leea; Peltonen, Kimmo; Mutanen, Pertti; Savela, Kirsti

    2003-07-01

    The levels of particle and vapour phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) derived from the diesel exhaust compounds in bus garage work were measured in winter and in summer. Five personal air samples were collected from the breathing zones of 22 garage workers every other day of consecutive weeks. Control samples (n = 22) were collected from office workers in Helsinki. Fifteen PAHs in the air samples were analysed by HPLC using a fluorescence detector. Statistically significant differences were observed between total PAH levels of the exposed workers (2241 and 1245 ng/m(3)) and the control group (254 and 275 ng/m(3)) in both winter (P < 0.001) and summer (P < 0.001). Phenanthrene, pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene and fluoranthene were the major compounds in the particle phase, and naphthalene, phenanthrene and fluorene in the vapour phase. About 98% of PAHs measured were related to the vapour phase compounds, whereas the high molecular weight PAH compounds were detected only in the particle phase. The PAH levels in the garages were twice as high (P < 0.001) in winter as in summer. Even though the exposure levels were low in the bus garages, the low level does not allow conclusions to be drawn about the possible adverse health effects due to exposure to diesel exhaust.

  17. The ignitability of petrol vapours and potential for vapour phase explosion by use of TASER® law enforcement electronic control device.

    PubMed

    Clarke, C; Andrews, S P

    2014-12-01

    An experimental study was made of the potential of the TASER-X26™ law enforcement electronic control device to ignite petrol vapours if used by an officer to incapacitate a person soaked in petrol, or within a flammable atmosphere containing petrol vapour. Bench scale tests have shown that a wooden mannequin with pig skin covering the chest was a suitable representation of a human target. Full scale tests using the mannequin have shown that the arc from a TASER-X26™ is capable of igniting petrol/air vapours on a petrol-soaked person. Further tests in a 1/5 scale and a full scale compartment have shown that if a TASER is used within a compartment, a petrol vapour explosion (deflagration) may be achieved. It is evident from this research that if used in a flammable vapour rich environment, the device could prove fatal not only to the target but the TASER® operator as well. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Phase correction for ALMA. Investigating water vapour radiometer scaling: The long-baseline science verification data case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maud, L. T.; Tilanus, R. P. J.; van Kempen, T. A.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Schmalzl, M.; Yoon, I.; Contreras, Y.; Toribio, M. C.; Asaki, Y.; Dent, W. R. F.; Fomalont, E.; Matsushita, S.

    2017-09-01

    The Atacama Large millimetre/submillimetre Array (ALMA) makes use of water vapour radiometers (WVR), which monitor the atmospheric water vapour line at 183 GHz along the line of sight above each antenna to correct for phase delays introduced by the wet component of the troposphere. The application of WVR derived phase corrections improve the image quality and facilitate successful observations in weather conditions that were classically marginal or poor. We present work to indicate that a scaling factor applied to the WVR solutions can act to further improve the phase stability and image quality of ALMA data. We find reduced phase noise statistics for 62 out of 75 datasets from the long-baseline science verification campaign after a WVR scaling factor is applied. The improvement of phase noise translates to an expected coherence improvement in 39 datasets. When imaging the bandpass source, we find 33 of the 39 datasets show an improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) between a few to 30 percent. There are 23 datasets where the S/N of the science image is improved: 6 by <1%, 11 between 1 and 5%, and 6 above 5%. The higher frequencies studied (band 6 and band 7) are those most improved, specifically datasets with low precipitable water vapour (PWV), <1 mm, where the dominance of the wet component is reduced. Although these improvements are not profound, phase stability improvements via the WVR scaling factor come into play for the higher frequency (>450 GHz) and long-baseline (>5 km) observations. These inherently have poorer phase stability and are taken in low PWV (<1 mm) conditions for which we find the scaling to be most effective. A promising explanation for the scaling factor is the mixing of dry and wet air components, although other origins are discussed. We have produced a python code to allow ALMA users to undertake WVR scaling tests and make improvements to their data.

  19. Clearing the air: protocol for a systematic meta-narrative review on the harms and benefits of e-cigarettes and vapour devices.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Marjorie; O'Leary, Renee; Stockwell, Tim; Reist, Dan

    2016-05-21

    Under the shadow of the tobacco epidemic, the sale and use of e-cigarettes and other vapour devices is increasing dramatically. A contentious debate has risen within public health over the harms and benefits of these devices. Clearing the Air seeks to clarify the issues with a systematic review that informs the pressing regulatory and public health decisions to be made regarding these new products. Using an integrated knowledge translation approach, public health researchers and knowledge users will work collaboratively throughout the project. Our research questions are the following: (1) What are the health risks and benefits of vapour devices, and how do these compare to cigarettes? (2) What is the harm reduction potential of vapour devices for individuals, the environment, and society? (3) Does youth vapour device experimentation lead to cigarette use? (4) Can vapour devices be effective aids for tobacco cessation? and (5) What is the potential toxicity of second-hand vapour? We are using meta-narrative review to synthesize studies from diverse research traditions because of its capacity to address contestations around a topic. The project has six phases. In the planning phase, we finalized the research questions. In the search phase, we are locating academic publications and grey literature aided by a research librarian. The mapping phase involves categorizing these papers into research traditions to understand different perspectives on the evidence for each research question. In the appraisal phase, we will select and evaluate the relevant papers. Finally, in the synthesis phase, using analytic techniques unique to meta-narrative methodology, we will compare and contrast the evidence from different research traditions to answer our research questions, identifying overarching meta-narratives. In the final stage, the full team will draft recommendations to be disseminated through a variety of knowledge translation strategies. Meta-narrative synthesis has the

  20. Contact and fumigant toxicity of Armoracia rusticana essential oil, allyl isothiocyanate and related compounds to Dermatophagoides farinae.

    PubMed

    Yun, Yeon-Kyeong; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Jun-Ran; Hwang, Kumnara; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2012-05-01

    The toxicity to adult Dermatophagoides farinae of allyl isothiocyanate identified in horseradish, Armoracia rusticana, oil and another 27 organic isothiocyanates was evaluated using contact + fumigant and vapour-phase mortality bioassays. Results were compared with those of two conventional acaricides, benzyl benzoate and dibutyl phthalate. Horseradish oil (24 h LC(50), 1.54 µg cm(-2)) and allyl isothiocyanate (2.52 µg cm(-2)) were highly toxic. Benzyl isothiocyanate (LC(50) , 0.62 µg cm(-2)) was the most toxic compound, followed by 4-chlorophenyl, 3-bromophenyl, 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl, cyclohexyl, 2-chlorophenyl, 4-bromophenyl and 2-bromophenyl isothiocyanates (0.93-1.41 µg cm(-2)). All were more effective than either benzyl benzoate (LC(50) , 4.58 µg cm(-2)) or dibutyl phthalate (24.49 µg cm(-2)). The structure-activity relationship indicates that types of functional group and chemical structure appear to play a role in determining the isothiocyanate toxicities to adult D. farinae. In the vapour-phase mortality bioassay, these isothiocyanates were consistently more toxic in closed versus open containers, indicating that their mode of delivery was, in part, a result of vapour action. In the light of global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic acaricides in indoor environments, the horseradish oil-derived compounds and the isothiocyanates described herein merit further study as potential acaricides for the control of house dust mite populations as fumigants with contact action. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Dislocations limited electronic transport in hydride vapour phase epitaxy grown GaN templates: A word of caution for the epitaxial growers

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Chatterjee, Abhishek, E-mail: cabhishek@rrcat.gov.in; Khamari, Shailesh K.; Kumar, R.

    2015-01-12

    GaN templates grown by hydride vapour phase epitaxy (HVPE) and metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) techniques are compared through electronic transport measurements. Carrier concentration measured by Hall technique is about two orders larger than the values estimated by capacitance voltage method for HVPE templates. It is learnt that there exists a critical thickness of HVPE templates below which the transport properties of epitaxial layers grown on top of them are going to be severely limited by the density of charged dislocations lying at layer-substrate interface. On the contrary MOVPE grown templates are found to be free from such limitations.

  2. Efficient quantification of water content in edible oils by headspace gas chromatography with vapour phase calibration.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wei-Qi; Gong, Yi-Xian; Yu, Kong-Xian

    2018-06-01

    An automated and accurate headspace gas chromatographic (HS-GC) technique was investigated for rapidly quantifying water content in edible oils. In this method, multiple headspace extraction (MHE) procedures were used to analyse the integrated water content from the edible oil sample. A simple vapour phase calibration technique with an external vapour standard was used to calibrate both the water content in the gas phase and the total weight of water in edible oil sample. After that the water in edible oils can be quantified. The data showed that the relative standard deviation of the present HS-GC method in the precision test was less than 1.13%, the relative differences between the new method and a reference method (i.e. the oven-drying method) were no more than 1.62%. The present HS-GC method is automated, accurate, efficient, and can be a reliable tool for quantifying water content in edible oil related products and research. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Thermodynamically equilibrium roton states of nanoparticles in molten and vapour phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasevskii, A. I.

    2015-05-01

    We show a possibility for a thermodynamically equilibrium nanocrystalline structure consisting of nanosized solid inclusions to appear in a melt just beyond the melting curve. Thermodynamic stability of the nanocrystalline structure in the melt results from the free energy lowering due to rotational motion of nanoparticles. The main contribution to the reduction of the free energy of the system is due to an increase in the rotational entropy and change in formation energy of nanocrystals, i.e. the nanocrystalline structure in the melt, like vacancies in a crystal, is an equilibrium defect structure of the melt. It is demonstrated that similar nanocrystalline structures can also appear in the vapour phase in the form of liquid nanodrops and in liquid solutions, e.g. in He II.

  4. Major element and oxygen isotope geochemistry of vapour-phase garnet from the Topopah Spring Tuff at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moscati, Richard J.; Johnson, Craig A.

    2014-01-01

    Twenty vapour-phase garnets were studied in two samples of the Topopah Spring Tuff of the Paintbrush Group from Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada. The Miocene-age Topopah Spring Tuff is a 350 m thick, devitrified, moderately to densely welded ash-flow tuff that is zoned compositionally from high-silica rhyolite to latite. During cooling of the tuff, escaping vapour produced lithophysae (former gas cavities) lined with an assemblage of tridymite (commonly inverted to cristobalite or quartz), sanidine and locally, hematite and/or garnet. Vapour-phase topaz and economic deposits associated commonly with topaz-bearing rhyolites (characteristically enriched in F) were not found in the Topopah Spring Tuff at Yucca Mountain. Based on their occurrence only in lithophysae, the garnets are not primary igneous phenocrysts, but rather crystals that grew from a F-poor magma-derived vapour trapped during and after emplacement of the tuff. The garnets are euhedral, vitreous, reddish brown, trapezohedral, as large as 2 mm in diameter and fractured. The garnets also contain inclusions of tridymite. Electron microprobe analyses of the garnets reveal that they are almandine-spessartine (48.0 and 47.9 mol.%, respectively), have an average composition of (Fe1.46Mn1.45Mg0.03Ca0.10)(Al1.93Ti0.02)Si3.01O12 and are comparatively homogeneous in Fe and Mn concentrations from core to rim. Composited garnets from each sample site have δ18O values of 7.2 and 7.4‰. The associated quartz (after tridymite) has δ18O values of 17.4 and 17.6‰, values indicative of reaction with later, low-temperature water. Unaltered tridymite from higher in the stratigraphic section has a δ18O of 11.1‰ which, when coupled with the garnet δ18O values in a quartz-garnet fractionation equation, indicates isotopic equilibration (vapour-phase crystallization) at temperatures of ~600°C. This high-temperature mineralization, formed during cooling of the tuffs, is distinct from the later and commonly recognized

  5. Convective heat transfer measurements in a vapour-liquid-liquid three-phase direct contact heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahood, Hameed B.; Campbell, A. N.; Baqir, Ali Sh.; Sharif, A. O.; Thorpe, R. B.

    2018-06-01

    Energy usage is increasing around the world due to the continued development of technology, and population growth. Solar energy is a promising low-grade energy resource that can be harvested and utilised in different applications, such solar heater systems, which are used in both domestic and industrial settings. However, the implementation of an efficient energy conversion system or heat exchanger would enhance such low-grade energy processes. The direct contact heat exchanger could be the right choice due to its ability to efficiently transfer significant amounts of heat, simple design, and low cost. In this work, the heat transfer associated with the direct contact condensation of pentane vapour bubbles in a three-phase direct contact condenser is investigated experimentally. Such a condenser could be used in a cycle with a solar water heater and heat recovery systems. The experiments on the steady state operation of the three-phase direct contact condenser were carried out using a short Perspex tube of 70 cm in total height and an internal diameter of 4 cm. Only a height of 48 cm was active as the direct contact condenser. Pentane vapour, (the dispersed phase) with three different initial temperatures (40° C, 43.5° C and 47.5° C) was directly contacted with water (the continuous phase) at 19° C. The experimental results showed that the total heat transfer rate per unit volume along the direct contact condenser gradually decreased upon moving higher up the condenser. Additionally, the heat transfer rate increases with increasing mass flow rate ratio, but no significant effect on the heat transfer rate of varying the initial temperature of the dispersed phase was seen. Furthermore, both the outlet temperature of the continuous phase and the void fraction were positively correlated with the total heat transfer rate per unit volume, with no considerable effect of the initial temperature difference between the dispersed and continuous phases.

  6. Convective heat transfer measurements in a vapour-liquid-liquid three-phase direct contact heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahood, Hameed B.; Campbell, A. N.; Baqir, Ali Sh.; Sharif, A. O.; Thorpe, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    Energy usage is increasing around the world due to the continued development of technology, and population growth. Solar energy is a promising low-grade energy resource that can be harvested and utilised in different applications, such solar heater systems, which are used in both domestic and industrial settings. However, the implementation of an efficient energy conversion system or heat exchanger would enhance such low-grade energy processes. The direct contact heat exchanger could be the right choice due to its ability to efficiently transfer significant amounts of heat, simple design, and low cost. In this work, the heat transfer associated with the direct contact condensation of pentane vapour bubbles in a three-phase direct contact condenser is investigated experimentally. Such a condenser could be used in a cycle with a solar water heater and heat recovery systems. The experiments on the steady state operation of the three-phase direct contact condenser were carried out using a short Perspex tube of 70 cm in total height and an internal diameter of 4 cm. Only a height of 48 cm was active as the direct contact condenser. Pentane vapour, (the dispersed phase) with three different initial temperatures (40° C, 43.5° C and 47.5° C) was directly contacted with water (the continuous phase) at 19° C. The experimental results showed that the total heat transfer rate per unit volume along the direct contact condenser gradually decreased upon moving higher up the condenser. Additionally, the heat transfer rate increases with increasing mass flow rate ratio, but no significant effect on the heat transfer rate of varying the initial temperature of the dispersed phase was seen. Furthermore, both the outlet temperature of the continuous phase and the void fraction were positively correlated with the total heat transfer rate per unit volume, with no considerable effect of the initial temperature difference between the dispersed and continuous phases.

  7. The millennium water vapour drop in chemistry-climate model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkop, Sabine; Dameris, Martin; Jöckel, Patrick; Garny, Hella; Lossow, Stefan; Stiller, Gabriele

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates the abrupt and severe water vapour decline in the stratosphere beginning in the year 2000 (the "millennium water vapour drop") and other similarly strong stratospheric water vapour reductions by means of various simulations with the state-of-the-art Chemistry-Climate Model (CCM) EMAC (ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry Model). The model simulations differ with respect to the prescribed sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and whether nudging is applied or not. The CCM EMAC is able to most closely reproduce the signature and pattern of the water vapour drop in agreement with those derived from satellite observations if the model is nudged. Model results confirm that this extraordinary water vapour decline is particularly obvious in the tropical lower stratosphere and is related to a large decrease in cold point temperature. The drop signal propagates under dilution to the higher stratosphere and to the poles via the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC). We found that the driving forces for this significant decline in water vapour mixing ratios are tropical sea surface temperature (SST) changes due to a coincidence with a preceding strong El Niño-Southern Oscillation event (1997/1998) followed by a strong La Niña event (1999/2000) and supported by the change of the westerly to the easterly phase of the equatorial stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in 2000. Correct (observed) SSTs are important for triggering the strong decline in water vapour. There are indications that, at least partly, SSTs contribute to the long period of low water vapour values from 2001 to 2006. For this period, the specific dynamical state of the atmosphere (overall atmospheric large-scale wind and temperature distribution) is important as well, as it causes the observed persistent low cold point temperatures. These are induced by a period of increased upwelling, which, however, has no corresponding pronounced signature in SSTs anomalies in the tropics. Our free

  8. A novel hybrid tobacco product that delivers a tobacco flavour note with vapour aerosol (Part 1): Product operation and preliminary aerosol chemistry assessment.

    PubMed

    Poynton, Simon; Sutton, Joseph; Goodall, Sharon; Margham, Jennifer; Forster, Mark; Scott, Ken; Liu, Chuan; McAdam, Kevin; Murphy, James; Proctor, Christopher

    2017-08-01

    Vapour products have demonstrated potential to be a lower-risk alternative to cigarettes. The present study describes a novel hybrid tobacco product that combines a warm aerosol stream generated by an electronic vaporisation mechanism with tobacco top flavour from cut tobacco. During operation, the aerosol stream released from the vapour cartomiser is passed through a bed of blended cut tobacco by the puffing flow, elevating the tobacco temperature and eluting volatile tobacco flavour components. A preliminary but comprehensive analysis of the aerosol composition of the hybrid tobacco product found that emissions were dominated by the control vapour formulation. In non-targeted chemical screening, no detectable difference in GC scans was observed between the hybrid tobacco product and the control vapour product. However, a sensorially elevated tobacco flavour was confirmed by a consumer sensory panel (P < 0.05). In a targeted analysis of 113 compounds, either identified by regulatory bodies as potential toxicants in cigarette smoke or formed from electronic vapour products, only 26 were quantified. The novel action of tobacco heating and liquid aerosolisation produced classes and levels of toxicants that were similar to those of the control vapour product, but much lower than those of a Kentucky 3R4F reference cigarette. For nine toxicants mandated by the WHO Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation for reduction in cigarette emissions, the levels were 91%-99% lower per puff in the hybrid tobacco product aerosol than in 3R4F smoke. Overall, the novel hybrid tobacco product provides a sensorially enhanced tobacco flavour, but maintains a toxicant profile similar to its parent vapour product with relatively low levels of known cigarette smoke toxicants. Copyright © 2017 British American Tobacco. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Gradual tilting of crystallographic orientation and configuration of dislocations in GaN selectively grown by vapour phase epitaxy methods

    PubMed

    Kuwan; Tsukamoto; Taki; Horibuchi; Oki; Kawaguchi; Shibata; Sawaki; Hiramatsu

    2000-01-01

    Cross-sectional transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation was performed for selectively grown gallium nitride (GaN) in order to examine the dependence of GaN microstructure on the growth conditions. The GaN films were grown by hydride vapour phase epitaxy (HVPE) or metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on GaN covered with a patterned mask. Thin foil specimens for TEM observation were prepared with focused ion beam (FIB) machining apparatus. It was demonstrated that the c-axis of GaN grown over the terrace of the mask tilts towards the centre of the terrace when the GaN is grown in a carrier gas of N2. The wider terrace results in a larger tilting angle if other growth conditions are identical. The tilting is attributed to 'horizontal dislocations' (HDs) generated during the overgrowth of GaN on the mask terrace. The HDs in HVPE-GaN have a semi-loop shape and are tangled with one another, while those in MOVPE-GaN are straight and lined up to form low-angle grain boundaries.

  10. THE INTERACTION OF VAPOUR PHASE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS WITH INDOOR SINKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interaction of indoor air pollutants with interior surfaces (i.e., sinks) is a well known, but poorly understood, phenomenon. Studies have shown that re-emissions of adsorbed organic vapours can contribute to elevated concentrations of organics in indoor environments. Researc...

  11. Vapour loss (``boiling'') as a mechanism for fluid evolution in metamorphic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trommsdorff, Volkmar; Skippen, George

    1986-11-01

    The calculation of fluid evolution paths during reaction progress is considered for multicomponent systems and the results applied to the ternary system, CO2-H2O-NaCl. Fluid evolution paths are considered for systems in which a CO2-rich phase of lesser density (vapour) is preferentially removed from the system leaving behind a saline aqueous phase (liquid). Such “boiling” leads to enrichment of the residual aqueous phase in dissolved components and, for certain reaction stoichiometries, to eventual saturation of the fluids in salt components. Distinctive textures, particularly radiating growths of prismatic minerals such as tremolite or diopside, are associated with saline fluid inclusions and solid syngenetic salt inclusions at a number of field localities. The most thoroughly studied of these localities is Campolungo, Switzerland, where metasomatic rocks have developed in association with fractures and veins at 500° C and 2,000 bars of pressure. The petrography of these rocks suggests that fluid phase separation into liquid and vapour has been an important process during metasomatism. Fracture systems with fluids at pressure less than lithostatic may facilitate the loss of the less dense vapour phase to conditions of the amphibolite facies.

  12. Vapour-phase method in the synthesis of polymer-ibuprofen sodium-silica gel composites.

    PubMed

    Kierys, Agnieszka; Krasucka, Patrycja; Grochowicz, Marta

    2017-11-01

    The study discusses the synthesis of polymer-silica composites comprising water soluble drug (ibuprofen sodium, IBS). The polymers selected for this study were poly(TRIM) and poly(HEMA- co -TRIM) produced in the form of permanently porous beads via the suspension-emulsion polymerization method. The acid and base set ternary composites were prepared by the saturation of the solid dispersions of drug (poly(TRIM)-IBS and/or poly(HEMA- co -TRIM)-IBS) with TEOS, and followed by their exposition to the vapour mixture of water and ammonia, or water and hydrochloric acid, at autogenous pressure. The conducted analyses reveal that the internal structure and total porosity of the resulting composites strongly depend on the catalyst which was used for silica precursor gelation. The parameters characterizing the porosity of both of the acid set composites are much lower than the parameters of the base set composites. Moreover, the basic catalyst supplied in the vapour phase does not affect the ibuprofen sodium molecules, whereas the acid one causes transformation of the ibuprofen sodium into the sodium chloride and a derivative of propanoic acid, which is poorly water soluble. The release profiles of ibuprofen sodium from composites demonstrate that there are differences in the rate and efficiency of drug desorption from them. They are mainly affected by the chemical character of the polymeric carrier but are also associated with the restricted swelling of the composites in the buffer solution after precipitation of silica gel.

  13. Liquid and vapour-phase antifungal activities of essential oils against Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida.

    PubMed

    Mandras, Narcisa; Nostro, Antonia; Roana, Janira; Scalas, Daniela; Banche, Giuliana; Ghisetti, Valeria; Del Re, Simonetta; Fucale, Giacomo; Cuffini, Anna Maria; Tullio, Vivian

    2016-08-30

    The management of Candida infections faces many problems, such as a limited number of antifungal drugs, toxicity, resistance of Candida to commonly antifungal drugs, relapse of Candida infections, and the high cost of antifungal drugs. Though azole antifungal agents and derivatives continue to dominate as drugs of choice against Candida infections, there are many available data referring to the anticandidal activity of essential oils. Since we have previous observed a good antimicrobial activity of some essential oils against filamentous fungi, the aim of this study was to extend the research to evaluate the activity of the same oils on Candida albicans, C.glabrata and C.tropicalis clinical strains, as well as the effects of related components. Essential oils selection was based both on ethnomedicinal use and on proved antibacterial and/or antifungal activity of some of these oils. Fluconazole and voriconazole were used as reference drugs. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) of essential oils (thyme red, fennel, clove, pine, sage, lemon balm, and lavender) and their major components were investigated by the broth microdilution method (BM) and the vapour contact assay (VC). Using BM, pine oil showed the best activity against all strains tested, though C.albicans was more susceptible than C.glabrata and C.tropicalis (MIC50-MIC90 = 0.06 %, v/v). On the contrary, sage oil displayed a weak activity (MIC50-MIC90 = 1 %, v/v). Thyme red oil (MIC50-MIC90 ≤ 0.0038 %, v/v for C.albicans and C.tropicalis, and 0.0078- < 0.015 %, v/v for C.glabrata), followed by lemon balm, lavender and sage were the most effective by VC. Carvacrol and thymol showed the highest activity, whereas linalyl acetate showed the lowest activity both by two methods. α-pinene displayed a better activity by BM than VC. Results show a good activity of essential oils, mainly thymus red and pine oils, and their components carvacrol

  14. Water vapour tomography using GPS phase observations: Results from the ESCOMPTE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, T.; Gradinarsky, L.; Elgered, G.

    2007-10-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) tomography is a technique for estimating the 3-D structure of the atmospheric water vapour using data from a dense local network of GPS receivers. Several current methods utilize estimates of slant wet delays between the GPS satellites and the receivers on the ground, which are difficult to obtain with millimetre accuracy from the GPS observations. We present results of applying a new tomographic method to GPS data from the Expériance sur site pour contraindre les modèles de pollution atmosphérique et de transport d'emissions (ESCOMPTE) experiment in southern France. This method does not rely on any slant wet delay estimates, instead it uses the GPS phase observations directly. We show that the estimated wet refractivity profiles estimated by this method is on the same accuracy level or better compared to other tomographic methods. The results are in agreement with earlier simulations, for example the profile information is limited above 4 km.

  15. Mechanism of two-step vapour-crystal nucleation in a pore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Meel, J. A.; Liu, Y.; Frenkel, D.

    2015-09-01

    We present a numerical study of the effect of hemispherical pores on the nucleation of Lennard-Jones crystals from the vapour phase. As predicted by Page and Sear, there is a narrow range of pore radii, where vapour-liquid nucleation can become a two-step process. A similar observation was made for different pore geometries by Giacomello et al. We find that the maximum nucleation rate depends on both the size and the adsorption strength of the pore. Moreover, a poe can be more effective than a planar wall with the same strength of attraction. Pore-induced vapour-liquid nucleation turns out to be the rate-limiting step for crystal nucleation. This implies that crystal nucleation can be enhanced by a judicious choice of the wetting properties of a microporous nucleating agent.

  16. The vapour of imidazolium-based ionic liquids: a mass spectrometry study.

    PubMed

    Deyko, A; Lovelock, K R J; Licence, P; Jones, R G

    2011-10-06

    Eight common dialkylimidazolium-based ionic liquids have been successfully evaporated in ultra-high vacuum and their vapours analysed by line of sight mass spectrometry using electron ionisation. The ionic liquids investigated were 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethane)sulfonyl]imide, [C(n)C(1)Im][Tf(2)N] (where n = 2, 4, 6, 8), 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [C(n)C(1)Im][BF(4)] (where n = 4, 8), 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium octylsulfate, [C(4)C(1)Im][C(8)OSO(3)] and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrachloroferrate, [C(4)C(1)Im][FeCl(4)]. All ionic liquids studied here evaporated as neutral ion pairs; no evidence of decomposition products in the vapour phase were observed. Key fragment cations of the ionised vapour of the ionic liquids are identified. The appearance energies, E(app), of the parent cation were measured and used to estimate the ionisation energies, E(i), for the vapour phase neutral ion pairs. Measured ionisation energies ranged from 10.5 eV to 13.0 eV. Using both the identity and E(app) values, the fragmentation pathways for a number of fragment cations are postulated. It will be shown that the enthalpy of vaporisation, Δ(vap)H, can successfully be measured using more than one fragment cation, although caution is required as many fragment cations can also be formed by ionisation of decomposition products.

  17. Vapour pressure and standard enthalpy of sublimation of KBF 4 by a TG based transpiration technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankajavalli, R.; Ananthasivan, K.; Anthonysamy, S.; Vasudeva Rao, P. R.

    2005-10-01

    A horizontal thermobalance was adapted as a transpiration apparatus for the measurement of the vapour pressure of KBF4 (s). Attainment of equilibrium was ascertained by the invariance of the measured values of the vapour pressures over a range of flows under isothermal conditions. Measured values of the vapour pressures could be represented by the least-squares expressions: log (p/Pa) = 8.16(±0.01) - 4892(±248)/T(K)(538-560 K), log (p/Pa) = 6.85(±0.06) - 4158(±240)/T(K) (576-660 K), which correspond to the equilibria of orthorhombic and cubic KBF4 vapours, respectively. From these expressions the temperature of transformation of the orthorhombic to the cubic phase was identified to be 561 K. From the slopes of the above equations, the enthalpies of sublimation of the orthorhombic and cubic phases were found to be (93.7 ± 4.7) and (79.6 ± 4.6) kJ mol-1, respectively. These values differ by 14.1 kJ mol-1 which could be ascribed to the enthalpy of the orthorhombic to cubic phase transition of KBF4. Third-law analysis of the vapour pressure data yielded a value of (104.6 ± 1.0) kJ mol-1 for Δ Hsubo of KBF4 (s) at 298.15 K.

  18. 3D imaging of vapour and liquid inclusions from the Mole Granite, Australia, using helical fluorescence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauzid, J.; Philippot, P.; Bleuet, P.; Simionovici, A.; Somogyi, A.; Golosio, B.

    2007-08-01

    World class Cu resources are concentrated in porphyry and epithermal ore deposits. Their formation remains partially understood, however, due to a lack of constraints on the partitioning properties of trace elements in general, and Cu in particular, between vapour and liquid phases evolved from boiling fluids at depth in the Earth's crust. Immiscible liquid and vapour fluid inclusions coexisting in a single quartz grain have been imaged in three dimensions by X-ray Fluorescence Computed Tomography (XFCT). Elemental spatial distributions confirm that Cu, and to a lesser extent As, partition into the vapour phase, whereas Mn, Fe, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr and Pb concentrate in the liquid inclusion. High resolution mapping of the vapour inclusions revealed that Cu is heterogeneously distributed at the scale of a single inclusion and is mostly concentrated as tiny daughter crystals.

  19. Sub-10-nm patterning via directed self-assembly of block copolymer films with a vapour-phase deposited topcoat

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Suh, Hyo Seon; Kim, Do Han; Moni, Priya

    2017-03-27

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) of the domain structure in block copolymer (BCP) thin films is a promising approach for sub-10-nm surface patterning. DSA requires the control of interfacial properties on both interfaces of a BCP film to induce the formation of domains that traverse the entire film with a perpendicular orientation. Here we show a methodology to control the interfacial properties of BCP films that uses a polymer topcoat deposited by initiated chemical vapour deposition (iCVD). The iCVD topcoat forms a crosslinked network that grafts to and immobilizes BCP chains to create an interface that is equally attractive to both blocksmore » of the underlying copolymer. The topcoat, in conjunction with a chemically patterned substrate, directs the assembly of the grating structures in BCP films with a half-pitch dimension of 9.3 nm. As the iCVD topcoat can be as thin as 7 nm, it is amenable to pattern transfer without removal. As a result, the ease of vapour-phase deposition, applicability to high-resolution BCP systems and integration with pattern-transfer schemes are attractive properties of iCVD topcoats for industrial applications.« less

  20. The frequency-dependent response of single aerosol particles to vapour phase oscillations and its application in measuring diffusion coefficients

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Preston, Thomas C.; Davies, James F.; Wilson, Kevin R.

    A new method for measuring diffusion in the condensed phase of single aerosol particles is proposed and demonstrated. The technique is based on the frequency-dependent response of a binary particle to oscillations in the vapour phase of one of its chemical components. Here, we discuss how this physical situation allows for what would typically be a non-linear boundary value problem to be approximately reduced to a linear boundary value problem. For the case of aqueous aerosol particles, we investigate the accuracy of the closed-form analytical solution to this linear problem through a comparison with the numerical solution of the fullmore » problem. Then, using experimentally measured whispering gallery modes to track the frequency-dependent response of aqueous particles to relative humidity oscillations, we determine diffusion coefficients as a function of water activity. The measured diffusion coefficients are compared to previously reported values found using the two common experiments: (i) the analysis of the sorption/desorption of water from a particle after a step-wise change to the surrounding relative humidity and (ii) the isotopic exchange of water between a particle and the vapour phase. The technique presented here has two main strengths: first, when compared to the sorption/desorption experiment, it does not require the numerical evaluation of a boundary value problem during the fitting process as a closed-form expression is available. Second, when compared to the isotope exchange experiment, it does not require the use of labeled molecules. Therefore, the frequency-dependent experiment retains the advantages of these two commonly used methods but does not suffer from their drawbacks.« less

  1. The frequency-dependent response of single aerosol particles to vapour phase oscillations and its application in measuring diffusion coefficients

    DOE PAGES

    Preston, Thomas C.; Davies, James F.; Wilson, Kevin R.

    2017-01-13

    A new method for measuring diffusion in the condensed phase of single aerosol particles is proposed and demonstrated. The technique is based on the frequency-dependent response of a binary particle to oscillations in the vapour phase of one of its chemical components. Here, we discuss how this physical situation allows for what would typically be a non-linear boundary value problem to be approximately reduced to a linear boundary value problem. For the case of aqueous aerosol particles, we investigate the accuracy of the closed-form analytical solution to this linear problem through a comparison with the numerical solution of the fullmore » problem. Then, using experimentally measured whispering gallery modes to track the frequency-dependent response of aqueous particles to relative humidity oscillations, we determine diffusion coefficients as a function of water activity. The measured diffusion coefficients are compared to previously reported values found using the two common experiments: (i) the analysis of the sorption/desorption of water from a particle after a step-wise change to the surrounding relative humidity and (ii) the isotopic exchange of water between a particle and the vapour phase. The technique presented here has two main strengths: first, when compared to the sorption/desorption experiment, it does not require the numerical evaluation of a boundary value problem during the fitting process as a closed-form expression is available. Second, when compared to the isotope exchange experiment, it does not require the use of labeled molecules. Therefore, the frequency-dependent experiment retains the advantages of these two commonly used methods but does not suffer from their drawbacks.« less

  2. Fumigant toxicity of cassia and cinnamon oils and cinnamaldehyde and structurally related compounds to Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae).

    PubMed

    Na, Young Eun; Kim, Soon-Il; Bang, Hea-Son; Kim, Byung-Seok; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2011-06-10

    The toxicity of two cassia oils, four cinnamon oils and (E)-cinnamaldehyde and (E)-cinnamic acid and 34 structurally related compounds to adult Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) collected from a poultry house was examined using a vapour-phase mortality bioassay. Results were compared with those of dichlorvos, a conventional acaricide. The cassia and cinnamon oils (cinnamon technical, cinnamon #500, cassia especial, cassia true, cinnamon bark and cinnamon green leaf) exhibited good fumigant toxicity (LD(50), 11.79-26.40 μg cm(-3)). α-Methyl-(E)-cinnamaldehyde (LD(50), 0.45 μg cm(-3)) and (E)-cinnamaldehyde (0.54 μg cm(-3)) were the most toxic compounds and the toxicity of these compounds was comparable to that of dichlorvos (0.30 μg cm(-3)). Potent fumigant toxicity was also observed in allyl cinnamate, ethyl-α-cyanocinnamate, (E)-2-methoxylcinnamic acid and (Z)-2-methoxylcinnamic acid (LD(50), 0.81-0.92 μg cm(-3)). Structure-activity relationships indicate that structural characteristics, such as types of functional groups and carbon skeleton rather than vapour pressure parameter, appear to play a role in determining toxicity. The essential oils and compounds described merit further study as potential acaricides for the control of D. gallinae populations as fumigants with contact action due to global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic acaricides in the agricultural environment. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. The ESA DUE GlobVapour Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, M.; ESA Due Globvapour Project Team

    2010-12-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) Data User Element (DUE) project series aims at bridging the gap between research projects and the sustainable provision of Earth Observation (EO) climate data products at an information level that fully responds to the operational needs of user communities. The ultimate objective of GlobVapour is to provide long-term coherent water vapour data sets exploiting the synergistic capabilities of different EO missions aiming at improved accuracies and enhanced temporal and spatial sampling better than those provided by the single sources. The project seeks to utilize the increasing potential of the synergistic capabilities of past, existing and upcoming satellite missions (ERS-1 and -2, ENVISAT, METOP, MSG as well as relevant non-European missions and in-situ data) in order to meet the increasing needs for coherent long-term water vapour datasets required by the scientific community. GlobVapour develops, validates and applies novel water vapour climate data sets derived from various sensors. More specifically, the primary objectives of the GlobVapour project are: 1)The development of multi-annual global water vapour data sets inclusive of error estimates based on carefully calibrated and inter-calibrated radiances. 2)The validation of the water vapour products against ground based, airborne and other satellite based measurements. 3) The provision of an assessment of the quality of different IASI water vapour profile algorithms developed by the project partners and other groups. 4) The provision of a complete processing system that can further strengthen operational production of the developed products. 5) A demonstration of the use of the products in the field of climate modelling, including applying alternative ways of climate model validation using forward radiation operators. 6) The promotion of the strategy of data set construction and the data sets themselves to the global research and operational community. The ultimate goal of the

  4. Development of graphene nanoplatelet embedded polymer microcantilever for vapour phase explosive detection applications

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ray, Prasenjit; Pandey, Swapnil; Ramgopal Rao, V.

    2014-09-28

    In this work, a graphene based strain sensor has been reported for explosive vapour detection applications by exploiting the piezoresistive property of graphene. Instead of silicon based cantilevers, a low cost polymeric micro-cantilever platform has been used to fabricate this strain sensor by embedding the graphene nanoplatelet layer inside the beam. The fabricated devices were characterized for their mechanical and electromechanical behaviour. This device shows a very high gauge factor which is around ~144. Also the resonant frequency of these cantilevers is high enough such that the measurements are not affected by environmental noise. These devices have been used inmore » this work for reliable detection of explosive vapours such as 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene down to parts-per-billion concentrations in ambient conditions.« less

  5. Application of lemongrass oil in vapour phase for the effective control of anthracnose of 'Sekaki' papaya.

    PubMed

    Ali, A; Wee Pheng, T; Mustafa, M A

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the potential use of lemongrass essential oil vapour as an alternative for synthetic fungicides in controlling anthracnose of papaya. Lemongrass oil used in the study was characterized using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) before it was tested against anthracnose of papaya in vitro and in vivo. The GC-FID analysis showed that geranial (45·6%) and neral (34·3%) were the major components in lemongrass oil. In vitro study revealed that lemongrass oil vapour at all concentrations tested (33, 66, 132, 264 and 528 μl l(-1) ) suppressed the mycelial growth and conidial germination of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. For the in vivo study, 'Sekaki' papaya were exposed to lemongrass oil fumigation (0, 7, 14, 28 μl l(-1) ) for 18 h and at room temperature for 9 days. Lemongrass oil vapour at the concentration of 28 μl l(-1) was most effective against anthracnose of artificially inoculated papaya fruit while quality parameters of papaya were not significantly altered. This suggests that lemongrass oil vapour can control anthracnose disease development on papaya without affecting its natural ripening process. The potential practical application of this technology can reduce reliance on synthetic fungicides for the control of postharvest diseases in papaya. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Comparative study of qualitative and quantitative methods to determine toxicity level of Aspergillus flavus isolates in maize.

    PubMed

    Shekhar, Meena; Singh, Nirupma; Dutta, Ram; Kumar, Shrvan; Mahajan, Vinay

    2017-01-01

    An attempt was made to compare between easy and inexpensive qualitative method (ammonia vapour test) and analytical methods (thin layer chromatography and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) for identification of aflatoxigenic isolates of Aspergillus flavus in maize. In this comparative study the toxicity level of A. flavus isolates exhibited 100% agreement among ammonia vapour test, ELISA and TLC for highly toxigenic (>2000 ppb) and toxigenic (501-2000 ppb) isolates while 88.5% agreement observed for least toxic (<20 ppb) isolates. In ammonia vapour test 51% of A. flavus isolates showed creamish or no colour change corresponding to least toxic/atoxic (<20ppb) category estimated by ELISA. Similarly 22% highly toxic isolates exhibited plum red colour, 12% moderately toxic indicated pink colour and 10% toxic isolates showed red colour. However, 11.5% isolates were found to be false positive in cream colour category (least toxic) and 28.5% false negatives in pink colour (moderately toxic) category. The isolates from different agroclimatic zones of maize in India showed high variability for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production potential ranging from 0.214-8116.61 ppb. Toxigenic potential of Aspergillus flavus isolates in culture was further validated by inoculating maize grain sample with four different isolates with varied toxin producing ability. With good agreement percentage between cultural and analytical methods the study concludes the ammonia vapour test to be easy, inexpensive, reliable and time saving method that can be used for segregating or pre-screening of contaminated samples from bulk food/feed stock.

  7. Capturing Bioavailable Organic Contaminants for Phase II Whole Sediment Toxicity Identification Evaluations

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Phase I of whole sediment TIEs, causes of toxicity to freshwater and marine organisms are characterized into broad toxicant classes including ammonia, metals and organic chemicals. In the whole sediment Phase I TIEs performed so far, organic chemicals have been shown to be t...

  8. WALES: water vapour lidar experiment in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerin, F.; Pain, Th.; Palmade, J.-L.; Pailharey, E.; Giraud, D.; Jubineau, F.

    2017-11-01

    The WAter vapour Lidar Experiment in Space (WALES) mission aims at providing water vapour profiles with high accuracy and vertical resolution through the troposphere and the lower stratosphere on a global scale using an instrument based on Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) observation technique, and mounted on an Earth orbiting satellite. This active DIAL technique will also provide data on the cloud coverage by means of the signal reflection on the cloud layers. In DIAL operation, backscatter lidar signals at two wavelengths - at least - are detected. One wavelength (λ ON) is highly absorbed by the species of interest, while the other (λ OFF) is backscattered with minimal absorption. This difference in absorption at the two transmitted wavelengths leads to the determination of the concentration of the species of interest. The DIAL is therefore a dual-wavelength lidar in which the signals detected at the two wavelengths are processed to extract the absolute density of water vapour. The Phase A study performed by ALCATEL Space and their partners under contract of the European Space Agency has led to a credible and innovative concept of instrument, based on a mission performance modelling. The challenge is to foster the scientific return while minimising the development risks and costs of instrument development, in particular the laser transmitter. The paper describes the payload design and the implementation on a low Earth orbiting (LEO) satellite.

  9. WALES: WAter vapour Lidar Experiment in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerin, F.; Pain, Th.; Palmade, J. L.; Pailharey, E.; Giraud, D.; Jubineau, F.

    2004-06-01

    The WAter vapour Lidar Experiment in Space (WALES) mission aims at providing water vapour profiles with high accuracy and vertical resolution through the troposphere and the lower stratosphere on a global scale using an instrument based on Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) observation technique, and mounted on an Earth orbiting satellite. This active DIAL technique will also provide data on the cloud coverage by means of the signal reflection on the cloud layers. In DIAL operation, backscatter lidar signals at two wavelengths - at least - are detected. One wavelength (λ ON) is highly absorbed by the species of interest, while the other (λ OFF) is backscattered with minimal absorption. This difference in absorption at the two transmitted wavelengths leads to the determination of the concentration of the species of interest. The DIAL is therefore a dual-wavelength lidar in which the signals detected at the two wavelengths are processed to extract the absolute density of water vapour. The Phase A study performed by ALCATEL Space and their partners under contract of the European Space Agency has led to a credible and innovative concept of instrument, based on a mission performance modelling. The challenge is to foster the scientific return while minimising the development risks and costs of instrument development, in particular the laser transmitter. The paper describes the payload design and the implementation on a low Earth orbiting (LEO) satellite.

  10. Evaluation of phase II toxicity identification evaluation methods for freshwater whole sediment and interstitial water.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Bryn M; Anderson, Brian S; Hunt, John W; Clark, Sara L; Voorhees, Jennifer P; Tjeerdema, Ron S; Casteline, Jane; Stewart, Margaret

    2009-02-01

    Phase I whole sediment toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) methods have been developed to characterize the cause of toxicity as organic chemicals, metals, or ammonia. In Phase II identification treatments, resins added to whole sediment to reduce toxicity caused by metals and organics can be separated and eluted much like solid-phase extraction (SPE) columns are eluted for interstitial water. In this study, formulated reference sediments spiked with toxic concentrations of copper, fluoranthene, and nonylphenol were subjected to whole sediment and interstitial water TIE treatments to evaluate Phase I and II TIE procedures for identifying the cause of toxicity to Hyalella azteca. Phase I TIE treatments consisted of adding adsorbent resins to whole sediment, and using SPE columns to remove spiked chemicals from interstitial water. Phase II treatments consisted of eluting resins and SPE columns and the preparation and testing of eluates for toxicity and chemistry. Whole sediment resins and SPE columns significantly reduced toxicity, and the eluates from all treatments contained toxic concentrations of the spiked chemical except for interstitial water fluoranthene. Toxic unit analysis based on median lethal concentrations (LC50s) allowed for the comparison of chemical concentrations among treatments, and demonstrated that the bioavailability of some chemicals was reduced in some samples and treatments. The concentration of fluoranthene in the resin eluate closely approximated the original interstitial water concentration, but the resin eluate concentrations of copper and nonylphenol were much higher than the original interstitial water concentrations. Phase II whole sediment TIE treatments provided complementary lines of evidence to the interstitial water TIE results.

  11. Hair analysis as a useful procedure for detection of vapour exposure to chemical warfare agents: simulation of sulphur mustard with methyl salicylate.

    PubMed

    Spiandore, Marie; Piram, Anne; Lacoste, Alexandre; Josse, Denis; Doumenq, Pierre

    2014-06-01

    Chemical warfare agents (CWA) are highly toxic compounds which have been produced to kill or hurt people during conflicts or terrorist attacks. Despite the fact that their use is strictly prohibited according to international convention, populations' exposure still recently occurred. Development of markers of exposure to CWA is necessary to distinguish exposed victims from unexposed ones. We present the first study of hair usage as passive sampler to assess contamination by chemicals in vapour form. This work presents more particularly the hair adsorption capacity for methyl salicylate used as a surrogate of the vesicant sulphur mustard. Chemical vapours toxicity through the respiratory route has historically been defined through Haber's law's concentration-time (Ct) product, and vapour exposure of hair to methyl salicylate was conducted with various times or doses of exposure in the range of incapacitating and lethal Ct products corresponding to sulphur mustard. Following exposure, extraction of methyl salicylate from hair was conducted by simple soaking in dichloromethane. Methyl salicylate could be detected on hair for vapour concentration corresponding to about one fifth of the sulphur mustard concentration that would kill 50% of exposed individuals (LCt50). The amount of methyl salicylate recovered from hair increased with time or dose of exposure. It showed a good correlation with the concentration-time product, suggesting that hair could be used like a passive sampler to assess vapour exposure to chemical compounds. It introduces great perspectives concerning the use of hair as a marker of exposure to CWA. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Metal organic vapour-phase epitaxy growth of GaN wires on Si (111) for light-emitting diode applications

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    GaN wires are grown on a Si (111) substrate by metal organic vapour-phase epitaxy on a thin deposited AlN blanket and through a thin SiNx layer formed spontaneously at the AlN/Si interface. N-doped wires are used as templates for the growth of core-shell InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells coated by a p-doped shell. Standing single-wire heterostructures are connected using a metallic tip and a Si substrate backside contact, and the electroluminescence at room temperature and forward bias is demonstrated at 420 nm. This result points out the feasibility of lower cost nitride-based wires for light-emitting diode applications. PMID:23391377

  13. Vapour Intrusion into Buildings - A Literature Review

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter provides a review of recent research on vapour intrusion of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into buildings. The chapter builds on a report from Tillman and Weaver (2005) which reviewed the literature on vapour intrusion through 2005. Firstly, the term ‘vapour intru...

  14. An in situ vapour phase hydrothermal surface doping approach for fabrication of high performance Co3O4 electrocatalysts with an exceptionally high S-doped active surface.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhijin; Liu, Porun; Zhang, Haimin; Wang, Yun; Al-Mamun, Mohammad; Yang, Hua Gui; Wang, Dan; Tang, Zhiyong; Zhao, Huijun

    2015-04-04

    A facile in situ vapour phase hydrothermal (VPH) surface doping approach has been developed for fabrication of high performance S-doped Co3O4 electrocatalysts with an unprecedentedly high surface S content (>47%). The demonstrated VPH doping approach could be useful for enrichment of surface active sites for other metal oxide electrocatalysts.

  15. Modelling mass transfer during venting/soil vapour extraction: Non-aqueous phase liquid/gas mass transfer coefficient estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esrael, D.; Kacem, M.; Benadda, B.

    2017-07-01

    We investigate how the simulation of the venting/soil vapour extraction (SVE) process is affected by the mass transfer coefficient, using a model comprising five partial differential equations describing gas flow and mass conservation of phases and including an expression accounting for soil saturation conditions. In doing so, we test five previously reported quations for estimating the non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL)/gas initial mass transfer coefficient and evaluate an expression that uses a reference NAPL saturation. Four venting/SVE experiments utilizing a sand column are performed with dry and non-saturated sand at low and high flow rates, and the obtained experimental results are subsequently simulated, revealing that hydrodynamic dispersion cannot be neglected in the estimation of the mass transfer coefficient, particularly in the case of low velocities. Among the tested models, only the analytical solution of a convection-dispersion equation and the equation proposed herein are suitable for correctly modelling the experimental results, with the developed model representing the best choice for correctly simulating the experimental results and the tailing part of the extracted gas concentration curve.

  16. Changes in levels of biomarkers of exposure observed in a controlled study of smokers switched from conventional to reduced toxicant prototype cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Shepperd, Christopher J; Eldridge, Alison; Camacho, Oscar M; McAdam, Kevin; Proctor, Christopher J; Meyer, Ingo

    2013-06-01

    Reduced toxicant prototype (RTP) cigarettes with substantially reduced levels of tobacco smoke toxicants have been developed. Evaluation of these prototype cigarettes included measurement of biomarkers of exposure (BoE) to toxicants in smokers switched from conventional cigarettes to the RTPs. A 6-week single-blinded randomised controlled study with occasional clinical confinement was conducted ( ISRCTN7215735). All smoking subjects smoked a conventional cigarette for 2-weeks. Control groups continued to smoke the conventional cigarette while test groups switched to one of three RTP designs. Clinical confinement and additional assessments were performed for all smoking groups after 2 and 4-weeks. A non-smoker group provided background levels of BoE. On average, smokers switched to RTPs with reduced machine yields of toxicants had reduced levels of corresponding BoEs. For vapour phase toxicants such as acrolein and 1,3-butadiene reductions of ⩾70% were observed both in smoke chemistry and BoEs. Reductions in particulate phase toxicants such as tobacco-specific nitrosamines, aromatic amines and polyaromatic hydrocarbons depended upon the technologies used, but were in some cases ⩾80% although some increases in other particulate phase toxicants were observed. However, reductions in BoEs demonstrate that it is possible to produce prototype cigarettes that reduce exposure to toxicants in short-term use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Studies of copper and gold vapour lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Graeme Lawrence

    The work described in this thesis covers various aspects of pulsed copper and gold vapour lasers. The work is divided into four main parts : a computer model of the kinetics of the copper vapour laser discharge; construction and characterization of a copper vapour laser and a gold vapour laser system (to be used for photodynamic cancer treatment); analysis of the thermal processes occurring in the various forms of thermal insulation used in these lasers; and studies of the use of metal walls to confine a discharge plasma. The results of this work were combined in the design of the first copper vapour laser to use metal rather than an electrically insulating ceramic material for confinement of the discharge plasma. Laser action in copper vapour has been achieved in a number of metal-walled designs, with continuous lengths of metal ranging from 30 mm, in a segmented design, to 400 mm, where the discharge plasma was confined by two molybdenum tubes of this length. A theoretical explanation of the behaviour of plasmas in metal-walled discharge vessels is described.

  18. Using Peltier Cells to Study Solid-Liquid-Vapour Transitions and Supercooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torzo, Giacomo; Soletta, Isabella; Branca, Mario

    2007-01-01

    We propose an apparatus for teaching experimental thermodynamics in undergraduate introductory courses, using thermoelectric modules and a real-time data acquisition system. The device may be made at low cost, still providing an easy approach to the investigation of liquid-solid and liquid-vapour phase transitions and of metastable states…

  19. Vapour growth of argyrodite-type ionic conductors Cu 6PS 5Hal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiechter, S.; Eckstein, J.; Nitsche, R.

    1983-03-01

    Cu 6PS 5Hal compounds (with Hal = Cl, Br or I) have been crystallized around 950 K by CVT with P, S and Hal (and combinations thereof). Chemical insight into the transport processes was gained from dissociation pressure measurements and spectroscopic vapour analysis. Lacking thermochemical data of the compounds were obtained from Cp measurements. Models, derived for the CVT mechanisms, yield transport rates and directions which agree qualitatively with experiments. The main vapour species (for Hal = C1) are PSCI 3, S 2, PCI 3, P 4S 3 and (CuCl) 3. With a surplus of CuHal, VLS growth via liquid CuHal/Cu 2S phases was observed.

  20. In vitro toxicity testing of cigarette smoke based on the air-liquid interface exposure: A review.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang

    2016-10-01

    Cigarette smoke is a complex aerosol comprising particulate phase and gaseous vapour phase. The air-liquid interface exposure provides a possible technical means to implement whole smoke exposure for the assessment of tobacco products. In this review, the research progress in the in vitro toxicity testing of cigarette smoke based on the air-liquid interface exposure is summarized. The contents presented involve mainly cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, systems toxicology, 3D culture and cigarette smoke dosimetry related to cigarette smoke, as well as the assessment of electronic cigarette aerosol. Prospect of the application of the air-liquid interface exposure method in assessing the biological effects of tobacco smoke is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Simple interface of high-performance liquid chromatography-atomic fluorescence spectrometry hyphenated system for speciation of mercury based on photo-induced chemical vapour generation with formic acid in mobile phase as reaction reagent.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yongguang; Liu, Jingfu; He, Bin; Shi, Jianbo; Jiang, Guibin

    2008-02-15

    Photo-induced chemical vapour generation (CVG) with formic acid in mobile phase as reaction reagent was developed as interface to on-line couple HPLC with atomic fluorescence spectrometry for the separation and determination of inorganic mercury, methylmercury (MeHg), ethylmercury (EtHg) and phenylmercury (PhHg). In the developed procedure, formic acid in mobile phase was used to decompose organomercuries and reduce Hg(2+) to mercury cold vapour under UV irradiation. Therefore, no post-column reagent was used and the flow injection system in traditional procedure is omitted. A number of operating parameters including pH of mobile phase, concentration of formate, flow rate of mobile phase, length of PTFE reaction coil, flow rate of carrier gas and Na(2)S(2)O(3) in sample matrix were optimized. The limits of detection at the optimized conditions were 0.085, 0.033, 0.029 and 0.038 microg L(-1) for inorganic mercury, MeHg, EtHg and PhHg, respectively. The developed method was validated by determination of certified reference material DORM-2 and was further applied in analyses of seafood samples from Yantai port, China. The UV-CVG with formic acid simplifies the instrumentation and reduces the analytical cost significantly.

  2. Modelling and intepreting the isotopic composition of water vapour in convective updrafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolot, M.; Legras, B.; Moyer, E. J.

    2012-08-01

    The isotopic compositions of water vapour and its condensates have long been used as tracers of the global hydrological cycle, but may also be useful for understanding processes within individual convective clouds. We review here the representation of processes that alter water isotopic compositions during processing of air in convective updrafts and present a unified model for water vapour isotopic evolution within undiluted deep convective cores, with a special focus on the out-of-equilibrium conditions of mixed phase zones where metastable liquid water and ice coexist. We use our model to show that a combination of water isotopologue measurements can constrain critical convective parameters including degree of supersaturation, supercooled water content and glaciation temperature. Important isotopic processes in updrafts include kinetic effects that are a consequence of diffusive growth or decay of cloud particles within a supersaturated or subsaturated environment; isotopic re-equilibration between vapour and supercooled droplets, which buffers isotopic distillation; and differing mechanisms of glaciation (droplet freezing vs. the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen process). As all of these processes are related to updraft strength, droplet size distribution and the retention of supercooled water, isotopic measurements can serve as a probe of in-cloud conditions of importance to convective processes. We study the sensitivity of the profile of water vapour isotopic composition to differing model assumptions and show how measurements of isotopic composition at cloud base and cloud top alone may be sufficient to retrieve key cloud parameters.

  3. Modelling and interpreting the isotopic composition of water vapour in convective updrafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolot, M.; Legras, B.; Moyer, E. J.

    2013-08-01

    The isotopic compositions of water vapour and its condensates have long been used as tracers of the global hydrological cycle, but may also be useful for understanding processes within individual convective clouds. We review here the representation of processes that alter water isotopic compositions during processing of air in convective updrafts and present a unified model for water vapour isotopic evolution within undiluted deep convective cores, with a special focus on the out-of-equilibrium conditions of mixed-phase zones where metastable liquid water and ice coexist. We use our model to show that a combination of water isotopologue measurements can constrain critical convective parameters, including degree of supersaturation, supercooled water content and glaciation temperature. Important isotopic processes in updrafts include kinetic effects that are a consequence of diffusive growth or decay of cloud particles within a supersaturated or subsaturated environment; isotopic re-equilibration between vapour and supercooled droplets, which buffers isotopic distillation; and differing mechanisms of glaciation (droplet freezing vs. the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen process). As all of these processes are related to updraft strength, particle size distribution and the retention of supercooled water, isotopic measurements can serve as a probe of in-cloud conditions of importance to convective processes. We study the sensitivity of the profile of water vapour isotopic composition to differing model assumptions and show how measurements of isotopic composition at cloud base and cloud top alone may be sufficient to retrieve key cloud parameters.

  4. Atomic origins of water-vapour-promoted alloy oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Langli; Su, Mao; Yan, Pengfei; Zou, Lianfeng; Schreiber, Daniel K.; Baer, Donald R.; Zhu, Zihua; Zhou, Guangwen; Wang, Yanting; Bruemmer, Stephen M.; Xu, Zhijie; Wang, Chongmin

    2018-06-01

    The presence of water vapour, intentional or unavoidable, is crucial to many materials applications, such as in steam generators, turbine engines, fuel cells, catalysts and corrosion1-4. Phenomenologically, water vapour has been noted to accelerate oxidation of metals and alloys5,6. However, the atomistic mechanisms behind such oxidation remain elusive. Through direct in situ atomic-scale transmission electron microscopy observations and density functional theory calculations, we reveal that water-vapour-enhanced oxidation of a nickel-chromium alloy is associated with proton-dissolution-promoted formation, migration, and clustering of both cation and anion vacancies. Protons derived from water dissociation can occupy interstitial positions in the oxide lattice, consequently lowering vacancy formation energy and decreasing the diffusion barrier of both cations and anions, which leads to enhanced oxidation in moist environments at elevated temperatures. This work provides insights into water-vapour-enhanced alloy oxidation and has significant implications in other material and chemical processes involving water vapour, such as corrosion, heterogeneous catalysis and ionic conduction.

  5. Atomic origins of water-vapour-promoted alloy oxidation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Langli; Su, Mao; Yan, Pengfei; Zou, Lianfeng; Schreiber, Daniel K; Baer, Donald R; Zhu, Zihua; Zhou, Guangwen; Wang, Yanting; Bruemmer, Stephen M; Xu, Zhijie; Wang, Chongmin

    2018-06-01

    The presence of water vapour, intentional or unavoidable, is crucial to many materials applications, such as in steam generators, turbine engines, fuel cells, catalysts and corrosion 1-4 . Phenomenologically, water vapour has been noted to accelerate oxidation of metals and alloys 5,6 . However, the atomistic mechanisms behind such oxidation remain elusive. Through direct in situ atomic-scale transmission electron microscopy observations and density functional theory calculations, we reveal that water-vapour-enhanced oxidation of a nickel-chromium alloy is associated with proton-dissolution-promoted formation, migration, and clustering of both cation and anion vacancies. Protons derived from water dissociation can occupy interstitial positions in the oxide lattice, consequently lowering vacancy formation energy and decreasing the diffusion barrier of both cations and anions, which leads to enhanced oxidation in moist environments at elevated temperatures. This work provides insights into water-vapour-enhanced alloy oxidation and has significant implications in other material and chemical processes involving water vapour, such as corrosion, heterogeneous catalysis and ionic conduction.

  6. Oxidation of volatile organic vapours in air by solid potassium permanganate.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodlu, Mojtaba Ghareh; Hartog, Niels; Majid Hassanizadeh, S; Raoof, Amir

    2013-06-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may frequently contaminate groundwater and pose threat to human health when migrating into the unsaturated soil zone and upward to the indoor air. The kinetic of chemical oxidation has been investigated widely for dissolved VOCs in the saturated zone. But, so far there have been few studies on the use of in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) of vapour phase contaminants. In this study, batch experiments were carried out to evaluate the oxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE), ethanol, and toluene vapours by solid potassium permanganate. Results revealed that solid potassium permanganate is able to transform the vapour of these compounds into harmless oxidation products. The degradation rates for TCE and ethanol were higher than for toluene. The degradation process was modelled using a kinetic model, linear in the gas concentration of VOC [ML(-3)] and relative surface area of potassium permanganate grains (surface area of potassium permanganate divided by gas volume) [L(-1)]. The second-order reaction rate constants for TCE, ethanol, and toluene were found to be equal to 2.0×10(-6) cm s(-1), 1.7×10(-7) cm s(-1), and 7.0×10(-8) cm s(-1), respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fumigant toxicity of basil oil compounds and related compounds to Thrips palmi and Orius strigicollis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang-Ho; Yi, Chang-Geun; Ahn, Young-Joon; Kim, Soon Il; Lee, Sang-Guei; Kim, Jun-Ran

    2015-09-01

    This study was aimed at assessing the fumigant toxicity to adult Thrips palmi (a serious insect pest) and Orius strigicollis (a beneficial predator insect) of basil (Ocimum basilicum) essential oil compounds and structurally related compounds using vapour-phase toxicity bioassays. Against adult T. palmi, linalool (LD50 0.0055 mg cm(-3) ) was the most toxic fumigant and was 15.2-fold more effective than dichlorvos (0.0837 mg cm(-3) ). Strong fumigant toxicity was also observed in pulegone (0.0095 mg cm(-3) ), (±)-camphor (0.0097 mg cm(-3) ) and 1,8-cineole (0.0167 mg cm(-3) ). Moderate toxicity was produced by camphene, 3-carene, (-)-menthone, (+)-α-pinene, (+)-β-pinene, α-terpineol and (-)-α-thujone (0.0215-0.0388 mg cm(-3) ). Against adult O. strigicollis, dichlorvos (LD50 9.0 × 10(-10) mg cm(-3) ) was the most toxic fumigant, whereas the LD50 values of these compounds ranged from 0.0127 to >0.23 mg cm(-3) . Based upon the selective toxicity ratio, the compounds described are more selective than dichlorvos. The basil oil compounds described merit further study as potential insecticides for control of T. palmi in greenhouses because of their generally lower toxicity to O. strigicollis and their greater activity as a fumigant than dichlorvos. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Water Vapour Effects in Mass Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khélifa, N.

    2008-01-01

    Water vapour density inside the mass comparator enclosure is a critical parameter whose fluctuations during mass weighing can lead to errors in the determination of an unknown mass. To monitor them, a method using DFB laser diode in the near infrared has been proposed and tested. Preliminary results of our observation of water vapour sorption and de-sorption processes from the walls and the mass standard are reported.

  9. Water vapour condensation in a partly closed structure. Comparison between results obtained with an inside wet or dry bottom wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batina, Jean; Peyrous, René

    2018-04-01

    We are interested in the determination of the more significant parameters acting on the water vapour condensation in a partly closed structure, submitted to external constraints (temperature and humidity), in view to recover the generated droplets as an additional source of potable water. External temperature variations, by inducing temperature differences between outside and inside of the structure, lead to convective movements and thermal variations inside this structure. Through an orifice, these movements permit a renewing of the humid inner air and can lead to the condensation of the water vapour initially contained in the inner air volume and/or on the walls. With the above hypotheses, and by using a numerical simulation [1] based on the ambient air characteristics and a finite volumes method, it appears that condensed water quantities are mainly depending on the boundary conditions imposed. These conditions are: 1) dimensions of the structure; 2) external temperature and relative hygrometry; 3) the phase φ (T/RH) linking thermal and hydrometric conditions; 4) the air renewing and its hygrometry for each phase; and 5) for each case, the fact that the inside bottom wall can be wet or dry. The resulting condensed water vapour quantities obtained, for the width section, point out clearly that they are very depending on this phase φ (T/RH) which appears as the more significant parameter and can be modified by the presence or not of a thin layer of water vapour on the inside bottom wall. Condensation phenomenon could be increased if φ could be optimized.

  10. Non-Toxic, Non-Flammable, -80 C Phase Change Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutbirth, J. Michael

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this effort was to develop a non-toxic, non-flammable, -80 C phase change material (PCM) to be used in NASA's ICEPAC capsules for biological sample preservation in flight to and from Earth orbit. A temperature of about -68 C or lower is a critical temperature for maintaining stable cell, tissue, and cell fragment storage.

  11. New method to assess the water vapour permeance of wound coverings.

    PubMed

    Jonkman, M F; Molenaar, I; Nieuwenhuis, P; Bruin, P; Pennings, A J

    1988-05-01

    A new method for assessing the permeability to water vapour of wound coverings is presented, using the evaporimeter developed by Nilsson. This new method combines the water vapour transmission rate (WVTR) and the vapour pressure difference across a wound covering in one absolute measure: the water vapour permeance (WVP). The WVP of a wound covering is the steady flow (g) of water vapour per unit (m2) area of surface in unit (h) time induced by unit (kPa) vapour pressure difference, g.m-2.h-1.kPa-1. Since the WVP of a wound covering is a more accurate measure for the permeability than the WVTR is, it facilitates the prediction of the water exchange of a wound covering in clinical situations.

  12. Competition for water vapour results in suppression of ice formation in mixed-phase clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Emma L.; Connolly, Paul J.; McFiggans, Gordon

    2018-05-01

    The formation of ice in clouds can initiate precipitation and influence a cloud's reflectivity and lifetime, affecting climate to a highly uncertain degree. Nucleation of ice at elevated temperatures requires an ice nucleating particle (INP), which results in so-called heterogeneous freezing. Previously reported measurements for the ability of a particle to nucleate ice have been made in the absence of other aerosol which will act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and are ubiquitous in the atmosphere. Here we show that CCN can outcompete INPs for available water vapour thus suppressing ice formation, which has the potential to significantly affect the Earth's radiation budget. The magnitude of this suppression is shown to be dependent on the mass of condensed water required for freezing. Here we show that ice formation in a state-of-the-art cloud parcel model is strongly dependent on the criteria for heterogeneous freezing selected from those previously hypothesised. We have developed an alternative criteria which agrees well with observations from cloud chamber experiments. This study demonstrates the dominant role that competition for water vapour can play in ice formation, highlighting both a need for clarity in the requirements for heterogeneous freezing and for measurements under atmospherically appropriate conditions.

  13. Monitoring late-onset toxicities in phase I trials using predicted risks

    PubMed Central

    Bekele, B. Nebiyou; Ji, Yuan; Shen, Yu; Thall, Peter F.

    2008-01-01

    Late-onset (LO) toxicities are a serious concern in many phase I trials. Since most dose-limiting toxicities occur soon after therapy begins, most dose-finding methods use a binary indicator of toxicity occurring within a short initial time period. If an agent causes LO toxicities, however, an undesirably large number of patients may be treated at toxic doses before any toxicities are observed. A method addressing this problem is the time-to-event continual reassessment method (TITE-CRM, Cheung and Chappell, 2000). We propose a Bayesian dose-finding method similar to the TITE-CRM in which doses are chosen using time-to-toxicity data. The new aspect of our method is a set of rules, based on predictive probabilities, that temporarily suspend accrual if the risk of toxicity at prospective doses for future patients is unacceptably high. If additional follow-up data reduce the predicted risk of toxicity to an acceptable level, then accrual is restarted, and this process may be repeated several times during the trial. A simulation study shows that the proposed method provides a greater degree of safety than the TITE-CRM, while still reliably choosing the preferred dose. This advantage increases with accrual rate, but the price of this additional safety is that the trial takes longer to complete on average. PMID:18084008

  14. Medical cannabis use in Canada: vapourization and modes of delivery.

    PubMed

    Shiplo, Samantha; Asbridge, Mark; Leatherdale, Scott T; Hammond, David

    2016-10-29

    The mode of medical cannabis delivery-whether cannabis is smoked, vapourized, or consumed orally-may have important implications for its therapeutic efficacy and health risks. However, there is very little evidence on current patterns of use among Canadian medical cannabis users, particularly with respect to modes of delivery. The current study examined modes of medical cannabis delivery following regulatory changes in 2014 governing how Canadians access medical cannabis. A total of 364 approved adult Canadian medical cannabis users completed an online cross-sectional survey between April and June 2015. The survey examined patterns of medical cannabis use, modes of delivery used, and reasons for use. Participants were recruited through a convenience sample from nine Health Canada licensed producers. Using a vapourizer was the most popular mode of delivery for medical cannabis (53 %), followed by smoking a joint (47 %). The main reason for using a vapourizer was to reduce negative health consequences associated with smoking. A majority of current vapourizer users reported using a portable vapourizer (67.2 %), followed by a stationary vapourizer (41.7 %), and an e-cigarette or vape pen (19.3 %). Current use of a vapourizer was associated with fewer respiratory symptoms (AOR = 1.28, 95 % CI 1.05-1.56, p = 0.01). The findings suggest an increase in the popularity of vapourizers as the primary mode of delivery among approved medical users. Using vapourizers has the potential to prevent some of the adverse respiratory health consequences associated with smoking and may serve as an effective harm reduction method. Monitoring implications of such current and future changes to medical cannabis regulations may be beneficial to policymakers.

  15. Detecting vapour bubbles in simulations of metastable water

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    González, Miguel A.; Abascal, Jose L. F.; Valeriani, Chantal, E-mail: christoph.dellago@univie.ac.at, E-mail: cvaleriani@quim.ucm.es

    2014-11-14

    The investigation of cavitation in metastable liquids with molecular simulations requires an appropriate definition of the volume of the vapour bubble forming within the metastable liquid phase. Commonly used approaches for bubble detection exhibit two significant flaws: first, when applied to water they often identify the voids within the hydrogen bond network as bubbles thus masking the signature of emerging bubbles and, second, they lack thermodynamic consistency. Here, we present two grid-based methods, the M-method and the V-method, to detect bubbles in metastable water specifically designed to address these shortcomings. The M-method incorporates information about neighbouring grid cells to distinguishmore » between liquid- and vapour-like cells, which allows for a very sensitive detection of small bubbles and high spatial resolution of the detected bubbles. The V-method is calibrated such that its estimates for the bubble volume correspond to the average change in system volume and are thus thermodynamically consistent. Both methods are computationally inexpensive such that they can be used in molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations of cavitation. We illustrate them by computing the free energy barrier and the size of the critical bubble for cavitation in water at negative pressure.« less

  16. No sodium in the vapour plumes of Enceladus.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Nicholas M; Burger, Matthew H; Schaller, Emily L; Brown, Michael E; Johnson, Robert E; Kargel, Jeffrey S; Dougherty, Michele K; Achilleos, Nicholas A

    2009-06-25

    The discovery of water vapour and ice particles erupting from Saturn's moon Enceladus fuelled speculation that an internal ocean was the source. Alternatively, the source might be ice warmed, melted or crushed by tectonic motions. Sodium chloride (that is, salt) is expected to be present in a long-lived ocean in contact with a rocky core. Here we report a ground-based spectroscopic search for atomic sodium near Enceladus that places an upper limit on the mixing ratio in the vapour plumes orders of magnitude below the expected ocean salinity. The low sodium content of escaping vapour, together with the small fraction of salt-bearing particles, argues against a situation in which a near-surface geyser is fuelled by a salty ocean through cracks in the crust. The lack of observable sodium in the vapour is consistent with a wide variety of alternative eruption sources, including a deep ocean, a freshwater reservoir, or ice. The existing data may be insufficient to distinguish between these hypotheses.

  17. Phase out persistent, bioaccumulative or highly toxic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Easthope, Tracey; Valeriano, Laurie

    2007-01-01

    Chemicals such as lindane, lead compounds, and some brominated flame retardants and organophosphate pesticides are examples of persistent, bio-accumulative, and/or highly toxic chemicals that continue to be used in commerce, although strong evidence exists that they pose threats to human and ecosystem health. These and other chemicals, by virtue of their characteristics, are very difficult to manage without unacceptable threats to workers, the environment, or ecosystems. Chemicals that cannot be safely managed should be prioritized for phase out. A transparent process to further identify and prioritize the list of chemicals for phase out is needed. With few exceptions, the U.S. government lacks the authority or an efficient policy instrument to prevent these high-priority chemicals from being used in products and processes or released to the environment. It also has been very difficult for state and local governments to restrict these chemicals. Policy instruments to efficiently and effectively phase out problematic chemicals are needed at all levels of government.

  18. Prediction of vapour-liquid and vapour-liquid-liquid equilibria of nitrogen-hydrocarbon mixtures used in J-T refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Vineed; Venkatarathnam, G.

    2018-03-01

    Nitrogen-hydrocarbon mixtures are widely used as refrigerants in J-T refrigerators operating with mixtures, as well as in natural gas liquefiers. The Peng-Robinson equation of state has traditionally been used to simulate the above cryogenic process. Multi parameter Helmholtz energy equations are now preferred for determining the properties of natural gas. They have, however, been used only to predict vapour-liquid equilibria, and not vapour-liquid-liquid equilibria that can occur in mixtures used in cryogenic mixed refrigerant processes. In this paper the vapour-liquid equilibrium of binary mixtures of nitrogen-methane, nitrogen-ethane, nitrogen-propane, nitrogen-isobutane and three component mixtures of nitrogen-methane-ethane and nitrogen-methane-propane have been studied with the Peng-Robinson and the Helmholtz energy equations of state of NIST REFPROP and compared with experimental data available in the literature.

  19. Predictable "individual differences" in uptake and excretion of gases and lipid soluble vapours simulation study.

    PubMed Central

    Fiserova-Bergerova, V; Vlach, J; Cassady, J C

    1980-01-01

    A five-compartment pharmacokinetic model with two excretory pathways, exhalation and metabolism, based on first order kinetics is used to outline the effect of body build, pulmonary ventilation, and lipid content in blood on uptake, distribution, and clearance of low solubility gases and lipid soluble vapours during and after exposure. The model shows the extent that individual differences have on altering uptake and distribution, with consequent changes in blood concentration, rate of excretion, and toxicity, even when variations in these parameters are within physiological ranges. The model is also used to describe the concentration variation of inhaled substances in tissues of subjects exposed to concentrations with permitted excursions. During the same course of exposure, the tissue concentrations of low solubility gases fluctuate much more than tissue concentrations of lipid soluble vapours. The fluctuation is reduced by metabolism of inhaled substance. These conclusions are recommended for consideration whenever evaluating the effect of excursions above the threshold limit values used in the control of industrial exposures (by excursion factors). PMID:7370192

  20. Intercomparison of TCCON and MUSICA Water Vapour Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, D.; Strong, K.; Deutscher, N. M.; Schneider, M.; Blumenstock, T.; Robinson, J.; Notholt, J.; Sherlock, V.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Barthlott, S.; García, O. E.; Smale, D.; Palm, M.; Jones, N. B.; Hase, F.; Kivi, R.; Ramos, Y. G.; Yoshimura, K.; Sepúlveda, E.; Gómez-Peláez, Á. J.; Gisi, M.; Kohlhepp, R.; Warneke, T.; Dohe, S.; Wiegele, A.; Christner, E.; Lejeune, B.; Demoulin, P.

    2014-12-01

    We present an intercomparison between the water vapour products from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and the MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water (MUSICA), two datasets from ground-based Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectrometers with good global representation. Where possible, comparisons to radiosondes are also included. The near-infrared TCCON measurements are optimized to provide precise monitoring of greenhouse gases for carbon cycle studies; however, TCCON's retrievals also produce water vapour products. The mid-infrared MUSICA products result from retrievals optimized to give precise and accurate information about H2O, HDO, and δD. The MUSICA water vapour products have been validated by extensive intercomparisons with H2O and δD in-situ measurements made from ground, radiosonde, and aircraft (Schneider et al. 2012, 2014), as well as by intercomparisons with satellite-based H2O and δD remote sensing measurements (Wiegele et al., 2014). This dataset provides a valuable reference point for other measurements of water vapour. This study is motivated by the limited intercomparisons performed for TCCON water vapour products and limited characterisation of their uncertainties. We compare MUSICA and TCCON products to assess the potential for TCCON measurements to contribute to studies of the water cycle, water vapour's role in climate and use as a tracer for atmospheric dynamics, and to evaluate the performance of climate models. The TCCON and MUSICA products result from measurements taken using the same FTIR instruments, enabling a comparison with constant instrumentation. The retrieval techniques differ, however, in their method and a priori information. We assess the impact of these differences and characterize the comparability of the TCCON and MUSICA datasets.

  1. Determination of diffusion and partition coefficients of model migrants by direct contact and vapour phase transfer from low-density polyethylene films into cake.

    PubMed

    Paseiro-Cerrato, Rafael; Rodríguez-Bernaldo de Quirós, Ana; Otero-Pazos, Pablo; Sendón, Raquel; Paseiro-Losada, Perfecto

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the migration kinetics of one photoinitiator, benzophenone, and two optical brighteners, Uvitex OB and 1,4-diphenyl-1,3-butadiene (DPBD), from low-density polyethylene (LDPE) films into cake. Transfer was assessed by both direct contact and also the vapour phase. To perform the migration tests by direct contact, plastic films enriched with the additives were placed between two cake slices. To evaluate the migration through the gas phase, cake and the fortified LDPE film were placed with no direct contact in a glass container that was hermetically closed. Samples were stored at different time-temperature conditions. Target compounds were extracted from the films with ethanol (70°C, 24 h) and analysed by HPLC-DAD. Relevant parameters such as partition and diffusion coefficients between food and plastic film were calculated. The Arrhenius equation was applied to estimate the diffusion coefficient at any temperature. The data indicate that migration of benzophenone occurs in a significant extent into cake by both direct contact and through the gas phase (no direct contact). Conversely, very little migration occurred for Uvitex OB by direct contact and none through the gas phase. Results for benzophenone suggest that migration through the gas phase should be considered when evaluating migration from food packaging materials into food.

  2. Supercooled liquid vapour pressures and related thermodynamic properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons determined by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Haftka, Joris J H; Parsons, John R; Govers, Harrie A J

    2006-11-24

    A gas chromatographic method using Kováts retention indices has been applied to determine the liquid vapour pressure (P(i)), enthalpy of vaporization (DeltaH(i)) and difference in heat capacity between gas and liquid phase (DeltaC(i)) for a group of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This group consists of 19 unsubstituted, methylated and sulphur containing PAHs. Differences in log P(i) of -0.04 to +0.99 log units at 298.15K were observed between experimental values and data from effusion and gas saturation studies. These differences in log P(i) have been fitted with multilinear regression resulting in a compound and temperature dependent correction. Over a temperature range from 273.15 to 423.15K, differences in corrected log P(i) of a training set (-0.07 to +0.03 log units) and a validation set (-0.17 to 0.19 log units) were within calculated error ranges. The corrected vapour pressures also showed a good agreement with other GC determined vapour pressures (average -0.09 log units).

  3. Raspberry Ketone Analogs: Vapour Pressure Measurements and Attractiveness to Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Hanssen, Benjamin L.; Jamie, Joanne F.; Jamie, Ian M.; Siderhurst, Matthew S.; Taylor, Phillip W.

    2016-01-01

    The Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Q-fly), is a major horticultural pest in Eastern Australia. Effective monitoring, male annihilation technique (MAT) and mass trapping (MT) are all important for control and require strong lures to attract flies to traps or toxicants. Lure strength is thought to be related in part to volatility, but little vapour pressure data are available for most Q-fly lures. Raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone) and analogs that had esters (acetyl, difluoroacetyl, trifluoroacetyl, formyl, propionyl) and ethers (methyl ether, trimethylsilyl ether) in replacement of the phenolic group, and in one case also had modification of the 2-butanone side chain, were measured for their vapour pressures by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and their attractiveness to Q-fly was assessed in small cage environmentally controlled laboratory bioassays. Maximum response of one category of compounds, containing both 2-butanone side chain and ester group was found to be higher than that of the other group of compounds, of which either of 2-butanone or ester functionality was modified. However, linear relationship between vapour pressure and maximum response was not significant. The results of this study indicate that, while volatility may be a factor in lure effectiveness, molecular structure is the dominating factor for the series of molecules investigated. PMID:27196605

  4. Boiling vapour-type fluids from the Nifonea vent field (New Hebrides Back-Arc, Vanuatu, SW Pacific): Geochemistry of an early-stage, post-eruptive hydrothermal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Katja; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Hannington, Mark D.; Anderson, Melissa O.; Bühring, Benjamin; Haase, Karsten; Haruel, Christy; Lupton, John; Koschinsky, Andrea

    2017-06-01

    In 2013, high-temperature vent fluids were sampled in the Nifonea vent field. This field is located within the caldera of a large shield-type volcano of the Vate Trough, a young extensional rift in the New Hebrides back-arc. Hydrothermal venting occurs as clear and black smoker fluids with temperatures up to 368 °C, the hottest temperatures measured so far in the western Pacific. The physico-chemical conditions place the fluids within the two-phase field of NaCl-H2O, and venting is dominated by vapour phase fluids with Cl concentrations as low as 25 mM. The fluid composition, which differs between the individual vent sites, is interpreted to reflect the specific geochemical fluid signature of a hydrothermal system in its initial, post-eruptive stage. The strong Cl depletion is accompanied by low alkali/Cl ratios compared to more evolved hydrothermal systems, and very high Fe/Cl ratios. The concentrations of REY (180 nM) and As (21 μM) in the most Cl-depleted fluid are among the highest reported so far for submarine hydrothermal fluids, whereas the inter-element REY fractionation is only minor. The fluid signature, which has been described here for the first time in a back-arc setting, is controlled by fast fluid passage through basaltic volcanic rocks, with extremely high water-rock ratios and only limited water-rock exchange, phase separation and segregation, and (at least) two-component fluid mixing. Metals and metalloids are unexpectedly mobile in the vapour phase fluids, and the strong enrichments of Fe, REY, and As highlight the metal transport capacity of low-salinity, low-density vapours at the specific physico-chemical conditions at Nifonea. One possible scenario is that the fluids boiled before the separated vapour phase continued to react with fresh glassy lavas. The mobilization of metals is likely to occur by leaching from fresh glass and grain boundaries and is supported by the high water/rock ratios. The enrichment of B and As is further controlled

  5. Water vapour and wind measurements by a two micron space lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghibaudo, J.-B.; Labandibar, J.-Y.

    2018-04-01

    AEROSPATIALE presents the main results of the feasibility study under ESA contract on a coherent 2μm lidar instrument capable of measuring water vapour and wind velocity in the planetary boundary layer. The selected instrument configuration and the associated performance are provided, and the main critical subsystems identified (laser configuration, coherent receiver chain architecture, frequency locking and offsetting architecture. The second phase of this study is dedicated to breadboard the most critical elements of such an instrument in order to technologically consolidate its feasibility.

  6. Computer simulation study of the nematic-vapour interface in the Gay-Berne model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rull, Luis F.; Romero-Enrique, José Manuel

    2017-06-01

    We present computer simulations of the vapour-nematic interface of the Gay-Berne model. We considered situations which correspond to either prolate or oblate molecules. We determine the anchoring of the nematic phase and correlate it with the intermolecular potential parameters. On the other hand, we evaluate the surface tension associated to this interface. We find a corresponding states law for the surface tension dependence on the temperature, valid for both prolate and oblate molecules.

  7. Behaviour of the iron vapour core in the arc of a controlled short-arc GMAW process with different shielding gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, G.; Kozakov, R.; Gött, G.; Schöpp, H.; Uhrlandt, D.

    2012-02-01

    The controlled metal transfer process (CMT) is a variation of the gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process which periodically varies wire feeding speed. Using a short-arc burning phase to melt the wire tip before the short circuit, heat input to the workpiece is reduced. Using a steel wire and a steel workpiece, iron vapour is produced in the arc, its maximum concentration lying centrally. The interaction of metal vapour and welding gas considerably impacts the arc profile and, consequently, the heat transfer to the weldpool. Optical emission spectroscopy has been applied to determine the radial profiles of the plasma temperature and iron vapour concentration, as well as their temporal behaviour in the arc period for different mixtures of Ar, O2 and CO2 as shielding gases. Both the absolute iron vapour density and the temporal expansion of the iron core differ considerably for the gases Ar + 8%O2, Ar + 18% CO2 and 100% CO2 respectively. Pronounced minimum in the radial temperature profile is found in the arc centre in gas mixtures with high Ar content under the presence of metal vapour. This minimum disappears in pure CO2 gas. Consequently, the temperature and electrical and thermal conductivity in the arc when CO2 is used as a shielding gas are considerably lower.

  8. Combustion dynamics of low vapour pressure nanofuel droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Khushboo; Chattopadhyay, Kamanio; Basu, Saptarshi

    2017-07-01

    manifested in two frequency ranges: (i) buoyant flame flickering and (ii) auxiliary frequencies arising from high intensity secondary ejections due to bubble ruptures. Addition of alumina NPs enhances the heat absorption rate and ensures the rapid transfer of fuel parcels (detached daughter droplets) from droplet surface to flame front through secondary ejections. Therefore, average HR shows an increasing trend with particle loading rate (PLR). The perikinetic agglomeration model is used to explain the formation of gelatinous sheath during the last phase of droplet burning. Gelatinous mass formed results in bubble entrapment. SEM images of combustion precipitates show entrapped bubble cavities along with surface and sub-surface blowholes. Morphology of combustion precipitate shows a strong variation with PLRs. We have established the coupling mechanisms among heat release, shape oscillations, and secondary atomizations that underline the combustion behaviour of such low vapour pressure nanofuels.

  9. Nicotine content of electronic cigarettes, its release in vapour and its consistency across batches: regulatory implications.

    PubMed

    Goniewicz, Maciej L; Hajek, Peter; McRobbie, Hayden

    2014-03-01

    Electronic cigarettes (EC) may have a potential for public health benefit as a safer alternative to smoking, but questions have been raised about whether EC should be licensed as a medicine, with accurate labelling of nicotine content. This study determined the nicotine content of the cartridges of the most popular EC brands in the United Kingdom and the nicotine levels they deliver in the vapour, and estimated the safety and consistency of nicotine delivery across batches of the same product as a proxy for quality control for individual brands and within the industry. We studied five UK brands (six products) with high internet popularity. Two samples of each brand were purchased 4 weeks apart, and analysed for nicotine content in the cartridges and nicotine delivery in vapour. The nicotine content of cartridges within the same batch varied by up to 12% relative standard deviation (RSD) and the mean difference between different batches of the same brand ranged from 1% [95% confidence interval (CI) = -5 to 7%] to 20% (95% CI=14-25%) for five brands and 31% (95% CI=21-39%) for the sixth. The puffing schedule used in this study vaporized 10-81% of the nicotine present in the cartridges. The nicotine delivery from 300 puffs ranged from ∼2 mg to ∼15 mg and was not related significantly to the variation of nicotine content in e-liquid (r=0.06, P=0.92). None of the tested products allowed access to e-liquid or produced vapour nicotine concentrations as high as conventional cigarettes. There is very little risk of nicotine toxicity from major electronic cigarette (EC) brands in the United Kingdom. Variation in nicotine concentration in the vapour from a given brand is low. Nicotine concentration in e-liquid is not well related to nicotine in vapour. Other EC brands may be of lower quality and consumer protection regulation needs to be implemented, but in terms of accuracy of labelling of nicotine content and risks of nicotine overdose, regulation over and above

  10. Claims in vapour device (e-cigarette) regulation: A Narrative Policy Framework analysis.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Renée; Borland, Ron; Stockwell, Tim; MacDonald, Marjorie

    2017-06-01

    The electronic cigarette or e-cigarette (vapour device) is a consumer product undergoing rapid growth, and governments have been adopting regulations on the sale of the devices and their nicotine liquids. Competing claims about vapour devices have ignited a contentious debate in the public health community. What claims have been taken up in the state arena, and how have they possibly influenced regulatory outcomes? This study utilized Narrative Policy Framework to analyze the claims made about vapour devices in legislation recommendation reports from Queensland Australia, Canada, and the European Union, and the 2016 deeming rule legislation from the United States, and examined the claims and the regulatory outcomes in these jurisdictions. The vast majority of claims in the policy documents represented vapour devices as a threat: an unsafe product harming the health of vapour device users, a gateway product promoting youth tobacco uptake, and a quasi-tobacco product impeding tobacco control. The opportunity for vapour devices to promote cessation or reduce exposure to toxins was very rarely presented, and these positive claims were not discussed at all in two of the four documents studied. The dominant claims of vapour devices as a public health threat have supported regulations that have limited their potential as a harm reduction strategy. Future policy debates should evaluate the opportunities for vapour devices to decrease the health and social burdens of the tobacco epidemic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Atrial and ventricular septal changes in ethanol vapour exposed chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Kamran, Kiran; Khan, Muhammad Yunus; Minhas, Liaqat Ali

    2015-03-01

    To study the effects of ethanol vapour exposure on development of atrial and ventricular septa of chick embryo. The experimental study was conducted at the College of Physicians and Surgeons, Islamabad, from 2006 to 2007. The experimental and control groups were further divided into three subgroups based on the day of sacrifice. The experimental group was exposed to ethanol vapours produced in a specially-designed vapour chamber and then compared with age-matched controls. There were 90 eggs in each of the two groups. The development of inter-ventricular septum completed at day 7 of development in chick embryo. Ethanol vapour exposure produced a small discontinuity at day 10 of development in a chick embryo which may be labelled as ventricular septal defect since ventricular development is completed by day 7. Interatrial septum formed till day 7 with small perforations which persisted till hatching. Ethanol vapour exposure may lead to ventricular septal defect.

  12. Sensing response of copper phthalocyanine salt dispersed glass with organic vapours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridhi, R.; Sachdeva, Sheenam; Saini, G. S. S.; Tripathi, S. K.

    2016-05-01

    Copper Phthalocyanine and other Metal Phthalocyanines are very flexible and tuned easily to modify their structural, spectroscopic, optical and electrical properties by either functionalizing them with various substituent groups or by replacing or adding a ligand to the central metal atom in the phthalocyanine ring and accordingly can be made sensitive and selective to various organic species or gaseous vapours. In the present work, we have dispersed Copper Phthalocyanine Salt (CuPcS) in sol-gel glass form using chemical route sol-gel method and studied its sensing mechanism with organic vapours like methanol and benzene and found that current increases onto their exposure with vapours. A variation in the activation energies was also observed with exposure of vapours.

  13. Diode laser-induced infrared fluorescence of water vapour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hejie; Hanson, Ronald K.; Jeffries, Jay B.

    2004-07-01

    Infrared laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of water vapour was investigated for its potential as a spatially resolved gasdynamic diagnostic. A cw diode laser operating near 1392 nm was scanned across a single absorption transition in the ngr1 + ngr3 band of H2O in a static cell, and the resulting fluorescence signal was collected near 2.7 µm (both ngr1 and ngr3 bands). Experiments were conducted at low pressure in pure water vapour and mixtures of water vapour and N2 using a 20 mW laser in a double-pass arrangement. A simple analytical model was developed to relate LIF intensity to gas properties as a function of laser power. The spectrally resolved, single-line excitation spectrum was fitted with a Voigt profile, allowing inference of the water vapour temperature from the Doppler-broadened component of the measured fluorescence lineshape. A two-line excitation scheme was also investigated as a means of measuring temperature with reduced measurement time. From these initial measurements, we estimate that a practical sensor for atmospheric pressure applications would require a minimum of 1-2 W of laser power for two-line, fixed-wavelength temperature measurements and a minimum of about 70 W of power for scanned-wavelength measurements.

  14. CO 2-fluxing collapses metal mobility in magmatic vapour

    DOE PAGES

    van Hinsberg, V. J.; Berlo, K.; Migdisov, A. A.; ...

    2016-05-18

    Magmatic systems host many types of ore deposits, including world-class deposits of copper and gold. Magmas are commonly an important source of metals and ore-forming fluids in these systems. In many magmatic-hydrothermal systems, low-density aqueous fluids, or vapours, are significant metal carriers. Such vapours are water-dominated shallowly, but fluxing of CO 2-rich vapour exsolved from deeper magma is now recognised as ubiquitous during open-system magma degassing. Furthermore, we show that such CO 2-fluxing leads to a sharp drop in element solubility, up to a factor of 10,000 for Cu, and thereby provides a highly efficient, but as yet unrecognised mechanismmore » for metal deposition.« less

  15. Sensing response of copper phthalocyanine salt dispersed glass with organic vapours

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ridhi, R.; Sachdeva, Sheenam; Saini, G. S. S.

    2016-05-06

    Copper Phthalocyanine and other Metal Phthalocyanines are very flexible and tuned easily to modify their structural, spectroscopic, optical and electrical properties by either functionalizing them with various substituent groups or by replacing or adding a ligand to the central metal atom in the phthalocyanine ring and accordingly can be made sensitive and selective to various organic species or gaseous vapours. In the present work, we have dispersed Copper Phthalocyanine Salt (CuPcS) in sol-gel glass form using chemical route sol-gel method and studied its sensing mechanism with organic vapours like methanol and benzene and found that current increases onto their exposuremore » with vapours. A variation in the activation energies was also observed with exposure of vapours.« less

  16. A water vapour monitor at Paranal Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerber, Florian; Rose, Thomas; Chacón, Arlette; Cuevas, Omar; Czekala, Harald; Hanuschik, Reinhard; Momany, Yazan; Navarrete, Julio; Querel, Richard R.; Smette, Alain; van den Ancker, Mario E.; Cure, Michel; Naylor, David A.

    2012-09-01

    We present the performance characteristics of a water vapour monitor that has been permanently deployed at ESO's Paranal observatory as a part of the VISIR upgrade project. After a careful analysis of the requirements and an open call for tender, the Low Humidity and Temperature Profiling microwave radiometer (LHATPRO), manufactured by Radiometer Physics GmbH (RPG), has been selected. The unit measures several channels across the strong water vapour emission line at 183 GHz, necessary for resolving the low levels of precipitable water vapour (PWV) that are prevalent on Paranal (median ~2.5 mm). The unit comprises the above humidity profiler (183-191 GHz), a temperature profiler (51-58 GHz), and an infrared radiometer (~10 μm) for cloud detection. The instrument has been commissioned during a 2.5 week period in Oct/Nov 2011, by comparing its measurements of PWV and atmospheric profiles with the ones obtained by 22 radiosonde balloons. In parallel an IR radiometer (Univ. Lethbridge) has been operated, and various observations with ESO facility spectrographs have been taken. The RPG radiometer has been validated across the range 0.5 - 9 mm demonstrating an accuracy of better than 0.1 mm. The saturation limit of the radiometer is about 20 mm. Currently, the radiometer is being integrated into the Paranal infrastructure to serve as a high time-resolution monitor in support of VLT science operations. The water vapour radiometer's ability to provide high precision, high time resolution information on this important aspect of the atmosphere will be most useful for conducting IR observations with the VLT under optimal conditions.

  17. Stratospheric water vapour in the vicinity of the Arctic polar vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maturilli, M.; Fierli, F.; Yushkov, V.; Lukyanov, A.; Khaykin, S.; Hauchecorne, A.

    2006-07-01

    The stratospheric water vapour mixing ratio inside, outside, and at the edge of the polar vortex has been accurately measured by the FLASH-B Lyman-Alpha hygrometer during the LAUTLOS campaign in Sodankylä, Finland, in January and February 2004. The retrieved H2O profiles reveal a detailed view on the Arctic lower stratospheric water vapour distribution, and provide a valuable dataset for the validation of model and satellite data. Analysing the measurements with the semi-lagrangian advection model MIMOSA, water vapour profiles typical for the polar vortex' interior and exterior have been identified, and laminae in the observed profiles have been correlated to filamentary structures in the potential vorticity field. Applying the validated MIMOSA transport scheme to specific humidity fields from operational ECMWF analyses, large discrepancies from the observed profiles arise. Although MIMOSA is able to reproduce weak water vapour filaments and improves the shape of the profiles compared to operational ECMWF analyses, both models reveal a dry bias of about 1 ppmv in the lower stratosphere above 400 K, accounting for a relative difference from the measurements in the order of 20%. The large dry bias in the analysis representation of stratospheric water vapour in the Arctic implies the need for future regular measurements of water vapour in the polar stratosphere to allow the validation and improvement of climate models.

  18. Vapour-Deposited Cesium Lead Iodide Perovskites: Microsecond Charge Carrier Lifetimes and Enhanced Photovoltaic Performance

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Metal halide perovskites such as methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) are highly promising materials for photovoltaics. However, the relationship between the organic nature of the cation and the optoelectronic quality remains debated. In this work, we investigate the optoelectronic properties of fully inorganic vapour-deposited and spin-coated black-phase CsPbI3 thin films. Using the time-resolved microwave conductivity technique, we measure charge carrier mobilities up to 25 cm2/(V s) and impressively long charge carrier lifetimes exceeding 10 μs for vapour-deposited CsPbI3, while the carrier lifetime reaches less than 0.2 μs in the spin-coated samples. Finally, we show that these improved lifetimes result in enhanced device performance with power conversion efficiencies close to 9%. Altogether, these results suggest that the charge carrier mobility and recombination lifetime are mainly dictated by the inorganic framework rather than the organic nature of the cation. PMID:28852710

  19. TOXICITY CHARACTERIZATION PROCEDURES FOR ORGANIC TOXICANTS IN BULK SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have been pursuing development of toxicant characterization, isolation, and identification procedures for organic toxicants that can be applied in the context of 10-d solid-phase sediment tests measuring survival and growth of freshwater in the context of 10-d solid-phase sedi...

  20. The dynamic effects of metal vapour in gas metal arc welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haidar, Jawad

    2010-04-01

    Numerical simulations for the dynamic effects of metal vapour in gas metal arc welding (GMAW) suggest that vapour from the welding droplet at the tip of the welding wire has a significant influence on the plasma properties. It is found that for the evaporation rates calculated for arcs in pure argon, the dynamic effects of metal vapour markedly cool down the plasma in the central region of the arc, leading to the formation of a low temperature zone centred on the arc axis, in agreement with experimental measurements in the literature. Radiation effects, omitted in this paper, may produce further cooling of the plasma gas. The results highlight major deficiencies in the common approach to modelling the GMAW process and suggest that accurate description of GMAW must include the influence of metal vapour on the plasma.

  1. GPS tomographic experiment on water vapour dynamics in the troposphere over Lisbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benevides, Pedro; Catalao, Joao; Miranda, Pedro

    2015-04-01

    Quantification of the water vapour variability on the atmosphere remains a difficult task, affecting the weather prediction. Coarse water vapour resolution measurements in space and time affect the numerical weather prediction solution models causing artifacts in the prediction of severe weather phenomena. The GNSS atmospheric processing has been developed in the past years providing integrated water vapour estimates comparable with the meteorological sensor measurements, with studies registering 1 to 2 kg/m2 bias, but lack a vertical determination of the atmospheric processes. The GNSS tomography in the troposphere is one of the most promising techniques for sensing the three-dimensional water vapour state of the atmosphere. The determination of the integrated water vapour profile by means of the widely accepted GNSS meteorology techniques, allows the reconstruction of several slant path delay rays in the satellite line of view, providing an opportunity to sense the troposphere at tree-dimensions plus time. The tomographic system can estimate an image solution of the water vapour but impositions have to be introduced to the system of equations inversion because of the non-optimal GNSS observation geometry. Application of this technique on atmospheric processes like large convective precipitation or mesoscale water vapour circulation have been able to describe its local dynamic vertical variation. A 3D tomographic experiment was developed over an area of 60x60 km2 around Lisbon (Portugal). The GNSS network available composed by 9 receivers was used for an experiment of densification of the permanent network using 8 temporarily installed GPS receivers (totalling 17 stations). This study was performed during several weeks in July 2013, where a radiosonde campaign was also held in order to validate the tomographic inversion solution. 2D integrated water vapour maps directly obtained from the GNSS processing were also evaluated and local coastal breeze circulation

  2. Measurements of the levels of organic solvent vapours by personal air samplers and the levels of urinary metabolites of workers. Part 2. Toluene vapour in a shipbuilding yard (author's transl).

    PubMed

    Kira, S

    1977-05-01

    Personal air samplers were applied to shipyard's painters putting on gas masks during the spraying work, and the levels of toluene vapour surrounding the workers were measured. On the other hand, levels of urinary hippuric acid (metabolites of toluene) of the workers were measured, and the levels of toluene vapour inhaled were calculated from the levels of urinary hippuric acid. Then the actual removing-efficiencies of toluene vapours by the use of gas masks were estimated from these two levels (i.e., toluene vapours exposed and inhaled). The values of removing-efficiencies were found to be 65.9-98.1%. The concentrations of hippuric and methylhippuric acids in the urine of workers exposed to toluene and xylene for 3 hours, collected just after the exposure, are valuable indices of these organic solvent vapours inhaled. A minute amount of urinary methylhippuric acid can be determined by means of gas chromatography.

  3. Vapour sensitivity of an ALD hierarchical photonic structure inspired by Morpho.

    PubMed

    Poncelet, Olivier; Tallier, Guillaume; Mouchet, Sébastien R; Crahay, André; Rasson, Jonathan; Kotipalli, Ratan; Deparis, Olivier; Francis, Laurent A

    2016-05-09

    The unique architecture of iridescent Morpho butterfly scales is known to exhibit different optical responses to various vapours. However, the mechanism behind this phenomenon is not fully quantitatively understood. This work reports on process developments in the micro-fabrication of a Morpho-inspired photonic structure in atomic layer deposited (ALD) materials in order to investigate the vapour optical sensitivity of such artificial nanostructures. By developing recipes for dry and wet etching of ALD oxides, we micro-fabricated two structures: one combining Al2O3 and TiO2, and the other combining Al2O3 and HfO2. For the first time, we report the optical response of such ALD Morpho-like structures measured under a controlled flow of either ethanol or isopropyl alcohol (IPA) vapour. In spite of the small magnitude of the effect, the results show a selective vapour response (depending on the materials used).

  4. Sorption and phase distribution of ethanol and butanol blended gasoline vapours in the vadose zone after release.

    PubMed

    Ugwoha, Ejikeme; Andresen, John M

    2014-03-01

    The sorption and phase distribution of 20% ethanol and butanol blended gasoline (E20 and B20) vapours have been examined in soils with varying soil organic matter (SOM) and water contents via laboratory microcosm experiments. The presence of 20% alcohol reduced the sorption of gasoline compounds by soil as well as the mass distribution of the compounds to soil solids. This effect was greater for ethanol than butanol. Compared with the sorption coefficient (Kd) of unblended gasoline compounds, the Kd of E20 gasoline compounds decreased by 54% for pentane, 54% for methylcyclopentane (MCP) and 63% for benzene, while the Kd of B20 gasoline compounds decreased by 39% for pentane, 38% for MCP and 49% for benzene. The retardation factor (R) of E20 gasoline compounds decreased by 53% for pentane, 53% for MCP and 48% for benzene, while the R of B20 gasoline compounds decreased by 39% for pentane, 37% for MCP and 38% for benzene. For all SOM and water contents tested, the Kd and R of all gasoline compounds were in the order of unblended gasoline > B20 > E20, indicating that the use of high ethanol volume in gasoline to combat climate change could put the groundwater at greater risk of contamination. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Vertical structure of stratospheric water vapour trends derived from merged satellite data

    PubMed Central

    Hegglin, M. I.; Plummer, D. A.; Shepherd, T. G.; Scinocca, J. F.; Anderson, J.; Froidevaux, L.; Funke, B.; Hurst, D.; Rozanov, A.; Urban, J.; von Clarmann, T.; Walker, K. A.; Wang, H. J.; Tegtmeier, S.; Weigel, K.

    2017-01-01

    Stratospheric water vapour is a powerful greenhouse gas. The longest available record from balloon observations over Boulder, Colorado, USA shows increases in stratospheric water vapour concentrations that cannot be fully explained by observed changes in the main drivers, tropical tropopause temperatures and methane. Satellite observations could help resolve the issue, but constructing a reliable long-term data record from individual short satellite records is challenging. Here we present an approach to merge satellite data sets with the help of a chemistry-climate model nudged to observed meteorology. We use the models' water vapour as a transfer function between data sets that overcomes issues arising from instrument drift and short overlap periods. In the lower stratosphere, our water vapour record extends back to 1988 and water vapour concentrations largely follow tropical tropopause temperatures. Lower and mid-stratospheric long-term trends are negative, and the trends from Boulder are shown not to be globally representative. In the upper stratosphere, our record extends back to 1986 and shows positive long-term trends. The altitudinal differences in the trends are explained by methane oxidation together with a strengthened lower-stratospheric and a weakened upper-stratospheric circulation inferred by this analysis. Our results call into question previous estimates of surface radiative forcing based on presumed global long-term increases in water vapour concentrations in the lower stratosphere. PMID:29263751

  6. Vertical structure of stratospheric water vapour trends derived from merged satellite data.

    PubMed

    Hegglin, M I; Plummer, D A; Shepherd, T G; Scinocca, J F; Anderson, J; Froidevaux, L; Funke, B; Hurst, D; Rozanov, A; Urban, J; von Clarmann, T; Walker, K A; Wang, H J; Tegtmeier, S; Weigel, K

    2014-01-01

    Stratospheric water vapour is a powerful greenhouse gas. The longest available record from balloon observations over Boulder, Colorado, USA shows increases in stratospheric water vapour concentrations that cannot be fully explained by observed changes in the main drivers, tropical tropopause temperatures and methane. Satellite observations could help resolve the issue, but constructing a reliable long-term data record from individual short satellite records is challenging. Here we present an approach to merge satellite data sets with the help of a chemistry-climate model nudged to observed meteorology. We use the models' water vapour as a transfer function between data sets that overcomes issues arising from instrument drift and short overlap periods. In the lower stratosphere, our water vapour record extends back to 1988 and water vapour concentrations largely follow tropical tropopause temperatures. Lower and mid-stratospheric long-term trends are negative, and the trends from Boulder are shown not to be globally representative. In the upper stratosphere, our record extends back to 1986 and shows positive long-term trends. The altitudinal differences in the trends are explained by methane oxidation together with a strengthened lower-stratospheric and a weakened upper-stratospheric circulation inferred by this analysis. Our results call into question previous estimates of surface radiative forcing based on presumed global long-term increases in water vapour concentrations in the lower stratosphere.

  7. Water vapour correction of the daily 1 km AVHRR global land dataset: Part I validation and use of the Water Vapour input field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeFelice, Thomas P.; Lloyd, D.; Meyer, D.J.; Baltzer, T. T.; Piraina, P.

    2003-01-01

    An atmospheric correction algorithm developed for the 1 km Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) global land dataset was modified to include a near real-time total column water vapour data input field to account for the natural variability of atmospheric water vapour. The real-time data input field used for this study is the Television and Infrared Observational Satellite (TIROS) Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) Pathfinder A global total column water vapour dataset. It was validated prior to its use in the AVHRR atmospheric correction process using two North American AVHRR scenes, namely 13 June and 28 November 1996. The validation results are consistent with those reported by others and entail a comparison between TOVS, radiosonde, experimental sounding, microwave radiometer, and data from a hand-held sunphotometer. The use of this data layer as input to the AVHRR atmospheric correction process is discussed.

  8. Spectroscopic interaction studies of substituted and unsubstituted copper phthalocyanine with adsorbed organic vapours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridhi, R.; Kang, Jasmeen; Saini, G. S. S.; Tripathi, S. K.

    2018-05-01

    The present study deals with comparing the interaction mechanism of adsorbed organic vapours with Copper Phthalocyanine thin films in its substituted and unsubstituted forms. For this purpose, the variations in vibrational levels of substituted CuPc (CuPcS) functionalized with tetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt and unsubstituted CuPc after exposure with methanol and benzene vapours is analyzed. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) is used to study the interaction behaviour. The bulkier group tetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt added to CuPc leads to occupation of more space in the molecular arrangement as compared to unsubstituted CuPc and hence alteration of its properties. FTIR spectra of CuPc and CuPcS before and after vapours exposures highlighted the effect of these vapours on the various bonds and the role of functional group in altering the molecular structure of CuPcS during interaction with adsorbed vapours.

  9. Antifungal activity of clove essential oil and its volatile vapour against dermatophytic fungi.

    PubMed

    Chee, Hee Youn; Lee, Min Hee

    2007-12-01

    Antifungal activities of clove essential oil and its volatile vapour against dermatophytic fungi including Candida albicans, Epidermophyton floccosum. Microsporum audouinii, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum were investigated. Both clove essential oil and its volatile vapour strongly inhibit spore germination and mycelial growth of the dermatophytic fungi tested. The volatile vapour of clove essential oil showed fungistatic activity whereas direct application of clove essential oil showed fungicidal activity.

  10. Post-Contamination Vapour Hazards from Military Vehicles Contaminated with Thickened and Unthickened GD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-02-01

    The residual vapour hazards from four types of military vehicles previously contaminated with either thickened or unthickened GD have been measured...magnitude of these hazards have been investigated and an assessment made of their relevance to contamination control. It was found that on permeable... contamination had been applied were ineffective in reducing the subsequent vapour hazard; the vapour hazard arising from thickened GD contamination was less

  11. Critical behaviour and vapour-liquid coexistence of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide ionic liquids via Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Rai, Neeraj; Maginn, Edward J

    2012-01-01

    Atomistic Monte Carlo simulations are used to compute vapour-liquid coexistence properties of a homologous series of [C(n)mim][NTf2] ionic liquids, with n = 1, 2, 4, 6. Estimates of the critical temperatures range from 1190 K to 1257 K, with longer cation alkyl chains serving to lower the critical temperature. Other quantities such as critical density, critical pressure, normal boiling point, and accentric factor are determined from the simulations. Vapour pressure curves and the temperature dependence of the enthalpy of vapourisation are computed and found to have a weak dependence on the length of the cation alkyl chain. The ions in the vapour phase are predominately in single ion pairs, although a significant number of ions are found in neutral clusters of larger sizes as temperature is increased. It is found that previous estimates of the critical point obtained from extrapolating experimental surface tension data agree reasonably well with the predictions obtained here, but group contribution methods and primitive models of ionic liquids do not capture many of the trends observed in the present study

  12. The Seasonal Cycle of Water Vapour on Mars from Assimilation of Thermal Emission Spectrometer Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Liam J.; Lewis, Stephen R.; Patel, Manish R.; Montmessin, Franck; Forget, Francois; Smith, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    We present for the first time an assimilation of Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) water vapour column data into a Mars global climate model (MGCM). We discuss the seasonal cycle of water vapour, the processes responsible for the observed water vapour distribution, and the cross-hemispheric water transport. The assimilation scheme is shown to be robust in producing consistent reanalyses, and the global water vapour column error is reduced to around 2-4 pr micron depending on season. Wave activity is shown to play an important role in the water vapour distribution, with topographically steered flows around the Hellas and Argyre basins acting to increase transport in these regions in all seasons. At high northern latitudes, zonal wavenumber 1 and 2 stationary waves during northern summer are responsible for spreading the sublimed water vapour away from the pole. Transport by the zonal wavenumber 2 waves occurs primarily to the west of Tharsis and Arabia Terra and, combined with the effects of western boundary currents, this leads to peak water vapour column abundances here as observed by numerous spacecraft. A net transport of water to the northern hemisphere over the course of one Mars year is calculated, primarily because of the large northwards flux of water vapour which occurs during the local dust storm around L(sub S) = 240-260deg. Finally, outlying frost deposits that surround the north polar cap are shown to be important in creating the peak water vapour column abundances observed during northern summer.

  13. Comparison of interaction mechanisms of copper phthalocyanine and nickel phthalocyanine thin films with chemical vapours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridhi, R.; Singh, Sukhdeep; Saini, G. S. S.; Tripathi, S. K.

    2018-04-01

    The present study deals with comparing interaction mechanisms of copper phthalocyanine and nickel phthalocyanine with versatile chemical vapours: reducing, stable aromatic and oxidizing vapours namely; diethylamine, benzene and bromine. The variation in electrical current of phthalocyanines with exposure of chemical vapours is used as the detection parameter for studying interaction behaviour. Nickel phthalocyanine is found to exhibit anomalous behaviour after exposure of reducing vapour diethylamine due to alteration in its spectroscopic transitions and magnetic states. The observed sensitivities of copper phthalocyanine and nickel phthalcyanine films are different in spite of their similar bond numbers, indicating significant role of central metal atom in interaction mechanism. The variations in electronic transition levels after vapours exposure, studied using UV-Visible spectroscopy confirmed our electrical sensing results. Bromine exposure leads to significant changes in vibrational bands of metal phthalocyanines as compared to other vapours.

  14. Evaluating the virucidal efficacy of hydrogen peroxide vapour.

    PubMed

    Goyal, S M; Chander, Y; Yezli, S; Otter, J A

    2014-04-01

    Surface contamination has been implicated in the transmission of certain viruses, and surface disinfection can be an effective measure to interrupt the spread of these agents. To evaluate the in-vitro efficacy of hydrogen peroxide vapour (HPV), a vapour-phase disinfection method, for the inactivation of a number of structurally distinct viruses of importance in the healthcare, veterinary and public sectors. The viruses studied were: feline calicivirus (FCV, a norovirus surrogate); human adenovirus type 1; transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus of pigs (TGEV, a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus [SARS-CoV] surrogate); avian influenza virus (AIV); and swine influenza virus (SwIV). The viruses were dried on stainless steel discs in 20- or 40-μL aliquots and exposed to HPV produced by a Clarus L generator (Bioquell, Horsham, PA, USA) in a 0.2-m(3) environmental chamber. Three vaporized volumes of hydrogen peroxide were tested in triplicate for each virus: 25, 27 and 33 mL. No viable viruses were identified after HPV exposure at any of the vaporized volumes tested. HPV was virucidal (>4-log reduction) against FCV, adenovirus, TGEV and AIV at the lowest vaporized volume tested (25 mL). For SwIV, due to low virus titre on the control discs, >3.8-log reduction was shown for the 25-mL vaporized volume and >4-log reduction was shown for the 27-mL and 33-mL vaporized volumes. HPV was virucidal for structurally distinct viruses dried on surfaces, suggesting that HPV can be considered for the disinfection of virus-contaminated surfaces. Copyright © 2014 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of major volcanic eruptions on stratospheric water vapour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löffler, Michael; Brinkop, Sabine; Jöckel, Patrick

    2016-05-01

    Volcanic eruptions can have a significant impact on the Earth's weather and climate system. Besides the subsequent tropospheric changes, the stratosphere is also influenced by large eruptions. Here changes in stratospheric water vapour after the two major volcanic eruptions of El Chichón in Mexico in 1982 and Mount Pinatubo on the Philippines in 1991 are investigated with chemistry-climate model simulations. This study is based on two simulations with specified dynamics of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Hamburg - Modular Earth Submodel System (ECHAM/MESSy) Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model, performed within the Earth System Chemistry integrated Modelling (ESCiMo) project, of which only one includes the long-wave volcanic forcing through prescribed aerosol optical properties. The results show a significant increase in stratospheric water vapour induced by the eruptions, resulting from increased heating rates and the subsequent changes in stratospheric and tropopause temperatures in the tropics. The tropical vertical advection and the South Asian summer monsoon are identified as sources for the additional water vapour in the stratosphere. Additionally, volcanic influences on tropospheric water vapour and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are evident, if the long-wave forcing is strong enough. Our results are corroborated by additional sensitivity simulations of the Mount Pinatubo period with reduced nudging and reduced volcanic aerosol extinction.

  16. Improving and assessing vapour pressure estimation methods for organic compounds of atmospheric relevance using a Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometer (KEMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, A. M.; Topping, D. O.; McFiggans, G. B.; Garforth, A.; Percival, C. J.

    2009-12-01

    functional groups and interaction parameters, derived from experimental data, to reliably predict boiling points and vapour pressures. A sensitivity study was undertaken to establish the impact of the new experimentally determined vapour pressures on partitioning models. Jacobson, M.C., et al. Rev Geophys, 38 (2), 267-294, 2000. Houghton et al. Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group 1 to the Third Assessment Report of the IPCC., 881 pp., Cambridge University Press, 2001. Johnson, D. , et al. Atmo. Chem. Phys., Vol. 6, 419-431, 2006 Yu, J. Z., et al. J Atmos Chem. 34, 207-258, 1999 Booth, A.M. et al Atmos. Meas. Tech.,2,355-361, 2009 Nanoolal, Y. et al Fluid Phase Equilibria, 269,117-133., 2008. Barley, M. et al Atmos. Chem. Phys., -,to be submitted.

  17. Mixing of multiple metal vapours into an arc plasma in gas tungsten arc welding of stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hunkwan; Trautmann, Marcus; Tanaka, Keigo; Tanaka, Manabu; Murphy, Anthony B.

    2017-11-01

    A computational model of the mixing of multiple metal vapours, formed by vaporization of the surface of an alloy workpiece, into the thermal arc plasma in gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) is presented. The model incorporates the combined diffusion coefficient method extended to allow treatment of three gases, and is applied to treat the transport of both chromium and iron vapour in the helium arc plasma. In contrast to previous models of GTAW, which predict that metal vapours are swept away to the edge of the arc by the plasma flow, it is found that the metal vapours penetrate strongly into the arc plasma, reaching the cathode region. The predicted results are consistent with published measurements of the intensity of atomic line radiation from the metal vapours. The concentration of chromium vapour is predicted to be higher than that of iron vapour due to its larger vaporization rate. An accumulation of chromium vapour is predicted to occur on the cathode at about 1.5 mm from the cathode tip, in agreement with published measurements. The arc temperature is predicted to be strongly reduced due to the strong radiative emission from the metal vapours. The driving forces causing the diffusion of metal vapours into the helium arc are examined, and it is found that diffusion due to the applied electric field (cataphoresis) is dominant. This is explained in terms of large ionization energies and the small mass of helium compared to those of the metal vapours.

  18. Kinetic model of water vapour adsorption by gluten-free starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocieczek, Aneta; Kostek, Robert; Ruszkowska, Millena

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the kinetics of water vapour adsorption on the surface of starch molecules derived from wheat. The aim of the study was to determine an equation that would allow estimation of water content in tested material in any timepoint of the adsorption process aimed at settling a balance with the environment. An adsorption isotherm of water vapour on starch granules was drawn. The parameters of the Guggenheim, Anderson, and De Boer equation were determined by characterizing the tested product and adsorption process. The equation of kinetics of water vapour adsorption on the surface of starch was determined based on the Guggenheim, Anderson, and De Boer model describing the state of equilibrium and on the model of a first-order linear inert element describing the changes in water content over time.

  19. Breath alcohol analysis incorporating standardization to water vapour is as precise as blood alcohol analysis.

    PubMed

    Grubb, D; Rasmussen, B; Linnet, K; Olsson, S G; Lindberg, L

    2012-03-10

    A novel breath-alcohol analyzer based on the standardization of the breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) to the alveolar-air water vapour concentration has been developed and evaluated. The present study compares results with this particular breath analyzer with arterial blood alcohol concentrations (ABAC), the most relevant quantitative measure of brain alcohol exposure. The precision of analysis of alcohol in arterial blood and breath were determined as well as the agreement between ABAC and BrAC over time post-dosing. Twelve healthy volunteers were administered 0.6g alcohol/kg bodyweight via an orogastric tube. Duplicate breath and arterial blood samples were obtained simultaneously during the absorption, distribution and elimination phases of the alcohol metabolism with particular emphasis on the absorption phase. The precision of the breath analyzer was similar to the determination of blood alcohol concentration by headspace gas chromatography (CV 2.40 vs. 2.38%, p=0.43). The ABAC/BrAC ratio stabilized 30min post-dosing (2089±99; mean±SD). Before this the BrAC tended to underestimate the coexisting ABAC. In conclusion, breath alcohol analysis utilizing standardization of alcohol to water vapour was as precise as blood alcohol analysis, the present "gold standard" method. The BrAC reliably predicted the coexisting ABAC from 30min onwards after the intake of alcohol. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The speed of sound in a gas–vapour bubbly liquid

    PubMed Central

    Prosperetti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the vapour of the liquid, bubbles in cavitating flows usually contain also a certain amount of permanent gas that diffuses out of the liquid as they grow. This paper presents a simplified linear model for the propagation of monochromatic pressure waves in a bubbly liquid with these characteristics. Phase change effects are included in detail, while the gas is assumed to follow a polytropic law. It is shown that even a small amount of permanent gas can have a major effect on the behaviour of the system. Particular attention is paid to the low-frequency range, which is of special concern in flow cavitation. Numerical results for water and liquid oxygen illustrate the implications of the model. PMID:26442146

  1. The speed of sound in a gas-vapour bubbly liquid.

    PubMed

    Prosperetti, Andrea

    2015-10-06

    In addition to the vapour of the liquid, bubbles in cavitating flows usually contain also a certain amount of permanent gas that diffuses out of the liquid as they grow. This paper presents a simplified linear model for the propagation of monochromatic pressure waves in a bubbly liquid with these characteristics. Phase change effects are included in detail, while the gas is assumed to follow a polytropic law. It is shown that even a small amount of permanent gas can have a major effect on the behaviour of the system. Particular attention is paid to the low-frequency range, which is of special concern in flow cavitation. Numerical results for water and liquid oxygen illustrate the implications of the model.

  2. Unsaturation of vapour pressure inside leaves of two conifer species

    DOE PAGES

    Cernusak, Lucas A.; Ubierna, Nerea; Jenkins, Michael W.; ...

    2018-05-16

    Stomatal conductance (g s) impacts both photosynthesis and transpiration, and is therefore fundamental to the global carbon and water cycles, food production, and ecosystem services. Mathematical models provide the primary means of analysing this important leaf gas exchange parameter. A nearly universal assumption in such models is that the vapour pressure inside leaves (e i) remains saturated under all conditions. The validity of this assumption has not been well tested, because so far e i cannot be measured directly. Here, we test this assumption using a novel technique, based on coupled measurements of leaf gas exchange and the stable isotopemore » compositions of CO 2 and water vapour passing over the leaf. We applied this technique to mature individuals of two semiarid conifer species. In both species, e i routinely dropped below saturation when leaves were exposed to moderate to high air vapour pressure deficits. Typical values of relative humidity in the intercellular air spaces were as low 0.9 in Juniperus monosperma and 0.8 in Pinus edulis. These departures of e i from saturation caused significant biases in calculations of g s and the intercellular CO 2 concentration. Thus, our results refute the longstanding assumption of saturated vapour pressure in plant leaves under all conditions.« less

  3. Unsaturation of vapour pressure inside leaves of two conifer species

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Cernusak, Lucas A.; Ubierna, Nerea; Jenkins, Michael W.

    Stomatal conductance (g s) impacts both photosynthesis and transpiration, and is therefore fundamental to the global carbon and water cycles, food production, and ecosystem services. Mathematical models provide the primary means of analysing this important leaf gas exchange parameter. A nearly universal assumption in such models is that the vapour pressure inside leaves (e i) remains saturated under all conditions. The validity of this assumption has not been well tested, because so far e i cannot be measured directly. Here, we test this assumption using a novel technique, based on coupled measurements of leaf gas exchange and the stable isotopemore » compositions of CO 2 and water vapour passing over the leaf. We applied this technique to mature individuals of two semiarid conifer species. In both species, e i routinely dropped below saturation when leaves were exposed to moderate to high air vapour pressure deficits. Typical values of relative humidity in the intercellular air spaces were as low 0.9 in Juniperus monosperma and 0.8 in Pinus edulis. These departures of e i from saturation caused significant biases in calculations of g s and the intercellular CO 2 concentration. Thus, our results refute the longstanding assumption of saturated vapour pressure in plant leaves under all conditions.« less

  4. Characterisation and source attribution of the semi-volatile organic content of atmospheric particles and associated vapour phase in Birmingham, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrad, Stuart; Hassoun, Suzanne; Callén Romero, María. S.; Harrison, Roy M.

    Concentrations of n-alkanes, petroleum biomarkers such as hopanes and steranes, n-alkanoic acids, n-alkanols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), dicarboxylic acids, and selected oxygenated PAH were separately determined in total suspended particulate matter and associated vapour phase in ambient air in Birmingham, UK. Samples were taken simultaneously at two locations on 24 separate occasions every 1-2 weeks between August 1999 and August 2000. Site A was 10 m from a busy road, 800 m from site B that was located within the "green space" of the University of Birmingham campus. Despite some differences in concentrations of some compounds, data from this study is in line with that reported in London, UK and in California. Differences between Sites A and B in both concentrations and carbon preference indices are consistent with greater traffic inputs at Site A, with some evidence of an appreciable biogenic input of n-alkanols and n-alkanes at the less-traffic influenced and more vegetated Site B. The biogenic input at Site B appears greater in the spring and summer months and suggests that biogenic emissions are appreciable even in British urban areas. Secondary formation mechanisms for some compounds including dicarboxylic acids and oxygenated PAH like fluoren-9-one are indicated by the lack of any significant intersite difference in concentrations. Intersite differences in concentrations provide new evidence that while petroleum biomarkers arise predominantly from local traffic, regional as well as local sources play an important rôle for the higher molecular weight PAH which exist predominantly in the particle phase.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of a mixed phase of anatase TiO2 and TiO2(B) by low pressure chemical vapour deposition (LPCVD) for high photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chimupala, Y.; Hyett, G.; Simpson, R.; Brydson, R.

    2014-06-01

    This project is concerned with enhancing photocatalytic activity by preparing a mixed phase of nano-sized TiO2. TiO2 thin films were synthesized by using Low Pressure Chemical Vapour Deposition (LPCVD). Titanium isopropoxide and N2 gas were used as the precursor and carrier gas respectively. The effects of reaction temperature, carrier gas flow rate and deposited area were studied. TiO2 thin films with nano-sized TiO2 particles were obtained under suitable conditions and SEM, TEM, powder XRD and Raman spectroscopy were employed to characterize the phase and physical appearance of synthesized materials. Preliminary results show that a dual phase (TiO2(B) and anatase) thin film nanopowder was successfully prepared by LPCVD with needle- and polygonal plate-shape crystallites respectively. This thin film deposit produced a preferred orientation of TiO2(B) needles in the [001] direction of average crystallite size 50-80 nm in length and 5-10 nm in width, whilst the crystallite size of anatase polygonal-plates was around 200 nm. The optimal LPCVD condition for preparing this mixed phase of TiO2 was 600°C with a 1 mL/s N2 flow rate.

  6. Water vapour and methane coupling in the stratosphere observed using SCIAMACHY solar occultation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noël, Stefan; Weigel, Katja; Bramstedt, Klaus; Rozanov, Alexei; Weber, Mark; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Burrows, John P.

    2018-04-01

    An improved stratospheric water vapour data set has been retrieved from SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT solar occultation measurements. It is similar to that successfully applied to methane and carbon dioxide. There is now a consistent set of data products for the three constituents covering the altitudes 17-45 km, the latitude range between about 50 and 70° N, and the period August 2002 to April 2012. The new water vapour concentration profiles agree with collocated results from ACE-FTS and MLS/Aura to within ˜ 5 %. A significant positive linear change in water vapour for the time 2003-2011 is observed at lower stratospheric altitudes with a value of about 0.015 ± 0.008 ppmv year-1 around 17 km. Between 30 and 37 km the changes become significantly negative (about -0.01 ± 0.008 ppmv year-1); all errors are 2σ values. The combined analysis of the SCIAMACHY methane and water vapour time series shows the expected anti-correlation between stratospheric methane and water vapour and a clear temporal variation related to the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO). Above about 20 km most of the additional water vapour is attributed to the oxidation of methane. In addition short-term fluctuations and longer-term variations on a timescale of 5-6 years are observed. The SCIAMACHY data confirm that at lower altitudes the amount of water vapour and methane are transported from the tropics to higher latitudes via the shallow branch of the Brewer-Dobson circulation.

  7. Differences in inflammation and acute phase response but similar genotoxicity in mice following pulmonary exposure to graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide

    PubMed Central

    Bengtson, Stefan; Knudsen, Kristina B.; Kyjovska, Zdenka O.; Berthing, Trine; Skaug, Vidar; Levin, Marcus; Koponen, Ismo K.; Shivayogimath, Abhay; Booth, Timothy J.; Alonso, Beatriz; Pesquera, Amaia; Zurutuza, Amaia; Thomsen, Birthe L.; Troelsen, Jesper T.; Jacobsen, Nicklas R.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated toxicity of 2–3 layered >1 μm sized graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in mice following single intratracheal exposure with respect to pulmonary inflammation, acute phase response (biomarker for risk of cardiovascular disease) and genotoxicity. In addition, we assessed exposure levels of particulate matter emitted during production of graphene in a clean room and in a normal industrial environment using chemical vapour deposition. Toxicity was evaluated at day 1, 3, 28 and 90 days (18, 54 and 162 μg/mouse), except for GO exposed mice at day 28 and 90 where only the lowest dose was evaluated. GO induced a strong acute inflammatory response together with a pulmonary (Serum-Amyloid A, Saa3) and hepatic (Saa1) acute phase response. rGO induced less acute, but a constant and prolonged inflammation up to day 90. Lung histopathology showed particle agglomerates at day 90 without signs of fibrosis. In addition, DNA damage in BAL cells was observed across time points and doses for both GO and rGO. In conclusion, pulmonary exposure to GO and rGO induced inflammation, acute phase response and genotoxicity but no fibrosis. PMID:28570647

  8. A sensor of alcohol vapours based on thin polyaniline base film and quartz crystal microbalance.

    PubMed

    Ayad, Mohamad M; El-Hefnawey, Gad; Torad, Nagy L

    2009-08-30

    Thin films of polyaniline base, emeraldine base (EB), coating on the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) electrode were used as a sensitive layer for the detection of a number of primary aliphatic alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, 2-propanol and 1-propanol vapours. The frequency shifts (Deltaf) of the QCM were increased due to the vapour adsorption into the EB film. Deltaf were found to be linearly correlated with the concentrations of alcohols vapour in part per million (ppm). The sensitivity of the sensor was found to be governed by the chemical structure of the alcohol. The sensor shows a good reproducibility and reversibility. The diffusions of different alcohols vapour were studied and the diffusion coefficients (D) were calculated. It is concluded that the diffusion of the vapours into the EB film follows Fickian kinetics.

  9. Philip Morris toxicological experiments with fresh sidestream smoke: more toxic than mainstream smoke

    PubMed Central

    Schick, S; Glantz, S

    2005-01-01

    Background: Exposure to secondhand smoke causes lung cancer; however, there are little data in the open literature on the in vivo toxicology of fresh sidestream cigarette smoke to guide the debate about smoke-free workplaces and public places. Objective: To investigate the unpublished in vivo research on sidestream cigarette smoke done by Philip Morris Tobacco Company during the 1980s at its Institut für Biologische Forschung (INBIFO). Methods: Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents now available at the University of California San Francisco Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and other websites. Results: Inhaled fresh sidestream cigarette smoke is approximately four times more toxic per gram total particulate matter (TPM) than mainstream cigarette smoke. Sidestream condensate is approximately three times more toxic per gram and two to six times more tumourigenic per gram than mainstream condensate by dermal application. The gas/vapour phase of sidestream smoke is responsible for most of the sensory irritation and respiratory tract epithelium damage. Fresh sidestream smoke inhibits normal weight gain in developing animals. In a 21day exposure, fresh sidestream smoke can cause damage to the respiratory epithelium at concentrations of 2 µg/l TPM. Damage to the respiratory epithelium increases with longer exposures. The toxicity of whole sidestream smoke is higher than the sum of the toxicities of its major constituents. Conclusion: Fresh sidestream smoke at concentrations commonly encountered indoors is well above a 2 µg/m3 reference concentration (the level at which acute effects are unlikely to occur), calculated from the results of the INBIFO studies, that defines acute toxicity to humans. Smoke-free public places and workplaces are the only practical way to protect the public health from the toxins in sidestream smoke. PMID:16319363

  10. Prion propagation and toxicity occur in vitro with two-phase kinetics specific to strain and neuronal type.

    PubMed

    Hannaoui, Samia; Maatouk, Layal; Privat, Nicolas; Levavasseur, Etienne; Faucheux, Baptiste A; Haïk, Stéphane

    2013-03-01

    Prion diseases, or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), are fatal neurodegenerative disorders that occur in humans and animals. The neuropathological hallmarks of TSEs are spongiosis, glial proliferation, and neuronal loss. The only known specific molecular marker of TSEs is the abnormal isoform (PrP(Sc)) of the host-encoded prion protein (PrP(C)), which accumulates in the brain of infected subjects and forms infectious prion particles. Although this transmissible agent lacks a specific nucleic acid component, several prion strains have been isolated. Prion strains are characterized by differences in disease outcome, PrP(Sc) distribution patterns, and brain lesion profiles at the terminal stage of the disease. The molecular factors and cellular mechanisms involved in strain-specific neuronal tropism and toxicity remain largely unknown. Currently, no cellular model exists to facilitate in vitro studies of these processes. A few cultured cell lines that maintain persistent scrapie infections have been developed, but only two of them have shown the cytotoxic effects associated with prion propagation. In this study, we have developed primary neuronal cultures to assess in vitro neuronal tropism and toxicity of different prion strains (scrapie strains 139A, ME7, and 22L). We have tested primary neuronal cultures enriched in cerebellar granular, striatal, or cortical neurons. Our results showed that (i) a strain-specific neuronal tropism operated in vitro; (ii) the cytotoxic effect varied among strains and neuronal cell types; (iii) prion propagation and toxicity occurred in two kinetic phases, a replicative phase followed by a toxic phase; and (iv) neurotoxicity peaked when abnormal PrP accumulation reached a plateau.

  11. Prion Propagation and Toxicity Occur In Vitro with Two-Phase Kinetics Specific to Strain and Neuronal Type

    PubMed Central

    Hannaoui, Samia; Maatouk, Layal; Privat, Nicolas; Levavasseur, Etienne; Faucheux, Baptiste A.

    2013-01-01

    Prion diseases, or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), are fatal neurodegenerative disorders that occur in humans and animals. The neuropathological hallmarks of TSEs are spongiosis, glial proliferation, and neuronal loss. The only known specific molecular marker of TSEs is the abnormal isoform (PrPSc) of the host-encoded prion protein (PrPC), which accumulates in the brain of infected subjects and forms infectious prion particles. Although this transmissible agent lacks a specific nucleic acid component, several prion strains have been isolated. Prion strains are characterized by differences in disease outcome, PrPSc distribution patterns, and brain lesion profiles at the terminal stage of the disease. The molecular factors and cellular mechanisms involved in strain-specific neuronal tropism and toxicity remain largely unknown. Currently, no cellular model exists to facilitate in vitro studies of these processes. A few cultured cell lines that maintain persistent scrapie infections have been developed, but only two of them have shown the cytotoxic effects associated with prion propagation. In this study, we have developed primary neuronal cultures to assess in vitro neuronal tropism and toxicity of different prion strains (scrapie strains 139A, ME7, and 22L). We have tested primary neuronal cultures enriched in cerebellar granular, striatal, or cortical neurons. Our results showed that (i) a strain-specific neuronal tropism operated in vitro; (ii) the cytotoxic effect varied among strains and neuronal cell types; (iii) prion propagation and toxicity occurred in two kinetic phases, a replicative phase followed by a toxic phase; and (iv) neurotoxicity peaked when abnormal PrP accumulation reached a plateau. PMID:23255799

  12. Intercomparison of atmospheric water vapour measurements at a Canadian High Arctic site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Dan; Strong, Kimberly; Schneider, Matthias; Rowe, Penny M.; Sioris, Chris; Walker, Kaley A.; Mariani, Zen; Uttal, Taneil; McElroy, C. Thomas; Vömel, Holger; Spassiani, Alessio; Drummond, James R.

    2017-08-01

    Water vapour is a critical component of the Earth system. Techniques to acquire and improve measurements of atmospheric water vapour and its isotopes are under active development. This work presents a detailed intercomparison of water vapour total column measurements taken between 2006 and 2014 at a Canadian High Arctic research site (Eureka, Nunavut). Instruments include radiosondes, sun photometers, a microwave radiometer, and emission and solar absorption Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers. Close agreement is observed between all combination of datasets, with mean differences ≤ 1.0 kg m-2 and correlation coefficients ≥ 0.98. The one exception in the observed high correlation is the comparison between the microwave radiometer and a radiosonde product, which had a correlation coefficient of 0.92.A variety of biases affecting Eureka instruments are revealed and discussed. A subset of Eureka radiosonde measurements was processed by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) Reference Upper Air Network (GRUAN) for this study. Comparisons reveal a small dry bias in the standard radiosonde measurement water vapour total columns of approximately 4 %. A recently produced solar absorption FTIR spectrometer dataset resulting from the MUSICA (MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water) retrieval technique is shown to offer accurate measurements of water vapour total columns (e.g. average agreement within -5.2 % of GRUAN and -6.5 % of a co-located emission FTIR spectrometer). However, comparisons show a small wet bias of approximately 6 % at the high-latitude Eureka site. In addition, a new dataset derived from Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) measurements is shown to provide accurate water vapour measurements (e.g. average agreement was within 4 % of GRUAN), which usefully enables measurements to be taken during day and night (especially valuable during polar night).

  13. The Droplets Condensate Centering in the Vapour Channel of Short Low Temperature Heat Pipes at High Heat Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seryakov, A. V.; Shakshin, S. L.; Alekseev, A. P.

    2017-11-01

    The results of experimental studies of the process of condensate microdroplets centering contained in the moving moist vapour in the vapour channel of short heat pipes (HPs) for large thermal loads are presented. A vapour channel formed by capillary-porous insert in the form of the inner Laval-liked nozzle along the entire length of the HP. In the upper cover forming a condensation surface in the HP, on the diametrical line are installed capacitive sensors, forming three capacitors located at different distances from the longitudinal axis of the vapour channel. With increasing heat load and the boil beginning in the evaporator a large amount of moist vapour in the vapour channel of HP occur the pressure pulsation with frequency of 400-500 Hz and amplitude up to 1·104Pa. These pulsations affect the moving of the inertial droplets subsystem of the vapour and due to the heterogeneity of the velocity profile around the particle flow in the vapour channel at the diameter of microdroplets occurs transverse force, called the Saffman force and shear microdroplets to the center of vapour channel. Using installed in the top cover capacitors we can record the radial displacement of the condensable microdroplets.

  14. Alcohol vapours sensor based on thin polyaniline salt film and quartz crystal microbalance.

    PubMed

    Ayad, Mohamad M; Torad, Nagy L

    2009-06-15

    A sensor based on the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) technique was developed for detection of a number of primary aliphatic alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol vapours. Detection was based on a sensitive and a thin film of polyaniline, emeraldine salt (ES), coated the QCM electrode. The frequency shifts (Delta f) of the QCM were increased due to the vapour absorption into the ES film. The values of Delta f were found to be linearly correlated with the concentrations of alcohols vapour in mg L(-1). The changes in frequency are due to the hydrophilic character of the ES and the electrostatic interaction as well as the type of the alcohol. The sensor shows a good reproducibility and reversibility. The diffusion and diffusion coefficient (D) of different alcohols vapour were determined. It was found that the sensor follows Fickian kinetics.

  15. Saturated Vapour Pressure and Refrigeration - Part I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunker, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    The first part of a two-part article describes an experimental approach that can be used in teaching the concept of saturated vapour pressure. This leads to a discussion of refrigeration cycles in the second part of the article. (JR)

  16. Kinetic studies of BTEX vapour adsorption onto surfaces of calix-4-resorcinarene films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, A. K.; Ray, A. K.; Nabok, A. V.; Wilkop, T.

    2001-10-01

    The exposure of spun films of an amphiphilic calix-4-resorcinarene (C-4-RA) derivative to vapours of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and m-xylene (BTEX) has produced a graded response, promising for the development of multisensor arrays. Fast and reversible adsorption of ethylbenzene was associated with changing the refractive index of the sensing layer and is believed to be due to the host-guest interaction between the cavitand C-4-RA molecules and the vapour molecules. Prolonged irradiation of the films with a focused laser beam has resulted in an initial increase of film sensitivity to the different organic vapours.

  17. Combining single source chemical vapour deposition precursors to explore the phase space of titanium oxynitride thin films.

    PubMed

    Rees, Kelly; Lorusso, Emanuela; Cosham, Samuel D; Kulak, Alexander N; Hyett, Geoffrey

    2018-02-14

    In this paper we report on a novel chemical vapour deposition approach to the formation and control of composition of mixed anion materials, as applied to titanium oxynitride thin films. The method used is the aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) of a mixture of single source precursors. To explore the titanium-oxygen-nitrogen system the single source precursors selected were tetrakis(dimethylamido) titanium and titanium tetraisopropoxide which individually are precursors to thin films of titanium nitride and titanium dioxide respectively. However, by combining these precursors in specific ratios in a series of AACVD reactions at 400 °C, we are able to deposit thin films of titanium oxynitride with three different structure types and a wide range of compositions. Using this precursor system we can observe films of nitrogen doped anatase, with 25% anion doping of nitrogen; a new composition of pseudobrookite titanium oxynitride with a composition of Ti 3 O 3.5 N 1.5 , identified as being a UV photocatalyst; and rock-salt titanium oxynitride in the range TiO 0.41 N 0.59 to TiO 0.05 N 0.95 . The films were characterised using GIXRD, WDX and UV-vis spectroscopy, and in the case of the pseudobrookite films, assessed for photocatalytic activity. This work shows that a so-called dual single-source CVD approach is an effective method for the deposition of ternary mixed anion ceramic films through simple control of the ratio of the precursors, while keeping all other experimental parameters constant.

  18. Particle- and gas-phase PAHs toxicity equivalency quantity emitted by a non-road diesel engine with non-thermal plasma technology.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jianbing; Ma, Chaochen; Xing, Shikai; Zhang, Yajie; Liu, Jiangquan; Feng, Hao

    2016-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) toxicity equivalency quantity (TEQ, denoted by benzo(a)pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) concentration) is more meaningful when evaluating the influence of non-road diesel engines PAH toxicity on environment. Particle- and gas-phase PAH BaPeq concentrations were calculated based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) results and toxic equivalency factors. A non-thermal plasma (NTP) reactor was applied to a non-road diesel engine to decrease PAH TEQ content. Only the gas-phase Nap BaPeq concentration increased slightly with the action of NTP at three different generator power outputs. BaP dominated the BaPeq concentration for 15 samples with, and without NTP except in the gas-phase at 4 kW. Almost all medium molecular weight (MMW) and high molecular weight (HMW) PAH TEQs increased for particle- and gas-phases at 3 kW power output compared to 2 kW without the use of NTP. Particle-phase Nap, Acp, and AcPy (low molecular weight, LMW) TEQ were under detection at 3 and 4 kW, while gas-phase BkF, IND, DBA, and BghiP (HMW) concentrations were below the limits of detection. The most abundant PAH TEQ compounds were MMW and HMW PAHs for gas- and particle-phase while they were BaA, CHR, BbF, BaP, and IND for PM aggregation. The total BaPeq emission factors were 15.1, 141.4, and 46.5 μg m(-3) at three engine loads, respectively. Significant BaPeq concentration percentage reduction was obtained (more than 80 and 60 %) with the use of NTP for particle- and gas-phases. A high TEQ content was observed for PM aggregation (38.8, 98.4, and 50.0 μg kg(-1)) which may have caused secondary PAH toxicity emissions. With the action of NTP, the breakup of MMW and HMW into LMW PAHs led to reduction of some PAH concentrations.

  19. Aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition of gas sensitive SnO2 and Au-functionalised SnO2 nanorods via a non-catalysed vapour solid (VS) mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Vallejos, Stella; Selina, Soultana; Annanouch, Fatima Ezahra; Gràcia, Isabel; Llobet, Eduard; Blackman, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Tin oxide nanorods (NRs) are vapour synthesised at relatively lower temperatures than previously reported and without the need for substrate pre-treatment, via a vapour-solid mechanism enabled using an aerosol-assisted chemical vapour deposition method. Results demonstrate that the growth of SnO2 NRs is promoted by a compression of the nucleation rate parallel to the substrate and a decrease of the energy barrier for growth perpendicular to the substrate, which are controlled via the deposition conditions. This method provides both single-step formation of the SnO2 NRs and their integration with silicon micromachined platforms, but also allows for in-situ functionalization of the NRs with gold nanoparticles via co-deposition with a gold precursor. The functional properties are demonstrated for gas sensing, with microsensors using functionalised NRs demonstrating enhanced sensing properties towards H2 compared to those based on non-functionalised NRs. PMID:27334232

  20. Dimethylalkoxygallane incorporating a donor-functionalised alkoxide: the monomeric gas-phase structure.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Caroline E; Carmalt, Claire J; McMillan, Paul F; Wann, Derek A; Robertson, Heather E; Rankin, David W H

    2008-12-28

    The structure of the vapour produced upon heating the dimethylalkoxygallane [Me(2)GaOCH(2)CH(2)NMe(2)](2) has been studied by gas-phase electron diffraction and ab initio molecular orbital calculations; only the monomeric form [Me(2)GaOCH(2)CH(2)NMe(2)] is observed in the vapour, with the nitrogen atom forming a dative bond with the metal centre.

  1. Synthesis and toxicity evaluation of hydrophobic ionic liquids for volatile organic compounds biodegradation in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Castillo, Alfredo Santiago; Guihéneuf, Solène; Le Guével, Rémy; Biard, Pierre-François; Paquin, Ludovic; Amrane, Abdeltif; Couvert, Annabelle

    2016-04-15

    Synthesis of several hydrophobic ionic liquids (ILs), which might be selected as good candidates for degradation of hydrophobic volatile organic compounds in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB), were carried out. Several bioassays were also realized, such as toxicity evaluation on activated sludge and zebrafish, cytotoxicity, fluoride release in aqueous phase and biodegradability in order to verify their possible effects in case of discharge in the aquatic environment and/or human contact during industrial manipulation. The synthesized compounds consist of alkylimidazoliums, functionalized imidazoliums, isoqinoliniums, triazoliums, sulfoniums, pyrrolidiniums and morpholiniums and various counter-ions such as: PF6(-), NTf2(-) and NfO(-). Toxicity evaluation on activated sludge of each compound (5% v/v of IL) was assessed by using a glucose uptake inhibition test. Toxicity against zebrafish and cytotoxicity were evaluated by the ImPACCell platform of Rennes (France). Fluoride release in water was estimated by regular measurements using ion chromatography equipment. IL biodegradability was determined by measuring BOD28 of aqueous samples (compound concentration,1mM). All ILs tested were not biodegradable; while some of them were toxic toward activated sludge. Isoquinolinium ILs were toxic to human cancerous cell lines. Nevertheless no toxicity was found against zebrafish Danio rerio. Only one IL released fluoride after long-time agitation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Water vapour emission in vegetable fuel: absorption cell measurements and detection limits of our CO II Dial system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellecci, C.; De Leo, L.; Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Lo Feudo, T.; Martellucci, S.; Richetta, M.

    2006-09-01

    Forest fires can be the cause of serious environmental and economic damages. For this reason a considerable effort has been directed toward the forest protection and fire fighting. In the early forest fire detection, Lidar technique present considerable advantages compared to the passive detection methods based on infrared cameras currently in common use, due its higher sensitivity and ability to accurately locate the fire. The combustion phase of the vegetable matter causes a great amount of water vapour emission, thus the water molecule behaviour will be studied to obtain a fire detection system ready and efficient also before the flame propagation. A first evaluation of increment of the water vapour concentration compared to standard one will be estimated by a numerical simulation. These results will be compared with the experimental measurements carried out into a cell with a CO II Dial system, burning different kinds of vegetable fuel. Our results and their comparison will be reported in this paper.

  3. Exposure to oil mist and oil vapour during offshore drilling in norway, 1979-2004.

    PubMed

    Steinsvåg, Kjersti; Bråtveit, Magne; Moen, Bente E

    2006-03-01

    To describe personal exposure to airborne hydrocarbon contaminants (oil mist and oil vapour) from 1979 to 2004 in the mud-handling areas of offshore drilling facilities operating on the Norwegian continental shelf when drilling with oil-based muds. Qualitative and quantitative information was gathered during visits to companies involved in offshore oil and gas production in Norway. Monitoring reports on oil mist and oil vapour exposure covered 37 drilling facilities. Exposure data were analysed using descriptive statistics and by constructing linear mixed-effects models. Samples had been taken during the use of three generations of hydrocarbon base oils, namely diesel oils (1979-1984), low-aromatic mineral oils (1985-1997) and non-aromatic mineral oils (1998-2004). Sampling done before 1984 showed high exposure to diesel vapour (arithmetic mean, AM = 1217 mg m(-3)). When low-aromatic mineral oils were used, the exposure to oil mist and oil vapour was 4.3 and 36 mg m(-3), and the respective AMs for non-aromatic mineral oils were reduced to 0.54 and 16 mg m(-3). Downward time trends were indicated for both oil mist (6% per year) and oil vapour (8% per year) when the year of monitoring was introduced as a fixed effect in a linear mixed-effects model analysis. Rig type, technical control measures and mud temperature significantly determined exposure to oil mist. Rig type, type of base oil, viscosity of the base oil, work area, mud temperature and season significantly determined exposure to oil vapour. Major decreases in variability were found for the between-rig components. Exposure to oil mist and oil vapour declined over time in the mud-handling areas of offshore drilling facilities. Exposure levels were associated with rig type, mud temperature, technical control measures, base oil, viscosity of the base oil, work area and season.

  4. In-vitro and in-vivo anti-Trichophyton activity of essential oils by vapour contact.

    PubMed

    Inouye, S; Uchida, K; Yamaguchi, H

    2001-05-01

    The minimum inhibitory doses (MIDs) of essential oils by vapour contact to inhibit the growth of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum on agar medium were determined using airtight boxes. Among seven essential oils examined, cinnamon bark oil showed the least MID, followed by lemongrass, thyme and perilla oils. Lavender and tea tree oils showed moderate MID, and citron oil showed the highest MID, being 320 times higher than that of cinnamon bark oil. The MID values were less than the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values determined by agar dilution assay. Furthermore, the minimum agar concentration (MAC) of essential oils absorbed from vapour was determined at the time of MID determination as the second antifungal measure. The MAC value by vapour contact was 1.4 to 4.7 times less than the MAC remaining in the agar at the time of MIC determination by agar dilution assay. Using selected essential oils, the anti-Trichophyton activity by vapour contact was examined in more detail. Lemongrass, thyme and perilla oils killed the conidia, inhibited germination and hyphal elongation at 1-4 micrograms ml-1 air, whereas lavender oil was effective at 40-160 micrograms ml-1 air. The in-vivo efficacy of thyme and perilla oils by vapour contact was shown against an experimental tinea pedis in guinea pigs infected with T. mentagrophytes. These results indicated potent anti-Trichophyton action of essential oils by vapour contact.

  5. The effect of perfluorocarbon vapour on the measurement of respiratory tidal volume during partial liquid ventilation.

    PubMed

    Davies, M W; Dunster, K R

    2000-08-01

    During partial liquid ventilation perfluorocarbon vapour is present in the exhaled gases. The volumes of these gases are measured by pneumotachometers. Error in measuring tidal volumes will give erroneous measurement of lung compliance during partial liquid ventilation. We aim to compare measured tidal volumes with and without perfluorocarbon vapour using tidal volumes suitable for use in neonates. Tidal volumes were produced with a 100 ml calibration syringe from 20 to 100 ml and with a calibrated Harvard rodent ventilator from 2.5 to 20 ml. Control tidal volumes were drawn from a humidifier chamber containing water vapour and the PFC tidal volumes were drawn from a humidifier chamber containing water and perfluorocarbon (FC-77) vapour. Tidal volumes were measured by a fixed orifice, target, differential pressure flowmeter (VenTrak) or a hot-wire anenometer (Bear Cub) placed between the calibration syringe or ventilator and the humidifier chamber. All tidal volumes measured with perfluorocarbon vapour were increased compared with control (ANOVA p < 0.001 and post t-test p < 0.0001). Measured tidal volume increased from 7 to 16% with the fixed orifice type flow-meter, and from 35 to 41% with the hot-wire type. In conclusion, perfluorocarbon vapour flowing through pneumotachometers gives falsely high tidal volume measurements. Calculation of lung compliance must take into account the effect of perfluorocarbon vapour on the measurement of tidal volume.

  6. GPS water vapour tomography: preliminary results from the ESCOMPTE field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champollion, C.; Masson, F.; Bouin, M.-N.; Walpersdorf, A.; Doerflinger, E.; Bock, O.; Van Baelen, J.

    2005-03-01

    Water vapour plays a major role in atmospheric processes but remains difficult to quantify due to its high variability in time and space and the sparse set of available measurements. The GPS has proved its capacity to measure the integrated water vapour at zenith with the same accuracy as other methods. Recent studies show that it is possible to quantify the integrated water vapour in the line of sight of the GPS satellite. These observations can be used to study the 3D heterogeneity of the troposphere using tomographic techniques. We develop three-dimensional tomographic software to model the three-dimensional distribution of the tropospheric water vapour from GPS data. First, the tomographic software is validated by simulations based on the realistic ESCOMPTE GPS network configuration. Without a priori information, the absolute value of water vapour is less resolved as opposed to relative horizontal variations. During the ESCOMPTE field experiment, a dense network of 17 dual frequency GPS receivers was operated for 2 weeks within a 20×20-km area around Marseille (southern France). The network extends from sea level to the top of the Etoile chain (˜700 m high). Optimal results have been obtained with time windows of 30-min intervals and input data evaluation every 15 min. The optimal grid for the ESCOMTE geometrical configuration has a horizontal step size of 0.05°×0.05° and 500 m vertical step size. Second, we have compared the results of real data inversions with independent observations. Three inversions have been compared to three successive radiosonde launches and shown to be consistent. A good resolution compared to the a priori information is obtained up to heights of 3000 m. A humidity spike at 4000-m altitude remains unresolved. The reason is probably that the signal is spread homogeneously over the whole network and that such a feature is not resolvable by tomographic techniques. The results of our pure GPS inversion show a correlation with

  7. Modelling Phase Transition Phenomena in Fluids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    Sublimation line r @@I Triple point ? Vapourisation liner @@I Critical point -Fusion line Solid Liquid Gas Figure 1: Schematic of a phase diagram means that the...velocity field can be set zero, and only the balance of energy constitutes the Stefan model. In contrast to this the liquid - gas phase transitions...defined by requiring that the phase-transition line is crossed in a direction from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas (vapour) phases. The term T∗ δs is

  8. Dew-point measurements at high water vapour pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomperski, S.; Dreier, J.

    1996-05-01

    A dew-point meter capable of measuring humidity at high vapour pressure and high temperature has been constructed and tested. Humidity measurements in pure steam were made over the temperature range 100 - 1500957-0233/7/5/003/img1C and a vapour pressure range of 1 - 4 bar. The dew-point meter performance was assessed by comparing measurements with a pressure transmitter and agreement between the two was within 0957-0233/7/5/003/img2% relative humidity. Humidity measurements in steam - air mixtures were also made and the dew-point meter readings were compared to those of a zirconia oxygen sensor. For these tests the dew-point meter readings were generally within 0957-0233/7/5/003/img2% relative humidity of the oxygen sensor measurements.

  9. Oil mist and vapour concentrations from drilling fluids: inter- and intra-laboratory comparison of chemical analyses.

    PubMed

    Galea, Karen S; Searl, Alison; Sánchez-Jiménez, Araceli; Woldbæk, Torill; Halgard, Kristin; Thorud, Syvert; Steinsvåg, Kjersti; Krüger, Kirsti; Maccalman, Laura; Cherrie, John W; van Tongeren, Martie

    2012-01-01

    There are no recognized analytical methods for measuring oil mist and vapours arising from drilling fluids used in offshore petroleum drilling industry. To inform the future development of improved methods of analysis for oil mist and vapours this study assessed the inter- and intra-laboratory variability in oil mist and vapour analysis. In addition, sample losses during transportation and storage were assessed. Replicate samples for oil mist and vapour were collected using the 37-mm Millipore closed cassette and charcoal tube assembly. Sampling was conducted in a simulated shale shaker room, similar to that found offshore for processing drilling fluids. Samples were analysed at two different laboratories, one in Norway and one in the UK. Oil mist samples were analysed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), while oil vapour samples were analysed by gas chromatography (GC). The comparison of replicate samples showed substantial within- and between-laboratory variability in reported oil mist concentrations. The variability in oil vapour results was considerably reduced compared to oil mist, provided that a common method of calibration and quantification was adopted. The study also showed that losses can occur during transportation and storage of samples. There is a need to develop a harmonized method for the quantification of oil mist on filter and oil vapour on charcoal supported by a suitable proficiency testing scheme for laboratories involved in the analysis of occupational hygiene samples for the petroleum industry. The uncertainties in oil mist and vapour measurement have substantial implications in relation to compliance with occupational exposure limits and also in the reliability of any exposure-response information reported in epidemiological studies.

  10. Estimation of the toxicity of sulfadiazine to Daphnia magna using negligible depletion hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction independent of ambient pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kailin; Xu, Shiji; Zhang, Minghuan; Kou, Yahong; Zhou, Xiaomao; Luo, Kun; Hu, Lifeng; Liu, Xiangying; Liu, Min; Bai, Lianyang

    2016-12-01

    The toxicity of ionizable organic compounds to organisms depends on the pH, which therefore affects risk assessments of these compounds. However, there is not a direct chemical method to predict the toxicity of ionizable organic compounds. To determine whether hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) is applicable for this purpose, a three-phase HF-LPME was used to measure sulfadiazine and estimate its toxicity to Daphnia magna in solutions of different pH. The result indicated that the sulfadiazine concentrations measured by HF-LPME decreased with increasing pH, which is consistent with the decreased toxicity. The concentration immobilize 50% of the daphnids (EC50) in 48 h calculated from nominal concentrations increased from 11.93 to 273.5 mg L-1 as the pH increased from 6.0 to 8.5, and the coefficient of variation (CV) of the EC50 values reached 104.6%. When calculated from the concentrations measured by HF-LPME (pH 12 acceptor phase), the EC50 ranged from 223.4 to 394.6 mg L-1, and the CV decreased to 27.60%, suggesting that the concentrations measured by HF-LPME can be used to estimate the toxicity of sulfadiazine irrespective of the solution pH.

  11. Estimation of the toxicity of sulfadiazine to Daphnia magna using negligible depletion hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction independent of ambient pH

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kailin; Xu, Shiji; Zhang, Minghuan; Kou, Yahong; Zhou, Xiaomao; Luo, Kun; Hu, Lifeng; Liu, Xiangying; Liu, Min; Bai, Lianyang

    2016-01-01

    The toxicity of ionizable organic compounds to organisms depends on the pH, which therefore affects risk assessments of these compounds. However, there is not a direct chemical method to predict the toxicity of ionizable organic compounds. To determine whether hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) is applicable for this purpose, a three-phase HF-LPME was used to measure sulfadiazine and estimate its toxicity to Daphnia magna in solutions of different pH. The result indicated that the sulfadiazine concentrations measured by HF-LPME decreased with increasing pH, which is consistent with the decreased toxicity. The concentration immobilize 50% of the daphnids (EC50) in 48 h calculated from nominal concentrations increased from 11.93 to 273.5 mg L−1 as the pH increased from 6.0 to 8.5, and the coefficient of variation (CV) of the EC50 values reached 104.6%. When calculated from the concentrations measured by HF-LPME (pH 12 acceptor phase), the EC50 ranged from 223.4 to 394.6 mg L−1, and the CV decreased to 27.60%, suggesting that the concentrations measured by HF-LPME can be used to estimate the toxicity of sulfadiazine irrespective of the solution pH. PMID:28004779

  12. Desorption of sulphur mustard simulants methyl salicylate and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide from contaminated scalp hair after vapour exposure.

    PubMed

    Spiandore, Marie; Souilah-Edib, Mélanie; Piram, Anne; Lacoste, Alexandre; Josse, Denis; Doumenq, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Chemical warfare agents have been used to incapacitate, injure or kill people, in a context of war or terrorist attack. It has previously been shown that hair could trap the sulphur mustard simulants methyl salicylate and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide. In order to investigate simulants persistency in hair after intense vapour exposure, their desorption kinetics were studied by using two complementary methods: hair residual content measurement and desorbed vapour monitoring. Results showed that both simulants were detected in air and could be recovered from hair 2 h after the end of exposure. Longer experiments with methyl salicylate showed that it could still be recovered from hair after 24 h. Our data were fitted with several kinetic models and best correlation was obtained with a bimodal first-order equation, suggesting a 2-step desorption kinetics model: initial fast regime followed by a slower desorption. 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide was also detected in the immediate environment after hair exposure for 2 h, and hair simulant content decreased by more than 80%. Our results showed that hair ability to release formerly trapped chemical toxics could lead to health hazard. Their persistency however confirmed the potentiality of hair analysis as a tool for chemical exposure assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Reaction pathway in vapour phase hydrogenation of maleic anhydride and its esters to {gamma}-butyrolactone

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Messori, M.; Vaccari, A.

    1994-11-01

    The catalytic reactivity of maleic anhydride (MA), succinic anhydride (SA) and their dimethyl esters (dimethyl maleate and dimethyl succinate) in the vapour phase hydrogenation to {gamma}-butyrolacetone (GBL) was investigated. In order to obtain general data, both a multicomponent catalyst (CAT 1: Cu/Zn/Mg/Cr = 40:5:5:50, atomic ratio %), obtained by reduction of a nonstoichiometric spinel-type precursor, and a commercial catalyst (CAT 2: Cu/Mn/Ba/Cr = 44:8:1:47, atomic ratio %) were used. The MA/GBL solution exhibited the highest GBL production, while the SA/GBL solution was converted only partially due to a competitive adsorption of GBL on the active sites, as evidenced by themore » similar reactivities observed with pure anhydrides. The best carbon balances were observed with the esters, probably the result of lowest light hydrocarbon synthesis and tar formation. With all the feedstocks, the activity of CAT 2 is higher than that of CAT 1, which, however, gives the best yield in GBL due its lower activity in the overhydrogenation and hydrogenolysis reaction. It was found that n-butanol (BuOH) and butyric acid (BuA) derived mainly from GBL. On this basis, the reactivities of the main products observed were investigated separately, confirming the stability of tetrahydrofuran (THF), which reacted only at high temperature with low conversions to ethanol. On the other hand, GBL gave rise to overhydrogenation and/or hydrogenolysis, with high conversion (mainly with CAT 2), confirming its key role in both reactions. Furthermore, the formation in the catalytic tests with BuA and BuOH of n-butanal, notwithstanding the high H{sub 2}/organic ratio, implies that it is the main intermediate in the hydrogenolysis reactions. A new reaction scheme is proposed, pointing out the key role of GBL as the {open_quotes}intersection{close_quotes} of two possible reaction pathways, giving rise to THF or overhydrogenation and hydrogenolysis products, respectively. 44 refs., 4 figs., 6

  14. Different physiological and behavioural effects of e-cigarette vapour and cigarette smoke in mice.

    PubMed

    Ponzoni, L; Moretti, M; Sala, M; Fasoli, F; Mucchietto, V; Lucini, V; Cannazza, G; Gallesi, G; Castellana, C N; Clementi, F; Zoli, M; Gotti, C; Braida, D

    2015-10-01

    Nicotine is the primary addictive substance in tobacco smoke and electronic cigarette (e-cig) vapour. Methodological limitations have made it difficult to compare the role of the nicotine and non-nicotine constituents of tobacco smoke. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of traditional cigarette smoke and e-cig vapour containing the same amount of nicotine in male BALB/c mice exposed to the smoke of 21 cigarettes or e-cig vapour containing 16.8 mg of nicotine delivered by means of a mechanical ventilator for three 30-min sessions/day for seven weeks. One hour after the last session, half of the animals were sacrificed for neurochemical analysis, and the others underwent mecamylamine-precipitated or spontaneous withdrawal for the purposes of behavioural analysis. Chronic intermittent non-contingent, second-hand exposure to cigarette smoke or e-cig vapour led to similar brain cotinine and nicotine levels, similar urine cotinine levels and the similar up-regulation of α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in different brain areas, but had different effects on body weight, food intake, and the signs of mecamylamine-precipitated and spontaneous withdrawal episodic memory and emotional responses. The findings of this study demonstrate for the first time that e-cig vapour induces addiction-related neurochemical, physiological and behavioural alterations. The fact that inhaled cigarette smoke and e-cig vapour have partially different dependence-related effects indicates that compounds other than nicotine contribute to tobacco dependence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of biochar activation by different methods on toxicity of soil contaminated by industrial activity.

    PubMed

    Kołtowski, Michał; Charmas, Barbara; Skubiszewska-Zięba, Jadwiga; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2017-02-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of various methods of biochar activation on the ecotoxicity of soils with various properties and with various content and origin of contaminants. The biochar produced from willow (at 700°C) was activated by 1) microwaves (in a microwave reactor under an atmosphere of water vapour), 2) carbon dioxide (in the quartz fluidized bed reactor) and 3) superheated steam (in the quartz fluidized bed reactor). Three different soils were collected from industrial areas. The soils were mixed with biochar and activated biochars at the dose of 5% and ecotoxicological parameters of mixture was evaluated using two solid phase test - Phytotoxkit F (Lepidium sativum) and Collembolan test (Folsomia candida) and one liquid phase test - Microtox® (Vibrio fischeri). Biochar activation had both positive and negative impacts, depending on the activation method, kind of bioassay and kind of soil. Generally, biochar activated by microwaves increased the effectiveness of ecotoxicity reduction relative to non-activated biochars. Whereas, biochar activated with CO 2 most often cause a negative effect manifested by deterioration or as a lack of improvement in relation to non-activated biochar or to non-amended soil. It was also demonstrated that the increase of biochar specific surface area caused a significant reduction of toxicity of water leachates from the studied soils. Effectiveness of the reduction of leachate toxicity was weakened in the presence of dissolved organic carbon in the soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Atomic-scale Studies of Uranium Oxidation and Corrosion by Water Vapour.

    PubMed

    Martin, T L; Coe, C; Bagot, P A J; Morrall, P; Smith, G D W; Scott, T; Moody, M P

    2016-07-12

    Understanding the corrosion of uranium is important for its safe, long-term storage. Uranium metal corrodes rapidly in air, but the exact mechanism remains subject to debate. Atom Probe Tomography was used to investigate the surface microstructure of metallic depleted uranium specimens following polishing and exposure to moist air. A complex, corrugated metal-oxide interface was observed, with approximately 60 at.% oxygen content within the oxide. Interestingly, a very thin (~5 nm) interfacial layer of uranium hydride was observed at the oxide-metal interface. Exposure to deuterated water vapour produced an equivalent deuteride signal at the metal-oxide interface, confirming the hydride as originating via the water vapour oxidation mechanism. Hydroxide ions were detected uniformly throughout the oxide, yet showed reduced prominence at the metal interface. These results support a proposed mechanism for the oxidation of uranium in water vapour environments where the transport of hydroxyl species and the formation of hydride are key to understanding the observed behaviour.

  17. Atomic-scale Studies of Uranium Oxidation and Corrosion by Water Vapour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, T. L.; Coe, C.; Bagot, P. A. J.; Morrall, P.; Smith, G. D. W.; Scott, T.; Moody, M. P.

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the corrosion of uranium is important for its safe, long-term storage. Uranium metal corrodes rapidly in air, but the exact mechanism remains subject to debate. Atom Probe Tomography was used to investigate the surface microstructure of metallic depleted uranium specimens following polishing and exposure to moist air. A complex, corrugated metal-oxide interface was observed, with approximately 60 at.% oxygen content within the oxide. Interestingly, a very thin (~5 nm) interfacial layer of uranium hydride was observed at the oxide-metal interface. Exposure to deuterated water vapour produced an equivalent deuteride signal at the metal-oxide interface, confirming the hydride as originating via the water vapour oxidation mechanism. Hydroxide ions were detected uniformly throughout the oxide, yet showed reduced prominence at the metal interface. These results support a proposed mechanism for the oxidation of uranium in water vapour environments where the transport of hydroxyl species and the formation of hydride are key to understanding the observed behaviour.

  18. Preliminary Martian Atmospheric Water Vapour Column Abundances with Mars Climate Sounder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lolachi, Ramin; Irwin, P. G. J.; Teanby, N.; Calcutt, S.; Howett, C. J. A.; Bowles, N. E.; Taylor, F. W.; Schofield, J. T.; Kleinboehl, A.; McCleese, D. J.

    2007-12-01

    Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) is an infra-red radiometer on board NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) launched in August 2005 and now orbiting Mars in a near circular polar orbit. MCS has nine spectral channels in the range 0.3-50 µm. Goals of MCS include global characterization of atmospheric temperature, dust and water profiles observing temporal and spatial variation. Using Oxford University's multivariate retrieval algorithm, NEMESIS, we present preliminary determinations of the water vapour column abundance in the Martian atmosphere during the period September-October 2006 (Ls range 111-129°, i.e. northern hemisphere summer). A combination of spectral channels inside and outside the water vapour rotation band (at 50 µm) are used to retrieve the column abundances mainly using nadir observations (as aerosol opacity is less important relative to water vapour opacity in nadir viewing geometry). We then compare these column abundances to earlier results from the Viking Orbiter Mars Atmospheric Water Detectors (MAWD) and the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) on Mars Global Surveyor.

  19. Atomic-scale Studies of Uranium Oxidation and Corrosion by Water Vapour

    PubMed Central

    Martin, T. L.; Coe, C.; Bagot, P. A. J.; Morrall, P.; Smith, G. D. W; Scott, T.; Moody, M. P.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the corrosion of uranium is important for its safe, long-term storage. Uranium metal corrodes rapidly in air, but the exact mechanism remains subject to debate. Atom Probe Tomography was used to investigate the surface microstructure of metallic depleted uranium specimens following polishing and exposure to moist air. A complex, corrugated metal-oxide interface was observed, with approximately 60 at.% oxygen content within the oxide. Interestingly, a very thin (~5 nm) interfacial layer of uranium hydride was observed at the oxide-metal interface. Exposure to deuterated water vapour produced an equivalent deuteride signal at the metal-oxide interface, confirming the hydride as originating via the water vapour oxidation mechanism. Hydroxide ions were detected uniformly throughout the oxide, yet showed reduced prominence at the metal interface. These results support a proposed mechanism for the oxidation of uranium in water vapour environments where the transport of hydroxyl species and the formation of hydride are key to understanding the observed behaviour. PMID:27403638

  20. MEDUSA: The ExoMars experiment for in-situ monitoring of dust and water vapour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colangeli, L.; Lopez-Moreno, J. J.; Nørnberg, P.; Della Corte, V.; Esposito, F.; Mazzotta Epifani, E.; Merrison, J.; Molfese, C.; Palumbo, P.; Rodriguez-Gomez, J. F.; Rotundi, A.; Visconti, G.; Zarnecki, J. C.; The International Medusa Team

    2009-07-01

    Dust and water vapour are fundamental components of the Martian atmosphere. In view of tracing the past environmental conditions on Mars, that possibly favoured the appearing of life forms, it is important to study the present climate and its evolution. Here dust and water vapour have (and have had) strong influence. Of major scientific interest is the quantity and physical, chemical and electrical properties of dust and the abundance of water vapour dispersed in the atmosphere and their exchange with the surface. Moreover, in view of the exploration of the planet with automated systems and in the future by manned missions, it is of primary importance to analyse the hazards linked to these environmental factors. The Martian Environmental Dust Systematic Analyser (MEDUSA) experiment, included in the scientific payload of the ESA ExoMars mission, accommodates a complement of sensors, based on optical detection and cumulative mass deposition, that aims to study dust and water vapour in the lower Martian atmosphere. The goals are to study, for the first time, in-situ and quantitatively, physical properties of the airborne dust, including the cumulative dust mass flux, the dust deposition rate, the physical and electrification properties, the size distribution of sampled particles and the atmospheric water vapour abundance versus time.

  1. Formation of nanodiamonds at near-ambient conditions via microplasma dissociation of ethanol vapour.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajay; Ann Lin, Pin; Xue, Albert; Hao, Boyi; Khin Yap, Yoke; Sankaran, R Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Clusters of diamond-phase carbon, known as nanodiamonds, exhibit novel mechanical, optical and biological properties that have elicited interest for a wide range of technological applications. Although diamond is predicted to be more stable than graphite at the nanoscale, extreme environments are typically used to produce nanodiamonds. Here we show that nanodiamonds can be stably formed in the gas phase at atmospheric pressure and neutral gas temperatures <100 °C by dissociation of ethanol vapour in a novel microplasma process. Addition of hydrogen gas to the process allows in flight purification by selective etching of the non-diamond carbon and stabilization of the nanodiamonds. The nanodiamond particles are predominantly between 2 and 5 nm in diameter, and exhibit cubic diamond, n-diamond and lonsdaleite crystal structures, similar to nanodiamonds recovered from meteoritic residues. These results may help explain the origin of nanodiamonds in the cosmos, and offer a simple and inexpensive route for the production of high-purity nanodiamonds.

  2. Preparation of fungal conidia impacts their susceptibility to inactivation by ethanol vapours.

    PubMed

    Dao, Thien; Dantigny, Philippe

    2009-11-15

    A common protocol employed for the preparation of conidia employs flooding a fungal colony grown on semi-solid media under optimum conditions with an aqueous solution. In contrast, conidia produced in a natural environment are usually not hydrated when disseminated in air and can be produced under water stress. In order to simulate the latter conditions, cultures were grown at different water activities and conidia were dry-harvested on the lid by turning the dishes upside-down then gently tapping the bottom of the box. This study aimed at assessing the effect of the preparation of fungal conidia on their inactivation by ethanol vapours. Firstly ethanol vapours (either 0.30 or 0.45 kPa) were applied to conidia obtained from the standardised protocol and to dry-harvested conidia for some species of Penicillium. While all dry-harvested conidia remained viable after 24 h of treatment, about 1.0, 3.5 and 2.5 log(10) reductions were observed for hydrated conidia of Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum respectively. Secondly ethanol vapours (0.67 kPa) were applied to dry-harvested conidia obtained from cultures grown at 0.99 a(w) and at reduced water activities. For all species, the susceptibility to ethanol vapours of conidia obtained at 0.99 a(w) was significantly greater than that of conidia obtained at reduced water activities. Conidia produced in a natural environment under non-optimal conditions would be much more resistant to ethanol vapours than those produced in the laboratory. This phenomenon may be due to a reduced intracellular water activity of dry-harvested conidia.

  3. Toxicity Screening of the ToxCast Phase II Chemical Library Using a Zebrafish Developmental Assay (SOT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the chemical screening and prioritization research program of the US EPA, the ToxCast Phase II chemicals were assessed using a vertebrate screen for developmental toxicity. Zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio) were exposed in 96-well plates from late-blastula stage (6hr pos...

  4. Effect of drilling fluid systems and temperature on oil mist and vapour levels generated from shale shaker.

    PubMed

    Steinsvåg, Kjersti; Galea, Karen S; Krüger, Kirsti; Peikli, Vegard; Sánchez-Jiménez, Araceli; Sætvedt, Esther; Searl, Alison; Cherrie, John W; van Tongeren, Martie

    2011-05-01

    Workers in the drilling section of the offshore petroleum industry are exposed to air pollutants generated by drilling fluids. Oil mist and oil vapour concentrations have been measured in the drilling fluid processing areas for decades; however, little work has been carried out to investigate exposure determinants such as drilling fluid viscosity and temperature. A study was undertaken to investigate the effect of two different oil-based drilling fluid systems and their temperature on oil mist, oil vapour, and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) levels in a simulated shale shaker room at a purpose-built test centre. Oil mist and oil vapour concentrations were sampled simultaneously using a sampling arrangement consisting of a Millipore closed cassette loaded with glass fibre and cellulose acetate filters attached to a backup charcoal tube. TVOCs were measured by a PhoCheck photo-ionization detector direct reading instrument. Concentrations of oil mist, oil vapour, and TVOC in the atmosphere surrounding the shale shaker were assessed during three separate test periods. Two oil-based drilling fluids, denoted 'System 2.0' and 'System 3.5', containing base oils with a viscosity of 2.0 and 3.3-3.7 mm(2) s(-1) at 40°C, respectively, were used at temperatures ranging from 40 to 75°C. In general, the System 2.0 yielded low oil mist levels, but high oil vapour concentrations, while the opposite was found for the System 3.5. Statistical significant differences between the drilling fluid systems were found for oil mist (P = 0.025),vapour (P < 0.001), and TVOC (P = 0.011). Increasing temperature increased the oil mist, oil vapour, and TVOC levels. Oil vapour levels at the test facility exceeded the Norwegian oil vapour occupational exposure limit (OEL) of 30 mg m(-3) when the drilling fluid temperature was ≥50°C. The practice of testing compliance of oil vapour exposure from drilling fluids systems containing base oils with viscosity of ≤2.0 mm(2) s(-1) at 40

  5. Non-equilibrium surface tension of the vapour-liquid interface of active Lennard-Jones particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paliwal, Siddharth; Prymidis, Vasileios; Filion, Laura; Dijkstra, Marjolein

    2017-08-01

    We study a three-dimensional system of self-propelled Brownian particles interacting via the Lennard-Jones potential. Using Brownian dynamics simulations in an elongated simulation box, we investigate the steady states of vapour-liquid phase coexistence of active Lennard-Jones particles with planar interfaces. We measure the normal and tangential components of the pressure tensor along the direction perpendicular to the interface and verify mechanical equilibrium of the two coexisting phases. In addition, we determine the non-equilibrium interfacial tension by integrating the difference of the normal and tangential components of the pressure tensor and show that the surface tension as a function of strength of particle attractions is well fitted by simple power laws. Finally, we measure the interfacial stiffness using capillary wave theory and the equipartition theorem and find a simple linear relation between surface tension and interfacial stiffness with a proportionality constant characterized by an effective temperature.

  6. Prostate Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy With Injection of Hyaluronic Acid: Acute Toxicities in a Phase 2 Study

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Chapet, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.chapet@chu-lyon.fr; EMR3738, Université Lyon 1, Lyon; Decullier, Evelyne

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. Methods and Materials: The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Eventsmore » version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. Results: From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. Conclusions: The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity.« less

  7. Studies on the Inhalation Toxicity of Dyes Present in Colored Smoke Munitions. Phase III, Studies: Four-Week Inhalation Exposures of Rats to Dye Aerosols.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-10

    0") AD STUDIES ON THE INHALATION TOXICITY CO• OF DYES PRESENT IN COLORED Ln SMOKE MUNIlIONS U FINAL REPORT FOR PHASE III STUDIES : SFOUR- ELK...3 RECIIEPIT’S CATA6.0G NUMBE.• 4. TITLE (and ,ubiltI.e) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COygC r., Studies on the Inhalation Toxicity of Dyes Final: Phase...III Present in Colored Smoke Munitions. Final Report Fh for Phase 111 Studies : FoLr-Week Inhalation G. PERFORMING ORO. REPORT N,’,ER Exposures of Rats

  8. Magnesium isotope evidence that accretional vapour loss shapes planetary compositions

    PubMed Central

    Hin, Remco C.; Coath, Christopher D.; Carter, Philip J.; Nimmo, Francis; Lai, Yi-Jen; Pogge von Strandmann, Philip A.E.; Willbold, Matthias; Leinhardt, Zoë M.; Walter, Michael J.; Elliott, Tim

    2017-01-01

    It has long been recognised that Earth and other differentiated planetary bodies are chemically fractionated compared to primitive, chondritic meteorites and by inference the primordial disk from which they formed. An important question has been whether the notable volatile depletions of planetary bodies are a consequence of accretion1, or inherited from prior nebular fractionation2. The isotopic compositions of the main constituents of planetary bodies can contribute to this debate3–6. Using a new analytical approach to address key issues of accuracy inherent in conventional methods, we show that all differentiated bodies have isotopically heavier magnesium compositions than chondritic meteorites. We argue that possible magnesium isotope fractionation during condensation of the solar nebula, core formation and silicate differentiation cannot explain these observations. However, isotopic fractionation between liquid and vapour followed by vapour escape during accretionary growth of planetesimals generates appropriate residual compositions. Our modelling implies that the isotopic compositions of Mg, Si and Fe and the relative abundances of the major elements of Earth, and other planetary bodies, are a natural consequence of substantial (~40% by mass) vapour loss from growing planetesimals by this mechanism. PMID:28959965

  9. Land cover change and water vapour flows: learning from Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Line; Dunlop, Michael; Foran, Barney

    2003-01-01

    Australia is faced with large-scale dryland salinization problems, largely as a consequence of the clearing of native vegetation for cropland and grassland. We estimate the change in continental water vapour flow (evapotranspiration) of Australia during the past 200 years. During this period there has been a substantial decrease in woody vegetation and a corresponding increase in croplands and grasslands. The shift in land use has caused a ca. 10% decrease in water vapour flows from the continent. This reduction corresponds to an annual freshwater flow of almost 340 km(3). The society-induced alteration of freshwater flows is estimated at more than 15 times the volume of run-off freshwater that is diverted and actively managed in the Australian society. These substantial water vapour flow alterations were previously not addressed in water management but are now causing serious impacts on the Australian society and local economies. Global and continental freshwater assessments and policy often neglects the interplay between freshwater flows and landscape dynamics. Freshwater issues on both regional and global levels must be rethought and the interplay between terrestrial ecosystems and freshwater better incorporated in freshwater and ecosystem management. PMID:14728792

  10. Review of vortex tube expansion in vapour compression refrigeration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yefeng; Yu, Jun

    2018-05-01

    A vortex tube expansion device replacing the throttle valve is proposed to improve the efficiency of vapour compression refrigeration cycle by reducing the loss of irreversibility in expansion process. The vortex tube is well-suited for these applications because it is simple, compact, light, quiet. Thus, this paper presents an overview of the thermodynamic analysis of vapour compression refrigeration cycle with vortex tube expansion device using different refrigerants. The paper also reviews the experiments and the calculations presented in previous studies on temperature separation in the vortex tube. The temperature separation mechanism and the flow-field inside the vortex tubes is explored by measuring the pressure, velocity, and temperature fields.

  11. On the relationship between atmospheric water vapour transport and extra-tropical cyclones development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Juan A.; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Ramos, Alexandre M.

    2016-08-01

    In this study we seek to investigate the role of atmospheric water vapour on the intensification of extra-tropical cyclones over the North Atlantic Ocean and more specifically to investigate the linkage between atmospheric rivers' conditions leading to the explosive development of extra-tropical cyclones. Several WRF-ARW simulations for three recent extra-tropical storms that had major negative socio-economic impacts in the Iberian Peninsula and south-western Europe (Klaus, 2009; Gong, 2013 and Stephanie, 2014) are performed in which the water vapour content of the initial and boundary conditions are tuned. Analyses of the vertically integrated vapour transport show the dependence of the storms' development on atmospheric water vapour. In addition, results also show changes in the shape of the jet stream resulting in a reduction of the upper wind divergence, which in turn affects the intensification of the extra-tropical cyclones studied. This study suggests that atmospheric rivers tend to favour the conditions for explosive extra-tropical storms' development in the three case studies, as simulations performed without the existence of atmospheric rivers produce shallow mid-latitude cyclones, that is, cyclones that are not so intense as those on the reference simulations.

  12. Mass-independent fractionation of oxygen isotopes during H2O2 formation by gas-phase discharge from water vapour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velivetskaya, Tatiana A.; Ignatiev, Alexander V.; Budnitskiy, Sergey Y.; Yakovenko, Victoria V.; Vysotskiy, Sergey V.

    2016-11-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is an important atmospheric component involved in various gas-phase and aqueous-phase transformation processes in the Earth's atmosphere. A study of mass-independent 17O anomalies in H2O2 can provide additional insights into the chemistry of the modern atmosphere and, possibly, of the ancient atmosphere. Here, we report the results of laboratory experiments to study the fractionation of three oxygen isotopes (16O, 17O, and 18O) during H2O2 formation from products of water vapour dissociation. The experiments were carried out by passing an electrical discharge through a gaseous mixture of helium and water at atmospheric pressure. The effect of the presence of O2 in the gas mixture on the isotopic composition of H2O2 was also investigated. All of the experiments showed that H2O2 produced under two different conditions (with or without O2 added in the gas mixtures) was mass-independently fractionated (MIF). We found a positive MIF signal (∼1.4‰) in the no-O2 added experiments, and this signal increased to ∼2.5‰ once O2 was added (1.6% mixing ratio). We suggest that if O2 concentrations are very low, the hydroxyl radical recombination reaction is the dominant pathway for H2O2 formation and is the source of MIF in H2O2. Although H2O2 formation via a hydroxyl radical recombination process is limited in the modern atmosphere, it would be possible in the Archean atmosphere when O2 was a trace constituent, and H2O2 would be mass-independently fractionated. The anomalous 17O excess, which was observed in H2O2 produced by spark discharge experiments, may provide useful information about the radical chemistry of the ancient atmosphere and the role of H2O2 in maintaining and controlling the atmospheric composition.

  13. Numerical Simulation of Pulsation Flow in the Vapour Channel of Short Low Temperature Heat Pipes at High Heat Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seryakov, A. V.; Konkin, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    The results of the numerical simulation of pulsations in the Laval-liked vapour channel of short low-temperature range heat pipes (HPs) are presented. The numerical results confirmed the experimentally obtained increase of the frequency of pulsations in the vapour channel of short HPs with increasing overheat of the porous evaporator relative to the boiling point of the working fluid. The occurrence of pressure pulsations inside the vapour channel in a short HPs is a complex phenomenon associated with the boiling beginning in the capillary-porous evaporator at high heat loads, and appearance the excess amount of vapour above it, leading to the increase in pressure P to a value at which the boiling point TB of the working fluid becomes higher than the evaporator temperature Tev. Vapour clot spreads through the vapour channel and condense, and then a rarefaction wave return from condenser in the evaporator, the boiling in which is resumed and the next cycle of the pulsations is repeated. Numerical simulation was performed using finite element method implemented in the commercial program ANSYS Multiphisics 14.5 in the two-dimensional setting of axis symmetric moist vapour flow with third kind boundary conditions.

  14. Time-dependent calculations of molten pool formation and thermal plasma with metal vapour in gas tungsten arc welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, M.; Yamamoto, K.; Tashiro, S.; Nakata, K.; Yamamoto, E.; Yamazaki, K.; Suzuki, K.; Murphy, A. B.; Lowke, J. J.

    2010-11-01

    A gas tungsten arc (GTA) was modelled taking into account the contamination of the plasma by metal vapour from the molten anode. The whole region of GTA atmosphere including the tungsten cathode, the arc plasma and the anode was treated using a unified numerical model. A viscosity approximation was used to express the diffusion coefficient in terms of viscosity of the shielding gas and metal vapour. The transient two-dimensional distributions of temperature, velocity of plasma flow and iron vapour concentration were predicted, together with the molten pool as a function of time for a 150 A arc current at atmospheric pressure, both for helium and argon gases. It was shown that the thermal plasma in the GTA was influenced by iron vapour from the molten pool surface and that the concentration of iron vapour in the plasma was dependent on the temperature of the molten pool. GTA on high sulfur stainless steel was calculated to discuss the differences between a low sulfur and a high sulfur stainless steel anode. Helium was selected as the shielding gas because a helium GTA produces more metal vapour than an argon GTA. In the GTA on a high sulfur stainless steel anode, iron vapour and current path were constricted. Radiative emission density in the GTA on high sulfur stainless steel was also concentrated in the centre area of the arc plasma together with the iron vapour although the temperature distributions were almost the same as that in the case of a low sulfur stainless steel anode.

  15. In vitro toxicity test of nano-sized magnesium oxide synthesized via solid-phase transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun; Zhou, Wei

    2018-04-01

    Nano-sized magnesium oxide (MgO) has been a promising potential material for biomedical pharmaceuticals. In the present investigation, MgO nanoparticles synthesized through in-situ solid-phase transformation based on the previous work (nano-Mg(OH)2 prepared by precipitation technique) using magnesium nitrate and sodium hydroxide. The phase structure and morphology of the MgO nanoparticles are characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), selected area electronic diffraction (SAED) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) respectively. In vitro hemolysis tests are adopted to evaluate the toxicity of the synthesized nano-MgO. The results evident that nano-MgO with lower concentration is slightly hemolytic, and with concentration increasing nano-MgO exhibit dose-responsive hemolysis.

  16. Toxicity of spray and fumigant products containing cassia oil to Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Soon-Ii; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Koh, Young-Yull; Clark, J Marshall; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2006-08-01

    The toxicity of formulations of oil of cassia, Cinnamomum cassia Blume, (20 and 50 g L(-1) sprays and 100% oil-based fumigant) to adult Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes and D. pteronyssinus Trouessart was examined using contact and vapour-phase toxicity bioassays. Results were compared with the lethal activity of three commercial acaricides: benzyl benzoate, dibutyl phthalate and diethyl-m-toluamide (deet). The contact toxicity of cassia oil to both dust mite species was comparable with that of benzyl benzoate but was higher than that of the other two acaricides. Sprays containing 20 and 50 g L(-1) cassia oil were effective against both mite species when applied to fabric, glass, paper, plastic, tin or wood substrates. Applications of the 50 g L(-1) spray to different space volumes and surface areas determined that 50-60 mg of cassia oil was needed to control dust mites in 3.4 m(3) or in 1 m(2). In tests with fumigant devices, toxicity varied according to the thickness of non-woven fabric covering the device, the exposure time, the number of fumigant devices used and the volume of the space sprayed. Fumigant toxicity to adult D. pteronyssinus was more pronounced with devices enclosed in thinner (40 microm) versus thicker (45 or 50 microm) non-woven fabric covers. A single fumigant device with a 40 microm thick non-woven fabric cover resulted in substantial control in a space of 0.05 m(3) but exhibited only moderate to weak control in spaces >or= 0.097 m(3) at 4 days after application. Two fumigant devices gave 88% mortality in a space of 1.73 m(3). Cassia oil applied as sprays or in fumigant devices appears to provide effective protection of humans from house dust mites.

  17. Nonequilibrium study of the intrinsic free-energy profile across a liquid-vapour interface

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Braga, Carlos, E-mail: ccorreia@imperial.ac.uk; Muscatello, Jordan, E-mail: jordan.muscatello@imperial.ac.uk; Lau, Gabriel, E-mail: gabriel.lau07@imperial.ac.uk

    2016-01-28

    We calculate an atomistically detailed free-energy profile across a heterogeneous system using a nonequilibrium approach. The path-integral formulation of Crooks fluctuation theorem is used in conjunction with the intrinsic sampling method to calculate the free-energy profile for the liquid-vapour interface of the Lennard-Jones fluid. Free-energy barriers are found corresponding to the atomic layering in the liquid phase as well as a barrier associated with the presence of an adsorbed layer as revealed by the intrinsic density profile. Our findings are in agreement with profiles calculated using Widom’s potential distribution theorem applied to both the average and the intrinsic profiles asmore » well as the literature values for the excess chemical potential.« less

  18. Towards outperforming conventional sensor arrays with fabricated individual photonic vapour sensors inspired by Morpho butterflies

    PubMed Central

    Potyrailo, Radislav A.; Bonam, Ravi K.; Hartley, John G.; Starkey, Timothy A.; Vukusic, Peter; Vasudev, Milana; Bunning, Timothy; Naik, Rajesh R.; Tang, Zhexiong; Palacios, Manuel A.; Larsen, Michael; Le Tarte, Laurie A.; Grande, James C.; Zhong, Sheng; Deng, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Combining vapour sensors into arrays is an accepted compromise to mitigate poor selectivity of conventional sensors. Here we show individual nanofabricated sensors that not only selectively detect separate vapours in pristine conditions but also quantify these vapours in mixtures, and when blended with a variable moisture background. Our sensor design is inspired by the iridescent nanostructure and gradient surface chemistry of Morpho butterflies and involves physical and chemical design criteria. The physical design involves optical interference and diffraction on the fabricated periodic nanostructures and uses optical loss in the nanostructure to enhance the spectral diversity of reflectance. The chemical design uses spatially controlled nanostructure functionalization. Thus, while quantitation of analytes in the presence of variable backgrounds is challenging for most sensor arrays, we achieve this goal using individual multivariable sensors. These colorimetric sensors can be tuned for numerous vapour sensing scenarios in confined areas or as individual nodes for distributed monitoring. PMID:26324320

  19. Revisiting the definition of dose-limiting toxicities in paediatric oncology phase I clinical trials: An analysis from the Innovative Therapies for Children with Cancer Consortium.

    PubMed

    Bautista, Francisco; Moreno, Lucas; Marshall, Lynley; Pearson, Andrew D J; Geoerger, Birgit; Paoletti, Xavier

    2017-11-01

    Dose-escalation trials aim to identify the maximum tolerated dose and, importantly, the recommended phase II dose (RP2D) and rely on the occurrence of dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) during the first treatment cycle. Molecularly targeted agents (MTAs) often follow continuous and prolonged administrations, displaying a distinct toxicity profile compared to conventional chemotherapeutics, and classical DLT criteria might not be appropriate to evaluate MTAs' toxicity. We investigated this issue in children. The Innovative Therapies for Children with Cancer Consortium (ITCC) phase I trials of novel anticancer agents between 2004 and 2015 were analysed. Data from investigational product, trial design, items defining DLT/RP2D were extracted. A survey on dose-escalation process, DLTs and RP2D definition was conducted among the ITCC clinical trials committee members. Thirteen phase I trials with 15 dose-escalation cohorts were analysed. They explored 11 MTAs and 2 novel cytotoxics; 12 evaluated DLT during cycle 1. Definition of DLT was heterogeneous: Grade III-IV haematologic toxicities that were transient or asymptomatic and grade III-IV non-haematological toxicities manageable with adequate supportive care were often excluded, whereas some included dose intensity or grade II toxicities into DLT. None of the studies considered delayed toxicity into the RP2D definition. DLTs should be homogeneously defined across trials, limiting the number of exceptions due to specific toxicities. Dose escalation should still be based on safety data from cycle 1, but delayed and overall toxicities, pharmacokinetic parameters and pharmacodynamic data should be considered to refine the final RP2D. The evaluation of long-term toxicity in the developing child cannot be adequately addressed in early trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Distillation with Vapour Compression. An Undergraduate Experimental Facility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Colin

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the need to design distillation columns that are more energy efficient. Describes a "design and build" project completed by two college students aimed at demonstrating the principles of vapour compression distillation in a more energy efficient way. General design specifications are given, along with suggestions for teaching…

  1. High efficiency coherent optical memory with warm rubidium vapour

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, M.; Sparkes, B.M.; Campbell, G.; Lam, P.K.; Buchler, B.C.

    2011-01-01

    By harnessing aspects of quantum mechanics, communication and information processing could be radically transformed. Promising forms of quantum information technology include optical quantum cryptographic systems and computing using photons for quantum logic operations. As with current information processing systems, some form of memory will be required. Quantum repeaters, which are required for long distance quantum key distribution, require quantum optical memory as do deterministic logic gates for optical quantum computing. Here, we present results from a coherent optical memory based on warm rubidium vapour and show 87% efficient recall of light pulses, the highest efficiency measured to date for any coherent optical memory suitable for quantum information applications. We also show storage and recall of up to 20 pulses from our system. These results show that simple warm atomic vapour systems have clear potential as a platform for quantum memory. PMID:21285952

  2. High efficiency coherent optical memory with warm rubidium vapour.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, M; Sparkes, B M; Campbell, G; Lam, P K; Buchler, B C

    2011-02-01

    By harnessing aspects of quantum mechanics, communication and information processing could be radically transformed. Promising forms of quantum information technology include optical quantum cryptographic systems and computing using photons for quantum logic operations. As with current information processing systems, some form of memory will be required. Quantum repeaters, which are required for long distance quantum key distribution, require quantum optical memory as do deterministic logic gates for optical quantum computing. Here, we present results from a coherent optical memory based on warm rubidium vapour and show 87% efficient recall of light pulses, the highest efficiency measured to date for any coherent optical memory suitable for quantum information applications. We also show storage and recall of up to 20 pulses from our system. These results show that simple warm atomic vapour systems have clear potential as a platform for quantum memory.

  3. The MM5 Numerical Model to Correct PSInSAR Atmospheric Phase Screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perissin, D.; Pichelli, E.; Ferretti, R.; Rocca, F.; Pierdicca, N.

    2010-03-01

    In this work we make an experimental analysis to research the capability of Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models as MM5 to produce high resolution (1km-500m) maps of Integrated Water Vapour (IWV) in the atmosphere to mitigate the well-known disturbances that affect the radar signal while travelling from the sensor to the ground and back. Experiments have been conducted over the area surrounding Rome using ERS data acquired during the three days phase in '94 and using Envisat data acquired in recent years. By means of the PS technique SAR data have been processed and the Atmospheric Phase Screen (APS) of Slave images with respect to a reference Master have been extracted. MM5 IWV maps have a much lower resolution than PSInSAR APS's: the turbulent term of the atmospheric vapour field cannot be well resolved by MM5, at least with the low resolution ECMWF inputs. However, the vapour distribution term that depends on the local topography has been found quite in accordance.

  4. A microwave satellite water vapour column retrieval for polar winter conditions

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Perro, Christopher; Lesins, Glen; Duck, Thomas J.

    A new microwave satellite water vapour retrieval for the polar winter atmosphere is presented. The retrieval builds on the work of Miao et al. (2001) and Melsheimer and Heygster (2008), employing auxiliary information for atmospheric conditions and numerical optimization. It was tested using simulated and actual measurements from the Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) satellite instruments. Ground truth was provided by the G-band vapour radiometer (GVR) at Barrow, Alaska. For water vapour columns less than 6 kg m -2, comparisons between the retrieval and GVR result in a root mean square (RMS) deviation of 0.39 kg m -2 and a systematic bias of 0.08 kg m -2. These results aremore » compared with RMS deviations and biases at Barrow for the retrieval of Melsheimer and Heygster (2008), the AIRS and MIRS satellite data products, and the ERA-Interim, NCEP, JRA-55, and ASR reanalyses. When applied to MHS measurements, the new retrieval produces a smaller RMS deviation and bias than for the earlier retrieval and satellite data products. The RMS deviations for the new retrieval were comparable to those for the ERA-Interim, JRA-55, and ASR reanalyses; however, the MHS retrievals have much finer horizontal resolution (15 km at nadir) and reveal more structure. The new retrieval can be used to obtain pan-Arctic maps of water vapour columns of unprecedented quality. It may also be applied to measurements from the Special Sensor Microwave/Temperature 2 (SSM/T2), Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit B (AMSU-B), Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS), Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS), and Chinese MicroWave Humidity Sounder (MWHS) instruments.« less

  5. Seasonally-Active Water on Mars: Vapour, Ice, Adsorbate, and the Possibility of Liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, M. I.

    2002-12-01

    Seasonally-active water can be defined to include any water reservoir that communicates with other reservoirs on time scales of a year or shorter. It is the interaction of these water reservoirs, under the influence of varying solar radiation and in conjunction with surface and atmospheric temperatures, that determines the phase-stability field for water at the surface, and the distribution of water in various forms below, on, and above the surface. The atmosphere is the critical, dynamical link in this cycling system, and also (fortunately) one of the easiest to observe. Viking and Mars Global Surveyor observations paint a strongly asymmetric picture of the global seasonal water cycle, tied proximately to planetary eccentricity, and the existence of residual ice caps of different composition at the two poles. The northern summer experiences the largest water vapour columns, and is associated with sublimation from the northern residual water ice cap. The southern summer residual carbon dioxide ice cap is cold trap for water. Asymmetry in the water cycle is an unsolved problem. Possible solutions may involve the current timing of perihelion (the water cap resides at the pole experiencing the longer but cooler summer), the trapping of water ice in the northern hemisphere by tropical water ice clouds, and the bias in the annual-average, zonal-mean atmospheric circulation resulting from the zonal-mean difference in the elevation of the northern and southern hemispheres. Adsorbed and frozen water have proven harder to constrain. Recent Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer results suggest substantial ground ice in the mid- and high-latitudes, but this water is likely below the seasonal skin depth for two reasons: the GRS results are best fit with such a model, and GCM models of the water cycle produce dramatically unrealistic atmospheric vapour distributions when such a very near surface, GRS-like distribution is initialized - ultimately removing the water to the northern and

  6. Leidenfrost vapour layer moderation of the drag crisis and trajectories of superhydrophobic and hydrophilic spheres falling in water.

    PubMed

    Vakarelski, Ivan U; Chan, Derek Y C; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2014-08-21

    We investigate the dynamic effects of a Leidenfrost vapour layer sustained on the surface of heated steel spheres during free fall in water. We find that a stable vapour layer sustained on the textured superhydrophobic surface of spheres falling through 95 °C water can reduce the hydrodynamic drag by up to 75% and stabilize the sphere trajectory for the Reynolds number between 10(4) and 10(6), spanning the drag crisis in the absence of the vapour layer. For hydrophilic spheres under the same conditions, the transition to drag reduction and trajectory stability occurs abruptly at a temperature different from the static Leidenfrost point. The observed drag reduction effects are attributed to the disruption of the viscous boundary layer by the vapour layer whose thickness depends on the water temperature. Both the drag reduction and the trajectory stabilization effects are expected to have significant implications for development of sustainable vapour layer based technologies.

  7. Characterization of aqueous interactions of copper-doped phosphate-based glasses by vapour sorption.

    PubMed

    Stähli, Christoph; Shah Mohammadi, Maziar; Waters, Kristian E; Nazhat, Showan N

    2014-07-01

    Owing to their adjustable dissolution properties, phosphate-based glasses (PGs) are promising materials for the controlled release of bioinorganics, such as copper ions. This study describes a vapour sorption method that allowed for the investigation of the kinetics and mechanisms of aqueous interactions of PGs of the formulation 50P2O5-30CaO-(20-x)Na2O-xCuO (x=0, 1, 5 and 10mol.%). Initial characterization was performed using (31)P magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Increasing CuO content resulted in chemical shifts of the predominant Q(2) NMR peak and of the (POP)as and (PO(-)) Fourier transform infrared absorptions, owing to the higher strength of the POCu bond compared to PONa. Vapour sorption and desorption were gravimetrically measured in PG powders exposed to variable relative humidity (RH). Sorption was negligible below 70% RH and increased exponentially with RH from 70 to 90%, where it exhibited a negative correlation with CuO content. Vapour sorption in 0% and 1% CuO glasses resulted in phosphate chain hydration and hydrolysis, as evidenced by protonated Q(0)(1H) and Q(1)(1H) species. Dissolution rates in deionized water showed a linear correlation (R(2)>0.99) with vapour sorption. Furthermore, cation release rates could be predicted based on dissolution rates and PG composition. The release of orthophosphate and short polyphosphate species corroborates the action of hydrolysis and was correlated with pH changes. In conclusion, the agreement between vapour sorption and routine characterization techniques in water demonstrates the potential of this method for the study of PG aqueous reactions. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Southern Greenland water vapour isotopic composition at the crossroads of Atlantic and Arctic moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonne, J. L.; Steen-Larsen, H. C.; Risi, C. M.; Werner, M.; Sodemann, H.; Lacour, J. L.; Fettweis, X.; Cesana, G.; Delmotte, M.; Cattani, O.; Clerbaux, C.; Sveinbjörnsdottir, A. E.; Masson-Delmotte, V.

    2014-12-01

    Since September 2011, a continuous water vapour isotopic composition monitoring instrument has been remotely operated in Ivittuut (61.21°N, 48.17°W), southern Greenland. Meteorological parameters are monitored and precipitation has been sampled and analysed for isotopic composition, suggesting equilibrium between surface vapour and precipitation. The data depict small summer diurnal variations. δ18O and deuterium excess (d-excess) are generally anti-correlated and show important seasonal variations (with respective amplitudes of 10 and 20 ‰), and large synoptic variations associated to low-pressure systems (typically +5‰ on δ18O and -15‰ on d-excess). The moisture sources, estimated based on Lagrangian back-trajectories, are primarily influenced by the western North Atlantic, and north-eastern American continent. Notable are important seasonal and synoptic shifts of the moisture sources, and sporadic influences of the Arctic or the eastern North Atlantic. Moisture sources variations can be related to changes in water vapour isotopic composition, and the isotopic fingerprints can be attributed to the areas of moisture origins. Isotopic enabled AGCMs nudged to meteorology (LMDZiso, ECHAM5-wiso), despite biases, correctly capture the δ18O changes, but underestimate the d-excess changes. They allow to identify a high correlation between the southern Greenland d-excess and the simulated relative humidity and d-excess in the moisture source region south of Greenland. An extreme high temperature event in July 2012 affecting all Greenland, similar to ice sheet melt events during the medieval periods and one event in 1889 documented by Greenland ice core records, has been analysed regarding water vapour isotopic composition, using remote sensing (IASI) and in situ observations from Bermuda to northern Greenland (NEEM station). Our southern Greenland observations allow to track the water vapour evolution during this event along the moisture transport path

  9. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Metal vapour causes a central minimum in arc temperature in gas-metal arc welding through increased radiative emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnick, M.; Füssel, U.; Hertel, M.; Spille-Kohoff, A.; Murphy, A. B.

    2010-01-01

    A computational model of the argon arc plasma in gas-metal arc welding (GMAW) that includes the influence of metal vapour from the electrode is presented. The occurrence of a central minimum in the radial distributions of temperature and current density is demonstrated. This is in agreement with some recent measurements of arc temperatures in GMAW, but contradicts other measurements and also the predictions of previous models, which do not take metal vapour into account. It is shown that the central minimum is a consequence of the strong radiative emission from the metal vapour. Other effects of the metal vapour, such as the flux of relatively cold vapour from the electrode and the increased electrical conductivity, are found to be less significant. The different effects of metal vapour in gas-tungsten arc welding and GMAW are explained.

  10. Development of a BALB/c 3T3 neutral red uptake cytotoxicity test using a mainstream cigarette smoke exposure system

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoke toxicity has traditionally been assessed using the particulate fraction under submerged culture conditions which omits the vapour phase elements from any subsequent analysis. Therefore, methodologies that assess the full interactions and complexities of tobacco smoke are required. Here we describe the adaption of a modified BALB/c 3T3 neutral red uptake (NRU) cytotoxicity test methodology, which is based on the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) protocol for in vitro acute toxicity testing. The methodology described takes into account the synergies of both the particulate and vapour phase of tobacco smoke. This is of particular importance as both phases have been independently shown to induce in vitro cellular cytotoxicity. Findings The findings from this study indicate that mainstream tobacco smoke and the gas vapour phase (GVP), generated using the Vitrocell® VC 10 smoke exposure system, have distinct and significantly different toxicity profiles. Within the system tested, mainstream tobacco smoke produced a dilution IC50 (dilution (L/min) at which 50% cytotoxicity is observed) of 6.02 L/min, whereas the GVP produced a dilution IC50 of 3.20 L/min. In addition, we also demonstrated significant dose-for-dose differences between mainstream cigarette smoke and the GVP fraction (P < 0.05). This demonstrates the importance of testing the entire tobacco smoke aerosol and not just the particulate fraction, as has been the historical preference. Conclusions We have adapted the NRU methodology based on the ICCVAM protocol to capture the full interactions and complexities of tobacco smoke. This methodology could also be used to assess the performance of traditional cigarettes, blend and filter technologies, tobacco smoke fractions and individual test aerosols. PMID:24935030

  11. Real-time fluorescence quenching-based detection of nitro-containing explosive vapours: what are the key processes?

    PubMed

    Shaw, P E; Burn, P L

    2017-11-15

    The detection of explosives continues to be a pressing global challenge with many potential technologies being pursued by the scientific research community. Luminescence-based detection of explosive vapours with an organic semiconductor has attracted much interest because of its potential for detectors that have high sensitivity, compact form factor, simple operation and low-cost. Despite the abundance of literature on novel sensor materials systems there are relatively few mechanistic studies targeted towards vapour-based sensing. In this Perspective, we will review the progress that has been made in understanding the processes that control the real-time luminescence quenching of thin films by analyte vapours. These are the non-radiative quenching process by which the sensor exciton decays, the analyte-sensor intermolecular binding interaction, and the diffusion process for the analyte vapours in the film. We comment on the contributions of each of these processes towards the sensing response and, in particular, the relative roles of analyte diffusion and exciton diffusion. While the latter has been historically judged to be one of, if not the primary, causes for the high sensitivity of many conjugated polymers to nitrated vapours, recent evidence suggests that long exciton diffusion lengths are unnecessary. The implications of these results on the development of sensor materials for real-time detection are discussed.

  12. Solid-state detector system for measuring concentrations of tritiated water vapour and other radioactive gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, J. C.; Surette, R. A.; Wood, M. J.

    1999-08-01

    A detector system was built using a silicon photodiode plus preamplifier and a cesium iodide scintillator plus preamplifier that were commercially available. The potential of the system for measuring concentrations of tritiated water vapour in the presence of other radioactive sources was investigated. For purposes of radiation protection, the sensitivity of the detector system was considered too low for measuring tritiated water vapour concentrations in workplaces such as nuclear power plants. Nevertheless, the spectrometry capability of the system was used successfully to differentiate amongst some radioactive gases in laboratory tests. Although this relatively small system can measure radioactive noble gases as well as tritiated water vapour concentrations, its response to photons remains an issue.

  13. Transport of metals and sulphur in magmas by flotation of sulphide melt on vapour bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mungall, J. E.; Brenan, J. M.; Godel, B.; Barnes, S. J.; Gaillard, F.

    2015-03-01

    Emissions of sulphur and metals from magmas in Earth’s shallow crust can have global impacts on human society. Sulphur-bearing gases emitted into the atmosphere during volcanic eruptions affect climate, and metals and sulphur can accumulate in the crust above a magma reservoir to form giant copper and gold ore deposits, as well as massive sulphur anomalies. The volumes of sulphur and metals that accumulate in the crust over time exceed the amounts that could have been derived from an isolated magma reservoir. They are instead thought to come from injections of multiple new batches of vapour- and sulphide-saturated magmas into the existing reservoirs. However, the mechanism for the selective upward transfer of sulphur and metals is poorly understood because their main carrier phase, sulphide melt, is dense and is assumed to settle to the bottoms of magma reservoirs. Here we use laboratory experiments as well as gas-speciation and mass-balance models to show that droplets of sulphide melt can attach to vapour bubbles to form compound drops that float. We demonstrate the feasibility of this mechanism for the upward mobility of sulphide liquids to the shallow crust. Our work provides a mechanism for the atmospheric release of large amounts of sulphur, and contradicts the widely held assumption that dense sulphide liquids rich in sulphur, copper and gold will remain sequestered in the deep crust.

  14. Polymer nanocomposite nanomechanical cantilever sensors: material characterization, device development and application in explosive vapour detection.

    PubMed

    Seena, V; Fernandes, Avil; Pant, Prita; Mukherji, Soumyo; Rao, V Ramgopal

    2011-07-22

    This paper reports an optimized and highly sensitive piezoresistive SU-8 nanocomposite microcantilever sensor and its application for detection of explosives in vapour phase. The optimization has been in improving its electrical, mechanical and transduction characteristics. We have achieved a better dispersion of carbon black (CB) in the SU-8/CB nanocomposite piezoresistor and arrived at an optimal range of 8-9 vol% CB concentration by performing a systematic mechanical and electrical characterization of polymer nanocomposites. Mechanical characterization of SU-8/CB nanocomposite thin films was performed using the nanoindentation technique with an appropriate substrate effect analysis. Piezoresistive microcantilevers having an optimum carbon black concentration were fabricated using a design aimed at surface stress measurements with reduced fabrication process complexity. The optimal range of 8-9 vol% CB concentration has resulted in an improved sensitivity, low device variability and low noise level. The resonant frequency and spring constant of the microcantilever were found to be 22 kHz and 0.4 N m(-1) respectively. The devices exhibited a surface stress sensitivity of 7.6 ppm (mN m(-1))(-1) and the noise characterization results support their suitability for biochemical sensing applications. This paper also reports the ability of the sensor in detecting TNT vapour concentration down to less than six parts per billion with a sensitivity of 1 mV/ppb.

  15. A DISCUSSION ON UTILIZATION OF HEAT PIPE AND VAPOUR CHAMBER TECHNOLOGY AS A PRIMARY DEVICE FOR HEAT EXTRACTION FROM PHOTON ABSORBER SURFACES

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Suthar, K. J.; Lurie, Alexander M.; Den Hartog, P.

    Heat pipes and vapour chambers work on heat exchange phenomena of two-phase flow and are widely used for in-dustrial and commercial applications. These devices offer very high effective thermal conductivities (5,000-200,000 W/m/K) and are adaptable to various sizes, shapes, and ori-entations. Although they have been found to be an excel-lent thermal management solution for laptops, satellites, and many things in-between, heat pipes and vapour cham-bers have yet to be adopted for use at particle accelerator facilities where they offer the possibility of more compact and more efficient means to remove heat from unwanted synchrotron radiation. As with all technologies, theremore » are inherent limitations. Foremost, they are limited by practi-cality to serve as local heat transfer devices; heat transfer over long distances is likely best provided by other means. Heat pipes also introduce unique failure modes which must be considered.« less

  16. Formation of formic acid and organic peroxides in the ozonolysis of ethene with added water vapour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horie, Osamu; Neeb, Peter; Limbach, Stefan; Moortgat, Geert K.

    1994-07-01

    Ozonolysis of C2H4 was carried out in a 580 l glass reaction vessel at 1-5 ppm reactant concentrations, with added water vapour. Under dry conditions ([H2O]0 = 0.5 ppm), HCHO, CO, CO2, (CHO)2O (formic acid anhydride), H2O2, and CH3OOH were identified as the reaction products. Under wet conditions ([H2O]0 = 2 × 104 ppm), HCOOH yields approaching ca. 20% of the converted C2H4, were observed, while no (CHO)2O was formed. Hydroxymethyl hydroperoxide, HOCH2OOH, was observed as the major peroxide, and found to be formed only in the presence of water vapour. Direct reactions of H2O vapour with the excited CH2OO* radicals and with stabilized CH2OO radicals are postulated to explain the formation of HCOOH and HOCH2OOH in the presence of water vapour, respectively.

  17. Water-vapour variability within a convective boundary-layer assessed by large-eddy simulations and IHOP_2002 observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couvreux, F.; Guichard, F.; Redelsperger, J. L.; Kiemle, C.; Masson, V.; Lafore, J. P.; Flamant, C.

    2005-10-01

    This study presents a comprehensive analysis of the variability of water vapour in a growing convective boundary-layer (CBL) over land, highlighting the complex links between advection, convective activity and moisture heterogeneity in the boundary layer. A Large-eddy Simulation (LES) is designed, based on observations, and validated, using an independent data-set collected during the International H2O Project (IHOP 2002) fieldexperiment. Ample information about the moisture distribution in space and time, as well as other important CBL parameters are acquired by mesonet stations, balloon soundings, instruments on-board two aircraft and the DLR airborne water-vapour differential-absorption lidar. Because it can deliver two-dimensional cross-sections at high spatial resolution (140 m horizontal, 200 m vertical), the airborne lidar offers valuable insights of small-scale moisture-variability throughout the CBL. The LES is able to reproduce the development of the CBL in the morning and early afternoon, as assessed by comparisons of simulated mean profiles of key meteorological variables with sounding data. Simulated profiles of the variance of water-vapour mixing-ratio were found to be in good agreement with the lidar-derived counterparts. Finally, probability-density functions of potential temperature, vertical velocity and water-vapour mixing-ratio calculated from the LES show great consistency with those derived from aircraft in situ measurements in the middle of the CBL. Downdraughts entrained from above the CBL are governing the scale of moisture variability. Characteristic length-scales are found to be larger for water-vapour mixing-ratio than for temperature.The observed water-vapour variability exhibits contributions from different scales. The influence of the mesoscale (larger than LES domain size, i.e. 10 km) on the smaller-scale variability is assessed using LES and observations. The small-scale variability of water vapour is found to be important and to be

  18. Evolving Role of Passive Samplers in Whole Sediment Toxicity Identification Evaluations

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Phase I of whole sediment TIEs, causes of toxicity to freshwater and marine organisms are characterized into broad toxicant classes including ammonia, metals and organic chemicals. In Phase II of the TIE, the specific toxicants causing observed toxicity are identified. For a...

  19. Baseline toxicity of a chlorobenzene mixture and total body residues measured and estimated with solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Heather A; Hermens, Joop L M; Kraak, Michiel H S

    2004-08-01

    Body residues of compounds with a narcotic mode of action that exceed critical levels result in baseline toxicity in organisms. Previous studies have shown that internal concentrations in organisms also can be estimated by way of passive sampling. In this experiment, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers were used as a tool to estimate the body residues, which were then compared to measured levels. Past application of SPME fibers in the assessment of toxicity risk of samples has focused on separate exposure of fibers and organisms, often necessitated by the amount of agitation needed in order to achieve steady state in the fibers within a convenient time period. Uptake kinetic studies have shown that in SPME fibers with thin coatings, equilibrium concentrations can be reached without agitation within the time frame of a toxicity test. In contrast to toxicity experiments to date, the SPME fibers in the current study were exposed concomitantly to the test water with the organisms, ensuring an exposure under the exact same conditions. Fibers and two aquatic invertebrate species were exposed to a mixture of four chlorobenzenes with a narcotic mode of action. The total body residue of these compounds in the organisms was determined, as was the acute toxicity resulting from the accumulation. The total body residues of both species were correlated to the total concentrations in SPME fibers. It was concluded that toxicity could be predicted based on total body residue (TBR) estimates from fiber concentrations.

  20. Toxicity assessment of diesel- and metal-contaminated soils through elutriate and solid phase assays with the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ruiz, Amaia; Dondero, Francesco; Viarengo, Aldo; Marigómez, Ionan

    2016-06-01

    A suite of organisms from different taxonomical and ecological positions is needed to assess environmentally relevant soil toxicity. A new bioassay based on Dictyostelium is presented that is aimed at integrating slime molds into such a testing framework. Toxicity tests on elutriates and the solid phase developmental cycle assay were successfully applied to a soil spiked with a mixture of Zn, Cd, and diesel fuel freshly prepared (recently contaminated) and after 2 yr of aging. The elutriates of both soils provoked toxic effects, but toxicity was markedly lower in the aged soil. In the D. discoideum developmental cycle assay, both soils affected amoeba viability and aggregation, with fewer multicellular units, smaller fruiting bodies and, overall, inhibition of fruiting body formation. This assay is quick and requires small amounts of test soil, which might facilitate its incorporation into a multispecies multiple-endpoint toxicity bioassay battery suitable for environmental risk assessment in soils. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1413-1421. © 2015 SETAC. © 2015 SETAC.

  1. Dichlorvos vapour disinsection of aircraft

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Jens A.; Flury, Vincent P.; Schoof, Herbert F.

    1965-01-01

    The authors describe the testing of an automatic aircraft disinsection system permanently installed on a commercial DC-6B passenger aircraft. An air-compressor forces ambient cabin air, partially saturated with dichlorvos vapour at a set concentration, through the cabin, cockpit and baggage compartments of the aircraft for 30 minutes. Insecticide concentrations and insect mortality were observed in post-overhaul check flights, and insect mortality and passenger reactions were observed on scheduled flights between Miami, Florida, and Nassau, Bahamas. The results showed satisfactory biological efficiency. The passengers were unaware of the disinsection process and showed no signs of discomfort. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3 PMID:14310904

  2. Oscillatory vapour shielding of liquid metal walls in nuclear fusion devices.

    PubMed

    van Eden, G G; Kvon, V; van de Sanden, M C M; Morgan, T W

    2017-08-04

    Providing an efficacious plasma facing surface between the extreme plasma heat exhaust and the structural materials of nuclear fusion devices is a major challenge on the road to electricity production by fusion power plants. The performance of solid plasma facing surfaces may become critically reduced over time due to progressing damage accumulation. Liquid metals, however, are now gaining interest in solving the challenge of extreme heat flux hitting the reactor walls. A key advantage of liquid metals is the use of vapour shielding to reduce the plasma exhaust. Here we demonstrate that this phenomenon is oscillatory by nature. The dynamics of a Sn vapour cloud are investigated by exposing liquid Sn targets to H and He plasmas at heat fluxes greater than 5 MW m -2 . The observations indicate the presence of a dynamic equilibrium between the plasma and liquid target ruled by recombinatory processes in the plasma, leading to an approximately stable surface temperature.Vapour shielding is one of the interesting mechanisms for reducing the heat load to plasma facing components in fusion reactors. Here the authors report on the observation of a dynamic equilibrium between the plasma and the divertor liquid Sn surface leading to an overall stable surface temperature.

  3. Highly efficient solar vapour generation via hierarchically nanostructured gels.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fei; Zhou, Xingyi; Shi, Ye; Qian, Xin; Alexander, Megan; Zhao, Xinpeng; Mendez, Samantha; Yang, Ronggui; Qu, Liangti; Yu, Guihua

    2018-04-02

    Solar vapour generation is an efficient way of harvesting solar energy for the purification of polluted or saline water. However, water evaporation suffers from either inefficient utilization of solar energy or relies on complex and expensive light-concentration accessories. Here, we demonstrate a hierarchically nanostructured gel (HNG) based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polypyrrole (PPy) that serves as an independent solar vapour generator. The converted energy can be utilized in situ to power the vaporization of water contained in the molecular meshes of the PVA network, where water evaporation is facilitated by the skeleton of the hydrogel. A floating HNG sample evaporated water with a record high rate of 3.2 kg m -2  h -1 via 94% solar energy from 1 sun irradiation, and 18-23 litres of water per square metre of HNG was delivered daily when purifying brine water. These values were achievable due to the reduced latent heat of water evaporation in the molecular mesh under natural sunlight.

  4. Highly efficient solar vapour generation via hierarchically nanostructured gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Fei; Zhou, Xingyi; Shi, Ye; Qian, Xin; Alexander, Megan; Zhao, Xinpeng; Mendez, Samantha; Yang, Ronggui; Qu, Liangti; Yu, Guihua

    2018-06-01

    Solar vapour generation is an efficient way of harvesting solar energy for the purification of polluted or saline water. However, water evaporation suffers from either inefficient utilization of solar energy or relies on complex and expensive light-concentration accessories. Here, we demonstrate a hierarchically nanostructured gel (HNG) based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polypyrrole (PPy) that serves as an independent solar vapour generator. The converted energy can be utilized in situ to power the vaporization of water contained in the molecular meshes of the PVA network, where water evaporation is facilitated by the skeleton of the hydrogel. A floating HNG sample evaporated water with a record high rate of 3.2 kg m-2 h-1 via 94% solar energy from 1 sun irradiation, and 18-23 litres of water per square metre of HNG was delivered daily when purifying brine water. These values were achievable due to the reduced latent heat of water evaporation in the molecular mesh under natural sunlight.

  5. Mode of action and variability in efficacy of plant essential oils showing toxicity against the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae.

    PubMed

    George, D R; Smith, T J; Shiel, R S; Sparagano, O A E; Guy, J H

    2009-05-12

    This paper describes a series of experiments to examine the mode of action and toxicity of three plant essential oils (thyme, manuka and pennyroyal) to the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer), a serious ectoparasitic pest of laying hens. All three oils were found to be toxic to D. gallinae in laboratory tests with LC(50), LC(90) and LC(99) values below 0.05, 0.20 and 0.30mg/cm(3), respectively, suggesting that these products may make for effective acaricides against this pest. Further experiments demonstrated that when mites were exposed to only the vapour phase of the essential oil without contact with the oil itself, mortality was consistently higher in closed arenas than in arenas open to the surrounding environment, or in control arenas. This suggests that all three essential oils were toxic to D. gallinae by fumigant action. In addition, in an experiment where mites were allowed contact with the essential oil in either open or closed arenas, mortality was always reduced in the open arenas where this was comparable to control mortality for thyme and pennyroyal essential oil treatments. This supports the findings of the previous experiment and also suggests that, with the possible exception of manuka, the selected essential oils were not toxic to D. gallinae on contact. Statistical comparisons were made between the toxicity of the selected essential oils to D. gallinae in the current work and in a previous study conducted in the same laboratory. The results demonstrated considerable variation in LC(50), LC(90) and LC(99) values. Since both the essential oils and the mites were obtained from identical sources in the two studies, it is hypothesized that this variation resulted from the use of different 'batches' of essential oil, which could have varied in chemistry and hence acaricidal activity.

  6. A review of vapour lock issues during motor gasoline or automotive gasoline usage in piston engine aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thanikasalam, K.; Rahmat, M.; Fahmi, A. G. Mohammad; Zulkifli, A. M.; Shawal, N. Noor; Ilanchelvi, K.; Ananth, M.; Elayarasan, R.

    2018-05-01

    Since there is a developing practice of utilizing automotive fuels as flight fuel, there are higher chances of dangerous scenarios, particularly in the operation of piston aircraft engines. The use of motor vehicle gas (MOGAS) or aviation gas (AVGAS) in the operation of aviation piston engine increases the risk of vapour locking. A statistical examination of European aviation industry indicates that around 20,000 aircraft are affected either specifically or conceivably by the different negative impacts of gasoline blended with ethanol. Particularly, for most contemporary carburettor engines, there are risks associated with ethanol-admixed fuels that have potential to upset engine operation. The danger of vapour locking, which is the generation of gas bubbles inside the fuel system causing an impairment of fuel movement in the engine, is well documented particularly by studies on aircraft using MOGAS. Contrasted with AVGAS, MOGAS is inclined to demonstrate this phenomenon. Vapour lock is perhaps the leading serious problem that ought to be addressed if MOGAS is to be used as a substitute for AVGAS. Vapour lock problem is critical because it causes malfunctions to aircraft engines. Thus, an understanding of vapour handling ability of small aircraft is essential to establish safe operating confines at existing fuel temperature and pressures.

  7. Vapour-liquid interfacial properties of square-well chains from density functional theory and Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ruiz, Francisco José; Blas, Felipe J; Moreno-Ventas Bravo, A Ignacio; Míguez, José Manuel; MacDowell, Luis G

    2017-05-17

    The statistical associating fluid theory for attractive potentials of variable range (SAFT-VR) density functional theory (DFT) developed by [Gloor et al., J. Chem. Phys., 2004, 121, 12740-12759] is used to predict the interfacial behaviour of molecules modelled as fully-flexible square-well chains formed from tangentially-bonded monomers of diameter σ and potential range λ = 1.5σ. Four different model systems, comprising 4, 8, 12, and 16 monomers per molecule, are considered. In addition to that, we also compute a number of interfacial properties of molecular chains from direct simulation of the vapour-liquid interface. The simulations are performed in the canonical ensemble, and the vapour-liquid interfacial tension is evaluated using the wandering interface (WIM) method, a technique based on the thermodynamic definition of surface tension. Apart from surface tension, we also obtain density profiles, coexistence densities, vapour pressures, and critical temperature and density, paying particular attention to the effect of the chain length on these properties. According to our results, the main effect of increasing the chain length (at fixed temperature) is to sharpen the vapour-liquid interface and to increase the width of the biphasic coexistence region. As a result, the interfacial thickness decreases and the surface tension increases as the molecular chains get longer. The interfacial thickness and surface tension appear to exhibit an asymptotic limiting behaviour for long chains. A similar behaviour is also observed for the coexistence densities and critical properties. Agreement between theory and simulation results indicates that SAFT-VR DFT is only able to predict qualitatively the interfacial properties of the model. Our results are also compared with simulation data taken from the literature, including the vapour-liquid coexistence densities, vapour pressures, and surface tension.

  8. UTLS water vapour from SCIAMACHY limb measurementsV3.01 (2002-2012).

    PubMed

    Weigel, K; Rozanov, A; Azam, F; Bramstedt, K; Damadeo, R; Eichmann, K-U; Gebhardt, C; Hurst, D; Kraemer, M; Lossow, S; Read, W; Spelten, N; Stiller, G P; Walker, K A; Weber, M; Bovensmann, H; Burrows, J P

    2016-01-01

    The SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) aboard the Envisat satellite provided measurements from August 2002 until April 2012. SCIAMACHY measured the scattered or direct sunlight using different observation geometries. The limb viewing geometry allows the retrieval of water vapour at about 10-25 km height from the near-infrared spectral range (1353-1410 nm). These data cover the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), a region in the atmosphere which is of special interest for a variety of dynamical and chemical processes as well as for the radiative forcing. Here, the latest data version of water vapour (V3.01) from SCIAMACHY limb measurements is presented and validated by comparisons with data sets from other satellite and in situ measurements. Considering retrieval tests and the results of these comparisons, the V3.01 data are reliable from about 11 to 23 km and the best results are found in the middle of the profiles between about 14 and 20 km. Above 20 km in the extra tropics V3.01 is drier than all other data sets. Additionally, for altitudes above about 19 km, the vertical resolution of the retrieved profile is not sufficient to resolve signals with a short vertical structure like the tape recorder. Below 14 km, SCIAMACHY water vapour V3.01 is wetter than most collocated data sets, but the high variability of water vapour in the troposphere complicates the comparison. For 14-20 km height, the expected errors from the retrieval and simulations and the mean differences to collocated data sets are usually smaller than 10 % when the resolution of the SCIAMACHY data is taken into account. In general, the temporal changes agree well with collocated data sets except for the Northern Hemisphere extratropical stratosphere, where larger differences are observed. This indicates a possible drift in V3.01 most probably caused by the incomplete treatment of volcanic aerosols in the retrieval. In all other regions a

  9. Thermal stability of γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles and their employment for sensing of acetone vapours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luby, Š.; Ivančo, J.; Jergel, M.; Švec, P., Jr.; Kotlár, M.; Kostiuk, D.; Halahovets, J.; Kollár, J.; Mosnáček, J.; Majková, E.

    2017-12-01

    Stability of γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles-based films upon an isochronal annealing in air was investigated by x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetry. The γ-α transformation temperature increased owing to the nanoscaling of Fe2O3; the higher stability of the γ phase was explained on the ground of the surface free energy of nanoparticles (with the size of about 6.4 nm). Further, chemiresistors based on the Fe2O3 nanoparticle bilayer prepared by the Langmuir-Schaefer method were fabricated and examined in terms of their sensitivity to acetone vapours down to 500 ppb concentration in air.

  10. Alleviating monoterpene toxicity using a two-phase extractive fermentation for the bioproduction of jet fuel mixtures in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Timothy C R; Turner, Christopher D; Krömer, Jens O; Nielsen, Lars K

    2012-10-01

    Monoterpenes are a diverse class of compounds with applications as flavors and fragrances, pharmaceuticals and more recently, jet fuels. Engineering biosynthetic pathways for monoterpene production in microbial hosts has received increasing attention. However, monoterpenes are highly toxic to many microorganisms including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a widely used industrial biocatalyst. In this work, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for S. cerevisiae was determined for five monoterpenes: β-pinene, limonene, myrcene, γ-terpinene, and terpinolene (1.52, 0.44, 2.12, 0.70, 0.53 mM, respectively). Given the low MIC for all compounds tested, a liquid two-phase solvent extraction system to alleviate toxicity during fermentation was evaluated. Ten solvents were tested for biocompatibility, monoterpene distribution, phase separation, and price. The solvents dioctyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, isopropyl myristate, and farnesene showed greater than 100-fold increase in the MIC compared to the monoterpenes in a solvent-free system. In particular, the MIC for limonene in dibutyl phthalate showed a 702-fold (308 mM, 42.1 g L(-1) of limonene) improvement while cell viability was maintained above 90%, demonstrating that extractive fermentation is a suitable tool for the reduction of monoterpene toxicity. Finally, we estimated that a limonane to farnesane ratio of 1:9 has physicochemical properties similar to traditional Jet-A aviation fuel. Since farnesene is currently produced in S. cerevisiae, its use as a co-product and extractant for microbial terpene-based jet fuel production in a two-phase system offers an attractive bioprocessing option. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Reliable determination of oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios in atmospheric water vapour adsorbed on 3A molecular sieve.

    PubMed

    Han, Liang-Feng; Gröning, Manfred; Aggarwal, Pradeep; Helliker, Brent R

    2006-01-01

    The isotope ratio of atmospheric water vapour is determined by wide-ranging feedback effects from the isotope ratio of water in biological water pools, soil surface horizons, open water bodies and precipitation. Accurate determination of atmospheric water vapour isotope ratios is important for a broad range of research areas from leaf-scale to global-scale isotope studies. In spite of the importance of stable isotopic measurements of atmospheric water vapour, there is a paucity of published data available, largely because of the requirement for liquid nitrogen or dry ice for quantitative trapping of water vapour. We report results from a non-cryogenic method for quantitatively trapping atmospheric water vapour using 3A molecular sieve, although water is removed from the column using standard cryogenic methods. The molecular sieve column was conditioned with water of a known isotope ratio to 'set' the background signature of the molecular sieve. Two separate prototypes were developed, one for large collection volumes (3 mL) and one for small collection volumes (90 microL). Atmospheric water vapour was adsorbed to the column by pulling air through the column for several days to reach the desired final volume. Water was recovered from the column by baking at 250 degrees C in a dry helium or nitrogen air stream and cryogenically trapped. For the large-volume apparatus, the recovered water differed from water that was simultaneously trapped by liquid nitrogen (the experimental control) by 2.6 per thousand with a standard deviation (SD) of 1.5 per thousand for delta(2)H and by 0.3 per thousand with a SD of 0.2 per thousand for delta(18)O. Water-vapour recovery was not satisfactory for the small volume apparatus. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Mammalian Toxicity of Munition Compounds. Phase II. Effects of Multiple Doses. Part III. 2,6-Dinitrotoluene

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-07-01

    Histopathology , Statistical Analysis, and Normal Values ..... ...... ........... 131 I Ii A.mmALIAN TOXICITY OF MUNITION COMPOUNDS PHASE II: Effects of...chemistry tests and histopathology , and the normal values are given in Appendix I. The concentrations of Ca 2+, Mg2 +, Na+ and K+ in serum were determined...mice fed 2,6-DNT included focal epicarditis or myocarditis, focal cystitis, chronic murine pneumonia or bronchopneumonia, metritis and focal myositis

  13. Study of Laser Created Metal Vapour Plasmas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    ance saturation could lead to extensive ground Zcvei burnout of certain kinds of atoms or ions and that this could lead to the creation of a ground...level FORM DD I JAN ", 1473 UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PACE ’l hen Dota Fnt ’UNCLASSIFIFD SS ~eUItTY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAqE(W"Sef...vapours. Preliminary calculations have suggested that laser resonance saturation could lead to extensive ground level burnout of certain kinds of

  14. Transversely diode-pumped alkali metal vapour laser

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Parkhomenko, A I; Shalagin, A M

    2015-09-30

    We have studied theoretically the operation of a transversely diode-pumped alkali metal vapour laser. For the case of high-intensity laser radiation, we have obtained an analytical solution to a complex system of differential equations describing the laser. This solution allows one to exhaustively determine all the energy characteristics of the laser and to find optimal parameters of the working medium and pump radiation (temperature, buffer gas pressure, and intensity and width of the pump spectrum). (lasers)

  15. Infrared Laser Optoacoustic Detection Of Gases And Vapours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, S. A.; Cummins, P. G.; Bone, S. A.; Davies, P. B.

    1988-10-01

    Mid-infrared laser optoacoustic spectroscopy has been used to detect a variety of gases and vapours. Performance was calibrated using the signal from a known concentration of ethene, and then the method applied to the perfume alcohol geraniol. Detection limits were found to be 1 ppb for ethene and 70 ppb for geraniol on their strongest absorption lines for a few seconds measurement time.

  16. The effect of ethanol vapour exposure on atrial and ventricular walls of chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Kamran, Kiran; Khan, Muhammad Yunus; Minhas, Liaqat Ali

    2016-10-01

    To study the effects of ethanol vapour exposure on atrial and ventricular walls of heart in chick embryo. The study design was experimental, conducted at Islamabad Centre of College of Physicians and Surgeons, Pakistan. One hundred and eighty chicken eggs were divided into two groups, experimental and control, of 90 eggs each. Each group was subdivided into three subgroups of 30 eggs each based on the day of sacrifice. Experimental group was exposed to ethanol vapours and then compared with age matched controls. The thickness of atrial and ventricular walls along with lengths of valvular cusps increased in hearts of day 7 and day 10 chick embryos in experimental group. There was thinning of walls and decreased length of valvular cusps in hearts of experimental chicks on hatching as compared to age matched controls. Ethanol vapour exposure during development causes cardiac and septal wall thickening during initial days of development followed by cardiac and septal wall thinning which is a classical picture of alcohol induced cardiomyopathies.

  17. Thermally decarboxylated sodium bicarbonate: Interactions with water vapour, calorimetric study

    PubMed Central

    Volkova, Natalia; Hansson, Henri; Ljunggren, Lennart

    2012-01-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was used to study interactions between water vapour and the surface of thermally converted sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). The decarboxylation degree of the samples was varied from 3% to 35% and the humidity range was 54–100%. The obtained enthalpy values were all exothermic and showed a positive linear correlation with decarboxylation degrees for each humidity studied. The critical humidity, 75% (RHo), was determined as the inflection point on a plot of the mean−ΔH kJ/mole Na2CO3 against RH. Humidities above the critical humidity lead to complete surface dissolution. The water uptake (m) was determined after each calorimetric experiment, complementing the enthalpy data. A mechanism of water vapour interaction with decarboxylated samples, including the formation of trona and Wegscheider’s salt on the bicarbonate surface is proposed for humidities below RHo. PMID:29403816

  18. Measurement of the densities of Cu and Ag vapours in a low-voltage switch using the hook method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lins, Günter

    2012-05-01

    In a research model of a low-voltage circuit breaker with fixed contacts and windows for optical access, arcs powered by either a high-current transformer or a capacitor bank were initiated by the explosion of tungsten wires. Air at atmospheric pressure was the switching medium. The number densities of neutral silver and copper vapours from contacts and arc runners were measured simultaneously by the hook method using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer combined with a 1 m spectrograph and a gated intensified CCD camera. When an arc current was flowing, a substantial fraction of the metal vapour was ionized, and thus not amenable to a density measurement with the technique chosen. To nevertheless obtain approximate density values, the arc current was forced to zero within 8 to 10 µs at a preset time and measurements were carried out 100 µs after extinction of the arc. At that time the metal vapour was expected to have recombined to a large extent but not yet diffused to the walls in significant amounts. Depending on the current amplitude reached within the arc duration the arc remained anchored to the silver contacts or commutated to the copper arc runners. At a maximum current amplitude of 650 A Ag vapour densities of the order of 1022 m-3 were observed near the anode outweighing the Cu vapour density by a factor of 20. When at 1600 A the arc commutated to the arc runners a Cu vapour density of 8 × 1021 m-3 was reached while the Ag density remained limited to 2 × 1021 m-3.

  19. Capillary microextraction: A new method for sampling methamphetamine vapour.

    PubMed

    Nair, M V; Miskelly, G M

    2016-11-01

    Clandestine laboratories pose a serious health risk to first responders, investigators, decontamination companies, and the public who may be inadvertently exposed to methamphetamine and other chemicals used in its manufacture. Therefore there is an urgent need for reliable methods to detect and measure methamphetamine at such sites. The most common method for determining methamphetamine contamination at former clandestine laboratory sites is selected surface wipe sampling, followed by analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). We are investigating the use of sampling for methamphetamine vapour to complement such wipe sampling. In this study, we report the use of capillary microextraction (CME) devices for sampling airborne methamphetamine, and compare their sampling efficiency with a previously reported dynamic SPME method. The CME devices consisted of PDMS-coated glass filter strips inside a glass tube. The devices were used to dynamically sample methamphetamine vapour in the range of 0.42-4.2μgm -3 , generated by a custom-built vapour dosing system, for 1-15min, and methamphetamine was analysed using a GC-MS fitted with a ChromatoProbe thermal desorption unit. The devices showed good reproducibility (RSD<15%), and a curvilinear pre-equilibrium relationship between sampling times and peak area, which can be utilised for calibration. Under identical sampling conditions, the CME devices were approximately 30 times more sensitive than the dynamic SPME method. The CME devices could be stored for up to 3days after sampling prior to analysis. Consecutive sampling of methamphetamine and its isotopic substitute, d-9 methamphetamine showed no competitive displacement. This suggests that CME devices, pre-loaded with an internal standard, could be a feasible method for sampling airborne methamphetamine at former clandestine laboratories. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. High-performance perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 thin films for solar cells prepared by single-source physical vapour deposition

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Ping; Gu, Di; Liang, Guang-Xing; Luo, Jing-Ting; Chen, Ju-Long; Zheng, Zhuang-Hao; Zhang, Dong-Ping

    2016-01-01

    In this work, an alternative route to fabricating high-quality CH3NH3PbI3 thin films is proposed. Single-source physical vapour deposition (SSPVD) without a post-heat-treating process was used to prepare CH3NH3PbI3 thin films at room temperature. This new process enabled complete surface coverage and moisture stability in a non-vacuum solution. Moreover, the challenges of simultaneously controlling evaporation processes of the organic and inorganic sources via dual-source vapour evaporation and the heating process required to obtain high crystallization were avoided. Excellent composition with stoichiometry transferred from the powder material, a high level of tetragonal phase-purity, full surface coverage, well-defined grain structure, high crystallization and reproducibility were obtained. A PCE of approximately 10.90% was obtained with a device based on SSPVD CH3NH3PbI3. These initial results suggest that SSPVD is a promising method to significantly optimize perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 solar cell efficiency. PMID:27426686

  1. Vincristine toxicity unrelated to dose.

    PubMed Central

    O'Callaghan, M J; Ekert, H

    1976-01-01

    Four children with vincristine toxicity unrelated to dose are described. Fever, haematological toxicity, and abdominal distension occurred 2-7 days after vincristine was given. Convulsions occurred 6-8 days after vincristine in all 4. Inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone was thought to have occurred in 3 patients. 2 patients died during the acute toxicity phase. Necropsy findings did not show neuronal changes which could be directly ascribed to vincristine. PMID:179476

  2. Mixed garnet laser for a water vapour DIAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treichel, Rainer; Strohmaier, Stephan; Nikolov, Susanne; Eichler, Hans-Joachim; Murphy, Eamonn

    2017-11-01

    For the water vapour DIAL "WALES" the wavelength regions around 935 nm, 942 nm and 944 nm have been identified as the most suitable wavelength ranges. These wavelengths can be obtained using opticalparametric-oscillators (OPOs), stimulated Raman shifters and the Ti-Sapphire laser but none of these systems could deliver all the needed parameters like beam quality, efficiency, pulse length and energy yet. Also these systems are comparably big and heavy making them less suitable for a satellite based application. A fourth possibility to achieve these wavelength ranges is to shift the quasi-3-level laser lines (938 nm and 946 nm) of the Nd:YAG laser by replacing aluminium and yttrium by other rare earth elements. Changes of the host lattice characteristics lead to a shift of the upper and lower laser levels. These modified crystals are summarized under the name of "Mixed Garnet" crystals. Only the Mixed Garnet lasers can be pumped directly with diode laser and use a direct approach to generate the required laser pulses without frequency conversion. Therefore no additional non-linear crystals or special pump lasers are needed and a higher electric to optical efficiency is expected as well as single frequency operation using spectral tuning elements like etalons. In a first phase such mixed garnet crystals had been grown and characterised. The outcome was the selection of the gadolinium-scandium garnet for the most suitable laser crystal. During a second phase the complete laser system with output energy about 18 mJ in single 20 ns pulses and up to 8 mJ in free running mode with a combined pulse width of 250 μs at 942 nm have been demonstrated. The results of the first laser operation and the achieved performance parameter are reported.

  3. Influence of spatial and temporal variability of subsurface soil moisture and temperature on vapour intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekele, Dawit N.; Naidu, Ravi; Chadalavada, Sreenivasulu

    2014-05-01

    A comprehensive field study was conducted at a site contaminated with chlorinated solvents, mainly trichloroethylene (TCE), to investigate the influence of subsurface soil moisture and temperature on vapour intrusion (VI) into built structures. Existing approaches to predict the risk of VI intrusion into buildings assume homogeneous or discrete layers in the vadose zone through which TCE migrates from an underlying source zone. In reality, the subsurface of the majority of contaminated sites will be subject to significant variations in moisture and temperature. Detailed site-specific data were measured contemporaneously to evaluate the impact of spatial and temporal variability of subsurface soil properties on VI exposure assessment. The results revealed that indoor air vapour concentrations would be affected by spatial and temporal variability of subsurface soil moisture and temperature. The monthly monitoring of soil-gas concentrations over a period of one year at a depth of 3 m across the study site demonstrated significant variation in TCE vapour concentrations, which ranged from 480 to 629,308 μg/m3. Soil-gas wells at 1 m depth exhibited high seasonal variability in TCE vapour concentrations with a coefficient of variation 1.02 in comparison with values of 0.88 and 0.74 in 2 m and 3 m wells, respectively. Contour plots of the soil-gas TCE plume during wet and dry seasons showed that the plume moved across the site, hence locations of soil-gas monitoring wells for human risk assessment is a site specific decision. Subsurface soil-gas vapour plume characterisation at the study site demonstrates that assessment for VI is greatly influenced by subsurface soil properties such as temperature and moisture that fluctuate with the seasons of the year.

  4. UTLS water vapour from SCIAMACHY limb measurementsV3.01 (2002–2012)

    PubMed Central

    Weigel, K.; Rozanov, A.; Azam, F.; Bramstedt, K.; Damadeo, R.; Eichmann, K.-U.; Gebhardt, C.; Hurst, D.; Kraemer, M.; Lossow, S.; Read, W.; Spelten, N.; Stiller, G. P.; Walker, K. A.; Weber, M.; Bovensmann, H.; Burrows, J. P.

    2017-01-01

    The SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) aboard the Envisat satellite provided measurements from August 2002 until April 2012. SCIAMACHY measured the scattered or direct sunlight using different observation geometries. The limb viewing geometry allows the retrieval of water vapour at about 10–25 km height from the near-infrared spectral range (1353–1410 nm). These data cover the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), a region in the atmosphere which is of special interest for a variety of dynamical and chemical processes as well as for the radiative forcing. Here, the latest data version of water vapour (V3.01) from SCIAMACHY limb measurements is presented and validated by comparisons with data sets from other satellite and in situ measurements. Considering retrieval tests and the results of these comparisons, the V3.01 data are reliable from about 11 to 23 km and the best results are found in the middle of the profiles between about 14 and 20 km. Above 20 km in the extra tropics V3.01 is drier than all other data sets. Additionally, for altitudes above about 19 km, the vertical resolution of the retrieved profile is not sufficient to resolve signals with a short vertical structure like the tape recorder. Below 14 km, SCIAMACHY water vapour V3.01 is wetter than most collocated data sets, but the high variability of water vapour in the troposphere complicates the comparison. For 14–20 km height, the expected errors from the retrieval and simulations and the mean differences to collocated data sets are usually smaller than 10 % when the resolution of the SCIAMACHY data is taken into account. In general, the temporal changes agree well with collocated data sets except for the Northern Hemisphere extratropical stratosphere, where larger differences are observed. This indicates a possible drift in V3.01 most probably caused by the incomplete treatment of volcanic aerosols in the retrieval. In all other regions

  5. Estimating past leaf-to-air vapour pressure deficit from terrestrial plant 13C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turney, Chris S. M.; Barringer, James; Hunt, John E.; McGlone, Matt S.

    1999-08-01

    13C was determined in lignin extracted from present-day cladodes of Phyllocladus alpinus (a small coniferous tree) from seven well-lit sites across New Zealand. The 13C values ranged from -30.9 to -23.6 and were compared with monthly means of temperature, precipitation, relative humidity and vapour pressure deficit from the nearest recording stations. Of these parameters, the leaf-to-air vapour pressure deficit of the first month of cladode growth and expansion proved to be the most significantly correlated with lignin 13C, over a range of 0.3 to 0.8 kPa, confirming the importance of atmospheric moisture content on stomatal conductance. The carbon isotopic signature of lignin from fossilised cladodes preserved under the Kawakawa Tephra (22.6 k 14C yr BP) on the North Island is identical to that of the whole tissue, suggesting that for this species at least, fossil material can be used to approximate the lignin 13C. The 13C of species- and organ-specific fossil terrestrial plant material therefore provides an excellent method to quantify past changes in leaf-to-air vapour pressure deficit.

  6. Identifying the causes of sediment-associated toxicity in urban waterways in South China: incorporating bioavailabillity-based measurements into whole-sediment toxicity identification evaluation.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xiaoyi; Li, Huizhen; Ma, Ping; You, Jing

    2015-08-01

    Sediments in urban waterways of Guangzhou, China, were contaminated by a variety of chemicals and showed prevalent toxicity to benthic organisms. A combination of whole-sediment toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) and bioavailability-based extraction was used to identify the causes of sediment toxicity. Of the 6 sediment samples collected, 4 caused 100% mortality to Chironomus dilutus in 10-d bioassays, and the potential toxicants were assessed using TIE in these sediments after dilution. The results of phase I characterization showed that organic contaminants were the principal contributors to the mortality of the midges in 2 sediments and that metals and organics jointly caused the mortality in the other 2 sediments. Ammonia played no role in the mortality for any samples. Conventional toxic unit analysis in phase II testing identified Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn as the toxic metals, with cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, and fipronils being the toxic organics. To improve the accuracy of identifying the toxicants, 4-step sequential extraction and Tenax extraction were conducted to analyze the bioavailability of the metals and organics, respectively. Bioavailable toxic unit analysis narrowed the list of toxic contributors, and the putative toxicants included 3 metals (Zn, Ni, and Pb) and 3 pesticides (cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and fipronils). Metals contributed to the mortality in all sediments, but sediment dilution reduced the toxicity and confounded the characterization of toxicity contribution from metals in 2 sediments in phase I. Incorporating bioavailability-based measurements into whole-sediment TIE improved the accuracy of identifying the causative toxicants in urban waterways where multiple stressors occurred and contributed to sediment toxicity jointly. © 2015 SETAC.

  7. Turkish Undergraduates' Misconceptions of Evaporation, Evaporation Rate, and Vapour Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canpolat, Nurtac

    2006-01-01

    This study focused on students' misconceptions related to evaporation, evaporation rate, and vapour pressure. Open-ended diagnostic questions were used with 107 undergraduates in the Primary Science Teacher Training Department in a state university in Turkey. In addition, 14 students from that sample were interviewed to clarify their written…

  8. Biological treatment of mixtures of toluene and n-hexane vapours in a hollow fibre membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kang; Xiu, Guangli; Xu, Lihang; Zhang, Danian; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Deshusses, Marc A

    2011-04-01

    Membrane bioreactors are gaining interest for the control of contaminated air streams. In this study, the removal of toluene and n-hexane vapours in a hollow fibre membrane bioreactor (HFMB) was investigated. The focus was on quantifying the possible interactions occurring during the simultaneous biotreatment of the two volatile pollutants. Two lab-scale units fitted with microporous polypropylene hollow fibre membranes were connected in series and inoculated with activated sludge. Contaminated air was passed through the lumen at gas residence times ranging from 2.3 to 9.4 s while a pollutant-degrading biofilm developed on the shell side of the fibres. When toluene was treated alone, very high elimination capacities (up to 750 g m(-3) h(-1) based on lumen volume, or 1.25 g m(-2) h(-1) when normalized by the hollow fibre membrane area) were reached. When toluene and hexane were treated simultaneously, toluene biodegradation was partially inhibited by n-hexane, resulting in lower toluene removal rates. On the other hand, hexane removal was only marginally affected by the presence of toluene and was degraded at very high rates (upwards of 440 g m(-3) h(-1) or 0.73 g m(-2) h(-1) without breakthrough). Overall, this study demonstrates that mixtures of toluene and n-hexane vapours can be effectively removed in hollow fibre membrane bioreactors and that complex biological interactions may affect one or more of the pollutants undergoing treatment in gas-phase membrane bioreactors.

  9. A surface curvature oscillation model for vapour-liquid-solid growth of periodic one-dimensional nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Wang, Jian-Tao; Cao, Ze-Xian; Zhang, Wen-Jun; Lee, Chun-Sing; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Zhang, Xiao-Hong

    2015-03-01

    While the vapour-liquid-solid process has been widely used for growing one-dimensional nanostructures, quantitative understanding of the process is still far from adequate. For example, the origins for the growth of periodic one-dimensional nanostructures are not fully understood. Here we observe that morphologies in a wide range of periodic one-dimensional nanostructures can be described by two quantitative relationships: first, inverse of the periodic spacing along the length direction follows an arithmetic sequence; second, the periodic spacing in the growth direction varies linearly with the diameter of the nanostructure. We further find that these geometric relationships can be explained by considering the surface curvature oscillation of the liquid sphere at the tip of the growing nanostructure. The work reveals the requirements of vapour-liquid-solid growth. It can be applied for quantitative understanding of vapour-liquid-solid growth and to design experiments for controlled growth of nanostructures with custom-designed morphologies.

  10. The Hepatoprotective Effect of Vitamin A against Gasoline Vapor Toxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Uboh, Friday E.; Ekaidem, Itemobong S.; Ebong, Patrick E.; Umoh, Ime B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Changes in the activities of plasma alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) are used to assess the functional state of the liver. Significant increase in the activities of these enzymes commonly indicates the hepatotoxicity of chemical agent(s) in the body. Exposure of male and female rats to 17.8 cm3h-1m-3 of Premium Motor Spirit (PMS) blend unleaded gasoline (UG) vapors for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 20 weeks have been observed to cause hepatotoxicity. In this study, the potential hepatoprotective effect of vitamin A (retinol) against gasoline vapours-induced toxicity was investigated in male and female rats. Methods Retinol (400 IU/kg/day) was orally administered to the test rats concomitant with the gasoline vapor exposure in the last two weeks of the experiment. Results The results obtained from this study showed that exposure to gasoline vapors caused significant increase (P < 0.05) in the activities of serum ALT, AST, ALP, GGT and bilirubin in both male and female rats. The treatment of the male and female test rats with vitamin A produced a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the activities of these parameters, compared with the test rats without treatment; but insignificant increase(P ≥ 0.05), compared with the control. Conclusions The result of this study demonstrates the beneficial effects of retinol, at prophylactic dosage, against gasoline vapours hepatotoxicity in male and female rats, thereby suggesting that retinol may be used to prevent hepatotoxicity in individuals frequently exposed to gasoline vapours. PMID:27933127

  11. Prediction of clothing thermal insulation and moisture vapour resistance of the clothed body walking in wind.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xiaoming; Fan, Jintu

    2006-11-01

    Clothing thermal insulation and moisture vapour resistance are the two most important parameters in thermal environmental engineering, functional clothing design and end use of clothing ensembles. In this study, clothing thermal insulation and moisture vapour resistance of various types of clothing ensembles were measured using the walking-able sweating manikin, Walter, under various environmental conditions and walking speeds. Based on an extensive experimental investigation and an improved understanding of the effects of body activities and environmental conditions, a simple but effective direct regression model has been established, for predicting the clothing thermal insulation and moisture vapour resistance under wind and walking motion, from those when the manikin was standing in still air. The model has been validated by using experimental data reported in the previous literature. It has shown that the new models have advantages and provide very accurate prediction.

  12. Plasma formation in water vapour layers in high conductivity liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelsey, C. P.; Schaper, L.; Stalder, K. R.; Graham, W. G.

    2011-10-01

    The vapour layer development stage of relatively low voltage plasmas in conducting solutions has already been well explored. The nature of the discharges formed within the vapour layer however is still largely unexplored. Here we examine the nature of such discharges through a combination of fast imaging and spatially, temporally resolved spectroscopy and electrical characterisation. The experimental setup used is a pin-to-plate discharge configuration with a -350V, 200 μs pulse applied at a repetition rate of 2Hz. A lens, followed by beam splitter allows beams to one Andor ICCD camera to capture images of the plasma emission with a second camera at the exit of a high resolution spectrometer. Through synchronization of the camera images at specified times after plasma ignition (as determined from current-voltage characteristics) they can be correlated with the spectra features. Initial measurements reveal two apparently different plasma formations. Stark broadening of the hydrogen Balmer beta line indicate electron densities of 3 to 5 ×1020 m-3 for plasmas produced early in the voltage pulse and an order of magnitude less for the later plasmas. The vapour layer development stage of relatively low voltage plasmas in conducting solutions has already been well explored. The nature of the discharges formed within the vapour layer however is still largely unexplored. Here we examine the nature of such discharges through a combination of fast imaging and spatially, temporally resolved spectroscopy and electrical characterisation. The experimental setup used is a pin-to-plate discharge configuration with a -350V, 200 μs pulse applied at a repetition rate of 2Hz. A lens, followed by beam splitter allows beams to one Andor ICCD camera to capture images of the plasma emission with a second camera at the exit of a high resolution spectrometer. Through synchronization of the camera images at specified times after plasma ignition (as determined from current

  13. Toxicity of used drilling fluids to mysids (Mysidopsis bahia)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Gaetz, C.T.; Montgomery, R.; Duke, T.W.

    1986-01-01

    Static, acute toxicity tests were conducted with mysids (Mysidopsis bahia) and 11 used drilling fluids (also called drilling muds) obtained from active drilling platforms in the Gulf of Mexico, U.S.A. Each whole mud was tested, along with three phases of each mud: a liquid phase with all particulate materials removed; a suspended particulate phase composed of soluble and lighter particulate fractions; and a solid phase composed mainly of drill cuttings and rapidly settling particulates. These muds represented seven of the eight generic mud types described by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf. Themore » toxicity of the 11 muds tested was apparently enhanced by the presence of aromatics. Furthermore, one mud tested repeatedly showed loss of toxicity with time, possibly from volatilization of aromatic fractions. The data demonstrated that aromatics in the drilling fluids affected their toxicity to M. bahia.« less

  14. Analysing the mechanisms of soil water and vapour transport in the desert vadose zone of the extremely arid region of northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Chaoyang; Yu, Jingjie; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Yichi

    2018-03-01

    The transport of water and vapour in the desert vadose zone plays a critical role in the overall water and energy balances of near-surface environments in arid regions. However, field measurements in extremely dry environments face many difficulties and challenges, so few studies have examined water and vapour transport processes in the desert vadose zone. The main objective of this study is to analyse the mechanisms of soil water and vapour transport in the desert vadose zone (depth of ∼350 cm) by using measured and modelled data in an extremely arid environment. The field experiments are implemented in an area of the Gobi desert in northwestern China to measure the soil properties, daily soil moisture and temperature, daily water-table depth and temperature, and daily meteorological records from DOYs (Days of Year) 114-212 in 2014 (growing season). The Hydrus-1D model, which simulates the coupled transport of water, vapour and heat in the vadose zone, is employed to simulate the layered soil moisture and temperature regimes and analyse the transport processes of soil water and vapour. The measured results show that the soil water and temperatures near the land surface have visible daily fluctuations across the entire soil profile. Thermal vapour movement is the most important component of the total water flux and the soil temperature gradient is the major driving factor that affects vapour transport in the desert vadose zone. The most active water and heat exchange occurs in the upper soil layer (depths of 0-25 cm). The matric potential change from the precipitation mainly re-draws the spatio-temporal distribution of the isothermal liquid water in the soil near the land surface. The matric potential has little effect on the isothermal vapour and thermal liquid water flux. These findings offer new insights into the liquid water and vapour movement processes in the extremely arid environment.

  15. CFD simulation of water vapour condensation in the presence of non-condensable gas in vertical cylindrical condensers.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun-De

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents the simulation of the condensation of water vapour in the presence of non-condensable gas using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for turbulent flows in a vertical cylindrical condenser tube. The simulation accounts for the turbulent flow of the gas mixture, the condenser wall and the turbulent flow of the coolant in the annular channel with no assumptions of constant wall temperature or heat flux. The condensate film is assumed to occupy a negligible volume and its effect on the condensation of the water vapour has been taken into account by imposing a set of boundary conditions. A new strategy is used to overcome the limitation of the currently available commercial CFD package to solve the simultaneous simulation of flows involving multispecies and fluids of gas and liquid in separate channels. The results from the CFD simulations are compared with the experimental results from the literature for the condensation of water vapour with air as the non-condensable gas and for inlet mass fraction of the water vapour from 0.66 to 0.98. The CFD simulation results in general agree well with the directly measured quantities and it is found that the variation of heat flux in the condenser tube is more complex than a simple polynomial curve fit. The CFD results also show that, at least for flows involving high water vapour content, the axial velocity of the gas mixture at the interface between the gas mixture and the condensate film is in general not small and cannot be neglected.

  16. CFD simulation of water vapour condensation in the presence of non-condensable gas in vertical cylindrical condensers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun-De

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the simulation of the condensation of water vapour in the presence of non-condensable gas using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for turbulent flows in a vertical cylindrical condenser tube. The simulation accounts for the turbulent flow of the gas mixture, the condenser wall and the turbulent flow of the coolant in the annular channel with no assumptions of constant wall temperature or heat flux. The condensate film is assumed to occupy a negligible volume and its effect on the condensation of the water vapour has been taken into account by imposing a set of boundary conditions. A new strategy is used to overcome the limitation of the currently available commercial CFD package to solve the simultaneous simulation of flows involving multispecies and fluids of gas and liquid in separate channels. The results from the CFD simulations are compared with the experimental results from the literature for the condensation of water vapour with air as the non-condensable gas and for inlet mass fraction of the water vapour from 0.66 to 0.98. The CFD simulation results in general agree well with the directly measured quantities and it is found that the variation of heat flux in the condenser tube is more complex than a simple polynomial curve fit. The CFD results also show that, at least for flows involving high water vapour content, the axial velocity of the gas mixture at the interface between the gas mixture and the condensate film is in general not small and cannot be neglected. PMID:24850953

  17. Do 16 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Represent PAH Air Toxicity?

    PubMed Central

    Samburova, Vera; Zielinska, Barbara; Khlystov, Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Estimation of carcinogenic potency based on analysis of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranked by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is the most popular approach within scientific and environmental air quality management communities. The majority of PAH monitoring projects have been focused on particle-bound PAHs, ignoring the contribution of gas-phase PAHs to the toxicity of PAH mixtures in air samples. In this study, we analyzed the results of 13 projects in which 88 PAHs in both gas and particle phases were collected from different sources (biomass burning, mining operation, and vehicle emissions), as well as in urban air. The aim was to investigate whether 16 particle-bound U.S. EPA priority PAHs adequately represented health risks of inhalation exposure to atmospheric PAH mixtures. PAH concentrations were converted to benzo(a)pyrene-equivalent (BaPeq) toxicity using the toxic equivalency factor (TEF) approach. TEFs of PAH compounds for which such data is not available were estimated using TEFs of close isomers. Total BaPeq toxicities (∑88BaPeq) of gas- and particle-phase PAHs were compared with BaPeq toxicities calculated for the 16 particle-phase EPA PAH (∑16EPABaPeq). The results showed that 16 EPA particle-bound PAHs underrepresented the carcinogenic potency on average by 85.6% relative to the total (gas and particle) BaPeq toxicity of 88 PAHs. Gas-phase PAHs, like methylnaphthalenes, may contribute up to 30% of ∑88BaPeq. Accounting for other individual non-EPA PAHs (i.e., benzo(e)pyrene) and gas-phase PAHs (i.e., naphthalene, 1- and 2-methylnaphthalene) will make the risk assessment of PAH-containing air samples significantly more accurate. PMID:29051449

  18. Do 16 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Represent PAH Air Toxicity?

    PubMed

    Samburova, Vera; Zielinska, Barbara; Khlystov, Andrey

    2017-08-15

    Estimation of carcinogenic potency based on analysis of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranked by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is the most popular approach within scientific and environmental air quality management communities. The majority of PAH monitoring projects have been focused on particle-bound PAHs, ignoring the contribution of gas-phase PAHs to the toxicity of PAH mixtures in air samples. In this study, we analyzed the results of 13 projects in which 88 PAHs in both gas and particle phases were collected from different sources (biomass burning, mining operation, and vehicle emissions), as well as in urban air. The aim was to investigate whether 16 particle-bound U.S. EPA priority PAHs adequately represented health risks of inhalation exposure to atmospheric PAH mixtures. PAH concentrations were converted to benzo(a)pyrene-equivalent (BaPeq) toxicity using the toxic equivalency factor (TEF) approach. TEFs of PAH compounds for which such data is not available were estimated using TEFs of close isomers. Total BaPeq toxicities (∑ 88 BaPeq) of gas- and particle-phase PAHs were compared with BaPeq toxicities calculated for the 16 particle-phase EPA PAH (∑ 16EPA BaPeq). The results showed that 16 EPA particle-bound PAHs underrepresented the carcinogenic potency on average by 85.6% relative to the total (gas and particle) BaPeq toxicity of 88 PAHs. Gas-phase PAHs, like methylnaphthalenes, may contribute up to 30% of ∑ 88 BaPeq. Accounting for other individual non-EPA PAHs (i.e., benzo(e)pyrene) and gas-phase PAHs (i.e., naphthalene, 1- and 2-methylnaphthalene) will make the risk assessment of PAH-containing air samples significantly more accurate.

  19. Stable isotope ratios in rainfall and water vapour at Bangalore, Southern India during the monsoon period of 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peethambaran, Rahul; Ghosh, Prosenjit

    2015-04-01

    Rainwater and water vapour were collected during monsoon rainfall from Bangalore station to identifying the signature of moisture sources. Moisture responsible for the rainfall originates from Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal and advected to the station together with vapour generated from the local . Total no of samples includes 72 for water vapour and 81 for rainwater respectively. The mean difference between water vapour and rainwater was found to be -13.27±2.5 ‰ for δ18O, -100±9 ‰ for δD, which was calculated from monthly mean values of water vapour and rainwater. The most enriched samples of rainwater and water vapour were found during the pre monsoon months which correspond to temperature maximum at the study location. Lighter isotopic ratios were recorded in samples collected during the starting of monsoon showers which goes to further depletion in δ18O during the period of post monsoon. This was mainly due to the change in the prevailing wind direction from southwest to northeast. Local Meteoric Water Line (LMWL) generated for rainwater (d = 7.49 δ 18O + 5.2555, R² = 0.93) equation suggesting enrichment due to evaporation. Local Vapour Line (LVL) (d = 7.5248 δ 18O + 6.6534,R² = 0.8957) indicates the dominance of vapor from local source. The time series of d-xcess of rainwater and water vapor reveals large variability, coinciding with the presence of transported and local sources. It was observed that rainwater and water vapor exhibits higher values indicating re-evaporation from the region. Repetition of this feature demonstrated pattern of moisture recycling in the atmosphere and the contribution of continental evaporation and transpiration. The sensitivity of isotopes to the sudden change in wind direction was documented by an abrupt variations in the isotope values. Such changes in wind patterns were mostly associated with the prevalence of low pressure depression systems during the monsoon periods. Detailed analysis on role of wind patterns and

  20. The early summertime Saharan heat low: sensitivity of the radiation budget and atmospheric heating to water vapour and dust aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alamirew, Netsanet K.; Todd, Martin C.; Ryder, Claire L.; Marsham, John H.; Wang, Yi

    2018-01-01

    The Saharan heat low (SHL) is a key component of the west African climate system and an important driver of the west African monsoon across a range of timescales of variability. The physical mechanisms driving the variability in the SHL remain uncertain, although water vapour has been implicated as of primary importance. Here, we quantify the independent effects of variability in dust and water vapour on the radiation budget and atmospheric heating of the region using a radiative transfer model configured with observational input data from the Fennec field campaign at the location of Bordj Badji Mokhtar (BBM) in southern Algeria (21.4° N, 0.9° E), close to the SHL core for June 2011. Overall, we find dust aerosol and water vapour to be of similar importance in driving variability in the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiation budget and therefore the column-integrated heating over the SHL (˜ 7 W m-2 per standard deviation of dust aerosol optical depth - AOD). As such, we infer that SHL intensity is likely to be similarly enhanced by the effects of dust and water vapour surge events. However, the details of the processes differ. Dust generates substantial radiative cooling at the surface (˜ 11 W m-2 per standard deviation of dust AOD), presumably leading to reduced sensible heat flux in the boundary layer, which is more than compensated by direct radiative heating from shortwave (SW) absorption by dust in the dusty boundary layer. In contrast, water vapour invokes a radiative warming at the surface of ˜ 6 W m-2 per standard deviation of column-integrated water vapour in kg m-2. Net effects involve a pronounced net atmospheric radiative convergence with heating rates on average of 0.5 K day-1 and up to 6 K day-1 during synoptic/mesoscale dust events from monsoon surges and convective cold-pool outflows (haboobs). On this basis, we make inferences on the processes driving variability in the SHL associated with radiative and advective heating/cooling. Depending

  1. A vapourized Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) delivery system part II: comparison of behavioural effects of pulmonary versus parenteral cannabinoid exposure in rodents.

    PubMed

    Manwell, Laurie A; Ford, Brittany; Matthews, Brittany A; Heipel, Heather; Mallet, Paul E

    2014-01-01

    Studies of the rewarding and addictive properties of cannabinoids using rodents as animal models of human behaviour often fail to replicate findings from human studies. Animal studies typically employ parenteral routes of administration, whereas humans typically smoke cannabis, thus discrepancies may be related to different pharmacokinetics of parenteral and pulmonary routes of administration. Accordingly, a novel delivery system of vapourized Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) was developed and assessed for its pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and behavioural effects in rodents. A commercially available vapourizer was used to assess the effects of pulmonary (vapourized) administration of Δ(9)-THC and directly compared to parenteral (intraperitoneal, IP) administration of Δ(9)-THC. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to pure Δ(9)-THC vapour (1, 2, 5, 10, and 20mg/pad), using a Volcano® vapourizing device (Storz and Bickel, Germany) or IP-administered Δ(9)-THC (0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0mg/kg), and drug effects on locomotor activity, food and water consumption, and cross-sensitization to morphine (5mg/kg) were measured. Vapourized Δ(9)-THC significantly increased feeding during the first hour following exposure, whereas IP-administered Δ(9)-THC failed to produce a reliable increase in feeding at all doses tested. Acute administration of 10mg of vapourized Δ(9)-THC induced a short-lasting stimulation in locomotor activity compared to control in the first of four hours of testing over 7days of repeated exposure; this chronic exposure to 10mg of vapourized Δ(9)-THC did not induce behavioural sensitization to morphine. These results suggest vapourized Δ(9)-THC administration produces behavioural effects qualitatively different from those induced by IP administration in rodents. Furthermore, vapourized Δ(9)-THC delivery in rodents may produce behavioural effects more comparable to those observed in humans. We conclude that some of the conflicting findings in animal

  2. The modelling routes for the chemical vapour deposition process: application to Si 1- xGe x deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pons, M.; Bernard, C.; Rouch, H.; Madar, R.

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the modelling routes for the chemical vapour deposition process with a special emphasis on mass transport models with near local thermochemical equilibrium imposed in the gas-phase and at the deposition surface. The theoretical problems arising from the linking of the two selected approaches, thermodynamics and mass transport, are shown and a solution procedure is proposed. As an illustration, selected results of thermodynamic and mass transport analysis and of the coupled approach showed that, for the deposition of Si 1- xGe x solid solution at 1300 K (system SiGeClHAr), the thermodynamic heterogeneous stability of the reactive gases and the thermal diffusion led to the germanium depletion of the deposit.

  3. Characterisation of chamomile volatiles by simultaneous distillation solid-phase extraction in comparison to hydrodistillation and simultaneous distillation extraction.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Hans

    2010-05-01

    A new method for complete separation of steam-volatile organic compounds is described using the example of chamomile flowers. This method is based on the direct combination of hydrodistillation and solid-phase extraction in a circulation apparatus. In contrast to hydrodistillation and simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE), an RP-18 solid phase as adsorptive material is used rather than a water-insoluble solvent. Therefore, a prompt and complete fixation of all volatiles takes place, and the circulation of water-soluble bisabololoxides as well as water-soluble and thermolabile en-yne-spiroethers is inhibited. This so-called simultaneous distillation solid-phase extraction (SD-SPE) provides extracts that better characterise the real composition of the vapour phase, as well as the composition of inhalation vapours, than do SDE extracts or essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation. The data indicate that during inhalation therapy with chamomile, the bisabololoxides and spiroethers are more strongly involved in the inhaling activity than so far assumed. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.

  4. High Burden of Subclinical Lead Toxicity after Phase Out of Lead from Petroleum in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Majid, Hafsa; Khan, Aysha Habib; Khan, Nadeem Ullah; Siddiqui, Imran; Ghani, Farooq; Jafri, Lena

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the frequency of subclinical lead toxicity. Cross-sectional study. Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from January 2011 to December 2014. Analysis of laboratory data for blood lead levels (BLL) was performed. Lead was tested by atomic absorption spectrometer. For all subjects, only initial test results were included while the results of repeated testing were excluded. Exemption was sought from institutional ethical review committee. BLL of 2-10 ug/dl and 10-70 ug/dl in children and adults, respectively were taken as subclinical lead toxicity. Amongst the total number of subjects tested (n=524), 26.5% (n=139) were children (<16 years) while rest were adults. Overall median BLLs was 6.4 ug/dl (20.9-3.1). The median BLL was 4 ug/dl (6.7-2.6) in children and 8.3 ug/dl (27.9-3.4) in adults, respectively. The BLL increased with age; higher levels were observed in age range 21-30 years of subjects [median lead level 16.9 ug/dl (36.1-4)] and lower level [4.2 ug/dl (6.8-2.6)] in children with <10 years of age. Only 16% (n=22) children had desirable lead levels while most had either subclinical (76%, n=106) or toxic lead levels (8%, n=11). In adults, (55%, n=212) subjects had desired lead levels, and 40% (n=154) and 4.99% (n=19) had subclinical and toxic lead levels. Presence of subclinical lead poisoning even after phasing out of lead petroleum in Pakistanis is alarming, especially in children. A national population-based study to determine the lead status and targeted intervention to identify potential sources is need of the time.

  5. Microwave measurements of the absolute values of absorption by water vapour in the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Hogg, D C; Guiraud, F O

    1979-05-31

    MEASUREMENT of the absolute value of absorption by water vapour at microwave frequencies is difficult because the effect is so small. Far in the wings of the absorption lines, in the so-called 'windows' of the spectrum, it is especially difficult to achieve high accuracy in the free atmosphere. But it is in these windows that the behaviour of the absorption is important from both applied and scientific points of view. Satellite communications, remote sensing of the atmosphere, and radioastronomy, are all influenced by this behaviour. Measurements on an Earth-space path are reported here; the results indicate a nonlinear relationship between absorption and water-vapour content.

  6. Toxicity Evaluation of Engineered Nanomaterials: Risk Evaluation Tools (Phase 3 Studies)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    report. The second modeling approach was on quantitative structure activity relationships ( QSARs ). A manuscript entitled “Connecting the dots: Towards...expands rapidly. We proposed two types of mechanisms of toxic action supported by the nano- QSAR model , which collectively govern the toxicity of the...interpretative nano- QSAR model describing toxicity of 18 nano-metal oxides to a HaCaT cell line as a model for dermal exposure. In result, by the comparison of

  7. Features in the distribution of middle atmospheric water vapour as observed by groundbased microwave radiometeres in Switzerland and South Korea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Wachter, E.; Haefele, A.; Kaempfer, N.; Ka, S.; Oh, J.

    2009-04-01

    The University of Bern operates two ground based microwave radiometers to measure the water vapour content in the stratosphere and mesosphere. One instrument is located nearby Bern [47°N, 7°E], Switzerland, and has been providing data since 2002 to the "Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change", NDACC, as well as to the European project GEOmon. The second radiometer has been operational in Seoul [37°N, 126°E], S-Korea, starting November 2006. Both instruments provide water vapour profiles in the altitude range 25 to 70 km. Long-term measurements of middle atmospheric water vapour by ground-based microwave instruments are sparse. These instruments provide long-term stability and high time resolution, so are in this sense ideal for short time-scale variability studies, monitoring long-term trends and validation of satellites. An analysis between these 2-year overlapping datasets of the European and Asian continent can provide valuable input on the distribution of wave patterns. In this study, we present the measurement characteristics of the instruments, and validate our data with water vapour profiles from the Aura/MLS instrument. In addition, we investigate correlations between these two midlatitudinal stations, gathering information on the spatial distribution of water vapour, particularly for pressures from 1 to 0.03 hPa.

  8. Giant spin Hall effect in graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishnan, Jayakumar; Koon, Gavin Kok Wai; Avsar, Ahmet; Ho, Yuda; Lee, Jong Hak; Jaiswal, Manu; Baeck, Seung-Jae; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Ferreira, Aires; Cazalilla, Miguel A.; Neto, Antonio H. Castro; Özyilmaz, Barbaros

    2014-09-01

    Advances in large-area graphene synthesis via chemical vapour deposition on metals like copper were instrumental in the demonstration of graphene-based novel, wafer-scale electronic circuits and proof-of-concept applications such as flexible touch panels. Here, we show that graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition on copper is equally promising for spintronics applications. In contrast to natural graphene, our experiments demonstrate that chemically synthesized graphene has a strong spin-orbit coupling as high as 20 meV giving rise to a giant spin Hall effect. The exceptionally large spin Hall angle ~0.2 provides an important step towards graphene-based spintronics devices within existing complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology. Our microscopic model shows that unavoidable residual copper adatom clusters act as local spin-orbit scatterers and, in the resonant scattering limit, induce transverse spin currents with enhanced skew-scattering contribution. Our findings are confirmed independently by introducing metallic adatoms-copper, silver and gold on exfoliated graphene samples.

  9. Chapter 6: Selenium Toxicity to Aquatic Organisms

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter addresses the characteristics and nature of organic selenium (Se) toxicity to aquatic organisms, based on the most current state of scientific knowledge. As such, the information contained in this chapter relates to the 'toxicity assessment' phase of aquatic ecologi...

  10. [Acaricidal activity of clove bud oil against Dermatophagoides farinae (Acari: Pyroglyphidae)].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Wu, Hai-Qiang; Liu, Zhi-Gang

    2009-12-01

    Volatile oil from the clove bud was extracted by petroleum ether using Soxhlet Extractor. The acaricidal activity was examined using direct contact and vapour phase toxicity bioassays. In a filter paper contact toxicity bio-assay, at 2.5 h after treatment, clove bud oil at a dose of 12.20 microg/cm2 killed all dust mites. As judged by 24-h LD50 values, potent fumigant action was observed with clove bud oil (12.20 microg/cm2), showing an adequate acaricidal activity against indoor Dermatophagoides farinae.

  11. Automated calibration of laser spectrometer measurements of δ18 O and δ2 H values in water vapour using a Dew Point Generator.

    PubMed

    Munksgaard, Niels C; Cheesman, Alexander W; Gray-Spence, Andrew; Cernusak, Lucas A; Bird, Michael I

    2018-06-30

    Continuous measurement of stable O and H isotope compositions in water vapour requires automated calibration for remote field deployments. We developed a new low-cost device for calibration of both water vapour mole fraction and isotope composition. We coupled a commercially available dew point generator (DPG) to a laser spectrometer and developed hardware for water and air handling along with software for automated operation and data processing. We characterised isotopic fractionation in the DPG, conducted a field test and assessed the influence of critical parameters on the performance of the device. An analysis time of 1 hour was sufficient to achieve memory-free analysis of two water vapour standards and the δ 18 O and δ 2 H values were found to be independent of water vapour concentration over a range of ≈20,000-33,000 ppm. The reproducibility of the standard vapours over a 10-day period was better than 0.14 ‰ and 0.75 ‰ for δ 18 O and δ 2 H values, respectively (1 σ, n = 11) prior to drift correction and calibration. The analytical accuracy was confirmed by the analysis of a third independent vapour standard. The DPG distillation process requires that isotope calibration takes account of DPG temperature, analysis time, injected water volume and air flow rate. The automated calibration system provides high accuracy and precision and is a robust, cost-effective option for long-term field measurements of water vapour isotopes. The necessary modifications to the DPG are minor and easily reversible. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Chronic psychological effects of exposure to mercury vapour among chlorine-alkali plant workers.

    PubMed

    Pranjić, N; Sinanović, O; Jakubović, R

    2003-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of nervous system function is essential in characterising the nature and extent of impairment in individuals experiencing symptoms following work-place mercury vapour exposure. The purpose of this study was the application of standardised tests of behavioural, psychomotor and memory function to understand the neuropsychological effects of mercury in occupationally exposed chlorine-alkali plant workers. The study comprised 45 workers at a chlorine-alkali plant with the mean age of 39.36 +/- 5.94 years, who had been exposed to daily inhalation of mercury vapour over long-term employment of 16.06 +/- 4.29 years. The cumulative mercury index was 155.32 +/- 95.02 micrograms/g creatinine, the mean of urinary mercury concentrations on the first day of the study was 119.50 +/- 157.24 micrograms/g creatinine, and the mean of urinary mercury concentrations 120 days after cessation of exposure was 21.70 +/- 26.07 micrograms/g creatinine. The analysis included tests of behavioural, psychomotor and memory function. The behavioural test battery consisted of: Environmental Worry Scale (EWS), Minnesota Modified Personal Inventory (MMPI-2), Purdue standard 25 minute test, and adapted, 10 minutes test, Bender's Visual-Motor Gestalt test (BGT), and Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPQ). The data were compared to a control group of 32 not directly exposed workers. In the mercury vapour exposed workers with relatively high level exposure to inorganic mercury vapour (TWA/TLV = 0.12 mg/m3/0.025 mg/m3) we identified somatic depression-hypochondria symptoms with higher scores for scales: hysteria (P < 0.001), schizoid and psycho-asthenia (MMPI-2). The mercury-exposed workers had introvert behaviour (EPQ, MMPI-2). The cognitive disturbances in mercury-exposed workers were identified as: concentration difficulty, psychomotor, perceptual and motor coordination disturbances, and brain effects. We identified fine tremor of the hands in 34 out of 45 mercury-exposed workers

  13. Chemistry and phase evolution during roasting of toxic thallium-bearing pyrite.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Arce, Paula; Garcia-Guinea, Javier; Garrido, Fernando

    2017-08-01

    In the frame of a research project on microscopic distribution and speciation of geogenic thallium (Tl) from contaminated mine soils, Tl-bearing pyrite ore samples from Riotinto mining district (Huelva, SW Spain) were experimentally fired to simulate a roasting process. Concentration and volatility behavior of Tl and other toxic heavy metals was determined by quantitative ICP-MS, whereas semi-quantitative mineral phase transitions were identified by in situ thermo X-Ray Diffraction (HT-XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) analyses after each firing temperature. Sample with initial highest amount of quartz (higher Si content), lowest quantity of pyrite and traces of jarosite (lower S content) developed hematite and concentrated Tl (from 10 up to 72 mg kg -1 ) after roasting at 900 °C in an oxidizing atmosphere. However, samples with lower or absent quartz content and higher pyrite amount mainly developed magnetite, accumulating Tl between 400 and 500 °C and releasing Tl from 700 up to 900 °C (from 10-29 mg kg -1 down to 4-1 mg kg -1 ). These results show the varied accumulative, or volatile, behaviors of one of the most toxic elements for life and environment, in which oxidation of Tl-bearing Fe sulfides produce Fe oxides wastes with or without Tl. The initial chemistry and mineralogy of pyrite ores should be taken into account in coal-fired power stations, cement or sulfuric acid production industry involving pyrite roasting processes, and steel, brick or paint industries, which use iron ore from roasted pyrite ash, where large amounts of Tl entail significant environmental pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Delaying microbial proliferation in freshly peeled shallots by active packaging incorporating ethanol vapour-controlled release sachets and low storage temperature.

    PubMed

    Utto, Weerawate; Preutikul, Rittirong; Malila, Patcharee; Noomhorm, Athapol; Bronlund, John E

    2018-03-01

    This research was conducted to investigate effects of ethanol vapour released in active packaging and storage temperatures on the quality of freshly peeled shallots. The package tested was a solid polypropylene tray incorporating an ethanol vapour-controlled release sachet. The sachet was made of an aluminium foil film on one side and either low-density polyethylene or nylon/polyethylene on the other. Individual sachets contained silica gel adsorbent as the carrier pre-loaded with ethanol. One sachet was placed in each tray containing the peeled shallots and the tray was heat sealed with the low-density polyethylene film lid. Packages were stored at either 10 or 25 ℃ for 10 d. Trays containing only peeled shallots were designated as controls. High storage temperature stimulated quality changes in the shallots. Although ethanol vapour accumulated in the active package headspace, the extent to which ethanol concentrations increased within the shallots was not significantly different from that in the control packages. Microbial proliferation in terms of yeast and mould counts could be delayed through a combination of 10 ℃ and ethanol vapour released from the low-density polyethylene sachet. The ethanol vapour accumulated in the packages did not have a significant effect on mass loss, firmness, and colour changes in the peeled shallots, or on the concentrations of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the packages.

  15. Adsorption of water vapour and the specific surface area of arctic zone soils (Spitsbergen)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieśla, Jolanta; Sokołowska, Zofia; Witkowska-Walczak, Barbara; Skic, Kamil

    2018-01-01

    Water vapour/nitrogen adsorption were investigated and calculated the specific surface areas of arctic-zone soil samples (Turbic Cryosols) originating from different micro-relief forms (mud boils, cell forms and sorted circles) and from different depths. For the characterisation of the isotherms obtained for arctic soils, the Brunauer-Emmet-Teller model was then compared with the two other models (Aranovich-Donohue and Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer) which were developed from Brunauer-Emmet-Teller. Specific surface area was calculated using the Brunauer-Emmet-Teller model at p p0-1 range of 0.05-0.35 for the water vapour desorption and nitrogen adsorption isotherms. The values of total specific surface area were the highest in Cryosols on mud boils, lower on cell forms, and the lowest on sorted circles. Such tendency was observed for the results obtained by both the water vapour and nitrogen adsorption. The differences in the values of specific surface area at two investigated layers were small. High determination coefficients were obtained for relationships between the specific surface areas and contents of clay and silt fraction in Cryosols. No statistically significant correlation between the total carbon amount and the values of specific surface area in Cryosols has been found.

  16. Toxic remediation

    DOEpatents

    Matthews, Stephen M.; Schonberg, Russell G.; Fadness, David R.

    1994-01-01

    What is disclosed is a novel toxic waste remediation system designed to provide on-site destruction of a wide variety of hazardous organic volatile hydrocarbons, including but not limited to halogenated and aromatic hydrocarbons in the vapor phase. This invention utilizes a detoxification plenum and radiation treatment which transforms hazardous organic compounds into non-hazardous substances.

  17. Toxicity Evaluation of Engineered Nanomaterials (Phase 1 Studies)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Surface Chemistry on Cellular Response ...................................................................................................... 48...Gold Nanomaterial Solution Purity and Surface Chemistry Toxicity ................................................................. 18 Figure 7...Solution Purity and Surface Chemistry Control Although several studies have shown that both MPS and PEG are biocompatible, in order to ensure that

  18. Airborne hygrometer calibration inter-comparison against a metrological water vapour standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smorgon, Denis; Boese, Norbert; Ebert, Volker

    2014-05-01

    Water vapour is the most important atmospheric greenhouse gas, which causes a major feedback to warming and other changes in the climate system. Knowledge of the distribution of water vapour and its climate induced changes is especially important in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) where vapour plays a critical role in atmospheric radiative balance, cirrus cloud formation, and photochemistry. But, our understanding of water in the UT/LS is limited by significant uncertainties in current UT/LS water measurements. One of the most comprehensive inter-comparison campaigns for airborne hygrometers, termed AQUAVIT (AV1) [1], took place in 2007 at the AIDA chamber at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) in Germany. AV1 was a well-defined, referred, blind inter-comparison of 22 airborne field instruments from 17 international research groups. One major metrological deficit of AV1, however, was, that no traceable reference instrument participated in the inter-comparison experiments and that the calibration procedures of the participating instruments were not monitored or interrogated. Consequently a follow-up inter-comparison was organized in April 2013, which for the first time also provides a traceable link to the international humidity scale. This AQUAVIT2 (AV2) campaign (details see: http://www.imk-aaf.kit.edu/aquavit/index.php/Main_Page) was again located at KIT/AIDA and organised by an international organizing committee including KIT, PTB, FZJ and others. Generally AV2 is divided in two parallel comparisons: 1) AV2-A uses the AIDA chamber for a simultaneous comparison of all instruments (incl. sampling and in-situ instruments) over a broad range of conditions characteristic for the UT/LS; 2) AV2-B, about which this paper is reporting, is a sequential comparison of selected hygrometers and (when possible) their reference calibration infrastructures by means of a chilled mirror hygrometer traced back to the primary National humidity standard

  19. Pan-derived isotopic composition of atmospheric vapour in a Mediterranean wetland (Rhône River Delta, France).

    PubMed

    Vallet-Coulomb, Christine; Cartapanis, Olivier; Radakovitch, Olivier; Sonzogni, Corinne; Pichaud, Marc

    2010-03-01

    A continuous record of atmospheric vapour isotopic composition (delta(A)) can be derived from the isotope mass balance of a water body submitted to natural evaporation. In this paper, we present preliminary results of the application of this method to a drying evaporation pan, located in a Mediterranean wetland, during a two-month summer period. Results seem consistent with few atmospheric vapour data based on the assumption of isotopic equilibrium with precipitation, but we observed a shift between pan-derived delta(A) and the composition of vapour samples collected by cold trapping. These results suggest that further investigations are necessary to evaluate the effect of diurnal variations of atmospheric conditions on the applicability of the pan-evaporation method, and on the representative of grab atmospheric samples. We also propose a sensitivity analysis for evaluating the impact of the different measured components on delta(A) calculation, and show an improvement in the method efficiency as the pan is drying.

  20. Novel method for water vapour monitoring using wireless communication networks measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, N.; Alpert, P.; Messer, H.

    2009-04-01

    We propose a new technique for monitoring near-surface water vapour, by estimating humidity from data collected through existing wireless communication networks. Water vapour plays a crucial part in a variety of atmospheric processes. As the most influential of greenhouse gases, it absorbs long-wave terrestrial radiation. The water vapour cycle of evaporation and recondensation is a major energy redistributing mechanism transferring heat energy from the Earth's surface to the atmosphere. Additionally, humidity has an important role in weather forecasting as a key variable required for initialization of atmospheric models and hazard warning techniques. However, current methods of monitoring humidity suffer from low spatial resolution, high cost or a lack of precision when measuring near ground levels. Weather conditions and atmospheric phenomena affect the electromagnetic channel, causing attenuations to the radio signals. Thus, wireless communication networks are in effect built-in environmental monitoring facilities. The wireless microwave links, used in these networks, are widely deployed by cellular providers for backhaul communication between base stations, a few tens of meters above ground level. As a result, the proposed method can provide moisture observations at high temporal and spatial resolution. Further, the implementation cost is minimal, since the data used is already collected and saved by the cellular operators. In addition - many of these links are installed in areas where access is difficult such as orographic terrain and complex topography. As such, our method enables measurements in places that have been hard to measure in the past, or have never been measured before. The technique is restricted to weather conditions which include absence of rain, fog or clouds along the propagation path. We present results from real-data measurements taken from microwave links used in a backhaul cellular network that show very good agreement with surface

  1. Investigation of the vapour-plasma plume in the welding of titanium by high-power ytterbium fibre laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykovskiy, D. P.; Petrovskii, V. N.; Uspenskiy, S. A.

    2015-03-01

    The vapour-plasma plume produced in the welding of 6-mm thick VT-23 titanium alloy plates by ytterbium fibre laser radiation of up to 10 kW power is studied in the protective Ar gas medium. High-speed video filming of the vapour-plasma plume is used to visualise the processes occurring during laser welding. The coefficient of inverse bremsstrahlung by the welding plasma plume is calculated from the data of the spectrometric study.

  2. Combined synthesis and in situ coating of nanoparticles in the gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lähde, Anna; Raula, Janne; Kauppinen, Esko I.

    2008-12-01

    Combined gas phase synthesis and coating of sodium chloride (NaCl) and lactose nanoparticles has been developed using an aerosol flow reactor. Nano-sized core particles were produced by the droplet-to-particle method and coated in situ by the physical vapour deposition of L-leucine vapour. The saturation of L-leucine in the reactor determined the resulting particle size and size distribution. In general, particle size increased with the addition of L-leucine and notable narrowing of the core particle size distribution was observed. In addition, homogeneous nucleation of the vapour, i.e. formation of pure L-leucine particles, was observed depending on the saturation conditions of L-leucine as well as the core particle characteristics. The effects of core particle properties, i.e. size and solid-state characteristics, on the coating process were studied by comparing the results for coated NaCl and lactose particles. During deposition, L-leucine formed a uniform coating on the surface of the core particles. The coating stabilised the nanoparticles and prevented the sintering of particles during storage.

  3. ROLE OF THE MATERNAL ACUTE PHASE RESPONSE AND TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR ALPHA IN THE DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE IN THE CD-1 MOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    The acute phase response (APR) functions to reset metabolic homeostasis following infectious, toxic or traumatic insult. TNF- , a putative mediator of the APR, has been associated with fetal death in rodents and preterm labor and delivery in humans. We hypothesized...

  4. Beyond the Dose-Limiting Toxicity Period: Dermatologic Adverse Events of Patients on Phase 1 Trials of the Cancer Therapeutics Evaluation Program

    PubMed Central

    Drilon, Alexander; Eaton, Anne A.; Schindler, Katja; Gounder, Mrinal M.; Spriggs, David R.; Harris, Pamela; Ivy, S. Percy; Iasonos, Alexia; Lacouture, Mario E.; Hyman, David M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Dermatologic adverse events (AEs) can be key determinants of overall drug tolerability and of the maximum tolerated and recommended phase 2 doses in phase 1 trials. The authors present the largest dedicated analysis of dermatologic AEs on phase 1 trials to date. METHODS Data from a prospectively maintained database of patients with solid tumors who were enrolled onto Cancer Therapeutics Evaluation Program (CTEP)-sponsored phase 1 trials of cytotoxic or molecularly targeted agents (MTAs) from 2000 to 2010 were analyzed. Cumulative incidence, site, and type of drug-related dermatologic AEs were described and compared. The timing of worst drug-related dermatologic AEs was summarized. RESULTS In total, 3517 patients with solid tumors and 6165 unique, drug-related dermatologic AEs were analyzed, including 1545 patients on MTA-only trials, 671 on cytotoxic-only trials, and 1392 on combination MTA and cytotoxic trials. Of 1270 patients who had drug-related dermatologic events, the timing of the worst AE was as follows: 743 (cycle 1), 303 (cycle 2), and 224 (cycle 3 or later). Although the cumulative incidence of grade ≥3 drug-related AEs increased to 2.4% by cycle 6, it was only 1.6% at the end of cycle 1. The cumulative incidence of drug-related AEs was highest in patients who received MTA-only therapy (P <.001) and differed by dose level (P <.001). In patients who received MTA-only therapy, drug-related AEs were most common for combination kinase inhibitor-containing therapy (P <.001). CONCLUSIONS A substantial proportion of drug-related dermatologic AEs occur after the traditional dose-limiting toxicity monitoring period of phase 1 clinical trials. Future designs should account for late toxicities. PMID:26916138

  5. Altered host resistance to Listeria monocytogenes in mice exposed to 1-chloroacetophenone (CN) vapours

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kumar, P.; Kumar, P.; Zachariah, K.

    1992-06-01

    Short term repeated exposure of 1-chloroacetophenone (CN) vapours at a concentration of 0.153 mg per litre for 15 minutes daily on 10 consecutive days in Swiss albino male mice resulted in increased mortality to Listeria monocytogenes. Significantly elevated bacterial growth was observed in the spleen and liver of the CN exposed animals. The increased bacterial count in these organs was evident within 4-6 days post challenge as compared to vehicle exposed infected and unexposed infected animals. Increased susceptibility to infection has been considered to be the function of immune alteration due to cumulative short term effects of CN vapour inhalation.more » This may be attributed to immunotoxic effects of CN on T-cells mediated macrophage functions.« less

  6. Abnormal gas-liquid-solid phase transition behaviour of water observed with in situ environmental SEM.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin; Shu, Jiapei; Chen, Qing

    2017-04-24

    Gas-liquid-solid phase transition behaviour of water is studied with environmental scanning electron microscopy for the first time. Abnormal phenomena are observed. At a fixed pressure of 450 Pa, with the temperature set to -7 °C, direct desublimation happens, and ice grows continuously along the substrate surface. At 550 Pa, although ice is the stable phase according to the phase diagram, metastable liquid droplets first nucleate and grow to ~100-200 μm sizes. Ice crystals nucleate within the large sized droplets, grow up and fill up the droplets. Later, the ice crystals grow continuously through desublimation. At 600 Pa, the metastable liquid grows quickly, with some ice nuclei floating in it, and the liquid-solid coexistence state exists for a long time. By lowering the vapour pressure and/or increasing the substrate temperature, ice sublimates into vapour phase, and especially, the remaining ice forms a porous structure due to preferential sublimation in the concave regions, which can be explained with surface tension effect. Interestingly, although it should be forbidden for ice to transform into liquid phase when the temperature is well below 0 °C, liquid like droplets form during the ice sublimation process, which is attributed to the surface tension effect and the quasiliquid layers.

  7. Vapour pressure and adiabatic cooling from champagne: slow-motion visualization of gas thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, Michael; Möllmann, Klaus-Peter

    2012-09-01

    We present two simple demonstration experiments recorded with high-speed cameras in the fields of gas dynamics and thermal physics. The experiments feature vapour pressure effects as well as adiabatic cooling observed upon opening a bottle of champagne.

  8. Unambiguous detection of nitrated explosive vapours by fluorescence quenching of dendrimer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Yan; Ali, Mohammad A.; Clulow, Andrew J.; Fan, Shengqiang; Burn, Paul L.; Gentle, Ian R.; Meredith, Paul; Shaw, Paul E.

    2015-09-01

    Unambiguous and selective standoff (non-contact) infield detection of nitro-containing explosives and taggants is an important goal but difficult to achieve with standard analytical techniques. Oxidative fluorescence quenching is emerging as a high sensitivity method for detecting such materials but is prone to false positives--everyday items such as perfumes elicit similar responses. Here we report thin films of light-emitting dendrimers that detect vapours of explosives and taggants selectively--fluorescence quenching is not observed for a range of common interferents. Using a combination of neutron reflectometry, quartz crystal microbalance and photophysical measurements we show that the origin of the selectivity is primarily electronic and not the diffusion kinetics of the analyte or its distribution in the film. The results are a major advance in the development of sensing materials for the standoff detection of nitro-based explosive vapours, and deliver significant insights into the physical processes that govern the sensing efficacy.

  9. Unambiguous detection of nitrated explosive vapours by fluorescence quenching of dendrimer films.

    PubMed

    Geng, Yan; Ali, Mohammad A; Clulow, Andrew J; Fan, Shengqiang; Burn, Paul L; Gentle, Ian R; Meredith, Paul; Shaw, Paul E

    2015-09-15

    Unambiguous and selective standoff (non-contact) infield detection of nitro-containing explosives and taggants is an important goal but difficult to achieve with standard analytical techniques. Oxidative fluorescence quenching is emerging as a high sensitivity method for detecting such materials but is prone to false positives—everyday items such as perfumes elicit similar responses. Here we report thin films of light-emitting dendrimers that detect vapours of explosives and taggants selectively—fluorescence quenching is not observed for a range of common interferents. Using a combination of neutron reflectometry, quartz crystal microbalance and photophysical measurements we show that the origin of the selectivity is primarily electronic and not the diffusion kinetics of the analyte or its distribution in the film. The results are a major advance in the development of sensing materials for the standoff detection of nitro-based explosive vapours, and deliver significant insights into the physical processes that govern the sensing efficacy.

  10. Unambiguous detection of nitrated explosive vapours by fluorescence quenching of dendrimer films

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Yan; Ali, Mohammad A.; Clulow, Andrew J.; Fan, Shengqiang; Burn, Paul L.; Gentle, Ian R.; Meredith, Paul; Shaw, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    Unambiguous and selective standoff (non-contact) infield detection of nitro-containing explosives and taggants is an important goal but difficult to achieve with standard analytical techniques. Oxidative fluorescence quenching is emerging as a high sensitivity method for detecting such materials but is prone to false positives—everyday items such as perfumes elicit similar responses. Here we report thin films of light-emitting dendrimers that detect vapours of explosives and taggants selectively—fluorescence quenching is not observed for a range of common interferents. Using a combination of neutron reflectometry, quartz crystal microbalance and photophysical measurements we show that the origin of the selectivity is primarily electronic and not the diffusion kinetics of the analyte or its distribution in the film. The results are a major advance in the development of sensing materials for the standoff detection of nitro-based explosive vapours, and deliver significant insights into the physical processes that govern the sensing efficacy. PMID:26370931

  11. The effect of coherent stirring on the advection–condensation of water vapour

    PubMed Central

    Vanneste, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric water vapour is an essential ingredient of weather and climate. The key features of its distribution can be represented by kinematic models which treat it as a passive scalar advected by a prescribed flow and reacting through condensation. Condensation acts as a sink that maintains specific humidity below a prescribed, space-dependent saturation value. To investigate how the interplay between large-scale advection, small-scale turbulence and condensation controls moisture distribution, we develop simple kinematic models which combine a single circulating flow with a Brownian-motion representation of turbulence. We first study the drying mechanism of a water-vapour anomaly released inside a vortex at an initial time. Next, we consider a cellular flow with a moisture source at a boundary. The statistically steady state attained shows features reminiscent of the Hadley cell such as boundary layers, a region of intense precipitation and a relative humidity minimum. Explicit results provide a detailed characterization of these features in the limit of strong flow. PMID:28690417

  12. The effect of coherent stirring on the advection-condensation of water vapour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, Yue-Kin; Vanneste, Jacques

    2017-06-01

    Atmospheric water vapour is an essential ingredient of weather and climate. The key features of its distribution can be represented by kinematic models which treat it as a passive scalar advected by a prescribed flow and reacting through condensation. Condensation acts as a sink that maintains specific humidity below a prescribed, space-dependent saturation value. To investigate how the interplay between large-scale advection, small-scale turbulence and condensation controls moisture distribution, we develop simple kinematic models which combine a single circulating flow with a Brownian-motion representation of turbulence. We first study the drying mechanism of a water-vapour anomaly released inside a vortex at an initial time. Next, we consider a cellular flow with a moisture source at a boundary. The statistically steady state attained shows features reminiscent of the Hadley cell such as boundary layers, a region of intense precipitation and a relative humidity minimum. Explicit results provide a detailed characterization of these features in the limit of strong flow.

  13. The effect of coherent stirring on the advection-condensation of water vapour.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Yue-Kin; Vanneste, Jacques

    2017-06-01

    Atmospheric water vapour is an essential ingredient of weather and climate. The key features of its distribution can be represented by kinematic models which treat it as a passive scalar advected by a prescribed flow and reacting through condensation. Condensation acts as a sink that maintains specific humidity below a prescribed, space-dependent saturation value. To investigate how the interplay between large-scale advection, small-scale turbulence and condensation controls moisture distribution, we develop simple kinematic models which combine a single circulating flow with a Brownian-motion representation of turbulence. We first study the drying mechanism of a water-vapour anomaly released inside a vortex at an initial time. Next, we consider a cellular flow with a moisture source at a boundary. The statistically steady state attained shows features reminiscent of the Hadley cell such as boundary layers, a region of intense precipitation and a relative humidity minimum. Explicit results provide a detailed characterization of these features in the limit of strong flow.

  14. We didn't start this fireless vapour: e-cigarette legislation in Australia.

    PubMed

    Krawitz, Marilyn

    2014-12-01

    Electronic cigarettes (or e-cigarettes) are devices that heat a cartridge containing a solution that becomes a vapour for the user to inhale. The vapour may or may not contain nicotine. E-cigarettes do not contain tar and other toxins, which traditional cigarettes do, so they may be less damaging to people's health than smoking traditional cigarettes. However, no studies exist about the long-term effects of using e-cigarettes yet. It is illegal to sell e-cigarettes with nicotine in Australia, though Australians may import a three-month supply from overseas. It is legal to sell e-cigarettes with nicotine in some other jurisdictions, such as the United Kingdom and the European Union. This article argues that the Australian government should consider legalising the sale of e-cigarettes with nicotine in Australia for health, safety and economic reasons and to protect youth. If the sale of e-cigarettes with nicotine becomes legal, the Australian government must strictly regulate it.

  15. Chalcogenide Glass for Active and Passive Mid-IR Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Reactive gas conversion • Chemical vapour deposition What is a Chalcogenide? – From Greek sulphur-loving for elements that frequently bond to sulphur...Predominately As or Se based (toxic!) ORC Research Focussed On – Gallium Lanthanum Sulphides (non-toxic) – Germanium Sulphides (non-toxic) – Capability to...770 2 hours Primary Screening 2 - 3 days Time Scale: one week Pioneering Technology: High Throughput Physical Vapour Deposition Material Discovery

  16. Coordination polymer flexibility leads to polymorphism and enables a crystalline solid-vapour reaction: a multi-technique mechanistic study.

    PubMed

    Vitórica-Yrezábal, Iñigo J; Libri, Stefano; Loader, Jason R; Mínguez Espallargas, Guillermo; Hippler, Michael; Fletcher, Ashleigh J; Thompson, Stephen P; Warren, John E; Musumeci, Daniele; Ward, Michael D; Brammer, Lee

    2015-06-08

    Despite an absence of conventional porosity, the 1D coordination polymer [Ag4 (O2 C(CF2 )2 CF3 )4 (TMP)3 ] (1; TMP=tetramethylpyrazine) can absorb small alcohols from the vapour phase, which insert into AgO bonds to yield coordination polymers [Ag4 (O2 C(CF2 )2 CF3 )4 (TMP)3 (ROH)2 ] (1-ROH; R=Me, Et, iPr). The reactions are reversible single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformations. Vapour-solid equilibria have been examined by gas-phase IR spectroscopy (K=5.68(9)×10(-5) (MeOH), 9.5(3)×10(-6) (EtOH), 6.14(5)×10(-5) (iPrOH) at 295 K, 1 bar). Thermal analyses (TGA, DSC) have enabled quantitative comparison of two-step reactions 1-ROH→1→2, in which 2 is the 2D coordination polymer [Ag4 (O2 C(CF2 )2 CF3 )4 (TMP)2 ] formed by loss of TMP ligands exclusively from singly-bridging sites. Four polymorphic forms of 1 (1-A(LT) , 1-A(HT) , 1-B(LT) and 1-B(HT) ; HT=high temperature, LT=low temperature) have been identified crystallographically. In situ powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) studies of the 1-ROH→1→2 transformations indicate the role of the HT polymorphs in these reactions. The structural relationship between polymorphs, involving changes in conformation of perfluoroalkyl chains and a change in orientation of entire polymers (A versus B forms), suggests a mechanism for the observed reactions and a pathway for guest transport within the fluorous layers. Consistent with this pathway, optical microscopy and AFM studies on single crystals of 1-MeOH/1-A(HT) show that cracks parallel to the layers of interdigitated perfluoroalkyl chains develop during the MeOH release/uptake process. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. An Investigation of Tertiary Students' Understanding of Evaporation, Condensation and Vapour Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopal, Hemant; Kleinsmidt, Jacques; Case, Jennifer; Musonge, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Based on a purposive sample of 15 second-year chemical engineering students, this study investigates students' conceptions of evaporation, condensation and vapour pressure. During individual interviews the students were questioned on three tasks that had been designed around these topics. Qualitative analysis of student responses showed a range of…

  18. URBAN STORMWATER TOXIC POLLUTANTS: ASSESSMENT, SOURCES, AND TREATABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper summarizes an investigation to characterize and treat selected storm water contaminants that are listed as toxic pollutants (termed toxicants in this paper) in the Clean Water Act, Section 307 (Arbuckle et al., 1991). The first project phase investigated typical toxica...

  19. High pressure spectroscopic studies of phase transition in VO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Raktima; Mishra, K. K.; Ravindran, T. R.; Dhara, Sandip

    2018-04-01

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) exhibits a reversible first-order metal to insulator transition (MIT) at a technologically important temperature of 340K. A structural phase transition (SPT) from monoclinic M1 to rutile tetragonal R is also reported via another two intermediate phases of monoclinic M2 and triclinic T. Metastable monoclinic M2 phase of VO2 was synthesized by Mg doping in the vapour transport process. Raman spectroscopic measurements were carried out at high pressure on V1-xMgxO2 microrods. Two reversible structural phase transitions from monoclinic M2 to triclinic T at 1.6 GPa and T to monoclinic M1 at 3.2 GPa are observed and are explained by structural relaxation of the strained phases.

  20. Lidar observations of low-level wind reversals over the Gulf of Lion and characterization of their impact on the water vapour variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Girolamo, Paolo; Flamant, Cyrille; Cacciani, Marco; Summa, Donato; Stelitano, Dario; Richard, Evelyne; Ducrocq, Véronique; Fourrie, Nadia; Said, Frédérique

    2017-02-01

    Water vapour measurements from a ground-based Raman lidar and an airborne differential absorption lidar, complemented by high resolution numerical simulations from two mesoscale models (Arome-WMED and MESO-NH), are considered to investigate transition events from Mistral/Tramontane to southerly marine flow taking place over the Gulf of Lion in Southern France in the time frame September-October 2012, during the Hydrological Cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment (HyMeX) Special Observation Period 1 (SOP1). Low-level wind reversals associated with these transitions are found to have a strong impact on water vapour transport, leading to a large variability of the water vapour vertical and horizontal distribution. The high spatial and temporal resolution of the lidar data allow to monitor the time evolution of the three-dimensional water vapour field during these transitions from predominantly northerly Mistral/Tramontane flow to a predominantly southerly flow, allowing to identify the quite sharp separation between these flows, which is also quite well captured by the mesoscale models.

  1. The water vapour radiometer of Paranal: homogeneity of precipitable water vapour from two years of operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerber, Florian; Querel, Richard R.; Neureiter, Bianca

    2015-04-01

    A Low Humidity and Temperature Profiling (LHATPRO) microwave radiometer, manufactured by Radiometer Physics GmbH (RPG), is used to monitor sky conditions over ESO's Paranal observatory in support of VLT science operations. The unit measures several channels across the strong water vapour emission line at 183 GHz, necessary for resolving the low levels of precipitable water vapour (PWV) that are prevalent on Paranal (median ∼2.4 mm). The instrument consists of a humidity profiler (183-191 GHz), a temperature profiler (51-58 GHz), and an infrared camera (∼10 μm) for cloud detection. We present a statistical analysis of the homogeneity of all-sky PWV using 24 months of PWV observations. The question we tried to address was whether PWV is homogeneous enough across the sky such that service mode observations with the VLT can routinely be conducted with a user-provided constraint for PWV measured at zenith. We find the PWV over Paranal to be remarkably homogeneous across the sky down to 27.5° elevation with a median variation of 0.07 mm (rms). The homogeneity is a function of the absolute PWV but the relative variation is fairly constant at 2 to 3% (rms). Such variations will not be a significant issue for analysis of astronomical data. Users at ESO can specify PWV - measured at zenith - as an ambient constraint in service mode to enable, for instance, very demanding observations in the infrared. We conclude that in general it will not be necessary to add another observing constraint for PWV homogeneity to ensure integrity of observations. For demanding observations requiring very low PWV, where the relative variation is higher, the optimum support could be provided by observing with the LHATPRO in the same line-of-sight simultaneously. Such a mode of operations has already been tested but will have to be justified in terms of scientific gain before implementation can be considered. We plan to extend our analysis of PWV variations covering a larger parameters space

  2. Investigation of the vapour-plasma plume in the welding of titanium by high-power ytterbium fibre laser radiation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bykovskiy, D P; Petrovskii, V N; Uspenskiy, S A

    2015-03-31

    The vapour-plasma plume produced in the welding of 6-mm thick VT-23 titanium alloy plates by ytterbium fibre laser radiation of up to 10 kW power is studied in the protective Ar gas medium. High-speed video filming of the vapour-plasma plume is used to visualise the processes occurring during laser welding. The coefficient of inverse bremsstrahlung by the welding plasma plume is calculated from the data of the spectrometric study. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)

  3. Development of a wavelength stabilized seed laser system for an airborne water vapour lidar experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzer, H.; Börner, A.; Fix, A.; Günther, B.; Hübers, H.-W.; Raugust, M.; Schrandt, F.; Wirth, M.

    2007-09-01

    At the German Aerospace Center an airborne multi-wavelength differential absorption LIDAR for the measurement of atmospheric water vapour is currently under development. This instrument will enable the retrieval of the complete humidity profile from the surface up to the lowermost stratosphere with high vertical and horizontal resolution at a systematic error below 5%. The LIDAR will work in the wavelength region around 935 nm at three different water vapour absorption lines and one reference wavelength. A major sub-system of this instrument is a highly frequency stabilized seed laser system for the optical parametrical oscillators which generate the narrowband high energy light pulses. The development of the seed laser system includes the control software, the electronic control unit and the opto-mechanical layout. The seed lasers are Peltier-cooled distributed feedback laser diodes with bandwidths of about 30 MHz, each one operating for 200 μs before switching to the next one. The required frequency stability is +/- 30 MHz ≅ +/- 10 -4 nm under the rough environmental conditions aboard an aircraft. It is achieved by locking the laser wavelength to a water vapour absorption line. The paper describes the opto-mechanical layout of the seed laser system, the stabilization procedure and the results obtained with this equipment.

  4. Green chromatography separation of analytes of greatly differing properties using a polyethylene glycol stationary phase and a low-toxic water-based mobile phase.

    PubMed

    Šatínský, Dalibor; Brabcová, Ivana; Maroušková, Alena; Chocholouš, Petr; Solich, Petr

    2013-07-01

    A simple, rapid, and environmentally friendly HPLC method was developed and validated for the separation of four compounds (4-aminophenol, caffeine, paracetamol, and propyphenazone) with different chemical properties. A "green" mobile phase, employing water as the major eluent, was proposed and applied to the separation of analytes with different polarity on polyethylene glycol (PEG) stationary phase. The chromatography separation of all compounds and internal standard benzoic acid was performed using isocratic elution with a low-toxicity mobile phase consisting of 0.04% (v/v) triethylamine and water. HPLC separation was carried out using a PEG reversed-phase stationary phase Supelco Discovery HS PEG column (15 × 4 mm; particle size 3 μm) at a temperature of 30 °C and flow rate at 1.0 mL min(-1). The UV detector was set at 210 nm. In this study, a PEG stationary phase was shown to be suitable for the efficient isocratic separation of compounds that differ widely in hydrophobicity and acid-base properties, particularly 4-aminophenol (log P, 0.30), caffeine (log P, -0.25), and propyphenazone (log P, 2.27). A polar PEG stationary phase provided specific selectivity which allowed traditional chromatographic problems related to the separation of analytes with different polarities to be solved. The retention properties of the group of structurally similar substances (aromatic amines, phenolic compounds, and xanthine derivatives) were tested with different mobile phases. The proposed green chromatography method was successfully applied to the analysis of active substances and one degradation impurity (4-aminophenol) in commercial preparation. Under the optimum chromatographic conditions, standard calibration was carried out with good linearity correlation coefficients for all compounds in the range (0.99914-0.99997, n = 6) between the peak areas and concentration of compounds. Recovery of the sample preparation was in the range 100 ± 5% for all compounds

  5. Ethanol, vinegar and Origanum vulgare oil vapour suppress the development of anthracnose rot in tomato fruit.

    PubMed

    Tzortzakis, Nikos G

    2010-08-15

    Anthracnose rot (Colletotrichum coccodes) development in vitro or in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) fruit was evaluated after treatment with absolute ethyl alcohol (AEA), vinegar (VIN), chlorine (CHL) or origanum oil (ORI) and storage at 12 degrees C and 95% relative humidity during or following exposure to the volatiles. Fruit treated with vapours reduced fungal spore germination/production, but in the case of AEA- and VIN-treated fruits, fungal mycelium development was accelerated. Fruit lesion development was suppressed after fruit exposure to pure (100% v/v) AEA or ORI vapours which were accompanied by increased fruit cracking. Exposure to pure VIN-, CHL- and ORI vapours reduced (up to 92%) spore germination in vitro, but no differences were observed in the AEA treatment. The benefits associated with volatiles-enrichment were maintained in fruit pre-exposed to vapours, resulting in suppression in spore germination and spore production. However, studies performed on fungi grown on Potato Dextrose Agar revealed fewer direct effects of volatiles on fungal colony development and spore germination per se, implying that suppression of pathogen development was due in a large part to the impact of volatiles on fruit-pathogen interactions and/or 'memory' effects on fruit tissue. Work is currently focussing on the mechanisms underlying the impacts of volatiles on fruit quality related attributes. The results of this study indicate that volatiles may be considered as an alternative to the traditional postharvest sanitizing techniques. Each commodity needs to be individually assessed, and the volatile concentration and sanitising technique optimised, before the volatile treatment is used commercially. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Beyond the dose-limiting toxicity period: Dermatologic adverse events of patients on phase 1 trials of the Cancer Therapeutics Evaluation Program.

    PubMed

    Drilon, Alexander; Eaton, Anne A; Schindler, Katja; Gounder, Mrinal M; Spriggs, David R; Harris, Pamela; Ivy, S Percy; Iasonos, Alexia; Lacouture, Mario E; Hyman, David M

    2016-04-15

    Dermatologic adverse events (AEs) can be key determinants of overall drug tolerability and of the maximum tolerated and recommended phase 2 doses in phase 1 trials. The authors present the largest dedicated analysis of dermatologic AEs on phase 1 trials to date. Data from a prospectively maintained database of patients with solid tumors who were enrolled onto Cancer Therapeutics Evaluation Program (CTEP)-sponsored phase 1 trials of cytotoxic or molecularly targeted agents (MTAs) from 2000 to 2010 were analyzed. Cumulative incidence, site, and type of drug-related dermatologic AEs were described and compared. The timing of worst drug-related dermatologic AEs was summarized. In total, 3517 patients with solid tumors and 6165 unique, drug-related dermatologic AEs were analyzed, including 1545 patients on MTA-only trials, 671 on cytotoxic-only trials, and 1392 on combination MTA and cytotoxic trials. Of 1270 patients who had drug-related dermatologic events, the timing of the worst AE was as follows: 743 (cycle 1), 303 (cycle 2), and 224 (cycle 3 or later). Although the cumulative incidence of grade ≥3 drug-related AEs increased to 2.4% by cycle 6, it was only 1.6% at the end of cycle 1. The cumulative incidence of drug-related AEs was highest in patients who received MTA-only therapy (P < .001) and differed by dose level (P < .001). In patients who received MTA-only therapy, drug-related AEs were most common for combination kinase inhibitor-containing therapy (P < .001). A substantial proportion of drug-related dermatologic AEs occur after the traditional dose-limiting toxicity monitoring period of phase 1 clinical trials. Future designs should account for late toxicities. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  7. Female reproductive health in two lamp factories: effects of exposure to inorganic mercury vapour and stress factors.

    PubMed

    De Rosis, F; Anastasio, S P; Selvaggi, L; Beltrame, A; Moriani, G

    1985-07-01

    To evaluate the possible influence of mercury vapour on female reproduction, 153 women working in a mercury vapour lamp factory have been compared with 193 women employed in another factory of the same company, where mercury was not used. Both groups of subjects were exposed to stress factors (noise, rhythms of production, and shift work). The production process has been analysed by inspection of the plants and by collective discussions with "homogeneous groups" of workers; a retrospective inquiry into work history and reproductive health events has been subsequently performed by an individual interview. Women exposed to mercury vapour currently not exceeding the time weighted average air concentration of 0.01 mg/m3 declared higher prevalence and incidence rates of menstrual disorders, primary subfecundity, and adverse pregnancy outcome; however, the progression of these problems with the level of exposure to mercury inside the same factory was not always clear. The results of this study neither prove nor exclude the possibility that occupational exposure to this concentration of mercury has a negative effect on female reproduction.

  8. High-throughput Screening of ToxCast™ Phase I Chemicals in a Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell (mESC) Assay Reveals Disruption of Potential Toxicity Pathways

    EPA Science Inventory

    Little information is available regarding the potential for many commercial chemicals to induce developmental toxicity. The mESC Adherent Cell Differentiation and Cytoxicity (ACDC) assay is a high-throughput screen used to close this data gap. Thus, ToxCast™ Phase I chemicals wer...

  9. Clausius-Clapeyron Equation and Saturation Vapour Pressure: Simple Theory Reconciled with Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2012-01-01

    While the Clausius-Clapeyron equation is very important as it determines the saturation vapour pressure, in practice it is replaced by empirical, typically Magnus-type, equations which are more accurate. It is shown that the reduced accuracy reflects an inconsistent assumption that the latent heat of vaporization is constant. Not only is this…

  10. Vapour phase growth and characterization of II-VI mixed crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, D. R.; Reddy, B. K.

    1992-02-01

    All II-VI semiconductors with melting temperatures well above 1000 degree(s)C and with appreciable congruent vaporization well below their melting temperatures leave little scope for any growth technique except for the slow but efficient vaporphase growth method. Theoretical flaw in diffusion models of vapor phase growth was corrected by Factor and Garrett by incorporating the flow velocity term which otherwise would lead to segregation of constituents. An additional degree of freedom arising from the presence of two components was well utilized to finely control the stoichiometry in binaries. In mixed II-VI systems the components are either three or four, depending on whether the system is a ternary or a quaternary. The added degrees of freedom make it very difficult to control stoichiometry. However, Igaki et al. demonstrated the feasibility of control of stoichiometry in CdSxSe1-x. In this paper, a self-sealing vaporphase growth technique used for both ternary and quaternary system is described. The systems studied are CdSxSe1-x, (ZnSe)x(CdTe)1-x and (ZnTe)x(CdSe)1-x. Results on growth mechanism, miscibility, structure, band gap variation, conductivity type variation with 'x' and transport properties are presented in a comparative way and discussed. CdSxSe1-x system in the entire 'X' has the same crystal structure and type of conductivity. The second system has the same zincblend structure but the type of conductivity is very sensitive to thermal treatment. In the last system both structure and types of conductivity are different. The discontinuities in properties associated with this divergent end compound are presented and discussed. Among the physical properties/parameters studied crystal structure, bandgap and nature of conductivity are tailorable, and magnitudes of conductivity and dielectric properties are very difficult to control in the crystals grown by this vapor phase method.

  11. Application of Solid Phase Microextraction Coupled with Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry as a Rapid Method for Field Sampling and Analysis of Chemical Warfare Agents and Toxic Industrial Chemicals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    PHASE MICROEXTRACTION COUPLED WITH GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY AS A RAPID METHOD FOR FIELD SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS...SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS AND TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY AS A RAPID METHOD FOR FIELD SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS AND TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS

  12. Ionic liquids toxicity on fresh water microalgae, Scenedesmus quadricauda, Chlorella vulgaris &Botryococcus braunii; selection criterion for use in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPBR).

    PubMed

    Quraishi, Khurrum Shehzad; Bustam, Mohamad Azmi; Krishnan, Sooridarsan; Aminuddin, Noor Fathanah; Azeezah, Noraisyah; Ghani, Noraini Abd; Uemura, Yoshimitsu; Lévêque, Jean Marc

    2017-10-01

    A promising method of Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) valorization is to use green microalgae photosynthesis to process biofuel. Two Phase Partitioning Bioreactors (TPPBR) offer the possibility to use non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL) to enhance CO 2 solubility; thus making CO 2 available to maximize algae growth. This requires relatively less toxic hydrophobic Ionic Liquids (ILs) that comprise a new class of ionic compounds with remarkable physicochemical properties and thus qualifies them as NAPL candidates. This paper concerns the synthesis of ILs with octyl and butyl chains as well as different cations containing aromatic (imidazolium, pyridinium) and non-aromatic (piperidinum, pyrrolidinium) rings for CO 2 absorption studies. The authors measured their respective toxicity levels on microalgae species, specifically, Scenedesmus quadricauda, Chlorella vulgaris and Botryococcus braunii. Results revealed that octyl-based ILs were more toxic than butyl-based analogues. Such was the case for bmim-PF6 at double saturation with an absorbance of 0.11, compared to Omim-PF6 at 0.17, bmim-NTf2 at 0.02, and Omim-NTf2 at 0.14, respectively. CO 2 uptake results for ILs bearing octyl-based chains compared to the butyl analog were 54% (nCO 2 /nIL) (i.e., moles of CO 2 moles of IL) and 38% (nCO 2 /nIL), respectively. Conclusively, 1-butyl-1-methylpiperidinium absorbed 13% (nCO 2 /nIL) and appeared the least toxic, having an absorbance of 0.25 at 688 nm (double saturation at 7 d) compared to 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium, which showed the highest toxicity with zero absorbance. Accordingly, these findings suggest that 1-butyl-1-methylpiperidinium is capable of transporting CO 2 to a system containing green microalgae without causing significant harm; thus allowing its use in TPPBR technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An in situ-forming phospholipid-based phase transition gel prolongs the duration of local anesthesia for ropivacaine with minimal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Li, Hanmei; Liu, Tao; Zhu, Yuxuan; Fu, Qiang; Wu, Wanxia; Deng, Jie; Lan, Li; Shi, Sanjun

    2017-08-01

    An injectable, phospholipid-based phase transition gel (PPTG) has been developed for prolonging the release of ropivacaine (RO) for local anesthesia. PPTG was prepared by mixing phospholipids, medium-chain triglyceride and ethanol. Prior to injection, the PPTG is in a sol state with low viscosity. After subcutaneous injection, the PPTG rapidly forms a gel in situ, which acts as a drug release depot as verified by in vitro release profiles and in vivo pharmacokinetics. Administering RO-PPTG to rats led to a significantly smaller initial burst release than administering RO solution or RO base suspension. Nerve blockade in guinea pigs lasted 3-fold longer after injection of RO-PPTG than after injection of RO solution. RO-PPTG showed good biocompatibility and excellent degradability in vivo. These results suggest that this PPTG-based depot system may be useful for sustained release of local anesthetics to prolong analgesia without causing systemic toxicity. The sustained release of local anesthetics at the surgical site after a single injection is the optimal method to control post-surgical pain. In situ forming implant is an attractive alternative for the sustained release of local anesthetics. However, its practical use is highly limited by certain drawbacks including high viscosity, involved toxic organic solvents and fast drug release. To date, phospholipids-based phase transition gel (PPTG) is emerging for clinical development because of the non-toxicity, biocompatibility and ready availability of phospholipids in body. Thus, we present a novel strategy for sustained release of local anesthetics to control post-surgical pain based on PPTG, which showed a prolonged duration of nerve blockade and excellent biocompatibility. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Control of Toxic Chemicals in Puget Sound, Phase 3: Study of Atmospheric Deposition of Air Toxics to the Surface of Puget Sound

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Brandenberger, Jill M.; Louchouarn, Patrick; Kuo, Li-Jung

    2010-07-05

    The results of the Phase 1 Toxics Loading study suggested that runoff from the land surface and atmospheric deposition directly to marine waters have resulted in considerable loads of contaminants to Puget Sound (Hart Crowser et al. 2007). The limited data available for atmospheric deposition fluxes throughout Puget Sound was recognized as a significant data gap. Therefore, this study provided more recent or first reported atmospheric deposition fluxes of PAHs, PBDEs, and select trace elements for Puget Sound. Samples representing bulk atmospheric deposition were collected during 2008 and 2009 at seven stations around Puget Sound spanning from Padilla Bay southmore » to Nisqually River including Hood Canal and the Straits of Juan de Fuca. Revised annual loading estimates for atmospheric deposition to the waters of Puget Sound were calculated for each of the toxics and demonstrated an overall decrease in the atmospheric loading estimates except for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and total mercury (THg). The median atmospheric deposition flux of total PBDE (7.0 ng/m2/d) was higher than that of the Hart Crowser (2007) Phase 1 estimate (2.0 ng/m2/d). The THg was not significantly different from the original estimates. The median atmospheric deposition flux for pyrogenic PAHs (34.2 ng/m2/d; without TCB) shows a relatively narrow range across all stations (interquartile range: 21.2- 61.1 ng/m2/d) and shows no influence of season. The highest median fluxes for all parameters were measured at the industrial location in Tacoma and the lowest were recorded at the rural sites in Hood Canal and Sequim Bay. Finally, a semi-quantitative apportionment study permitted a first-order characterization of source inputs to the atmosphere of the Puget Sound. Both biomarker ratios and a principal component analysis confirmed regional data from the Puget Sound and Straits of Georgia region and pointed to the predominance of biomass and fossil fuel (mostly liquid petroleum

  15. Multifractal comparison of the extremes of rain rates and integrated vapour content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gires, Auguste; Ni, Vincent; Bosser, Pierre; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Rainfall extremes are studied through the analyse of three related fields measured with the help of co-located devices installed in the roof of the Ecole des Ponts ParisTech building: (i) Integrated Water Vapour (IWV); it corresponds the amount of water vapour present in the vertical columns between a GPS ground receiver and corresponding satellites. It is estimated from the time shift between the expected duration the signal needs to reach the receiver (the two positions are known) and the actual one (ii) Rain rate measured by three optical disdrometers of two different types (Campbell Scientific PWS100 and OTT Parsivel2) (iii) Relative humidity measured by a dedicated sensor First the correlations between these quantities during significant events is analysed. It appears that although IWV tends to decrease (vapour condense to form drops that fall) and relative humidity to increase during a rainfall event, it turns out difficult to quantitatively characterize this link. It is possibly due to the fact that the scale gap between a punctual measure for the rain rate and an average over a few km height column for the IWV is too large. Finally the scaling features of these three fields are investigated with the help of the Universal Multifractal framework which has been extensively used to analyse and simulate geophysical fields extremely variable over wide ranges of scales. Only three parameters are used to characterize variability across scales: C1 the mean intermittency, alpha the multifractality index and H the non-conservative exponent. Retrieved features are compared and the notion of maximum observable singularity is used to quantify the extremes of the various fields. Authors acknowledge the financial support of the Interreg IV NEW RainGain project (www.raingain.eu) and the chair "hydrology for resilient cities" sponsored by Véolia, and the Climate-KIC Blue Green Dream project (bgd.org.uk/).

  16. Vapour discharges on Nevado del Ruiz during the recent activity: Clues on the composition of the deep hydrothermal system and its effects on thermal springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federico, Cinzia; Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Chacón, Zoraida; Londoño, John Makario; Gil, Edwing; Alzate, Diego

    2017-10-01

    The Nevado del Ruiz volcano is considered one of the most active volcanoes in Colombia, which can potentially threaten approximately 600,000 inhabitants. The existence of a glacier and several streams channelling in some main rivers, flowing downslope, increases the risk for the population living on the flank of the volcano in case of unrest, because of the generation of lahars and mudflows. Indeed, during the November 1985 subplinian eruption, a lahar generated by the sudden melting of the glacier killed twenty thousand people in the town of Armero. Moreover, the involvement of the local hydrothermal system has produced in the past phreatic and phreatomagmatic activity, as occurred in 1989. Therefore, the physico-chemical conditions of the hydrothermal system as well as its contribution to the shallow thermal groundwater and freshwater in terms of enthalpy and chemicals require a close monitoring. The phase of unrest occurred since 2010 and culminated with an eruption in 2012, after several years of relative stability, still maintains a moderate alert, as required by the high seismicity and SO2 degassing. In October 2013, a sampling campaign has been performed on thermal springs and stream water, located at 2600-5000 m of elevation on the slope of Nevado del Ruiz, analyzed for water chemistry and stable isotopes. Some of these waters are typically steam-heated (low pH and high sulfate content) by the vapour probably separating from a zoned hydrothermal system. By applying a model of steam-heating, based on mass and enthalpy balances, we have estimated the mass rate of hydrothermal steam discharging in the different springs. The composition of the hottest thermal spring (Botero Londono) is probably representative of a marginal part of the hydrothermal system, having a temperature of 250 °C and low salinity (Cl 1500 mg/l), which suggest, along with the retrieved isotope composition, a chiefly meteoric origin. The vapour discharged at the steam vent "Nereidas" (3600

  17. Swelling behaviour of Early Jurassic shales when exposed to water vapour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houben, Maartje; Barnhoorn, Auke; Peach, Colin; Drury, Martyn

    2017-04-01

    The presence of water in mudrocks has a largely negative impact on production of gas, due to the fact that water causes swelling of the rock. Removing the water from the mudrock on the other hand could potentially shrink the rock and increase the matrix permeability. Investigation of the swelling/shrinkage behaviour of the rock during exposure to water vapour is of key importance in designing and optimizing unconventional production strategies. We have used outcrop samples of the Whitby Mudstone and the Posidonia shale [1], potential unconventional sources for gas in North-western Europe, to measure the swelling and shrinkage behaviour. Subsamples, 1 mm cubes, were prepared by the Glass Workshop at Utrecht University using a high precision digitally controlled diamond wafering saw cooled by air. The mm cubes were then exposed to atmospheres with different relative humidities either in an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) or in a 3D dilatometer. So that the sample responses to exposure of water vapour could be measured. Parallel to the bedding we found a swelling strain between 0.5 and 1.5 %, perpendicular to the bedding though swelling strain varied between 1 and 3.5%. Volumetric swelling strain varied between 1 and 2% at a maximum relative humidity of 95%. Volumetric swelling strains measured in the Early Toarcian Shales are similar to the ones found in coal [2], where the results suggest that it might be possible to increase permeability in the reservoir by decreasing the in-situ water activity due to shrinkage of the matrix. [1] M.E. Houben, A. Barnhoorn, L. Wasch, J. Trabucho-Alexandre, C. J. Peach, M.R. Drury (2016). Microstructures of Early Jurassic (Toarcian) shales of Northern Europe, International Journal of Coal Geology, 165, 76-89. [2] Jinfeng Liu, Colin J. Peach, Christopher J. Spiers (2016). Anisotropic swelling behaviour of coal matrix cubes exposed to water vapour: Effects of relative humidity and sample size, International Journal of

  18. Thermal desorption comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time of flight mass spectrometry for vapour phase mainstream tobacco smoke analysis.

    PubMed

    Savareear, Benjamin; Brokl, Michał; Wright, Chris; Focant, Jean-Francois

    2017-11-24

    A thermal desorption comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TD-GC×GC-TOFMS) method has been developed for the analysis of mainstream tobacco smoke (MTS) vapour phase (VP). The selection process of the sample introduction approach involved comparing the results obtained from three different approaches: a) use of gas sampling bag followed by SPME (Tedlar ® -SPME), b) gas sampling bag followed by TD (Tedlar ® -TD), and c) sampling directly on TD sorbents (Direct-TD). Six different SPME fibers and six different TD sorbent beds were evaluated for the extraction capacities in terms of total number of peaks and related intensities or peak areas. The best results were obtained for the Direct-TD approach using Tenax TA/Carbograph1TD/Carboxen1003 sorbent tubes. The optimisation of TD tube desorption parameters was carried out using a face-centered central composite experimental design and resulted in the use of the Tenax TA/Carbograph 1TD/Carboxen 1003 sorbent with a 7.5min desorption time, a 60mL/min tube desorption flow, and a 250°C tube desorption temperature. The optimised method was applied to the separation of MTS-VP constituents, with 665 analytes detected. The method precision ranged from 1% to 15% for over 99% of identified peak areas and from 0% to 3% and 0% to 1% for both first ( 1 t R ) and second ( 2 t R ) dimension retention times, respectively. The method was applied to the analyses of two cigarette types differing in their filter construction. Principal component analysis (PCA) allowed a clear differentiation of the studied cigarette types (PC1 describing 94% of the explained variance). Supervised Fisher ratio analysis permitted the identification of compounds responsible for the chemical differences between the two sample types. A set of 91 most relevant compounds was selected by applying a Fisher ratio cut-off approach and most of them were selectively removed by one of the cigarette filter types

  19. Toxicity of benthic dinoflagellates on grazing, behavior and survival of the brine shrimp Artemia salina

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Raquel A. F.; Fernandes, Tainá; dos Santos, Luciano Neves; Nascimento, Silvia M.

    2017-01-01

    Harmful algae may differently affect their primary grazers, causing sub-lethal effects and/or leading to their death. The present study aim to compare the effects of three toxic benthic dinoflagellates on clearance and grazing rates, behavioral changes, and survival of Artemia salina. Feeding assays consisted in 1-h incubations of brine shrimps with the toxic Prorocentrum lima, Gambierdiscus excentricus and Ostreopsis cf. ovata and the non-toxic Tetraselmis sp. Brine shrimps fed unselectively on all toxic and non-toxic algal preys, without significant differences in clearance and ingestion rates. Acute toxicity assays were performed with dinoflagellate cells in two growth phases during 7-h to assess differences in cell toxicity to A. salina. Additionally, exposure to cell-free medium was performed to evaluate its effects on A. salina survival. The behavior of brine shrimps significantly changed during exposure to the toxic dinoflagellates, becoming immobile at the bottom by the end of the trials. Dinoflagellates significantly affected A. salina survival with 100% mortality after 7-h exposure to cells in exponential phase (all treatments) and to P. lima in stationary phase. Mortality rates of brine shrimps exposed to O. cf. ovata and G. excentricus in stationary phase were 91% and 75%, respectively. However, incubations of the brine shrimps with cell-free medium did not affect A. salina survivorship. Significant differences in toxic effects between cell growth phases were only found in the survival rates of A. salina exposed to G. excentricus. Acute exposure to benthic toxic dinoflagellates induced harmful effects on behavior and survival of A. salina. Negative effects related to the toxicity of benthic dinoflagellates are thus expected on their primary grazers making them more vulnerable to predation and vectors of toxins through the marine food webs. PMID:28388672

  20. Toxicity of benthic dinoflagellates on grazing, behavior and survival of the brine shrimp Artemia salina.

    PubMed

    Neves, Raquel A F; Fernandes, Tainá; Santos, Luciano Neves Dos; Nascimento, Silvia M

    2017-01-01

    Harmful algae may differently affect their primary grazers, causing sub-lethal effects and/or leading to their death. The present study aim to compare the effects of three toxic benthic dinoflagellates on clearance and grazing rates, behavioral changes, and survival of Artemia salina. Feeding assays consisted in 1-h incubations of brine shrimps with the toxic Prorocentrum lima, Gambierdiscus excentricus and Ostreopsis cf. ovata and the non-toxic Tetraselmis sp. Brine shrimps fed unselectively on all toxic and non-toxic algal preys, without significant differences in clearance and ingestion rates. Acute toxicity assays were performed with dinoflagellate cells in two growth phases during 7-h to assess differences in cell toxicity to A. salina. Additionally, exposure to cell-free medium was performed to evaluate its effects on A. salina survival. The behavior of brine shrimps significantly changed during exposure to the toxic dinoflagellates, becoming immobile at the bottom by the end of the trials. Dinoflagellates significantly affected A. salina survival with 100% mortality after 7-h exposure to cells in exponential phase (all treatments) and to P. lima in stationary phase. Mortality rates of brine shrimps exposed to O. cf. ovata and G. excentricus in stationary phase were 91% and 75%, respectively. However, incubations of the brine shrimps with cell-free medium did not affect A. salina survivorship. Significant differences in toxic effects between cell growth phases were only found in the survival rates of A. salina exposed to G. excentricus. Acute exposure to benthic toxic dinoflagellates induced harmful effects on behavior and survival of A. salina. Negative effects related to the toxicity of benthic dinoflagellates are thus expected on their primary grazers making them more vulnerable to predation and vectors of toxins through the marine food webs.

  1. An advanced expiratory circuit for the recovery of perfluorocarbon liquid from non-saturated perfluorocarbon vapour during partial liquid ventilation: an experimental model

    PubMed Central

    Dunster, Kimble R; Davies, Mark W; Fraser, John F

    2006-01-01

    Background The loss of perfluorocarbon (PFC) vapour in the expired gases during partial liquid ventilation should be minimized both to prevent perfluorocarbon vapour entering the atmosphere and to re-use the recovered PFC liquid. Using a substantially modified design of our previously described condenser, we aimed to determine how much perfluorocarbon liquid could be recovered from gases containing PFC and water vapour, at concentrations found during partial liquid ventilation, and to determine if the amount recovered differed with background flow rate (at flow rates suitable for use in neonates). Methods The expiratory line of a standard ventilator circuit set-up was mimicked, with the addition of two condensers. Perfluorocarbon (30 mL of FC-77) and water vapour, at concentrations found during partial liquid ventilation, were passed through the circuit at a number of flow rates and the percentage recovery of the liquids measured. Results From 14.2 mL (47%) to 27.3 mL (91%) of the infused 30 mL of FC-77 was recovered at the flow rates studied. Significantly higher FC-77 recovery was obtained at lower flow rates (ANOVA with Bonferroni's multiple comparison test, p < 0.0001). As a percentage of the theoretical maximum recovery, 64 to 95% of the FC-77 was recovered. Statistically significantly less FC-77 was recovered at 5 Lmin-1 (ANOVA with Bonferroni's multiple comparison test, p < 0.0001). Amounts of perfluorocarbon vapour recovered were 47%, 50%, 81% and 91% at flow rates of 10, 5, 2 and 1 Lmin-1, respectively. Conclusion Using two condensers in series 47% to 91% of perfluorocarbon liquid can be recovered, from gases containing perfluorocarbon and water vapour, at concentrations found during partial liquid ventilation. PMID:16457722

  2. Effects of copper vapour on thermophysical properties of CO2-N2 plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Linlin; Wang, Xiaohua; Rong, Mingzhe; Cressault, Yann

    2016-10-01

    CO2-N2 mixtures are often used as arc quenching medium (to replace SF6) in circuit breakers and shielding gas in arc welding. In such applications, copper vapour resulting from electrode surfaces can modify characteristics of plasmas. This paper therefore presents an investigation of the effects of copper on thermophysical properties of CO2-N2 plasma. The equilibrium compositions, thermodynamic properties (including mass density, specific enthalpy, and specific heat), transport coefficients (including electrical conductivity, viscosity, and thermal conductivity), and four kinds of combined diffusion coefficients due to composition gradients, applied electric fields, temperature gradients, and pressure gradients respectively, were calculated and discussed for CO2-N2 (mixing ratio 7:3) plasma contaminated by different proportions of copper vapour. The significant influences of copper were observed on all the properties of CO2-N2-Cu mixtures. The better ionization ability and larger molar mass of copper and larger collision integrals related to copper, should be responsible for such influences.

  3. Transport mechanisms through PE-CVD coatings: influence of temperature, coating properties and defects on permeation of water vapour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchheim, Dennis; Jaritz, Montgomery; Mitschker, Felix; Gebhard, Maximilian; Brochhagen, Markus; Hopmann, Christian; Böke, Marc; Devi, Anjana; Awakowicz, Peter; Dahlmann, Rainer

    2017-03-01

    Gas transport mechanisms through plastics are usually described by the temperature-dependent Arrhenius-model and compositions of several plastic layers are represented by the CLT. When it comes to thin films such as plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PE-CVD) or plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) coatings on substrates of polymeric material, a universal model is lacking. While existing models describe diffusion through defects, these models presume that permeation does not occur by other means of transport mechanisms. This paper correlates the existing transport models with data from water vapour transmission experiments.

  4. A phase III study evaluating oral glutamine and transforming growth factor-beta 2 on chemotherapy-induced toxicity in patients with digestive neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Khemissa, Faïza; Mineur, Laurent; Amsellem, Caroline; Assenat, Eric; Ramdani, Mohamed; Bachmann, Patrick; Janiszewski, Chloé; Cristiani, Isabelle; Collin, Fideline; Courraud, Julie; de Forges, Hélène; Dechelotte, Pierre; Senesse, Pierre

    2016-03-01

    Patients with gastrointestinal (GI) cancer are exposed to cachexia, which is highly correlated with chemotherapy-induced side effects. Research suggests that specific immunonutrients could prevent such toxicities. The primary objective of this phase III study was to evaluate the efficacy of glutamine and transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β2) in the prevention of grade 3-4 non-hematological toxicities induced by chemotherapy in patients with GI cancer. We designed a double-blind, randomized, controlled and multicenter trial stratified according to center, type of chemotherapy, presence of cachexia, and age. Patients were randomized to receive either Clinutren Protect(®) (CP) or a control isocaloric diet (without TGF-β2 or glutamine). Between November 2007 and October 2011, 210 patients were enrolled in the study, of which 201 were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Grade 3-4 non-hematological toxicities were not significantly different between the CP and control groups when evaluated by univariate and multivariate analyses. Likewise, no difference was observed regarding grade 3-4 hematological toxicities or reasons for treatment interruption. This randomized study does not support the hypothesis that oral glutamine and TGF-β2 supplementation is effective to reduce grade 3 or 4 non-hematological toxicities induced by chemotherapy in patients with GI neoplasm. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of sorption properties of selected soils from Lublin region by using water vapour adsorption method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skic, Kamil; Boguta, Patrycja; Sokołowska, Zofia

    2016-04-01

    *The studies were carried out within the framework of a research project. The project was financed from funds of National Science Center on the base of decision number DEC-2013/11/D/NZ9/02545 Among many methods proposed to study sorption properties of soils an analysis of adsorption/ desorption isotherm is probably the easiest and most convenient one. It characterizes both quantity and quality of mineral and organic components and also their physical and physicochemical properties. The main aim of this study is comparison of sorption properties of selected Polish soils by using water vapour adsorption method. Samples were taken from the depth of 0-20 cm, from the Lublin region, eastern Poland. Soils were selected on the basis of their different physicochemical properties and were classified as: Haplic Fluvisol, Haplic Chernozem, Mollic Gleysol, Rendzic Phaeozem, Stagnic Luvisol, Haplic Cambisol (WG WRB 2006). Data taken from experimental adsorption isotherms were used to determine parameters of monolayer capacity, specific surface area and the total amount of vapour adsorbed at relative pressure of 0.974. Obtained adsorption and desorption isotherms reviled that adsorbate molecules interacted with the soil particles in different extent. Similar monolayer capacity was observed for Haplic Fluvisol, Haplic Chernozem and Stagnic Luvisol, while for Mollic Gleysol was more than 4 times higher. Mollic Gleysol was also characterized by highest values of specific surface area as well as quantity of adsorbed vapour at relative pressure of 0.974. Higher sorption was caused by presence of soil colloids which contains functional groups of a polar nature (mainly hydroxyls, phenolic and carboxyls). These groups similarly to silicates, oxides, hydratable cations as well as electric charge form adsorption centres for water vapour molecules.

  6. Alteration layer formation of Ca- and Zn-oxide bearing alkali borosilicate glasses for immobilisation of UK high level waste: A vapour hydration study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassingham, N. J.; Corkhill, C. L.; Stennett, M. C.; Hand, R. J.; Hyatt, N. C.

    2016-10-01

    The UK high level nuclear waste glass modified with CaO/ZnO was investigated using the vapour phase hydration test, performed at 200 °C, with the aim of understanding the impact of the modification on the chemical composition and microstructure of the alteration layer. Experiments were undertaken on non-modified and CaO/ZnO-modified base glass, with or without 25 wt% of simulant Magnox waste calcine. The modification resulted in a dramatic reduction in gel layer thickness and also a reduction in the reaction rate, from 3.4 ± 0.3 g m-2 d-1 without CaO/ZnO modification to 0.9 ± 0.1 g m-2 d-1 with CaO/ZnO. The precipitated phase assemblage for the CaO/ZnO-modified compositions was identified as hydrated Ca- and Zn-bearing silicate phases, which were absent from the non-modified counterpart. These results are in agreement with other recent studies showing the beneficial effects of ZnO additions on glass durability.

  7. Removal of toxic Cr(VI) ions from tannery industrial wastewater using a newly designed three-phase three-dimensional electrode reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grace Pavithra, K.; Senthil Kumar, P.; Carolin Christopher, Femina; Saravanan, A.

    2017-11-01

    In this research, the wastewater samples were collected from leather tanning industry at different time intervals. The parameters like pH, electrical conductivity, temperature, turbidity, chromium and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the samples were analyzed. A three-phase three-dimensional fluidized type electrode reactor (FTER) was newly designed for the effective removal of toxic pollutants from wastewater. The influencing parameters were optimized for the maximum removal of toxic pollutants from wastewater. The optimum condition for the present system was calculated as: contact time of 30 min, applied voltage of 3 V and the particle electrodes of 15 g. The particle electrode was characterized by using FT-IR analysis. Langmuir-Hinshelwood and pseudo-second order kinetic models were fits well with the experimental data. The results showed that the FTER can be successfully employed for the treatment of industrial wastewater.

  8. A review of water recovery by vapour permeation through membranes.

    PubMed

    Bolto, Brian; Hoang, Manh; Xie, Zongli

    2012-02-01

    In vapour permeation the feed is a vapour, not a liquid as in pervaporation. The process employs a polymeric membrane as a semi-permeable barrier between the feed side under high pressure and the permeate side under low pressure. Separation is achieved by the different degrees to which components are dissolved in and diffuse through the membrane, the system working according to a solution-diffusion mechanism. The materials used in the membrane depend upon the types of compounds being separated, so water transport is favoured by hydrophilic material, whether organic or inorganic. The process is used for the dehydration of natural gas and various organic solvents, notably alcohol as biofuel, as well as the removal of water from air and its recovery from waste steam. Waste steam can be found in almost every plant/factory where steam is used. It is frequently contaminated and cannot be reused. Discharging the spent steam to the atmosphere is a serious energy loss and environmental issue. Recycling the steam can significantly improve the overall energy efficiency of an industry, which is responsible for massive CO(2) emissions. Steam separation at high fluxes and temperatures has been accomplished with a composite poly(vinyl alcohol) membrane containing silica nanoparticles, and also, less efficiently, with an inorganic zeolite membrane. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Kinetics of the reaction between nitrogen dioxide and water vapour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, R.; Ljungström, E.; Lindqvist, O.

    The rate of disappearance of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) with water vapour and formation of nitrous acid (HONO) in the dark has been investigated in batch experiments. IR spectroscopy was used to determine the concentrations of NO 2, HONO and NO. The reaction is first order both with respect to NO 2 and water vapour and proceeds heterogenously on most unpoisoned surfaces. Initially, the amount of HONO formed is close to half the NO 2 which has disappeared. When the surface in the present reactor (surface to volume ratio = 14 m -1) has reached its limiting state of poisoning, the reaction is still active and the NO 2 disappearance follows the expression: -d[NO 2] /dt = 2k 1[NO 2] [H 2O] where k1 = 4.1 (± 0.8) 10 -8 ppm -1 min -1 (22°C). The S/V ratio dependence of the rate shows that a heterogenous reaction proceeds but the existing evidence is not conclusive about a possible homogenous contribution to the remaining activity. A rate expression which describes the overall reaction at temperatures around 25°C, when the surface present is made passive, is: -d[NO 2] /dt = ( S/V5.6(±0.9)10 -9 + 2.3(±6.5)10 -9)[NO 2][H 2O] .

  10. Long-term series of tropospheric water vapour amounts and HDO/H2O ratio profiles above Jungfraujoch.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lejeune, B.; Mahieu, E.; Schneider, M.; Hase, F.; Servais, C.; Demoulin, P.

    2012-04-01

    Water vapour is a crucial climate variable involved in many processes which widely determine the energy budget of our planet. In particular, water vapour is the dominant greenhouse gas in the Earth's atmosphere and its radiative forcing is maximum in the middle and upper troposphere. Because of the extremely high variability of water vapour concentration in time and space, it is challenging for the available relevant measurement techniques to provide a consistent data set useful for trend analyses and climate studies. Schneider et al. (2006a) showed that ground-based Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, performed from mountain observatories, allows for the detection of H2O variabilities up to the tropopause. Furthermore, the FTIR measurements allow the retrieval of HDO amounts and therefore the monitoring of HDO/H2O ratio profiles whose variations act as markers for the source and history of the atmospheric water vapour. In the framework of the MUSICA European project (Multi-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water, http://www.imk-asf.kit.edu/english/musica.php), a new approach has been developed and optimized by M. Schneider and F. Hase, using the PROFFIT algorithm, to consistently retrieve tropospheric water vapour profiles from high-resolution ground-based infrared solar spectra and so taking benefit from available long-term data sets of ground-based observations. The retrieval of the water isotopologues is performed on a logarithmic scale from 14 micro-windows located in the 2600-3100 cm-1 region. Other important features of this new retrieval strategy are: a speed dependant Voigt line shape model, a joint temperature profile retrieval and an interspecies constraint for the HDO/H2O profiles. In this contribution, we will combine the quality of the MUSICA strategy and of our observations, which are recorded on a regular basis with FTIR spectrometers, under clear-sky conditions, at the NDACC site

  11. Sediment toxicity in Savannah Harbor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winger, P.V.; Lasier, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    Savannah Harbor, located near the mouth of the Savannah River, Georgia and South Carolina, is impacted by industrial and municipal effluents. Potential release of contaminants stored in harbor sediments through dredging and shipping operations requires that contaminated areas be identified for proper management of the system and protection of wildlife resources. During 1991, Hyalella azteca were exposed in 10-d static-renewal toxicity tests to pore-water and solid-phase sediment samples collected from 26 sites within Savannah Harbor. Pore-water toxicity was more pronounced than that for solidphase sediment. Toxicity and reduced leaf consumption demonstrated impaired sediment quality at specific sites within Savannah Harbor and Back River. Factors responsible for the decreased sediment quality were ammonia, alkalinity, and metal concentrations (cadmium, chromium, lead, molybdenum, and nickel). Elevated concentrations of metals and toxicities in Back River sediments indicated impacts from adjacent dredge-spoil areas.

  12. Evaluation of the new capture vapourizer for aerosol mass spectrometers (AMS) through laboratory studies of inorganic species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Weiwei; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Day, Douglas A.; Croteau, Philip; Canagaratna, Manjula R.; Jayne, John T.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Jimenez, Jose L.

    2017-08-01

    Aerosol mass spectrometers (AMSs) and Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitors (ACSMs) commercialized by Aerodyne are widely used to measure the non-refractory species in submicron particles. With the standard vapourizer (SV) that is installed in all commercial instruments to date, the quantification of ambient aerosol mass concentration requires the use of the collection efficiency (CE) to correct for the loss of particles due to bounce. A new capture vapourizer (CV) has been designed to reduce the need for a bounce-related CE correction. Two high-resolution AMS instruments, one with a SV and one with a CV, were operated side by side in the laboratory. Four standard species, NH4NO3, NaNO3, (NH4)2SO4 and NH4Cl, which typically constitute the majority of the mass of ambient submicron inorganic species, are studied. The effect of vapourizer temperature (Tv ˜ 200-800 °C) on the detected fragments, CE and size distributions are investigated. A Tv of 500-550 °C for the CV is recommended. In the CV, CE was identical (around unity) for more volatile species (e.g. NH4NO3) and comparable to or higher than the SV for less-volatile species (e.g. (NH4)2SO4), demonstrating an improvement in CE for laboratory inorganic species in the CV. The detected relative intensities of fragments of NO3 and SO4 species observed with the CV are different from those observed with the SV, and are consistent with additional thermal decomposition arising from the increased residence time and multiple collisions. Increased residence times with the CV also lead to broader particle size distribution measurements than with the SV. A method for estimating whether pure species will be detected in AMS sizing mode is proposed. Production of CO2(g) from sampled nitrate on the vapourizer surface, which has been reported for the SV, is negligible for the CV for NH4NO3 and comparable to the SV for NaNO3. . We observe an extremely consistent fragmentation for ammonium compared to very large changes for the

  13. The oxidative corrosion of carbide inclusions at the surface of uranium metal during exposure to water vapour.

    PubMed

    Scott, T B; Petherbridge, J R; Harker, N J; Ball, R J; Heard, P J; Glascott, J; Allen, G C

    2011-11-15

    The reaction between uranium and water vapour has been well investigated, however discrepancies exist between the described kinetic laws, pressure dependence of the reaction rate constant and activation energies. Here this problem is looked at by examining the influence of impurities in the form of carbide inclusions on the reaction. Samples of uranium containing 600 ppm carbon were analysed during and after exposure to water vapour at 19 mbar pressure, in an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) system. After water exposure, samples were analysed using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), focused ion beam (FIB) imaging and sectioning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with X-ray diffraction (micro-XRD). The results of the current study indicate that carbide particles on the surface of uranium readily react with water vapour to form voluminous UO(3) · xH(2)O growths at rates significantly faster than that of the metal. The observation may also have implications for previous experimental studies of uranium-water interactions, where the presence of differing levels of undetected carbide may partly account for the discrepancies observed between datasets. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A novel method of measuring the concentration of anaesthetic vapours using a dew-point hygrometer.

    PubMed

    Wilkes, A R; Mapleson, W W; Mecklenburgh, J S

    1994-02-01

    The Antoine equation relates the saturated vapour pressure of a volatile substance, such as an anaesthetic agent, to the temperature. The measurement of the 'dew-point' of a dry gas mixture containing a volatile anaesthetic agent by a dew-point hygrometer permits the determination of the partial pressure of the anaesthetic agent. The accuracy of this technique is limited only by the accuracy of the Antoine coefficients and of the temperature measurement. Comparing measurements by the dew-point method with measurements by refractometry showed systematic discrepancies up to 0.2% and random discrepancies with SDS up to 0.07% concentration in the 1% to 5% range for three volatile anaesthetics. The systematic discrepancies may be due to errors in available data for the vapour pressures and/or the refractive indices of the anaesthetics.

  15. Development of a toxicity identification evaluation procedure for characterizing metal toxicity in marine sediments

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Burgess, R.M.; Cantwell, M.G.; Pelletier, M.C.

    2000-04-01

    A multiagency effort is underway to develop whole sediment toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) methods. Whole sediment TIE methods will be critical tools for characterizing toxicity at hazardous waste sites and in the conduct of environmental risk assessments. The research approach is based on the predominance of three classes of toxicants in sediments: ammonia, nonpolar organic chemicals, and metals. Here the authors describe a procedure for characterizing acute toxicity caused by metals in whole marine sediments. The procedure involves adding a chelating resin to sediments, resulting in the sequestration of bioavailable metal while not stressing testing organisms. Within the testing chambers,more » the presence of resin resulted in statistically significant reductions in the overlying and interstitial water concentrations of five metals (cadmium, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc) generally by factors of 40 and 200. Toxicity to both the amphipod Ampelisca abdita and mysid Americamysis bahia (formerly Mysidopsis bahia) of sediments spiked with the five metals was decreased by approximately a factor of four when resin was present. While very effective at reducing the concentrations and toxicity of metals, the resin has only minor ameliorative effects on the toxicity of ammonia and a representative nonpolar toxicant (Endosulfan). Resin and accumulated metal were easily isolated from the testing system following exposures allowing for the initiation of phase II TIE (identification) procedures. This procedure using the addition of a chelating resin provides an approach for determining the importance of metals to the toxicity of marine sediments. Work is continuing to validate the method with environmentally contaminated sediments.« less

  16. Lennard-Jones fluids in two-dimensional nano-pores. Multi-phase coexistence and fluid structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsyshin, Petr; Savva, Nikos; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2014-03-01

    We present a number of fundamental findings on the wetting behaviour of nano-pores. A popular model for fluid confinement is a one-dimensional (1D) slit pore formed by two parallel planar walls and it exhibits capillary condensation (CC): a first-order phase transition from vapour to capillary-liquid (Kelvin shift). Capping such a pore at one end by a third orthogonal wall forms a prototypical two-dimensional (2D) pore. We show that 2D pores possess a wetting temperature such that below this temperature CC remains of first order, above it becomes a continuous phase transition manifested by a slab of capillary-liquid filling the pore from the capping wall. Continuous CC exhibits hysteresis and can be preceded by a first-order capillary prewetting transition. Additionally, liquid drops can form in the corners of the 2D pore (remnant of 2D wedge prewetting). The three fluid phases, vapour, capillary-liquid slab and corner drops, can coexist at the pore triple point. Our model is based on the statistical mechanics of fluids in the density functional formulation. The fluid-fluid and fluid-substrate interactions are dispersive. We analyze in detail the microscopic fluid structure, isotherms and full phase diagrams. Our findings also suggest novel ways to control wetting of nano-pores. We are grateful to the European Research Council via Advanced Grant No. 247031 for support.

  17. Water vapour retrieval using the Precision Solar Spectroradiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raptis, Panagiotis-Ioannis; Kazadzis, Stelios; Gröbner, Julian; Kouremeti, Natalia; Doppler, Lionel; Becker, Ralf; Helmis, Constantinos

    2018-02-01

    The Precision Solar Spectroradiometer (PSR) is a new spectroradiometer developed at Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos - World Radiation Center (PMOD-WRC), Davos, measuring direct solar irradiance at the surface, in the 300-1020 nm spectral range and at high temporal resolution. The purpose of this work is to investigate the instrument's potential to retrieve integrated water vapour (IWV) using its spectral measurements. Two different approaches were developed in order to retrieve IWV: the first one uses single-channel and wavelength measurements, following a theoretical water vapour high absorption wavelength, and the second one uses direct sun irradiance integrated at a certain spectral region. IWV results have been validated using a 2-year data set, consisting of an AERONET sun-photometer Cimel CE318, a Global Positioning System (GPS), a microwave radiometer profiler (MWP) and radiosonde retrievals recorded at Meteorological Observatorium Lindenberg, Germany. For the monochromatic approach, better agreement with retrievals from other methods and instruments was achieved using the 946 nm channel, while for the spectral approach the 934-948 nm window was used. Compared to other instruments' retrievals, the monochromatic approach leads to mean relative differences up to 3.3 % with the coefficient of determination (R2) being in the region of 0.87-0.95, while for the spectral approach mean relative differences up to 0.7 % were recorded with R2 in the region of 0.96-0.98. Uncertainties related to IWV retrieval methods were investigated and found to be less than 0.28 cm for both methods. Absolute IWV deviations of differences between PSR and other instruments were determined the range of 0.08-0.30 cm and only in extreme cases would reach up to 15 %.

  18. High mean water vapour pressure promotes the transmission of bacillary dysentery.

    PubMed

    Li, Guo-Zheng; Shao, Feng-Feng; Zhang, Hao; Zou, Chun-Pu; Li, Hui-Hui; Jin, Jue

    2015-01-01

    Bacillary dysentery is an infectious disease caused by Shigella dysenteriae, which has a seasonal distribution. External environmental factors, including climate, play a significant role in its transmission. This paper identifies climate-related risk factors and their role in bacillary dysentery transmission. Harbin, in northeast China, with a temperate climate, and Quzhou, in southern China, with a subtropical climate, are chosen as the study locations. The least absolute shrinkage and selectionator operator is applied to select relevant climate factors involved in the transmission of bacillary dysentery. Based on the selected relevant climate factors and incidence rates, an AutoRegressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model is established successfully as a time series prediction model. The numerical results demonstrate that the mean water vapour pressure over the previous month results in a high relative risk for bacillary dysentery transmission in both cities, and the ARIMA model can successfully perform such a prediction. These results provide better explanations for the relationship between climate factors and bacillary dysentery transmission than those put forth in other studies that use only correlation coefficients or fitting models. The findings in this paper demonstrate that the mean water vapour pressure over the previous month is an important predictor for the transmission of bacillary dysentery.

  19. Influence of metallic vapours on thermodynamic and transport properties of two-temperature air plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Linlin; Wang, Xiaohua; Cressault, Yann; Teulet, Philippe; Rong, Mingzhe

    2016-09-01

    The metallic vapours (i.e., copper, iron, and silver in this paper) resulting from walls and/or electrode surfaces can significantly affect the characteristics of air plasma. Different from the previous works assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium, this paper investigates the influence of metallic vapours on two-temperature (2 T) air plasma. The 2 T compositions of air contaminated by Cu, Fe, and Ag are first determined based on Saha's and Guldberg-Waage's laws. The thermodynamic properties (including mass density, specific enthalpy, and specific heat) are then calculated according to their definitions. After determining the collision integrals for each pair of species in air-metal mixtures using the newly published methods and source data, the transport coefficients (including electrical conductivity, viscosity, and thermal conductivity) are calculated for air-Cu, air-Fe, and air-Ag plasmas with different non-equilibrium degree θ (Te/Th). The influences of metallic contamination as well as non-equilibrium degree are discussed. It is found that copper, iron, and silver exist mainly in the form of Cu2, FeO, and AgO at low temperatures. Generally, the metallic vapours increase mass density at most temperatures, reduce the specific enthalpy and specific heat in the whole temperature range, and affect the transport properties remarkably from 5000 K to 20 000 K. The effect arising from the type of metals is little except for silver at certain temperatures. Besides, the departure from thermal equilibrium results in the delay of dissociation and ionization reactions, leading to the shift of thermodynamic and transport properties towards a higher temperature.

  20. Vapour Pressure and Adiabatic Cooling from Champagne: Slow-Motion Visualization of Gas Thermodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmer, Michael; Mollmann, Klaus-Peter

    2012-01-01

    The recent introduction of inexpensive high-speed cameras offers a new experimental approach to many simple but fast-occurring events in physics. In this paper, the authors present two simple demonstration experiments recorded with high-speed cameras in the fields of gas dynamics and thermal physics. The experiments feature vapour pressure effects…

  1. Measurements of spectral parameters of water-vapour transitions near 1388 and 1345 nm for accurate simulation of high-pressure absorption spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiang; Jeffries, Jay B.; Hanson, Ronald K.

    2007-05-01

    Quantitative near-infrared absorption spectroscopy of water-vapour overtone and combination bands at high pressures is complicated by pressure broadening and shifting of individual lines and the blending of neighbouring transitions. An experimental and computational methodology is developed to determine accurate high-pressure absorption spectra. This case study investigates two water-vapour transitions, one near 1388 nm (7203.9 cm-1) and the other near 1345 nm (7435.6 cm-1), for potential two-line absorption measurements of temperature in the range of 400-1050 K with a pressure varying from 5-25 atm. The required quantitative spectroscopy data (line strength, collisional broadening, and pressure-induced frequency shift) of the target transitions and their neighbours (a total of four H2O vapour transitions near 1388 nm and six transitions near 1345 nm) are measured in neat H2O vapour, H2O-air and H2O-CO2 mixtures as a function of temperature (296-1000 K) at low pressures (<800 Torr). Precise values of the line strength S(T), pressure-broadening coefficients γair(T) and \\gamma _{CO_2 } (T), and pressure-shift coefficients δair(T) and \\delta _{CO_2 } (T) for the ten transitions were inferred from the measured spectra and compared with data from HITRAN 2004. A hybrid spectroscopic database was constructed by modifying HITRAN 2004 to incorporate these values for simulation of water-vapour-absorption spectra at high pressures. Simulations using this hybrid database are in good agreement with high pressure experiments and demonstrate that data collected at modest pressures can be used to simulate high-pressure absorption spectra.

  2. Continuous measurements of stable isotopes of carbon dioxide and water vapour in an urban atmosphere: isotopic variations associated with meteorological conditions.

    PubMed

    Wada, Ryuichi; Matsumi, Yutaka; Nakayama, Tomoki; Hiyama, Tetsuya; Fujiyoshi, Yasushi; Kurita, Naoyuki; Muramoto, Kenichiro; Takanashi, Satoru; Kodama, Naomi; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    2017-12-01

    Isotope ratios of carbon dioxide and water vapour in the near-surface air were continuously measured for one month in an urban area of the city of Nagoya in central Japan in September 2010 using laser spectroscopic techniques. During the passages of a typhoon and a stationary front in the observation period, remarkable changes in the isotope ratios of CO 2 and water vapour were observed. The isotope ratios of both CO 2 and water vapour decreased during the typhoon passage. The decreases can be attributed to the air coming from an industrial area and the rainout effects of the typhoon, respectively. During the passage of the stationary front, δ 13 C-CO 2 and δ 18 O-CO 2 increased, while δ 2 H-H 2 Ov and δ 18 O-H 2 Ov decreased. These changes can be attributed to the air coming from rural areas and the air surrounding the observational site changing from a subtropical air mass to a subpolar air mass during the passage of the stationary front. A clear relationship was observed between the isotopic CO 2 and water vapour and the meteorological phenomena. Therefore, isotopic information of CO 2 and H 2 Ov could be used as a tracer of meteorological information.

  3. Airborne and satellite remote sensing of the mid-infrared water vapour continuum.

    PubMed

    Newman, Stuart M; Green, Paul D; Ptashnik, Igor V; Gardiner, Tom D; Coleman, Marc D; McPheat, Robert A; Smith, Kevin M

    2012-06-13

    Remote sensing of the atmosphere from space plays an increasingly important role in weather forecasting. Exploiting observations from the latest generation of weather satellites relies on an accurate knowledge of fundamental spectroscopy, including the water vapour continuum absorption. Field campaigns involving the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements research aircraft have collected a comprehensive dataset, comprising remotely sensed infrared radiance observations collocated with accurate measurements of the temperature and humidity structure of the atmosphere. These field measurements have been used to validate the strength of the infrared water vapour continuum in comparison with the latest laboratory measurements. The recent substantial changes to self-continuum coefficients in the widely used MT_CKD (Mlawer-Tobin-Clough-Kneizys-Davies) model between 2400 and 3200 cm(-1) are shown to be appropriate and in agreement with field measurements. Results for the foreign continuum in the 1300-2000 cm(-1) band suggest a weak temperature dependence that is not currently included in atmospheric models. A one-dimensional variational retrieval experiment is performed that shows a small positive benefit from using new laboratory-derived continuum coefficients for humidity retrievals.

  4. Controllable growth of shaped graphene domains by atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Lili; Li, Zhen; Li, Xiao; Wang, Kunlin; Zhong, Minlin; Wei, Jinquan; Wu, Dehai; Zhu, Hongwei

    2011-12-01

    Graphene domains in different shapes have been grown on copper substrates via atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition by controlling the growth process parameters. Under stabilized conditions, graphene domains tend to be six-fold symmetric hexagons under low flow rate methane with some domains in an irregular hexagonal shape. After further varying the growth duration, methane flow rate, and temperature, graphene domains have developed shapes from hexagon to shovel and dendrite. Two connecting modes, through overlap and merging of adjacent graphene domains, are proposed.Graphene domains in different shapes have been grown on copper substrates via atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition by controlling the growth process parameters. Under stabilized conditions, graphene domains tend to be six-fold symmetric hexagons under low flow rate methane with some domains in an irregular hexagonal shape. After further varying the growth duration, methane flow rate, and temperature, graphene domains have developed shapes from hexagon to shovel and dendrite. Two connecting modes, through overlap and merging of adjacent graphene domains, are proposed. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Schematics of CVD setups for graphene growth, Raman spectra and SEM images. See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr11480h

  5. Localized sources of water vapour on the dwarf planet (1) Ceres.

    PubMed

    Küppers, Michael; O'Rourke, Laurence; Bockelée-Morvan, Dominique; Zakharov, Vladimir; Lee, Seungwon; von Allmen, Paul; Carry, Benoît; Teyssier, David; Marston, Anthony; Müller, Thomas; Crovisier, Jacques; Barucci, M Antonietta; Moreno, Raphael

    2014-01-23

    The 'snowline' conventionally divides Solar System objects into dry bodies, ranging out to the main asteroid belt, and icy bodies beyond the belt. Models suggest that some of the icy bodies may have migrated into the asteroid belt. Recent observations indicate the presence of water ice on the surface of some asteroids, with sublimation a potential reason for the dust activity observed on others. Hydrated minerals have been found on the surface of the largest object in the asteroid belt, the dwarf planet (1) Ceres, which is thought to be differentiated into a silicate core with an icy mantle. The presence of water vapour around Ceres was suggested by a marginal detection of the photodissociation product of water, hydroxyl (ref. 12), but could not be confirmed by later, more sensitive observations. Here we report the detection of water vapour around Ceres, with at least 10(26) molecules being produced per second, originating from localized sources that seem to be linked to mid-latitude regions on the surface. The water evaporation could be due to comet-like sublimation or to cryo-volcanism, in which volcanoes erupt volatiles such as water instead of molten rocks.

  6. Warm water vapour in the sooty outflow from a luminous carbon star.

    PubMed

    Decin, L; Agúndez, M; Barlow, M J; Daniel, F; Cernicharo, J; Lombaert, R; De Beck, E; Royer, P; Vandenbussche, B; Wesson, R; Polehampton, E T; Blommaert, J A D L; De Meester, W; Exter, K; Feuchtgruber, H; Gear, W K; Gomez, H L; Groenewegen, M A T; Guélin, M; Hargrave, P C; Huygen, R; Imhof, P; Ivison, R J; Jean, C; Kahane, C; Kerschbaum, F; Leeks, S J; Lim, T; Matsuura, M; Olofsson, G; Posch, T; Regibo, S; Savini, G; Sibthorpe, B; Swinyard, B M; Yates, J A; Waelkens, C

    2010-09-02

    The detection of circumstellar water vapour around the ageing carbon star IRC +10216 challenged the current understanding of chemistry in old stars, because water was predicted to be almost absent in carbon-rich stars. Several explanations for the water were postulated, including the vaporization of icy bodies (comets or dwarf planets) in orbit around the star, grain surface reactions, and photochemistry in the outer circumstellar envelope. With a single water line detected so far from this one carbon-rich evolved star, it is difficult to discriminate between the different mechanisms proposed. Here we report the detection of dozens of water vapour lines in the far-infrared and sub-millimetre spectrum of IRC +10216 using the Herschel satellite. This includes some high-excitation lines with energies corresponding to approximately 1,000 K, which can be explained only if water is present in the warm inner sooty region of the envelope. A plausible explanation for the warm water appears to be the penetration of ultraviolet photons deep into a clumpy circumstellar envelope. This mechanism also triggers the formation of other molecules, such as ammonia, whose observed abundances are much higher than hitherto predicted.

  7. Investigation of broadening and shift of vapour absorption lines of H{sub 2}{sup 16}O in the frequency range 7184 – 7186 cm{sup -1}

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Nadezhdinskii, A I; Pereslavtseva, A A; Ponurovskii, Ya Ya

    2014-10-31

    We present the results of investigation of water vapour absorption spectra in the 7184 – 7186 cm{sup -1} range that is of particular interest from the viewpoint of possible application of the data obtained for monitoring water vapour in the Earth's stratosphere. The doublet of H{sub 2}{sup 16}O near ν = 7185.596 cm{sup -1} is analysed. The coefficients of broadening and shift of water vapour lines are found in the selected range in mixtures with buffer gases and compared to those obtained by other authors. (laser spectroscopy)

  8. Localisation of an Unknown Number of Land Mines Using a Network of Vapour Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Chhadé, Hiba Haj; Abdallah, Fahed; Mougharbel, Imad; Gning, Amadou; Julier, Simon; Mihaylova, Lyudmila

    2014-01-01

    We consider the problem of localising an unknown number of land mines using concentration information provided by a wireless sensor network. A number of vapour sensors/detectors, deployed in the region of interest, are able to detect the concentration of the explosive vapours, emanating from buried land mines. The collected data is communicated to a fusion centre. Using a model for the transport of the explosive chemicals in the air, we determine the unknown number of sources using a Principal Component Analysis (PCA)-based technique. We also formulate the inverse problem of determining the positions and emission rates of the land mines using concentration measurements provided by the wireless sensor network. We present a solution for this problem based on a probabilistic Bayesian technique using a Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling scheme, and we compare it to the least squares optimisation approach. Experiments conducted on simulated data show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:25384008

  9. Remediation of sandy soils contaminated with hydrocarbons and halogenated hydrocarbons by soil vapour extraction.

    PubMed

    Albergaria, José Tomás; Alvim-Ferraz, Maria da Conceição M; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2012-08-15

    This paper presents the study of the remediation of sandy soils containing six of the most common contaminants (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene) using soil vapour extraction (SVE). The influence of soil water content on the process efficiency was evaluated considering the soil type and the contaminant. For artificially contaminated soils with negligible clay contents and natural organic matter it was concluded that: (i) all the remediation processes presented efficiencies above 92%; (ii) an increase of the soil water content led to a more time-consuming remediation; (iii) longer remediation periods were observed for contaminants with lower vapour pressures and lower water solubilities due to mass transfer limitations. Based on these results an easy and relatively fast procedure was developed for the prediction of the remediation times of real soils; 83% of the remediation times were predicted with relative deviations below 14%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Interface dynamics and crystal phase switching in GaAs nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsson, Daniel; Panciera, Federico; Tersoff, Jerry; Reuter, Mark C.; Lehmann, Sebastian; Hofmann, Stephan; Dick, Kimberly A.; Ross, Frances M.

    2016-03-01

    Controlled formation of non-equilibrium crystal structures is one of the most important challenges in crystal growth. Catalytically grown nanowires are ideal systems for studying the fundamental physics of phase selection, and could lead to new electronic applications based on the engineering of crystal phases. Here we image gallium arsenide (GaAs) nanowires during growth as they switch between phases as a result of varying growth conditions. We find clear differences between the growth dynamics of the phases, including differences in interface morphology, step flow and catalyst geometry. We explain these differences, and the phase selection, using a model that relates the catalyst volume, the contact angle at the trijunction (the point at which solid, liquid and vapour meet) and the nucleation site of each new layer of GaAs. This model allows us to predict the conditions under which each phase should be observed, and use these predictions to design GaAs heterostructures. These results could apply to phase selection in other nanowire systems.

  11. Interface dynamics and crystal phase switching in GaAs nanowires.

    PubMed

    Jacobsson, Daniel; Panciera, Federico; Tersoff, Jerry; Reuter, Mark C; Lehmann, Sebastian; Hofmann, Stephan; Dick, Kimberly A; Ross, Frances M

    2016-03-17

    Controlled formation of non-equilibrium crystal structures is one of the most important challenges in crystal growth. Catalytically grown nanowires are ideal systems for studying the fundamental physics of phase selection, and could lead to new electronic applications based on the engineering of crystal phases. Here we image gallium arsenide (GaAs) nanowires during growth as they switch between phases as a result of varying growth conditions. We find clear differences between the growth dynamics of the phases, including differences in interface morphology, step flow and catalyst geometry. We explain these differences, and the phase selection, using a model that relates the catalyst volume, the contact angle at the trijunction (the point at which solid, liquid and vapour meet) and the nucleation site of each new layer of GaAs. This model allows us to predict the conditions under which each phase should be observed, and use these predictions to design GaAs heterostructures. These results could apply to phase selection in other nanowire systems.

  12. Polyethylene Oxide Films Polymerized by Radio Frequency Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapour Phase Deposition and Its Adsorption Behaviour of Platelet-Rich Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Wen-Juan; Xie, Fen-Yan; Chen, Qiang; Weng, Jing

    2008-10-01

    We present polyethylene oxide (PEO) functional films polymerized by rf plasma-enhanced vapour chemical deposition (rf-PECVD) on p-Si (100) surface with precursor ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (EGDME) and diluted Ar in pulsed plasma mode. The influences of discharge parameters on the film properties and compounds are investigated. The film structure is analysed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The water contact angle measurement and atomic force microscope (AFM) are employed to examine the surface polarity and to detect surface morphology, respectively. It is concluded that the smaller duty cycle in pulsed plasma mode contributes to the rich C-O-C (EO) group on the surfaces. As an application, the adsorption behaviour of platelet-rich plasma on plasma polymerization films performed in-vitro is explored. The shapes of attached cells are studied in detail by an optic invert microscope, which clarifies that high-density C-O-C groups on surfaces are responsible for non-fouling adsorption behaviour of the PEO films.

  13. Methotrexate toxicity and efficacy during the consolidation phase in paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and MTHFR polymorphisms as pharmacogenetic determinants.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Velia; Ramaglia, Maria; Iannotta, Adriana; Crisci, Stefania; Indolfi, Paolo; Francese, Matteo; Affinita, Maria Carmen; Pecoraro, Giulia; Napolitano, Addolorata; Fusco, Claudia; Oreste, Matilde; Indolfi, Cristiana; Casale, Fiorina

    2011-11-01

    Folate-metabolizing single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are emerging as important pharmacogenetic prognostic determinants of the response to chemotherapy. With high doses of methotrexate (MTX) in the consolidation phase, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms could be potential modulators of the therapeutic response to antifolate chemotherapeutics in identifying a possible correlation with the outcome. This study aims to analyse the potential role of the MTHFR C677T and A1298C genetic variants in modulating the clinical toxicity and efficacy of high doses of MTX in a cohort of paediatric ALL patients (n = 151) treated with AIEOP protocols. This work includes DNA extraction by slides and RFLP-PCR. The first observation relative to early toxicities (haematological and non-haematological), after the first doses of MTX in all protocols, was an association between the 677T and 1298C carriers and global toxicity. We found that in the 2 g/m(2) MTX group, patients harbouring 677TT homozygously exhibited a substantial 12-fold risk of developing toxicity. In this study, we demonstrate that the MTHFR 677TT variant is associated with an increased risk of relapse when compared to other genotypes. The Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the 677TT variant had a lower 7-year DFS(disease-free survival) probability compared to the 677C carrier genotype (log-rank test P = 0.003) and OS (overall survival) and also confirms the lower probability of survival for patients with the 677TT variant (log-rank test, P = 0.006). Our study provides further evidence of the critical role played by folate pathway enzymes in the outcome of ALL, possibly through the interference of MTX.

  14. The impact of organic vapours on warm cloud formation; characterisation of chamber setup and first experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Wiebke; Connolly, Paul; Dorsey, James; Hu, Dawei; Alfarra, Rami; McFiggans, Gordon

    2016-04-01

    The Manchester Ice Cloud Chamber (MICC), consisting of a 10m high stainless steel tube and 1m in diameter, can be used to study cloud processes. MICC is housed in three separate cold rooms stacked on top of each other and warm pseudo-adiabatic expansion from controlled initial temperature and pressure is possible through chamber evacuation. Further details about the facility can be found at http://www.cas.manchester.ac.uk/restools/cloudchamber/index.html. MICC can be connected to the Manchester Aerosol Chamber (MAC, http://www.cas.manchester.ac.uk/restools/aerosolchamber/), which allows to inject specified aerosol particles into the cloud chamber for nucleation studies. The combination of MAC and MICC will be used in the CCN-Vol project, which seeks to bring the experimental evidence for co-condensation of organic and water vapour in cloud formation which leads to an increase in cloud particle numbers (see Topping et al., 2013, Nature Geoscience Letters, for details). Here, we will show a characterisation of the cloud and aerosol chamber coupling in regard to background aerosol particles and nucleation. Furthermore, we will show preliminary results from the warm CCN-Vol experiment, investigating the impact of co-condensation of organic vapours and water vapour on warm cloud droplet formation.

  15. Steam stripping of the unsaturated zone of contaminated sub-soils: The effect of diffusion/dispersion in the start-up phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouwers, H. J. H.; Gilding, B. H.

    2006-02-01

    The unsteady process of steam stripping of the unsaturated zone of soils contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is addressed. A model is presented. It accounts for the effects of water and contaminants remaining in vapour phase, as well as diffusion and dispersion of contaminants in this phase. The model has two components. The first is a one-dimensional description of the propagation of a steam front in the start-up phase. This is based on Darcy's law and conservation laws of mass and energy. The second component describes the transport of volatile contaminants. Taking the view that non-equilibrium between liquid and vapour phases exists, it accounts for evaporation, transport, and condensation at the front. This leads to a moving-boundary problem. The moving-boundary problem is brought into a fixed domain by a suitable transformation of the governing partial differential equations, and solved numerically. For a broad range of the governing dimensionless numbers, such as the Henry, Merkel and Péclet numbers, computational results are discussed. A mathematical asymptotic analysis supports this discussion. The range of parameter values for which the model is valid is investigated. Diffusion and dispersion are shown to be of qualitative importance, but to have little quantitative effect in the start-up phase.

  16. An Investigation of Tertiary Students' Understanding of Evaporation, Condensation and Vapour Pressure. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopal, Hemant; Kleinsmidt, Jacques; Case, Jennifer; Musonge, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Based on a purposive sample of 15 second-year chemical engineering students, this study investigates students' conceptions of evaporation, condensation and vapour pressure. During individual interviews the students were questioned on three tasks that had been designed around these topics. Qualitative analysis of student responses showed a range of…

  17. Evaluation of the new capture vapourizer for aerosol mass spectrometers (AMS) through laboratory studies of inorganic species

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, Weiwei; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Day, Douglas A.; ...

    2017-08-15

    Aerosol mass spectrometers (AMSs) and Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitors (ACSMs) commercialized by Aerodyne are widely used to measure the non-refractory species in submicron particles. With the standard vapourizer (SV) that is installed in all commercial instruments to date, the quantification of ambient aerosol mass concentration requires the use of the collection efficiency (CE) to correct for the loss of particles due to bounce. A new capture vapourizer (CV) has been designed to reduce the need for a bounce-related CE correction. Two high-resolution AMS instruments, one with a SV and one with a CV, were operated side by side in themore » laboratory. Four standard species, NH 4NO 3, NaNO 3, (NH 4) 2SO 4 and NH 4Cl, which typically constitute the majority of the mass of ambient submicron inorganic species, are studied. The effect of vapourizer temperature ( T v ∼ 200–800 °C) on the detected fragments, CE and size distributions are investigated. A T v of 500–550 °C for the CV is recommended. In the CV, CE was identical (around unity) for more volatile species (e.g. NH 4NO 3) and comparable to or higher than the SV for less-volatile species (e.g. (NH 4) 2SO 4), demonstrating an improvement in CE for laboratory inorganic species in the CV. The detected relative intensities of fragments of NO 3 and SO 4 species observed with the CV are different from those observed with the SV, and are consistent with additional thermal decomposition arising from the increased residence time and multiple collisions. Increased residence times with the CV also lead to broader particle size distribution measurements than with the SV. A method for estimating whether pure species will be detected in AMS sizing mode is proposed. Production of CO 2(g) from sampled nitrate on the vapourizer surface, which has been reported for the SV, is negligible for the CV for NH 4NO 3 and comparable to the SV for NaNO 3. . We observe an extremely consistent fragmentation for

  18. Evaluation of the new capture vapourizer for aerosol mass spectrometers (AMS) through laboratory studies of inorganic species

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hu, Weiwei; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Day, Douglas A.

    Aerosol mass spectrometers (AMSs) and Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitors (ACSMs) commercialized by Aerodyne are widely used to measure the non-refractory species in submicron particles. With the standard vapourizer (SV) that is installed in all commercial instruments to date, the quantification of ambient aerosol mass concentration requires the use of the collection efficiency (CE) to correct for the loss of particles due to bounce. A new capture vapourizer (CV) has been designed to reduce the need for a bounce-related CE correction. Two high-resolution AMS instruments, one with a SV and one with a CV, were operated side by side in themore » laboratory. Four standard species, NH 4NO 3, NaNO 3, (NH 4) 2SO 4 and NH 4Cl, which typically constitute the majority of the mass of ambient submicron inorganic species, are studied. The effect of vapourizer temperature ( T v ∼ 200–800 °C) on the detected fragments, CE and size distributions are investigated. A T v of 500–550 °C for the CV is recommended. In the CV, CE was identical (around unity) for more volatile species (e.g. NH 4NO 3) and comparable to or higher than the SV for less-volatile species (e.g. (NH 4) 2SO 4), demonstrating an improvement in CE for laboratory inorganic species in the CV. The detected relative intensities of fragments of NO 3 and SO 4 species observed with the CV are different from those observed with the SV, and are consistent with additional thermal decomposition arising from the increased residence time and multiple collisions. Increased residence times with the CV also lead to broader particle size distribution measurements than with the SV. A method for estimating whether pure species will be detected in AMS sizing mode is proposed. Production of CO 2(g) from sampled nitrate on the vapourizer surface, which has been reported for the SV, is negligible for the CV for NH 4NO 3 and comparable to the SV for NaNO 3. . We observe an extremely consistent fragmentation for

  19. Assessing occupational mercury exposures and behaviours of artisanal and small-scale gold miners in Burkina Faso using passive mercury vapour badges.

    PubMed

    Black, Paleah; Richard, Myrianne; Rossin, Ricardo; Telmer, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) is a crucial economic activity in Burkina Faso, however it is associated with significant mercury exposure and health concerns. The aim of the present study was to assess the level of mercury (Hg) vapour exposures and occupational behaviours at a representative site using Hg vapour monitor badges and questionnaires. To our knowledge this is the first time that personal exposure to Hg vapour during ASGM activities has been reported. The study population were ASGM workers who completed a questionnaire (n=100) or participated with an occupational exposure assessment using commercially available passive Hg vapour samplers (n=44). Occupational exposure to Hg was high during open-air burn events with a time weighted average (TWA) exposure of 7026±6857µg/m 3 for burners, and 1412±2870µg/m 3 for bystanders. Most (82%) of the people present at the burn exceeded the Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 100µg/m 3 , and 11% exceeded the level considered to be Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) of 10,000µg/m 3 . Even control workers who were not present at the burn exceeded the PEL (24%), likely due to legacy Hg contamination producing latent Hg releases to the atmosphere. Similarly, 86% of the miners at the burn and 59% of control workers had an 8-h TWA that exceeded the Recommended Exposures Limit (REL). Several occupational behaviours that may contribute to Hg exposures were documented. This study corroborates previous studies suggesting that Hg exposure during amalgam burning is very high, and demonstrates the plausibility of using passive vapour monitoring badges rather than costly and logistically difficult biomonitoring methods. Mercury reduction and elimination interventions are strongly needed to reduce Hg exposure in ASGM communities, particularly as countries come into compliance with the Minamata Convention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparisons of xylem sap flow and water vapour flux at the stand level and derivation of canopy conductance for Scots pine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granier, A.; Biron, P.; Köstner, B.; Gay, L. W.; Najjar, G.

    1996-03-01

    Simultaneous measurements of xylem sap flow and water vapour flux over a Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) forest (Hartheim, Germany), were carried out during the Hartheim Experiment (HartX), an intensive observation campaign of the international programme REKLIP. Sap flow was measured every 30 min using both radial constant heating (Granier, 1985) and two types of Cermak sap flowmeters installed on 24 trees selected to cover a wide range of the diameter classes of the stand (min 8 cm; max 17.5 cm). Available energy was high during the observation period (5.5 to 6.9 mm.day-1), and daily cumulated sap flow on a ground area basis varied between 2.0 and 2.7 mm day-1 depending on climate conditions. Maximum hourly values of sap flow reached 0.33 mm h-1, i.e., 230 W m-2. Comparisons of sap flow with water vapour flux as measured with two OPEC (One Propeller Eddy Correlation, University of Arizona) systems showed a time lag between the two methods, sap flow lagging about 90 min behind vapour flux. After taking into account this time lag in the sap flow data set, a good agreement was found between both methods: sap flow = 0.745* vapour flux, r 2 = 0.86. The difference between the two estimates was due to understory transpiration. Canopy conductance ( g c ) was calculated from sap flow measurements using the reverse form of Penman-Monteith equation and climatic data measured 4 m above the canopy. Variations of g c were well correlated ( r 2 = 0.85) with global radiation ( R) and vapour pressure deficit ( vpd). The quantitative expression for g c = f ( R, vpd) was very similar to that previously found with maritime pine ( Pinus pinaster) in the forest of Les Landes, South Western France.

  1. Ultra-fast vapour-liquid-solid synthesis of Si nanowires using ion-beam implanted gallium as catalyst.

    PubMed

    Hetzel, Martin; Lugstein, Alois; Zeiner, Clemens; Wójcik, Tomasz; Pongratz, Peter; Bertagnolli, Emmerich

    2011-09-30

    The feasibility of gallium as a catalyst for vapour-liquid-solid (VLS) nanowire (NW) growth deriving from an implantation process in silicon by a focused ion beam (FIB) is investigated. Si(100) substrates are subjected to FIB implantation of gallium ions with various ion fluence rates. NW growth is performed in a hot wall chemical vapour deposition (CVD) reactor at temperatures between 400 and 500 °C with 2% SiH(4)/He as precursor gas. This process results in ultra-fast growth of (112)- and (110)-oriented Si-NWs with a length of several tens of micrometres. Further investigation by transmission electron microscopy indicates the presence of a NW core-shell structure: while the NW core yields crystalline structuring, the shell consists entirely of amorphous material.

  2. A Predictive Model for Toxicity Effects Assessment of Biotransformed Hepatic Drugs Using Iterative Sampling Method.

    PubMed

    Tharwat, Alaa; Moemen, Yasmine S; Hassanien, Aboul Ella

    2016-12-09

    Measuring toxicity is one of the main steps in drug development. Hence, there is a high demand for computational models to predict the toxicity effects of the potential drugs. In this study, we used a dataset, which consists of four toxicity effects:mutagenic, tumorigenic, irritant and reproductive effects. The proposed model consists of three phases. In the first phase, rough set-based methods are used to select the most discriminative features for reducing the classification time and improving the classification performance. Due to the imbalanced class distribution, in the second phase, different sampling methods such as Random Under-Sampling, Random Over-Sampling and Synthetic Minority Oversampling Technique are used to solve the problem of imbalanced datasets. ITerative Sampling (ITS) method is proposed to avoid the limitations of those methods. ITS method has two steps. The first step (sampling step) iteratively modifies the prior distribution of the minority and majority classes. In the second step, a data cleaning method is used to remove the overlapping that is produced from the first step. In the third phase, Bagging classifier is used to classify an unknown drug into toxic or non-toxic. The experimental results proved that the proposed model performed well in classifying the unknown samples according to all toxic effects in the imbalanced datasets.

  3. Sediment toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) studies at marine sites suspected of ordnance contamination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, R.S.; Nipper, M.; Biedenbach, J.M.; Hooten, R.L.; Miller, K.; Saepoff, S.

    2001-01-01

    A sediment quality assessment survey and subsequent toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) study was conducted at several sites in Puget Sound, Washington. The sites were previously suspected of contamination with ordnance compounds. The initial survey employed sea urchin porewater toxicity tests to locate the most toxic stations. Sediments from the most toxic stations were selected for comprehensive chemical analyses. Based on the combined information from the toxicity and chemical data, three adjacent stations in Ostrich Bay were selected for the TIE study. The results of the phase I TIE suggested that organics and metals were primarily responsible for the observed toxicity in the sea urchin fertilization test. In addition to these contaminants, ammonia was also contributing to the toxicity for the sea urchin embryological development test. The phase II TIE study isolated the majority of the toxicity in the fraction containing nonpolar organics with high log Kow, but chemical analyses failed to identify a compound present at a concentration high enough to be responsible for the observed toxicity. The data suggest that some organic or organometallic contaminant(s) that were not included in the comprehensive suite of chemical analyses caused the observed toxicological responses.

  4. Classification of toxicity effects of biotransformed hepatic drugs using whale optimized support vector machines.

    PubMed

    Tharwat, Alaa; Moemen, Yasmine S; Hassanien, Aboul Ella

    2017-04-01

    Measuring toxicity is an important step in drug development. Nevertheless, the current experimental methods used to estimate the drug toxicity are expensive and time-consuming, indicating that they are not suitable for large-scale evaluation of drug toxicity in the early stage of drug development. Hence, there is a high demand to develop computational models that can predict the drug toxicity risks. In this study, we used a dataset that consists of 553 drugs that biotransformed in liver. The toxic effects were calculated for the current data, namely, mutagenic, tumorigenic, irritant and reproductive effect. Each drug is represented by 31 chemical descriptors (features). The proposed model consists of three phases. In the first phase, the most discriminative subset of features is selected using rough set-based methods to reduce the classification time while improving the classification performance. In the second phase, different sampling methods such as Random Under-Sampling, Random Over-Sampling and Synthetic Minority Oversampling Technique (SMOTE), BorderLine SMOTE and Safe Level SMOTE are used to solve the problem of imbalanced dataset. In the third phase, the Support Vector Machines (SVM) classifier is used to classify an unknown drug into toxic or non-toxic. SVM parameters such as the penalty parameter and kernel parameter have a great impact on the classification accuracy of the model. In this paper, Whale Optimization Algorithm (WOA) has been proposed to optimize the parameters of SVM, so that the classification error can be reduced. The experimental results proved that the proposed model achieved high sensitivity to all toxic effects. Overall, the high sensitivity of the WOA+SVM model indicates that it could be used for the prediction of drug toxicity in the early stage of drug development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Atmospheric Phase Delay in Sentinel SAR Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnakumar, V.; Monserrat, O.; Crosetto, M.; Crippa, B.

    2018-04-01

    The repeat-pass Synthetic Aperture Radio Detection and Ranging (RADAR) Interferometry (InSAR) has been a widely used geodetic technique for observing the Earth's surface, especially for mapping the Earth's topography and deformations. However, InSAR measurements are prone to atmospheric errors. RADAR waves traverse the Earth's atmosphere twice and experience a delay due to atmospheric refraction. The two major layers of the atmosphere (troposphere and ionosphere) are mainly responsible for this delay in the propagating RADAR wave. Previous studies have shown that water vapour and clouds present in the troposphere and the Total Electron Content (TEC) of the ionosphere are responsible for the additional path delay in the RADAR wave. The tropospheric refractivity is mainly dependent on pressure, temperature and partial pressure of water vapour. The tropospheric refractivity leads to an increase in the observed range. These induced propagation delays affect the quality of phase measurement and introduce errors in the topography and deformation fields. The effect of this delay was studied on a differential interferogram (DInSAR). To calculate the amount of tropospheric delay occurred, the meteorological data collected from the Spanish Agencia Estatal de Meteorología (AEMET) and MODIS were used. The interferograms generated from Sentinel-1 carrying C-band Synthetic Aperture RADAR Single Look Complex (SLC) images acquired on the study area are used. The study area consists of different types of scatterers exhibiting different coherence. The existing Saastamoinen model was used to perform a quantitative evaluation of the phase changes caused by pressure, temperature and humidity of the troposphere during the study. Unless the phase values due to atmospheric disturbances are not corrected, it is difficult to obtain accurate measurements. Thus, the atmospheric error correction is essential for all practical applications of DInSAR to avoid inaccurate height and deformation

  6. Bacterial toxicity assessment of drinking water treatment residue (DWTR) and lake sediment amended with DWTR.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Nannan; Wang, Changhui; Pei, Yuansheng

    2016-11-01

    Drinking water treatment residue (DWTR) seems to be very promising for controlling lake sediment pollution. Logically, acquisition of the potential toxicity of DWTR will be beneficial for its applications. In this study, the toxicity of DWTR and sediments amended with DWTR to Aliivibrio fischeri was evaluated based on the Microtox(®) solid and leachate phase assays, in combination with flow cytometry analyses and the kinetic luminescent bacteria test. The results showed that both solid particles and aqueous/organic extracts of DWTR exhibited no toxicity to the bacterial luminescence and growth. The solid particles of DWTR even promoted bacterial luminescence, possibly because DWTR particles could act as a microbial carrier and provide nutrients for bacteria growth. Bacterial toxicity (either luminescence or growth) was observed from the solid phase and aqueous/organic extracts of sediments with or without DWTR addition. Further analysis showed that the solid phase toxicity was determined to be related mainly to the fixation of bacteria to fine particles and/or organic matter, and all of the observed inhibition resulting from aqueous/organic extracts was identified as non-significant. Moreover, DWTR addition not only had no adverse effect on the aqueous/organic extract toxicity of the sediment but also reduced the solid phase toxicity of the sediment. Overall, in practical application, the solid particles, the water-soluble substances transferred to surface water or the organic substances in DWTR had no toxicity or any delayed effect on bacteria in lakes, and DWTR can therefore be considered as a non-hazardous material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of Direct Vapour Equilibration for Stable Isotope Analysis of Plant Water.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millar, C. B.; McDonnell, J.; Pratt, D.

    2017-12-01

    The stable isotopes of water (2H and 18O), extracted from plants, have been utilized in a variety of ecohydrological, biogeochemical and climatological studies. The array of methods used to extract water from plants are as varied as the studies themselves. Here we perform a comprehensive inter-method comparison of six plant water extraction techniques: direct vapour equilibration, microwave extraction, two unique versions of cryogenic extraction, centrifugation, and high pressure mechanical squeezing. We applied these methods to four isotopically unique plant portions (heads, stems, leaves and root crown) of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The spring wheat was grown under controlled conditions with irrigation inputs of a known isotopic composition. Our results show that the methods of extraction return significantly different plant water isotopic signals. Centrifugation, microwave extraction, direct vapour equilibration, and squeezing returned more enriched results. Both cryogenic systems and squeezing returned more depleted results, depending upon the plant portion extracted. While cryogenic extraction is currently the most widely used method in the literature, our results suggest that direct vapor equilibration method outperforms it in terms of accuracy, sample throughput and replicability. More research is now needed with other plant species (especially woody plants) to see how far the findings from this study could be extended.

  8. Retrieval of total water vapour in the Arctic using microwave humidity sounders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristian Scarlat, Raul; Melsheimer, Christian; Heygster, Georg

    2018-04-01

    Quantitative retrievals of atmospheric water vapour in the Arctic present numerous challenges because of the particular climate characteristics of this area. Here, we attempt to build upon the work of Melsheimer and Heygster (2008) to retrieve total atmospheric water vapour (TWV) in the Arctic from satellite microwave radiometers. While the above-mentioned algorithm deals primarily with the ice-covered central Arctic, with this work we aim to extend the coverage to partially ice-covered and ice-free areas. By using modelled values for the microwave emissivity of the ice-free sea surface, we develop two sub-algorithms using different sets of channels that deal solely with open-ocean areas. The new algorithm extends the spatial coverage of the retrieval throughout the year but especially in the warmer months when higher TWV values are frequent. The high TWV measurements over both sea-ice and open-water surfaces are, however, connected to larger uncertainties as the retrieval values are close to the instrument saturation limits.This approach allows us to apply the algorithm to regions where previously no data were available and ensures a more consistent physical analysis of the satellite measurements by taking into account the contribution of the surface emissivity to the measured signal.

  9. Amplitude and phase modulation in microwave ring resonators by doped CVD graphene.

    PubMed

    Grande, M; Bianco, G V; Capezzuto, P; Petruzzelli, V; Prudenzano, F; Scalora, M; Bruno, G; D'Orazio, A

    2018-08-10

    In this paper, we numerically and experimentally demonstrate how to modulate the amplitude and phase of a microwave ring resonator by means of few-layers chemical vapour deposition graphene. In particular, both numerical and experimental results show a modulation of about 10 dB and a 90 degrees-shift (quadrature phase shift) when the graphene sheet-resistance is varied. These findings prove once again that graphene could be efficiently exploited for the dynamically tuning and modulation of microwave devices fostering the realization of (i) innovative beam-steering and beam-forming systems and (ii) graphene-based sensors.

  10. Skin toxicity and quality of life in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer during first-line panitumumab plus FOLFIRI treatment in a single-arm phase II study.

    PubMed

    Thaler, Josef; Karthaus, Meinolf; Mineur, Laurent; Greil, Richard; Letocha, Henry; Hofheinz, Ralf; Fernebro, Eva; Gamelin, Erick; Baños, Ana; Köhne, Claus-Henning

    2012-09-29

    Integument-related toxicities are common during epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted therapy. Panitumumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody targeting the EGFR that significantly improves progression-free survival when added to chemotherapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who have wild-type (WT) KRAS tumours. Primary efficacy and tolerability results from a phase II single-arm study of first-line panitumumab plus FOLFIRI in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer have been reported. Here we report additional descriptive tolerability and quality of life data from this trial. Integument-related toxicities and quality of life were analysed; toxicities were graded using modified National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria. Kaplan-Meier estimates of time to and duration of first integument-related toxicity were prepared. Quality of life was measured using EuroQoL EQ-5D and EORTC QLQ-C30. Best overall response was analysed by skin toxicity grade and baseline quality of life. Change in quality of life was analysed by skin toxicity severity. 154 patients were enrolled (WT KRAS n = 86; mutant KRAS n = 59); most (98%) experienced integument-related toxicities (most commonly rash [42%], dry skin [40%] and acne [36%]). Median time to first integument-related toxicity was 8 days; median duration was 334 days. Overall, proportionally more patients with grade 2+ skin toxicity responded (56%) compared with those with grade 0/1 (29%). Mean overall EQ-5D health state index scores (0.81 vs. 0.78), health rating scores (72.5 vs. 71.0) and QLQ-C30 global health status scores (65.8 vs. 66.7) were comparable at baseline vs. safety follow-up (8 weeks after completion), respectively and appeared unaffected by skin toxicity severity. First-line panitumumab plus FOLFIRI has acceptable tolerability and appears to have little impact on quality of life, despite the high incidence of integument-related toxicity. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00508404.

  11. IDENTIFYING AND MONITORING ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICITY USING CERIODAPHNIA MICROARRAYS - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) SBIR solicitation states that “technology is needed to better identify and monitor sources of pollution and protect water quality.” Microarrays may be particularly well suited to identifying environmental toxic...

  12. Towards new methods for the determination of dose limiting toxicities and the assessment of the recommended dose for further studies of molecularly targeted agents--dose-Limiting Toxicity and Toxicity Assessment Recommendation Group for Early Trials of Targeted therapies, an European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer-led study.

    PubMed

    Postel-Vinay, Sophie; Collette, Laurence; Paoletti, Xavier; Rizzo, Elisa; Massard, Christophe; Olmos, David; Fowst, Camilla; Levy, Bernard; Mancini, Pierre; Lacombe, Denis; Ivy, Percy; Seymour, Lesley; Le Tourneau, Christophe; Siu, Lillian L; Kaye, Stan B; Verweij, Jaap; Soria, Jean-Charles

    2014-08-01

    Traditional dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) definition, which uses grade (G) 3-4 toxicity data from cycle 1 (C1) only, may not be appropriate for molecularly targeted agents (MTAs) of prolonged administration, for which late or lower grade toxicities also deserve attention. In collaboration with pharmaceutical companies and academia, an European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC)-led initiative, Dose-Limiting Toxicity and Toxicity Assessment Recommendation Group for Early Trials of Targeted therapies (DLT-TARGETT), collected data from completed phase 1 trials evaluating MTAs as monotherapy. All toxicities at least possibly related to the study drugs that occurred during C1-6, their type, grade (CTCAEv3.0), and duration as well as patients' relative dose-intensity (RDI), were recorded. The 54 eligible trials enrolled 2084 evaluable adult patients with solid tumours between 1999 and 2013, and evaluated small molecules (40), antibodies (seven), recombinant peptides (five) and antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (two). A maximum tolerated dose was set in 43 trials. Fifteen percent of the patients received <75% of the intended RDI in C1, but only 9.1% of them presented protocol-defined DLTs. After C1, 16-19% of patients received <75% of the intended RDI. A similar proportion of G ⩾ 3 toxicities was recorded in C1 and after C1 (936 and 1087 toxicities, respectively), with the first G⩾3 toxicity occurring after C1 in 18.6% of patients. Although protocol-defined DLT period is traditionally limited to C1, almost 20% of patients present significant reductions in RDI at any time in phase 1 trials of MTAs. Recommended phase 2 dose assessment should incorporate all available information from any cycle (notably lower grade toxicities leading to such RDI decrease), and be based on achieving >75% RDI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Acute toxicity analysis performance of CellSense biosensor with E. coli].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue-Jiang; Wang, Hong; Zhao, Jian-Fu; Xia, Si-Qing; Zhao, Hong-Ning

    2009-04-15

    E. coli microbial electrodes for CellSense biosensor were prepared by polycarbonate membrane immobilization process, and their performance for heavy metals and toxic organic compounds acute toxicity determination were studied. The results showed that when E. coli was in logarithmic and stationary phase, the CellSense biosensor with E. coli showed good performance in heavy metal ions and organic pollutants acute toxicity analysis, when E. coli was in its decline phase, the stability and sensitivity of the CellSense biosensor was poor. The EC50 values of Hg2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, o-chlorophenol (2-CP) and p-nitrophenol (4-NP) detected by CellSense biosensor with E. coli were 0.6, 3.1, 5.8, 180 and 94 microg/mL, respectively. The immobilized E. coli electrodes could still suit for acute toxicity assessment after 2 months storage at 4 degrees C.

  14. A vapourized Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) delivery system part I: development and validation of a pulmonary cannabinoid route of exposure for experimental pharmacology studies in rodents.

    PubMed

    Manwell, Laurie A; Charchoglyan, Armen; Brewer, Dyanne; Matthews, Brittany A; Heipel, Heather; Mallet, Paul E

    2014-01-01

    Most studies evaluating the effects of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) in animal models administer it via a parenteral route (e.g., intraperitoneal (IP) or intravenous injection (IV)), however, the common route of administration for human users is pulmonary (e.g., smoking or vapourizing marijuana). A vapourized Δ(9)-THC delivery system for rodents was developed and used to compare the effects of pulmonary and parenteral Δ(9)-THC administration on blood cannabinoid levels and behaviour. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to pulmonary Δ(9)-THC (1, 5, and 10mg of inhaled vapour) delivered via a Volcano® vapourizing device (Storz and Bickel, Germany) or to parenteral Δ(9)-THC (0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5mg/kg injected IP). Quantification of Δ(9)-THC and its psychoactive metabolite, 11-hydroxy-Δ(9)-THC (11-OH-Δ(9)-THC), in blood was determined by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). In order to verify the potential for the vapourization procedure to produce a robust conditioned place preference (CPP) or conditioned place avoidance CPA, classical conditioning procedures were systematically varied by altering the exposure time (10 or 20min) and number of exposed rats (1 or 2) while maintaining the same vapourization dose (10mg). Blood collected at 20min intervals showed similar dose-dependent and time-dependent changes in Δ(9)-THC and 11-OH-Δ(9)-THC for both pulmonary and parenteral administration of Δ(9)-THC. However, vapourized Δ(9)-THC induced CPP under certain conditions whereas IP-administered Δ(9)-THC induced CPA. These results support and extend the limited evidence (e.g., in humans, Naef et al., 2004; in rodents, Niyuhire et al., 2007) that Δ(9)-THC produces qualitatively different effects on behaviour depending upon the route of administration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Condensation on a Horizontal Tube Row with Vapour Shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoune, Azzeddine

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. This thesis presents an experimental and theoretical investigation into the effect of vapour shear on the condensation of steam flowing vertically downwards over a single horizontal tube and a horizontal tube in a row. Honda and Fujii's conjugate heat transfer analysis has been adapted and modified to take account of property variation with temperature and release of sensible heat to the condensing film. In industrial condensers, even in the first row, the vapour velocity profile around a tube is affected by the presence of its neighbours. This work extends Honda and Fujii's analysis to investigate the effect of tube spacing on the heat transfer. The finite element method was used to obtain the velocity field around the tube in a row and subsequently the boundary layer equations for the condensate and vapour film along with the heat flow in the tube wall were solved simultaneously. Data have been obtained at absolute pressures of 0.8 and 0.9 bar and for steam superheat up to 40 degC. Approach steam velocities up to 25 m/s were covered. Cooling water velocities and temperatures were in the range 0.68-1.16 m/s and 18-43^circ C, respectively. Honda et al (67), Roshko's flow, theory was found to fit the data for the steam flowing over the isolated tube. The theoretical data for the latter agreed well with the Shekriladze and Gomelauri (2) and Rose (40) correlations and Honda et al (67), potential flow, theory. On | Nu| Re^{-1/2} versus F basis, an average enhancement of 50% in condensate film heat transfer was observed in the case of steam flowing over the tube in a row compared to the isolated tube. This compared with the predicted value of 23% enhancement.

  16. Microwave measurements of temperature profiles, integrated water vapour, and liquid water path at Thule Air Base, Greenland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pace, Giandomenico; Di Iorio, Tatiana; di Sarra, Alcide; Iaccarino, Antonio; Meloni, Daniela; Mevi, Gabriele; Muscari, Giovanni; Cacciani, Marco

    2017-04-01

    A RPG Humidity And Temperature PROfiler (HATPRO-G2 ) radiometer was installed at Thule Air Base (76.5° N, 68.8° W), Greenland, in June 2016 in the framework of the Study of the water VApour in the polar AtmosPhere (SVAAP) project. The Danish Meteorological Institute started measurements of atmospheric properties at Thule Air Base in early '90s. The Thule High Arctic Atmospheric Observatory (THAAO) has grown in size and observing capabilities during the last three decades through the international effort of United States (NCAR and University of Alaska Fairbanks) and Italian (ENEA, INGV, University of Roma and Firenze) institutions (http://www.thuleatmos-it.it). Within this context, the intensive field campaign of the SVAAP project was aimed at the investigation of the surface radiation budget and took place from 5 to 28 July, 2016. After the summer campaign the HATPRO has continued to operate in order to monitor the annual variability of the temperature profile and integrated water vapour as well as the presence and characteristics of liquid clouds in the Artic environment. The combined use of the HATPRO together with other automatic instruments, such as a new microwave spectrometer (the water Vapour Emission Spectrometer for Polar Atmosphere VESPA-22), upward- and downward-looking pyranometers and pyrgeometers, a zenith-looking pyrometer operating in the 9.6-11.5 µm spectral range, an all sky camera, and a meteorological station, allows to investigate the clouds' physical and optical properties, as well as their impact on the surface radiation budget. This study will present and discuss the first few months of HATPRO observations; the effectiveness of the statistical retrieval used to derive the physical parameters from the HATPRO brightness temperatures will also be investigated through the comparison of the temperature and humidity profiles, and integrated water vapour, with data from radiosondes launched during the summer campaign and in winter time.

  17. High-spatial-resolution mapping of precipitable water vapour using SAR interferograms, GPS observations and ERA-Interim reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Wei; Liao, Mingsheng; Zhang, Lu; Li, Wei; Yu, Weimin

    2016-09-01

    A high spatial and temporal resolution of the precipitable water vapour (PWV) in the atmosphere is a key requirement for the short-scale weather forecasting and climate research. The aim of this work is to derive temporally differenced maps of the spatial distribution of PWV by analysing the tropospheric delay "noise" in interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR). Time series maps of differential PWV were obtained by processing a set of ENVISAT ASAR (Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar) images covering the area of southern California, USA from 6 October 2007 to 29 November 2008. To get a more accurate PWV, the component of hydrostatic delay was calculated and subtracted by using ERA-Interim reanalysis products. In addition, the ERA-Interim was used to compute the conversion factors required to convert the zenith wet delay to water vapour. The InSAR-derived differential PWV maps were calibrated by means of the GPS PWV measurements over the study area. We validated our results against the measurements of PWV derived from the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) which was located together with the ASAR sensor on board the ENVISAT satellite. Our comparative results show strong spatial correlations between the two data sets. The difference maps have Gaussian distributions with mean values close to zero and standard deviations below 2 mm. The advantage of the InSAR technique is that it provides water vapour distribution with a spatial resolution as fine as 20 m and an accuracy of ˜ 2 mm. Such high-spatial-resolution maps of PWV could lead to much greater accuracy in meteorological understanding and quantitative precipitation forecasts. With the launch of Sentinel-1A and Sentinel-1B satellites, every few days (6 days) new SAR images can be acquired with a wide swath up to 250 km, enabling a unique operational service for InSAR-based water vapour maps with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution.

  18. Chemical vapour deposition growth and Raman characterization of graphene layers and carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Y.-C.; Rafailov, P. M.; Vlaikova, E.; Marinova, V.; Lin, S. H.; Yu, P.; Yu, S.-C.; Chi, G. C.; Dimitrov, D.; Sveshtarov, P.; Mehandjiev, V.; Gospodinov, M. M.

    2016-02-01

    Single-layer graphene films were grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) on Cu foil. The CVD process was complemented by plasma enhancement to grow also vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes using Ni nanoparticles as catalyst. The obtained samples were characterized by Raman spectroscopy analysis. Nature of defects in the samples and optimal growth conditions leading to achieve high quality of graphene and carbon nanotubes are discussed.

  19. Evaluation of balloon and satellite water vapour measurements in the Southern tropical and subtropical UTLS during the HIBISCUS campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montoux, N.; Hauchecorne, A.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Lefèvre, F.; Durry, G.; Jones, R. L.; Rozanov, A.; Dhomse, S.; Burrows, J. P.; Morel, B.; Bencherif, H.

    2009-07-01

    Balloon water vapour in situ and remote measurements in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) obtained during the HIBISCUS campaign around 20° S in Brazil in February-March 2004 using a tunable diode laser (μSDLA), a surface acoustic wave (SAW) and a Vis-NIR solar occultation spectrometer (SAOZ) on a long duration balloon, have been used for evaluating the performances of satellite borne remote water vapour instruments available at the same latitude and measurement period. In the stratosphere, HALOE displays the best precision (2.5%), followed by SAGE II (7%), MIPAS (10%), SAOZ (20-25%) and SCIAMACHY (35%), all of which show approximately constant H2O mixing ratios between 20-25 km. Compared to HALOE of ±10% accuracy between 0.1-100 hPa, SAGE II and SAOZ show insignificant biases, MIPAS is wetter by 10% and SCIAMACHY dryer by 20%. The currently available GOMOS profiles of 25% precision show a positive vertical gradient in error for identified reasons. Compared to these, the water vapour of the Reprobus Chemistry Transport Model, forced at pressures higher than 95 hPa by the ECMWF analyses, is dryer by about 1 ppmv (20%). In the lower stratosphere between 16-20 km, most notable features are the steep degradation of MIPAS precision below 18 km, and the appearance of biases between instruments far larger than their quoted total uncertainty. HALOE and SAGE II (after spectral adjustment for reducing the bias with HALOE at northern mid-latitudes) both show decreases of water vapour with a minimum at the tropopause not seen by other instruments or the model, possibly attributable to an increasing error in the HALOE altitude registration. Between 16-18 km where the water vapour concentration shows little horizontal variability, and where the μSDLA balloon measurements are not perturbed by outgassing, the average mixing ratios reported by the remote sensing instruments are substantially lower than the 4-5 ppmv observed by the μSDLA. Differences

  20. Dose-finding designs using a novel quasi-continuous endpoint for multiple toxicities

    PubMed Central

    Ezzalfani, Monia; Zohar, Sarah; Qin, Rui; Mandrekar, Sumithra J; Deley, Marie-Cécile Le

    2013-01-01

    The aim of a phase I oncology trial is to identify a dose with an acceptable safety profile. Most phase I designs use the dose-limiting toxicity, a binary endpoint, to assess the unacceptable level of toxicity. The dose-limiting toxicity might be incomplete for investigating molecularly targeted therapies as much useful toxicity information is discarded. In this work, we propose a quasi-continuous toxicity score, the total toxicity profile (TTP), to measure quantitatively and comprehensively the overall severity of multiple toxicities. We define the TTP as the Euclidean norm of the weights of toxicities experienced by a patient, where the weights reflect the relative clinical importance of each grade and toxicity type. We propose a dose-finding design, the quasi-likelihood continual reassessment method (CRM), incorporating the TTP score into the CRM, with a logistic model for the dose–toxicity relationship in a frequentist framework. Using simulations, we compared our design with three existing designs for quasi-continuous toxicity score (the Bayesian quasi-CRM with an empiric model and two nonparametric designs), all using the TTP score, under eight different scenarios. All designs using the TTP score to identify the recommended dose had good performance characteristics for most scenarios, with good overdosing control. For a sample size of 36, the percentage of correct selection for the quasi-likelihood CRM ranged from 80% to 90%, with similar results for the quasi-CRM design. These designs with TTP score present an appealing alternative to the conventional dose-finding designs, especially in the context of molecularly targeted agents. PMID:23335156

  1. Evaluating measurement uncertainty in fluid phase equilibrium calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Veen, Adriaan M. H.

    2018-04-01

    The evaluation of measurement uncertainty in accordance with the ‘Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement’ (GUM) has not yet become widespread in physical chemistry. With only the law of the propagation of uncertainty from the GUM, many of these uncertainty evaluations would be cumbersome, as models are often non-linear and require iterative calculations. The methods from GUM supplements 1 and 2 enable the propagation of uncertainties under most circumstances. Experimental data in physical chemistry are used, for example, to derive reference property data and support trade—all applications where measurement uncertainty plays an important role. This paper aims to outline how the methods for evaluating and propagating uncertainty can be applied to some specific cases with a wide impact: deriving reference data from vapour pressure data, a flash calculation, and the use of an equation-of-state to predict the properties of both phases in a vapour-liquid equilibrium. The three uncertainty evaluations demonstrate that the methods of GUM and its supplements are a versatile toolbox that enable us to evaluate the measurement uncertainty of physical chemical measurements, including the derivation of reference data, such as the equilibrium thermodynamical properties of fluids.

  2. Micromachining of silicon carbide on silicon fabricated by low-pressure chemical vapour deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, Ingo; Peiner, Erwin; Bakin, Andrey S.; Schlachetzki, Andreas

    2002-07-01

    We describe the fabrication of silicon carbide layers for micromechanical applications using low-pressure metal-organic chemical vapour deposition at temperatures below 1000 °C. The layers can be structured by lift-off using silicon dioxide as a sacrificial layer. A large selectivity with respect to silicon can be exploited for bulk micromachining. Thin membranes are fabricated which exhibit high mechanical quality, as necessary for applications in harsh environments.

  3. Development of a GNSS water vapour tomography system using algebraic reconstruction techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Michael; Dick, Galina; Ge, Maorong; Deng, Zhiguo; Wickert, Jens; Kahle, Hans-Gert; Raabe, Armin; Tetzlaff, Gerd

    2011-05-01

    A GNSS water vapour tomography system developed to reconstruct spatially resolved humidity fields in the troposphere is described. The tomography system was designed to process the slant path delays of about 270 German GNSS stations in near real-time with a temporal resolution of 30 min, a horizontal resolution of 40 km and a vertical resolution of 500 m or better. After a short introduction to the GPS slant delay processing the framework of the GNSS tomography is described in detail. Different implementations of the iterative algebraic reconstruction techniques (ART) used to invert the linear inverse problem are discussed. It was found that the multiplicative techniques (MART) provide the best results with least processing time, i.e., a tomographic reconstruction of about 26,000 slant delays on a 8280 cell grid can be obtained in less than 10 min. Different iterative reconstruction techniques are compared with respect to their convergence behaviour and some numerical parameters. The inversion can be considerably stabilized by using additional non-GNSS observations and implementing various constraints. Different strategies for initialising the tomography and utilizing extra information are discussed. At last an example of a reconstructed field of the wet refractivity is presented and compared to the corresponding distribution of the integrated water vapour, an analysis of a numerical weather model (COSMO-DE) and some radiosonde profiles.

  4. Mechanisms of distinct activated carbon and biochar amendment effects on petroleum vapour biofiltration in soil.

    PubMed

    Bushnaf, Khaled M; Mangse, George; Meynet, Paola; Davenport, Russell J; Cirpka, Olaf A; Werner, David

    2017-10-18

    We studied the effects of two percent by weight activated carbon versus biochar amendments in 93 cm long sand columns on the biofiltration of petroleum vapours released by a non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) source. Activated carbon greatly enhanced, whereas biochar slightly reduced, the biofiltration of volatile petroleum hydrocarbons (VPHs) over 430 days. Sorbent amendment benefitted the VPH biofiltration by retarding breakthrough during the biodegradation lag phase. Subsequently, sorbent amendment briefly reduced the mineralization of petroleum hydrocarbons by limiting their bioavailability. During the last and longest study period, when conditions became less supportive of microbial growth, because of inorganic nutrient scarcity, the sorbents again improved the pollution attenuation by preventing the degrading microorganisms from being overloaded with VPHs. A 16S rRNA gene based analysis showed sorbent amendment effects on soil microbial communities. Nocardioidaceae benefitted the most from petroleum hydrocarbons in activated carbon amended soil, whereas Pseudomonadacea predominated in unamended soil. Whilst the degrading microorganisms were overloaded with VPHs in the unamended soil, the reduced mobility and bioavailability of VPHs in the activated carbon amended soil led to the emergence of communities with higher specific substrate affinity, which removed bioavailable VPHs effectively at low concentrations. A numerical pollutant fate model reproduced these experimental observations by considering sorption effects on the pollutant migration and bioavailability for growth of VPH degrading biomass, which is limited by a maximum soil biomass carrying capacity. Activated carbon was a much stronger sorbent for VPHs than biochar, which explained the diverging effects of the two sorbents in this study.

  5. Toxicity of electronic waste leachates to Daphnia magna: screening and toxicity identification evaluation of different products, components, and materials.

    PubMed

    Lithner, Delilah; Halling, Maja; Dave, Göran

    2012-05-01

    Electronic waste has become one of the fastest growing waste problems in the world. It contains both toxic metals and toxic organics. The aim of this study was to (1) investigate to what extent toxicants can leach from different electronic products, components, and materials into water and (2) identify which group of toxicants (metals or hydrophobic organics) that is causing toxicity. Components from five discarded electronic products (cell phone, computer, phone modem, keyboard, and computer mouse) were leached in deionised water for 3 days at 23°C in concentrations of 25 g/l for metal components, 50 g/l for mixed-material components, and 100 g/l for plastic components. The water phase was tested for acute toxicity to Daphnia magna. Eighteen of 68 leachates showed toxicity (with immobility of D. magna ≥ 50% after 48 h) and came from metal or mixed-material components. The 8 most toxic leachates, with 48 h EC(50)s ranging from 0.4 to 20 g/l, came from 2 circuit sheets (key board), integrated drive electronics (IDE) cable clips (computer), metal studs (computer), a circuit board (computer mouse), a cord (phone modem), mixed parts (cell phone), and a circuit board (key board). All 5 electronic products were represented among them. Toxicity identification evaluations (with C18 and CM resins filtrations and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid addition) indicated that metals caused the toxicity in the majority of the most toxic leachates. Overall, this study has shown that electronic waste can leach toxic compounds also during short-term leaching with pure water.

  6. Toxic Remediation System And Method

    DOEpatents

    Matthews, Stephen M.; Schonberg, Russell G.; Fadness, David R.

    1996-07-23

    What is disclosed is a novel toxic waste remediation system designed to provide on-site destruction of a wide variety of hazardous organic volatile hydrocarbons, including but not limited to halogenated and aromatic hydrocarbons in the vapor phase. This invention utilizes a detoxification plenum and radiation treatment which transforms hazardous organic compounds into non-hazardous substances.

  7. A modified homogeneous relaxation model for CO2 two-phase flow in vapour ejector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haida, M.; Palacz, M.; Smolka, J.; Nowak, A. J.; Hafner, A.; Banasiak, K.

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the homogenous relaxation model (HRM) for CO2 flow in a two-phase ejector was modified in order to increase the accuracy of the numerical simulations The two- phase flow model was implemented on the effective computational tool called ejectorPL for fully automated and systematic computations of various ejector shapes and operating conditions. The modification of the HRM was performed by a change of the relaxation time and the constants included in the relaxation time equation based on the experimental result under the operating conditions typical for the supermarket refrigeration system. The modified HRM was compared to the HEM results, which were performed based on the comparison of motive nozzle and suction nozzle mass flow rates.

  8. Phase I/II adaptive design for drug combination oncology trials

    PubMed Central

    Wages, Nolan A.; Conaway, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Existing statistical methodology on dose finding for combination chemotherapies has focused on toxicity considerations alone in finding a maximum tolerated dose combination to recommend for further testing of efficacy in a phase II setting. Recently, there has been increasing interest in integrating phase I and phase II trials in order to facilitate drug development. In this article, we propose a new adaptive phase I/II method for dual-agent combinations that takes into account both toxicity and efficacy after each cohort inclusion. The primary objective, both within and at the conclusion of the trial, becomes finding a single dose combination with an acceptable level of toxicity that maximizes efficacious response. We assume that there exist monotone dose–toxicity and dose–efficacy relationships among doses of one agent when the dose of other agent is fixed. We perform extensive simulation studies that demonstrate the operating characteristics of our proposed approach, and we compare simulated results to existing methodology in phase I/II design for combinations of agents. PMID:24470329

  9. In situ measurement of CO2 and water vapour isotopic compositions at a forest site using mid-infrared laser absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wada, Ryuichi; Matsumi, Yutaka; Takanashi, Satoru; Nakai, Yuichiro; Nakayama, Tomoki; Ouchi, Mai; Hiyama, Tetsuya; Fujiyoshi, Yasushi; Nakano, Takashi; Kurita, Naoyuki; Muramoto, Kenichiro; Kodama, Naomi

    2016-12-01

    We conducted continuous, high time-resolution measurements of CO2 and water vapour isotopologues ((16)O(12)C(16)O, (16)O(13)C(16)O and (18)O(12)C(16)O for CO2, and H2(18)O for water vapour) in a red pine forest at the foot of Mt. Fuji for 9 days from the end of July 2010 using in situ absorption laser spectroscopy. The δ(18)O values in water vapour were estimated using the δ(2)H-δ(18)O relationship. At a scale of several days, the temporal variations in δ(18)O-CO2 and δ(18)O-H2O are similar. The orders of the daily Keeling plots are almost identical. A possible reason for the similar behaviour of δ(18)O-CO2 and δ(18)O-H2O is considered to be that the air masses with different water vapour isotopic ratios moved into the forest, and changed the atmosphere of the forest. A significant correlation was observed between δ(18)O-CO2 and δ(13)C-CO2 values at nighttime (r(2)≈0.9) due to mixing between soil (and/or leaf) respiration and tropospheric CO2. The ratios of the discrimination coefficients (Δa/Δ) for oxygen (Δa) and carbon (Δ) isotopes during photosynthesis were estimated in the range of 0.7-1.2 from the daytime correlations between δ(18)O-CO2 and δ(13)C-CO2 values.

  10. Quality changes of fresh-cut pomegranate arils during shelf life as affected by deficit irrigation and postharvest vapour treatments.

    PubMed

    Peña-Estévez, María E; Gómez, Perla A; Artés, Francisco; Aguayo, Encarna; Martínez-Hernández, Ginés Benito; Otón, Mariano; Galindo, Alejandro; Artés-Hernández, Francisco

    2015-08-30

    The effect of two sustained deficit irrigation (SDI) strategies, compared to a control, on postharvest physicochemical, microbial, sensory quality attributes and anthocyanin content of fresh-cut pomegranates arils throughout 18 days at 5 °C was studied. Furthermore, the effect of vapour treatments (4, 7 and 10 s) compared to a conventional sanitizing treatment with NaClO on such quality parameters in combination with the preharvest treatments was also studied. According to sensory analyses, the shelf life of arils from control and SDI-irrigated fruit was established in 14 and 18 days at 5 °C, respectively, showing 4 and 7 s vapour treatment time the best sensory quality. No significant change was observed in physicochemical quality attributes, across all treatments during storage, while low microbial loads were registered (<3 log CFU g(-1)) after shelf life. Postharvest treatments that had least effect on anthocyanin content on processing day were 7 and 10 s. Vapour treatments of 7-10 s applied to pomegranate arils led to an extended shelf life up to 18 days at 5 °C with better results in SDI-irrigated samples with a water saving of 6-11%. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Tropospheric water vapour isotopologue data (H216O, H218O, and HD16O) as obtained from NDACC/FTIR solar absorption spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthlott, Sabine; Schneider, Matthias; Hase, Frank; Blumenstock, Thomas; Kiel, Matthäus; Dubravica, Darko; García, Omaira E.; Sepúlveda, Eliezer; Mengistu Tsidu, Gizaw; Takele Kenea, Samuel; Grutter, Michel; Plaza-Medina, Eddy F.; Stremme, Wolfgang; Strong, Kim; Weaver, Dan; Palm, Mathias; Warneke, Thorsten; Notholt, Justus; Mahieu, Emmanuel; Servais, Christian; Jones, Nicholas; Griffith, David W. T.; Smale, Dan; Robinson, John

    2017-01-01

    We report on the ground-based FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) tropospheric water vapour isotopologue remote sensing data that have been recently made available via the database of NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change; ftp://ftp.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/ndacc/MUSICA/) and via doi:10.5281/zenodo.48902. Currently, data are available for 12 globally distributed stations. They have been centrally retrieved and quality-filtered in the framework of the MUSICA project (MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water). We explain particularities of retrieving the water vapour isotopologue state (vertical distribution of H216O, H218O, and HD16O) and reveal the need for a new metadata template for archiving FTIR isotopologue data. We describe the format of different data components and give recommendations for correct data usage. Data are provided as two data types. The first type is best-suited for tropospheric water vapour distribution studies disregarding different isotopologues (comparison with radiosonde data, analyses of water vapour variability and trends, etc.). The second type is needed for analysing moisture pathways by means of H2O, δD-pair distributions.

  12. The effect of temperature and gas flow on the physical vapour growth of mm-scale rubrene crystals for organic FETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, A. R.; Micolich, A. P.; Cochrane, J. W.; Hamilton, A. R.

    2007-12-01

    There has recently been significant interest in rubrene single-crystals grown using physical vapour transport techniques due to their application in high-mobility organic field-effect transistor (OFET) devices. Despite numerous studies of the electrical properties of such crystals, there has only been one study to date focussing on characterising and optimising the crystal growth as a function of the relevant growth parameters. Here we present a study of the dependence of the yield of useful crystals (defined as crystals with at least one dimension of order 1 mm) on the temperature and volume flow of carrier gas used in the physical vapour growth process.

  13. Impedimetric detection of alcohol vapours using nanostructured zinc ferrite.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Padmanathan Karthick; Saraswathi, Ramiah

    2014-11-01

    A comparative study on the sensing characteristics of nanostructured zinc ferrite to three primary alcohols viz. methanol, ethanol and propanol has been carried out. The zinc ferrite has been prepared by a combustion method and characterized by XRD, FTIR, AFM and SEM. Impedance studies in the alcohol concentration range varying from 100 to 1000 ppm show definite variations in response to both the nature of the alcohol and its concentration. The nanostructured zinc ferrite shows the highest sensor response to methanol and least to propanol. Equivalent circuit modelling and calibration have been made for all the three alcohol sensors. The material shows a better selectivity to the alcohols compared to formaldehyde, ammonia and acetone vapours. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Chemical vapour deposition: Transition metal carbides go 2D

    DOE PAGES

    Gogotsi, Yury

    2015-08-17

    Here, the research community has been steadily expanding the family of few-atom-thick crystals beyond graphene, discovering new materials or producing known materials in a 2D state and demonstrating their unique properties 1, 2. Recently, nanometre-thin 2D transition metal carbides have also joined this family 3. Writing in Nature Materials, Chuan Xu and colleagues now report a significant advance in the field, showing the synthesis of large-area, high-quality, nanometre-thin crystals of molybdenum carbide that demonstrate low-temperature 2D superconductivity 4. Moreover, they also show that other ultrathin carbide crystals, such as tungsten and tantalum carbides, can be grown by chemical vapour depositionmore » with a high crystallinity and very low defect concentration.« less

  15. E-GVAP, the EIG EUMETNET GNSS Water Vapour Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J.; de Haan, S.; Vedel, H.

    2011-12-01

    The main purpose of E-GVAP is to deliver near real-time (NRT) ground based GNSS delay data for usage in operational meteorology. This involves the collection and processing of raw GNSS data to estimate zenith total delay (ZTD) and subsequent collection and distribution of ZTD data to European national meteorological services. Validation and quality control, production of 2D animated water vapour maps, development of best practices for GNSS data processing and data usage in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models, are other important aspects. Furthermore there is a current push for more real-time observations which would have positive impacts in high both resolution NWP and for nowcasting applications. We present an overview of the current status of E-GVAP.

  16. Concurrent growth of InSe wires and In2O3 tulip-like structures in the Au-catalytic vapour-liquid-solid process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taurino, A.; Signore, M. A.

    2015-06-01

    In this work, the concurrent growth of InSe and In2O3 nanostructures, obtained by thermal evaporation of InSe powders on Au-covered Si substrates, has been investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy techniques. The vapour-solid and Au catalytic vapour-liquid-solid growth mechanisms, responsible of the simultaneous development of the two different types of nanostructures, i.e. InSe wires and In2O3 tulip-like structures respectively, are discussed in detail. The thermodynamic processes giving rise to the obtained morphologies and materials are explained.

  17. Drunk Bugs: Chronic Vapour Alcohol Exposure Induces Marked Changes in the Gut Microbiome in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Veronica L.; Jury, Nicholas J.; Cabrera-Rubio, Raúl; Draper, Lorraine A.; Crispie, Fiona; Cotter, Paul D.; Dinan, Timothy G.; Holmes, Andrew; Cryan, John F.

    2017-01-01

    The gut microbiota includes a community of bacteria that and play an integral part in host health and biological processes. Pronounced and repeated findings have linked gut microbiome to stress, anxiety, and depression. Currently, however, there remains only a limited set of studies focusing on microbiota change in substance abuse, including alcohol use disorder. To date, no studies have investigated the impact of vapour alcohol administration on the gut microbiome. For research on gut microbiota and addiction to proceed, an understanding of how route of drug administration affects gut microbiota must first be established. Animal models of alcohol abuse have proven valuable for elucidating the biological processes involved in addiction and alcohol-related diseases. This is the first study to investigate the effect of vapour route of ethanol administration on gut microbiota in mice. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 4 weeks of chronic intermittent vapourized ethanol (CIE, N=10) or air (Control, N=9). Faecal samples were collected at the end of exposure followed by 16S sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. Robust separation between CIE and Control was seen in the microbiome, as assessed by alpha (Shannon and Simpson index, p<0.05) and beta (ANOSIM, p<0.001) diversity, with a notable decrease in alpha diversity in CIE. These results demonstrate that CIE exposure markedly alters the gut microbiota in mice. Significant increases in genus Alistipes (p<0.001) and significant reductions in genra Clostridium IV and XIVb (Kruskal-Wallis, p<0.001), Dorea (Kruskal-Wallis, p<0.01), and Coprococcus (Kruskal-Wallis, p<0.01) were seen between CIE mice and Control. These findings support the viability of the CIE method for studies investigating the microbiota-gut-brain axis and align with previous research showing similar microbiota alterations in inflammatory states during alcoholic hepatitis and psychological stress. PMID:28161446

  18. Drunk bugs: Chronic vapour alcohol exposure induces marked changes in the gut microbiome in mice.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Veronica L; Jury, Nicholas J; Cabrera-Rubio, Raúl; Draper, Lorraine A; Crispie, Fiona; Cotter, Paul D; Dinan, Timothy G; Holmes, Andrew; Cryan, John F

    2017-04-14

    The gut microbiota includes a community of bacteria that play an integral part in host health and biological processes. Pronounced and repeated findings have linked gut microbiome to stress, anxiety, and depression. Currently, however, there remains only a limited set of studies focusing on microbiota change in substance abuse, including alcohol use disorder. To date, no studies have investigated the impact of vapour alcohol administration on the gut microbiome. For research on gut microbiota and addiction to proceed, an understanding of how route of drug administration affects gut microbiota must first be established. Animal models of alcohol abuse have proven valuable for elucidating the biological processes involved in addiction and alcohol-related diseases. This is the first study to investigate the effect of vapour route of ethanol administration on gut microbiota in mice. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 4 weeks of chronic intermittent vapourized ethanol (CIE, N=10) or air (Control, N=9). Faecal samples were collected at the end of exposure followed by 16S sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. Robust separation between CIE and Control was seen in the microbiome, as assessed by alpha (p<0.05) and beta (p<0.001) diversity, with a notable decrease in alpha diversity in CIE. These results demonstrate that CIE exposure markedly alters the gut microbiota in mice. Significant increases in genus Alistipes (p<0.001) and significant reductions in genra Clostridium IV and XIVb (p<0.001), Dorea (p<0.01), and Coprococcus (p<0.01) were seen between CIE mice and Control. These findings support the viability of the CIE method for studies investigating the microbiota-gut-brain axis and align with previous research showing similar microbiota alterations in inflammatory states during alcoholic hepatitis and psychological stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Toxicity Identification and Evaluation for the Effluent from Wastewater Treatment Plant in Industrial Complex using D.magna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Keum, H.; Chun Sang, H.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, the interests on the impacts of industrial wastewater on aquatic ecosystem have increased with concern about ecosystem protection and human health. Whole effluent toxicity tests are used to monitor toxicity by unknown toxic chemicals as well as conventional pollutants from industrial effluent discharges. This study describes the application of TIE (toxicity identification evaluation) procedures to an acutely toxic effluent from a wastewater treatment plant in industrial complex which was toxic to Daphnia magna. In TIE phase I (characterization step), the toxic effects by heavy metals, organic compounds, oxidants, volatile organic compounds, suspended solids and ammonia were screened and revealed that the source of toxicity is far from these toxicants group. Chemical analysis (TIE phase II) on TDS showed that the concentration of chloride ion (6,900 mg/L) was substantially higher than that predicted from EC50 for D. magna. In confirmation step (TIE phase III), chloride ion was demonstrated to be main toxicant in this effluent by the spiking approach, species sensitivity approach and deletion approach. Calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium, fluorine, sulfate ion concentration (450, 100, 80, 5,300, 0.66, 2,200mg/L) was not shown toxicity from D. magna. Finally, we concluded that chloride was the most contributing toxicant in the waste water treatment plant. Further research activities are needed for technical support of toxicity identification and evaluation on the various types of wastewater treatment plant discharge in Korea. Keywords : TIE, D. magna, Industrial waste water Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant (15IFIP-B089908-02) from Plant Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government

  20. Post-wildfire effects on carbon and water vapour dynamics in a Spanish black pine forest.

    PubMed

    Dadi, T; Rubio, E; Martínez-García, E; López-Serrano, F R; Andrés-Abellán, M; García-Morote, F A; De las Heras, J

    2015-04-01

    Two eddy covariance systems were installed in a high-severity burned zone (BZ) and an adjacent unburned (UNB) zone to monitor water vapour and carbon dioxide fluxes for 21 months (from June 2011 to February 2013) at a Spanish black pine forest affected by a stand-replacing wildfire and located in a mountainous area of central-eastern Spain. The differences between both sites were significant especially during the growing season, affecting gross primary productivity (GPP) more than ecosystem respiration (Reco). Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) for 2012 was -3.97 and 1.80 t C ha(-1) year(-1) for the unburned and burned sites, respectively, the GPP being 64% lower for the BZ than the UNB zone. Evapotranspiration (ET) at the UNB was 18% greater than at the BZ. Difference between sites was 160 mm during the whole studied period. This study reflects the effect of one of the major disturbances that can affect Mediterranean ecosystems, showing that carbon fluxes are more dramatically concerned than water vapour fluxes.

  1. Recent advances in measurement of the water vapour continuum in the far-infrared spectral region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, P. D.; Newman, S. M.; Beeby, R. J.; Murray, J. E.; Pickering, J. C.; Harries, J. E.

    2012-06-01

    We present a new derivation of the foreign-broadened water vapour continuum in the far-infrared (far-IR) pure rotation band between 24 μm and 120 μm (85-420 cm-1) from field data collected in flight campaigns of the Continuum Absorption by Visible and IR radiation and Atmospheric Relevance (CAVIAR) project with Imperial College's Tropospheric Airborne Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TAFTS) far-IR spectro-radiometer instrument onboard the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft; and compare this new derivation with those recently published in the literature in this spectral band. This new dataset validates the current Mlawer-Tobin-Clough-Kneizys-Davies (MT-CKD) 2.5 model parametrization above 300 cm-1, but indicates the need to strengthen the parametrization below 300 cm-1, by up to 50 per cent at 100 cm-1. Data recorded at a number of flight altitudes have allowed measurements within a wide range of column water vapour environments, greatly increasing the sensitivity of this analysis to the continuum strength.

  2. Tutorial on Quantification of Differences between Single- and Two-Component Two-Phase Flow and Heat Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delil, A. A. M.

    2003-01-01

    Single-component two-phase systems are envisaged for aerospace thermal control applications: Mechanically Pumped Loops, Vapour Pressure Driven Loops, Capillary Pumped Loops and Loop Heat Pipes. Thermal control applications are foreseen in different gravity environments: Micro-g, reduced-g for Mars or Moon bases, 1-g during terrestrial testing, and hyper-g in rotating spacecraft, during combat aircraft manoeuvres and in systems for outer planets. In the evaporator, adiabatic line and condenser sections of such single-component two-phase systems, the fluid is a mixture of the working liquid (for example ammonia, carbon dioxide, ethanol, or other refrigerants, etc.) and its saturated vapour. Results of two-phase two-component flow and heat transfer research (pertaining to liquid-gas mixtures, e.g. water/air, or argon or helium) are often applied to support research on flow and heat transfer in two-phase single-component systems. The first part of the tutorial updates the contents of two earlier tutorials, discussing various aerospace-related two-phase flow and heat transfer research. It deals with the different pressure gradient constituents of the total pressure gradient, with flow regime mapping (including evaporating and condensing flow trajectories in the flow pattern maps), with adiabatic flow and flashing, and with thermal-gravitational scaling issues. The remaining part of the tutorial qualitatively and quantitatively determines the differences between single- and two-component systems: Two systems that physically look similar and close, but in essence are fully different. It was already elucidated earlier that, though there is a certain degree of commonality, the differences will be anything but negligible, in many cases. These differences (quantified by some examples) illustrates how careful one shall be in interpreting data resulting from two-phase two-component simulations or experiments, for the development of single-component two-phase thermal control

  3. Modelling of gas-metal arc welding taking into account metal vapour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnick, M.; Fuessel, U.; Hertel, M.; Haessler, M.; Spille-Kohoff, A.; Murphy, A. B.

    2010-11-01

    The most advanced numerical models of gas-metal arc welding (GMAW) neglect vaporization of metal, and assume an argon atmosphere for the arc region, as is also common practice for models of gas-tungsten arc welding (GTAW). These models predict temperatures above 20 000 K and a temperature distribution similar to GTAW arcs. However, spectroscopic temperature measurements in GMAW arcs demonstrate much lower arc temperatures. In contrast to measurements of GTAW arcs, they have shown the presence of a central local minimum of the radial temperature distribution. This paper presents a GMAW model that takes into account metal vapour and that is able to predict the local central minimum in the radial distributions of temperature and electric current density. The influence of different values for the net radiative emission coefficient of iron vapour, which vary by up to a factor of hundred, is examined. It is shown that these net emission coefficients cause differences in the magnitudes, but not in the overall trends, of the radial distribution of temperature and current density. Further, the influence of the metal vaporization rate is investigated. We present evidence that, for higher vaporization rates, the central flow velocity inside the arc is decreased and can even change direction so that it is directed from the workpiece towards the wire, although the outer plasma flow is still directed towards the workpiece. In support of this thesis, we have attempted to reproduce the measurements of Zielińska et al for spray-transfer mode GMAW numerically, and have obtained reasonable agreement.

  4. Mercury(II) and methyl mercury determinations in water and fish samples by using solid phase extraction and cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry combination.

    PubMed

    Tuzen, Mustafa; Karaman, Isa; Citak, Demirhan; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-07-01

    A method has been developed for mercury(II) and methyl mercury speciation on Staphylococcus aureus loaded Dowex Optipore V-493 micro-column in the presented work, by using cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry. Selective and sequential elution with 0.1 molL(-1) HCl for methyl mercury and 2 molL(-1) HCl for mercury(II) were performed at the pH range of 2-6. Optimal analytical conditions including pH, amounts of biosorbent, sample volumes were investigated. The detection limits of the analytes were 2.5 ngL(-1) for Hg(II) and 1.7 ngL(-1) for methyl mercury. The capacity of biosorbent for mercury(II) and methyl mercury was 6.5 and 5.4 mgg(-1), respectively. The validation of the presented procedure is performed by the analysis of standard reference material. The speciation procedure established was successfully applied to the speciation of mercury(II) and methyl mercury in natural water and microwave digested fish samples.

  5. Similar efficacy for phase I trials in comparison with DTIC for advanced malignant melanoma: an analysis of melanoma outcomes in CTEP-sponsored phase I trials 1995-2011.

    PubMed

    Luke, Jason J; Rubinstein, Lawrence V; Smith, Gary L; Ivy, S Percy; Harris, Pamela J

    2013-04-01

    After ipilimumab, vemurafenib, and interleukin-2, standard of care chemotherapy for melanoma remains dacarbazine (response rate ∼9%). Despite this, many physicians hesitate to refer patients to phase I protocols given a perceived lack of clinical benefit and potential for harm. To better understand the validity of these perceptions, the experience of all patients with melanoma treated on phase I trials sponsored by the National Cancer Institute-Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program (NCI-CTEP) from 1995 to 2011 were analyzed and compared with the pooled results of six contemporary phase III trials of dacarbazine. A total of 937 patients with melanoma were treated in 148 CTEP phase I trials. The majority were men with a median of two prior therapies (46% receiving prior dacarbazine). Response and clinical benefit rates in these trials were not clinically different from those of dacarbazine (phase I: 6.3 and 26.8% vs. dacarbazine: 8.8 and 27.9%) although grades 3 and 4 toxicity was significantly higher (54 vs. 28%). Efficacy and toxicity were generally consistent within phase I subgroups (targeted agents, immunotherapies, or chemotherapeutics) though targeted therapy was associated with a lower response rate, immunotherapy with lower clinical benefit rate, and chemotherapy with higher incidence of grade 4 toxicity. Thus, the perception of limited efficacy of phase I trials for patients with melanoma was disproven, whereas the perception of toxicity was observed. However, this difference in toxicity may have been largely because of the nature of phase I vs. phase III trials (i.e. more heavily pretreated) and because of the phase I trials often being multiagent as opposed to dacarbazine alone. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  6. Developmental Effects of the ToxCast™ Phase I and Phase II Chemicals in Caenorhabditis elegans and Corresponding Responses in Zebrafish, Rats, and Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Windy A.; Smith, Marjolein V.; Co, Caroll A.; Pirone, Jason R.; Rice, Julie R.; Shockley, Keith R.; Freedman, Jonathan H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Modern toxicology is shifting from an observational to a mechanistic science. As part of this shift, high-throughput toxicity assays are being developed using alternative, nonmammalian species to prioritize chemicals and develop prediction models of human toxicity. Methods: The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) was used to screen the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) ToxCast™ Phase I and Phase II libraries, which contain 292 and 676 chemicals, respectively, for chemicals leading to decreased larval development and growth. Chemical toxicity was evaluated using three parameters: a biologically defined effect size threshold, half-maximal activity concentration (AC50), and lowest effective concentration (LEC). Results: Across both the Phase I and Phase II libraries, 62% of the chemicals were classified as active ≤ 200 μM in the C. elegans assay. Chemical activities and potencies in C. elegans were compared with those from two zebrafish embryonic development toxicity studies and developmental toxicity data for rats and rabbits. Concordance of chemical activity was higher between C. elegans and one zebrafish assay across Phase I chemicals (79%) than with a second zebrafish assay (59%). Using C. elegans or zebrafish to predict rat or rabbit developmental toxicity resulted in balanced accuracies (the average value of the sensitivity and specificity for an assay) ranging from 45% to 53%, slightly lower than the concordance between rat and rabbit (58%). Conclusions: Here, we present an assay that quantitatively and reliably describes the effects of chemical toxicants on C. elegans growth and development. We found significant overlap in the activity of chemicals in the ToxCast™ libraries between C. elegans and zebrafish developmental screens. Incorporating C. elegans toxicological assays as part of a battery of in vitro and in vivo assays provides additional information for the development of models to predict a chemical

  7. Left ventricular diastolic function in workers occupationally exposed to mercury vapour without clinical presentation of cardiac involvement

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Poręba, Rafał, E-mail: sogood@poczta.onet.pl; Skoczyńska, Anna; Gać, Paweł

    2012-09-15

    The aim of the study was to evaluate left ventricular diastolic function in workers occupationally exposed to mercury vapour without clinical presentation of cardiac involvement. The studies included 115 workers (92 men and 23 women) occupationally exposed to mercury vapour without clinical presentation of cardiac involvement (mean age: 47.83 ± 8.29). Blood samples were taken to determine blood lipid profile, urine was collected to estimate mercury concentration (Hg-U) and echocardiographic examination was performed to evaluate diastolic function of the left ventricle. In the entire group of workers occupationally exposed to mercury vapour without clinical presentation of cardiac involvement, Spearman correlationsmore » analysis demonstrated the following significant linear relationships: between body mass index (BMI) and ratio of maximal early diastolic mitral flow velocity/early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E/E') (r = 0.32, p < 0.05), between serum HDL concentration and E/E' (r = − 0.22, p < 0.05), between Hg-U and E/E' (r = 0.35, p < 0.05), between Hg-U and isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRT') (r = 0.41, p < 0.05), between Hg-U and ratio of maximal early diastolic mitral flow velocity/maximal late diastolic mitral flow velocity (E/A) (r = − 0.31, p < 0.05) and between serum HDL concentration and E/A (r = 0.43, p < 0,05). In logistic regression analysis it as shown that independent factors of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction risk in the study group included a higher urine mercury concentration, a higher value of BMI and a lower serum HDL concentration (OR{sub Hg}-{sub U} = 1.071, OR{sub BMI} = 1.200, OR{sub HDL} = 0.896, p < 0.05). Summing up, occupational exposure to mercury vapour may be linked to impaired left ventricular diastolic function in workers without clinical presentation of cardiac involvement. -- Highlights: ► Study aimed at evaluation of LVDD in workers occupationally exposed to Hg. ► There was significant linear

  8. The solubility of gold in H 2 O-H 2 S vapour at elevated temperature and pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zezin, Denis Yu.; Migdisov, Artashes A.; Williams-Jones, Anthony E.

    2011-09-01

    This experimental study sheds light on the complexation of gold in reduced sulphur-bearing vapour, specifically, in H 2O-H 2S gas mixtures. The solubility of gold was determined in experiments at temperatures of 300, 350 and 365 °C and reached 2.2, 6.6 and 6.3 μg/kg, respectively. The density of the vapour varied from 0.02 to 0.22 g/cm 3, the mole fraction of H 2S varied from 0.03 to 0.96, and the pressure in the cell reached 263 bar. Statistically significant correlations of the amount of gold dissolved in the fluid with the fugacity of H 2O and H 2S permit the experimental data to be fitted to a solvation/hydration model. According to this model, the solubility of gold in H 2O-H 2S gas mixtures is controlled by the formation of sulphide or bisulphide species solvated by H 2S or H 2O molecules. Formation of gold sulphide species is favoured statistically over gold bisulphide species and thus the gold is interpreted to dissolve according to reactions of the form: Au(s)+(n+1)HS(g)=AuS·(HS)n(g)+H(g) Au(s)+HS(g)+mHO(g)=AuS·(HO)m(g)+H(g) Equilibrium constants for Reaction (A1) and the corresponding solvation numbers ( K A1 and n) were evaluated from the study of Zezin et al. (2007). The equilibrium constants as well as the hydration numbers for Reaction (A2) ( K A2 and m) were adjusted simultaneously by a custom-designed optimization algorithm and were tested statistically. The resulting values of log K A2 and m are -15.3 and 2.3 at 300 and 350 °C and -15.1 and 2.2 at 365 °C, respectively. Using the calculated stoichiometry and stability of Reactions (A1) and (A2), it is now possible to quantitatively evaluate the contribution of reduced sulphur species to the transport of gold in aqueous vapour at temperatures up to 365 °C. This information will find application in modelling gold ore-forming processes in vapour-bearing magmatic hydrothermal systems, notably those of epithermal environments.

  9. Amelioration of chronic fluoride toxicity by calcium and fluoride-free water in rats.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Priyanka; Ghosh, Sudip; Bhaskarachary, K; Venkaiah, K; Khandare, Arjun L

    2013-07-14

    The study was undertaken to explore the amelioration of chronic fluoride (F) toxicity (with low and normal Ca) in rats. The study was conducted in two phases. In phase I (6 months), seventy-six Wistar, weanling male rats were assigned to four treatment groups: normal-Ca (0·5 %) diet (NCD), Ca+F - ; low-Ca (0·25 %) diet (LCD), Ca - F - ; NCD +100 parts per million (ppm) F water, Ca+F+; LCD +100 ppm F water, Ca - F+. In phase II (reversal experiment, 3 months), LCD was replaced with the NCD. Treatment groups Ca+F+ and Ca - F+ were divided into two subgroups to compare the effect of continuation v. discontinuation along with Ca supplementation on reversal of chronic F toxicity. In phase I, significantly reduced food efficiency ratio (FER), body weight gain (BWG), faecal F excretion, serum Ca and increased bone F deposition were observed in the treatment group Ca - F+. Reduced serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3, increased 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3 and up-regulation of Ca-sensing receptor, vitamin D receptor and S100 Ca-binding protein G (S100G) were observed in treatment groups Ca - F - and Ca - F+. In phase II (reversal phase), FER, BWG and serum Ca in treatment groups Ca - F+/Ca+F - and Ca - F+/Ca+F+ were still lower, as compared with other groups. However, other variables were comparable. Down-regulation of S100G was observed in F-fed groups (Ca+F+/Ca+F+ and Ca - F+/Ca+F+) in phase II. It is concluded that low Ca aggravates F toxicity, which can be ameliorated after providing adequate Ca and F-free water. However, chronic F toxicity can interfere with Ca absorption by down-regulating S100G expression irrespective of Ca nutrition.

  10. Control of methanol vapours in a biotrickling filter: performance analysis and experimental determination of partition coefficient.

    PubMed

    Avalos Ramirez, Antonio; Peter Jones, J; Heitz, Michéle

    2009-02-01

    Methanol vapours were treated in a biotrickling filter (BTF) packed with inert polypropylene spheres. The effects of the nitrogen concentration in the nutrient solution, the empty bed residence time (EBRT) and the methanol inlet concentration, on the BTF performance, were all examined. The elimination capacity (EC), the biomass and the carbon dioxide production rates were all increased with the rising of the nitrogen concentration and the EBRT. The EC also rose with increasing methanol inlet load (IL) when the methanol inlet concentration and the EBRT were varied, from 0.3 to 37.0 g m(-3), and from 20 to 65 s, respectively. The BTF reached its maximum EC level of 2160 g m(-3) h(-1) when it was operated at an IL level of 3700 g m(-3) h(-1). The input methanol was removed through two mechanisms: biodegradation and absorption in the liquid phase. The partition coefficient for the methanol in the BTF was determined at five EBRTs and along the packed bed. It generally followed the Henry model, having an average value of 2.64 x 10(-4)[mol L(-1)](gas)/[mol L(-1)](liquid).

  11. Generation of High Resolution Water Vapour Fields from GPS Observations and Integration With ECMWF and MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, C.; Li, Z.; Penna, N. T.

    2016-12-01

    Precipitable water vapour (PWV) can be routinely retrieved from ground-based GPS arrays in all-weather conditions and also in real-time. But to provide dense spatial coverage maps, for example for calibrating SAR images, for correcting atmospheric effects in Network RTK GPS positioning and which may be used for numerical weather prediction, the pointwise GPS PWV measurements must be interpolated. Several previous interpolation studies have addressed the importance of the elevation dependency of water vapour, but it is often a challenge to separate elevation-dependent tropospheric delays from turbulent components. We present a tropospheric turbulence iterative decomposition model that decouples the total PWV into (i) a stratified component highly correlated with topography which therefore delineates the vertical troposphere profile, and (ii) a turbulent component resulting from disturbance processes (e.g., severe weather) in the troposphere which trigger uncertain patterns in space and time. We will demonstrate that the iterative decoupled interpolation model generates improved dense tropospheric water vapour fields compared with elevation dependent models, with similar accuracies obtained over both flat and mountainous terrain, as well as for both inland and coastal areas. We will also show that our GPS-based model may be enhanced with ECMWF zenith tropospheric delay and MODIS PWV, producing multi-data sources high temporal-spatial resolution PWV fields. These fields were applied to Sentinel-1 SAR interferograms over the Los Angeles region, for which a maximum noise reduction due to atmosphere artifacts reached 85%. The results reveal that the turbulent troposphere noise, especially those in a SAR image, often occupy more than 50% of the total zenith tropospheric delay and exert systematic, rather than random patterns.

  12. Extremely fast and highly selective detection of nitroaromatic explosive vapours using fluorescent polymer thin films.

    PubMed

    Demirel, Gokcen Birlik; Daglar, Bihter; Bayindir, Mehmet

    2013-07-14

    A novel sensing material based on pyrene doped polyethersulfone worm-like structured thin film is developed using a facile technique for detection of nitroaromatic explosive vapours. The formation of π-π stacking in the thin fluorescent film allows a highly sensitive fluorescence quenching which is detectable by the naked eye in a response time of a few seconds.

  13. Traditional uses of herbal vapour therapy in Manipur, North East India: an ethnobotanical survey.

    PubMed

    Ningthoujam, Sanjoy Singh; Das Talukdar, Anupam; Potsangbam, Kumar Singh; Choudhury, Manabendra Dutta

    2013-05-02

    Vapour-based medicines are an aspect of traditional medicine in North East India. However, no collective studies on this therapy in the region have been attempted. With the changing perception of traditional knowledge, documenting these herbal preparations and the subsequent development of baseline data for applications in further ethnopharmacological research are needed. To survey and document the plant species associated with vapour therapy in Manipur, North East India, and to evaluate these traditional practices. Semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect information from the Meitei community in the Imphal valley and the Jiribam area in Manipur. Traditional disease concepts were studied along with their corresponding medical terminologies. Plant samples collected from fields, healers' private collections and home gardens were identified. Evaluation of the ethnobotanical data was performed with a modified fidelity level index. In the study, 41 traditional disease complexes were treated by 13 different routes of administration using 48 mono-ingredient and 17 multi-ingredient compositions. Preparation methods included boiling in water (28%), burning the materials (48%), crushing the materials to release the aroma (21%) and slight heating of the materials (3%). Some of the mono-ingredient recipes reported in the study were observed to have similar uses in other parts of the world, whereas polyherbal remedies were found to be unique without any similar report. Many compositions mentioned in the paper are still used by the Meitei community. Traditional healers follow their own criteria for selecting medicinal plants. Plants recorded in this ethnobotanical study can suggest methods for selecting and identifying potentially effective plants for future drug candidates. Scientific characterisation of the herbal remedies can contribute to the endorsement of traditional vapour-based therapies in the modern health care systems. Findings from these "new usage

  14. Water Vapour Mixing Ratio Measurements in Potenza in the Frame of the International Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change - NDACC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Rosa, Benedetto; Di Girolamo, Paolo; Summa, Donato; Stelitano, Dario; Mancini, Ignazio

    2016-06-01

    In November 2012 the University of BASILicata Raman Lidar system (BASIL) was approved to enter the International Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). This network includes more than 70 high-quality, remote-sensing research stations for observing and understanding the physical and chemical state of the upper troposphere and stratosphere and for assessing the impact of stratosphere changes on the underlying troposphere and on global climate. As part of this network, more than thirty groundbased Lidars deployed worldwide are routinely operated to monitor atmospheric ozone, temperature, aerosols, water vapour, and polar stratospheric clouds. In the frame of NDACC, BASIL performs measurements on a routine basis each Thursday, typically from local noon to midnight, covering a large portion of the daily cycle. Measurements from BASIL are included in the NDACC database both in terms of water vapour mixing ratio and temperature. This paper illustrates some measurement examples from BASIL, with a specific focus on water vapour measurements, with the goal to try and characterize the system performances.

  15. Mixed garnet laser crystals for water vapour DIAL transmitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treichel, Rainer; Czeranowsky, Christoph; Ileri, Bilge; Petermann, Klaus; Huber, Günter

    2017-11-01

    There are more or less well established technologies such as the optical-parametric-oscillator (OPO), the Raman-laser, and the Ti-Sapphire laser, which are able to emit laser light in the region of the water vapour absorption lines. For WALES the regions of about 935 nm, 942 nm, and 944 nm have been identified as the most suitable wavelength ranges. However, each of these laser designs is highly sophisticated. Current baseline for WALES is the Ti-Sapphire laser. A fourth possibility to achieve these wavelength ranges is to shift the groundstate laser lines (938 nm and 946 nm) of the Nd:YAG laser by replacing Aluminium and Yttrium by other rare earth elements. Changes of the host lattice characteristics lead to a shift of the upper and lower laser levels. These modified crystals are summarized under the name of "Mixed Garnet" crystals. Only the Mixed Garnet lasers can be pumped directly with diode laser and use a direct approach to generate the required laser pulses without frequency conversion. Therefore no additional non-linear crystals are needed and a higher electric to optical efficiency is expected as well as single frequency operation using spectral tuning elements like etalons. Such lasers have the great potential to fulfil the requirements and to become the preferred transmitter concept for WALES as well as for follow up missions. Within a ESA study several crystal compositions have been grown, spectrally characterised and analysed. Absorbed space radiation energy in the crystal lattice causes colour centres, which can reabsorb the pump and laser wavelength and consequently reduce the laser gain considerably. Co-dopants such as Chromium and Cerium are able to suppress the colour centres and are candidates for effective radiation hardening. The results of the crystal tuning, the co-doping with different radiation hardeners and the radiation tests will be presented. There applicability for a space based water vapour DIAL transmitter will be discussed.

  16. Thermoresponsive Polymers with Lower Critical Solution Temperature- or Upper Critical Solution Temperature-Type Phase Behaviour Do Not Induce Toxicity to Human Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yuejia; Zhu, Mengxiang; Gong, Yu; Tang, Haoyu; Li, Juan; Cao, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Thermoresponsive polymers have gained extensive attention as biomedical materials especially for targeted drug delivery systems. We have recently developed water-soluble polypeptide-based thermoresponsive polymers that exhibit lower critical solution temperature (LCST)- or upper critical solution temperature (UCST)-type phase behaviours. In this study, the toxicity of these polymers to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was investigated to assess the safety and biocompatibility. Up to 100 μg/ml, thermoresponsive polymers did not induce cytotoxicity to HUVECs, showing as unaltered mitochondrial viability assessed as cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and membrane integrity assessed as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. Inflammatory response, assessed as the release of chemokine-soluble monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (sMCP-1) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) as well as cytokine IL-6, was not significantly affected by the polymers. In addition, 1 μM thapsigargin (TG), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inducer, significantly decreased mitochondrial viability, but did not affect membrane integrity or inflammatory response. The presence of thermoresponsive polymers with LCST-type phase behaviour did not further affect the effects of TG. In conclusion, the thermoresponsive polymers used in this study are not toxic to endothelial cells and therefore could be further considered as safe materials for biomedical applications. © 2016 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  17. Vapour breakthrough behaviour of carbon tetrachloride - A simulant for chemical warfare agent on ASZMT carbon: A comparative study with whetlerite carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Avanish Kumar; Shah, Dilip K.; Mahato, T. H.; Roy, A.; Yadav, S. S.; Srivas, S. K.; Singh, Beer

    2013-06-01

    ASZMT and whetlerite carbon was prepared by impregnation of active carbon with ammonical salts of Cu (II), Ag (I), Zn (II), Mo (VI), TEDA and Cu (II), Ag (I), Cr (VI), NaOH, C5H5N respectively using incipient wetness technique. Thereafter, impregnated carbon systems were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, atomic absorption spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and surface characterization techniques. Impregnated carbon systems were evaluated under dynamic conditions against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) vapour that was used as a simulant for the persistent chemical warfare agents for testing breakthrough times of filter cartridges and canisters of gas masks in the national approval test of respirators. The protective potential of ASZMT carbon was compared with the whetlerite carbon which is presently used in NBC filtration system. The effect of CCl4 concentration, test flow rate, temperature and relative humidity on the breakthrough behaviour of the impregnated carbon systems has also been studied. The study clearly indicated that the whetlerite carbon possessed breakthrough time greater than ASZMT carbon. However, ASZMT carbon provided adequate protection against CCl4 vapours and can be used as an alternative to whetlerite carbon that contain Cr(VI), which is reported to be carcinogenic and having lesser shelf life. The study indicated the breakthrough time of impregnated carbon systems were found to decrease with the increase of the CCl4 concentration and flow rate. The variation in temperature and relative humidity did not significantly affect the breakthrough behaviour of impregnated carbon systems at high vapour concentration of CCl4 whereasbreak through time of impregnated carbon systems reduced by an increase of relative humidity at low CCl4 vapour concentration.

  18. Toxicity Screening of the ToxCast Chemical Library Using a Zebrafish Developmental Assay

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the chemical screening and prioritization research program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the toxicity of the 320 ToxCast™ Phase I chemicals were assessed using a vertebrate screen of developmental toxicity. Zebrafish embryos/larvae (Danio rerio) were exp...

  19. Liquid Crystal Phase Behaviour of Attractive Disc-Like Particles

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Liang; Jackson, George; Müller, Erich A.

    2013-01-01

    We employ a generalized van der Waals-Onsager perturbation theory to construct a free energy functional capable of describing the thermodynamic properties and orientational order of the isotropic and nematic phases of attractive disc particles. The model mesogen is a hard (purely repulsive) cylindrical disc particle decorated with an anisotropic square-well attractive potential placed at the centre of mass. Even for isotropic attractive interactions, the resulting overall inter-particle potential is anisotropic, due to the orientation-dependent excluded volume of the underlying hard core. An algebraic equation of state for attractive disc particles is developed by adopting the Onsager trial function to characterize the orientational order in the nematic phase. The theory is then used to represent the fluid-phase behaviour (vapour-liquid, isotropic-nematic, and nematic-nematic) of the oblate attractive particles for varying values of the molecular aspect ratio and parameters of the attractive potential. When compared to the phase diagram of their athermal analogues, it is seen that the addition of an attractive interaction facilitates the formation of orientationally-ordered phases. Most interestingly, for certain aspect ratios, a coexistence between two anisotropic nematic phases is exhibited by the attractive disc-like fluids. PMID:23965962

  20. Liquid crystal phase behaviour of attractive disc-like particles.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liang; Jackson, George; Müller, Erich A

    2013-08-08

    We employ a generalized van der Waals-Onsager perturbation theory to construct a free energy functional capable of describing the thermodynamic properties and orientational order of the isotropic and nematic phases of attractive disc particles. The model mesogen is a hard (purely repulsive) cylindrical disc particle decorated with an anisotropic square-well attractive potential placed at the centre of mass. Even for isotropic attractive interactions, the resulting overall inter-particle potential is anisotropic, due to the orientation-dependent excluded volume of the underlying hard core. An algebraic equation of state for attractive disc particles is developed by adopting the Onsager trial function to characterize the orientational order in the nematic phase. The theory is then used to represent the fluid-phase behaviour (vapour-liquid, isotropic-nematic, and nematic-nematic) of the oblate attractive particles for varying values of the molecular aspect ratio and parameters of the attractive potential. When compared to the phase diagram of their athermal analogues, it is seen that the addition of an attractive interaction facilitates the formation of orientationally-ordered phases. Most interestingly, for certain aspect ratios, a coexistence between two anisotropic nematic phases is exhibited by the attractive disc-like fluids.

  1. Water vapour foreign-continuum absorption in near-infrared windows from laboratory measurements.

    PubMed

    Ptashnik, Igor V; McPheat, Robert A; Shine, Keith P; Smith, Kevin M; Williams, R Gary

    2012-06-13

    For a long time, it has been believed that atmospheric absorption of radiation within wavelength regions of relatively high infrared transmittance (so-called 'windows') was dominated by the water vapour self-continuum, that is, spectrally smooth absorption caused by H(2)O--H(2)O pair interaction. Absorption due to the foreign continuum (i.e. caused mostly by H(2)O--N(2) bimolecular absorption in the Earth's atmosphere) was considered to be negligible in the windows. We report new retrievals of the water vapour foreign continuum from high-resolution laboratory measurements at temperatures between 350 and 430 K in four near-infrared windows between 1.1 and 5 μm (9000-2000 cm(-1)). Our results indicate that the foreign continuum in these windows has a very weak temperature dependence and is typically between one and two orders of magnitude stronger than that given in representations of the continuum currently used in many climate and weather prediction models. This indicates that absorption owing to the foreign continuum may be comparable to the self-continuum under atmospheric conditions in the investigated windows. The calculated global-average clear-sky atmospheric absorption of solar radiation is increased by approximately 0.46 W m(-2) (or 0.6% of the total clear-sky absorption) by using these new measurements when compared with calculations applying the widely used MTCKD (Mlawer-Tobin-Clough-Kneizys-Davies) foreign-continuum model.

  2. Toxicity of TiO2 Nanoparticles to Escherichia coli: Effects of Particle Size, Crystal Phase and Water Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiuchun; Li, Jingyi; Ma, Si; Liu, Gesheng; Yang, Kun; Tong, Meiping; Lin, Daohui

    2014-01-01

    Controversial and inconsistent results on the eco-toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) are commonly found in recorded studies and more experimental works are therefore warranted to elucidate the nanotoxicity and its underlying precise mechanisms. Toxicities of five types of TiO2 NPs with different particle sizes (10∼50 nm) and crystal phases were investigated using Escherichia coli as a test organism. The effect of water chemistry on the nanotoxicity was also examined. The antibacterial effects of TiO2 NPs as revealed by dose-effect experiments decreased with increasing particle size and rutile content of the TiO2 NPs. More bacteria could survive at higher solution pH (5.0–10.0) and ionic strength (50–200 mg L−1 NaCl) as affected by the anatase TiO2 NPs. The TiO2 NPs with anatase crystal structure and smaller particle size produced higher content of intracellular reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde, in line with their greater antibacterial effect. Transmission electron microscopic observations showed the concentration buildup of the anatase TiO2 NPs especially those with smaller particle sizes on the cell surfaces, leading to membrane damage and internalization. These research results will shed new light on the understanding of ecological effects of TiO2 NPs. PMID:25310452

  3. Inhalation toxicity of methanol/gasoline in rats: effects of 13-week exposure.

    PubMed

    Poon, R; Park, G; Viau, C; Chu, I; Potvin, M; Vincent, R; Valli, V

    1998-01-01

    The subchronic inhalation toxicity of a methanol/gasoline blend (85% methanol, 15% gasoline, v/v) was studied in rats. Sprague Dawley rats (10 animals per group) of both sexes were exposed to vapours of methanol/gasoline at 50/3, 500/30 and 5000/300ppm for 6 hours per day, 5 days per week, for 13 weeks. Control animals inhaled filtered room air only. Control recovery and high dose recovery groups were also included which inhaled room air for an extra 4 weeks following the treatment period. No clinical signs of toxicity were observed in the treatment group and their growth curves were not significantly different from the control. Except for decreased forelimb grip strength in high dose females, no treatment-related neurobehavioural effects (4-6 hours post inhalation) were observed using screening tests which included cage-side observations, righting reflex, open field activities, and forelimb and hindlimb grip strength. At necropsy, the organ to body weight ratios for the liver, spleen, testes, thymus and lungs were not significantly different from the control group. There were no treatment-related effects in the hematological endpoints and no elevation in serum formate levels. Minimal serum biochemical changes were observed with the only treatment-related change being the decreased creatinine in the females. A dose-related increase in urinary ascorbic acid was detected in males after 2, 4 and 8 weeks of exposure, but not after the 12th week, and in females only at week-2. Increased urinary albumin was observed in treated males starting at the lowest dose and at all exposure periods, but not in females. A treatment-related increase in urinary beta 2-microglobulin was detected in males at week-2 only. Except for mild to moderate mucous cell metaplasia in nasal septum B, which occurred more often and with a slightly higher degree of severity in the low dose groups of both sexes, and presence of a minimal degree of interstitial lymphocyte infiltration in the prostate

  4. An evaluation of the toxicity of contaminated sediments from Waukegan Harbor, Illinois, following remediation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kemble, N.E.; Hardesty, D.G.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Johnson, B. Thomas; Dwyer, F.J.; MacDonald, D.D.

    2000-01-01

    Waukegan Harbor in Illinois was designated as a Great Lakes Area of Concern due to high concentrations of sediment-associated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of 20 sediment samples collected after remediation (primarily dredging) of Waukegan Harbor for PCBs. A 42-day whole sediment toxicity test with the amphipod Hyalella azteca (28-day sediment exposure followed by a 14-day reproductive phase) and sediment toxicity tests with Microtox® were conducted to evaluate sediments from Waukegan Harbor. Endpoints measured were survival, growth, and reproduction (amphipods) and luminescent light emission (bacteria). Survival of amphipods was significantly reduced in 6 of the 20 sediment samples relative to the control. Growth of amphipods (either length or weight) was significantly reduced relative to the control in all samples. However, reproduction of amphipods identified only two samples as toxic relative to the control. The Microtox basic test, conducted with organic extracts of sediments identified only one site as toxic. In contrast, the Microtox solid-phase test identified about 50% of the samples as toxic. A significant negative correlation was observed between reproduction and the concentration of three polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) normalized to total organic carbon. Sediment chemistry and toxicity data were evaluated using sediment quality guidelines (consensus-based probable effect concentrations, PECs). Results of these analyses indicate that sediment samples from Waukegan Harbor were toxic to H. azteca contaminated at similar contaminant concentrations as sediment samples that were toxic to H. azteca from other areas of the United States. The relationship between PECs and the observed toxicity was not as strong for the Microtox test. The results of this study indicate that the first phase of sediment remediation in Waukegan Harbor successfully lowered concentrations of PCBs at the site

  5. ISOLATING AND FRACTIONATING ORGANIC TOXICANTS IN SEDIMENTS: EVALUATION OF AN EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most solid-phase sediment TIE techniques for organic chemicals have been focused on solid phase sorptive techniques, such as amending contaminated sediments with the carbonaceousresin, Ambersorb coconut charcoal, or XAD resin to reduce toxicity caused by organic contaminants. Cha...

  6. ISOLATING AND EVALUATING ORGANIC TOXICANTS IN SEDIMENTS: EVALUATION OF AN EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most solid-phase sediment toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) techniques for organic chemicals have been focused on solid phase sorptive techniques, such as amending contaminated sediments with the carbonaceous resin, Ambersorb, coconut charcoal, or XAD resin to reduce t...

  7. SEDIMENT TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION EVALUATION (TIE)PHASE I,II,III GUIDANCE DOCUMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment contamination in the United States has been amply documented and, in order to comply with the 1972 Clean Water Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency must address the issue of toxic sediments. Contaminated sediments from a number of freshwater and marine sites hav...

  8. Application of dispersive solid phase extraction for trace analysis of toxic chemicals in foods.

    PubMed

    Neely, Sarah; Martin, Jordan; da Cruz, Natalia Ferreira; Piester, Gavin; Robinson, Morgan; Okoniewski, Richard; Tran, Buu N

    2018-05-29

    The objectives of this study were to develop and validate a method for the identification of toxic organic chemicals, including groups of controlled substances, alkaloids and pesticides that are highly toxic and considered threats to public health. This project aims to ensure our laboratory's readiness to respond to emergencies involving our food supply in cooperation with the Food Emergency Response Network (FERN) program. The food matrices were homogenized in a blender or food processor prior to extraction with an acetonitrile-water mixture using a QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) procedure. The extracts were then analyzed by either gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS/MS). Method validation was performed on a variety of food matrices including lettuce, grapes, milk, chicken, pork and beef. MDLs for the toxic compounds ranged from 0.01 to 0.66 mg/kg (ppm). The findings in this study will provide a valuable resource for the determination of toxic chemicals in food matrices for emergency response situations. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Evaluation of toxicity of trichloroethylene for plants

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ryu, S.B.; Davis, L.C.; Dana, J.

    1996-12-31

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) exposure of several species of plants was studied. Although earlier studies indicated that the root systems of plants could tolerate an aqueous phase concentration of 1 mM for a day, toxicity to whole plants was observed at somewhat lower levels in the gas phase in this study. The tested species included pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), sweet potato (Dioscoria batata), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), soybean (Glycine max L. Merr), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Damage was observable as wilting or failure of the gravitropic response of shoots at levels above about 0.2 mM in the gas phase, which correspondsmore » to 0.5 mM in the aqueous phase. Plants were usually killed quickly at gas phase concentrations above 0.4 mM.« less

  10. MEDUSA (Martian Environmental DUst Systematic Analyser) for the monitoring of the Martian atmospheric dust and water vapour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colangeli, L.; Battaglia, R.; della Corte, V.; Esposito, F.; Ferrini, G.; Mazzotta Epifani, E.; Palomba, E.; Palumbo, P.; Panizza, A.; Rotundi, A.

    2004-03-01

    The knowledge of Martian airborne dust properties and about mechanisms of dust settling/raising to/from the surface are important to determine climate and surface evolution on Mars. Water is an important tracer of climatic changes on long time-scales and is strictly related to the presence of life forms. The study in situ of dust and water vapour properties and evolution in Martian atmosphere is useful to trace back the planet climate, also in function of life form development. This investigation is also appropriate in preparation to future manned exploration of the planet (in relation to hazardous conditions). In this work we discuss the concept of the MEDUSA (Martian Environmental Dust Analyser) experiment that is designed to provide data on grain size and mass distribution, number density, velocity and scattering properties and on water vapour concentration. The instrument is a multisensor system based on optical and impact detection of grains, coupled with cumulative deposition sensors.

  11. Reducing ingress of organic vapours into homes situated on contaminated land.

    PubMed

    Crump, D; Brown, V; Rowley, J; Squire, R

    2004-04-01

    The efficacy of current landfill gas and radon mitigation measures for the prevention of ingress of organic vapours was investigated by the study of four houses situated on contaminated land in North West England. The chemical present in the ground of greatest concern for health due to exposure to vapour in the indoor air was hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD) and the concentration of this compound was used to assess the effectiveness of the remedial measures. A two stage remediation was undertaken. For a house with a solid floor the top surface of the floor was sealed and then for the second stage a fan was used to pressurise the soil gas beneath the house. In a house with a suspended timber floor, extra air bricks were installed to increase ventilation of the floor void and then a fan to further increase air exchange in the void. HCBD in air was monitored by both pumped and diffusive sampling methods. Control houses were also monitored that were not subject to remediation. It is concluded that the remedial measures used for radon protection of a suspended floor have the potential to reduce indoor HCBD concentrations by about 80%, at least in downstairs rooms (where initial levels were highest). The two techniques used for properties with solid floors do not appear to be as effective, and no benefit at all was seen without making allowances for changes in concentration that occurred in the control house over the same period. Further work is required to test the efficacy of the techniques over a longer period and under different circumstances of type of contamination and building characteristics.

  12. The effect of occupational exposure to mercury vapour on the fertility of female dental assistants.

    PubMed Central

    Rowland, A S; Baird, D D; Weinberg, C R; Shore, D L; Shy, C M; Wilcox, A J

    1994-01-01

    Exposure to mercury vapour or inorganic mercury compounds can impair fertility in laboratory animals. To study the effects of mercury vapour on fertility in women, eligibility questionnaires were sent to 7000 registered dental assistants in California. The final eligible sample of 418 women, who had become pregnant during the previous four years, were interviewed by telephone. Detailed information was collected on mercury handling practices and the number of menstrual cycles without contraception it had taken them to become pregnant. Dental assistants not working with amalgam served as unexposed controls. Women with high occupational exposure to mercury were less fertile than unexposed controls. The fecundability (probability of conception each menstrual cycle) of women who prepared 30 or more amalgams per week and who had five or more poor mercury hygiene factors was only 63% of that for unexposed women (95% CI 42%-96%) after controlling for covariates. Women with low exposure were more fertile, however, than unexposed controls. Possible explanations for the U shaped dose response and limitations of the exposure measure are discussed. Further investigation is needed that uses biological measures of mercury exposure. PMID:8124459

  13. Roughness and compressive strength of FDM 3D printed specimens affected by acetone vapour treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beniak, Juraj; Križan, Peter; Šooš, Ľubomír; Matúš, Miloš

    2018-01-01

    Rapid Prototyping technologies are the fastest growing technologies in the manufacturing of components and parts. There are many techniques which can be used with different materials and different purposes of produced part. Gradually, Rapid Prototyping systems have grown into Additive Manufacturing, because technology expansion brings faster production, improved manufactured components, and expanded palette of used materials. So now this techniques are also used for regular production of special parts, where is usual change of part design, where is necessary to produce variety of different designs and shapes. The following article deals with Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) technology, the core of which is the manufacture models and components from thermoplastic polymers by deposition single fibres of semi-molten plastic material layer by layer. The article focuses on the results of research for testing of manufactured specimens by FDM technology. Components are modified by acetone vapour for surface smoothing. The purpose is to point out how the additional specimen treatment influence the strength properties. Presented paper shows realized experiments and measurements of compressive force on specimens and surface roughness which are influenced by acetone vapour treatment.

  14. Energy and Exergy Analysis of Vapour Absorption Refrigeration Cycle—A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanabar, Bhaveshkumar Kantilal; Ramani, Bharatkumar Maganbhai

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, an energy crisis and the energy consumption have become global problems which restrict the sustainable growth. In these scenarios the scientific energy recovery and the utilization of various kinds of waste heat become very important. The waste heat can be utilized in many ways and one of the best practices is to use it for vapour absorption refrigeration system. To ensure efficient working of absorption cycle and utilization of optimum heat, exergy is the best tool for analysis. This paper provides the comprehensive picture of research and development of absorption refrigeration technology, practical and theoretical analysis with different arrangements of the cycle.

  15. The water vapour continuum in near-infrared windows - Current understanding and prospects for its inclusion in spectroscopic databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shine, Keith P.; Campargue, Alain; Mondelain, Didier; McPheat, Robert A.; Ptashnik, Igor V.; Weidmann, Damien

    2016-09-01

    Spectroscopic catalogues, such as GEISA and HITRAN, do not yet include information on the water vapour continuum that pervades visible, infrared and microwave spectral regions. This is partly because, in some spectral regions, there are rather few laboratory measurements in conditions close to those in the Earth's atmosphere; hence understanding of the characteristics of the continuum absorption is still emerging. This is particularly so in the near-infrared and visible, where there has been renewed interest and activity in recent years. In this paper we present a critical review focusing on recent laboratory measurements in two near-infrared window regions (centred on 4700 and 6300 cm-1) and include reference to the window centred on 2600 cm-1 where more measurements have been reported. The rather few available measurements, have used Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTS), cavity ring down spectroscopy, optical-feedback - cavity enhanced laser spectroscopy and, in very narrow regions, calorimetric interferometry. These systems have different advantages and disadvantages. Fourier Transform Spectroscopy can measure the continuum across both these and neighbouring windows; by contrast, the cavity laser techniques are limited to fewer wavenumbers, but have a much higher inherent sensitivity. The available results present a diverse view of the characteristics of continuum absorption, with differences in continuum strength exceeding a factor of 10 in the cores of these windows. In individual windows, the temperature dependence of the water vapour self-continuum differs significantly in the few sets of measurements that allow an analysis. The available data also indicate that the temperature dependence differs significantly between different near-infrared windows. These pioneering measurements provide an impetus for further measurements. Improvements and/or extensions in existing techniques would aid progress to a full characterisation of the continuum - as an example, we

  16. Experimental Investigation of two-phase nitrogen Cryo transfer line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, G. K.; Nimavat, H.; Panchal, R.; Garg, A.; Srikanth, GLN; Patel, K.; Shah, P.; Tanna, V. L.; Pradhan, S.

    2017-02-01

    A 6-m long liquid nitrogen based cryo transfer line has been designed, developed and tested at IPR. The test objectives include the thermo-hydraulic characteristics of Cryo transfer line under single phase as well as two phase flow conditions. It is always easy in experimentation to investigate the thermo-hydraulic parameters in case of single phase flow of cryogen but it is real challenge when one deals with the two phase flow of cryogen due to availibity of mass flow measurements (direct) under two phase flow conditions. Established models have been reported in the literature where one of the well-known model of Lockhart-Martenelli relationship has been used to determine the value of quality at the outlet of Cryo transfer line. Under homogenous flow conditions, by taking the ratio of the single-phase pressure drop and the two-phase pressure drop, we estimated the quality at the outlet. Based on these equations, vapor quality at the outlet of the transfer line was predicted at different heat loads. Experimental rresults shown that from inlet to outlet, there is a considerable increment in the pressure drop and vapour quality of the outlet depending upon heat load and mass flow rate of nitrogen flowing through the line.

  17. Organic carbon content effects on bioavailability of pyrethroid insecticides and validation of solid phase extraction with Poly (2,6-diphenyl-p-phenylene oxide) Polymer by Daphnia magna toxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Feo, M L; Corcellas, C; Barata, C; Ginebreda, A; Eljarrat, E; Barceló, D

    2013-01-01

    Solid phase extraction with Poly (2,6-diphenyl-p-phenylene oxide) Polymer (Tenax) was used for determining the bioavailability of eleven pyrethroids in field collected sediments with different organic carbon content (OC). The bioavailable fraction of pyrethroids decreased with increasing OC in sediments; the percentages of desorption ranged from 10 to 20% for sediment with higher OC content (5.8%) and 15-40% for that with lower OC (2%). Generally pyrethroids showed low bioavailability and cyfluthrin resulted to be the most bioavailable among the studied pyrethroids. Acute toxicity tests with Daphnia magna were carried out on sediment spiked with three selected pyrethroids (λ-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin and deltamethrin) and served to validate the efficiency of Tenax as a method for assessing the bioavailability of pyrethroids. Toxicity test demonstrated that Tenax was able to remove the toxic bio-available fraction of pyrethroids in sediment. Extracts from Tenax beads after the desorption experiments and spiked sediment before desorption had an equivalent toxicity (LC50) to D. magna neonates at 48 and 72 h of exposure. These results indicate that Tenax beds can be used to predict bio-available and toxic fractions of pyrethroids sorbed to sediments to aquatic organisms like D. magna. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Carbon Nanotubes/Nanofibers by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teo, K. B. K.; Hash, D. B.; Bell, M. S.; Chhowalla, M.; Cruden, B. A.; Amaratunga, G. A. J.; Meyyappan, M.; Milne, W. I.

    2005-01-01

    Plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) has been recently used for the production of vertically aligned carbon nanotubedfibers (CN) directly on substrates. These structures are potentially important technologically as electron field emitters (e.g. microguns, microwave amplifiers, displays), nanoelectrodes for sensors, filter media, superhydrophobic surfaces and thermal interface materials for microelectronics. A parametric study on the growth of CN grown by glow discharge dc-PECVD is presented. In this technique, a substrate containing thin film Ni catalyst is exposed to C2H2 and NH3 gases at 700 C. Without plasma, this process is essentially thermal CVD which produces curly spaghetti-like CN as seen in Fig. 1 (a). With the plasma generated by biasing the substrate at -6OOV, we observed that the CN align vertically during growth as shown in Fig. l(b), and that the magnitude of the applied substrate bias affects the degree of alignment. The thickness of the thin film Ni catalyst was found to determine the average diameter and inversely the length of the CN. The yield and density of the CN were controlled by the use of different diffusion barrier materials under the Ni catalyst. Patterned CN growth [Fig. l(c)], with la variation in CN diameter of 4.1% and 6.3% respectively, is achieved by lithographically defining the Ni thin film prior to growth. The shape of the structures could be varied from very straight nanotube-like to conical tip-like nanofibers by increasing the ratio of C2H2 in the gas flow. Due to the plasma decomposition of C2H2, amorphous carbon (a-C) is an undesirable byproduct which could coat the substrate during CN growth. Using a combination of depth profiled Auger electron spectroscopy to study the substrate and in-situ mass spectroscopy to examine gas phase neutrals and ions, the optimal conditions for a-C free growth of CN is determined.

  19. Significance of Intratracheal Instillation Tests for the Screening of Pulmonary Toxicity of Nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yasuo; Izumi, Hiroto; Yoshiura, Yukiko; Fujisawa, Yuri; Fujita, Katsuhide

    Inhalation tests are the gold standard test for the estimation of the pulmonary toxicity of respirable materials. Intratracheal instillation tests have been used widely, but they yield limited evidence of the harmful effects of respirable materials. We reviewed the effectiveness of intratracheal instillation tests for estimating the hazards of nanomaterials, mainly using research papers featuring intratracheal instillation and inhalation tests centered on a Japanese national project. Compared to inhalation tests, intratracheal instillation tests induced more acute inflammatory responses in the animal lung due to a bolus effect regardless of the toxicity of the nanomaterials. However, nanomaterials with high toxicity induced persistent inflammation in the chronic phase, and nanomaterials with low toxicity induced only transient inflammation. Therefore, in order to estimate the harmful effects of a nanomaterial, an observation period of 3 months or 6 months following intratracheal instillation is necessary. Among the endpoints of pulmonary toxicity, cell count and percentage of neutrophil, chemokines for neutrophils and macrophages, and oxidative stress markers are considered most important. These markers show persistent and transient responses in the lung from nanomaterials with high and low toxicity, respectively. If the evaluation of the pulmonary toxicity of nanomaterials is performed in not only the acute but also the chronic phase in order to avoid the bolus effect of intratracheal instillation and inflammatory-related factors that are used as endpoints of pulmonary toxicity, we speculate that intratracheal instillation tests can be useful for screening for the identification of the hazard of nanomaterials through pulmonary inflammation.

  20. Height-related trends in stomatal sensitivity to leaf-to-air vapour pressure deficit in a tall conifer

    Treesearch

    D.R. Woodruff; F.C. Meinzer; K.A. McCulloh

    2010-01-01

    Stomatal responses to leaf-to-air vapour pressure deficit (LVPD), leaf water potential components, and cuticular properties were characterized for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) foliage collected from treetops along a height gradient from 5 m to 58 m in order to explore height-related trends in stomatal sensitivity to LVPD and to investigate...

  1. Analysis of four toxic metals in a single rice seed by matrix solid phase dispersion -inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiufen; Chen, Lixia; Chen, Xin; Yu, Huamei; Peng, Lixu; Han, Bingjun

    2016-12-01

    Toxic metals in rice pose great risks to human health. Metal bioaccumulation in rice grains is a criterion of breeding. Rice breeding requires a sensitive method to determine metal content in single rice grains to assist the variety selection. In the present study, four toxic metals of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb) in a single rice grain were determined by a simple and rapid method. The developed method is based on matrix solid phase dispersion using multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as dispersing agent and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The experimental parameters were systematically investigated. The limits of detection (LOD) were 5.0, 0.6, 10 and 2.1 ng g-1 for As, Cd, Cr, and Pb, respectively, with relative standard deviations (n = 6) of <7.7%, demonstrating the good sensitivity and precision of the method. The results of 30 real world rice samples analyzed by this method agreed well with those obtained by the standard microwave digestion. The amount of sample required was reduced approximately 100 fold in comparison with the microwave digestion. The method has a high application potential for other sample matrices and elements with high sensitivity and sample throughput.

  2. Analysis of four toxic metals in a single rice seed by matrix solid phase dispersion -inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    He, Xiufen; Chen, Lixia; Chen, Xin; Yu, Huamei; Peng, Lixu; Han, Bingjun

    2016-12-06

    Toxic metals in rice pose great risks to human health. Metal bioaccumulation in rice grains is a criterion of breeding. Rice breeding requires a sensitive method to determine metal content in single rice grains to assist the variety selection. In the present study, four toxic metals of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb) in a single rice grain were determined by a simple and rapid method. The developed method is based on matrix solid phase dispersion using multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as dispersing agent and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The experimental parameters were systematically investigated. The limits of detection (LOD) were 5.0, 0.6, 10 and 2.1 ng g -1 for As, Cd, Cr, and Pb, respectively, with relative standard deviations (n = 6) of <7.7%, demonstrating the good sensitivity and precision of the method. The results of 30 real world rice samples analyzed by this method agreed well with those obtained by the standard microwave digestion. The amount of sample required was reduced approximately 100 fold in comparison with the microwave digestion. The method has a high application potential for other sample matrices and elements with high sensitivity and sample throughput.

  3. Recognition and management of digitalis toxicity.

    PubMed

    Kelly, R A; Smith, T W

    1992-06-04

    The most important step in the management of toxicity due to any of the cardiac glycosides is its recognition. Despite the development of an accurate clinical assay for serum levels of digoxin greater than 20 years ago, digitalis toxicity remains common and difficult to confirm, even if suspected, due primarily to 2 factors. First, the signs and symptoms of digitalis toxicity, most commonly an abnormal electrocardiogram showing ventricular or atrial arrhythmias, with or without some degree of concurrent atrioventricular block, often also occur in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) and underlying coronary atherosclerosis who are not receiving a cardiac glycoside. Second, due to digoxin's narrow therapeutic ratio, the marked degree of variability in the sensitivity of individual patients to its toxic effects, and the common problem of obtaining blood samples inappropriately during the early distribution phase following dosing, a serum digoxin concentration often does not serve as a reliable indicator of toxicity. Despite these difficulties in diagnosis, the management of digoxin toxicity has been made much more effective with the widespread availability of F(ab) fragments of anti-digoxin antibodies. This drug provides the clinician with a rapidly acting, safe antidote for all commonly used digitalis preparations. Conventional therapy for digoxin toxicity remains the maintenance of serum potassium levels greater than or equal to 4 mEq/liter, reversal of decompensated CHF or overt myocardial ischemia, attention to serum magnesium levels and the patient's acid-base status, appropriate antiarrhythmics in the event of ventricular arrhythmias, and a temporary pacemaker for high-grade atrioventricular block. Nevertheless, the high specificity and documented safety of the antibody preparation provides a needed safety net for the continuing use of cardiac glycosides as first-line inotropic agents in the modern therapy of chronic CHF.

  4. Comparisons of Sediment Test Volumes for Freshwater Solid Phase Sediment Toxicity Tests

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory tests with benthic macroinvertebrates are commonly used to assess the potential toxicity of contaminated sediments, and detailed standard test procedures have been developed for various species. For freshwater, two benthic organisms, Hyalella azteca and Chironomus dil...

  5. Chemical vapour deposition growth of carbon nanotube forests: kinetics, morphology, composition, and their mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinten, Phillip

    This thesis analyzes the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) growth of vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) forests in order to understand how CNT forests grow, why they stop growing, and how to control the properties of the synthesized CNTs. in situ kinetics data of the growth of CNT forests are gathered by in situ optical microscopy. The overall morphology of the forests and the characteristics of the individual CNTs in the forests are investigated using scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The in situ data show that forest growth and termination are activated processes (with activation energies on the order of 1 eV), suggesting a possible chemical origin. The activation energy changes at a critical temperature for ethanol CVD (approximately 870°C). These activation energies and critical temperature are also seen in the temperature dependence of several important characteristics of the CNTs, including the defect density as determined by Raman spectroscopy. This observation is seen across several CVD processes and suggests a mechanism of defect healing. The CNT diameter also depends on the growth temperature. In this thesis, a thermodynamic model is proposed. This model predicts a temperature and pressure dependence of the CNT diameter from the thermodynamics of the synthesis reaction and the effect of strain on the enthalpy of formation of CNTs. The forest morphology suggests significant interaction between the constituent CNTs. These interactions may play a role in termination. The morphology, in particular a microscale rippling feature that is capable of diffracting light, suggest a non-uniform growth rate across the forest. A gas phase diffusion model predicts a non-uniform distribution of the source gas. This gas phase diffusion is suggested as a possible explanation for the non-uniform growth rate. The gas phase diffusion is important because growth by acetylene CVD is found to be very efficient (approximately 30% of the acetylene is

  6. A rapid method for the sampling of atmospheric water vapour for isotopic analysis.

    PubMed

    Peters, Leon I; Yakir, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of the stable isotopic composition of atmospheric moisture is widely applied in the environmental sciences. Traditional methods for obtaining isotopic compositional data from ambient moisture have required complicated sampling procedures, expensive and sophisticated distillation lines, hazardous consumables, and lengthy treatments prior to analysis. Newer laser-based techniques are expensive and usually not suitable for large-scale field campaigns, especially in cases where access to mains power is not feasible or high spatial coverage is required. Here we outline the construction and usage of a novel vapour-sampling system based on a battery-operated Stirling cycle cooler, which is simple to operate, does not require any consumables, or post-collection distillation, and is light-weight and highly portable. We demonstrate the ability of this system to reproduce delta(18)O isotopic compositions of ambient water vapour, with samples taken simultaneously by a traditional cryogenic collection technique. Samples were collected over 1 h directly into autosampler vials and were analysed by mass spectrometry after pyrolysis of 1 microL aliquots to CO. This yielded an average error of < +/-0.5 per thousand, approximately equal to the signal-to-noise ratio of traditional approaches. This new system provides a rapid and reliable alternative to conventional cryogenic techniques, particularly in cases requiring high sample throughput or where access to distillation lines, slurry maintenance or mains power is not feasible. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. All-sky homogeneity of precipitable water vapour over Paranal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querel, Richard R.; Kerber, Florian

    2014-08-01

    A Low Humidity and Temperature Profiling (LHATPRO) microwave radiometer, manufactured by Radiometer Physics GmbH (RPG), is used to monitor sky conditions over ESO's Paranal observatory in support of VLT science operations. The unit measures several channels across the strong water vapour emission line at 183 GHz, necessary for resolving the low levels of precipitable water vapour (PWV) that are prevalent on Paranal (median ~2.4 mm). The instrument consists of a humidity profiler (183-191 GHz), a temperature profiler (51-58 GHz), and an infrared camera (~10 μm) for cloud detection. We present, for the first time, a statistical analysis of the homogeneity of all-sky PWV using 21 months of periodic (every 6 hours) all-sky scans from the radiometer. These data provide unique insight into the spatial and temporal variation of atmospheric conditions relevant for astronomical observations, particularly in the infrared. We find the PWV over Paranal to be remarkably homogeneous across the sky down to 27.5° elevation with a median variation of 0.32 mm (peak to valley) or 0.07 mm (rms). The homogeneity is a function of the absolute PWV but the relative variation is fairly constant at 10-15% (peak to valley) and 3% (rms). Such variations will not be a significant issue for analysis of astronomical data. Users at ESO can specify PWV - measured at zenith - as an ambient constraint in service mode to enable, for instance, very demanding observations in the infrared that can only be conducted during periods of very good atmospheric transmission and hence low PWV. We conclude that in general it will not be necessary to add another observing constraint for PWV homogeneity to ensure integrity of observations. For demanding observations requiring very low PWV, where the relative variation is higher, the optimum support could be provided by observing with the LHATPRO in the same line-of-sight simultaneously. Such a mode of operations has already been tested but will have to be

  8. Hazardous organic chemicals in rubber recycled tire playgrounds and pavers.

    PubMed

    Llompart, Maria; Sanchez-Prado, Lucia; Pablo Lamas, J; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Roca, Enrique; Dagnac, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the presence of hazardous organic chemicals in surfaces containing recycled rubber tires is investigated. Direct material analyses using solvent extraction, as well as SPME analysis of the vapour phase above the sample, were carried out. Twenty-one rubber mulch samples were collected from nine different playgrounds. In addition, seven commercial samples of recycled rubber pavers were acquired in a local store of a multinational company. All samples were extracted by ultrasound energy, followed by analysis of the extract by GC-MS. The analysis confirmed the presence of a large number of hazardous substances including PAHs, phthalates, antioxidants (e.g. BHT, phenols), benzothiazole and derivatives, among other chemicals. The study evidences the high content of toxic chemicals in these recycled materials. The concentration of PAHs in the commercial pavers was extremely high, reaching values up to 1%. In addition, SPME studies of the vapour phase above the samples confirm the volatilisation of many of those organic compounds. Uses of recycled rubber tires, especially those targeting play areas and other facilities for children, should be a matter of regulatory concern. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Integrated Water Vapour Retrieval From Irish GPS Network: Results From Validation With Radiosondes And Microwave Profiler And Assimilation Into HIRLAM 7.2 Operational Forecasting Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanafin, J. A.; Whelan, E.; McGrath, R.; Jennings, S. G.; O'Dowd, C.

    2009-12-01

    Retrieval of atmospheric integrated water vapour (IWV) from ground-based GPS receivers and provision of this data product for meteorological applications is the focus of the European EUMETNET GPS water vapour programme. The results presented here are the first from a project to provide such information about the state of the atmosphere around Ireland for climate monitoring and improved numerical weather prediction. Two geodetic reference GPS receivers have been deployed at Valentia Observatory in Co. Kerry and Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station in Co. Galway, Ireland. A system to retrieve column-integrated atmospheric water vapour from the data they provide has been developed. Data quality has been assessed using co-located radiosondes at Valentia and observations from a microwave profiling radiometer at Mace Head. Results from the data processing and comparisons with independent observations will be presented. Water vapour retrievals from such sensors can provide good quality observations at hourly intervals of this essential climate variable for assimilation into numerical nowcast and forecast systems. Previous studies have shown that using these data to constrain initial model conditions can improve the accuracy of precipitation forecasts, particularly for heavy rainfall. The current operational forecast model in use at Met Éireann for the region is the new version 7.2 HIRLAM (High-Resolution Limited Area Model). The effects on the forecast for Ireland have been evaluated by assimilating the data into 48-hour forecast runs of this model and results of this study will also be presented.

  10. Loss of 5-lipoxygenase activity protects mice against paracetamol-induced liver toxicity.

    PubMed

    Pu, Shiyun; Ren, Lin; Liu, Qinhui; Kuang, Jiangying; Shen, Jing; Cheng, Shihai; Zhang, Yuwei; Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Zhiyong; Jiang, Changtao; He, Jinhan

    2016-01-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is the most widely used over-the-counter analgesic and overdosing with paracetamol is the leading cause of hospital admission for acute liver failure. 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) catalyses arachidonic acid to form LTs, which lead to inflammation and oxidative stress. In this study, we examined whether deletion or pharmacological inhibition of 5-LO could protect mice against paracetamol-induced hepatic toxicity. Both genetic deletion and pharmacological inhibition of 5-LO in C57BL/6J mice were used to study the role of this enzyme in paracetamol induced liver toxicity. Serum and tissue biochemistry, H&E staining, and real-time PCR were used to assess liver toxicity. Deletion or pharmacological inhibition of 5-LO in mice markedly ameliorated paracetamol-induced hepatic injury, as shown by decreased serum alanine transaminase and aspartate aminotransferase levels and hepatic centrilobular necrosis. The hepatoprotective effect of 5-LO inhibition was associated with induction of the antitoxic phase II conjugating enzyme, sulfotransferase2a1, suppression of the pro-toxic phase I CYP3A11 and reduction of the hepatic transporter MRP3. In 5-LO(-/-) mice, levels of GSH were increased, and oxidative stress decreased. In addition, PPAR α, a nuclear receptor that confers resistance to paracetamol toxicity, was activated in 5-LO(-/-) mice. The activity of 5-LO may play a critical role in paracetamol-induced hepatic toxicity by regulating paracetamol metabolism and oxidative stress. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  11. Investigation of the summation of copper-vapour laser frequencies

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Karpukhin, Vyacheslav T; Konev, Yu B; Malikov, Mikhail M

    1998-09-30

    An investigation was made of the conversion of the copper-vapour laser radiation ( {lambda}{sub 1} = 0.51 {mu}m and {lambda}{sub 2} = 0.578 {mu}m) into UV radiation at the sum frequency ({lambda}{sub 3} = 0.271 {mu}m) in a DKDP crystal. The operation of this frequency converter was compared for two magnifications of the laser cavity: M = 5 and 200. The best results were obtained for M = 200 (average UV radiation power 0.75 W, conversion efficiency 12%). A study was made of the characteristics of the formation of radiation pulses representing the two lines in the laser beam asmore » a whole and in its weakly diverging core. In a low-divergence beam the yellow- and green-line pulses were emitted practically simultaneously with approximately the same peak power, which facilitated the sum-frequency generation. (nonlinear optical phenomena)« less

  12. Use of porewater extracts to identify the cause of toxicity in marine and estuarine sediments

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Douglas, W.S.

    1994-12-31

    Amphipod toxicity tests in the evaluation of dredged material proposed for ocean disposal has come under increased scrutiny by the regulated community in the Port of NY/NJ. In recent large-scale assessments of sediment quality in the harbor, the vast majority of locations were deemed highly contaminated when tested with Ampelisca abdita. Toxicity tests, by themselves, do not provide data regarding the cause of toxicity of these sediments. The enormous potential costs associated with most proposed alternatives to ocean disposal of dredged sediments has prompted the investigation of the causative agents of toxicity in sediments of the NY/NJ Harbor. Sediment frommore » five locations in the harbor, selected in consultation with local regulatory agencies to represent diverse potential contamination scenarios, was collected and tested for toxicity to the amphipods Ampelisca abdita, Leptocheirus plumulosus, Eohaustorius estuadus, Rhepoxynius abronius, and the mysid shrimp, Mysidopsis bahia, using 10-day static bioassays. Porewater from each of the five sediments was extracted under centrifugation and used in water-only toxicity tests with A. abdita, L. plumulosus, R. abronius, E. estuadus, M. bahia, M. beryllina, and Microtox. A Phase 1 Toxicity Identification Evaluation of the three most toxic porewater samples was conducted using several of the species tested. Results from the preliminary investigations and the ongoing TIE`s will be presented. Species selection, porewater toxicity test procedures, and Phase 1, 2, and 3 paradigms will be discussed.« less

  13. Scattering of fast electrons by vapour-atoms and by solid-atoms - A comparison

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Joshipura, K.N.; Mohanan, S.

    1988-08-01

    A comparative theoretical study has been done on the scattering of fast electrons by free (vapour) atoms and bound (solid) atoms, in particular, the alkali atoms, Al and Cu. The Born differential cross-sections (DCS), calculated with the static plus polarization electron-atom potential, are found in general, to be larger for free atoms that for bound atoms, at least at small angles of scattering. For Rb and Cs the two DCS tend to merge at very large angles only. The sample incident energies chosen are 400 eV and above.

  14. Mars atmosphere studies with the SPICAM IR emission phase function observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trokhimovskiy, Alexander; Fedorova, Anna; Montmessin, Franck; Korablev, Oleg; Bertaux, Jean-Loup

    Emission Phase Function (EPF) observations is a powerful tool for characterization of atmosphere and surface. EPF sequence provides the extensive coverage of scattering angles above the targeted surface location which allow to separate the surface and aerosol scattering, study a vertical distribution of minor species and aerosol properties. SPICAM IR instrument on Mars Express mission provides continuous atmospheric observations in near IR (1-1.7 mu) in nadir and limb starting from 2004. For the first years of SPICAM operation only a very limited number of EPFs was performed. But from the mid 2013 (Ls=225, MY31) SPICAM EPF observations become rather regular. Based on the multiple-scattering radiative transfer model SHDOM, we analyze equivalent depths of carbon dioxide (1,43 mu) and water vapour (1,38 mu) absorption bands and their dependence on airmass during observation sequence to get aerosol optical depths and properties. The derived seasonal dust opacities from near IR can be used to retrieve the size distribution from comparison with simultaneous results of other instruments in different spectral ranges. Moreover, the EPF observations of water vapour band allow to access poorly known H2O vertical distribution for different season and locations.

  15. Identification of phase-I metabolites and chronic toxicity study of the Kv1.3 blocker PAP-1 (5-(4-phenoxybutoxy)psoralen) in the rat.

    PubMed

    Hao, B; Chen, Z-W; Zhou, X-J; Zimin, P I; Miljanich, G P; Wulff, H; Wang, Y-X

    2011-03-01

    1. PAP-1 (5-(4-phenoxybutoxy)psoralen), a potent small-molecule blocker of the voltage-gated potassium Kv1.3 channel, is currently in preclinical development for psoriasis. This study was undertaken to identify the major phase I metabolites of PAP-1 in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. 2. Five phase I metabolites, that is 5-(oxybutyric-acid)psoralen (M1), 5-[4-(4-hydroxybutoxy)]psoralen (M2), 5-[4-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)butoxy]psoralen (M3), 5-[4-(3-hydroxyphenoxy)butoxy]psoralen (M4), and 8-hydroxyl-5-(4-phenoxybutoxy)psoralen (M5), were isolated from the bile of rats and identified by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. The last four metabolites are new compounds. 3. Incubation of PAP-1 with SD rat liver microsomes rendered the same five major metabolites in a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent manner suggesting that cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes are involved in PAP-1 metabolism. Inhibitors of rat CYP1A1/2 (alpha-naphthoflavone) and CYP3A (ketoconazole) but not CYP2D6 (quinidine), CYP2E (diethyldithiocarbamate), or CYP2C9 (sulphaphenazole) blocked the metabolism of PAP-1 in rat microsomes. 4. Of the five metabolites M3, M4, and M5 were found to inhibit Kv1.3 currents with nanomolar IC50s, while M1 and M2 were inactive. Our results identified the Kv1.3-inactive M1 as the major phase I metabolite, and suggest that hydroxylation and O-dealkylation are the major pathways of PAP-1 metabolism. 5. We further conducted a 6-month repeat-dose toxicity study with PAP-1 at 50 mg/kg in both male and female Lewis rats and did not observe any toxic effects.

  16. Growth of ZnO nanorods on stainless steel wire using chemical vapour deposition and their photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Abd Aziz, Siti Nor Qurratu Aini; Pung, Swee-Yong; Ramli, Nurul Najiah; Lockman, Zainovia

    2014-01-01

    The photodegradation efficiency of ZnO nanoparticles in removal of organic pollutants deteriorates over time as a high percentage of the nanoparticles can be drained away by water during the wastewater treatment. This problem can be solved by growing the ZnO nanorods on stainless steel wire. In this work, ZnO nanorods were successfully grown on stainless steel wire by chemical vapour deposition. The SAED analysis indicates that ZnO nanorod is a single crystal and is preferentially grown in [0001] direction. The deconvoluted O 1s peak at 531.5 eV in XPS analysis is associated with oxygen deficient, revealing that the ZnO nanorods contain many oxygen vacancies. This observation is further supported by the finding of the small I(uv)/I(vis) ratio, that is, ~1 in the photoluminescence analysis. The growth of ZnO nanorods on stainless steel wire was governed by vapour-solid mechanism as there were no Fe particles observed at the tips of the nanorods. The photodegradation of Rhodamine B solution by ZnO nanorods followed the first-order kinetics.

  17. Infiltrating a thin or single-layer opal with an atomic vapour: Sub-Doppler signals and crystal optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moufarej, Elias; Maurin, Isabelle; Zabkov, Ilya; Laliotis, Athanasios; Ballin, Philippe; Klimov, Vasily; Bloch, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    Artificial thin glass opals can be infiltrated with a resonant alkali-metal vapour, providing novel types of hybrid systems. The reflection at the interface between the substrate and the opal yields a resonant signal, which exhibits sub-Doppler structures in linear spectroscopy for a range of oblique incidences. This result is suspected to originate in an effect of the three-dimensional confinement of the vapour in the opal interstices. It is here extended to a situation where the opal is limited to a few- or even a single-layer opal film, which is a kind of bidimensional grating. We have developed a flexible one-dimensional layered optical model, well suited for a Langmuir-Blodgett opal. Once extended to the case of a resonant infiltration, the model reproduces quick variations of the lineshape with incidence angle or polarization. Alternately, for an opal limited to a single layer of identical spheres, a three-dimensional numerical calculation was developed. It predicts crystalline anisotropy, which is demonstrated through diffraction on an empty opal made of a single layer of polystyrene spheres.

  18. Growth of ZnO Nanorods on Stainless Steel Wire Using Chemical Vapour Deposition and Their Photocatalytic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Abd Aziz, Siti Nor Qurratu Aini; Pung, Swee-Yong; Ramli, Nurul Najiah; Lockman, Zainovia

    2014-01-01

    The photodegradation efficiency of ZnO nanoparticles in removal of organic pollutants deteriorates over time as a high percentage of the nanoparticles can be drained away by water during the wastewater treatment. This problem can be solved by growing the ZnO nanorods on stainless steel wire. In this work, ZnO nanorods were successfully grown on stainless steel wire by chemical vapour deposition. The SAED analysis indicates that ZnO nanorod is a single crystal and is preferentially grown in [0001] direction. The deconvoluted O 1s peak at 531.5 eV in XPS analysis is associated with oxygen deficient, revealing that the ZnO nanorods contain many oxygen vacancies. This observation is further supported by the finding of the small I uv/I vis ratio, that is, ~1 in the photoluminescence analysis. The growth of ZnO nanorods on stainless steel wire was governed by vapour-solid mechanism as there were no Fe particles observed at the tips of the nanorods. The photodegradation of Rhodamine B solution by ZnO nanorods followed the first-order kinetics. PMID:24587716

  19. ExpoCast: Exposure Science for Prioritization and Toxicity Testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA is completing the Phase I pilot for a chemical prioritization research program, called ToxCastTM. Here EPA is developing methods for using computational chemistry, high-throughput screening, and toxicogenomic technologies to predict potential toxicity and prioritize l...

  20. Assessment of the Persistence of Vapour Evolved from Neat CH contamination on Prairie Terrain (Record of FPP-81-1)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    infrared gas analyzer, equipped with a 20 m pathlenth gas cell , was used to obtain vapour concentration in real time. The sampling probe for the...lth’lt lrt’ nt1 ) sli tiongly absorbed by the vegetation. I-SIl KI(’TFl

  1. Initial evaluation of airborne water vapour measurements by the IAGOS-GHG CRDS system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filges, Annette; Gerbig, Christoph; Smit, Herman G. J.; Krämer, Martina; Spelten, Nicole

    2013-04-01

    Accurate and reliable airborne measurements of water vapour are still a challenge. Presently, no airborne humidity sensor exists that covers the entire range of water vapour content between the surface and the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UT/LS) region with sufficient accuracy and time resolution. Nevertheless , these data are a pre-requisite to study the underlying processes in the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere. The DENCHAR project (Development and Evaluation of Novel Compact Hygrometer for Airborne Research) addresses this deficit by developing and characterizing novel or improved compact airborne hygrometers for different airborne applications within EUFAR (European Facility for Airborne Research). As part of the DENCHAR inter-comparison campaign in Hohn (Germany), 23 May - 1 June 2011, a commercial gas analyzer (G2401-m, Picarro Inc.,US), based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS), was installed on a Learjet to measure water vapour, CO2, CH4 and CO. The CRDS components are identical to those chosen for integration aboard commercial airliner within IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System). Thus the campaign allowed for the initial assessment validation of the long-term IAGOS H2O measurements by CRDS against reference instruments with a long performance record (FISH, the Fast In-situ Stratospheric Hygrometer, and CR2 frostpoint hygrometer, both research centre Juelich). The inlet system, a one meter long 1/8" FEP-tube connected to a Rosemount TAT housing (model 102BX, deiced) installed on a window plate of the aircraft, was designed to eliminate sampling of larger aerosols, ice particles, and water droplets, and provides about 90% of ram-pressure. In combination with a lowered sample flow of 0.1 slpm (corresponding to a 4 second response time), this ensured a fully controlled sample pressure in the cavity of 140 torr throughout an aircraft altitude operating range up to 12.5 km without the need of an upstream sampling pump

  2. Analysis of the sorption properties of different soils using water vapour adsorption and potentiometric titration methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skic, Kamil; Boguta, Patrycja; Sokołowska, Zofia

    2016-07-01

    Parameters of specific surface area as well as surface charge were used to determine and compare sorption properties of soils with different physicochemical characteristics. The gravimetric method was used to obtain water vapour isotherms and then specific surface areas, whereas surface charge was estimated from potentiometric titration curves. The specific surface area varied from 12.55 to 132.69 m2 g-1 for Haplic Cambisol and Mollic Gleysol soil, respectively, and generally decreased with pH (R=0.835; α = 0.05) and when bulk density (R=-0.736; α = 0.05) as well as ash content (R=-0.751; α = 0.05) increased. In the case of surface charge, the values ranged from 63.00 to 844.67 μmol g-1 Haplic Fluvisol and Mollic Gleysol, respecively. Organic matter gave significant contributions to the specific surface area and cation exchange capacity due to the large surface area and numerous surface functional groups, containing adsorption sites for water vapour molecules and for ions. The values of cation exchange capacity and specific surface area correlated linearly at the level of R=0.985; α = 0.05.

  3. Absolute high spectral resolution measurements of surface solar radiation for detection of water vapour continuum absorption.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, T D; Coleman, M; Browning, H; Tallis, L; Ptashnik, I V; Shine, K P

    2012-06-13

    Solar-pointing Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy offers the capability to measure both the fine scale and broadband spectral structure of atmospheric transmission simultaneously across wide spectral regions. It is therefore suited to the study of both water vapour monomer and continuum absorption behaviours. However, in order to properly address this issue, it is necessary to radiatively calibrate the FTIR instrument response. A solar-pointing high-resolution FTIR spectrometer was deployed as part of the 'Continuum Absorption by Visible and Infrared radiation and its Atmospheric Relevance' (CAVIAR) consortium project. This paper describes the radiative calibration process using an ultra-high-temperature blackbody and the consideration of the related influence factors. The result is a radiatively calibrated measurement of the solar irradiation at the ground across the IR region from 2000 to 10 000 cm(-1) with an uncertainty of between 3.3 and 5.9 per cent. This measurement is shown to be in good general agreement with a radiative-transfer model. The results from the CAVIAR field measurements are being used in ongoing studies of atmospheric absorbers, in particular the water vapour continuum.

  4. 3D-printed poly(vinylidene fluoride)/carbon nanotube composites as a tunable, low-cost chemical vapour sensing platform

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kennedy, Z. C.; Christ, J. F.; Evans, K. A.

    We report the production of flexible, highly-conductive poly(vinylidene flouride) (PVDF) and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composites as filament feedstock for 3D-printing. This account further describes, for the first-time, fused deposition modelling (FDM) derived 3D-printed objects with chemiresistive properties in response to volatile organic compounds. The typically prohibitive thermal expansion and die swell characteristics of PVDF were minimized by the presence of MWCNTs in the composites enabling straightforward processing and printing. The nanotubes form a dispersed network as characterized by helium ion microscopy, contributing to excellent conductivity (1 x 10-2 S / cm). The printed composites contain little residual metal particulatemore » relative to parts from commercial PLA-nanocomposite material visualized by micro X-ray computed tomography (μ-CT) and corroborated with thermogravimetric analysis. Printed sensing strips, with MWCNT loadings up to 15 % mass, function as reversible vapour sensors with the strongest responses arising with organic compounds capable of readily intercalating, and subsequently swelling the PVDF matrix (acetone and ethyl acetate). A direct correlation between MWCNT concentration and resistance change was also observed, with larger responses (up to 161 % after 3 minutes) generated with decreased MWCNT loadings. These findings highlight the utility of FDM printing in generating low-cost sensors that respond strongly and reproducibly to target vapours. Furthermore, the sensors can be easily printed in different geometries, expanding their utility to wearable form factors. The proposed formulation strategy may be tailored to sense diverse sets of vapour classes through structural modification of the polymer backbone and/or functionalization of the nanotubes within the composite.« less

  5. Development and Evaluation of Reverse Polyethylene Samplers for Marine Phase II Whole-Sediment Toxicity Identification Evaluation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Marine and estuarine sediments accumulate contaminants and act as a sink for a wide range of toxic chemicals. As a result, the sediments themselves can become a source of contamination. At sufficient levels, contaminated sediments can cause benthic impairments and toxicity to mar...

  6. Efficacy of scalp hair decontamination following exposure to vapours of sulphur mustard simulants 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide and methyl salicylate.

    PubMed

    Spiandore, Marie; Piram, Anne; Lacoste, Alexandre; Prevost, Philippe; Maloni, Pascal; Torre, Franck; Asia, Laurence; Josse, Denis; Doumenq, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Chemical warfare agents are an actual threat and victims' decontamination is a main concern when mass exposure occurs. Skin decontamination with current protocols has been widely documented, as well as surface decontamination. However, considering hair ability to trap chemicals in vapour phase, we investigated hair decontamination after exposure to sulphur mustard simulants methyl salicylate and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide. Four decontamination protocols were tested on hair, combining showering and emergency decontamination (use of Fuller's earth or Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion RSDL ® ). Both simulants were recovered from hair after treatment, but contents were significantly reduced (42-85% content allowance). Showering alone was the least efficient protocol. Concerning 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide, protocols did not display significant differences in decontamination efficacy. For MeS, use of emergency decontaminants significantly increased showering efficacy (10-20% rise), underlining their usefulness before thorough decontamination. Our results highlighted the need to extensively decontaminate hair after chemical exposure. Residual amounts after decontamination are challenging, as their release from hair could lead to health issues. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. CONCENTRATIONS OF TOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS IN THE U.S. SIMULATED BY AN AIR QUALITY MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the US National Air Toxics Assessment, we have applied the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model, CMAQ, to study the concentrations of twenty gas-phase, toxic, hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the atmosphere over the continental United States. We modified the Carbo...

  8. Modified Toxicity Probability Interval Design: A Safer and More Reliable Method Than the 3 + 3 Design for Practical Phase I Trials

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yuan; Wang, Sue-Jane

    2013-01-01

    The 3 + 3 design is the most common choice among clinicians for phase I dose-escalation oncology trials. In recent reviews, more than 95% of phase I trials have been based on the 3 + 3 design. Given that it is intuitive and its implementation does not require a computer program, clinicians can conduct 3 + 3 dose escalations in practice with virtually no logistic cost, and trial protocols based on the 3 + 3 design pass institutional review board and biostatistics reviews quickly. However, the performance of the 3 + 3 design has rarely been compared with model-based designs in simulation studies with matched sample sizes. In the vast majority of statistical literature, the 3 + 3 design has been shown to be inferior in identifying true maximum-tolerated doses (MTDs), although the sample size required by the 3 + 3 design is often orders-of-magnitude smaller than model-based designs. In this article, through comparative simulation studies with matched sample sizes, we demonstrate that the 3 + 3 design has higher risks of exposing patients to toxic doses above the MTD than the modified toxicity probability interval (mTPI) design, a newly developed adaptive method. In addition, compared with the mTPI design, the 3 + 3 design does not yield higher probabilities in identifying the correct MTD, even when the sample size is matched. Given that the mTPI design is equally transparent, costless to implement with free software, and more flexible in practical situations, we highly encourage its adoption in early dose-escalation studies whenever the 3 + 3 design is also considered. We provide free software to allow direct comparisons of the 3 + 3 design with other model-based designs in simulation studies with matched sample sizes. PMID:23569307

  9. Acylcarnitine Profiles in Acetaminophen Toxicity in the Mouse: Comparison to Toxicity, Metabolism and Hepatocyte Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Sudeepa; Pence, Lisa; Beger, Richard; Chaudhuri, Shubhra; McCullough, Sandra; Yan, Ke; Simpson, Pippa; Hennings, Leah; Hinson, Jack; James, Laura

    2013-01-01

    High doses of acetaminophen (APAP) result in hepatotoxicity that involves metabolic activation of the parent compound, covalent binding of the reactive intermediate N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI) to liver proteins, and depletion of hepatic glutathione. Impaired fatty acid β-oxidation has been implicated in previous studies of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. To better understand relationships between toxicity and fatty acid β-oxidation in the liver in APAP toxicity, metabolomic assays for long chain acylcarnitines were examined in relationship to established markers of liver toxicity, oxidative metabolism, and liver regeneration in a time course study in mice. Male B6C3F1 mice were treated with APAP (200 mg/kg IP) or saline and sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, 8, 24 or 48 h after APAP. At 1 h, hepatic glutathione was depleted and APAP protein adducts were markedly increased. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were elevated at 4 and 8 h, while proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression, indicative of hepatocyte regeneration, was apparent at 24 h and 48 h. Elevations of palmitoyl, oleoyl and myristoyl carnitine were apparent by 2–4 h, concurrent with the onset of Oil Red O staining in liver sections. By 8 h, acylcarnitine levels were below baseline levels and remained low at 24 and 48 h. A partial least squares (PLS) model suggested a direct association of acylcarnitine accumulation in serum to APAP protein adduct and hepatic glutathione levels in mice. Overall, the kinetics of serum acylcarnitines in APAP toxicity in mice followed a biphasic pattern involving early elevation after the metabolism phases of toxicity and later depletion of acylcarnitines. PMID:24958141

  10. Evaporation and air-stripping to assess and reduce ethanolamines toxicity in oily wastewater.

    PubMed

    Libralato, G; Ghirardini, A Volpi; Avezzù, F

    2008-05-30

    Toxicity from industrial oily wastewater remains a problem even after conventional activated sludge treatment process, because of the persistence of some toxicant compounds. This work verified the removal efficiency of organic and inorganic pollutants and the effects of evaporation and air-stripping techniques on oily wastewater toxicity reduction. In a lab-scale plant, a vacuum evaporation procedure at three different temperatures and an air-stripping stage were tested on oily wastewater. Toxicity reduction/removal was observed at each treatment step via Microtox bioassay. A case study monitoring real scale evaporation was also done in a full-size wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). To implement part of a general project of toxicity reduction evaluation, additional investigations took into account the monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA) and triethanolamine (TEA) role in toxicity definition after the evaporation phase, both as pure substances and mixtures. Only MEA and TEA appeared to contribute towards effluent toxicity.

  11. Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, toxicity, and mutagenicity from domestic cooking using sawdust briquettes, wood, and kerosene.

    PubMed

    Kim, OanhNguyenThi; Nghiem, Le Hoang; Phyu, Yin Latt

    2002-03-01

    Smoke samples, in both gas and particulate matter (PM) phases, of the three domestic stoves were collected using U.S. EPA modified method 5 and were analyzed for 17 PAH (HPLC-UV), acute toxicity (Microtox test), and mutagenicity (Amestest). The gas phase of smoke contributed > or = 95% of 17 PAH, > or = 96% of toxicity, and > or = 60% of mutagenicity. The highest emission factor of 17 PAH was from sawdust briquettes (260 mg/kg), but the highest emission of 11 genotoxic PAH was from kerosene (28 mg/kg). PM samples of kerosene smoke were not toxic. The total toxicity emission factor was the highest from sawdust, followed by kerosene and wood fuel. Smoke samples from the kerosene stove were not mutagenic. TA98 indicated the presence of both direct and indirect mutagenic activities in PM samples of sawdust and wood fuel but only direct mutagenic activities in the gas phase. TA100 detected only direct mutagenic activities in both PM and gas-phase samples. The higher mutagenicity emission factor was from wood fuel, 12 x 10(6) revertants/kg (TA100-S9) and 3.5 x 10(6) (TA98-S9), and lower from sawdust, 2.9 x 10(6) (TA100-S9) and 2.8 x 10(6) (TA98-S9). The low burning rate and high efficiency of a kerosene stove have resulted in the lowest PAH, toxicity, and mutagenicity emissions from daily cooking activities. The bioassays produced toxicity and mutagenicity results in correspondence with the PAH content of samples. The tests could be used for a quick assessment of potential health risks.

  12. Environmental impact assessment of a package type IFAS reactor during construction and operational phases: a life cycle approach.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nitin Kumar; Singh, Rana Pratap; Kazmi, Absar Ahmad

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach was used to analyse the environmental impacts associated with the construction and operational phases of an integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) reactor treating municipal wastewater. This study was conducted within the boundaries of a research project that aimed to investigate the implementation related challenges of a package type IFAS reactor from an environmental perspective. Along with the LCA results of the construction phase, a comparison of the LCA results of seven operational phases is also presented in this study. The results showed that among all the inputs, the use of stainless steel in the construction phase caused the highest impact on environment, followed by electricity consumption in raw materials production. The impact of the construction phase on toxicity impact indicators was found to be significant compared to all operational phases. Among the seven operational phases of this study, the dissolved oxygen phase III, having a concentration of ∼4.5 mg/L, showed the highest impact on abiotic depletion, acidification, global warming, ozone layer depletion, human toxicity, fresh water eco-toxicity, marine aquatic eco-toxicity, terrestrial eco-toxicity, and photochemical oxidation. However, better effluent quality in this phase reduced the eutrophication load on environment.

  13. Phase synchronization between tropospheric radio refractivity and rainfall amount in a tropical region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuwape, Ibiyinka A.; Ogunjo, Samuel T.; Dada, Joseph B.; Ashidi, Gabriel A.; Emmanuel, Israel

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated linear and nonlinear relationship between the amount of rainfall and radio refractivity in a tropical country, Nigeria using forty seven locations scattered across the country. Correlation and Phase synchronization measures were used for the linear and nonlinear relationship respectively. Weak correlation and phase synchronization was observed between seasonal mean rainfall amount and radio refractivity while strong phase synchronization was found for the detrended data suggesting similar underlying dynamics between rainfall amount and radio refractivity. Causation between rainfall and radio refractivity in a tropical location was studied using Granger causality test. In most of the Southern locations, rainfall was found to Granger cause radio refractivity. Furthermore, it was observed that there is strong correlation between mean rainfall amount and the phase synchronization index over Nigeria. Coupling between rainfall and radio refractivity has been found to be due to water vapour in the atmosphere. Frequency planning and budgeting for microwave propagation during periods of high rainfall should take into consideration this nonlinear relationship.

  14. Extrapolation of toxic indices among test objects

    PubMed Central

    Tichý, Miloň; Rucki, Marián; Roth, Zdeněk; Hanzlíková, Iveta; Vlková, Alena; Tumová, Jana; Uzlová, Rút

    2010-01-01

    Oligochaeta Tubifex tubifex, fish fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), hepatocytes isolated from rat liver and ciliated protozoan are absolutely different organisms and yet their acute toxicity indices correlate. Correlation equations for special effects were developed for a large heterogeneous series of compounds (QSAR, quantitative structure-activity relationships). Knowing those correlation equations and their statistic evaluation, one can extrapolate the toxic indices. The reason is that a common physicochemical property governs the biological effect, namely the partition coefficient between two unmissible phases, simulated generally by n-octanol and water. This may mean that the transport of chemicals towards a target is responsible for the magnitude of the effect, rather than reactivity, as one would assume suppose. PMID:21331180

  15. Partitioning understory evapotranspiration in semi-arid ecosystems in Namibia using the isotopic composition of water vapour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Blécourt, Marleen; Gaj, Marcel; Holtorf, Kim-Kirsten; Gröngröft, Alexander; Brokate, Ralph; Himmelsbach, Thomas; Eschenbach, Annette

    2016-04-01

    In dry environments with a sparse vegetation cover, understory evapotranspiration is a major component of the ecosystem water balance. Consequently, knowledge on the size of evapotranspiration fluxes and the driving factors is important for our understanding of the hydrological cycle. Understory evapotranspiration is made up of soil evaporation and plant transpiration. Soil evaporation can be measured directly from patches free of vegetation. However, when understory vegetation is present distinguishing between soil evaporation and plant transpiration is challenging. In this study, we aim to partition understory evapotranspiration based on an approach that combines the measurements of water-vapour fluxes using the closed chamber method with measurements of the isotopic composition of water vapour. The measurements were done in the framework of SASSCAL (Southern African Science Service Centre for Climate Change and Adaptive Land Management). The study sites were located in three different semi-arid ecosystems in Namibia: thornbush savanna, Baikiaea woodland and shrubland. At each site measurements were done under tree canopies as well as at unshaded areas between the canopies. We measured evaporation from the bare soil and evapotranspiration from patches covered with herbaceous species and shrubs using a transparent chamber connected with an infrared gas analyser (LI-8100A, LICOR Inc.). The stable isotope composition of water vapour inside the chamber and depth profiles of soil water stable isotopes were determined in-situ using a tuneable off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscope (OA-ICOS, Los Gatos Research, DLT 100). Xylem samples were extracted using the cryogenic vacuum extraction method and the isotopic composition of the extracted water was measured subsequently with a cavity-ring-down spectrometer (CRDS L2120-i, Picarro Inc.). We will present the quantified fluxes of understory evapotranspiration measured in the three different ecosystems, show the

  16. XRCC1 Polymorphism Associated With Late Toxicity After Radiation Therapy in Breast Cancer Patients

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Seibold, Petra; Behrens, Sabine; Schmezer, Peter

    Purpose: To identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in oxidative stress–related genes associated with risk of late toxicities in breast cancer patients receiving radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Using a 2-stage design, 305 SNPs in 59 candidate genes were investigated in the discovery phase in 753 breast cancer patients from 2 prospective cohorts from Germany. The 10 most promising SNPs in 4 genes were evaluated in the replication phase in up to 1883 breast cancer patients from 6 cohorts identified through the Radiogenomics Consortium. Outcomes of interest were late skin toxicity and fibrosis of the breast, as well as an overall toxicity score (Standardized Totalmore » Average Toxicity). Multivariable logistic and linear regression models were used to assess associations between SNPs and late toxicity. A meta-analysis approach was used to summarize evidence. Results: The association of a genetic variant in the base excision repair gene XRCC1, rs2682585, with normal tissue late radiation toxicity was replicated in all tested studies. In the combined analysis of discovery and replication cohorts, carrying the rare allele was associated with a significantly lower risk of skin toxicities (multivariate odds ratio 0.77, 95% confidence interval 0.61-0.96, P=.02) and a decrease in Standardized Total Average Toxicity scores (−0.08, 95% confidence interval −0.15 to −0.02, P=.016). Conclusions: Using a stage design with replication, we identified a variant allele in the base excision repair gene XRCC1 that could be used in combination with additional variants for developing a test to predict late toxicities after radiation therapy in breast cancer patients.« less

  17. Controversies in fluid therapy: Type, dose and toxicity

    PubMed Central

    McDermid, Robert C; Raghunathan, Karthik; Romanovsky, Adam; Shaw, Andrew D; Bagshaw, Sean M

    2014-01-01

    Fluid therapy is perhaps the most common intervention received by acutely ill hospitalized patients; however, a number of critical questions on the efficacy and safety of the type and dose remain. In this review, recent insights derived from randomized trials in terms of fluid type, dose and toxicity are discussed. We contend that the prescription of fluid therapy is context-specific and that any fluid can be harmful if administered inappropriately. When contrasting ‘‘crystalloid vs colloid’’, differences in efficacy are modest but differences in safety are significant. Differences in chloride load and strong ion difference across solutions appear to be clinically important. Phases of fluid therapy in acutely ill patients are recognized, including acute resuscitation, maintaining homeostasis, and recovery phases. Quantitative toxicity (fluid overload) is associated with adverse outcomes and can be mitigated when fluid therapy based on functional hemodynamic parameters that predict volume responsiveness and minimization of non-essential fluid. Qualitative toxicity (fluid type), in particular for iatrogenic acute kidney injury and metabolic acidosis, remain a concern for synthetic colloids and isotonic saline, respectively. Physiologically balanced crystalloids may be the ‘‘default’’ fluid for acutely ill patients and the role for colloids, in particular hydroxyethyl starch, is increasingly unclear. We contend the prescription of fluid therapy is analogous to the prescription of any drug used in critically ill patients. PMID:24834399

  18. Computational Simulation of Vibrational Overtone Spectral Regions: Sarin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    level have been used to determine the vapour phase local mode parameters, [ and Dx, for each oscillator in the two spectrally significant conformers...approach to spectral simulation reported herein should be undertaken by acquiring the experimental spectral regions of several CWAs in the vapour and liquid...33 viii DRDC Suffield TR 2006-220 List of figures Figure 1: The vapour phase structures of the three lowest energy conformers of sarin, calculated

  19. Retrievability of atmospheric water vapour, temperature and vertical windspeed profiles from proposed sub-millimetre instrument ORTIS.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, Jane; Irwin, Patrick; Teanby, Nicholas; de Kok, Remco; Calcutt, Simon; Irshad, Ranah; Ellison, Brian

    2010-05-01

    The sub-millimetre range of the spectrum has been exploited in the field of Earth observation by many instruments over the years and has provided a plethora of information on atmospheric chemistry and dynamics - however, this spectral range has not been fully explored in planetary science. To this end, a sub-millimetre instrument, the Orbiter Terahertz Infrared Spectrometer (ORTIS), is jointly proposed by the University of Oxford and the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, to meet the requirements of the European Space Agency's Cosmic Visions Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM). ORTIS will consist of an infrared and a sub-millimetre component; however in this study only the sub-millimetre component will be explored. The sub-millimetre component of ORTIS is projected to measure a narrow band of frequencies centred at approximately 2.2 THz, with a spectral resolution varying between approximately 1 kHz and 1 MHz, and having an expected noise magnitude of 2 nW/cm2 sr cm-1. In this spectral region, there are strong water and methane emission lines at most altitudes on Jupiter. The sub-millimetre component of ORTIS is designed to measure the abundance of atmospheric water vapour and atmospheric temperature, as well as vertical windspeed profiles from Doppler-shifted emission lines, measured at high spectral resolution. This study will test to see if, in practice, these science objectives may be met from the planned design, as applied to Jupiter. In order to test the retrievability of atmospheric water vapour, temperature and windspeed with the proposed ORTIS design, it is necessary to have a set of "measurements' for which the input parameters (such as species' concentrations, atmospheric temperature, pressure - and windspeed) are known. This is accomplished by generating a set of radiative transfer simulations using radiative transfer model RadTrans in the spectral range sampled by ORTIS, whereby the atmospheric data pertaining to Jupiter have provided by Cassini

  20. Long distance spin communication in chemical vapour deposited graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamalakar, M. Venkata; Groenveld, Christiaan; Dankert, André; Dash, Saroj P.

    2015-04-01

    Graphene is an ideal medium for long-distance spin communication in future spintronic technologies. So far, the prospect is limited by the smaller sizes of exfoliated graphene flakes and lower spin transport properties of large-area chemical vapour-deposited (CVD) graphene. Here we demonstrate a high spintronic performance in CVD graphene on SiO2/Si substrate at room temperature. We show pure spin transport and precession over long channel lengths extending up to 16 μm with a spin lifetime of 1.2 ns and a spin diffusion length ~6 μm at room temperature. These spin parameters are up to six times higher than previous reports and highest at room temperature for any form of pristine graphene on industrial standard SiO2/Si substrates. Our detailed investigation reinforces the observed performance in CVD graphene over wafer scale and opens up new prospects for the development of lateral spin-based memory and logic applications.

  1. Estimation of bisphenol A-Human toxicity by 3D cell culture arrays, high throughput alternatives to animal tests.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Woo; Oh, Woo-Yeon; Yi, Sang Hyun; Ku, Bosung; Lee, Moo-Yeal; Cho, Yoon Hee; Yang, Mihi

    2016-09-30

    Bisphenol A (BPA) has been widely used for manufacturing polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins and has been extensively tested in animals to predict human toxicity. In order to reduce the use of animals for toxicity assessment and provide further accurate information on BPA toxicity in humans, we encapsulated Hep3B human hepatoma cells in alginate and cultured them in three dimensions (3D) on a micropillar chip coupled to a panel of metabolic enzymes on a microwell chip. As a result, we were able to assess the toxicity of BPA under various metabolic enzyme conditions using a high-throughput and micro assay; sample volumes were nearly 2,000 times less than that required for a 96-well plate. We applied a total of 28 different enzymes to each chip, including 10 cytochrome P450s (CYP450s), 10 UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs), 3 sulfotransferases (SULTs), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2). Phase I enzyme mixtures, phase II enzyme mixtures, and a combination of phase I and phase II enzymes were also applied to the chip. BPA toxicity was higher in samples containing CYP2E1 than controls, which contained no enzymes (IC50, 184±16μM and 270±25.8μM, respectively, p<0.01). However, BPA-induced toxicity was alleviated in the presence of ADH (IC50, 337±17.9μM), ALDH2 (335±13.9μM), and SULT1E1 (318±17.7μM) (p<0.05). CYP2E1-mediated cytotoxicity was confirmed by quantifying unmetabolized BPA using HPLC/FD. Therefore, we suggest the present micropillar/microwell chip platform as an effective alternative to animal testing for estimating BPA toxicity via human metabolic systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Gas-phase infrared spectrum of phosphorus (III) oxycyanide, OPCN: experimental and theoretical investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allaf, Abdul. W.; Kassem, M.; Alibrahim, M.; Boustani, Ihsan

    1999-03-01

    An attempt was made to observe the gas-phase infrared spectrum of Phosphorus (III) oxycyanide, OPCN for the first time. This molecule was produced by an on-line process using phosphorus (III) oxychloride, OPCl as precursor passed over heated AgCN. The products were characterised by the infrared spectra of their vapours. The low resolution gas-phase Fourier transform infrared spectrum shows two bands centered at 2165 and 1385 cm -1. These bands are assigned to, ν1 (CN stretch) and ν2 (OP stretch), respectively. Ab initio self-consistent-field (SCF) molecular orbital (MO) and Møller-Plesset second order perturbation theory (MP2) calculations were performed to determine the geometry, total energy and vibrational frequencies of OPCN.

  3. Hierarchically arranged helical fibre actuators driven by solvents and vapours.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peining; Xu, Yifan; He, Sisi; Sun, Xuemei; Pan, Shaowu; Deng, Jue; Chen, Daoyong; Peng, Huisheng

    2015-12-01

    Mechanical responsiveness in many plants is produced by helical organizations of cellulose microfibrils. However, simple mimicry of these naturally occurring helical structures does not produce artificial materials with the desired tunable actuations. Here, we show that actuating fibres that respond to solvent and vapour stimuli can be created through the hierarchical and helical assembly of aligned carbon nanotubes. Primary fibres consisting of helical assemblies of multiwalled carbon nanotubes are twisted together to form the helical actuating fibres. The nanoscale gaps between the nanotubes and micrometre-scale gaps among the primary fibres contribute to the rapid response and large actuation stroke of the actuating fibres. The compact coils allow the actuating fibre to rotate reversibly. We show that these fibres, which are lightweight, flexible and strong, are suitable for a variety of applications such as energy-harvesting generators, deformable sensing springs and smart textiles.

  4. Hierarchically arranged helical fibre actuators driven by solvents and vapours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peining; Xu, Yifan; He, Sisi; Sun, Xuemei; Pan, Shaowu; Deng, Jue; Chen, Daoyong; Peng, Huisheng

    2015-12-01

    Mechanical responsiveness in many plants is produced by helical organizations of cellulose microfibrils. However, simple mimicry of these naturally occurring helical structures does not produce artificial materials with the desired tunable actuations. Here, we show that actuating fibres that respond to solvent and vapour stimuli can be created through the hierarchical and helical assembly of aligned carbon nanotubes. Primary fibres consisting of helical assemblies of multiwalled carbon nanotubes are twisted together to form the helical actuating fibres. The nanoscale gaps between the nanotubes and micrometre-scale gaps among the primary fibres contribute to the rapid response and large actuation stroke of the actuating fibres. The compact coils allow the actuating fibre to rotate reversibly. We show that these fibres, which are lightweight, flexible and strong, are suitable for a variety of applications such as energy-harvesting generators, deformable sensing springs and smart textiles.

  5. AIO LQ-0110: a randomized phase II trial comparing oral doxycycline versus local administration of erythromycin as preemptive treatment strategies of panitumumab-mediated skin toxicity in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kripp, Melanie; Prasnikar, Nicole; Vehling-Kaiser, Ursula; Quidde, Julia; Al-Batran, Salah-Eddin; Stein, Alexander; Neben, Kai; Hannig, Carla Verena; Tessen, Hans Werner; Trarbach, Tanja; Hinke, Axel; Hofheinz, Ralf-Dieter

    2017-12-01

    Dermatologic toxicities, especially akne-like skin rash, are the most common side-effects associated with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy. Preemptive treatment with oral tetracyclines is recommended as a standard. Topical prophylactic options have thus far not been compared to tetracyclines. In the current study, we sought to establish an alternative topical treatment. In this multicentre, randomized, open-label phase II study patients with (K)Ras-wildtype colorectal cancer receiving panitumumab were randomized (1:1) to receive either doxycycline 100 mg b.i.d. (standard arm) or erythromycin ointment 2% followed by doxycycline in case of insufficient activity. The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients developing no skin toxicity ≥ grade 2 at any time during the first 8 weeks of panitumumab treatment. Skin toxicity was assessed using the NCI CTCAE v 4.0. Secondary endpoints comprised the assessment of skin toxicity using a more thorough grading system (WoMo score), evaluation of skin-related (DLQI) and global quality of life (EORTC QLQ C30). In total, 88 patients were included in this trial. 69% of the patients in the erythromycin arm suffered from skin toxicity of grade ≥ 2 versus 63% in the standard arm ( P = n.s .). However, as per WoMo score significantly more patients in the erythromycin arm developed moderate or severe skin toxicity at earlier time points. Skin related and overall quality of life was comparable between both arms. Based on this data erythromycin cannot be regarded as an alternative to doxycycline as prevention of EGFR-related skin toxicity.

  6. Studies of the kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of uranium by dry and moist air A model for determining the oxidation rate over a wide range of temperatures and water vapour pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGillivray, G. W.; Geeson, D. A.; Greenwood, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    The rate of oxidation of uranium metal by moist air has been measured at temperatures from 115 to 350°C and water vapour pressures from 0 to 47 kPa (350 Torr). From this and from previously reported data, a model has been developed which allows the rate of uranium oxidation to be calculated at any particular combination of temperature and water vapour pressure of interest, in the range 0-350°C and 0-101.3 kPa (760 Torr). The model is based on the assumption that the surface concentration of water determines the rate of reaction and that the adsorption of water onto the oxide follows a Langmuir type isotherm. Theoretical plots of rate as a function of water vapour pressure and Arrhenius plots derived from the model have been shown to be in good agreement with experimental data. The model assumes separate contributions to the overall observed rate from oxygen and water vapour. Surface studies have been carried out using SIMS (secondary ion mass spectrometry). Depth profiling of the oxide produced by isotopically labelled reagents ( 18O 2 and H 218O), has shown that oxygen from both reactants is incorporated into the oxide layer in the ratio predicted by the kinetic model. This supports a mechanism in which oxygen and water vapour produce separate diffusing species (possibly O 2- and OH -).

  7. [A patient with toxic shock syndrome following correction of the nasal septum].

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, D H; Moffie, B G; van der Mey, A G; Thompson, J

    1990-11-03

    A male aged 30 suffered from toxic shock syndrome after septorhinoplasty with positioning of a tampon. Initial treatment consisted of removing the tampon and supportive care, as a result of which the patient recovered. The patient was a carrier of Staphylococcus aureus which produced toxic shock syndrome toxin-I (TSST-I). Anti-TSST-I antibodies were already found in the serum in the initial phase of the disease.

  8. Simulating the Vapour Phase Air/Water Exchange of p,p′-DDE, p,p′-DDT, Lindane, and 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin

    EPA Science Inventory

    Uncertainties in our understanding of gaseous air/water exchange have emerged as major sources of concern in efforts to construct global and regional mass balances of both the green house gas carbon dioxide and semi-volatile persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals. Hoff e...

  9. Air pollution and fuel vapour induced changes in lung functions: are fuel handlers safe?

    PubMed

    Chawla, Anuj; Lavania, A K

    2008-01-01

    Automobile exhaust derived air pollutants have become a major health hazard. Coupled with the inhalation of fuel vapour, as occurs in petrol station workers, this may lead to significant impairment of lung function. Spirometric lung functions were st